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Public relations interns and ethical issues at work: Perceptions of student interns from three different universities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Empirical investigations of internships have increased our understanding of variables influencing the success of the internship. Few of these investigations, however, have focused on the internship as a process of socialisation through which interns learn the values associated with the profession. And while ethics has also been investigated, the focus on public relations student perceptions of ethics as they are applied or experienced during their internships has not been studied to any extent. This study was designed as a multi-university, multi-method investigation into student perceptions of their encounters with ethical issues at work. In general, the study determined that not all students will face ethical issues, yet many students were able to identify particular issues of concern to them. These issues included general business ethics and office politics as well as legitimate public relations concerns applied to issues ranging from billing to media relations and promotions. While students recalled addressing ethics in classes, they generally did not feel prepared for managing the issues especially related to office politics when confronted with them during their internships.

Charles A. Lubbers; Pamela G. Bourland-Davis; Brad L. Rawlins

2008-01-01

2

Assistive Technologies and Issues Relating to Privacy, Ethics and Security  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging technologies provide the opportunity to develop innovative sustainable service models, capable of supporting adults with dementia at home. Devices range from simple stand-alone components that can generate a responsive alarm call to complex interoperable systems that even can be remotely controlled. From these complex systems the paradigm of the ubiquitous or ambient smart home has emerged, integrating technology, environmental design and traditional care provision. The service context is often complex, involving a variety of stakeholders and a range of interested agencies. Against this backdrop, as anecdotal evidence and government policies spawn further innovation it is critical that due consideration is given to the potential ethical ramifications at an individual, organisational and societal level. Well-grounded ethical thinking and proactive ethical responses to this innovation are required. Explicit policy and practice should therefore emerge which engenders confidence in existing supported living option schemes for adults with dementia and informs further innovation.

Martin, Suzanne; Bengtsson, Johan E.; Dröes, Rose-Marie

3

On ethical issues in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] From an ethical viewpoint the author surveys existing international radiation protection recommendations and standards. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the author discusses ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. (author)

1996-01-01

4

Issues and ethics related to embryo placement: a national discussion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is growing debate over the transfer, or "placement," of embryos. During the first national conference on embryos (Emerging Issues in Embryo Adoption and Donation), funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Thomas C. Atwood, President and CEO of the National Council for Adoption, expressed his views and concerns regarding embryo "adoption." This article will highlight Mr. Atwood's presentation, offering a chance to examine and reflect on the scientific questions and moral implications of this new procedure.

Catlin AJ

2008-11-01

5

Ethical issues in biotechnology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

New ethical questions have arisen from our ability to intervene in the structure of the genome. Responsible use of this technique requires ethical evaluation in which experts, potential beneficiaries and the general public should all participate. The examples of genetically modified food and of human genetics help to illustrate the issues involved.

Polkinghorne JC

2000-01-01

6

Ethical Issues in Physiatrist Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Editorial on Ethical Issues. Medical ethics is at the centre of medical practice. It isrightly gaining much needed renewed focus and attentionin the evolving scenario. The impetus for it may beattributed to the revelations that arose through Nurembergtrials, the framework elements that define research andpublications related compulsions, and indeed the contextand state of affairs of present day medical jurisprudence.The physiatrist’s practice cannot remain untouched bythe moral and ethical dilemmas faced in today’s world.Although the pillars of the specialty are grounded in the

Hand G

2008-01-01

7

Ethical issues in nanotechnology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing area in science involved with manipulating matter at the atomic or molecular level. Nanotechnology is typically defined at a scale on the order of less than approximately 100 nm. Matter possesses unique properties at these size levels that are neither Newtonian nor quantum, but between the two regimes.These unique properties have created significant interest and excitement, sparking numerous research investigations. Nanotechnology is a very broad field with many current and potential applications. Some important examples of applications include battlefield activated dynamic armor clothing for soldiers, additives to sunscreens, and diagnostic laboratories on a chip to monitor general personal health. Groundbreaking capabilities often raise new questions. Any new scientific or technological development has the usual concomitant associated ethical issues, specifically regarding containment and regulation. These ethical issues are more pronounced with nanotechnology due to the sharp divide between those who see its great potential and opponents who express fears. Nanotechnology supporters believe that it has the potential to transform our lives dramatically, while opponents of nanotechnology fear that self-replicating "nanobots" could escape from laboratories and reduce all life on earth to "gray goo. "These fears have swayed generally uninformed public opinions via the media and sensational entertainment. A critical discussion of ethical issues surrounding nanotechnology, including the interaction of nanotechnology with the body and the environment--nanobiotechnology--and regulation of nanotechnology, is presented. We advocate strong, uniform regulations for nanotechnology, but only the use of regulations as needed. The limited use of regulations prevents the regulations from becoming burdensome and inhibiting research in the field.

Florczyk SJ; Saha S

2007-01-01

8

Ethical issues in nanotechnology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing area in science involved with manipulating matter at the atomic or molecular level. Nanotechnology is typically defined at a scale on the order of less than approximately 100 nm. Matter possesses unique properties at these size levels that are neither Newtonian nor quantum, but between the two regimes.These unique properties have created significant interest and excitement, sparking numerous research investigations. Nanotechnology is a very broad field with many current and potential applications. Some important examples of applications include battlefield activated dynamic armor clothing for soldiers, additives to sunscreens, and diagnostic laboratories on a chip to monitor general personal health. Groundbreaking capabilities often raise new questions. Any new scientific or technological development has the usual concomitant associated ethical issues, specifically regarding containment and regulation. These ethical issues are more pronounced with nanotechnology due to the sharp divide between those who see its great potential and opponents who express fears. Nanotechnology supporters believe that it has the potential to transform our lives dramatically, while opponents of nanotechnology fear that self-replicating "nanobots" could escape from laboratories and reduce all life on earth to "gray goo. "These fears have swayed generally uninformed public opinions via the media and sensational entertainment. A critical discussion of ethical issues surrounding nanotechnology, including the interaction of nanotechnology with the body and the environment--nanobiotechnology--and regulation of nanotechnology, is presented. We advocate strong, uniform regulations for nanotechnology, but only the use of regulations as needed. The limited use of regulations prevents the regulations from becoming burdensome and inhibiting research in the field. PMID:19023950

Florczyk, Stephen J; Saha, Subrata

2007-01-01

9

Prophylactic mastectomy: ethical issues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Why in particular should prophylactic mastectomy be seen more as an ethical concern than as a strictly medical question? In this article, four main explanations will be discussed. MAIN POINTS: First, a risky condition is not a disease and prevention does not improve well-being. The benefits are only statistical and make sense at the population level. Secondly, the cause of the risk is a genetic factor and some might argue about genetic 'exceptionalism'. Thirdly, there is no organ as, connected to femininity, sensuality, sexuality, adulthood and motherhood as the breast. Lastly, making tough and complex choices requires assistance from ethics. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Among ethical principles, western countries often rely on autonomy. The physician has to deliver all the relevant information; based on this 'knowledge' and using their own values, patients will take a decision. AREA OF CONTROVERSY: In 1998 in France, national recommendations set a list of criteria to fulfil, reducing autonomy. EMERGING AREAS FOR DEVELOPING RESEARCH: It might be expected that this tough issue will be solved, thanks to the improvement of prevention and therapeutic efficacy.

Eisinger F

2007-01-01

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Ethical issues relating the the banking of umbilical cord blood in Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Umbilical cord banks are a central component, as umbilical cord tissue providers, in both medical treatment and scientific research with stem cells. But, whereas the creation of umbilical cord banks is seen as successful practice, it is perceived as a risky style of play by others. This article examines and discusses the ethical, medical and legal considerations that arise from the operation of umbilical cord banks in Mexico. Discussion A number of experts have stated that the use of umbilical cord goes beyond the mere utilization of human tissues for the purpose of treatment. This tissue is also used in research studies: genetic studies, studies to evaluate the effectiveness of new antibiotics, studies to identify new proteins, etc. Meanwhile, others claim that the law and other norms for the functioning of cord banks are not consistent and are poorly defined. Some of these critics point out that the confidentiality of donor information is handled differently in different places. The fact that private cord banks offer their services as "biological insurance" in order to obtain informed consent by promising the parents that the tissue that will be stored insures the health of their child in the future raises the issue of whether the consent is freely given or given under coercion. Another consideration that must be made in relation to privately owned cord banks has to do with the ownership of the stored umbilical cord. Summary Conflicts between moral principles and economic interests (non-moral principles) cause dilemmas in the clinical practice of umbilical cord blood storage and use especially in privately owned banks. This article presents a reflection and some of the guidelines that must be followed by umbilical cord banks in order to deal with these conflicts. This reflection is based on the fundamental notions of ethics and public health and seeks to be a contribution towards the improvement of umbilical cord banks' performance.

Serrano-Delgado V Moises; Novello-Garza Barbara; Valdez-Martinez Edith

2009-01-01

11

Ethical issues in cloning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is great public concern with the ethics of human cloning. This paper briefly examines some of what I identify as pseudo-problems or myths associated with cloning, and some of the more substantial ethical concerns.

Satris S

2000-01-01

12

Public health : ethical issues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this report we consider some of the ethical issues that arise from efforts to improve health at the population level, and we examine the roles and responsibilities of the different parties involved. Although some might see personal behaviour as the primary factor determining the health of the population, we consider that to be too simplistic. Individual behaviour certainly plays a role, but health is influenced by many factors, such as clean air, the built and work environment, socio-economic and genetic background, and access to healthcare. Industries such as those producing, selling and marketing food, drink and tobacco also play an important role, and the impact of almost all these factors is influenced directly or indirectly by government policy. The political, regulatory and economic environments in which people live establish a setting that has a considerable influence on the extent to which they are able to lead healthy lives. The term 'public health' is generally used to refer to efforts made to improve that setting, and in this report we understand public health as the "science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through organised efforts of society". Public health measures focus on stopping the healthy becoming sick, rather than treating the sick, either by implementing preventative measures or by trying to reduce unhealthy behaviour. We note that 'public health' can also be used to refer to the collective state of health of members of a population. To avoid confusion or ambiguity, we use the term 'population health' for this latter meaning throughout this report. Thus, public health measures are designed to improve population health. Some may find our ethical framework strays too far away from the freedoms of the individual and toward the value of the community as a whole. But our conclusion is that any state that seriously aims to promote and implement public health policies has to accept a stewardship role. We also note that 'doing nothing' is an active decision by the state that will have an impact on people's ability to lead a healthy life. We describe the different kinds of intervention that the state may use to promote public health, on what we term the 'intervention ladder', from the least to the most coercive or intrusive measures. The further up the ladder the state climbs, the stronger the justification has to be. We consider four case studies within our stewardship framework: infectious disease, obesity, smoking and alcohol (as a compare and contrast case) and fluoridation of water. Each case highlights different aspects of the stewardship state. Our model does not lead to a set of rules for the stewardship state, but rather a set of guidelines and signposts for the state as well as others involved in public health policy. We have highlighted these in the recommendations and conclusions throughout the report.

13

Ethical issues in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report

1999-06-16

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Ethical issues in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.

Persson, Lars (ed.)

2000-03-15

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Handling information. Some ethical issues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: General practitioners are increasingly involved in a range of activities which require the use of data from patients' case notes. These activities include audit, evaluation and research. Any use of patient data has the potential to breach patient confidentiality and privacy. However, at present the requirements in terms of obtaining informed consent vary. Research is usually acknowledged as requiring consent, but this is not always the case for audit and evaluation activities. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to define audit, evaluation and research activities in general practice and to clarify the ethical issues involved in using patient data for these purposes. We argue that the ethical issues raised by accessing patient case notes are similar for all of these activities. DISCUSSION: The ethical obligation to obtain patient consent prior to accessing or using patient information is the same for many general practice audit, evaluation and research activities. However, the avenues for obtaining ethical clearance may be hard to access for GPs. In addition, the special relationship between patients and their GP and the requirements specified by health research ethics committees such as de-identification of case notes create problems for these activities in general practice.

Rogers W; Braunack-Mayer A

2000-08-01

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Ethical issues in ecological restoration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The acid test of humankind's relationship to natural systems is the degree to which ecological damage caused by humans is repaired by humans. Technology and science are available, so the remaining stimulus needed for implementation of ecological restoration is the ethical responsibility to do so. Ecological restoration can be regarded as enlightened self-interest for humankind since it increases both natural capital and ecosystem services. However, well-designed ecological restoration proecjts should have a major ethical component since the future of non-human life forms on Earth requires more than self-interest. Although the field of science has provided various rationales for ecological restoration, ethical issues associated with such activities must also be considered. If, as seems likely, human society and natural systems are co-evolving, restoration of damaged ecosystems will improve both ecological and human health. The term 'ecosocietal restoration' emphasizes this close relationship. However, if ecological restoration considers only human needs and does not emphasize ecological integrity, human-dominated ecosystems could become the norm. Such domination is already marked but the relationship could easily worsen. This article lists seven major ethical issues in ecological restoration. This list is not encyclopedic but illustrative. Finally, there are five questions that human society must address that require robust scientific information to make a sound ethical judgment.

John Cairns Jr.

2003-01-01

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Ethical issues occurring within nursing education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The large body of literature labeled "ethics in nursing education" is entirely devoted to curricular matters of ethics education in nursing schools, that is, to what ought to be the ethics content that is taught and what theory or issues ought to be included in all nursing curricula. Where the nursing literature actually focuses on particular ethical issues, it addresses only single topics. Absent from the literature, however, is any systematic analysis and explication of ethical issues or dilemmas that occur within the context of nursing education. The objective of this article is to identify the spectrum of ethical issues in nursing education to the end of prompting a systematic and thorough study of such issues, and to lay the groundwork for research by identifying and provisionally typologizing the ethical issues that occur within the context of academic nursing.

Fowler MD; Davis AJ

2013-03-01

18

Ethical issues faced by nursing editors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study reports on ethical issues faced by editors of nursing journals, a topic which has not appeared in the nursing literature. A survey of nursing editors (n = 88)was conducted via e-mail; this article is the content analysis of survey questions about ethics. Eight categories of ethical issues emerged: problems with society/association/publisher; decisions about inflammatory submissions; informed consent or IRB issues; conflicts of interest; advertising pressures; duplicate publications and/or plagiarism; difficult interactions with authors; and authorship. Some issues were similar to those published about medical editors; however, others were unique. This study can assist authors to better understand some of the ethical issues in publishing, can help editors to view their issues in the context of what others experience, and can assist societies and publishers to work toward avoiding these ethical issues in the future. Professional discussions about ethics in nursing publications should be the subject of ongoing research and scientific inquiry.

Freda MC; Kearney MH

2005-06-01

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To Know or Not to Know: Ethical Issues Related to Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD), pathological processes start in the brain long before clinical dementia. Biomarkers reflecting brain alterations may therefore indicate disease at an early stage, enabling early diagnosis. This raises several ethical questions and the potential benefits of early diagnosis must be weighted against possible disadvantages. Currently, there are few strong arguments favouring early diagnosis, due to the lack of disease modifying therapy. Also, available diagnostic methods risk erroneous classifications, with potentially grave consequences. However, a possible benefit of early diagnosis even without disease modifying therapy is that it may enable early decision making when patients still have full decision competence, avoiding problems of hypothetical consents. It may also help identifying patients with cognitive dysfunction secondary to other diseases that may be responsive to treatment already today.

Niklas Mattsson; David Brax; Henrik Zetterberg

2010-01-01

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Ethical issues involving the internet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the 90`s, the {open_quotes}Information Superhighway{close_quotes} has received widespread publicity. Many campuses have participated in this drive to an information based society by becoming participating nodes on the Internet. As an information provider, the Internet has the potential to change the college experience in many ways, both good and bad. It also poses a number of problems for college students in areas such as privacy, access, and honesty. It provides professors with a dynamic information storage and retrieval tool that offers the opportunity to modernize both curriculum experiences and pedagogical approaches. On some campuses, Internet access and capability has become so important that course modules and whole courses are being built. The panelists will each discuss a different issue involved with making the Internet more integral to the collegiate environment. The first panelist will consider risks and threats that an institution of higher learning must consider as it approaches Internet use will be presented. The steps an institution took to build policies and deal with {open_quotes}inevitable incidents{close_quotes} that will occur as the Internet is opened to full use by both students and faculty. The second panelist will present four computer ethics Each module uses the abundance and dynamism of Internet information to provide challenging {open_quotes}Ethics in the Computer Workplace{close_quotes} experiences that could not easily be done by traditional means. The third panelist will discuss a course module that explores both the positive and negative potential of the Internet. The costs and ease of Internet access, as well as normally available Internet tools, are also presented. This module has been used in a course called {open_quotes}Ethical and Social Issues in Computer Science{close_quotes} and will be used in a general-education course to be offered beginning in 1994-95.

Scott, T.J. [Western Illinois Univ., Macomb, IL (United States); Kallman, E.A. [Bentley College, Waltham, MA (United States); Lelewer, D. [California State Univ., Pomona, CA (United States)

1994-12-31

 
 
 
 
21

Resolving Ethical Issues when Conducting Sexuality Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical issues about conducting sexuality education often arise. This paper describes one system of ethics and how the sexuality educator can use that system to determine whether an action is moral or immoral and, therefore, the appropriate action to take for that sexuality educator to be consistent with his or her values. Ethical principles are…

Bruess, Clint E.; Greenberg, Jerrold S.

2008-01-01

22

Research ethics in dissertations: ethical issues and complexity of reasoning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Conducting ethically sound research is a fundamental principle of scientific inquiry. Recent research has indicated that ethical concerns are insufficiently dealt with in dissertations. PURPOSE: To examine which research ethical topics were addressed and how these were presented in terms of complexity of reasoning in Swedish nurses' dissertations. METHODS: Analyses of ethical content and complexity of ethical reasoning were performed on 64 Swedish nurses' PhD dissertations dated 2007. RESULTS: A total of seven ethical topics were identified: ethical approval (94% of the dissertations), information and informed consent (86%), confidentiality (67%), ethical aspects of methods (61%), use of ethical principles and regulations (39%), rationale for the study (20%) and fair participant selection (14%). Four of those of topics were most frequently addressed: the majority of dissertations (72%) included 3-5 issues. While many ethical concerns, by their nature, involve systematic concepts or metasystematic principles, ethical reasoning scored predominantly at lesser levels of complexity: abstract (6% of the dissertations), formal (84%) and systematic (10%). CONCLUSIONS: Research ethics are inadequately covered in most dissertations by nurses in Sweden. Important ethical concerns are missing, and the complexity of reasoning on ethical principles, motives and implications is insufficient. This is partly due to traditions and norms that discount ethical concerns but is probably also a reflection of the ability of PhD students and supervisors to handle complexity in general. It is suggested that the importance of ethical considerations should be emphasised in graduate and post-graduate studies and that individuals with capacity to deal with systematic and metasystematic concepts are recruited to senior research positions.

Kjellström S; Ross SN; Fridlund B

2010-07-01

23

????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??????-?????????? TYPOLOGY ETHICAL ISSUES GLOBAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT ????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????-?????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  ???????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???-???? ??????????? ??????-??????????: ?????? ???????? ??????????, ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????, ?????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????? ????????. ?????????????? ?????-????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ????? ?????. This academic paper refines and systematizes the following clasificational approaches for determining the typology of the ethical problems of the global business environment: macro level ethical problems, ethical problems of the relations between companies and their external environment, internal ethical problems of the companies in the context moral vectors. The author also illustrates the cross-cultural multi-vectoral perception of the ethical problems in the business communities of the world. ???????? ? ????????????????? ????????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?????: ????????? ???????? ???????????, ????????? ???????? ???????-???????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????, ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????? ????????. ?????????????????? ?????-?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ? ??????-?????? ????.

?.?. ????????

2011-01-01

24

Ethical issues confronted by medical students during clinical rotations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the most common and important ethical issues confronting medical students during clinical rotations so that ethics-related topics can be prioritised according to students' needs and this information used to develop a curriculum for the ethics course. METHODS: In a cross-sectional approach, we reviewed the medical ethics-related cases recorded in the logbooks of all medical students (n=241) at Tehran University of Medical Sciences who attended the medical ethics course during October 2006 to July 2007. As part of a graded assignment, each student was required to record three encounters with ethics-related issues in his or her logbook. A total of 713 cases were assessed. Information related to the ethical issues and the conditions in which ethical issues arose was extracted and recorded by two experts, whose analysis showed agreement of kappa 0.77. In cases of discrepancy, both experts reviewed and discussed the record until they achieved agreement. RESULTS: A total of 713 cases were analysed. The most common issues reported by students related to ethics in medical education (20.1%, n=143), professionalism (18.8%, n=134), confidentiality (7.6%, n=54), the doctor-patient relationship (7.3%, n=52), informed consent (7.0%, n=50) and the doctor-peer relationship (7.0%, n=50). After adjusting for length of rotation, the highest numbers of ethics-related incidents were reported from urology, general surgery, orthopaedics, internal medicine, neurology, and obstetrics and gynaecology wards. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that professionalism and related elements represent one of the most important areas of concern that need to be addressed when planning courses for medical students. The other significant area of concern is that of ethics in medical education, which, although the subject is not considered essential for medical practitioners, should be taught and respected so that student sensitivity to medical ethics is maintained and even increased.

Fard NN; Asghari F; Mirzazadeh A

2010-07-01

25

Guidance in social and ethical issues related to clinical, diagnostic care and novel therapies for hereditary neuromuscular rare diseases: "translating" the translational.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Drug trials in children engage with many ethical issues, from drug-related safety concerns to communication with patients and parents, and recruitment and informed consent procedures. This paper addresses the field of neuromuscular disorders where the possibility of genetic, mutation-specific treatments, has added new complexity. Not only must trial design address issues of equity of access, but researchers must also think through the implications of adopting a personalised medicine approach, which requires a precise molecular diagnosis, in addition to other implications of developing orphan drugs. It is against this background of change and complexity that the Project Ethics Council (PEC) was established within the TREAT-NMD EU Network of Excellence. The PEC is a high level advisory group that draws upon the expertise of its interdisciplinary membership which includes clinicians, lawyers, scientists, parents, representatives of patient organisations, social scientists and ethicists. In this paper we describe the establishment and terms of reference of the PEC, give an indication of the range and depth of its work and provide some analysis of the kinds of complex questions encountered. The paper describes how the PEC has responded to substantive ethical issues raised within the TREAT-NMD consortium and how it has provided a wider resource for any concerned parent, patient, or clinician to ask a question of ethical concern. Issues raised range from science related ethical issues, issues related to hereditary neuromuscular diseases and the new therapeutic approaches and questions concerning patients rights in the context of patient registries and bio-banks. We conclude by recommending the PEC as a model for similar research contexts in rare diseases.

McCormack P; Woods S; Aartsma-Rus A; Hagger L; Herczegfalvi A; Heslop E; Irwin J; Kirschner J; Moeschen P; Muntoni F; Ouillade MC; Rahbek J; Rehmann-Sutter C; Rouault F; Sejersen T; Vroom E; Straub V; Bushby K; Ferlini A

2013-01-01

26

Ethical issues in naturalistic versus controlled trials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ethical core issues in research with human subjects are related to informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. This is valid for all types of studies. However, there has been much greater focus of ethical considerations on controlled clinical trials than on naturalistic trials, probably because the former are interventional in nature and may have unknown and perhaps severe somatic risks, whereas naturalistic studies seem not to intervene but only to observe, and therefore are assumed to have fewer or almost no risks. However, there are also ethical implications in naturalistic trials, although their weight is differently accentuated, more with potential, more with potential psychological burdens of the observational procedures and more with potential physical risks in interventional trials. This will be elaborated with examples of placebo-controlled trials and of incidental findings in screenings, of marketing influences on observational studies, and of psychological burdens by survey interviews. The ethical implications will be analyzed within a more general framework. Finally, recommendations will be offered.

Helmchen H

2011-01-01

27

ICT Student Teachers' Judgments and Justifications about Ethical Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

|In this study, Turkish ICT student teachers' judgments and justifications in four scenarios involving ICT-related ethical problems were investigated. Scenarios were designed based on Mason's (1986) four ethical issues: privacy, accuracy, property and accessibility. The study was carried out in the fall of 2010. We used the critical incidents…

Alakurt, Turgay; Bardakci, Salih; Keser, Hafize

2012-01-01

28

Ethical issues and societal expectations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Daniel Metlay (NWTRB) declared that institutions had always recognised an ethical obligation to manage high- level radioactive waste in unprecedented ways. This obligation has not only endured, but has become more explicit and multidimensional and it now subsumed under a more general rubric of 'societal expectations'. D. Metlay directed attention toward the proceedings of previous RWMC-RF workshop ', which contains five essays, authored by Kjell Andersson, Andrew Blowers, Carl-Reinhold Braakenhielm, Francois Dermange, and Patricia Fleming, that are relevant to the question of ethical issues and societal expectations. D. Metlay observed that 'societal expectations' are hard to define and thus very hard to measure. They may vary considerably with time and from country to country. As an illustration he referred to an inquiry performed by a task group 30 years ago in a document entitled 'Proposed Goals for Radioactive Waste Management' (NUREG-0300) on behalf of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Conclusions from D. Metlay are that, for the most part, societal expectations in the United States appear to be quite stable over a period of more than 30 years. In two areas, however, there are clear differences in emphasis between expectations articulated in the last few years and those recorded in 1978. (1) While then there was emphasis on the operational reliability of organisations and institutions. In particular, much care was taken to discuss the inherent limitations on bureaucratic error-correction in the future. The focus is nowadays more on bureaucratic behaviours associated with carrying out decision-making processes in the present. (2) While there is current emphasis on the importance of trust, transparency, and accountability, the NRC document may cast some doubt on the reliability of a stepwise decision-making process. In the domain of radioactive waste management, error signals are notoriously unclear, and strong disagreements over objectives and value trade-offs often arise. Also, the key prerequisite for reliable error detection - independence - is often at odds with the key prerequisite for reliable error rectification-interdependence. He concluded that it is unclear just how far we have come in the last 30 years in meeting societal expectations for post-closure and post-monitoring repository performance

2010-01-01

29

Legal, ethical and human-rights issues related to the storage of oral history interviews in archives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper provides some personal reflections that explore the legal, ethical and human rights issues of conducting oral history interviews with elderly retired nurses. The interviews are part of a research study into the history of nursing in the West Yorkshire towns of Halifax and Huddersfield, UK, between 1870-1960. The merit of this research is that it provides a unique account of the development of nursing and can enrich our understanding of the implications for present-day practice within the fast changing world of the 21st century. A literature review identified a 'gap in knowledge' of how and why local nursing developed. This study proposes to bridge this gap and provide an investigative account of the important issues for local nursing. The two methodological approaches are analysis of the primary and secondary documentary archival sources, and oral history interviewing of retired nurses. 'Word of mouth' or snowball sampling identified over 300 potential interviewees ranging from 65-97 years old. A final sample of 21 representative of location, age and career experience was selected to ensure a strategic purposive sample. The resultant audiotapes and transcripts will be stored in the university's archives. The main focus of the paper will be the legal, ethical and human rights issues of storing interviewees tapes/transcripts in archives. Reflections on these problems and attempts to overcome them have been provided. These are centred on the issue of whether to edit the tapes and/or transcripts. Arguments are provided for and against editing and potential practical solutions to some of the practical issues are identified. The main aim is to identify methods that will enable the protection of those who may be harmed in anyway by the tapes or transcripts been open to public access.

Thurgood G

2002-01-01

30

Ethical issues in personality assessment in forensic psychology.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article we address several ethical issues of concern for psychologists who are engaged in personality assessment in forensic settings such as for courts or attorneys. The ethical issues reviewed include the role of the psychologist as an expert witness, matters of competence, informed consent, confidentiality, multiple relationships, and special issues related to billing. Emphasis is placed on how psychologists can provide useful information to the courts in a manner consistent with the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, the Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologist's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists, and the APA's Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluations in Divorce Proceedings. The practical recommendations made in this article are consistent with the APA's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. PMID:11693856

Knapp, S; VandeCreek, L

2001-10-01

31

Ethical issues in personality assessment in forensic psychology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this article we address several ethical issues of concern for psychologists who are engaged in personality assessment in forensic settings such as for courts or attorneys. The ethical issues reviewed include the role of the psychologist as an expert witness, matters of competence, informed consent, confidentiality, multiple relationships, and special issues related to billing. Emphasis is placed on how psychologists can provide useful information to the courts in a manner consistent with the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, the Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologist's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists, and the APA's Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluations in Divorce Proceedings. The practical recommendations made in this article are consistent with the APA's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.

Knapp S; VandeCreek L

2001-10-01

32

Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of valuing the environment and implications for the definition of harm and monetary valuation of environmental goods; second, difficulties with scientific uncertainty and applications of the precautionary principle; and third, issues concerned with the distribution of risk and its relevance for participation in decision-making. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors. PMID:12590067

Oughton, Deborah

2003-01-01

33

Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of valuing the environment and implications for the definition of harm and monetary valuation of environmental goods; second, difficulties with scientific uncertainty and applications of the precautionary principle; and third, issues concerned with the distribution of risk and its relevance fo participation in decision-making. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors.

2003-01-01

34

Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of valuing the environment and implications for the definition of harm and monetary valuation of environmental goods; second, difficulties with scientific uncertainty and applications of the precautionary principle; and third, issues concerned with the distribution of risk and its relevance fo participation in decision-making. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors.

Oughton, Deborah E-mail: deborah.oughton@ijvf.nlh.no

2003-07-01

35

Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of valuing the environment and implications for the definition of harm and monetary valuation of environmental goods; second, difficulties with scientific uncertainty and applications of the precautionary principle; and third, issues concerned with the distribution of risk and its relevance for participation in decision-making. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors.

Oughton D

2003-01-01

36

[Ethical issue in animal experimentation].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the 1970s, under pressure from certain sections of society and thanks to initiatives by several scientific research teams, committees charged with improving the conditions of laboratory animals started to be created, first in the United States and subsequently in Europe. This led to the development of an ethical approach to animal experimentation, taking into account new scientific advances. In addition to the legislation designed to provide a legal framework for animal experimentation and to avoid abuses, this ethical approach, based on the concept that animals are sentient beings, encourages greater respect of laboratory animals and the implementation of measures designed to reduce their suffering. Now, all animal experiments must first receive ethical approval--from in-house committees in the private sector and from regional committees for public institutions. Very recently, under the impetus of the French ministries of research and agriculture, the National committee for ethical animal experimentation published a national ethical charter on animal experimentation, setting the basis for responsible use of animals for scientific research and providing guidelines for the composition and functioning of ethics committees. Inspired by the scientific community itself this ethical standardization should help to assuage--but not eliminate--the reticence and hostility expressed by several sections of society.

Parodi AL

2009-11-01

37

[Ethical issue in animal experimentation].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the 1970s, under pressure from certain sections of society and thanks to initiatives by several scientific research teams, committees charged with improving the conditions of laboratory animals started to be created, first in the United States and subsequently in Europe. This led to the development of an ethical approach to animal experimentation, taking into account new scientific advances. In addition to the legislation designed to provide a legal framework for animal experimentation and to avoid abuses, this ethical approach, based on the concept that animals are sentient beings, encourages greater respect of laboratory animals and the implementation of measures designed to reduce their suffering. Now, all animal experiments must first receive ethical approval--from in-house committees in the private sector and from regional committees for public institutions. Very recently, under the impetus of the French ministries of research and agriculture, the National committee for ethical animal experimentation published a national ethical charter on animal experimentation, setting the basis for responsible use of animals for scientific research and providing guidelines for the composition and functioning of ethics committees. Inspired by the scientific community itself this ethical standardization should help to assuage--but not eliminate--the reticence and hostility expressed by several sections of society. PMID:20669538

Parodi, André-Laurent

2009-11-01

38

Research, ethics committees and legal issues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Who should be publicly authorised to consider legal issues in research? This paper argues that public policy should authorise ethics committees to consider legal issues about their own actions regarding particular research proposals; and that it should not authorise them to consider legal issues regarding the actions of their applicants, or the actions of third parties.

Moore A

2003-10-01

39

Ethical issues in qualitative nursing research.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is concerned with ethical issues that have to be considered when undertaking qualitative research. Some of the issues--such as informed consent, the dignity and privacy of the research subjects, voluntary participation and protection from harm--are the same as in other types of research and have their basis in moral and ethical principles. Qualitative research, however, generates specific ethical problems because of the close relationship that researchers form with participants. Qualitative research with patients is especially difficult because of their vulnerability and lack of power in the clinical situation. Therefore the potential conflict between the dual role of the nurse--the professional and the research roles--has to be solved. Researchers also learn how to cope with the tension of subjective and objective elements of the research. Nurses who attempt qualitative research have to consider a variety of complex ethical issues, which are addressed in this paper. PMID:7583428

Holloway, I; Wheeler, S

1995-09-01

40

Ethical issues in qualitative nursing research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article is concerned with ethical issues that have to be considered when undertaking qualitative research. Some of the issues--such as informed consent, the dignity and privacy of the research subjects, voluntary participation and protection from harm--are the same as in other types of research and have their basis in moral and ethical principles. Qualitative research, however, generates specific ethical problems because of the close relationship that researchers form with participants. Qualitative research with patients is especially difficult because of their vulnerability and lack of power in the clinical situation. Therefore the potential conflict between the dual role of the nurse--the professional and the research roles--has to be solved. Researchers also learn how to cope with the tension of subjective and objective elements of the research. Nurses who attempt qualitative research have to consider a variety of complex ethical issues, which are addressed in this paper.

Holloway I; Wheeler S

1995-09-01

 
 
 
 
41

Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to practical environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of who or what has moral standing; second the appropriate level of protection; and third compatibility with other environmental stressors. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds for efforts to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors. (author)

2002-01-01

42

Ethical Issues Surrounding Interprofessional Collaboration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Global healthcare and health disciplines' education policy and position statements contain mandates for education that incorporates interprofessional collaboration. One of the popular educational technologies involves virtual simulation as tools for educating future generations of healthcare professionals. This article discusses potential ethical implications for interprofessional collaboration from a humanbecoming lens of understanding.

Milton CL

2013-10-01

43

Nontechnical issues in waste management: ethical, institutional, and political concerns  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The report consists of a presentation and distillation of major nontechnical issues surrounding commercial waste management, followed by ethical, institutional, and political analyses of these issues. The ethical analysis consists of a discusson of what is meant by ''ethics'' and ''morality'' in the waste management context and an illustrative attempt at an ethical analysis of the commercial nuclear waste problem. Two institutional analyses are presented: one is an analysis of the possible problems of long-term human institutions in waste management; the other is a presentation of institutional arrangements for the short term. A final chapter discusses issues and concerns involving intergovernmental relations--that is, local, state, and federal interface problems in waste management

1978-01-01

44

[Ethical issues concerning surrogate assisted sex therapy].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sex therapy, by definition, is a couple therapy as well as behavioral therapy by origin. As such, practicing a series of exercises is an essential part of the therapy. Masters and Johnson, in their book "Human Sexual Inadequacy", wrote that "one cannot learn about sexuality in any practical way without actually experiencing intimate behavior with a partner". This ethical approach directed them to develop the therapeutic method of working with surrogate partners, as they thought all people are entitled to receive therapy, if they so wish, including people without partners. Surrogate is a form of mentoring; this is a one-on-one relationship that allows practicing classic behavioral methods such as gradual progress, breaking the task into small goals, onsite feedback, rehearsals, role-play, modifying the environment, etc. The content and the skills that are practiced are related to sexual dysfunction as well as social, couple and intimate skills. The lack of those critical skills prevents the clients from fulfilling their wish to develop social or intimate relationships in which they will be able to accomplish their sexuality. Ethical procedures should be strictly kept in order to protect the clients and the surrogates, in a three-way therapeutic team, working together to reach the goals of the therapy. During the therapy process a weekly meeting is held between the therapist and the client, between the therapist and the surrogate and, only then, between the surrogate and the client. At the end of the therapy process the relationship between the client and the surrogate is terminated, completely. In this article, the authors illuminate the complexity of this therapy process, as well as dealing with some of the ethical issues that are raised. The article also identifies types of patients who can benefit from surrogate therapy.

Aloni R; Heruti RJ

2009-09-01

45

What Counts as a 'Social and Ethical Issue' in Nanotechnology?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As 'social and ethical issues' becomes a recurring phrase in the community paying attention to nanotechnology research, a crucial question becomes: what counts as a social and ethical issue? A typical list includes privacy, environmental health and safety, media hype, and other apparently unrelated issues. This article surveys those issues and suggests that concerns about fundamental concepts of ethics, such as fairness, justice, equity, and especially power, unite the various issues identified as 'social and ethical issues' in nanotechnology.

Bruce V. Lewenstein

2005-01-01

46

Field primatology of today: current ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

As members of professional organizations such as American Society of Primatologists (ASP) and the International Primatological Society (IPS), primatologists must adhere to a set of nonhuman primate-focused principles outlined in resolutions and policy statements on, for example, the ethical treatment of nonhuman primates. Those of us that work in the field must also address issues such as the protection of primate health in the wild and the conservation of wild primate populations. Moreover, we increasingly find ourselves in complex situations where we must balance human and nonhuman primate needs and interests. The selection of commentary pieces in this edition of the American Journal of Primatology originated from presentations given in the symposium, Field Primatology of Today: Navigating the Ethical Landscape, held at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists (ASP) in September 2009. The goals of that symposium and these resulting commentary pieces are threefold: (1) to revive a discussion of key contemporary ethical issues faced by field primatologists, (2) to highlight the need for centrally placed ethical considerations in various facets of our professional lives, particularly research and teaching, and (3) to consider what a comprehensive ethical code that addresses all of these issues might look like. PMID:20653001

MacKinnon, K C; Riley, E P

2010-09-01

47

Ethical issues in plastic and reconstructive surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plastic, reconstructive, and cosmetic surgery refers to a variety of operations performed in order to repair or restore body parts to look normal or to enhance a certain structure or anatomy that is already normal. Several ethical considerations such as a patient's right for autonomy, informed consent, beneficence, and nonmalfeasance need to be given careful consideration. The principal objective of the medical profession is to render services to humanity with full respect for human dignity. Plastic surgeons should merit the confidence of patients entrusted to their care, rendering to each a full measure of service and devotion. They require an extensive amount of education and training. The increases in demand for aesthetic plastic surgery and the advocacy of practice in the media have raised concerns about the circumstances under which cosmetic surgery is ethical and permissible. Innovative research, and new technologies derived from such research, almost always raises ethical and policy concerns. Medical ethics regulate what is, and what is not, correct in promoting plastic surgery to the public. It is essential to create an educated and informed public about the ethical issues in the plastic and reconstructive surgery field. Plastic surgeons need to carefully evaluate the degree of deformity, physical and emotional maturity, and desired outcome of patients who request plastic surgery procedures. Science is a powerful force for change in modern society and plastic surgeons have a responsibility to shepherd that change with thoughtful advocacy and careful ethical scrutiny of their own behavior. PMID:21336881

Sterodimas, Aris; Radwanski, Henrique N; Pitanguy, Ivo

2011-02-20

48

Ethical issues in engineering models: an operations researcher's reflections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article starts with an overview of the author's personal involvement--as an Operations Research consultant--in several engineering case-studies that may raise ethical questions; e.g., case-studies on nuclear waste, water management, sustainable ecology, military tactics, and animal welfare. All these case studies employ computer simulation models. In general, models are meant to solve practical problems, which may have ethical implications for the various stakeholders; namely, the modelers, the clients, and the public at large. The article further presents an overview of codes of ethics in a variety of disciples. It discusses the role of mathematical models, focusing on the validation of these models' assumptions. Documentation of these model assumptions needs special attention. Some ethical norms and values may be quantified through the model's multiple performance measures, which might be optimized. The uncertainty about the validity of the model leads to risk or uncertainty analysis and to a search for robust models. Ethical questions may be pressing in military models, including war games. However, computer games and the related experimental economics may also provide a special tool to study ethical issues. Finally, the article briefly discusses whistleblowing. Its many references to publications and websites enable further study of ethical issues in modeling.

Kleijnen J

2011-09-01

49

Ethical issues in health-care inquiry: a discussion paper.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper is a discussion of the possible ethical dilemmas that may arise in both qualitative and quantitative research despite stringent methodological protocols. Three categories of ethical issues will be elaborated on, namely, researcher-participant relations, informed consent and confidentiality and privacy. These are of note because ethical dilemmas most often arise in these areas. Both qualitative and quantitative research types may thus present with problems associated with any, or a combination, of these categories. Methodological rigour will also be discussed as a vital component of any research study. Critics of the qualitative approach have often suggested that the innate lack of methodological rigour has resulted in the preponderance of ethical issues in qualitative studies. Qualitative studies, similar to quantitative studies, have mechanisms that guarantee rigour, quality and trustworthiness. These checks are at par with those of quantitative research but based on different criteria. Both types of research, then, can be considered equal in terms of methodological rigour, regardless of the nature. As no research approach can be perfectly free from threats of ethical issues, it is the researcher's responsibility to address these in ways that will be less harmful to the participants, bearing in mind ethical problems can arise at any time during the research endeavour.

Ignacio JJ; Taylor BJ

2013-02-01

50

[Ethical issues in live surgical demonstrations].  

Science.gov (United States)

Live surgical demonstrations are very useful educational tools for teaching skills, real-time problem solving, and how to manipulate new devices. However, such demonstrations may cause anxiety to surgeons because they are always aware of the commentator and attending physicians. Concentrating solely on the patient during an operative procedure is a medical ethical principle for surgeons. There are few advantages for patients in undergoing demonstration surgeries, except that they can expect the best surgeon in the field to operate. Therefore, surgeons should carefully control all aspects of live demonstrations, especially the indications, procedure selected, and results, to resolve ethical issues. PMID:23789333

Haruta, Seiichi

2013-05-01

51

[Ethical issues in live surgical demonstrations].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Live surgical demonstrations are very useful educational tools for teaching skills, real-time problem solving, and how to manipulate new devices. However, such demonstrations may cause anxiety to surgeons because they are always aware of the commentator and attending physicians. Concentrating solely on the patient during an operative procedure is a medical ethical principle for surgeons. There are few advantages for patients in undergoing demonstration surgeries, except that they can expect the best surgeon in the field to operate. Therefore, surgeons should carefully control all aspects of live demonstrations, especially the indications, procedure selected, and results, to resolve ethical issues.

Haruta S

2013-05-01

52

The perceptions of danish physiotherapists on the ethical issues related to the physiotherapist-patient relationship during the first session: a phenomenological approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In the course of the last four decades, the profession of physiotherapy has progressively expanded its scope of responsibility and its focus on professional autonomy and evidence-based clinical practice. To preserve professional autonomy, it is crucial for the physiotherapy profession to meet society's expectations and demands of professional competence as well as ethical competence. Since it is becoming increasingly popular to choose a carrier in private practice in Denmark this context constitutes the frame of this study. Physiotherapy in private practice involves mainly a meeting between two partners: the physiotherapist and the patient. In the meeting, power asymmetry between the two partners is a condition that the physiotherapist has to handle. The aim of this study was to explore whether ethical issues rise during the first physiotherapy session discussed from the perspective of the physiotherapists in private practice. Methods A qualitative approach was chosen and semi-structured interviews with 21 physiotherapists were carried out twice and analysed by using a phenomenological framework. Results Four descriptive themes emerged: general reflections on ethics in physiotherapy; the importance of the first physiotherapy session; the influence of the clinical environment on the first session and; reflections and actions upon beneficence towards the patient within the first session. The results show that the first session and the clinical context in private practice are essential from an ethical perspective. Conclusions Ethical issues do occur within the first session, the consciousness about ethical issues differs in Danish physiotherapy private practice, and reflections and acts are to a lesser extent based on awareness of ethical theories, principles and ethical guidelines. Beneficence towards the patient is a fundamental aspect of the physiotherapists' understanding of the first session. However, if the physiotherapist lacks a deeper ethical awareness, the physiotherapist may reason and/or act ethically to a varying extent: only an ethically conscious physiotherapist will know when he or she reflects and acts ethically. Further exploration of ethical issues in private practice is recommendable, and as management policy is deeply embedded within the Danish public sector there are reasons to explore public contexts of physiotherapy as well.

Praestegaard Jeanette; Gard Gunvor

2011-01-01

53

[Transplantation with living organ donors: ethical issues].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Living organ donation has raised ethical issues, which have not been fully addressed. The scarcity of organs as well as medical advances promote this procedure. However, the psychological outcome of donors may not be as good as expected. The usual assessment is not able to identify donors who are at risk. Patients' autonomy is privileged but may lead to the underestimation of underlying psychopathological processes. Without minimizing the importance of donors' self-determination, benevolence and sense of justice, we suggest that it could be useful to investigate the roots of donors' motivations. We could consider the existence of a shared responsibility between patients and clinicians. The ethics of responsibility may complete the ethics of autonomy, leading to a better identification of donors at risk.

Stagno D; Benaroyo L

2007-02-01

54

[Opinion of undergraduate health sciences students towards ethical issues related to HIV-positive persons in schools, workplaces and health centers].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the opinion of undergraduate health sciences students in the Basque Country universities (UPV/EHU) regarding ethical issues related to HIV-positive persons in schools, workplaces and health centers. METHODS: Our population consisted of medical, nursing and dental undergraduate students attending UPV/EHU. An opinion survey was conducted among students attending lectures, on a randomly selected date in 2002-2003. The questionnaire included several items on ethical conflicts related to HIV-positive persons in different settings. Item responses consisted of a Likert-type scale with five possible levels of agreement (from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree"), as well as the option "I do not want to answer/I have no opinion about this". RESULTS: 529 completed questionnaires were collected. 69% of respondents reported total disagreement with refusing to admit HIV+ students to primary schools, and 77% with dismissal of HIV+ workers. Approximately 90% of respondents felt managers should be aware of the HIV+ status of their employees. 78% of the students did not report disagreement with having HIV+ schoolmates in classrooms. Respondents generally disagreed with employment limitations for HIV+ health care workers, 60% strongly disagreed with health workers refusing to treat HIV+ persons, 69% considered that HIV testing should be compulsory for health workers, and 55% that health workers should know their patients' HIV status. CONCLUSIONS: In general terms, our students are against social and employment limitations targeting HIV+ persons, but favor disclosure of HIV status in schools and health centres. KEY WORDS: HIV; students; health occupations; universities; ethics; public opinion.

Apellaniz A; Manzanaro R

2012-01-01

55

The neglect of racism as an ethical issue in health care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Race and racism has been increasingly implicated in known disparities in the health and health care of racial, ethnic and cultural minorities groups. Despite the obvious ethical implications of this observation, racism as an ethical issue per se has been relatively neglected in health care ethics discourse. In this paper consideration is given to addressing the following questions: What is it about racism and racial disparities in health and health care that these command our special moral scrutiny? Why has racism per se tended to be poorly addressed as an ethical issue in health care ethics discourse? And why, if at all, must racism be addressed as an ethical issue in addition to its positioning as a social, political, cultural and legal issue? It is suggested that unless racism is reframed and redressed as a pre-eminent ethical issue by health service providers, its otherwise preventable harmful consequences will remain difficult to identify, anticipate, prevent, manage, and remedy.

Johnstone MJ; Kanitsaki O

2010-08-01

56

Hiv And Aids: Legal And Ethical Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, called as 'black death of our time'1 caused by humanimmunodeficiency virus still remaining a challenge to the medical world has spread its tentacles ominously thatmillions of people have breathed their last and others afflicted by it are counting days in great misery and despair forpre-mature extinction of their life.2 The tragedy is that it has spread from the high risk group to common populationassuming a menacing proportion.3 It has not remained as a mere matter of health to bother only medicalprofessionals. A person afflicted by it invites social stigma of a highest degree, which is worse than apartheid. It hasgenerated such sensitive and boiling legal, ethical and social issues posing serious challenge to the medicalprofessionals, health policy makers, law makers and common men. In this article an attempt is made to criticallyanalyse the legal, ethical and social issues stemming from HIV AIDS.

Venugopal. B. S.

2013-01-01

57

[Ethics training. Issues and relevance to students in healthcare].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Awareness of the process of ethical questions has various issues related to the conception of good care. These issues bring such a reflection on knowledge, on the place of technical and human skills, and also on care practices. The impact of this approach aims both human and moral responsibility of the students and the other, the political dimension of care practices. Thinking about the meaning of care to make it his own allows the use of a collective and creative moral capacity.

Bert C

2013-06-01

58

A STUDY OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN BANKING INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic performance of a country is largely determined by banking and financial system. Banking and finance play a vital and crucial role in framing public policies in today’s business environment. This article highlights social and ethical issues such as social banking, ethical banking, green banking, global banking, rural banking, and agri-banking, which help in achieving sustainable development of banking and finance. For this purpose, we have gone through a series of development that are taking place in current business scenario. This paper is divided in four parts. First part discuss introduction of Banking Industry in India. Second part explains historical background of banking and its development. It also discusses concept of Banks. Third part analyzes the review of past studies on the theme. Fourth part highlights Social and Ethical issues related to Banking Industry and finally conclusion has been given.

Dr. K.A. Goyal; Vijay Joshi

2011-01-01

59

Sexual Harassment as an Ethical Issue in Academic Life. Issues in Academic Ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This book provides a full examination of sexual harassment as an ethical issue in education. It considers issues raised by the definition, understanding, and regulation of campus sexual harassment and addresses the arguments that regulation may conflict with academic freedom and choice in relationships. Part 1 contains these chapters: (1) "Sexual…

Francis, Leslie Pickering

60

[Ethical issues in personal genome research].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The rapid expansion of techniques for studying human genomics has remarkably changed research and practice. It is expected that more progress will be made in the field of medical and biological research owing to the technological advances. Genomics researchers collect human genetic material, including DNA and cells, from a large number of individuals and carry out "personal genome analysis"; as a result, new types of ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) have arisen, including issues such as informed consent procedures, data sharing, protection of genetic information, and return of research results. To address these issues, many large research projects have established specialist groups that are devoted to manage ELSI of their research. The guidelines for genomics research set by the government are also expected to be revised accordingly. In this paper, we present an overview of ELSI of personal genome research and discuss necessary measures to tackle these issues.

Kato K; Minari J

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
61

Ethics and reproductive health: The issue of HPV vaccination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the vaccination status.

Mateji? Bojana; Kesi? Vesna

2013-01-01

62

Preconception care and genetic risk: ethical issues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Preconception care to address genetic risks in reproduction may be offered either individually to couples with a known or suspected increased risk of having a child with a genetic disorder, or systematically to couples or individuals of reproductive age. The identification of couples at risk of transmitting a (serious) genetic disorder allows those couples to refrain from having children or to adapt their reproductive plans (using prenatal or preimplantation diagnosis, donor gametes, or adoption). Ethical issues concern the possible objectives of providing these options through preconception genetic counseling or screening, objections to abortion and embryo-selection, concerns about eugenics and medicalization, and issues arising in the professional-client relationship and/or in the light of the normative framework for population screening. Although enhancing reproductive autonomy rather than prevention should be regarded as the primary aim of preconception care for genetic risks, directive counseling may well be acceptable in exceptional cases, and prevention in the sense of avoiding serious suffering may be an appropriate objective of specific community-based preconception screening programmes. The seemingly unavoidable prospect of comprehensive preconception screening raises further ethical issues.

De Wert GM; Dondorp WJ; Knoppers BM

2012-07-01

63

Preconception care and genetic risk: ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preconception care to address genetic risks in reproduction may be offered either individually to couples with a known or suspected increased risk of having a child with a genetic disorder, or systematically to couples or individuals of reproductive age. The identification of couples at risk of transmitting a (serious) genetic disorder allows those couples to refrain from having children or to adapt their reproductive plans (using prenatal or preimplantation diagnosis, donor gametes, or adoption). Ethical issues concern the possible objectives of providing these options through preconception genetic counseling or screening, objections to abortion and embryo-selection, concerns about eugenics and medicalization, and issues arising in the professional-client relationship and/or in the light of the normative framework for population screening. Although enhancing reproductive autonomy rather than prevention should be regarded as the primary aim of preconception care for genetic risks, directive counseling may well be acceptable in exceptional cases, and prevention in the sense of avoiding serious suffering may be an appropriate objective of specific community-based preconception screening programmes. The seemingly unavoidable prospect of comprehensive preconception screening raises further ethical issues. PMID:22205578

De Wert, Guido M W R; Dondorp, Wybo J; Knoppers, Bartha M

2011-12-29

64

Ethical issues in infant feeding after disasters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the aftermath of many disasters the silence is punctuated by the crying of infants, hungry infants. The aim of this paper is to discuss ethical issues in feeding infants after disasters. The Asia Pacific region generates 25% of the world's GDP, but experiences 45% of natural disasters and 42% of the economic losses due to disasters. The region has 61% of the world's population, but 86% of the population affected by disasters. Breastfeeding, exclusive to six months and continuing thereafter, is important for growth and the health of the infant in the short term and later in life. In most natural disasters, mothers and infants will both suffer, but in some disasters, such as earthquakes and building collapses, infants can survive in small spaces. Infants separated from mothers require a wet nurse (rarely available) or feeding with infant formula and sterile water. Formula companies often donate supplies of infant formula but distribution should follow ethical principles. Mothers who are injured or short of food can still continue breastfeeding and don't need formula. Where formula must be used, health workers need to follow the highest ethical standards to avoid promoting infant formula to vulnerable communities in the post recovery phase.

Binns CW; Lee MK; Tang L; Yu C; Hokama T; Lee A

2012-07-01

65

Ethical Issues between Workforce and Religious Conviction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: This article enhances the ethical issues consider the relationship between religious life and work ethics. Approach: Malaysia aim to achieved full developed nation’s, requires a professional workforce, not only educated and innovative, but ethically, with integrity, accountability, dynamic and committed to continuously increasing Muslim professionalism. In the context of the development of Muslim professionals with a holistic and integrated, Muslims needs to withholding Tawheed, the fundamentals of faith, based on Al-Quran and Hadith. Manifestations in life of the practice which accounts for worship and morality need to be implemented. Results: Islamic moral character requires the emphasize that following five key parameters of Islamic behavior which is justice, trust, righteousness, the struggle towards self-improvement and keeping promises. Conclusion: The properties of trust at work, honesty, responsibility and integrity should be established in each of the Muslims. Each institution needs to be continued in the religious education and level of consciousness must be nurtured and enhanced.

Mohamad Zaid Mohd Zin; Ahmad Faisal Mahdi; Azhar Abdul Rahman; Mohd Syahiran Abdul Latif; Rohaya Sulaiman; Nurul Khairiah Khalid; Nurfahiratul Azlina Ahmad; Ahamad Asmadi Sakat; Adi Yasran A A; Mohd Roslan Mohd Nor

2012-01-01

66

DOPING IN SPORT: GLOBAL ETHICAL ISSUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DESCRIPTION In this book the question of "How ethical is using performance improving drugs in sport?" is argued in global perspective. PURPOSE The ethical questions in sport are discussed comprehensively. Particularly, different cultures and approach of various countries to that issue were examined. FEATURES The book composed of 10 chapters following a thorough introduction from the editors in 194 pages. The titles are: 1.Fair is Fair, Or Is It? : A Moral Consideration of the Doping Wars in American Sport; 2.Are Doping Sanctions Justified? A Moral Relativistic View; 3.Cultural Nuances: Doping, Cycling and the Tour de France; 4.On Transgendered Athletes, Fairness and Doping: An International Challenge; 5.Creating a Corporate Anti-doping Culture: The Role of Bulgarian Sports Governing Bodies; 6. Doping in the UK: Alain and Dwain, Rio and Greg - Not Guilty?; 7.The Japanese Debate Surrounding the Doping Ban: The Application of the Harm Principle; 8. Doping and Anti-doping in Sport in China: An Analysis of Recent and Present Attitudes and Actions; 9.Anti-doping in Sport: The Norwegian Perspective; 10.Ethics in Sport: The Greek Educational Perspective on Anti-doping. AUDIENCE Given that this book is about a popular topic in sport, it is a great interest to the sport public as well as students, researchers and practitioners in the sport and exercise disciplines.

Angela J. Schneider; Fan Hong

2007-01-01

67

Ethical issues regarding human cloning: a nursing perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Advances in cloning technology and successful cloning experiments in animals raised concerns about the possibility of human cloning in recent years. Despite many objections, this is not only a possibility but also a reality. Human cloning is a scientific revolution. However, it also introduces the potential for physical and psychosocial harm to human beings. From this point of view, it raises profound ethical, social and health related concerns. Human cloning would have an impact on the practice of nursing because it could result in the creation of new physiological and psychosocial conditions that would require nursing care. The nursing profession must therefore evaluate the ethics of human cloning, in particular the potential role of nurses. This article reviews the ethical considerations of reproductive human cloning, discusses the main reasons for concern, and reflects a nursing perspective regarding this issue.

Dinç L

2003-05-01

68

Researching the vulnerables: issues of consent and ethical approval.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Imagine you are a biomedical scientist attempting to cross a busy, beggar-crowded road in Lagos. You suddenly notice that the loud horns of the speeding cars, trucks and trailers draw no visible physiologic response from any of the beggars including their children and babies, unlike the rest of the crowd. Consequently, certain questions such as the following begin to engage your mind: Is this phenomenon a kind of habituation? If so, is its onset the same for the blind ones amongst them? Have these beggars acquired a neural system absent from "normal" people? If so, just how long does it take for such a system to be established? At the very height of this creative outburst, you however realize that the informed consent and ethical approval you would need for this particular research differs from the type you have previously encountered in your career.... Although the above scenario suggests that new and difficult ethical questions may confront scientists while pursuing their curiosity, our research ethics guidelines do not currently address this issue. This paper explores some of the ethical challenges involved in carrying out basic research on vulnerable subjects such as beggars. It highlights how the notions of autonomy and informed consent in this context become vague, thus, liable to exploitation. Ultimately, the paper offers a useful framework in relation to developing a research ethics committee charged with the moral mandate of overseeing the integrity of research involving this vulnerable population in particular and basic biomedical research in general.

Afolabi MO

2012-12-01

69

Ethical Issues in Fetal Management: A Cardiac Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ethical issues behind the management of a fetus with a serious abnormality and the decisions made in relation to the outcome of the pregnancy are complex. This reflective paper deals with the ethical principles of managing a pregnancy with a congenital anomaly, with particular emphasis on the fetus with a serious cardiac abnormality. One major ethical concern is whether the fetus is or is not independent being to whom obligations of beneficence are owed. We review the debate on this matter, and suggest that it is ethically more appropriate for physicians who are involved in management of fetal abnormality not to adopt and insist on their own position on this matter. Rather, the appropriate course is to respect the pregnant woman's own view of her fetus and how it should be regarded. This is an application of the principle of respect for autonomy. Within this framework, we discuss the difficulties in counselling a pregnant woman or expectant couple in this situation, and recommend three key steps in ethically sound counselling.

Atul Malhotra; Samuel Menahem; Lynn Gillam

2010-01-01

70

Ethical issues of obesity surgery--a health technology assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

New surgical technologies may challenge societal values, and their adoption may lead to ethical challenges. Despite proven cost-effectiveness, obesity (bariatric) surgery and its public funding have been questioned on ethical arguments relating to, for example, the self-inflicted or non-disease nature of obesity. Our aim was to analyze the ethical issues relevant to bariatric surgery. A comprehensive health technology assessment was conducted on bariatric surgery for morbid obesity using the EUnetHTA method, including a fully integrated ethical analysis. The ethical arguments suggesting that obesity should not be surgically treated because it is self-inflicted were rejected. Medicalization of obesity may have both positive and negative effects that impact the various stakeholders differently, thus being difficult to balance. Informing bariatric surgery patients and actively supporting their autonomy is exceptionally important, as the benefits and harms of both obesity and bariatric surgery are complex, and the outcome depends on how well the patient understands and adheres to the life-long changes in eating habits required. Justice considerations are important in organizing surgical treatment of obesity, as the obese are discriminated against in many ways and obesity is more common in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations who might have problems of access to treatments. Obesity should be treated like other diseases in health care, and obesity surgery rationed like other cost-effective treatments. Positive actions to ensure patient autonomy and just access to surgical treatments may be warranted. PMID:21479827

Saarni, Samuli I; Anttila, Heidi; Saarni, Suoma E; Mustajoki, Pertti; Koivukangas, Vesa; Ikonen, Tuija S; Malmivaara, Antti

2011-09-01

71

Researching the vulnerables: issues of consent and ethical approval.  

Science.gov (United States)

Imagine you are a biomedical scientist attempting to cross a busy, beggar-crowded road in Lagos. You suddenly notice that the loud horns of the speeding cars, trucks and trailers draw no visible physiologic response from any of the beggars including their children and babies, unlike the rest of the crowd. Consequently, certain questions such as the following begin to engage your mind: Is this phenomenon a kind of habituation? If so, is its onset the same for the blind ones amongst them? Have these beggars acquired a neural system absent from "normal" people? If so, just how long does it take for such a system to be established? At the very height of this creative outburst, you however realize that the informed consent and ethical approval you would need for this particular research differs from the type you have previously encountered in your career.... Although the above scenario suggests that new and difficult ethical questions may confront scientists while pursuing their curiosity, our research ethics guidelines do not currently address this issue. This paper explores some of the ethical challenges involved in carrying out basic research on vulnerable subjects such as beggars. It highlights how the notions of autonomy and informed consent in this context become vague, thus, liable to exploitation. Ultimately, the paper offers a useful framework in relation to developing a research ethics committee charged with the moral mandate of overseeing the integrity of research involving this vulnerable population in particular and basic biomedical research in general. PMID:23678631

Afolabi, M O S

2012-12-01

72

Ethical issues in public health practice in Michigan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: We sought to ascertain the types of ethical challenges public health practitioners face in practice and to identify approaches used to resolve such challenges. METHODS: We conducted 45 semistructured interviews with public health practitioners across a range of occupations (e.g., health officers, medical directors, sanitarians, nurses) at 13 health departments in Michigan. RESULTS: Through qualitative analysis, we identified 5 broad categories of ethical issues common across occupations and locations: (1) determining appropriate use of public health authority, (2) making decisions related to resource allocation, (3) negotiating political interference in public health practice, (4) ensuring standards of quality of care, and (5) questioning the role or scope of public health. Participants cited a variety of values guiding their decision-making that did not coalesce around core values often associated with public health, such as social justice or utilitarianism. Public health practitioners relied on consultations with colleagues to resolve challenges, infrequently using frameworks for decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: Public health practitioners showed a nuanced understanding of ethical issues and navigated ethical challenges with minimal formal assistance. Decision-making guides that are empirically informed and tailored for practitioners might have some value.

Baum NM; Gollust SE; Goold SD; Jacobson PD

2009-02-01

73

Medical students' understanding of ethical issues in the ambulatory setting.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The education of medical students concerning ethical issues focuses mainly on critically ill hospitalized patients. However, in the outpatient setting physicians encounter many problems that require ethical decision making. The present study is an assessment of medical students' awareness and understanding of ethical issues commonly encountered in the ambulatory setting. METHODS: A questionnaire was designed to evaluate general knowledge of medical ethics using 12 clinical vignettes. These vignettes depict situations in the ambulatory setting which involve ethical problems. The questionnaire was distributed to medical students who were asked to state whether an ethical issue was present, its significance, and what the specific issue was. RESULTS: Students' abilities to identify that an ethical issue was involved in each vignette ranged from 34.2% to 96.4%. A majority of students identified the presence of an ethical dilemma in seven out of 12 vignettes. The significance rating varied from 2.8 to 4.4 on a scale of 1 to 5. The results indicate that traditional education in medical ethics does not necessarily prepare students to recognize these problems in the clinical setting. CONCLUSIONS: The medical students surveyed for this study seem to be variably prepared to recognize obvious ethical dilemmas in the ambulatory setting. Medical education must prepare students to recognize and appropriately manage these commonly encountered situations.

Knabe BJ; Stearns JA; Glasser M

1994-07-01

74

Identifying ethical issues from the perspective of the registered nurse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A review of the formal ethics consultations performed at a rural academic medical center during 2006 revealed that only 5 of 72 consultations were initiated by nurses. A descriptive exploratory convenience study used a 3-item survey to collect information from registered nurses who provide direct patient care at the rural academic medical center. The purpose of this study was to (1) identify and describe the ethical issues perceived by registered nurses employed at a rural academic medical center and (2) analyze the variables influencing the registered nurses' ethical decision making and the process used by these registered nurses when resolving ethical issues.The 17 registered nurses who completed the survey identified a total of 21 ethical issues that they had experienced during the last year. The ethical issues that nurses recalled were significantly more likely to be relationship issues, whereas issues documented within the ethics consultation service were significantly more likely to involve limiting treatment. Communication was a major variable influencing nurse's ethical decision making. Nurses felt the ethical issue resolved satisfactorily when the patient's needs were met, communication occurred with the patient and/or family, the entire healthcare team was involved and in agreement, and there was sufficient time available to make a decision. The nurses did not feel that the ethical situation was resolved satisfactorily when not handled from the patient's perspective; the patient suffered; there was a lack of teamwork, agreement, and/or support; and the process took too long. The nurses' recommendations for resources needed to assist with the resolution of ethical issues included accessible ethics mechanisms, education, improved interprofessional relationships and collaboration, and unbiased support for patient and family decision making. Implications for nurse managers are discussed and future research questions are identified.

DeWolf Bosek MS

2009-07-01

75

A call for responsibility in ethical issues for IS professionals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years there has been increased interest in the ethical values, beliefs and behavior of persons in the business world. Public abhorrence of questionable behavior of politicians, the savings and loan scandal and insider trading violations are just a few examples of many problems in business and professional life. A 1992 study by the Josephson Institute of Ethics involving 9,000 young people and adults revealed alarmingly low ethical characteristics in American institutions. Ferrell and Fraedrick have concluded that {open_quotes}business ethics is one of the most important concerns in today`s business world.{close_quote} A few professional organizations have tried to comprehend the ethical values, beliefs and behavior of their constituents. Vittrell has studied the frequency of ethical behavior for management information specialists. Martin and Peterson have examined the ethical issues of insider trading. Fimbel and Burstein have investigated the ethical values of technology professionals. Thornburg made use of a survey concerning the ethical beliefs and practices of human resources professionals. On a preliminary basis, these studies indicate the various ethical issues and uncertainties which are problematic for members of the various professions. Most business people are ethical segregationists, that is they tend to segregate their ethical values into one type of behavior for business and another type of behavior away from business. Managers accused of unethical behavior respond with, III am not that type of person. I am active in my church, in community affairs, a good family man, and so on.

Palmiter, C.W.

1994-12-31

76

Ethical issues in african great ape field studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Great apes have been systematically studied in the wild for over half a century. Great apes are now critically endangered and this raises significant ethical issues for field primatologists who study and work to conserve these primates and their habitats. The most immediate ethical concerns involve the well-being of the subjects, but there are also important ethical considerations involved in researchers' interactions with local human populations and extracting industry representatives. This essay will discuss some of the ethical issues raised by African great ape research, with the hope of generating greater dialogue about best practices. After briefly presenting the history of great ape fieldwork, the ethical issues associated with habituation, intervention, and conservation will be discussed. This text will end with specific proposals that focus on the ethical concerns in great ape field studies.

Gruen L; Fultz A; Pruetz J

2013-01-01

77

Ethical issues in physiotherapy--reflected from the perspective of physiotherapists in private practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: An important aspect of physiotherapy professional autonomy is the ethical code of the profession, both collectively and for the individual member of the profession. The aim of this study is to explore and add additional insight into the nature and scope of ethical issues as they are understood and experienced by Danish physiotherapists in outpatient, private practice. METHODS: A qualitative approach was chosen and semi-structured interviews with 21 physiotherapists were carried out twice and analyzed, using a phenomenological hermeneutic framework. RESULTS: One main theme emerged: The ideal of being beneficent toward the patient. Here, the ethical issues uncovered in the interviews were embedded in three code-groups: 1) ethical issues related to equality; 2) feeling obligated to do one's best; and 3) transgression of boundaries. CONCLUSIONS: In an ethical perspective, physiotherapy in private practice is on a trajectory toward increased professionalism. Physiotherapists in private practice have many reflections on ethics and these reflections are primarily based on individual common sense arguments and on deontological understandings. As physiotherapy by condition is characterized by asymmetrical power encounters where the parties are in close physical and emotional contact, practiced physiotherapy has many ethical issues embedded. Some physiotherapists meet these issues in a professional manner, but others meet them in unconscious or unprofessional ways. An explicit ethical consciousness among Danish physiotherapists in private practice seems to be needed. A debate of how to understand and respect the individual physiotherapist's moral versus the ethics of the profession needs to be addressed.

Praestegaard J; Gard G

2013-02-01

78

Ethical issues at the end of life.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Providing good care for dying patients requires that physicians be knowledgeable of ethical issues pertinent to end-of-life care. Effective advance care planning can assure patient autonomy at the end of life even when the patient has lost decision-making capacity. Medical futility is difficult to identify in the clinical setting but may be described as an intervention that will not allow the intended goal of therapy to be achieved. Medical interventions, including artificial nutrition and hydration, can be withheld or withdrawn if this measure is consistent with the dying patient's wishes. Physicians caring for terminally ill patients receive requests for physician-assisted suicide. The physician should establish the basis for the request and work with the healthcare team to provide support and comfort for the patient. Physician-assisted suicide could negate the traditional patient-physician relationship and place vulnerable populations at risk. Physicians need to incorporate spiritual issues into the management of patients at the end of life. The integrity of the physician as a moral agent in the clinical setting needs to be recognized and honored. The physician has a moral imperative to assure good care for dying patients.

Cavalieri TA

2001-10-01

79

Ethical issues and challenges in pressure ulcer research - the research nurses' perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM OF STUDY: This paper explores the issues faced by research nurses in pressure ulcer research through reflection on our own practice and subsequently addresses these issues through critical appraisal of the existing literature. METHODS: A critical reflection framework which provided an opportunity for group reflection and reflexivity was adopted to guide our reflection. Focus questions were formulated based on our reflections and used to inform our literature review. Keywords used in the literature review search included 'research nurse', ethical principles, ethical issues and reflection. A formal tool was used to appraise normative ethics articles. RESULTS: Reflection on our practice in pressure ulcer research identified four main issues: informed consent, confidentiality, methodological uncertainties and more generally the ethical dilemma of the conflict between our accountability and responsibility to the patients and obligations to the research studies. The notion of 'power relations' was found to permeate our practice as research nurses at all level. Six normative ethics papers were retrieved and critically appraised to aid our personal and professional learning and development in the conduct of ethical practice as research nurses in pressure ulcer research through the theory of practice which other research nurses and/or nurse researchers used in other disciplines. CONCLUSIONS: Four main ethical challenges and the issue of power relation were highlighted. Our reflection and the appraisal of the literature provided us the necessary knowledge and skills to better navigate these ethical challenges in the future.

Choo J; Blundell S; McGinnis E

2012-11-01

80

Overview: Ethical issues in contemporary psychiatry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors survey the ethical problems confronting psychiatry today. They state that with rare exceptions psychiatric intervention can be morally justified only with the potential patient's informed consent. Within this framework, they discuss the fact that today nonpsychiatrists, particularly ethicists, lawyers, legislators, and social scientists, as well as psychiatrists are concerned about medical ethics, specifically regarding the right to be treated, the right not to be treated, the civil rights of psychiatric patients, the ethics of behavior control, the problem of conflicts of interest in therapeutic goals, privacy and confidentiality, the ethics of human experimentation, policy decisions, and psychiatry's relationship to the changing moral value structure of U.S. society.

Redlich F; Mollica RF

1976-02-01

 
 
 
 
81

Ethical and social issues in the information age  

CERN Document Server

This new edition examines the ethical, social, and policy challenges stemming from computing and telecommunication technology, and mobile information-enabling devices. Features: establishes a philosophical framework and analytical tools for discussing moral theories and problems in ethical relativism; offers pertinent discussions on privacy, surveillance, employee monitoring, biometrics, civil liberties, harassment, the digital divide, and discrimination; examines the new ethical, cultural and economic realities of computer social networks; reviews issues of property rights, responsibility and

Kizza, Joseph Migga

2013-01-01

82

Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…

Cohen, Libby

83

Ethical Issues in Irregular Migration Research in Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is concerned with the ethical issues arising for researchers engaged in the study of irregular migration. Based on the authors' research experiences, the paper goes beyond analysis of ethical dilemmas and aims to provide some guidance to researchers in this field. Irregular migration is b...

DÜVELL, Franck; TRIANDAFYLLIDOU, Anna; VOLLMER, Bastian

84

Mild cognitive impairment: Conceptual, assessment, ethical, and social issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Perla Werner1, Amos D Korczyn21Department of Gerontology, Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel; 2Sieratzki Chair of Neurology, Department of Neurology, Tel Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, IsraelAbstract: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is defined as a condition characterized by newly acquired cognitive decline to an extent that is beyond that expected for age or educational background, yet not causing significant functional impairment. The concept of MCI has received considerable attention in the literature over the past few years, and aspects related to its definition, prevalence, and evolution have been extensively studied and reviewed. Here we attempt to synthesize the implications of the current status of this entity, focusing on the conceptual, methodological, and, in particular, the social and ethical aspects of MCI which have attracted less attention. We discuss the weaknesses of the concept of MCI, which is heterogeneous in etiology, manifestations, and outcomes, and suggest that the emergence of the syndrome at this stage reflects industrial interests related to possible development of drugs for this disorder. On the other hand, the formal diagnosis of MCI, with its implications that the person may develop dementia, may have a grave impact on the psychological state of the individual, at a stage when prediction of outcome is tenuous and possibilities of useful interventions are meager. We present suggestions for the direction of future research in these areas.Keywords: mild cognitive impairment, assessment issues, ethical issues, social issues, dementia

Perla Werner; Amos D Korczyn

2008-01-01

85

Ethical issues in practice: a survey of home-visiting nurses in Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: The purposes of this study were to identify specific components and frequencies of ethical issues that home-visiting nurses encountered in their practice, relationships between ethical issues and demographic data, and experience of ethics education and workplace environment. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to home-visiting nurses in Japan. Usable data (1961) were analyzed. RESULTS: Item and exploratory factor analysis for the frequency of encountering ethical issues revealed: (i) concern about respecting client or relationships with relevant professionals; (ii) differences in treatment or care-taking views among home-visiting nurse and client and family, or relevant professionals; and (iii) discrepancy of intention between family and client or home-visiting nurse. All factors were significantly positively related to the current position, duration of working experience as a home-visiting nurse, and type of nursing education; age was significantly negatively related. Home-visiting nurses noted that programmed continuing education systems and staff-training programs were not sufficiently available. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicated the characteristics of ethical issues that home-visiting nurses encountered in their practice and insufficient continuing education system including ethics education. Ethics education programs tailored to home-visiting nurses ethical concerns and traits and continuing education systems are needed.

Asahara K; Ono W; Kobayashi M; Omori J; Momose Y; Todome H; Konishi E

2013-06-01

86

So many ways to think. An overview of approaches to ethical issues in geriatrics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article provides an overview of ways to think about ethical issues in geriatrics. Principle-based approaches include deontology, utilitarianism, virtue theory, and natural law. Case-based approaches include casuistry, care, and narrative ethics. Pragmatism and feminism are methods that mesh case-based with principle-based considerations. Each of these approaches is explained and critiqued in relation to specific cases in geriatrics. The author concludes that clinical ethical decisions are optimized by considering, but not necessarily following, all of the available approaches to ethical dilemmas.

Mahowald MB

1994-08-01

87

Ethical Issues in Human Stem Cell Research. Executive Summary.  

Science.gov (United States)

In November 1998, President Clinton charged the National Bioethics Advisory Commission with the task of conducting a thorough review of the issues associated with human stem cell research, balancing all ethical and medical considerations. The President's ...

1999-01-01

88

Ethics and neuropsychiatric genetics: a review of major issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in neuropsychiatric genetics hold great hopes for improved prevention, diagnosis and treatment. However, the power of genetic testing to identify individuals at increased risk for disorders and to convey information about relatives creates a set of complex ethical issues. Public attitudes are inevitably affected by the shadow of eugenics, with its history of distorting scientific findings to serve socio-political ends. Nonetheless, the growing availability of genetic tests means that more patients will seek genetic information and physicians must manage the process of informed consent to allow meaningful decisions. Patients should be helped to understand the often-limited predictive power of current knowledge, potential psychological impact, risks of stigma and discrimination and possible implications for family members. Decisions for predictive testing of children raise additional concerns, including distortions of family dynamics and negative effects on children's self-image; testing is best deferred until adulthood unless preventive interventions exist. Pharmacogenomic testing, part of personalized medicine, may bring collateral susceptibility information for which patients should be prepared. The implications of genetic findings for families raise the question of whether physicians have duties to inform family members of implications for their health. Finally, participation in research in neuropsychiatric genetics evokes a broad range of ethical concerns, including the contentious issue of the extent to which results should be returned to individual subjects. As genetic science becomes more widely applied, the public will become more sophisticated and will be likely to demand a greater role in determining social policy on these issues. PMID:22272758

Hoge, Steven K; Appelbaum, Paul S

2012-01-25

89

Ethics and neuropsychiatric genetics: a review of major issues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Advances in neuropsychiatric genetics hold great hopes for improved prevention, diagnosis and treatment. However, the power of genetic testing to identify individuals at increased risk for disorders and to convey information about relatives creates a set of complex ethical issues. Public attitudes are inevitably affected by the shadow of eugenics, with its history of distorting scientific findings to serve socio-political ends. Nonetheless, the growing availability of genetic tests means that more patients will seek genetic information and physicians must manage the process of informed consent to allow meaningful decisions. Patients should be helped to understand the often-limited predictive power of current knowledge, potential psychological impact, risks of stigma and discrimination and possible implications for family members. Decisions for predictive testing of children raise additional concerns, including distortions of family dynamics and negative effects on children's self-image; testing is best deferred until adulthood unless preventive interventions exist. Pharmacogenomic testing, part of personalized medicine, may bring collateral susceptibility information for which patients should be prepared. The implications of genetic findings for families raise the question of whether physicians have duties to inform family members of implications for their health. Finally, participation in research in neuropsychiatric genetics evokes a broad range of ethical concerns, including the contentious issue of the extent to which results should be returned to individual subjects. As genetic science becomes more widely applied, the public will become more sophisticated and will be likely to demand a greater role in determining social policy on these issues.

Hoge SK; Appelbaum PS

2012-11-01

90

Ethical and legal issues in e-mail therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Psychologists and psychiatrists recently started using electronic mail (e-mail) to conduct therapy. This article explores relevant ethical and legal issues including, among others, the nature of the professional relationship, boundaries of competence, informed consent, treating minors, confidentiality, and the duty to warn and protect. To illustrate these complex issues, two services currently operating are discussed. To address potential hazards to clients and the profession, a new ethical standard for e-mail therapists is offered.

Shapiro DE; Schulman CE

1996-01-01

91

Nanotechnology & society current and emerging ethical issues  

CERN Document Server

Presents a collection of twelve essays regarding the ethical implications of various nanotechnologies. This book is divided into four unites, which capture four topics in nanoethics: envisioning the future, nonomedicine, human enhancement and privacy.

Allhoff, Fritz

2008-01-01

92

Ethical issues in health workforce development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing the numbers of health workers and improving their skills requires that countries confront a number of ethical dilemmas. The ethical considerations in answering five important questions on enabling health workers to deal appropriately with the circumstances in which they must work are described. These include the problems of the standards of training and practice required in countries with differing levels of socioeconomic development and different priority diseases; how a society can be assured that health practitioners are properly trained; how a health system can support its workers; diversion of health workers and training institutions; and the teaching of ethical principles to student health workers. The ethics of setting standards for the skills and care provided by traditional health-care practitioners are also discussed.

Cash Richard

2005-01-01

93

Analgesia and anesthesia for neonates: study design and ethical issues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to summarize the clinical, methodologic, and ethical considerations for researchers interested in designing future trials in neonatal analgesia and anesthesia, hopefully stimulating additional research in this field. METHODS: The MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane register databases were searched using subject headings related to infant, newborn, neonate, analgesia, anesthesia, ethics, and study design. Cross-references and personal files were searched manually. Studies reporting original data or review articles related to these topics were assessed and critically evaluated by experts for each topical area. Data on population demographics, study characteristics, and cognitive and behavioral outcomes were abstracted and synthesized in a systematic manner and refined by group members. Data synthesis and results were reviewed by a panel of independent experts and presented to a wider audience including clinicians, scientists, regulatory personnel, and industry representatives at the Newborn Drug Development Initiative workshop. Recommendations were revised after extensive discussions at the workshop and between committee members. RESULTS: Designing clinical trials to investigate novel or currently available approaches for analgesia and anesthesia in neonates requires consideration of salient study designs and ethical issues. Conditions requiring treatment include pain/stress resulting from invasive procedures, surgical operations, inflammatory conditions, and routine neonatal intensive care. Study design considerations must define the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a rationale for stratification, the confounding effects of comorbid conditions, and other clinical factors. Significant ethical issues include the constraints of studying neonates, obtaining informed consent, making risk-benefit assessments, defining compensation or rewards for participation, safety considerations, the use of placebo controls, and the variability among institutional review boards in interpreting federal guidelines on human research. For optimal study design, investigators must formulate well-defined study questions, choose appropriate trial designs, estimate drug efficacy, calculate sample size, determine the duration of the studies, identify pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters, and avoid drug-drug interactions. Specific outcome measures may include scoring on pain assessment scales, various biomarkers and their patterns of response, process outcomes (eg, length of stay, time to extubation), intermediate or long-term outcomes, and safety parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Much more research is needed in this field to formulate a scientifically sound, evidence-based, and clinically useful framework for management of anesthesia and analgesia in neonates. Newer study designs and additional ethical dilemmas may be defined with accumulating data in this field.

Anand KJ; Aranda JV; Berde CB; Buckman S; Capparelli EV; Carlo WA; Hummel P; Lantos J; Johnston CC; Lehr VT; Lynn AM; Maxwell LG; Oberlander TF; Raju TN; Soriano SG; Taddio A; Walco GA

2005-06-01

94

Informed recruitment in partner studies of HIV transmission: an ethical issue in couples research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been devoted to ethical issues related to randomized controlled trials for HIV treatment and prevention. However, there has been less discussion of ethical issues surrounding families involved in observational studies of HIV transmission. This paper describes the process of ethical deliberation about how best to obtain informed consent from sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs) tested for HIV, within a recent HIV study in Eastern Europe. The study aimed to assess the amount of HIV serodiscordance among IDUs and their sexual partners, identify barriers to harm reduction, and explore ways to optimize intervention programs. Including IDUs, either HIV-positive or at high risk for HIV, and their sexual partners would help to gain a more complete understanding of barriers to and opportunities for intervention. Discussion This paper focuses on the ethical dilemma regarding informed recruitment: whether researchers should disclose to sexual partners of IDUs that they were recruited because their partner injects drugs (i.e., their heightened risk for HIV). Disclosing risks to partners upholds the ethical value of respect for persons through informed consent. However, disclosure compromises the IDU's confidentiality, and potentially, the scientific validity of the research. Following a brief literature review, we summarize the researchers' systematic evaluation of this issue from ethical, scientific, and logistical perspectives. While the cultural context may be somewhat unique to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the issues raised and solutions proposed here inform epidemiological research designs and their underlying ethical tensions. Summary We present ethical arguments in favor of disclosure, discuss how cultural context shapes the ethical issues, and recommend refinement of guidance for couples research of communicable diseases to assist investigators encountering these ethical issues in the future.

McNutt Louise-Anne; Gordon Elisa J; Uusküla Anneli

2009-01-01

95

Ethical issues in human genomics research in developing countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide a powerful means of identifying genetic variants that play a role in common diseases. Such studies present important ethical challenges. An increasing number of GWAS is taking place in lower income countries and there is a pressing need to identify the particular ethical challenges arising in such contexts. In this paper, we draw upon the experiences of the MalariaGEN Consortium to identify specific ethical issues raised by such research in Africa, Asia and Oceania. Discussion We explore ethical issues in three key areas: protecting the interests of research participants, regulation of international collaborative genomics research and protecting the interests of scientists in low income countries. With regard to participants, important challenges are raised about community consultation and consent. Genomics research raises ethical and governance issues about sample export and ownership, about the use of archived samples and about the complexity of reviewing such large international projects. In the context of protecting the interests of researchers in low income countries, we discuss aspects of data sharing and capacity building that need to be considered for sustainable and mutually beneficial collaborations. Summary Many ethical issues are raised when genomics research is conducted on populations that are characterised by lower average income and literacy levels, such as the populations included in MalariaGEN. It is important that such issues are appropriately addressed in such research. Our experience suggests that the ethical issues in genomics research can best be identified, analysed and addressed where ethics is embedded in the design and implementation of such research projects.

de Vries Jantina; Bull Susan J; Doumbo Ogobara; Ibrahim Muntaser; Mercereau-Puijalon Odile; Kwiatkowski Dominic; Parker Michael

2011-01-01

96

[Medical research in paediatrics: ethical issues].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since 1947 (the Nuremberg Code), the ethics of experimentation on human beings is based on the principle of the informed consent of the subjects participating in the research. In this context, research in paediatrics raised particular and difficult problems. International regulations have evolved in a way that has permitted paediatric research, within strict limits. However, recent studies have shown that the level of clinical paediatric research remains weak. There are economic reasons for this. But it also reveals the persistence of an ethical conflict: some people fear that a relativisation of the principle of consent (proxy consent) will lead to weakened protection for the most vulnerable subjects, including children. The ethics of responsibility requires a balance between the protection of the child as an individual (who should never become a medical guinea-pig) and the protection of children as a group (who should never be deprived of the benefits of the medical research).

Amann JP

2004-07-01

97

Diabetes and end of life: ethical and methodological issues in gathering evidence to guide care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Providing palliative care for people with diabetes at the end of life is part of the chronic disease care trajectory, but end of life care is complex and the presence of diabetes further complicates management. AIM: The aim of the paper is to discuss the ethical and methodological issues encountered when undertaking research to develop guidelines for managing diabetes at the end of life and the strategies used to address the issues. METHOD: The issues emerged as we developed guidelines for managing diabetes at the end of life, which included conducting individual interviews with 14 people with diabetes requiring palliative care and 10 family members. A reflexive researcher journal was maintained throughout the guideline development process. The interview transcripts and researcher's journal were analysed to determine key methodological, ethical and researcher-related issues. FINDINGS: Key themes were vulnerability of the sampling population, methodological issues included recruiting participants and ensuring rigor, ethical issues concerned benefit and risk, justice, autonomy, privacy, professional boundaries and informed consent. Researcher-related issues were identified such as managing participant distress and their own emotional distress. People were willing to discuss end of life diabetes management preferences. CONCLUSIONS: Undertaking research with people at the end of life is complex because of their vulnerability and the ethical issues involved. However, the ethical principles of autonomy and justice apply and people should be given the relevant information and opportunity to decide whether to participate or not.

Dunning T; Duggan N; Savage S; Martin P

2013-03-01

98

Ethical Issues Involved in Integrated Marketing Communication in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available “When we consider corporate morality we must conclude that no price is too high, for in the long run we have no alternative to ethical business behaviour” Fred. T. Aller. “If I were to name the deadliest subversive force within capitalism, the single greatest source of its waning morality …. I would without hesitation name “Advertising and Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC)”. How else should one identify a force that debases language, drains thought and undoes dignity. (Heilbroner .R. (1981). are prone to scrutiny by those who are concerned about the methods marketers use to sell their products and services. Proponents of advertising and IMC states that it is the life blood of business. That it provides consumers with information about products and services and encourages them to improve their standard of living. Advertising produces jobs and helps new companies enter the market place. Companies employ people who make the products and provide the services that advertising sells. Free market economic systems are based on competition which revolves around information, and nothing delivers information better and at less cost than advertising and integrated marketing communication (IMC) (Becch .E., Belch M.A. 1998). Not everyone is sold on the value of advertising. Critics argued that most advertising and IMC is more than information. It creates needs, faults consumers and mesmerizes them. It makes consumers to buy that they originally do not want or wish to buy. Adverts suggest that our bodies should be leaner, our faces younger and our utensils cleaner. They point to the sultry, scantily and muscular clad bodies used in it to sell everything from perfume to beer, and argue that advertising promotes materialism, instant gratification, insecurity and greed. “Ethics also consists of certain rules and standards of conduct recognized as binding in a professional body or an Association”. This paper will define the concepts of law, ethics and morality, it will critically examine ethical issues in Advertising, public relations, targeting of integrated marketing communications efforts, public relations, sales promotions, personal selling, packaging and Telemarketing. It will also discuss the external constraints that influence the choice of product adverts and promotions and will provide practical examples and solutions and how to improve ethical conducts in Nigerian integrated marketing communications.

Ayozie Daniel Ogechukwu; Ayozie Kingsley Ndubueze; Ayozie Victoria Uche

2011-01-01

99

Ethical issues in human reproduction: Catholic perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The catholic perspective in human reproduction is based on the concept that the human being is to be respected and treated as a person from the moment of conception. In this paper the ethical implications derived from such a principle are discussed. PMID:24020861

Lanzone, Antonio

2013-09-10

100

Ethical issues in human reproduction: Catholic perspectives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract The catholic perspective in human reproduction is based on the concept that the human being is to be respected and treated as a person from the moment of conception. In this paper the ethical implications derived from such a principle are discussed.

Lanzone A

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
101

Ethical issues of incorporating spiritual care into clinical practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article was to analyse the scholarly discourse on the ethical issues of incorporating spirituality and religion into clinical practice. BACKGROUND: Spirituality is an important aspect of health care, yet the secularisation of health care presents ethical concerns for many health providers. Health providers may have conflicting views regarding if and how to offer spiritual care in the clinical setting. DESIGN: Discursive paper. RESULTS: The discourse analysis uncovered four themes: ethical concerns of omission; ethical concerns of commission; conditions under which health providers prefer to offer spiritual care; and strategies to integrate spiritual care. Ethical concerns of omission of spiritual care include lack of beneficence for not offering holistic care. Ethical concerns of commission are coercion and overstepping one's competence in offering spiritual care. Conditions under which providers are more likely to offer spiritual care are if the patient has a terminal illness, and if the patient requests spiritual care. Strategies for appropriate spiritual care include listening, and remaining neutral and sensitive to spiritual issues. CONCLUSIONS: Health providers must be aware of both the concerns of omission and commission. Aristotle's golden mean, an element of virtue ethics, supports a more moderate approach that can be achieved by avoiding the imposition of one's own personal beliefs of a religious persuasion or beliefs of extreme secularisation, and focusing on the beneficence to the patient. Relevance to clinical practice.? Key components for health providers in addressing spiritual concerns are self-reflection, provision of individualised care, cultural competency and communication.

Polzer Casarez RL; Engebretson JC

2012-08-01

102

Ethnic marketing possibilities and its ethics issues  

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Full Text Available This paper focuses on the possibilities of ethnic marketing and its ethic connections. The differences found in our face-to-face interviews and analysing questionnaire data will provide opportunities for Hungarian small enterprises. Targeting ethnic groups for marketing purposes results in ethical difficulties. In Hungary, ethnic marketing is yet an inexperienced concept. Based on these ideas the authors examine the ins and outs of using ethnic marketing in case of Germans in Hungary. Consumers with German ethnic attitude really want German products and brands. At the same time, enterprises have to emphasise the products’ “Germanness” and character in a better/stronger way because this can help for better consumer decision making.

Annamaria Sas; Agota Kozma

2009-01-01

103

Moral Objectivity, Jurgen Habermas's Discourse Ethics, and Public Relations.  

Science.gov (United States)

States that while increasing attention is being paid by people in public relations to ethical theory, the predominant ethical perspective is still situational. Analyzes the applicability of the Discourse Ethics theory of Jurgen Habermas to public relations ethics. Concludes that Discourse Ethics holds the potential of a new, more objective…

Leeper, Roy V.

1996-01-01

104

Ethical issues posed by cluster randomized trials in health research  

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Full Text Available Abstract The cluster randomized trial (CRT) is used increasingly in knowledge translation research, quality improvement research, community based intervention studies, public health research, and research in developing countries. However, cluster trials raise difficult ethical issues that challenge researchers, research ethics committees, regulators, and sponsors as they seek to fulfill responsibly their respective roles. Our project will provide a systematic analysis of the ethics of cluster trials. Here we have outlined a series of six areas of inquiry that must be addressed if the cluster trial is to be set on a firm ethical foundation: 1. Who is a research subject? 2. From whom, how, and when must informed consent be obtained? 3. Does clinical equipoise apply to CRTs? 4. How do we determine if the benefits outweigh the risks of CRTs? 5. How ought vulnerable groups be protected in CRTs? 6. Who are gatekeepers and what are their responsibilities? Subsequent papers in this series will address each of these areas, clarifying the ethical issues at stake and, where possible, arguing for a preferred solution. Our hope is that these papers will serve as the basis for the creation of international ethical guidelines for the design and conduct of cluster randomized trials.

Weijer Charles; Grimshaw Jeremy M; Taljaard Monica; Binik Ariella; Boruch Robert; Brehaut Jamie C; Donner Allan; Eccles Martin P; Gallo Antonio; McRae Andrew D; Saginur Raphael; Zwarenstein Merrick

2011-01-01

105

Governing Nanotechnology: Social, Ethical and Human Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter is a human-centered survey of nanotechnology's broader implications, reporting on the early phase of work by social scientists, philosophers, and other scholars. It begins with the social science agenda developed by governments, and the heritage of research on technology and organizations that social science brings to this mission. It then outlines current thinking about nanotechnology's economic impacts, health or environmental impacts, and social contributions. It discusses how technology can be regulated by a combination of informal ethics and formal law, then concludes by considering the shape of popular nanotechnology culture, as reflected in science fiction, public perceptions, and education.

Bainbridge, William

106

Nuclear energy - social and ethical issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the continued exploration and mining and the construction and operation of nuclear reactors, both domestically and for export, is and will continue to be ethically and socially sound. Benefit and risk should be shared equally in the ideal society, in the real world this does not seem possible, but nuclear power appears not to worsen the situation and may even improve it. The real risks of nuclear power are less than those tolerated by many in their daily lives, but the public is relucant to accept them. The diversion of effort from dealing with real risks to worrying about hypothetical ones can be a disservice to society. Technology is inherently value-free, but can be used to raise the standard of living and provide a lifestyle in which non-material values can thrive. Withholding uranium from world markets increases the pressure on oil and the probability of armed conflict. A connection is made between uranium supply and food production. Social justice is a vital concern, but boycotts and trade embargoes may worsen suffering and have little effect on oppressors. There are formally defined international obligations to share nuclear technology. Scientists and engineers have a responsibility, which they are living up to more frequently, to make their specialized knowledge available to decision makers, and to express the ethical basis for their work. Nuclear energy appears to be more benign to future generations than many other present-day activities. (LL)

1980-01-01

107

Ethics and Nanotechnology: The Issue of Perfectionism  

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Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating perfectionism, as the project, shared by biotechnologies and nanotechnologies, of human enhancement. This project is commonly criticized (by Jean-Pierre Dupuy or Michael Sandel) as representing a kind of hyper-agency, a Promethean aspiration to remake nature, including human nature, to serve our purposes, and satisfy our desires. It should thus be addressed as a metaphysical or even theological problem. We would like to argue that this project is not so much Promethean as it is Pelagian. It does not aim so much at being as powerful as God, than at achieving individual, personal felicity, the way Pelagus argued that all men could achieve their own perfection. We argue that the claim of perfectionism is first an ethical one, since it pertains to what Sidgwick called 'egoist hedonism'. We then question this claim from a social point of view: What kind of social relationships is implied by the quest for individual perfectionism. This is an ethical as well as an epistemological question.

Catherine Larrère

2010-01-01

108

Therapy in virtual environments--clinical and ethical issues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: As virtual reality and computer-assisted therapy strategies are increasingly implemented for the treatment of psychological disorders, ethical standards and guidelines must be considered. This study determined a set of ethical and legal guidelines for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)/traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a virtual environment incorporating the rights of an individual who is represented by an avatar. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was undertaken. An example of a case study of therapy in Second Life (a popular online virtual world developed by Linden Labs) was described. RESULTS: Ethical and legal considerations regarding psychiatric treatment of PTSD/TBI in a virtual environment were examined. The following issues were described and discussed: authentication of providers and patients, informed consent, patient confidentiality, patient well-being, clinician competence (licensing and credentialing), training of providers, insurance for providers, the therapeutic environment, and emergencies. Ethical and legal guidelines relevant to these issues in a virtual environment were proposed. CONCLUSIONS: Ethical and legal issues in virtual environments are similar to those that occur in the in-person world. Individuals represented by an avatar have the rights equivalent to the individual and should be treated as such.

Yellowlees PM; Holloway KM; Parish MB

2012-09-01

109

Ethical Issues in Genetic Engineering and Transgenics  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article demonstrates how transgenic technology has the potential of medical therapy, but it raises questions about these issues: creation of new life forms and crossing species boundaries, long-term effects on human health and the environment, blending of nonhuman animal and human DNA , and unintended personal, social, and cultural consequences.

Linda MacDonald Glenn (;)

2004-06-01

110

Ethical Issues in Nuclear Waste Management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear experts claim that the health risks from radioactive waste disposal are low compared to other environmental hazards, yet the general public is sceptical of the industry's ability to guarantee acceptable safety standards. Many allude to what might be deemed morally relevant factors, such as potential harms to future generations, possibly catastrophic consequences and environmental effects. Industry has often tended to respond with a claim that the public has an irrational perception of radiation risks, particularly those from man-made rather than natural sources. From a philosophical point of view it is interesting to consider exactly how nuclear risks might differ from other hazards, not least to evaluate which ethically relevant factors could be used to defend the stringent demands made by society for nuclear waste disposal.

Oughton, Deborah [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry and Biotechnology

2001-07-01

111

Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues  

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Full Text Available This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.

David B. Resnik

2008-01-01

112

Ethics Issues on Land Services Reformation in Indonesia  

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Full Text Available Increasingly, public demand for the availability of land has been increased due to population growth and the development while the land itself it was never increased. In an effort to improve the public service, then the government has established a policy of service to the community in the management and development of land development. It has issued instructions to the State Minister for Agrarian Affairs / Head of National Land Agency No. 3 of 1998 On Improving Efficiency and Quality of Community Service in the Land Service. Service management carried out by government officials in various service sectors, particularly those involving civil rights and the fulfillment of basic needs of society, including the ministry of land, the way it works is still far from the expected.The issue of ethics in Indonesia actually has much discussed but less thoroughly discussed, as there is in developed countries. Although it has been realized that one of the fundamental weaknesses in the public service in Indonesia is a matter of ethics and morality, ethics is often seen as a less important element in the public service. Another very serious problem in the context of ethics is corruption in the public service. As a country known to be very religious, is an ironic thing when Indonesia is among the most corrupted countries in the world. Issues of Corruption Collusion and Nepotism are a very serious problem facing this nation. As if - if transparency, and fairness accountability never known.Ethics is only limited as a discourse or just written in the law books – but only on legislation alone and is not in reality or not happening in the community. No implementation of principles of ethics such as transparency, accountability, and justice are always complaints by the people who deal with the land office.

Muhammad Afif Hamka; Azima A. M.; Suhana Saad

2012-01-01

113

Social and ethical issues in environmental risk management.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recognition of the social and ethical aspects of radiation risk management has been an important part of international projects following the Chernobyl accident of 1986. This study comments on the science and policy issues in environmental risk assessment, including the social and ethical dimensions of emergency preparedness and remediation experiences gained from the Chernobyl accident. While the unique situation of Fukushima, combined with an earthquake and tsunami, raises its own social and political challenges, it is hoped that some of the lessons learnt from Chernobyl will be relevant to long-term management of the Fukushima site. PMID:21608106

Oughton, Deborah H

2011-07-01

114

Social and ethical issues in environmental risk management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The recognition of the social and ethical aspects of radiation risk management has been an important part of international projects following the Chernobyl accident of 1986. This study comments on the science and policy issues in environmental risk assessment, including the social and ethical dimensions of emergency preparedness and remediation experiences gained from the Chernobyl accident. While the unique situation of Fukushima, combined with an earthquake and tsunami, raises its own social and political challenges, it is hoped that some of the lessons learnt from Chernobyl will be relevant to long-term management of the Fukushima site.

Oughton DH

2011-07-01

115

Ethical issues in hymenoplasty: views from Tehran's physicians.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hymenoplasty, practiced in societies wherein a woman's virginity signifies honour, is a controversial surgery raising a multitude of ethical issues. There is a dearth of research uncovering the views of physicians who perform hymenoplasty, especially in sexually conservative cultures, such as Iran. Interviews were conducted with five Iranian physicians who perform hymenoplasty to determine their ethical views on the surgery. The interview findings suggest that Iranian physicians risk punitive consequences if they are discovered to be offering hymenoplasty. However, some continue to cautiously perform the procedure out of a moral obligation to protect the welfare of women seeking it, even if they are personally conflicted about the surgery. PMID:23764547

Ahmadi, Azal

2013-06-13

116

"Business Ethics Everywhere": An Experiential Exercise to Develop Students' Ability to Identify and Respond to Ethical Issues in Business  

Science.gov (United States)

This article introduces an experiential exercise that enhances students' ability to identify ethical issues and to respond to them in ways that consider the relationship between organizational factors and ethical action. Students identify a required number of ethical incidents in their workplaces during a specified period. Students submit a…

Baker, Susan D.; Comer, Debra R.

2012-01-01

117

Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral.

Serour GI

2013-09-01

118

Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral. PMID:24004295

Serour, G I

2013-09-04

119

Organ donation in intensive care--a look at the ethical issues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper is based on consideration of the ethical issues surrounding organ donation. This emotive subject has far-reaching implications concerning both donation and transplantation but the purpose in this paper is to deal specifically with issues related to cadaveric organ donation and how they concern nurses in an intensive care unit (ICU). A brief, general description of both ethics and organ donation is followed by a discussion of the issues surrounding the donor himself, including the diagnosis of brainstem death, the donor's family, and the nursing and medical implications. Legal, social and economic factors are considered with the aim of highlighting ethical areas but not necessarily providing answers to the questions raised.

Smith JC

1992-12-01

120

Ethics, policy, and educational issues in genetic testing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Analyze ethics, public policy, and education issues that arise in the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) when genomic information acquired as a result of genetic testing is introduced into healthcare services. ORGANIZING CONSTRUCT: Priorities in the Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues Research Program include privacy, integration of genetic services into clinical health care, and educational preparation of the nursing workforce. These constructs are used to examine health policies in the US and UK, and professional interactions of individuals and families with healthcare providers. FINDINGS: Individual, family, and societal goals may conflict with current healthcare practices and policies when genetic testing is done. Current health policies do not fully address these concerns. Unresolved issues include protection of privacy of individuals while considering genetic information needs of family members, determination of appropriate monitoring of genetic tests, addressing genetic healthcare discrepancies, and assuring appropriate nursing workforce preparation. CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of genetic testing into health care requires that providers are knowledgeable regarding ethical, policy, and practice issues in order to minimize risk for harm, protect the rights of individuals and families, and consider societal context in the management of genetic test results. Understanding of these issues is a component of genetic nursing competency that must be addressed at all levels of nursing education.

Williams JK; Skirton H; Masny A

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Commercial biobanks and genetic research: ethical and legal issues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human biological material is recognized as an important tool in research, and the demand for collections that combine samples and data is increasing. For-profit companies have assumed a leading role in assembling and managing these collections. The emergence of commercial biobanks has raised significant ethical and legal issues. The growing awareness of the importance of human biological material in research has been accompanied by a growing awareness of the deficiencies of existing archives of tissue. Commercial biobanks are attempting to position themselves as a, if not the, solution to problems that include a lack of public trust in researchers and lack of financial resources to support the prospective creation of collections that meet the highest scientific and ethical standards in the non-profit sector. Broad social and policy questions surrounding the operation of commercial biobanks have been raised however. International documents, in particular, suggest discomfort with the idea of gain from the mere transfer or exchange of human genetic material and information. Commercial involvement in the development of useful products from tissue is generally not condemned, so long as there is attention to scientific and social norms. Views on the acceptability of commercial biobanks vary. Specific issues that arise when commercial biobanks are permitted--in the areas of consent, recruitment, confidentiality, and accountability--are also relevant to the operation of public and private, non-profit biobanks. Although many uncertainties remain, consensus seems to be forming on a number of issues. For example, there appears to be agreement that blanket consent to future unspecified research uses, with no conditions, is unacceptable. Indeed, many of the leading commercial biobanks have been attentive to concerns about consent, recruitment, and confidentiality. Unfortunately, the binding nature of assurances in these areas is unclear, especially given the risk of insolvency. Hence, accountability may be the most important area of concern in relation to commercial biobanks. A few countries have enacted general legislation providing for comprehensive regulation of biobanks, for example, through licensure. Efforts to achieve harmonization of standards at the international level, and cautions against an approach that focuses on biobanking for genetic research alone, are to be applauded.

Anderlik M

2003-01-01

122

The Investigation of the Opinions of Teacher Candidates about Current Ethical Issues in Terms of Various Variables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research is planned for determining teacher candidates’ opinions about some bioethics issues which include ethical dilemmas. In this research in which quantitative research techniques was used, a study group consisted of 238 teacher candidates from eight different departments at Gazi University in 2011-2012 academic year. Bioethical Values Inventory including scenarios located in the center of ethical issues, such as genetic screening tests, reproductive technologies and euthanasia used as an assessment instrument. Preferences of teacher candidates on scenarios are examined by using research variables such as the gender and studied department. In addition ethical approaches when making their decisions on ethical problems were analyzed. It was observed that the teacher candidates changed the ethical approaches while making decision for each scenario were varied. The teachers’ overall judgments and ethical approach preferences for each scenario did not differentiate according to the department and gender. Only gender-related differences were identified in the genetic screening test scenario.

Melike ÖZER KESK?N; Nilay KESK?N SAMANCI; ?smet KURT

2013-01-01

123

Issues of Business Ethics in Domestic and International Businesses: A Critical Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ethics is a significant issue in business both on the firm level and wider phases. Ethics indicate what is right and what is wrong in business branches also lead employees and stakeholders with moral values. Ethics is the basics for an impartial internal environment in an organization. An ethical cl...

Aytac Gokmen; A. Turan Ozturk

124

Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Livestock are vital to subsistence farming and sustainable livelihood in most developing countries. Of India's population of one billion people, more than 70 percent live in the rural areas. India also has more than 30 percent of the world's bovine population. This has resulted in not only egalitarian ownership of cattle, but also in an almost inseparable cultural and symbiotic relationship between rural families and their farm animals, particularly large ruminants. It is against this scenario that the ethical, social and environmental issues of gene-based technologies need to be carefully evaluated. The use of transgenic cows with modified milk composition or for any other purpose has little economic benefit in a system of 'production by masses', as typifies India and a few other developing countries, compared with 'mass production' systems in developed countries. Rather, the use of rDNA technology for developing drought-resistant fodder and forage crops is likely to bring immediate relief to most regions. Cattle, particularly in India, have poor quality feeds and this results in poor nutrition, with production of large amounts of methane. Irnmunocastration -through biotechnological means would also be advantageous. Developing countries like India need sustainable livelihood security, and, in this regard, gene-based technologies in animal agriculture seem more to raise ethical, social and environmental concerns, rather than being likely to transform 'subsistence farming' into vibrant agribusiness. Ethical issues concerning animal welfare, rights and integrity are also discussed, in addition to social, environmental and economic issues. (author)

2005-01-01

125

Ethical issues in brain-computer interface research, development, and dissemination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The steadily growing field of brain-computer interfacing (BCI) may develop useful technologies, with a potential impact not only on individuals, but also on society as a whole. At the same time, the development of BCI presents significant ethical and legal challenges. In a workshop during the 4th International BCI meeting (Asilomar, California, 2010), six panel members from various BCI laboratories and companies set out to identify and disentangle ethical issues related to BCI use in four case scenarios, which were inspired by current experiences in BCI laboratories. Results of the discussion are reported in this article, touching on topics such as the representation of persons with communication impairments, dealing with technological complexity and moral responsibility in multidisciplinary teams, and managing expectations, ranging from an individual user to the general public. Furthermore, we illustrate that where treatment and research interests conflict, ethical concerns arise. On the basis of the four case scenarios, we discuss salient, practical ethical issues that may confront any member of a typical multidisciplinary BCI team. We encourage the BCI and rehabilitation communities to engage in a dialogue, and to further identify and address pressing ethical issues as they occur in the practice of BCI research and its commercial applications.

Vlek RJ; Steines D; Szibbo D; Kübler A; Schneider MJ; Haselager P; Nijboer F

2012-06-01

126

Review for the volume Practicing Relational Ethics in Organizations, Authors: Gitte Haslebo, Maja Loua Haslebo, Taos Institute Publications, ISBN 978-0-9819076-8-0  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The volume Practicing Relational Ethics in Organizations having as authors Gitte Haslebo and Maja Loua Haslebo issued by Taos Institute Publications Ohio USA, discusses relational ethics and ethical practice in the organization. The problem of ethical practice in the organization besides being a necessity for business it overlaps with aspects of organizational culture, personnel management, leadership. Within the organizational ethics, the authors select the issue of relational ethics from a social, constructionist and appreciative perspective. The authors (Haslebo and Haslebo, 2012) aim to inspire the readers through a complex approach of ethical relations within the organization that are fundamentally unpredictable and subject to continuous change.

Antonio SANDU

2012-01-01

127

The full spectrum of ethical issues in dementia care: systematic qualitative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Integrating ethical issues in dementia-specific training material, clinical guidelines and national strategy plans requires an unbiased awareness of all the relevant ethical issues. AIMS: To determine systematically and transparently the full spectrum of ethical issues in clinical dementia care. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review in Medline (restricted to English and German literature published between 2000 and 2011) and Google books (with no restrictions). We applied qualitative text analysis and normative analysis to categorise the spectrum of ethical issues in clinical dementia care. RESULTS: The literature review retrieved 92 references that together mentioned a spectrum of 56 ethical issues in clinical dementia care. The spectrum was structured into seven major categories that consist of first- and second-order categories for ethical issues. CONCLUSIONS: The systematically derived spectrum of ethical issues in clinical dementia care presented in this paper can be used as training material for healthcare professionals, students and the public for raising awareness and understanding of the complexity of ethical issues in dementia care. It can also be used to identify ethical issues that should be addressed in dementia-specific training programmes, national strategy plans and clinical practice guidelines. Further research should evaluate whether this new genre of systematic reviews can be applied to the identification of ethical issues in other cognitive and somatic diseases. Also, the practical challenges in addressing ethical issues in training material, guidelines and policies need to be evaluated.

Strech D; Mertz M; Knüppel H; Neitzke G; Schmidhuber M

2013-06-01

128

Ethical issues in patient safety: Implications for nursing management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this article is to discuss the ethical issues impacting the phenomenon of patient safety and to present implications for nursing management. Previous knowledge of this perspective is fragmented. In this discussion, the main drivers are identified and formulated in 'the ethical imperative' of patient safety. Underlying values and principles are considered, with the aim of increasing their visibility for nurse managers' decision-making. The contradictory nature of individual and utilitarian safety is identified as a challenge in nurse management practice, together with the context of shared responsibility and identification of future challenges. As a conclusion, nurse managers play a strategic role in patient safety. Their role is to incorporate ethical values of patient safety into decision-making at all levels in an organization, and also to encourage clinical nurses to consider values in the provision of care to patients. Patient safety that is sensitive to ethics provides sustainable practice where the humanity and dignity of all stakeholders are respected.

Kangasniemi M; Vaismoradi M; Jasper M; Turunen H

2013-05-01

129

Ethical issues in patient safety: Implications for nursing management.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to discuss the ethical issues impacting the phenomenon of patient safety and to present implications for nursing management. Previous knowledge of this perspective is fragmented. In this discussion, the main drivers are identified and formulated in 'the ethical imperative' of patient safety. Underlying values and principles are considered, with the aim of increasing their visibility for nurse managers' decision-making. The contradictory nature of individual and utilitarian safety is identified as a challenge in nurse management practice, together with the context of shared responsibility and identification of future challenges. As a conclusion, nurse managers play a strategic role in patient safety. Their role is to incorporate ethical values of patient safety into decision-making at all levels in an organization, and also to encourage clinical nurses to consider values in the provision of care to patients. Patient safety that is sensitive to ethics provides sustainable practice where the humanity and dignity of all stakeholders are respected. PMID:23702894

Kangasniemi, Mari; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Jasper, Melanie; Turunen, Hannele

2013-05-23

130

Collaborative International Research: Ethical and Regulatory Issues Pertaining to Human Biological Materials at a South African Institutional Research Ethics Committee.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human Biological Materials (HBMs) are an invaluable resource in biomedical research. OBJECTIVE: To determine if researchers and a Research Ethics Committee (REC) at a South African institution addressed ethical issues pertaining to HBMs in collaborative research with developed countries. STUDY DESIGN: Ethically approved retrospective cross-sectional descriptive audit. RESULTS: Of the 1305 protocols audited, 151 (11.57%) fulfilled the study's inclusion criteria. Compared to other developed countries, a majority of sponsors (90) were from the USA (p = 0.0001). The principle investigators (PIs) in all 151 protocols informed the REC of their intent to store HBMs. Only 132 protocols informed research participants (P < 0.0001). In 148 protocols informed consent (IC) was obtained from research participants, 116 protocols (76.8%) solicited broad consent compared to specific consent (32; 21.2%) [p < 0.0001]. In 105 cases a code was used to maintain confidentiality. HBMs were anonymised in 14 protocols [p < 0.0001]. More protocols informed the REC (90) than the research participants (67) that HBMs would be exported (p = 0.011). Export permits (EPs) and Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs) were not available in 109 and 143 protocols, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Researchers and the REC did not adequately address the inter-related ethical and regulatory issues pertaining to HBMs. There was a lack of congruence between the ethical guidelines of developed countries and their actions which are central to the access to HBMs in collaborative research. HBMs may be leaving South Africa without EPs and MTAs during the process of international collaborative research.

Sathar A; Dhai A; van der Linde S

2013-05-01

131

Collaborative International Research: Ethical and Regulatory Issues Pertaining to Human Biological Materials at a South African Institutional Research Ethics Committee.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human Biological Materials (HBMs) are an invaluable resource in biomedical research. OBJECTIVE: To determine if researchers and a Research Ethics Committee (REC) at a South African institution addressed ethical issues pertaining to HBMs in collaborative research with developed countries. STUDY DESIGN: Ethically approved retrospective cross-sectional descriptive audit. RESULTS: Of the 1305 protocols audited, 151 (11.57%) fulfilled the study's inclusion criteria. Compared to other developed countries, a majority of sponsors (90) were from the USA (p = 0.0001). The principle investigators (PIs) in all 151 protocols informed the REC of their intent to store HBMs. Only 132 protocols informed research participants (P < 0.0001). In 148 protocols informed consent (IC) was obtained from research participants, 116 protocols (76.8%) solicited broad consent compared to specific consent (32; 21.2%) [p < 0.0001]. In 105 cases a code was used to maintain confidentiality. HBMs were anonymised in 14 protocols [p < 0.0001]. More protocols informed the REC (90) than the research participants (67) that HBMs would be exported (p = 0.011). Export permits (EPs) and Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs) were not available in 109 and 143 protocols, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Researchers and the REC did not adequately address the inter-related ethical and regulatory issues pertaining to HBMs. There was a lack of congruence between the ethical guidelines of developed countries and their actions which are central to the access to HBMs in collaborative research. HBMs may be leaving South Africa without EPs and MTAs during the process of international collaborative research. PMID:23724945

Sathar, Aslam; Dhai, Amaboo; van der Linde, Stephan

2013-05-31

132

Ethical issues in predictive genetic testing: a public health perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As a result of the increase in genetic testing and the fear of discrimination by insurance companies, employers, and society as a result of genetic testing, the disciplines of ethics, public health, and genetics have converged. Whether relatives of someone with a positive predictive genetic test sho...

Fulda, K G; Lykens, K

133

Ethical issues in managed care: a Catholic Christian perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Christian analysis of the moral conflicts that exist among physicians and health care institutions requires a detailed treatment of the ethical issues in managed care. To be viable, managed care, as with any system of health care, must be economically sound and morally defensible. While managed care is per se a morally neutral concept, as it is currently practiced in the United States, it is morally dubious at best, and in many instances is antithetical to a Catholic Christian ethics of health care. The moral status of any system of managed care ought to be judged with respect to its congruence with Gospel teachings about the care of the sick, Papal Encyclicals, and the documents of the Second Vatican Council. In this essay, I look at the important conceptual or definitional issues of managed care, assess these concerns over against the source and content of a Catholic ethic of health care, and outline the necessary moral requirements of any licit system of health care. PMID:11656654

Pellegrino, Edmund D

1997-03-01

134

Ethical issues in managed care: a Catholic Christian perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A Christian analysis of the moral conflicts that exist among physicians and health care institutions requires a detailed treatment of the ethical issues in managed care. To be viable, managed care, as with any system of health care, must be economically sound and morally defensible. While managed care is per se a morally neutral concept, as it is currently practiced in the United States, it is morally dubious at best, and in many instances is antithetical to a Catholic Christian ethics of health care. The moral status of any system of managed care ought to be judged with respect to its congruence with Gospel teachings about the care of the sick, Papal Encyclicals, and the documents of the Second Vatican Council. In this essay, I look at the important conceptual or definitional issues of managed care, assess these concerns over against the source and content of a Catholic ethic of health care, and outline the necessary moral requirements of any licit system of health care.

Pellegrino ED

1997-03-01

135

Social and ethical issues in environmental remediation projects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The contamination of environments with radionuclides can give rise to consequences that encompass far more than health risks from exposure to radiation. As experience from Chernobyl demonstrated, both the accident and remediation measures can have serious social and economic consequences. This paper presents a review of some of these issues, including their ethical relevance, and presents a check-list of socio-ethical aspects of remediation measures. The paper concludes with an overview of social remediation measures, encompassing actions that are directed towards benefits other than dose reduction (e.g., local food monitoring stations or medical check-up), or measures that require social rather than technical implementation (e.g. information centres, stakeholder dialogue).

Oughton DH

2013-05-01

136

Social and ethical issues in environmental remediation projects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The contamination of environments with radionuclides can give rise to consequences that encompass far more than health risks from exposure to radiation. As experience from Chernobyl demonstrated, both the accident and remediation measures can have serious social and economic consequences. This paper presents a review of some of these issues, including their ethical relevance, and presents a check-list of socio-ethical aspects of remediation measures. The paper concludes with an overview of social remediation measures, encompassing actions that are directed towards benefits other than dose reduction (e.g., local food monitoring stations or medical check-up), or measures that require social rather than technical implementation (e.g. information centres, stakeholder dialogue). PMID:21982393

Oughton, D H

2011-10-07

137

Ethical Issues in E-Commerce on the Basis of Online Retailing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The rapid spread of e-commerce has created tremendous opportunities for economic efficiency and customer choice. Use of the global Internet computer network for ecommerce activities provides some advantages to the consumers on their daily life. On the other hand Internet represents a new environment for unethical behavior. While e-commerce has witnessed extensive growth in last decade, consumers concerns regarding ethical issues also continue to increase. Even many consumers and businesses are reveling in e-commerce; consumer problems related to online retail become the dark side of the issue. Approach: A survey on 400 online shoppers was conducted (three cities in Turkey (Izmir, Manisa, Mersin) in order to measure consumers? perceptions regarding the ethical issues of online retailing by using scale of Consumers? Perceptions regarding to Ethics of Online Retailers (CPEOR). Results: Ethical problems like security, privacy, reliability and non deception on Internet are core issues that limit the growth of online retailing. Conclusion/Recommendation: Findings indicate that; four factors (security, privacy, non deception and reliability) are strongly predictive of online consumers? satisfaction. Also, this research will be beneficial to online retailers on their online retailing activities.

Sinan Nardal; Ayse Sahin

2011-01-01

138

Guilt, fear, stigma and knowledge gaps: ethical issues in public health communication interventions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Public health communication campaigns have been credited with helping raise awareness of risk from chronic illness and new infectious diseases and with helping promote the adoption of recommended treatment regimens. Yet many aspects of public health communication interventions have escaped the scrutiny of ethical discussions. With the transference of successful commercial marketing communication tactics to the realm of public health, consideration of ethical issues becomes an essential component in the development and application of public health strategies. Ethical issues in public health communication are explored as they relate to eight topics: 'targeting' and 'tailoring' public health messages to particular population segments; obtaining the equivalence of informed consent; the use of persuasive communication tactics; messages on responsibility and culpability; messages that apply to harm reduction; and three types of unintended adverse effects associated with public health communication activities that may label and stigmatise, expand social gaps, and promote health as a value. We suggest that an ethical analysis should be applied to each phase of the public health communication process in order to identify ethical dilemmas that may appear subtle, yet reflect important concerns regarding potential effects of public health communication interventions on individuals and society as a whole.

Guttman N; Salmon CT

2004-11-01

139

Guilt, fear, stigma and knowledge gaps: ethical issues in public health communication interventions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Public health communication campaigns have been credited with helping raise awareness of risk from chronic illness and new infectious diseases and with helping promote the adoption of recommended treatment regimens. Yet many aspects of public health communication interventions have escaped the scrutiny of ethical discussions. With the transference of successful commercial marketing communication tactics to the realm of public health, consideration of ethical issues becomes an essential component in the development and application of public health strategies. Ethical issues in public health communication are explored as they relate to eight topics: 'targeting' and 'tailoring' public health messages to particular population segments; obtaining the equivalence of informed consent; the use of persuasive communication tactics; messages on responsibility and culpability; messages that apply to harm reduction; and three types of unintended adverse effects associated with public health communication activities that may label and stigmatise, expand social gaps, and promote health as a value. We suggest that an ethical analysis should be applied to each phase of the public health communication process in order to identify ethical dilemmas that may appear subtle, yet reflect important concerns regarding potential effects of public health communication interventions on individuals and society as a whole. PMID:15580723

Guttman, Nurit; Salmon, Charles T

2004-11-01

140

Questões éticas na pesquisa com famílias Ethical issues in family research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivos apresentar e discutir alguns princípios éticos relacionados às condutas adotadas na pesquisa em Psicologia, enfatizando questões relativas às realizadas com famílias. Para isto, são apresentadas, inicialmente, algumas reflexões sobre as éticas filosófica e normativa e, também, regras gerais a serem seguidas por profissionais e pesquisadores da área de Psicologia. Questões relativas à coleta e arquivamento de dados, bem como à comunicação dos resultados obtidos são temas discutidos na sequência e delas decorre a necessidade de olhar para a ética específica a cada projeto, antes de que sua implementação aconteça, condição fundamental para minimizar os riscos de se proceder de maneira não ética ao trabalhar visando a construção de um conhecimento científico.This article aims to present and discuss some ethical principles related to the conduct in psychological research, emphasising family research issues. In order to reach it, we initially present some reflections about philosophic and normative ethics and some general rules that we should pursue if we work in the area of psychology. We also discuss some issues related to the data collection and store as well as the communication of research results. This article is concluded pointing out the necessity of discussing the specific ethical issues of a given research project before its implementation in order to minimise the risk of adopting non-ethical conducts.

Maria Auxiliadora Dessen; Luciana Peticacis de Avelar; Rosana Lima de Sousa Dias

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

[Prevention of doping in sports: epidemiological issues and ethical implications].  

Science.gov (United States)

Owing to a widespread diffusion, the consumption of banned and potentially harmful substances in sports has become a problem for the public health. Current estimations of the prevalence of doping in sports are rather uncertain, as most investigative tools do not reflect an absolute statistical power. However, the emerging scenario reflects a concerning underestimation by Structures and Institutions that should establish definitive rules and set reliable controls. Owing to restricted resources, prevention and fight against doping must be supported by meditated and rational strategies, with the aim to identify suitable contests and accurate procedures, considering carefully ethical issues that may arise from the positivity of the athletes to antidoping controls. PMID:15532876

Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Guidi, Giancesare

142

[Prevention of doping in sports: epidemiological issues and ethical implications].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Owing to a widespread diffusion, the consumption of banned and potentially harmful substances in sports has become a problem for the public health. Current estimations of the prevalence of doping in sports are rather uncertain, as most investigative tools do not reflect an absolute statistical power. However, the emerging scenario reflects a concerning underestimation by Structures and Institutions that should establish definitive rules and set reliable controls. Owing to restricted resources, prevention and fight against doping must be supported by meditated and rational strategies, with the aim to identify suitable contests and accurate procedures, considering carefully ethical issues that may arise from the positivity of the athletes to antidoping controls.

Lippi G; Mattiuzzi C; Guidi G

2004-05-01

143

ETHICAL ISSUES IN PRIVATE COMMERCIAL BANKS IN PAKISTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research addressed the ethical issues in Private Commercial Banks in Pakistan. Data were collected from 500 respondents/Customers from cross sectional data by using simple random technique and data were analyses by using SPSS-18 version. A structural questionnaire was used as basic tool for data collection, analysis, validity and reliability. It was revealed that private commercial banks are not caring for the customers specially, four old Banks UBL, HBL, MCB, ABL. It was further concluded that most of the staff members who interact with the customers is non MBAs so that’s why their attitude towards the customers are not friendly.

Nanik Ram; Immamuddin Khoso; Muhammad Bachal Jamali; Faiz.M.Shaikh

2011-01-01

144

Perceived comfort level of medical students and residents in handling clinical ethics issues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that medical students and residents believe that their ethics preparation has been inadequate for handling ethical conflicts. The objective of this study was to determine the self-perceived comfort level of medical students and residents in confronting clinical ethics issues. METHODS: Clinical medical students and residents at the University of Maryland School of Medicine completed a web-based survey between September 2009 and February 2010. The survey consisted of a demographic section, questions regarding the respondents' sense of comfort in handling a variety of clinical ethics issues, and a set of knowledge-type questions in ethics. RESULTS: Survey respondents included 129 medical students (response rate of 40.7%) and 207 residents (response rate of 52.7%). There were only a few clinical ethics issues with which more than 70% of the respondents felt comfortable in addressing. Only a slight majority (60.8%) felt prepared, in general, to handle clinical situations involving ethics issues, and only 44.1% and 53.2% agreed that medical school and residency training, respectively, helped prepare them to handle such issues. Prior ethics training was not associated with these responses, but there was an association between the level of training (medical students vs residents) and the comfort level with many of the clinical ethics issues. CONCLUSIONS: Medical educators should include ethics educational methods within the context of real-time exposure to medical ethics dilemmas experienced by physicians-in-training.

Silverman HJ; Dagenais J; Gordon-Lipkin E; Caputo L; Christian MW; Maidment BW 3rd; Binstock A; Oyalowo A; Moni M

2013-01-01

145

Social/Ethical Issues in Predictive Insider Threat Monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Combining traditionally monitored cybersecurity data with other kinds of organizational data is one option for inferring the motivations of individuals, which may in turn allow early prediction and mitigation of insider threats. While unproven, some researchers believe that this combination of data may yield better results than either cybersecurity or organizational data would in isolation. However, this nontraditional approach creates a potential conflict between goals, such as conflicts between organizational security improvements and individual privacy considerations. There are many facets to debate. Should warning signs of a potential malicious insider be addressed before a malicious event has occurred to prevent harm to the organization and discourage the insider from violating the organization’s rules? Would intervention violate employee trust or legal guidelines? What about the possibilities of misuse? Predictive approaches cannot be validated a priori; false accusations can affect the career of the accused; and collection/monitoring of certain types of data may affect employee morale. In this chapter, we explore some of the social and ethical issues stemming from predictive insider threat monitoring and discuss ways that a predictive modeling approach brings to the forefront social and ethical issues that should be considered and resolved by stakeholders and communities of interest.

Greitzer, Frank L.; Frincke, Deborah A.; Zabriskie, Mariah

2011-01-01

146

What happened to public responsibility? The lack of society in public relations codes of ethics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issue of ethics is complex and contentious. For public relations it is also critical, as the industry will only win the struggle to salvage its own reputation if it can clearly demonstrate not only a commitment to ethics, but also some means to enforce ethical standards. There are many ethical reasoning tools, both intricate and useful, that public relations practitioners use to try to make ethical decisions, and these have been widely discussed in textbooks and specialist articles (e.g. Johnston & Zawawi, 2000; Bivins, 1992; Wright, 1989a; Pratt, 1993; Kruckeberg, 1996). This article does not attempt a comprehensive overview of ethical schemas; rather, it takes one corner of the ethical practitioner’s kitbag of tools, the association code of conduct, and examines one aspect of code content; its stand on social duty. As practical ethics tools, codes clearly have strengths and weaknesses beyond their incorporation or otherwise of a specific ‘duty to society’ clause (c.f. Roth & Stravpoulos, 1996;Wright, 1993; Zupko, 1994). However, this article suggests that the absence or flimsiness of such clauses in some of the world’s leading PR association codes is too important a weakness to pass without comment. This article is intended not as a definitive word on ethics code requirements, nor an overview of their effectiveness and enforcement, but rather as a means to ensure that the important debate about ethics continues.

Monica Walle

2003-01-01

147

Ethical Issues in A-Life: Cyber Gods as Moral Monsters?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors have undertaken an exploration of some significant social and ethical issues that arise in relation to the emerging field of Artificial Life (A-life). These issues have been approached from a philosophical perspective, taking into account reports of current developments in A-life research, and the application of A-life software in elementary school education. It has been suggested that the use of such systems may impact on the development of moral character in children, and illuminate that of adults. In addition, it is argued that if A-life researchers achieve their aims and evolve digital biota that are both intelligent and autonomous, they may be responsible to their creations for the quality of the worlds in which they live. The authors conclude that, given the stated aims and current progress of A-life researchers, there is a clear need for further consideration of the potential social and ethical implications of these technologies.

Thiel, Inari; Bergmann, Neil; Grey, William

2003-01-01

148

The importance of expressly examining global warming policy issues through an ethical prism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A vast scientific and economic literature on global warming has emerged in the last two decades. Surprisingly, however, there has been little written on the ethical dimensions of human-induced climate change despite the numerous, obvious, and profoundly important ethical questions raised by human activities that are now clearly threatening human health, the environment, and many things humans value greatly. This paper argues that ethical analysis of global warming issues is practically imperative for two reasons. First, unless ethical analysis is made of global warming issues, ethically dubious decisions about global warming will be made because many of the most important ethical considerations are hidden in what appear to be ethically neutral scientific and economic arguments about global warming policy options. Secondly, unless issues of ethics, justice and equity are expressly dealt with, urgently needed global solutions to global warming will not likely be adopted by many nations. That is, an ethical focus on global warming matters is the key to achieve a globally acceptable solution and to harness political support for action. The paper concludes with a recommendation on how institutions and nations should go about implementing express examination of the ethical dimensions of global warming questions. The paper argues for express identification of ethical issues often hidden in scientific and economic analyses of global warming policy options. (Author)

Brown, Donald A. [Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Pennsylvania Consortium for Interdisciplinary Environmental Policy, Harrisburg, PA (United States)

2003-12-01

149

Business ethics as a novel issue in health care economics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The problems of health care providing and solutions suggested to solve them should be discussed publicly at all appropriate levels in all developed countries. In this contribution, new approaches to understanding the problems of business ethics in health care are mentioned and recommended for discussion. An application of such principles of business ethics as trust, accountability, solidarity, transparency and social responsibility is considered in the four following areas. First, it is the allocation of limited resources in health care. This is the world-wide problem of the end of 20th century, as the development of medical technologies offers a wide range of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In our country this coincides with the on-going, and still incompleted reform of health care. Second, the other area is that of connecting health-care and social problems, important namely for vulnerable groups such as children, the elderly and chronically ill. The third area is concerned with the privatization of health care, the newly emanating structure and function of the health care system and the role of health care provides in society. The last group contains issues concerning attempts to facilitate communication between health care specialists and general public, as well as attempts to support those institutions of the civic democratic society that are oriented toward health, sickness and health care providing.

Vrbová H; Holmerová I; Hrubantová L

1997-01-01

150

Business ethics as a novel issue in health care economics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The problems of health care providing and solutions suggested to solve them should be discussed publicly at all appropriate levels in all developed countries. In this contribution, new approaches to understanding the problems of business ethics in health care are mentioned and recommended for discussion. An application of such principles of business ethics as trust, accountability, solidarity, transparency and social responsibility is considered in the four following areas. First, it is the allocation of limited resources in health care. This is the world-wide problem of the end of 20th century, as the development of medical technologies offers a wide range of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In our country this coincides with the on-going, and still incompleted reform of health care. Second, the other area is that of connecting health-care and social problems, important namely for vulnerable groups such as children, the elderly and chronically ill. The third area is concerned with the privatization of health care, the newly emanating structure and function of the health care system and the role of health care provides in society. The last group contains issues concerning attempts to facilitate communication between health care specialists and general public, as well as attempts to support those institutions of the civic democratic society that are oriented toward health, sickness and health care providing. PMID:9601815

Vrbová, H; Holmerová, I; Hrubantová, L

1997-01-01

151

CORRUPTION AND ETHICAL ISSUES REGARDING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper raises general questions about ethical problems that taint public-private partnership. Everybody talks about the economical benefits of encouraging firms to invest in the community using different incentives offered by the public institutions. In the same time, every day, newspapers bring to our attention cases of misuse of public resources for private gain or cases of private investors who give bribes in order to get a contract with a public institution. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize our understanding of the entrepreneurial movement and analyze its implications for potential problems of corruption that can arise in the relation between the public and the private sector.

Bianca COBÂRZAN; Roger E. HAMLIN

2005-01-01

152

A Pedagogical Model for Ethical Inquiry into Socioscientific Issues In Science  

Science.gov (United States)

Internationally there is concern that many science teachers do not address socioscientific issues (SSI) in their classrooms, particularly those that are controversial. However with increasingly complex, science-based dilemmas being presented to society, such as cloning, genetic screening, alternative fuels, reproductive technologies and vaccination, there is a growing call for students to be more scientifically literate and to be able to make informed decisions on issues related to these dilemmas. There have been shifts in science curricula internationally towards a focus on scientific literacy, but research indicates that many secondary science teachers lack the support and confidence to address SSI in their classrooms. This paper reports on a project that developed a pedagogical model that scaffolded teachers through a series of stages in exploring a controversial socioscientific issue with students and supported them in the use of pedagogical strategies and facilitated ways of ethical thinking. The study builds on existing frameworks of ethical thinking. It presents an argument that in today's increasingly pluralistic society, these traditional frameworks need to be extended to acknowledge other worldviews and identities. Pluralism is proposed as an additional framework of ethical thinking in the pedagogical model, from which multiple identities, including cultural, ethnic, religious and gender perspectives, can be explored.

Saunders, Kathryn J.; Rennie, Léonie J.

2013-02-01

153

Individual susceptibility and prevention of occupational diseases: scientific and ethical issues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetic testing of employees is controversial; objections have been raised with regard to privacy, right to work, and the relevance of the tests. A study is being conducted on "the ethical, social, and scientific problems related to the application of genetic screening and genetic monitoring for employees in the context of a European approach to health and safety at work." A conceptual model is proposed of the complex interactions between exposure, acquired and inherited susceptibility, and risk for disease. The validity of tests for determining genotype and phenotype and their relevance for disease must be evaluated critically to provide an objective basis for ethical discussions. The acceptability of such tests is related to a number of issues, which are identified and discussed.

Van Damme K; Casteleyn L; Heseltine E; Huici A; Sorsa M; van Larebeke N; Vineis P

1995-01-01

154

Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Livestock are vital to sustainable agriculture in most developing countries. In Asia, in general, the integration of livestock, fish and crops has proved to be a sustainable system through centuries of experience. Traditional use of dung for manuring the fields and bullocks for ploughing is the 'biodynamic farming', which has special significance in dry land agriculture comprising about 65 percent of India's cropped area. Gene-based technologies will be useful for developing special draught breeds of cattle so that their valuable source of energy remains available especially to the small and marginal farmers. Further, the livestock in the developing countries form an essential part of an integrated agricultural system and, therefore, development strategies for gene-based applications should consider the total production system (i.e., breeding fodder and forage crops, animal and crop disease and pest management etc). The gene-technologies of relevance to the developing countries are (i) rumen molecular techniques for reducing methane production and for increasing protein and energy supply; ruminant food stuffs currently used in India and a few other developing countries are fibrous, low in nitrogen, and contain anti-nutritive factors, (ii) improving animal productivity in developing countries by manipulation of nutrition in utero to alter gene expression of key metabolic hormones and enzymes for a long period after birth in cattle, (iii) genetic resistance to Helminthes in sheep, and (iv) molecular methods of diagnosis, molecular epidemiology and treatment of swine fever. Although not gene-based, artificial insemination (AI) for genetic improvement of dairy cattle and buffalo, and embryo-transfer (ET) for rapid multiplication of elite cattle are also relevant. Cloning (of the 'Dolly' - the sheep kind) will be useful to revive the rare and endangered animal species such as one-horned rhinoceros, swamp deer, wild buffalo and dugongs in India, for restoring environmental balance and social harmony with the forest, coastal and hill communities of various regions of India. The ethical issues from a technological point of view centre around both gene-based and nongene- based technologies to improve the nutrition, health and productivity of the farm animals. In particular, a reference needs to be made to bovine somatotropin (bST), a natural growth hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary in all animals, with a major effect on the regulation of growth and also milk production. Since the quantities of bST obtained from slaughtered animals are quite small, recombinant DNA technology-based r-bST is produced, and widely used in the USA to increase the milk production by 10% to 20%. Exhaustive evaluation tests conducted in the USA have shown that r-bST has no harmful effects in milk, but a high production of milk makes higher demands on animal physiology, and if an adequate food supply is lacking, negative effects are observed on fertility besides other health problems, especially mastitis and ketosis. Presently, neither r-bST, nor adequate nutritious feed is available for millions of dairy cattle in the developing countries. The economic benefits of 'mass production' over 'production by masses' are obvious; further, the access to the r-bST in the 'mass production' system, but not in the system of 'production by masses' could accentuate the economic disparity. The above-said scenario has further ramifications in view of the implications arising from the WTO-related Agreement on Agriculture. With an array of domestic supports, products of 'mass production' could be dumped into developing countries causing a substantial rise in the already high levels of livelihood and food insecurity. Since the r-DNA based technologies for 'pharming' or for human food are not yet applied to farm animals in the developing countries there are no serious concerns of bio-safety, and violation of ethical norms. In the countries, where animals for human food are genetically altered, the issues of 'animal sentience' and 'telos' become quite pertin

2003-01-01

155

Critical thinking by nurses on ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169). Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15). 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34) and Strauss and Corbin (1990). The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990). The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985) and Morse (1994) related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based on these findings the researcher concluded that nurses are not thinking critically when making ethical decisions concerning the termination of pregnancies. Recommendations are made as a possible solution for this problem.

A. Botes

2000-01-01

156

Ethical issues in medical research in the developing world: a report on a meeting organised by Fondation Merieux.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reports on a multidisciplinary meeting held to discuss ethical issues in medical research in the developing world. Many studies, including clinical trials, are conducted in developing countries with a high burden of disease. Conditions under which this research is conducted vary because of differences in culture, public health, political, legal and social contexts specific to these countries. Research practices, including standards of care for participants, may vary as a result. It is therefore not surprising that ethical issues emerge. This meeting sought to identify and discuss these issues from the perspectives of the many actors in such research, including community representatives, with a view to finding ethical and pragmatic solutions to these issues. Dialogue between these actors was also promoted, with a view to identifying the need to develop such dialogue in future. Drawing from the experiences of the speakers, the colloquium attempted to outline some answers to several key questions characterising the field today. Experiences related to epidemiologic research, vaccine trials, drug trials, diagnostic tests and to some fundamental ethical issues in health research. Speakers were from different countries, disciplines and professions. The meeting provided a forum for consultation and debate between different ethics actors. Both encouraging findings and challenges emerged.

Perrey C; Wassenaar D; Gilchrist S; Ivanoff B

2009-08-01

157

Dealing with Ethical Issues among Internet Users: Do We Need Legal Enforcement?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICTs), in particular of the Internet and of the World Wide Web, have paved the way for numerous ICT related development and initiative. In as much as there are beneficial usage of the Internet, there is also unethical usage and abuse. The Internet is like a double edge sword and care must be taken when indulging in this vast ocean of knowledge and information. Studies on ethical issue have centred much on internet security like hacking of personal information and data theft, including in business. This paper will look at the recent trends related to the ethical usage of the Internet, especially involving social media usage and hacking of government websites and legal enforcement that can be used to address ethical issues among Internet users. Data is derived from secondary sources. From the secondary data or literature, hacking has been a subject of concern following the hackings of website of government departments by the group anonymous. There are some cases of internet abuse, especially social media involving scams and personal relationship. There is also the use of social media to incite hatred, especially against authorities leading to widespread unrest. Hence, this implies, putting in place some guiding principles and more stringent legal enforcement to curb the unethical use and abuse of the Internet.

Ali Salman; Suhana Saad; Mohd. Nor Shahizan Ali

2013-01-01

158

Errant corporations, diffuse responsibilities, and the environment: ethical issues in the Orica case study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The papers in this volume deal with various aspects of the HCB legacy at the Orica plant at Botany. Whether explicitly or implicitly, they are concerned with questions of ethics; with the just distribution of burdens and benefits; with just processes for disposing of dangerous industrial waste; and with a just custodianship of the Botany environment. These ethical issues illustrate the difficulty of securing corporate accountability, and the elusiveness of responsibility within organisations. This paper reflects on some of the issues for ethics raised by the Orica case and their significance for corporate ethics.

Grace D

2009-04-01

159

Review of existing issues, ethics and practices in general medical research and in radiation protection research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A literature review was carried out in relation to general medical research and radiation protection research. A large number of documents were found concerning the subject of ethics in general medical research. For radiation protection research, the number of documents and the information available is very limited. A review of practices in 13 European countries concerning general medical research and radiation protection research was carried out by sending a questionnaire to each country. It was found that all countries reviewed were well regulated for general medical research. For research that involves ionising radiation, the UK and Ireland are by far the most regulated countries. For other countries, there does not seem to be much information available. From the literature review and the review of practices, a number of existing ethical issues were identified and exposed, and a number of conclusions were drawn. (authors)

2008-01-01

160

PETROBRAS’S BLOG AND JOURNALISM: what ethical issues are we talking about?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses the case of Petrobras’s blog, called Facts and Data (Fatos e Dados), created to be a channel for direct communication with the society and a place for presenting the official version of information concerning this state-owned company. Taken as a parameter for questions relating to the ethical issues involved in this communication experience, it suggests some reflections beyond possible redefinitions of making communication as opposed to doing journalism. In presenting its version of events directly to the society, the company opted for a model of unmediated communication, which requires the redefinition of the speech platforms and visibility. It also proposes a reflection on discourse ethics, especially regarding the ideal of individual participation in the processes of debate concerning matters of public interest.

Edson Fernando Dalmonte

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

PETROBRAS’S BLOG AND JOURNALISM: what ethical issues are we talking about?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses the case of Petrobras’s blog, called Facts and Data (Fatos e Dados), created to be a channel for direct communication with the society and a place for presenting the official version of information concerning this state-owned company. Taken as a parameter for questions relating to the ethical issues involved in this communication experience, it suggests some reflections beyond possible redefinitions of making communication as opposed to doing journalism. In presenting its version of events directly to the society, the company opted for a model of unmediated communication, which requires the redefinition of the speech platforms and visibility. It also proposes a reflection on discourse ethics, especially regarding the ideal of individual participation in the processes of debate concerning matters of public interest.

Edson Fernando Dalmonte

2010-01-01

162

Ethical issues in nutrition support of severely disabled elderly persons: a guide for health professionals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Providing or withholding nutrition in severely disabled elderly persons is a challenging dilemma for families, health professionals, and institutions. Despite limited evidence that nutrition support improves functional status in vulnerable older persons, especially those suffering from dementia, the issue of nutrition support in this population is strongly debated. Nutrition might be considered a basic need that not only sustains life but provides comfort as well by patients and their families. Consequently, the decision to provide or withhold nutrition support during medical care is often complex and involves clinical, legal, and ethical considerations. This article proposes a guide for health professionals to appraise ethical issues related to nutrition support in severely disabled older persons. This guide is based on an 8-step process to identify the components of a situation, analyze conflicting values that result in the ethical dilemma, and eventually reach a consensus for the most relevant plan of care to implement in a specific clinical situation. A vignette is presented to illustrate the use of this guide when analyzing a clinical situation.

Monod S; Chiolero R; Büla C; Benaroyo L

2011-05-01

163

Ethical issues in nutrition support of severely disabled elderly persons: a guide for health professionals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Providing or withholding nutrition in severely disabled elderly persons is a challenging dilemma for families, health professionals, and institutions. Despite limited evidence that nutrition support improves functional status in vulnerable older persons, especially those suffering from dementia, the issue of nutrition support in this population is strongly debated. Nutrition might be considered a basic need that not only sustains life but provides comfort as well by patients and their families. Consequently, the decision to provide or withhold nutrition support during medical care is often complex and involves clinical, legal, and ethical considerations. This article proposes a guide for health professionals to appraise ethical issues related to nutrition support in severely disabled older persons. This guide is based on an 8-step process to identify the components of a situation, analyze conflicting values that result in the ethical dilemma, and eventually reach a consensus for the most relevant plan of care to implement in a specific clinical situation. A vignette is presented to illustrate the use of this guide when analyzing a clinical situation. PMID:21527592

Monod, Stéfanie; Chiolero, René; Büla, Christophe; Benaroyo, Lazare

2011-05-01

164

APLLICATION OF ENGINEERING ETHICS THROUGH EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The profession of Engineering is one of the highly acclaimed professions. As the active members of this profession, engineers are expected to possess and practice ethical standards. The invaluable services offered by professionals require honesty, impartiality, fairness, integrity and equity. They should devote themselves for allround social welfare. Engineers should perform their duties with utmost care and concern. Through effective communication, Engineering Professionals can promote ethical practices. This paper explores application engineering ethics through effective communication.

Naveen K MEHTA; Dharmendra MEHTA; Er Rajesh Kumar MEHTA

2013-01-01

165

Non-invasive prenatal testing: ethical issues explored  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the ethical implications of introducing non-invasive prenatal diagnostic tests (NIPD tests) in prenatal screening for foetal abnormalities. NIPD tests are easy and safe and can be performed early in pregnancy. Precisely because of these features, it is feared that informed consent may become more difficult, that both testing and selective abortion will become ‘normalized', and that there will be a trend towards accepting testing for minor abnormalities and non-medical traits as well. In our view, however, the real moral challenge of NIPD testing consists in the possibility of linking up a technique with these features (easy, safe and early) with new genomic technologies that allow prenatal diagnostic testing for a much broader range of abnormalities than is the case in current procedures. An increase in uptake and more selective abortions need not in itself be taken to signal a thoughtless acceptance of these procedures. However, combining this with considerably enlarging the scope of NIPD testing will indeed make informed consent more difficult and challenge the notion of prenatal screening as serving reproductive autonomy. If broad NIPD testing includes later-onset diseases, the ‘right not to know' of the future child will become a new issue in the debate about prenatal screening. With regard to the controversial issue of selective abortion, it may make a morally relevant difference that after NIPD testing, abortion can be done early. A lower moral status may be attributed to the foetus at that moment, given the dominant opinion that the moral status of the foetus progressively increases with its development.

de Jong, Antina; Dondorp, Wybo J; de Die-Smulders, Christine E M; Frints, Suzanne G M; de Wert, Guido M W R

2010-01-01

166

Non-invasive prenatal testing: ethical issues explored.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper explores the ethical implications of introducing non-invasive prenatal diagnostic tests (NIPD tests) in prenatal screening for foetal abnormalities. NIPD tests are easy and safe and can be performed early in pregnancy. Precisely because of these features, it is feared that informed consent may become more difficult, that both testing and selective abortion will become 'normalized', and that there will be a trend towards accepting testing for minor abnormalities and non-medical traits as well. In our view, however, the real moral challenge of NIPD testing consists in the possibility of linking up a technique with these features (easy, safe and early) with new genomic technologies that allow prenatal diagnostic testing for a much broader range of abnormalities than is the case in current procedures. An increase in uptake and more selective abortions need not in itself be taken to signal a thoughtless acceptance of these procedures. However, combining this with considerably enlarging the scope of NIPD testing will indeed make informed consent more difficult and challenge the notion of prenatal screening as serving reproductive autonomy. If broad NIPD testing includes later-onset diseases, the 'right not to know' of the future child will become a new issue in the debate about prenatal screening. With regard to the controversial issue of selective abortion, it may make a morally relevant difference that after NIPD testing, abortion can be done early. A lower moral status may be attributed to the foetus at that moment, given the dominant opinion that the moral status of the foetus progressively increases with its development.

de Jong A; Dondorp WJ; de Die-Smulders CE; Frints SG; de Wert GM

2010-03-01

167

Managing ethical issues in sexual violence research using a pilot study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conducting research in the area of sexual violence has complex ethical and practical challenges for the researcher. Managing ethical issues in sexual violence is important and can be achieved through the use of pilot studies. The primary purpose of the pilot study was to identify and manage poten...

S.E. Duma; T.D. Khanyile; F. Daniels

168

A systematic format for resolving ethical issues in clinical periodontics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ethical dilemmas are becoming increasingly common in dentistry and periodontics. Clinicians, challenged with such dilemmas, may not know how to apply the appropriate moral reasoning needed to resolve these situations especially when any of the five fundamental principles of ethics that form the foundation of the American Dental Association Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct--patient autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity--come into conflict with each other. The author describes one clinical case that presented with an ethical dilemma. An analytic framework, used in medicine, is introduced and used to solve the clinical case on whether to proceed with periodontal surgery on a patient who is not aware of his terminal prognosis from metastatic prostate cancer. Upon using the analytic framework, recommendations are made on the ethically appropriate path for the periodontist to follow in providing care for the patient's periodontal problem consistent with the principles of patient autonomy, respect for persons, and veracity.

Schloss AJ

2012-01-01

169

A systematic format for resolving ethical issues in clinical periodontics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical dilemmas are becoming increasingly common in dentistry and periodontics. Clinicians, challenged with such dilemmas, may not know how to apply the appropriate moral reasoning needed to resolve these situations especially when any of the five fundamental principles of ethics that form the foundation of the American Dental Association Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct--patient autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity--come into conflict with each other. The author describes one clinical case that presented with an ethical dilemma. An analytic framework, used in medicine, is introduced and used to solve the clinical case on whether to proceed with periodontal surgery on a patient who is not aware of his terminal prognosis from metastatic prostate cancer. Upon using the analytic framework, recommendations are made on the ethically appropriate path for the periodontist to follow in providing care for the patient's periodontal problem consistent with the principles of patient autonomy, respect for persons, and veracity. PMID:23189804

Schloss, Alexander J

2012-01-01

170

Ethical considerations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed

1995-04-25

171

Ethics and privacy issues of a practice-based surveillance system  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective To describe the challenges the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN) experienced with institutional research ethics boards (IREBs) when seeking approvals across jurisdictions and to provide recommendations for overcoming challenges of ethical review for multisite and multijurisdictional surveillance and research. Background The CPCSSN project collects and validates longitudinal primary care health information (relating to hypertension, diabetes, depression, chronic obstructive lung disease, and osteoarthritis) from electronic medical records across Canada. Privacy and data storage security policies and processes have been developed to protect participants’ privacy and confidentiality, and IREB approval is obtained in each participating jurisdiction. Inconsistent interpretation and application of privacy and ethical issues by IREBs delays and impedes research programs that could better inform us about chronic disease. Results The CPCSSN project’s experience with gaining approval from IREBs highlights the difficulty of conducting pan-Canadian health surveillance and multicentre research. Inconsistent IREB approvals to waive explicit individual informed consent produced particular challenges for researchers. Conclusion The CPCSSN experience highlights the need to develop a better process for researchers to obtain timely and consistent IREB approvals for multicentre surveillance and research. We suggest developing a specialized, national, centralized IREB responsible for approving multisite studies related to population health research.

Kotecha, Jyoti A.; Manca, Donna; Lambert-Lanning, Anita; Keshavjee, Karim; Drummond, Neil; Godwin, Marshall; Greiver, Michelle; Putnam, Wayne; Lussier, Marie-Therese; Birtwhistle, Richard

2011-01-01

172

Ethics issues experienced in HBM within Portuguese health surveillance and research projects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In keeping with the fundamental practice of transparency in the discussion and resolution of ethics conflicts raised by research, a summary of ethics issues raised during Portuguese biomonitoring in health surveillance and research is presented and, where applicable, their resolution is described. Methods Projects underway aim to promote the surveillance of public health related to the presence of solid waste incinerators or to study associations between human exposure to environmental factors and adverse health effects. The methodological approach involves biomonitoring of heavy metals, dioxins and/or other persistent organic pollutants in tissues including blood, human milk and both scalp and pubic hair in groups such as the general population, children, pregnant women or women attempting pregnancy. As such, the projects entail the recruitment of individuals representing different demographic and health conditions, the collection of body tissues and personal data, and the processing of the data and results. Results The issue of autonomy is raised during the recruitment of participants and during the collection of samples and data. This right is protected by the requirement for prior written, informed consent from the participant or, in the case of children, from their guardian. Recruitment has been successful, among eligible participants, in spite of incentives rarely being offered. The exception has been in obtaining guardians' consent for children's participation, particularly for blood sampling. In an attempt to mitigate the harm-benefit ratio, current research efforts include alternative less invasive biomarkers. Surveys are currently being conducted under contract as independent biomonitoring actions and as such, must be explicitly disclosed as a potential conflict of interests. Communication of results to participants is in general only practised when a health issue is present and corrective action possible. Concerning human milk a careful approach is taken, considering breast-feeding's proven benefits. Conclusion No national legislation currently accounts for the surveillance component of biomonitoring as distinct from research. Ethics issues arising within the domain of research are resolved according to available regulations. For issues encountered during surveillance, the same principles are used as guidance, completed by the authors' best judgement and relevant ethics committees' findings.

Simões Helena; Melim J Maurício; Reis M Fátima; Segurado Susana; Brantes Ana; Geraldes V; Miguel J Pereira

2008-01-01

173

Ethical issues in using social media for health and health care research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The dramatic growth of social media in recent years has not gone unnoticed in the health sector. Media such as Facebook and Twitter are increasingly being used to disseminate information among health professionals and patients but, more recently, are being seen as a source of data for surveillance and research, for example by tracking public concerns or capturing discourses taking place outside traditional media outlets. This raises ethical issues, in particular the extent to which postings are considered public or private and the right to anonymity of those posting on social media. These issues are not clear cut as social media, by their nature, blur the boundary between public and private. There is a need for further research on the beliefs and expectations of those using social media in relation to how their material might be used in research. In contrast, there are areas where the ethical issues are more clear cut, such as when individuals are active participants in research, where traditional considerations apply.

McKee R

2013-05-01

174

Utilizing Social Media to Study Information-Seeking and Ethical Issues in Gene Therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The field of gene therapy is rapidly evolving, and while hopes of treating disorders of the central nervous system and ethical concerns have been articulated within the academic community, little is known about views and opinions of different stakeholder groups. Objective To address this gap, we utilized social media to investigate the kind of information public users are seeking about gene therapy and the hopes, concerns, and attitudes they express. Methods We conducted a content analysis of questions containing the keywords “gene therapy” from the Q&A site “Yahoo! Answers” for the 5-year period between 2006 and 2010. From the pool of questions retrieved (N=903), we identified those containing at least one theme related to ethics, environment, economics, law, or society (n=173) and then characterized the content of relevant answers (n=399) through emergent coding. Results The results show that users seek a wide range of information regarding gene therapy, with requests for scientific information and ethical issues at the forefront of enquiry. The question sample reveals high expectations for gene therapy that range from cures for genetic and nongenetic diseases to pre- and postnatal enhancement of physiological attributes. Ethics questions are commonly expressed as fears about the impact of gene therapy on self and society. The answer sample echoes these concerns but further suggests that the acceptability of gene therapy varies depending on the specific application. Conclusions Overall, the findings highlight the powerful role of social media as a rich resource for research into attitudes toward biomedicine and as a platform for knowledge exchange and public engagement for topics relating to health and disease.

Robillard, Julie M; Whiteley, Louise; Johnson, Thomas Wade; Lim, Jonathan; Wasserman, Wyeth W

2013-01-01

175

Utilizing social media to study information-seeking and ethical issues in gene therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The field of gene therapy is rapidly evolving, and while hopes of treating disorders of the central nervous system and ethical concerns have been articulated within the academic community, little is known about views and opinions of different stakeholder groups. OBJECTIVE: To address this gap, we utilized social media to investigate the kind of information public users are seeking about gene therapy and the hopes, concerns, and attitudes they express. METHODS: We conducted a content analysis of questions containing the keywords "gene therapy" from the Q&A site "Yahoo! Answers" for the 5-year period between 2006 and 2010. From the pool of questions retrieved (N=903), we identified those containing at least one theme related to ethics, environment, economics, law, or society (n=173) and then characterized the content of relevant answers (n=399) through emergent coding. RESULTS: The results show that users seek a wide range of information regarding gene therapy, with requests for scientific information and ethical issues at the forefront of enquiry. The question sample reveals high expectations for gene therapy that range from cures for genetic and nongenetic diseases to pre- and postnatal enhancement of physiological attributes. Ethics questions are commonly expressed as fears about the impact of gene therapy on self and society. The answer sample echoes these concerns but further suggests that the acceptability of gene therapy varies depending on the specific application. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the findings highlight the powerful role of social media as a rich resource for research into attitudes toward biomedicine and as a platform for knowledge exchange and public engagement for topics relating to health and disease.

Robillard JM; Whiteley L; Johnson TW; Lim J; Wasserman WW; Illes J

2013-01-01

176

Societal and ethical issues in human biomonitoring – a view from science studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Human biomonitoring (HBM) has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing into focus the conditions of how and what is known in environmental health science. Methods In order to analyse the effects of HBM and the shift towards biomarker research in the assessment of environmental pollution in a broader societal context, selected analytical frameworks of science studies are introduced. To develop the epistemological perspective, concepts from "biomedical platform sociology" and the notion of "epistemic cultures" and "thought styles" are applied to the research infrastructures of HBM. Further, concepts of "biocitizenship" and "civic epistemologies" are drawn upon as analytical tools to discuss the visions and promises of HBM as well as related ethical problematisations. Results In human biomonitoring, two different epistemological cultures meet; these are environmental science with for instance pollution surveys and toxicological assessments on the one hand, and analytical epidemiology investigating the association between exposure and disease in probabilistic risk estimation on the other hand. The surveillance of exposure and dose via biomarkers as envisioned in HBM is shifting the site of exposure monitoring to the human body. Establishing an HBM platform faces not only the need to consider individual decision autonomy as an ethics issue, but also larger epistemological and societal questions, such as the mode of evidence demanded in science, policy and regulation. Conclusion The shift of exposure monitoring towards the biosurveillance of human populations involves fundamental changes in the ways environment, health and disease are conceptualised; this may lead to an individualisation of responsibilities for health risks and preventive action. Attention to the conditions of scientific knowledge generation and to their broader societal context is critical in order to make HBM contribute to environmental justice.

Bauer Susanne

2008-01-01

177

Ethical challenges embedded in qualitative research interviews with close relatives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforeseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for human rights and respect for autonomy through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative research interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must be enhanced, and there is a need for an increased focus on the researchers' ethical preparation and to continually address and discuss cases from their own interviews.

Haahr A; Norlyk A; Hall EO

2013-06-01

178

Perceived importance of sustainability and ethics related to fish: a consumer behavior perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although sustainability and ethics are of increasing public importance, little research has been conducted to reveal its association with fish consumer behavior. Cross-sectional data were collected through a postal self-administered survey (June 2005) from a sample of 381 Flemish women aged 20-50 years. Consumers attach high perceived importance to sustainability and ethics related to fish. However, this perceived importance is neither correlated with fish consumption frequency nor with general attitude toward eating fish. Refusing to eat wild fish is grounded in sustainability and ethical concerns, whereas the decision not to eat farmed fish is associated with a lower expected intrinsic quality rather than shaped by importance attached to sustainability and ethical issues.

Verbeke W; Vanhonacker F; Sioen I; Van Camp J; De Henauw S

2007-11-01

179

Perceived importance of sustainability and ethics related to fish: a consumer behavior perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although sustainability and ethics are of increasing public importance, little research has been conducted to reveal its association with fish consumer behavior. Cross-sectional data were collected through a postal self-administered survey (June 2005) from a sample of 381 Flemish women aged 20-50 years. Consumers attach high perceived importance to sustainability and ethics related to fish. However, this perceived importance is neither correlated with fish consumption frequency nor with general attitude toward eating fish. Refusing to eat wild fish is grounded in sustainability and ethical concerns, whereas the decision not to eat farmed fish is associated with a lower expected intrinsic quality rather than shaped by importance attached to sustainability and ethical issues. PMID:18074896

Verbeke, Wim; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Sioen, Isabelle; Van Camp, John; De Henauw, Stefaan

2007-11-01

180

Ethical issues experienced by intensive care unit nurses in everyday practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This research aims to identify the ethical issues perceived by intensive care nurses in their everyday practice. It also aims to understand why these situations were considered an ethical issue and what interventions/strategies have been or are expected to be developed so as to minimize them. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview with 15 nurses working at polyvalent intensive care units in 4 Portuguese hospitals, who were selected by the homogenization of multiple samples. The qualitative content analysis identified end-of-life decisions, privacy, interaction, team work, and health-care access as emerging ethical issues. Personal, team, and institutional aspects emerge as reasons behind the experience of these issues. Personal and team resources are used in and for solving these issues. Moral development and training are the most significant strategies.

Fernandes MI; Moreira IM

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Ethics Updates  

Science.gov (United States)

Created in 1994 by Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego, the Ethics Updates site is designed primarily to be used to ethics instructors and their students. However, the site is rather interesting, so members of the general public may find themselves making a few return visits. Visitors can use the drop-down tabs on the top of the homepage to make their way through sections that cover some of the basic theories of ethics and also learn more about applied ethics in relation to such issues as animal rights, torture, and world hunger. Moving on, the "Resources" area includes case studies for discussion, a glossary of terms, classic texts in ethics, and ethics surveys. The site is rounded out by a search engine and a selection of videos that deal with various topics in ethics.

Hinman, Lawrence M.

182

Addressing public concerns about ethical and environmental issues in the discussion on nuclear waste management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] According to Swiss Federal Law, the producers of radioactive waste are responsible for its safe disposal. The government, therefore, plays a relatively modest role in the public debate on nuclear waste management. Whenever asked to express an opinion, it tries to inform openly. Active public relations campaigns are led by the National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA). The operators of nuclear power plants are ready to compensate the siting community and its Canton for services rendered in the public interest. An important way to deal with ethical and environmental issues is the inclusion of opponents in every step of the time-consuming licensing procedure. This paper discusses the upcoming vote on a concession for a low and intermediate-level waste repository for which NAGRA is actively preparing. NAGRA's public relations work is based on recognition of the fact that the only way to diminish fear and gain credibility is to inform openly and regularly over many years, and to show that results achieved are based on serious, careful and transparent scientific work. Another aspect of radioactive waste management communication lies in the explanation of the ethics of 'inter-generational' and 'intra-generational' equity. Compensation will never make up for lack of safety. The ways in which the public voices its views are discussed, as well as the concept of seeking the co-operation of opponents in working groups. (author)

1996-01-01

183

Building a better warbot: ethical issues in the design of unmanned systems for military applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unmanned systems in military applications will often play a role in determining the success or failure of combat missions and thus in determining who lives and dies in times of war. Designers of UMS must therefore consider ethical, as well as operational, requirements and limits when developing UMS. I group the ethical issues involved in UMS design under two broad headings, Building Safe Systems and Designing for the Law of Armed Conflict, and identify and discuss a number of issues under each of these headings. As well as identifying issues, I offer some analysis of their implications and how they might be addressed. PMID:19048395

Sparrow, Robert

2008-12-02

184

Building a better warbot: ethical issues in the design of unmanned systems for military applications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Unmanned systems in military applications will often play a role in determining the success or failure of combat missions and thus in determining who lives and dies in times of war. Designers of UMS must therefore consider ethical, as well as operational, requirements and limits when developing UMS. I group the ethical issues involved in UMS design under two broad headings, Building Safe Systems and Designing for the Law of Armed Conflict, and identify and discuss a number of issues under each of these headings. As well as identifying issues, I offer some analysis of their implications and how they might be addressed.

Sparrow R

2009-06-01

185

Committee opinion: no. 563: ethical issues in pandemic influenza planning concerning pregnant women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pregnant women traditionally have been assigned priority in the allocation of prevention and treatment resources during outbreaks of influenza because of their increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The Committee on Ethics of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists explores ethical justifications for assigning priority for prevention and treatment resources to pregnant women during an influenza pandemic, makes recommendations to incorporate ethical issues in pandemic influenza planning concerning pregnant women, and calls for pandemic preparedness efforts to include clinical research specifically designed to address safety and efficacy of treatment interventions or prevention strategies used by pregnant women.

2013-05-01

186

Building the Bridge from Bench to Bedside: Ethical Issues in Translational Stem Cell Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Translational stem cell research raises many interesting ethical questions, which have, to a greater or lesser degree, been debated at an international as well as at an interdisciplinary level. Nevertheless, there is still no international consensus regarding how a number of ethical questions relate...

Hug, Kristina

187

Screening criteria: the need to deal with new developments and ethical issues in newborn metabolic screening.  

Science.gov (United States)

Newborn metabolic screening is the most widespread application of screening technology and provides the most comprehensive application of genetics in health services, where the Guthrie blood spot cards allow screening for metabolic diseases in close to 100 % of all newborn babies. Despite over 40 years of use and significant benefits to well in excess of 100,000 children worldwide, there is remarkably little consensus in what conditions should be screened for and response to new advances in medicine relating to programme expansion. In this article, the international criteria for newborn metabolic screening are considered, and we propose that these criteria are poorly developed in relation to the baby, its family and society as a whole. Additionally, the ethical issues that should inform the application of screening criteria are often not developed to a level where a consensus might easily be achieved. We also consider that when family interests are factored in to the decision-making process, they have a significant influence in determining the list of diseases in the panel, with countries or states incorporating family and societal values being the most responsive. Based on our analysis, we propose that decision criteria for metabolic screening in the newborn period should be adapted to specifically include parent and family interests, community values, patients' rights, duties of government and healthcare providers, and ethical arguments for action in the face of uncertainty. PMID:23055099

Forman, John; Coyle, Fiona; Levy-Fisch, Jill; Roberts, Pat; Terry, Sharon; Legge, Michael

2012-10-07

188

Ethical issues in radiation protection. Sievert lecture 1992  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Present radiation protection doctrine (ICRP 1990) is based on a body of scientific knowledge, one underlying assumption and three general principles. My objective is to discuss first the adequacy of the existing scientific information for the purpose of setting safety standards; then to consider the foundation of the underlying assumption; and finally, to discuss a few aspects of the general principles in the light of ethical considerations

1992-01-01

189

Policy, Equity and Priority: Ethical Issues of Stem Cell in Developing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ever-increasing advances in the field of bioethics have been encouraged by recent developments of biomedical technolo-gies. Stem cell research and therapy are among the most promising approaches in medicine of which are raised some ethical chal¬lenges. Likewise, the therapeutic potential of stem cell-based therapies created new policy concerns for health care sys¬tems, particularly the issue of equity, priority in resource allocation and justice. There are arguments against and in favor of funding for stem cell research. Governments have also diverse policies in en¬couraging private sector sponsorship to support researches. Iran is one of the pioneers in the field of human embry¬onic stem cell research in the region. The religious de¬crees per¬mitting therapeutic purposes have paved the way for wide-ranging researches. Indeed, the researchers have an obli¬gation to observe moral values. Therefore, the national specific guideline for gamete and embryo research, com¬piled in 2005, is followed in this issue. In this paper, we will discuss the major ethical concerns relating to the issue of equity and justice, and will review the regulatory policies for stem cell research and therapy. On the whole, stem cell research is a global enterprise about which there is a need to think in the context of glob¬alisation and also from the perspective of the developing countries. Stem cell based therapies are expensive and tech¬nologically demanding, the low-resource healthcare systems need to consider a specific national policy and to weigh up costs and benefits to consider making such treatments available. We must ensure that rights, values and wel¬fare of the donor, recipient and the community are respected.

B Larijani; F Zahedi

2008-01-01

190

Regenerative medicine interventions for orthopedic disorders: ethical issues in the translation into patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Regenerative medicine (RM) technologies, such as cell therapy, gene transfer and tissue engineering, are expected to move the field of orthopedics into a new era. Now that more and more attempts are underway to translate preclinical research into clinical studies, it is time to proactively discuss the ethical issues associated with first-in-human applications of RM interventions for musculoskeletal disorders. The design and launch of early clinical trials will be ethically challenging due to the specific features of RM in general, and the application for musculoskeletal disorders specifically. In this paper, we identify three sets of ethical issues that need to be addressed when considering initiating early clinical trials: assessment of risks and benefits; designing a study in terms of outcome measures and comparators; and participant selection. These issues are particularly emphasized in RM research that aims to apply these approaches in an early stage of degenerative musculoskeletal disorders.

Niemansburg SL; van Delden JJ; Dhert WJ; Bredenoord AL

2013-01-01

191

The Ethical Employee.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.…

2002

192

Stem Cell Research and Applications: Scientific, Ethical, and Policy Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

In the face of extraordinary advances in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of human diseases, devastating illnesses such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and diseases of the nervous system, such as Parkinson's Disease and Alzheimer's Disease, continue to deprive people of health, independence, and well-being. Research in human developmental biology has led to the discovery of human stem cells (precursor cells that can give rise to multiple tissue types), including embryonic stem (ES) cells, embryonic germ (EG) cells, and adult stem cells. Recently, techniques have been developed for the in vitro culture of stem cells, providing unprecedented opportunities for studying and understanding human embryology. As a result, scientists can now carry out experiments aimed at determining the mechanisms underlying the conversion of a single, undifferentiated cell, the fertilized egg, into the different cells comprising the organs and tissues of the human body. Although it is impossible to predict the outcomes, scientists and the public will gain immense new knowledge in the biology of human development that will likely hold remarkable potential for therapies and cures. Derivation of ES cells from early human embryos, and EG stem cells from aborted fetal tissues raise ethical, legal, religious, and policy questions that are the subject of ongoing public debate. As a contribution to that debate AAAS and ICS produced a series of recommendations for conducting stem cell research in an ethical manner. AAAS and ICS recognize that there are varied social, political, ethical, and religious view points to be considered in discussions about the scientific use of tissue from human embryos and fetuses. Scientists do not presume to know all the answers and ramifications of basic research in human stem cells. Therefore, it is important to promote continued dialogue among all segments of society concerning the implications of human stem cell research.This resource includes the full stem cell report of this study and other resources for additional information on stem cells.

;

1999-11-01

193

Ethical issues in neuroimaging health research: an IPA study with research participants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neuroimaging is increasingly used to understand conditions like stroke and epilepsy. However, there is growing recognition that neuroimaging can raise ethical issues. We used interpretative phenomenological analysis to analyse interview data pre-and post-scan to explore these ethical issues. Findings show participants can become anxious prior to scanning and the protocol for managing incidental findings is unclear. Participants lacked a frame of reference to contextualize their expectations and often drew on medical narratives. Recommendations to reduce anxiety include dialogue between researcher and participant to clarify understanding during consent and the use of a ;virtual tour' of the neuroimaging experience.

Shaw RL; Senior C; Peel E; Cooke R; Donnelly LS

2008-11-01

194

Ethical challenges related to elder care. High level decision-makers' experiences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Few empirical studies have been found that explore ethical challenges among persons in high public positions that are responsible for elder care. The aim of this paper was to illuminate the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care as experienced by high level decision-makers. Methods A phenomenological-hermeneutic method was used to analyse the eighteen interviews conducted with political and civil servant high level decision-makers at the municipality and county council level from two counties in Sweden. The participants worked at a planning and control as well as executive level and had both budget and quality of elder care responsibilities. Results Both ethical dilemmas and the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care were revealed. No differences were seen between the politicians and the civil servants. The ethical dilemmas mostly concerned dealings with extensive care needs and working with a limited budget. The dilemmas were associated with a lack of good care and a lack of agreement concerning care such as vulnerable patients in inappropriate care settings, weaknesses in medical support, dissimilar focuses between the caring systems, justness in the distribution of care and deficient information. Being in ethically difficult situations was challenging. Associated with them were experiences of being exposed, having to be strategic and living with feelings such as aloneness and loneliness, uncertainty, lack of confirmation, the risk of being threatened or becoming a scapegoat and difficult decision avoidance. Conclusion Our paper provides further insight into the ethical dilemmas and ethical challenges met by high level decision-makers', which is important since the overall responsibility for elder care that is also ethically defensible rests with them. They have power and their decisions affect many stakeholders in elder care. Our results can be used to stimulate discussions between high level decision-makers and health care professionals concerning ways of dealing with ethical issues and the necessity of structures that facilitate dealing with them. Even if the high level decision-makers have learned to live with the ethical challenges that confronted them, it was obvious that they were not free from feelings of uncertainty, frustration and loneliness. Vulnerability was revealed regarding themselves and others. Their feelings of failure indicated that they felt something was at stake for the older adults in elder care and for themselves as well, in that there was the risk that important needs would go unmet.

Mamhidir Anna-Greta; Kihlgren Mona; Sorlie Venke

2007-01-01

195

Ethical issues in research involving minority populations: the process and outcomes of protocol review by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Recruiting minorities into research studies requires special attention, particularly when studies involve "extra-vulnerable" participants with multiple vulnerabilities, e.g., pregnant women, the fetuses/neonates of ethnic minorities, children in refugee camps, or cross-border migrants. This study retrospectively analyzed submissions to the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine (FTM-EC) in Thailand. Issues related to the process and outcomes of proposal review, and the main issues for which clarification/revision were requested on studies, are discussed extensively. METHODS: The study data were extracted from proposals and amendments submitted to the FTM-EC during the period October 2009 -- September 2012, and then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The main issues for clarification/revision were analyzed by thematic content analysis. RESULTS: 373 proposals were submitted; 44 studies involved minority groups with 21 extra-vulnerable minorities. All clinical and 2/3 of non-clinical studies submitted for initial review underwent full-board review. For combined clinical and non-clinical study submissions, 92.1% were referred back to the investigators and approved after clarification/revision, while 2.7% were deferred due to major/critical changes, and 2.1% not approved due to substantial violations of ethical principles. The main issues needing clarification/revision differed between all studies and those involving minorities: participant information sheet (62.2% vs. 86.4%), informed consent/assent form (51.2% vs. 86.4%), and research methodology (80.7% vs. 84.1%), respectively. The main ethical issues arising during the meetings, regarding studies involving minorities, included ensuring no exploitation, coercion, or pressure on the minority to participate; methodology not affecting their legal status; considering ethnicity and cultural structure; and providing appropriate compensation. CONCLUSION: Delays in the approval or non-approval of studies involving minorities were mainly due to major or minor deviations from acceptable ethical standards and/or unclear research methodology. The FTM-EC has employed several mechanisms in its operations, including transparency in the review process, building good relationships via open communication with investigators, requesting investigators to consider closely the necessity to enroll minority groups and the risk-benefits for individuals and their communities, and the inclusion of minority-community engagement when developing the proposal. Other effective activities include annual study-site inspections, and offering refresher courses to raise awareness of minority and vulnerability issues among researchers.

Adams P; Wongwit W; Pengsaa K; Khusmith S; Fungladda W; Chaiyaphan W; Limphattharacharoen C; Prakobtham S; Kaewkungwal J

2013-09-01

196

Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: ethical and legal issues in feeding and hydration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that individuals have the right to request or refuse nutrition and hydration as medical treatment. Registered dietitians (RDs) should work collaboratively as part of the interprofessional team to make recommendations on providing, withdrawing, or withholding nutrition and hydration in individual cases and serve as active members of institutional ethics committees. RDs have an active role in determining the nutrition and hydration requirements for individuals throughout the life span. When individuals choose to forgo any type of nutrition and hydration (natural or artificial), or when individuals lack decision-making capacity and others must decide whether or not to provide artificial nutrition and hydration, RDs have a professional role in the ethical deliberation around those decisions. Across the life span, there are multiple instances when nutrition and hydration issues create ethical dilemmas. There is strong clinical, ethical, and legal support both for and against the administration of food and water when issues arise regarding what is or is not wanted by the individual and what is or is not warranted by empirical clinical evidence. When a conflict arises, the decision requires ethical deliberation. RDs' understanding of nutrition and hydration within the context of nutritional requirements and cultural, social, psychological, and spiritual needs provide an essential basis for ethical deliberation. RDs, as health care team members, have the responsibility to promote use of advanced directives. RDs promote the rights of the individual and help the health care team implement appropriate therapy. This paper supports the "Practice Paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Ethical and Legal Issues of Feeding and Hydration" published on the Academy website at: www.eatright.org/positions.

O'Sullivan Maillet J; Baird Schwartz D; Posthauer ME

2013-06-01

197

Animal Experimentation: Bringing Ethical Issues into Biology Teaching.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many possibilities for the use of controversial issues such as animal experimentation in biology classrooms. Outlines a series of three lessons that asked senior biology students to consider the issue of animal experimentation from three perspectives. (Author/LM)

Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

2000-01-01

198

Ethical issues in human reproduction: Protestant perspectives in the light of European Protestant and Reformed Churches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Protestantism is not a centralized religion. It is composed by many independent Churches having different moral and ethical standards. This review concentrates on the ethical principles prevalent in most modern European Reformed Churches. It does not intend to discuss the ethical principles of many other Protestant Churches present mainly in the USA. The common foundations of Protestant theology are the "five sola ("Sola scriptura", Sola fide", "Sola gratia", Solus Christus or Solo Christo", "Soli deo gloria"). In opposition to the Catholic Church, no intermediary is needed between the Bible and the believer. As a consequence, Protestant Churches have no Magisterium, such as the Catholic Church. Therefore Protestant Churches cannot declare a certain position to be the "official position". Each Christian is personally responsible for all his acts, including his ethical behaviour. There is no complete unanimity among all Protestants on ethics or on any other issue. Human dignity, personal rights and self-determination have to be respected in each ethical consideration. The supersession of the Old Mosaic Covenant (including traditional Jewish law or Halakhah, maintained in Catholicism) by the New Covenant and by Christian Theology has an important impact on Protestant ethics in reproductive medicine. In the New Covenant, the Protestants Churches did not maintain the mandatory obligation from the old Mosaic Covenant to be fruitful and to multiply: there is no divine obligation by God to procreate. As a consequence, contraception is not a sin and not unethical. The status of the embryo is the key for the ethical consideration of all methods used in reproductive medicine. Most representatives of modern Protestant theology and bioethics defend the opinion that the embryo is not an independent human being as is the newborn child. For most Protestant bio-ethicists, as long as an embryo has no nervous system, no organs and no pain receptors, it cannot be seen as a human being sensu strictiori: the zygote is not yet a "human being". The ethical right to be protected prenatally increases gradually with the age and the development of the embryo. Following this so-called gradualist interpretation, the early stages of an embryo merit ethically a special status: although they have already "human life", they are not yet a "human being". All ethical considerations in modern reproductive medicine discussed in this review are based on this concept of the status of the embryo. It depends largely on the acceptance or rejection of this special status of the embryo, if a Protestant considers a certain method in reproductive medicine to be ethical or unethical. PMID:24079450

Birkhäuser, Martin

2013-11-01

199

Ethical issues in human reproduction: Protestant perspectives in the light of European Protestant and Reformed Churches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Protestantism is not a centralized religion. It is composed by many independent Churches having different moral and ethical standards. This review concentrates on the ethical principles prevalent in most modern European Reformed Churches. It does not intend to discuss the ethical principles of many other Protestant Churches present mainly in the USA. The common foundations of Protestant theology are the "five sola ("Sola scriptura", Sola fide", "Sola gratia", Solus Christus or Solo Christo", "Soli deo gloria"). In opposition to the Catholic Church, no intermediary is needed between the Bible and the believer. As a consequence, Protestant Churches have no Magisterium, such as the Catholic Church. Therefore Protestant Churches cannot declare a certain position to be the "official position". Each Christian is personally responsible for all his acts, including his ethical behaviour. There is no complete unanimity among all Protestants on ethics or on any other issue. Human dignity, personal rights and self-determination have to be respected in each ethical consideration. The supersession of the Old Mosaic Covenant (including traditional Jewish law or Halakhah, maintained in Catholicism) by the New Covenant and by Christian Theology has an important impact on Protestant ethics in reproductive medicine. In the New Covenant, the Protestants Churches did not maintain the mandatory obligation from the old Mosaic Covenant to be fruitful and to multiply: there is no divine obligation by God to procreate. As a consequence, contraception is not a sin and not unethical. The status of the embryo is the key for the ethical consideration of all methods used in reproductive medicine. Most representatives of modern Protestant theology and bioethics defend the opinion that the embryo is not an independent human being as is the newborn child. For most Protestant bio-ethicists, as long as an embryo has no nervous system, no organs and no pain receptors, it cannot be seen as a human being sensu strictiori: the zygote is not yet a "human being". The ethical right to be protected prenatally increases gradually with the age and the development of the embryo. Following this so-called gradualist interpretation, the early stages of an embryo merit ethically a special status: although they have already "human life", they are not yet a "human being". All ethical considerations in modern reproductive medicine discussed in this review are based on this concept of the status of the embryo. It depends largely on the acceptance or rejection of this special status of the embryo, if a Protestant considers a certain method in reproductive medicine to be ethical or unethical.

Birkhäuser M

2013-11-01

200

Food Marketing to Children - Introduction to Ethical Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The working paper provides an overview of key stakeholders involved in the food marketing to children in Europe and in the Czech Republic. It analyzes the role of the legislation as well as of voluntary codes of conduct in the food industry. The industry part of the issue is also covered by explanation of their role and position in the obesity issue. The form of food industry cooperation at the Food Chamber through a working group of involved companies is analyzed and an example of the corporate responsibility program is shown. The paper is going to serve as a review of the issue for further exploration needs.

Kv?ta Olšanová

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Ethical issues, justification, referral criteria for budget limited and high-dose procedures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper reviews some of the issues connected with questions of ethics, health economics, radiation dose and referral criteria arising from a workshop held under the auspices of the Sentinel Research Program FP6-012909. An extensive bibliography of further reading is included. (authors)

2008-01-01

202

Ethical and legal issues arising in research on inducing human germ cells from pluripotent stem cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Derivation of eggs or sperm from pluripotent stem cells or direct reprogramming from somatic cells would have huge effects on assisted reproductive technology. Here we discuss important ethical, legal, and social issues that would be raised by the development of such female or male gametes for clinical use.

Ishii T; Pera RA; Greely HT

2013-08-01

203

Ethical issues arising from the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The INTERGROWTH-21st Project presented a complex set of ethical challenges given the involvement of health institutions in geographically and culturally diverse areas of the world, with differing attitudes to pregnancy. This paper addresses how the research team dealt with some of those issues. PMID:23679822

Burton, F

2013-05-17

204

Teaching about the Holocaust: A Consideration of Some Ethical and Pedagogic Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maintains the Holocaust is part of the national history curriculum for all 11-14 year olds in England and Wales. Examines ethical and pedagogical issues involved in teaching the subject, concern about promoting antisemitism, freedom of speech, and the right of parents to withdraw their children from this part of the curriculum. (CFR)

Short, Geoffrey

1994-01-01

205

Ethical Issues in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Perceptions of Teachers and Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

Pedagogical theories and the applications of information technology for language learning have been widely researched in various dimensions. However, ethical issues, such as online privacy and security, and learners' personal data disclosure, are not receiving enough research attention. The perceptions and attitudes from those who participate in…

Wang, Shudong; Heffernan, Neil

2010-01-01

206

Ethical issues in palliative care. Views of patients, families, and nonphysician staff.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: Much of what we know about ethical issues in palliative care comes from the perceptions of physicians and ethicists. In this study our goal was to hear other voices and to gain first-hand knowledge of the possibly contrasting views of patients, their families, nurses, volunteers, and othe...

Towers, Anna; MacDonald, Neil; Wallace, Ellen

207

Ethical issues arising from the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The INTERGROWTH-21st Project presented a complex set of ethical challenges given the involvement of health institutions in geographically and culturally diverse areas of the world, with differing attitudes to pregnancy. This paper addresses how the research team dealt with some of those issues.

Burton F

2013-05-01

208

Ethical issues in international collaborative research on the human genome: The HGP and the HGDP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This special feature describes the ethical issues in international collaborative research on the human genome, both regarding the Human Genome Project (HGP), which is concerned with genetic mapping, and the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP), which is an effort to document the genetic variation of the human species worldwide. 88 refs.

Knoppers, B.M.; Hirtle, M.; Lormeau, S. [Universite de Montreal (Canada)

1996-06-01

209

Methods to identify and address the ethical issues associated with managed care.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many benefits of managed care, such as its focus on disease prevention and health promotion, its integration of healthcare services to minimize inefficiencies, and its ability to restrict healthcare costs; however, there are also some ethical concerns that arise from managing care. In the context of managed care, ethics is a method for examining conflicts of values and obligations where there are competing interests, each of which presents a reasonably justified position. The principles of procedural, commutative, and general justice are particularly applicable to the ethical issues associated with managed care. Through a review of relevant literature, this paper will examine different methods and principles of justice to consider in establishing an ethical managed care organization and it will offer some examples of plans that have established policies to meet their ethical goals. By setting common goals, plans and enrollees can minimize ethical conflicts and collaborate to ensure that plans consistently use just procedures to ensure that quality care is available. PMID:17146899

Lundy, Courtnee

2006-01-01

210

Geologic disposal of radioactive waste: Ethical and technical issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethical goals that future people should be protected and should not have to protect themselves from our radioactive waste are claimed by geologic repository projects. The best test of sufficient protection is to show that the calculated individual doses to future farming families are well below a regulatory limit. That limit should be no greater than what is now adopted to protect the public from operating licensed facilities. Present US calculations show doses, at times well beyond 10,000 years, that exceed current accepted limits by at least three orders of magnitude. Notwithstanding, there is a good chance that the goals can still be achieved by careful technical design of the geologic confinement system. But many in the US now propose ways that would allow greater individual exposures from radionuclides that eventually leak from a geologic repository. Examples include: (a) the 10,000-year cutoff proposed by industry, the US Congress, EPA, and DOE, thus obscuring the later times when higher doses are certain to result; (b) the vicinity-average dose proposed by industry and the US Congress; (c) the probabilistic critical groups proposed by EPRI and by the National Research Council's TYMS committee; (d) proposals to rely on future humans to detect and cleanup excessive amounts of radioactivity that may escape from a repository, and (e) the move to base compliance on calculated doses from well water drawn at considerable distance from Yucca Mountain. Each of these proposals would lead to a far more lenient radiation protection standard than current standards. Each of these proposals is without sufficient scientific basis for its use as a protector of public health. Each of these proposals would violate one or more of the ethical goals. Each is made without adequate discussion and explanation and without explaining how and why it would violate one or more of the ethical goals. What if serious work on alternatives fails to produce conservatively calculated and defensible doses that show that future people will be protected as well as present-day people are protected from licensed nuclear facilities? If so, the need for a geologic repository could be balanced against the desire for assuring such conservative and careful protection of public health. Relaxation of the safety standard itself, as attempted so prematurely by the House and Senate bills of the present and last Congress, should be made only after special review of that need by the scientific community and the public and approval by Congress. The desire for safeguards protection of buried spent nuclear fuel will be an additional burden on repository design and prediction of performance. Thus, the Yucca Mountain Project faces a demanding technical challenge. Similar challenges face policy makers. They must reject pressures for short-term expediency and economy lest, by enacting policies that compromise scientific validity and credibility, they further undermine public confidence and irreparably harm the programs for disposing of high-level radioactive waste

1999-01-01

211

Geologic disposal of radioactive waste: Ethical and technical issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethical goals that future people should be protected and should not have to protect themselves from our radioactive waste are claimed by geologic repository projects. The best test of sufficient protection is to show that the calculated individual doses to future farming families are well below a regulatory limit. That limit should be no greater than what is now adopted to protect the public from operatinglicensed facilities. Present US calculations show doses, at times well beyond 10,000 years, that exceed current accepted limits by at least three orders of magnitude. Notwithstanding, there is a good chance that the goals can still be achieved by careful technical design of the geologic confinement system. But many in the US now propose ways that would allow greater individual exposures from radionuclides that eventually leak from a geologic repository. Examples include: (a) the 10,000-year cutoff proposed by industry, the US Congress, EPA, and DOE, thus obscuring the later times when higher doses are certain to result; (b) the vicinity-average dose proposed by industry and the US Congress; (c) the probabilistic critical groups proposed by EPRI and by the National Research Council's TYMS committee; (d) proposals to rely on future humans to detect and cleanup excessive amounts of radioactivity that may escape from a repository, and (e) the move to base compliance on calculated doses from well water drawn at considerable distance from Yucca Mountain. Each of these proposals would lead to a far more lenient radiation protection standard than current standards. Each of these proposals is without sufficient scientific basis for its use as a protector of public health. Each of these proposals would violate one or more of the ethical goals. Each is made without adequate discussion and explanation and without explaining how and why it would violate one or more of the ethical goals. What if serious work on alternatives fails to produce conservatively calculated and defensible doses that show that future people will be protected as well as present-day people are protected from licensed nuclear facilities? If so, the need for a geologic repository could be balanced against the desire for assuring such conservative and careful protection of public health. Relaxation of the safety standard itself, as attempted so prematurely by the House and Senate bills of the present and last Congress, should be made only after specialreview of that need by the scientific community and the public and approval by Congress. The desire for safeguards protection of buried spent nuclear fuel will be an additional burden on repository design and prediction of performance. Thus, the Yucca Mountain Project faces a demanding technical challenge. Similar challenges face policy makers. They must reject pressures for short-term expediency and economy lest, by enacting policies that compromise scientific validity and credibility, they further undermine public confidence and irreparably harm the programs for disposing of high-level radioactive waste.

Pigford, T.H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1999-12-01

212

Everyday ethics issues in the outpatient clinical practice of pediatric residents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the ethics issues that pediatric residents encounter during routine care in an outpatient teaching clinic. DESIGN: Qualitative study including in-depth interviews with pediatric residents and direct observation of interactions between preceptors and residents in a pediatric teaching clinic. SETTING: The Johns Hopkins Harriet Lane Pediatric Primary Care Clinic, March 20 through April 11, 2006. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample including all pediatric faculty preceptors supervising at the clinic during the 19 half-day sessions that occurred during the observation period (N = 15) and the pediatric residents seeing patients during these clinic sessions (N = 50). Main Outcome Measure Field notes of preceptor-resident discussions about patient care were made and transcribed for qualitative analysis. RESULTS: Qualitative analysis of the ethics content of cases presented by residents in this pediatric teaching clinic identified 5 themes for categorizing ethics challenges: (1) promoting the child's best interests in complex and resource-poor home and social settings; (2) managing the therapeutic alliance with parents and caregivers; (3) protecting patient privacy and confidentiality; (4) balancing the dual roles of learner and health care provider; and (5) using professional authority appropriately. CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative analysis of the ethics content of directly observed preceptor-resident case discussions yielded a set of themes describing the ethics challenges facing pediatric residents. The themes are somewhat different from the lists of residents' ethics experiences developed using recall or survey methods and may be very different from the ideas usually included in hospital-based ethics discussions. This may have implications for improving ethics education during residency training.

Moon M; Taylor HA; McDonald EL; Hughes MT; Carrese JA

2009-09-01

213

Ethics in science and environmental politics: issues for interdisciplinary teams  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The quest for sustainable use of the planet will require evidence, analysis and judgment from a wide array of disciplines. In order to produce a systematic and orderly analysis of this information, a synthesis will be essential. This synthesis will be generated most effectively if the individuals designing the research and providing the data interact in a variety of ways. Disciplines are isolated from each other and not accustomed to working together; however, this isolation is changing rapidly. Still, there are many issues not yet satisfactorily resolved. This manuscript illustrates these issues and makes suggestions for improving the situation.

John Cairns Jr.

2001-01-01

214

Parenthood and the Internet: An Ethical Discussion about Online Sexual Issues against Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most controversial discussions about parenthood and the Internet is about the sexual offenses that children can face when surfing the Web. Moreover, how parents can protect them effectively is another point of interestin the current society. However, this issue has not been analysed from the ethical point of view due to the lack of cyberethics nowadays. Hence, in this article, the most common online threats against children are discussed considering the utilitarianism, the contractarianism, and the pluralism.Additionally, some procedures applied to protect children are analysed using the mentioned ethical frameworks.

Denys A. Flores

2012-01-01

215

Ethical issues in using deception to facilitate rehabilitation for a patient with severe traumatic brain injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To explore ethical issues in using deception to improve participation in a patient with severe traumatic brain injury who had not responded to traditional behavioral and pharmacologic approaches. DESIGN: Case study. PARTICIPANT: A male in inpatient neurorehabilitation with history of severe traumatic brain injury and significant behavioral disruption that limited his therapy participation. METHODS: Behavior modification program using principles of operant conditioning that required deception. RESULTS: Participation in therapies significantly improved and disruptive behaviors decreased. CONCLUSION: When used cautiously and with careful consideration of the ethical implications, deception may be permissible as part of an intervention strategy with this population but only as a last resort.

Matthes J; Caples H

2013-03-01

216

Ethical issues of evaluation practice within the brazilian political context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzes a conflict frequently encountered by an evaluation professional working in the Brazilian context and its implications to the evaluation process. The challenge is to follow ethical principles that guide a true evaluation, and yet untangle the interaction of all the actors within a complex political context, where: (a) the recognition and regulation of the evaluation profession leaves much to be desired; (b) a strong professional association of evaluators is yet to be formed, and (c) we have little empirical guidance that can enlighten the actors in the evaluation process. The conflict for the evaluator is in implementing the principles and standards that guide the formal preparation of an evaluation professional, in the face of limited autonomy of decisions regarding the use of results and recommendations. We illustrate this conflict by describing three case examples of evaluations by the Cesgranrio Foundation that focused social, educational and corporate programs.Este trabalho avalia um conflito freqüentemente encontrado por um profissional de avaliação atuando no contexto brasileiro bem como suas respectivas implicações para o processo avaliativo. O desafio está em cumprir os princípios éticos que guiam uma verdadeira avaliação e que ainda qualificam as interações de todos os atores dentro de um complexo contexto político no qual: (a) o reconhecimento e a regularização da profissão de avaliador deixam muito a desejar; (b) uma sólida associação profissional de avaliadores está ainda por ser constituída e (c) temos precária orientação prática para prestar esclarecimento aos atores no processo avaliativo. O conflito para o avaliador está na implementação dos princípios e padrões que guiam a formação de um avaliador profissional em face da limitada autonomia de decisões em relação à utilização de resultados e recomendações. Ilustramos aqui este conflito descrevendo três exemplos de casos em avaliação realizados pela Fundação Cesgranrio, enfocando programas nas áreas social, educacional e empresarial.

Carlos Alberto Serpa; Thereza Penna Firme; Ana Carolina Letichevsky

2005-01-01

217

Surgical experimentation and clinical trials: differences and related ethical problems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Surgical techniques are not introduced into clinical practice as the result of randomised clinical trials (RCT), but usually through the gradual evolution of existing techniques or, more rarely, through audacious departures from the norm that are decided by a surgical team on the basis of experience. Sham surgery is held by some to be not only an ethically acceptable procedure but also a perfectly fit and proper one, as it could endow surgical experiments with the strict (more) methodological and statistical precision typically associated with RCTs. This article first briefly examines some of the methodological aspects of both RCTs and surgical experiments and then offers a few considerations regarding the ethical issues raised by sham surgery.

Petrini, Carlo

2013-06-01

218

Ethical considerations for evaluating the issue of physical restraint in psychiatry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This article examines some of the ethical issues associated with the use of physical restraint in psychiatry and neurology. It offers no specific answers to individual operational problems, but a methodological matrix is proposed as an aid to experts in the various settings in which decisions are taken. The subject is addressed mainly by considering two sources: reference documents published by eminent organisations, and the theoretical framework of ethical values (or pri (more) nciples). A number of analytical criteria arising from these sources are then identified and proposed. The proposed criteria can be applied in cases for which the legitimate use of restraint may be an option, bearing in mind that restraint is an extremely serious affront to human dignity and is widely held to be of no therapeutic value. Its abuse is illegitimate in both ethical and legal terms.

Petrini, Carlo

2013-09-01

219

Spheres of influence: Ethical, legal, and social issues of the Human Genome Project: What to do with what we know  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since fiscal year 1991, the U.S. Human Genome Project has spent $170.6 million in federal funds to help isolate genes associated with Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, neurofibromatosis types 1 and 2, myotonic dystrophy, and fragile X syndrome and to localize genes that predispose people to breast cancer, colon cancer, hypertension, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Now come the hard part. Biology's 21st century megaproject starts to look relatively manageable compared to another challenge facing the enterprise: sorting out ethical, legal, and social issues associated with using this information. [open quotes]The Human Genome Project,[close quotes] wrote Senior Editor Barbara Jasny in the October 1 Science editorial, stretches [open quotes]the limits of the technology and the limits of our ability to ethically and rationally apply genetic information to our lives.[close quotes

Pellerin, C. (Alexandria, VA (United States))

1994-01-01

220

Ethical problems in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Ethical problems in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

2001-05-01

222

Ethical issues raised by the new orientations in ergonomics and living labs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

User Experience Theory (UXT) provides us with criteria for designing products and technical systems for everyday activities (playing, learning, working,…) so as to satisfy users. Living Labs (LL), are plateforms used for the design and evaluation of technical systems. As such, they constitute tools that bring to this process some constraints., However these constraints have to be articulated to the UXT. In other words, UXT should specify the place, the role and function LL should play in the design of new products, how it should contribute to satisfying UX, and how the methods and techniques should be conceived or borrowed from other disciplines. UXT also raises ethical issues: impartiality (independent, public, replicable) of research models in the context of economical constraints (dependant, private, secret prototypes) and of industrial pressure, the use of intrusive and persuasive techniques, even with the prior informed consent of participants, ergo-marketing, deontology codes, the use of specific participants, belonging of an UX innovative solution, confidentiality with ICT, and so on. Because the UX, as well as LL literature, have shown little concerns for ethical considerations, till now, we define LL-UX ethical issues as a new research topic, and we list a number of problems to be solved in order to have an ethical LL-UX methodology for open innovation.

Barcenilla J; Tijus C

2012-01-01

223

Focus on Ethics and Public Relations Practice in a University Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Public relations action relies on sound decision making about how to inspire cooperation between an organization and its publics. Such thinking must uphold principles for ethical communication. Effectively combining ethics with public relations practice for students is key. A pedagogical approach to public relations ethics, hinging on selected…

Smudde, Peter M.

2011-01-01

224

Ethical decision-making in forensic psychology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive process for identifying and addressing primarily ethical issues related to the psychology profession in South Africa. In fulfilling this purpose, research was conducted of relevant ethical and to a lesser extent, legal aspects pertaining to the psychology profession. In an attempt to prevent unprofessional conduct claims against psychologists from succeeding and to alert psychologists to the concurrent ethical problems that may lead to malpractice suits, this article offers material on some important issues – in the context of forensic psychology – such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology as a profession, the Ethical Code of Professional Conduct to which a psychologist should adhere, ethical aspects and issues pertaining to forensic psychology in general, some ethical issues pertaining to child forensic psychology, summary guidelines for ethical decision-making and some steps to follow to ensure sound ethical decisionmaking.

M. Swanepoel

2010-01-01

225

A Review of Indian Publications on Ethical Issues Regarding Capacity, Informed Consent, and Placebo Controlled Trials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews the ethical aspects of psychiatric research in India. There were a few studies on research on informed consent and capacity in psychiatric practice. Using the key words ‘Consent Psychiatry India’ 35 references were found in PubMed, of which 5 related to mental health. Using the key words ‘Decision making and capacity India’ 10 references were found in PubMed, but none were related to mental health. Using the key words: ‘ethics, placebo controlled trials, India,’ eight reports were found listed in Pubmed. Additional searches identified comments by editors and rapid responses. Numerous concerns were raised by the authors but these lacked evidence and were reported multiple times by same groups. Studies on informed consent report the possibility of involving patients in clinical drug trials, with valid informed consent. There is a need for more systematic studies on ethics related topics in psychiatric practice and research in India.

Santosh K. Chaturvedi

2008-01-01

226

Ethical Quandaries in Gamete-Embryo Cryopreservation Related to Oncofertility.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While cancer rates continue to increase, therapy has dramatically decreased the mortality rates. The increased efficacy of current therapies may unfortunately have profound toxic effects on gamete function in both adolescent and reproductive age groups, with infertility as an expected consequence of cancer therapy. Significant progress in the advancement of fertility preservation therapies provides realistic options for future fertility in cancer survivors. However, a number of challenging issues need to be considered when presenting fertility preservation options. This overview highlights some of these considerations including religious-cultural-ethical values, access to care and cost of services, developmental capacity and consent, and posthumous reproduction.

Ayensu-Coker L; Essig E; Breech LL; Lindheim S

2013-09-01

227

Research Ethics in Emerging Forms of Online Learning: Issues Arising from a Hypothetical Study on a MOOC  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is concerned with how research ethics is evolving along with emerging online research methods and settings. In particular, it focuses on ethics issues implied in a hypothetical virtual ethnography study aiming to gain insights on participants' experience in an emergent context of networked learning, namely a MOOC--Massive Online Open…

Esposito, Antonella

2012-01-01

228

Primary hyperoxaluria type 1: practical and ethical issues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare inborn error of glyoxylate metabolism of autosomal recessive inheritance, leading to progressive systemic oxalate storage (named 'oxalosis') with a high rate of morbidity and mortality, as well as an unacceptable quality of life for most patients. The adverse outcome, however, is partly due to issues that can be overcome. First, the diagnosis of PH is often delayed due to a general lack of knowledge of the disease among physicians. This accounts specifically for patients with pyridoxine sensitive PH, a group that is paradoxically most easy to treat. Second, lack of adherence to a strict conduction of conservative treatment and optimal urological management may enhance an adverse outcome of the disease. Third, specific techniques to establish PH1 and specific therapies are currently often not available in several low-resources countries with a high prevalence of PH. The management of patients with advanced disease is extremely difficult and warrants a tailor-made approach in most cases. Comprehensive programs for education of local physicians, installation of national centers of expertise, European support of low-resources countries for the management of PH patients and intensified international collaboration on the management of current patients, as well as on conduction of clinical studies, may further improve outcome of PH.

Cochat P; Groothoff J

2013-03-01

229

Primary hyperoxaluria type 1: practical and ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare inborn error of glyoxylate metabolism of autosomal recessive inheritance, leading to progressive systemic oxalate storage (named 'oxalosis') with a high rate of morbidity and mortality, as well as an unacceptable quality of life for most patients. The adverse outcome, however, is partly due to issues that can be overcome. First, the diagnosis of PH is often delayed due to a general lack of knowledge of the disease among physicians. This accounts specifically for patients with pyridoxine sensitive PH, a group that is paradoxically most easy to treat. Second, lack of adherence to a strict conduction of conservative treatment and optimal urological management may enhance an adverse outcome of the disease. Third, specific techniques to establish PH1 and specific therapies are currently often not available in several low-resources countries with a high prevalence of PH. The management of patients with advanced disease is extremely difficult and warrants a tailor-made approach in most cases. Comprehensive programs for education of local physicians, installation of national centers of expertise, European support of low-resources countries for the management of PH patients and intensified international collaboration on the management of current patients, as well as on conduction of clinical studies, may further improve outcome of PH. PMID:23494551

Cochat, Pierre; Groothoff, Jaap

2013-03-14

230

Ethical and legal issues raised by cord blood banking - the challenges of the new bioeconomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cord blood banking raises ethical and legal issues which highlight the need for careful regulatory approaches to the emerging bioeconomy. Consent processes for both private and public banking should be inclusive and representative of the different familial interests in the cord blood. Property law is a potentially useful way of understanding the mechanisms for donation to both public and private banks. Increasing tensions between public and private models of banking may require the adoption of hybrid forms of banking. PMID:23984790

Stewart, Cameron L; Aparicio, Lorena C; Kerridge, Ian H

2013-08-19

231

Ethical and legal issues raised by cord blood banking - the challenges of the new bioeconomy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cord blood banking raises ethical and legal issues which highlight the need for careful regulatory approaches to the emerging bioeconomy. Consent processes for both private and public banking should be inclusive and representative of the different familial interests in the cord blood. Property law is a potentially useful way of understanding the mechanisms for donation to both public and private banks. Increasing tensions between public and private models of banking may require the adoption of hybrid forms of banking.

Stewart CL; Aparicio LC; Kerridge IH

2013-08-01

232

Social, ethical and moral issues in the implementation of radioactive waste management objectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To date, the management of nuclear waste has included sizable releases to the environment. The economic result of these releases is opposed by the ethical issue. Questions of who will be responsible for the wastes are asked. The danger of trusting the experts is pointed out: information is withheld, data are suppressed, etc. The nuclear industry needs to restore confidence, but restoring competence must come first

1976-10-29

233

Ethical issues in the end of life care for cancer patients in iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In the recent years, advances in medical technologies for end stage cancer patients' care have affected the end-of-life decision-making in clinical practice and exposed oncologists to serious ethical dilemmas. But little is known about oncologists' viewpoints in our country regarding their ethical problems in this mention. We aimed to clarify the ethical dilemmas which Iranian oncologists may face in our health care setting and to determine factors influencing decision-making process. METHODS: In this qualitative study, a phenomenological approach was used. We interviewed 8 cancer specialists in teaching hospitals in Iran and used content analysis to identify codes and categorize themes in the data. RESULTS: DURING THE PROCESS OF ANALYSIS, THREE MAIN THEMES EMERGED ABOUT ETHICAL DILEMMAS IN END OF LIFE CARE FOR ADVANCED CANCER PATIENTS: illness factors, socio-cultural context and patient-physician relationship. Cancer specialists identified ethical problems on several main issues, the most important of which were telling the truth in Iranian cultural context, uncertainty in end stage definition, multidisciplinary team working and cost consideration in Iranian health care system. CONCLUSION: Health care and insurance system in Iran face to end of life care challenges; therefore, health care providers and policy makers need to allocate appropriate resources and programs to improve quality of care in terminal stages. Appropriate physicians' communication skills training, multidisciplinary team working and supplementary insurance services that provide essential health care can improve the quality of care of patients with end stages of cancer. The findings of this study can help us to provide ethical policies for decision-making in end-of-life care.

Mobasher M; Nakhaee N; Tahmasebi M; Zahedi F; Larijani B

2013-01-01

234

Ethical Issues in the End of Life Care for Cancer Patients in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: In the recent years, advances in medical technologies for end stage cancer patients’ care have affected the end-of-life decision-making in clinical practice and exposed oncologists to serious ethical dilemmas. But little is known about oncologists' viewpoints in our country regarding their ethical problems in this mention. We aimed to clarify the ethical dilemmas which Iranian oncologists may face in our health care setting and to determine factors influencing decision-making process.Methods: In this qualitative study, a phenomenological approach was used. We interviewed 8 cancer specialists in teaching hospitals in Iran and used content analysis to identify codes and categorize themes in the data.Results: During the process of analysis, three main themes emerged about ethical dilemmas in end of life care for advanced cancer patients: illness factors, socio-cultural context and patient-physician relationship. Cancer specialists identified ethical problems on several main issues, the most important of which were telling the truth in Iranian cultural context, uncertainty in end stage definition, multidisciplinary team working and cost consideration in Iranian health care system.Conclusion: Health care and insurance system in Iran face to end of life care challenges; therefore, health care providers and policy makers need to allocate appropriate resources and programs to improve quality of care in terminal stages. Appropriate physicians’ communication skills training, multidisciplinary team working and supplementary insurance services that provide essential health care can improve the quality of care of patients with end stages of cancer. The findings of this study can help us to provide ethical policies for decision-making in end-of-life care.

Mina Mobasher; Nouzar Nakhaee; Mamak Tahmasebi; Farzaneh ZaHedi; Bagher Larijani

2013-01-01

235

Ethical Issues in Withholding or Withdrawal of Artificial Nutrition and Hydration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A I M : The purpose of this study was to identify and explore the main ethical dilemmas arising for a health care teamworking in a clinical nutrition unit when decisions about withholding or withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration(ANH) of seriously ill patients have to be made. The potential factors influencing this decision-making processare also described.M A T E R I A L - M E T H O D : Fifteen health carers working in a Clinical Nutrition Unit in the United Kingdomparticipated in the study and qualitative research methods were used to gather data.R E S U L T S : The findings of the study illustrate that withdrawal of life-sustaining nourishment is one of themost difficult ethical dilemmas for the health care professionals. The reason for such difficulty is associated with thepotential outcome of that intervention, as it brings about a patient’s death. Furthermore, quality of life issues appearto influence the decision-making process. When the patient’s voice is absent, the health care team takes into accountthe perspectives of the patient’s family, in order to decide to abate life-sustaining nourishment.C O N C L U S I O N S : By exploring the health carers’ attitudes on ethical issues and identifying their involvementin the decision-making process, an in-depth understanding of the process is provided. The ethical decision-makingprocess is not an easy task. The question of whether ANH should be ethically withdrawn seems to be very complex.Health carers should take into consideration all the factors influencing the decision-making in order to contributemore effectively to facilitate the whole process.

Tsaloglidou A.; Rammos K.; Kyparos A.; Dimitriadou A.; Matziari Ch.

2008-01-01

236

Ethical issues in the geriatric patient with advanced cancer 'living to the end'.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer incidence will increase as the population ages; there will be a 50% increase in new cancer cases over the next 20 years, and the biggest rates of increase will occur in the developing world. Owing to technical advances in the care of critical illness, as it is the case in elderly people with advanced cancer, physicians, patients and families are often confronted with ambiguous circumstances in which medical advances may inadvertently prolong suffering and the dying process rather than bring healing and recovery. In this review of the ethical issues confronting physicians who care for patients with advanced life-limiting illnesses like cancer, a philosophical debate continues in the medical community regarding the rightness or wrongness of certain actions (e.g. physician-assisted death, euthanasia), while at the same time there is a strong desire to find a common ground for moral discourse that could guide medical decision-making in this difficult period in the lives of our patients. We will discuss how a good palliative care can be an alternative to these ethical dilemmas. Although some issues (e.g. the role of physician-assisted death in addressing suffering) remain very controversial, there is much common ground based on the application of the four major principles of medical ethics, no malfeasance, beneficence, autonomy and justice. Thus, the physician's primary commitment must always be the patient's welfare and best interests, whether the physician is treating illness or helping patients to cope with illness, disability and death. A key skill here is the communication of bad news and to negotiate a treatment plan that is acceptable to the patient, the family and the healthcare team. Attention to psychosocial issues demands involvement of the patients and their families as partners. Physicians should be sensitive to the range of psychosocial distress and social disruption common to dying patients and their families. Spiritual issues often come to the fore. An interdisciplinary healthcare team can help in these areas. The goals of this review are to raise the awareness of doctors, nurses and other members of the healthcare team to the important ethical issues that must be addressed in providing medical care to elderly patients with advanced cancer; and also to encourage members of the healthcare team to take the ethical issues seriously so that we can improve the circumstances of a vulnerable group of patients-the elderly patients with cancer. PMID:24001765

Daher, M

2013-10-01

237

Health inequalities and regional specific scarcity in primary care physicians: ethical issues and criteria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: A substantial body of evidence supports the beneficial health impact of an increase in primary care physicians for underserved populations. However, given that in many countries primary care physician shortages persist, what options are available to distribute physicians and how can these be seen from an ethical perspective? METHODS: A literature review was performed on the topic of primary care physician distribution. An ethical discussion of conceivable options for decision makers that applied prominent theories of ethics was held. RESULTS: Examples of distributing primary care physicians were categorised into five levels depending upon levels of incentive or coercion. When analysing these options through theories of ethics, contrasting, and even controversial, moral issues were identified. However, the different morally salient criteria identified are of prima facie value for decision makers. CONCLUSIONS: The discussion provides clear criteria for decision makers to consider when addressing primary care physician shortages. Yet, decision makers will still need to assess specific situations by these criteria to ensure that any decisions they make are morally justifiable.

Stapleton G; Schröder-Bäck P; Brand H; Townend D

2013-07-01

238

'I'm more sick than my doctors think': ethical issues in managing somatization in developing countries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several ethical issues confront the healthcare professional who is managing somatization in developing countries where cost constraints, low literacy, poverty, poor nutrition and infections and inadequate access to healthcare are common. The paper discusses these in the context of the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. Some of the ethical issues in managing somatization include being influenced by patient distress rather than rational medical decision-making, inadequate attention to the cultural meaning of symptoms, psychologizing versus medicalizing, the ethics of nomenclature and labels, communicating ethically with patients, and managing them adequately given lack of evidence and training. An ethical approach to managing somatization in this context would include using an integrated and simultaneous medical and psychiatric approach. To ensure patient beneficence, the medical, psychological and social assessment should be undertaken side-by-side as much as possible and should be cost effective. Respecting patient autonomy by using adequate communication methods and the patient's cultural model of the illness as part of management is also integral to ethical practice. In the developing world, issues of equity are also an important ethical concern. When more serious illnesses are the health priority, functional syndromes may not get equal importance or resources.

Chandra PS; Satyanarayana VA

2013-02-01

239

[Ethical, legal and social issues on regenerative medicine].  

Science.gov (United States)

There should have been it for the purpose of the severe handling opening meatus for done study after "The law concerning regulation relating to human cloning techniques and other similar techniques" paid its attention to medical utility of "specified embryo", and having forbidden transplantation to prenatal. There is a problem and asks a law and consistency with "The guidelines for handling of specified embryo" it and, despite the duration, does not get skill. If an ES cell, tissue stem cell and human clone embryo can cry in subject of study as the Trinity, it is not possible for those availability and evaluation of safety. Study of regenerative medicine does not consist last if does not use a cell having gamete, germ, an embryo and the specific character which said. We attention to utility of regenerative medicine and takes a national strategic part, correspondence supporting development of steady study is demanded. The result is reduced to its elements in the future by society. PMID:15373219

Tsukata, Yukiyoshi

2004-08-01

240

Brain death and related issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concerns about the erroneous diagnosis of death and premature burial have been expressed from times immemorial. Patients with brain stem death have absolutely no chance of recovery. Brain death is considered at par with death in most of the countries. General public in most parts of the world shows reluctance to accept this concept due to different social, cultural and religious backgrounds and state of literacy and awareness. The criteria for the diagnosis of brain death have been established which include certain pre-conditions, exclusions and tests of the brain stem function. These criteria are universally accepted. The criteria in children are somewhat different from the adults. The subject is intimately related with organ transplantation. If the patients is registered as organ donor or the family consents, organs can be harvested from brain dead patients for transplantation. Pakistan is amongst the few countries where no legislation exists to accept brain death as being at par with death of an individual, and to facilitate and regulate, cadaveric organ donation and transplantation. (author)

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Ethical issues and approaches in stem cell research: from international insights to a proposal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In recent years and months, human stem cell research has dominated many scientists' interests, the media, public debate, and social policy. This paper aims to consider, first, the major scientific data on stem cell research that are available. Second, I reflect on them by examining how they shaped policies in Europe and the United States. I also point to current changes in policy-making concerning the creation of ad hoc committees to address this novel issue and how, in a few instances, different ethical positions are part of the documents produced. In other words, diverse approaches are not solved but kept in tension. Finally, I suggest that the current state of research on human stem cell will benefit from an ethics of risk.

Vicini A

2003-01-01

242

Beyond the IRB: examining common but rarely explored ethical issues in psychosocial research.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses common ethical and practical considerations in psychosocial and behavioral research in healthcare. Issues such as appropriate objectives and intent, risk-benefit ratios, research design, and human subject protection are explored. The burden of ethical research design and implementation is placed on the investigator, rather than relying solely on institutional review boards to judge individual projects. The benefit of acquisition of knowledge must be balanced against the burdens of the research on society in general and human subjects specifically. Scientific replication of research is encouraged, unnecessary duplication defined and discouraged, and benefits of true collaboration outlined. Investigators are advised to consider the context, intent, purpose, implementation, and use of information when developing research. The concept of "researcher myopia" is defined as a common stumbling block. It is suggested that academic researchers also look to other disciplines, such as industry, for examples of research that is concise, cost-effective, and reliable. PMID:18290390

Matsuyama, Robin K; Lyckholm, Laurie J; Lowe, M Elizabeth; Edmond, Michael B

2007-07-01

243

Beyond the IRB: examining common but rarely explored ethical issues in psychosocial research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article discusses common ethical and practical considerations in psychosocial and behavioral research in healthcare. Issues such as appropriate objectives and intent, risk-benefit ratios, research design, and human subject protection are explored. The burden of ethical research design and implementation is placed on the investigator, rather than relying solely on institutional review boards to judge individual projects. The benefit of acquisition of knowledge must be balanced against the burdens of the research on society in general and human subjects specifically. Scientific replication of research is encouraged, unnecessary duplication defined and discouraged, and benefits of true collaboration outlined. Investigators are advised to consider the context, intent, purpose, implementation, and use of information when developing research. The concept of "researcher myopia" is defined as a common stumbling block. It is suggested that academic researchers also look to other disciplines, such as industry, for examples of research that is concise, cost-effective, and reliable.

Matsuyama RK; Lyckholm LJ; Lowe ME; Edmond MB

2007-07-01

244

Sliced down to the moral backbone? Ethical issues of structural reforms in healthcare organizations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Throughout the 1990s we have experienced a wave of healthcare reforms. This article assesses central issues in policy and systems as well as structural changes in the provision of services against the ethical principles of non-maleficence, beneficence, autonomy and justice. The lack of universal coverage is a serious threat to a just and equitable healthcare system. Doubts have recently been expressed concerning the benefits of competition, even within a regulated internal market. Service reorganization raises fewer ethical concerns. Cost-cutting has followed in the aftermath of the financial crises of the early 1990s, and when carried out by restricting access, it may be in conflict with principles of justice and autonomy. Mere cost-cutting does not, however, establish a viable political agenda. It is argued that changes in healthcare need to be implemented in a way that does not lead to conflict with professional values. PMID:10090690

Brommels, M

1999-01-01

245

Sliced down to the moral backbone? Ethical issues of structural reforms in healthcare organizations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Throughout the 1990s we have experienced a wave of healthcare reforms. This article assesses central issues in policy and systems as well as structural changes in the provision of services against the ethical principles of non-maleficence, beneficence, autonomy and justice. The lack of universal coverage is a serious threat to a just and equitable healthcare system. Doubts have recently been expressed concerning the benefits of competition, even within a regulated internal market. Service reorganization raises fewer ethical concerns. Cost-cutting has followed in the aftermath of the financial crises of the early 1990s, and when carried out by restricting access, it may be in conflict with principles of justice and autonomy. Mere cost-cutting does not, however, establish a viable political agenda. It is argued that changes in healthcare need to be implemented in a way that does not lead to conflict with professional values.

Brommels M

1999-01-01

246

The Challenges of Maintaining the Integrity of Public Examinations in Nigeria: The Ethical Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The qualitative merit of examination or test-taking for diagnostic, placement and quality control is usually measured in terms of its appropriateness and the quality assurance of its outcomes. Consequently, it becomes inevitable that for any examination to be credible, it must possess key elements which are validity and reliability. These key elements can only be present if examination is free and fair, devoid of cheating and all sorts of malpractices. This presupposes that examination conduct must be guided by a set of rules and ethical standards. Considering the strategic importance of examinations in the society and the numerous unanswered questions of moral integrity bedevilling the conduct of public examinations in Nigeria, this paper articulated the ethical issues and challenges facing the correct conduct of public examinations in Nigeria. Suggestions and recommendations were proposed with a view to enhancing the qualitative merit and the integrity of the nation’s educational enterprise.

Arijesuyo Amos Emiloju; C. A. Adeyoju

2012-01-01

247

Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that individuals have the right to request or refuse nutrition and hydration as medical treatment. Registered dietitians should work collaboratively as part of an interprofessional team to make recommendations on providing, withdrawing, or withholding nutrition and hydration in individual cases and serve as active members of institutional ethics committees. This practice paper provides a proactive, integrated, systematic process to implement the Academy's position. The position and practice papers should be used together to address the history and supporting information of ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration identified by the Academy. Elements of collaborative ethical deliberation are provided for pediatrics and adults and in different conditions. The process of ethical deliberation is presented with the roles and responsibilities of the registered dietitian and the dietetic technician, registered. Understanding the importance and applying concepts dealing with cultural values and religious diversity is necessary to integrate clinical ethics into nutrition care. Incorporating screening for quality-of-life goals is essential before implementing the Nutrition Care Process and improving health literacy with individual interactions. Developing institution-specific policies and procedures is necessary to accelerate the practice change with artificial nutrition, clinical ethics, and quality improvement projects to determine best practice. This paper supports the "Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Ethical and Legal Issues of Feeding and Hydration" published in the June 2013 issue of the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

Schwartz DB; Posthauer ME; O'Sullivan Maillet J

2013-07-01

248

Ethical and legal issues in caring for asylum seekers and refugees in the UK.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Inward migration to the UK remains topical and controversial as numbers continue to increase. Many immigrants have specific health care needs and may shoulder a large burden of infectious disease. Imposition of legal constraints can have a huge impact on the medical care afforded to immigrants. Currently UK policy is to treat, free of charge and with NHS resources, those who fulfil specific criteria. However an increasing number are being asked to pay for their treatment. Many health care professionals are confused as to current legal restrictions and require guidance on the associated ethical issues. We concentrate on provision of care to HIV positive individuals and use cases to illustrate some of the issues. However these issues are equally pertinent to practitioners in all branches of medicine.

Hamill M; McDonald L; Brook G; Murphy S

2004-11-01

249

Ethics revisited; further ethical explorations for biocommunicators.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article explores further ethical considerations for biocommunicators. The focus is on professionalization and the need for professional standards to guide conduct and decisions. What makes formation of an ethical code for the profession of biocommunications desirable? Examples of issues facing the profession and general areas which may need to be examined in order to form a code are considered in relation to a philosophy of professionalism. The pros and cons of forming an ethics code are discussed. The authors call upon biomedical communications professionals to conscientiously deliberate the advantage or disadvantages of a code of ethics to the future of their profession.

Salladay S; Singarella T

1982-03-01

250

Ethics revisited; further ethical explorations for biocommunicators.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores further ethical considerations for biocommunicators. The focus is on professionalization and the need for professional standards to guide conduct and decisions. What makes formation of an ethical code for the profession of biocommunications desirable? Examples of issues facing the profession and general areas which may need to be examined in order to form a code are considered in relation to a philosophy of professionalism. The pros and cons of forming an ethics code are discussed. The authors call upon biomedical communications professionals to conscientiously deliberate the advantage or disadvantages of a code of ethics to the future of their profession. PMID:7068590

Salladay, S; Singarella, T

1982-03-01

251

Ethical issues in palliative care. Views of patients, families, and nonphysician staff.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Much of what we know about ethical issues in palliative care comes from the perceptions of physicians and ethicists. In this study our goal was to hear other voices and to gain first-hand knowledge of the possibly contrasting views of patients, their families, nurses, volunteers, and other team members on end-of-life issues. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. SETTING: Inpatient and consultation palliative care service of the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal, Que. PARTICIPANTS: Of 113 people interviewed, 13 were patients, 43 were family members, 32 were volunteers, 14 were nurses, and 11 were other staff. METHOD: Interviewers elicited subjects' perspectives on ethical issues. Content analysis was used to identify, code, and categorize themes in the data. MAIN FINDINGS: Communication difficulties and insufficient resources and staff were the most frequently mentioned problems in this palliative care setting. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study will help guide policy decisions and setting of educational priorities in end-of-life care, particularly regarding the importance of adequate communication.

Towers A; MacDonald N; Wallace E

2003-01-01

252

Physical, psychological and ethical issues in caring for individuals with genetic skin disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Some forms of genetic skin disease are highly prevalent and others are exceedingly rare, but collectively, genetic skin disorders (or genodermatoses) are often poorly understood. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to increase nurses' awareness and understanding of some of the physical, psychological, social, and ethical issues facing patients with inherited skin disorders. ORGANIZING CONSTRUCT: This article offers an overview of genetic skin diseases; highlights the complexity and prevalence of the genodermatoses; describes inheritance patterns, genetics, and treatment for six genodermatoses; and reviews some of the ethical, privacy, technological, and resource issues nurses should consider when caring for patients with genetic skin disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Because genodermatoses are found in all age groups, across all populations, and within all healthcare settings, nurses are uniquely positioned to address the educational and healthcare needs of patients and families with inherited skin disorders. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Over the past two decades, genetics has evolved from a niche specialty into general practice. To ensure that patients and their families receive appropriate services and resources, nurses must have a working knowledge of genetic concepts. This article reinforces key genetic concepts while discussing many of the issues and concerns important to caring for patients with genetic skin disease.

Seibert DC; Darling TN

2013-03-01

253

Role of Ethics Committee and issues involved in Bio-medical research on human beings – an update.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the ever increasing and expanding in medical sciences and bio-medical research involving human beings, the role of Ethics Committee is becoming very important. It is mandatory that all proposals on biomedical research involving human subjects should bescrutinized and cleared by an appropriately constituted Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC) also referred to as Institutional Review Board(IRB) in many countries, to safeguard thewelfare and the rights of the participants. The purpose of a Research Ethics Committee is to protect the dignity, rights, safety and well being of all actual or potential research participantsand also to ensure that the privacy, safety, social sensitivities and welfare of participants are protected. This review paper makes anattempt to educate the medical fraternity about the role of Ethics Committee and share basic principles and contemporary issues of ethics guidelines with the physicians doing research on human beings.

Rajkumari Ajita

2008-01-01

254

Ethical Issues in Insurance Marketing.The Case of Western India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a paper based on empirical investigation conducted in Western India between 2002 and 2012 especially at a time when the Indian economy is in a stage of transition from state capitalism to free market capitalism, albeit both of a retarded variety. It takes the 7 Ps of services marketing and cross verifies responses against seven dimensions of ethical conduct. The study is based on questionnaires followed by interviews. The target respondents were life insurance employees of banc assurance involved in marketing life insurance policies to customers in the urban sector. The study brought to the fore the fact that commissions were more important that telling the truth while selling policies. In the process ethical considerations conveniently went out of the window. To protect the interest of the unsuspecting clients a plea is made to have governance machinery in place that will make the insurance marketing personnel accountable for what and how they sell their wares. This need is especially felt in a country where the social security net is virtually non existent and the erstwhile joint family system is on a fast decline. In such circumstances a lack of ethical norms on the part of the insurer is an unacceptable sociological proposition and borders on gross unethical behaviour. The task of people management experts to address this issue is of the paramount importance and urgency if the Indian life insurance industry is to sustain its social image in a highly competitive market where foreign players are steadily entering the domestic scene.

Sorab Georgy Sadri; Sharukh N Tara

2012-01-01

255

Ethical issues: impact of the animal rights movement on surgical research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aggressive militancy of many animal rights or "antivivisectionist" groups is causing great consternation but little action on the part of medical and surgical researchers. Pediatric surgeons are particularly affected, since issues of tissue healing, growth and development, and organ or total-body responses to surgical insults must be established in the live organism, usually in animal models that cannot be replaced by other methods. Investigators have been threatened physically; laboratories have been vandalized and valuable data destroyed. Biomedical researchers have been called "animal-Nazis." The proliferation of animal rights groups such as the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) have prompted the birth of pro-research organizations such as "Putting People First" and the "incurably ill For Animal Research" (iiFAR). The result of this pro and con activity is an extraordinary amount of time and expense devoted to cover the cost of new regulations and laboratory security (approximately $ 1.5 billion in the U. S. alone) at the expense of research budgets, adding to the increasing shortage of research funding. This situation has created dilemmas for the surgeon involved in basic animal research: is it worth taking personal risks to develop new techniques? Is it ethical to allow these fears to hinder progress in surgery? Should we do away with animal research entirely and test new techniques directly on children? Would that be ethical? These questions are difficult to answer, but must be addressed if we expect medicine to progress.

Sonnino RE; Banks RE

1996-08-01

256

Medicolegal and ethical issues of cloning: do we need to think again and again?  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on the cloning of human cells holds the promise of medical benefits, but cloning humans is a far more complex and ethically disturbing issue. Some have argued strenuously that human cloning should be banned permanently. They have called it immoral, repugnant, and abhorrent. Most European countries have already banned it, and others are considering a proscription. While allowing fundamental research in the field to progress, we need a wide debate on human cloning. We need to think about what, if any, circumstances might warrant cloning, as well as the circumstances under which it should never be allowed. PMID:15166767

Sharma, B R

2004-06-01

257

Token economies in institutional settings. Historical, political, deprivation, ethical, and generalization issues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of the token economy in institutional settings is examined in light of historical, political, deprivation, ethical, and generalization issues. The major points may be summarized as follows. a) The token economy may be viewed as a palliative measure to prevent the incredibly regressive effects of institutionalization. b) To achieve control in token programs in many "total institutions," an artificial state of deprivation must be achieved. c) Generalization of behaviors into the natural environment following the patient's stay in a token economy program should not be taken for granted. d) What the patient learns in a token economic system may not be what the token economy's program director probably intends.

Hersen M

1976-03-01

258

Medicolegal and ethical issues of cloning: do we need to think again and again?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research on the cloning of human cells holds the promise of medical benefits, but cloning humans is a far more complex and ethically disturbing issue. Some have argued strenuously that human cloning should be banned permanently. They have called it immoral, repugnant, and abhorrent. Most European countries have already banned it, and others are considering a proscription. While allowing fundamental research in the field to progress, we need a wide debate on human cloning. We need to think about what, if any, circumstances might warrant cloning, as well as the circumstances under which it should never be allowed.

Sharma BR

2004-06-01

259

Gathering visual images of the 2004 tsunami: Journalists’ challenges and ethical issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper tackles a relatively unaddressed area of journalistic ethics by offering insights from working journalists into the conditions they face when reporting disasters. It covers the disaster reporting context in general, but with particular emphasis on the witnessing of disaster and subsequent impact on the journalist, and the processes of collection of visual imagery for print or broadcast. This research provides a complement to the large body of output-related analysis of photojournalism, by examining the sometimes messy and traumatic circumstances of the initial gathering of photojournalistic imagery and by foregrounding the role of the journalist not as objective news conduit but as feeling human being. Arguably, no attempt to judge the ethics of photojournalism is complete without some understanding of the conditions faced by journalists at the scene of a disaster.

James Hollings

2006-01-01

260

77 FR 38631 - Request for Comments on Ethical Issues Associated with the Development of Medical Countermeasures...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (the Commission) to advise him on bioethical issues generated by novel and emerging research in biomedicine and related areas of science and technology. The Commission is charged to identify and...

2012-06-28

 
 
 
 
261

[Social consensus on medical technology policy: ethical issues and citizen participation].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Social consensus is considered to be a necessary condition for a policy to be introduced and implemented effectively. This is the case with the approval, regulation and prohibition of certain advanced medical research and technology, especially when they could invoke moral disputes in society. Public policies on organ transplantation, definition of death, euthanasia, genetic screening and diagnosis, and human stem cell research are recent examples. The concept of consensus, however, is elusive, along with the measures to secure it. Technocratic decision making, as a paternalistic activity frequently led by experts, sometimes poses a challenge to democratic decision making, supposedly based on a well-informed and rational public. It also remains to be proved whether public involvement in policymaking can be a solution to ethical value conflicts in society. From the perspective of policy sciences, this paper first introduces the concept of consensus, especially consensus on moral issues in pluralistic societies, and its implications to public policy, including citizen participation in decision making. Then, it briefly explains the historical background with which social consensus and public involvement have increasingly flourished in the field of technology assessments and technology policy making, including biomedical technology. Next, major institutions, governmental and nongovernmental, involved in the ethical aspects of medical research and technology, are presented along with their efforts for citizen participation. Finally, the paper discusses some of the future agendas on this issue.

Sato H

2004-01-01

262

Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. Methods: An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported.  Results: Results indicated a variable amount of ethics' related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties' needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making.Conclusions: Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential.  In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health.  There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice.

A Kanekar; A Bitto

2012-01-01

263

Size matters: the ethical, legal, and social issues surrounding large-scale genetic biobank initiatives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the past ten years the complex ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) typically surrounding large-scale genetic biobank research initiatives have been intensely debated in academic circles. In many ways genetic epidemiology has undergone a set of changes resembling what in physics has been called a transition into Big Science. This article outlines consequences of this transition and suggests that the change in scale implies challenges to the roles of scientists and public alike. An overview of key issues is presented, and it is argued that biobanks represent not just scientific endeavors with purely epistemic objectives, but also political projects with social implications. As such, they demand clever maneuvering among social interests to succeed.

Klaus Lindgaard Hoeyer

2012-01-01

264

Freedom of movement across the EU: legal and ethical issues for children with chronic disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While freedom of movement has been one of the most highly respected human right across the EU, there are various aspects which come into play which still need to be resolved for this to be achieved in practice. One of these key issues is cross border health care. Indeed, there is an increasing awareness of standardisation of health service provision and cross border collaboration in the EU. However, certain groups particularly children may be at risk of suboptimal treatment as a result. We present the case of a child patient which highlights the complexity of this matter spanning family law, health law, social security law as well as ethical issues. EU legislation needs to ensure that children patients have access to high quality care across the EU borders.

Mercieca C; Aquilina K; Pullicino R; Borg AA

2012-11-01

265

Legal and Ethical issues when using Antiandrogenic Pharmacotherapy with Sex Offenders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The treatment of sex offenders and more specifically the treatment of high-risk sex offenders is a subject of great importance for practitioners, professionals, policymakers and the public at large. Whilst treatment is thought to largely centre upon cognitive-behavioural methods and other psychotherapy techniques, in more recent years the use of pharmacotherapy has also begun to gain ground. Current debate often centres upon how effective such treatment is; with both supporters and opponents of its use existing. This article, however, does not specifically look at whether pharmacotherapy as a method of treatment with sex offenders actually works, but rather looks at the legal and ethical issues surrounding its use. In particular it considers issues such as whether the treatment should be voluntary or mandatory; whether it should indeed even be classified as treatment or should instead be seen as punishment and finally whether it should be used with convicted offenders or made freely available to all.

Karen Harrison

2008-01-01

266

ASPECTOS ETICOS EN LA INVESTIGACION CIENTIFICA/ ETHICAL ISSUES IN CIENTIFIC RESEARCH  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El escrito pretende mostrar los diferentes códigos, declaraciones y normas que se han dictado en el mundo para la protección de los seres humanos sometidos a experimentación científica. Se analiza el tema a la luz de los principios éticos y la situación actual en Chile en relación a la existencia de los comités de ética científicos Abstract in english The article?s aim is to show all different codes, declarations and norms that have been dictated in the world, in order to protect the human beings submitted to scientific experimentation. The topic is analyzed considering ethical principles and the present situation in Chile, related to the existence of the scientific ethical committees

ACEVEDO PÉREZ, IRENE

2002-06-01

267

ASPECTOS ETICOS EN LA INVESTIGACION CIENTIFICA ETHICAL ISSUES IN CIENTIFIC RESEARCH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El escrito pretende mostrar los diferentes códigos, declaraciones y normas que se han dictado en el mundo para la protección de los seres humanos sometidos a experimentación científica. Se analiza el tema a la luz de los principios éticos y la situación actual en Chile en relación a la existencia de los comités de ética científicosThe article’s aim is to show all different codes, declarations and norms that have been dictated in the world, in order to protect the human beings submitted to scientific experimentation. The topic is analyzed considering ethical principles and the present situation in Chile, related to the existence of the scientific ethical committees

IRENE ACEVEDO PÉREZ

2002-01-01

268

Ethical issues regarding caring for dermatology patients in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) operates the largest integrated health care system within the United States. VA budgets continue to escalate in an environment of heightened financial prudence and accountability. Despite having received many awards in areas from patient satisfaction and safety to product innovations, like any health care system, the VA is not immune to ethical conflict that requires exploration and evaluation. Several VA dermatologists, including section chiefs, were interviewed, and their responses to ethical complexities encountered or anticipated were analyzed in fictional case scenarios. Five morally concerning issues were highlighted. These include (1) providing care in a teaching setting with limited resources to a patient population with few other health care alternatives; (2) stereotyping patients, altogether an uncommon act, is possibly easier to do in the VA and has the potential to negatively affect patient care; (3) service-related disability claim cases often include medical opinion and findings documented in the medical record when judgments are made, thus the VA physician can have a significant effect on the outcome of these claims; (4) whether the VA provides a setting for apathetic physicians to thrive or instead allows for a more meaningful work experience and then how to manage the subpar performer; (5) except for the treatment of HIV lipodystrophy with injectables, primary cosmetic procedures are prohibited at the VA and can lead to difficulties for the VA dermatologist attempting to comply in a era where dermatology is being more closely associated with cosmesis.

Reich R; Stevens E; Dellavalle RP

2012-09-01

269

Ethical issues regarding caring for dermatology patients in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System.  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) operates the largest integrated health care system within the United States. VA budgets continue to escalate in an environment of heightened financial prudence and accountability. Despite having received many awards in areas from patient satisfaction and safety to product innovations, like any health care system, the VA is not immune to ethical conflict that requires exploration and evaluation. Several VA dermatologists, including section chiefs, were interviewed, and their responses to ethical complexities encountered or anticipated were analyzed in fictional case scenarios. Five morally concerning issues were highlighted. These include (1) providing care in a teaching setting with limited resources to a patient population with few other health care alternatives; (2) stereotyping patients, altogether an uncommon act, is possibly easier to do in the VA and has the potential to negatively affect patient care; (3) service-related disability claim cases often include medical opinion and findings documented in the medical record when judgments are made, thus the VA physician can have a significant effect on the outcome of these claims; (4) whether the VA provides a setting for apathetic physicians to thrive or instead allows for a more meaningful work experience and then how to manage the subpar performer; (5) except for the treatment of HIV lipodystrophy with injectables, primary cosmetic procedures are prohibited at the VA and can lead to difficulties for the VA dermatologist attempting to comply in a era where dermatology is being more closely associated with cosmesis. PMID:22902226

Reich, Reuben; Stevens, Emily; Dellavalle, Robert P

270

Ethical issues in obtaining collateral information on alcohol and drug use: experience from Asia and Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In many regions of the world, wives of alcohol and drug-using men are at an increased risk for HIV/AIDS because of their husbands' high-risk behaviours. These women also tend to be poor, illiterate and dependent on their husbands. Few interventions are designed exclusively for these women. Furthermore, these interventions have had to obtain permission from the husbands to recruit the wives. This article discusses the ethical concerns in obtaining husbands' permission to recruit their wives, with examples taken from India and other countries in Asia and Africa. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies indicate that married women are recruited for interventions only with their husbands' consent. Researchers reported that this strategy was acceptable to the local culture, increased acceptance of the research by family and community and improved the participation rate of married women. However, this strategy conflicts with the ethical principles of individual autonomy and voluntariness. SUMMARY: Designing research processes according to the local cultural norms is important. However, it is a researcher's ethical duty to ensure that every individual of the society, irrespective of sex, race or marital status, gets equal opportunities to make health-related decisions. This article suggests alternate strategies to directly approach and recruit monogamous wives of alcohol and drug-using men; further research is required to test the feasibility of suggested strategies.

Varma DS; Chandra PS; O'Leary CC; Reich W; Cottler LB

2013-07-01

271

Lifting the veil: a typological survey of the methodological features of Islamic ethical reasoning on biomedical issues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We survey the meta-ethical tools and institutional processes that traditional Islamic ethicists apply when deliberating on bioethical issues. We present a typology of these methodological elements, giving particular attention to the meta-ethical techniques and devices that traditional Islamic ethicists employ in the absence of decisive or univocal authoritative texts or in the absence of established transmitted cases. In describing how traditional Islamic ethicists work, we demonstrate that these experts possess a variety of discursive tools. We find that the ethical responsa-i.e., the products of the application of the tools that we describe-are generally characterized by internal consistency. We also conclude that Islamic ethical reasoning on bioethical issues, while clearly scripture-based, is also characterized by strong consequentialist elements and possesses clear principles-based characteristics. The paper contributes to the study of bioethics by familiarizing non-specialists in Islamic ethics with the role, scope, and applicability of key Islamic ethical concepts, such as "aims" (maq??id), "universals" (kulliyy?t), "interest" (ma?la?a), "maxims" (qaw?`id), "controls" (?aw?bit), "differentiators" (fur?q), "preponderization" (tarj??), and "extension" (tafr?`).

Abdur-Rashid K; Furber SW; Abdul-Basser T

2013-04-01

272

Prevention, communication and equity in environmental epidemiology: ethical issues/ Prevenzione, comunicazione ed equità in epidemiologia ambientale: una riflessione morale  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In environmental epidemiology research, decisions about when and how to intervene requires adequate ethical reflection. In fact, different kinds of issues may arise about: research methods and knowledge production; management of the results in terms of their overall assessments or for the implementation of preventive actions; reclamation intervention. In this contribution we propose to consider three topics we regard as crucial to this ethical debate: the reporting of con (more) clusive research data; the correct application of the precautionary principle; and the environmental equity issues.

Pagliarani, Giordana; Botti, Caterina

2011-01-01

273

Moral awareness and ethical predispositions: investigating the role of individual differences in the recognition of moral issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of the role of individual ethical predispositions, preferences for utilitarian and formalistic ideals, on managerial moral awareness was examined in 2 studies. Results suggested that a manager's ethical predispositions influence his or her responses to the characteristics of the moral issue. Both utilitarianism and formalism shaped moral awareness, but formalism demonstrated a greater capacity to do so in that formalists recognized both harm and the violation of a behavioral norm as indicators of the moral issue, whereas utilitarians responded only to harm. These findings provide support for the basic arguments underlying theories of moral development and offer several implications for the study and practice of moral awareness in organizations. PMID:16435953

Reynolds, Scott J

2006-01-01

274

Ethical issues raised by the introduction of payment for performance in France.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: In France, a new payment for performance (P4P) scheme for primary care physicians was introduced in 2009 through the 'Contract for Improving Individual Practice' programme. Its objective was to reduce healthcare expenditures while enhancing improvement in guidelines' observance. Nevertheless, in all countries where the scheme was implemented, it raised several concerns in the domain of professional ethics. OBJECTIVE: To draw out in France the ethical tensions arising in the general practitioner's (GP) profession linked to the introduction of P4P. METHOD: Qualitative research using two focus groups: first one with a sample of GPs who joined P4P and second one with those who did not. All collective interviews were recorded and fully transcribed. An inductive analysis of thematic content with construction of categories was conducted. All the data were triangulated. RESULTS: All participants agreed that conflicts of interest were a real issue, leading to the resurgence of doctor's dirigisme, which could be detrimental for patient's autonomy. GPs who did not join P4P believed that the scheme would lead to patient's selection while those who joined P4P did not. The level of the maximal bonus of the P4P was considered low by all GPs. This was considered as an offense by non-participating GPs, whereas for participating ones, this low level minimised the risk of patient's selection. CONCLUSION: This work identified several areas of ethical tension, some being different from those previously described in other countries. The authors discuss the potential impact of institutional contexts and variability of implementation processes on shaping these differences.

Saint-Lary O; Plu I; Naiditch M

2012-08-01

275

Ethical issues in DNA identification of human biological material from mass disasters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Each mass disaster has its own characteristics and will involve a different approach, so the safeguarding and collection of forensic evidence have to be considered as part of the field response procedure. DNA typing has played a more prominent role in the identification of human remains, and particularly so for highly decomposed and fragmented remains. Although the ultimate goal is to obtain the identification, the specific context of each application of human identity testing has its specific problems, ranging from technical approach, through statistical interpretation, to ethical issues. The preparedness plan of the forensic genetics laboratory needs to include policies for family notification, long-term sample storage, and data archiving. For this reason, DNA sample collection and a strategy for DNA-based victim identification needs to be part of the preparedness plan. In this paper, the authors seek to define three of these ethical aspects: (1) the humanitarian importance of identification; (2) resource allocation in the victims' DNA identification; and (3) the secondary use for research of the samples initially collected for identification purposes. DNA analysis for the purpose of identifying victims of mass disasters has complex implications that demand much more rigorous examination than they have received until now.

Caenazzo L; Tozzo P; Rodriguez D

2013-08-01

276

Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) was mapped and reviewed. A foresight exercise was conducted to identity future developments. Three case studies (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) were applied to identify the issues raised, including the potential risks and benefits of GM animals from the perspectives of the production chain (economics and agri-food sector) and the life sciences (human and animal health, environmental impact, animal welfare and sustainable production). Ethical and policy concerns were examined through application of combined ethical matrix method and policy workshops. The case studies were also used to demonstrate the utility of public engagement in the policy process. The results suggest that public perceptions, ethical issues, the competitiveness of EU animal production and risk-benefit assessments that consider human and animal health, environmental impact and sustainable production need to be considered in EU policy development. Few issues were raised with application in the pharmaceutical sector, assuming ethical and economic issues were addressed in policy, but the introduction of agricultural GM animal applications should be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23567982

Frewer, L J; Kleter, G A; Brennan, M; Coles, D; Fischer, A R H; Houdebine, L M; Mora, C; Millar, K; Salter, B

2013-04-06

277

Conducting research with tribal communities: sovereignty, ethics, and data-sharing issues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: When conducting research with American Indian tribes, informed consent beyond conventional institutional review board (IRB) review is needed because of the potential for adverse consequences at a community or governmental level that are unrecognized by academic researchers. OBJECTIVES: In this article, we review sovereignty, research ethics, and data-sharing considerations when doing community-based participatory health-related or natural-resource-related research with American Indian nations and present a model material and data-sharing agreement that meets tribal and university requirements. DISCUSSION: Only tribal nations themselves can identify potential adverse outcomes, and they can do this only if they understand the assumptions and methods of the proposed research. Tribes must be truly equal partners in study design, data collection, interpretation, and publication. Advances in protection of intellectual property rights (IPR) are also applicable to IRB reviews, as are principles of sovereignty and indigenous rights, all of which affect data ownership and control. CONCLUSIONS: Academic researchers engaged in tribal projects should become familiar with all three areas: sovereignty, ethics and informed consent, and IPR. We recommend developing an agreement with tribal partners that reflects both health-related IRB and natural-resource-related IPR considerations.

Harding A; Harper B; Stone D; O'Neill C; Berger P; Harris S; Donatuto J

2012-01-01

278

Ethical Issues in Doing Business in China(Çin’de ?? Yapman?n Etik Sorunlar?)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the 1980s and 1990s China was cited by some of the international organizations because of its violations of basic human rights. However, multinational firms from most of the countries criticizing the China’s violations began to do considerable amount of investments to China in the 1990s and 2000s. They moved their manufacturing activities to China because of valuable opportunities, incentives, and cheap work force. They pursued this action regardless of Chinese government’s carelessness to its own citizens. Despite this fact, should these firms do additional investment in order to produce their products with lower levels of costs? Is this an ethical decision? In this study, this issue is argued out and some points are recommended from the perspective of international firms.

Serkan ADA

2007-01-01

279

[Direct-to-consumer genetic testing through Internet: marketing, ethical and social issues].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We probably did not anticipate all the consequences of the direct to consumer genetic tests on Internet, resulting from the combined skills of communication and genomic advances. What are the commercial strategies used by the companies offering direct-to-consumer genetic tests on Internet and what are the different social expectations on which they focus? Through a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the web sites offering such tests, it seems that these companies target a triple market based on: the "healthism" which raises health and hygiene to the top of the social values; the contemporary demands of the users to become actual actors of health decisions; and finally on the need for bio-social relationships. These three commercial strategies underlie various ethical and societal issues justifying a general analysis.

Ducournau P; Gourraud PA; Rial-Sebbag E; Bulle A; Cambon-Thomsen A

2011-01-01

280

Ethical, legal and social issues in the context of the planning stages of the Southern African Human Genome Programme.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As the focus on the origin of modern man appears to be moving from eastern to southern Africa, it is recognised that indigenous populations in southern Africa may be the most genetically diverse on the planet and hence a valuable resource for human genetic diversity studies. In order to build regional capacity for the generation, analysis and application of genomic data, the Southern African Human Genome Programme was recently launched with the aid of seed funding from the national Department of Science and Technology in South Africa. The purpose of the article is to investigate pertinent ethical, legal and social issues that have emerged during the planning stages of the Southern African Human Genome Programme. A careful consideration of key issues such as public perception of genomic research, issues relating to genetic and genomic discrimination and stigmatisation, informed consent, privacy and data protection, and the concept of genomic sovereignty, is of paramount importance in the early stages of the Programme. This article will also consider the present legal framework governing genomic research in South Africa and will conclude with proposals regarding such a framework for the future.

de Vries J; Slabbert M; Pepper MS

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
281

Healthier? More Efficient? Fairer? An Overview of the Main Ethical Issues Raised by the Use of Ubicomp in the Workplace  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) will radically transform our everyday life and social representations. These transformations will notably impact the working environment. The objective of this paper is to offer a first survey of the main ethical issues raised by the development of intelligent working environments (IWEs). It especially focuses on the capacity of such environments to collect and handle personal medical data. The first two sections of this paper aim to clarify the methodology (2) as well as the object (3) of the research. We then point out some of the main ethical issues raised by IWEs and their capacity to collect and handle medical data. The final section attempts to offer some elements of reflection regarding the ethical principles that should guide the development of IWEs in the future.

Céline Ehrwein NIHAN

2013-01-01

282

Experimental Methods in Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Course for Teaching Ethical Issues, Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, and Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the development of a course which introduces students to issues of animal ethics, experimentation, and an Animal Care Facility. The experiments enable the students to gain confidence in collecting data, compiling large data sets, handling spreadsheets and graphing, applying appropriate statistics, and writing accurate and concise scientific reports in journal article format.

Adam C. Hall (Smith College;); Mary E. Harrington (Smith College;)

2003-11-01

283

Experimental Methods in Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Course for Teaching Ethical Issues, Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, and Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have developed and recently taught a 200 level undergraduate course entitled, ‘Experimental Methods in Neuroscience’. This is a required course in an increasingly popular Neuroscience major at Smith College. Students are introduced initially to issues of animal ethics and experimentation, and are...

Hall, Adam C.; Harrington, Mary E.

284

Teaching Ethics and Values in Public Administration Programs: Innovations, Strategies, and Issues. SUNY Series in Public Administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

|The 17 chapters in this book consider innovations, teaching strategies, and issues in ethics instruction for professional and graduate programs in public affairs/administration. Following an introductory chapter which summarizes data reported in a 1995 national survey of 138 graduate departments of public affairs/administration, chapter titles…

Bowman, James, Ed.; Menzel, Donald, Ed.

285

Ethics and its challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available I would like to look at some of the challenges of ethcis today. Therefore, in the first part I say something about ethics, the ethical theories and ethical concepts. Afterwords I am going to explain a little bit about the human dimensions, the dealing with experiences (i.e. work); because the human person has to decide the right thing in the right place on the right time, and in relatively freedom. In the end, there are some ideas about applied ethics which is necessary to focusing on the practical issues, too. Otherwise people who do not like the ethical discussions they could think that ethical ideas are selfsufficient and do not make sense, but I will tell them something else....

Johannes Michael Schnarrer

2006-01-01

286

Faith-based NGOs and healthcare in poor countries: a preliminary exploration of ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

An increasing number of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) provide humanitarian assistance, including healthcare. Some faith-based NGOs combine proselytising work with humanitarian aid. This can result in ethical dilemmas that are rarely discussed in the literature. The article explores several ethical issues, using four generic activities of faith-based NGOs: (1) It is discriminatory to deny aid to a needy community because it provides less opportunity for proselytising work. Allocating aid to a community with fewer health needs but potential for proselytising work is unjust, since it neither maximises welfare (utilitarianism) nor assists the most needy (egalitarianism). (2) Faith-based-NGOs may state that proselytising work combined with humanitarian assistance improves spiritual wellbeing and overall benefit. However, proselytising work creates religious doubts, which could transiently decrease wellbeing. (3) Proselytising work is unlikely to be a perceived need of the population and, if carried out without consent, breaches the principle of autonomy. Such work also exploits the vulnerability of disaster victims. (4) Governments that decline the assistance of a faith-based NGO involved in proselytising work may deprive the needy of aid. Three strategies are proposed: (a) Increase knowledge to empower communities, individuals and governments; information on NGOs could be provided through an accessible register that discloses objectives, funding sources and intended spiritual activities. (b) Clearly demarcate between humanitarian aid from proselytising work, by setting explicit guidelines for humanitarian assistance. (c) Strengthen self-regulation by modifying the Code of Conduct of the Red Cross to state criteria for selecting communities for assistance and procedures for proselytising work. PMID:17971461

Jayasinghe, Saroj

2007-11-01

287

HIGHER ROMANIAN EDUCATION POST-BOLOGNA: REQUIRED CHANGES, INSTRUMENTS AND ETHICAL ISSUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1999 Romania became part of the Bologna process, focused on the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System, design to increase the compatibility of European universities, ensuring the mobility of students and professors in the context of re-orienting education to the formation of competences continuously adapted to market requirements. This model draws the new education system closer to American education. The paper analyzes the importance of evaluation, proposing solutions to increase teaching efficiency, and also the often negative influence of promotion criteria, based on their characteristic ethical aspects. The paper underlines the importance of continuous evaluation based on more requirements, resulting into a more correct assessment of performance, but also the evaluation of the efficiency of the course and instructor by the students, proposing its assignment to an independent structure to diminish the bias of results. The paper also analyses the importance of promotion criteria based on the scientific activity and management of research in the detriment of focusing on teaching. The implications relate to the fact that management of research does not measure teaching performance or the professional profile, while scientometric measurements of results have profound ethical consequences, leading to a distorted scientific behavior and neglected teaching duties.

Alexandru-Ionu? Petri?or

2011-01-01

288

Using critical literacy to explore genetics and its ethical, legal, and social issues with in-service secondary teachers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The described interdisciplinary course helped a mixed population of in-service secondary English and biology teacher-participants increase their genetics content knowledge and awareness of Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) that arose from discoveries and practices associated with the Human Genome Project. This was accomplished by applying a critical literacy approach that allows people develop cognitive skills such that they are able to "read the world" (Wink, 2004). The approach is one that permits readers to go beyond the literal text to examine what is present as well as what is missing as it relates to issues of equity and fairness. Becoming critically literate enabled these teacher-participants to challenge the subtle attitudes, values, and beliefs conveyed by a range of written and oral texts. The teacher-participants in this course improved their critical literacy skills by actively reading, critically writing about, and using evidence to support their conclusions about issues arising from advances in human genetics. A biologist, a linguist, and an educator collaboratively designed and taught the course. The personalized focus on the integration of thoughtful reading and writing in this class enhanced the teacher-participants' (n = 16) professional and intellectual development and will potentially improve learning in their biology and English classrooms in the future.

Gleason ML; Melançon ME; Kleine KL

2010-01-01

289

Issues related to development of antiepileptogenic therapies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several preclinical proof-of-concept studies have provided evidence for positive treatment effects on epileptogenesis. However, none of these hypothetical treatments has advanced to the clinic. The experience in other fields of neurology such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has indicated several problems in the design of preclinical studies, which likely contribute to failures in translating the positive preclinical data to the clinic. The Working Group on "Issues related to development of antiepileptogenic therapies" of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the American Epilepsy Society (AES) has considered the possible problems that arise when moving from proof-of-concept antiepileptogenesis (AEG) studies to preclinical AEG trials, and eventually to clinical AEG trials. This article summarizes the discussions and provides recommendations on how to design a preclinical AEG monotherapy trial in adult animals. We specifically address study design, animal and model selection, number of studies needed, issues related to administration of the treatment, outcome measures, statistics, and reporting. In addition, we give recommendations for future actions to advance the preclinical AEG testing. PMID:23909852

Pitkänen, Asla; Nehlig, Astrid; Brooks-Kayal, Amy R; Dudek, F Edward; Friedman, Daniel; Galanopoulou, Aristea S; Jensen, Frances E; Kaminski, Rafal M; Kapur, Jaideep; Klitgaard, Henrik; Löscher, Wolfgang; Mody, Istvan; Schmidt, Dieter

2013-08-01

290

AN ETHICAL ASSESSMENT OF COMPUTER ETHICS USING SCENARIO APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethics refers to a set of rules that define right and wrong behavior, used for moral decision making. In this case, computer ethics is one of the major issues in information technology (IT) and information system (IS). The ethical behaviour of IT students and professionals need to be studied in an attempt to reduce many unethical practices such as software piracy, hacking, and software intellectual property violations. This paper attempts to address computer-related scenarios that can be used to examine the computer ethics. The computer-related scenario consists of a short description of an ethical situation whereby the subject of the study such as IT professionals or students, then rate the ethics of the scenario, namely attempt to identify the ethical issues involved. This paper also reviews several measures of computer ethics in different setting. The perceptions of various dimensions of ethical behaviour in IT that are related to the circumstances of the ethical scenario are also presented.

Maslin Masrom; Zuraini Ismail; Ramlah Hussein

2010-01-01

291

Presença do tema ética profissional nos periódicos brasileiros de Ciência da Informação e Biblioteconomia/ Presence of professional ethics issue in Brazilian journals of Information Science and Librarianship  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A presença de discussões acerca de temas relativos à Ética na produção científica brasileira de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação é o enfoque principal deste texto, que advém da análise de periódicos desses campos de conhecimento e da prática profissional. Para isso, selecionou-se um título por cada região político-administrativa brasileira, Sul, Sudeste, Centro-Oeste e Nordeste, dentre os existentes, cuja edição tivesse se mantido regular no per (more) íodo de 1997 a 2006. Em cada um desses títulos, a partir de palavras-chave previamente definidas, foram identificados os artigos e ensaios que trataram do tema. Com isso, buscava-se conhecer os fundamentos filosóficos e doutrinários, as temáticas e abordagens, e as tendências da discussão Ética na produção periódica brasileira de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação. Metodologicamente, o trabalho envolve a identificação dos periódicos e dos textos publicados sobre a temática; a leitura e a descrição dos mesmos; a identificação dos aspectos apontados nos objetivos pretendidos; a análise dos discursos utilizando a técnica do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo; e a organização das idéias contidas visando chegar a uma síntese. Foram localizados 10 textos produzidos por 16 autores, sendo dois de 1997, quatro de 2005, quatro distribuídos de 1998 a 2004; nenhum foi encontrado referente ao ano de 2006. Foram identificadas como fundamentos éticos as Doutrinas da Ética do Discurso, da Ética da Alteridade e da Teoria Ético-política da Justiça; e foram também identificadas as temáticas, abordagens e tendências da discussão sobre a Ética, que revelaram a questão da postura profissional determinada pelo quadro atual da sociedade e das tecnologias. Conclui-se que apesar de existir preocupação com o tema Ética por parte de alguns profissionais da informação que escrevem e publicam sobre o assunto, o mesmo ainda é pouco explorado na literatura e está mais dirigido para questões gerais. Abstract in english The presence of discussions on issues relating to ethics in Brazilian scientific production of Librarianship and Information Science is the main focus of this text, which comes from the periodic review of these fields of knowledge and professional practice. For this reason, picked up a scientific periodical title for each brazilian administrative region, whose editing had been maintained regularly over the period 1997 to 2006. In each of these periodical titles, from keyw (more) ords previously defined, have been identified articles and essays which addressed the theme. With this, trying to be informed of the reasons for philosophical and doctrinal, the themes and approaches and trends of the discussion Ethics in regular production of Brazilian Librarianship and Information Science. Methodologically, the work involved identification of journals and texts published on the subject, reading and description of them; identification of the aspects highlighted in the objectives pursued, analysis of speech using the technique of Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo collective subject of discourse) - DSC; organization of the ideas contained, aiming to reach a synthesis. We found 10 texts produced by 16 authors, 2 of 1997, 4 in 2005, 4 distributed from 1998 to 2004 and none was found regarding the year 2006. They were identified as ethical foundations, the doctrines of Ethics of Speech, the Ethics of Otherness and Ethical-Political Theory of Justice, in addition to the issues, approaches and trends of the discussion Ethics, which show the issue of professional attitude determined by the current picture of society and current technologies. We conclude that although there is concern about the ethics issue by some of the professionals who write and publish information on the subject, it is still little explored in literature and is more focused on general issues.

Souza, Francisco das Chagas de; Stumpf, Katiusa

2009-12-01

292

Life extension research: an analysis of contemporary biological theories and ethical issues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many opinions and ideas about aging exist. Biological theories have taken hold of the popular and scientific imagination as potential answers to a "cure" for aging. However, it is not clear what exactly is being cured or whether aging could be classified as a disease. Some scientists are convinced that aging will be biologically alterable and that the human lifespan will be vastly extendable. Other investigators believe that aging is an elusive target that may only be "statistically" manipulatable through a better understanding of the operational principles of systems situated within complex environments. Not only is there confusion over definitions but also as to the safety of any potential intervention. Curing cell death, for example, may lead to cell cancer. The search for a cure for aging is not a clearly beneficial endeavour. This paper will first, describe contemporary ideas about aging processes and second, describe several current life extension technologies. Third, it analyses these theories and technologies, focusing on two representative and differing scientific points of view. The paper also considers the public health dilemma that arises from life extension research and examines two issues, risk/benefit ratio and informed consent, that are key to developing ethical guidelines for life extension technologies.

Marshall J

2006-01-01

293

PROFESSIONALISM AND ETHICS: IS THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY DAMAGING THE HEALTH OF THE PUBLIC RELATIONS PROFESSION?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In most parts of the world, public relations (PR) is seeking recognition as a profession. The path to gaining professional status hinges on its adherence to professional ethical standards. This paper argues that it is inappropriate for public relations practitioners to represent the tobacco industry because it is against the PR ethics of upholding truth and public interest. The paper cites historical tobacco industry documents to reveal that the industry would not hesitate to use unethical means to maximise profits.

Khor Yoke Lim; Adnan Hussein

2006-01-01

294

Ethical and policy issues in cluster randomized trials: rationale and design of a mixed methods research study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cluster randomized trials are an increasingly important methodological tool in health research. In cluster randomized trials, intact social units or groups of individuals, such as medical practices, schools, or entire communities – rather than individual themselves – are randomly allocated to intervention or control conditions, while outcomes are then observed on individual cluster members. The substantial methodological differences between cluster randomized trials and conventional randomized trials pose serious challenges to the current conceptual framework for research ethics. The ethical implications of randomizing groups rather than individuals are not addressed in current research ethics guidelines, nor have they even been thoroughly explored. The main objectives of this research are to: (1) identify ethical issues arising in cluster trials and learn how they are currently being addressed; (2) understand how ethics reviews of cluster trials are carried out in different countries (Canada, the USA and the UK); (3) elicit the views and experiences of trial participants and cluster representatives; (4) develop well-grounded guidelines for the ethical conduct and review of cluster trials by conducting an extensive ethical analysis and organizing a consensus process; (5) disseminate the guidelines to researchers, research ethics boards (REBs), journal editors, and research funders. Methods We will use a mixed-methods (qualitative and quantitative) approach incorporating both empirical and conceptual work. Empirical work will include a systematic review of a random sample of published trials, a survey and in-depth interviews with trialists, a survey of REBs, and in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with trial participants and gatekeepers. The empirical work will inform the concurrent ethical analysis which will lead to a guidance document laying out principles, policy options, and rationale for proposed guidelines. An Expert Panel of researchers, ethicists, health lawyers, consumer advocates, REB members, and representatives from low-middle income countries will be appointed. A consensus conference will be convened and draft guidelines will be generated by the Panel; an e-consultation phase will then be launched to invite comments from the broader community of researchers, policy-makers, and the public before a final set of guidelines is generated by the Panel and widely disseminated by the research team.

Taljaard Monica; Weijer Charles; Grimshaw Jeremy M; Belle Brown Judith; Binik Ariella; Boruch Robert; Brehaut Jamie C; Chaudhry Shazia H; Eccles Martin P; McRae Andrew; Saginur Raphael; Zwarenstein Merrick; Donner Allan

2009-01-01

295

Promoting Active Learning of Ethical Issues in Marketing Communications Using Debates  

Science.gov (United States)

|Expectations from the business world and business school accreditation bodies to create learning outcomes that enhance students' understanding of ethical concepts call for marketing educators to integrate ethics into their pedagogy. This paper summarizes a debate activity used in an undergraduate marketing communications course. Debates engage…

Roy, Donald P.

2012-01-01

296

Applying Rawlsian Approaches to Resolve Ethical Issues: Inventory and Setting of a Research Agenda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Insights from social science are increasingly used in the field of applied ethics. However, recent insights have shown that the empirical branch of business ethics lacks thorough theoretical grounding. This article discusses the use of the Rawlsian methods of wide reflective equilibrium and overlapp...

Doorn, N.

297

Towards a Christian ethic of work in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This paper draws on the academic field of Christian ethics and focuses attention on an ethic of work within the South African context. Key terms such as 'an ethic of work', 'a work ethic' and 'ethics at work' are discussed in relation to varied experiences of work. The issues of why one ought to work and what constitutes 'good' work are discussed with reference to current ethical and economic challenges. I argue that a Christian worldview, or understanding of reality, pro (more) vides a much more credible contribution to an ethic of work than either a materialist view of reality or a system of patronage.

Kretzschmar, Louise

2012-12-01

298

Primary care provider reflections on common themes from special issue on ethical quandaries when delivering integrated primary care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Comments on the articles by Hudgins, Rose, Fifield, & Arnault, (see record 2013-11498-002), Reiter & Runyan, (see record 2013-11498-003), Hodgson, Mendenhall, & Lamson (see record 2013-11498-004), and Kanzler, Goodie, Hunter, Glotfelter, & Bodart (see record 2013-11498-005), regarding the topic of common themes for the special issue on ethical quandaries when delivering integrated primary care. The current author provides brief reflections on each article.

Gould DA

2013-03-01

299

Primary care provider reflections on context-specific quandaries from special issue on ethical quandaries when delivering integrated primary care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Comments on the articles by Robinson & Rickard, (see record 2013-11498-007), Dobmeyer, (see record 2013-11498-008), Mullin & Stenger (see record 2013-11498-009), and Rosenberg & Speice (see record 2013-11498-010) regarding the topic of context-specific quandaries for the special issue on ethical quandaries when delivering integrated primary care. The current author provides brief reflections on each article.

Gould DA

2013-03-01

300

A survey of students` ethical attitudes using computer-related scenarios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many studies exist that examine ethical beliefs and attitudes of university students ascending medium or large institutions. There are also many studies which examine ethical attitudes and beliefs of computer science and computer information systems majors. None, however, examines ethical attitudes of university students (regardless of undergraduate major) at a small, Christian, liberal arts institution regarding computer-related situations. This paper will present data accumulated by an on-going study in which students are presented seven scenarios--all of which involve some aspect of computing technology. These students were randomly selected from a small, Christian, liberal-arts university.

Hanchey, C.M.; Kingsbury, J.

1994-12-31

 
 
 
 
301

Personal genome testing: Test characteristics to clarify the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background As genetics technology proceeds, practices of genetic testing have become more heterogeneous: many different types of tests are finding their way to the public in different settings and for a variety of purposes. This diversification is relevant to the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues (ELSI) surrounding genetic testing, which must evolve to encompass these differences. One important development is the rise of personal genome testing on the basis of genetic profiling: the testing of multiple genetic variants simultaneously for the prediction of common multifactorial diseases. Currently, an increasing number of companies are offering personal genome tests directly to consumers and are spurring ELSI-discussions, which stand in need of clarification. This paper presents a systematic approach to the ELSI-evaluation of personal genome testing for multifactorial diseases along the lines of its test characteristics. Discussion This paper addresses four test characteristics of personal genome testing: its being a non-targeted type of testing, its high analytical validity, low clinical validity and problematic clinical utility. These characteristics raise their own specific ELSI, for example: non-targeted genetic profiling poses serious problems for information provision and informed consent. Questions about the quantity and quality of the necessary information, as well as about moral responsibilities with regard to the provision of information are therefore becoming central themes within ELSI-discussions of personal genome testing. Further, the current low level of clinical validity of genetic profiles raises questions concerning societal risks and regulatory requirements, whereas simultaneously it causes traditional ELSI-issues of clinical genetics, such as psychological and health risks, discrimination, and stigmatization, to lose part of their relevance. Also, classic notions of clinical utility are challenged by the newer notion of 'personal utility.' Summary Consideration of test characteristics is essential to any valuable discourse on the ELSI of personal genome testing for multifactorial diseases. Four key characteristics of the test - targeted/non-targeted testing, analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility - together determine the applicability and the relevance of ELSI to specific tests. The paper identifies and discusses four areas of interest for the ELSI-debate on personal genome testing: informational problems, risks, regulatory issues, and the notion of personal utility.

Bunnik Eline M; Schermer Maartje HN; Janssens A Cecile JW

2011-01-01

302

Personal genome testing: test characteristics to clarify the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: As genetics technology proceeds, practices of genetic testing have become more heterogeneous: many different types of tests are finding their way to the public in different settings and for a variety of purposes. This diversification is relevant to the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues (ELSI) surrounding genetic testing, which must evolve to encompass these differences. One important development is the rise of personal genome testing on the basis of genetic profiling: the testing of multiple genetic variants simultaneously for the prediction of common multifactorial diseases. Currently, an increasing number of companies are offering personal genome tests directly to consumers and are spurring ELSI-discussions, which stand in need of clarification. This paper presents a systematic approach to the ELSI-evaluation of personal genome testing for multifactorial diseases along the lines of its test characteristics. DISCUSSION: This paper addresses four test characteristics of personal genome testing: its being a non-targeted type of testing, its high analytical validity, low clinical validity and problematic clinical utility. These characteristics raise their own specific ELSI, for example: non-targeted genetic profiling poses serious problems for information provision and informed consent. Questions about the quantity and quality of the necessary information, as well as about moral responsibilities with regard to the provision of information are therefore becoming central themes within ELSI-discussions of personal genome testing. Further, the current low level of clinical validity of genetic profiles raises questions concerning societal risks and regulatory requirements, whereas simultaneously it causes traditional ELSI-issues of clinical genetics, such as psychological and health risks, discrimination, and stigmatization, to lose part of their relevance. Also, classic notions of clinical utility are challenged by the newer notion of 'personal utility.' SUMMARY: Consideration of test characteristics is essential to any valuable discourse on the ELSI of personal genome testing for multifactorial diseases. Four key characteristics of the test - targeted/non-targeted testing, analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility - together determine the applicability and the relevance of ELSI to specific tests. The paper identifies and discusses four areas of interest for the ELSI-debate on personal genome testing: informational problems, risks, regulatory issues, and the notion of personal utility.

Bunnik EM; Schermer MH; Janssens AC

2011-01-01

303

UNESCO's activities in ethics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNESCO is an intergovernmental organization with 193 Member States. It is concerned with a broad range of issues regarding education, science and culture. It is the only UN organisation with a mandate in science. Since 1993 it is addressing ethics of science and technology, with special emphasis on bioethics. One major objective of the ethics programme is the development of international normative standards. This is particularly important since many Member States only have a limited infrastructure in bioethics, lacking expertise, educational programs, bioethics committees and legal frameworks. UNESCO has recently adopted the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. The focus of current activities is now on implementation of this Declaration. Three activities are discussed that aim at improving and reinforcing the ethics infrastructure in relation to science and technology: the Global Ethics Observatory, the Ethics Education Programme and the Assisting Bioethics Committees project.

ten Have HA

2010-03-01

304

Ethical and Moral Issues in Russian Everyday Culture of the Late 19th and the Early 20th Centuries within the Context of the Book Culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Russian everyday culture is considered in relation to the impact of ethical ideas and principles presented both in Russian writings and works translated into Russian. The author analyses in detail the ethical views of the Danish philosopher H. Høffding especially those related to women’s social status, gender division of labour, and marriage, and also addresses presentation of ethical standards and related etiquette rules in contemporary Russian literature.

Saiko Elena

2012-01-01

305

Research ethics I: Responsible conduct of research (RCR)--historical and contemporary issues pertaining to human and animal experimentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: In this series of articles--Research Ethics I, Research Ethics II, and Research Ethics III--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. In Research Ethics I, they present a historical overview of the evolution of RCR in the United States then examine the evolution of human and animal experimentation from the birth of scientific medicine through World War II to the present day. METHOD: They relied on authoritative documents, both historical and contemporary, insightful commentary, and empirical research in order to identify current issues and controversies of potential interest to both faculty and students. CONCLUSIONS: The authors have written this article from a historical perspective because they think all readers interested in RCR should appreciate how the history of science and all the good--and harm--it has produced can inform how researchers practice responsible research in the 21st century and beyond.

Horner J; Minifie FD

2011-02-01

306

Update on legal issues related to fugitive emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Technical issues relating to fugitive emissions are difficult enough, but the legal landscape is complex as well. Current key legal issues relating to fugitive emissions compliance and their practical implications for the regulated community are summarized.

Wick, W.D. [Crosby, Heafey, Roach & May, Oakland, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

307

Ethical attitudes of Andalusian journalists to deal with especially sensitive issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. This research article analyses the positions of Andalusian journalists in relation to especially sensitive issues. Methods. The study combines qualitative and quantitative techniques: in-depth interviews and a questionnaire-based survey, respectively. Results. The professional work of Andalusian journalists is based more on the predominant values of their communities than on the deontological codes of the profession, which are unknown by the vast majority. Conclusions. Journalists exhibit a liberal spirit, which is characteristic of a secular society, and believe that the freedom of expression should be respected when dealing with especially sensitive issues, which must be resolved according to the particular circumstances of each case.

JC Suárez Villegas

2013-01-01

308

Utilizing social media to study information-seeking and ethical issues in gene therapy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The field of gene therapy is rapidly evolving, and while hopes of treating disorders of the central nervous system and ethical concerns have been articulated within the academic community, little is known about views and opinions of different stakeholder groups.

Robillard, Julie M; Whiteley, Louise Emma

2013-01-01

309

Dancing through cape coast: ethical and practical considerations for health-related service-learning programs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Short-term service-learning programs that focus on global health are expanding rapidly, spurred by students' desire to be of service in a world that has been made to seem small by new technology and universities' willingness to embrace the goal of educating global citizens. In this commentary, the author uses experiences from a recent trip she led to Ghana as a backdrop against which to explore some of the ethical and practical issues that arise when U.S. students work in health-related programs in developing countries. At minimum, the author argues, these programs should lead students to consider issues such as which basic services people are entitled to, regardless of where and in what circumstances they live, and how differences in access to social and economic resources contribute to health disparities on a global scale. She also suggests that sponsoring institutions should consider what is owed to the countries and communities in which their students learn. Finally, she underscores the circumstances under which service-learning programs can truly benefit the cause of global health.

Saffran L

2013-09-01

310

Dancing through cape coast: ethical and practical considerations for health-related service-learning programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Short-term service-learning programs that focus on global health are expanding rapidly, spurred by students' desire to be of service in a world that has been made to seem small by new technology and universities' willingness to embrace the goal of educating global citizens. In this commentary, the author uses experiences from a recent trip she led to Ghana as a backdrop against which to explore some of the ethical and practical issues that arise when U.S. students work in health-related programs in developing countries. At minimum, the author argues, these programs should lead students to consider issues such as which basic services people are entitled to, regardless of where and in what circumstances they live, and how differences in access to social and economic resources contribute to health disparities on a global scale. She also suggests that sponsoring institutions should consider what is owed to the countries and communities in which their students learn. Finally, she underscores the circumstances under which service-learning programs can truly benefit the cause of global health. PMID:23887005

Saffran, Lise

2013-09-01

311

Convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria vaccine trials in Africa: Report from the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme's Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre consultation, 10-11 February 2009, Durban, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Africa continues to bear a disproportionate share of the global HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria burden. The development and distribution of safe, effective and affordable vaccines is critical to reduce these epidemics. However, conducting HIV/AIDS, TB, and/or malaria vaccine trials simultaneously in developing countries, or in populations affected by all three diseases, is likely to result in numerous ethical challenges. Methods In order to explore convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trials in Africa, the Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre of the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme hosted a consultation on the Convergent Ethical Issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria Vaccine Trials in Africa in Durban, South Africa on the 10-11 February 2009. Results Key cross cutting ethical issues were prioritized during the consultation as community engagement; ancillary care obligations; care and treatment; informed consent; and resource sharing. Conclusion The consultation revealed that while there have been few attempts to find convergence on ethical issues between HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trial fields to date, there is much common ground and scope for convergence work between stakeholders in the three fields.

Mamotte Nicole; Wassenaar Douglas; Koen Jennifer; Essack Zaynab

2010-01-01

312

Pertinent issues related to laparoscopic radical prostatectomy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english PURPOSE: We describe the critical steps of the laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) technique and discuss how they impact upon the pertinent issues regarding prostate cancer surgery: blood loss, potency and continence. RESULTS: A major advantage of LRP is the reduced operative blood loss. The precise placement of the dorsal vein complex stitch associated with the tamponading effect of the CO2 pneumoperitoneum significantly decrease venous bleeding, which is the main s (more) ource of blood loss during radical prostatectomy. At the Cleveland Clinic, the average blood loss of our first 100 patients was 322.5 ml, resulting in low transfusion rates. The continuous venous bleeding narrowed pelvic surgical field and poor visibility can adversely impact on nerve preservation during open radical prostatectomy. Laparoscopy, with its enhanced and magnified vision in a relatively bloodless field allows for excellent identification and handling of the neurovascular bundles. During open retropubic radical prostatectomy, the pubic bone may impair visibility and access to the urethral stump, and the surgeon must tie the knots relying on tactile sensation alone. Consequently, open prostatectomy is associated with a prolonged catheterization period of 2 - 3 weeks. Comparatively, during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy all sutures are meticulously placed and each is tied under complete visual control, resulting in a precise mucosa-to-mucosa approximation. CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic approach may represent a reliable less invasive alternative to the conventional open approach. Despite the encouraging preliminary anatomical and functional outcomes, prospective randomized comparative trials are required to critically evaluate the role of laparoscopy for this sophisticated and delicate operation.

Abreu, Sidney C.; Gill, Inderbir S.

2003-12-01

313

Ethical and legal issues in the control of drug abuse and drug trafficking: the Nigerian case.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents a general review of drug law and policy in Nigeria beginning with the international attempts to control the traffic in liquor during the pre-colonial and colonial periods. The paper assesses the impact of penal policy on trafficking and use of illicit drugs at different stages in the transformation of Nigeria from a colonial outpost to an independent nation. One persistent feature of drug control mechanisms in Nigeria has been the emphasis on the reduction of supply with the imposition of harsh though inconsistent punishment including, at one time, the death penalty for trafficking. Consequently, initiatives aimed at demand reduction through education, treatment and rehabilitation have been neglected. One reason for this is that, to a great extent, drug control strategy in modern Nigeria has been a response to international demands; another is that they were formulated under military regimes with an overriding concern for law and order. Other features of the Nigerian drug problem are presented and the need for the reform of current laws is stressed. It is argued that an enduring solution lies in the implementation of a comprehensive but clearly defined policy aimed both at the control of supply and reduction of demand. While the state has the duty and the right to protect its citizens from drug-related harm, it is an ethical imperative to institute control measures which do no harm to the citizens they are meant to protect.

Obot IS

1992-08-01

314

Palliative care for the terminally ill in America: the consideration of QALYs, costs, and ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The drive for cost-effective use of medical interventions has advantages, but can also be challenging in the context of end-of-life palliative treatments. A quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) provides a common currency to assess the extent of the benefits gained from a variety of interventions in terms of health-related quality of life and survival for the patient. However, since it is in the nature of end-of-life palliative care that the benefits it brings to its patients are of short duration, it fares poorly under a policy of QALY-maximization. Nevertheless, we argue that the goals of palliative care and QALY are not incompatible, and optimal integration of palliative care into the calculation of QALY may reveal a mechanism to modify considerations of how optimal quality of life can be achieved, even in the face of terminal illness. The use of QALYs in resource allocation means that palliative care will always compete with alternative uses of the same money. More research should be conducted to evaluate choices between palliative care and more aggressive therapies for the terminally ill. However, current limited data show that investing in palliative care makes more sense not only ethically, but also financially. PMID:22071573

Yang, Y Tony; Mahon, Margaret M

2012-11-01

315

Palliative care for the terminally ill in America: the consideration of QALYs, costs, and ethical issues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The drive for cost-effective use of medical interventions has advantages, but can also be challenging in the context of end-of-life palliative treatments. A quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) provides a common currency to assess the extent of the benefits gained from a variety of interventions in terms of health-related quality of life and survival for the patient. However, since it is in the nature of end-of-life palliative care that the benefits it brings to its patients are of short duration, it fares poorly under a policy of QALY-maximization. Nevertheless, we argue that the goals of palliative care and QALY are not incompatible, and optimal integration of palliative care into the calculation of QALY may reveal a mechanism to modify considerations of how optimal quality of life can be achieved, even in the face of terminal illness. The use of QALYs in resource allocation means that palliative care will always compete with alternative uses of the same money. More research should be conducted to evaluate choices between palliative care and more aggressive therapies for the terminally ill. However, current limited data show that investing in palliative care makes more sense not only ethically, but also financially.

Yang YT; Mahon MM

2012-11-01

316

Ethical considerations related to the use of mechanical support in congenital heart disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Heart failure frequently complicates congenital heart disease (CHD) in children and adults. In patients with end-stage disease, mechanical circulatory support may improve survival, quality of life, and serve as bridge to cardiac transplantation. There are many ethical issues surrounding the use of mechanical circulatory support in patients with CHD including the use of prospective and randomized trials, proper oversight of new therapies, and transparency in reporting. Additionally, there are ethical considerations relevant to the greater society as these therapies are highly resource intensive in a resource-limited society. This article will review the burden of disease of heart failure in patients with CHD, the challenges of mechanical circulatory support and heart transplantation, and the ethical considerations and problems that arise for this population.

Rossano JW; Kaufman BD; Rame JE

2013-01-01

317

Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

Colaccino, J.

1996-12-01

318

Issues related to cooperative implementation mechanisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This note by the secretariat seeks to focus discussions on some key issues regarding the design and functioning of the three new mechanisms, such as issues concerning mandates, cross-cutting as well as issues concerning individual mechanisms. The note addresses each mechanism separately in view of different origins, approaches, participants and possible applications. Reference is, however, made to similarities among the mechanisms, in particular where coordination of work on methodological and institutional issues and inter-institutional collaboration are concerned. The note suggests, in its concluding part, elements of a work programme up to and, to some extent, beyond COP 4. It draws upon the views submitted by Parties (document FCCC/SB/1998/MISC.1), contains reflections by the secretariat and builds on its consultations with other organizations having activities, under way or planned, that could contribute to the design or operation of the mechanisms. (au)

1998-01-01

319

An Ethics Primer  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource is a PDF that provides engaging, interactive, and classroom-friendly lesson ideas for integrating ethical issues into a science classroom. It also provides a basic background on ethics as a discipline, with straightforward descriptions of major ethical theories. Several decision-making frameworks are included to help students apply reasoned analysis to ethical issues.

2008-01-01

320

Business ethics in ethics committees?  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Ethics committees" column in this issue of the Hastings Center Report features an introduction by Cynthia B. Cohen and four brief commentaries on the roles hospital ethics committees may play in the making of institutional and public health care policy in the 1990s. The pros and cons of a broader, more public role for ethics committees in reconciling the business and patient care aspects of health care delivery are debated by Cohen in "Ethics committees as corporate and public policy advocates," and by Philip Boyle in this article. Boyle is an associate for ethical studies at The Hastings Center. PMID:2228587

Boyle, P

 
 
 
 
321

Mobile Commerce and Related Mobile Security Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article will discuss how m-commerce conducts transactions of the mobile device through Internet and how these technologies are developed throughout the years. The article will also judge the security and privacy levels when dealing with mobile commerce and what kind of issues are encountered when using mobile commerce systems. The article will also evaluate the solutions on how m-commerce issues are avoided and how they are tackled by the technology evolution

Ashish Wadhaval#1 , Rugved Mehta#2 , Ashlesha Gawade

2013-01-01

322

Issues Raised in Relation to Radioactive Waste Management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nirex has undertaken various consultations with different stakeholders to identify their issues and concerns about radioactive waste management in general and specific aspects of Nirex's work. This paper will outline what dialogue techniques Nirex has undertaken and the issues and concerns that people have raised during the events. It will outline some of the work that Nirex is undertaking to address stakeholders' issues and concerns. Nirex has used a variety of dialogue techniques co-ordinated under the Nirex Involvement Programme to engage with stakeholders about the work we undertake. We are now trying to address the issues, concerns, scenarios and questions raised in our work programme. Key lessons that we have learned in undertaking the dialogues include: The importance of appropriate facilitation and organisation of meetings; The need for a clear purpose for meetings; Being flexible to the needs of the attendees and the issues they raise; Providing feedback to those who participate and following up issues. Through engaging with the public Nirex has learned that: Radioactive waste is not an everyday concern for people; The public can, will and want to engage with the issue of radioactive waste management. This includes engaging with the ethical debate. To facilitate this Nirex and others need to: Provide information in a neutral form outlining the pros and cons and including various people's opinions; Use proactive techniques to allow access and space for people to discuss the issues; Demonstrate how people's opinions have been taken into account. People understand the issues very differently to the way institutions understand them. There is a need for institutions to learn to understand public concerns and the ways in which the public understand issues, as well as for the public to understand the institutional positions better. We are using these insights to develop our future work in this area

2003-01-01

323

Medical Ethics in Radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] According to the recent developments in radiological techniques, the role of radiology in the clinical management of patients is ever increasing and in turn, so is the importance of radiology in patient management. Thus far, there have been few open discussions about medical ethics related to radiology in Korea. Hence, concern about medical ethics as an essential field of radiology should be part of an improved resident training program and patient management. The categories of medical ethics related with radiology are ethics in the radiological management of patient, the relationship of radiologists with other medical professionals or companies, the hazard level of radiation for patients and radiologists, quality assurance of image products and modalities, research ethics, and other ethics issues related to teleradiology and fusion imaging. In order to achieve the goal of respectful progress in radiology as well as minimizing any adverse reaction from other medical professions or society, we should establish a strong basis of medical ethics through the continuous concern and self education

2010-01-01

324

Medical Ethics in Radiology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to the recent developments in radiological techniques, the role of radiology in the clinical management of patients is ever increasing and in turn, so is the importance of radiology in patient management. Thus far, there have been few open discussions about medical ethics related to radiology in Korea. Hence, concern about medical ethics as an essential field of radiology should be part of an improved resident training program and patient management. The categories of medical ethics related with radiology are ethics in the radiological management of patient, the relationship of radiologists with other medical professionals or companies, the hazard level of radiation for patients and radiologists, quality assurance of image products and modalities, research ethics, and other ethics issues related to teleradiology and fusion imaging. In order to achieve the goal of respectful progress in radiology as well as minimizing any adverse reaction from other medical professions or society, we should establish a strong basis of medical ethics through the continuous concern and self education

Kim, Kyung Won; Park, Jae Hyung; Yoon, Soon Ho [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-08-15

325

Highwall mining and related geomechanical issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The three major geomechanical issues, associated with highwall mining (highwall stability, pillar/panel stability and span stability) are described. Studies carried out by CSIRO to improve the understanding of how rocks and coal respond to highwall mining, and so help to improve layout design for better coal recovery with less risk are discussed. 10 refs., 9 figs.

Shen, B.; Fama, M.D. [CSIRO Exploration and Mining, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)

2000-10-01

326

Research on Offshore Service Outsourcing and the Related Issue of Corporate Social Responsibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the trend of economic globalization, offshore service outsourcing is developing rapidly and its related Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) issues emerge as a result. However, so far, the related research findings are limited. This study based on the CSR theory of stakeholders and the special characteristics of international service outsourcing, discusses the related CSR issues such as the unemployment problem of outsourcer country, the unfair employment problem of recipient country, etc. In the end, it proposes some corresponding countermeasures to solve these problems, such as: firms of offshore service outsourcing should refer to the international standards of social responsibility such as UN Global Compact, OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and ISO26000, etc., to establish a proper code of ethics within the organization, consult with the host country’s stakeholders to understand their concerns of CSR issues impacting on their benefits, try best to reduce the related job losses and protect the interests of employees by training and education to improve their skills and strengthen communication channels with the stakeholders like the government, communities, suppliers and employees, etc., so as to increase their awareness of CSR issues and take measures to resolve these issues. And the administrative authority of the government should play an import role in the creation of a capable or proficient supervision on the CSR issue of offshore service outsourcing, etc.

Zhu Wenzhong

2013-01-01

327

Relations between Corporate Social Responsibility and Engineering Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental responsibility of corporations has been changed drastically in the last 20 years. In 1980s, pollution prevention was the main mandate for corporations and in 1990s global scale environmental issues such as global warming must be also considered by at least industries. In the year of 2000, United Nations decided to make a challenge towards sustainability of human activities on the Earth, and since then, every corporation must take this concept into account when policy for its own business is described. Within this framework, some companies have succeeded to be evaluated as “environmental conscious companies” and enjoyed success also in their business. The reality of sustainability is very complex and any company must consider rather long future, say more than 30 years, in the strategy of its operation. All engineers should watch the direction and the norm carefully, which their own company is now aiming at, with enough knowledge regarding the trend of total human activities in relation to the limitation of the Earth.

Yasui, Itaru

328

Ethical issues in selecting patients for treatment with clozapine: a commentary.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three ethical constructs of distributive justice--utilitarianism, Marxism, and the theories of John Rawls--are applied to selection of patients for treatment with clozapine. Elements of an ethical selection process include a means of monitoring the clinical effectiveness of the drug so that it is not wasted and procedures for ensuring that patients' rights to advocacy and due process are met. The authors suggest that a disproportionate number of patients with tardive dyskinesia may receive clozapine because clinicians and hospitals risk litigation if these patients continue to receive standard neuroleptics and experience worsening side effects.

Eichelman B; Hartwig A

1990-08-01

329

Ethical issues in selecting patients for treatment with clozapine: a commentary.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three ethical constructs of distributive justice--utilitarianism, Marxism, and the theories of John Rawls--are applied to selection of patients for treatment with clozapine. Elements of an ethical selection process include a means of monitoring the clinical effectiveness of the drug so that it is not wasted and procedures for ensuring that patients' rights to advocacy and due process are met. The authors suggest that a disproportionate number of patients with tardive dyskinesia may receive clozapine because clinicians and hospitals risk litigation if these patients continue to receive standard neuroleptics and experience worsening side effects. PMID:2401477

Eichelman, B; Hartwig, A

1990-08-01

330

The ethical issues in uranium mining research in the Navajo Nation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We explore the experience of Navajo communities living under the shadow of nuclear age fallout who were subjects of five decades of research. In this historical analysis of public health (epidemiological) research conducted in the Navajo lands since the inception of uranium mining from the 1950s untill the end of the 20th century, we analyze the successes and failures in the research initiatives conducted on Navajo lands, the ethical breaches, and the harms and benefits that this research has brought about to the community. We discuss how scientific and moral uncertainty, lack of full stakeholder participation and community wide outreach and education can impact ethical decisions made in research. PMID:17844786

Panikkar, Bindu; Brugge, Doug

331

The ethical issues in uranium mining research in the Navajo Nation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We explore the experience of Navajo communities living under the shadow of nuclear age fallout who were subjects of five decades of research. In this historical analysis of public health (epidemiological) research conducted in the Navajo lands since the inception of uranium mining from the 1950s untill the end of the 20th century, we analyze the successes and failures in the research initiatives conducted on Navajo lands, the ethical breaches, and the harms and benefits that this research has brought about to the community. We discuss how scientific and moral uncertainty, lack of full stakeholder participation and community wide outreach and education can impact ethical decisions made in research.

Panikkar B; Brugge D

2007-04-01

332

[Ethics in clinical psychiatry  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although the significant influence of American bioethics on the Japanese medicine and medical education it does not mention however sufficiently on the psychiatric ethics, so we have to discuss once more what ethical issues stand in the area of clinical psychiatry. In this paper we point out the issues on freedom or restraint of patients, ability of working, psychotherapeutic ethics, informed consent and on using of psychotropic drugs, and comment upon the historical origin of these issues. Disregarding these special issues however, we will mention also the question what is fundamentally ethical in clinical psychiatry. This question relates very nearly with the opposition of materialism and spiritualism in the whole history of psychiatry, so we have to review how these oppositions such as body vs. soul, organic vs. psychogenic, biological vs. psychoanalytical, are treated in the history. As a result of the history it can be expressed that it may cause unethical occurrences if one extremely represents materialism or spiritualism, or reversely the holistic position of both of them to integrate and dissolve the contradiction of these alternative relations. Ethical is, rather, to stay in the middle or transitional area between materialism and spiritualism, and to retain this position always in our fundamental clinical attitude, even if it is very hard and stressful, for it demands to be tolerant of severe ambiguity.

2005-01-01

333

Sustainable issues related to heap leaching operations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english One of the earliest records of metal recovery by solution leaching is described by Agricola as 'juice of rock' in the 1550s. In these early years of hydrometallurgy and civil engineering, few controls and systems were employed to enhance recovery and protect the environment. Since that time, leaching (dump or heap) operations have made significant strides in increasing metal and solution recovery while protecting the environment, all goals of a sustainable operation. It i (more) s now recognized that the design and operation of modern heap leach facilities requires contributions from many fields of study, including hydrometallurgy, civil engineering, geotechnical engineering, unsaturated-flow hydrology, mine planning, geosynthetics engineering, geochemistry, process engineering, mechanical engineering, and electrical engineering. While advancements in these fields have resulted in more sustainable heap leach operations, challenges in the industry still exist. A number of heap leach operations exhibit poor or lower-than-predicted metal recovery, loss of solution flow and control within the ore heap, loss of ore heap stability under leach, failure of liner and/or solution recovery systems, and overtopping of process water ponds. A number of these issues may be the result of several compounding conditions. For example, poor metal recovery may be due to an inadequate scale-up assumption (scaling laboratory tests to field-size heaps), lack of control of the in-heap geochemical environment, changes in ore mineralogy from the original design, changes in mechanical and hydraulic properties of the ore from the original design, ore handling and pre-treatment, inadequate solution management system, and inadequate solution application. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss issues that may affect the sustainability of a heap leach operation. Since sustainability encompasses a broad range of topics and issues, the focus of this paper will be on issues affecting metal and solution recovery, solution flow and containment, and stability of the ore heap.

Lupo, J.F.

2012-01-01

334

Technical findings related to Generic Issue 79  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the technical basis for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) resolution of Generic Safety Issue 79, ''Unanalyzed Reactor Vessel (PWR) Thermal Stress During Natural Convection Cooldown.'' Included are discussions of pertinent technical background information, the historical development of the issue, the approach of the NRC staff and its contractor to the resolution, and the NRC staff technical conclusions with their supporting bases. The B ampersand W Owners Group (BWOG) prepared a detailed analysis of its 177-fuel-assembly reactor vessel under natural convection cooldown conditions. This report was reviewed by the NRC staff and its contractor, and conservative independent confirmatory stress analyses were performed by the NRC contractor in selected areas. To complete the review, an independent fracture mechanics evaluation was performed by the NRC staff. This report presents the NRC's review and evaluation of the BWOG report and the NRC's conclusion that the BWOG document, supported by the additional conservative independent analyses discussed above, provides an adequate basis for the resolution of the issue. 8 refs., 3 figs

1991-01-01

335

Genetic Testing and Its Implications: Human Genetics Researchers Grapple with Ethical Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contributes systematic data on the attitudes of scientific experts who engage in human genetics research about the pros, cons, and ethical implications of genetic testing. Finds that they are highly supportive of voluntary testing and the right to know one's genetic heritage. Calls for greater genetic literacy. (Contains 87 references.) (Author/NB)

Rabino, Isaac

2003-01-01

336

Testicular tissue cryopreservation in boys. Ethical and legal issues: case report.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sperm preservation prior to chemotherapy and radiotherapy is common practice in adult males. Spermatozoa are usually retrieved from an ejaculated sample although there are occasions when testicular tissue is used as the source. These techniques of sperm preservation present minimal ethical objection...

Bahadur, G; Chatterjee, R; Ralph, D

337

DNA banking and DNA databanking: Legal, ethical, and public policy issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this research was to provide support to enable the authors to: (1) perform legal and empirical research and critically analyze DNA banking and DNA databanking as those activities are conducted by state forensic laboratories, the military, academic researchers, and commercial enterprises; and (2) develop a broadcast quality educational videotape for viewing by the general public about DNA technology and the privacy and related issues that it raises. The grant thus had both a research and analysis component and a public education component. This report outlines the work completed under the project.

Reilly, P.R.; McEwen, J.E.; Lawyer, J.D.; Small, D.

1997-04-30

338

Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Now that public attention has grown increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, the commercial use of biomass could greatly accelerate. Renewable feedstocks like biomass can provide better environmentally balanced sources of energy and other nonfood products than fossil fuels. The future of biomass is uncertain, however, because public attention focuses on both its potential and its challenges. This paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 and 4 catalog the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large-scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups: wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier: gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 provides a conclusion and summary.

Hughes, M. [Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy; Ranney, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-12-31

339

Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With public attention increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, there is enormous potential for the commercial use of biomass to accelerate. Renewable feedstocks such as biomass can provide more environmentally balanced sources of energy and other non-food products than fossil fuels. Biomass utilization is in a precarious position, however, with public attention increasingly focused on both its potential and the strength of the challenges it faces. The paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 through 4 catalogue the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups; wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier; gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 is devoted to a conclusion and summary

1993-09-02

340

Ethical and scientific issues of nanotechnology in the workplace Questões éticas e científicas sobre locais de trabalho com nanotecnologia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the absence of scientific clarity about the potential health effects of occupational exposure to nanoparticles, a need exists for guidance in decisionmaking about hazards, risks, and controls. An identification of the ethical issues involved may be useful to decision makers, particularly employers, workers, investors, and health authorities. Because the goal of occupational safety and health is the prevention of disease in workers, the situations that have ethical implications that most affect workers have been identified. These situations include the a) identification and communication of hazards and risks by scientists, authorities, and employers; b) workers' acceptance of risk; c) selection and implementation of controls; d) establishment of medical screening programs; and e) investment in toxicologic and control research. The ethical issues involve the unbiased determination of hazards and risks, nonmaleficence (doing no harm), autonomy, justice, privacy, and promoting respect for persons. As the ethical issues are identified and explored, options for decision makers can be developed. Additionally, societal deliberations about workplace risks of nanotechnologies may be enhanced by special emphasis on small businesses and adoption of a global perspective.Na ausência de evidência quanto a potenciais efeitos da exposição a nanopartículas sobre a saúde ocupacional, existe necessidade de orientação para os gestores a respeito dos riscos, perigos e dos possíveis controles. A identificação de questões éticas envolvidas é útil, particularmente para empregadores, empregados, investidores e autoridades de saúde, uma vez que o sentido e a meta da segurança ocupacional e de saúde é a prevenção de doenças para os trabalhadores. Essa situação inclui: (a) identificação e comunicação de riscos por cientistas, autoridades e empregadores; (b) aceitação dos riscos por parte dos trabalhadores; (c) seleção e implementação de controles; (d) estabelecimento de programas de detecção precoce; e (e) investimento em toxicologia e pesquisas de vigilância. A questão ética envolve determinação imparcial de riscos, não maleficência, autonomia, justiça, privacidade e promoção do respeito às pessoas. Identificadas e exploradas as questões éticas, várias opções se abrem ao gestor. Adicionalmente, deliberações societais acerca dos riscos no local de trabalho com nanotecnologia podem fundamentar a escolha por pequenos negócios dentro de uma perspectiva global.

Paul A. Schulte; Fabio Salamanca-Buentello

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

A Social Audit Model for Agro-biotechnology Initiatives in Developing Countries: Accounting for Ethical, Social, Cultural, and Commercialization Issues A Social Audit Model for Agro-biotechnology Initiatives in Developing Countries: Accounting for Ethical, Social, Cultural, and Commercialization Issues A Social Audit Model for Agro-biotechnology Initiatives in Developing Countries: Accounting for Ethical, Social, Cultural, and Commercialization Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is skepticism and resistance to innovations associated with agro-biotechnology projects, leading to the possibility of failure. The source of the skepticism is complex, but partly traceable to how local communities view genetically engineered crops, public perception on the technology’s implications, and views on the role of the private sector in public health and agriculture, especially in the developing world. We posit that a governance and management model in which ethical, social, cultural, and commercialization issues are accounted for and addressed is important in mitigating risk of project failure and improving the appropriate adoption of agro-biotechnology in sub-Saharan Africa. We introduce a social audit model, which we term Ethical, Social, Cultural and Commercialization (ESC2) auditing and which we developed based on feedback from a number of stakeholders. We lay the foundation for its importance in agro-biotechnology development projects and show how the model can be applied to projects run by Public Private Partnerships. We argue that the implementation of the audit model can help to build public trust through facilitating project accountability and transparency. The model also provides evidence on how ESC2 issues are perceived by various stakeholders, which enables project managers to effectively monitor and improve project performance. Although this model was specifically designed for agro-biotechnology initiatives, we show how it can also be applied to other development projects. There is skepticism and resistance to innovations associated with agro-biotechnology projects, leading to the possibility of failure. The source of the skepticism is complex, but partly traceable to how local communities view genetically engineered crops, public perception on the technology’s implications, and views on the role of the private sector in public health and agriculture, especially in the developing world. We posit that a governance and management model in which ethical, social, cultural, and commercialization issues are accounted for and addressed is important in mitigating risk of project failure and improving the appropriate adoption of agro-biotechnology in sub-Saharan Africa. We introduce a social audit model, which we term Ethical, Social, Cultural and Commercialization (ESC2) auditing and which we developed based on feedback from a number of stakeholders. We lay the foundation for its importance in agro-biotechnology development projects and show how the model can be applied to projects run by Public Private Partnerships. We argue that the implementation of the audit model can help to build public trust through facilitating project accountability and transparency. The model also provides evidence on how ESC2 issues are perceived by various stakeholders, which enables project managers to effectively monitor and improve project performance. Although this model was specifically designed for agro-biotechnology initiatives, we show how it can also be applied to other development projects. There is skepticism and resistance to innovations associated with agro-biotechnology projects, leading to the possibility of failure. The source of the skepticism is complex, but partly traceable to how local communities view genetically engineered crops, public perception on the technology’s implications, and views on the role of the private sector in public health and agriculture, especially in the developing world. We posit that a governance and management model in which ethical, social, cultural, and commercialization issues are accounted for and addressed is important in mitigating risk of project failure and improving the appropriate adoption of agro-biotechnology in sub-Saharan Africa. We introduce a social audit model, which we term Ethical, Social, Cultural and Commercialization (ESC2) auditing and which we developed based on feedback from a number of stakeholders. We lay the foundation for its importance in agro-biotechnology development projects and show how the model can be applied to pr

Obidimma Ezezika; Fiona Thomas; Abdallah Daar; Peter Singer

2009-01-01

342

A Social Audit Model for Agro-biotechnology Initiatives in Developing Countries: Accounting for Ethical, Social, Cultural, and Commercialization Issues  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english There is skepticism and resistance to innovations associated with agro-biotechnology projects in the developing world, leading to the possibility of failure. The source of the skepticism is complex, but partly traceable to how local communities view genetically engineered crops, public perception on the technology's implications, and views on the role of the private sector in public health and agriculture, especially in the developing world. We posit that a governance and (more) management model in which ethical, social, cultural, and commercialization issues are accounted for and addressed is important in mitigating the risk of project failure and improving the appropriate adoption of agro-biotechnology in sub-Saharan Africa. We introduce a social audit model, which we term Ethical, Social, Cultural and Commercialization (ESC² ) auditing, and that we developed based on feedback from a number of stakeholders. We lay the foundation for its importance in agro-biotechnology development projects and show how the model can be applied to projects run by Public Private Partnerships. We argue that the implementation of the audit model can help build public trust through facilitating project accountability and transparency. The model also provides evidence on how ESC² issues are perceived by various stakeholders, which enables project managers to effectively monitor and improve project performance. Although this model was specifically designed for agro-biotechnology initiatives, we show how it can also be applied to other development projects.

Ezezika, Obidimma; Thomas, Fiona; Lavery, Jim; Daar, Abdallah; Singer, Peter

2009-10-01

343

A Social Audit Model for Agro-biotechnology Initiatives in Developing Countries: Accounting for Ethical, Social, Cultural, and Commercialization Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is skepticism and resistance to innovations associated with agro-biotechnology projects, leading to the possibility of failure. The source of the skepticism is complex, but partly traceable to how local communities view genetically engineered crops, public perception on the technology’s implications, and views on the role of the private sector in public health and agriculture, especially in the developing world. We posit that a governance and management model in which ethical, social, cultural, and commercialization issues are accounted for and addressed is important in mitigating risk of project failure and improving the appropriate adoption of agro-biotechnology in sub-Saharan Africa. We introduce a social audit model, which we term Ethical, Social, Cultural and Commercialization (ESC2) auditing and which we developed based on feedback from a number of stakeholders. We lay the foundation for its importance in agro-biotechnology development projects and show how the model can be applied to projects run by Public Private Partnerships. We argue that the implementation of the audit model can help to build public trust through facilitating project accountability and transparency. The model also provides evidence on how ESC2 issues are perceived by various stakeholders, which enables project managers to effectively monitor and improve project performance. Although this model was specifically designed for agro-biotechnology initiatives, we show how it can also be applied to other development projects.

Obidimma Ezezika; Fiona Thomas; Abdallah Daar; Peter Singer

2009-01-01

344

One health: perspectives on ethical issues and evidence from animal experiments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Zoonoses constitute more than 60% of all known infectious diseases and 75% of emerging infectious diseases. Their impact is not monitored, prevented and treated in an integrated way. The efficacy of therapeutic interventions for zoonotic diseases is deemed to be comparable across species with scientifically valid results originating from a range of animal experiments. Ethical obligations limit the number of animals used in experiments as well as reduce repetition of studies. The evidence based on randomized controlled trails and systematic reviews for the effectiveness of health care interventions is often inconclusive. Subjecting human volunteers to risk in the absence of scientifically valid results from animal experiments is unethical. The One Health concept is a comparative, clinical approach directed towards zoonoses which present challenges to research workers and clinicians. Optimal health for all--One Health--should be underpinned by ethically conducted research in animals or humans and the results should be complementary to both.

Asokan GV; Fedorowicz Z; Tharyan P; Vanitha A

2012-11-01

345

One health: perspectives on ethical issues and evidence from animal experiments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zoonoses constitute more than 60% of all known infectious diseases and 75% of emerging infectious diseases. Their impact is not monitored, prevented and treated in an integrated way. The efficacy of therapeutic interventions for zoonotic diseases is deemed to be comparable across species with scientifically valid results originating from a range of animal experiments. Ethical obligations limit the number of animals used in experiments as well as reduce repetition of studies. The evidence based on randomized controlled trails and systematic reviews for the effectiveness of health care interventions is often inconclusive. Subjecting human volunteers to risk in the absence of scientifically valid results from animal experiments is unethical. The One Health concept is a comparative, clinical approach directed towards zoonoses which present challenges to research workers and clinicians. Optimal health for all--One Health--should be underpinned by ethically conducted research in animals or humans and the results should be complementary to both. PMID:23301381

Asokan, G V; Fedorowicz, Z; Tharyan, P; Vanitha, A

2012-11-01

346

Ethical issues in implementation research: a discussion of the problems in achieving informed consent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved quality of care is a policy objective of health care systems around the world. Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice, and hence to reduce inappropriate care. It includes the study of influences on healthcare professionals' behaviour and methods to enable them to use research findings more effectively. Cluster randomized trials represent the optimal design for evaluating the effectiveness of implementation strategies. Various codes of medical ethics, such as the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki inform medical research, but their relevance to cluster randomised trials in implementation research is unclear. This paper discusses the applicability of various ethical codes to obtaining consent in cluster trials in implementation research. Discussion The appropriate application of biomedical codes to implementation research is not obvious. Discussion of the nature and practice of informed consent in implementation research cluster trials must consider the levels at which consent can be sought, and for what purpose it can be sought. The level at which an intervention is delivered can render the idea of patient level consent meaningless. Careful consideration of the ownership of information, and rights of access to and exploitation of data is required. For health care professionals and organizations, there is a balance between clinical freedom and responsibility to participate in research. Summary While ethical justification for clinical trials relies heavily on individual consent, for implementation research aspects of distributive justice, economics, and political philosophy underlie the debate. Societies may need to trade off decisions on the choice between individualized consent and valid implementation research. We suggest that social sciences codes could usefully inform the consideration of implementation research by members of Research Ethics Committees.

Hutton Jane L; Eccles Martin P; Grimshaw Jeremy M

2008-01-01

347

Legal, Ethical & Social Issues in the case of an Intrusive Remote Monitoring Software  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 2008, a laptop was stolen from a high school student in the USA. The laptop was being monitored by remote recovery software. The thief sold the laptop in question to another student who in turn sold it to a teacher. The software continued to monitor the private daily life of this teacher. This paper provides an overview of the resultant lawsuit. We examine the ethical, privacy and legal dilemmas highlighted by this case.

Shaun McBrearty; Nigel McKelvey; Kevin Curran

2012-01-01

348

Technical report: Ethical and policy issues in genetic testing and screening of children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genetic testing and genetic screening of children are commonplace. Decisions about whether to offer genetic testing and screening should be driven by the best interest of the child. The growing literature on the psychosocial and clinical effects of such testing and screening can help inform best practices. This technical report provides ethical justification and empirical data in support of the proposed policy recommendations regarding such practices in a myriad of settings. PMID:23429433

Ross, Lainie Friedman; Ross, Laine Friedman; Saal, Howard M; David, Karen L; Anderson, Rebecca R

2013-02-21

349

Ethics (lesson)  

Science.gov (United States)

Students examine some examples of ethical issues that have resulted from our expanded knowledge of neuroscience. They are asked to write a position paper describing their own point of view on one of these controversial topics.

2009-04-14

350

Reflexões éticas acerca dos estudos de soroprevelência de hepatites virais/ Ethical issues about seroprevalence studies on viral hepatitis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A aplicação de novas tecnologias em pesquisas epidemiológicas sobre hepatites virais (HV) exige discussões éticas sobre inquéritos domiciliares de soroprevalência (IDS), estudos sentinelas (ES) e de registros de bancos de sangue (ERBS) e amostras de sorotecas (EAS). MÉTODOS: Discutem-se fatores de força (FF) e fragilidade (FR) destas abordagens, argumentos/justificativas para sua utilização e alternativas, segundo os princípios éticos da Resolu? (more) ?ão CNS nº 196/96. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: As pesquisas sobre HV justificam-se por sua magnitude, gravidade, vulnerabilidade e necessidade de subsidiar protocolos diagnósticos/terapêuticos e estratégias de prevenção/controle. Em relação aos IDS, discutimos quanto a FF: autonomia do sujeito; representatividade amostral adequada; e FR: custo maior que benefícios; possibilidade de obter a informação por outros meios. Para os ES, FF: monitoramento das HV com custo operacional inferior ao dos IDS; ausência de danos adicionais ao sujeito; e FR: limitação relativa de representatividade. Para os ERBS, FF: monitoramento do VHB/VHC em doadores de sangue com baixo custo, sem risco adicional; e FR: limitação de representatividade. Quanto aos EAS, FF: preponderância de benefícios sobre riscos/custos; possibilidade de desvendar agravos desconhecidos e de oferecer diagnóstico precoce e tratamento; FR: material biológico e dados de uma pesquisa podem ser utilizados em outras. CONCLUSÃO: Estas discussões contribuem para embasar processos éticos, orientar a escolha do tipo de estudo epidemiológico e construir novos conceitos sobre estes temas. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies on viral hepatitis (VH) using new technologies raise ethical issues especially concerning community-based studies on seroprevalence (CSS), sentinel surveillance-based studies (SBS) the use of blood-bank registers (BBR) and serum stocks (SS). METHODS: Positive (PA) and negative (NA) aspects of these different designs are discussed, pointing to alternatives, according to Resolution CNS nº 196/96. RESULTS: Priority for research is justifi (more) ed by VH magnitude, severity, and vulnerability, and need for development of diagnosis/therapy protocols and prevention/control strategies. With respect to CSS, PA was identified as: subject autonomy; adequate samples and as NA: costs override benefits, and availability of information from other sources. In relation to SBS, PA are: VH monitoring has lower operational costs than CSS; absence of additional injuries to subject; while NA is: relative restriction of representativeness. For BBR, PA is: the low cost of monitoring of HBV/HCV in blood donors and with no additional risk. PA has limited representativeness. SS studies present as PA: benefits higher than risks/costs; possibility of identification of new morbidity and offering of adequate diagnosis and treatment. NA is: biological material and research data can be used for other researches. CONCLUSION: The choice of study designs must take into account arguments for ethical investigation and consensus on the use of new technology.

Gaze, Rosangela; Carvalho, Diana Maul de; Yoshida, Clara Fumiko Tachibana; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel

2006-06-01

351

Reflexões éticas acerca dos estudos de soroprevelência de hepatites virais Ethical issues about seroprevalence studies on viral hepatitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A aplicação de novas tecnologias em pesquisas epidemiológicas sobre hepatites virais (HV) exige discussões éticas sobre inquéritos domiciliares de soroprevalência (IDS), estudos sentinelas (ES) e de registros de bancos de sangue (ERBS) e amostras de sorotecas (EAS). MÉTODOS: Discutem-se fatores de força (FF) e fragilidade (FR) destas abordagens, argumentos/justificativas para sua utilização e alternativas, segundo os princípios éticos da Resolução CNS nº 196/96. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: As pesquisas sobre HV justificam-se por sua magnitude, gravidade, vulnerabilidade e necessidade de subsidiar protocolos diagnósticos/terapêuticos e estratégias de prevenção/controle. Em relação aos IDS, discutimos quanto a FF: autonomia do sujeito; representatividade amostral adequada; e FR: custo maior que benefícios; possibilidade de obter a informação por outros meios. Para os ES, FF: monitoramento das HV com custo operacional inferior ao dos IDS; ausência de danos adicionais ao sujeito; e FR: limitação relativa de representatividade. Para os ERBS, FF: monitoramento do VHB/VHC em doadores de sangue com baixo custo, sem risco adicional; e FR: limitação de representatividade. Quanto aos EAS, FF: preponderância de benefícios sobre riscos/custos; possibilidade de desvendar agravos desconhecidos e de oferecer diagnóstico precoce e tratamento; FR: material biológico e dados de uma pesquisa podem ser utilizados em outras. CONCLUSÃO: Estas discussões contribuem para embasar processos éticos, orientar a escolha do tipo de estudo epidemiológico e construir novos conceitos sobre estes temas.BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies on viral hepatitis (VH) using new technologies raise ethical issues especially concerning community-based studies on seroprevalence (CSS), sentinel surveillance-based studies (SBS) the use of blood-bank registers (BBR) and serum stocks (SS). METHODS: Positive (PA) and negative (NA) aspects of these different designs are discussed, pointing to alternatives, according to Resolution CNS nº 196/96. RESULTS: Priority for research is justified by VH magnitude, severity, and vulnerability, and need for development of diagnosis/therapy protocols and prevention/control strategies. With respect to CSS, PA was identified as: subject autonomy; adequate samples and as NA: costs override benefits, and availability of information from other sources. In relation to SBS, PA are: VH monitoring has lower operational costs than CSS; absence of additional injuries to subject; while NA is: relative restriction of representativeness. For BBR, PA is: the low cost of monitoring of HBV/HCV in blood donors and with no additional risk. PA has limited representativeness. SS studies present as PA: benefits higher than risks/costs; possibility of identification of new morbidity and offering of adequate diagnosis and treatment. NA is: biological material and research data can be used for other researches. CONCLUSION: The choice of study designs must take into account arguments for ethical investigation and consensus on the use of new technology.

Rosangela Gaze; Diana Maul de Carvalho; Clara Fumiko Tachibana Yoshida; Luiz Fernando Rangel Tura

2006-01-01

352

Research Ethics I: Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR)--Historical and Contemporary Issues Pertaining to Human and Animal Experimentation  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: In this series of articles--"Research Ethics I", "Research Ethics II", and "Research Ethics III"--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. In "Research Ethics I", they present a historical overview of the evolution of…

Horner, Jennifer; Minifie, Fred D.

2011-01-01

353

76 FR 63573 - Roundtable on Issues Relating to Conflict Minerals  

Science.gov (United States)

...S7-40-10] Roundtable on Issues Relating to Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange...relates to reporting requirements regarding conflict minerals originating in the Democratic...reporting regulations regarding the use of conflict minerals from the Democratic...

2011-10-13

354

Ethical decision-making in forensic psychology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive process for identifying and addressing primarily ethical issues related to the psychology profession in South Africa. In fulfilling this purpose, research was conducted of relevant ethical and to a lesser extent, legal aspects pertaining to t...

M. Swanepoel

355

Review: Will van den Hoonaard (Hrsg.) (2002). Walking the Tightrope: Ethical Issues for Qualitative Researchers Review: Will van den Hoonaard (Ed.) (2002). Walking the Tightrope: Ethical Issues for Qualitative Researchers Reseña: Will van den Hoonaard (Ed.) (2002). Walking the Tightrope: Ethical Issues for Qualitative Researchers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ausgangspunkt dieser Veröffentlichung bildeten Tagungsbeiträge und einige andere Texte vor allem nordamerikanischer Sozialwissenschaftler(innen), die in insgesamt 13 Kapiteln die Spannungen dokumentieren, die mit der Programmatik und Praxis angewandter Forschungsethik im Rahmen qualitativer Forschung einhergehen. Behandelt werden u.a. die Unterscheidung von Ethik und Moral, der Umgang mit Ethik-Kommissionen, Ethik im Forschungsprozess, Trends im Umgang mit Ethik in der Forschung, ethische Fragen bei der Antragstellung usw. Obwohl überwiegend nordamerikanische Beitragende (d.h. aus Kanada und den USA), können deren Erfahrungen auch für Forschende anderer Nationalitäten interessant sein; eine Herausforderung bleibt in diesem Zusammenhang allerdings, dass wesentliche (kontinental-) europäische Perspektiven nicht hinreichend berücksichtigt wurden. Gleichwohl werden ethische Fragen auf einem vergleichsweise anspruchsvollen Niveau behandelt. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs040214This publication basically represents a collection of former conference papers and some other contributions mainly by North American social scientists on the dilemmas that qualitative researchers encounter when they submit research applications to research ethics committees. Collectively, the contributions demonstrate the tensions that exist in the policy and practice of applied research ethics in qualitative research. Thirteen chapters are included in this volume. They focus on the themes of: differentiating between ethics and morality; dealing with ethics committees and policies; research processes; research ethics trends; and, ethical issues when submitting research applications. The emphasis is on research policy in a North American context (Canada and the United States), but can be relevant for qualitative researchers in other parts of the world. One challenge to this context is that it does not capture the essence of some European perspectives, especially those from Continental Europe. However, it does raise the issue of ethics in qualitative research to a high level. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs040214Esta publicación representa principalmente un conjunto de ponencias y otras contribuciones principalmente de científicos sociales de Norte América acerca de dilemas que los investigadores cualitativos encuentran cuando envían sus proyectos de investigación a los comités de ética. En conjunto, los artículos muestran las tensiones que existen que existen en la política y la práctica de la ética de la investigación aplicada en la investigación cualitativa. Trece capítulos forman el volumen. Se enfocan en temas como: diferenciación entre ética y moralidad, lidiar con comités de ética y políticas, procesos de investigación, tendencias en investigación de ética, y temas éticos al enviar aplicaciones de investigación. El énfasis es en políticas de investigación en el contexto de Norte América (Canadá y USA), aunque puede ser relevante para para investigadores cualitativos de otras partes del mundo. Un desafío para este contexto es que no se capture la esencia de algunas perspectivas europeas. Sin embargo, esto hace emerger al tema de la ética en la investigación cualitativa en un alto nivel. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs040214

Rod Gerber

2004-01-01

356

Process related contaminations causing climatic reliability issues  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Some level of solder flux residue is inevitably found on electronics no matter whether the Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) manufacturing is carried out by hand, wave or reflow soldering process. The current use of no-clean flux systems should in principle only leave benign surface contaminants during the wave and re-flow soldering process; however variation in temperature on the PCBA surface during soldering can result in considerable amounts of active residues being left locally. Typical no-clean flux systems used today consist of weak organic acids (WOA) and active residues left on a PCBA are a potential climatic reliability risk for electronic devices. Reflow soldering is the process employed for PCBAs with surface mount components. No-clean flux is applied in a solder paste via a stencil followed by placing of components and PCBA passage through a soldering oven. Although a reflow soldering process leaves lower amounts of flux residue than a wave solder process, the morphology of the flux residue from re-flow is also different. Re-flow flux residue on the PCBAs is concealed initially due to the presence of a binder and resin part of the flux, therefore WOAs are not immediately released. Nevertheless, upon exposure to high humidity for prolonged intervals our results show that an opening of the flux residues will release WOAs and thus promote leakage current issues and corrosion processes on the PCBA surface. This paper summarizes our investigations of the release of WOAs from reflow solder paste (malic, adipic, succinic, and glutaric acid) and its effects on leakage current and corrosion of Sn and Cu. Leakage current due to flux residue was investigated using a localized cleanliness test system C3 (Foresite Inc., USA). The system extracts residue contaminants to a vial using steam purging to a localized area. Leakage current through the extracted solution is measured using a standard dual copper electrode pattern. Corrosion behavior of Sn and Cu are investigated using polarization experiments using a novel localized cell with solutions of malic, adipic, succinic or glutaric acid. Local release of WOAs on the PCBA from the flux residue was analyzed using a gel method with pH indicator. Extracted solution from re-flow solder flux residue can be chemically analyzed using ion chromatography (IC). Morphology of solder paste after exposure to humidity was analyzed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results revealed significant effect of flux residues and WOA on the corrosion at concentration levels usually found on PCBA surface.

Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Dutta, Mondira

2012-01-01

357

Ethics and Validity Stance in Educational Assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Assessment is a powerful tool which can shape curriculum, teaching and learning. One of the major topics which has been the focus of so much debate among the scholars is the concept of ethics in educational assessment systems. The purpose of this paper is to touch upon the issue of ethics in language assessment from validity perspectives. To ensure effective planning, implementation, and evaluation of learning, certain principles and guidelines for beliefs and behaviors are adopted. These principles and guidelines are identified as ethical standards. The central question to be addressed here is whether any test can be defended as ethical, or moral. This study also examines professional ethics, specifically ethical principles as they relate to educational assessment. And finally, some suggestions and guidelines will be offered for applying ethics in educational assessment to maximize validity and fair application of language test scores.

Masoomeh Estaji

2011-01-01

358

Guidelines for conducting ethical research in psychosocial issues in palliative care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While it is unethical to introduce services for the terminally ill and their families that are not well founded or evaluated there are special problems in research conducted with this population. This has deterred some from carrying out research in this field and has caused others to place obstacles in the way of would-be researchers. This paper describes the ethical difficulties and provides guidelines that should enable worthwhile research to be carried out without harm to those who offer their help and without vitiating the scientific value of the research.

Parkes Colin

2006-01-01

359

The communication of science as an ethical issue: the case of Raffaele Bendandi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a ever more connected world, whether justified or not, the possibility that scientific information can be used to produce generalized behaviors by populations results in the need to better understand the processes of science communication. Consequently, it raises serious questions about the ethical message of the communication itself, and the way in which scientists can interface with people with no scientific training. This article analyses the case of the supposed prediction of the well-known geophysicist Raffaele Bendandi and the earthquake of Rome predicted for May 2011 that never happened.

Teodoro Georgiadis; Paola Pescerelli Lagorio

2012-01-01

360

Legal and medical aspects of the ethics committee’s work relating to abortion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyses the legal and medical aspects of the work of ethics committees on abortion. According to the legislation of the Republic of Serbia, these committees are competent to determine justifiable terms for abortion after the twentieth week of the fetus. It is well known that abortion is not only a medical but a legal, ethic, social and demographic problem as well. A liberal solution in view of abortion in the first trimester has been accepted in most European countries, as by the legislature of the Republic of Serbia. Since prenatal diagnosis cannot always determine the fetus state with certainty but at times may do so at a later stage, abortion is then required when the child is already capable of extrauterine life. The necessity for performing abortion in the third trimester is thus a result of good knowledge of techno-medicine but also from the limited information it provides. In such situations, the physician needs confirmation and justification of his standpoint with respect to abortion through a legal formulation which should contain "minimum moral". Society has found a way to protect and help him through moral and ethic forms of prevention without anybody’s emotions being affected. Ethics committees should thus help the physician in view of determining the terms for performing late abortion, since the rules of doctor’s ethics are not sufficient in this case. The article especially analyses the work of the Ethics Committee of the Clinical Center in Kragujevac in the period 2000-2010. It is stated that the largest number of cases referred to determined diseases or fetus anomalies while only a negligible number (11.29%) to the illness of the mother. There were no requests for abortions due to legal reasons (pregnancies from criminal offences). A significant number (40.28%) of requests submitted to the Ethics Committee related to pregnancies under the 24th week of pregnancy. Since a pregnancy of 24 weeks represents a boundary line between a miscarriage and preterm birth, the paper proposes a shift in the boundary line of pregnancies which must be terminated according to the Ethics committee, from 20 weeks of gestation to 24 weeks of gestation. At the same time, the requirement for narrowing legal conditions for abortion in later phases of pregnancies is pointed out as well as abolition of legal indications.

Ponjavi? Zoran; Varja?i? Mirjana

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Ethical issues in umbilical cord blood banking: a comparative analysis of documents from national and international institutions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The issues of collection, storage, and use of cord blood (CB) stem cells have been addressed extensively in national and international guidelines, policies, and regulations. Many of these documents are not binding, but are nonetheless accorded considerable respect on account of the authority of the issuing organizations. Most discussion has to date focused on two topics: informed consent for collection, banking, and use and the debate between those who favor public storage for altruistic purposes and those who advocate private storage for autologous use. There is generally agreement or consensus in the guidelines that public storage for allogeneic transplants is preferable and that private storage should be discouraged. Given the consensus in national and international guidance on these two issues, it is time for other ethical issues to be examined in greater detail. These include additional uses of CB samples, for example, for research or for the production of blood-derived drugs, and the economic implications arising from the extensive international network for the exchange of CB for transplantation.

Petrini C

2013-04-01

362

Handling ethical, legal and social issues in birth cohort studies involving genetic research: responses from studies in six countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to study specific conditions (e.g. autism, asthma) or may have a broad aim to research a range of factors that influence the health and development of children. Studies are increasingly intended to serve as research platforms by providing access to data and biological samples to researchers over many years. This study examines how six birth cohort studies in North America and Europe that involve genetic research handle key ethical, legal and social (ELS) issues: recruitment, especially parental authority to include a child in research; initial parental consent and subsequent assent and/or consent from the maturing child; withdrawal; confidentiality and sample/data protection; handling sensitive information; and disclosure of results. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out in 2008/09 with investigators involved in six birth cohort studies in Canada, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands and the United States. Interviewees self-identified as being knowledgeable about ELS aspects of the study. Interviews were conducted in English. Results The studies vary in breadth of initial consent, but none adopt a blanket consent for future use of samples/data. Ethics review of new studies is a common requirement. Studies that follow children past early childhood recognise a need to seek assent/consent as the child matures. All studies limit access to identifiable data and advise participants of the right to withdraw. The clearest differences among studies concern handling of sensitive information and return of results. In all studies, signs of child abuse require reports to authorities, but this disclosure duty is not always stated in consent materials. Studies vary in whether they will return to participants results of routine tests/measures, but none inform participants about findings with unknown clinical significance. Conclusions Analysis of how cohort studies in various jurisdictions handle key ELS issues provides informative data for comparison and contrast. Consideration of these and other examples and further scholarly exploration of ELS issues provides insight on how best to address these aspects in ways that respect the well-being of participants, especially children who become research subjects at the start of their lives.

Ries Nola M; LeGrandeur Jane; Caulfield Timothy

2010-01-01

363

The Ethics of Synthetic Biology: Outlining the Agenda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The projects and aims of synthetic biology raise various ethical questions, challenging some of our basic moral concepts. This chapter addresses these issues in three steps. First, we present an overview of different types of ethical issues related to synthetic biology by assigning them to three mai...

Deplazes, A; Ganguli-Mitra, A; Biller-Andorno, N

364

Information technology ethics : cultural perspectives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One of the first book-length anthologies explicitly devoted to diverse cultural perspectives, including core attention to East-West differences and similarities, on central issues in information ethics. Our introduction provides an overview of the individual chapters, draws these together to form a larger picture of current trends and developments, and then explores how these relate with information ethics more broadly, including future directions for research.

Ess, Charles

2007-01-01

365

IntegratedEthics. Ethics Consultation: Responding to Ethics Concerns in Health Care.  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Center for Ethics in Health Care (Ethics Center) is the Veterans Health Administrations (VHAs) national program office responsible for addressing the complex ethics issues that arise in patient care, health care management, and research. The ...

2005-01-01

366

How can ethics relate to science? The case of stem cell research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We live in an era of an important turning point in the relationship between ethics (or, more accurately, bioethics) and science, notably due to both public interest and the gradual tightening of the gap in time between scientific discoveries and ethical reflection. The current bioethics debates of emerging situations (pluripotent stem cells, gene therapy, nanotechnology) have undoubtedly contributed to this change. Today, science happens and bioethics reflects on the possibilities, considers the risks, and advances proposals, which, without being scientific, can also imprint a mark on the path of scientific development. In this article, through the narrative of stem cell research, we will try to illustrate how bringing a bioethical viewpoint to the scientific debate can become a healthy exercise in both ethics and science, especially as narratives shift, as was the case in this field due to the introduction of induced pluripotent stem cells, the advent of which is not easily dissociated from the controversies related to embryo research. We should perhaps welcome this trend as promising for the future relationship between ethics and scientific research, providing a stimulus (and not a block) to the ever-evolving scientific discourse.

Carvalho AS; Ramalho-Santos J

2013-06-01

367

Advances in fetal genetic diagnosis and therapy: ethical issues and appropriate technology in cost-restrained countries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The advent of ultrasound in the 1970s heralded a milestone that could give real-time information about fetal abnormalities, and thereby improve diagnostic accuracy. This knowledge could not be used effectively to benefit the fetus for which it was intended. The 1980s saw science catching up with diagnostic advances, and fetal abnormalities could realistically be treated with an expectation of satisfactory outcomes. As a result, parents could have realistic expectations of having healthy children. Prenatal diagnosis is the first step towards this realisation, as diagnosis can be followed by intrauterine treatment. Scientists have realised that, if an abnormality can be corrected prenatally, prognosis can be improved significantly, as the initial problem does not necessarily threaten the fetus; therefore, if the prenatal condition can be dealt with early, then the downstream repercussions can be eliminated. In this chapter, we address ethical issues in prenatal diagnosis and fetal therapy.

Titus MJ; Moodley J

2012-10-01

368

The Human Genome Project in the United States: a perspective on the commercial, ethical, legislative and health care issues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Human Genome Project represents a government supported effort to map and sequence the human genome. Governmental support for the Project should include increased emphasis on grants and contracts to industry. This is particularly true for small highly innovative biotechnology companies that can rapidly integrate and use technology as a base for product development. Private industry must be integrated as a partner into the Project, as it will be in Japan and Europe. There is a consensus in industry that the Genome Project is, at this stage at least, a science research project funded by government and not, at present, a commercial project. It is not seriously expected to have any substantial widespread commercial impact in the near future. The ultimate commercial benefits of the Human Genome Project, in terms of definable health care products, may not be realized until well into the next century. Yet, there are a few companies for which the Genome Project affords immediate commercial opportunities in certain niche areas. The Genome Project can be expected to have a significant impact upon medical knowledge and treatment. Though the Genome Project is just beginning, much of the type of medical knowledge expected to be gained from the Project is already present and even being exploited, albeit on a small scale. The application of genetic understanding to practical applications raises ethical, medical and legal issues central to the Genome Project. Unfortunately, emotion and sensationalism sometimes dominate and prevent a constructive discussion of ethical and social issues pertaining to genetics. To answer public concerns about human gene transfer experiments, the medical and biotechnology communities must constructively discuss the medical realities, the benefits to human health and the adequacy of the current governmental oversights. These presentations must be understandable by the lay public and must address their fears. Failure to assuage public fears and concerns, no matter how abstract or unrealistic they may be to the medical/scientific community, will lead to increased governmental controls and regulatory burdens.

Mackler BF; Barach M

1991-07-01

369

Ethical Selves: A Sketch for a Theory of Relational Authenticity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Philosophers who show interest in authenticity tend to narrowly focus on its capacity to help people evade conformity and affirm individuality, a simplistic reduction that neglects authenticity’s moral potential and gives credence to the many critics who dismiss it as a euphemism for excessive individualism. Yet when conceived relationally, authenticity can also allow for worthy human flourishing without falling prey to conformity’s opposite extreme—egoism. This essay proposes a sketch for a relational conception of authenticity that can help prevent the often-destructive excess of egoism while also offsetting the undesirable deficiency of heteronomy, concertedly moving agents towards socially responsible living.

Natalie Fletcher

2013-01-01

370

Ethical issues in neonatal intensive care/ Principi etici in terapia intensiva neonatale  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Recent progress in neonatal care have significantly improved the prognosis and chances of survival of critically ill or extremely preterm neonates and have modified the limits of viability. However, in some circumstances, when the child's death can only be briefly postponed at the price of severe suffering, or when survival is associated with severe disabilities and an intolerable life for the child and his/her parents, the application of the full armamentarium of modern (more) neonatal intensive care may not be appropriate. In such circumstances the limitation of intensive treatments (withholding or withdrawing) and shift towards palliative care, can represent a more humane and reasonable alternative. This article examines and discusses the ethical principles underlying such difficult decisions, the most frequent situations in which these decisions may be considered, the role of parents in the decisional process, and the opinions and behaviours of neonatologists of several European neonatal intensive units as reported by the EURONIC study.

Orzalesi, Marcello M.; Cuttini, Marina

2011-01-01

371

Ethical and legal issues in pain research in cognitively impaired older adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research involving those with dementia is critical to informing best practices and improving the quality of their lives. Pain research in people with dementia is of particular interest because the prevalence of both dementia and painful conditions increases with age. Considerable evidence exists documenting inadequate assessment and treatment of pain in this vulnerable population. Unfortunately, research that supports best practices for assessing and treating pain in the cognitively impaired is limited with obstacles to conducting research. Obstacles to research in older adults, including those with cognitive impairment, have been highlighted along with an urgent call for increased research to promote quality pain care for all older adults. The aims of this paper are to provide an overview of major ethical challenges that can occur in pain research in cognitively impaired populations and to present potential solutions when preparing study protocols.

Monroe TB; Herr KA; Mion LC; Cowan RL

2013-09-01

372

Giving consent without getting informed: a cross-cultural issue in research ethics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Informed consent forms (ICFs) maintain the integrity of research ethics and preserve participants' rights. Using cross-sectional online survey data on sexuality and sexual practices of private university students from Lebanon, this paper questions whether participants thoroughly read ICFs, and whether time taken to read ICFs is associated with data completeness. A total of 2,534 surveys were completed; a median time of 18.66 seconds was taken to read the 815-word ICF; 65% of participants consented within the first 30 seconds and 90% in less than the minimum predicted time (2.7 minutes). Our data indicates potential participant neglect of ICFs, raising the question of whether participants who endorse an informed consent form are truly informed of the study objectives and their rights.

Ghandour L; Yasmine R; El-Kak F

2013-07-01

373

Ethical issues of genetic susceptibility testing for occupational diseases: opinions of trainees in a high-risk job.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Genetic research has opened up possibilities for identification of persons with an increased susceptibility for occupational disease. However, regulations considering the ethical issues that are inevitably associated with the use of genetic tests for susceptibility for occupational diseases are scarce. We investigated whether opinions of an intended stakeholder group, that is, student nurses, are sufficiently addressed by existing recommendations. METHODS: Attitudes and opinions of Dutch student nurses toward a genetic test for susceptibility to occupational contact eczema were studied in a qualitative setup using focus groups, interviews and electronic questionnaires. The results were compared with guidelines and recommendations extracted from the literature. RESULTS: Sixty-nine percent of the student nurses said they would partake in a genetic test for susceptibility to occupational contact eczema when available. Concerns were expressed regarding the difficulty of interpreting test results, the utility of the test result in practice and the necessity of genetic tests for non-severe diseases. For the issue of privacy and confidentiality, the students expressed few worries and much confidence. The existing guidelines largely covered the students' opinions. Still, the data emphasized the need for good individual risk communication both before and after testing, taking into account that the test concerns susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing the students' statements with the issues addressed by the guidelines, we conclude that the guidelines should pay more attention to risk communication and practical advice accompanying the test results.

Visser MJ; Rhebergen MD; Kezic S; van Dijk FJ; Willems DL; Verberk MM

2013-10-01

374

Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?  

Science.gov (United States)

Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

Stablein, Ralph

2003-01-01

375

A contribution to raise awareness on ethical problems related to radiological protection in future health physicists  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is widely accepted that Radiological Protection has a real social dimension and it is not restricted to the pure scientific and quantitative aspects. The quality in radiation protection is not reached by simply complying with current technical standards or by enforcing an improved or restricted regulation, but must also be pursued by promoting a culture of radiation protection. An effective dissemination of a radiation protection culture has to include education and training for those students who will become researchers in the involved fields, or who will be called in risk management and, as protection managers, will be asked to inform and train workers or to communicate with the public. Today, in most universities the education in ethics is a significant part of the training in medical, biological and biotechnological curricula but, it is still of poor consideration in those curricula which are traditionally related to Physical Science and even in those areas, like Health Physics, where implementation of interdisciplinary approaches and methodologies are important sources for progress. Moreover, recent advances in the research field of risk perception and communication are very rarely included in those courses. At the Health Physics post-graduate School of Milano State University, within the course of Radiation Protection, a new subject has been recently introduced facing the question of ethical problems and risk perception in radiation protection, and dealing with the activity of international organisations aimed to establish ethical principles for protection against ionising radiation. By referring to this context, students realize how the analysis of radiological risk includes both technological and ethical aspects. The hope is that a new generation of experts in heath physics will promote a dynamic development of knowledge and a higher degree of awareness even in ethical aspects within the academic, institutional or professional fields of radiation protection. (author)

2006-01-01

376

Ethics Primer: Ethics and Bioethics Lessons  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ethics Primer provides engaging, interactive, and classroom-friendly lesson ideas for integrating ethical issues into a science classroom. It also provides basic background on ethics as a discipline, with straightforward descriptions of major ethical theories. Several decision-making frameworks are included to help students apply reasoned analysis to ethical issues. Although the Primer is designed for secondary school science classrooms, it has been used by teachers in a variety of classes and grade levels. The Primer is free for download but the author requests information before accessing the file.

2007-01-01

377

The right to practice medicine without repercussions: ethical issues in times of political strife  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract This commentary examines the incursion on the neutrality of medical personnel now taking place as part of the human rights crises in Bahrain and Syria, and the ethical dilemmas which these incursions place not only in front of physicians practicing in those nations, but in front of the international community as a whole. In Bahrain, physicians have recently received harsh prison terms, apparently for treating demonstrators who clashed with government forces. In Syria, physicians are under the same political pressure to avoid treating political demonstrators or to act as informants against their own patients, turning them in to government authorities. This pressure has been severe, to the point that some physicians have become complicit in the abuse of patients who were also political demonstrators. This paper posits that physicians in certain countries in the Middle East during the “Arab Spring,” specifically Syria and Bahrain, are being used as both political pawns and political weapons in clear violation of Geneva Convention and World Medical Association guidelines, and that this puts them into the most extreme sort of “dual loyalty” dilemma. They are being forced to choose between their own safety and well-being and that of their patients – a negative sum scenario wherein there is no optimal choice. As such, an international call for a United Nations inquiry must be made in order to protect the neutrality of medical care and personnel during times of armed conflict.

Hathout Leith

2012-01-01

378

Journal bibliometrics indicators and citation ethics: A discussion of current issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Science has recently been accelerating at a fast rate, resulting in what has been called "information overload" and more recently "filter failure". In this perspective, journal performance indicators can play an important role in journal evaluation. Opinions on the appropriate use of journal-level bibliometrics indicators can be divided but they have now long been used as measures in research evaluation, and many editors see it as part of their editorial duty to try and improve bibliometrics indicators and rankings for their journal. There are various techniques through which this can be attempted, some more ethical than others. Some editors may try to boost the bibliometrics performance of their journals through gratuitous citations. This is problematic because citations are meant to provide useful references, scientifically justifiable, to previously published literature. As such citations can be used as widely accepted measures of scientific impact. Therefore, superfluous citations can distort the validity of bibliometrics indicators. It might be tempting to try to improve a journal's bibliometrics rankings at all costs, but these are only as meaningful as the data that feed into them. Exceedingly inflated indicators due to unethical behaviours can damage the reputation of a journal and its editors, and can lead to a loss of quality manuscript submissions, which in turn is likely to affect the journal's future citation impact. PMID:24075756

Huggett, Sarah

2013-08-07

379

Clinical ethics consultation in oncology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: There is limited empirical research exploring the nature of clinical ethical consultations within the oncology population. Our objective was to review and describe clinical ethics consultations at two National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer centers to identify opportunities for systems improvement in clinical care and opportunities for staff education. METHODS: This case series is derived from two institutional prospectively maintained clinical ethics consultation databases. All ethics consultations from 2007 through 2011 that related to adult patients with cancer were included. RESULTS: A total of 208 eligible patient cases were identified. The most common primary issues leading to ethics consultation were code status and advance directives (25%), surrogate decision making (17%), and medical futility (13%). Communication lapses were identified in 45% of patient cases, and interpersonal conflict arose in 51%. Before ethics consultation, 26% of patients had do-not-resuscitate orders, which increased to 60% after ethics consultation. Palliative care consultation occurred in 41% of patient cases. CONCLUSION: Ethics consultations among patients with cancer reflect the complexities inherent to their clinical management. Appropriately honoring patients' wishes within the context of overall goals of care is crucial. Thoughtful consideration of the role of and relationship with palliative care experts, communication barriers, sources of interpersonal conflict, symptom control, and end-of-life care is paramount to optimal management strategies in this patient population.

Shuman AG; Montas SM; Barnosky AR; Smith LB; Fins JJ; McCabe MS

2013-09-01

380

Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

Guidotti, Ronald Armand

2006-06-01

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