WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Ethical issues regarding related and nonrelated living organ donors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ethics of the clinical practice of transplanting human organs for end-stage organ disease is a fascinating topic. Who is the "owner" of the transplantable organs of a deceased, brain-dead patient? Who should have a right to receive these organs? Who set the boundaries between a living donor's autonomy and a "paternalistic" doctor? What constitutes a proper consent? These questions are only some of the ethical issues that have been discussed in the last 60 years. All of these ethical issues are intensified by the fact that supply of human organs does not match demand, and that, as a consequence, living-donor organ transplantation is widely utilized. The aim of this article is not to be exhaustive but to present the general ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice as applied to organ transplantation. Moreover, the topic of reimbursement for organ donation is also discussed. PMID:24705806

Testa, Giuliano

2014-07-01

2

Ethical issues related to chemotherapy in patients with gastric cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Postoperative chemotherapy and radiation therapy is standard care in high risk patients who had undergone a curative resection of the primary tumor. Best survival results are achieved with three-drug regimens containing FU, an anthracycline, and cisplatin (ECF, although the recently presented REAL-2-trial, demonstrated a significant survival benefit for EOX (epirubicin, oxaliplatin, capecitabine over ECF. Consequently, chemotherapy could be offered to some proportion of patients with advanced gastric cancer taking into account the results of the available clinical trials. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy has the ability to downsize gastric tumours. It remains unclear however, how the neoadjuvant therapy may be integrated into the multimodality management of localized gastric cancer. According to recent studies, adjuvant chemotherapy resulted in a significant survival benefit in patients with gastric cancer. However, others did not recommend adjuvant chemotherapy as routine therapy. A lot of case reports with metastatic cancer treated with S-1 plus cisplatin have appeared in the recent literature with promising results. Therefore, such treatment could be offered to some patients with metastatic gastric cancer as a last hope. Patients with peritoneal dissemination should be submitted to chemotherapy after full explanation of the expected results. The use of chemotherapy in patients with linitis plastica remains controversial. Chemotherapy should be offered to patients with gastric cancer at advanced age. Nutrition therapy in advanced gastric cancer might offer improved quality of life especially to those with gastric outlet obstruction despite the associated increased cost. Other parameters related to the decision to give chemotherapy or not to gastric cancer patients are related to the role of patient relatives, the doctors’ training and availability, the psychological support of the patient, the doctor’s-patient relationships, and the right of the patient to receive the best available medical treatment. These parameters must be taken into account where dealing with a patient with gastric cancer who is a candidate for chemotherapy. Key words: Gastric cancer, Chemotherapy, Ethics

J.K. Triantafillidis

2007-09-01

3

Ethical Issues in Consulting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identifies common ethical dilemmas that arise in performance technology consultant-client relationships and the difficulties both parties have in resolving them. Questions of integrity v ethics, legality v ethics, conflict of interest issues, contracts and fee issues, and ownership issues are addressed. (MER)

Schwartz, Lois

1980-01-01

4

Assistive Technologies and Issues Relating to Privacy, Ethics and Security  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging technologies provide the opportunity to develop innovative sustainable service models, capable of supporting adults with dementia at home. Devices range from simple stand-alone components that can generate a responsive alarm call to complex interoperable systems that even can be remotely controlled. From these complex systems the paradigm of the ubiquitous or ambient smart home has emerged, integrating technology, environmental design and traditional care provision. The service context is often complex, involving a variety of stakeholders and a range of interested agencies. Against this backdrop, as anecdotal evidence and government policies spawn further innovation it is critical that due consideration is given to the potential ethical ramifications at an individual, organisational and societal level. Well-grounded ethical thinking and proactive ethical responses to this innovation are required. Explicit policy and practice should therefore emerge which engenders confidence in existing supported living option schemes for adults with dementia and informs further innovation.

Martin, Suzanne; Bengtsson, Johan E.; Dröes, Rose-Marie

5

On ethical issues in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From an ethical viewpoint the author surveys existing international radiation protection recommendations and standards. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the author discusses ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. (author)

6

Ethical issues in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this note the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection and risk assessment/management, the authors review ethical thinking on five key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these five issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) Equity vs. Efficiency, (2) Health vs. Economics, (3) Individual Rights vs. Societal Benefits, (4) Due Process vs. Necessary Sacrifice, and (5) Stakeholder Consent vs. Management Decisions (authors)

7

[Ecological and ethical issues related to the protection of population reproductive health].  

Science.gov (United States)

The legal and ethical issues related with the protection of population reproductive health, under the conditions of anthropogenic contamination of the environment, including the labor environment, are discussed in the article. A concept of pregnancy planning to ensure a healthy posterity under the mentioned conditioned was formulated. Documents of WHO, ILO and the EU experience in dealing with the issues in question are illustrated. An increasing role of social labor measurement as well as the evolution of law, i.e. civil, labor, and social law, as well as the right to unified medical-and-social insurance, are in the focus of attention. The prospects for a new WHO-ICF classification, as a social UNO classification, are pointed out. The sensitivity--susceptibility--vulnerability chain was analyzed, and a growing social context was underlined in it. The individual and team risks were considered, and the Code of professional ethics of hygienists was paid attention to. PMID:12705044

Chashchin, V P; Sivochalova, O V; Denisov, E I

2003-01-01

8

Professional and Ethical Issues in Computer Science  

Science.gov (United States)

CSC 385. Professional and Ethical Issues in Computer Science (1) Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing in computer science. Student presentations and discussions of case studies relating to computer ethics.

Vetter, Ron

2003-04-21

9

Ethical Issues in Physiatrist Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Editorial on Ethical Issues. Medical ethics is at the centre of medical practice. It isrightly gaining much needed renewed focus and attentionin the evolving scenario. The impetus for it may beattributed to the revelations that arose through Nurembergtrials, the framework elements that define research andpublications related compulsions, and indeed the contextand state of affairs of present day medical jurisprudence.The physiatrist’s practice cannot remain untouched bythe moral and ethical dilemmas faced in today’s world.Although the pillars of the specialty are grounded in the

Hand G

2008-04-01

10

Ethical Issues in Pharmacogenetics  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article illustrates how pharmacogenetics promises drugs specific to an individual's condition. However, it poses some ethical concerns: invasion of medical privacy, unequal distribution of benefits, discrimination because it involves genetic tests, and research/business conflict-of-interest.

Carol Isaacson Barash (Genetics, Ethics & Policy Consulting, Inc.;)

2001-02-01

11

Ethical issues and addiction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The epidemic of substance abuse continues to pose a significant challenge to clinicians nationwide. Although there is a tendency to simply associate drug abuse with poverty, the problem affects every social stratum gender and race; and pregnant women are no exception. Caring for pregnant, substance-using women and their infants presents complex legal and ethical issues. Debate is ongoing about whether criminal penalties should be imposed on women based solely on their use of alcohol and other drugs during pregnancy. Furthermore, controversies persist about the rights and wishes of pregnant women versus the interests of their fetuses. For health professionals, conflict arises when the pregnant woman chooses behaviors that have the potential to harm the developing fetus. The ethical dilemma arises from competing autonomy-based and beneficence-based obligations to the maternal-fetal dyad. This chapter explores the ethics-based conflicts in the delivery of health care to drug abusing pregnant women. PMID:20407974

Lambert, Binta; Scheiner, Melissa; Campbell, Deborah

2010-04-01

12

Ethical Issues Relative to Autonomy and Personal Control in Independent and Cognitively Impaired Elders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses ethical issues surrounding health care for independent elders, those in long-term care, and those with cognitive impairments, as well as death, dying, euthanasia, and assisted suicide. Suggests that nurses should focus on older adults' choice, autonomy, and personal control. (SK)

Rice, Virginia Hill; And Others

1997-01-01

13

Ethical Issues in Consultation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Notes that consulting relationship differs from traditional counseling and psychotherapeutic relationships and that these differences require special consideration in evaluating ethical questions and conflicts, identifying ethical parameters within any given situation, and using existing ethical guidelines in determining appropriate courses of…

Newman, Jody L.

1993-01-01

14

Ethics issues in retrievability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We can isolate some issues, which should not be unresolved for a longer period of time. Disputes over well-defined waste management options fall in this category. The concept of retrievability has a possibility to invoke a series of questions in the minds of both specialists and non-specialists. It is intrinsically vague, in that it may refer to different phases in the repository's life, and to both open and closed repositories in the long time frame. Requirements for retrievability opens a series of issues, including open-ended philosophical question, which may give the impressions that things are not properly taken care of, since the experts differ in opinion. If such disputes cannot be resolved by consulting the existing legal framework, efforts should be made to put them to trial in the proper forum, i.e. parliament and national or local government or authorities, depending on the problem. In contrast, the value of institutional controls can easily be seen as an ethical value, whether included in the regulation of not. It has the potential to deter human intrusion and to allow remedial action by carrying information about a repository. (author)

15

Governmental population incentives: ethical issues at stake.  

Science.gov (United States)

Governmental incentives to influence population-related decisions are examined in terms of the ethical issues at stake. A typology of incentive schemes is presented, and ethical implications of various incentives are discussed. It is argued that, in a just scheme, a progressive, negative incentive or fee, calculated as a surtax on a modified income tax or an equivalent standard, would distribute burdens equally. A set of guidelines for ethical evaluation of incentive schemes is proposed. PMID:850928

Veatch, R M

1977-04-01

16

Limitation of life support in the ICU: Ethical issues relating to end of life care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, increasingly, intensivists have focused attention on the ethical aspects of end-of- life care. This has led to shifts in the approach from aggressive interventions to one of mitigating pain and taking into account the wishes and sensibilities of the patients? families with regard to continuing futile care. While the legal implications of this change in practice has led to the evolution of precise guidelines in the US and in Europe, in India this vital area of critical care remains largely unexplored. This review outlines the recent changes in clinical practice based on ethical principles and the legality of limiting life support in the context of futile or end-of-life care. An appraisal of the ethical issues in critical care urges us to apply intensive care with humanity and compassion. We need to respect the choices and the emotional needs of the patient and his family. Our duties must include providing information, balanced interpretation of results & counseling of the family to enable them to take rational decisions. Our strategy in end-of-life care should be unambiguous and we should ensure that there is consensus among all the physicians involved in the patient's care. The medical community must work towards evolving legislation appropriate to Indian conditions.

Mani R

2003-01-01

17

ETHICAL ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The international business environment, through its cultural and economic diversity, often puts internationalmanagers in great difficulty as it generates a large variety of ethical issues. On a short term, finding a solution andrespecting the organizational principles of business ethics could generate an increase of the organizational costs and,thus, a decrease of efficiency.But, on a long term, even though there is the possibility that the ethical management practices are not relatedto the s...

Gangone, Andreea-daniela

2010-01-01

18

Resolving Ethical Issues at School  

Science.gov (United States)

Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

Benninga, Jacques S.

2013-01-01

19

[Ethical issues in nursing leadership].  

Science.gov (United States)

Social transition causes shifts and changes in the relationship between health professionals and their patients. In their professional capacity, it is important today for nurses to handle ethical dilemmas properly, in a manner that fosters an ethical environment. This article investigates the ethical concerns and decision processes of nurses from a knowledge construction perspective, and examines such issues as patient needs, staff perceptions, organizational benefits, and professional image. The decision making methods commonly used when facing ethical dilemma explored in this study include the traditional problem solving, nursing process, MORAL model, and Murphy's methods. Although decision making for ethical dilemmas is governed by no universal rule, nurses are responsible to try to foster a trusting relationship between employee and employer, health care providers and patients, and the organization and colleagues. When decision making on ethical dilemmas is properly executed quality care will be delivered and malpractice can be reduced. PMID:16222641

Wang, Shu-Fang; Hung, Chich-Hsiu

2005-10-01

20

Legal and Ethical Issues Related to the Management of Cultural Heritage in Space  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent discovery of water in darkened craters of the Moon's south pole is only the latest development drawing public and corporate interest to the possibilities of research and travel in outer space. Scientists pursuing fusion-generated power as a solution to global energy needs have also noted the relative abundance of Helium-3, an efficient fuel, on the Moon's surface, and there is the promise of other precious resources there as well. The implantation of colonies on the Moon or Mars, discussed for many decades as science fiction, therefore seems increasingly likely to happen. Some private companies and members of the public are even looking forward to the days when tourists will be able to travel for leisure beyond the earth's atmosphere. Most notably, the X Prize Foundation and Google are sponsoring a prize for the first private group to send an unmanned rover to the Moon as a way of advancing these agendas; 22 teams have registered for the competition, with some scheduled to launch by the end of 2010. Increased attention to outer space travel, exploration, and commercial exploitation has been paralleled by a rise in interest in the protection of cultural resources on Earth, such as ar-chaeological sites and historic monuments. Such sites and monuments already exist in outer space and on extraterrestrial planetary bodies. The Apollo 11 landing site, Tranquility Base, is only the most obvious example of a cultural site of outstanding significance in space. Satellites orbiting the earth -even defunct ones such as Vanguard 1, the oldest man-made object still in orbit, might be considered to have extraordinary historic and cultural value, too. As archae-ologists working on Earth have long recognized, once a site or object is damaged, it can never be perfectly restored to its original condition. Unfortunately, there are so far only a few vague guidelines, drafted in the 1960's and agreed upon by the international community, protecting mankind's cultural heritage in space. The United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967 -the primary document governing how nations act in outer space -is now hopelessly out-of-date. There is no mention in the treaty of cultural heritage (the UNESCO convention that concerns international protection of cultural heritage on Earth was not completed until 1970), nor was there any recognition of the role private groups and individuals might play in space exploration. This paper will outline key legal and ethical issues related to cultural heritage management and protection. It will also suggest some ways in which culturally significant sites in space can be protected for future study and even touristic appreciation.

Walsh, Justin

 
 
 
 
21

Research governance: ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Healthcare research is haunted by a history of unethical studies in which profound harm was caused to vulnerable individuals. Official systems for gaining ethical approval for research, designed to prevent a repetition of these shameful examples, can prove bureaucratic and inflexible in practice. The core ethical principles of respect for autonomy, prevention of harm, promotion of benefit, and justice (which form the basis of professional codes of research conduct) must be applied flexibly to take account of contextual, methodological, personal and practical considerations. Ensuring that the design and conduct of all research is ethically sound is the responsibility of all involved-including researchers, research institutions, ethics review committees and regulatory bodies. PMID:16449779

Slowther, Anne; Boynton, Petra; Shaw, Sara

2006-02-01

22

Research governance: ethical issues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Healthcare research is haunted by a history of unethical studies in which profound harm was caused to vulnerable individuals. Official systems for gaining ethical approval for research, designed to prevent a repetition of these shameful examples, can prove bureaucratic and inflexible in practice. The core ethical principles of respect for autonomy, prevention of harm, promotion of benefit, and justice (which form the basis of professional codes of research conduct) must be applied flexibly to...

Slowther, Anne; Boynton, Petra; Shaw, Sara

2006-01-01

23

Ethical issues and Huntington's disease  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethical dilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's [...] disease, in which only one twin sought predictive testing for this dominantly inherited disease, created several ethical dilemmas. Another case where predictive testing was carried out on two young children, at high risk, by a laboratory at the request of an adoption agency and a doctor, with a view to giving information to the foster parents, also posed many ethical conundrums for the counsellor. The ethical issues that arose in these cases are discussed in this paper.

J G R, Kromberg; T-M, Wessels.

1023-10-01

24

Ethical issues and Huntington's disease  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethical dilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's [...] disease, in which only one twin sought predictive testing for this dominantly inherited disease, created several ethical dilemmas. Another case where predictive testing was carried out on two young children, at high risk, by a laboratory at the request of an adoption agency and a doctor, with a view to giving information to the foster parents, also posed many ethical conundrums for the counsellor. The ethical issues that arose in these cases are discussed in this paper.

J G R, Kromberg; T-M, Wessels.

25

Ethical issues and Huntington's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethical dilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's disease, in which only one twin sought predictive testing for this dominantly inherited disease, created several ethical dilemmas. Another case where predictive testing was carried out on two young children, at high risk, by a laboratory at the request of an adoption agency and a doctor, with a view to giving information to the foster parents, also posed many ethical conundrums for the counsellor. The ethical issues that arose in these cases are discussed in this paper.  PMID:24300652

Kromberg, Jennifer G R; Wessels, Tina-Marié

2013-12-01

26

Ethical issues in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report

27

Ethical issues in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.

Persson, Lars (ed.)

2000-03-15

28

ETHICAL ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The international business environment, through its cultural and economic diversity, often puts internationalmanagers in great difficulty as it generates a large variety of ethical issues. On a short term, finding a solution andrespecting the organizational principles of business ethics could generate an increase of the organizational costs and,thus, a decrease of efficiency.But, on a long term, even though there is the possibility that the ethical management practices are not relatedto the specific indicators of financial profitability, there is no inevitable risk between the ethical practices and theprofit. This is demonstrated by the well-known corporations that are respected by the consistency with which theyassume ethical responsibilities and obtain, at the same time, superior financial results.Consequently, the profit and the ethics can be considered two essential parts in the process of evaluating theorganizational activity results as, while the profit reflects the organizational results from a quantitative point of view,the ethics reflect the quality of these results.International managers carry the heavy task of formulating organizational policies and standards bycombining the law, the ethical business principles, the local cultural values and the organizational standards. Theethics fulfills, from this perspective, the managers’ catalyst role to take fair actions from a social point of view and itrepresents a guide in making and evaluating the business decisions, appreciated in most countries of the world.

Andreea-Daniela GANGONE

2010-12-01

29

Ethical Issues in Expert Opinions and Testimony.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an overview of ethical issues in private for-profit practice, with particular focus on expert testimony, using examples from a sample of claims filed with the National Association of Rehabilitation Professionals in the Private Sector and malpractice insurance companies. Complaints most frequently involve issues related to…

Weed, Roger O.

2000-01-01

30

Lesson Plans To Advance Discussion of Ethical Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents lesson plans designed to enable high school students to recognize ethical issues involving the printed media and to give students practical experience in ethical decision-making using the newspaper as a learning tool. Includes 10 ethical issues and related case studies. (RS)

Swikle, Randy G.

2002-01-01

31

Ethical issues in ecological restoration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The acid test of humankind's relationship to natural systems is the degree to which ecological damage caused by humans is repaired by humans. Technology and science are available, so the remaining stimulus needed for implementation of ecological restoration is the ethical responsibility to do so. Ecological restoration can be regarded as enlightened self-interest for humankind since it increases both natural capital and ecosystem services. However, well-designed ecological restoration proecjts should have a major ethical component since the future of non-human life forms on Earth requires more than self-interest. Although the field of science has provided various rationales for ecological restoration, ethical issues associated with such activities must also be considered. If, as seems likely, human society and natural systems are co-evolving, restoration of damaged ecosystems will improve both ecological and human health. The term 'ecosocietal restoration' emphasizes this close relationship. However, if ecological restoration considers only human needs and does not emphasize ecological integrity, human-dominated ecosystems could become the norm. Such domination is already marked but the relationship could easily worsen. This article lists seven major ethical issues in ecological restoration. This list is not encyclopedic but illustrative. Finally, there are five questions that human society must address that require robust scientific information to make a sound ethical judgment.

John Cairns Jr.

2003-06-01

32

Ethical issues in transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transplantation of gastrointestinal organs has relied on cadaver donors for its successful development. The fact that success has been achieved is largely due to the certainty with which brain death can be diagnosed, and the acceptance of these criteria as signifying actual death by doctors, in particular, intensivists. If continuing goodwill leads to further co-operative effort, cadaveric liver, pancreas and eventually, small bowel transplants, should become more frequent. At present the numbers of recipients requiring these operations are considerably less than those in need of kidneys. There are grounds for believing therefore that the pressure to subvert good ethical standards in acquiring these organs (that pressure imposed by long waiting lists and a high death rate on those waiting lists) should be avoidable. The solution to the problem of deficits in cadaveric liver and pancreatic grafts will be achieved only by better education of nurses and doctors, professionalization and expansion of co-ordinator organizations, legal reform, and cultural change. Only by such progress, achieved at medical, governmental, and societal levels can we avoid the insidious tendency to commercialism which we have witnessed with disquiet in renal transplantation. PMID:8000094

Sells, R A

1994-09-01

33

Ethical Issues Related to the Use/Non-Use of Assistive Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Assistive technologies (AT) can provide significant assistance in accomplishing the tasks of daily living for persons who have disabilities. Five types of ethical principles underlie the distribution and use of AT: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, autonomy and fidelity. Beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, most directly affect the…

Cook, Albert M.

2009-01-01

34

Ethical Issues within the Gerontological Nursing Curriculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation focuses on ethical issues that need to be addressed within the gerontological nursing curriculum for preparing nurses to become change agents and catalysts in the health care of the older population. Ethics and ethical principles are defined, and three ethical principles are discussed: justice; beneficence; and autonomy.…

Bahr, Rose Therese

35

Ethical issues in organ transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical organ transplantation has been recognized as one of the most gripping medical advances of the century as it provides a way of giving the gift of life to patients with terminal failure of vital organs, which requires the participation of other fellow human beings and of society by donating organs from deceased or living individuals. The increasing incidence of vital organ failure and the inadequate supply of organs, especially from cadavers, has created a wide gap between organ supply and organ demand, which has resulted in very long waiting times to receive an organ as well as an increasing number of deaths while waiting. These events have raised many ethical, moral and societal issues regarding supply, the methods of organ allocation, the use of living donors as volunteers including minors. It has also led to the practice of organ sale by entrepreneurs for financial gains in some parts the world through exploitation of the poor, for the benefit of the wealthy. The current advances in immunology and tissue engineering and the use of animal organs, xenotransplantation, while offering very promising solutions to many of these problems, also raise additional ethical and medical issues which must be considered by the medical profession as well as society. This review deals with the ethical and moral issues generated by the current advances in organ transplantation, the problem of organ supply versus organ demand and the appropriate allocation of available organs. It deals with the risks and benefits of organ donation from living donors, the appropriate and acceptable methods to increase organ donation from the deceased through the adoption of the principle of 'presumed consent', the right methods of providing acceptable appreciation and compensation for the family of the deceased as well as volunteer and altruistic donors, and the duties and responsibilities of the medical profession and society to help fellow humans. The review also deals with the appropriate and ethically acceptable ways of utilizing the recent advances of stem cell transplantation from adult versus fetal donors, tissue engineering and the use of organs from animals or xenotransplantation. Data provided in support of the concept that clinical organ and tissue transplantation can be more beneficial and life saving if everyone involved in the process, including physicians and medical institutions, respect and consider the best interests of the patients, as well as honor the ethical, moral and religious values of society and are not tempted to seek personal fame or financial rewards. PMID:12566971

Abouna, George M

2003-01-01

36

Handbook on Ethical Issues in Anthropology  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Anthropological Association has recently added number 23 to its series of special online publications. Edited by Joan Cassell and Sue-Ellen Jacobs, this collection of six essays is presented to "stimulate discussion and reflection on ethical issues" among anthropologists. Offerings include a background essay and annotated bibliography, two essays containing fictional ethical dilemmas and proposed solutions, an essay on introducing issues of ethical responsibility into the classroom, and guidelines on holding a workshop on ethical problems in fieldwork.

2005-11-30

37

Ethical issues in geriatric dermatology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physicians should be cognizant of the multitude of unique issues that their geriatric patients present and aware of the overall elder patient's general health status both physically and cognitively, potential drug interactions, and their short-term as well as long-term goals. While respecting patients' autonomy, we must evaluate their ability to make their own decisions regarding their health care. This will require time and patience on our part. We also must overcome our own potential prejudices about what we view as important for the older patient. Finally, we may need to appropriate involve family members or caregivers in the decision-making processes and care of our elderly patients. To properly and ethically care for this distinct and vulnerable population, with their myriad of complex issues, it is important that dermatologists understand their unique issues and challenges. PMID:22902222

Fontanella, Demian; Grant-Kels, Jane M; Patel, Trupal; Norman, Robert

2012-01-01

38

Assisted reproduction: Ethical and legal issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since inception, the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has been accompanied by ethical, legal, and societal controversies. Guidelines have been developed to address many of these concerns; however, the rapid evolution of ART requires their frequent re-evaluation. We review the literature on ethical and legal aspects of ART, highlighting some of the most visible and challenging topics. Of specific interest are: reporting of ART procedures and outcomes; accessibility to ART procedures; issues related to fertility preservation, preimplantation genetic testing, gamete and embryo donation, and reproductive outcomes after embryo transfer. Improvements in ART reporting are needed nationally and worldwide. Reporting should include outcomes that enable patients to make informed decisions. Improving access to ART and optimizing long-term reproductive outcomes, while taking into account the legal and ethical consequences, are challenges that need to be addressed by the entire community of individuals involved in ART with the assistance of bioethicists, legal counselors, and members of society in general. PMID:25131898

Londra, Laura; Wallach, Edward; Zhao, Yulian

2014-10-01

39

Ethical Decision Making: Basic Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

Among counselors, ethical dilemmas occur often. Although ethical dilemmas are challenging, they can be solved by implementing a code of ethics and/or an ethical decision-making model. Using case studies, the authors illustrate how counselors can make informed, accurate decisions that are made to protect the welfare of the client. It also helps…

Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, C. Bret

2008-01-01

40

[Ethical issues of artificial nutritional support].  

Science.gov (United States)

This review article discusses some ethical issues of clinical nutrition according to the Beauchamp and Childress principles of bioethics: "respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice". PMID:24568858

Weimann, Arved

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
41

Guidance in social and ethical issues related to clinical, diagnostic care and novel therapies for hereditary neuromuscular rare diseases: "translating" the translational.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug trials in children engage with many ethical issues, from drug-related safety concerns to communication with patients and parents, and recruitment and informed consent procedures. This paper addresses the field of neuromuscular disorders where the possibility of genetic, mutation-specific treatments, has added new complexity. Not only must trial design address issues of equity of access, but researchers must also think through the implications of adopting a personalised medicine approach, which requires a precise molecular diagnosis, in addition to other implications of developing orphan drugs. It is against this background of change and complexity that the Project Ethics Council (PEC) was established within the TREAT-NMD EU Network of Excellence. The PEC is a high level advisory group that draws upon the expertise of its interdisciplinary membership which includes clinicians, lawyers, scientists, parents, representatives of patient organisations, social scientists and ethicists. In this paper we describe the establishment and terms of reference of the PEC, give an indication of the range and depth of its work and provide some analysis of the kinds of complex questions encountered. The paper describes how the PEC has responded to substantive ethical issues raised within the TREAT-NMD consortium and how it has provided a wider resource for any concerned parent, patient, or clinician to ask a question of ethical concern. Issues raised range from science related ethical issues, issues related to hereditary neuromuscular diseases and the new therapeutic approaches and questions concerning patients rights in the context of patient registries and bio-banks. We conclude by recommending the PEC as a model for similar research contexts in rare diseases. PMID:23330068

McCormack, Pauline; Woods, Simon; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Hagger, Lynn; Herczegfalvi, Agnes; Heslop, Emma; Irwin, Joseph; Kirschner, Janbernd; Moeschen, Patrick; Muntoni, Francesco; Ouillade, Marie-Christine; Rahbek, Jes; Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph; Rouault, Francoise; Sejersen, Thomas; Vroom, Elizabeth; Straub, Volker; Bushby, Kate; Ferlini, Alessandra

2013-01-01

42

TYPOLOGY ETHICAL ISSUES GLOBAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  This academic paper refines and systematizes the following clasificational approaches for determining the typology of the ethical problems of the global business environment: macro level ethical problems, ethical problems of the relations between companies and their external environment, internal ethical problems of the companies in the context moral vectors. The author also illustrates the cross-cultural multi-vectoral perception of the ethical problems in the business communities of the world.

?.?. ????????

2011-12-01

43

Ethical issues in surgical innovation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Innovation is responsible for most advances in the field of surgery. Innovative approaches to solving clinical problems have significantly decreased morbidity and mortality for many surgical procedures, and have led to improved patient outcomes. While innovation is motivated by the surgeon's expectation that the new approach will be beneficial to patients, not all innovations are successful or result in improved patient care. The ethical dilemma of surgical innovation lies in the uncertainty of whether a particular innovation will prove to be a "good thing." This uncertainty creates challenges for surgeons, patients, and the healthcare system. By its very nature, innovation introduces a potential risk to patient safety, a risk that may not be fully known, and it simultaneously fosters an optimism bias. These factors increase the complexity of informed consent and shared decision making for the surgeon and the patient. Innovative procedures and their associated technology raise issues of cost and resource distribution in the contemporary, financially conscious, healthcare environment. Surgeons and institutions must identify and address conflicts of interest created by the development and application of an innovation, always preserving the best interest of the patient above the academic or financial rewards of success. Potential strategies to address the challenges inherent in surgical innovation include collecting and reporting objective outcomes data, enhancing the informed consent process, and adhering to the principles of disclosure and professionalism. As surgeons, we must encourage creativity and innovation while maintaining our ethical awareness and responsibility to patients. PMID:24728580

Miller, Megan E; Siegler, Mark; Angelos, Peter

2014-07-01

44

Ethical Issues | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Science.gov (United States)

Basic moral principles and patient’s rights are always top of mind in planning and conducting clinical trials. Browse the conversations in this area to find information about ethical issues such as conflict of interest, and informed consent. Or to learn more about Ethical Issues, click here.

45

Ethical issues in a pediatric private practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Building a successful pediatric private practice requires clinical expertise and an understanding of the business process, as well as familiarity with the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Code of Ethics. This article provides an overview of the ethical issues that may be encountered when building a practice, including a look at marketing and advertising, financial management, privacy, and documentation. Ethically sound decision making is a key to a successful business. PMID:22144085

Jakubowitz, Melissa

2011-11-01

46

Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of valuing the environment and implications for the definition of harm and monetary valuation of environmental goods; second, difficulties with scientific uncertainty and applications of the precautionary principle; and third, issues concerned with the distribution of risk and its relevance fo participation in decision-making. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors

47

Ethical issues in fetal diagnosis and treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fetal diagnosis has raised ethical issues since it was first developed in the 1940s and 1950s. Two controversial issues have predominated. First, when the techniques for prenatal diagnosis were invasive techniques, they created risks to the pregnant women. Second, prenatal diagnosis led to either prenatal treatment, which also generally had some risks to the pregnant woman, or to abortion, which has always been ethically controversial. In this article, we will review the history of ethical controversy over fetal diagnosis and discuss how they presage today's controversies. PMID:24515623

McMann, Conor L; Carter, Brian S; Lantos, John D

2014-08-01

48

Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to practical environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of who or what has moral standing; second the appropriate level of protection; and third compatibility with other environmental stressors. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds for efforts to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors. (author)

49

Ethical Issues in Network System Design  

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Full Text Available Today, most desktop computers and PCs are networked that is, they have the ability to link to other machines, usually to access data and other information held remotely. Such machines may sometimes be connected directly to each other, as part of an office or company computer system. More frequently, however, connected machines are at a considerable distance from each other, typically connected through links to global systems such as the Internet, or World Wide Web (WWW. The networked machine itself may be anything from a powerful company computer with direct Internet connections, to a small hobbyist machine, accessing a bulletin board through telephone and modem. It is important to remember that, whatever the type or the location of networked machines, their access to the network, and the network itself, was planned and constructed following deliberate design considerations. In this paper I discuss some ways in which the technical design of computer systems might appropriately be influenced by ethical issues, and examine pressures on computer scientists and others to technically control network related actions perceived as 'unethical'. After examination of the current situation, I draw together the issues, and conclude by suggesting some ethically based recommendations for the future design of networked systems.

Duncan Langford

1997-05-01

50

DOPING IN SPORT: GLOBAL ETHICAL ISSUES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

DESCRIPTION In this book the question of "How ethical is using performance improving drugs in sport?" is argued in global perspective. PURPOSE The ethical questions in sport are discussed comprehensively. Particularly, different cultures and approach of various countries to that issue were examined. FEATURES The book composed of 10 chapters following a thorough introduction from the editors in 194 pages. The titles are: 1.Fair is Fair, Or Is It? : A Moral Consideration of the Doping Wars in A...

Schneider, Angela J.; Fan Hong

2007-01-01

51

Nontechnical issues in waste management: ethical, institutional, and political concerns  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report consists of a presentation and distillation of major nontechnical issues surrounding commercial waste management, followed by ethical, institutional, and political analyses of these issues. The ethical analysis consists of a discusson of what is meant by ''ethics'' and ''morality'' in the waste management context and an illustrative attempt at an ethical analysis of the commercial nuclear waste problem. Two institutional analyses are presented: one is an analysis of the possible problems of long-term human institutions in waste management; the other is a presentation of institutional arrangements for the short term. A final chapter discusses issues and concerns involving intergovernmental relations--that is, local, state, and federal interface problems in waste management

52

Nontechnical issues in waste management: ethical, institutional, and political concerns  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report consists of a presentation and distillation of major nontechnical issues surrounding commercial waste management, followed by ethical, institutional, and political analyses of these issues. The ethical analysis consists of a discusson of what is meant by ''ethics'' and ''morality'' in the waste management context and an illustrative attempt at an ethical analysis of the commercial nuclear waste problem. Two institutional analyses are presented: one is an analysis of the possible problems of long-term human institutions in waste management; the other is a presentation of institutional arrangements for the short term. A final chapter discusses issues and concerns involving intergovernmental relations--that is, local, state, and federal interface problems in waste management.

Hebert, J.A.; Rankin, W.L.; Brown, P.G.; Schuller, C.R; Smith, R.F.; Goodnight, J.A.; Lippek, H.E.

1978-05-01

53

Mandatory neurotechnological treatment: ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

What if neurofeedback or other types of neurotechnological treatment, by itself or in combination with behavioral treatment, could achieve a successful "rewiring" of the psychopath's brain? Imagine that such treatments exist and that they provide a better long-term risk-minimizing strategy compared to imprisonment. Would it be ethical to offer such treatments as a condition of probation, parole, or (early) prison release? In this paper, I argue that it can be ethical to offer effective, non-invasive neurotechnological treatments to offenders as a condition of probation, parole, or (early) prison release provided that: (1) the status quo is in no way cruel, inhuman, degrading, or in some other way wrong, (2) the treatment option is in no way cruel, inhuman, degrading, or in some other way wrong, (3) the treatment is in the best interests of the offender, and (4) the offender gives his/her informed consent. PMID:24407528

Focquaert, Farah

2014-02-01

54

Ethical issues in ecological restoration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The acid test of humankind's relationship to natural systems is the degree to which ecological damage caused by humans is repaired by humans. Technology and science are available, so the remaining stimulus needed for implementation of ecological restoration is the ethical responsibility to do so. Ecological restoration can be regarded as enlightened self-interest for humankind since it increases both natural capital and ecosystem services. However, well-designed ecological restoration proecjt...

John Cairns Jr

2003-01-01

55

Ethical Issues in Technology Management  

Science.gov (United States)

This course was designed to meet the needs of engineers who are or will be moving into greater responsibility for management as they advance in the profession. The course emphasizes and bring together the theory of ethical behavior and the real world applications faced regularly in the business world today. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Students, 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators, Engineers

Cox, J. W.

2009-12-11

56

Euthanasia in relation to newborn babies--a comparative study of the legal and ethical issues (I).  

Science.gov (United States)

The birth of a normal child is an event full of happiness and joy for its family, yet the birth of a handicapped baby can be a terrible human tragedy, since it entails difficult problems to be faced by the infant and its parents. Euthanasia of newborn handicapped babies is an ethically, morally, clinically and legally complex issue, involving decisions to be taken by doctors, parents and lawyers. Modern medicine is a technological marvel. Procedures unheard of and unthought of some 30 years ago are today common practice, among them is neonatal intensive care. Neonatal intensive care includes resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, artificial tube feeding and other technologically sophisticated means of maintaining seriously handicapped and seriously ill, or low birth-weight neonates. These advanced medical technologies, while they have led to the saving of many lives, have also caused the source of the dilemma because they enable the survival of severely handicapped babies, who otherwise would have died. The question to be addressed is whether life is to be chosen for the severely handicapped infant or whether life for the handicapped infant is correctly regarded as worse than death; treatment being regarded as tantamount to cruelty, since it envisages no beneficial future for the infant, but rather life full of pain and distress, so that death should be chosen for it. PMID:8908984

Moor, S

1996-01-01

57

Teaching Ethical Reflexivity in Information Systems: How to Equip Students to Deal with Moral and Ethical Issues of Emerging Information and Communication Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching ethics to students of information systems (IS) raises a number of conceptual and content-related issues. The present paper starts out by developing a conceptual framework of moral and ethical issues that distinguishes between moral intuition, explicit morality, ethical theory and meta-ethical reflection. This conceptual framework…

Stahl, Bernd Carsten

2011-01-01

58

Ethical issues in international environmental health research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental health problems are among the world's most significant health concerns. Although environmental risks are experienced disproportionately by people in developing countries, environmental health research (EHR) is conducted primarily in developed countries. Human subjects participate in five main types of EHR: (1) documentation and quantification of exposure to potentially hazardous substances; (2) elucidation of biological responses to these materials; (3) characterization and measurement of susceptibility to harmful effects of hazardous materials; (4) trials involving environmental interventions to reduce risk; and (5) documentation and measurement of various manifestations of disease putatively linked to environmental exposures. Although existing frameworks for the ethics of international clinical research are generally relevant to EHR, they currently lack the specificity necessary to confront three inherent problems in EHR, namely under-determination in EHR findings, the unavoidable nature of some environmental hazards, and environmental justice implications. We examine these issues as they relate to community partnership, risk assessment, and the assessment and management of economic and political interests in EHR. We believe that there are 3 general features of ethical EHR, it has health promoting value, the populations studied are not restricted in their ability to avoid environmental hazards by economic or political repression, and the justification for conducting EHR on populations with known exposure to environmental hazards gets stronger as the limits on populations to reduce the hazards or remove themselves from them becomes greater, as long as the first and second conditions are also met. PMID:12971701

Lavery, J V; Upshur, R E G; Sharp, R R; Hofman, K J

2003-08-01

59

Ethical issues arising from human genetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in understanding genetic disorders have been rapid in the last few years and with them the need and desire for genetic counselling have grown. Almost simultaneously, particularly in the USA, several large screening programmes have been initiated to screen large numbers of people who may be carriers of such deleterious genes as those of Tay-Sachs disease and sickle cell anaemia. The authors of this paper, clinical medical students at University College Hospital, London, spent some time studying the ethical issues raised. The first part of their study, which is not published here, relates to the biochemistry of certain genetic disorders, so leading up to the aspect of the subject which must concern readers of this journal, genetic counselling. At present genetic counselling is generally the province of the medical practitioner working with clinical biochemists, and in this paper their function is described and how programmes of screening for carriers are designed. Whether the subjects of the screening tests are found to be 'innocent' or 'guilty' psychological problems confront them, and of these the genetic counsellor must be aware. In fact the range of ethical problems raised by such counselling is wide and can only be sketched in this article. PMID:957367

Arnold, A; Moseley, R

1976-03-01

60

Upstream/downstream: Issues in environmental ethics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Upstream/Downstream reminds us that there are four issues that are more or less distinctive to environmental ethics. First, and most distinctively, environmental issues involve the standing of nonhuman living things and systems. Thus, environmental politics is only partly a clash among the interest of the parties involved; it often involves actions on behalf of the existence rights of nonhuman life forms. Second, environmental ethics concern the intergenerational distribution of benefits more explicitly than do most other ethical issues, which brings out serious weaknesses in legal frameworks that rely on claims for damages. Third, the complexity and indirectness of many environmental impacts introduces a high degree of uncertainty and thus technical as well as ethical issues of prudent behavior. Specifically, where science may not fully reveal environmental risks, should development proceed; should analysis proceed if it is known to have a Pollyanna bias Fourth, insofar as environmental damage is typically done to common property, and thus its regulation is generally a matter for governmental regulation, the obligations of private actors to make sacrifices beyond what government requires is at issue - an issue that one would expect to be taken up at length in the other volumes.

Scherer, D. (ed.)

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Ethical issues concerning New Zealand sports doctors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Success in sport can provide a source of national pride for a society, and vast financial and personal rewards for an individual athlete. It is therefore not surprising that many athletes will go to great lengths in pursuit of success. The provision of healthcare for elite sports people has the potential to create many ethical issues for sports doctors; however there has been little discussion of them to date. This study highlights these issues. Respondents to a questionnaire identified many ...

Anderson, L.; Gerrard, D.

2005-01-01

62

The perceptions of danish physiotherapists on the ethical issues related to the physiotherapist-patient relationship during the first session: a phenomenological approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In the course of the last four decades, the profession of physiotherapy has progressively expanded its scope of responsibility and its focus on professional autonomy and evidence-based clinical practice. To preserve professional autonomy, it is crucial for the physiotherapy profession to meet society's expectations and demands of professional competence as well as ethical competence. Since it is becoming increasingly popular to choose a carrier in private practice in Denmark this context constitutes the frame of this study. Physiotherapy in private practice involves mainly a meeting between two partners: the physiotherapist and the patient. In the meeting, power asymmetry between the two partners is a condition that the physiotherapist has to handle. The aim of this study was to explore whether ethical issues rise during the first physiotherapy session discussed from the perspective of the physiotherapists in private practice. Methods A qualitative approach was chosen and semi-structured interviews with 21 physiotherapists were carried out twice and analysed by using a phenomenological framework. Results Four descriptive themes emerged: general reflections on ethics in physiotherapy; the importance of the first physiotherapy session; the influence of the clinical environment on the first session and; reflections and actions upon beneficence towards the patient within the first session. The results show that the first session and the clinical context in private practice are essential from an ethical perspective. Conclusions Ethical issues do occur within the first session, the consciousness about ethical issues differs in Danish physiotherapy private practice, and reflections and acts are to a lesser extent based on awareness of ethical theories, principles and ethical guidelines. Beneficence towards the patient is a fundamental aspect of the physiotherapists' understanding of the first session. However, if the physiotherapist lacks a deeper ethical awareness, the physiotherapist may reason and/or act ethically to a varying extent: only an ethically conscious physiotherapist will know when he or she reflects and acts ethically. Further exploration of ethical issues in private practice is recommendable, and as management policy is deeply embedded within the Danish public sector there are reasons to explore public contexts of physiotherapy as well.

Praestegaard Jeanette

2011-10-01

63

Ethical issues related to professional exposure of pregnant women in the medical field: Monitoring and limiting effective dose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations for occupational exposed pregnant women do not imply necessarily the complete avoidance of work with radiation or radioactive materials. Instead, a careful review of the exposure conditions, once the pregnancy is declared, as part of the exercise of the ICRP optimisation principle (based in a teleological ethics point of view) is suggested. The dose limitation (following a deontological ethics point of view) of the fetus/embryo is, however, not clearly well established as happens in the case of workers or members of the public. Also, the justification of practices (to continue to work or not with radiation or radioactive materials) is not clearly addressed in most national or international recommendations. An analysis of this justification (bearing in mind both teleological and deontological ethics) is examined in this work having in mind the best interest of the child-to-be as well as other existing social and economical factors. (authors)

64

Exhibition Ethics - An Overview of Major Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Museum ethics are about value judgements. In making such judgements museum personnel is constantly valuing one option over another. This holds true for every aspect of museum work; from collecting policies and conservation to store priorities and exhibition. In recent decades there has been a growing concern in addressing ethical issues in museums as museum workers have developed cultural sensitivity and social responsiveness to a degree unseen before. Most codes of ethics urge museums to give appropriate consideration to represented groups or beliefs. In light of this, it has been recognised that exhibition of sensitive material, for example, must be done with great tact and respect for the feelings of religious, ethnic or other groups represented. Another issue concerns the display of unprovenanced material and repatriation.Yet, these are not the only ethical issues which exhibition developers are faced with. As museum workers we should constantly be reminded that exhibitions are active agents in the construction of knowledge. This paper discusses the hidden assumptions on which museum presentation and interpretation are often based. Decisions about what to include and what to exclude, what is valued and what is not, the means of presentation, language, and so on, all lead to presentational styles which may shape the public’s perception in unintended ways.

Andromache Gazi

2014-05-01

65

Surrogacy: ethical and legal issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for" another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents. PMID:23293432

Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

2012-10-01

66

Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy “for” another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

2012-01-01

67

Ethical issues in communicating science.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of the publicized work on scientific ethics concentrates on establishing professional norms and avoiding misconduct. The successful communication of science is the responsibility of all involved in the process. In one study, the increased incidence of autism and other social developmental disorders in males was investigated by examining individuals with Turner's syndrome (XO females). In the national newspaper this became "Genetic X-factor explains why boys will always be boys". The steps by which a study on developmental disorders, published in a highly prestigious journal, was transformed into an article in the science section which 'explained' the socially expected gender-based behavior of genetically normal children are fascinating and, unfortunately far too typical. The scientists wrote an excellent article that has just one sentence at the end that hesitantly suggests that the findings might, with further study, have some relevance to understanding normal behavior. The general interest article in the front of the journal gave a good account of the research, but suggested more strongly that there could be an in-built biological dimorphism in social cognition. This was misrepresented in the press as proof of gender differences that "undermines the trend towards sexual equality", and both illustrates cultural bias and provides fodder for feminist critiques of science. The study has been made to appear to be biased in favor of justifying the social structure of society, and yet it was the translation from the scientific study to national news that produced this transformation to biased genetic determinism. It is poor communication of the actual science, coupled with a lack of skepticism on the part of the public, that contributes to such a misapplication of science. Scientists should resist the urge to generalize their results to make them more compelling. The science community should not allow misconstructions of scientific facts to go unchallenged. Journalists, for both the scientific publication and the newspaper, should resist the inclination to embellish the finding with social significance that is not present. For their part, readers must be doubly skeptical of any finding that appears to underwrite any current social hierarchy. We are all responsible for a communication and interpretation of science that is as accurate and socially responsible as possible. PMID:11228768

Garrett, J M; Bird, S J

2000-10-01

68

Teaching Ethics across the Public Relations Curriculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suggests ways of incorporating ethics across the undergraduate public relations curriculum. Reviews current coverage of ethics in public relations principles, writing, cases, and textbooks. Suggests other methods that teachers can use to incorporate ethical pedagogical tools in all public relations courses in an effort to develop students' ethical

Hutchison, Liese L.

2002-01-01

69

Ethical issues in perinatal mental health.  

Science.gov (United States)

The principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice can guide clinicians in finding ethical approaches to the treatment of women who have psychiatric disorders during preconception, pregnancy, and postpartum. Table 1 summarizes some clinical dilemmas in perinatal mental health care, the ethical conundrums posed by these situations, and guiding principles or tools that can help clinicians resolve ethical conflicts. The concept of relational ethics helps resolve apparent mother-offspring ethical conflicts, and the practice of preventive ethics helps anticipate and reduce the risk of ethical dilemmas and adverse clinical outcomes. These central principles suggest the following guidelines in caring for perinatal women: In situations that seem to pit the needs of a pregnant or postpartum woman against the needs of her fetus or baby, reframe the problem to find a solution that most benefits the mother-baby dyad while posing the least risk to the dyad. In evaluating a pregnant woman's ability to make autonomous, informed decisions about medical care, assess her ability to decide on behalf of both herself and her fetus. When explaining the risks of treatments such as psychotropic medication during pregnancy, avoid errors of omission by also explaining the risks of withholding the treatments. Apply the principle of justice to ensure that women are not stigmatized by having psychiatric disorders or by being pregnant. When screening for maternal psychiatric symptoms, ensure that the benefits of screening outweigh the ethical costs by designing effective follow-up systems for helping women who have positive screens. When treating women of reproductive age for psychiatric disorders, proactively discuss family planning and, when appropriate, the anticipated risks of the illness and the treatment during future pregnancies. Offer preventive interventions to reduce these risks. PMID:19486812

Miller, Laura J

2009-06-01

70

School Psychology in Rural Contexts: Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

Delivering psychological services in rural communities presents a number of unique challenges for practitioners relative to their peers in urban and suburban communities. In this article, the authors describe the current context of rural schools and examine the ethical and legal issues school psychologists may face when practicing in rural…

Edwards, Lynn M.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

2014-01-01

71

Hiv And Aids: Legal And Ethical Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, called as 'black death of our time'1 caused by humanimmunodeficiency virus still remaining a challenge to the medical world has spread its tentacles ominously thatmillions of people have breathed their last and others afflicted by it are counting days in great misery and despair forpre-mature extinction of their life.2 The tragedy is that it has spread from the high risk group to common populationassuming a menacing proportion.3 It has not remained as a mere matter of health to bother only medicalprofessionals. A person afflicted by it invites social stigma of a highest degree, which is worse than apartheid. It hasgenerated such sensitive and boiling legal, ethical and social issues posing serious challenge to the medicalprofessionals, health policy makers, law makers and common men. In this article an attempt is made to criticallyanalyse the legal, ethical and social issues stemming from HIV AIDS.

Venugopal. B. S.

2013-08-01

72

INTERNET OF THINGS – SOME ETHICAL ISSUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to treat aspects that are related to the sensitivity of data, information and knowledge transmitted through Internet of Things, helping all people interested in these new ICT technologies to become aware of some ethical issues. In this new media, which is no more in its infancy, the vulnerabilities and attacks are various, caused by technological advances and proliferated through lack of users’ awareness. This warning message is needed because of data, information and knowledge transfer from virtual to physical devices that are connected to wireless networks of different sizes and importance. The transfer is augmented by the extended use of new technologies as RFID, NFC, sensors, 3G and 4G and brings along the adjustment of the traditional information security threats to this new environment, as well as the emergence of new characteristic dangers. The problems treated here are of interest both for each of us, as individuals, and for the organizations managers – especially in a world in which the borderline between the physical and virtual life is becoming more and more difficult to draw.

Daniela POPESCUL

2013-12-01

73

A STUDY OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN BANKING INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic performance of a country is largely determined by banking and financial system. Banking and finance play a vital and crucial role in framing public policies in today’s business environment. This article highlights social and ethical issues such as social banking, ethical banking, green banking, global banking, rural banking, and agri-banking, which help in achieving sustainable development of banking and finance. For this purpose, we have gone through a series of development that are taking place in current business scenario. This paper is divided in four parts. First part discuss introduction of Banking Industry in India. Second part explains historical background of banking and its development. It also discusses concept of Banks. Third part analyzes the review of past studies on the theme. Fourth part highlights Social and Ethical issues related to Banking Industry and finally conclusion has been given.

Vijay Joshi

2011-10-01

74

Ethical issues in organ and tissue transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical organ transplantation provides a way of giving the gift of life to patients with terminal failure of vital organs, which requires the participation of other fellow human beings and of society by donating organs from deceased or living individuals. The increasing incidence of vital organ failure and the inadequate supply of organs, especially from cadavers, has created a wide gap between organ supply and organ demand, which has resulted in very long waiting times to receive an organ as well as an increasing number of deaths while waiting. These events have raised many ethical, moral and societal issues regarding supply, the methods of organ allocation the use of living donors as volunteers including minors. It has also led to the practice of organ sale by entrepreneurs for financial gains in some parts the world through exploitation of the poor, for the benefit of the wealthy. The current advances in immunology and tissue engineering and the use of animal organs, xenotransplantation, while offering very promising solutions to many of these problems, also raise additional ethical and medical issues, which must be considered by the medical profession as well as society. This review deals with the ethical and moral issues generated by the current advances in organ transplantation, the problem of organ supply versus organ demand and the appropriate allocation of available organs. It deals with the risks and benefits of organ donation from living donors, the appropriate and acceptable methods to increase organ donation from the deceased through the adoption of the principle of 'presumed consent', the right methods of providing acceptable appreciation and compensation for the family of the deceased as well as volunteer and altruistic donors, and the duties and responsibilities of the medical profession and society to help fellow humans. The review also deals with the appropriate and ethically acceptable ways of utilizing the recent advances of stem cell transplantation from adult versus fetal donors, tissue engineering and the use of organs from animals or xenotransplantation. It is emphasized that clinical organ and tissue transplantation can be more beneficial and life saving if everyone involved in the process, including physicians and medical institutions, respect and consider the best interests of the patients, as well as honor the ethical, moral and religious values of society. PMID:15859919

Abouna, George M

2003-12-01

75

DOPING IN SPORT: GLOBAL ETHICAL ISSUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DESCRIPTION In this book the question of "How ethical is using performance improving drugs in sport?" is argued in global perspective. PURPOSE The ethical questions in sport are discussed comprehensively. Particularly, different cultures and approach of various countries to that issue were examined. FEATURES The book composed of 10 chapters following a thorough introduction from the editors in 194 pages. The titles are: 1.Fair is Fair, Or Is It? : A Moral Consideration of the Doping Wars in American Sport; 2.Are Doping Sanctions Justified? A Moral Relativistic View; 3.Cultural Nuances: Doping, Cycling and the Tour de France; 4.On Transgendered Athletes, Fairness and Doping: An International Challenge; 5.Creating a Corporate Anti-doping Culture: The Role of Bulgarian Sports Governing Bodies; 6. Doping in the UK: Alain and Dwain, Rio and Greg - Not Guilty?; 7.The Japanese Debate Surrounding the Doping Ban: The Application of the Harm Principle; 8. Doping and Anti-doping in Sport in China: An Analysis of Recent and Present Attitudes and Actions; 9.Anti-doping in Sport: The Norwegian Perspective; 10.Ethics in Sport: The Greek Educational Perspective on Anti-doping. AUDIENCE Given that this book is about a popular topic in sport, it is a great interest to the sport public as well as students, researchers and practitioners in the sport and exercise disciplines.

Angela J. Schneider

2007-09-01

76

Ethical Issues between Workforce and Religious Conviction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: This article enhances the ethical issues consider the relationship between religious life and work ethics. Approach: Malaysia aim to achieved full developed nation’s, requires a professional workforce, not only educated and innovative, but ethically, with integrity, accountability, dynamic and committed to continuously increasing Muslim professionalism. In the context of the development of Muslim professionals with a holistic and integrated, Muslims needs to withholding Tawheed, the fundamentals of faith, based on Al-Quran and Hadith. Manifestations in life of the practice which accounts for worship and morality need to be implemented. Results: Islamic moral character requires the emphasize that following five key parameters of Islamic behavior which is justice, trust, righteousness, the struggle towards self-improvement and keeping promises. Conclusion: The properties of trust at work, honesty, responsibility and integrity should be established in each of the Muslims. Each institution needs to be continued in the religious education and level of consciousness must be nurtured and enhanced.

Mohamad Zaid Mohd Zin

2012-10-01

77

Ethical issues at the start of life.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article the fundamentals of a Jewish ethic are set out, through which today's pressing medical ethical questions are then broached. Ethics derive from a basic view of humanity. The Bible teaches that man is created in God's image, and every life is therefore sacrosanct. Second, since life is God-given we are its guarantors, not its owners. Finally, monotheism sees God as above nature and not in it, so nature itself is not holy--man can, and indeed should, try to improve upon it. With reference to specific medical issues, the need to be wary of the erosion of the family unit and of personal identity is stressed. Concerning abortion and stem cell research, the point is made that an embryo is not a person but is a potentiality and therefore not an object to be used. Regarding genetic intervention, a line is drawn between the therapeutic and the eugenic. Every technology carries with it the possibility of diminishing or enhancing human dignity. What matters is how we use it. The way to use it is in a covenant with God, honouring his image that is mankind. PMID:11706888

Sacks, J

2001-01-01

78

Ethical issues in kidney transplantation – reflections from Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Joseph Olusesan Fadare1, Babatunde L Salako21Department of Medicine, Kogi State Specialist Hospital, Lokoja; 2Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaAbstract: Organ transplantation has become a life-saving procedure for many disease conditions hitherto considered incurable. Kidney transplantation, now the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, is the commonest solid organ transplantation carried out in the world at the moment and it is the only solid organ transplantation done in Nigeria. This procedure, in addition to prolonging lives, also provides better quality of life and is evaluated as cost-effective, because it makes more resources available to other sectors of the economy. Organ transplantation in general and kidney transplantation in particular are fraught with ethical issues and dilemmas worldwide. Some of the ethical issues arising in the setting of developing countries like Nigeria may differ from those in countries where this procedure is established. Informed consent of the donor and the recipient is a major requirement for both organ donation and transplantation. Regarding donation, the ethical issues may differ depending on the type of organ donation, ie, whether it is living-related, living-unrelated, cadaveric, or from brain-dead individuals. Commodification of organs is identified as an ethical dilemma, and arguments for and against this practice are put forward here. Confidentiality of donor information, fairness and equity in donor selection, and access to kidney transplantation when needed are also discussed. Finally, the issue of safety of organ harvesting for the donor and of the transplantation process itself, and the possible long-term consequences for both parties are investigated.Keywords: kidney transplantation, ethical issues, developing countries, Nigeria

Joseph Olusesan Fadare

2010-11-01

79

Ethical Issues Associated with Information and Communication Technology in Counseling and Guidance  

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For more than 50 years, literature on the use of information and communication technology in counseling and guidance has presented ethical issues related to the development and use of technologies in practice. This paper reviews the ethical issues raised, organizing them into three categories: Social equity, resources, and services. Career…

Sampson, James P., Jr.; Makela, Julia Panke

2014-01-01

80

Babbitt's Brothers & Sisters: Raising Ethical Issues in Business Literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

A college-level course in business literature is an ideal place to raise and discuss ethical issues. To be successful, a teacher of this course must engage student interest, help the students articulate and understand their own ethical attitudes, clarify the stance and artistry of the author, and refine student responses to ethical questions. When…

Halpern, Jeanne W.

 
 
 
 
81

Ethical issues of obesity surgery--a health technology assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

New surgical technologies may challenge societal values, and their adoption may lead to ethical challenges. Despite proven cost-effectiveness, obesity (bariatric) surgery and its public funding have been questioned on ethical arguments relating to, for example, the self-inflicted or non-disease nature of obesity. Our aim was to analyze the ethical issues relevant to bariatric surgery. A comprehensive health technology assessment was conducted on bariatric surgery for morbid obesity using the EUnetHTA method, including a fully integrated ethical analysis. The ethical arguments suggesting that obesity should not be surgically treated because it is self-inflicted were rejected. Medicalization of obesity may have both positive and negative effects that impact the various stakeholders differently, thus being difficult to balance. Informing bariatric surgery patients and actively supporting their autonomy is exceptionally important, as the benefits and harms of both obesity and bariatric surgery are complex, and the outcome depends on how well the patient understands and adheres to the life-long changes in eating habits required. Justice considerations are important in organizing surgical treatment of obesity, as the obese are discriminated against in many ways and obesity is more common in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations who might have problems of access to treatments. Obesity should be treated like other diseases in health care, and obesity surgery rationed like other cost-effective treatments. Positive actions to ensure patient autonomy and just access to surgical treatments may be warranted. PMID:21479827

Saarni, Samuli I; Anttila, Heidi; Saarni, Suoma E; Mustajoki, Pertti; Koivukangas, Vesa; Ikonen, Tuija S; Malmivaara, Antti

2011-09-01

82

Ethical Issues in Fetal Management: A Cardiac Perspective  

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Full Text Available The ethical issues behind the management of a fetus with a serious abnormality and the decisions made in relation to the outcome of the pregnancy are complex. This reflective paper deals with the ethical principles of managing a pregnancy with a congenital anomaly, with particular emphasis on the fetus with a serious cardiac abnormality. One major ethical concern is whether the fetus is or is not independent being to whom obligations of beneficence are owed. We review the debate on this matter, and suggest that it is ethically more appropriate for physicians who are involved in management of fetal abnormality not to adopt and insist on their own position on this matter. Rather, the appropriate course is to respect the pregnant woman's own view of her fetus and how it should be regarded. This is an application of the principle of respect for autonomy. Within this framework, we discuss the difficulties in counselling a pregnant woman or expectant couple in this situation, and recommend three key steps in ethically sound counselling.

Atul Malhotra

2010-01-01

83

Population, consumption and resources: ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article offers several models that test concepts of optimum population and consumption: classical or utilitarian models, contractual models, and generation-relative ethical models. This article is based on a lecture presented in August 1995, at a conference organized by the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences. It is posited that classical utilitarianism casts the optimum population and consumption problem as a Genesis Problem. The authors argue that the Genesis problem is the wrong problem to study because there are no actual people. The Genesis problem asks how many people there ought to be ideally at what living standards. The unborn are not a class of people, just as mud on a river bank is not a mud hut. Actual persons and potential persons are categorically different. Actual persons have a claim that potential persons do not have. An overall ethical ordering over alternatives can only be conceived for each generation of actual people. The ethical point of view inevitably changes over time. For example, a generation in the first period consumes what they are given to consume by the older generation. In the second period, the younger generation is now the older generation who decide how many children to have and how to share nonstorable, all purpose consumption goods among themselves and future generations. Procreation is a means of making one's values durable. Human development is unfair. Those who live later benefit from the labor of their predecessors without paying the same price. Procreation and ecological preservation are a matter of ethics. PMID:12321783

Dasgupta, P

1998-01-01

84

Nurse managers' experience with ethical issues in six government hospitals in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurse managers have the burden of experiencing frequent ethical issues related to both their managerial and nursing care duties, according to previous international studies. However, no such study was published in Malaysia. The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' experience with ethical issues in six government hospitals in Malaysia including learning about the way they dealt with the issues. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in August-September, 2010 involving 417 (69.2% of total 603 nurse managers in the six Malaysian government hospitals. Data were collected using three-part self-administered questionnaire. Part I was regarding participants' demographics. Part II was about the frequency and areas of management where ethical issues were experienced, and scoring of the importance of 11 pre-identified ethical issues. Part III asked how they dealt with ethical issues in general; ways to deal with the 11 pre-identified ethical issues, and perceived stress level. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations and Pearson's Chi-square. Results A total of 397 (95.2% participants experienced ethical issues and 47.2% experienced them on weekly to daily basis. Experiencing ethical issues were not associated with areas of practice. Top area of management where ethical issues were encountered was "staff management", but "patient care" related ethical issues were rated as most important. Majority would "discuss with other nurses" in dealing generally with the issues. For pre-identified ethical issues regarding "patient care", "discuss with doctors" was preferred. Only 18.1% referred issues to "ethics committees" and 53.0% to the code of ethics. Conclusions Nurse managers, regardless of their areas of practice, frequently experienced ethical issues. For dealing with these, team-approach needs to be emphasized. Proper understanding of the code of ethics is needed to provide basis for reasoning.

Musa Maizura

2011-11-01

85

Ethical issues in deep brain stimulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

With regard to DBS treatment, the most important issues are balancing risks and benefits and ensuring respect for the autonomous wish of the patient. This implies special attention to patient selection, psycho-social impact of treatment, effects on personal identity, and treatment of children. Moreover, it implies a careful informed consent process in which unrealistic expectations of patients and their families are addressed and in which special attention is given to competence. In the context of research, the fundamental ethical challenge is to promote high-quality scientific research in the interest of future patients, while at the same time safeguarding the rights and interests of vulnerable research subjects. Several guidelines have been proposed to ensure this. One of the preconditions to further development of responsible and transparent research practices is the establishment of a comprehensive registry.

MaartjeSchermer

2011-05-01

86

[Ethics training. Issues and relevance to students in healthcare].  

Science.gov (United States)

Awareness of the process of ethical questions has various issues related to the conception of good care. These issues bring such a reflection on knowledge, on the place of technical and human skills, and also on care practices. The impact of this approach aims both human and moral responsibility of the students and the other, the political dimension of care practices. Thinking about the meaning of care to make it his own allows the use of a collective and creative moral capacity. PMID:23991551

Bert, Catherine

2013-01-01

87

Legal and Ethical Issues in School Counselor Supervision.  

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Describes the current status of school counselor supervision, providing a context in which ethical and legal issues encountered in supervision of school counselors are examined. Although clinical supervision is the primary focus, also addressed are ethical and legal issues that commonly arise in administrative supervision. (Contains 20…

Herlihy, Barbara; Gray, Neal; McCollum, Vivian

2002-01-01

88

Recognizing bioethical issues and ethical qualification in nursing students and faculty in South Korea.  

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The role of nursing faculty members in charge of ethics education is important. Although all nursing students receive the same bioethics education, their experiences differ, related to ethical qualification, which depends on the personal socialization process. This Korean study aimed to provide nursing faculty members with the basic data to help them develop as bioethics experts and provide nursing students with knowledge to improve their ethical decision-making abilities. We used a survey design to assess recognition of bioethical issues and ethical qualification in nursing students and faculty members. A total of 1225 undergraduate students and 140 faculty members participated in this study. The results revealed that nursing students and nursing faculty members generally understood the seriousness of various bioethical issues and both considered the most serious issue to concern abortion. Ethical behavior can be improved by education, and accordingly, nursing ethics should be a mandatory subject, rather than an elective one. PMID:23361146

Choe, Kwisoon; Song, Eunju; Kang, Youngmi

2013-03-01

89

Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

eing likely to transform 'subsistence farming' into vibrant agribusiness. Ethical issues concerning animal welfare, rights and integrity are also discussed, in addition to social, environmental and economic issues. (author)

90

Ethical and social issues in pharmacogenomics testing.  

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In genomics research, pathways that lead to disease and the role of drugs in these pathways are being unravelled at a high rate. In this paper ethical and social challenges related to pharmacogenomics research are discussed as well as clinical applications. In research, ethical thinking evolves due to the fast pace of research. Genome-wide association studies trying to identify genes that contribute a small risk to common diseases can only be performed on an international scale. Meanwhile, it is becoming more and more clear that genomic information is hard to hide. Thus the traditional promise in research that privacy will be protected appears to be less realistic. Nowadays, adequate information (veracity) and protection against potential risks of discrimination based on predictive medical information is required. A new balance needs to be found. In the clinic, different ethical and social challenges become apparent. The promise to improve diagnosis, treatment and prevention is genuine, but many potentially useful applications do not reach the bedside. There is a need for both translation and for assessment of evidence if "do good and do not harm" is to be taken seriously. In addition, sustainable use of pharmacogenetic knowledge holds promises for developed and developing countries but these promises will only materialize if evidence is built, translated into guidelines, incorporated into education, implemented in pharmacy databases, and evaluated. While translational research in health care progresses slowly, direct-to-consumer testing is being implemented rapidly. International validated quality criteria should apply both to health care and to this commercial field. PMID:20205666

Vijverberg, S J H; Pieters, T; Cornel, M C

2010-01-01

91

Ethical issues and accountability in pressure ulcer prevention.  

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Pressure ulcers represent a considerable cost, both in terms of healthcare spending and quality of life. They are increasingly viewed in terms of patient harm. For clinicians involved in pressure ulcer prevention, ethical issues surrounding accountability may arise from both policy and practice perspectives. It may be useful for clinicians to refer to ethical theories and principles to create frameworks when addressing ethical dilemmas. However, such theories and principles have been criticised for their simplicity and over-generalisation. Alternative theories, for example, virtue ethics and experiential learning, can provide more comprehensive guidance and promote a pluralistic approach to tackling ethical dilemmas. PMID:25335632

Welsh, Lynn

2014-10-22

92

Nurses and whistleblowing: the ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whistleblowing - the public exposure of organizational wrongdoing - presents practical and ethical dilemma for nurses, and needs to be seen as part of a spectrum of increasingly confrontative actions against miscreant organizations by their employees. The ethics of whistleblowing can only be understood in relation to its moral purpose, whether that is to achieve a good outcome (a consequentialist view) or fulfil a duty (a deontological view). The consequentialist perspective is unable on its own to resolve problems arising from the balance of good and harm resulting from the act of whistleblowing (where considerable harm might be caused) or of responsibility for that harm. A deontological approach provides an analysis of these problems but raises its own problem of conflicting duties for nurses. However, a strong argument can be made for the precedence of the nurse's duty to the patient over her duty to the employer. Although both duties are based on an implicit or an explicit promise, the promise to a person (the patient) must take precedence over the promise to an organization. It can even be argued that duty to the employer may in fact justify whistleblowing by nurses in some circumstances. However, the consequences of whistleblowing are forced upon nurses in a different way by the fact that the danger of reprisals acts as a deterrent to whistleblowers, however justified their actions may be. A more robust approach to the protection of whistleblowers is needed on the part of the government and the National Health Service (NHS) to remedy this situation. PMID:11114987

Wilmot, S

2000-11-01

93

Ethical Concerns Relating to Journal Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical issues involved in using journals in education include balancing the personal and professional and assessing journal writing. Principles adult educators can apply include respect, justice, beneficence, self-awareness, and caring. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

English, Leona M.

2001-01-01

94

Ethical issues in complementary and alternative medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Julie Stone is a health care lawyer and ethicist, specializing in law and ethics of the CAM relationship. She is currently a Visiting Scholar at University of Hawaii, where she is researching the interface between Western biomedicine and indigenous healing practices. As a member of a multi-centre research ethics committee, she has a particular interest in the process of ethical review and its implications for CAM. PMID:11068352

Stone, J

2000-09-01

95

Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…

Cohen, Libby

96

Ethical Issues for an Editorial Board: "Kairaranga"  

Science.gov (United States)

With academic journals, we think of the ethical aspects of the research contained in the articles rather than with the journal itself. However, journal editing has its own set of ethical concerns, which this article addresses. One is ensuring that the anonymity of institutions and participants, in research and the reporting of practice, is…

Clark, John

2008-01-01

97

Ethical issues in the management of thyroid disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of this article is on clinical ethics issues in the thyroid disease context. Clinical ethics is a subspecialty of bioethics that deals with bedside ethical dilemmas that specifically involve the provider-patient relationship. Such issues include consent and capacity; weighing therapeutic benefits against risks and side-effects; innovative therapies; end of life care; unintended versus intentional harms to patients or patient populations; and healthcare access. This article will review core ethical principles for practice, as well as the moral and legal requirements of informed consent. It will then discuss the range of unique and universal ethical issues and considerations that present in the management of autoimmune thyroid disease and thyroid cancer. PMID:24891177

Rosenthal, M Sara

2014-06-01

98

A New BSCS Project: Ethical Issues in Genetic Counseling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Described is the BSCS Center for Education and Medical Genetics project, designed to examine the treatment of ethical issues in the genetic counseling process and to develop and evaluate a model instructional program from increasing the ability of genetic counselors to recognize and deal with ethical problems. (Author/DS)

Biological Sciences Curriculum Study Journal, 1980

1980-01-01

99

Implementing Curricular Change through State-Mandated Testing: Ethical Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores the ethical issues involved in using standardized tests to implement a state-level policy. Examines the fourth grade science program evaluation test administered in New York State for the first time in 1989. A utilitarian view of ethics ignores the consequences of testing for different constituents, obviates caring behavior, and damages…

Mathison, Sandra

1991-01-01

100

Ethical and Professional Issues in Computer-Assisted Therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses ethical and professional issues in psychology regarding computer-assisted therapy (CAT). Topics addressed include an explanation of CAT; whether CAT is psychotherapy; software, including independent use, validation of effectiveness, and restricted access; clinician resistance; client acceptance; the impact on ethical standards; and a…

Ford, B. Douglas

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Ethical Issues in Mentoring Doctoral Students in Clinical Psychology  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical issues abound in any relationship that is defined by differences between the parties in rank, status, and power. Such is the case in the relationship between a doctoral student in clinical psychology and his or her mentor. In this article, we examine several potential areas of ethical concern within the mentor-student relationship. We…

Rosenberg, Anna; Heimberg, Richard G.

2009-01-01

102

Ethical Issues in Counseling Gender, Race, and Culturally Distinct Groups.  

Science.gov (United States)

Addresses the complex ethical and cultural issues that arise when counseling women, Blacks, ethnic minorities, poor people, lesbians, and gays. Common dilemmas arising from the social context of the counselor-client relationship, the need to respect client autonomy, and the imperative for ethical and quality health care are outlined and discussed,…

Cayleff, Susan E.

1986-01-01

103

Genetic susceptibility testing for neurodegenerative diseases: ethical and practice issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the genetics of neurodegenerative disease become better understood, opportunities for genetic susceptibility testing for at-risk individuals will increase. Such testing raises important ethical and practice issues related to test access, informed consent, risk estimation and communication, return of results, and policies to prevent genetic discrimination. The advent of direct-to-consumer genetic susceptibility testing for various neurodegenerative disorders (including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, and certain prion diseases) means that ethical and practical challenges must be faced not only in traditional research and clinical settings, but also in broader society. This review addresses several topics relevant to the development and implementation of genetic susceptibility tests across research, clinical, and consumer settings; these include appropriate indications for testing, the implications of different methods for disclosing test results, clinical versus personal utility of risk information, psychological and behavioral responses to test results, testing of minors, genetic discrimination, and ethical dilemmas posed by whole-genome sequencing. We also identify future areas of likely growth in the field, including pharmacogenomics and genetic screening for individuals considering or engaged in activities that pose elevated risk of brain injury (e.g., football players, military personnel). APOE gene testing for risk of Alzheimer's disease is used throughout as an instructive case example, drawing upon the authors' experience as investigators in a series of multisite randomized clinical trials that have examined the impact of disclosing APOE genotype status to interested individuals (e.g., first-degree relatives of AD patients, persons with mild cognitive impairment). PMID:23583530

Roberts, J Scott; Uhlmann, Wendy R

2013-11-01

104

Información médica a pacientes y familiares: aspectos clínicos, éticos y legales / Clinical, ethical and legal issues on medical information to patients and relatives  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Providing information to patients and relatives (IPAR) is a clinical, ethical and legal need. IPAR is inherent to the medical team work as diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are. In some cases, it is a key step for patient's recovery. From an ethical point of view, the patient is not only the sub [...] ject of the medical work but also its main owner and who must, previously informed, decide about options which would directly affect him. After the promulgation of a special law in Chile, this prerogative became a legal right. This paper proposes an empirically developed model or protocol that should be used to inform hospitalized patients and their relatives about their disease, in a pertinent way. Considering that IPAR is a skill that should be learned and practiced, the written protocol is provided to neurology residents as supporting material. Although IPAR protocols are completely justified, they have not been evaluated in terms of efficiency of communication, user satisfaction, patient and relatives reassurance and clinical impact. Therefore, they require a prospective validation.

Jorge, Nogales-Gaete; Paola, Vargas-Silva; Iván, Vidal-Cañas.

1190-11-01

105

Información médica a pacientes y familiares: aspectos clínicos, éticos y legales / Clinical, ethical and legal issues on medical information to patients and relatives  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Providing information to patients and relatives (IPAR) is a clinical, ethical and legal need. IPAR is inherent to the medical team work as diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are. In some cases, it is a key step for patient's recovery. From an ethical point of view, the patient is not only the sub [...] ject of the medical work but also its main owner and who must, previously informed, decide about options which would directly affect him. After the promulgation of a special law in Chile, this prerogative became a legal right. This paper proposes an empirically developed model or protocol that should be used to inform hospitalized patients and their relatives about their disease, in a pertinent way. Considering that IPAR is a skill that should be learned and practiced, the written protocol is provided to neurology residents as supporting material. Although IPAR protocols are completely justified, they have not been evaluated in terms of efficiency of communication, user satisfaction, patient and relatives reassurance and clinical impact. Therefore, they require a prospective validation.

Jorge, Nogales-Gaete; Paola, Vargas-Silva; Iván, Vidal-Cañas.

106

Ethical issues in Chinese aesthetic surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Guided by the medical ethics principles of "four principles plus scope," Chinese aesthetic medical practitioners have proposed some extremely valuable ethical principles combined with the construction of aesthetic medicine and the requirements of clinical practice such as the principle of general nonmaleficence, the principle of local minimal invasiveness, the principle of informed consent, and the principle of respect and confidentiality. Chinese aesthetic surgical ethics provide valuable guidance for the practice of aesthetic medicine. Adherence to the ethics of Chinese aesthetic surgery provides an essential guide for the practice of aesthetic medicine in China. These principles protect both the medical practitioner and the patient, helping them to avoid unnecessary risks and disputes and ultimately promoting the sustainable development of aesthetic medicine. PMID:25028113

Li, Guang-Shuai; Dong, Ming-Min; Liu, Lin-Bo; Hu, Xiao-Ying

2014-10-01

107

Ethical issues in health workforce development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing the numbers of health workers and improving their skills requires that countries confront a number of ethical dilemmas. The ethical considerations in answering five important questions on enabling health workers to deal appropriately with the circumstances in which they must work are described. These include the problems of the standards of training and practice required in countries with differing levels of socioeconomic development and different priority diseases; how a society can be assured that health practitioners are properly trained; how a health system can support its workers; diversion of health workers and training institutions; and the teaching of ethical principles to student health workers. The ethics of setting standards for the skills and care provided by traditional health-care practitioners are also discussed.

Cash Richard

2005-01-01

108

Cardiovascular implantable electronic devices: patient education, information and ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED) are implanted increasingly frequently. CIEDs are indicated for the treatment of bradycardia, tachycardia and heart failure and therefore improve quality of life and life expectancy. CIED can treat ventricular arrhythmias that would be fatal without immediate care. However, CIEDs raise several patient education, medico-legal, and ethical questions that will be addressed in this article. Information is a patient's right, and necessary for informed consent. When implanting a CIED, the patient must be educated about the need for the device, the function of the device, any restrictions that apply postimplant, and postimplant follow-up methods and schedules. This transfer of information to the patient makes the patient responsible. The occupational physician can determine whether a patient wearing a CIED is able to work. Under current French law, patients are not prohibited from working while wearing a CIED. However, access to certain job categories remains limited, such as jobs involving mechanical stress to the chest, exposure to electromagnetic fields, or jobs requiring permanent vigilance. Pacemakers and defibrillators are medical treatments and are subject to the same ethical and clinical considerations as any other treatment. However, stopping a pacemaker or a defibrillator raises different ethical issues. Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator shocks can be considered to be equivalent to resuscitation efforts and can be interpreted as being unreasonable in an end-of-life patient. Pacing is painless and it is unlikely to unnecessarily prolong the life of a patient with a terminal disease. Patients with a CIED should live as normally as possible, but must also be informed about the constraints related to the device and must inform each caregiver about the presence of the device. The forensic and ethical implications must be assessed in relation to current legislation. PMID:23248837

Manaouil, Cécile; Gignon, Maxime; Traulle, Sarah

2012-09-01

109

Ethical and legal issues in aesthetic surgery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rapid growth and expansion of plastic surgery in general and aesthetic surgery in particular in the past decade has brought in its wake some confusions particularly raising questions for the surgeons conduct towards his colleagues and the patients in the light of ethical requirements. Some thoughts from eminent thinkers form a backdrop to consideration of theories of medical ethics. In this article raging and continuous debates on these subjects have been avoided to maintain the momentum. Apa...

Gupta, Suresh

2012-01-01

110

Technical and Ethical Issues in Indicator Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most indicator systems are top-down, published, management systems, addressing primarily the issue of public accountability. In contrast we describe here a university-based suite of "grass-roots," research-oriented indicator systems that are now subscribed to, voluntarily, by about 1 in 3 secondary schools and over 4,000 primary schools in England. The systems are also being used by groups in New Zealand, Australia and Hong Kong, and with international schools in 30 countries. These systems would not have grown had they not been cost-effective for schools. This demanded the technical excellence that makes possible the provision of one hundred percent accurate data in a very timely fashion. An infrastructure of powerful hardware and ever-improving software is needed, along with extensive programming to provide carefully chosen graphical and tabular presentations of data, giving at-a-glance comparative information. Highly skilled staff, always learning new techniques, have been essential, especially as we move into computer-based data collection. It has been important to adopt transparent, readily understood methods of data analysis where we are satisfied that these are accurate, and to model the processes that produce the data. This can mean, for example, modelling separate regression lines for 85 different examination syllabuses for one age group, because any aggregation can be shown to represent unfair comparisons. Ethical issues are surprisingly often lurking in technical decisions. For example, reporting outcomes from a continuous measure in terms of the percent of students who surpassed a certain level, produces unethical behavior: a concentration of teaching on borderline students. Distortion of behavior and data corruption are ever-present concerns in indicator systems. The systems we describe would have probably failed to thrive had they not addressed schools' on-going concerns about education. Moreover, data interpretation can only be completed in the schools, by those who know all the factors involved. Thus the commitment to working closely and collaboratively with schools in "distributed research" is important, along with "measuring what matters"... not only achievement. In particular the too-facile interpretation of correlation as causation that characterized much school effectiveness research had to be avoided and the need for experimentation promoted and demonstrated. Reasons for the exceptionally warm welcome from the teaching profession may include both threats (such as the unvalidated inspection regime run by the Office for Standards in Education and opportunities (such as site based management.

Carol Taylor Fitz-Gibbon

2002-01-01

111

Ethical issues in genetic screening for cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetically-based diseases with a late onset, such as BRCA1-dependent breast cancer or Huntington's disease, can be predicted by the screening of relevant mutations in members of high-risk families. Genetic screening is characterized by a conflict between respect for autonomy--e.g., the 'right not to know'--and responsibility toward future generations (the 'duty to know' for the sake of one's descendants). Other ethical conflicts are related to uncertainty as to benefits deriving from screening for mutations, since for most conditions no clearly effective therapeutical strategy has as yet been defined. In addition to monogenic high-penetrance conditions, polygenic low-penetrance susceptibility is attracting increasing attention, in particular with respect to environmental-genetic interactions (metabolic polymorphisms). A simple approach to genetic screening would be to weigh the benefits and costs of genetic screening against those of primary prevention, and a superficial conclusion might be that genetic screening is less expensive and, overall, more practicable than restriction of toxic exposures or other known risk factors for the disease. Economic advantage notwithstanding, however, giving precedence to screening over primary prevention would be unacceptable. A serious hazard of genetic screening is the implicit limitation of research efforts aimed at primary prevention, and a serious drawback is its potential application for selection of nonsusceptible employees. The principle of equity is easily violated by genetic screening of workers in view of the fact that genetically-based metabolic polymorphisms are distributed unevenly among different ethnic groups. PMID:9402165

Vineis, P

1997-10-01

112

Informed recruitment in partner studies of HIV transmission: an ethical issue in couples research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been devoted to ethical issues related to randomized controlled trials for HIV treatment and prevention. However, there has been less discussion of ethical issues surrounding families involved in observational studies of HIV transmission. This paper describes the process of ethical deliberation about how best to obtain informed consent from sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs tested for HIV, within a recent HIV study in Eastern Europe. The study aimed to assess the amount of HIV serodiscordance among IDUs and their sexual partners, identify barriers to harm reduction, and explore ways to optimize intervention programs. Including IDUs, either HIV-positive or at high risk for HIV, and their sexual partners would help to gain a more complete understanding of barriers to and opportunities for intervention. Discussion This paper focuses on the ethical dilemma regarding informed recruitment: whether researchers should disclose to sexual partners of IDUs that they were recruited because their partner injects drugs (i.e., their heightened risk for HIV. Disclosing risks to partners upholds the ethical value of respect for persons through informed consent. However, disclosure compromises the IDU's confidentiality, and potentially, the scientific validity of the research. Following a brief literature review, we summarize the researchers' systematic evaluation of this issue from ethical, scientific, and logistical perspectives. While the cultural context may be somewhat unique to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the issues raised and solutions proposed here inform epidemiological research designs and their underlying ethical tensions. Summary We present ethical arguments in favor of disclosure, discuss how cultural context shapes the ethical issues, and recommend refinement of guidance for couples research of communicable diseases to assist investigators encountering these ethical issues in the future.

Gordon Elisa J

2009-08-01

113

Public perceptions of ethical issues regarding adult predictive genetic testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to explore the views of members of the general public regarding ethical issues in adult predictive genetic testing. The literature pertaining to ethical issues regarding to adult predictive genetic testing is largely restricted to the views of 'experts' who have emphasized informed consent, patent issues, and insurance discrimination. Occasionally the views of patients who have undergone genetic counselling and testing have been elicited, adding psychosocial and family issues. However, the general public has not had the opportunity to contribute. In order to explore theatre as a health policy research tool, 1,200 audience members attended the play 'Sarah's Daughters' in seven Canadian cities, following which audience discussions were audiotaped. This study performed a secondary qualitative analysis of the data to identify the ethical issues of adult predictive genetic testing important to members of the general public. The identified issues were: (1) need for public education; (2) choice to undergo genetic counselling and testing; (3) access to genetic counselling and testing; and (4) obligations regarding the handling of genetic information. Audience members emphasized public education and access to information regarding potential choices, which was different from the emphasis on informed consent and other ethical issues prominent in the literature. Members of the general public emphasized ethical issues that were different than those identified by experts and patients. It is essential that members of the public be included in complex and controversial public policy decisions. PMID:19288201

Martin, Douglas K; Greenwood, Heather L; Nisker, Jeff

2010-06-01

114

Ethical and legal issues in aesthetic surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid growth and expansion of plastic surgery in general and aesthetic surgery in particular in the past decade has brought in its wake some confusions particularly raising questions for the surgeons conduct towards his colleagues and the patients in the light of ethical requirements. Some thoughts from eminent thinkers form a backdrop to consideration of theories of medical ethics. In this article raging and continuous debates on these subjects have been avoided to maintain the momentum. Apart from the western thoughts, directions from our old scriptures on ethical conduct have been included to accommodate prevelant Indian practices. The confusion created by specialists advertising their abilities directly to the lay public following removal of ethical bars by the American Courts as also latitudes allowed by the General Medical Council of Great Britain have been discussed. The medical fraternity however has its reservations. Unnecessary skirmishes with the law arose in cosmetic surgery from the freedom exercised by the police to file criminal proceedings against attending doctors in the event of a patient's death with or without any evidence of wrong doing. This has now been curtailed in the judgement of the Supreme Court of India[1] where norms have been laid down for such prosecution. This has helped doctors to function without fear of harassment. An effort has been made to state a simple day-to-day routine for an ethical doctor-patient relationship. PMID:23450235

Gupta, Suresh

2012-09-01

115

Some ethical issues in organ retrieval, 1982 to 1992.  

Science.gov (United States)

The debate on incentive payments and related issues will continue so long as dialysis and cadaver donation remain out of the reach of physicians in developing countries. This article (from a Western doctor) steps outside the usual debate on these issues by making a practical suggestion which aims at easing the ethical tension of incentive donation rather than insisting on its abolition. "Donors' trusts" may help the situation in India, but should not be applied in any country where effective dialysis is generally available. Nor would I be happy for such a model to be developed in any country where the aim to introduce cadaveric organ donation was not being energetically pursued. PMID:1465808

Sells, R A

1992-12-01

116

Ethical issues in human genomics research in developing countries  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS provide a powerful means of identifying genetic variants that play a role in common diseases. Such studies present important ethical challenges. An increasing number of GWAS is taking place in lower income countries and there is a pressing need to identify the particular ethical challenges arising in such contexts. In this paper, we draw upon the experiences of the MalariaGEN Consortium to identify specific ethical issues raised by such research in Africa, Asia and Oceania. Discussion We explore ethical issues in three key areas: protecting the interests of research participants, regulation of international collaborative genomics research and protecting the interests of scientists in low income countries. With regard to participants, important challenges are raised about community consultation and consent. Genomics research raises ethical and governance issues about sample export and ownership, about the use of archived samples and about the complexity of reviewing such large international projects. In the context of protecting the interests of researchers in low income countries, we discuss aspects of data sharing and capacity building that need to be considered for sustainable and mutually beneficial collaborations. Summary Many ethical issues are raised when genomics research is conducted on populations that are characterised by lower average income and literacy levels, such as the populations included in MalariaGEN. It is important that such issues are appropriately addressed in such research. Our experience suggests that the ethical issues in genomics research can best be identified, analysed and addressed where ethics is embedded in the design and implementation of such research projects.

Mercereau-Puijalon Odile

2011-03-01

117

Key Ethical Issues in Pediatric Research: Islamic Perspective Iranian Experience  

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Full Text Available Objective: The importance of pediatric research especially in the ethically proven trials resulted in considerable legislative attempts in association with compiling ethical guidelines. Because of children’s vulnerability conducting pediatric research raises different ethical issues; the two most important of which are informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. Differences in ethical standards and socio-cultural issues limit application of ethical standards.Methods: At the aim of finding a solution we critically reviewed guidelines, and literatures as well as Islamic points in addition to comparing different viewpoints in application of ethical standards in pediatric researchFindings: The literature review showed that pediatric research guidelines and authors viewpoints have the same basic ethical core, but there are some variations; depend on cultural, religious, and social differences. Furthermore, these standards have some limitations in defining informed consent according to child’s age and capacity upon applicationConclusion: In this regard Islamic approach and definition about growth development and puberty shed light and clarifies a clearer and more rational address to the issue.

Mina Mobasher

2012-12-01

118

Age estimation for forensic purposes in Italy: ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Age assessment in children and young adults is a relevant medicolegal issue due to the gradual increase of persons devoid of proper identification documents in European countries. Because of the illegal immigration and growing crime rates among children and adolescents, age estimation for forensic purposes is often required. The scientific research and the extensive experience of forensic experts in the last decades focused on the use of radiographic methods addressed to evaluate the degree of skeletal or dental development as the most accurate parameters to estimate the chronological age of children and adolescents. This paper analyzes the ethical issues related to age estimation procedures based on radiographic methods, showing how the ethical principles of beneficence, nonmalevolence, justice, and autonomy may be guaranteed during the execution of the age assessment in forensic practice. The procedure might be conducted in accordance with international guidelines and protocols, though they need a higher homogenization and standardization. A strong collaboration between various scientific societies of professionals (forensic odontologists, forensic pathologists, forensic anthropologist, radiologists, pediatricians, and psychologists), who have been involved in age estimation for years, is needed to reach this goal. PMID:24633466

Focardi, Martina; Pinchi, Vilma; De Luca, Federica; Norelli, Gian-Aristide

2014-05-01

119

Ethical Issues Involved in Integrated Marketing Communication in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available “When we consider corporate morality we must conclude that no price is too high, for in the long run we have no alternative to ethical business behaviour” Fred. T. Aller. “If I were to name the deadliest subversive force within capitalism, the single greatest source of its waning morality …. I would without hesitation name “Advertising and Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC”. How else should one identify a force that debases language, drains thought and undoes dignity. (Heilbroner .R. (1981. are prone to scrutiny by those who are concerned about the methods marketers use to sell their products and services. Proponents of advertising and IMC states that it is the life blood of business. That it provides consumers with information about products and services and encourages them to improve their standard of living. Advertising produces jobs and helps new companies enter the market place. Companies employ people who make the products and provide the services that advertising sells. Free market economic systems are based on competition which revolves around information, and nothing delivers information better and at less cost than advertising and integrated marketing communication (IMC (Becch .E., Belch M.A. 1998. Not everyone is sold on the value of advertising. Critics argued that most advertising and IMC is more than information. It creates needs, faults consumers and mesmerizes them. It makes consumers to buy that they originally do not want or wish to buy. Adverts suggest that our bodies should be leaner, our faces younger and our utensils cleaner. They point to the sultry, scantily and muscular clad bodies used in it to sell everything from perfume to beer, and argue that advertising promotes materialism, instant gratification, insecurity and greed. “Ethics also consists of certain rules and standards of conduct recognized as binding in a professional body or an Association”. This paper will define the concepts of law, ethics and morality, it will critically examine ethical issues in Advertising, public relations, targeting of integrated marketing communications efforts, public relations, sales promotions, personal selling, packaging and Telemarketing. It will also discuss the external constraints that influence the choice of product adverts and promotions and will provide practical examples and solutions and how to improve ethical conducts in Nigerian integrated marketing communications.

Ayozie Daniel Ogechukwu

2011-10-01

120

Questões éticas referentes às preferências do paciente em cuidados paliativos / Ethical issues related to patient preferences in palliative care / Las cuestiones éticas relacionadas con las preferencias del paciente en los cuidados paliativos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O respeito à autonomia do paciente é um princípio ético reconhecido em diversas áreas da assistência à saúde, incluindo os cuidados paliativos, porém nem sempre as preferências do paciente são respeitadas. Uma melhor compreensão das questões éticas relacionadas ao exercício da autonomia do paciente [...] em cuidados paliativos é importante passo para embasar juízos éticos ponderados no cotidiano da assistência. Tendo isso em vista, este trabalho objetivou identificar e analisar questões éticas relacionadas às preferências do paciente e reconhecidas por profissionais no cotidiano de uma equipe de cuidados paliativos à luz do referencial bioético da casuística. Foram entrevistados onze profissionais de nível superior. As principais questões éticas identificadas foram: respeito à autonomia do paciente; veracidade e direito à informação; habilidades de comunicação; cerco do silêncio; participação no processo de deliberação; escolha do local de tratamento e morte. Abstract in spanish El respeto a la autonomía del paciente es un principio ético reconocido en muchas áreas de la salud, incluyendo los Cuidados Paliativos, pero no siempre se respetan las preferencias del paciente. Una mejor comprensión de las cuestiones éticas relacionadas con el ejercicio de la autonomía del pacient [...] e en los Cuidados Paliativos es un paso importante para apoyar los juicios éticos ponderados en la práctica diaria de la asistencia. Teniendo esto en cuenta, este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar y analizar las cuestiones éticas relacionadas con las preferencias del paciente y reconocidas por los profesionales en el día a día de un equipo de cuidados paliativos en el marco bioético de la casuística. Se entrevistó a once profesionales de nivel superior. Se identificaron las principales cuestiones éticas: el respeto a la autonomía del paciente, veracidad y el derecho a la información, habilidades de comunicación, asedio del silencio, participación en el proceso de deliberación, elección del lugar de tratamiento y muerte. Abstract in english The respect for patient's autonomy is an ethical principle recognized in many areas of health care including palliative care, but not always the patient's preferences are respected. A better understanding of ethical issues related to the exercise of patient's autonomy in Palliative Care is an import [...] ant step to support ethical judgments in daily practice. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and analyze ethical issues related to patient preferences recognized by professionals in the daily life of a Palliative Care team under the framework of Casuistry. Eleven practitioners were interviewed. The main ethical issues identified are: respect for patient autonomy, veracity and right to information, communication skills, conspiracy of silence, participation in the deliberation process, choice of place of treatment and death.

Carolina Becker Bueno de, Abreu; Paulo Antonio de Carvalho, Fortes.

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
121

Questões éticas referentes às preferências do paciente em cuidados paliativos / Ethical issues related to patient preferences in palliative care / Las cuestiones éticas relacionadas con las preferencias del paciente en los cuidados paliativos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O respeito à autonomia do paciente é um princípio ético reconhecido em diversas áreas da assistência à saúde, incluindo os cuidados paliativos, porém nem sempre as preferências do paciente são respeitadas. Uma melhor compreensão das questões éticas relacionadas ao exercício da autonomia do paciente [...] em cuidados paliativos é importante passo para embasar juízos éticos ponderados no cotidiano da assistência. Tendo isso em vista, este trabalho objetivou identificar e analisar questões éticas relacionadas às preferências do paciente e reconhecidas por profissionais no cotidiano de uma equipe de cuidados paliativos à luz do referencial bioético da casuística. Foram entrevistados onze profissionais de nível superior. As principais questões éticas identificadas foram: respeito à autonomia do paciente; veracidade e direito à informação; habilidades de comunicação; cerco do silêncio; participação no processo de deliberação; escolha do local de tratamento e morte. Abstract in spanish El respeto a la autonomía del paciente es un principio ético reconocido en muchas áreas de la salud, incluyendo los Cuidados Paliativos, pero no siempre se respetan las preferencias del paciente. Una mejor comprensión de las cuestiones éticas relacionadas con el ejercicio de la autonomía del pacient [...] e en los Cuidados Paliativos es un paso importante para apoyar los juicios éticos ponderados en la práctica diaria de la asistencia. Teniendo esto en cuenta, este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar y analizar las cuestiones éticas relacionadas con las preferencias del paciente y reconocidas por los profesionales en el día a día de un equipo de cuidados paliativos en el marco bioético de la casuística. Se entrevistó a once profesionales de nivel superior. Se identificaron las principales cuestiones éticas: el respeto a la autonomía del paciente, veracidad y el derecho a la información, habilidades de comunicación, asedio del silencio, participación en el proceso de deliberación, elección del lugar de tratamiento y muerte. Abstract in english The respect for patient's autonomy is an ethical principle recognized in many areas of health care including palliative care, but not always the patient's preferences are respected. A better understanding of ethical issues related to the exercise of patient's autonomy in Palliative Care is an import [...] ant step to support ethical judgments in daily practice. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and analyze ethical issues related to patient preferences recognized by professionals in the daily life of a Palliative Care team under the framework of Casuistry. Eleven practitioners were interviewed. The main ethical issues identified are: respect for patient autonomy, veracity and right to information, communication skills, conspiracy of silence, participation in the deliberation process, choice of place of treatment and death.

Carolina Becker Bueno de, Abreu; Paulo Antonio de Carvalho, Fortes.

122

Ethical issues in family violence research in healthcare settings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research ethics is always important. However, it is especially crucial with sensitive research topics such as family violence. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss some crucial issues regarding intimate partner violence and child maltreatment, based on the authors' own research experiences. We focus on and discuss examples concerning the definition of family violence, research design, ethical approval, participant recruitment and safety and data collection and processing. During the research process, the significance of teamwork is emphasized. Support provided by the participants to each other and support given by experienced researchers within the team is very important for high ethical standards. PMID:23793068

Paavilainen, Eija; Lepistö, Sari; Flinck, Aune

2014-02-01

123

Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues in Science (ELSI)  

Science.gov (United States)

Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues in Science Web site is especially suitable for middle and high school students and teachers and tackles hard issues that face contemporary scientists every day. Connect to the ELSI pages to see a discussion of basic vs. applied research, equal access to medical screening, indoor air pollution, and personal privacy and medical databases.

2005-10-31

124

A STUDY OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN BANKING INDUSTRY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Economic performance of a country is largely determined by banking and financial system. Banking and finance play a vital and crucial role in framing public policies in today’s business environment. This article highlights social and ethical issues such as social banking, ethical banking, green banking, global banking, rural banking, and agri-banking, which help in achieving sustainable development of banking and finance. For this purpose, we have gone through a series of development that ...

Vijay Joshi; Goyal, Dr K. A.

2011-01-01

125

Legal and Ethical Issues Regarding Social Media and Pharmacy Education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Widespread use of social media applications like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter has introduced new complexities to the legal and ethical environment of higher education. Social communications have traditionally been considered private; however, now that much of this information is published online to the public, more insight is available to students' attitudes, opinions, and character. Pharmacy educators and administrators may struggle with the myriad of ethical and legal issues pertaining to...

Cain, Jeff; Fink, Joseph L.

2010-01-01

126

The ethics of biobanking: key issues and controversies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ethics of biobanking is one of the most controversial issues in current bioethics and public health debates. For some, biobanks offer the possibility of unprecedented advances which will revolutionise research and improve the health of future generations. For others they are worrying repositories of personal information and tissue which will be used without sufficient respect for those from whom they came. Wherever one stands on this spectrum, from an ethics perspective biobanks are revol...

Widdows, Heather; Cordell, Sean

2011-01-01

127

Ethnic marketing possibilities and its ethics issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on the possibilities of ethnic marketing and its ethic connections. The differences found in our face-to-face interviews and analysing questionnaire data will provide opportunities for Hungarian small enterprises. Targeting ethnic groups for marketing purposes results in ethical difficulties. In Hungary, ethnic marketing is yet an inexperienced concept. Based on these ideas the authors examine the ins and outs of using ethnic marketing in case of Germans in Hungary. Consumers with German ethnic attitude really want German products and brands. At the same time, enterprises have to emphasise the products’ “Germanness” and character in a better/stronger way because this can help for better consumer decision making.

Agota Kozma

2009-12-01

128

Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stem cell research offers great promise for understanding basic mechanisms of human development and differentiation, as well as the hope for new treatments for diseases such as diabetes, spinal cord injury, Parkinson’s disease, and myocardial infarction. However, human stem cell (hSC) research also raises sharp ethical and political controversies. The derivation of pluripotent stem cell lines from oocytes and embryos is fraught with disputes about the onset of human personhood. The reprogra...

Lo, Bernard; Parham, Lindsay

2009-01-01

129

Nuclear Power as an Ethical Issue: Utilitarian Ethics and Egalitarian Responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Described is the philosophical debate over the issue of nuclear power. Discussed are the utilitarian nature of the justification of nuclear power and the utilitarian approaches to the issue of nuclear power, the strengths and weaknesses of this approach, and utilitarian versus egalitarian ethics. (KR)

Hadjilambrinos, Constantine

1990-01-01

130

Incentives for organ donation: some ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objections to commerce in organs has not stopped the spread of such practice around the world. In most countries the gap between supply and demand for organs continues to increase. Kidneys from living donors are considered a valuable addition to the donor pool, and in a more acquisitive world, donor incentives are becoming thinkable, even acceptable. Current incentives for cadaver and living organ donation are reviewed from ethical and legal perspectives. A new principle of reimbursement for the living donor's risk and pain is defined and presented for debate. PMID:15478883

Sells, Robert

2004-01-01

131

Governing Nanotechnology: Social, Ethical and Human Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter is a human-centered survey of nanotechnology's broader implications, reporting on the early phase of work by social scientists, philosophers, and other scholars. It begins with the social science agenda developed by governments, and the heritage of research on technology and organizations that social science brings to this mission. It then outlines current thinking about nanotechnology's economic impacts, health or environmental impacts, and social contributions. It discusses how technology can be regulated by a combination of informal ethics and formal law, then concludes by considering the shape of popular nanotechnology culture, as reflected in science fiction, public perceptions, and education.

Bainbridge, William

132

Have Ethic Issues Changed in Professions?  

Science.gov (United States)

Professions are important today due to the growing number and their development. Furthermore there is a technological development unimaginable in the previous centuries. At the beginning it was recognized that there were three professions: Priest, Ruler and Doctor, representing the classical conception of Universe divided into ``Macrocosmos'', ``Mesocosmos'' and ``Microcosmos'' respectively. Modern age means the beginning of a change in this classical conception; that has been arguable, until the actual view that it is difficult to define what an ethical behaviour is in the professionals. This presentation tries to show some of the difficulties and conflicts presented by the technological and professional development.

Luepke-Estéfan, Erik

2007-04-01

133

Ethical issues posed by cluster randomized trials in health research  

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Full Text Available Abstract The cluster randomized trial (CRT is used increasingly in knowledge translation research, quality improvement research, community based intervention studies, public health research, and research in developing countries. However, cluster trials raise difficult ethical issues that challenge researchers, research ethics committees, regulators, and sponsors as they seek to fulfill responsibly their respective roles. Our project will provide a systematic analysis of the ethics of cluster trials. Here we have outlined a series of six areas of inquiry that must be addressed if the cluster trial is to be set on a firm ethical foundation: 1. Who is a research subject? 2. From whom, how, and when must informed consent be obtained? 3. Does clinical equipoise apply to CRTs? 4. How do we determine if the benefits outweigh the risks of CRTs? 5. How ought vulnerable groups be protected in CRTs? 6. Who are gatekeepers and what are their responsibilities? Subsequent papers in this series will address each of these areas, clarifying the ethical issues at stake and, where possible, arguing for a preferred solution. Our hope is that these papers will serve as the basis for the creation of international ethical guidelines for the design and conduct of cluster randomized trials.

Donner Allan

2011-04-01

134

Nuclear energy - social and ethical issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the continued exploration and mining and the construction and operation of nuclear reactors, both domestically and for export, is and will continue to be ethically and socially sound. Benefit and risk should be shared equally in the ideal society, in the real world this does not seem possible, but nuclear power appears not to worsen the situation and may even improve it. The real risks of nuclear power are less than those tolerated by many in their daily lives, but the public is relucant to accept them. The diversion of effort from dealing with real risks to worrying about hypothetical ones can be a disservice to society. Technology is inherently value-free, but can be used to raise the standard of living and provide a lifestyle in which non-material values can thrive. Withholding uranium from world markets increases the pressure on oil and the probability of armed conflict. A connection is made between uranium supply and food production. Social justice is a vital concern, but boycotts and trade embargoes may worsen suffering and have little effect on oppressors. There are formally defined international obligations to share nuclear technology. Scientists and engineers have a responsibility, which they are living up to more frequently, to make their specialized knowledge available to decision makers, and to express the ethical basis for their work. Nuclear energy appears to be more benign to future generations than many other present-day activities. (LL)

135

Ethical issues that confront nurses in private hospitals in the Western Cape Metropolitan area  

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Full Text Available Background: Nurses are faced daily with a variety of ethical issues which could be as a result of budget cuts, target setting, the shortage of nurses and expertise. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to identify ethical issues related to patient care, to describe ethical issues related to patient diversity, rights and human dignity. To describe ethical issues related to caring in nursing and to the workplace environment. Method: A quantitative explorative descriptive research design was applied. A stratified sample of (n = 142/5% was drawn from all nurses and caregivers (N = 2990 working in a selected group of eight private hospitals. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. Statistical tests were applied to determine statistical relationships between variables. Results: Results included (95% of respondents provided safe and committed care to their patients, (99% loved to care for their patients and (93% believed in the Nurses’ Pledge of Service. Fifty percent (50% of the respondents indicated verbal abuse from patients and only (59% experienced openness and transparency in the work environment. Analysis further identified that the caregivers did not respect the noble tradition of the profession and experienced the most verbal abuse. Conclusion: This study has identified ethical issues which may give rise to conflict within the workplace environment if not adequately addressed by management. The study further showed that the use of caregivers not regulated in nursing practice may pose as a threat to the safety of the patient.

Ethelwynn L. Stellenberg

2014-06-01

136

Using Media to Explore Social and Ethical Issues in Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, introduces the social and ethical issues of nanotechnology. In this activity, students will explore "possible social issues through case studies using popular films, books, and news stories. The lesson is intended to stimulate discussion about social and ethical issues related to nanotechnology as well as, in a broader context, the interaction of science and technology with society." This activity will take one 50 minute classroom session. A Teacher Preparation Guide, Student Guide, and Next Generation Manufacturing Standards for this lesson are included. 

2014-08-08

137

Ethical issues of expert witness testimony.  

Science.gov (United States)

Being a surgical expert witness (EW) in professional liability claims implies ethical responsibilities, which are usually unknown to the parties who try to obtain such testimony as well as to the surgeons involved in providing the expert opinion required by the courts. Giving medical testimony can be included in the field of surgery since (1) being an expert medical witness and judge the performance of another surgeon means that the witness must have a medical license and preferably be board-certified as a surgeon, and (2) the EW opinion sets the standard of care to be applied in each particular case. Thus, the role of the surgeon EW in the legal arena must have the same degree of integrity as the surgeon in his practice with direct patient care and it should be reviewed and subject to regulation. PMID:24852436

Ferreres, Alberto R

2014-07-01

138

Ethical and legal issues in nutritional genomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in the ability to study how common variations in genes affect the metabolism of drugs and foods suggest that genetic information about individuals is of increasing relevance to clinical practitioners, including registered dietitians. The acquisition, storage, and use of genetic information in nutrition counseling will pose difficult ethical and legal questions involving the maintenance of confidentiality, the right to privacy, and the risks of discrimination in decisions about insurance coverage and employment. In addition, genetic analysis of children poses new questions about the limits of parental authority. Although the field of nutritional genomics is in its infancy, it is appropriate for registered dietitians to begin now to fashion a code of conduct about the proper use of genetic information. Relevant legal topics, such as federal and state legislation and judicial decisions, are discussed. PMID:18155987

Reilly, Philip R; Debusk, Ruth M

2008-01-01

139

Ethical Issues in Nuclear Waste Management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear experts claim that the health risks from radioactive waste disposal are low compared to other environmental hazards, yet the general public is sceptical of the industry's ability to guarantee acceptable safety standards. Many allude to what might be deemed morally relevant factors, such as potential harms to future generations, possibly catastrophic consequences and environmental effects. Industry has often tended to respond with a claim that the public has an irrational perception of radiation risks, particularly those from man-made rather than natural sources. From a philosophical point of view it is interesting to consider exactly how nuclear risks might differ from other hazards, not least to evaluate which ethically relevant factors could be used to defend the stringent demands made by society for nuclear waste disposal.

Oughton, Deborah [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry and Biotechnology

2001-07-01

140

Ethical Issues in Nuclear Waste Management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear experts claim that the health risks from radioactive waste disposal are low compared to other environmental hazards, yet the general public is sceptical of the industry's ability to guarantee acceptable safety standards. Many allude to what might be deemed morally relevant factors, such as potential harms to future generations, possibly catastrophic consequences and environmental effects. Industry has often tended to respond with a claim that the public has an irrational perception of radiation risks, particularly those from man-made rather than natural sources. From a philosophical point of view it is interesting to consider exactly how nuclear risks might differ from other hazards, not least to evaluate which ethically relevant factors could be used to defend the stringent demands made by society for nuclear waste disposal

 
 
 
 
141

Environmental Issues in Finnish School Textbooks on Religious Education and Ethics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solving global environmental problems requires a major change of values. As relates to environmental education, worldview, ethics and spiritual issues are important elements. But how are environmental issues included in such school subjects that especially discuss values and ethics? In this article I examine 24 Finnish religious education and ethics textbooks to analyze, to what extent environmental issues are integrated and discussed in them. I conclude that there is confusion about what environmental education can be in societal school subjects. The environmental texts in textbooks do not always draw on the specific content of the societal subject in question but repeat content from the natural sciences. Therefore, I suggest contexts and perspectives for discussing environmental issues that would comport with these subjects and supplement existing environmental education at school.

Essi Aarnio-Linnanvuori

2013-08-01

142

Ethics in stuttering treatment in the schools: issues and intersections.  

Science.gov (United States)

When the challenges of providing speech-language pathology services in school settings intersect with the complexities of meeting the unique needs of students who stutter, clinicians may encounter a variety of ethical issues. This article explores some of the ethical challenges of treating stuttering in school settings by discussing three clinical scenarios. Seedhouse's Ethics Grid is provided as a scaffold to support the critical analysis of school-based stuttering treatment issues. Factors examined include creating and respecting autonomy, serving student needs, doing good and minimizing risks, and telling the truth and keeping promises. In addition, clinical outcomes are considered in terms of their impact on students and family members, clinicians, students with communication disorders other than stuttering, and school personnel. Finally, some of the practical concerns when treating stuttering in school settings are discussed, including the law, codes of practice, wishes of others, as well as the effectiveness and efficiency of actions. PMID:22144082

Watson, Jennifer B; Byrd, Courtney T; Moore, Barbara J

2011-11-01

143

Ethical issues in the development of ICT mediated support for daily living in adolescents with autism : The ethics of HANDS  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The EU-funded project HANDS was aimed at assisting young people with an autism spectrum disorder to increase their participation in social life. The core of the project was the development of a mobile device using personalizable software utilizing persuasive technology techniques. This chapter analyzes the ethical issues raised by the project itself and some of the broader issues raised by the use of persuasive technologies in a population with autism spectrum disorder. These include issues relating to consent and assent procedures, the potential conflict of interest of teachers as researchers and co-producers of knowledge, and questions concerning privacy and parental access to data. In addition the chapter also provides an account of the advice given by the project's ethics advisory board.

Holm, SØren; Ploug, Thomas

2012-01-01

144

Emerging ethical issues in reproductive medicine: are bioethics educators ready?  

Science.gov (United States)

Advocates for the professionalization of clinical bioethics argue that bioethics professionals play an important role in contemporary medicine and patient care, especially when addressing complex ethical questions that arise in the delivery of reproductive medicine. For bioethics consultants to serve effectively, they need adequate training in the medical and ethical issues that patients and clinicians will face, and they need skills to facilitate effective dialog among all parties. Because clinical ethics consultation is a "high-stakes endeavor" that can acutely affect patient care, efforts are under way to ensure that bioethics consultants have the competence to provide such guidance. Yet to date, no studies have examined whether the training of bioethics consultants meets the needs of health care professionals who are on the front lines of such issues. In fact, limited information is available on the reproductive health issues that bioethics training programs address or the degree to which these programs meet the needs of patients confronting reproductive health decisions and their clinicians. It is therefore important to answer this key question: What are the primary ethical issues encountered in reproductive medicine that currently affect patient care? Equally important, are bioethics training programs prepared to address those issues? To begin to answer these questions, we conducted parallel surveys of directors of graduate bioethics training programs and obstetrician-gynecologists. The goal of this project is to lay the groundwork to establish a working partnership between bioethics educators and reproductive medicine practitioners to address the often troubling and frequently complex ethical issues in reproductive medicine. PMID:25231658

Farrell, Ruth M; Metcalfe, Jonathan S; McGowan, Michelle L; Weise, Kathryn L; Agatisa, Patricia K; Berg, Jessica

2014-09-01

145

Ethical Issues and Best Practice Considerations for Internet Research  

Science.gov (United States)

With rapidly increasing public use of the Internet and advances in Web technologies, family and consumer sciences researchers have the opportunity to conduct Internet-based research. However, online research raises critical ethical issues concerning human subjects that have an impact on research practices. This article provides a review of the…

Colvin, Jan; Lanigan, Jane

2005-01-01

146

Ethical Issues in Counseling Adult Survivors of Incest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Counseling adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse raises ethical issues which include maintaining client confidentiality when the situations have been both immoral and illegal or working with survivors without appropriate training. Principles such as autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence and nonmaleficence, and self-interest are examined, as…

Daniluk, Judith C. and Haverkamp, Beth E.

1993-01-01

147

Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.

David B. Resnik

2008-01-01

148

Ethics Issues on Land Services Reformation in Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasingly, public demand for the availability of land has been increased due to population growth and the development while the land itself it was never increased. In an effort to improve the public service, then the government has established a policy of service to the community in the management and development of land development. It has issued instructions to the State Minister for Agrarian Affairs / Head of National Land Agency No. 3 of 1998 On Improving Efficiency and Quality of Community Service in the Land Service. Service management carried out by government officials in various service sectors, particularly those involving civil rights and the fulfillment of basic needs of society, including the ministry of land, the way it works is still far from the expected.The issue of ethics in Indonesia actually has much discussed but less thoroughly discussed, as there is in developed countries. Although it has been realized that one of the fundamental weaknesses in the public service in Indonesia is a matter of ethics and morality, ethics is often seen as a less important element in the public service. Another very serious problem in the context of ethics is corruption in the public service. As a country known to be very religious, is an ironic thing when Indonesia is among the most corrupted countries in the world. Issues of Corruption Collusion and Nepotism are a very serious problem facing this nation. As if - if transparency, and fairness accountability never known.Ethics is only limited as a discourse or just written in the law books – but only on legislation alone and is not in reality or not happening in the community. No implementation of principles of ethics such as transparency, accountability, and justice are always complaints by the people who deal with the land office.

Muhammad Afif Hamka

2012-04-01

149

"Business Ethics Everywhere": An Experiential Exercise to Develop Students' Ability to Identify and Respond to Ethical Issues in Business  

Science.gov (United States)

This article introduces an experiential exercise that enhances students' ability to identify ethical issues and to respond to them in ways that consider the relationship between organizational factors and ethical action. Students identify a required number of ethical incidents in their workplaces during a specified period. Students submit a…

Baker, Susan D.; Comer, Debra R.

2012-01-01

150

Contextual or universal ethics: a non-issue? Viewpoint.  

Science.gov (United States)

A universal ethical principle is the respect of the individual, and this implies universal rules: informed consent, confidentiality, scientific rigor and the limiting of risks. Applying them involves difficulties which are not limited just to the developing countries and which sometimes pose real problems. To assess the quality of means implemented for making sure that these rules are respected, indicators exist which are either direct (evaluation of good practice, recourse to ethical committees) or indirect (quality of patient management, choice of subjects to be studied). Doubts concerning the application of these rules and the value of these indicators in some developing countries have led to an over-simplification of the issue on the part of those countries which consider themselves as paragons of ethical virtue. This has resulted in the concept of "contextual ethics". This concept is dangerous because: (1) it creates the impression that any doubts expressed or questions unresolved can only be encountered in poor countries, whereas they underpin all thinking about ethics; (2) it precludes the need for rich countries to call into question the research they perform intra muros without making any reference to the universal right to health care. PMID:19803066

Anglaret, Xavier; Msellati, Philippe

2009-01-01

151

Ethical, legal and practical issues of establishing an adipose stem cell bank for research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to human tissue is critical to medical research, however the laws and regulations surrounding gaining ethical and legal access to tissue are often poorly understood. Recently, there has been a huge increase in the interest surrounding the therapeutic application of adipose tissue, and adipose-derived stem cells. To facilitate our own research interests and possibly assist our local colleagues and collaborators, we established a Research Tissue Bank (RTB) to collect, store and distribute human adipose tissue derived cells with all the appropriate ethical approval for subsequent downstream research. Here we examine the legal, ethical and practical issues relating to the banking of adipose tissue for research in the UK, and discuss relevant international guidelines and policies. We also share our experiences of establishing an RTB including the necessary infrastructure and the submission of an application to a Research Ethics Committee (REC). PMID:24529696

West, C C; Murray, I R; González, Z N; Hindle, P; Hay, D C; Stewart, K J; Péault, B

2014-06-01

152

Review for the volume Practicing Relational Ethics in Organizations, Authors: Gitte Haslebo, Maja Loua Haslebo, Taos Institute Publications, ISBN 978-0-9819076-8-0  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The volume Practicing Relational Ethics in Organizations having as authors Gitte Haslebo and Maja Loua Haslebo issued by Taos Institute Publications Ohio USA, discusses relational ethics and ethical practice in the organization. The problem of ethical practice in the organization besides being a necessity for business it overlaps with aspects of organizational culture, personnel management, leadership. Within the organizational ethics, the authors select the issue of relational ethics from a social, constructionist and appreciative perspective. The authors (Haslebo and Haslebo, 2012 aim to inspire the readers through a complex approach of ethical relations within the organization that are fundamentally unpredictable and subject to continuous change.

Antonio SANDU

2012-06-01

153

Ethical Issues in the Mental Health Treatment of Gender Dysphoric Adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines ethical dilemmas arising when treating adolescents with gender dysphoria, discussing ethical and legal issues pertinent to treating any adolescent and highlighting gender dysphoric adolescents. Reviews legal decisions, existing data on adolescent decision making, and ethical principles for resolving complex situations. Illustrates ethical

Swann, Stephanie; Herbert, Sarah E.

1999-01-01

154

The Ethical Issues Rating Scale: An Instrument for Measuring Ethical Orientation of College Students toward Various Business Practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Factor analysis of data from 213 college business students supported the existence of 5 constructs for the Ethical Issues Rating Scale, an instrument measuring respondents' assessment of the importance of various ethical issues. Suggestions about refining the instrument and using it are discussed. (SLD)

Daniel, Larry G.; And Others

1997-01-01

155

Genetic and Genomic Healthcare: Ethical Issues of Importance to Nurses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The complete sequencing of the human genome in 2003 has opened doors for new approaches to health promotion, maintenance, and treatment. Genetic research is now leading to a better understanding of the genetic components of common diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and stroke, and creating new, gene-based technologies for screening, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of both rare and common diseases. Nurses are on the forefront of care, and therefore will participate fully in genetic-based and genomic-based practice activities such as collecting family history, obtaining informed consent for genetic testing, and administering gene-based therapies. This new direction in healthcare calls for all nurses to be able to effectively translate genetic and genomic information to patients with an understanding of associated ethical issues. This article will present six genetic and genomic healthcare activities involving ethical issues of importance to nurses. For each activity discussed, an overview of current and/or emerging ethical issues will be presented. Approaches nurses can use to integrate comprehensive and current knowledge in genetics and genomics into their practice to most fully meet the needs of their patients, families, and society will also be described.

Dale Halsey Lea

2008-01-01

156

Ethical issues in brain-computer interface research, development, and dissemination.  

Science.gov (United States)

The steadily growing field of brain-computer interfacing (BCI) may develop useful technologies, with a potential impact not only on individuals, but also on society as a whole. At the same time, the development of BCI presents significant ethical and legal challenges. In a workshop during the 4th International BCI meeting (Asilomar, California, 2010), six panel members from various BCI laboratories and companies set out to identify and disentangle ethical issues related to BCI use in four case scenarios, which were inspired by current experiences in BCI laboratories. Results of the discussion are reported in this article, touching on topics such as the representation of persons with communication impairments, dealing with technological complexity and moral responsibility in multidisciplinary teams, and managing expectations, ranging from an individual user to the general public. Furthermore, we illustrate that where treatment and research interests conflict, ethical concerns arise. On the basis of the four case scenarios, we discuss salient, practical ethical issues that may confront any member of a typical multidisciplinary BCI team. We encourage the BCI and rehabilitation communities to engage in a dialogue, and to further identify and address pressing ethical issues as they occur in the practice of BCI research and its commercial applications. PMID:22592066

Vlek, Rutger J; Steines, David; Szibbo, Dyana; Kübler, Andrea; Schneider, Mary-Jane; Haselager, Pim; Nijboer, Femke

2012-06-01

157

Ethical issues on preventions and management of blood genetics disorders--Islamic views.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical issues are of concern to all members of the health team and the community at large, particularly in relation to chronic and genetic diseases. The fear from the negative social impact, including stigmatization of the carriers of a genetic disease and the affected individual is of a particular concern to the individual and his family. Members of the health team should protect the individual autonomy, observe the ethical principles including beneficence, nonmaleficent, justice, and confidentiality, and maintain high level of professional competence. In addition, Islamic/Arab costumes and traditional issues need to be respected in these communities. This article will outline the prevention and management of common blood genetic disorders in the high of Islamic ethical teachings, where the individuals benefit is paramount. PMID:20001612

El-Hazmi, Mohsen A F

2009-01-01

158

Toward an Ideal Relational Ethic: Rethinking university-community engagement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores how an ideal relational ethic based on Zygmunt Bauman’s (1995 notion of forms of togetherness is needed to underpin university-community engagement processes and practices. We focus on the notion of being-for, and suggest that it can be used as an ‘engagement bridge’ between higher education institutions, the creation of human capital and communities, and can be a means to achieve ethical outcomes to local concerns. Much of Bauman’s (1995; 2001; 2007 theoretical development has focussed on the liquidity of modernity, to give the impression that community - in the spatially, physically located and fixed sense of the term - no longer exists. This paper proposes that spatial dimensions, particularly in the context of developing relational ethics, are important. This is particularly so for paying adequate attention to context-specific values, principles and issues in communities, for developing enterprising human capital via engagement, and for addressing matters of socio-political importance such as the environment. Contemporary neo-liberal times require ethical and moral leadership from universities. This paper suggests that such leadership can be developed from focussing attention on the forms of togetherness fostered by university-community engagement.

Steve Garlick

2008-09-01

159

Public acceptance of nuclear power - Some ethical issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the increased public perception of the future scale of dependence on nuclear energy a debate has started, raising the level of public awareness of the social, political and technical risks that are inevitably associated with the large-scale and accelerating adoption of nuclear power generation. The nuclear industry has given a mixed response to this debate, to accusations of irresponsibility and to demands for more specific attention to the recognized hazards of the fuel cycle. In this situation, non-governmental bodies such as the World Council of Churches, has taken the responsibility to examine the issues so far identified and to place these in a social and ethical context. The W.C.C. general position on nuclear energy is presented. It includes the risk associated with nuclear technology; nuclear waste disposal; catastrophic accidents; accidents in reprocessing plants, low-level radiation; nuclear weapons; security; nuclear energy and a new international economic order; ethical and religious perspectives

160

Ethical Issues in E-Commerce on the Basis of Online Retailing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The rapid spread of e-commerce has created tremendous opportunities for economic efficiency and customer choice. Use of the global Internet computer network for ecommerce activities provides some advantages to the consumers on their daily life. On the other hand Internet represents a new environment for unethical behavior. While e-commerce has witnessed extensive growth in last decade, consumers concerns regarding ethical issues also continue to increase. Even many consumers and businesses are reveling in e-commerce; consumer problems related to online retail become the dark side of the issue. Approach: A survey on 400 online shoppers was conducted (three cities in Turkey (Izmir, Manisa, Mersin in order to measure consumers? perceptions regarding the ethical issues of online retailing by using scale of Consumers? Perceptions regarding to Ethics of Online Retailers (CPEOR. Results: Ethical problems like security, privacy, reliability and non deception on Internet are core issues that limit the growth of online retailing. Conclusion/Recommendation: Findings indicate that; four factors (security, privacy, non deception and reliability are strongly predictive of online consumers? satisfaction. Also, this research will be beneficial to online retailers on their online retailing activities.

Sinan Nardal

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Meeting report: Fifth International Conference on Ethical Issues in Biomedical Engineering.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical issues in biomedical engineering is a crucial topic that must be addressed. In the spring of 2009, attendees from various professions attended a conference regarding ethical issues at the Polytechnic Institute of New York University. Abstracts representing distinct aspects of the engineering and biotechnology fields and associated ethical concerns were presented. The event featured a debate that engaged participants and panel members in intriguing ethical discussions, and concluded with a social banquet. PMID:20666710

El-Gendi, Hebah; Saha, Subrata

2009-01-01

162

[National Database of Genotypes--ethical and legal issues].  

Science.gov (United States)

National Database of Genotypes--ethical and legal issues The aim of the project National Database of Genotypes is to outline structure and rules for the database operation collecting information about genotypes of individual persons. The database should be used entirely for health care. Its purpose is to enable physicians to gain quick and easy access to the information about persons requiring specialized care due to their genetic constitution. In the future, another introduction of new genetic tests into the clinical practice can be expected thus the database of genotypes facilitates substantial financial savings by exclusion of duplicates of the expensive genetic testing. Ethical questions connected with the creating and functioning of such database concern mainly privacy protection, confidentiality of personal sensitive data, protection of database from misuse, consent with participation and public interests. Due to necessity of correct interpretation by qualified professional (= clinical geneticist), particular categorization of genetic data within the database is discussed. The function of proposed database has to be governed in concordance with the Czech legislation together with solving ethical problems. PMID:22026259

Franková, Vera; Tesínová, Jolana; Brdicka, Radim

2011-01-01

163

ETHICAL ISSUES IN PRIVATE COMMERCIAL BANKS IN PAKISTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research addressed the ethical issues in Private Commercial Banks in Pakistan. Data were collected from 500 respondents/Customers from cross sectional data by using simple random technique and data were analyses by using SPSS-18 version. A structural questionnaire was used as basic tool for data collection, analysis, validity and reliability. It was revealed that private commercial banks are not caring for the customers specially, four old Banks UBL, HBL, MCB, ABL. It was further concluded that most of the staff members who interact with the customers is non MBAs so that’s why their attitude towards the customers are not friendly.

Nanik Ram

2011-10-01

164

Rapport and respect: negotiating ethical relations between researcher and participant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Qualitative research is largely dependent on building good interpersonal relations between researcher and participant. This is necessary for generating rich data, while at the same time ensuring respect is maintained between researcher and participant. We argue for a better understanding of researcher-participant relations in research practice. Codes of ethics, although important, do not address these kinds of ethical challenges. Negotiating the ethical relations between researcher and participant is paramount in maintaining ethical rigour in qualitative research. In this paper we propose concepts that can assist in understanding how the ethics of research relations are negotiated in practice; the 'zone of the untouchable' from the Danish philosopher, Løgstrup, is combined with the notion of 'ethical mindfulness'. We argue how and why these concepts in tandem can heighten awareness and offer ways to address the ethically important moments in research. PMID:18853283

Guillemin, Marilys; Heggen, Kristin

2009-08-01

165

Teaching ethics in architecture: contexts, issues and strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An exposition on teaching ethics in architecture is long overdue. While all research on ethics in architecture agrees to its importance, none has ventured further to consider how to teach ethics in architecture. It is presumed that ethics is either transmitted tacitly in the architectural design studio, or introduced within a seminar on professional practice. But neither option is adequate if the goal of teaching ethics in architecture is the capacity for heightened ethical awareness, sound m...

Chan, Jeffrey Kok Hui

2013-01-01

166

Ethical issues in genetic counselling with special reference to haemoglobinopathies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic counselling is provided in places where genetic tests are carried out. The process involves pre-test counselling as well as post-test counselling to enable the individuals to face the situation and take appropriate decisions with the right frame of mind. Major ethical principles which govern the attitudes and actions of counsellors include: respect for patient autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, or taking action to help benefit others and prevent harm, both physical and mental, and justice, which requires that services be distributed fairly to those in need. Other moral issues include veracity, the duty to disclose information or to be truthful, and respect for patient confidentiality. Nondirective counselling, a hallmark of this profession, is in accordance with the principle of individual autonomy. High prevalence of haemoglobinopathies with availability of good and sensitive carrier detection tests and prenatal diagnostic techniques makes these good candidates for population screening of carriers along with genetic counselling for primary prevention of the disease. Screening of the extended family members of the affected child, high risk communities and general population screening including antenatal women are the main target groups for planning a Haemoglobinopathy control programme. A critical mass of trained genetic counsellors who have understanding of the ethical issues and its appropriate handling with the required sensitivity is needed in India. PMID:22089619

Muthuswamy, Vasantha

2011-10-01

167

Ethical issues in the use of genetic information.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in molecular genetics promise to deepen our understanding of the biological basis of human behavior and shed light on the pathophysiology of mental illness. Genetic research is likely to improve our ability to develop somatic treatments for psychiatric syndromes as well as to identify targets for environmental intervention. However, population-screening tests for disorders with multifactorial inheritance may offer little clinical benefit to outweigh their potential for misuse. Relevant legal issues surrounding the use of genetic information in psychiatry include the perceived need for laws to prevent insurance and employment discrimination, and concerns about genetic status as a possible excuse for criminal behavior. Relevant ethical issues include threats to patient privacy and confidentiality and the importance of fairly distributing the benefits and burdens of genetic advances. PMID:16200687

Dinwiddie, Stephen H; Hoop, Jinger; Gershon, Elliot S

2004-11-01

168

Ethical issues of transplanting organs from transgenic animals into human beings.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human's body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal's organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

2014-01-01

169

Ethical Issues of Transplanting Organs from Transgenic Animals into Human Beings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human’s body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action. The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal’s organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven.

Shima Behnam Manesh

2014-04-01

170

Ethical Issues of Transplanting Organs from Transgenic Animals into Human Beings  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human’s body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal’s organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

2014-01-01

171

An A-B-C-D-E Worksheet for Promoting Beneficence When Considering Ethical Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents A-B-C-D-E worksheet prepared to promote beneficence when considering ethical issues. Notes that components of worksheet are derived from ethical principles and ethical decision-making models. Sees worksheet as making abstract concepts of decision-making models concrete and practical and as providing shorthand for remembering key elements…

Sileo, Frank J.; Kopala, Mary

1993-01-01

172

Ethical Decision-Making: Issues and Applications to American Sport.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses ethical decision making within American sports, explaining its evolution from nobility and virtue to win at all costs. Presents various views and perspectives on ethics. Also describes how established codes of ethics can assist interscholastic athletic programs, how professionals can establish an ethical workplace, and how decisions can…

Conn, James H.; Gerdes, Daniel A.

1998-01-01

173

Dealing with Ethical Issues among Internet Users: Do We Need Legal Enforcement?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Information and communication technologies (ICTs), in particular of the Internet and of the World Wide Web, have paved the way for numerous ICT related development and initiative. In as much as there are beneficial usage of the Internet, there is also unethical usage and abuse. The Internet is like a double edge sword and care must be taken when indulging in this vast ocean of knowledge and information. Studies on ethical issue have centred much on internet security like hacking of personal i...

Ali Salman; Suhana Saad; Mohd. Nor Shahizan Ali

2013-01-01

174

Ethical Issues in the Consulting Context--Ethics in Presentation Skills Training.  

Science.gov (United States)

In light of the huge volume of headline news stories that reflect ethical concerns from a variety of arenas, it is no wonder that ethics training is a hot topic. Research shows that many leading United States companies have written codes of ethics and/or instituted formal ethics training programs. In this paper, certain principles that have become…

Ray, Rebecca L.

175

Ethical Issues in A-Life: Cyber Gods as Moral Monsters?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors have undertaken an exploration of some significant social and ethical issues that arise in relation to the emerging field of Artificial Life (A-life. These issues have been approached from a philosophical perspective, taking into account reports of current developments in A-life research, and the application of A-life software in elementary school education. It has been suggested that the use of such systems may impact on the development of moral character in children, and illuminate that of adults. In addition, it is argued that if A-life researchers achieve their aims and evolve digital biota that are both intelligent and autonomous, they may be responsible to their creations for the quality of the worlds in which they live. The authors conclude that, given the stated aims and current progress of A-life researchers, there is a clear need for further consideration of the potential social and ethical implications of these technologies.

Grey, William

2003-10-01

176

Business ethics as a novel issue in health care economics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The problems of health care providing and solutions suggested to solve them should be discussed publicly at all appropriate levels in all developed countries. In this contribution, new approaches to understanding the problems of business ethics in health care are mentioned and recommended for discussion. An application of such principles of business ethics as trust, accountability, solidarity, transparency and social responsibility is considered in the four following areas. First, it is the allocation of limited resources in health care. This is the world-wide problem of the end of 20th century, as the development of medical technologies offers a wide range of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In our country this coincides with the on-going, and still incompleted reform of health care. Second, the other area is that of connecting health-care and social problems, important namely for vulnerable groups such as children, the elderly and chronically ill. The third area is concerned with the privatization of health care, the newly emanating structure and function of the health care system and the role of health care provides in society. The last group contains issues concerning attempts to facilitate communication between health care specialists and general public, as well as attempts to support those institutions of the civic democratic society that are oriented toward health, sickness and health care providing. PMID:9601815

Vrbová, H; Holmerová, I; Hrubantová, L

1997-01-01

177

The importance of expressly examining global warming policy issues through an ethical prism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A vast scientific and economic literature on global warming has emerged in the last two decades. Surprisingly, however, there has been little written on the ethical dimensions of human-induced climate change despite the numerous, obvious, and profoundly important ethical questions raised by human activities that are now clearly threatening human health, the environment, and many things humans value greatly. This paper argues that ethical analysis of global warming issues is practically imperative for two reasons. First, unless ethical analysis is made of global warming issues, ethically dubious decisions about global warming will be made because many of the most important ethical considerations are hidden in what appear to be ethically neutral scientific and economic arguments about global warming policy options. Secondly, unless issues of ethics, justice and equity are expressly dealt with, urgently needed global solutions to global warming will not likely be adopted by many nations. That is, an ethical focus on global warming matters is the key to achieve a globally acceptable solution and to harness political support for action. The paper concludes with a recommendation on how institutions and nations should go about implementing express examination of the ethical dimensions of global warming questions. The paper argues for express identification of ethical issues often hidden in scientific and economic analyses of global warming policy options. (Author)

Brown, Donald A. [Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Pennsylvania Consortium for Interdisciplinary Environmental Policy, Harrisburg, PA (United States)

2003-12-01

178

CORRUPTION AND ETHICAL ISSUES REGARDING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP  

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Full Text Available The paper raises general questions about ethical problems that taint public-private partnership. Everybody talks about the economical benefits of encouraging firms to invest in the community using different incentives offered by the public institutions. In the same time, every day, newspapers bring to our attention cases of misuse of public resources for private gain or cases of private investors who give bribes in order to get a contract with a public institution. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize our understanding of the entrepreneurial movement and analyze its implications for potential problems of corruption that can arise in the relation between the public and the private sector.

Bianca COBÂRZAN

2005-10-01

179

Exploring the relevance of social justice within a relational nursing ethic.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last few decades, a growing number of commentators have questioned the appropriateness of the 'justice view' of ethics as a suitable approach in health care ethics, and most certainly in nursing. Essentially, in their ethical deliberations, it is argued that nurses do not readily adopt the high degree of impartiality and objectivity that is associated with a justice view; instead their moral practices are more accurately reflected through the use of alternative approaches such as relational or care-based ethics. Yet, it has also been argued that this viewpoint does not necessarily 'do justice' to the broader moral responsibilities of nurses towards humanity in general, i.e. to the wider socio-cultural and socio-political issues in society, and to the concept of social justice in particular. This criticism has triggered a much closer examination of relational and care-based ethics in nursing at levels beyond individual responsiveness within relationships and brought into the spotlight the need for a more ethically refined nursing response to an increasingly complex set of socio-cultural inequalities. This article explores a relational ethic within nursing practices with contemporary ideas regarding social justice. In particular, it is argued that the synergy between the two actually produces an ethic that is capable of not only challenging the continuing predominance of justice-based ethics within health care, but of replacing it. Subsequently, in the discussion that follows, it is suggested that a combined social justice and relational care-based approach, as a social ethic, should guide the moral deliberations and actions of nurses. It is maintained that such an approach is not only possible, but crucial if nurses are to realize their full potential as ethical agents for individual and social good. PMID:22176548

Woods, Martin

2012-01-01

180

Teaching ethics in architecture: contexts, issues and strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An exposition on teaching ethics in architecture is long overdue. While all research on ethics in architecture agrees to its importance, none has ventured further to consider how to teach ethics in architecture. It is presumed that ethics is either transmitted tacitly in the architectural design studio, or introduced within a seminar on professional practice. But neither option is adequate if the goal of teaching ethics in architecture is the capacity for heightened ethical awareness, sound moral reasoning and keen judgment. What then, is the recourse for the educator interested in developing this capacity in the student? In this paper, I suggest that the context where ethics in architecture is taught is just as important as how to teach it. Subsequently, I suggest four pedagogical strategies for teaching ethics in architecture. This paper should appeal to every educator in higher education, especially to educators teaching architecture, urban design and planning.

Jeffrey CHAN Kok Hui

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

Ethical Issues in the Study of Bereavement: The Opinions of Bereaved Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies examine ethical issues in bereavement research and none survey the opinions of bereaved individuals who have not previously participated in bereavement research. This study examined the theoretical opinions of bereaved adults about ethical issues such as attitudes toward bereavement research, timing and methods of recruitment, and…

Beck, Andrea M.; Konnert, Candace A.

2007-01-01

182

Ethics: The Role of Adult and Vocational Education. Trends and Issues Alert No. 24.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethics and social responsibility are the subject of both curriculum materials and research in adult and vocational education. State academic standards and curriculum frameworks address citizenship and personal and social responsibility. Ethical and legal issues for specific occupations are addressed in curricula issued by states, professional…

Wonacott, Michael E.

183

Doing the Right Thing: Ethical Issues in Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent ethical lapses in corporate America have motivated institutions of higher education to focus more attention on their ethical responsibilities. These responsibilities include creating ethical learning environments in which students can learn the principles and traditions of professional practice and develop knowledge and skills to help them…

Couch, Sue

2005-01-01

184

Ethical Issues in the Recovery of Sexual Abuse Memories.  

Science.gov (United States)

This speech highlights ethical considerations in defining "reasonable practice" or standards of care in cases of the recovery of sexual abuse memories. Knowing the ethical standards of the psychological profession is not sufficient. These standards cannot be and are not exhaustive in addressing all the ethical dilemmas that psychologists face.…

Hotelling, Kathy

185

Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Livestock are vital to sustainable agriculture in most developing countries. In Asia, in general, the integration of livestock, fish and crops has proved to be a sustainable system through centuries of experience. Traditional use of dung for manuring the fields and bullocks for ploughing is the 'biodynamic farming', which has special significance in dry land agriculture comprising about 65 percent of India's cropped area. Gene-based technologies will be useful for developing special draught breeds of cattle so that their valuable source of energy remains available especially to the small and marginal farmers. Further, the livestock in the developing countries form an essential part of an integrated agricultural system and, therefore, development strategies for gene-based applications should consider the total production system (i.e., breeding fodder and forage crops, animal and crop disease and pest management etc). The gene-technologies of relevance to the developing countries are (i) rumen molecular techniques for reducing methane production and for increasing protein and energy supply; ruminant food stuffs currently used in India and a few other developing countries are fibrous, low in nitrogen, and contain anti-nutritive factors, (ii) improving animal productivity in developing countries by manipulation of nutrition in utero to alter gene expression of key metabolic hormones and enzymes for a long period after birth in cattle, (iii) genetic resistance to Helminthes in sheep, and (iv) molecular methods of diagnosis, molecular epidemiology and treatment of swine fever. Although not gene-based, artificial insemination (AI) for genetic improvement of dairy cattle and buffalo, and embryo-transfer (ET) for rapid multiplication of elite cattle are also relevant. Cloning (of the 'Dolly' - the sheep kind) will be useful to revive the rare and endangered animal species such as one-horned rhinoceros, swamp deer, wild buffalo and dugongs in India, for restoring environmental balance and social harmony with the forest, coastal and hill communities of various regions of India. The ethical issues from a technological point of view centre around both gene-based and nongene- based technologies to improve the nutrition, health and productivity of the farm animals. In particular, a reference needs to be made to bovine somatotropin (bST), a natural growth hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary in all animals, with a major effect on the regulation of growth and also milk production. Since the quantities of bST obtained from slaughtered animals are quite small, recombinant DNA technology-based r-bST is produced, and widely used in the USA to increase the milk production by 10% to 20%. Exhaustive evaluation tests conducted in the USA have shown that r-bST has no harmful effects in milk, but a high production of milk makes higher demands on animal physiology, and if an adequate food supply is lacking, negative effects are observed on fertility besides other health problems, especially mastitis and ketosis. Presently, neither r-bST, nor adequate nutritious feed is available for millions of dairy cattle in the developing countries. The economic benefits of 'mass production' over 'production by masses' are obvious; further, the access to the r-bST in the 'mass production' system, but not in the system of 'production by masses' could accentuate the economic disparity. The above-said scenario has further ramifications in view of the implications arising from the WTO-related Agreement on Agriculture. With an array of domestic supports, products of 'mass production' could be dumped into developing countries causing a substantial rise in the already high levels of livelihood and food insecurity. Since the r-DNA based technologies for 'pharming' or for human food are not yet applied to farm animals in the developing countries there are no serious concerns of bio-safety, and violation of ethical norms. In the countries, where animals for human food are genetically altered, the issues of 'animal sentience' and 'telos' become quite pertinent. For e

186

Critical thinking by nurses on ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decision-making. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169). Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15). 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34) and Strauss and Corbin (1990). The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990). The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985) and Morse (1994) related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based on these findings the researcher concluded that nurses are not thinking critically when making ethical decisions concerning the termination of pregnancies. Recommendations are made as a possible solution for this problem. PMID:11949153

Botes, A

2000-09-01

187

Critical thinking by nurses on ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169. Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15. 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34 and Strauss and Corbin (1990. The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990. The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985 and Morse (1994 related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based on these findings the researcher concluded that nurses are not thinking critically when making ethical decisions concerning the termination of pregnancies. Recommendations are made as a possible solution for this problem.

A. Botes

2000-09-01

188

Dealing with Ethical Issues among Internet Users: Do We Need Legal Enforcement?  

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Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICTs, in particular of the Internet and of the World Wide Web, have paved the way for numerous ICT related development and initiative. In as much as there are beneficial usage of the Internet, there is also unethical usage and abuse. The Internet is like a double edge sword and care must be taken when indulging in this vast ocean of knowledge and information. Studies on ethical issue have centred much on internet security like hacking of personal information and data theft, including in business. This paper will look at the recent trends related to the ethical usage of the Internet, especially involving social media usage and hacking of government websites and legal enforcement that can be used to address ethical issues among Internet users. Data is derived from secondary sources. From the secondary data or literature, hacking has been a subject of concern following the hackings of website of government departments by the group anonymous. There are some cases of internet abuse, especially social media involving scams and personal relationship. There is also the use of social media to incite hatred, especially against authorities leading to widespread unrest. Hence, this implies, putting in place some guiding principles and more stringent legal enforcement to curb the unethical use and abuse of the Internet.

Ali Salman

2013-05-01

189

Neuroimaging techniques for memory detection: scientific, ethical, and legal issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is considerable interest in the use of neuroimaging techniques for forensic purposes. Memory detection techniques, including the well-publicized Brain Fingerprinting technique (Brain Fingerprinting Laboratories, Inc., Seattle WA), exploit the fact that the brain responds differently to sensory stimuli to which it has been exposed before. When a stimulus is specifically associated with a crime, the resulting brain activity should differentiate between someone who was present at the crime and someone who was not. This article reviews the scientific literature on three such techniques: priming, old/new, and P300 effects. The forensic potential of these techniques is evaluated based on four criteria: specificity, automaticity, encoding flexibility, and longevity. This article concludes that none of the techniques are devoid of forensic potential, although much research is yet to be done. Ethical issues, including rights to privacy and against self-incrimination, are discussed. A discussion of legal issues concludes that current memory detection techniques do not yet meet United States standards of legal admissibility. PMID:18236327

Meegan, Daniel V

2008-01-01

190

Public acceptance of nuclear power. Some ethical issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through a careful process of investigation and inquiry, the World Council of Churches (WCC) has become aware of a decline of public confidence in existing social institutions responsible for maintaining and securing the nuclear fuel cycle. In addressing this concern, the World Council of Churches seeks a direct assurance from the IAEA and other responsible government bodies that new initiatives will be taken to resolve this anxiety and to place the acknowledged risks of an expanding nuclear power industry in a more realistic long-term perspective. The provision of energy resources for all peoples is an essential part of the struggle for a more just, participatory and sustainable society. In the light of current uncertainties over the maintenance of energy supplies, particularly to large urban communities, the WCC appreciates the necessity of retaining nuclear power as a viable option for the future in many countries. However, the credibility of the option can be achieved only through the resolution of the major questions that are inherent in the use of nuclear technology. The paper discusses the following questions, which must be tackled without further delay and certainly before a large and irreversible world-wide commitment is made: (1) The need for an open public debate. Without full public consultation on the social and ethical implications of long-term energy choices, decisions will be taken largely in terms of commercial and consequently short-term economic inte and consequently short-term economic interest. (2) Facing the long-term risks of adopting nuclear technology. (3) Access versus security. Concern for the security of sensitive nuclear technologies has produced the secretive nuclear club. A just global society implies not merely equal opportunity to aspire and to achieve, but affirmative action to redress imbalances. (4) Military implications. (5) Social implications of nuclear energy. (6) Ethical and religious issues. (author)

191

Issues of Business Ethics in Domestic and International Businesses: A Critical Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethics is a significant issue in business both on the firm level and wider phases. Ethics indicate what is right and what is wrong in business branches also lead employees and stakeholders with moral values. Ethics is the basics for an impartial internal environment in an organization. An ethical climate constituted on fair foundations and lead by executives upholding ethical standards in the first instance tend to be more achieved when compared to other firms, since fair organizational internal environment motivates employees by satisfying their necessities, enhancing the organizational performance initially, then to bringing about industry and country wide developments. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review ethical management and corporate performance with a theoretical point of view, also with comprising the international business dimension of ethics and its significance for businesses resting on profound publications.

Aytac Gokmen

2012-09-01

192

RESEARCH SUBJECTS WITH LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY: ETHICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we examine Institutional Review Board (IRB) policies, international guidelines, and federal regulations and guidance for dealing with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) research subjects. We show that federal and international guidance concerning this topic is insufficient, and there is considerable variation in IRB policies. While some IRBs have thorough and useful policies, others do not. Many IRBs do not provide researchers and IRB members with answers to several important questions relating to language barriers in research. We recommend that federal agencies, international organizations, IRBs, and researchers take steps to fill in the gaps in guidance and policy to help insure that LEP populations will receive equitable and ethical treatment in research. PMID:16830406

Resnik, David B.; Jones, Caitlin W.

2014-01-01

193

Ethical considerations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed

194

UNESCO Global Ethics Observatory: database on ethics related legislation and guidelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Database on Ethics Related Legislation and Guidelines was launched in March 2007 as the fourth database of the UNESCO Global Ethics Observatory system of databases in ethics of science and technology. The database offers a collection of legal instruments searchable by region, country, bioethical themes, legal categories and applicability to specific articles of the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights and International Declaration on Human Genetic Data. This paper discusses the background and rationale for the database and its role as a consultative and comparative resource hub for the study of ethics related legal instruments across the world, with the purpose of informing and inspiring relevant stakeholders on the implementation of the principles contained within the UNESCO declarations on bioethics. PMID:18827106

Ang, T W; ten Have, H; Solbakk, J H; Nys, H

2008-10-01

195

Ethical challenges embedded in qualitative research interviews with close relatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforeseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for human rights and respect for autonomy through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative research interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must be enhanced, and there is a need for an increased focus on the researchers' ethical preparation and to continually address and discuss cases from their own interviews. PMID:23774032

Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth Oc

2014-02-01

196

47 CFR 19.735-105 - Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations and statutes.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations...Provisions § 19.735-105 Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations...and to advise the Designated Agency Ethics Official that all such persons...

2010-10-01

197

Ethics and privacy issues of a practice-based surveillance system  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective To describe the challenges the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN) experienced with institutional research ethics boards (IREBs) when seeking approvals across jurisdictions and to provide recommendations for overcoming challenges of ethical review for multisite and multijurisdictional surveillance and research. Background The CPCSSN project collects and validates longitudinal primary care health information (relating to hypertension, diabetes, depression, chronic obstructive lung disease, and osteoarthritis) from electronic medical records across Canada. Privacy and data storage security policies and processes have been developed to protect participants’ privacy and confidentiality, and IREB approval is obtained in each participating jurisdiction. Inconsistent interpretation and application of privacy and ethical issues by IREBs delays and impedes research programs that could better inform us about chronic disease. Results The CPCSSN project’s experience with gaining approval from IREBs highlights the difficulty of conducting pan-Canadian health surveillance and multicentre research. Inconsistent IREB approvals to waive explicit individual informed consent produced particular challenges for researchers. Conclusion The CPCSSN experience highlights the need to develop a better process for researchers to obtain timely and consistent IREB approvals for multicentre surveillance and research. We suggest developing a specialized, national, centralized IREB responsible for approving multisite studies related to population health research. PMID:21998237

Kotecha, Jyoti A.; Manca, Donna; Lambert-Lanning, Anita; Keshavjee, Karim; Drummond, Neil; Godwin, Marshall; Greiver, Michelle; Putnam, Wayne; Lussier, Marie-Therese; Birtwhistle, Richard

2011-01-01

198

Internet research and ethics: transformative issues in nursing education research.  

Science.gov (United States)

As practice in the educational and clinical settings seeks to be evidence based, faculty are increasingly required to conduct research and publish the results to advance the science of our profession. The purpose of this article is to discuss transformative research ethics because Internet use is an increasing component of current research studies. How nurse educators can engage in research-utilizing methodologies inclusive of technology while adhering to ethical standards developed before the advance of the Internet is reviewed. Recommendations are cited to address the new questions that arise at institutional review board meetings resulting from potential ethical implications of using students or research participants in cyber space. PMID:24720940

Mahon, Pamela Young

2014-01-01

199

Perceived importance of sustainability and ethics related to fish: a consumer behavior perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although sustainability and ethics are of increasing public importance, little research has been conducted to reveal its association with fish consumer behavior. Cross-sectional data were collected through a postal self-administered survey (June 2005) from a sample of 381 Flemish women aged 20-50 years. Consumers attach high perceived importance to sustainability and ethics related to fish. However, this perceived importance is neither correlated with fish consumption frequency nor with general attitude toward eating fish. Refusing to eat wild fish is grounded in sustainability and ethical concerns, whereas the decision not to eat farmed fish is associated with a lower expected intrinsic quality rather than shaped by importance attached to sustainability and ethical issues. PMID:18074896

Verbeke, Wim; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Sioen, Isabelle; Van Camp, John; De Henauw, Stefaan

2007-11-01

200

Ethical issues in using social media for health and health care research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dramatic growth of social media in recent years has not gone unnoticed in the health sector. Media such as Facebook and Twitter are increasingly being used to disseminate information among health professionals and patients but, more recently, are being seen as a source of data for surveillance and research, for example by tracking public concerns or capturing discourses taking place outside traditional media outlets. This raises ethical issues, in particular the extent to which postings are considered public or private and the right to anonymity of those posting on social media. These issues are not clear cut as social media, by their nature, blur the boundary between public and private. There is a need for further research on the beliefs and expectations of those using social media in relation to how their material might be used in research. In contrast, there are areas where the ethical issues are more clear cut, such as when individuals are active participants in research, where traditional considerations apply. PMID:23477806

McKee, Rebecca

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
201

[The ethical and deontological issues of public health in Russia].  

Science.gov (United States)

The issues of physician-patient relationship are moving from the deontological to social area and hence need not only organizational but political actions as well related to the medical provision of population and mortality increase. The patients have to be provided with the required medical care irrespective of their economic and property status and this approach is to be guaranteed on the state level. PMID:19711526

Maksimova, T M; Lushkina, N P

2009-01-01

202

Ethical Issues and Living Unrelated Donor Kidney Transplantation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the past decades, the number of altruistic living unrelated kidney donations has substantially increased in developed countries. However, the altruistic supply of transplantable kidneys has remained much less than the demand. As a result, severe kidney shortage has been associated with increasing number of patient deaths and increasing number of commercial transplants and transplant tourism. Studies have shown that there is still a need for living kidney donation because even all potential brain-dead donors cannot supply the escalating need for kidneys. The use of living unrelated kidney donors should be morally and ethically justified and should be compatible with ethical principles. Many experts believe that increasing number of patient deaths and commercial transplants will continue to happen if kidney donation system remains merely altruistic. While some transplant professionals support a paid and regulated system to eliminate kidney shortage, others argue that it will be destructive. Iran has a 20-year experience with a compensated and regulated living unrelated kidney donation program. This transplantation model was adopted in 1988, and successfully eliminated kidney transplant waiting list by the end of 1999. Currently, more than 50% of patients with end-stage kidney disease in Iran are living with a functioning graft. This Iranian transplantation model has many ethical successes. However, because it has not been well regulated by transplant ethicists, some ethical shortcomings have remained. Unfortunately, due to lack of interest and expertise in health authorities, the number of serious ethical failures is also increasing in this transplantation model.

Ahad J Ghods

2009-10-01

203

Ethical issues and living unrelated donor kidney transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past decades, the number of altruistic living unrelated kidney donations has substantially increased in developed countries. However, the altruistic supply of transplantable kidneys has remained much less than the demand. As a result, severe kidney shortage has been associated with increasing number of patient deaths and increasing number of commercial transplants and transplant tourism. Studies have shown that there is still a need for living kidney donation because even all potential brain-dead donors cannot supply the escalating need for kidneys. The use of living unrelated kidney donors should be morally and ethically justified and should be compatible with ethical principles. Many experts believe that increasing number of patient deaths and commercial transplants will continue to happen if kidney donation system remains merely altruistic. While some transplant professionals support a paid and regulated system to eliminate kidney shortage, others argue that it will be destructive. Iran has a 20-year experience with a compensated and regulated living unrelated kidney donation program. This transplantation model was adopted in 1988, and successfully eliminated kidney transplant waiting list by the end of 1999. Currently, more than 50% of patients with end-stage kidney disease in Iran are living with a functioning graft. This Iranian transplantation model has many ethical successes. However, because it has not been well regulated by transplant ethicists, some ethical shortcomings have remained. Unfortunately, due to lack of interest and expertise in health authorities, the number of serious ethical failures is also increasing in this transplantation model. PMID:19841520

Ghods, Ahad J

2009-10-01

204

Ethical issues in the neonatal intensive care unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The case of Baby Y presented a difficult and complex ethical dilemma for the family and the staff involved. The issues of religious beliefs and law, up-holding these beliefs in the center of a religious community, financial concerns, and health care workers disagreeing about carrying out treatments made this case one that few will forget. When asked after Baby Y died how they felt, many members of the staff answered that it should not have gone on as long as it did and that they learned a lot from the family and the experience. Palliative care has been well associated with the adult cancer population in the form of hospice care. It is the hope that this well-integrated aspect of care crosses over to the NICU population. Many of the patients in the types of cases mentioned previously stay in the NICU for extended periods of time until a decision is made clear or the infant expires on his own time. The hustle and bustle of a busy, open, and not-so-private NICU is not the place for this to take place. The NICU should have a designated place where these infants can be cared for better in a more family-centered and staff-friendly environment. Pain management is another important aspect of palliative care. Comfort of the infant is of utmost importance, as it helps the family believe the suffering is under control. During the last few days or weeks of life, the family should have time that is peaceful and restful, and, eventually, the infant should have a pain-free death.Lastly, a part of the palliative care philosophy and approach includes providing treatments that may ap-pear to prolong the inevitable but in fact help the process along to resolution. In the case of Baby Y, surgery to repair some of the defects may have allowed her to go home with her family and spend her short life with them. This was the wish of the mother,especially, and it never happened. It may well be the"what if" she continues to ask for the rest of her life. PMID:15145372

Conway, Alison; Moloney-Harmon, Patricia A

2004-06-01

205

Ethical issues experienced by intensive care unit nurses in everyday practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research aims to identify the ethical issues perceived by intensive care nurses in their everyday practice. It also aims to understand why these situations were considered an ethical issue and what interventions/strategies have been or are expected to be developed so as to minimize them. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview with 15 nurses working at polyvalent intensive care units in 4 Portuguese hospitals, who were selected by the homogenization of multiple samples. The qualitative content analysis identified end-of-life decisions, privacy, interaction, team work, and health-care access as emerging ethical issues. Personal, team, and institutional aspects emerge as reasons behind the experience of these issues. Personal and team resources are used in and for solving these issues. Moral development and training are the most significant strategies. PMID:22918059

Fernandes, Maria I D; Moreira, Isabel M P B

2013-02-01

206

Artificial nutrition at the end of life: ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Artificial nutrition is a medical treatment that first of all needs a sound scientific base before prescribing it. This base is absent for dying patients and patients in the end stage of dementia. Because feeding is a very emotional and symbolical issue, patient and family may request this treatment despite the lack of evidence. These issues should be addressed in good communication with patient and relatives. For comatose patients and patients in a persistent vegetative state artificial nutrition is a necessary support to bridge the time until either recovery is imminent or improbable. At that moment artificial nutrition no longer contributes to the life of the patient and should be ceased. Artificial nutrition has no place in patients that voluntary decide to stop eating and drinking in order to die. PMID:24810185

van de Vathorst, Suzanne

2014-04-01

207

Ethics and the School Administrator: Balancing Today's Complex Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a research-based book to help school administrators understand and more effectively deal with the ethical compromises that arise as a result of the complex organizational and interpersonal demands of their leadership roles. The author combines personal knowledge, candid revelations, and interview data from five dedicated school…

Mahoney, Dan

2006-01-01

208

Ethical Issues in the Patient-Therapist Relationship.  

Science.gov (United States)

The patient-therapist model, the oldest form of mental health treatment, is at the core of reconstructive psychotherapy. Because this therapeutic partnership is subtle and vague, ethical concern is at the heart of the reconstructive therapeutic process. The aims of reconstructive therapy can be defined in terms of an existential, a psychoanalytic…

Caliso, John A.; Lee, Sandra

209

Ethical Issues in Graduate Education: Faculty and Student Responsibilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

A framework for examining the ethical responsibilities of both graduate school faculty and students is based on five principles: autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, justice, and fidelity. It is intended to encourage discussion of the responsibilities of graduate education and professional development. (Author/MLW)

Brown, Robert D.; Krager, LuAnn

1985-01-01

210

Ethical and Economic Issues: Intellectual Property, Who Owns It?  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of intellectual property rights (defined as the creative work of some unknown dimension) is put into the perspectives in this speech of the individual involved, the educational institution, and the general public. Such concerns are ethical implications, incentives, costs, quality, change and innovation, impact on lifelong learning…

Voegel, George

211

Addressing public concerns about ethical and environmental issues in the discussion on nuclear waste management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to Swiss Federal Law, the producers of radioactive waste are responsible for its safe disposal. The government, therefore, plays a relatively modest role in the public debate on nuclear waste management. Whenever asked to express an opinion, it tries to inform openly. Active public relations campaigns are led by the National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA). The operators of nuclear power plants are ready to compensate the siting community and its Canton for services rendered in the public interest. An important way to deal with ethical and environmental issues is the inclusion of opponents in every step of the time-consuming licensing procedure. This paper discusses the upcoming vote on a concession for a low and intermediate-level waste repository for which NAGRA is actively preparing. NAGRA's public relations work is based on recognition of the fact that the only way to diminish fear and gain credibility is to inform openly and regularly over many years, and to show that results achieved are based on serious, careful and transparent scientific work. Another aspect of radioactive waste management communication lies in the explanation of the ethics of 'inter-generational' and 'intra-generational' equity. Compensation will never make up for lack of safety. The ways in which the public voices its views are discussed, as well as the concept of seeking the co-operation of opponents in working groups. (author)

212

Ethical and legal issues in research involving human subjects: do you want a piece of me?  

Science.gov (United States)

The conduct of biomedical research involving the participation of human beings implicates a variety of ethical concerns pertaining to such values as dignity, bodily integrity, autonomy, and privacy. These ethical concerns have been translated into a complex regulatory apparatus in the USA, containing specific legal provisions concerning such matters as participant safety, informed consent, and confidentiality. A topic of particular interest for pathologists is the handling of human tissue specimens that may be used for present, or stored for future, research purposes. This article examines the ethical and legal ramifications of obtaining and storing tissue samples for research purposes, with special attention to the issues of informed consent and confidentiality. PMID:16567467

Kapp, M B

2006-01-01

213

Ethical, social and public awareness issues in gene therapy EuropaBio.  

Science.gov (United States)

EuropaBio, the European Association for Bio-industries, represents 40 corporate members operating world wide and 14 national associations (totaling up to 700 small- and medium-sized enterprises) involved in research, development, testing, manufacturing, sales, and distribution of biotechnology-derived products and services in the field of health cae, agriculture, food, and the environment. AGE is a group of researchers and university professors involved in high-level professional activities related to bioethics, and particularly interested in ethical issues related to the development and use of modern technology. It is essential that industry actively participates in, and contributes to, the social debate on emerging technologies. Therefore, EuropaBio presents herein its view on gene therapy and its responsible development and use. PMID:12739548

2002-01-01

214

Identifying the Discomfort: An Examination of Ethical Issues Encountered by MSW Students during Field Placement  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine which ethical issues graduate social work students experienced most frequently during their field placement, the resources students used to resolve these issues, and whether such resources were helpful. The results indicate that conflicts concerning beneficence versus agency policy and…

Dodd, Sarah-Jane

2007-01-01

215

From informal practices to formal conduct: Which ethical practices and issues for French lobbying consulting?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In France, lobbying consulting is at the same time a recent and not well received activity, conversely to the United States. The influence of public decision making is certainly a particularly sensitive occupation, at both managerial and societal levels. This is why ethics as applied to business can play a central role in its establishment. This paper examines the practices and issues of ethics in lobbying consulting. The chosen field in this exploratory study is France. The case of a lobbyin...

Major, R. W.; Rival, Madina

2012-01-01

216

[Data transparency - an ethical imperative? Approaching the issues].  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies show that the findings of clinical trials are often not published in full, resulting in a biased presentation of results (publication bias). First, this paper discusses the ethical arguments in favour of complete transparency of biomedical research data. There are relevant deontological (like obligations towards study participants and research sponsors) and consequentialist (harm for patients and misallocation of scarce resources) ethical reasons for the full publication of all trial results, which cannot be overridden by counter arguments like freedom of research, data protection or the individual interests of researchers and manufacturers. The article therefore discusses (1) which strategies are appropriate to guarantee data transparency and (2) who bears responsibility for the implementation of these strategies. Finally, open questions and the need for further action will be discussed. PMID:21530911

Marckmann, Georg; Strech, Daniel

2011-01-01

217

Ethical Issues in Social Work: Toward a Grounded Theory of Professional Ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined dimensions of ethical judgment used by practicing social workers (n=27). Three sets of bipolar dimensions were inferred from analysis of interview transcripts: focus of decisions, ranging from emphasis on means to emphasis on ends; interpersonal orientation, ranging from independence or self-determination to mutuality or community; and…

Holland, Thomas P.; Kilpatrick, Allie C.

1991-01-01

218

Ethical issues raised by personalized nutrition based on genetic information  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Four principles are taken as basis for the ethical analysis: autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice. Health is understood as a limited aspect of wellbeing. Food is understood as an important aspect of wellbeing, not only an instrument for health. Modern society is characterized by a tendency to identify wellbeing with external rather than subjective circumstances, to identify wellbeing with health, and to create exaggerated health expectations. Based upon this understanding, aspec...

Go?rman, Ulf

2006-01-01

219

Ethical issues in radiation protection. Sievert lecture 1992  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Present radiation protection doctrine (ICRP 1990) is based on a body of scientific knowledge, one underlying assumption and three general principles. My objective is to discuss first the adequacy of the existing scientific information for the purpose of setting safety standards; then to consider the foundation of the underlying assumption; and finally, to discuss a few aspects of the general principles in the light of ethical considerations

220

Ethical Issues Involved in Integrated Marketing Communication in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

“When we consider corporate morality we must conclude that no price is too high, for in the long run we have no alternative to ethical business behaviour” Fred. T. Aller. “If I were to name the deadliest subversive force within capitalism, the single greatest source of its waning morality …. I would without hesitation name “Advertising and Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC)”. How else should one identify a force that debases language, drains thought and undoes dignity. (Heil...

Ayozie Daniel Ogechukwu; Ayozie Kingsley Ndubueze; Ayozie Victoria Uche

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Practical guidelines addressing ethical issues pertaining to the curation of human locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs)  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 1,000 Web-based locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs) are listed on the Website of the Human Genetic Variation Society (HGVS). These individual efforts, which often relate phenotype to genotype, are a valuable source of information for clinicians, patients, and their families, as well as for basic research. The initiators of the Human Variome Project recently recognized that having access to some of the immense resources of unpublished information already present in diagnostic laboratories would provide critical data to help manage genetic disorders. However, there are significant ethical issues involved in sharing these data worldwide. An international working group presents second-generation guidelines addressing ethical issues relating to the curation of human LSDBs that provide information via a Web-based interface. It is intended that these should help current and future curators and may also inform the future decisions of ethics committees and legislators. These guidelines have been reviewed by the Ethics Committee of the Human Genome Organization (HUGO). Hum Mutat 31:–6, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20683926

Povey, Sue; Al Aqeel, Aida I; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Dalgleish, Raymond; den Dunnen, Johan T; Firth, Helen V; Greenblatt, Marc S; Barash, Carol Isaacson; Parker, Michael; Patrinos, George P; Savige, Judith; Sobrido, Maria-Jesus; Winship, Ingrid; Cotton, Richard GH

2010-01-01

222

Ethical issues arising from a research, technology and development project to support frail older people and their family carers at home.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper provides an overview of the application of the key ethical issues which arose in an EU-funded research, technology and development project, Assisting Carers using Telematics Interventions to meet Older Persons' Needs (ACTION). The primary aim of the ACTION project was to support frail older people and their family carers in their own homes across England, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, Sweden and Portugal via the use of user-friendly information and communication technology. Ethical guidelines were developed in the project and used as a tool to enable the multidisciplinary project team to increase their awareness of ethical issues in their everyday work, and to act as a useful ethical framework for regular team discussions at international and local meetings across the partner countries. A range of ethical issues arose during the field-study phases of the project when the ACTION services were introduced into a number of families' own homes. It can be argued that these ethical issues reflect factors relating both to the application of research into practice, as well as those relating more directly to the use of new technology by families and care professionals. Key issues centre upon the ethical concepts of autonomy, independence, quality of life, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice, and more specifically, on ethical issues of security, privacy and confidentiality, increased expectations, and withdrawal of the service. This paper is intended to facilitate dialogue and debate in the area of enabling (assistive) technology in home care for older people and their families. PMID:14498840

Magnusson, Lennart; Hanson, Elizabeth Jane

2003-09-01

223

The Ethical Employee.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.…

2002

224

Holistic science: An understanding of science education encompassing ethical and social issues  

Science.gov (United States)

Science has often been viewed, by the majority of our educators and the general public, as being objective and emotionless. Based on this view, our educators teach science in the same manner, objectively and in an abstract form. This manner of teaching has hindered our learners' ability for active learning and distanced them from the subject matter. In this action research, I have examined holistic science pedagogy in conjunction with a constructivism theory. In holistic science pedagogy, scientific knowledge is combined with subjective personal experiences and social issues. There is an interaction between student and scientific data when the student's context, relationships, and lived experiences that play a role in the scientific recognition of the world were incorporated into the learning process. In this pedagogical model, the factual content was viewed from the context of social and ethical implications. By empowering learners with this ability, science knowledge will no longer be exclusive to a select group. This process empowers the general population with the ability to understand scientific knowledge and therefore the ability to make informed decisions based on this knowledge. The goal was to make curriculum developers more conscious of factors that can positively influence the learning process and increase student engagement and understanding within the science classroom. The holistic approach to science pedagogy has enlightened and empowered our adult learners more effectively. Learners became more actively engaged in their own process of learning. Teachers must be willing to listen and implement student suggestions on improving the teaching/learning process. Teachers should be willing to make the effort in connecting with their students by structuring courses so the topics would be relevant to the students in relation to real world and social/ethical and political issues. Holistic science pedagogy strives for social change through the empowerment of adult learners with scientific knowledge. This research has demonstrated that learners can better understand the decision-making process and more easily relate their experiences, and therefore their knowledge, to social/political and ethical issues.

Malekpour, Susan

225

ETHICAL QUESTIONING RELATED TO GENE THERAPHY FOR INHERITED DISEASES TREATMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The introduction of exogenous genetic sequences named transgenes is known as gene therapy and has the purpose of correcting genotypic and phenotypic alterations in the human organism. This therapy can be carried out in somatic cells or in germinal cells. The ethical questioning related to somatic gene therapy has to do basically with the potential risks for health and the informed consent while germ-line gene therapy has the potential to affect permanently future generations. Since genic therapy involves much more than the simple alteration of genetic sequences, this revision presents the main ethical problems associated with gene therapy for inherited disease

JOSÉ HENRY OSORIO

2011-01-01

226

Reflexive journaling on emotional research topics: ethical issues for team researchers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional epistemological concerns in qualitative research focus on the effects of researchers' values and emotions on choices of research topics, power relations with research participants, and the influence of researcher standpoints on data collection and analysis. However, the research process also affects the researchers' values, emotions, and standpoints. Drawing on reflexive journal entries of assistant researchers involved in emotionally demanding team research, this article explores issues of emotional fallout for research team members, the implications of hierarchical power imbalances on research teams, and the importance of providing ethical opportunities for reflexive writing about the challenges of doing emotional research. Such reflexive approaches ensure the emotional safety of research team members and foster opportunities for emancipatory consciousness among research team members. PMID:18000072

Malacrida, Claudia

2007-12-01

227

Ethical issues in neonatal and pediatric clinical trials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Children have been identified as uniquely vulnerable clinical research subjects since the early 1970s. This article reviews the historical underpinnings of this designation, the current regulatory framework for pediatric and neonatal research, and common problems in pediatric research oversight. It also presents 3 areas of pediatric and neonatal research (genomic screening, healthy children donating stem cells, and therapeutic hypothermia for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy) that highlight contemporary challenges in pediatric research ethics, including balancing risk and benefit, informed consent and assent, and clinical equipoise. PMID:23036252

Laventhal, Naomi; Tarini, Beth A; Lantos, John

2012-10-01

228

Issues of the practical value of ethics in healthcare  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

2006 m. lapkrit? žurnale „Journal of Medical Ethics“ autoritetingi gydytojai paskelb? medicinos etik?, kaip mokym? ir kaip teorij?, neturin?i? praktin?s vert?s. Šis kategoriškas teiginys grindžiamas gydytoj? klinikinio darbo patirtimi ir ginamas poži?ris, kad etikos teorija turi mažai k? bendra su jos pritaikymu kasdien?je praktikoje, kad etikos teorija nurodo bendr?sias elgesio gaires, ta?iau yra nereikšminga kalbant apie sprendim? pri?mim? individualiais atvejai...

Liubarskiene?, Zita

2007-01-01

229

STUDENTS’ OPPINION ABOUT PROFESSIONAL ETHICS RELATION OF THE TEACHERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Professional teacher’s ethics is a collection of moral codes of their professional work. It is significant that the teaching profession respects certain designated professional-ethical codes of conduct between the teachers and the students, with their colleagues and other people they professionally cooperate with.     This study is focused on analysis of the professional ethical relation of teachers towards students, seen from student’s point of view. These are the results of student’s reported opinion of the eighth graders from six primary schools in the region of the city of Skopje. The obtained results show that teachers mainly keep in line with the moral codes of conduct with the students, but not always all teachers respect them.

Vera Stojanovska

2013-12-01

230

Ethical issues in the documentary data analysis of Internet posts and archives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The documentary analysis of e-mail posts and archives for qualitative research has been outlined elsewhere. Although there is an increase in the number of studies being conducted on listserv and newsgroup material in health research, this has not always been accompanied by a careful, in-depth consideration of the concomitant ethical issues. Therefore, this article outlines the ethical considerations surrounding this form of research, including issues of accessing voices, consent, privacy, anonymity, interpretation, and ownership and authorship of research material. PMID:11339083

Sixsmith, J; Murray, C D

2001-05-01

231

Ethical issues in family care of older persons with dementia: implications for family therapists.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite a considerable literature on family care of the elderly, comparatively little attention has been devoted to the ethical dimensions of caring for frail and dependent older family members. Nor is there an extensive literature available to guide family therapists or others in the helping professions who work with families experiencing ethical dilemmas and issues associated with caring for elderly loved ones. The purpose of this paper is to highlight some of the ethical dilemmas families face in caring for an elderly loved one, and to identify several ethical principles that can be used to address these dilemmas. There is an explicit focus on families caring for aged parents afflicted with a dementia such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:12018683

Barber, C E; Lyness, K P

2001-01-01

232

Ethics, Law and Professional Issues Gallagher Ann and Hodge Sue Ethics, Law and Professional Issues 192pp £20.99 Palgrave Macmillan 9780230279940 0230279945 [Formula: see text].  

Science.gov (United States)

THE EDITORS provide a sound introduction to ethics, law and professional issues in health care. Scenarios before each chapter help the reader to digest and comprehend the information. My only criticism is that it is not directly relevant to nursing alone. Although there is some benefit in being aware of how other practitioners may be affected by these issues, another book aimed at nurses would be more appropriate. Later chapters about responding to unprofessional practice and promoting professional healthcare practice may be of more interest to nursing students and recently qualified healthcare professionals. PMID:25358983

2014-10-01

233

Surgical experimentation and clinical trials: differences and related ethical problems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english Surgical techniques are not introduced into clinical practice as the result of randomised clinical trials (RCT), but usually through the gradual evolution of existing techniques or, more rarely, through audacious departures from the norm that are decided by a surgical team on the basis of experience [...] . Sham surgery is held by some to be not only an ethically acceptable procedure but also a perfectly fit and proper one, as it could endow surgical experiments with the strict methodological and statistical precision typically associated with RCTs. This article first briefly examines some of the methodological aspects of both RCTs and surgical experiments and then offers a few considerations regarding the ethical issues raised by sham surgery.

Carlo, Petrini.

234

Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: ethical and legal issues in feeding and hydration.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that individuals have the right to request or refuse nutrition and hydration as medical treatment. Registered dietitians (RDs) should work collaboratively as part of the interprofessional team to make recommendations on providing, withdrawing, or withholding nutrition and hydration in individual cases and serve as active members of institutional ethics committees. RDs have an active role in determining the nutrition and hydration requirements for individuals throughout the life span. When individuals choose to forgo any type of nutrition and hydration (natural or artificial), or when individuals lack decision-making capacity and others must decide whether or not to provide artificial nutrition and hydration, RDs have a professional role in the ethical deliberation around those decisions. Across the life span, there are multiple instances when nutrition and hydration issues create ethical dilemmas. There is strong clinical, ethical, and legal support both for and against the administration of food and water when issues arise regarding what is or is not wanted by the individual and what is or is not warranted by empirical clinical evidence. When a conflict arises, the decision requires ethical deliberation. RDs' understanding of nutrition and hydration within the context of nutritional requirements and cultural, social, psychological, and spiritual needs provide an essential basis for ethical deliberation. RDs, as health care team members, have the responsibility to promote use of advanced directives. RDs promote the rights of the individual and help the health care team implement appropriate therapy. This paper supports the "Practice Paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Ethical and Legal Issues of Feeding and Hydration" published on the Academy website at: www.eatright.org/positions. PMID:23684296

O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie; Baird Schwartz, Denise; Posthauer, Mary Ellen

2013-06-01

235

Societies | Special Issue : Food Relationships: Ethics, Subjectivity and Culture  

...ca Interests: twentieth-century French philosophy; philosophy of sexuality; feminist philosophy; philosophy of food; animal ethics Guest Editor Ms. Kelly Struthers-Montford Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2H1, Canada E-Mail: kstruthe@ualberta.ca Interests: food; aging; nursing; women in prisons Guest Editor Dr. Bryan Hogeveen Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, Edmonton,... How should we theorize the practices of cooking and eating with others, and eating the cuisines of others (e.g., postcolonial concerns)? How do people engaging in counter-cultural alimentary practices (e.g., veganism) negotiate relationships with others who do not engage in these dietary regimes? We welcome submissions that engage with these or any other topics involving the themes of food ...

236

Ethical Issues Regarding Informed Consent for Minors for Space Tourism  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the difficulty with informed consent and debates whether or not whether adults should be able to ethically, morally, and legally consent for their children during the high-risk activity of space tourism. The experimental nature of space vehicles combined with the high likelihood of medical complications and the destination places space tourism legally in the category of "adventure activities," which include adventure travel to exotic locations as well as adventure sports, such as mountain climbing, rafting, etc. which carry a high risk of danger (http://rescommunis.wordpress.com/2008/02/14/interview-tracey-l-knutson-adventure-sports-defense-attorney-on-space-tourism-risk-and-informed-consente/). However, unlike other adventure sports, adults currently cannot consent for their minor children. Other topics also receive attention, such as a "mature minors" clause, radiation exposure of potential future children, and other difficulties preventing adults from legally consenting to space travel.

Marsh, Melvin S.

2010-01-01

237

Clinical supervision of psychotherapy: essential ethics issues for supervisors and supervisees.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical supervision is an essential aspect of every mental health professional's training. The importance of ensuring that supervision is provided competently, ethically, and legally is explained. The elements of the ethical practice of supervision are described and explained. Specific issues addressed include informed consent and the supervision contract, supervisor and supervisee competence, attention to issues of diversity and multicultural competence, boundaries and multiple relationships in the supervision relationship, documentation and record keeping by both supervisor and supervisee, evaluation and feedback, self-care and the ongoing promotion of wellness, emergency coverage, and the ending of the supervision relationship. Additionally, the role of clinical supervisor as mentor, professional role model, and gatekeeper for the profession are discussed. Specific recommendations are provided for ethically and effectively conducting the supervision relationship and for addressing commonly arising dilemmas that supervisors and supervisees may confront. PMID:25220636

Barnett, Jeffrey E; Molzon, Corey H

2014-11-01

238

Ethical and legal issues arising in research on inducing human germ cells from pluripotent stem cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Derivation of eggs or sperm from pluripotent stem cells or direct reprogramming from somatic cells would have huge effects on assisted reproductive technology. Here we discuss important ethical, legal, and social issues that would be raised by the development of such female or male gametes for clinical use. PMID:23910081

Ishii, Tetsuya; Pera, Renee A Reijo; Greely, Henry T

2013-08-01

239

Size matters: the ethical, legal, and social issues surrounding large-scale genetic biobank initiatives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the past ten years the complex ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) typically surrounding large-scale genetic biobank research initiatives have been intensely debated in academic circles. In many ways genetic epidemiology has undergone a set of changes resembling what in physics has been called a transition into Big Science. This article outlines con...

Klaus Lindgaard Hoeyer

2012-01-01

240

Ethical issues in rehabilitation: a qualitative analysis of dilemmas identified by occupational therapists.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little available research exists to address the range of ethical issues encountered by occupational therapists (OTs) in their daily clinical work. The few articles in the literature have tended to be case-based or anecdotal or have focused on professional issues rather than clinical issues. To characterize the array of clinical ethical issues in occupational therapy, we asked OTs in a free-standing academic rehabilitation hospital to describe in some detail up to three scenarios or situations from their clinical practice that raised morally troubling questions. A coding system was developed to preserve the richness of the detail but to allow for some categorization of the topics. A second section of the survey asked the therapists to rate whether various traditional ethics topics were of high, medium, or low interest to them. A third section asked that they identify the formats that would be most appealing to them for future educational interventions. Of the 56 therapists surveyed, 38 (or 68%) responded. The three self-generated topics mentioned most frequently by the therapists were (in decreasing order of frequency): reimbursement pressures, conflicts around goal setting, and patient/family refusal of team recommendations. The respondents were particularly interested in knowing more about patient-centered ethics topics, such as conflict resolution between teams and patients and the patient's role in decision making. Furthermore, they indicated a strong preference for interdisciplinary and interactive educational formats. PMID:14523711

Foye, Sarah Jajesnica; Kirschner, Kristi L; Brady Wagner, Lynne C; Stocking, Carol; Siegler, Mark

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Ethical Issues in Agency Evaluation from the Viewpoint of Activity Theory: A Basis for Interorganizational Learning?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on ethical issues faced in evaluation practice from the viewpoint of third generation of activity theory, which gives a constructive perspective on how contradictions can be a driving force behind interorganizational learning and development in multiactor networks. The problem field is firstly addressed through an illustration…

Huotari, Risto

2009-01-01

242

Development of the Ethical and Legal Issues in Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors present the development of the Ethical and Legal Issues in Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale (ELICSES). The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) present a rationale for the ELICSES, (b) review statistical analysis procedures used to develop the ELICSES, and (c) offer implications for future research and counselor education.

Mullen, Patrick R.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Conley, Abigail H.

2014-01-01

243

Advances in Graduate Marketing Curriculum: Paying Attention to Ethical, Social, and Sustainability Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

This research explores the impact of coercive, mimetic, and normative isomorphic pressures on the coverage and offering of courses addressing ethical, social, and sustainability issues (ESSI) in business schools' graduate marketing curricula. Data from the Aspen Institute's Beyond Grey Pinstripes program are analyzed to detect if…

Weber, James

2013-01-01

244

Impact of Parental Severe Mental Illness: Ethical and Clinical Issues for Counselors  

Science.gov (United States)

This article draws attention to the issue of parental severe mental illness and the ethical and clinical implications for counselors who work with this population. Parents with mental illness face a multitude of life challenges including, but not limited to, parenting difficulties, medication and hospitalization, custody and placement of their…

Spiegelhoff, Sarah F.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel

2011-01-01

245

Geologic disposal of radioactive waste: Ethical and technical issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethical goals that future people should be protected and should not have to protect themselves from our radioactive waste are claimed by geologic repository projects. The best test of sufficient protection is to show that the calculated individual doses to future farming families are well below a regulatory limit. That limit should be no greater than what is now adopted to protect the public from operating licensed facilities. Present US calculations show doses, at times well beyond 10,000 years, that exceed current accepted limits by at least three orders of magnitude. Notwithstanding, there is a good chance that the goals can still be achieved by careful technical design of the geologic confinement system. But many in the US now propose ways that would allow greater individual exposures from radionuclides that eventually leak from a geologic repository. Examples include: (a) the 10,000-year cutoff proposed by industry, the US Congress, EPA, and DOE, thus obscuring the later times when higher doses are certain to result; (b) the vicinity-average dose proposed by industry and the US Congress; (c) the probabilistic critical groups proposed by EPRI and by the National Research Council's TYMS committee; (d) proposals to rely on future humans to detect and cleanup excessive amounts of radioactivity that may escape from a repository, and (e) the move to base compliance on calculated doses from well water drawn at considerable distance from Yucca Mountain. Each of these proposals would lead to a far more lenient radiation protection standard than current standards. Each of these proposals is without sufficient scientific basis for its use as a protector of public health. Each of these proposals would violate one or more of the ethical goals. Each is made without adequate discussion and explanation and without explaining how and why it would violate one or more of the ethical goals. What if serious work on alternatives fails to produce conservatively calculated and defensible doses that show that future people will be protected as well as present-day people are protected from licensed nuclear facilities? If so, the need for a geologic repository could be balanced against the desire for assuring such conservative and careful protection of public health. Relaxation of the safety standard itself, as attempted so prematurely by the House and Senate bills of the present and last Congress, should be made only after special review of that need by the scientific community and the public and approval by Congress. The desire for safeguards protection of buried spent nuclear fuel will be an additional burden on repository design and prediction of performance. Thus, the Yucca Mountain Project faces a demanding technical challenge. Similar challenges face policy makers. They must reject pressures for short-term expediency and economy lest, by enacting policies that compromise scientific validity and credibility, they further undermine public confidence and irreparably harm the programs for disposing of high-level radioactive waste

246

Geologic disposal of radioactive waste: Ethical and technical issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethical goals that future people should be protected and should not have to protect themselves from our radioactive waste are claimed by geologic repository projects. The best test of sufficient protection is to show that the calculated individual doses to future farming families are well below a regulatory limit. That limit should be no greater than what is now adopted to protect the public from operatinglicensed facilities. Present US calculations show doses, at times well beyond 10,000 years, that exceed current accepted limits by at least three orders of magnitude. Notwithstanding, there is a good chance that the goals can still be achieved by careful technical design of the geologic confinement system. But many in the US now propose ways that would allow greater individual exposures from radionuclides that eventually leak from a geologic repository. Examples include: (a) the 10,000-year cutoff proposed by industry, the US Congress, EPA, and DOE, thus obscuring the later times when higher doses are certain to result; (b) the vicinity-average dose proposed by industry and the US Congress; (c) the probabilistic critical groups proposed by EPRI and by the National Research Council's TYMS committee; (d) proposals to rely on future humans to detect and cleanup excessive amounts of radioactivity that may escape from a repository, and (e) the move to base compliance on calculated doses from well water drawn at considerable distance from Yucca Mountain. Each of these proposals would lead to a far more lenient radiation protection standard than current standards. Each of these proposals is without sufficient scientific basis for its use as a protector of public health. Each of these proposals would violate one or more of the ethical goals. Each is made without adequate discussion and explanation and without explaining how and why it would violate one or more of the ethical goals. What if serious work on alternatives fails to produce conservatively calculated and defensible doses that show that future people will be protected as well as present-day people are protected from licensed nuclear facilities? If so, the need for a geologic repository could be balanced against the desire for assuring such conservative and careful protection of public health. Relaxation of the safety standard itself, as attempted so prematurely by the House and Senate bills of the present and last Congress, should be made only after specialreview of that need by the scientific community and the public and approval by Congress. The desire for safeguards protection of buried spent nuclear fuel will be an additional burden on repository design and prediction of performance. Thus, the Yucca Mountain Project faces a demanding technical challenge. Similar challenges face policy makers. They must reject pressures for short-term expediency and economy lest, by enacting policies that compromise scientific validity and credibility, they further undermine public confidence and irreparably harm the programs for disposing of high-level radioactive waste.

Pigford, T.H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1999-12-01

247

Ethical Considerations for Psychologists Taking a Public Stance on Controversial Issues: The Balance Between Personal and Professional Life  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous literature has documented the general issues psychologists often face while balancing their personal and professional lives. The struggle stems from attempting to satisfy the need to maintain a life outside of work while having the professional obligation to follow the American Psychological Association’s (APA’s) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (Ethics Code) to prevent their personal lives from interfering with their professional roles and relationships. The present paper analyzes the subject of psychologists taking a public position on controversial public issues. Although the APA Ethics Code does not restrict how psychologists conduct themselves during their personal time, taking a public stance on a controversial issue could potentially strain professional relationships and inadvertently reflect negatively on the profession. The present paper examines ethical issues that a) should be taken into account before psychologists take a public position on a controversial issue, and b) are in conflict with APA’s Ethics Code or current research.

Haeny, Angela M.

2014-01-01

248

Managing ethical issues in sexual violence research using a pilot study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conducting research in the area of sexual violence has complex ethical and practical challenges for the researcher. Managing ethical issues in sexual violence is important and can be achieved through the use of pilot studies. The primary purpose of the pilot study was to identify and manage potential ethical and practical problems that could jeopardise the main study or violate the ethical and human rights of participants in the main study on women’s journey of recovery from sexual assault. The secondary purpose was to collect preliminary data in order to determine the human, financial and time resources needed for a planned study. The methods and processes used in conducting the pilot study in the study on women’s journey of recovery are discussed according to each of the objectives of the pilot study, methods used to achieve the objective, observations or findings made during the pilot study, and implications for the main study.This article aims to demonstrate how a pilot study was used to manage identified potential ethical and practical research issues during the recruitment of participants and data collection for the research that was conducted by the first author to investigate women’s journey of recovery from sexual assault trauma within the first week following sexual assault.

S.E. Duma

2009-09-01

249

Emerging ethical issues in instructions to authors of high-impact biomedical journals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Public interest in issues concerning the maintenance of high ethical standards in the conduct of scientific research and its publication has been increasing. Some of the developments in these issues as reflected in the publication of the medical literature are traced here. This paper attempts to determine whether public interest is reflected in the specific requirements for authors for manuscript preparation as stated in the “Instructions to Authors” for articles being prepared for submis...

Atlas, Michel C.

2003-01-01

250

[Medical, ethical and legal issues in cryopreservation of human embryos].  

Science.gov (United States)

Embryo cryopreservation improves efficiency and security of assisted reproduction techniques. Nonetheless, it can be questionable, so it must be justified from technical, legal and ethical points of view. This article analyses these perspectives. Embryo cryopreservation maximizes the probability of pregnancy, avoids new ovary stimulations and reduces the occurrence of multiple gestations. There is consensus that the in vitro embryo deserves legal protection by its own, although not as a newborn. Very few countries prohibit embryo cryopreservation based on the legal duty to protect human life since fecundation. Those countries that allow it, privilege womenós reproductive rights. In Chile and in Latin America, no laws have been promulgated to regulate human assisted reproduction. The moral status of the embryo depends on how it is considered. Some believe it is a potential person while others think it is just a group of cells, but all recognize that it requires some kind of respect and protection. There is lack of information about the number of frozen embryos and their final destination. As a conclusion the authors propose that women or couples should have the right to decide autonomously, while institutions ought to be clear in their regulations. And the legislation must establish the legal status of the embryo before its implantation, the couplesó rights and the regulation of the embryo cryopreservation. Personal, institutional or legal decisions must assume a concept about the moral status of the human embryo and try to avoid their destruction or indefinite storage. PMID:25378010

Beca, Juan Pablo; Lecaros, Alberto; González, Patricio; Sanhueza, Pablo; Mandakovic, Borislava

2014-07-01

251

Focus on Ethics and Public Relations Practice in a University Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Public relations action relies on sound decision making about how to inspire cooperation between an organization and its publics. Such thinking must uphold principles for ethical communication. Effectively combining ethics with public relations practice for students is key. A pedagogical approach to public relations ethics, hinging on selected…

Smudde, Peter M.

2011-01-01

252

Ethics in science and environmental politics: issues for interdisciplinary teams  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The quest for sustainable use of the planet will require evidence, analysis and judgment from a wide array of disciplines. In order to produce a systematic and orderly analysis of this information, a synthesis will be essential. This synthesis will be generated most effectively if the individuals designing the research and providing the data interact in a variety of ways. Disciplines are isolated from each other and not accustomed to working together; however, this isolation is changing rapidly. Still, there are many issues not yet satisfactorily resolved. This manuscript illustrates these issues and makes suggestions for improving the situation.

John Cairns Jr.

2001-11-01

253

Parenthood and the Internet: An Ethical Discussion about Online Sexual Issues against Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most controversial discussions about parenthood and the Internet is about the sexual offenses that children can face when surfing the Web. Moreover, how parents can protect them effectively is another point of interestin the current society. However, this issue has not been analysed from the ethical point of view due to the lack of cyberethics nowadays. Hence, in this article, the most common online threats against children are discussed considering the utilitarianism, the contractarianism, and the pluralism.Additionally, some procedures applied to protect children are analysed using the mentioned ethical frameworks.

Denys A. Flores

2012-07-01

254

Ethical issues of evaluation practice within the brazilian political context  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho avalia um conflito freqüentemente encontrado por um profissional de avaliação atuando no contexto brasileiro bem como suas respectivas implicações para o processo avaliativo. O desafio está em cumprir os princípios éticos que guiam uma verdadeira avaliação e que ainda qualificam as int [...] erações de todos os atores dentro de um complexo contexto político no qual: (a) o reconhecimento e a regularização da profissão de avaliador deixam muito a desejar; (b) uma sólida associação profissional de avaliadores está ainda por ser constituída e (c) temos precária orientação prática para prestar esclarecimento aos atores no processo avaliativo. O conflito para o avaliador está na implementação dos princípios e padrões que guiam a formação de um avaliador profissional em face da limitada autonomia de decisões em relação à utilização de resultados e recomendações. Ilustramos aqui este conflito descrevendo três exemplos de casos em avaliação realizados pela Fundação Cesgranrio, enfocando programas nas áreas social, educacional e empresarial. Abstract in english This paper analyzes a conflict frequently encountered by an evaluation professional working in the Brazilian context and its implications to the evaluation process. The challenge is to follow ethical principles that guide a true evaluation, and yet untangle the interaction of all the actors within a [...] complex political context, where: (a) the recognition and regulation of the evaluation profession leaves much to be desired; (b) a strong professional association of evaluators is yet to be formed, and (c) we have little empirical guidance that can enlighten the actors in the evaluation process. The conflict for the evaluator is in implementing the principles and standards that guide the formal preparation of an evaluation professional, in the face of limited autonomy of decisions regarding the use of results and recommendations. We illustrate this conflict by describing three case examples of evaluations by the Cesgranrio Foundation that focused social, educational and corporate programs.

Carlos Alberto, Serpa; Thereza Penna, Firme; Ana Carolina, Letichevsky.

255

Ethical considerations for evaluating the issue of physical restraint in psychiatry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english This article examines some of the ethical issues associated with the use of physical restraint in psychiatry and neurology. It offers no specific answers to individual operational problems, but a methodological matrix is proposed as an aid to experts in the various settings in which decisions are ta [...] ken. The subject is addressed mainly by considering two sources: reference documents published by eminent organisations, and the theoretical framework of ethical values (or principles). A number of analytical criteria arising from these sources are then identified and proposed. The proposed criteria can be applied in cases for which the legitimate use of restraint may be an option, bearing in mind that restraint is an extremely serious affront to human dignity and is widely held to be of no therapeutic value. Its abuse is illegitimate in both ethical and legal terms.

Carlo, Petrini.

2013-09-01

256

Ethical considerations for evaluating the issue of physical restraint in psychiatry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english This article examines some of the ethical issues associated with the use of physical restraint in psychiatry and neurology. It offers no specific answers to individual operational problems, but a methodological matrix is proposed as an aid to experts in the various settings in which decisions are ta [...] ken. The subject is addressed mainly by considering two sources: reference documents published by eminent organisations, and the theoretical framework of ethical values (or principles). A number of analytical criteria arising from these sources are then identified and proposed. The proposed criteria can be applied in cases for which the legitimate use of restraint may be an option, bearing in mind that restraint is an extremely serious affront to human dignity and is widely held to be of no therapeutic value. Its abuse is illegitimate in both ethical and legal terms.

Carlo, Petrini.

257

47 CFR 19.735-105 - Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations and statutes.  

Science.gov (United States)

47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01...false Availability of ethics and other conduct related...Section 19.735-105 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS...735-105 Availability of ethics and other conduct...

2010-10-01

258

47 CFR 19.735-102 - Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related regulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01... Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related...Section 19.735-102 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct...

2010-10-01

259

Ethical problems in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards

260

Ethical problems in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

2001-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

Accounting-related transmission issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various initiatives have been undertaken by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to deregulate wholesale electric energy markets. These initiatives have focused on restructuring the transmission systems in the US and recently have culminated in a proposal requiring formation of and participation in regional transmission organizations. The overall form of regulation selected to determine rates for transmission entities as well as underlying regulatory decisions reached on key issues will have profound implications for transmission entities. For example, traditional cost-based regulation would require one set of accounting and reporting rules, while incentive-based regulation may not be subject to those same rules. An overview of some of the major accounting and financial reporting issues that will need to be considered is presented

262

The ethical, legal, and social issues impacted by modern assisted reproductive technologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. While assisted reproductive technology (ART), including in vitro fertilization has given hope to millions of couples suffering from infertility, it has also introduced countless ethical, legal, and social challenges. The objective of this paper is to identify the aspects of ART that are most relevant to present-day society and discuss the multiple ethical, legal, and social challenges inherent to this technology. Scope of Review. This paper evaluates some of the most visible and challenging topics in the field of ART and outlines the ethical, legal, and social challenges they introduce. Major Conclusions. ART has resulted in a tectonic shift in the way physicians and the general population perceive infertility and ethics. In the coming years, advancing technology is likely to exacerbate ethical, legal, and social concerns associated with ART. ART is directly challenging society to reevaluate the way in which human life, social justice and equality, and claims to genetic offspring are viewed. Furthermore, these issues will force legal systems to modify existing laws to accommodate the unique challenges created by ART. Society has a responsibility to ensure that the advances achieved through ART are implemented in a socially responsible manner. PMID:22272208

Brezina, Paul R; Zhao, Yulian

2012-01-01

263

The relation between work ethics and work morality and the factors effecting work ethics in work-life  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, the importance of work ethics and morality has been increased. The effect of them in work-life and their relations with the subjects such as performance, loyalty, competition, etc. have been studied by a number of researchers. The work ethics and morality concepts are becoming widespread in business application, work-life and global trading. Therefore, they appear as a subject for further researches.In this study, the concepts of the work ethics, morality and the development of them in work-life are examined. The differences and similarities between work ethics and morality in terms of quality, content and comprehension etc. are described and discussed. The factors effecting work ethics in work-life, are represented in the light of literature. In our work, we explain and evaluate how the factors such as globalization, culture, social responsibility etc. are effecting it.

Sibel Gök

2008-02-01

264

Conflicts of duty and the virtues of Aristotle in public relations ethics: Continuing the conversation commenced by Monica Walle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Monica Walle?'s commentary on codes of ethics from five national public relations associations ?What happened to public responsibility? The lack of society in public relations codes of ethics?, in the last issue of PRism (2003, made several useful points about potential conflicts of duty, and the manner in which the various codes are silent on the duty of the professional to the public interest. Indeed, it is this very notion of service to the community, and the upholding of the public interest against private interests--or the singular interest of publics--which is at the core of any definition of what it means to be a profession (Sallot, Cameron, & Lariscy, 1997. Issues arising from Walle?'s discussion of conflicts of duty, as well as several broader questions about the nature and functions of ethics codes, are discussed further here and illustrated by the recent and controversial ?Timberlands? case from New Zealand.

John Harrison

2004-06-01

265

Ethical decision-making in forensic psychology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive process for identifying and addressing primarily ethical issues related to the psychology profession in South Africa. In fulfilling this purpose, research was conducted of relevant ethical and to a lesser extent, legal aspects pertaining to the psychology profession. In an attempt to prevent unprofessional conduct claims against psychologists from succeeding and to alert psychologists to the concurrent ethical problems that may lead to malpractice suits, this article offers material on some important issues – in the context of forensic psychology – such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology as a profession, the Ethical Code of Professional Conduct to which a psychologist should adhere, ethical aspects and issues pertaining to forensic psychology in general, some ethical issues pertaining to child forensic psychology, summary guidelines for ethical decision-making and some steps to follow to ensure sound ethical decisionmaking.

M. Swanepoel

2010-07-01

266

Ethical issues raised by the new orientations in ergonomics and living labs.  

Science.gov (United States)

User Experience Theory (UXT) provides us with criteria for designing products and technical systems for everyday activities (playing, learning, working,…) so as to satisfy users. Living Labs (LL), are plateforms used for the design and evaluation of technical systems. As such, they constitute tools that bring to this process some constraints., However these constraints have to be articulated to the UXT. In other words, UXT should specify the place, the role and function LL should play in the design of new products, how it should contribute to satisfying UX, and how the methods and techniques should be conceived or borrowed from other disciplines. UXT also raises ethical issues: impartiality (independent, public, replicable) of research models in the context of economical constraints (dependant, private, secret prototypes) and of industrial pressure, the use of intrusive and persuasive techniques, even with the prior informed consent of participants, ergo-marketing, deontology codes, the use of specific participants, belonging of an UX innovative solution, confidentiality with ICT, and so on. Because the UX, as well as LL literature, have shown little concerns for ethical considerations, till now, we define LL-UX ethical issues as a new research topic, and we list a number of problems to be solved in order to have an ethical LL-UX methodology for open innovation. PMID:22317534

Barcenilla, Javier; Tijus, Charles

2012-01-01

267

[Ethical dilemmas in fieldwork: forgotten issues in qualitative health research in Iberoamerica].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores some ethical dilemmas faced while doing fieldwork. Ethical norms are not enough to appraise the relationship between researchers and participants; a reflexivity practice is needed to understand the dilemmas aroused during this process. Here four issues faced during fieldwork are presented. The academic social time usually defines the schedule of fieldwork; hence, the researcher may decide to follow the academic schedule or to arrange a different schedule with informants. Researchers usually decide which part of their identity will be disclosed for introducing themselves to the informants; but may also decide to hide who really he/she is. Researchers may cope with the dilemma to disclose their private life to informants during the fieldwork. Researchers also may decide to behave according to academic cultural norms of reciprocity or according to the cultural norms of participants. Finally, a reflexivity movement should be developed in Iberoamerica to define an agenda on ethical issues and to develop decolonizing strategies to debate these ethical dilemmas. PMID:22450400

Robles-Silva, Leticia

2012-03-01

268

A Review of Indian Publications on Ethical Issues Regarding Capacity, Informed Consent, and Placebo Controlled Trials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews the ethical aspects of psychiatric research in India. There were a few studies on research on informed consent and capacity in psychiatric practice. Using the key words ‘Consent Psychiatry India’ 35 references were found in PubMed, of which 5 related to mental health. Using the key words ‘Decision making and capacity India’ 10 references were found in PubMed, but none were related to mental health. Using the key words: ‘ethics, placebo controlled trials, India,’ eight reports were found listed in Pubmed. Additional searches identified comments by editors and rapid responses. Numerous concerns were raised by the authors but these lacked evidence and were reported multiple times by same groups. Studies on informed consent report the possibility of involving patients in clinical drug trials, with valid informed consent. There is a need for more systematic studies on ethics related topics in psychiatric practice and research in India.

Santosh K. Chaturvedi

2008-01-01

269

77 FR 38631 - Request for Comments on Ethical Issues Associated with the Development of Medical Countermeasures...  

Science.gov (United States)

...for children, including ethical considerations surrounding clinical research with children, ethical considerations surrounding pediatric medical...countermeasure research, and ethical considerations surrounding emergency...

2012-06-28

270

Insurability and the HIV epidemic: ethical issues in underwriting.  

Science.gov (United States)

The HIV epidemic has focused criticism on standard underwriting practices that exclude people with AIDS or at high risk for it from insurance coverage. Insurers have denied the charge that these practices are unfair, claiming instead that whatever is actuarially fair is fair or just. This defense will not work unless we assume that individuals are entitled to gain advantages and deserve losses merely as a result of their health status. That assumption is highly controversial at the level of theory and is inconsistent with many of our moral beliefs and practices, including our insurance practices. We should reject the insurers' argument. Justice in health care requires that we protect equality of opportunity, and that implies sharing the burden of protecting people against health risks. In a just healthcare system, whether mixed or purely public, the insurance scheme is in systematic terms actuarially unfair, for its overall social function must be to guarantee access to appropriate care. This does not mean that in our system insurers are ignoring their obligation to provide access to coverage. The obligation to assure access is primarily a social one, and the failures of access in our system are the result of public failures to meet those obligations. In a just but mixed system, there would be an explicit division of responsibility among public and private insurance schemes. In our mixed but unjust system, both legislators and insurers cynically pretend that the uninsured are the responsibility of the other. The attempt to treat actuarial fairness as a moral notion thus disguises what is really at issue, namely, the risk to insurers of adverse selection and the economic advantages of standard underwriting practices. Standard underwriting practices will be fair only if they are part of a just system, not if they simply are actuarially fair. The failure of the argument from actuarial fairness means that we must face an issue private insurers had hoped to avoid if we are to defend standard underwriting practices at all. In view of the clear risk that a mixed system will fail to assure access to care, the burden falls on defenders of a mixed system. They must show us that its social benefits outweigh its social costs, and that it is possible to have a mixed system that is not only just, but also is superior to a compulsory, universal insurance scheme. PMID:2292989

Daniels, N

1990-01-01

271

Practicing School Psychology while Impaired: Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on impairment in psychologists and other mental health practitioners began appearing in the literature 30-35 years ago. Since then, research and related scholarly writings have continued to be published to more fully understand this concept and its components. In school psychology, however, little has been written regarding school…

Mahoney, Emery B.; Morris, Richard J.

2012-01-01

272

Ethical and legal issues in the clinical practice of primary health care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since it was conceived, the notion of primary care has been a crucial concept in health services. Most health care is provided at this level and primary care clinicians have an essential role, both in terms of disease prevention and disease management. During the last decades, primary health care has evolved from a traditional paternalistic model, in which patients played the role of passive recipient of care, towards a situation in which patients are partners involved in the decision making-process. This new context opened a considerable number of new ethical and legal aspects, which need to be comprehensively analyzed and discussed in order to preserve the quality of primary health care all around the world. This work reviews the most important ethical and legal issues in primary health care. Legislation issues are explained in the context of the Spanish Health Services. PMID:23277000

Maestro, Francisco Javier; Martinez-Romero, Marcos; Vazquez-Naya, Jose Manuel; Pereira, Javier; Pazos, Alejandro

2013-01-01

273

Investigation of nursing students’ and professional nurses’ attitudes towards ethical issues of assisted reproduction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim: Various ethical problems have emerged regarding Assisted Reproduction (AR. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the attitudes of nursing students and professional nurses against assisted reproduction with emphasis on current ethical issues.Material and methods: The research sample consisted of 150 ATEI nursing students and 150 professional nurses. A questionnaire with open and closed type questionnaires was used. Contingency tables and ?2 test were used. Statistical significant was set at p<0.05. Results: Mean age of nurses was 34,41±7,28 years old, while mean age of students was 21,83±3,07 years old. Nursing students are more receptive regarding cryopreserved human germ cells for future use, cloning of embryos and AR above 40 years of age. Conclusions: The attitudes of professional nurses and nursing students upon bioethical issues of AR are quite different. Nursing students seem more receptive against new methods of AR.

Balari C.

2010-04-01

274

Ethics and the University. Professional Ethics Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book brings together the closely related topics of the practice of ethics in the university, "academic ethics," and the teaching of practical, or applied, ethics in the university. The volume considers practical ethics, research ethics, the teaching of ethics, and sexual ethics as related to the university. The chapters are: (1) "The Ethics

Davis, Michael

275

Environmental and ethical issues and waste management approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pronouncing the words ''radioactive waste'' can easily arouse mistrust, or even irrational fear, by wittingly or unwittingly referring to Hiroshima or Chernobyl, by exploiting the lax attitude to this type of waste in certain countries and by speculating on the complex issues involved, which are beyond the general public's grasp. It would be unacceptable to paint such a black picture of nuclear waste, just as it would be to keep glossing over the problems that it poses. Waste managers have a duty to convince scientists and politicians and public opinion in general, with arguments based on serious scientific research, that safe technical solutions do exist. But will this be enough? The general public of course knows very little about science. But people are prepared to put their trust in science provided that they are not subjected to a free for all between scientists from opposing camps attacking each other with unintelligible arguments. However, other types of reactions, more difficult to control, can be expected from some quarters of the general public. For instance, a reaction of instinctive and passionate mistrust has already emerged in different forms over the centuries, with its roots buried in ancestral culture and as such varying from region to region and country to country. Nuclear waste may also provide yet another opportunity to demonstrate opposition to something ostensibly being imposed by Central Government. The only solution here is for decisions to be only solution here is for decisions to be worked out at grass roots level through a gradual process of wide consultation, with the necessary backing of elected local authorities. For these reasons, the process of setting up an underground laboratory possibly followed by radioactive waste storage has to be a gradual one, with thorough consultation at all levels at each stage under the constant supervision of ad hoc committees of scientific experts, each new step forward only being decided by the political authorities after completing the proper inquiry procedures. (O.M.)

276

Ethical Issues in the End of Life Care for Cancer Patients in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: In the recent years, advances in medical technologies for end stage cancer patients’ care have affected the end-of-life decision-making in clinical practice and exposed oncologists to serious ethical dilemmas. But little is known about oncologists' viewpoints in our country regarding their ethical problems in this mention. We aimed to clarify the ethical dilemmas which Iranian oncologists may face in our health care setting and to determine factors influencing decision-making process.Methods: In this qualitative study, a phenomenological approach was used. We interviewed 8 cancer specialists in teaching hospitals in Iran and used content analysis to identify codes and categorize themes in the data.Results: During the process of analysis, three main themes emerged about ethical dilemmas in end of life care for advanced cancer patients: illness factors, socio-cultural context and patient-physician relationship. Cancer specialists identified ethical problems on several main issues, the most important of which were telling the truth in Iranian cultural context, uncertainty in end stage definition, multidisciplinary team working and cost consideration in Iranian health care system.Conclusion: Health care and insurance system in Iran face to end of life care challenges; therefore, health care providers and policy makers need to allocate appropriate resources and programs to improve quality of care in terminal stages. Appropriate physicians’ communication skills training, multidisciplinary team working and supplementary insurance services that provide essential health care can improve the quality of care of patients with end stages of cancer. The findings of this study can help us to provide ethical policies for decision-making in end-of-life care.

Mina Mobasher

2013-02-01

277

Ethical and legal issues raised by cord blood banking - the challenges of the new bioeconomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

• Cord blood banking raises ethical and legal issues which highlight the need for careful regulatory approaches to the emerging bioeconomy. • Consent processes for both private and public banking should be inclusive and representative of the different familial interests in the cord blood. • Property law is a potentially useful way of understanding the mechanisms for donation to both public and private banks. • Increasing tensions between public and private models of banking may require the adoption of hybrid forms of banking. PMID:23984790

Stewart, Cameron L; Aparicio, Lorena C; Kerridge, Ian H

2013-08-19

278

Personal genome testing: Test characteristics to clarify the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background As genetics technology proceeds, practices of genetic testing have become more heterogeneous: many different types of tests are finding their way to the public in different settings and for a variety of purposes. This diversification is relevant to the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues (ELSI) surrounding genetic testing, which must evolve to encompass these differences. One important development is the rise of personal genome testing on the b...

Cecile Jw, Janssens A.; Hn, Schermer Maartje; Bunnik Eline M

2011-01-01

279

Social, ethical and moral issues in the implementation of radioactive waste management objectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To date, the management of nuclear waste has included sizable releases to the environment. The economic result of these releases is opposed by the ethical issue. Questions of who will be responsible for the wastes are asked. The danger of trusting the experts is pointed out: information is withheld, data are suppressed, etc. The nuclear industry needs to restore confidence, but restoring competence must come first

280

Ethical and legal issues on HIV testing, policy and the practice of dentistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is structured around the following: autonomy and consent, confidentiality, disclosure, knowledge of patient and provider HIV status, the right to choose whom to treat, testing for HIV and the importance of HIV policies in the workplace to guard against discrimination. The emergence of the HIV/AIDS pandemic has challenged traditional ethical values of the health care profession. These include the infectious nature of HIV, the social stigma of the disease and its ethical and legal dilemmas. This paper addresses some of the pertinent questions related to HIV infection and AIDS. The three broad principles of ethics, namely, autonomy, beneficence and justice, provide the basic framework on which this paper is based. Advances in the biotechnology of rapid oral fluid testing particularly in the detection of HIV antibodies from patients in the dental setting have raised additional ethical and legal considerations in the subsequent management of HIV infected patients to include disclosure of test results to the patient and proper referral to physicians or nurse practitioners. The oral health care worker must thus have a solid foundation in the application of bioethical principles. A clinical case scenario related to HIV testing in the dental setting is presented to illustrate how a lack of understanding and the wrongful application of ethical principles may lead to patient harm and legal liability. Given the increasing infection rate of HIV worldwide, polices must be upheld and revised as needed to protect healthcare providers, patients, and society generally against discrimination. PMID:23474504

Naidoo, Sudeshni; Vernillo, Anthony

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Ethics and the promotion of consumer brands to children: Marketing public relations in the UK toy industry  

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Full Text Available Toys represent children’s chief non-food desires, but there has been little research on the impact of public relations campaigns to promote toys to children. This study addressed two key related issues. First, it assessed the impact of marketing public relations messages on children. Second, it raised questions about the ethics of using marketing public relations to promote toys to children. We used focus groups with children in different age ranges, interviews with toy industry public relations practitioners, and a survey of members of the public. The results suggest that contrary to expected age association, the influence of public relations messages does not necessarily decrease with age. We also found, through adapting and applying Austin and Pinkleton’s levels of public relations impact, that there appear to be two ethical realities, one in industry, and one in society. We suggest a revision of Austin and Pinkleton’s model to reflect an ethical paradigm whereby an assessment of social, not industry, ethical reality determines practitioners’ judgement of ethical effect.

Della Pike

2006-01-01

282

Ethical issues in the geriatric patient with advanced cancer 'living to the end'.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer incidence will increase as the population ages; there will be a 50% increase in new cancer cases over the next 20 years, and the biggest rates of increase will occur in the developing world. Owing to technical advances in the care of critical illness, as it is the case in elderly people with advanced cancer, physicians, patients and families are often confronted with ambiguous circumstances in which medical advances may inadvertently prolong suffering and the dying process rather than bring healing and recovery. In this review of the ethical issues confronting physicians who care for patients with advanced life-limiting illnesses like cancer, a philosophical debate continues in the medical community regarding the rightness or wrongness of certain actions (e.g. physician-assisted death, euthanasia), while at the same time there is a strong desire to find a common ground for moral discourse that could guide medical decision-making in this difficult period in the lives of our patients. We will discuss how a good palliative care can be an alternative to these ethical dilemmas. Although some issues (e.g. the role of physician-assisted death in addressing suffering) remain very controversial, there is much common ground based on the application of the four major principles of medical ethics, no malfeasance, beneficence, autonomy and justice. Thus, the physician's primary commitment must always be the patient's welfare and best interests, whether the physician is treating illness or helping patients to cope with illness, disability and death. A key skill here is the communication of bad news and to negotiate a treatment plan that is acceptable to the patient, the family and the healthcare team. Attention to psychosocial issues demands involvement of the patients and their families as partners. Physicians should be sensitive to the range of psychosocial distress and social disruption common to dying patients and their families. Spiritual issues often come to the fore. An interdisciplinary healthcare team can help in these areas. The goals of this review are to raise the awareness of doctors, nurses and other members of the healthcare team to the important ethical issues that must be addressed in providing medical care to elderly patients with advanced cancer; and also to encourage members of the healthcare team to take the ethical issues seriously so that we can improve the circumstances of a vulnerable group of patients-the elderly patients with cancer. PMID:24001765

Daher, M

2013-10-01

283

Ethical and legal issues in organ transplantation: Indian scenario.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1994, the Government of India enacted the Transplantation of Human Organs Act (THOA) to prevent commercial dealings in human organs. However, a greater number of scandals involving medical practitioners and others in the kidney trade has surfaced periodically in every state in India. The present regulatory system has failed mainly due to the misuse of Section 9(3) of the THOA, which approves the consent given by a live unrelated donor for the removal of organs for the reason of affection or attachment towards the recipient or for any other special reason. Currently in India, approximately 3500-4000 kidney transplants and 150-200 liver transplants are performed annually. However, the availability of organs from brain-dead persons is very low. As a result, live related or unrelated donors form the main source of organ transplantation. Therefore, physicians and policy-makers should re-examine the value of introducing regulated incentive-based organ donation to increase the supply of organs for transplantation and to end unlawful financial transaction. PMID:21905567

Mathiharan, Karunakaran

2011-07-01

284

A relational ethical approach to end-of-life delirium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Delirium is a condition of acute onset and fluctuating course in which a person's level of consciousness and cognition become disturbed. Delirium is a common and distressing phenomenon in end-of-life care, yet it is underrecognized and undertreated. In this article, we review qualitative descriptions of the delirium experience in end-of-life care, found through a systematic search of academic databases, to generate insight into the intersubjective nature of the delirium experience. Our analysis of retrieved studies advances an understanding of the relational ethical dimensions of this phenomenon, that is, how delirium is lived by patients, families, and health care providers and how it affects the relationships and values at stake. We propose three themes that explain the distressing nature of delirium in palliative care: 1) experiences of relational tension; 2) challenges in recognizing the delirious person; and 3) struggles to interpret the meaning of delirious behaviors. By approaching end-of-life delirium from a perspective of relational ethics, attention is focused on the implications for the therapeutic relationship with patients and families when delirium becomes part of the dying trajectory. PMID:24417807

Wright, David Kenneth; Brajtman, Susan; Macdonald, Mary Ellen

2014-08-01

285

Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Human Research Protection (OHRP) has mandated that all research sites outside the United States that participate in research funded by the U.S. Government must file documentation certifying that each research site observes the Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects and has an independent ethics committee. Sites participating in trials sponsored by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) must also undergo regular on-site audits.

286

British Students' Perceptions of Ethical Issues in International Marketing: An Empirical Investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey investigated 122 British business students' perceptions of ethics in international marketing practices, particularly as they are affected by demographic characteristics. In response to 12 specific scenarios, students indicated relatively liberal attitudes. Implications for global marketing specialists and for business education are…

Amin, Sammy G.

1996-01-01

287

Brain death and related issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concerns about the erroneous diagnosis of death and premature burial have been expressed from times immemorial. Patients with brain stem death have absolutely no chance of recovery. Brain death is considered at par with death in most of the countries. General public in most parts of the world shows reluctance to accept this concept due to different social, cultural and religious backgrounds and state of literacy and awareness. The criteria for the diagnosis of brain death have been established which include certain pre-conditions, exclusions and tests of the brain stem function. These criteria are universally accepted. The criteria in children are somewhat different from the adults. The subject is intimately related with organ transplantation. If the patients is registered as organ donor or the family consents, organs can be harvested from brain dead patients for transplantation. Pakistan is amongst the few countries where no legislation exists to accept brain death as being at par with death of an individual, and to facilitate and regulate, cadaveric organ donation and transplantation. (author)

288

78 FR 33843 - Request for Comments on Issues Related to Incidental Findings That Arise in the Clinical...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the distinct ethical issues raised by incidental...consideration of the ethical obligations that clinicians...conducted; Any duties or ethical obligations that clinicians...identifiable or confidential business information that they...the Study of Bioethical Issues. [FR Doc....

2013-06-05

289

Do Ethical Purchase Intentions Really Lead to Ethical Purchase Behavior? A Case of Animal-Testing Issues in Shampoo  

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Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of consumers’ ethical buying intentions on their buying behavior. Using a survey approach, the findings suggest the link between ethical buying intentions and behavior depends on consumers’ awareness of the brand’s general corporate social responsibility activities. Only when consumers with ethical purchase intentions are aware of the brand’s CSR activities can their intentions translate into behavior.

Alexandra Madar

2013-06-01

290

Critical Issues in School Employee Relations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salient school employee-relations issues include elimination of positions because of budgetary austerity; and managerial initiatives toward higher productivity through enhanced technology and an ever-smaller, core, full-time workforce. (MLF)

Gregory, David L.

1995-01-01

291

Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States  

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Full Text Available Background: Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. Methods: An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported.  Results: Results indicated a variable amount of ethics' related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties' needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making.Conclusions: Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential.  In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health.  There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice.

A Kanekar

2012-04-01

292

Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration.  

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It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that individuals have the right to request or refuse nutrition and hydration as medical treatment. Registered dietitians should work collaboratively as part of an interprofessional team to make recommendations on providing, withdrawing, or withholding nutrition and hydration in individual cases and serve as active members of institutional ethics committees. This practice paper provides a proactive, integrated, systematic process to implement the Academy's position. The position and practice papers should be used together to address the history and supporting information of ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration identified by the Academy. Elements of collaborative ethical deliberation are provided for pediatrics and adults and in different conditions. The process of ethical deliberation is presented with the roles and responsibilities of the registered dietitian and the dietetic technician, registered. Understanding the importance and applying concepts dealing with cultural values and religious diversity is necessary to integrate clinical ethics into nutrition care. Incorporating screening for quality-of-life goals is essential before implementing the Nutrition Care Process and improving health literacy with individual interactions. Developing institution-specific policies and procedures is necessary to accelerate the practice change with artificial nutrition, clinical ethics, and quality improvement projects to determine best practice. This paper supports the "Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Ethical and Legal Issues of Feeding and Hydration" published in the June 2013 issue of the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. PMID:23790412

Schwartz, Denise Baird; Posthauer, Mary Ellen; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

2013-07-01

293

Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans  

Science.gov (United States)

To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at least in part, diverging results. This study investigates how students explain and understand their argumentation about dilemmas concerning gene testing for the purpose to reduce hereditary diseases. Thirteen students were interviewed about their views on this issue. Qualitative analysis was done primarily by relating students’ argumentation to their movements between ethics and morals as opposing poles. Students used either objective or subjective knowledge but had difficulties to integrate them. They tried to negotiate ethic arguments using utilitarian motives and medical knowledge with sympathy or irrational and personal arguments. They discussed the embryo’s moral status to decide if it was replaceable in a social group or not. The educational implications of the students’ use of knowledge in personal arguments are discussed.

Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

2009-10-01

294

Ethics on the Internet.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses ethical issues related to the Internet based on two speeches given at the Online 95 conference. Topics include pornography; copyright; libel and slander; and censorship imposed on the Internet by the secret service in Israel. (LRW)

Online & CD-ROM Review, 1996

1996-01-01

295

Heart disease and social inequality: ethical issues in the aetiology, prevention and treatment of heart disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heart disease is a complex condition that is a leading cause of death worldwide. It is often seen as a disease of affluence, yet is strongly associated with a gradient in socio-economic status. Its highly complex causality means that many different facets of social and economic life are implicated in its aetiology, including factors such as workplace hierarchy and agricultural policy, together with other well-known factors such as what passes for individual 'lifestyle'. The very untangling of causes for heart disease thus inevitably raises social, moral and political issues. These include the proper role of the individual and of larger social forces in its aetiology, prevention and treatment. The construction of risk factors for heart disease likewise is enmeshed with questions of distributive justice in the responsible targeting of those at risk for heart disease, a debate which has received much overt attention in the medical literature, but less attention within the ethical literature. Strategies for addressing a condition of such complex causality can be highly diverse, from pharmaceutical to social interventions, and value issues attach to the choice and presentation of such strategies. For example, prevention strategies may raise complex issues of responsibility and of judgements of what it is to 'live well'. Further ethical debate on this highly political disease would be welcome. PMID:19531165

Boddington, Paula

2009-02-01

296

Ethical Issues in Insurance Marketing.The Case of Western India  

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Full Text Available This is a paper based on empirical investigation conducted in Western India between 2002 and 2012 especially at a time when the Indian economy is in a stage of transition from state capitalism to free market capitalism, albeit both of a retarded variety. It takes the 7 Ps of services marketing and cross verifies responses against seven dimensions of ethical conduct. The study is based on questionnaires followed by interviews. The target respondents were life insurance employees of banc assurance involved in marketing life insurance policies to customers in the urban sector. The study brought to the fore the fact that commissions were more important that telling the truth while selling policies. In the process ethical considerations conveniently went out of the window. To protect the interest of the unsuspecting clients a plea is made to have governance machinery in place that will make the insurance marketing personnel accountable for what and how they sell their wares. This need is especially felt in a country where the social security net is virtually non existent and the erstwhile joint family system is on a fast decline. In such circumstances a lack of ethical norms on the part of the insurer is an unacceptable sociological proposition and borders on gross unethical behaviour. The task of people management experts to address this issue is of the paramount importance and urgency if the Indian life insurance industry is to sustain its social image in a highly competitive market where foreign players are steadily entering the domestic scene.

Sorab Georgy Sadri

2012-10-01

297

Ethical issues for late-stage trials of multipurpose prevention technologies for HIV and pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) designed to simultaneously prevent pregnancy and HIV could provide urgently needed tools to address unmet sexual and reproductive health needs of women worldwide. Late-stage clinical trials will be complex given the need to demonstrate efficacy for HIV and contraceptive indications simultaneously from a single product. Currently, HIV and pregnancy prevention trials have distinctive design features that will need to be reconciled in MPT trials. This article identifies several ethical issues uniquely associated with this research that will benefit from future deliberation and guidance to ensure that this globally important research can proceed efficiently and expeditiously. PMID:25113651

Cohen, Jessica A; Mastroianni, Anna C; Macklin, Ruth

2014-11-01

298

Security Issues related with cloud computing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term CLOUD means Common Location Independent Online Utility on Demand. It?s an emerging technology in IT industries. Cloud technologies are improving day by day and now it become a need for all small and large scale industries. Companies like Google, Amazon, Microsoft etc. is providing virtualized environment for user by which it omits the need for physical storage and others. But as the advantage of cloud computing is increasing day by day the issues are also threatening the IT industries. These issues related with the security of the data. The basic idea of this review paper is to elaborate the security issues related with cloud computing and what methods are implemented to improve these security. Certain algorithms like RSA, DES, and Ceaser Cipher etc. implemented to improve the security issues. In this paper we have implemented Identity based mRSA algorithm in this paper for improving security of data.

Manju

2014-09-01

299

The Case of the Recycled Paper: The Case of the Busy Consultant (Ethical Issues in Business Communication).  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents two cases that illustrate some of the issues regularly faced by business communication educators: publications and conference presentations and consulting. Notes that each of the cases is followed by a series of specific questions addressing ethical issues raised in the cases. (RS)

Reinsch, N. L., Jr; Driskill, Linda

1993-01-01

300

Differentiating the Related Concepts of Ethics, Morality, Law, and Justice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four terms central to the dialog about ethics are defined and differentiated: ethics; morality; justice; and law. Several problems in understanding the terms are identified, including differences between the classical and current meanings, common but inappropriate usages, confusion of one term for another, and merging of terms in common usage.…

Ray, Terry T.

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Legal and Ethical issues when using Antiandrogenic Pharmacotherapy with Sex Offenders  

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Full Text Available The treatment of sex offenders and more specifically the treatment of high-risk sex offenders is a subject of great importance for practitioners, professionals, policymakers and the public at large. Whilst treatment is thought to largely centre upon cognitive-behavioural methods and other psychotherapy techniques, in more recent years the use of pharmacotherapy has also begun to gain ground. Current debate often centres upon how effective such treatment is; with both supporters and opponents of its use existing. This article, however, does not specifically look at whether pharmacotherapy as a method of treatment with sex offenders actually works, but rather looks at the legal and ethical issues surrounding its use. In particular it considers issues such as whether the treatment should be voluntary or mandatory; whether it should indeed even be classified as treatment or should instead be seen as punishment and finally whether it should be used with convicted offenders or made freely available to all.

Karen Harrison

2008-12-01

302

Size matters: the ethical, legal, and social issues surrounding large-scale genetic biobank initiatives  

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Full Text Available During the past ten years the complex ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI typically surrounding large-scale genetic biobank research initiatives have been intensely debated in academic circles. In many ways genetic epidemiology has undergone a set of changes resembling what in physics has been called a transition into Big Science. This article outlines consequences of this transition and suggests that the change in scale implies challenges to the roles of scientists and public alike. An overview of key issues is presented, and it is argued that biobanks represent not just scientific endeavors with purely epistemic objectives, but also political projects with social implications. As such, they demand clever maneuvering among social interests to succeed.

Klaus Lindgaard Hoeyer

2012-04-01

303

ASPECTOS ETICOS EN LA INVESTIGACION CIENTIFICA ETHICAL ISSUES IN CIENTIFIC RESEARCH  

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Full Text Available El escrito pretende mostrar los diferentes códigos, declaraciones y normas que se han dictado en el mundo para la protección de los seres humanos sometidos a experimentación científica. Se analiza el tema a la luz de los principios éticos y la situación actual en Chile en relación a la existencia de los comités de ética científicosThe article’s aim is to show all different codes, declarations and norms that have been dictated in the world, in order to protect the human beings submitted to scientific experimentation. The topic is analyzed considering ethical principles and the present situation in Chile, related to the existence of the scientific ethical committees

IRENE ACEVEDO PÉREZ

2002-06-01

304

Problems and Issues Related to Alternative Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Symposium participants identified policy issues in these areas related to alternative education for at-risk youth: choice, equity, public perception, definition, philosophy, stakeholder involvement, evaluation, staffing, curriculum, governance, and financing. Public discourse and policy discussion were considered essential to implementing…

Pilat, Mary

1997-01-01

305

The Social Work Ethics Audit: A Risk-Management Strategy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Article integrates current knowledge on social work ethics and introduces the concept of a social work ethics audit to aid social workers in their efforts to identify pertinent ethical issues; review and assess the adequacy of their current ethics-related practices; modify their practices as needed; and monitor the implementation of these changes.…

Reamer, Frederic G.

2000-01-01

306

Lifting the veil: a typological survey of the methodological features of Islamic ethical reasoning on biomedical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

We survey the meta-ethical tools and institutional processes that traditional Islamic ethicists apply when deliberating on bioethical issues. We present a typology of these methodological elements, giving particular attention to the meta-ethical techniques and devices that traditional Islamic ethicists employ in the absence of decisive or univocal authoritative texts or in the absence of established transmitted cases. In describing how traditional Islamic ethicists work, we demonstrate that these experts possess a variety of discursive tools. We find that the ethical responsa-i.e., the products of the application of the tools that we describe-are generally characterized by internal consistency. We also conclude that Islamic ethical reasoning on bioethical issues, while clearly scripture-based, is also characterized by strong consequentialist elements and possesses clear principles-based characteristics. The paper contributes to the study of bioethics by familiarizing non-specialists in Islamic ethics with the role, scope, and applicability of key Islamic ethical concepts, such as "aims" (maq??id), "universals" (kulliyy?t), "interest" (ma?la?a), "maxims" (qaw?`id), "controls" (?aw?bit), "differentiators" (fur?q), "preponderization" (tarj??), and "extension" (tafr?`). PMID:23665956

Abdur-Rashid, Khalil; Furber, Steven Woodward; Abdul-Basser, Taha

2013-04-01

307

Prevention, communication and equity in environmental epidemiology: ethical issues / Prevenzione, comunicazione ed equità in epidemiologia ambientale: una riflessione morale  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english In environmental epidemiology research, decisions about when and how to intervene requires adequate ethical reflection. In fact, different kinds of issues may arise about: research methods and knowledge production; management of the results in terms of their overall assessments or for the implementa [...] tion of preventive actions; reclamation intervention. In this contribution we propose to consider three topics we regard as crucial to this ethical debate: the reporting of conclusive research data; the correct application of the precautionary principle; and the environmental equity issues.

Giordana, Pagliarani; Caterina, Botti.

308

Moral awareness and ethical predispositions: investigating the role of individual differences in the recognition of moral issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of the role of individual ethical predispositions, preferences for utilitarian and formalistic ideals, on managerial moral awareness was examined in 2 studies. Results suggested that a manager's ethical predispositions influence his or her responses to the characteristics of the moral issue. Both utilitarianism and formalism shaped moral awareness, but formalism demonstrated a greater capacity to do so in that formalists recognized both harm and the violation of a behavioral norm as indicators of the moral issue, whereas utilitarians responded only to harm. These findings provide support for the basic arguments underlying theories of moral development and offer several implications for the study and practice of moral awareness in organizations. PMID:16435953

Reynolds, Scott J

2006-01-01

309

A Prolegomenon to the Relation Between Accounting, Language and Ethics  

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Full Text Available This essay outlines the preliminary structure of a moral ontology of accounting understood as discourse. Tospeak of an ontology of accounting is to speak of the most general features of accounting, those features of itsexistence that are present irrespective of variations in observed “accountings,” of ways in which accountingmanifests itself in lived experience. To speak of a moral ontology is to construe those general features asproducts of human choices and actions which follow from axiological (value-based commitments to pursuethe good and just life, however that life might be understood, and indeed understood differently by differentpersons. Thus a moral ontology stands in distinction from, for example, a naturalistic ontology, one “freedfrom the freedom” of axiological horizons. Within its embeddedness in a moral ontology, the enactment ofaccounting takes empirical form as discourse – as an act of someone saying (writing something aboutsomething to someone else (Ricoeur, 1976; Arrington & Francis, 1993. Thus if we seek to understandaccounting’s force in the world, a force that is always valued and evaluated in terms of consequences for thegood and just life, we get our most general understandings from attending to the ethics of language and itsuse. My task in this essay is to introduce the structure of what the elements of accounting’s relation to theethics of language and its use might be. Expanding upon that structure remains a task for future work.

C. Edward Arrington

2007-06-01

310

Ethics in the primary care office.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-one doctors completed surveys on perceived ethical issues in their office and then evaluated each office visit for a single day, yielding a total of 644 patient encounters. Overall, 33% of office visits involved an ethical issue of some type. Prescription related issues were the most common type of problem encountered. PMID:20336954

Rolfsen, Michael L

2010-01-01

311

Ethical Issues in Doing Business in China(Çin’de ?? Yapman?n Etik Sorunlar?  

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Full Text Available In the 1980s and 1990s China was cited by some of the international organizations because of its violations of basic human rights. However, multinational firms from most of the countries criticizing the China’s violations began to do considerable amount of investments to China in the 1990s and 2000s. They moved their manufacturing activities to China because of valuable opportunities, incentives, and cheap work force. They pursued this action regardless of Chinese government’s carelessness to its own citizens. Despite this fact, should these firms do additional investment in order to produce their products with lower levels of costs? Is this an ethical decision? In this study, this issue is argued out and some points are recommended from the perspective of international firms.

Serkan ADA

2007-01-01

312

Denial of pregnancy - a literature review and discussion of ethical and legal issues  

Science.gov (United States)

Denial of pregnancy is an important condition that is more common than expected, with an incidence at 20 weeks gestation of approximately 1 in 475. The proportion of cases persisting until delivery is about 1 in 2500, a rate similar to that of eclampsia. Denial of pregnancy poses adverse consequences including psychological distress, unassisted delivery and neonaticide. It is difficult to predict which women will develop denial of pregnancy. There are a number of forms of denial of pregnancy, including psychotic and non-psychotic variants. Denial of pregnancy is a ‘red flag’ that should trigger referral for psychiatric assessment. A national registry may help to provide more information about this condition and implement appropriate care. This condition poses challenging legal and ethical issues including assessment of maternal capacity, evaluation of maternal (and possibly fetal) best interests and the possibility of detention in hospital. PMID:21725094

Jenkins, Angela; Millar, Simon; Robins, James

2011-01-01

313

Denial of pregnancy: a literature review and discussion of ethical and legal issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Denial of pregnancy is an important condition that is more common than expected, with an incidence at 20 weeks gestation of approximately 1 in 475. The proportion of cases persisting until delivery is about 1 in 2500, a rate similar to that of eclampsia. Denial of pregnancy poses adverse consequences including psychological distress, unassisted delivery and neonaticide. It is difficult to predict which women will develop denial of pregnancy. There are a number of forms of denial of pregnancy, including psychotic and non-psychotic variants. Denial of pregnancy is a 'red flag' that should trigger referral for psychiatric assessment. A national registry may help to provide more information about this condition and implement appropriate care. This condition poses challenging legal and ethical issues including assessment of maternal capacity, evaluation of maternal (and possibly fetal) best interests and the possibility of detention in hospital. PMID:21725094

Jenkins, Angela; Millar, Simon; Robins, James

2011-07-01

314

Ethical issues in the care of persons living with haemophilia in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent series of ad interim orders issued by the Bombay High Court under ordinary original civil jurisdiction following public interest litigation (PIL) on the provision of free clotting factor concentrates for persons living with haemophilia, especially those below the poverty line and emergency cases, highlights the need to think about the ethicality of various aspects of access to medicine and the rights of patients suffering from rare diseases from the public health perspective. The PIL (number 82/2012) [Vinay Vijay Nair and Ors vs. Department of Health, State of Maharashtra and Ors), which calls for free treatment for all haemophiliacs who go to the designated hospitals, was followed by the issuance of five ad interim orders (July 19, 2012, October 22, 2012, November 6, 2012, January 24, 2013, and March 19, 2013). PMID:25377034

Jadhav, Uma; Mukherjee, Kanchan; Lalwani, Anil

2014-01-01

315

Ethics and its challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available I would like to look at some of the challenges of ethcis today. Therefore, in the first part I say something about ethics, the ethical theories and ethical concepts. Afterwords I am going to explain a little bit about the human dimensions, the dealing with experiences (i.e. work; because the human person has to decide the right thing in the right place on the right time, and in relatively freedom. In the end, there are some ideas about applied ethics which is necessary to focusing on the practical issues, too. Otherwise people who do not like the ethical discussions they could think that ethical ideas are selfsufficient and do not make sense, but I will tell them something else....

Johannes Michael Schnarrer

2006-04-01

316

The interface between assisted reproductive technologies and genetics: technical, social, ethical and legal issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interface between assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and genetics comprises several sensitive and important issues that affect infertile couples, families with severe genetic diseases, potential children, professionals in ART and genetics, health care, researchers and the society in general. Genetic causes have a considerable involvement in infertility. Genetic conditions may also be transmitted to the offspring and hence create transgenerational infertility or other serious health problems. Several studies also suggest a slightly elevated risk of birth defects in children born following ART. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has become widely practiced throughout the world for various medical indications, but its limits are being debated. The attitudes towards ART and PGD vary substantially within Europe. The purpose of the present paper was to outline a framework for development of guidelines to be issued jointly by European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology for the interface between genetics and ART. Technical, social, ethical and legal issues of ART and genetics will be reviewed. PMID:16636693

Soini, Sirpa; Ibarreta, Dolores; Anastasiadou, Violetta; Aymé, Ségolène; Braga, Suzanne; Cornel, Martina; Coviello, Domenico A; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry; Geraedts, Joep; Gianaroli, Luca; Harper, Joyce; Kosztolanyi, György; Lundin, Kersti; Rodrigues-Cerezo, Emilio; Sermon, Karen; Sequeiros, Jorge; Tranebjaerg, Lisbeth; Kääriäinen, Helena

2006-05-01

317

When courts intervene: public health, legal and ethical issues surrounding HIV, pregnant women, and newborn infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ninety-three percent of pediatric AIDS cases are the result of perinatal HIV transmission, a disease that is almost entirely preventable with early intervention, which reduces the risk of perinatal HIV infection from 25% to courts consistently uphold a woman's right to refuse medical testing and treatment, even though it may benefit her fetus/newborn infant. Federal courts also reliably respect the rights of parents to make health care decisions for their newborn infants, which may include declining medical testing and treatment. Confusing the issue of HIV testing and treatment, however, is the fact that there is no definitive United States Supreme Court ruling on the issue. State laws and standards vary widely and serve as guiding principles for practicing clinicians, who must be vigilant of ongoing legal challenges and changes in the states in which they practice. We present a case of an HIV-positive pregnant woman who declined treatment and then testing or treatment of her newborn infant. Ultimately, the legal system intervened. Given the rarity of such cases, we use this as a primer for the practicing clinician to highlight the public health, legal, and ethical issues surrounding prenatal and newborn infant HIV testing and treatment in the United States, including summarizing key state-to-state regulatory differences. PMID:24732002

Tessmer-Tuck, Jennifer A; Poku, Joseph K; Burkle, Christopher M

2014-11-01

318

Illicit drugs, testing, prevention and work in France: ethical and legal issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of illicit drugs in the workplace raises issues pertaining to prevention and safety and the responsibility of the various members of staff. It also brings into question the interface between work and private life. If employees are in theory responsible for their own safety and risk heavy penalties in the event of the consumption of illicit drugs in the workplace, such behaviour has to be proved. In reality, the worker can only be partially and marginally held liable, given the fact that the employer is prohibited from infringing on their rights and liberties (restrictions on the searching of their personal belongings and lockers as well as on the carrying out of breath testing and saliva testing under restrictive conditions). Employers have for their part a broader range of responsibilities and, above all, an absolute obligation to achieve specific goals in terms of health and safety resulting in the need to take action. In accordance with the International Labour Organization recommendations, European and national legislation, the employer has to implement a suitable preventive policy. However, where is the balance between prevention and repression? Very few studies have raised these issues and our aim is to precisely situate the place of drug testing in the employer's repressive arsenal in France and to try to answer the legal and ethical issues raised. Thus, for example, repression can only be acceptable when it deals with moderate and non-addicted users, or it could be tantamount to discrimination. PMID:22145557

Fantoni-Quinton, Sophie; Bossu, Bernard; Morgenroth, Thomas; Frimat, Paul

2010-09-01

319

Qualitative Methodology in Unfamiliar Cultures : Relational and Ethical Aspects of Fieldwork  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This case study discusses qualitative fieldwork in Malaysia. The trends in higher education led to investigating how and why young Indians and Chinese in Malaysia are using the university to pursue a life strategy. Given the importance of field context in designing and analysing research based on a qualitative methodology, conscious reflection on research design and objectivity is important when doing fieldwork. This case study discusses such reflections. Emphasis throughout is given to applied qualitative methodology and its contributions to the social sciences, in particular having to do with relational, emotional, and ethical issues associated with interviewing and personal observation. Although the empirical setting of this case is Southeast Asia, the various discussions and interrelatedness of methodology, theory, and empirical reflections will prove applicable to field studies throughout the world.

Svensson, Christian Franklin

2014-01-01

320

Experimental Methods in Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Course for Teaching Ethical Issues, Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, and Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the development of a course which introduces students to issues of animal ethics, experimentation, and an Animal Care Facility. The experiments enable the students to gain confidence in collecting data, compiling large data sets, handling spreadsheets and graphing, applying appropriate statistics, and writing accurate and concise scientific reports in journal article format.

Adam C. Hall (Smith College;); Mary E. Harrington (Smith College;)

2003-11-01

 
 
 
 
321

The evolving approach to ethical issues in living donor kidney transplantation: a review based on illustrative case vignettes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Living donor kidney transplantation which involves performing a major surgical procedure on a healthy person solely to benefit another person has always involved dealing with difficult ethical issues. Beneficence, non-maleficence, donor autonomy, altruistic donor motivation, coercion-free donation, fully informed consent and avoidance of medical paternalism have been the dominant ethical principles governing this field ever since the first successful living donor kidney transplant in 1954. The increasing reliance on living donors due to the rapidly growing disparity between the number of patients awaiting transplantation and the availability of deceased donor kidneys has brought with it a variety of new ethical issues of even greater complexity. Issues such as confidentiality of donor and recipient medical information, the appropriateness of the invented medical excuse to avoid donation and the approach to misattributed paternity discovered during work-up for living donor transplantation have made the information to be disclosed prior to obtaining donor's consent much more extensive. In this article, we review the current thinking and guidelines (which have evolved considerably over the past several decades) regarding these ethical issues using five illustrative case vignettes based on donors personally evaluated by us over the past 35 years. PMID:24849414

Venkat, K K; Eshelman, Anne K

2014-07-01

322

Ethical aspects of biotechnology applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines ethical issues associated with two recent major developments in biotechnology: 1. The question of whether it is ethically acceptable to patent living organisms and genes and 2. Ethical issues related to the ability to predict or prognosticate disease susceptibility using increasingly refined genetic markers. In both instances, a pragmatic consequentialist approach is proposed which encourages biotechnology development while adhering to ethical standards. The paper concludes by encouraging public education about modern genetics in order to avoid inappropriate public fear and concern. PMID:10607855

Siegler, M

1999-01-01

323

Ethics on Trial: Teacher's Guide for Secondary Schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

Students' understanding of lawyers and the legal system may be increased through the five law-related ethical issues presented in this document. Legal ethics is defined as: (1) the minimum standard of professional conduct in daily legal situations; and (2) a lawyer's broader responsibility to society. The ethical issues are presented in three…

Greater Washington Educational Telecommunications Association, Inc., Arlington, VA.

324

PROFESSIONALISM AND ETHICS: IS THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY DAMAGING THE HEALTH OF THE PUBLIC RELATIONS PROFESSION?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In most parts of the world, public relations (PR is seeking recognition as a profession. The path to gaining professional status hinges on its adherence to professional ethical standards. This paper argues that it is inappropriate for public relations practitioners to represent the tobacco industry because it is against the PR ethics of upholding truth and public interest. The paper cites historical tobacco industry documents to reveal that the industry would not hesitate to use unethical means to maximise profits.

Adnan Hussein

2006-01-01

325

AN ETHICAL ASSESSMENT OF COMPUTER ETHICS USING SCENARIO APPROACH  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ethics refers to a set of rules that define right and wrong behavior, used for moral decision making. In this case, computer ethics is one of the major issues in information technology (IT) and information system (IS). The ethical behaviour of IT students and professionals need to be studied in an attempt to reduce many unethical practices such as software piracy, hacking, and software intellectual property violations. This paper attempts to address computer-related scenarios that can be used...

Maslin Masrom; Zuraini Ismail; Ramlah Hussein

2010-01-01

326

HIGHER ROMANIAN EDUCATION POST-BOLOGNA: REQUIRED CHANGES, INSTRUMENTS AND ETHICAL ISSUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1999 Romania became part of the Bologna process, focused on the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System, design to increase the compatibility of European universities, ensuring the mobility of students and professors in the context of re-orienting education to the formation of competences continuously adapted to market requirements. This model draws the new education system closer to American education. The paper analyzes the importance of evaluation, proposing solutions to increase teaching efficiency, and also the often negative influence of promotion criteria, based on their characteristic ethical aspects. The paper underlines the importance of continuous evaluation based on more requirements, resulting into a more correct assessment of performance, but also the evaluation of the efficiency of the course and instructor by the students, proposing its assignment to an independent structure to diminish the bias of results. The paper also analyses the importance of promotion criteria based on the scientific activity and management of research in the detriment of focusing on teaching. The implications relate to the fact that management of research does not measure teaching performance or the professional profile, while scientometric measurements of results have profound ethical consequences, leading to a distorted scientific behavior and neglected teaching duties.

Alexandru-Ionu? Petri?or

2011-11-01

327

Evaluation of research ethics committees in Turkey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Turkey, there was no legal regulation of research on human beings until 1993. In that year "the amendment relating to drug researches" was issued. The main objectives of the regulation are to establish a central ethics committee and local ethics committees, and to provide administrative control.There are no compulsory clinical ethics lectures in the medical curriculum, so it is also proposed that research ethics committees (RECs) play a central educational role by helping physicians to be ...

Arda, B.

2000-01-01

328

AN ETHICAL ASSESSMENT OF COMPUTER ETHICS USING SCENARIO APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethics refers to a set of rules that define right and wrong behavior, used for moral decision making. In this case, computer ethics is one of the major issues in information technology (IT and information system (IS. The ethical behaviour of IT students and professionals need to be studied in an attempt to reduce many unethical practices such as software piracy, hacking, and software intellectual property violations. This paper attempts to address computer-related scenarios that can be used to examine the computer ethics. The computer-related scenario consists of a short description of an ethical situation whereby the subject of the study such as IT professionals or students, then rate the ethics of the scenario, namely attempt to identify the ethical issues involved. This paper also reviews several measures of computer ethics in different setting. The perceptions of various dimensions of ethical behaviour in IT that are related to the circumstances of the ethical scenario are also presented.

Maslin Masrom

2010-06-01

329

Contentious issues in research on trafficked women working in the sex industry: study design, ethics, and methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The trafficking of women and children for work in the globalized sex industry is a global social problem. Quality data is needed to provide a basis for legislation, policy, and programs, but first, numerous research design, ethical, and methodological problems must be addressed. Research design issues in studying women trafficked for sex work (WTSW) include how to (a) develop coalitions to fund and support research, (b) maintain a critical stance on prostitution, and therefore WTSW (c) use multiple paradigms and methods to accurately reflect WTSW's reality, (d) present the purpose of the study, and (e) protect respondents' identities. Ethical issues include (a) complications with informed consent procedures, (b) problematic access to WTSW (c) loss of WTSW to follow-up, (d) inability to intervene in illegal acts or human rights violations, and (e) the need to maintain trustworthiness as researchers. Methodological issues include (a) constructing representative samples, (b) managing media interest, and (c) handling incriminating materials about law enforcement and immigration. PMID:19827235

Cwikel, Julie; Hoban, Elizabeth

2005-11-01

330

Medication-Related Practice Roles: An Ethical and Legal Primer for School Psychologists  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the prevalence of school-age children and adolescents who are prescribed with and are taking psychotropic medications, a critical issue that school psychologists may likely encounter in contemporary practice is providing both quality and continuity of care to these students in the context of relevant legal and ethical parameters. With a…

Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.

2014-01-01

331

Ethical dilemmas in clinical genetics.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the results of a survey of medical and paramedical opinion relating to various difficult ethical issues in clinical genetics. These include the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship, prenatal diagnosis and termination, and Huntington's chorea. It is suggested that this method provides a useful means of assessing what is ethically acceptable in contemporary society.

Young, I. D.

1984-01-01

332

Ethical Issues in the End of Life Care for Cancer Patients in Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: In the recent years, advances in medical technologies for end stage cancer patients’ care have affected the end-of-life decision-making in clinical practice and exposed oncologists to serious ethical dilemmas. But little is known about oncologists' viewpoints in our country regarding their ethical problems in this mention. We aimed to clarify the ethical dilemmas which Iranian oncologists may face in our health care setting and to determine factors influencing decision-making pr...

Mina Mobasher; Nouzar Nakhaee; Mamak Tahmasebi; Farzaneh ZaHedi; Bagher Larijani

2013-01-01

333

Ethics and regulation of contemporary marketing communication practices: an exploration of the perceptions of UK-based consumers towards the ethical issues raised by product placement in British TV shows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Product placement, as a variant of television programme sponsorship, has become a unique and evolving marketing communications tool in which brands are seamlessly embedded within the consumer's experiential world. Although studies have suggested that consumer attitudes towards product placement are generally positive, several issues of ethical concern have emerged. To date, there is a marked shortage of studies that address particular ethical issues in specific contexts of product placement p...

Tiwsakul, Rungpaka; Hackley, Chris

2005-01-01

334

ACOG Committee Opinion No. 600: Ethical issues in the care of the obese woman.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rates of obesity in the United States have increased rapidly over the past several decades, and physicians should be prepared to care for obese patients in a nonjudgmental manner, being cognizant of the medical, social, and ethical implications of obesity. It is the responsibility of the physician to recognize the medical risks that are associated with obesity and to counsel the patient regarding these risks in an unbiased manner, respecting her autonomy and maintaining her dignity. Classifying obesity as a medical condition can serve to reduce bias toward obese patients and to change the approach toward the patient from one of blame to one of caring. It is unethical for physicians to refuse to accept a patient or decline to continue care that is within their scope of practice solely because the patient is obese. However, if physicians lack the resources necessary for the safe and effective care of the obese patient, consultation or referral or both are appropriate. Obesity education that focuses on the specific medical, cultural, and social issues of the obese woman should be incorporated into physician education at all levels. PMID:24848919

2014-06-01

335

Presença do tema ética profissional nos periódicos brasileiros de Ciência da Informação e Biblioteconomia / Presence of professional ethics issue in Brazilian journals of Information Science and Librarianship  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A presença de discussões acerca de temas relativos à Ética na produção científica brasileira de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação é o enfoque principal deste texto, que advém da análise de periódicos desses campos de conhecimento e da prática profissional. Para isso, selecionou-se um título po [...] r cada região político-administrativa brasileira, Sul, Sudeste, Centro-Oeste e Nordeste, dentre os existentes, cuja edição tivesse se mantido regular no período de 1997 a 2006. Em cada um desses títulos, a partir de palavras-chave previamente definidas, foram identificados os artigos e ensaios que trataram do tema. Com isso, buscava-se conhecer os fundamentos filosóficos e doutrinários, as temáticas e abordagens, e as tendências da discussão Ética na produção periódica brasileira de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação. Metodologicamente, o trabalho envolve a identificação dos periódicos e dos textos publicados sobre a temática; a leitura e a descrição dos mesmos; a identificação dos aspectos apontados nos objetivos pretendidos; a análise dos discursos utilizando a técnica do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo; e a organização das idéias contidas visando chegar a uma síntese. Foram localizados 10 textos produzidos por 16 autores, sendo dois de 1997, quatro de 2005, quatro distribuídos de 1998 a 2004; nenhum foi encontrado referente ao ano de 2006. Foram identificadas como fundamentos éticos as Doutrinas da Ética do Discurso, da Ética da Alteridade e da Teoria Ético-política da Justiça; e foram também identificadas as temáticas, abordagens e tendências da discussão sobre a Ética, que revelaram a questão da postura profissional determinada pelo quadro atual da sociedade e das tecnologias. Conclui-se que apesar de existir preocupação com o tema Ética por parte de alguns profissionais da informação que escrevem e publicam sobre o assunto, o mesmo ainda é pouco explorado na literatura e está mais dirigido para questões gerais. Abstract in english The presence of discussions on issues relating to ethics in Brazilian scientific production of Librarianship and Information Science is the main focus of this text, which comes from the periodic review of these fields of knowledge and professional practice. For this reason, picked up a scientific pe [...] riodical title for each brazilian administrative region, whose editing had been maintained regularly over the period 1997 to 2006. In each of these periodical titles, from keywords previously defined, have been identified articles and essays which addressed the theme. With this, trying to be informed of the reasons for philosophical and doctrinal, the themes and approaches and trends of the discussion Ethics in regular production of Brazilian Librarianship and Information Science. Methodologically, the work involved identification of journals and texts published on the subject, reading and description of them; identification of the aspects highlighted in the objectives pursued, analysis of speech using the technique of Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo collective subject of discourse) - DSC; organization of the ideas contained, aiming to reach a synthesis. We found 10 texts produced by 16 authors, 2 of 1997, 4 in 2005, 4 distributed from 1998 to 2004 and none was found regarding the year 2006. They were identified as ethical foundations, the doctrines of Ethics of Speech, the Ethics of Otherness and Ethical-Political Theory of Justice, in addition to the issues, approaches and trends of the discussion Ethics, which show the issue of professional attitude determined by the current picture of society and current technologies. We conclude that although there is concern about the ethics issue by some of the professionals who write and publish information on the subject, it is still little explored in literature and is more focused on general issues.

Francisco das Chagas de, Souza; Katiusa, Stumpf.

2009-12-01

336

Presença do tema ética profissional nos periódicos brasileiros de Ciência da Informação e Biblioteconomia / Presence of professional ethics issue in Brazilian journals of Information Science and Librarianship  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A presença de discussões acerca de temas relativos à Ética na produção científica brasileira de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação é o enfoque principal deste texto, que advém da análise de periódicos desses campos de conhecimento e da prática profissional. Para isso, selecionou-se um título po [...] r cada região político-administrativa brasileira, Sul, Sudeste, Centro-Oeste e Nordeste, dentre os existentes, cuja edição tivesse se mantido regular no período de 1997 a 2006. Em cada um desses títulos, a partir de palavras-chave previamente definidas, foram identificados os artigos e ensaios que trataram do tema. Com isso, buscava-se conhecer os fundamentos filosóficos e doutrinários, as temáticas e abordagens, e as tendências da discussão Ética na produção periódica brasileira de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação. Metodologicamente, o trabalho envolve a identificação dos periódicos e dos textos publicados sobre a temática; a leitura e a descrição dos mesmos; a identificação dos aspectos apontados nos objetivos pretendidos; a análise dos discursos utilizando a técnica do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo; e a organização das idéias contidas visando chegar a uma síntese. Foram localizados 10 textos produzidos por 16 autores, sendo dois de 1997, quatro de 2005, quatro distribuídos de 1998 a 2004; nenhum foi encontrado referente ao ano de 2006. Foram identificadas como fundamentos éticos as Doutrinas da Ética do Discurso, da Ética da Alteridade e da Teoria Ético-política da Justiça; e foram também identificadas as temáticas, abordagens e tendências da discussão sobre a Ética, que revelaram a questão da postura profissional determinada pelo quadro atual da sociedade e das tecnologias. Conclui-se que apesar de existir preocupação com o tema Ética por parte de alguns profissionais da informação que escrevem e publicam sobre o assunto, o mesmo ainda é pouco explorado na literatura e está mais dirigido para questões gerais. Abstract in english The presence of discussions on issues relating to ethics in Brazilian scientific production of Librarianship and Information Science is the main focus of this text, which comes from the periodic review of these fields of knowledge and professional practice. For this reason, picked up a scientific pe [...] riodical title for each brazilian administrative region, whose editing had been maintained regularly over the period 1997 to 2006. In each of these periodical titles, from keywords previously defined, have been identified articles and essays which addressed the theme. With this, trying to be informed of the reasons for philosophical and doctrinal, the themes and approaches and trends of the discussion Ethics in regular production of Brazilian Librarianship and Information Science. Methodologically, the work involved identification of journals and texts published on the subject, reading and description of them; identification of the aspects highlighted in the objectives pursued, analysis of speech using the technique of Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo collective subject of discourse) - DSC; organization of the ideas contained, aiming to reach a synthesis. We found 10 texts produced by 16 authors, 2 of 1997, 4 in 2005, 4 distributed from 1998 to 2004 and none was found regarding the year 2006. They were identified as ethical foundations, the doctrines of Ethics of Speech, the Ethics of Otherness and Ethical-Political Theory of Justice, in addition to the issues, approaches and trends of the discussion Ethics, which show the issue of professional attitude determined by the current picture of society and current technologies. We conclude that although there is concern about the ethics issue by some of the professionals who write and publish information on the subject, it is still little explored in literature and is more focused on general issues.

Francisco das Chagas de, Souza; Katiusa, Stumpf.

337

Writing about Clients: Ethical and Professional Issues in Clinical Case Reports  

Science.gov (United States)

From the standpoint of a former journal editor and long-time professional, this commentary challenges the direction of the profession as demonstrated in this special section. The ongoing creation of more and more ethical constraints not only harms the profession but also loses sight of fundamental ethical principles.

Carlson, Jon

2010-01-01

338

Promoting Active Learning of Ethical Issues in Marketing Communications Using Debates  

Science.gov (United States)

Expectations from the business world and business school accreditation bodies to create learning outcomes that enhance students' understanding of ethical concepts call for marketing educators to integrate ethics into their pedagogy. This paper summarizes a debate activity used in an undergraduate marketing communications course. Debates engage…

Roy, Donald P.

2012-01-01

339

Ethical and Legal Issues Regarding Selective Abortion of Fetuses with Down Syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selective abortion of fetuses with Down syndrome is discussed in terms of abortion perspectives, genetic testing, legislation, and ethical principles. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, fidelity, and justice are offered as guidelines for the examination of legal standards imposed by legislation. (Author/PB)

Glover, Noreen M.; Glover, Samuel J.

1996-01-01

340

Ethical and policy issues in cluster randomized trials: rationale and design of a mixed methods research study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cluster randomized trials are an increasingly important methodological tool in health research. In cluster randomized trials, intact social units or groups of individuals, such as medical practices, schools, or entire communities – rather than individual themselves – are randomly allocated to intervention or control conditions, while outcomes are then observed on individual cluster members. The substantial methodological differences between cluster randomized trials and conventional randomized trials pose serious challenges to the current conceptual framework for research ethics. The ethical implications of randomizing groups rather than individuals are not addressed in current research ethics guidelines, nor have they even been thoroughly explored. The main objectives of this research are to: (1 identify ethical issues arising in cluster trials and learn how they are currently being addressed; (2 understand how ethics reviews of cluster trials are carried out in different countries (Canada, the USA and the UK; (3 elicit the views and experiences of trial participants and cluster representatives; (4 develop well-grounded guidelines for the ethical conduct and review of cluster trials by conducting an extensive ethical analysis and organizing a consensus process; (5 disseminate the guidelines to researchers, research ethics boards (REBs, journal editors, and research funders. Methods We will use a mixed-methods (qualitative and quantitative approach incorporating both empirical and conceptual work. Empirical work will include a systematic review of a random sample of published trials, a survey and in-depth interviews with trialists, a survey of REBs, and in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with trial participants and gatekeepers. The empirical work will inform the concurrent ethical analysis which will lead to a guidance document laying out principles, policy options, and rationale for proposed guidelines. An Expert Panel of researchers, ethicists, health lawyers, consumer advocates, REB members, and representatives from low-middle income countries will be appointed. A consensus conference will be convened and draft guidelines will be generated by the Panel; an e-consultation phase will then be launched to invite comments from the broader community of researchers, policy-makers, and the public before a final set of guidelines is generated by the Panel and widely disseminated by the research team.

Chaudhry Shazia H

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

UNESCO's activities in ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

UNESCO is an intergovernmental organization with 193 Member States. It is concerned with a broad range of issues regarding education, science and culture. It is the only UN organisation with a mandate in science. Since 1993 it is addressing ethics of science and technology, with special emphasis on bioethics. One major objective of the ethics programme is the development of international normative standards. This is particularly important since many Member States only have a limited infrastructure in bioethics, lacking expertise, educational programs, bioethics committees and legal frameworks. UNESCO has recently adopted the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. The focus of current activities is now on implementation of this Declaration. Three activities are discussed that aim at improving and reinforcing the ethics infrastructure in relation to science and technology: the Global Ethics Observatory, the Ethics Education Programme and the Assisting Bioethics Committees project. PMID:19697158

ten Have, Henk A M J

2010-03-01

342

The ethics of information  

CERN Document Server

Luciano Floridi develops an original ethical framework for dealing with the new challenges posed by Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). ICTs have profoundly changed many aspects of life, including the nature of entertainment, work, communication, education, health care, industrial production and business, social relations, and conflicts. They have had a radical and widespread impact on our moral lives and on contemporary ethical debates. Privacy, ownership, freedom of speech, responsibility, technological determinism, the digital divide, and pornography online are only some of the pressing issues that characterise the ethical discourse in the information society. They are the subject of Information Ethics (IE), the new philosophical area of research that investigates the ethical impact of ICTs on human life and society. Since the seventies, IE has been a standard topic in many curricula. In recent years, there has been a flourishing of new university courses, international conferences, workshop...

Floridi, Luciano

2013-01-01

343

77 FR 2298 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

...be discussing neuroscience and related ethical issues. DATES: The meeting will take...be discussing neuroscience and related ethical issues. The draft meeting agenda and...before it. Respectful debate of opposing views and active participation by citizens...

2012-01-17

344

77 FR 61608 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

...continue discussing topics related to the ethical issues associated with the development...continue discussing topics related to the ethical issues associated with the development...before it. Respectful debate of opposing views and active participation by citizens...

2012-10-10

345

77 FR 41789 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

...continue discussing topics related to the ethical issues associated with the development...continue discussing topics related to the ethical issues associated with the development...before it. Respectful debate of opposing views and active participation by citizens...

2012-07-16

346

Managing workplace ethics : how to improve your organisation's ethical health and achieve organisational integrity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, the issue of management or governance of ethics within organisations in the public and private sectors has come to the fore. For several valid business reasons organisations have been forced to become socially responsible, to act with increased ethical sensitivity and to report on the organisation's performance relative to its ethics statement to all stakeholders. Organisations that recognise the strategic importance of ethics within business and pro-acti...

Plant, Kato

2008-01-01

347

Relations between Corporate Social Responsibility and Engineering Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental responsibility of corporations has been changed drastically in the last 20 years. In 1980s, pollution prevention was the main mandate for corporations and in 1990s global scale environmental issues such as global warming must be also considered by at least industries. In the year of 2000, United Nations decided to make a challenge towards sustainability of human activities on the Earth, and since then, every corporation must take this concept into account when policy for its own business is described. Within this framework, some companies have succeeded to be evaluated as “environmental conscious companies” and enjoyed success also in their business. The reality of sustainability is very complex and any company must consider rather long future, say more than 30 years, in the strategy of its operation. All engineers should watch the direction and the norm carefully, which their own company is now aiming at, with enough knowledge regarding the trend of total human activities in relation to the limitation of the Earth.

Yasui, Itaru

348

Genetic counseling and the ethical issues around direct to consumer genetic testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last several years, direct to consumer(DTC) genetic testing has received increasing attention in the public, healthcare and academic realms. DTC genetic testing companies face considerable criticism and scepticism,particularly from the medical and genetic counseling community. This raises the question of what specific aspects of DTC genetic testing provoke concerns, and conversely,promises, for genetic counselors. This paper addresses this question by exploring DTC genetic testing through an ethic allens. By considering the fundamental ethical approaches influencing genetic counseling (the ethic of care and principle-based ethics) we highlight the specific ethical concerns raised by DTC genetic testing companies. Ultimately,when considering the ethics of DTC testing in a genetic counseling context, we should think of it as a balancing act. We need careful and detailed consideration of the risks and troubling aspects of such testing, as well as the potentially beneficial direct and indirect impacts of the increased availability of DTC genetic testing. As a result it is essential that genetic counselors stay informed and involved in the ongoing debate about DTC genetic testing and DTC companies. Doing so will ensure that the ethical theories and principles fundamental to the profession of genetic counseling are promoted not just in traditional counseling sessions,but also on a broader level. Ultimately this will help ensure that the public enjoys the benefits of an increasingly genetic based healthcare system. PMID:22290190

Hawkins, Alice K; Ho, Anita

2012-06-01

349

Issues of Language Choice, Ethics and Equity: Japanese Retirees Living in Malaysia as Their Second Home  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper will discuss two issues related to Japanese retirees adopting Malaysia as their second home. The first is that of the preferred language choice of the retirees. To collect data for language choice a self-report questionnaire was administered and an interview was conducted. The findings suggest that the majority of the retirees chose…

Stapa, Siti Hamin; Musaev, Talaibek; Hieda, Natsue; Amzah, Normalis

2013-01-01

350

Environmental issues related to uranium mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper introduces the environmental issues (both real and perceived) associated with uranium exploration, mining, milling, and tailings management. As well, some of the issues pertaining to the closeout of uranium tailings areas are discussed. These issues have received considerable attention in Canada in public inquiries and hearings that have been held across the country. The major conclusions of some of these hearings are also noted

351

Medical Marijuana for HIV-Associated Sensory Neuropathy: Legal and Ethical Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of states legalizing medical marijuana is increasing. Medical marijuana is possibly effective therapy for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Despite legalization at the state level, however, the current and contradictory federal drug enforcement policy creates the risk that physicians who recommend medical marijuana to their patients will lose their ability to prescribe medications. The federal-state tension has legal and ethical implications for neurologists who receive a request for medical marijuana from their patients since neurologists must strive to both relieve suffering and obey relevant laws. Recommendation of medical marijuana by neurologists to their patients is ethically permissible but is not ethically mandatory. PMID:25299291

Larriviere, Daniel G

2014-10-01

352

Business ethics in ethics committees?  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Ethics committees" column in this issue of the Hastings Center Report features an introduction by Cynthia B. Cohen and four brief commentaries on the roles hospital ethics committees may play in the making of institutional and public health care policy in the 1990s. The pros and cons of a broader, more public role for ethics committees in reconciling the business and patient care aspects of health care delivery are debated by Cohen in "Ethics committees as corporate and public policy advocates," and by Philip Boyle in this article. Boyle is an associate for ethical studies at The Hastings Center. PMID:2228587

Boyle, P

1990-01-01

353

Ethical dimension of scientific investigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After emphasizing the growing concern about ethical issues related to scientific research involving human subjects by bodies responsible for the promotion of science in Brazil, this paper discusses the different perspectives under which relationships between ethics and production knowledge are established, highlighting the close connection of the ethical dimension to the political dimension, given the need for affirmation of otherness, for the presence of the other, so that one can discuss the ethical quality of any human action. It is concluded that initiatives aiming at standardizing procedures of scientific research are legitimated as important means to ensure respect for human dignity in the scientific practice.

Antônio Joaquim Severino

2014-04-01

354

Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The goal was not to provide answers to any of the issues or problems, simply to identify those topics that deserve our attention as a society. Some of the issues may benefit from legislation at the federal or state levels, others may be more appropriately addressed by the private sector. Participants at the roundtable included over a dozen experts in the areas of microbiology, intellectual property, agricultural biotechnology, microbial genomics, bioterrorism, economic development, biotechnology research, and bioethics. These experts came from federal and state government, industry and academia. The participants were asked to come to the roundtable with a written statement of the top three to five public policy/ ethical issues they viewed as most likely to be significant to the industry and to policy makers over the next several years.

Diane E. Hoffmann

2003-09-12

355

A Snap Shot on Business Ethic and Ethic in Business  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An ethical issue in business is increasing and it is being focused on by the business markets,customers and communities. It was important from the beginning and is important also now as well. Andevery company or organization for being survival and comparative should pay much more attention to thisimportant. This paper aims to study the ethic and some of related issues around it.

Hassan Danaee Fard

2011-05-01

356

Update on legal issues related to fugitive emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Technical issues relating to fugitive emissions are difficult enough, but the legal landscape is complex as well. Current key legal issues relating to fugitive emissions compliance and their practical implications for the regulated community are summarized.

Wick, W.D. [Crosby, Heafey, Roach & May, Oakland, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

357

The Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues Impacted by Modern Assisted Reproductive Technologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background. While assisted reproductive technology (ART), including in vitro fertilization has given hope to millions of couples suffering from infertility, it has also introduced countless ethical, legal, and social challenges. The objective of this paper is to identify the aspects of ART that are most relevant to present-day society and discuss the multiple ethical, legal, and social challenges inherent to this technology. Scope of Review. This paper evaluates some of the most visible and c...

Brezina, Paul R.; Yulian Zhao

2012-01-01

358

Ethical and legal issues in research involving human subjects: do you want a piece of me?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The conduct of biomedical research involving the participation of human beings implicates a variety of ethical concerns pertaining to such values as dignity, bodily integrity, autonomy, and privacy. These ethical concerns have been translated into a complex regulatory apparatus in the USA, containing specific legal provisions concerning such matters as participant safety, informed consent, and confidentiality. A topic of particular interest for pathologists is the handling of human tissue spe...

Kapp, M. B.

2006-01-01

359

Convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria vaccine trials in Africa: Report from the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme's Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre consultation, 10-11 February 2009, Durban, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Africa continues to bear a disproportionate share of the global HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB and malaria burden. The development and distribution of safe, effective and affordable vaccines is critical to reduce these epidemics. However, conducting HIV/AIDS, TB, and/or malaria vaccine trials simultaneously in developing countries, or in populations affected by all three diseases, is likely to result in numerous ethical challenges. Methods In order to explore convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trials in Africa, the Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre of the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme hosted a consultation on the Convergent Ethical Issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria Vaccine Trials in Africa in Durban, South Africa on the 10-11 February 2009. Results Key cross cutting ethical issues were prioritized during the consultation as community engagement; ancillary care obligations; care and treatment; informed consent; and resource sharing. Conclusion The consultation revealed that while there have been few attempts to find convergence on ethical issues between HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trial fields to date, there is much common ground and scope for convergence work between stakeholders in the three fields.

Essack Zaynab

2010-03-01

360

Ethics Education Library  

Science.gov (United States)

Based at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), the Ethics Education Library seeks "to connect people interested in developing new and interesting ethics training methods and programs, to disseminate best practices and tools that have already been developed, and to ultimately foster the creation of new methods and programs for teaching students about ethical issues inherent in research and practice." Visitors to the site can take advantage of the Browse feature to look for online tutorials, syllabi, teaching modules, and case studies. The case studies section has over 5,500 items, some of which are available in full and all of which have an abstract for perusal. Additionally, visitors can use the Publications area to find books, journal articles and other published materials relating to all areas of ethics education. These materials are arranged topically into sections that include bioethics, business ethics, and media ethics. Finally, visitors can scroll through the Ethics News on the right-hand side of the page for more information about current appearances of ethics in the daily news.

2012-05-11

 
 
 
 
361

Turn-of-the-century ethical issues in child psychiatric research.  

Science.gov (United States)

National concern in 2000 about increased psychoactive drug prescription for preschoolers accentuated the 1990s thrust for more pharmacologic research in children. Preschoolers are prescribed potent drugs without adequate evidence for efficacy or safety at this plastic age of the rapidly developing brain. Implementation of needed preschool research poses special ethical complications. Children with mental disorder qualify for special protection under both rubrics. Parental informed consent is crucial for preschoolers, who appear incapable of assent because of their preoperational, magical, animistic, egocentric thinking, with inability to comprehend relative risks and benefits. Whether they can dissent is an open question. Possibly for research with direct benefit outweighing the risk, parental permission/consent could override attempted preschooler dissent. Subject recompense should be adjusted for age differences in perception of amount, although parent reimbursement needs to be realistic. Insurance for research risk is desirable. Placebo controls appear justified for preschoolers because there is little evidence base to say that a proven effective treatment already exists. Disruptive behavior disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity, have enough evidence of preschool diagnostic validity to justify therapeutic trials. In preschool pharmacologic research, a brief trial of a nonpharmacologic treatment should precede the drug trial to ensure that placebo responders and responders to the alternative treatment are not exposed to drug risk. PMID:11276405

Arnold, L E

2001-04-01

362

Pertinent issues related to laparoscopic radical prostatectomy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: We describe the critical steps of the laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) technique and discuss how they impact upon the pertinent issues regarding prostate cancer surgery: blood loss, potency and continence. RESULTS: A major advantage of LRP is the reduced operative blood loss. The pr [...] ecise placement of the dorsal vein complex stitch associated with the tamponading effect of the CO2 pneumoperitoneum significantly decrease venous bleeding, which is the main source of blood loss during radical prostatectomy. At the Cleveland Clinic, the average blood loss of our first 100 patients was 322.5 ml, resulting in low transfusion rates. The continuous venous bleeding narrowed pelvic surgical field and poor visibility can adversely impact on nerve preservation during open radical prostatectomy. Laparoscopy, with its enhanced and magnified vision in a relatively bloodless field allows for excellent identification and handling of the neurovascular bundles. During open retropubic radical prostatectomy, the pubic bone may impair visibility and access to the urethral stump, and the surgeon must tie the knots relying on tactile sensation alone. Consequently, open prostatectomy is associated with a prolonged catheterization period of 2 - 3 weeks. Comparatively, during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy all sutures are meticulously placed and each is tied under complete visual control, resulting in a precise mucosa-to-mucosa approximation. CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic approach may represent a reliable less invasive alternative to the conventional open approach. Despite the encouraging preliminary anatomical and functional outcomes, prospective randomized comparative trials are required to critically evaluate the role of laparoscopy for this sophisticated and delicate operation.

Sidney C., Abreu; Inderbir S., Gill.

363

Pertinent issues related to laparoscopic radical prostatectomy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: We describe the critical steps of the laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) technique and discuss how they impact upon the pertinent issues regarding prostate cancer surgery: blood loss, potency and continence. RESULTS: A major advantage of LRP is the reduced operative blood loss. The pr [...] ecise placement of the dorsal vein complex stitch associated with the tamponading effect of the CO2 pneumoperitoneum significantly decrease venous bleeding, which is the main source of blood loss during radical prostatectomy. At the Cleveland Clinic, the average blood loss of our first 100 patients was 322.5 ml, resulting in low transfusion rates. The continuous venous bleeding narrowed pelvic surgical field and poor visibility can adversely impact on nerve preservation during open radical prostatectomy. Laparoscopy, with its enhanced and magnified vision in a relatively bloodless field allows for excellent identification and handling of the neurovascular bundles. During open retropubic radical prostatectomy, the pubic bone may impair visibility and access to the urethral stump, and the surgeon must tie the knots relying on tactile sensation alone. Consequently, open prostatectomy is associated with a prolonged catheterization period of 2 - 3 weeks. Comparatively, during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy all sutures are meticulously placed and each is tied under complete visual control, resulting in a precise mucosa-to-mucosa approximation. CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic approach may represent a reliable less invasive alternative to the conventional open approach. Despite the encouraging preliminary anatomical and functional outcomes, prospective randomized comparative trials are required to critically evaluate the role of laparoscopy for this sophisticated and delicate operation.

Sidney C., Abreu; Inderbir S., Gill.

2003-12-01

364

Direct-to-consumer online genetic testing and the four principles: an analysis of the ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of genetic tests marketed and sold direct-to-consumers (DTC) via the internet raises moral concerns and debate about their appropriateness and ethical and clinical significance. These tests are offered for a wide range of diseases and conditions, and the mutations have variable penetrance and associated risk. A number of these tests lack data on their accuracy and reliability, making interpretation of results difficult. DTC genetic testing is undertaken outside the context of the physician-patient relationship and may lack appropriate individual and family genetic counseling, leaving the consumer vulnerable to potential harms, such as misinterpretation of results, including false positive or false reassurance, with limited or no benefits. Beauchamp and Childress's four principles of biomedical ethics provide a framework for analyzing the ethical issues raised by DTC genetic testing. We argue that the potential harms outweigh the potential benefits of such tests, that respect for autonomy should be limited in light of potential harm from DTC testing, and that the availability of genetic testing over the internet may be considered unfair and unjust and affect resource allocation by placing an unfair burden on primary care physicians. In light of the moral issues posed by these tests, practical responses are suggested in the areas of consumer education, medical education, and interaction with commercial companies. PMID:17115513

Wasson, Katherine; Cook, E David; Helzlsouer, Kathy

2006-01-01

365

Mobile Commerce and Related Mobile Security Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article will discuss how m-commerce conducts transactions of the mobile device through Internet and how these technologies are developed throughout the years. The article will also judge the security and privacy levels when dealing with mobile commerce and what kind of issues are encountered when using mobile commerce systems. The article will also evaluate the solutions on how m-commerce issues are avoided and how they are tackled by the technology evolution

Ashish Wadhaval#1 , Rugved Mehta#2 , Ashlesha Gawade

2013-04-01

366

Medical Ethics in Radiology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to the recent developments in radiological techniques, the role of radiology in the clinical management of patients is ever increasing and in turn, so is the importance of radiology in patient management. Thus far, there have been few open discussions about medical ethics related to radiology in Korea. Hence, concern about medical ethics as an essential field of radiology should be part of an improved resident training program and patient management. The categories of medical ethics related with radiology are ethics in the radiological management of patient, the relationship of radiologists with other medical professionals or companies, the hazard level of radiation for patients and radiologists, quality assurance of image products and modalities, research ethics, and other ethics issues related to teleradiology and fusion imaging. In order to achieve the goal of respectful progress in radiology as well as minimizing any adverse reaction from other medical professions or society, we should establish a strong basis of medical ethics through the continuous concern and self education

Kim, Kyung Won; Park, Jae Hyung; Yoon, Soon Ho [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-08-15

367

Enseñanza de la ética y la educación moral, ¿permanecen ausentes de los programas universitarios? / Moral and Ethical Issues: Are they the Missing Links in University Programs?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Hoy en día, existiendo mayor consenso sobre la virtud de enseñar ética y de continuar la educación moral de los jóvenes en el ámbito universitario, es preciso determinar ¿cuáles son los valores fundamentales y cuáles las condiciones pedagógicas de su enseñanza? Este artículo presenta los resultados [...] de una investigación tendiente a establecer la función realmente asignada a la enseñanza de la ética y a la educación moral de la persona en el contexto universitario. A partir de una investigación documental, seguida de un estudio comparado con muestreo teórico, se encontró que mientras el 52% de los programas revisados tenían al menos un curso asociado a la enseñanza de la ética, no hay contenidos orientados específicamente a la educación de la acción moral. En las carreras de derecho y medicina prima la tendencia hacia la ética profesional, mientras en ingeniería civil se encaminan a la responsabilidad social. Se concluyó, a partir del análisis del contenido de 120 asignaturas, que la formación moral de la persona sigue ausente del currículo universitario. Abstract in english Now that there is greater consensus on the merit of teaching ethics and continuing the moral education of youth at the university level, it is necessary to determine what constitute core values and the pedagogical conditions necessary for teaching them. This article presents the results of research [...] that attempts to establish the function effectively assigned to the teaching of ethics and moral education in the context of higher education. Based on documentary research, followed by a comparative study with theoretical sampling, we found that while 52% of the programs reviewed had at least one course related to the teaching of ethics, there were no contents geared specifically to the teaching of moral action. In law and medicine the trend toward professional ethics prevails, while engineering programs veer towards issues of social responsibility. Judging by our analysis of 120 course subjects, moral training of the individual is absent from university curricula.

María Eugenia, Guerrero Useda; Diomedes Andrés, Gómez Paternina.

368

Ethical issues in the conduct of research at a multidisciplinary clinic.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the process our interdisciplinary clinic used to create an institutional policy regarding research participant recruitment from among our client base. We demonstrate how certain elements of the client-clinician relationship can lead to inadvertent ethical quandaries in research recruitment, including implicit coercion and fostering of "therapeutic misconception." Our internal policy deliberations focused on five central dilemmas, each requiring a careful evaluation of ethical principles. Interpersonal and cross-disciplinary differences of opinion required a delicate balance among competing priorities. The final policy represents our attempt to resolve these ethical paradoxes in a way that allows us to support and pursue valuable clinician-researcher partnerships while prioritizing both our clients' clinical care and their rights to autonomy and fully informed consent. PMID:22144084

Larsen, Jennifer; McMillin, Andy

2011-11-01

369

Issues Raised in Relation to Radioactive Waste Management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nirex has undertaken various consultations with different stakeholders to identify their issues and concerns about radioactive waste management in general and specific aspects of Nirex's work. This paper will outline what dialogue techniques Nirex has undertaken and the issues and concerns that people have raised during the events. It will outline some of the work that Nirex is undertaking to address stakeholders' issues and concerns. Nirex has used a variety of dialogue techniques co-ordinated under the Nirex Involvement Programme to engage with stakeholders about the work we undertake. We are now trying to address the issues, concerns, scenarios and questions raised in our work programme. Key lessons that we have learned in undertaking the dialogues include: The importance of appropriate facilitation and organisation of meetings; The need for a clear purpose for meetings; Being flexible to the needs of the attendees and the issues they raise; Providing feedback to those who participate and following up issues. Through engaging with the public Nirex has learned that: Radioactive waste is not an everyday concern for people; The public can, will and want to engage with the issue of radioactive waste management. This includes engaging with the ethical debate. To facilitate this Nirex and others need to: Provide information in a neutral form outlining the pros and cons and including various people's opinions; Use proactive techniques to allow access and space for people to discuss the issues; Demonstrate how people's opinions have been taken into account. People understand the issues very differently to the way institutions understand them. There is a need for institutions to learn to understand public concerns and the ways in which the public understand issues, as well as for the public to understand the institutional positions better. We are using these insights to develop our future work in this area

370

77 FR 26012 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission will discuss topics related to the ethical issues associated with the development...ninth meeting are, first, to discuss the ethical issues associated with the development...before it. Respectful debate of opposing views and active participation by citizens...

2012-05-02

371

Research on Offshore Service Outsourcing and the Related Issue of Corporate Social Responsibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the trend of economic globalization, offshore service outsourcing is developing rapidly and its related Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR issues emerge as a result. However, so far, the related research findings are limited. This study based on the CSR theory of stakeholders and the special characteristics of international service outsourcing, discusses the related CSR issues such as the unemployment problem of outsourcer country, the unfair employment problem of recipient country, etc. In the end, it proposes some corresponding countermeasures to solve these problems, such as: firms of offshore service outsourcing should refer to the international standards of social responsibility such as UN Global Compact, OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and ISO26000, etc., to establish a proper code of ethics within the organization, consult with the host country’s stakeholders to understand their concerns of CSR issues impacting on their benefits, try best to reduce the related job losses and protect the interests of employees by training and education to improve their skills and strengthen communication channels with the stakeholders like the government, communities, suppliers and employees, etc., so as to increase their awareness of CSR issues and take measures to resolve these issues. And the administrative authority of the government should play an import role in the creation of a capable or proficient supervision on the CSR issue of offshore service outsourcing, etc.

Zhu Wenzhong

2013-01-01

372

Sustainable issues related to heap leaching operations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english One of the earliest records of metal recovery by solution leaching is described by Agricola as 'juice of rock' in the 1550s. In these early years of hydrometallurgy and civil engineering, few controls and systems were employed to enhance recovery and protect the environment. Since that time, leachin [...] g (dump or heap) operations have made significant strides in increasing metal and solution recovery while protecting the environment, all goals of a sustainable operation. It is now recognized that the design and operation of modern heap leach facilities requires contributions from many fields of study, including hydrometallurgy, civil engineering, geotechnical engineering, unsaturated-flow hydrology, mine planning, geosynthetics engineering, geochemistry, process engineering, mechanical engineering, and electrical engineering. While advancements in these fields have resulted in more sustainable heap leach operations, challenges in the industry still exist. A number of heap leach operations exhibit poor or lower-than-predicted metal recovery, loss of solution flow and control within the ore heap, loss of ore heap stability under leach, failure of liner and/or solution recovery systems, and overtopping of process water ponds. A number of these issues may be the result of several compounding conditions. For example, poor metal recovery may be due to an inadequate scale-up assumption (scaling laboratory tests to field-size heaps), lack of control of the in-heap geochemical environment, changes in ore mineralogy from the original design, changes in mechanical and hydraulic properties of the ore from the original design, ore handling and pre-treatment, inadequate solution management system, and inadequate solution application. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss issues that may affect the sustainability of a heap leach operation. Since sustainability encompasses a broad range of topics and issues, the focus of this paper will be on issues affecting metal and solution recovery, solution flow and containment, and stability of the ore heap.

J.F., Lupo.

1021-10-01

373

Sustainable issues related to heap leaching operations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english One of the earliest records of metal recovery by solution leaching is described by Agricola as 'juice of rock' in the 1550s. In these early years of hydrometallurgy and civil engineering, few controls and systems were employed to enhance recovery and protect the environment. Since that time, leachin [...] g (dump or heap) operations have made significant strides in increasing metal and solution recovery while protecting the environment, all goals of a sustainable operation. It is now recognized that the design and operation of modern heap leach facilities requires contributions from many fields of study, including hydrometallurgy, civil engineering, geotechnical engineering, unsaturated-flow hydrology, mine planning, geosynthetics engineering, geochemistry, process engineering, mechanical engineering, and electrical engineering. While advancements in these fields have resulted in more sustainable heap leach operations, challenges in the industry still exist. A number of heap leach operations exhibit poor or lower-than-predicted metal recovery, loss of solution flow and control within the ore heap, loss of ore heap stability under leach, failure of liner and/or solution recovery systems, and overtopping of process water ponds. A number of these issues may be the result of several compounding conditions. For example, poor metal recovery may be due to an inadequate scale-up assumption (scaling laboratory tests to field-size heaps), lack of control of the in-heap geochemical environment, changes in ore mineralogy from the original design, changes in mechanical and hydraulic properties of the ore from the original design, ore handling and pre-treatment, inadequate solution management system, and inadequate solution application. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss issues that may affect the sustainability of a heap leach operation. Since sustainability encompasses a broad range of topics and issues, the focus of this paper will be on issues affecting metal and solution recovery, solution flow and containment, and stability of the ore heap.

J.F., Lupo.

374

Technical findings related to Generic Issue 79  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the technical basis for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) resolution of Generic Safety Issue 79, ''Unanalyzed Reactor Vessel (PWR) Thermal Stress During Natural Convection Cooldown.'' Included are discussions of pertinent technical background information, the historical development of the issue, the approach of the NRC staff and its contractor to the resolution, and the NRC staff technical conclusions with their supporting bases. The B ampersand W Owners Group (BWOG) prepared a detailed analysis of its 177-fuel-assembly reactor vessel under natural convection cooldown conditions. This report was reviewed by the NRC staff and its contractor, and conservative independent confirmatory stress analyses were performed by the NRC contractor in selected areas. To complete the review, an independent fracture mechanics evaluation was performed by the NRC staff. This report presents the NRC's review and evaluation of the BWOG report and the NRC's conclusion that the BWOG document, supported by the additional conservative independent analyses discussed above, provides an adequate basis for the resolution of the issue. 8 refs., 3 figs

375

Framing of Ethical Issues in the Network Society : The interplay between the active online public and news media  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose: This study investigates the moral framing of an ethical issue by various actors and looks at the agenda setting effects between news media and the active online public as represented in social media. Design: We coded 4114 sentences manually and conducted an analysis of conditional probability of co-occurrence between actors and issues to identify associative frames. An ARIMA model and time series are applied to detect the interplay between the active online public and news media over a period of three months. Findings: The analysis reveals different framings of the ethical issue by various actors. Furthermore, evidence of a bi-directional relationship between news media and the active online public is found, whereby the news media more strongly precedes social media. Originality: We apply an audience-driven framework that conceptualizes parts of the general public as the active online public. This is the first study, where a time series analysis of associated frames between news media and social media is conducted.

Etter, Michael; Vestergaard JØrgensen, Anne

376

The Nazi Origins of Eduard Pernkopf's "Topographische Anatomie des Menschen:" The Biomedical Ethical Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery of the Nazi origins of the classic Pernkopf anatomy atlas is one example of scientific information obtained by doctors who violated the Hippocratic Oath. The ethical dilemmas that doctors and medical centers face as a result of this and other potentially tainted data is reviewed. (Author/AEF)

Israel, Howard A.

1998-01-01

377

Therapeutic Implications of Pharmacotherapy: Current Trends and Ethical Issues.(practice & Theory)  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of psychotropic medications (pharmacotherapy) in conjunction with psychotherapy is regarded as the standard of care for many mental health disorders. Counselors, therefore, need to be knowledgeable about psychopharmacology to monitor its impact on the therapeutic relationship and on client outcome. Discussed are potential ethical dilemmas…

King, Jason H.; Anderson, Shannon M.

2004-01-01

378

Ethical Issues in Open and Distance Education with Special Reference to Expectations and Reality  

Science.gov (United States)

Education is intimately connected with ethics, because holistically speaking education is more than simply passing examinations and acquiring degrees. Education is character building and life long learning. Savants and philosophers throughout the history of humankind have borne testimony to this aspect of education. Today, there is a great deal of…

Raj Urs, S. N. Vikram; Harsha, T. S.; Raju, Vijay B. P.

2013-01-01

379

Ethical Issues in Online Educational Research: Protecting Privacy, Establishing Authenticity in Email Interviewing  

Science.gov (United States)

Educational researchers have a responsibility to ensure that in whatever research paradigm they work, the research that is conducted is done so within an "ethic of respect" to those who participate. This implies a number of responsibilities on the part of the researcher that include ensuring trust, dignity, privacy, confidentiality and anonymity.…

James, Nalita; Busher, Hugh

2007-01-01

380

ETHICAL ISSUES IN OPEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO EXPECTATIONS AND REALITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Education is intimately connected with ethics, because holistically speaking education is more than simply passing examinations and acquiring degrees. Education is character building and life long learning. Savants and philosophers throughout the history of humankind have borne testimony to this aspect of education. Today, there is a great deal of emphasis on continuous and life long learning which implies that education is a continual learning process and not merely relegated to certification. Our experience in the field of distance education indicates that the profile of distance learners varies, cutting across barriers of gender, class and caste. The distance learner may be suffering from a sense of isolation as he/she makes a return to study after a gap of time or while working. It is there that the distance educator makes a positive, ethical and interventionist role by helping the student to learn beyond the stereotypical classroom situation and can act effectively as the friend, philosopher and guide of the learner. Thus practicing what you preach is the moto of ethics in distance. Some of the more important ethical concerns associated with open and distance learning are not those that may be faced by learners. Instead, the challenges faced by those that design ODL or use it in their teaching can be seen as increasingly important. These challenges include globalization, which has emphasized instrumental rather than social aims of education, and the use of cognitive rather than affective pedagogies. For ODL designers and teachers, this has resulted in a concentration on cognitive tasks and market-driven aspects of open and distance learning at the expense of the social harmony that might otherwise be achieved. The overarching ethical concern for ODL practitioners should be to implement an appropriate pedagogy that will satisfy both instrumental and social aims. While this can be achieved, in part, through the use of the pedagogies outlined in this paper, the problem is seen as being associated with deeply interwoven social and cultural contexts. Consequently, there is a greater responsibility for all ODL practitioners to ensure that the choices that they make are ethical at all times, irrespective of the demands of any employer, institution or authority. This paper deals with ethics in general, its role in distance education and its significance to educational institutions.

S. N. Vikram RAJ URS

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
381

Nuclear power and ethics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author can see no sense in demanding an ethical regime to be applied exclusively to nuclear power but rather calls for an approach that discusses nuclear power as one constituent of the complex energy issue in a way spanning all dimensions involved, as e.g. the technological, economic, cultural, humanitarian, and humanistic aspects. An ethical approach does not question scientific research, or science or technology, but examines their relation to man and the future of humanity, so that an ethical approach will first of all demand that society will bring forward conscientious experts as reliable partners in the process of discussing the ethical implications of progress and development in a higly industrialised civilisation. (orig./CB)

382

Ethics and Involuntary Treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews the ethical issues related to involuntary psychiatric treatment, including the conflicts between the principles of beneficence, autonomy, and nonmaleficence with regard to involuntary treatment for the patient's interests versus those of society. Describes moral problems as centering around disagreements regarding the patient's…

Wettstein, Robert M.

1987-01-01

383

Ethics (lesson)  

Science.gov (United States)

Students examine some examples of ethical issues that have resulted from our expanded knowledge of neuroscience. They are asked to write a position paper describing their own point of view on one of these controversial topics.

2009-04-14

384

Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Now that public attention has grown increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, the commercial use of biomass could greatly accelerate. Renewable feedstocks like biomass can provide better environmentally balanced sources of energy and other nonfood products than fossil fuels. The future of biomass is uncertain, however, because public attention focuses on both its potential and its challenges. This paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 and 4 catalog the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large-scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups: wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier: gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 provides a conclusion and summary.

Hughes, M. [Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy; Ranney, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-12-31

385

Legal and medical aspects of the ethics committee’s work relating to abortion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyses the legal and medical aspects of the work of ethics committees on abortion. According to the legislation of the Republic of Serbia, these committees are competent to determine justifiable terms for abortion after the twentieth week of the fetus. It is well known that abortion is not only a medical but a legal, ethic, social and demographic problem as well. A liberal solution in view of abortion in the first trimester has been accepted in most European countries, as by the legislature of the Republic of Serbia. Since prenatal diagnosis cannot always determine the fetus state with certainty but at times may do so at a later stage, abortion is then required when the child is already capable of extrauterine life. The necessity for performing abortion in the third trimester is thus a result of good knowledge of techno-medicine but also from the limited information it provides. In such situations, the physician needs confirmation and justification of his standpoint with respect to abortion through a legal formulation which should contain "minimum moral". Society has found a way to protect and help him through moral and ethic forms of prevention without anybody’s emotions being affected. Ethics committees should thus help the physician in view of determining the terms for performing late abortion, since the rules of doctor’s ethics are not sufficient in this case. The article especially analyses the work of the Ethics Committee of the Clinical Center in Kragujevac in the period 2000-2010. It is stated that the largest number of cases referred to determined diseases or fetus anomalies while only a negligible number (11.29% to the illness of the mother. There were no requests for abortions due to legal reasons (pregnancies from criminal offences. A significant number (40.28% of requests submitted to the Ethics Committee related to pregnancies under the 24th week of pregnancy. Since a pregnancy of 24 weeks represents a boundary line between a miscarriage and preterm birth, the paper proposes a shift in the boundary line of pregnancies which must be terminated according to the Ethics committee, from 20 weeks of gestation to 24 weeks of gestation. At the same time, the requirement for narrowing legal conditions for abortion in later phases of pregnancies is pointed out as well as abolition of legal indications.

Ponjavi? Zoran

2011-01-01

386

Ethical and scientific issues of nanotechnology in the workplace / Questões éticas e científicas sobre locais de trabalho com nanotecnologia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Na ausência de evidência quanto a potenciais efeitos da exposição a nanopartículas sobre a saúde ocupacional, existe necessidade de orientação para os gestores a respeito dos riscos, perigos e dos possíveis controles. A identificação de questões éticas envolvidas é útil, particularmente para emprega [...] dores, empregados, investidores e autoridades de saúde, uma vez que o sentido e a meta da segurança ocupacional e de saúde é a prevenção de doenças para os trabalhadores. Essa situação inclui: (a) identificação e comunicação de riscos por cientistas, autoridades e empregadores; (b) aceitação dos riscos por parte dos trabalhadores; (c) seleção e implementação de controles; (d) estabelecimento de programas de detecção precoce; e (e) investimento em toxicologia e pesquisas de vigilância. A questão ética envolve determinação imparcial de riscos, não maleficência, autonomia, justiça, privacidade e promoção do respeito às pessoas. Identificadas e exploradas as questões éticas, várias opções se abrem ao gestor. Adicionalmente, deliberações societais acerca dos riscos no local de trabalho com nanotecnologia podem fundamentar a escolha por pequenos negócios dentro de uma perspectiva global. Abstract in english In the absence of scientific clarity about the potential health effects of occupational exposure to nanoparticles, a need exists for guidance in decisionmaking about hazards, risks, and controls. An identification of the ethical issues involved may be useful to decision makers, particularly employer [...] s, workers, investors, and health authorities. Because the goal of occupational safety and health is the prevention of disease in workers, the situations that have ethical implications that most affect workers have been identified. These situations include the a) identification and communication of hazards and risks by scientists, authorities, and employers; b) workers' acceptance of risk; c) selection and implementation of controls; d) establishment of medical screening programs; and e) investment in toxicologic and control research. The ethical issues involve the unbiased determination of hazards and risks, nonmaleficence (doing no harm), autonomy, justice, privacy, and promoting respect for persons. As the ethical issues are identified and explored, options for decision makers can be developed. Additionally, societal deliberations about workplace risks of nanotechnologies may be enhanced by special emphasis on small businesses and adoption of a global perspective.

Paul A., Schulte; Fabio, Salamanca-Buentello.

387

Ethical and scientific issues of nanotechnology in the workplace / Questões éticas e científicas sobre locais de trabalho com nanotecnologia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Na ausência de evidência quanto a potenciais efeitos da exposição a nanopartículas sobre a saúde ocupacional, existe necessidade de orientação para os gestores a respeito dos riscos, perigos e dos possíveis controles. A identificação de questões éticas envolvidas é útil, particularmente para emprega [...] dores, empregados, investidores e autoridades de saúde, uma vez que o sentido e a meta da segurança ocupacional e de saúde é a prevenção de doenças para os trabalhadores. Essa situação inclui: (a) identificação e comunicação de riscos por cientistas, autoridades e empregadores; (b) aceitação dos riscos por parte dos trabalhadores; (c) seleção e implementação de controles; (d) estabelecimento de programas de detecção precoce; e (e) investimento em toxicologia e pesquisas de vigilância. A questão ética envolve determinação imparcial de riscos, não maleficência, autonomia, justiça, privacidade e promoção do respeito às pessoas. Identificadas e exploradas as questões éticas, várias opções se abrem ao gestor. Adicionalmente, deliberações societais acerca dos riscos no local de trabalho com nanotecnologia podem fundamentar a escolha por pequenos negócios dentro de uma perspectiva global. Abstract in english In the absence of scientific clarity about the potential health effects of occupational exposure to nanoparticles, a need exists for guidance in decisionmaking about hazards, risks, and controls. An identification of the ethical issues involved may be useful to decision makers, particularly employer [...] s, workers, investors, and health authorities. Because the goal of occupational safety and health is the prevention of disease in workers, the situations that have ethical implications that most affect workers have been identified. These situations include the a) identification and communication of hazards and risks by scientists, authorities, and employers; b) workers' acceptance of risk; c) selection and implementation of controls; d) establishment of medical screening programs; and e) investment in toxicologic and control research. The ethical issues involve the unbiased determination of hazards and risks, nonmaleficence (doing no harm), autonomy, justice, privacy, and promoting respect for persons. As the ethical issues are identified and explored, options for decision makers can be developed. Additionally, societal deliberations about workplace risks of nanotechnologies may be enhanced by special emphasis on small businesses and adoption of a global perspective.

Paul A., Schulte; Fabio, Salamanca-Buentello.

388

Ethical and scientific issues of nanotechnology in the workplace Questões éticas e científicas sobre locais de trabalho com nanotecnologia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the absence of scientific clarity about the potential health effects of occupational exposure to nanoparticles, a need exists for guidance in decisionmaking about hazards, risks, and controls. An identification of the ethical issues involved may be useful to decision makers, particularly employers, workers, investors, and health authorities. Because the goal of occupational safety and health is the prevention of disease in workers, the situations that have ethical implications that most affect workers have been identified. These situations include the a identification and communication of hazards and risks by scientists, authorities, and employers; b workers' acceptance of risk; c selection and implementation of controls; d establishment of medical screening programs; and e investment in toxicologic and control research. The ethical issues involve the unbiased determination of hazards and risks, nonmaleficence (doing no harm, autonomy, justice, privacy, and promoting respect for persons. As the ethical issues are identified and explored, options for decision makers can be developed. Additionally, societal deliberations about workplace risks of nanotechnologies may be enhanced by special emphasis on small businesses and adoption of a global perspective.Na ausência de evidência quanto a potenciais efeitos da exposição a nanopartículas sobre a saúde ocupacional, existe necessidade de orientação para os gestores a respeito dos riscos, perigos e dos possíveis controles. A identificação de questões éticas envolvidas é útil, particularmente para empregadores, empregados, investidores e autoridades de saúde, uma vez que o sentido e a meta da segurança ocupacional e de saúde é a prevenção de doenças para os trabalhadores. Essa situação inclui: (a identificação e comunicação de riscos por cientistas, autoridades e empregadores; (b aceitação dos riscos por parte dos trabalhadores; (c seleção e implementação de controles; (d estabelecimento de programas de detecção precoce; e (e investimento em toxicologia e pesquisas de vigilância. A questão ética envolve determinação imparcial de riscos, não maleficência, autonomia, justiça, privacidade e promoção do respeito às pessoas. Identificadas e exploradas as questões éticas, várias opções se abrem ao gestor. Adicionalmente, deliberações societais acerca dos riscos no local de trabalho com nanotecnologia podem fundamentar a escolha por pequenos negócios dentro de uma perspectiva global.

Paul A. Schulte

2007-10-01

389

Ethical Selves: A Sketch for a Theory of Relational Authenticity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Philosophers who show interest in authenticity tend to narrowly focus on its capacity to help people evade conformity and affirm individuality, a simplistic reduction that neglects authenticity’s moral potential and gives credence to the many critics who dismiss it as a euphemism for excessive individualism. Yet when conceived relationally, authenticity can also allow for worthy human flourishing without falling prey to conformity’s opposite extreme—egoism. This essay proposes a sketch for a relational conception of authenticity that can help prevent the often-destructive excess of egoism while also offsetting the undesirable deficiency of heteronomy, concertedly moving agents towards socially responsible living.

Natalie Fletcher

2013-01-01

390

Risk Communication in Assisted Reproduction in Latvia: From Private Experience to Ethical Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the process of risk communication in the context of assisted reproduction in Latvia. The paper is based on a qualitative methodology and two types of data: media analysis and 30 semi-structured interviews (11 patients, 4 egg donors, 15 experts. The study explores a broad definition of risk communication and explores three types of risks: health, psychosocial, and moral. We ask (1, who is involved in risk communication, (2, how risks are discussed using different channels of communication, and (3, what ethical problems arise during this process. In the process of analysis, we identified four types of information channels and two strategies of risk communication used by patients, as well as several ethical problems. In our view, the analysis of risk communication practices is significant to improve patient/physician relationship, as well as better meet patients' needs for comprehensive risk information.

Signe Mezinska

2013-05-01

391

Ethics of the electrified mind: defining issues and perspectives on the principled use of brain stimulation in medical research and clinical care.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, non-pharmacologic approaches to modifying human neural activity have gained increasing attention. One of these approaches is brain stimulation, which involves either the direct application of electrical current to structures in the nervous system or the indirect application of current by means of electromagnetic induction. Interventions that manipulate the brain have generally been regarded as having both the potential to alleviate devastating brain-related conditions and the capacity to create unforeseen and unwanted consequences. Hence, although brain stimulation techniques offer considerable benefits to society, they also raise a number of ethical concerns. In this paper we will address various dilemmas related to brain stimulation in the context of clinical practice and biomedical research. We will survey current work involving deep brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. We will reflect upon relevant similarities and differences between them, and consider some potentially problematic issues that may arise within the framework of established principles of medical ethics: nonmaleficence and beneficence, autonomy, and justice. PMID:23733209

Cabrera, Laura Y; Evans, Emily L; Hamilton, Roy H

2014-01-01

392

Ethical issues in implementation research: a discussion of the problems in achieving informed consent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved quality of care is a policy objective of health care systems around the world. Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice, and hence to reduce inappropriate care. It includes the study of influences on healthcare professionals' behaviour and methods to enable them to use research findings more effectively. Cluster randomized trials represent the optimal design for evaluating the effectiveness of implementation strategies. Various codes of medical ethics, such as the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki inform medical research, but their relevance to cluster randomised trials in implementation research is unclear. This paper discusses the applicability of various ethical codes to obtaining consent in cluster trials in implementation research. Discussion The appropriate application of biomedical codes to implementation research is not obvious. Discussion of the nature and practice of informed consent in implementation research cluster trials must consider the levels at which consent can be sought, and for what purpose it can be sought. The level at which an intervention is delivered can render the idea of patient level consent meaningless. Careful consideration of the ownership of information, and rights of access to and exploitation of data is required. For health care professionals and organizations, there is a balance between clinical freedom and responsibility to participate in research. Summary While ethical justification for clinical trials relies heavily on individual consent, for implementation research aspects of distributive justice, economics, and political philosophy underlie the debate. Societies may need to trade off decisions on the choice between individualized consent and valid implementation research. We suggest that social sciences codes could usefully inform the consideration of implementation research by members of Research Ethics Committees.

Eccles Martin P

2008-12-01

393

Ethical dilemmas related to predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientists and policy makers issuing predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster are faced with two major challenges, that is, failure to warn and issuing a false alarm. The consequences of failure to warn can be serious for society overall, for example, significant economic losses, heavy infrastructure and environmental damage, large number of human casualties, and social disruption. Failure to warn can also have serious for specific individuals, for example, legal proceedings against disaster research scientists, as in the L'Aquila earthquake affair. The consequences of false alarms may be less serious. Nevertheless, false alarms may violate the principle of nonmaleficence (do no harm), affect individual autonomy (eg, mandatory evacuations), and may result in the "cry wolf" effect. Other ethical issues associated with natural disasters include the promotion of global justice through international predisaster technical assistance and postdisaster aid. Social justice within a particular country is promoted through greater postdisaster aid allocation to the less privileged. PMID:24481888

Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, J W

2013-01-01

394

Needs and necessities of medical ethics education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent years, new medical technologies and their probable misuses have emerged public concerns about medical ethics. Medical ethics is a practical discipline that provides a structured approach for identifying, analyzing, and resolving ethical issues in clinical medicine. "nIn this study we reviewed some new methods of teaching medical ethics in other countries by searching in internet and literature. "nTwo key features related to the teaching of medical ethics are active involvement of students in the learning process instead of merely lecturing about the ethical principles and assessing how students apply their knowledge of ethical principles in simulated and actual situations. In many countries such as Iran, medical schools attempted to address medical ethics issues in formal ethics classes. "nIt is clear that the traditional method is no longer sufficient to meet the needs of practitioners and societies and new methods particularly those emphasize on active learning, individual participation, group interactions, and a process - based approach, should be developed and implemented. In addition, a concerted effort to improve education in medical ethics will benefit the medical profession and services to patients. Therefore, we recommend policy makers of medical ethics education to change the traditional methods to the modern methods; which are used now in the world.

Bagher Larijani

2006-03-01

395

A Social Audit Model for Agro-biotechnology Initiatives in Developing Countries: Accounting for Ethical, Social, Cultural, and Commercialization Issues  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english There is skepticism and resistance to innovations associated with agro-biotechnology projects in the developing world, leading to the possibility of failure. The source of the skepticism is complex, but partly traceable to how local communities view genetically engineered crops, public perception on [...] the technology's implications, and views on the role of the private sector in public health and agriculture, especially in the developing world. We posit that a governance and management model in which ethical, social, cultural, and commercialization issues are accounted for and addressed is important in mitigating the risk of project failure and improving the appropriate adoption of agro-biotechnology in sub-Saharan Africa. We introduce a social audit model, which we term Ethical, Social, Cultural and Commercialization (ESC² ) auditing, and that we developed based on feedback from a number of stakeholders. We lay the foundation for its importance in agro-biotechnology development projects and show how the model can be applied to projects run by Public Private Partnerships. We argue that the implementation of the audit model can help build public trust through facilitating project accountability and transparency. The model also provides evidence on how ESC² issues are perceived by various stakeholders, which enables project managers to effectively monitor and improve project performance. Although this model was specifically designed for agro-biotechnology initiatives, we show how it can also be applied to other development projects.

Obidimma, Ezezika; Fiona, Thomas; Jim, Lavery; Abdallah, Daar; Peter, Singer.

2009-10-01

396

A Social Audit Model for Agro-biotechnology Initiatives in Developing Countries: Accounting for Ethical, Social, Cultural, and Commercialization Issues  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english There is skepticism and resistance to innovations associated with agro-biotechnology projects in the developing world, leading to the possibility of failure. The source of the skepticism is complex, but partly traceable to how local communities view genetically engineered crops, public perception on [...] the technology's implications, and views on the role of the private sector in public health and agriculture, especially in the developing world. We posit that a governance and management model in which ethical, social, cultural, and commercialization issues are accounted for and addressed is important in mitigating the risk of project failure and improving the appropriate adoption of agro-biotechnology in sub-Saharan Africa. We introduce a social audit model, which we term Ethical, Social, Cultural and Commercialization (ESC² ) auditing, and that we developed based on feedback from a number of stakeholders. We lay the foundation for its importance in agro-biotechnology development projects and show how the model can be applied to projects run by Public Private Partnerships. We argue that the implementation of the audit model can help build public trust through facilitating project accountability and transparency. The model also provides evidence on how ESC² issues are perceived by various stakeholders, which enables project managers to effectively monitor and improve project performance. Although this model was specifically designed for agro-biotechnology initiatives, we show how it can also be applied to other development projects.

Obidimma, Ezezika; Fiona, Thomas; Jim, Lavery; Abdallah, Daar; Peter, Singer.

397

Ethics of the profession of public relations--does the public relations affects on journalism in Croatia?  

Science.gov (United States)

The UK's leading professional body for public relations "Chartered Institute of Public Relations" (CIPR) said that the public relations is about reputation--they are the result of what you do, what you say and what others say about you. Furthermore CIPR says that public relations are discipline whose objectives are safeguarding reputation, establishing understanding and pot pores, and the impact on the thinking and behavior of the public. Although the primary goal of public relations is to preserve and build a reputation, to tell the truth to a customer who has hired experts in this area, it seems that in its own way of development, public relations practitioners have stopped worrying about their reputation and the perception of the discipline within the public they address. All relevant professional bodies for public relations, including the Croatian Association for Public Relation (HUOJ), had set up codes of ethics and high standards according which the members and practitioners should be evaluated. Among other things stays that practitioner of public relations is required to check the reliability and accuracy of the data prior to their distribution and nurture honesty and accountability to the public interest. It seems that right this instruction of code of ethics has been often violated. In a public speech in Croatia, and therefore in the media, exist manipulation, propaganda, and all the techniques of spin, which practitioners of public relations are skillfully using in the daily transfer of information to the users and target groups. The aim of this paper is to determine what is the perception of the profession to the public. As in today's journalism increasingly present plume of public relations, we wish to comment on the part where journalism ends and begins PR and vice versa. In this paper, we analyze and compare codes of ethics ethics associations for public relations, as well as codes of ethics journalists' associations, in order to answer the question of where the boundaries of public relations and journalism are. Where one ends and the other begins, and the extent to which these two professions touch and affect each other. Is manipulation and spin present in the media, that is the questions that we seek the answer in this paper. PMID:24308204

Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana

2013-09-01

398

Reflexões éticas acerca dos estudos de soroprevelência de hepatites virais / Ethical issues about seroprevalence studies on viral hepatitis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A aplicação de novas tecnologias em pesquisas epidemiológicas sobre hepatites virais (HV) exige discussões éticas sobre inquéritos domiciliares de soroprevalência (IDS), estudos sentinelas (ES) e de registros de bancos de sangue (ERBS) e amostras de sorotecas (EAS). MÉTODOS: Discutem-se [...] fatores de força (FF) e fragilidade (FR) destas abordagens, argumentos/justificativas para sua utilização e alternativas, segundo os princípios éticos da Resolução CNS nº 196/96. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: As pesquisas sobre HV justificam-se por sua magnitude, gravidade, vulnerabilidade e necessidade de subsidiar protocolos diagnósticos/terapêuticos e estratégias de prevenção/controle. Em relação aos IDS, discutimos quanto a FF: autonomia do sujeito; representatividade amostral adequada; e FR: custo maior que benefícios; possibilidade de obter a informação por outros meios. Para os ES, FF: monitoramento das HV com custo operacional inferior ao dos IDS; ausência de danos adicionais ao sujeito; e FR: limitação relativa de representatividade. Para os ERBS, FF: monitoramento do VHB/VHC em doadores de sangue com baixo custo, sem risco adicional; e FR: limitação de representatividade. Quanto aos EAS, FF: preponderância de benefícios sobre riscos/custos; possibilidade de desvendar agravos desconhecidos e de oferecer diagnóstico precoce e tratamento; FR: material biológico e dados de uma pesquisa podem ser utilizados em outras. CONCLUSÃO: Estas discussões contribuem para embasar processos éticos, orientar a escolha do tipo de estudo epidemiológico e construir novos conceitos sobre estes temas. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies on viral hepatitis (VH) using new technologies raise ethical issues especially concerning community-based studies on seroprevalence (CSS), sentinel surveillance-based studies (SBS) the use of blood-bank registers (BBR) and serum stocks (SS). METHODS: Positive (PA) [...] and negative (NA) aspects of these different designs are discussed, pointing to alternatives, according to Resolution CNS nº 196/96. RESULTS: Priority for research is justified by VH magnitude, severity, and vulnerability, and need for development of diagnosis/therapy protocols and prevention/control strategies. With respect to CSS, PA was identified as: subject autonomy; adequate samples and as NA: costs override benefits, and availability of information from other sources. In relation to SBS, PA are: VH monitoring has lower operational costs than CSS; absence of additional injuries to subject; while NA is: relative restriction of representativeness. For BBR, PA is: the low cost of monitoring of HBV/HCV in blood donors and with no additional risk. PA has limited representativeness. SS studies present as PA: benefits higher than risks/costs; possibility of identification of new morbidity and offering of adequate diagnosis and treatment. NA is: biological material and research data can be used for other researches. CONCLUSION: The choice of study designs must take into account arguments for ethical investigation and consensus on the use of new technology.

Rosangela, Gaze; Diana Maul de, Carvalho; Clara Fumiko Tachibana, Yoshida; Luiz Fernando Rangel, Tura.

399

Reflexões éticas acerca dos estudos de soroprevelência de hepatites virais / Ethical issues about seroprevalence studies on viral hepatitis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A aplicação de novas tecnologias em pesquisas epidemiológicas sobre hepatites virais (HV) exige discussões éticas sobre inquéritos domiciliares de soroprevalência (IDS), estudos sentinelas (ES) e de registros de bancos de sangue (ERBS) e amostras de sorotecas (EAS). MÉTODOS: Discutem-se [...] fatores de força (FF) e fragilidade (FR) destas abordagens, argumentos/justificativas para sua utilização e alternativas, segundo os princípios éticos da Resolução CNS nº 196/96. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: As pesquisas sobre HV justificam-se por sua magnitude, gravidade, vulnerabilidade e necessidade de subsidiar protocolos diagnósticos/terapêuticos e estratégias de prevenção/controle. Em relação aos IDS, discutimos quanto a FF: autonomia do sujeito; representatividade amostral adequada; e FR: custo maior que benefícios; possibilidade de obter a informação por outros meios. Para os ES, FF: monitoramento das HV com custo operacional inferior ao dos IDS; ausência de danos adicionais ao sujeito; e FR: limitação relativa de representatividade. Para os ERBS, FF: monitoramento do VHB/VHC em doadores de sangue com baixo custo, sem risco adicional; e FR: limitação de representatividade. Quanto aos EAS, FF: preponderância de benefícios sobre riscos/custos; possibilidade de desvendar agravos desconhecidos e de oferecer diagnóstico precoce e tratamento; FR: material biológico e dados de uma pesquisa podem ser utilizados em outras. CONCLUSÃO: Estas discussões contribuem para embasar processos éticos, orientar a escolha do tipo de estudo epidemiológico e construir novos conceitos sobre estes temas. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies on viral hepatitis (VH) using new technologies raise ethical issues especially concerning community-based studies on seroprevalence (CSS), sentinel surveillance-based studies (SBS) the use of blood-bank registers (BBR) and serum stocks (SS). METHODS: Positive (PA) [...] and negative (NA) aspects of these different designs are discussed, pointing to alternatives, according to Resolution CNS nº 196/96. RESULTS: Priority for research is justified by VH magnitude, severity, and vulnerability, and need for development of diagnosis/therapy protocols and prevention/control strategies. With respect to CSS, PA was identified as: subject autonomy; adequate samples and as NA: costs override benefits, and availability of information from other sources. In relation to SBS, PA are: VH monitoring has lower operational costs than CSS; absence of additional injuries to subject; while NA is: relative restriction of representativeness. For BBR, PA is: the low cost of monitoring of HBV/HCV in blood donors and with no additional risk. PA has limited representativeness. SS studies present as PA: benefits higher than risks/costs; possibility of identification of new morbidity and offering of adequate diagnosis and treatment. NA is: biological material and research data can be used for other researches. CONCLUSION: The choice of study designs must take into account arguments for ethical investigation and consensus on the use of new technology.

Rosangela, Gaze; Diana Maul de, Carvalho; Clara Fumiko Tachibana, Yoshida; Luiz Fernando Rangel, Tura.

2006-06-01

400

Genetic Counseling: Ethical and Professional Role Implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic counseling assists people in identifying potential or manifest genetic problems, understanding their implications, making decisions about what course to follow, and working through psychological and social aspects as they affect individuals or couples. Four ethical principles and related ethical issues pertaining to autonomy, beneficence…

Witmer, J. Melvin; And Others

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Ethics and the Law: Friend or Foe?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discussed the relation between ethical standards for counselors and the legal principles of our society as it affects the client-counselor relationship. The concepts of client confidentiality and counselor liability are defined. A client-counselor situation is outlined, with suggested counselor responses to the ethical/legal issues

Stude, E. W.; McKelvey, James

1979-01-01

402

Exploring morally relevant issues facing families in their decisions to monitor the health-related behaviours of loved ones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patient self-management of disease is increasingly supported by technologies that can monitor a wide range of behavioural and biomedical parameters. Incorporated into everyday devices such as cell phones and clothes, these technologies become integral to the psychosocial aspects of everyday life. Many technologies are likely to be marketed directly to families with ill members, and families may enlist the support of clinicians in shaping use. Current ethical frameworks are mainly conceptualised from the perspective of caregivers, researchers, developers and regulators in order to ensure the ethics of their own practices. This paper focuses on families as autonomous decision-makers outside the regulated context of healthcare. We discuss some morally relevant issues facing families in their decisions to monitor the health-related behaviours of loved ones. An example - remote parental monitoring of adolescent blood glucose - is presented and discussed through the lens of two contrasting accounts of ethics; one reflecting the predominant focus on health outcomes within the health technology assessment (HTA) framework and the other that attends to the broader sociocultural contexts shaping technologies and their implications. Issues discussed include the focus of assessments, informed consent and child assent, and family co-creation of system characteristics and implications. The parents' decisions to remotely monitor their child has relational implications that are likely to influence conflict levels and thus also health outcomes. Current efforts to better integrate outcome assessments with social and ethical assessments are particularly relevant for informed decision-making about health monitoring technologies in families. PMID:19567691

Gammon, D; Christiansen, E K; Wynn, R

2009-07-01