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Sample records for ethical issues relating

  1. Ethical issues related to screening for Preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jennifer M.; Hedley, Paula L.; Gjerris, Mickey; Chistiansen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of new methods of treating and preventing disease raises many question of both technical and moral character. Currently, many studies focus on developing a screening test for preeclampsia (PE), a disease complicating 2–8% of pregnancies, potentially causing severe consequences ...... such screening activity. Furthermore, we propose ethical guidelines that a screening programme for PE should meet in order to become an uncontroversial addition to prenatal health care....... feasibility and clinical efficacy, it also requires an analysis of how the test influences the conditions and choices for those tested. This study evaluates state-of-the-art techniques for preeclampsia screening in an ethical framework, pointing out the central areas of moral relevance within the context of...

  2. Ethics and Moral Issues in Public Relations Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Stanley L.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the role of ethics in the public relations curriculum. Notes textbooks used in ethics courses. Discusses how the topic of ethics fares in the most popular public relations texts (basic and advanced). (SR)

  3. Teacher-Student Sexual Relations: Key Risks and Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics

  4. Ethical issues relating to reproduction control and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, J G; Eisenberg, V H

    1997-07-01

    There are many ethical aspects which derive from the application of reproduction control in women's health. Women's health can be enhanced if women are given the opportunity to make their own reproduction choices about sex, contraception, abortion and application of reproductive technologies. The main issues that raise ethical dilemmas following the development of assisted reproduction techniques are: the right to procreate or reproduce; the process of in vitro fertilization itself-is it morally acceptable to interfere in the reproduction process?; the moral status of the embryo; the involvement of a third party in the reproductive process by genetic material donation; the practice of surrogacy, cryopreservation of pre-embryos; genetic manipulation; experiments on pre-embryos, etc. Induced abortion raises ethical issues related to the rights of the woman versus the rights of the fetus. For those who consider life to begin at conception abortion always equals murder and is therefore forbidden. Those who believe in the absolute autonomy of the woman over her body take the other extreme approach. The discussion surrounding abortion usually centers on whether it should be legal or illegal. Access to safe abortion is critical to the health of women and to their autonomy. The development of new effective contraceptive methods has a profound impact on women's lives. By the use of contraception it is possible to lessen maternal, infant and child mortality and to reduce the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. Research and development of new effective reversible contraceptives for women and men is needed. Dissemination of information about the safety and effectiveness of contraceptive methods is of great importance. Female genital mutilation is still practiced worldwide due to customs and tradition among various ethnic groups. The procedure is considered to be medically detrimental to the physical and mental health of women and girls, and is considered by many as oppression of women. The practice has to be stopped. Recognition of the fetus as a 'patient' has a potential effect on women's right for autonomy; they have no legal obligation to undergo invasive procedures and to risk their health for the sake of their fetuses. The woman carries ethical obligations toward her fetus. This obligation should not be enforced by the law. At present women bear most of the burden of reproductive health. All of them have a right of access to fertility regulation. Governments and society must ensure the women's equal rights to health care just as men have in the regulation of their fertility. PMID:9253679

  5. Ethical issues in dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehouse, Peter J.

    2000-01-01

    The growing number of individuals affected by dementia will intensify the ethical issues that emerge in clinical practice and research, issues early in disease relate to genetic testing, use of medications in mildly affected persons, and diagnostic disclosure. Research issues relate to appropriate informed consent processes, conflict of interests, and research design issues, such as the use of placebos and the use of biological tissues, in the later stages of disease concern about appropriate...

  6. Ethical Issues Related to Research Involving Elderly Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Warren T.

    1978-01-01

    Drawing on ethical principles and general ethical rules governing aspects of human research, this article identifies and analyzes ethical problems distinctive to biomedical and behavioral research with aged subjects. Policy recommendations governing research in the aged are offered along with an agenda for an extensive research project in this

  7. Ethical issues related to biomonitoring studies on children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    Human biomonitoring is a promising tool for assessing environmental exposure and its potential relation with biomarkers, diseases and/or disorders in humans including children. Research with children is essential; however, if the research questions can be resolved by recruitment of adults it is not...... recruitments. In the initial phase of planning a biomonitoring study consideration of communication of results including risk and means of risk prevention should be made. Ethical considerations regarding the study protocol should take into account (a) justification of biological sampling related to the...... expected outcome(s), (b) causing no harm to the child, (c) appropriate and comprehensive communication to the participating child as well as the parents and tutors, (d) informed assent or consent including the right to withdraw (e) communication of results to research participants and (f) access to own...

  8. Ethical issues related to chemotherapy in patients with gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Triantafillidis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative chemotherapy and radiation therapy is standard care in high risk patients who had undergone a curative resection of the primary tumor. Best survival results are achieved with three-drug regimens containing FU, an anthracycline, and cisplatin (ECF, although the recently presented REAL-2-trial, demonstrated a significant survival benefit for EOX (epirubicin, oxaliplatin, capecitabine over ECF. Consequently, chemotherapy could be offered to some proportion of patients with advanced gastric cancer taking into account the results of the available clinical trials. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy has the ability to downsize gastric tumours. It remains unclear however, how the neoadjuvant therapy may be integrated into the multimodality management of localized gastric cancer. According to recent studies, adjuvant chemotherapy resulted in a significant survival benefit in patients with gastric cancer. However, others did not recommend adjuvant chemotherapy as routine therapy. A lot of case reports with metastatic cancer treated with S-1 plus cisplatin have appeared in the recent literature with promising results. Therefore, such treatment could be offered to some patients with metastatic gastric cancer as a last hope. Patients with peritoneal dissemination should be submitted to chemotherapy after full explanation of the expected results. The use of chemotherapy in patients with linitis plastica remains controversial. Chemotherapy should be offered to patients with gastric cancer at advanced age. Nutrition therapy in advanced gastric cancer might offer improved quality of life especially to those with gastric outlet obstruction despite the associated increased cost. Other parameters related to the decision to give chemotherapy or not to gastric cancer patients are related to the role of patient relatives, the doctors training and availability, the psychological support of the patient, the doctors-patient relationships, and the right of the patient to receive the best available medical treatment. These parameters must be taken into account where dealing with a patient with gastric cancer who is a candidate for chemotherapy. Key words: Gastric cancer, Chemotherapy, Ethics

  9. Assistive Technologies and Issues Relating to Privacy, Ethics and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Suzanne; Bengtsson, Johan E.; Dres, Rose-Marie

    Emerging technologies provide the opportunity to develop innovative sustainable service models, capable of supporting adults with dementia at home. Devices range from simple stand-alone components that can generate a responsive alarm call to complex interoperable systems that even can be remotely controlled. From these complex systems the paradigm of the ubiquitous or ambient smart home has emerged, integrating technology, environmental design and traditional care provision. The service context is often complex, involving a variety of stakeholders and a range of interested agencies. Against this backdrop, as anecdotal evidence and government policies spawn further innovation it is critical that due consideration is given to the potential ethical ramifications at an individual, organisational and societal level. Well-grounded ethical thinking and proactive ethical responses to this innovation are required. Explicit policy and practice should therefore emerge which engenders confidence in existing supported living option schemes for adults with dementia and informs further innovation.

  10. Ethical issues in Finnish-Russian relations: Finnish perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Polonsky, Gennady; Turunen, Erja

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the role which western, particularly Finnish companies play in shaping the moral and ethical environment of Russian business. The authors evaluate changes in attitudes and behaviour in Russia, comparing the situation before the introduction of market reform with the developments since. Based on empirical data and interviews conducted in Finland, the authors show that there are at least three groups of problems: Firstly, the low business culture of Russian entrepreneurs, se...

  11. On ethical issues in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From an ethical viewpoint the author surveys existing international radiation protection recommendations and standards. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the author discusses ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. (author)

  12. Ethical issues related to HIV/AIDS: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meel, B L

    2005-06-01

    The continents of Africa and Asia have the highest number of HIV infected persons in the world. Worldwide there are 42 million and 29.7 million (70%) are in sub Saharan Africa [United Nations AIDS (UNAIDS). Available from: www.unaids.org]. The stigma and discrimination attached to HIV/AIDS are hampering control of the disease. Family life has greatly been disrupted by the pandemic. AIDS causes illness, disability and death as well as severe economic and emotional disruptions to the families. The epidemic is well established in South Africa. The mortality will be doubled over the next five years. A broad range of coercive measures has been considered to be applied internationally in the interest of controlling the spread of HIV. Responsibility of the employers to their HIV/AIDS employees at workplace, choice of termination of pregnancy when a woman is HIV positive, attitude of health care provider to their HIV infected patients, informed consent for taking blood to protect from transmission of infection in a case of accidental prick, and forced resignation from employment, are discussed in this manuscript. The ethical problems are highlighted, and possible solutions recommended. PMID:15914310

  13. Ethical issues in psychopharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    McHenry, L

    2006-01-01

    The marketing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the psychopharmacological industry presents a serious moral problem for the corporate model of medicine. In this paper I examine ethical issues relating to the efficacy and safety of these drugs. Pharmaceutical companies have a moral obligation to disclose all information in their possession bearing on the true risks and benefits of their drugs. Only then can patients make fully informed decisions about their treatment.

  14. Ethical issues related to biomonitoring studies on children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2007-01-01

    Human biomonitoring is a promising tool for assessing environmental exposure and its potential relation with biomarkers, diseases and/or disorders in humans including children. Research with children is essential; however, if the research questions can be resolved by recruitment of adults it is not justified to include children. In general, considerations of using the less-invasive techniques and cost-efficiency have to be taken into account. All stakeholders, especially the participants should ...

  15. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this note the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection and risk assessment/management, the authors review ethical thinking on five key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these five issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) Equity vs. Efficiency, (2) Health vs. Economics, (3) Individual Rights vs. Societal Benefits, (4) Due Process vs. Necessary Sacrifice, and (5) Stakeholder Consent vs. Management Decisions (authors)

  16. The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing

    OpenAIRE

    Nijboer, Femke; Clausen, Jens; Brendan Z. Allison; Haselager, Pim

    2011-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4th International BCI conference, which took place in MayJune 2010 in Asilomar, California. We assessed respondents opinions about a number of topics. First, we investigated preferences for terminology and definitions relating to BCIs. Second, w...

  17. Xenografting: ethical issues.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers the ethical issues raised by xenotransplantation under four headings: interfering with nature; effects on the recipient; effects on other humans; and effects on donor animals. The first two issues raise no insuperable problems: charges of unnaturalness are misguided, and the risks that xenotransplantation carries for the recipient are a matter for properly informed consent. The other two issues raise more serious problems, however, and it is argued that if we take serious...

  18. Ethical Issues in Physiatrist Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hand G

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Editorial on Ethical Issues. Medical ethics is at the centre of medical practice. It isrightly gaining much needed renewed focus and attentionin the evolving scenario. The impetus for it may beattributed to the revelations that arose through Nurembergtrials, the framework elements that define research andpublications related compulsions, and indeed the contextand state of affairs of present day medical jurisprudence.The physiatrists practice cannot remain untouched bythe moral and ethical dilemmas faced in todays world.Although the pillars of the specialty are grounded in the

  19. Ethical Issues in the Conduct of Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Patrick

    1991-01-01

    Uses American Psychological Association code of ethics to understand ethical issues present in the conduct of supervision. Discusses ethical issues of responsibility, client and supervisee welfare, confidentiality, competency, moral and legal standards, public statements, and professional relationships in relation to supervision. (Author/NB)

  20. Ethical issues related to computerised family medical histories in sickle cell disease: Inforare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franrenet, Sandra; Duchange, Nathalie; Galactros, Frderic; Quantin, Catherine; Cohen, Olivier; Nzouakou, Ruben; Sudraud, Sophie; Herv, Christian; Moutel, Grgoire

    2010-10-01

    The Inforare project aims to set up a system for the sharing of clinical and familial data, in order to study how genes are related to the severity of sickle cell disease. While the computerisation of clinical records represents a valuable research goal, an ethical framework is necessary to guarantee patients' protection and their rights in this developing field. Issues relating to patient information during the Inforare study were analysed by the steering committee. Several major concerns were discussed by the committee and formalized in the patients' information letter: educating patients to aid the recruitment of family members, rules of confidentiality and the disclosure of aggregate, individual and unexpected research results. This paper presents the main issues addressed. PMID:20826869

  1. An Introduction to Legal and Ethical Issues Relating to Computers in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Patricia A.

    1984-01-01

    Three categories of legal issues generated by computers on campus are examined: copyrights on programs developed by students, faculty, or staff; contracts in purchasing computers and torts concerning wrongful use; and the expectation that schools will respond to legal/ethical issues differently than commercial organizations. Suggestions for

  2. Business Ethics: Some Theoretical Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Lluka, Valon

    2010-01-01

    Ethics can be defined as a process of evaluating actions according to moral principal of values. Throughout the centuries people were trying to choose between profit and moral. Perhaps, some of them obtain both, but every time it could have roused ethical issues. Those issues concern fairness, justice, rightness or wrongness; as a result it can only be resolved according to ethical standards. Setting the ethical standards for the way of doing business in corporation is primarily task of m...

  3. Ethical Issues Relative to Autonomy and Personal Control in Independent and Cognitively Impaired Elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Virginia Hill; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues surrounding health care for independent elders, those in long-term care, and those with cognitive impairments, as well as death, dying, euthanasia, and assisted suicide. Suggests that nurses should focus on older adults' choice, autonomy, and personal control. (SK)

  4. Developing a research agenda on ethical issues related to using social media in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Samantha A; Van Veghel, Dennis; Dekker, Lukas

    2015-07-01

    The consequences of using publicly available social media applications specifically for healthcare purposes are largely unaddressed in current research. Where they are addressed, the focus is primarily on issues of privacy and data protection. We therefore use a case study of the first live Twitter heart operation in the Netherlands, in combination with recent literature on social media from other academic fields, to identify a wide range of ethical issues related to using social media for health-related purposes. Although this case reflects an innovative approach to public education and patient centeredness, it also illustrates the need for institutions to weigh the various aspects of use and to develop a plan to deal with these on a per case basis. Given the continual development of technologies, researchers may not yet be able to oversee and anticipate all of the potential implications. Further development of a research agenda on this topic, the promotion of guidelines and policies, and the publication of case studies that reveal the granularity of individual situations will therefore help raise awareness and assist physicians and institutions in using social media to support existing care services. PMID:26059955

  5. Public relations interns and ethical issues at work: Perceptions of student interns from three different universities

    OpenAIRE

    Charles A. Lubbers; Pamela G. Bourland-Davis; Brad L. Rawlins

    2008-01-01

    Empirical investigations of internships have increased our understanding of variables influencing the success of the internship. Few of these investigations, however, have focused on the internship as a process of socialisation through which interns learn the values associated with the profession. And while ethics has also been investigated, the focus on public relations student perceptions of ethics as they are applied or experienced during their internships has not been studied to any exten...

  6. Ethical issues relating the the banking of umbilical cord blood in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdez-Martinez Edith

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Umbilical cord banks are a central component, as umbilical cord tissue providers, in both medical treatment and scientific research with stem cells. But, whereas the creation of umbilical cord banks is seen as successful practice, it is perceived as a risky style of play by others. This article examines and discusses the ethical, medical and legal considerations that arise from the operation of umbilical cord banks in Mexico. Discussion A number of experts have stated that the use of umbilical cord goes beyond the mere utilization of human tissues for the purpose of treatment. This tissue is also used in research studies: genetic studies, studies to evaluate the effectiveness of new antibiotics, studies to identify new proteins, etc. Meanwhile, others claim that the law and other norms for the functioning of cord banks are not consistent and are poorly defined. Some of these critics point out that the confidentiality of donor information is handled differently in different places. The fact that private cord banks offer their services as "biological insurance" in order to obtain informed consent by promising the parents that the tissue that will be stored insures the health of their child in the future raises the issue of whether the consent is freely given or given under coercion. Another consideration that must be made in relation to privately owned cord banks has to do with the ownership of the stored umbilical cord. Summary Conflicts between moral principles and economic interests (non-moral principles cause dilemmas in the clinical practice of umbilical cord blood storage and use especially in privately owned banks. This article presents a reflection and some of the guidelines that must be followed by umbilical cord banks in order to deal with these conflicts. This reflection is based on the fundamental notions of ethics and public health and seeks to be a contribution towards the improvement of umbilical cord banks' performance.

  7. Ethical Issues in Public Service

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayo Adeyinka

    2014-01-01

    The issue of ethics is beginning to gain ground in public Organization. Ethics are Standards and rules that are meant to be guiding principles for any institution such as public, private and Governmental. This research work examines the ethical issues in public services sectors in Nigeria. This paper is concerned with unethical behaviours in the public service among the public servants in Nigeria. Adopting the historical and literature review methods, this paper examines the historical antece...

  8. Ethical Issues in Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bill; Simpson, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Teaching at a distance raises ethical issues particular to the distance context. When distance teaching is also online teaching, the situation is even more complex. Online teaching environments amplify the ethical issues faced by instructors and students. Online sites support complex discourses and multiple relationships; they cross physical,

  9. Ethics issues in retrievability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We can isolate some issues, which should not be unresolved for a longer period of time. Disputes over well-defined waste management options fall in this category. The concept of retrievability has a possibility to invoke a series of questions in the minds of both specialists and non-specialists. It is intrinsically vague, in that it may refer to different phases in the repository's life, and to both open and closed repositories in the long time frame. Requirements for retrievability opens a series of issues, including open-ended philosophical question, which may give the impressions that things are not properly taken care of, since the experts differ in opinion. If such disputes cannot be resolved by consulting the existing legal framework, efforts should be made to put them to trial in the proper forum, i.e. parliament and national or local government or authorities, depending on the problem. In contrast, the value of institutional controls can easily be seen as an ethical value, whether included in the regulation of not. It has the potential to deter human intrusion and to allow remedial action by carrying information about a repository. (author)

  10. Limitation of life support in the ICU: Ethical issues relating to end of life care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasingly, intensivists have focused attention on the ethical aspects of end-of- life care. This has led to shifts in the approach from aggressive interventions to one of mitigating pain and taking into account the wishes and sensibilities of the patients? families with regard to continuing futile care. While the legal implications of this change in practice has led to the evolution of precise guidelines in the US and in Europe, in India this vital area of critical care remains largely unexplored. This review outlines the recent changes in clinical practice based on ethical principles and the legality of limiting life support in the context of futile or end-of-life care. An appraisal of the ethical issues in critical care urges us to apply intensive care with humanity and compassion. We need to respect the choices and the emotional needs of the patient and his family. Our duties must include providing information, balanced interpretation of results & counseling of the family to enable them to take rational decisions. Our strategy in end-of-life care should be unambiguous and we should ensure that there is consensus among all the physicians involved in the patient's care. The medical community must work towards evolving legislation appropriate to Indian conditions.

  11. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M.; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students’ preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress. PMID:26934582

  12. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students' preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress. PMID:26934582

  13. Resolving Ethical Issues at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninga, Jacques S.

    2013-01-01

    Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a

  14. Models of an individual decision-making process related to ethical issues in business:The risk of framing effects

    OpenAIRE

    Kliukinskait?-Vigil, Virginija

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical paper at hand reviews 16 most often cited descriptive models of a manager's individual decision-making process related to ethical issues in business in general, international business and marketing fields in particular. The paper has a goal to point out the need to rephrase the dependent variable in the models in neutral terms to avoid framing effects in the three subject areas, as well as to rename the models accordingly. Copyright 2009, Inderscience Publishers.

  15. Research governance: ethical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Slowther, Anne; Boynton, Petra; Shaw, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Healthcare research is haunted by a history of unethical studies in which profound harm was caused to vulnerable individuals. Official systems for gaining ethical approval for research, designed to prevent a repetition of these shameful examples, can prove bureaucratic and inflexible in practice. The core ethical principles of respect for autonomy, prevention of harm, promotion of benefit, and justice (which form the basis of professional codes of research conduct) must be applied flexibly to...

  16. Legal and Ethical Issues Related to the Management of Cultural Heritage in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Justin

    The recent discovery of water in darkened craters of the Moon's south pole is only the latest development drawing public and corporate interest to the possibilities of research and travel in outer space. Scientists pursuing fusion-generated power as a solution to global energy needs have also noted the relative abundance of Helium-3, an efficient fuel, on the Moon's surface, and there is the promise of other precious resources there as well. The implantation of colonies on the Moon or Mars, discussed for many decades as science fiction, therefore seems increasingly likely to happen. Some private companies and members of the public are even looking forward to the days when tourists will be able to travel for leisure beyond the earth's atmosphere. Most notably, the X Prize Foundation and Google are sponsoring a prize for the first private group to send an unmanned rover to the Moon as a way of advancing these agendas; 22 teams have registered for the competition, with some scheduled to launch by the end of 2010. Increased attention to outer space travel, exploration, and commercial exploitation has been paralleled by a rise in interest in the protection of cultural resources on Earth, such as ar-chaeological sites and historic monuments. Such sites and monuments already exist in outer space and on extraterrestrial planetary bodies. The Apollo 11 landing site, Tranquility Base, is only the most obvious example of a cultural site of outstanding significance in space. Satellites orbiting the earth -even defunct ones such as Vanguard 1, the oldest man-made object still in orbit, might be considered to have extraordinary historic and cultural value, too. As archae-ologists working on Earth have long recognized, once a site or object is damaged, it can never be perfectly restored to its original condition. Unfortunately, there are so far only a few vague guidelines, drafted in the 1960's and agreed upon by the international community, protecting mankind's cultural heritage in space. The United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967 -the primary document governing how nations act in outer space -is now hopelessly out-of-date. There is no mention in the treaty of cultural heritage (the UNESCO convention that concerns international protection of cultural heritage on Earth was not completed until 1970), nor was there any recognition of the role private groups and individuals might play in space exploration. This paper will outline key legal and ethical issues related to cultural heritage management and protection. It will also suggest some ways in which culturally significant sites in space can be protected for future study and even touristic appreciation.

  17. A review of ethical issues in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca A; Karlawish, Jason

    2015-10-01

    Dementia raises many ethical issues. The present review, taking note of the fact that the stages of dementia raise distinct ethical issues, focuses on three issues associated with stages of dementia's progression: (1) how the emergence of preclinical and asymptomatic but at-risk categories for dementia creates complex questions about preventive measures, risk disclosure, and protection from stigma and discrimination; (2) how despite efforts at dementia prevention, important research continues to investigate ways to alleviate clinical dementia's symptoms, and requires additional human subjects protections to ethically enroll persons with dementia; and (3) how in spite of research and prevention efforts, persons continue to need to live with dementia. This review highlights two major themes. First is how expanding the boundaries of dementias such as Alzheimer's to include asymptomatic but at-risk persons generate new ethical questions. One promising way to address these questions is to take an integrated approach to dementia ethics, which can include incorporating ethics-related data collection into the design of a dementia research study itself. Second is the interdisciplinary nature of ethical questions related to dementia, from health policy questions about insurance coverage for long-term care to political questions about voting, driving, and other civic rights and privileges to economic questions about balancing an employer's right to a safe and productive workforce with an employee's rights to avoid discrimination on the basis of their dementia risk. The review highlights these themes and emerging ethical issues in dementia. PMID:26061118

  18. Sports medicine: some ethical issues.

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, J

    1993-01-01

    The ethical aspects of sports medicine have hitherto received little scrutiny, in contrast to its legal implications, which have recently been subject to much greater discussion. However, the differences that are apparent between sports medicine and 'mainstream' areas of clinical practice can shed new light on a number of the central issues within health-care ethics. By means of hypothetical case studies, this paper seeks to examine some of these issues within a sports medicine context. Speci...

  19. Untying the Gordian knot: policies, practices, and ethical issues related to banking of umbilical cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzberg, Joanne; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2005-10-01

    Since the first successful transplantation of umbilical cord blood in 1988, cord blood has become an important source of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells for the treatment of blood and genetic disorders. Significant progress has been accompanied by challenges for scientists, ethicists, and health policy makers. With the recent recognition of the need for a national system for the collection, banking, distribution, and use of cord blood and the increasing focus on cord blood as an alternative to embryos as a source of tissue for regenerative medicine, cord blood has garnered significant attention. We review the development of cord blood banking and transplantation and then discuss the scientific and ethical issues influencing both established and investigational practices surrounding cord blood collection, banking, and use. PMID:16200191

  20. Ethical issues and Huntington's disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J G R, Kromberg; T-M, Wessels.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethical dilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's [...] disease, in which only one twin sought predictive testing for this dominantly inherited disease, created several ethical dilemmas. Another case where predictive testing was carried out on two young children, at high risk, by a laboratory at the request of an adoption agency and a doctor, with a view to giving information to the foster parents, also posed many ethical conundrums for the counsellor. The ethical issues that arose in these cases are discussed in this paper.

  1. Thinking, relating and choosing: Resolving the issue of faith, ethics and the existential responsibility of the individual

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Neil Alan, Soggie.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Which is worse: Doing evil or being evil? If we are free to define ourselves through our choices, as existentialism posits, then the latter is worse. This paper attempts to resolve the issue of the difference between religious (group) ethics and the ethics of a person of faith that embraces individu [...] als with an existential understanding. In the existential view, the individual (whether the self or the other) is the primary concern, and so the issue of personal relational morality supersedes religious narratives, social morality and popular ethics (White, 2002). If we think and choose, there is the possibility that we may occasionally make a mistake and do evil. However, if we do not think about our choices, and if the conventions we hold happen to be flawed in some way, then we become defined by a continual cycle of mistakes. Existentialism teaches that we become who we are in the process of making choices; therefore the difference between doing evil and being evil can be found in the small but important flow of thinking, relating and choosing.

  2. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Lars (ed.)

    2000-03-15

    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.

  3. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report

  4. Some relevant ethical issues in relation to freshwater resources and groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custodio, E.

    2000-07-01

    Freshwater resources are limited and the demand for water is steadily growing. In some areas a large proportion of available water resources are already committed. This justifies the concern manifested by social groups and many individuals. There are two more freshwater available, which means interfering more with the environment, affecting human communities and depleting groundwater reserves. The other consists of correcting the current and often highly inefficient use of freshwater in order to reduce demand, and at the same time protecting groundwater reserves and preventing further degradation by contamination. These are economic and human resources. Available, usable freshwater resources must be assessed, while taking into account the uncertainty associated with natural processes, and seeking long-term sustainability within a changing setting. In this respect groundwater is still a poorly managed and, to some extent, misunderstood essential freshwater resource. The sustainability of long-term groundwater use is compatible with limited depletion of aquifer reserves only in the short term. Solving current and future problems involves not only science and technology, but also economics, public understanding and political will. All of these issues must be guided by ethical considerations. (Author) 44 refs.

  5. Current ethical issues in IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobstein, C; Flower, M

    1985-12-01

    This article has briefly reviewed the range of public policy issues and ethical questions raised with respect to IVF. It then discussed selected issues that are now under policy debate and decision. Given the wide acceptance of IVF as a medical procedure for married couples, what variants might also be ethically defensible? IVF for unmarried couples appears defensible under specific conditions that are equally applicable to married couples. Involvement of third parties (gamete donation and gestational surrogacy) is more complex and needs case by case examination. Sperm donation appears to generate little that is ethically new when coupled with IVF but requires the same care and concern as AID. Egg or embryo donation, however, does raise new ethical questions that need close attention and continuing analysis. Freezing of human embryos also breaks new ethical ground, particularly in the options it generates beyond a narrowly defined medical domain. Certain of these options are better not undertaken without further public policy decision. Improvement of current procedures and techniques through effective clinical trials can be ethically carried out in terms of scientific and medical perspectives. However, efforts in this direction will be more effective if undertaken within a public policy framework that clearly defines acceptability during a transitional period of confidence-building. PMID:3833444

  6. Ethical Issues in Expert Opinions and Testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Roger O.

    2000-01-01

    This article provides an overview of ethical issues in private for-profit practice, with particular focus on expert testimony, using examples from a sample of claims filed with the National Association of Rehabilitation Professionals in the Private Sector and malpractice insurance companies. Complaints most frequently involve issues related to

  7. Scientific and ethical issues related to stem cell research and interventions in neurodegenerative disorders of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Roger A; de Beaufort, Inez

    2013-11-01

    Should patients with Parkinson's disease participate in research involving stem cell treatments? Are induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) the ethical solution to the moral issues regarding embryonic stem cells? How can we adapt trial designs to best assess small numbers of patients in receipt of invasive experimental therapies? Over the last 20 years there has been a revolution in our ability to make stem cells from different sources and use them for therapeutic gain in disorders of the brain. These cells, which are defined by their capacity to proliferate indefinitely as well as differentiate into selective phenotypic cell types, are viewed as being especially attractive for studying disease processes and for grafting in patients with chronic incurable neurodegenerative disorders of the CNS such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this review we briefly discuss and summarise where our understanding of stem cell biology has taken us relative to the clinic and patients, before dealing with some of the major ethical issues that work of this nature generates. This includes issues to do with the source of the cells, their ownership and exploitation along with questions about patient recruitment, consent and trial design when they translate to the clinic for therapeutic use. PMID:23665410

  8. [Renal transplantation: ethical issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamzer-Bruneel, Marie-France; Lafort, Emmanuelle Grand; Kreis, Henri; Thervet, ric; Martinez, Frank; Snanoudj, Renaud; Herv, Christian; Legendre, Christophe

    2012-12-01

    One of the most significant advances in medicine during the last 50 years is the development of organ transplantation. In the context of chronic kidney diseases, renal transplantation offers patients a better clinical outcome than other treatment options. However, the benefits of organ transplantation have not been maximized due to an inadequate supply of organs for transplantation. Despite the establishment of elaborate legal rules for organs procurement, both on deceased and living donors in numerous countries, ethical concerns remain. Most of them are consequences of the strategies implemented or proposed to address the so-called organ shortage. The involvement of society in these complex problems is crucial as numerous questions emerge: could actual state of organ procurement change? Is it possible and/or realistic to increase the number of organs, with respects to living donors or deceased persons? Is the shortage an indicator to limit the use of kidney transplantation? How do we maintain efficiency and justice, in this context. PMID:23168353

  9. Ethical issues in ecological restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The acid test of humankind's relationship to natural systems is the degree to which ecological damage caused by humans is repaired by humans. Technology and science are available, so the remaining stimulus needed for implementation of ecological restoration is the ethical responsibility to do so. Ecological restoration can be regarded as enlightened self-interest for humankind since it increases both natural capital and ecosystem services. However, well-designed ecological restoration proecjts should have a major ethical component since the future of non-human life forms on Earth requires more than self-interest. Although the field of science has provided various rationales for ecological restoration, ethical issues associated with such activities must also be considered. If, as seems likely, human society and natural systems are co-evolving, restoration of damaged ecosystems will improve both ecological and human health. The term 'ecosocietal restoration' emphasizes this close relationship. However, if ecological restoration considers only human needs and does not emphasize ecological integrity, human-dominated ecosystems could become the norm. Such domination is already marked but the relationship could easily worsen. This article lists seven major ethical issues in ecological restoration. This list is not encyclopedic but illustrative. Finally, there are five questions that human society must address that require robust scientific information to make a sound ethical judgment.

  10. Counseling Suicidal Adolescents within Family Systems: Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Rachelle; Hendricks, Bret; Bradley, Loretta

    2009-01-01

    Major ethical considerations must be taken into account when providing counseling services to suicidal adolescents and their families. This article explores these ethical issues and the American Counseling Association and International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors ethical codes relevant to these issues. Related liability and

  11. Limitation of life support in the ICU: Ethical issues relating to end of life care

    OpenAIRE

    Mani R

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, increasingly, intensivists have focused attention on the ethical aspects of end-of- life care. This has led to shifts in the approach from aggressive interventions to one of mitigating pain and taking into account the wishes and sensibilities of the patients? families with regard to continuing futile care. While the legal implications of this change in practice has led to the evolution of precise guidelines in the US and in Europe, in India this vital area of critical ...

  12. Ethical issues relating to the banking of umbilical cord blood in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez-Martinez Edith; Novello-Garza Barbara; Serrano-Delgado V Moises

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Umbilical cord banks are a central component, as umbilical cord tissue providers, in both medical treatment and scientific research with stem cells. But, whereas the creation of umbilical cord banks is seen as successful practice, it is perceived as a risky style of play by others. This article examines and discusses the ethical, medical and legal considerations that arise from the operation of umbilical cord banks in Mexico. Discussion A number of experts have stated that...

  13. To Know or Not to Know: Ethical Issues Related to Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    David Brax; Henrik Zetterberg; Niklas Mattsson

    2010-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), pathological processes start in the brain long before clinical dementia. Biomarkers reflecting brain alterations may therefore indicate disease at an early stage, enabling early diagnosis. This raises several ethical questions and the potential benefits of early diagnosis must be weighted against possible disadvantages. Currently, there are few strong arguments favouring early diagnosis, due to the lack of disease modifying therapy. Also, available diagnostic ...

  14. To Know or Not to Know: Ethical Issues Related to Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Brax

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD, pathological processes start in the brain long before clinical dementia. Biomarkers reflecting brain alterations may therefore indicate disease at an early stage, enabling early diagnosis. This raises several ethical questions and the potential benefits of early diagnosis must be weighted against possible disadvantages. Currently, there are few strong arguments favouring early diagnosis, due to the lack of disease modifying therapy. Also, available diagnostic methods risk erroneous classifications, with potentially grave consequences. However, a possible benefit of early diagnosis even without disease modifying therapy is that it may enable early decision making when patients still have full decision competence, avoiding problems of hypothetical consents. It may also help identifying patients with cognitive dysfunction secondary to other diseases that may be responsive to treatment already today.

  15. Ethical issues in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, B M

    1992-07-01

    Since the birth of Louise Brown in 1978, no other area in clinical practice and medical research has held the public interest to the same extent as the assisted reproductive technologies. This has led to the formation of committees of enquiry, guidelines from professional bodies, the passage of legislation, and the formation of legislative bodies. The ethical issues which arise in the clinical practice of assisted reproduction, the donation of gametes and embryos, and their cryopreservation, surrogacy, and human embryo research are reviewed. PMID:1309130

  16. Proportional ethical review and the identification of ethical issues

    OpenAIRE

    HUNTER, D

    2007-01-01

    Presently, there is a movement in the UK research governance framework towards what is referred to as proportional ethical review. Proportional ethical review is the notion that the level of ethical review and scrutiny given to a research project ought to reflect the level of ethical risk represented by that project. Relatively innocuous research should receive relatively minimal review and relatively risky research should receive intense scrutiny. Although conceptually attractive, the notion...

  17. Ethical Issues in Family Care Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Patrick; Butler, Mary; Hale, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    The abstract consideration of ethical questions in family and informal caregiving might rightly be criticized for ignoring the lived experience of people. This chapter seeks to avoid such oversight by reflecting on ethical issues in family care in a way that is based on careful social scientific inquiry into the well-being of caregivers. The chapter draws on our research and experience in working with family caregivers, both professionally and personally. We step back from a practical concern with policies to support the well-being of caregivers to consider ethical issues associated with their typically hidden role. The chapter begins by noting the growing reliance on family care today. It proceeds to outline the dynamic experience of moving into and out of the caregiver role, before discussing key ethical issues associated with family care. Many of these stem from the risk that caregivers can come to share in the reduced circumstances and vulnerability of those for whom they care. Critical ethical issues are related to the typically "unboundaried" responsibility of family caregivers for the well-being of the cared-for person, something that can be contrasted with the more boundaried and intermittent responsibility of formal caregivers. Additionally, all too often, family caregivers encounter situations where their responsibilities exceed their capacities, but where a choice to not provide care will result in harm to the cared-for person. In discussing these issues, this chapter seeks to make the case for developing more responsive forms of support that promote positive benefits for both caregivers and care recipients. PMID:26673377

  18. International service learning programs: ethical issues and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisch, Rebecca A

    2011-08-01

    Inequities in global health are increasingly of interest to health care providers in developed countries. In response, many academic healthcare programs have begun to offer international service learning programs. Participants in these programs are motivated by ethical principles, but this type of work presents significant ethical challenges, and no formalized ethical guidelines for these activities exist. In this paper the ethical issues presented by international service learning programs are described and recommendations are made for how academic healthcare programs can carry out international service learning programs in a way that minimizes ethical conflicts and maximizes benefits for all stakeholders. Issues related to project sustainability and community involvement are emphasized. PMID:21790960

  19. Resolving Ethical Issues when Conducting Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruess, Clint E.; Greenberg, Jerrold S.

    2008-01-01

    Ethical issues about conducting sexuality education often arise. This paper describes one system of ethics and how the sexuality educator can use that system to determine whether an action is moral or immoral and, therefore, the appropriate action to take for that sexuality educator to be consistent with his or her values. Ethical principles are

  20. Ethical Issues for Community College Student Programmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Discusses examples of unique ethical issues faced by community college student programmers: member commitment, poor program attendance and lack of programming board diversity, and conflicts of interest (EV)

  1. TYPOLOGY ETHICAL ISSUES GLOBAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?.?. ????????

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This academic paper refines and systematizes the following clasificational approaches for determining the typology of the ethical problems of the global business environment: macro level ethical problems, ethical problems of the relations between companies and their external environment, internal ethical problems of the companies in the context moral vectors. The author also illustrates the cross-cultural multi-vectoral perception of the ethical problems in the business communities of the world.

  2. Ethical issues in healthcare financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, S R; Paul, T J

    2011-07-01

    The four goals of good healthcare are to relieve symptoms, cure disease, prolong life and improve quality of life. Access to healthcare has been a perpetual challenge to healthcare providers who must take into account important factors such as equity, efficiency and effectiveness in designing healthcare systems to meet the four goals of good healthcare. The underlying philosophy may designate health as being a basic human right, an investment, a commodity to be bought and sold, a political demand or an expenditure. The design, policies and operational arrangements will usually reflect which of the above philosophies underpin the healthcare system, and consequently, access. Mechanisms for funding include fee-for-service, cost sharing (insurance, either private or government sponsored) free-of-fee at point of delivery (payments being made through general taxes, health levies, etc) or cost-recovery. For each of these methods of financial access to healthcare services, there are ethical issues which can compromise the four principles of ethical practices in healthcare, viz beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice. In times of economic recession, providing adequate healthcare will require governments, with support from external agencies, to focus on poverty reduction strategies through provision of preventive services such as immunization and nutrition, delivered at primary care facilities. To maximize the effect of such policies, it will be necessary to integrate policies to fashion an intersectoral approach. PMID:22097685

  3. Ethical issues in surgical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Megan E; Siegler, Mark; Angelos, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Innovation is responsible for most advances in the field of surgery. Innovative approaches to solving clinical problems have significantly decreased morbidity and mortality for many surgical procedures, and have led to improved patient outcomes. While innovation is motivated by the surgeon's expectation that the new approach will be beneficial to patients, not all innovations are successful or result in improved patient care. The ethical dilemma of surgical innovation lies in the uncertainty of whether a particular innovation will prove to be a "good thing." This uncertainty creates challenges for surgeons, patients, and the healthcare system. By its very nature, innovation introduces a potential risk to patient safety, a risk that may not be fully known, and it simultaneously fosters an optimism bias. These factors increase the complexity of informed consent and shared decision making for the surgeon and the patient. Innovative procedures and their associated technology raise issues of cost and resource distribution in the contemporary, financially conscious, healthcare environment. Surgeons and institutions must identify and address conflicts of interest created by the development and application of an innovation, always preserving the best interest of the patient above the academic or financial rewards of success. Potential strategies to address the challenges inherent in surgical innovation include collecting and reporting objective outcomes data, enhancing the informed consent process, and adhering to the principles of disclosure and professionalism. As surgeons, we must encourage creativity and innovation while maintaining our ethical awareness and responsibility to patients. PMID:24728580

  4. ETHICAL ISSUES IN THE PRACTICE OF PSYCHIATRY

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, A. K.

    2001-01-01

    Often ethical concerns are limited to issues like informed consent, confidentiality patients rights etc. However ethical concern includes all areas of doctor-patient relationship? This paper will highlight ethical issues m everyday clinical practice. Clear-cut guidelines are not available in these areas but the purpose is to sensitise the profession of the need to carefully scrutinise very action of the psychiatrist during clinical work.

  5. Ethical and legal issues in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, J L

    2001-11-01

    This article reviews the ethical principles underlying palliative care, stressing the importance of respecting patient's rights to withdraw or withhold life-sustaining treatment, including artificial hydration and nutrition. There is no ethical or constitutional right to receive physician-assisted suicide or voluntary active euthanasia. This article discusses current ethical controversies in palliative care, including futility, medication dosage and double-effect, terminal sedation, legalization of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia, and patient refusal of hydration and nutrition. Relevant legal issues are discussed in tandem with the ethical issues. PMID:11854109

  6. Telecare technologies and isolation: some ethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Eccles School of Social Work & Social Policy, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK Abstract: Telecare technologies involve the remote monitoring of patients who have health, rehabilitation or social needs. These technologies, although deployed unevenly in developed countries, represent a shift in the ways in which care is practiced. Research on the consequences of this shift away from more traditional "hands-on" care has focused primarily on quantitative measurement (for example cost savings with less attention paid to how recipients themselves experience these new care practices. This paper discusses two aspects of telecare technologies which are under researched; the potential for loneliness which may arise as a result of the use of these technologies, and the ethical issues raised by this. The primary locus of the discussion is the UK, where a major public policy shift towards telecare is under way and where telecare research based on randomized control trials has been particularly well funded by the government. The discussion concludes that there is indeed the potential for loneliness, a condition increasingly recognized as a significant factor in reducing overall health and well-being, in the use of these technologies. The ethical implications of this are not being sufficiently considered, in part because the ethical frameworks in use do not adequately address the issue of loneliness itself, given their bio-medical, rather than relational focus. The paper suggests two ways of redressing this. First, the addition of approaches to ethics other than bio-medical particularly those with a relational and contextual focus or greater exploration of how the two approaches might interact. Second, it suggests that a paradigm shift towards solutions other than technology-based care is overdue. This shift would not underplay the importance of technological contributions to care needs. It would, however, be an argument to suggest we proceed with some caution, advance the research evidence on the complexity of users' experiences of these technologies, and explore potentially simpler and ethically more relational approaches to care, such as shared or intergenerational living. Keywords: telecare, isolation, loneliness, ethics, public policy

  7. Ethical issues in a pediatric private practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowitz, Melissa

    2011-11-01

    Building a successful pediatric private practice requires clinical expertise and an understanding of the business process, as well as familiarity with the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Code of Ethics. This article provides an overview of the ethical issues that may be encountered when building a practice, including a look at marketing and advertising, financial management, privacy, and documentation. Ethically sound decision making is a key to a successful business. PMID:22144085

  8. Ethical issues and societal expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel Metlay (NWTRB) declared that institutions had always recognised an ethical obligation to manage high- level radioactive waste in unprecedented ways. This obligation has not only endured, but has become more explicit and multidimensional and it now subsumed under a more general rubric of 'societal expectations'. D. Metlay directed attention toward the proceedings of previous RWMC-RF workshop ', which contains five essays, authored by Kjell Andersson, Andrew Blowers, Carl-Reinhold Braakenhielm, Francois Dermange, and Patricia Fleming, that are relevant to the question of ethical issues and societal expectations. D. Metlay observed that 'societal expectations' are hard to define and thus very hard to measure. They may vary considerably with time and from country to country. As an illustration he referred to an inquiry performed by a task group 30 years ago in a document entitled 'Proposed Goals for Radioactive Waste Management' (NUREG-0300) on behalf of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Conclusions from D. Metlay are that, for the most part, societal expectations in the United States appear to be quite stable over a period of more than 30 years. In two areas, however, there are clear differences in emphasis between expectations articulated in the last few years and those recorded in 1978. (1) While then there was emphasis on the operational reliability of organisations and institutions. In particular, much care was taken to discuss the inherent limitations on bureaucratic error-correction in the future. The focus is nowadays more on bureaucratic behaviours associated with carrying out decision-making processes in the present. (2) While there is current emphasis on the importance of trust, transparency, and accountability, the NRC document may cast some doubt on the reliability of a stepwise decision-making process. In the domain of radioactive waste management, error signals are notoriously unclear, and strong disagreements over objectives and value trade-offs often arise. Also, the key prerequisite for reliable error detection - independence - is often at odds with the key prerequisite for reliable error rectification-interdependence. He concluded that it is unclear just how far we have come in the last 30 years in meeting societal expectations for post-closure and post-monitoring repository performance

  9. ICT Student Teachers' Judgments and Justifications about Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakurt, Turgay; Bardakci, Salih; Keser, Hafize

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Turkish ICT student teachers' judgments and justifications in four scenarios involving ICT-related ethical problems were investigated. Scenarios were designed based on Mason's (1986) four ethical issues: privacy, accuracy, property and accessibility. The study was carried out in the fall of 2010. We used the critical incidents

  10. Science and ethics: Some issues for education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Jennifer; Robottom, Ian

    2001-11-01

    Ethical issues concerning pain and suffering of animals are necessarily a consideration when it comes to killing pest or feral species in Australia. Within a continent where there are no large predators, many introduced animal species such as rabbits, foxes, horses, donkeys, camels, goats, and mice have been able to thrive, competing with the interests of farmers and graziers, and livestock and food production. These species, thus, gain the label of pest. Many methods now exist to kill these species and, consequently, ethical issues arise concerning the possible pain and suffering caused as a direct result of these methods. Yet within government and scientific communities, ethical issues are reduced to a secondary consideration without serious debate or contention. Ethical issues appear to be at odds with scientific agendas. How can environmental ethics be incorporated as part of science-based decision making that appeals to objectivity and scientific evidence? Within educational institutions as well, the same dilemma exists: How can ethical issues be addressed within the science curriculum and in the classroom? A greater understanding of various perspectives on the subject of environmental ethics and the value positions advocated by proponents of these perspectives may help teachers consider ways of handling such issues in the science classroom.

  11. Ethical Issues in Continuing Professional Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Patricia Ann

    2000-01-01

    Continuing professional education practitioners often face ethical dilemmas regarding their obligations to multiple stakeholders and issues arising in new arenas such as the workplace, distance education, and collaboration with business. Codes of ethics can guide practice, but practitioners should also identify their personal core values system

  12. Ethical Issues in Accounting: A Teaching Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Theodore Roosevelt said, "To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society." With this quote in mind, this paper describes three ethical issues in the discipline area of accounting. The format of the paper is to first provide background information on the ethical question or scenario then to provide a

  13. Ethical Issues in Parent Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapon-Shevin, Mara

    1982-01-01

    Four areas of ethical concern are voiced in the training of parents of handicapped children: (1) selection of program goals, (2) problems involved with both positive reinforcement and punishment, (3) conflicts between experimentation and therapeutic intervention, and (4) level of parent training. Consideration of ethical issues at each step of

  14. Ethical issues that confront nurses in private hospitals in the Western Cape Metropolitan area

    OpenAIRE

    Ethelwynn L. Stellenberg; Alta J. Dorse

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nurses are faced daily with a variety of ethical issues which could be as a result of budget cuts, target setting, the shortage of nurses and expertise. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to identify ethical issues related to patient care, to describe ethical issues related to patient diversity, rights and human dignity. To describe ethical issues related to caring in nursing and to the workplace environment. Method: A quantitative explorative descriptive researc...

  15. Ethical issues in gestational surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ber, R

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of contraceptive technologies has resulted in the separation of sex and procreation. The introduction of new reproductive technologies (mainly IVF and embryo transfer) has led not only to the separation of procreation and sex, but also to the redefinition of the terms mother and family. For the purpose of this essay, I will distinguish between: 1. the genetic mother--the donor of the egg; 2. the gestational mother--she who bears and gives birth to the baby; 3. the social mother--the woman who raises the child. This essay will deal only with the form of gestational surrogacy in which the genetic parents intend to be the social parents, and the surrogate mother has no genetic relationship to the child she bears and delivers. I will raise questions regarding medical ethical aspects of surrogacy and the obligation(s) of the physician(s) to the parties involved. I will argue that the gestational surrogate is "a womb to rent," that there is great similarity between gestational commercial surrogacy and organ transplant marketing. Furthermore, despite claims to freedom of choice and free marketing, I will claim that gestational surrogacy is a form of prostitution and slavery, exploitation of the poor and needy by those who are better off. The right to be a parent, although not constitutional, is intuitive and deeply rooted. However, the issue remains whether this right overrules all other rights, and at what price to the parties involved. I will finally raise the following provocative question to society: In the interim period between today's limited technology and tomorrow's extra-corporeal gestation technology (ectogenesis), should utilizing females in PVS (persistent vehetative state) for gestational surrogacy be socially acceptable/permissible--provided they have left permission in writing? PMID:10967951

  16. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of valuing the environment and implications for the definition of harm and monetary valuation of environmental goods; second, difficulties with scientific uncertainty and applications of the precautionary principle; and third, issues concerned with the distribution of risk and its relevance fo participation in decision-making. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors

  17. Ethical Issues in Pediatric Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Lisa; Suresh, Gautham K; Lahey, Tim

    2016-02-01

    Children are vulnerable to the priorities and decision-making of adults. Usually, parents/caregivers make the difficult healthcare decisions for their children based on the recommendations from the child's healthcare providers. In global health work, healthcare team members from different countries and cultures may guide healthcare decisions by parents and children, and as a result ethical assumptions may not be shared. As a result, ethical issues in pediatric global health are numerous and complex. Here we discuss critical ethical issues in global health at an individual and organizational level in hopes this supports optimized decision-making on behalf of children worldwide. PMID:26613697

  18. Ethical Issues in Emergency Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nathan Gold; Khan, Jeffrey Steven; Alzahri, Mohammad Shami; Stolar, Andrea Gail

    2015-11-01

    The care of patients with a psychiatric emergency is fraught with ethical challenges. Applying ethical reasoning to clinical challenges may help to improve care. Emergency providers should assess decision-making capacity using 4 criteria: communication, understanding, appreciation, and reasoning. Maintaining patient confidentiality is a strong imperative for emergency physicians and should be protected unless compelling additional concerns take precedence. The goal of involuntary treatment should be to protect patients from harm that they would not be exposed to were they capable of autonomous decision making, not dangerous, or not impaired by their psychiatric illness using the least restrictive means possible. PMID:26493529

  19. Postmortem Confidentiality: An Ethical Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, Bret; Kabell, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    In an era of increased need and expectation for confidentiality, the counseling record of the deceased client challenges confidentiality. Using ethical codes and legal mandates, the authors explore whether the counseling record of a deceased client should be released when the client's will and the client's counseling records are silent on this

  20. Ethical Issues in Network System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Langford

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, most desktop computers and PCs are networked that is, they have the ability to link to other machines, usually to access data and other information held remotely. Such machines may sometimes be connected directly to each other, as part of an office or company computer system. More frequently, however, connected machines are at a considerable distance from each other, typically connected through links to global systems such as the Internet, or World Wide Web (WWW. The networked machine itself may be anything from a powerful company computer with direct Internet connections, to a small hobbyist machine, accessing a bulletin board through telephone and modem. It is important to remember that, whatever the type or the location of networked machines, their access to the network, and the network itself, was planned and constructed following deliberate design considerations. In this paper I discuss some ways in which the technical design of computer systems might appropriately be influenced by ethical issues, and examine pressures on computer scientists and others to technically control network related actions perceived as 'unethical'. After examination of the current situation, I draw together the issues, and conclude by suggesting some ethically based recommendations for the future design of networked systems.

  1. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to practical environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of who or what has moral standing; second the appropriate level of protection; and third compatibility with other environmental stressors. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds for efforts to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors. (author)

  2. Ethical issues in ecological restoration

    OpenAIRE

    John Cairns Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The acid test of humankind's relationship to natural systems is the degree to which ecological damage caused by humans is repaired by humans. Technology and science are available, so the remaining stimulus needed for implementation of ecological restoration is the ethical responsibility to do so. Ecological restoration can be regarded as enlightened self-interest for humankind since it increases both natural capital and ecosystem services. However, well-designed ecological restoration proecjt...

  3. Issues and Guidance in Research Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald D. Francis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the principles that govern the outlook and decisions of research ethics committees. The purpose of the paper is to outline such underlying principles in order to aid understanding for researchers into aspects of social and commercial behaviour. Prior to conducting research in any corporate area there is an obligation toward any human participants. That obligation is set out most clearly in the information and forms put out by the various ethics committees charged with examining the proposal, and with giving formal ethical approval. The principles that invest the understanding of ethics committees are those of protecting the vulnerable, and of protecting justifiably good reputations. Ethics committees should be seen as enabling and protecting rather than as a barrier to research. Peer reviews should be seen to include ethics matters in research, and are thus a natural extension of the common scientific endeavour. To this end the article outlines and discusses the issues commonly addressed by research ethics committees. By highlighting these principles, this paper aims to give insights and suggestions that should make the ethics application task easier.

  4. Ethical Issues of Reproductive Technologies: Legal and Ethical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammler, Kim

    Ethical issues which surround the reproductive technologies being used to assist infertile couples include social impact, surrogacy, access to service and confidentiality. The use of reproductive technologies does not appear to cause harm, and often does a lot of good for the family and society. Surrogacy could be a valuable tool for the infertile…

  5. Ethical Issues of Reproductive Technologies: Legal and Ethical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammler, Kim

    Ethical issues which surround the reproductive technologies being used to assist infertile couples include social impact, surrogacy, access to service and confidentiality. The use of reproductive technologies does not appear to cause harm, and often does a lot of good for the family and society. Surrogacy could be a valuable tool for the infertile

  6. Ethical Issues in Engineering Models: Personal Reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Kleijnen, Jack P.C.

    2010-01-01

    I start this contribution with an overview of my personal involvementas an Operations Research consultantin several engineering case-studies that may raise ethical questions; these case studies employ simulation models. Next, I present an overview of the recent literature on ethical issues in modeling, focusing on the validation of the models assumptions; the decisive role of these assumptions leads to the quest for robust models. Actually, models are meant to solve practical problems; the...

  7. Nontechnical issues in waste management: ethical, institutional, and political concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report consists of a presentation and distillation of major nontechnical issues surrounding commercial waste management, followed by ethical, institutional, and political analyses of these issues. The ethical analysis consists of a discusson of what is meant by ''ethics'' and ''morality'' in the waste management context and an illustrative attempt at an ethical analysis of the commercial nuclear waste problem. Two institutional analyses are presented: one is an analysis of the possible problems of long-term human institutions in waste management; the other is a presentation of institutional arrangements for the short term. A final chapter discusses issues and concerns involving intergovernmental relations--that is, local, state, and federal interface problems in waste management

  8. Nontechnical issues in waste management: ethical, institutional, and political concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebert, J.A.; Rankin, W.L.; Brown, P.G.; Schuller, C.R; Smith, R.F.; Goodnight, J.A.; Lippek, H.E.

    1978-05-01

    The report consists of a presentation and distillation of major nontechnical issues surrounding commercial waste management, followed by ethical, institutional, and political analyses of these issues. The ethical analysis consists of a discusson of what is meant by ''ethics'' and ''morality'' in the waste management context and an illustrative attempt at an ethical analysis of the commercial nuclear waste problem. Two institutional analyses are presented: one is an analysis of the possible problems of long-term human institutions in waste management; the other is a presentation of institutional arrangements for the short term. A final chapter discusses issues and concerns involving intergovernmental relations--that is, local, state, and federal interface problems in waste management.

  9. Ethical Issues in Health Services: A Report and Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, James

    This publication identifies, discusses, and lists areas for further research for five ethical issues related to health services: 1) the right to health care; 2) death and euthanasia; 3) human experimentation; 4) genetic engineering; and, 5) abortion. Following a discussion of each issue is a selected annotated bibliography covering the years 1967

  10. Ethical issues in the treatment of cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, D J

    1989-01-01

    Nineteen speakers at the International Conference on Supportive Care--More than Medicine, which was cosponsored by WHO and held in Chteau Montebello, Quebec, Canada, 18-21 July 1988, presented short introductory lectures and led the Ethics Working Group's discussions on the following ethical issues relating to cancer research and the treatment of cancer patients: telling the truth; allowing to die and practice of euthanasia; clinical research; and limited resources leading to hard choices. T...

  11. Teaching Ethical Reflexivity in Information Systems: How to Equip Students to Deal with Moral and Ethical Issues of Emerging Information and Communication Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Bernd Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Teaching ethics to students of information systems (IS) raises a number of conceptual and content-related issues. The present paper starts out by developing a conceptual framework of moral and ethical issues that distinguishes between moral intuition, explicit morality, ethical theory and meta-ethical reflection. This conceptual framework

  12. Ethics and internal audit: whistleblowing issues

    OpenAIRE

    Bunget, Ovidiu-Constantin; David-Sobolevschi, Maria-Iulia

    2009-01-01

    It is undisputed that the companies performances are now more than ever, in the concerns caused by global competition and financial crisis. In this context, one of the interveners in the direction of performance is having an ethical and responsable behavior regrading the public. An ethical behavior is related first of all to the idea of morality, above respecting the law. Ethics aims to the heart of the corporates reputation and in the end that is all you have if you hope to be successful...

  13. Ethical Issues in Collaborative Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Terry; Alcorn, Noeline; O'Neill, John

    2013-01-01

    This article begins by raising issues around the way in which ethical approval for research is managed in university settings, where committees often base their assumptions on a principlist approach making a number of assumptions that we consider to be contestable, such as a neat separation between researcher and researched. However, collaborative

  14. E-Mail and Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, Bret

    2009-01-01

    The proliferation of the use of e-mail and texting has created some ethical dilemmas for family counselors. Although e-mail can expand and encourage communication, it is not problem free and, in fact, can pose problems. There are issues with privacy, confidentiality, and maintaining an appropriate professional relationship. Family counselors

  15. Legal and ethical issues regarding social media and pharmacy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jeff; Fink, Joseph L

    2010-12-15

    Widespread use of social media applications like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter has introduced new complexities to the legal and ethical environment of higher education. Social communications have traditionally been considered private; however, now that much of this information is published online to the public, more insight is available to students' attitudes, opinions, and character. Pharmacy educators and administrators may struggle with the myriad of ethical and legal issues pertaining to social media communications and relationships with and among students. This article seeks to clarify some of these issues with a review of the legal facets and pertinent court cases related to social media. In addition, 5 core ethical issues are identified and discussed. The article concludes with recommendations for pharmacy educators with regard to preparing for and addressing potential legal issues pertaining to social media. PMID:21436925

  16. Ethical issues concerning New Zealand sports doctors

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, L.; Gerrard, D.

    2005-01-01

    Success in sport can provide a source of national pride for a society, and vast financial and personal rewards for an individual athlete. It is therefore not surprising that many athletes will go to great lengths in pursuit of success. The provision of healthcare for elite sports people has the potential to create many ethical issues for sports doctors; however there has been little discussion of them to date. This study highlights these issues. Respondents to a questionnaire identified many ...

  17. Ethical issues related to professional exposure of pregnant women in the medical field: Monitoring and limiting effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations for occupational exposed pregnant women do not imply necessarily the complete avoidance of work with radiation or radioactive materials. Instead, a careful review of the exposure conditions, once the pregnancy is declared, as part of the exercise of the ICRP optimisation principle (based in a teleological ethics point of view) is suggested. The dose limitation (following a deontological ethics point of view) of the fetus/embryo is, however, not clearly well established as happens in the case of workers or members of the public. Also, the justification of practices (to continue to work or not with radiation or radioactive materials) is not clearly addressed in most national or international recommendations. An analysis of this justification (bearing in mind both teleological and deontological ethics) is examined in this work having in mind the best interest of the child-to-be as well as other existing social and economical factors. (authors)

  18. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikee Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for"another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  19. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Pikee Saxena; Archana Mishra; Sonia Malik

    2012-01-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy “for” another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  20. Surrogacy: ethical and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-10-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for" another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents. PMID:23293432

  1. Exhibition Ethics - An Overview of Major Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andromache Gazi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Museum ethics are about value judgements. In making such judgements museum personnel is constantly valuing one option over another. This holds true for every aspect of museum work; from collecting policies and conservation to store priorities and exhibition. In recent decades there has been a growing concern in addressing ethical issues in museums as museum workers have developed cultural sensitivity and social responsiveness to a degree unseen before. Most codes of ethics urge museums to give appropriate consideration to represented groups or beliefs. In light of this, it has been recognised that exhibition of sensitive material, for example, must be done with great tact and respect for the feelings of religious, ethnic or other groups represented. Another issue concerns the display of unprovenanced material and repatriation.Yet, these are not the only ethical issues which exhibition developers are faced with. As museum workers we should constantly be reminded that exhibitions are active agents in the construction of knowledge. This paper discusses the hidden assumptions on which museum presentation and interpretation are often based. Decisions about what to include and what to exclude, what is valued and what is not, the means of presentation, language, and so on, all lead to presentational styles which may shape the publics perception in unintended ways.

  2. Ethical issues in forecasting of natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Natural hazards have by definition a large impact on the society and, therefore, since the beginning of science one of the major aspiration of mankind has been the prediction of natural calamities in the attempt to avoid or to mitigate their effects. In modern societies where science and technology have gained a foundational role, forecasts and predictions have become part of the every-day life and may also influence state policies and economic development. And in parallel with the growing importance of forecasting, even ethical problems for forecasters and for forecasters communities have started to appear. In this work two of the many geo-ethical issues are considered mostly: 1) how to cope with uncertainties that are inherently associated with any forecast statement; 2) how to handle predictions in scientific journals and scientific conferences The former issue is mainly related to the impact of predictions on the general public and on managers and operators in the civil protection field. Forecasters operate in specific contexts that 1) may change from country to country, depending on the local adopted best practices, but also, which is more constraining, on the local legal regulations and laws; 2) may change from discipline to discipline according to the development of the specific knowhow and the range of the forecast (from minutes to centuries) The second issue has to do with the communication of the scientific results on predictions and on prediction methods to the audience mainly composed of scientists, and involves one of the basic elements of science. In principle, scientists should use scientific communication means (papers in scientific journals, conferences, …) to illustrate results that are sound and certain, or the methods by means of which they conduct their research. But scientists involved in predictions have inherently to do with uncertainties, and, since there is no common agreement on how to deal with them, there is the risk that scientific results may be confused with opinions and opinions with scientific results, which creates confusion in the scientific community, in the science divulgators and in turn in the general public.

  3. Radiation protection: Some philosophical and ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ethical issue of justification has become an urgent issue in radiology. There has been a shift in emphasis in the discussion from what has been regarded as a rather paternalistic attitude of practitioners to one that stresses the rights of the individual patient. This article comments on this current move on the part of the profession by offering certain relevant philosophical considerations. Using a medical scenario as the context to comment on this shift, it discusses important and fundamental issues, such as the autonomy and the rights of the patient in addition to the question of consent on the patient's part.

  4. Re-Examining Ethical Issue: Philosophical Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reflects on the current trend among radiologists to move away from what is regarded as a paternalistic attitude existing among practitioners and to place more emphasis on the rights of individual patients with regard to the issue of justification. The ethical discussion addresses the autonomy and rights of the patient, as well as the question of consent on his or her part. (author)

  5. Child abuse and neglect: ethical issues.

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, J

    1985-01-01

    Children may be abused physically, sexually, emotionally and by omission or commission in any permutation under these headings. This is discussed in terms of the separate and overlapping responsibilities of parents, guardians, the community in which they live and the network of professional services developed to care for, protect and educate children. An attempt is made to place these issues within an ethical framework, with regard to the legislature of England and Wales. It is argued that pr...

  6. Social and Ethical Issues in Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contamination of environments with radionuclides can give rise to consequences additional to the health risks from exposure to radiation. As experience from Chernobyl has demonstrated, both accident and remediation measures can have serious social, ethical and economic consequences. This paper presents a review of some of these issues and presents a checklist of the socioethical aspects of remediation measures. The paper also discusses remediation measures that are directed towards benefits other than dose reduction. (author)

  7. Lifestyle market segmentation - efficiency and ethical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Pilstl, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    Lifestyle market segmentation can be very supportive for a successful marketing strategy of a company. However it is not clear whether lifestyle market segmentation is efficient and ethical or not. Several market segmentation concepts such as Cross-Cultural Consumer Characterization, VALS, PRIZM NE, Mosaic, ConneXions NE and GfK Roper Consumer Styles are analyzed in order to give an extensive overview of the offered concepts. The observation of efficiency issues in regards to market segmentat...

  8. The Ethical Issues of Privacy, Confidentiality and Privileged Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnelly, Diane T.

    School psychologists and other educators should be concerned about the issues of confidentiality, privacy and privileged communication in regard to school records such as psychological reports and intelligence test scores. Confidentiality relates to matters of professional ethics, privileged communication refers to legal rights, and privacy is a

  9. School Psychology in Rural Contexts: Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lynn M.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Delivering psychological services in rural communities presents a number of unique challenges for practitioners relative to their peers in urban and suburban communities. In this article, the authors describe the current context of rural schools and examine the ethical and legal issues school psychologists may face when practicing in rural

  10. Ethical issues in medico-legal exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Medical Exposure Directive (MED) 97/43/Euratom defines medico-legal procedures as 'procedures performed for insurance or legal purposes without a medical indication'. The term 'medico-legal exposures' covers a wide range of possible types of exposures, very different in nature, for which the only feature in common is the fact that the main reason for performing them does not relate directly to the health of the individual being exposed to ionising radiation. The key issue in medico-legal exposures is justification. Balancing the advantages and disadvantages of such exposures is complex because not only can these be difficult to quantify and hence compare, but often the advantage may be to society whereas the disadvantage is usually to an individual. This adds an additional layer of ethical complexity to the problem and one, which requires input from a number of sources beyond the established radiation protection community. Because medico-legal exposures are considered to be medical exposures, they are not subject to dose limits. In medico-legal exposures where the benefit is not necessarily to the individual undergoing the exposure, the question must be asked as to whether or not this is an appropriate framework within which to conduct such exposures. This paper looks at the current situation in Europe, highlighting some of the particular problems that have arisen, and tries to identify the areas, which require further clarification and guidance. (authors)

  11. Teaching Ethics across the Public Relations Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Liese L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests ways of incorporating ethics across the undergraduate public relations curriculum. Reviews current coverage of ethics in public relations principles, writing, cases, and textbooks. Suggests other methods that teachers can use to incorporate ethical pedagogical tools in all public relations courses in an effort to develop students' ethical

  12. A STUDY OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN BANKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Joshi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance of a country is largely determined by banking and financial system. Banking and finance play a vital and crucial role in framing public policies in today’s business environment. This article highlights social and ethical issues such as social banking, ethical banking, green banking, global banking, rural banking, and agri-banking, which help in achieving sustainable development of banking and finance. For this purpose, we have gone through a series of development that are taking place in current business scenario. This paper is divided in four parts. First part discuss introduction of Banking Industry in India. Second part explains historical background of banking and its development. It also discusses concept of Banks. Third part analyzes the review of past studies on the theme. Fourth part highlights Social and Ethical issues related to Banking Industry and finally conclusion has been given.

  13. What Counts as a 'Social and Ethical Issue' in Nanotechnology?

    OpenAIRE

    Lewenstein, Bruce V

    2005-01-01

    As 'social and ethical issues' becomes a recurring phrase in the community paying attention to nanotechnology research, a crucial question becomes: what counts as a social and ethical issue? A typical list includes privacy, environmental health and safety, media hype, and other apparently unrelated issues. This article surveys those issues and suggests that concerns about fundamental concepts of ethics, such as fairness, justice, equity, and especially power, unite the various issues identifi...

  14. The effect of home and host country cultures on marketing managers` individual decision making related to ethical issues in MNCs :Inter- and intra-cultural study

    OpenAIRE

    Kliukinskaitė-Vigil, Virginija

    2012-01-01

    The topic of business ethics has always been relevant, but never more so than at the present time of the global economic crisis. Nestlè, Lockheed, Union Carbide, Nike, Enron, Tyco, AIG, BP, Halliburton, Lehman Brothers, Bernard L. Madoff are just a few well-known names of businesses/related individuals that at one time or other openly failed ethically. Such cases have prompted researchers to analyze the causes of unethical behavior to understand what drives individuals in business organizatio...

  15. A Draft Ethics Curriculum Based on Ethical Issues Experienced by Family Doctors in Dzce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akp?nar A et al.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine ethical issues experienced by family doctors in Dzce, the pilot province for implementation of the primary health care reform 'Transformation in Health' in Turkey in 2005.Method: We conducted this study between May and June 2007 in Dzce. A self-administered-questionnaire prepared by the researchers included 13 ethical issues inquiring about physicians' frequency of encounter, difficulty in managing the problem, and learning needs in ethical topics. Results: Fifty-seven percent of family doctors who were practicing in Dzce (56/98 took part in the study. Most of them (89.3% were in practice over a year, had more than 3000 registered patients (80.4% with homogenous distribution (67.9%. Physicians reported to encounter ethical dilemmas related to informed consent (72.7%, conflict of self-interest and altruism (44.6%, determining competency (41.8%, claims of alternative therapy (41.0%, relationship with representatives of drug companies (39.2%, truth-telling (28.6%, and resource allocation (27.3% at least once a month. Participants were experienced difficulties when solving dilemmas related to determining competency in patients, reporting incompetency of a colleague, informed consent, best interest of the child, truth-telling, conflict of self-interest and altruism, respectively. Best interest of the child, truth-telling, determining competency in patients, protecting others' interest and gaining informed consent were prioritized topics for education. Conclusion: Our results implied that family doctors experienced difficulties in ethical conduct during daily clinical practice. The most frequently mentioned ethical issues were evaluated with respect to expressed learning needs which served to develop a draft ethics curriculum.

  16. Environmental issues in Finnish school textbooks on religious education and ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Essi Aarnio-Linnanvuori

    2013-01-01

    Solving global environmental problems requires a major change of values. As relates to environmental education, worldview, ethics and spiritual issues are important elements. But how are environmental issues included in such school subjects that especially discuss values and ethics? In this article I examine 24 Finnish religious education and ethics textbooks to analyze, to what extent environmental issues are integrated and discussed in them. I conclude that there is confusion about what env...

  17. Ethics problems and theories in public relations

    OpenAIRE

    Grunig, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Public relations professionals encounter ethical problems as individuals who make decisions about their professional lives. They also serve as ethical counselors to organizations, a role in which they help organizations behave in ethical, responsible, and sustainable ways. This introduction defines ethics and social responsibility and discusses the possibilities and obstacles that public relations professionals face in the role of ethical counselor. Seven research problems in public relations...

  18. [Ethics and reproductive health: the issue of HPV vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateji?, Bojana; Kesi?, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the vaccination status. PMID:23539924

  19. Ethics and reproductive health: The issue of HPV vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateji? Bojana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years, attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the vaccination status.

  20. Ethical issues in radiology: A philosophical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given that there is much disagreement as to what constitutes 'philosophy', even among philosophers, it is a challenge to provide a philosophical perspective. There are, however, at least two areas that most philosophers would regard as coming within the terrain of philosophical thinking: (1) the clarification of issues and (2) providing some sort of a foundation on which further thinking can take place. Thus, by way of contributing a philosophical perspective to the discussion, this paper will clarify some of the more fundamental issues regarding ethical debates in the hope of establishing some kind of theoretical foundation on which to base the discussion of the more specific issues and of widening the scope of the discussion. (authors)

  1. The quality of medicines: an ethical issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinetto, Raffaella; Schiavett, Benedetta

    2015-01-01

    The Hippocratic maxim, "Do no harm," is a long-standing fundamental principle of medical ethics, encompassing both medical practice and medical research. Yet, not enough attention is given to the implications of this principle for sectors related to medical research and practice, such as the pharmaceutical sector. The regulation of the standards of quality in pharmaceutical production and distribution, for instance, is generally considered a purely technical - rather than ethical - subject. Poor enforcement of regulatory supervision of manufacturers and wholesalers of medicine exposes the end-users to low-quality pharmaceutical products, which will result in avoidable "harm", such as therapeutic failure, emergence of resistance and even direct toxicity. A glaring example of this in recent times was the death, in Pakistan, of 120 cardiovascular patients who had received a medicine contaminated with pyrimethamine (1). Due to the globalisation of the pharmaceutical supply chain and the lack of international regulatory oversight, stringent drug regulatory authorities in affluent countries are also exposed to challenges related to quality. In the USA, for instance, at least four patients died after using contaminated heparin from China (2). These and other unnecessary deaths, caused by medical products which harmed rather than benefited the patients, are unacceptable and should be questioned on ethical grounds. PMID:26592786

  2. Ethical issues when using social media for health outside professional relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Social media have the potential to revolutionize health and healthcare, but fulfilling this potential requires attention to the ethical issues social media may raise. This article reviews the major ethical issues arising when social media are used for research, public health, mobile health applications, and global health. It focuses on social media use outside fiduciary relationships between healthcare professionals and patients. Emphasis is given to the potential of social media in these contexts, the ethical issues relatively unique to each, and where possible how existing ethical principles and frameworks could help navigate these issues. In some cases social media create the circumstance for particular ethical issues but also facilitate managing them, such as in informed consent for research. In other cases, disagreement exists about whether social media - despite their potential - should be used for certain purposes, such as in public health surveillance (where confidentiality represents a significant ethical concern). In still others, ethical uncertainty exists about how social media will affect ethical issues, such as inequality in global health. As social media technologies continue to develop, identifying and managing the ethical issues they raise will be critical to their success in improving health while preserving fundamental ethical values. PMID:25738215

  3. Depo-Provera--ethical issues in its testing and distribution.

    OpenAIRE

    Potts, M.; Paxman, J M

    1984-01-01

    Ethical issues relating to the use of the injectable contraceptive in developed and developing countries alike involve public policy decisions concerning both criteria for testing a new drug and individual choices about using a specific form of contraception approved for national distribution. Drug testing consists of an important but still evolving set of procedures. Depo-Provera is not qualitatively different from any other drug and some unpredictable risks are inevitable, even after extens...

  4. Ethical Issues Associated with Information and Communication Technology in Counseling and Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, James P., Jr.; Makela, Julia Panke

    2014-01-01

    For more than 50 years, literature on the use of information and communication technology in counseling and guidance has presented ethical issues related to the development and use of technologies in practice. This paper reviews the ethical issues raised, organizing them into three categories: Social equity, resources, and services. Career

  5. "But My Students All Speak English": Ethical Research Issues of Aboriginal English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltse, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    In this article I explore ethical issues in relation to the topic of Aboriginal students who speak a dialect of English. Taking the form of a retrospective inquiry, I draw on data from an earlier study that examined Aboriginal English in the broader context of Aboriginal language loss and revival. Three interrelated ethical issues are discussed:

  6. Ethical Issues in Providing Services in Schools to Children with Swallowing and Feeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Nancy P.; Owre, DeAnne W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article is a commentary and discussion of ethical issues in dysphagia services as related to school-based practice in speech-language pathology. Method: A review of the literature on ethical issues in the provision of speech-language pathology services to individuals with dysphagia was conducted, with particular emphasis on students

  7. Ethical issues in stem cell research and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nancy Mp; Perrin, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Rapid progress in biotechnology has introduced a host of pressing ethical and policy issues pertaining to stem cell research. In this review, we provide an overview of the most significant issues with which the stem cell research community should be familiar. We draw on a sample of the bioethics and scientific literatures to address issues that are specific to stem cell research and therapy, as well as issues that are important for stem cell research and therapy but also for translational research in related fields, and issues that apply to all clinical research and therapy. Although debate about the moral status of the embryo in human embryonic stem cell research continues to have relevance, the discovery of other highly multipotent stem cell types and alternative methods of isolating and creating highly multipotent stem cells has raised new questions and concerns. Induced pluripotent stem cells hold great promise, but care is needed to ensure their safety in translational clinical trials, despite the temptation to move quickly from bench to bedside. A variety of highly multipotent stem cells - such as mesenchymal stem/stromal cells and stem cells derived from amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood, adipose tissue, or urine - present the opportunity for widespread biobanking and increased access. With these increased opportunities, however, come pressing policy issues of consent, control, and justice. The imperatives to minimize risks of harm, obtain informed consent, reduce the likelihood of the therapeutic misconception, and facilitate sound translation from bench to bedside are not unique to stem cell research; their application to stem cell research and therapy nonetheless merits particular attention. Because stem cell research is both scientifically promising and ethically challenging, both the application of existing ethical frameworks and careful consideration of new ethical implications are necessary as this broad and diverse field moves forward. PMID:25157428

  8. Ethical Issues in Neuromarketing: "I Consume, Therefore I am!".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulman, Yesim Isil; Cakar, Tuna; Yildiz, Gokcen

    2015-10-01

    Neuromarketing is a recent interdisciplinary field which crosses traditional boundaries between neuroscience, neuroeconomics and marketing research. Since this nascent field is primarily concerned with improving marketing strategies and promoting sales, there has been an increasing public aversion and protest against it. These protests can be exemplified by the reactions observed lately in Baylor School of Medicine and Emory University in the United States. The most recent attempt to stop ongoing neuromarketing research in France is also remarkable. The pertaining ethical issues have been continuously attracting much attention, especially since the number of neuromarketing companies has exceeded 300 world-wide. This paper begins with a brief introduction to the field of neurotechnology by presenting its current capabilities and limitations. Then, it will focus on the ethical issues and debates most related with the recent applications of this technology. The French Parliament's revision of rules on bioethics in 2004 has an exemplary role in our discussion. The proposal by Murphy et al. (2008) has attracted attention to the necessity of ethical codes structuring this field. A code has recently been declared by the Neuromarketing Science and Business Association. In this paper, it is argued that these technologies should be sufficiently discussed in public spheres and its use on humans should be fully carried out according to the ethical principles and legal regulations designed in line with human rights and human dignity. There is an urgent need in the interdisciplinary scientific bodies like ethics committees monitoring the research regarding the scientific and ethical values of nonmaleficence, beneficence, autonomy, confidentiality, right to privacy and protection of vulnerable groups. PMID:25150848

  9. Ethical issues in caring for patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Julian; Common, Jill

    2015-08-01

    This article discusses issues that might count as 'ethical' in the care of people with dementia and some of the dilemmas that occur. Ethical theories, such as virtue ethics, deontology and consequentialism are discussed, and ethical approaches that can be useful are outlined. Thinking about matters case-by-case is another approach, one that forms the first component of the Nuffield Council's ethical framework for dementia care, which is described. Case examples are provided, raising issues of autonomy, diagnosis, restraint and withholding treatment. The notion of personhood and the need to understand the person with dementia as broadly as possible are emphasised. Recommendations for nursing practice are included. PMID:26243122

  10. [Ethical and legal issues in late stage of dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Lia

    2008-01-01

    As we enter the 21st century, growth of the elderly population, the costs of care, and the advances of medical science and technology will continue to have an impact on the patient-physician relationship. Transformation of the health care system will also raise ethical issues inherent to changing roles. The special nature of Alzheimer's patients and the natural course of their disease require special care on the part of physicians to meet the ethical challenges and establish medical goals, in conjunction with their patients and their families. In spite of these rapid advances in biomedical sciences, were not sufficiently developed in the most fitness answers, regarding special moral and ethical attitudes, which must be taken into account, in particular when we try to understand the experience of people with dementia. This article explores emerging issues in relation to awareness in dementia and its impact on legal and ethical matters. The different approaches and principles demonstrated in relation to ethical issues are discussed, with an exploration of the concepts of mental capacity, testamentary capacity, power of attorney, court of protection, advance directives, decision making, participation in research and treatment, informed consent and older people driving. The tensions that exist between the imperatives of doing no harm and of maintaining autonomy in addressing legal and ethical issues are highlighted. The review emphasizes the importance of considering competency and awareness as being multi-faceted, to be understood in the context of social interaction, trying to deal with the challenge of protecting, but not overprotecting, people with dementia. Late stage of dementia is a terminal disease where the goal of the care may not be prolongation of life at all costs, but rather achievement: quality of life, dignity and comfort. In the initial late dementia, quality of life is the target, treating medical problems and psychiatric symptoms. The dignity of people with severe dementia will be preserved, mostly when this influences patient's behaviour, maximizing individual Independence in daily living activities. Finally, comfort is the last and the most important goal of care in late stages of dementia, using appropriate medical strategies and eliminating aggressive interventions (cardiopulmonary resuscitation, acute care setting, tube feeding and antibiotic treatment). The future work will focus on promoting more evidence-based decision-making on treatment and guidelines for prognostic information. Physician must be knowledgeable about broadly intersecting medical, legal, finance and ethics, underlying the long-term management of dementia. PMID:18489837

  11. Ethical issues in deep brain stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje Schermer

    2011-05-01

    With regard to DBS treatment, the most important issues are balancing risks and benefits and ensuring respect for the autonomous wish of the patient. This implies special attention to patient selection, psycho-social impact of treatment, effects on personal identity, and treatment of children. Moreover, it implies a careful informed consent process in which unrealistic expectations of patients and their families are addressed and in which special attention is given to competence. In the context of research, the fundamental ethical challenge is to promote high-quality scientific research in the interest of future patients, while at the same time safeguarding the rights and interests of vulnerable research subjects. Several guidelines have been proposed to ensure this. One of the preconditions to further development of responsible and transparent research practices is the establishment of a comprehensive registry.

  12. Ethical issues in palliative care: considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manima, Abdulla

    2003-01-01

    Discussions on ethics in palliative care often concentrate on issues like patient autonomy or euthanasia. However, the reality in the developing world begs discussion on an entirely different set of problems altogether. One should have a good death, no doubt, but one should also have an opportunity for a good life. Globalization unfortunately seems to worsen many of the burdens of the developing world, like the negative influence of the mighty pharmaceutical industry. Continuing medical education offered only by the pharmaceutical industry instills bias into the minds of most medical professionals. Prescription practices by many professionals are influenced by the industry; so much so, inexpensive drugs or formulations are abandoned in favor of expensive ones, adding to the burden of a much-suffering individual. Palliative care should have been a major force against such evils, but it seems to get more clinical and institutionalized with time, with the social issues taking a back seat. Unethical research practices and preferential treatment in drug availability are practices that continue to marginalize the less privileged. Adoption of the dominant ideology from the West in the developing world also raises problems like cultural unsuitability. Considering that the bulk of the suffering in the world is in poorer countries, these issues need to be addressed. PMID:15022958

  13. Ethical Issues in Cross-Cultural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honan, Eileen; Hamid, M. Obaidul; Alhamdan, Bandar; Phommalangsy, Phouvanh; Lingard, Bob

    2013-01-01

    The gap between theoretical expectations of research ethics as outlined in the bureaucratic processes associated with University Ethics Committees and the situated realities of students undertaking studies within their own sociocultural contexts is explored in this paper. In particular, the authors investigate differences in ethical norms and

  14. Addressing ethical issues in H3Africa research – the views of research ethics committee members

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, Jantina; Abayomi, Akin; Littler, Katherine; Madden, Ebony; McCurdy, Sheryl; Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Seeley, Janet; Staunton, Ciara; Tangwa, Godfrey; Tindana, Paulina; Troyer, Jennifer; . .

    2015-01-01

    In June 2014, the H3Africa Working Group on Ethics organised a workshop with members of over 40 research ethics committees from across Africa to discuss the ethical challenges raised in H3Africa research, and to receive input on the proposed H3Africa governance framework. Prominent amongst a myriad of ethical issues raised by meeting participants were concerns over consent for future use of samples and data, the role of community engagement in large international collaborative projects, and p...

  15. Nurse managers' experience with ethical issues in six government hospitals in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Maizura

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurse managers have the burden of experiencing frequent ethical issues related to both their managerial and nursing care duties, according to previous international studies. However, no such study was published in Malaysia. The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' experience with ethical issues in six government hospitals in Malaysia including learning about the way they dealt with the issues. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in August-September, 2010 involving 417 (69.2% of total 603 nurse managers in the six Malaysian government hospitals. Data were collected using three-part self-administered questionnaire. Part I was regarding participants' demographics. Part II was about the frequency and areas of management where ethical issues were experienced, and scoring of the importance of 11 pre-identified ethical issues. Part III asked how they dealt with ethical issues in general; ways to deal with the 11 pre-identified ethical issues, and perceived stress level. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations and Pearson's Chi-square. Results A total of 397 (95.2% participants experienced ethical issues and 47.2% experienced them on weekly to daily basis. Experiencing ethical issues were not associated with areas of practice. Top area of management where ethical issues were encountered was "staff management", but "patient care" related ethical issues were rated as most important. Majority would "discuss with other nurses" in dealing generally with the issues. For pre-identified ethical issues regarding "patient care", "discuss with doctors" was preferred. Only 18.1% referred issues to "ethics committees" and 53.0% to the code of ethics. Conclusions Nurse managers, regardless of their areas of practice, frequently experienced ethical issues. For dealing with these, team-approach needs to be emphasized. Proper understanding of the code of ethics is needed to provide basis for reasoning.

  16. Neuroimaging Research with Children: Ethical Issues and Case Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna

    2007-01-01

    There are few available resources for learning and teaching about ethical issues in neuroimaging research with children, who constitute a special and vulnerable population. Here, a brief review of ethical issues in developmental research, situated within the emerging field of neuroethics, highlights the increasingly interdisciplinary nature of

  17. Antiprogestin drugs: ethical, legal and medical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R J; Grimes, D A

    1992-01-01

    RU 486 allows women the choice of a medical rather than a surgical abortion, and, for most women, the choice is one of procedure, not of whether to have an abortion. Issues surrounding RU 486 were explored in an American Society of Law and Medicine conference in December 1991 entitled "Antiprogestin Drugs: Ethical, Legal and Medical Issues." An introduction to 14 conference papers provides an overview of the proceedings. Baulieu, the father of RU 486, described updated developments in its use and the medically supervised method of abortion. Bygdeman and Swahn presented their work in Sweden on combining RU 486 with a prostaglandin to make abortion more effective. They suggested that the drug may be an attractive postovulation contraceptive. Greenslad et al. discussed service delivery aspects of the use of RU 486. Holt considered the implications of use of the drug in low-resource settings. A survey of obstetricians and gynecologists, presented by Heilig, indicates that 22% more physicians would perform a medical abortion. Patient perspectives were addressed by David, who stated that measuring acceptability of an abortion technique is difficult; women have historically used whatever method is available. A collaborative research project in India and Cuba on why women chose certain methods was reported by Winikoff et al. (90% of women would choose medical abortion if faced with the choice again). Berer analyzed French data on women's perspectives on medical vs. surgical abortion. The question of adolescent use of the drug was considered by Senderowitz, who lamented the lack of data on the subject and described what is known about adolescent pregnancy. Macklin proposed a framework for ethical analysis and used facts to address ethical questions. Weinstein provided another ethical framework, to analyze whether pharmacists have a right to refuse to provide abortifacient drugs. Buc approached the subject from a legal point of view and concluded that, whereas legal problems are minimal, political problem are of first concern. Boland described differences in introduction of the drug in France and Britain and the US. The theory of "use it or lose it" in patent legislation is applied differently in the US, France, and the UK. Hayhurst, in a complementary legal analysis, noted that Canadian importation would open access to affluent US women. Pine reported on the legal case Benten vs. Kessler, which did not result in successful importation of the drug for personal use, but resulted in some supportive language from the courts. By refusing to apply to the FDA for marketing approval, RU 486's manufacturer may be setting itself up for a boycott. Approaching the problem from these various perspectives addressed the challenge between medical advances and politics and highlighted the need to balance the benefits to women with perceived threats to values. PMID:1434754

  18. Nurses and whistleblowing: the ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmot, S

    2000-11-01

    Whistleblowing - the public exposure of organizational wrongdoing - presents practical and ethical dilemma for nurses, and needs to be seen as part of a spectrum of increasingly confrontative actions against miscreant organizations by their employees. The ethics of whistleblowing can only be understood in relation to its moral purpose, whether that is to achieve a good outcome (a consequentialist view) or fulfil a duty (a deontological view). The consequentialist perspective is unable on its own to resolve problems arising from the balance of good and harm resulting from the act of whistleblowing (where considerable harm might be caused) or of responsibility for that harm. A deontological approach provides an analysis of these problems but raises its own problem of conflicting duties for nurses. However, a strong argument can be made for the precedence of the nurse's duty to the patient over her duty to the employer. Although both duties are based on an implicit or an explicit promise, the promise to a person (the patient) must take precedence over the promise to an organization. It can even be argued that duty to the employer may in fact justify whistleblowing by nurses in some circumstances. However, the consequences of whistleblowing are forced upon nurses in a different way by the fact that the danger of reprisals acts as a deterrent to whistleblowers, however justified their actions may be. A more robust approach to the protection of whistleblowers is needed on the part of the government and the National Health Service (NHS) to remedy this situation. PMID:11114987

  19. Ethical, Legal and Social Issues related to the health data-warehouses: re-using health data in the research and public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Eugenia; Barh, Anne; Brown, Dario; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Research derived from the application of information and communication technologies in medicine operates in a context involving the globalization of collecting, sharing, storage, transfer and re-use of personal health data. Health data computerization within Clinical Information Systems (as Electronic Healthcare Records) should allow the re-use of health data for clinical research and public health purposes. One of the objects allowing the integration of healthcare and research information systems is the health data-warehouse (DWH). However, ethical-legal frameworks in force are not adapted to these DWHs because they were not conceived for re-using data in a different context than the one of their acquisition. For that matter, access modalities to data-warehouses must ensure the respect of patients' rights: information to the patient, as well as confidentiality and security. Through a bibliography research, some Ethical, legal and Social Issues (ELSI) have been identified: Patients' rights Modalities of implementation of the DWs; Solidarity and common good; Transparency and Trust. Comparative analysis between the Directive 95/46/CE and the "Proposal for regulation on protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data" shows that this regulation pretends allowing the re-use of key-coded data when aimed at a scientific purpose. However, since this new regulation does not align with the ethical and legal requirements at an operational level, a Code of practice on secondary use of Medical Data in scientific Research Projects has been developed at the European Level. This Code provides guidance for Innovative Medicine Initiative (IMI) and will help to propose practical solutions to overcome the issue of the re-use of data for research purposes. PMID:25991247

  20. Critical thinking by nurses on ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies

    OpenAIRE

    Botes, A.

    2000-01-01

    This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empat...

  1. Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Libby

    Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the

  2. Ethical Issues for an Editorial Board: "Kairaranga"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John

    2008-01-01

    With academic journals, we think of the ethical aspects of the research contained in the articles rather than with the journal itself. However, journal editing has its own set of ethical concerns, which this article addresses. One is ensuring that the anonymity of institutions and participants, in research and the reporting of practice, is

  3. Workplace Literacy: Ethical Issues through the Lens of Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folinsbee, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Even though principles to guide practice are crucial, there are no hard-and-fast rules for resolving ethical issues--dilemmas that are not easily resolvable because they present opposing values and outcomes that may harm to certain groups of people if not properly considered. This article describes a number of ethical dilemmas faced as a workplace

  4. Ethical issues surrounding the transplantation of human fetal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, R E

    1992-12-01

    Organ transplants have been one of the greatest advances in medicine. However, organs from living relatives or cadavers are in short supply, and many people die awaiting a donor organ. Increasing the donor pool by using organs from aborted fetuses has been proposed to increase the supply. In addition, there are benefits of using fetal tissue including its particular usefulness in children, the fact that it is not readily rejected, and its potential for growth. Guidelines for fetal research were issued in 1975, but a research moratorium was imposed in 1988 to allow study of ethical and legal issues. While the federal government delays in lifting the ban, several states have written laws governing experimentation with fetuses. Ethical arguments against using fetal tissue for organ transplant include a concern that this would create a branch of biomedicine which depends on the continuation of induced abortions. This could lead to neglect of research for other therapies. The timing and type of abortion should continue to benefit the mother, rather than the organ recipient. Ethicists debate whether or not use of aborted tissue implies complicity in the abortion process beyond that which exists for all members of a society which permits abortion. They also wonder whether knowing that some good could come of an abortion would influence a woman's decision to have one. Proposals to keep the use of fetal tissue ethical include banning the commercial use of sale of tissues, forbidding designation of the tissue recipient (to prevent harvesting fetal tissue for a relative), separating abortion counseling and management from harvesting of the tissue, and obtaining informed consent (perhaps from a proxy surrogate rather than from the mother) for the use of fetal tissue. When the medical and ethical communities have reached some consensus on these issues, crafted safeguards, and precluded conflicts of interest, then restrictions on government funding should be lifted. Whereas it would always be preferable to use tissue from spontaneous abortions or ectopic pregnancies, these sources are medically problematic. When consensus is reached, it should include a way in which medical workers can legitimately refuse to participate in the procedure on personal ethical grounds. PMID:1486733

  5. Ethical Issues in Maternal-Fetal Care Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nyima; Coonrod, Dean V; McCormick, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Ethical issues that arise in the care of pregnant women are challenging to physicians, especially in critical care situations. By familiarizing themselves with the concepts of medical ethics in obstetrics, physicians will become more capable of approaching complex ethical situations with a clear and structured framework. This review discusses ethical approaches regarding 3 specific scenarios: (1) the life of the fetus versus the life of the mother and situations of questionable maternal decision making; (2) withdrawal of care in a brain-dead pregnant patient; and (3) domestic violence and the pregnant patient. PMID:26600450

  6. Ethical issues in health workforce development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cash Richard

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the numbers of health workers and improving their skills requires that countries confront a number of ethical dilemmas. The ethical considerations in answering five important questions on enabling health workers to deal appropriately with the circumstances in which they must work are described. These include the problems of the standards of training and practice required in countries with differing levels of socioeconomic development and different priority diseases; how a society can be assured that health practitioners are properly trained; how a health system can support its workers; diversion of health workers and training institutions; and the teaching of ethical principles to student health workers. The ethics of setting standards for the skills and care provided by traditional health-care practitioners are also discussed.

  7. Ethical Issues in Marketing and Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Laurence D.; Colley, Robert M.

    1986-01-01

    Raises ethical considerations relevant to the marketing of continuing education and suggests two approaches to their resolution: deontology (all actions guided by universal rules are moral) and teleology (consequences of an action determine whether it is moral). (CH)

  8. Ethical issues in human genome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, T H

    1991-01-01

    In addition to provocative questions about science policy, research on the human genome will generate important ethical questions in at least three categories. First, the possibility of greatly increased genetic information about individuals and populations will require choices to be made about what that information should be and about who should control the generation and dissemination of genetic information. Presymptomatic testing, carrier screening, workplace genetic screening, and testing by insurance companies pose significant ethical problems. Second, the burgeoning ability to manipulate human genotypes and phenotypes raises a number of important ethical questions. Third, increasing knowledge about genetic contributions to ethically and politically significant traits and behaviors will challenge our self-understanding and social institutions. PMID:1825074

  9. Creative accounting: Nature, incidence and ethical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Amat, Oriol; Gowthorpe, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the nature and incidence of creative accounting practices within the context of ethical considerations.It explores several definitions of creative accounting and the potential and the range of reasons for a company's directors to engage in creative accounting. Later the paper considers the various ways in which creative accounting can be undertaken and summarizes some empirical research on the nature and incidence of creative accounting. The ethical dimen...

  10. Ethical and legal issues in aesthetic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Rapid growth and expansion of plastic surgery in general and aesthetic surgery in particular in the past decade has brought in its wake some confusions particularly raising questions for the surgeons conduct towards his colleagues and the patients in the light of ethical requirements. Some thoughts from eminent thinkers form a backdrop to consideration of theories of medical ethics. In this article raging and continuous debates on these subjects have been avoided to maintain the momentum. Apa...

  11. Radwastes and public ethics: issues and imperatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper, which was presented at the Health Physics Society annual meeting at Atlanta, conclude that the problem of radioactive waste management is neither unique and unprecedented, nor has it been properly formulated from an ethical perspective, and that to recover and maintain a balanced perspective on this particular biohazard and to introduce some corrective perception in the public mind becomes an ethical imperative. (author)

  12. Ethnic marketing possibilities and its ethics issues

    OpenAIRE

    Agota Kozma; Annamaria Sas

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the possibilities of ethnic marketing and its ethic connections. The differences found in our face-to-face interviews and analysing questionnaire data will provide opportunities for Hungarian small enterprises. Targeting ethnic groups for marketing purposes results in ethical difficulties. In Hungary, ethnic marketing is yet an inexperienced concept. Based on these ideas the authors examine the ins and outs of using ethnic marketing in case of Germans in Hungary. Consume...

  13. Technical and Ethical Issues in Indicator Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Taylor Fitz-Gibbon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Most indicator systems are top-down, published, management systems, addressing primarily the issue of public accountability. In contrast we describe here a university-based suite of "grass-roots," research-oriented indicator systems that are now subscribed to, voluntarily, by about 1 in 3 secondary schools and over 4,000 primary schools in England. The systems are also being used by groups in New Zealand, Australia and Hong Kong, and with international schools in 30 countries. These systems would not have grown had they not been cost-effective for schools. This demanded the technical excellence that makes possible the provision of one hundred percent accurate data in a very timely fashion. An infrastructure of powerful hardware and ever-improving software is needed, along with extensive programming to provide carefully chosen graphical and tabular presentations of data, giving at-a-glance comparative information. Highly skilled staff, always learning new techniques, have been essential, especially as we move into computer-based data collection. It has been important to adopt transparent, readily understood methods of data analysis where we are satisfied that these are accurate, and to model the processes that produce the data. This can mean, for example, modelling separate regression lines for 85 different examination syllabuses for one age group, because any aggregation can be shown to represent unfair comparisons. Ethical issues are surprisingly often lurking in technical decisions. For example, reporting outcomes from a continuous measure in terms of the percent of students who surpassed a certain level, produces unethical behavior: a concentration of teaching on borderline students. Distortion of behavior and data corruption are ever-present concerns in indicator systems. The systems we describe would have probably failed to thrive had they not addressed schools' on-going concerns about education. Moreover, data interpretation can only be completed in the schools, by those who know all the factors involved. Thus the commitment to working closely and collaboratively with schools in "distributed research" is important, along with "measuring what matters"... not only achievement. In particular the too-facile interpretation of correlation as causation that characterized much school effectiveness research had to be avoided and the need for experimentation promoted and demonstrated. Reasons for the exceptionally warm welcome from the teaching profession may include both threats (such as the unvalidated inspection regime run by the Office for Standards in Education and opportunities (such as site based management.

  14. Informacin mdica a pacientes y familiares: aspectos clnicos, ticos y legales / Clinical, ethical and legal issues on medical information to patients and relatives

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge, Nogales-Gaete; Paola, Vargas-Silva; Ivn, Vidal-Caas.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Providing information to patients and relatives (IPAR) is a clinical, ethical and legal need. IPAR is inherent to the medical team work as diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are. In some cases, it is a key step for patient's recovery. From an ethical point of view, the patient is not only the sub [...] ject of the medical work but also its main owner and who must, previously informed, decide about options which would directly affect him. After the promulgation of a special law in Chile, this prerogative became a legal right. This paper proposes an empirically developed model or protocol that should be used to inform hospitalized patients and their relatives about their disease, in a pertinent way. Considering that IPAR is a skill that should be learned and practiced, the written protocol is provided to neurology residents as supporting material. Although IPAR protocols are completely justified, they have not been evaluated in terms of efficiency of communication, user satisfaction, patient and relatives reassurance and clinical impact. Therefore, they require a prospective validation.

  15. Rapporteurs' report: Workshop on ethical issues in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the summary reports of the session rapporteurs at the Workshop on Ethical Issues in Diagnostic Radiology. The summaries reflect the extent to which the topics discussed are well reflected in the papers presented in this proceedings. (authors)

  16. Cardiovascular implantable electronic devices: patient education, information and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaouil, Cécile; Gignon, Maxime; Traulle, Sarah

    2012-09-01

    Cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED) are implanted increasingly frequently. CIEDs are indicated for the treatment of bradycardia, tachycardia and heart failure and therefore improve quality of life and life expectancy. CIED can treat ventricular arrhythmias that would be fatal without immediate care. However, CIEDs raise several patient education, medico-legal, and ethical questions that will be addressed in this article. Information is a patient's right, and necessary for informed consent. When implanting a CIED, the patient must be educated about the need for the device, the function of the device, any restrictions that apply postimplant, and postimplant follow-up methods and schedules. This transfer of information to the patient makes the patient responsible. The occupational physician can determine whether a patient wearing a CIED is able to work. Under current French law, patients are not prohibited from working while wearing a CIED. However, access to certain job categories remains limited, such as jobs involving mechanical stress to the chest, exposure to electromagnetic fields, or jobs requiring permanent vigilance. Pacemakers and defibrillators are medical treatments and are subject to the same ethical and clinical considerations as any other treatment. However, stopping a pacemaker or a defibrillator raises different ethical issues. Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator shocks can be considered to be equivalent to resuscitation efforts and can be interpreted as being unreasonable in an end-of-life patient. Pacing is painless and it is unlikely to unnecessarily prolong the life of a patient with a terminal disease. Patients with a CIED should live as normally as possible, but must also be informed about the constraints related to the device and must inform each caregiver about the presence of the device. The forensic and ethical implications must be assessed in relation to current legislation. PMID:23248837

  17. Ethical issues in engineering design safety and sustainability:

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gorp, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this research is to obtain insight in how engineers deal with ethical issues in daily engineering design practice. It is reasonable to assume that ethical issues and the way engineers deal with them depend on characteristics of the design process. I have made use of Vincentis dimensions to characterize different design processes: design type and design hierarchy. In normal design the working principle, how the product works, and the normal configuration, the shape and parts of the...

  18. Ethical issues in research involving children and young people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article identifies the key ethical issues that need to be addressed in any research study involving children and young people, accessed through the NHS. It makes specific reference to the Declaration of Helsinki and to additional guidance developed for researchers from a variety of disciplines, both within healthcare and in other fields of study. The focus of the paper is on defining the key ethical issues, identifying the complexities in the legislative framework underpinning research involving this patient group and offering practical advice on when, and how, ethical approval needs to be sought

  19. Ethical and legal issues in aesthetic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth and expansion of plastic surgery in general and aesthetic surgery in particular in the past decade has brought in its wake some confusions particularly raising questions for the surgeons conduct towards his colleagues and the patients in the light of ethical requirements. Some thoughts from eminent thinkers form a backdrop to consideration of theories of medical ethics. In this article raging and continuous debates on these subjects have been avoided to maintain the momentum. Apart from the western thoughts, directions from our old scriptures on ethical conduct have been included to accommodate prevelant Indian practices. The confusion created by specialists advertising their abilities directly to the lay public following removal of ethical bars by the American Courts as also latitudes allowed by the General Medical Council of Great Britain have been discussed. The medical fraternity however has its reservations. Unnecessary skirmishes with the law arose in cosmetic surgery from the freedom exercised by the police to file criminal proceedings against attending doctors in the event of a patient?s death with or without any evidence of wrong doing. This has now been curtailed in the judgement of the Supreme Court of India[1] where norms have been laid down for such prosecution. This has helped doctors to function without fear of harassment. An effort has been made to state a simple day-to-day routine for an ethical doctor-patient relationship.

  20. Ethical issues in human genomics research in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercereau-Puijalon Odile

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS provide a powerful means of identifying genetic variants that play a role in common diseases. Such studies present important ethical challenges. An increasing number of GWAS is taking place in lower income countries and there is a pressing need to identify the particular ethical challenges arising in such contexts. In this paper, we draw upon the experiences of the MalariaGEN Consortium to identify specific ethical issues raised by such research in Africa, Asia and Oceania. Discussion We explore ethical issues in three key areas: protecting the interests of research participants, regulation of international collaborative genomics research and protecting the interests of scientists in low income countries. With regard to participants, important challenges are raised about community consultation and consent. Genomics research raises ethical and governance issues about sample export and ownership, about the use of archived samples and about the complexity of reviewing such large international projects. In the context of protecting the interests of researchers in low income countries, we discuss aspects of data sharing and capacity building that need to be considered for sustainable and mutually beneficial collaborations. Summary Many ethical issues are raised when genomics research is conducted on populations that are characterised by lower average income and literacy levels, such as the populations included in MalariaGEN. It is important that such issues are appropriately addressed in such research. Our experience suggests that the ethical issues in genomics research can best be identified, analysed and addressed where ethics is embedded in the design and implementation of such research projects.

  1. Ethical issues is psychological screening of nuclear power personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethical issues of mandatory psychological screening of nuclear power plant personnel have not been explored adequately. This paper examines several ethical issues in this area that need more attention. (1) Informed Consent: psychologists' ethics (like those of virtually all science and practice-oriented disciplines) require subjects participating in research or practice to be informed of procedures applied to them, the purposes, and possible consequences. (2) Feedback: psychologists' ethical guidelines require feedback to assesses when it is requested. (3) Validity: psychologists' ethics require that they use instrumentation only for the purposes intended and only for uses for which there is a preponderance of validity data available. In short, there is no question that psychological tests can significantly improve the effectiveness of a work force when they are properly (i.e., validly) used by well-trained and qualified professional psychologists. However, with the abundance of clinicians who are providing such services and with the complexity of the ethical issues involved in conducting these screenings, employers in psychologically high-risk settings should proceed with great caution to assure that assesses are treated in a fair and ethical manner

  2. Age estimation for forensic purposes in Italy: ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focardi, Martina; Pinchi, Vilma; De Luca, Federica; Norelli, Gian-Aristide

    2014-05-01

    Age assessment in children and young adults is a relevant medicolegal issue due to the gradual increase of persons devoid of proper identification documents in European countries. Because of the illegal immigration and growing crime rates among children and adolescents, age estimation for forensic purposes is often required. The scientific research and the extensive experience of forensic experts in the last decades focused on the use of radiographic methods addressed to evaluate the degree of skeletal or dental development as the most accurate parameters to estimate the chronological age of children and adolescents. This paper analyzes the ethical issues related to age estimation procedures based on radiographic methods, showing how the ethical principles of beneficence, nonmalevolence, justice, and autonomy may be guaranteed during the execution of the age assessment in forensic practice. The procedure might be conducted in accordance with international guidelines and protocols, though they need a higher homogenization and standardization. A strong collaboration between various scientific societies of professionals (forensic odontologists, forensic pathologists, forensic anthropologist, radiologists, pediatricians, and psychologists), who have been involved in age estimation for years, is needed to reach this goal. PMID:24633466

  3. Introducing ethical, social and environmental issues in ICT engineering degrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Miano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the experience of introducing ethical, social and environmental issues in undergraduate ICT engineering degrees at the Universidad Politcnica of Madrid. It is an example of both bottom-up and top-down approach, as it has been positively influenced by the European Higher Education Area framework and some external recommendations, plus the significant contribution regarding motivation, drive and previous experience of the teachers involved. The experience before the Bologna Process was concentrated on developing elective courses related on the field of the International Development Cooperation. The integration of those topics within the current engineering curricula, adapted to the European Higher Education Area framework, is being implemented in compulsory courses, elective activities and into Final Year Project. It implies a holistic and comprehensive approach, where appropriate contents, teaching methodologies and assessment methods have been adapted to deal with ethical, social and environmental issues in our academic context. Our work is still in progress and there are a lot of challenges to face, such as improving teaching methodologies, the assessment tools and the achievement of a broader implication of the faculty.

  4. Ethical issues of using psychological knowledge in the proceedings of the non-procedural forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safuanov F.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the main ethical problems arising from the use of psychological knowledge in the criminal and civil proceedings in the form of non-procedural. Showing legal environment conducive to violations of ethics of psychological research reference and advisory nature: equality of the parties, the right of lawyers to draw on contractual basis to clarify issues related to the provision of legal aid. Reveals the main subjective factors of psychological research ethics violations: low level of professional competence psychologist, ignoring the principles of independence, objectivity, confidentiality. Suggests ways of overcoming the ethical issues - in the process of formation of graduate and postgraduate education of ethical competence, implementation of certain algorithms psychologist interaction with the side of a criminal or civil process - customer psychological services. It is proposed to consolidate legislation or regulations regulating certain kinds of non-procedural forms of use of psychological knowledge in the proceedings.

  5. Ethical Issues Involved in Integrated Marketing Communication in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayozie Daniel Ogechukwu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available “When we consider corporate morality we must conclude that no price is too high, for in the long run we have no alternative to ethical business behaviour” Fred. T. Aller. “If I were to name the deadliest subversive force within capitalism, the single greatest source of its waning morality …. I would without hesitation name “Advertising and Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC”. How else should one identify a force that debases language, drains thought and undoes dignity. (Heilbroner .R. (1981. are prone to scrutiny by those who are concerned about the methods marketers use to sell their products and services. Proponents of advertising and IMC states that it is the life blood of business. That it provides consumers with information about products and services and encourages them to improve their standard of living. Advertising produces jobs and helps new companies enter the market place. Companies employ people who make the products and provide the services that advertising sells. Free market economic systems are based on competition which revolves around information, and nothing delivers information better and at less cost than advertising and integrated marketing communication (IMC (Becch .E., Belch M.A. 1998. Not everyone is sold on the value of advertising. Critics argued that most advertising and IMC is more than information. It creates needs, faults consumers and mesmerizes them. It makes consumers to buy that they originally do not want or wish to buy. Adverts suggest that our bodies should be leaner, our faces younger and our utensils cleaner. They point to the sultry, scantily and muscular clad bodies used in it to sell everything from perfume to beer, and argue that advertising promotes materialism, instant gratification, insecurity and greed. “Ethics also consists of certain rules and standards of conduct recognized as binding in a professional body or an Association”. This paper will define the concepts of law, ethics and morality, it will critically examine ethical issues in Advertising, public relations, targeting of integrated marketing communications efforts, public relations, sales promotions, personal selling, packaging and Telemarketing. It will also discuss the external constraints that influence the choice of product adverts and promotions and will provide practical examples and solutions and how to improve ethical conducts in Nigerian integrated marketing communications.

  6. Ethnic marketing possibilities and its ethics issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agota Kozma

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the possibilities of ethnic marketing and its ethic connections. The differences found in our face-to-face interviews and analysing questionnaire data will provide opportunities for Hungarian small enterprises. Targeting ethnic groups for marketing purposes results in ethical difficulties. In Hungary, ethnic marketing is yet an inexperienced concept. Based on these ideas the authors examine the ins and outs of using ethnic marketing in case of Germans in Hungary. Consumers with German ethnic attitude really want German products and brands. At the same time, enterprises have to emphasise the products Germanness and character in a better/stronger way because this can help for better consumer decision making.

  7. Ethical issues in communicating with participants

    OpenAIRE

    Montada, Leo; Arbeitsgruppe "Verantwortung, Gerechtigkeit, Moral" der Universität Trier, FB I - Psychologie

    1998-01-01

    Communication is imbued with attitudes toward the addresses and conscious or unconscious conceptions about the relationships with them. Sensitivity for ethical conflicts as well as "handling" them largely depend on how the "subjects" "used" in research are perceived as well as on the relationships with them. Riegel (1979) as well as Baumrind (1980) have criticized the use of the term "subjects", and they proposed, among others, to replace it by the term "participant" since this concept implie...

  8. Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Kiani; Mohammad Reza Rasti Sani

    2014-01-01

    There is great interest worldwide in discovering and developing a permanent source of tissues which would be capable of generating any cell type and which would avoid the problem of transplant rejection. Stem cells are cells that can specialize into the many different cells found in the human body. The ethical objections concerning stem cells have focused primarily on their source. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research offers great promise of cures for otherwise incurable conditions: s...

  9. Stem Cells and Ethics: Current Issues

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, Jennifer Blair; Huso, Holly A.

    2009-01-01

    Much attention has recently turned to the promise and potential of human stem cells in therapeutic applications for the repair of cardiac tissue. The advances being made in the laboratory are exciting, and the pace at which research using human stem cells is moving from bench to bedside is extraordinary. The social, ethical, and policy considerations embedded within this area of research also require a large amount of attention and deliberation so that the scientific progress is able to succe...

  10. Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Research

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Bernard; Parham, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    Stem cell research offers great promise for understanding basic mechanisms of human development and differentiation, as well as the hope for new treatments for diseases such as diabetes, spinal cord injury, Parkinsons disease, and myocardial infarction. However, human stem cell (hSC) research also raises sharp ethical and political controversies. The derivation of pluripotent stem cell lines from oocytes and embryos is fraught with disputes about the onset of human personhood. The reprogramm...

  11. Ethical issues in family violence research in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavilainen, Eija; Lepist, Sari; Flinck, Aune

    2014-02-01

    Research ethics is always important. However, it is especially crucial with sensitive research topics such as family violence. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss some crucial issues regarding intimate partner violence and child maltreatment, based on the authors' own research experiences. We focus on and discuss examples concerning the definition of family violence, research design, ethical approval, participant recruitment and safety and data collection and processing. During the research process, the significance of teamwork is emphasized. Support provided by the participants to each other and support given by experienced researchers within the team is very important for high ethical standards. PMID:23793068

  12. Human stem cells and their storage: some ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Peter

    2008-01-01

    An account of the sources and properties of human stem cells is given with an indication of ethical issues associated with each. The ethical considerations of umbilical cord blood stem cell banks are considered in more detail. It is suggested that some private stem cell banks may not, at present, be providing an ethically valid service. Public stem cell banks, on the other hand, may be more likely to save lives although it will be necessary to assure their long-term financial status. PMID:18516345

  13. Legal and Ethical Issues Regarding Social Media and Pharmacy Education

    OpenAIRE

    Cain, Jeff; Fink, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    Widespread use of social media applications like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter has introduced new complexities to the legal and ethical environment of higher education. Social communications have traditionally been considered private; however, now that much of this information is published online to the public, more insight is available to students' attitudes, opinions, and character. Pharmacy educators and administrators may struggle with the myriad of ethical and legal issues pertaining to...

  14. A STUDY OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN BANKING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Joshi; Dr. K.A. Goyal

    2011-01-01

    Economic performance of a country is largely determined by banking and financial system. Banking and finance play a vital and crucial role in framing public policies in today’s business environment. This article highlights social and ethical issues such as social banking, ethical banking, green banking, global banking, rural banking, and agri-banking, which help in achieving sustainable development of banking and finance. For this purpose, we have gone through a series of development that ar...

  15. Legal and Ethical Issues in Evaluating Abortion Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Lori E.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on ethical and legal issues that arose in the evaluation of abortion services. Discusses the development of decision rules and tradeoffs in dealing with these issues to reach rational and objective decisions. Places the discussion in the context of balancing usefulness and propriety with respect to informed consent and privacy and makes

  16. Questes ticas referentes s preferncias do paciente em cuidados paliativos / Ethical issues related to patient preferences in palliative care / Las cuestiones ticas relacionadas con las preferencias del paciente en los cuidados paliativos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina Becker Bueno de, Abreu; Paulo Antonio de Carvalho, Fortes.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O respeito autonomia do paciente um princpio tico reconhecido em diversas reas da assistncia sade, incluindo os cuidados paliativos, porm nem sempre as preferncias do paciente so respeitadas. Uma melhor compreenso das questes ticas relacionadas ao exerccio da autonomia do paciente [...] em cuidados paliativos importante passo para embasar juzos ticos ponderados no cotidiano da assistncia. Tendo isso em vista, este trabalho objetivou identificar e analisar questes ticas relacionadas s preferncias do paciente e reconhecidas por profissionais no cotidiano de uma equipe de cuidados paliativos luz do referencial biotico da casustica. Foram entrevistados onze profissionais de nvel superior. As principais questes ticas identificadas foram: respeito autonomia do paciente; veracidade e direito informao; habilidades de comunicao; cerco do silncio; participao no processo de deliberao; escolha do local de tratamento e morte. Abstract in spanish El respeto a la autonoma del paciente es un principio tico reconocido en muchas reas de la salud, incluyendo los Cuidados Paliativos, pero no siempre se respetan las preferencias del paciente. Una mejor comprensin de las cuestiones ticas relacionadas con el ejercicio de la autonoma del pacient [...] e en los Cuidados Paliativos es un paso importante para apoyar los juicios ticos ponderados en la prctica diaria de la asistencia. Teniendo esto en cuenta, este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar y analizar las cuestiones ticas relacionadas con las preferencias del paciente y reconocidas por los profesionales en el da a da de un equipo de cuidados paliativos en el marco biotico de la casustica. Se entrevist a once profesionales de nivel superior. Se identificaron las principales cuestiones ticas: el respeto a la autonoma del paciente, veracidad y el derecho a la informacin, habilidades de comunicacin, asedio del silencio, participacin en el proceso de deliberacin, eleccin del lugar de tratamiento y muerte. Abstract in english The respect for patient's autonomy is an ethical principle recognized in many areas of health care including palliative care, but not always the patient's preferences are respected. A better understanding of ethical issues related to the exercise of patient's autonomy in Palliative Care is an import [...] ant step to support ethical judgments in daily practice. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and analyze ethical issues related to patient preferences recognized by professionals in the daily life of a Palliative Care team under the framework of Casuistry. Eleven practitioners were interviewed. The main ethical issues identified are: respect for patient autonomy, veracity and right to information, communication skills, conspiracy of silence, participation in the deliberation process, choice of place of treatment and death.

  17. Governing Nanotechnology: Social, Ethical and Human Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William

    This chapter is a human-centered survey of nanotechnology's broader implications, reporting on the early phase of work by social scientists, philosophers, and other scholars. It begins with the social science agenda developed by governments, and the heritage of research on technology and organizations that social science brings to this mission. It then outlines current thinking about nanotechnology's economic impacts, health or environmental impacts, and social contributions. It discusses how technology can be regulated by a combination of informal ethics and formal law, then concludes by considering the shape of popular nanotechnology culture, as reflected in science fiction, public perceptions, and education.

  18. Exploring the ethical and regulatory issues in pragmatic clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califf, Robert M; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2015-10-01

    The need for high-quality evidence to support decision making about health and health care by patients, physicians, care providers, and policy-makers is well documented. However, serious shortcomings in evidence persist. Pragmatic clinical trials that use novel techniques including emerging information and communication technologies to explore important research questions rapidly and at a fraction of the cost incurred by more "traditional" research methods promise to help close this gap. Nevertheless, while pragmatic clinical trials can bridge clinical practice and research, they may also raise difficult ethical and regulatory challenges. In this article, the authors briefly survey the current state of evidence that is available to inform clinical care and other health-related decisions and discuss the potential for pragmatic clinical trials to improve this state of affairs. They then propose a new working definition for pragmatic research that centers upon fitness for informing decisions about health and health care. Finally, they introduce a project, jointly undertaken by the National Institutes of Health Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory and the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet), which addresses 11 key aspects of current systems for regulatory and ethical oversight of clinical research that pose challenges to conducting pragmatic clinical trials. In the series of articles commissioned on this topic published in this issue of Clinical Trials, each of these aspects is addressed in a dedicated article, with a special focus on the interplay between ethical and regulatory considerations and pragmatic clinical research aimed at informing "real-world" choices about health and health care. PMID:26374676

  19. Ethics and Nanotechnology: The Issue of Perfectionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Larrre

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating perfectionism, as the project, shared by biotechnologies and nanotechnologies, of human enhancement. This project is commonly criticized (by Jean-Pierre Dupuy or Michael Sandel as representing a kind of hyper-agency, a Promethean aspiration to remake nature, including human nature, to serve our purposes, and satisfy our desires. It should thus be addressed as a metaphysical or even theological problem. We would like to argue that this project is not so much Promethean as it is Pelagian. It does not aim so much at being as powerful as God, than at achieving individual, personal felicity, the way Pelagus argued that all men could achieve their own perfection. We argue that the claim of perfectionism is first an ethical one, since it pertains to what Sidgwick called 'egoist hedonism'. We then question this claim from a social point of view: What kind of social relationships is implied by the quest for individual perfectionism. This is an ethical as well as an epistemological question.

  20. Nuclear energy - social and ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the continued exploration and mining and the construction and operation of nuclear reactors, both domestically and for export, is and will continue to be ethically and socially sound. Benefit and risk should be shared equally in the ideal society, in the real world this does not seem possible, but nuclear power appears not to worsen the situation and may even improve it. The real risks of nuclear power are less than those tolerated by many in their daily lives, but the public is relucant to accept them. The diversion of effort from dealing with real risks to worrying about hypothetical ones can be a disservice to society. Technology is inherently value-free, but can be used to raise the standard of living and provide a lifestyle in which non-material values can thrive. Withholding uranium from world markets increases the pressure on oil and the probability of armed conflict. A connection is made between uranium supply and food production. Social justice is a vital concern, but boycotts and trade embargoes may worsen suffering and have little effect on oppressors. There are formally defined international obligations to share nuclear technology. Scientists and engineers have a responsibility, which they are living up to more frequently, to make their specialized knowledge available to decision makers, and to express the ethical basis for their work. Nuclear energy appears to be more benign to future generations than many other present-day activities. (LL)

  1. Ethical issues in videorecording patients lacking capacity to consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Videorecording of patients requires the utmost respect for the privacy and confidentiality of the patients. Consent should be requested from patients for all videorecording. When a mental disability or mental or physical illness prevents patients from giving their permission, agreement to recording from a legal representative or from a close relative or carer are necessary. Three documents on this subject issued in the United Kingdom, the United State of America and Italy are briefly summarized and discussed. The problem of consent for videorecording is addressed particularly in reference to persons incapable of making decisions on their own, such as persons in vegetative state. The general ethical framework is outlined and a few practical proposals are given.

  2. Individual and organizational predictors of the ethicality of graduate students' responses to research integrity issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, Philip J; Bent, Blake J

    2014-12-01

    The development of effective means to enhance research integrity by universities requires baseline measures of individual, programmatic, and institutional factors known to contribute to ethical decision making and behavior. In the present study, master's thesis and Ph.D. students in the fields of biological, health and social sciences at a research extensive university completed a field appropriate measure of research ethical decision making and rated the seriousness of the research issue and importance for implementing the selection response. In addition they were asked to rate their perceptions ofthe institutional and departmental research climate and to complete a measure of utilitarian and formalistic predisposition. Female students were found to be more ethical in their decision making compared to male students. The research ethical decision measure was found to be related to participants' ethical predisposition and overall perception of organizational and departmental research climate; however, formalism was the only individual predictor to reach statistical significance and none of the individual subscales of the research climate measure were significantly correlated to ethicality. Participants' ratings of the seriousness of the issue were correlated with their ratings of the importance of carrying out their selected response but neither was significantly predictive of the ethicality of their responses. The implications of these findings for the development of more effective training programs and environments for graduate students in research ethics and integrity are discussed. PMID:24048818

  3. Ethical issues posed by cluster randomized trials in health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donner Allan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cluster randomized trial (CRT is used increasingly in knowledge translation research, quality improvement research, community based intervention studies, public health research, and research in developing countries. However, cluster trials raise difficult ethical issues that challenge researchers, research ethics committees, regulators, and sponsors as they seek to fulfill responsibly their respective roles. Our project will provide a systematic analysis of the ethics of cluster trials. Here we have outlined a series of six areas of inquiry that must be addressed if the cluster trial is to be set on a firm ethical foundation: 1. Who is a research subject? 2. From whom, how, and when must informed consent be obtained? 3. Does clinical equipoise apply to CRTs? 4. How do we determine if the benefits outweigh the risks of CRTs? 5. How ought vulnerable groups be protected in CRTs? 6. Who are gatekeepers and what are their responsibilities? Subsequent papers in this series will address each of these areas, clarifying the ethical issues at stake and, where possible, arguing for a preferred solution. Our hope is that these papers will serve as the basis for the creation of international ethical guidelines for the design and conduct of cluster randomized trials.

  4. Nuclear Power as an Ethical Issue: Utilitarian Ethics and Egalitarian Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjilambrinos, Constantine

    1990-01-01

    Described is the philosophical debate over the issue of nuclear power. Discussed are the utilitarian nature of the justification of nuclear power and the utilitarian approaches to the issue of nuclear power, the strengths and weaknesses of this approach, and utilitarian versus egalitarian ethics. (KR)

  5. Prevention, communication and equity in environmental epidemiology: ethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordana Pagliarani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In environmental epidemiology research, decisions about when and how to intervene requires adequate ethical reflection. In fact, different kinds of issues may arise about: research methods and knowledge production; management of the results in terms of their overall assessments or for the implementation of preventive actions; reclamation intervention. In this contribution we propose to consider three topics we regard as crucial to this ethical debate: the reporting of conclusive research data; the correct application of the precautionary principle; and the environmental equity issues.

  6. Ethical Issues in Nuclear Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear experts claim that the health risks from radioactive waste disposal are low compared to other environmental hazards, yet the general public is sceptical of the industry's ability to guarantee acceptable safety standards. Many allude to what might be deemed morally relevant factors, such as potential harms to future generations, possibly catastrophic consequences and environmental effects. Industry has often tended to respond with a claim that the public has an irrational perception of radiation risks, particularly those from man-made rather than natural sources. From a philosophical point of view it is interesting to consider exactly how nuclear risks might differ from other hazards, not least to evaluate which ethically relevant factors could be used to defend the stringent demands made by society for nuclear waste disposal

  7. Ethical Issues in Nuclear Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oughton, Deborah [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry and Biotechnology

    2001-07-01

    Nuclear experts claim that the health risks from radioactive waste disposal are low compared to other environmental hazards, yet the general public is sceptical of the industry's ability to guarantee acceptable safety standards. Many allude to what might be deemed morally relevant factors, such as potential harms to future generations, possibly catastrophic consequences and environmental effects. Industry has often tended to respond with a claim that the public has an irrational perception of radiation risks, particularly those from man-made rather than natural sources. From a philosophical point of view it is interesting to consider exactly how nuclear risks might differ from other hazards, not least to evaluate which ethically relevant factors could be used to defend the stringent demands made by society for nuclear waste disposal.

  8. Issues in bioethics. Ethics and professional responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, D E

    2003-03-01

    The evolution of ethics in medicine has provided the concept of the learned physician who is trained in the scientific method (studying nature and philosophy), and who is wise, modest and humane. The physician's manner, deportment and character should be above reproach, and devotion to the productive art of medicine should supersede any desire for financial gain. Professionalism provides the organizational structure through which the medical doctor performs his/her healing role, and underscores the concept that medical professionals should be moral and devoted to the public good, displaying altruism at the expense of self-interest, and providing accountability. This article examines some of the obligations that arise within this milieu. PMID:12806746

  9. Review for the volume Practicing Relational Ethics in Organizations, Authors: Gitte Haslebo, Maja Loua Haslebo, Taos Institute Publications, ISBN 978-0-9819076-8-0

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio SANDU

    2012-01-01

    The volume Practicing Relational Ethics in Organizations having as authors Gitte Haslebo and Maja Loua Haslebo issued by Taos Institute Publications Ohio USA, discusses relational ethics and ethical practice in the organization. The problem of ethical practice in the organization besides being a necessity for business it overlaps with aspects of organizational culture, personnel management, leadership. Within the organizational ethics, the authors select the issue of relational ethics from a ...

  10. Ethical issues that confront nurses in private hospitals in the Western Cape Metropolitan area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ethelwynn L, Stellenberg; Alta J, Dorse.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nurses are faced daily with a variety of ethical issues which could be as a result of budget cuts, target setting, the shortage of nurses and expertise. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to identify ethical issues related to patient care, to describe ethical issues related to [...] patient diversity, rights and human dignity. To describe ethical issues related to caring in nursing and to the workplace environment. METHOD: A quantitative explorative descriptive research design was applied. A stratified sample of (n = 142/5%) was drawn from all nurses and caregivers (N = 2990) working in a selected group of eight private hospitals. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. Statistical tests were applied to determine statistical relationships between variables. RESULTS: Results included (95%) of respondents provided safe and committed care to their patients, (99%) loved to care for their patients and (93%) believed in the Nurses' Pledge of Service. Fifty percent (50%) of the respondents indicated verbal abuse from patients and only (59%) experienced openness and transparency in the work environment. Analysis further identified that the caregivers did not respect the noble tradition of the profession and experienced the most verbal abuse. CONCLUSION: This study has identified ethical issues which may give rise to conflict within the workplace environment if not adequately addressed by management. The study further showed that the use of caregivers not regulated in nursing practice may pose as a threat to the safety of the patient.

  11. Ethical issues that confront nurses in private hospitals in the Western Cape Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethelwynn L. Stellenberg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nurses are faced daily with a variety of ethical issues which could be as a result of budget cuts, target setting, the shortage of nurses and expertise.Objectives: The objectives of the study were to identify ethical issues related to patient care, to describe ethical issues related to patient diversity, rights and human dignity. To describe ethical issues related to caring in nursing and to the workplace environment.Method: A quantitative explorative descriptive research design was applied. A stratified sample of (n = 142/5% was drawn from all nurses and caregivers (N = 2990 working in a selected group of eight private hospitals. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. Statistical tests were applied to determine statistical relationships between variables.Results: Results included (95% of respondents provided safe and committed care to their patients, (99% loved to care for their patients and (93% believed in the Nurses Pledge of Service. Fifty percent (50% of the respondents indicated verbal abuse from patients and only (59% experienced openness and transparency in the work environment. Analysis further identified that the caregivers did not respect the noble tradition of the profession and experienced the most verbal abuse.Conclusion: This study has identified ethical issues which may give rise to conflict within the workplace environment if not adequately addressed by management. The study further showed that the use of caregivers not regulated in nursing practice may pose as a threat to the safety of the patient.

  12. Ethical issues that confront nurses in private hospitals in the Western Cape Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethelwynn L. Stellenberg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nurses are faced daily with a variety of ethical issues which could be as a result of budget cuts, target setting, the shortage of nurses and expertise. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to identify ethical issues related to patient care, to describe ethical issues related to patient diversity, rights and human dignity. To describe ethical issues related to caring in nursing and to the workplace environment. Method: A quantitative explorative descriptive research design was applied. A stratified sample of (n = 142/5% was drawn from all nurses and caregivers (N = 2990 working in a selected group of eight private hospitals. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. Statistical tests were applied to determine statistical relationships between variables. Results: Results included (95% of respondents provided safe and committed care to their patients, (99% loved to care for their patients and (93% believed in the Nurses Pledge of Service. Fifty percent (50% of the respondents indicated verbal abuse from patients and only (59% experienced openness and transparency in the work environment. Analysis further identified that the caregivers did not respect the noble tradition of the profession and experienced the most verbal abuse. Conclusion: This study has identified ethical issues which may give rise to conflict within the workplace environment if not adequately addressed by management. The study further showed that the use of caregivers not regulated in nursing practice may pose as a threat to the safety of the patient.

  13. Ethical issues and controversies in assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J C

    1992-10-01

    The current ethical issues and controversies concerning in vitro fertilization revolve around micromanipulation of the gametes, cryopreservation of the fertilized ova, selective termination in multiple pregnancies, surrogacy, and gamete donation. At the basis of these ethical issues is the philosophic question of personhood, or the term "human person," and the consideration given to the normal weight that is ascribed to the various forms of living matter that are found in the process of development after human spermatozoa have been placed together with harvested oocytes in the petri dish. The papers of very special importance and special importance written during the past year on these ethical problems are listed and classified. The summaries of their arguments and positions on these problems are enumerated. PMID:1391649

  14. Commodifying animals: ethical issues in genetic engineering of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, B

    2000-03-01

    The genetic modification of living beings raises special ethical concerns which go beyond general discussion of animal rights or welfare. Although the goals may be similar, biotechnology has accelerated the process of modification of types traditionally carried out by cross-breeding. These changes are discussed in relation to two areas: biomedicine, and animal husbandry. Alternative ethical approaches are reviewed, and it is argued that the teleological thesis underlying virtue ethics has special relevance here. The case for and the case against genetic engineering and patenting of life-forms are examined, and conclusions are drawn which favour regulation, caution and respect for animals and animal species. PMID:15080125

  15. Ethical Issues in Withholding Care from Severely Handicapped Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Libby

    1981-01-01

    Ethical issues are examined that involve withholding medical treatment from severely handicapped infants. Although current laws do not sanction euthanasia, severely handicapped infants are often assisted in dying. Discussion includes society's apparent acceptance of this practice and several solutions to the problems. (Author)

  16. Exploring ethical issues with students of Business Management: an analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Renou, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    A reflective practitioners'anlaysis of student responses to ethical issues encountered during a workshop on International Business. The research was conducted with 1st year students of Bedrijfsmanagement MKB. The papaer reviews the literature and makes recoomendations for the business studies curriculum.

  17. Ethical Issues in Social Work. An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Martha W., Comp.

    Designed as a practical aid to social work students and practitioners interested in approaching the ethical issues inherent in social work practice, this annotated bibliography lists over 500 books and articles, most of which were published between 1970 and 1983. The bibliography has two main parts, of which the first consists of selections from…

  18. Ethical Issues Involving Research Conducted with Homebound Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Julie L.; Bronstein, Janet; Robinson, Caroline O.; Williams, Charlotte; Ritchie, Christine S.

    2006-01-01

    Conducting research in the home setting with homebound older adults presents distinct ethical and practical challenges that require special consideration. This article describes the methodological issues that make studying homebound older adults especially vulnerable to therapeutic misconception and researcher role conflict and offers practical

  19. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues

    OpenAIRE

    David B. Resnik

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.

  20. Ethical Issues in Counseling Adult Survivors of Incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, Judith C. and Haverkamp, Beth E.

    1993-01-01

    Counseling adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse raises ethical issues which include maintaining client confidentiality when the situations have been both immoral and illegal or working with survivors without appropriate training. Principles such as autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence and nonmaleficence, and self-interest are examined, as

  1. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serour, G I

    2013-11-01

    Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral. PMID:24004295

  2. Ethical issues in predictive genetic testing: a public health perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Fulda, K G; Lykens, K

    2006-01-01

    As a result of the increase in genetic testing and the fear of discrimination by insurance companies, employers, and society as a result of genetic testing, the disciplines of ethics, public health, and genetics have converged. Whether relatives of someone with a positive predictive genetic test should be notified of the results and risks is a matter urgently in need of debate. Such a debate must encompass the moral and ethical obligations of the diagnosing physician and the patient. The deci...

  3. Ethical issues in the development of ICT mediated support for daily living in adolescents with autism : The ethics of HANDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Sren; Ploug, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The EU-funded project HANDS was aimed at assisting young people with an autism spectrum disorder to increase their participation in social life. The core of the project was the development of a mobile device using personalizable software utilizing persuasive technology techniques. This chapter analyzes the ethical issues raised by the project itself and some of the broader issues raised by the use of persuasive technologies in a population with autism spectrum disorder. These include issues relating to consent and assent procedures, the potential conflict of interest of teachers as researchers and co-producers of knowledge, and questions concerning privacy and parental access to data. In addition the chapter also provides an account of the advice given by the project's ethics advisory board.

  4. Environmental Refugees: Ethical Issues Involving Overpopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2010-01-01

    Environmental refugees are produced when the human population exceeds the carrying capacity of a particular region and its inhabitants are forced to search for a more hospitable area. Since not much has been done to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or other issues of global warming, there will continue to be more environmental refugees for the next decade or more. Considering that the biosphere is made up of finite resources and finite space per capita, an increasing population will cause mor...

  5. Social and ethical issues in environmental risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oughton, Deborah H

    2011-07-01

    The recognition of the social and ethical aspects of radiation risk management has been an important part of international projects following the Chernobyl accident of 1986. This study comments on the science and policy issues in environmental risk assessment, including the social and ethical dimensions of emergency preparedness and remediation experiences gained from the Chernobyl accident. While the unique situation of Fukushima, combined with an earthquake and tsunami, raises its own social and political challenges, it is hoped that some of the lessons learnt from Chernobyl will be relevant to long-term management of the Fukushima site. PMID:21608106

  6. Discussion on radiation protection system from ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed the relationship between radiation protection system and ethical principle, viz. equity and efficiency. According to the authors' opinions, the main problem that the system of radiation protection facing now is the dose-limitation principle cannot incarnate the equity principle completely. Even though the distinguishing between practice and intervention is no other than solving the problem, but the scheme is not perfect still. Ethical issues should be given more attention and be more researched when we try to modify the radiation protection system today

  7. Faculty Response to Ethical Issues at an American University in the Middle-East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabsh, Sami W.; El Kadi, Hany A.; Abdelfatah, Akmal S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to get feedback on faculty perception of ethical issues related to teaching, scholarship and service at a relatively new American-style university in the Middle-East. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire involving 21 scenarios with multiple choice answers was developed and distributed to all faculty

  8. Framing of Ethical Issues in the Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael; Vestergaard Jørgensen, Anne

    Purpose: This study investigates the moral framing of an ethical issue by various actors and looks at the agenda setting effects between news media and the active online public as represented in social media. Design: We coded 4114 sentences manually and conducted an analysis of conditional...... probability of co-occurrence between actors and issues to identify associative frames. An ARIMA model and time series are applied to detect the interplay between the active online public and news media over a period of three months. Findings: The analysis reveals different framings of the ethical issue by...... various actors. Furthermore, evidence of a bi-directional relationship between news media and the active online public is found, whereby the news media more strongly precedes social media. Originality: We apply an audience-driven framework that conceptualizes parts of the general public as the active...

  9. "Business Ethics Everywhere": An Experiential Exercise to Develop Students' Ability to Identify and Respond to Ethical Issues in Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Susan D.; Comer, Debra R.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces an experiential exercise that enhances students' ability to identify ethical issues and to respond to them in ways that consider the relationship between organizational factors and ethical action. Students identify a required number of ethical incidents in their workplaces during a specified period. Students submit a

  10. ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH, designed to stimulate dialogue on ethical and regulatory issues in cancer research and promote awareness of developing policies and best practices.

  11. Ethical issues for otolaryngology and surgery in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, M D; Shapiro, D P; Shirwany, N A

    1999-06-01

    Clinical ethics is an intrinsic aspect of medical practice. Concerns for ethical conduct arise in the management of medical benefits, patient preferences, quality of life, and the relationship between patient care and its attendant familial, social, economic, and legal circumstances. Ethical concerns in surgical practice are central to the essence of the Hippocratic doctrine, "First do no harm." In caring for our patients, particularly in light of the modern practice of medicine, we often use the risk-benefit calculus. The range of ethical concerns for the otolaryngologist who deals with the elderly and infirm covers many diverse situations. Superimposed over this spectrum is the idea of patient autonomy, which is considered to be a cardinal issue in any ethical discussion. Furthermore, increasing medical care costs have created a debate regarding the rationing of healthcare. Ethicists continue the discussion as to whether age should be a decisive factor in the rationing of this care. Definitions of "heroic" and "extraordinary" assume greater significance, and controversies of language become pivotal when the comprehension and cognitive orientation of the patient are compromised by disease and senescence. PMID:10388193

  12. Nurse managers' experience with ethical issues in six government hospitals in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Musa Maizura; Harun-Or-Rashid Md; Sakamoto Junichi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Nurse managers have the burden of experiencing frequent ethical issues related to both their managerial and nursing care duties, according to previous international studies. However, no such study was published in Malaysia. The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' experience with ethical issues in six government hospitals in Malaysia including learning about the way they dealt with the issues. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in August-Septembe...

  13. Epigenetics and Child Psychiatry: Ethical and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetics has the potential to revolutionize diagnosis and treatment in psychiatry, especially child psychiatry, as it may offer the opportunity for early detection and prevention, as well as development of new treatments. As with the previous introduction of genetic research in psychiatry, there is also the problem of unrealistic expectations and new legal and ethical problems. This article reviews the potential contributions and problems of epigenetic research in child psychiatry. Previous legal and ethical issues in genetic research serve as a guide to those in epigenetic research. Recommendations for safeguards and guidelines on the use of epigenetics with children and adolescents are outlined based on the identified issues. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26358684

  14. New ethical issues for radiation protection in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ethical basis for many medical practices has been challenged over the last two decades. Radiology has seen enormous growth during the same period. Many practices and equipment types, now commonplace, did not exist a generation ago. Yet the fundamental ethical basis for these practices has not seen a corresponding level of development. This is possibly an oversight, and may be particularly important given that these innovations have taken place over a period of changing social attitudes. Areas of concern include, for example, issues around justification, consent/authorisation, inadvertent irradiation of the foetus/embryo during pregnancy and the place of paternalism/individual autonomy in the structure of practice. This paper provides the background to a workshop on these issues held in late-2006 and presents a summary of its findings. (authors)

  15. The Investigation of the Opinions of Teacher Candidates about Current Ethical Issues in Terms of Various Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?smet KURT

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is planned for determining teacher candidates opinions about some bioethics issues which include ethical dilemmas. In this research in which quantitative research techniques was used, a study group consisted of 238 teacher candidates from eight different departments at Gazi University in 2011-2012 academic year. Bioethical Values Inventory including scenarios located in the center of ethical issues, such as genetic screening tests, reproductive technologies and euthanasia used as an assessment instrument. Preferences of teacher candidates on scenarios are examined by using research variables such as the gender and studied department. In addition ethical approaches when making their decisions on ethical problems were analyzed. It was observed that the teacher candidates changed the ethical approaches while making decision for each scenario were varied. The teachers overall judgments and ethical approach preferences for each scenario did not differentiate according to the department and gender. Only gender-related differences were identified in the genetic screening test scenario.

  16. ETHICAL ISSUES IN PRIVATE COMMERCIAL BANKS IN PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Nanik Ram; Immamuddin Khoso; Muhammad Bachal Jamali; Faiz. M. SHAIKH

    2011-01-01

    This research addressed the ethical issues in Private Commercial Banks in Pakistan. Data were collected from 500 respondents/Customers from cross sectional data by using simple random technique and data were analyses by using SPSS-18 version. A structural questionnaire was used as basic tool for data collection, analysis, validity and reliability. It was revealed that private commercial banks are not caring for the customers specially, four old Banks UBL, HBL, MCB, ABL. It was further conc...

  17. Excluding Ethical Issues from U.S. History Textbooks: 911 and the War on Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    This research study examined nine secondary American history textbooks regarding their treatment of 9/11 and related events. The analysis centered on both the knowledge included and excluded from the discussion in each book. Particular attention was given to the moral and ethical issues relevant to 9/11. Findings show that textbooks vary in their

  18. Ethical and social issues in the care of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meharban

    2003-05-01

    Ethical and social issues are based upon a system of moral values that serve the best interests of the society in a humane and compassionate manner. The ethical decisions should be based upon the well-enunciated principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, parental autonomy, correct medical facts and justice. In view of our economic constraints, we should follow the philosophy of utilatarian ethics based on the concept of "value for money" and focus our resources and efforts for the care of salvageable babies. Nevertheless, we should try to ensure equitable development of health care of neonates at all levels, and NICU facilities should be developed in the country in a phased manner. In order to ensure justice and cost-effectiveness, the narrow principles of "best interest" of the child should be replaced by the concept of global beneficence to the family, society and the state. Neonatologists are often faced with a large number of ethical issues and dilemmas in the care of critically sick newborn babies and they should be resolved jointly by taking nurses, sub-speciality colleagues and family members into confidence. The technology should not be allowed to further dehumanize medicine and we must establish rapport and provide emotional support to the family members by showing our concern, sympathy and compassion in the care of their critically sick and extremely preterm babies. It is desirable that all the medical and nursing schools in the country should initiate regular education programs in the field of behavioural sciences, communication techniques and medical ethics for the benefit of graduate and postgraduate medical and nursing students. PMID:12841403

  19. Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock are vital to subsistence farming and sustainable livelihood in most developing countries. Of India's population of one billion people, more than 70 percent live in the rural areas. India also has more than 30 percent of the world's bovine population. This has resulted in not only egalitarian ownership of cattle, but also in an almost inseparable cultural and symbiotic relationship between rural families and their farm animals, particularly large ruminants. It is against this scenario that the ethical, social and environmental issues of gene-based technologies need to be carefully evaluated. The use of transgenic cows with modified milk composition or for any other purpose has little economic benefit in a system of 'production by masses', as typifies India and a few other developing countries, compared with 'mass production' systems in developed countries. Rather, the use of rDNA technology for developing drought-resistant fodder and forage crops is likely to bring immediate relief to most regions. Cattle, particularly in India, have poor quality feeds and this results in poor nutrition, with production of large amounts of methane. Irnmunocastration -through biotechnological means would also be advantageous. Developing countries like India need sustainable livelihood security, and, in this regard, gene-based technologies in animal agriculture seem more to raise ethical, social and environmental concerns, rather than being likely to transform 'subsistence farming' into vibrant agribusiness. Ethical issues concerning animal welfare, rights and integrity are also discussed, in addition to social, environmental and economic issues. (author)

  20. Genetic and Genomic Healthcare: Ethical Issues of Importance to Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Halsey Lea

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete sequencing of the human genome in 2003 has opened doors for new approaches to health promotion, maintenance, and treatment. Genetic research is now leading to a better understanding of the genetic components of common diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and stroke, and creating new, gene-based technologies for screening, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of both rare and common diseases. Nurses are on the forefront of care, and therefore will participate fully in genetic-based and genomic-based practice activities such as collecting family history, obtaining informed consent for genetic testing, and administering gene-based therapies. This new direction in healthcare calls for all nurses to be able to effectively translate genetic and genomic information to patients with an understanding of associated ethical issues. This article will present six genetic and genomic healthcare activities involving ethical issues of importance to nurses. For each activity discussed, an overview of current and/or emerging ethical issues will be presented. Approaches nurses can use to integrate comprehensive and current knowledge in genetics and genomics into their practice to most fully meet the needs of their patients, families, and society will also be described.

  1. Ethical Issues in Sports Medicine: A Review and Justification for Ethical Decision Making and Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Greenfield, Bruce H.; West, Charles Robert

    2012-01-01

    Ethical issues present a challenge for health care professionals working with athletes of sports teams. Health care professionalsincluding the team physician, the physical therapist, and the athletic trainerare faced with the challenge of returning an athlete to competition as quickly as possible but as safely as possible. Conflicts of interest arise due to conflicting obligations of the team physician to the athlete and other members of the sports organization, including coaches and the te...

  2. Public acceptance of nuclear power - Some ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increased public perception of the future scale of dependence on nuclear energy a debate has started, raising the level of public awareness of the social, political and technical risks that are inevitably associated with the large-scale and accelerating adoption of nuclear power generation. The nuclear industry has given a mixed response to this debate, to accusations of irresponsibility and to demands for more specific attention to the recognized hazards of the fuel cycle. In this situation, non-governmental bodies such as the World Council of Churches, has taken the responsibility to examine the issues so far identified and to place these in a social and ethical context. The W.C.C. general position on nuclear energy is presented. It includes the risk associated with nuclear technology; nuclear waste disposal; catastrophic accidents; accidents in reprocessing plants, low-level radiation; nuclear weapons; security; nuclear energy and a new international economic order; ethical and religious perspectives

  3. Review for the volume Practicing Relational Ethics in Organizations, Authors: Gitte Haslebo, Maja Loua Haslebo, Taos Institute Publications, ISBN 978-0-9819076-8-0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio SANDU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The volume Practicing Relational Ethics in Organizations having as authors Gitte Haslebo and Maja Loua Haslebo issued by Taos Institute Publications Ohio USA, discusses relational ethics and ethical practice in the organization. The problem of ethical practice in the organization besides being a necessity for business it overlaps with aspects of organizational culture, personnel management, leadership. Within the organizational ethics, the authors select the issue of relational ethics from a social, constructionist and appreciative perspective. The authors (Haslebo and Haslebo, 2012 aim to inspire the readers through a complex approach of ethical relations within the organization that are fundamentally unpredictable and subject to continuous change.

  4. Issues of Business Ethics in Domestic and International Businesses: A Critical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aytac Gokmen; A. Turan Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Ethics is a significant issue in business both on the firm level and wider phases. Ethics indicate what is right and what is wrong in business branches also lead employees and stakeholders with moral values. Ethics is the basics for an impartial internal environment in an organization. An ethical climate constituted on fair foundations and lead by executives upholding ethical standards in the first instance tend to be more achieved when compared to other firms, since fair organizational inter...

  5. Ethical Issues in E-Commerce on the Basis of Online Retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Nardal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The rapid spread of e-commerce has created tremendous opportunities for economic efficiency and customer choice. Use of the global Internet computer network for ecommerce activities provides some advantages to the consumers on their daily life. On the other hand Internet represents a new environment for unethical behavior. While e-commerce has witnessed extensive growth in last decade, consumers concerns regarding ethical issues also continue to increase. Even many consumers and businesses are reveling in e-commerce; consumer problems related to online retail become the dark side of the issue. Approach: A survey on 400 online shoppers was conducted (three cities in Turkey (Izmir, Manisa, Mersin in order to measure consumers’ perceptions regarding the ethical issues of online retailing by using scale of Consumers’ Perceptions regarding to Ethics of Online Retailers (CPEOR. Results: Ethical problems like security, privacy, reliability and non deception on Internet are core issues that limit the growth of online retailing. Conclusion/Recommendation: Findings indicate that; four factors (security, privacy, non deception and reliability are strongly predictive of online consumers’ satisfaction. Also, this research will be beneficial to online retailers on their online retailing activities.

  6. Toward an Ideal Relational Ethic: Rethinking university-community engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Garlick

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how an ideal relational ethic based on Zygmunt Bauman’s (1995 notion of forms of togetherness is needed to underpin university-community engagement processes and practices. We focus on the notion of being-for, and suggest that it can be used as an ‘engagement bridge’ between higher education institutions, the creation of human capital and communities, and can be a means to achieve ethical outcomes to local concerns. Much of Bauman’s (1995; 2001; 2007 theoretical development has focussed on the liquidity of modernity, to give the impression that community - in the spatially, physically located and fixed sense of the term - no longer exists. This paper proposes that spatial dimensions, particularly in the context of developing relational ethics, are important. This is particularly so for paying adequate attention to context-specific values, principles and issues in communities, for developing enterprising human capital via engagement, and for addressing matters of socio-political importance such as the environment. Contemporary neo-liberal times require ethical and moral leadership from universities. This paper suggests that such leadership can be developed from focussing attention on the forms of togetherness fostered by university-community engagement.

  7. Ethical Issues in Adolescents' Sexual and Reproductive Health Research in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Haire, Bridget; Harrison, Abigail; Odetoyingbo, Morolake; Fatusi, Olawunmi; Brown, Brandon

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing interest in the need to address the ethical dilemmas related to the engagement of adolescents in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) research. Research projects, including those that address issues related to STIs and HIV, adverse pregnancy outcomes, violence, and mental health, must be designed and implemented to address the needs of adolescents. Decisions on when an individual has adequate capacity to give consent for research most commonly use age as a surrogate rather than directly assessing capacity to understand the issues and make an informed decision on whether to participate in research or not. There is a perception that adolescents participating in research are more likely to be coerced and may therefore not fully comprehend the risk they may be taking when engaging in research. This paper examines the various ethical issues that may impact stakeholders' decision making when considering engaging adolescents in SRH research in Nigeria. It makes a case for lowering the age of consent for adolescents. While some experts believe it is possible to extrapolate relevant information from adult research, studies on ethical aspects of adolescents' participation in research are still needed, especially in the field of sexual and reproductive health where there are often differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices compared to adults. The particular challenges of applying the fundamental principles of research ethics to adolescent research, especially research about sex and sexuality, will only become clear if more studies are conducted. PMID:24910162

  8. ETHICAL ISSUES IN PRIVATE COMMERCIAL BANKS IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Ram

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research addressed the ethical issues in Private Commercial Banks in Pakistan. Data were collected from 500 respondents/Customers from cross sectional data by using simple random technique and data were analyses by using SPSS-18 version. A structural questionnaire was used as basic tool for data collection, analysis, validity and reliability. It was revealed that private commercial banks are not caring for the customers specially, four old Banks UBL, HBL, MCB, ABL. It was further concluded that most of the staff members who interact with the customers is non MBAs so thats why their attitude towards the customers are not friendly.

  9. Ethical issues in cochlear implant surgery: an exploration into disease, disability, and the best interests of the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Harlan; Grodin, Michael

    1997-09-01

    This paper examines ethical issues related to medical practices with children and adults who are members of a linguistic and cultural minority known as the DEAF-WORLD. Members of that culture characteristically have hearing parents and are treated by hearing professionals whose values, particularly concerning language, speech, and hearing, are typically quite different from their own. That disparity has long fueled a debate on several ethical issues, most recently the merits of cochlear implant surgery for DEAF children. We explore whether that surgery would be ethical if implants could deliver close to normal hearing for most implanted children, thereby diminishing the ranks of the DEAF-WORLD. The ethical implications of eugenic practices with the DEAF are explored, as are ethical quandaries in parental surrogacy for DEAF children, and their parallels in transracial adoption. PMID:11660356

  10. A handbook of ethical practice a practical guide to dealing with ethical issues in information and library work

    CERN Document Server

    McMenemy, David; Burton, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This book looks at all of the ethical issues facing information and library professionals in one overarching, and practically-focused, text. As such, it is of great benefit to both practitioners and to LIS students. The focus of the book is two-fold: (1) It contains a detailed discussion of the issues that impact on the day-today practice of information workers in the 21st century; and (2) contains case studies discussing potential solutions to ethical problems faced. The book provides sections which work like flowcharts leading from ethical issues through decision points to proposed solutions

  11. The Full Spectrum of Clinical Ethical Issues in Kidney Failure. Findings of a Systematic Qualitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrass, Hannes; Strech, Daniel; Mertz, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Background When treating patients with kidney failure, unavoidable ethical issues often arise. Current clinical practice guidelines some of them, but lack comprehensive information about the full range of relevant ethical issues in kidney failure. A systematic literature review of such ethical issues supports medical professionalism in nephrology, and offers a solid evidential base for efforts that aim to improve ethical conduct in health care. Aim To identify the full spectrum of clinical ethical issues that can arise for patients with kidney failure in a systematic and transparent manner. Method A systematic review in Medline (publications in English or German between 2000 and 2014) and Google Books (with no restrictions) was conducted. Ethical issues were identified by qualitative text analysis and normative analysis. Results The literature review retrieved 106 references that together mentioned 27 ethical issues in clinical care of kidney failure. This set of ethical issues was structured into a matrix consisting of seven major categories and further first and second-order categories. Conclusions The systematically-derived matrix helps raise awareness and understanding of the complexity of ethical issues in kidney failure. It can be used to identify ethical issues that should be addressed in specific training programs for clinicians, clinical practice guidelines, or other types of policies dealing with kidney failure. PMID:26938863

  12. Ethical Issues of Transplanting Organs from Transgenic Animals into Human Beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Behnam Manesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into humans body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action. The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animals organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven.

  13. The "Veil of Ignorance": Exploring Ethical Issues in the Employment Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Steven M.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an exercise where students explore ethical implications of the employment interview by framing a set of ethical guidelines for a hypothetical hiring case in which they will play one of several roles. Finds that students become keenly aware of the influence of social and professional roles on how people view the ethical issues in the

  14. Dealing with Ethical Issues among Internet Users: Do We Need Legal Enforcement?

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Salman; Suhana Saad; Mohd. Nor Shahizan Ali

    2013-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs), in particular of the Internet and of the World Wide Web, have paved the way for numerous ICT related development and initiative. In as much as there are beneficial usage of the Internet, there is also unethical usage and abuse. The Internet is like a double edge sword and care must be taken when indulging in this vast ocean of knowledge and information. Studies on ethical issue have centred much on internet security like hacking of personal i...

  15. What happened to public responsibility? The lack of society in public relations codes of ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Walle

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of ethics is complex and contentious. For public relations it is also critical, as the industry will only win the struggle to salvage its own reputation if it can clearly demonstrate not only a commitment to ethics, but also some means to enforce ethical standards. There are many ethical reasoning tools, both intricate and useful, that public relations practitioners use to try to make ethical decisions, and these have been widely discussed in textbooks and specialist articles (e.g. Johnston & Zawawi, 2000; Bivins, 1992; Wright, 1989a; Pratt, 1993; Kruckeberg, 1996. This article does not attempt a comprehensive overview of ethical schemas; rather, it takes one corner of the ethical practitioners kitbag of tools, the association code of conduct, and examines one aspect of code content; its stand on social duty. As practical ethics tools, codes clearly have strengths and weaknesses beyond their incorporation or otherwise of a specific duty to society clause (c.f. Roth & Stravpoulos, 1996;Wright, 1993; Zupko, 1994. However, this article suggests that the absence or flimsiness of such clauses in some of the worlds leading PR association codes is too important a weakness to pass without comment. This article is intended not as a definitive word on ethics code requirements, nor an overview of their effectiveness and enforcement, but rather as a means to ensure that the important debate about ethics continues.

  16. Ethical issues associated with the use of animal experimentation in behavioral neuroscience research

    OpenAIRE

    Ohl, Frauke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314545255; Meijboom, Franck|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292714246

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research disciplines using animal experimentation, this field of endeavor makes a number of specific, ethically relevant, questions more explicit and, as a result, may expose to discussion a series of ethical iss...

  17. Key ethical issues encountered in healthcare organizations: perceptions of nurse executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert W; Frank, Garry L; Gouty, Carol Ann; Hansen, Mary C

    2002-06-01

    By the very nature of their daily work, nurse executives find themselves at the crossroads of the changing and challenging healthcare ethical environment in which clinical ethics and organizational ethics often collide. The authors present the findings of a survey of members of American Organization of Nurse Executives aimed at more clearly identifying the key ethical issues encountered in healthcare organizations by their nurse executives and others. Implications of the findings for healthcare organizations and their managers also are discussed briefly. PMID:12055489

  18. Ethical issues related to screening for Preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jrgensen, Jennifer M.; Hedley, Paula L.; Gjerris, Mickey; Chistiansen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of new methods of treating and preventing disease raises many question of both technical and moral character. Currently, many studies focus on developing a screening test for preeclampsia (PE), a disease complicating 28% of pregnancies, potentially causing severe consequences for pregnant women and their fetuses. The purpose is to develop a test that can identify pregnancies at high risk for developing PE sufficiently early in pregnancy to allow for prophylaxis. However, the ...

  19. Ethical Issues in the Consulting Context--Ethics in Presentation Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Rebecca L.

    In light of the huge volume of headline news stories that reflect ethical concerns from a variety of arenas, it is no wonder that ethics training is a hot topic. Research shows that many leading United States companies have written codes of ethics and/or instituted formal ethics training programs. In this paper, certain principles that have become

  20. Experienced ethical issues of personalized data-mined media services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2008-01-01

    This tentative PhD project description concerns the ethnographic examination of users’ experience of privacy issues and usability related to personalized data mined (web-) services for media content.......This tentative PhD project description concerns the ethnographic examination of users’ experience of privacy issues and usability related to personalized data mined (web-) services for media content....

  1. Ethical issues of medical missions: the clinicians' view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Barbara B; Olson, Robert M

    2011-06-01

    Surgery is an important part of health care worldwide. Without access to surgical treatments, morbidity and mortality increase. Access to surgical treatment is a significant problem in global public health because surgical services are not equally distributed in the world. There is a disproportionate scarcity of surgical access in low-income countries. There are many charitable organizations around the world that sponsor surgical missions to under served nations. One such organization is Operation Smile International, a group with which both authors have volunteered. This paper will describe the purpose and processes involved in Operation Smile and identify some of the key ethical issues that arise in short term medical volunteer work highlighting the importance of sustainability. PMID:21598049

  2. Teaching ethics in architecture: contexts, issues and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey CHAN Kok Hui

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An exposition on teaching ethics in architecture is long overdue. While all research on ethics in architecture agrees to its importance, none has ventured further to consider how to teach ethics in architecture. It is presumed that ethics is either transmitted tacitly in the architectural design studio, or introduced within a seminar on professional practice. But neither option is adequate if the goal of teaching ethics in architecture is the capacity for heightened ethical awareness, sound moral reasoning and keen judgment. What then, is the recourse for the educator interested in developing this capacity in the student? In this paper, I suggest that the context where ethics in architecture is taught is just as important as how to teach it. Subsequently, I suggest four pedagogical strategies for teaching ethics in architecture. This paper should appeal to every educator in higher education, especially to educators teaching architecture, urban design and planning.

  3. An Ethical Issue in Medical Education of Obstetrics and Gynecology

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae-hee; Choi, Seung Do; Woo, Su-Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    There are four principles of medical ethics; Beneficence, Respect for autonomy, Non-maleficence, and Justice. It is not easy to apply to principles of medical ethics in the special circumstances of obstetrics and gynecology. Student doctors must learn to be familiar with principles of medical ethics tailored to the special circumstances while the obstetrics and gynecology practice.

  4. An Ethical Issue in Medical Education of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Choi, Seung Do; Woo, Su-Hyeon

    2015-12-01

    There are four principles of medical ethics; Beneficence, Respect for autonomy, Non-maleficence, and Justice. It is not easy to apply to principles of medical ethics in the special circumstances of obstetrics and gynecology. Student doctors must learn to be familiar with principles of medical ethics tailored to the special circumstances while the obstetrics and gynecology practice. PMID:26793677

  5. Issues related to geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a number of potential barriers to geothermal development in Hawaii which have been overcome but some remain. Efforts continue to address issues relating to transmission, project economics, the regulatory process, resource verification, and public acceptance

  6. Do new Ethical Issues Arise at Each Stage of Nanotechnological Development?

    OpenAIRE

    Kermisch, Cline

    2011-01-01

    The literature concerning ethical issues associated with nanotechnologies has become prolific. However, it has been claimed that ethical problems are only at stake with rather sophisticated nanotechnologies such as active nanostructures, integrated nanosystems and heterogeneous molecular nanosystems, whereas more basic nanotechnologies such as passive nanostructures mainly pose technical difficulties. In this paper I argue that fundamental ethical issues are already at stake with this more ba...

  7. Applying Classical Ethical Theories to Ethical Decision Making in Public Relations: Perrier's Product Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Cornelius B.

    1994-01-01

    Links ethical theories to the management of the product recall of the Perrier Group of America. Argues for a nonsituational theory-based eclectic approach to ethics in public relations to enable public relations practitioners, as strategic communication managers, to respond effectively to potentially unethical organizational actions. (SR)

  8. Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock are vital to sustainable agriculture in most developing countries. In Asia, in general, the integration of livestock, fish and crops has proved to be a sustainable system through centuries of experience. Traditional use of dung for manuring the fields and bullocks for ploughing is the 'biodynamic farming', which has special significance in dry land agriculture comprising about 65 percent of India's cropped area. Gene-based technologies will be useful for developing special draught breeds of cattle so that their valuable source of energy remains available especially to the small and marginal farmers. Further, the livestock in the developing countries form an essential part of an integrated agricultural system and, therefore, development strategies for gene-based applications should consider the total production system (i.e., breeding fodder and forage crops, animal and crop disease and pest management etc). The gene-technologies of relevance to the developing countries are (i) rumen molecular techniques for reducing methane production and for increasing protein and energy supply; ruminant food stuffs currently used in India and a few other developing countries are fibrous, low in nitrogen, and contain anti-nutritive factors, (ii) improving animal productivity in developing countries by manipulation of nutrition in utero to alter gene expression of key metabolic hormones and enzymes for a long period after birth in cattle, (iii) genetic resistance to Helminthes in sheep, and (iv) molecular methods of diagnosis, molecular epidemiology and treatment of swine fever. Although not gene-based, artificial insemination (AI) for genetic improvement of dairy cattle and buffalo, and embryo-transfer (ET) for rapid multiplication of elite cattle are also relevant. Cloning (of the 'Dolly' - the sheep kind) will be useful to revive the rare and endangered animal species such as one-horned rhinoceros, swamp deer, wild buffalo and dugongs in India, for restoring environmental balance and social harmony with the forest, coastal and hill communities of various regions of India. The ethical issues from a technological point of view centre around both gene-based and nongene- based technologies to improve the nutrition, health and productivity of the farm animals. In particular, a reference needs to be made to bovine somatotropin (bST), a natural growth hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary in all animals, with a major effect on the regulation of growth and also milk production. Since the quantities of bST obtained from slaughtered animals are quite small, recombinant DNA technology-based r-bST is produced, and widely used in the USA to increase the milk production by 10% to 20%. Exhaustive evaluation tests conducted in the USA have shown that r-bST has no harmful effects in milk, but a high production of milk makes higher demands on animal physiology, and if an adequate food supply is lacking, negative effects are observed on fertility besides other health problems, especially mastitis and ketosis. Presently, neither r-bST, nor adequate nutritious feed is available for millions of dairy cattle in the developing countries. The economic benefits of 'mass production' over 'production by masses' are obvious; further, the access to the r-bST in the 'mass production' system, but not in the system of 'production by masses' could accentuate the economic disparity. The above-said scenario has further ramifications in view of the implications arising from the WTO-related Agreement on Agriculture. With an array of domestic supports, products of 'mass production' could be dumped into developing countries causing a substantial rise in the already high levels of livelihood and food insecurity. Since the r-DNA based technologies for 'pharming' or for human food are not yet applied to farm animals in the developing countries there are no serious concerns of bio-safety, and violation of ethical norms. In the countries, where animals for human food are genetically altered, the issues of 'animal sentience' and 'telos' become quite pertinent. For example, the 'growth genes' introduced into pigs (i.e. Beltsville Pigs) to accelerate growth and produce leaner meat also result in a number of serious physical disabilities to the pigs. Of course, in the case of 'broiler' chickens too, it is true that their skeleton and cardio-vascular systems are more poorly developed than their muscles and gut. The broiler chickens never live their natural life and thus their rights are ignored. With an ever increasing concern for 'animal welfare', the need is to recognize the 'animal right' (the right not to be tortured and left in pain) and to introduce humane and kindly treatment so that the unpleasantness of pain is greatly reduced. The objection is about treating animals as 'raw materials' upon which our ends and purposes can be imposed regardless of the ends and purposes natural to them. Legislation introduced in Sweden stipulates that farm animals be allowed to live their lives in accordance with their telos - e.g. cattle to have the right to graze and chicken and pigs have the right to freedom of motion. This is abundantly relevant to the developing countries where mixed farming with goals of 'evergreen revolution' and organic approach can still allow a greater degree of telos and freedom of movement to the animals maintained for milk, meat or draught purposes. The challenge before us is to foster the advancement of science, particularly the new genetics, while addressing the concerns of society

  9. Ethical and Legal Issues in School Counseling. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Wayne C.; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.

    This digest summarizes ethical and legal issues affecting school counselors. It emphasizes the importance of ethical standards, and of knowing the content, purposes, and limitations of professional codes of conduct as general guidelines for addressing difficult issues. Advice is offered on how to address colleagues' unethical behavior, and on

  10. Current and Emerging Ethical Issues in Counseling: A Delphi Study of Expert Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Barbara; Dufrene, Roxane L.

    2011-01-01

    A Delphi study was conducted to ascertain the opinions of panel experts regarding the most important current and emerging ethical issues facing the counseling profession. Expert opinions on ethical issues in counselor preparation also were sought. Eighteen panelists responded to 3 rounds of data collection interspersed with feedback. Themes that

  11. Review Article: Ethical Issues in the Study of Second Language Acquisition--Resources for Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Two recent books provide varied resources for exploring ethical issues in the social sciences. Reflection on ethical issues aims to sensitize scholars to a range of consequences of their research, and to scholars' responsibilities to their discipline, their colleagues, and the public. This review article assesses the utility of these texts (and of

  12. Ethical Issues of Ethnography Method: A Comparative Approach to Subaltern, Self, and the Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, Christo

    2013-01-01

    Using urban and rural community settings, this review article focuses on ethical issues associated with ethnographer-participant interaction and draws from the ethnographic accounts of Bronislaw Malinowski and Susan Krieger. As such, the following sections intend to illuminate the issue of ethics in ethnography research. As case studies, the

  13. Ethical Issues in the Study of Bereavement: The Opinions of Bereaved Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Andrea M.; Konnert, Candace A.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies examine ethical issues in bereavement research and none survey the opinions of bereaved individuals who have not previously participated in bereavement research. This study examined the theoretical opinions of bereaved adults about ethical issues such as attitudes toward bereavement research, timing and methods of recruitment, and

  14. Exploring Ethical Issues Associated with Using Online Surveys in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Allen, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Online surveys are increasingly used in educational research, yet little attention has focused on ethical issues associated with their use in educational settings. Here, we draw on the broader literature to discuss 5 key ethical issues in the context of educational survey research: dual teacher/researcher roles; informed consent; use of

  15. A Pedagogical Model for Ethical Inquiry into Socioscientific Issues In Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Kathryn J.; Rennie, Lonie J.

    2013-02-01

    Internationally there is concern that many science teachers do not address socioscientific issues (SSI) in their classrooms, particularly those that are controversial. However with increasingly complex, science-based dilemmas being presented to society, such as cloning, genetic screening, alternative fuels, reproductive technologies and vaccination, there is a growing call for students to be more scientifically literate and to be able to make informed decisions on issues related to these dilemmas. There have been shifts in science curricula internationally towards a focus on scientific literacy, but research indicates that many secondary science teachers lack the support and confidence to address SSI in their classrooms. This paper reports on a project that developed a pedagogical model that scaffolded teachers through a series of stages in exploring a controversial socioscientific issue with students and supported them in the use of pedagogical strategies and facilitated ways of ethical thinking. The study builds on existing frameworks of ethical thinking. It presents an argument that in today's increasingly pluralistic society, these traditional frameworks need to be extended to acknowledge other worldviews and identities. Pluralism is proposed as an additional framework of ethical thinking in the pedagogical model, from which multiple identities, including cultural, ethnic, religious and gender perspectives, can be explored.

  16. Public acceptance of nuclear power. Some ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through a careful process of investigation and inquiry, the World Council of Churches (WCC) has become aware of a decline of public confidence in existing social institutions responsible for maintaining and securing the nuclear fuel cycle. In addressing this concern, the World Council of Churches seeks a direct assurance from the IAEA and other responsible government bodies that new initiatives will be taken to resolve this anxiety and to place the acknowledged risks of an expanding nuclear power industry in a more realistic long-term perspective. The provision of energy resources for all peoples is an essential part of the struggle for a more just, participatory and sustainable society. In the light of current uncertainties over the maintenance of energy supplies, particularly to large urban communities, the WCC appreciates the necessity of retaining nuclear power as a viable option for the future in many countries. However, the credibility of the option can be achieved only through the resolution of the major questions that are inherent in the use of nuclear technology. The paper discusses the following questions, which must be tackled without further delay and certainly before a large and irreversible world-wide commitment is made: (1) The need for an open public debate. Without full public consultation on the social and ethical implications of long-term energy choices, decisions will be taken largely in terms of commercial and consequently short-term economic interest. (2) Facing the long-term risks of adopting nuclear technology. (3) Access versus security. Concern for the security of sensitive nuclear technologies has produced the secretive nuclear club. A just global society implies not merely equal opportunity to aspire and to achieve, but affirmative action to redress imbalances. (4) Military implications. (5) Social implications of nuclear energy. (6) Ethical and religious issues. (author)

  17. Ethical and legal issues in renal transplantation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S O Ajayi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of patients being offered kidney transplantation by many centers in the developing world, it is not unexpected that there would be attendant ethical and legal issues even when the selection process for transplantation seems medically justified. Because of the inadequate infrastructure for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, coupled with the challenges of logistics for maintenance dialysis, transplantation would seem to be the best option for patients with end-stage renal failure, even in developed economies where these can easily be tackled. The main issues here revolve around incentives for donors, organ trade and trafficking and the economics of eliminating the waiting list and the criminal activities of organ trans-plantation. In the developing world, with the current level of corruption and poverty, there is a need to redouble efforts to monitor transplant activities. Professional bodies should take the lead in this regard. Furthermore, there is a need for governments to engage in public consultation and community awareness concerning organ donation in living and deceased persons.

  18. Neuroimaging techniques for memory detection: scientific, ethical, and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan, Daniel V

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the use of neuroimaging techniques for forensic purposes. Memory detection techniques, including the well-publicized Brain Fingerprinting technique (Brain Fingerprinting Laboratories, Inc., Seattle WA), exploit the fact that the brain responds differently to sensory stimuli to which it has been exposed before. When a stimulus is specifically associated with a crime, the resulting brain activity should differentiate between someone who was present at the crime and someone who was not. This article reviews the scientific literature on three such techniques: priming, old/new, and P300 effects. The forensic potential of these techniques is evaluated based on four criteria: specificity, automaticity, encoding flexibility, and longevity. This article concludes that none of the techniques are devoid of forensic potential, although much research is yet to be done. Ethical issues, including rights to privacy and against self-incrimination, are discussed. A discussion of legal issues concludes that current memory detection techniques do not yet meet United States standards of legal admissibility. PMID:18236327

  19. Ethical and legal issues in renal transplantation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, S O; Raji, Y; Salako, B L

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing number of patients being offered kidney transplantation by many centers in the developing world, it is not unexpected that there would be attendant ethical and legal issues even when the selection process for transplantation seems medically justified. Because of the inadequate infrastructure for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, coupled with the challenges of logistics for maintenance dialysis, transplantation would seem to be the best option for patients with end-stage renal failure, even in developed economies where these can easily be tackled. The main issues here revolve around incentives for donors, organ trade and trafficking and the economics of eliminating the waiting list and the criminal activities of organ trans-plantation. In the developing world, with the current level of corruption and poverty, there is a need to redouble efforts to monitor transplant activities. Professional bodies should take the lead in this regard. Furthermore, there is a need for governments to engage in public consultation and community awareness concerning organ donation in living and deceased persons. PMID:26787578

  20. Assessing Veterinary and Animal Science Students' Moral Judgment Development on Animal Ethics Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    Little has been done to assess veterinarians' moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues. Following development of the VetDIT, a new moral judgment measure for animal ethics issues, this study aimed to refine and further validate the VetDIT, and to identify effects of teaching interventions on moral judgment and changes in moral judgment over time. VetDIT-V1 was refined into VetDIT-V2, and V3 was developed as a post-intervention test to prevent repetition. To test these versions for comparability, veterinary and animal science students (n=271) were randomly assigned to complete different versions. The VetDIT discriminates between stages of moral judgment, condensed into three schemas: Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), and Universal Principles (UP). There were no differences in the scores for MN and UP between the versions, and we equated PI scores to account for differences between versions. Veterinary science students (n=130) who completed a three-hour small-group workshop on moral development theory and ethical decision making increased their use of UP in moral reasoning, whereas students (n=271) who received similar information in a 50-minute lecture did not. A longitudinal comparison of matched first- and third-year students (n=39) revealed no moral judgment development toward greater use of UP. The VetDIT is therefore useful for assessing moral judgment of animal and human ethics issues in veterinary and other animal-related professions. Intensive small-group workshops using moral development knowledge and skills, rather than lectures, are conducive to developing veterinary students' moral judgment. PMID:26200702

  1. Critical thinking by nurses on ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Botes

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169. Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15. 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34 and Strauss and Corbin (1990. The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990. The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985 and Morse (1994 related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based on these findings the researcher concluded that nurses are not thinking critically when making ethical decisions concerning the termination of pregnancies. Recommendations are made as a possible solution for this problem.

  2. Critical thinking by nurses on ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botes, A

    2000-09-01

    This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decision-making. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169). Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15). 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34) and Strauss and Corbin (1990). The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990). The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985) and Morse (1994) related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based on these findings the researcher concluded that nurses are not thinking critically when making ethical decisions concerning the termination of pregnancies. Recommendations are made as a possible solution for this problem. PMID:11949153

  3. Dealing with Ethical Issues among Internet Users: Do We Need Legal Enforcement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICTs, in particular of the Internet and of the World Wide Web, have paved the way for numerous ICT related development and initiative. In as much as there are beneficial usage of the Internet, there is also unethical usage and abuse. The Internet is like a double edge sword and care must be taken when indulging in this vast ocean of knowledge and information. Studies on ethical issue have centred much on internet security like hacking of personal information and data theft, including in business. This paper will look at the recent trends related to the ethical usage of the Internet, especially involving social media usage and hacking of government websites and legal enforcement that can be used to address ethical issues among Internet users. Data is derived from secondary sources. From the secondary data or literature, hacking has been a subject of concern following the hackings of website of government departments by the group anonymous. There are some cases of internet abuse, especially social media involving scams and personal relationship. There is also the use of social media to incite hatred, especially against authorities leading to widespread unrest. Hence, this implies, putting in place some guiding principles and more stringent legal enforcement to curb the unethical use and abuse of the Internet.

  4. STUDENTS OPPINION ABOUT PROFESSIONAL ETHICS RELATION OF THE TEACHERS

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Stojanovska

    2013-01-01

    Professional teachers ethics is a collection of moral codes of their professional work. It is significant that the teaching profession respects certain designated professional-ethical codes of conduct between the teachers and the students, with their colleagues and other people they professionally cooperate with. This study is focused on analysis of the professional ethical relation of teachers towards students, seen from students point of view. These are the results of students report...

  5. Ethical issues surrounding do not attempt resuscitation orders: decisions, discussions and deleterious effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Zo; Fuld, Jonathan

    2010-10-01

    Since their introduction as 'no code' in the 1980s and their later formalization to 'do not resuscitate' orders, such directions to withhold potentially life-extending treatments have been accompanied by multiple ethical issues. The arguments for when and why to instigate such orders are explored, including a consideration of the concept of futility, allocation of healthcare resources, and reaching a balance between quality of life and quality of death. The merits and perils of discussing such decisions with patients and/or their relatives are reviewed and the unintended implications of 'do not attempt resuscitation' orders are examined. Finally, the paper explores some alternative methods to approaching the resuscitation decision, and calls for empirical evaluation of such methods that may reduce the ethical dilemmas physicians currently face. PMID:20675736

  6. Review of existing issues, ethics and practices in general medical research and in radiation protection research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature review was carried out in relation to general medical research and radiation protection research. A large number of documents were found concerning the subject of ethics in general medical research. For radiation protection research, the number of documents and the information available is very limited. A review of practices in 13 European countries concerning general medical research and radiation protection research was carried out by sending a questionnaire to each country. It was found that all countries reviewed were well regulated for general medical research. For research that involves ionising radiation, the UK and Ireland are by far the most regulated countries. For other countries, there does not seem to be much information available. From the literature review and the review of practices, a number of existing ethical issues were identified and exposed, and a number of conclusions were drawn. (authors)

  7. PETROBRASS BLOG AND JOURNALISM: what ethical issues are we talking about?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Fernando Dalmonte

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the case of Petrobrass blog, called Facts and Data (Fatos e Dados, created to be a channel for direct communication with the society and a place for presenting the official version of information concerning this state-owned company. Taken as a parameter for questions relating to the ethical issues involved in this communication experience, it suggests some reflections beyond possible redefinitions of making communication as opposed to doing journalism. In presenting its version of events directly to the society, the company opted for a model of unmediated communication, which requires the redefinition of the speech platforms and visibility. It also proposes a reflection on discourse ethics, especially regarding the ideal of individual participation in the processes of debate concerning matters of public interest.

  8. Ethical Issues in Addressing Inequity in/through ESL Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ena

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a researcher's struggles with conducting "ethical" research when her case study reveals racializations faced by a minority teacher in a Canadian ESL program. How might becoming privy to research participants' experiences of inequity in ESL education complicate the notion of research ethics when "doing the right thing" runs

  9. Introduction to International Ethical Standards Related to Genetics and Genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Seon-Hee; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The rapid advances in genetic knowledge and technology raise various, sometimes unprecedented, ethical dilemmas in the scientific community as well as the public realm. To deal with these dilemmas, the international community has prepared and issued ethical standards in various formats. In this review, seven international standards regarding genetics and genomics will be briefly introduced in chronological order. Critical reflections on them will not be provided in this review, and naturally,...

  10. Brains on Wheels: Theoretical and Ethical Issues in Bio-Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2014-01-01

    A number of theoretical problems and a couple of ethical issues in bio-robotics are investigated. It is found that claims made by researchers to have constructed robots controlled by rat brains are not fully justified by the results of current research. Further, the ethical implications of the research are currently unclear.

  11. On ethical issues in radiation protection. Radiation protection recommendations and standards seen from an ethical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International radiation protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, the European Union and the ILO are surveyed from an ethical perspective. The authors come to the conclusion that the insights of ethical theories provide a number of ways in which current recommendations and standards for radiation protection could improve. (orig.)

  12. Financial Compensation and Ethical Issues in Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Mary Cipriano

    1998-01-01

    As health care workers enter the twenty-first century, they must understand the relationships among market-driven forces, the health care workforce, and financial compensation. This understanding can be facilitated by a grasp of utilitarian ethical theory and by ethical tenets of justice such as distributive justice, material principles of justice, and justice as fairness. Health care workers also need to understand how unfair financial compensation can demoralize them and compromise their va...

  13. APLLICATION OF ENGINEERING ETHICS THROUGH EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen K Mehta; Dharmendra MEHTA; Er. Rajesh Kumar MEHTA

    2013-01-01

    The profession of Engineering is one of the highly acclaimed professions. As the active members of this profession, engineers are expected to possess and practice ethical standards. The invaluable services offered by professionals require honesty, impartiality, fairness, integrity and equity. They should devote themselves for allround social welfare. Engineers should perform their duties with utmost care and concern. Through effective communication, Engineering Professionals can promote ethic...

  14. Ethical issues in radiology: Perspectives from the Christian tradition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Christian ethical tradition introduces a number of key values into the clinical context. Moreover, although some denominational differences exist, these are essentially differences of emphasis rather than of substance. Among the central values which the Christian tradition promotes are: the dignity of the person, the individual as embodied spirit and the importance of the common good. Within the evolving discourse, social justice considerations have come to the fore as a critical concern within bio-ethics. In radiology, like most fields of clinical practice, practitioners frequently encounter conflicts and tensions of an ethical nature. Moreover, the manner in which these conflicts are articulated, conceptualised and ultimately resolved will depend, not only on how the scientific data are analysed and interpreted, but also on how different ethical frameworks are invoked in these disputes. The concern in this brief paper is to discuss the Christian ethical tradition as it is expressed in Roman Catholic and 'Protestant' denominations in the western church, considering the values and norms that underlie Christian ethical engagements with applied questions. (authors)

  15. The occupational toxicologist: professionalism, morality and ethical standards in the context of legal and non-litigation issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    By its very nature, practice and intended applications, the profession of occupational toxicology has individual and collective responsibilities related to the design, conduct, interpretation and extrapolation of laboratory and controlled human clinical studies in order to determine the potential for industrial xenobiotics to produce adverse effects. The implications for health-related adverse effects in the workplace, and in the domestic and general environment carries many and various responsibilities for the toxicologist which are related to multiple and wide-ranging ethical issues. This review presents and discusses some of the major areas where the occupational toxicologist may experience potential ethical problems related to the conduct of routine professional activities. Emphasis is placed on the design, conduct, interpretation and reporting of laboratory studies; animal welfare; regulatory activities; human clinical volunteer studies; roles and responsibilities in defining workplace safety and protective measures; malpractices in various disciplines and work practices; misconduct in publication; and codes of ethical behavior. PMID:16158389

  16. Ethics of professional relations to functionally handicapped users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Griljc

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic purpose of 1ibrarianship code is to form and build librarian personality who can make possible the same opportunity to acquiring knowledge for all users, irrespective of their different demands or special needs.When we discuss the importance of building librarian personality the demanding work with users we confront the problem of ethical treatment very often. Ethics advises only general rules which are rarely simple and they are frequently opposite to each other.The process of reacting between the librarian and the user - as with general information needs as with special functional needs - is also dependent on librarian's professional relation which is formed on important elements such as professional qualification,experiences, creativeness and ethics.We are also interested in question where is the border between ethical and non - ethical action in key situations when the 1ibrarian meets functionally handicapped user. Opportunities for non - ethical reaction of professional workers are much more possible if the library's premises and the furniture don't offer suitable conditions for adaptable communication with the handicapped.But on the other side the 1ibrarian has just because of the bad arhitectural conditions better occasion to introduce himself as one of the best ethically formed personalies compared with other professions. With adaptable communication, creative work and with professional relation in offering help to disabled people, the librarian can contribute to more quality service and even more - he/she becomes an example to other professions - also in ethical sense.

  17. Ethics issues experienced in HBM within Portuguese health surveillance and research projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In keeping with the fundamental practice of transparency in the discussion and resolution of ethics conflicts raised by research, a summary of ethics issues raised during Portuguese biomonitoring in health surveillance and research is presented and, where applicable, their resolution is described. Methods Projects underway aim to promote the surveillance of public health related to the presence of solid waste incinerators or to study associations between human exposure to environmental factors and adverse health effects. The methodological approach involves biomonitoring of heavy metals, dioxins and/or other persistent organic pollutants in tissues including blood, human milk and both scalp and pubic hair in groups such as the general population, children, pregnant women or women attempting pregnancy. As such, the projects entail the recruitment of individuals representing different demographic and health conditions, the collection of body tissues and personal data, and the processing of the data and results. Results The issue of autonomy is raised during the recruitment of participants and during the collection of samples and data. This right is protected by the requirement for prior written, informed consent from the participant or, in the case of children, from their guardian. Recruitment has been successful, among eligible participants, in spite of incentives rarely being offered. The exception has been in obtaining guardians' consent for children's participation, particularly for blood sampling. In an attempt to mitigate the harm-benefit ratio, current research efforts include alternative less invasive biomarkers. Surveys are currently being conducted under contract as independent biomonitoring actions and as such, must be explicitly disclosed as a potential conflict of interests. Communication of results to participants is in general only practised when a health issue is present and corrective action possible. Concerning human milk a careful approach is taken, considering breast-feeding's proven benefits. Conclusion No national legislation currently accounts for the surveillance component of biomonitoring as distinct from research. Ethics issues arising within the domain of research are resolved according to available regulations. For issues encountered during surveillance, the same principles are used as guidance, completed by the authors' best judgement and relevant ethics committees' findings.

  18. Ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed

  19. Scientific Productivity on Research in Ethical Issues over the Past Half Century: A JoinPoint Regression Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Trang, Nguyen Thi Huyen; Luan, Nguyen Thien; Anh, NguyenHoang; Nghi, Tran Diem; Hieu, Mai Van; Hirayama, Kenji; Karbwang, Juntra

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ethics is one of the main pillars in the development of science. We performed a JoinPoint regression analysis to analyze the trends of ethical issue research over the past half century. The question is whether ethical issues are neglected despite their importance in modern research.

  20. Cancer survivors. Work related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Pamela N; Beck, Martha L; Stava, Charles; Sellin, Rena V

    2002-05-01

    New and more effective treatments for cancer have resulted in individuals living longer with a better quality of life. Many more survivors are employed in the workplace. Cancer is no longer only an issue for survivors and their families; it has become an issue for the employer and the workplace. This article describes survey results of 4,364 long term cancer survivors in which they were asked to respond to items describing their ability to work, job discrimination, and quality of life. Thirty-five percent of survivors were working at the time they completed the survey, and 8.5% considered themselves unable to work. This research has shown that age, gender, ethnic group, and cancer type affected the working status of the survivors. Of survivors continuing to work, 7.3% indicated they had experienced job discrimination. The results indicate most cancer survivors do not perceive employment related problems, and are readily assimilated into the work force. Job discrimination and the ability to work is a quality of life issue. PMID:12033089

  1. TEACHERS' OPINIONS RELATED WITH ETHIC BEHAVIOURS OF EDUCATION INSPECTORS

    OpenAIRE

    U?URLU, Yrd.Do.Dr.Celal Teyyar

    2010-01-01

    Problem: Relation styles of education inspectors that take into consideration ethic values can provide teachers to have more morale and loyalty while working for their schools and students. Secondary school teachers' opinions related with ethic behaviors of education inspectors and sample situations the teachers have experienced are brought out by this search. Population of this study concerns 42 primary schools from Ad?yaman and its central counties. As applying to this poll at schools will ...

  2. TEACHERS OPINIONS RELATED WITH ETHIC BEHAVIOURS OF EDUCATION INSPECTORS

    OpenAIRE

    U?URLU, Yrd.Do.Dr.Celal Teyyar

    2010-01-01

    Problem: Relation styles of education inspectors that take into consideration ethic values can provide teachers to have more morale and loyalty while working for their schools and students. Secondary school teachers opinions related with ethic behaviors of education inspectors and sample situations the teachers have experienced are brought out by this search. Population of this study concerns 42 primary schools from Ad?yaman and its central counties. As applying to this poll at schools will ...

  3. Rights at Risk : Ethical Issues in Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Hermansson, Hélène

    2007-01-01

    he subject of this thesis is ethical aspects of decision-making concerning social risks. It is argued that a model for risk management must acknowledge several ethical aspects and, most crucial among these, the individual’s right not to be unfairly exposed to risks. Article I takes as its starting point the demand frequently expressed in the risk literature for consistent risk management. It is maintained that a model focusing on cost-benefit analysis does not respect the rights of the indivi...

  4. Pharmaceuticalisation and ethical review in South Asia: issues of scope and authority for practitioners and policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Bob; Khatri, Rekha; Ravindran, Deapica; Udalagama, Tharindi

    2015-04-01

    Ethical review by expert committee continues to be the first line of defence when it comes to protecting human subjects recruited into clinical trials. Drawing on a large scale study of biomedical experimentation across South Asia, and specifically on interviews with 24 ethical review committee [ERC] members across India, Sri Lanka and Nepal, this article identifies some of the tensions that emerge for ERC members as the capacity to conduct credible ethical review of clinical trials is developed across the region. The article draws attention to fundamental issues of scope and authority in the operation of ethical review. On the one hand, ERC members experience a powerful pull towards harmonisation and a strong alignment with international standards deemed necessary for the global pharmaceutical assemblage to consolidate and extend. On the other hand, they must deal with what is in effect the double jeopardy of ethical review in developing world contexts. ERC members must undertake review but are frequently made aware of their responsibility to protect interests that go beyond the 'human subject' and into the realms of development and national interest [for example, in relation to literacy and informed consent]. These dilemmas are indicative of broader questions about where ethical review sits in institutional terms and how it might develop to best ensure improved human subject protection given growth of industry-led research. PMID:24768272

  5. Artificial nutrition at the end of life: ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vathorst, Suzanne

    2014-04-01

    Artificial nutrition is a medical treatment that first of all needs a sound scientific base before prescribing it. This base is absent for dying patients and patients in the end stage of dementia. Because feeding is a very emotional and symbolical issue, patient and family may request this treatment despite the lack of evidence. These issues should be addressed in good communication with patient and relatives. For comatose patients and patients in a persistent vegetative state artificial nutrition is a necessary support to bridge the time until either recovery is imminent or improbable. At that moment artificial nutrition no longer contributes to the life of the patient and should be ceased. Artificial nutrition has no place in patients that voluntary decide to stop eating and drinking in order to die. PMID:24810185

  6. Ego development and the ethics of care and justice: the relations among them revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoe, Eva E A; von der, Lippe Anna L

    2002-08-01

    This study examined the links among ego development and the ethics of care and justice in 144 Norwegian men and women, 15 to 48 years old, taking into consideration age, sex, education, and verbal intelligence. As expected, the relationship between Loevinger's model of ego development and care-based moral reasoning as measured with Skoe's Ethic of Care Interview (ECI) was significantly stronger than the one between ego development and justice as measured with Rest's Defining Issues Test (DIT). Both ethics correlated significantly with verbal ability. Analyses showed that beyond its overlap with verbal intelligence, the variance shared between the ECI and ego development was substantial. By contrast, when verbal intelligence was controlled, the DIT was not significantly related to ego development or to the care ethic. PMID:12095188

  7. ETHICAL ISSUES, SAFETY, AND DATA INTEGRITY IN CLINICAL TRIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Published in 1974, the Belmont Report established the ethical principles for conducting clinical research in the United States. The essential concepts are respect for the research participant, beneficence for society at large, and justice (equal access to participation and equal treatment) toward su...

  8. Ethical Issues Affecting Human Participants in Community College Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The increasing demand of constituents to conduct analyses in order to help inform the decision-making process has led to the need for Institutional Research (IR) guidelines for community college educators. One method of maintaining the quality of research conducted by IR staff is to include professional development about ethics. This article

  9. Child Sexual Abuse Assessment: Issues in Professional Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milchman, Madelyn Simring

    1995-01-01

    Coordinates ethical codes for psychiatry, psychology, and social work and discusses their implications for child sexual abuse assessment in child protection and divorce/custody/visitation cases. Guidelines developed by the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children are also considered. Confidentiality, protection from harm, and bias…

  10. A Study of Facilitator Decisions on Ethical Adventure Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Doug; DeTrude, Judy

    An increasing number of adventure facilitators are being trained in school settings. The common form of training consists of modeling the appropriate behavior to new facilitators followed by an apprenticeship period. An attempt was made to determine if adventure facilitators were making ethically correct decisions based upon their knowledge and

  11. Ethical Challenges when Interviewing Close Relatives Together An Integrative Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voltelen, Barbara; Konradsen, Hanne; stergaard, Birte

    articles was analysed using thematic analysis with an inductive approach searching for themes about ethical considerations doing joint interviews. The SPIDER search tool was applied using keywords relatives, ethic, dyadic interview, challenges and qualitative methods created on the basis of relevant......, highlighting an ethical demand on the researcher to pay attention to all parties. The planning process can be challenging due to logistics and informants are instructed only to reveal things they would like to share. The well-being of all interviewees should be preserved at all times, avoiding harm from topics...

  12. Building the Bridge from Bench to Bedside: Ethical Issues in Translational Stem Cell Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hug, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Translational stem cell research raises many interesting ethical questions, which have, to a greater or lesser degree, been debated at an international as well as at an interdisciplinary level. Nevertheless, there is still no international consensus regarding how a number of ethical questions related to this research should be answered. Many of these ethical questions create a real challenge to translation of basic research results into clinical applications. The overall aim of the thesis...

  13. Neurofunctional correlates of ethical, food-related decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, J Bradley C; Bruce, Jared M; Lusk, Jayson L; Crespi, John M; Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    For consumers today, the perceived ethicality of a food's production method can be as important a purchasing consideration as its price. Still, few studies have examined how, neurofunctionally, consumers are making ethical, food-related decisions. We examined how consumers' ethical concern about a food's production method may relate to how, neurofunctionally, they make decisions whether to purchase that food. Forty-six participants completed a measure of the extent to which they took ethical concern into consideration when making food-related decisions. They then underwent a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans while performing a food-related decision-making (FRDM) task. During this task, they made 56 decisions whether to purchase a food based on either its price (i.e., high or low, the "price condition") or production method (i.e., with or without the use of cages, the "production method condition"), but not both. For 23 randomly selected participants, we performed an exploratory, whole-brain correlation between ethical concern and differential neurofunctional activity in the price and production method conditions. Ethical concern correlated negatively and significantly with differential neurofunctional activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). For the remaining 23 participants, we performed a confirmatory, region-of-interest (ROI) correlation between the same variables, using an 8-mm3 volume situated in the left dlPFC. Again, the variables correlated negatively and significantly. This suggests, when making ethical, food-related decisions, the more consumers take ethical concern into consideration, the less they may rely on neurofunctional activity in the left dlPFC, possibly because making these decisions is more routine for them, and therefore a more perfunctory process requiring fewer cognitive resources. PMID:25830288

  14. Ethics in research with human beings: some issues about Psychology tica em pesquisa com seres humanos: alguns tpicos sobre a psicologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slvia Helena Koller

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some ethical issues in research with human beings, especially addressing the area of Psychology, such as the use of ethical codes; minimum risk; informed consent; debriefing; confidentiality; and ethical committees. It suggests ways for researchers to increase understanding and the proper use of the ethical codes, to guarantee their own protection, and to avoid abuses of power. Special attention is given to methodological issues related to ethics.Este artigo examina alguns aspectos ticos em pesquisa com seres humanos, especialmente endereando a rea da Psicologia, tais como o uso de resolues ticas; risco mnimo; consentimento livre e esclarecido; decepo; confidencialidade e atuao de comits de tica. Sugere caminhos aos pesquisadores para incrementar o entendimento e o uso apropriado de cdigos de tica, para garantir sua prpria proteo e evitar abuso de poder. Ateno especial dada a assuntos metodolgicos relacionados tica.

  15. Addressing public concerns about ethical and environmental issues in the discussion on nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to Swiss Federal Law, the producers of radioactive waste are responsible for its safe disposal. The government, therefore, plays a relatively modest role in the public debate on nuclear waste management. Whenever asked to express an opinion, it tries to inform openly. Active public relations campaigns are led by the National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA). The operators of nuclear power plants are ready to compensate the siting community and its Canton for services rendered in the public interest. An important way to deal with ethical and environmental issues is the inclusion of opponents in every step of the time-consuming licensing procedure. This paper discusses the upcoming vote on a concession for a low and intermediate-level waste repository for which NAGRA is actively preparing. NAGRA's public relations work is based on recognition of the fact that the only way to diminish fear and gain credibility is to inform openly and regularly over many years, and to show that results achieved are based on serious, careful and transparent scientific work. Another aspect of radioactive waste management communication lies in the explanation of the ethics of 'inter-generational' and 'intra-generational' equity. Compensation will never make up for lack of safety. The ways in which the public voices its views are discussed, as well as the concept of seeking the co-operation of opponents in working groups. (author)

  16. Ethical Challenges when Interviewing Close Relatives Together An Integrative Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voltelen, Barbara; Konradsen, Hanne

    Background and purpose Interviewing two interrelated persons (or more) simultaneously might pose different ethical considerations than interviewing just one person. Such ethical considerations, however, remain largely undescribed in literature, challenging the researcher who wishes to conduct them. The purpose of this study is to describe the special ethical perspectives concerning joint interviews with interrelated persons. Method An integrative review was performed. A search was conducted in Pub Med, Cinahl, Philosophers Index and Academic Search from 1980 -2014. Data corpus from the 17 articles was analysed using thematic analysis with an inductive approach searching for themes about ethical considerations doing joint interviews. The SPIDER search tool was applied using keywords relatives, ethic, dyadic interview, challenges and qualitative methods created on the basis of relevant pseudonyms, Mesh and search terms. Results In total 17 articles were located, 9 containing relevant information about dyadic interviewing, only dealing subtly with questions of ethics. Another 8 articles addressed both dyadic interviewing and ethical considerations. Findings were divided into three different themes: The researcher/interviewer, Planning of joint interviews and Participant well-being. Conclusions and implications The nature of joint interviews poses many ethical challenges as more people are involved. They provide insight into shared accounts and communication patterns between interviewees, highlighting an ethical demand on the researcher to pay attention to all parties. The planning process can be challenging due to logistics and informants are instructed only to reveal things they would like to share. The well-being of all interviewees should be preserved at all times, avoiding harm from topics that cause disagreement and topics difficult to address. The researcher should avoid taking any side and reframe any questions that seem to cause distress.

  17. Informed consent in experimentation involving mentally impaired persons: ethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of experimentation involving subjects whose mental condition prevents them from understanding information and providing proper informed consent has been addressed in various codes, declarations, conventions, treaties and regulations adopted by national, international and supranational institutions and authorities. This article summarizes the basic ethical criteria these documents provide and stresses the historical development from the nearly total exclusion of incapacitated subjects, established in the mid-twentieth century, to their contemporary inclusion in clinical trials on certain ethical conditions. The problem of proxy consent by legal representatives for participation in clinical trials is addressed particularly in reference to current Italian regulations. Exceptions to human experimentation requirements in emergency situations are also briefly discussed.

  18. Ethical issues in the development of a vestibular prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Poppendieck, Wigand; Hoffmann, Klaus-Peter; Merfeld, Daniel; Guyot, Jean-Philippe; Micera, Silvestro

    2011-01-01

    During the development of a neural prosthesis, various ethical aspects have to be considered. These range from the basic design of the prosthesis and manufacturing of the various components and the system using biocompatible materials to extensive in vitro and in vivo testing and investigations in the animal model, before taking the final step and going to human trials. As medical systems, neural prostheses have to be proven absolutely safe before considering any clinical study. In this work,...

  19. Ethical issues in radiation protection. Sievert lecture 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present radiation protection doctrine (ICRP 1990) is based on a body of scientific knowledge, one underlying assumption and three general principles. My objective is to discuss first the adequacy of the existing scientific information for the purpose of setting safety standards; then to consider the foundation of the underlying assumption; and finally, to discuss a few aspects of the general principles in the light of ethical considerations

  20. Ethical and Moral Courage is Distress among Professional Nurses: A Workplace Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Ethics and moral issues do impact the manner in which professional nurses perform their major duties. Moral distress often conflict with an ethical appropriate course of action that is known, but cannot be implemented. This distress has been associated with job dissatisfaction, burnout, early retirement, withdrawal from the moral dimensions of direct patient care, and others just leaving the profession altogether. In the workplace, institutions must make an assertive effort in providing resources and addressing situations that cause personal anxiety and depression that adversely affects total patient care. The American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN) has addressed ethical issues and moral distress in practices that support nurses with moral courage, when encountering ethical conflicts. Ask, Affirm, Assess and Act are the 4 A's that AACN believes should be a part of an organization's strategic plan to create a healthy workplace environment. PMID:26336663

  1. Forensic psychiatric evaluations: an overview of methods, ethical issues, and criminal and civil assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is frequently defined as the branch of psychiatry that deals with issues arising in the interface between psychiatry and the law. Psychiatrists are called on by the legal system to provide testimony in a wide variety of cases, criminal and civil. In criminal cases, forensic psychiatrists may be asked to comment on the competence of a person to make decisions throughout all the phases of criminal investigation, trial, and punishment. These include the competence to stand trial, to plead guilty, to be sentenced, to waive appeal, and to be executed. In civil cases, forensic psychiatric experts are asked to evaluate a number of civil competences, including competence to make a will or contract or to make decisions about one's person and property. Psychiatrists are also called on to testify about many other issues related to civil cases. Forensic psychiatrists who work with children and adolescents are frequently involved in evaluations and testimonies concerning juvenile delinquency, child custody, termination of parental rights, and other issues. As such, forensic psychiatric experts have now developed into a reputable and well-known group of professionals. Forensic evaluation methods, ethical issues related to forensic psychiatric practice, and some common criminal and civil forensic psychiatric evaluations are discussed in this overview. PMID:25411982

  2. Pharmacogenetics, ethical issues: review of the Nuffield Council on Bioethics Report

    OpenAIRE

    Corrigan, O

    2005-01-01

    In September this year the Nuffield Council on Bioethics held a meeting to disclose and discuss the main findings of their newly published report on the ethical issues associated with developments in pharmacogenetics research. The basics of pharmacogenetics science is briefly outlined, and then the extent to which the report was successful in addressing (or at least highlighting) the attendant social, ethical, and policy implications of pharmacogenetics research is evaluated.

  3. Issues and Challenges in Research on the Ethics of Medical Tourism: Reflections from a Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Crooks, Valorie; Snyder, Jeremy; Turner, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    The authors co-organized (Snyder and Crooks) and gave a keynote presentation at (Turner) a conference on ethical issues in medical tourism. Medical tourism involves travel across international borders with the intention of receiving medical care. This care is typically paid for out-of-pocket and is motivated by an interest in cost savings and/or avoiding wait times for care in the patients home country. This practice raises numerous ethical concerns, including potentially exacerbating health...

  4. From informal practices to formal conduct: Which ethical practices and issues for French lobbying consulting?

    OpenAIRE

    Major, R.W.; Rival, Madina

    2012-01-01

    In France, lobbying consulting is at the same time a recent and not well received activity, conversely to the United States. The influence of public decision making is certainly a particularly sensitive occupation, at both managerial and societal levels. This is why ethics as applied to business can play a central role in its establishment. This paper examines the practices and issues of ethics in lobbying consulting. The chosen field in this exploratory study is France. The case of a lobbyin...

  5. Using the Emanuel et al. framework to assess ethical issues raised by a biomedical research ethics committee in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce M; Wassenaar, Douglas R

    2014-12-01

    The Emanuel, Wendler, and Grady framework was designed as a universal tool for use in many settings including developing countries. However, it is not known whether the work of African health research ethics committees (RECs) is compatible with this framework. The absence of any normative or empirical weighting of the eight principles within this framework suggests that different health RECs may raise some ethical issues more frequently than others when reviewing protocols. We used the Emanuel et al. framework to assess, code, and rank the most frequent ethical issues considered by a biomedical REC during review of research protocols for the years 2008 to 2012. We extracted data from the recorded minutes of a South African biomedical REC for the years 2008 to 2012, designed the data collection sheet according to the Emanuel et al. framework, and removed all identifiers during data processing and analysis. From the 98 protocols that we assessed, the most frequent issues that emerged were the informed consent, scientific validity, fair participant selection, and ongoing respect for participants. This study represents the first known attempt to analyze REC responses/minutes using the Emanuel et al. framework, and suggests that this framework may be useful in describing and categorizing the core activities of an REC. PMID:25747689

  6. Developing Communities of Enquiry: Dealing with Social and Ethical Issues in Science at Key Stage 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Lynda; Humes, Gill; Clarke, Linda; Martin, Valerie McKelvey

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive technologies, drug discovery and exploration of the universe are areas of contemporary research that raise issues for individuals and society. Forward Thinking, Northern Ireland uses the development of communities of enquiry to promote discussion of these and other social and ethical issues in science with students aged 11-14 years.

  7. Family and Limitation of the Therapeutic Effort in Pediatric Intensive Care. Ethical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Efrn Uriarte Mndez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The fact of improving the quality of life of patients with incurable diseases and prolonging life in extremely serious cases has been related to the problem of defining when it is not ethically correct to prolong the agony. Almost all the medical literature addressing this issue refers to the patient and familys right to limit a futile therapy and its usefulness to avoid the unnecessary suffering of the patient. However, there is little information on how to act when the ralatives of the terminally ill child insist on continuing futile treatments that will only cause pain and increased suffering, without mentioning the unnecessary expenditure of resources, which puts the physician in a difficult position. This paper presents the criteria derived from the experience in the pediatric intensive care unit, especially those related to the interpretation of the concepts used in this context.

  8. Ethics and policy issues for stem cell research and pulmonary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Justin; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    Stem cell research and related initiatives in regenerative medicine, cell-based therapy, and tissue engineering have generated considerable scientific and public interest. Researchers are applying stem cell technologies to chest medicine in a variety of ways: using stem cells as models for drug discovery, testing stem cell-based therapies for conditions as diverse as COPD and cystic fibrosis, and producing functional lung and tracheal tissue for physiologic modeling and potential transplantation. Although significant scientific obstacles remain, it is likely that stem cell-based regenerative medicine will have a significant clinical impact in chest medicine. However, stem cell research has also generated substantial controversy, posing a variety of ethical and regulatory challenges for research and clinical practice. Some of the most prominent ethical questions related to the use of stem cell technologies in chest medicine include (1) implications for donors, (2) scientific prerequisites for clinical testing and use, (3) stem cell tourism, (4) innovation and clinical use of emerging stem cell-based interventions, (5) responsible translation of stem cell-based therapies to clinical use, and (6) appropriate and equitable access to emerging therapies. Having a sense of these issues should help to put emerging scientific advances into appropriate context and to ensure the responsible clinical translation of promising therapeutics. PMID:25732448

  9. Ethical Issues Involved in Integrated Marketing Communication in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ayozie Daniel Ogechukwu; Ayozie Kingsley Ndubueze; Ayozie Victoria Uche

    2011-01-01

    “When we consider corporate morality we must conclude that no price is too high, for in the long run we have no alternative to ethical business behaviour” Fred. T. Aller. “If I were to name the deadliest subversive force within capitalism, the single greatest source of its waning morality …. I would without hesitation name “Advertising and Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC)”. How else should one identify a force that debases language, drains thought and undoes dignity. (Heilbroner .R. (...

  10. Ethical Issues in Financing Health Care in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina GAVRILOVICI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The allocation of financial resources in accordance with population health care needs represents a complex task, with practical and ethical dilemmas. The decisions regarding resource allocation are made at macro, mezzo and micro levels. Legislative authorities and government decide how to allocate limited resources based on cost effectiveness criteria. Managing directors of hospitals and research institutes take mezzo decisions, while doctors and researchers in healthcare area are responsible to make micro decisions. The aim of this paper is to assess the use of equity criteria for resource allocation in Romanian public hospitals. We found that resource allocation within the Romanian health system increases the inequalities among individuals and groups.

  11. Providing indigent care: strategic issues in management, marketing and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, J

    1986-08-01

    Uncompensated cares poses considerable management, marketing and ethical challenges to health care managers. A variety of responses are examined which offer the possibility of reducing the need for inpatient care and the cost of that care as well as for the enhancement of the organization's positioning in the marketing and sales environment. Some of the programs will require support from local community agencies or employers, but others will be quite feasible without such support. Additionally, the programs build on sensitivity to the hospital mission as opposed to turning away from it. PMID:10301007

  12. Policy, Equity and Priority: Ethical Issues of Stem Cell in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Larijani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ever-increasing advances in the field of bioethics have been encouraged by recent developments of biomedical technolo-gies. Stem cell research and therapy are among the most promising approaches in medicine of which are raised some ethical challenges. Likewise, the therapeutic potential of stem cell-based therapies created new policy concerns for health care systems, particularly the issue of equity, priority in resource allocation and justice. There are arguments against and in favor of funding for stem cell research. Governments have also diverse policies in encouraging private sector sponsorship to support researches. Iran is one of the pioneers in the field of human embryonic stem cell research in the region. The religious decrees permitting therapeutic purposes have paved the way for wide-ranging researches. Indeed, the researchers have an obligation to observe moral values. Therefore, the national specific guideline for gamete and embryo research, compiled in 2005, is followed in this issue. In this paper, we will discuss the major ethical concerns relating to the issue of equity and justice, and will review the regulatory policies for stem cell research and therapy. On the whole, stem cell research is a global enterprise about which there is a need to think in the context of globalisation and also from the perspective of the developing countries. Stem cell based therapies are expensive and technologically demanding, the low-resource healthcare systems need to consider a specific national policy and to weigh up costs and benefits to consider making such treatments available. We must ensure that rights, values and welfare of the donor, recipient and the community are respected.

  13. Ethical issues in the care of the neurologically devastated infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koogler, Tracy K

    2013-01-01

    The debate surrounding neurologically devastated newborns, whether due to severe prematurity or genetic malformations, has continued for over 40 years. Duff and Campbell (1973) first discussed allowing these children to die in the 1970s. In the 1980s, others fought to make sure these children with disabilities were afforded all the rights of other children. Recently, some commentators have advocated for withdrawal of therapies and even euthanasia in the Netherlands. Who is right? What are the ethical principles that should be followed? What decisions are appropriate for distraught parents to make? This chapter reviews international views, laws, and guidelines surrounding the therapies and limitations of care for these imperiled newborns. An ethical argument is presented for how to determine best interests for these special children utilizing the best interest standard. Parents and physicians need to use their individual expertise and values to work together to determine each individual child's best interests. Physicians may have to carry the burden for making final determinations to alleviate the guilt families may have in deciding to limit therapies. PMID:24182380

  14. Ethical Issues in Neuroprognostication after Severe Pediatric Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschen, Matthew P; Walter, Jennifer K

    2015-09-01

    Neurologic outcome prediction, or neuroprognostication, after severe brain injury in children is a challenging task and has many ethical dimensions. Neurologists and intensivists are frequently asked by families to predict functional recovery after brain injury to help guide medical decision making despite limited outcome data. Using two clinical cases of children with severe brain injury from different mechanisms: hypoxic-ischemic injury secondary to cardiac arrest and traumatic brain injury, this article first addresses the importance of making a correct diagnosis in a child with a disorder of consciousness and then discusses some of the clinical challenges with deducing an accurate and timely outcome prediction. We further explore the ethical obligations of physicians when supporting parental decision making. We highlight the need to focus on how to elicit family values for a brain injured child, how to manage prognostic uncertainty, and how to effectively communicate with families in these challenging situations. We offer guidance for physicians when they have diverging views from families on aggressiveness of care or feel pressured to prognosticate with in a "window of opportunity" for limiting or withdrawing life sustaining therapies. We conclude with a discussion of the potential influence of emerging technologies, specifically advanced functional neuroimaging, on neurologic outcome prediction after severe brain injury. PMID:26358429

  15. [Controversies over the surgical placebo: legal issues and the ethical debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, C; Moutel, G; Meningaud, J P; Wolf, M; Lopes, M

    2000-06-17

    The debate on controlled surgery trials has had some rather "sensational" repercussions, enlivening the placebo issue. In France, there is a consensus on the ethical conditions necessary for proper protection of individual persons. This consensus has taken on a legal form with the promulgation of the Huriet law. For this reason, all studies and research protocols in medicine and surgery are examined by ethics committees (CCPPRB) who assess the inclusion conditions within the framework of biomedical research and in compliance with the concept that individual participants must be give proper protection. These committees are faced with increasingly complex situations, particularly concerning the pertinence of information give to the participant and the modalities of consent. In France, standard measures were established after a parliamentary debate issuing from a wider public debate. The issue has become a social transaction between biomedical research professionals and the society in general. The international debate over the surgery placebo is an interesting illustration of how mediation institutions, working along the principles of ethical committees, play a key role in social awareness of the ethical issues involved before an innovating practice is initiated. But how legitimate are sensational pieces published in the media, which as is clearly demonstrated with the debate over the surgical placebo, are almost always individual points of view? Shouldn't the debate take into account the contributions of ethical committees which integrate representatives of the social community as well as the importance of a legal framework for individual protection as proposed by the French law? Shouldn't personal points of view be counterbalanced by regularly expressed ethical committee opinions formed after appropriate ethics-oriented discussion going beyond the simple question of "should we do it", a question often dismissed by extreme theoretical arguments that leave unanswered the practical question of "how should we do it"? PMID:10906941

  16. Ethical, legal and social issues to consider when designing a surrogacy law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Merryn Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this article is to address the ethical, legal and social issues that arise when a woman becomes pregnant and gives birth to a child with the intention of surrendering this child to another woman or couple. The secondary aim is to offer some recommendations that will be beneficial for the lawmakers, policymakers and regulators who design and enforce the rules and regulations that govern surrogacy arrangements. The article considers both commercial and altruistic surrogacy and highlights some of the similarities and differences between the two. Beginning with the initial question of whether surrogacy should be legal, the controversial questions raised relate to the time before conception, during the pregnancy and after the birth of the child. The article concludes that surrogacy arrangements are ethical and should be legal because they enable the medically and socially infertile, including singles and same-sex couples, the opportunity to become parents and to enjoy the lifelong pleasures of parenthood. For many, this will be the strongest argument for the legalisation of surrogacy and the greatest benefit to arise from surrogacy arrangements. PMID:24804538

  17. Conflicts of duty and the virtues of Aristotle in public relations ethics: Continuing the conversation commenced by Monica Walle

    OpenAIRE

    John Harrison

    2004-01-01

    Monica Walle's commentary on codes of ethics from five national public relations associations What happened to public responsibility? The lack of society in public relations codes of ethics, in the last issue of PRism (2003), made several useful points about potential conflicts of duty, and the manner in which the various codes are silent on the duty of the professional to the public interest. Indeed, it is this very notion of service to the community, and the upholding of the public interest...

  18. Public Relations Ethics and Communitarianism: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, Kathie A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a preliminary examination of communitarianism and its emphasis on community and responsibility as an ethical base for public relations. Suggests that the emphasis business currently places on quality, social responsibility, and stewardship may fit within a communitarian approach. Argues that a communitarian base to public relations may

  19. A Critical Review of Theories and Measures of Ethics-Related Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weichun; Zheng, Xiaoming; Riggio, Ronald E; Zhang, Xi

    2015-06-01

    This chapter reviews the different theoretical perspectives and measurements of ethics-related leadership models, including ethical leadership, transformational leadership, authentic leadership, servant leadership, spiritual leadership, and a virtues-based approach to leadership ethics. The similarities and differences among these theoretical models and measures to ethics-related leadership are discussed. PMID:26894906

  20. Ethical Issues Regarding Informed Consent for Minors for Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Melvin S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the difficulty with informed consent and debates whether or not whether adults should be able to ethically, morally, and legally consent for their children during the high-risk activity of space tourism. The experimental nature of space vehicles combined with the high likelihood of medical complications and the destination places space tourism legally in the category of "adventure activities," which include adventure travel to exotic locations as well as adventure sports, such as mountain climbing, rafting, etc. which carry a high risk of danger (http://rescommunis.wordpress.com/2008/02/14/interview-tracey-l-knutson-adventure-sports-defense-attorney-on-space-tourism-risk-and-informed-consente/). However, unlike other adventure sports, adults currently cannot consent for their minor children. Other topics also receive attention, such as a "mature minors" clause, radiation exposure of potential future children, and other difficulties preventing adults from legally consenting to space travel.

  1. Animal Experimentation: Bringing Ethical Issues into Biology Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2000-01-01

    There are many possibilities for the use of controversial issues such as animal experimentation in biology classrooms. Outlines a series of three lessons that asked senior biology students to consider the issue of animal experimentation from three perspectives. (Author/LM)

  2. Aspectos éticos del comercio electrónico desde la perspectiva de los consumidores : Ethical issues in online retailing form consumers´perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual del Riquelme Martínez, Mª Isabel

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose – The main goal of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the factors that currently represent some of the most important obstacles for a greater acceptance of the Internet as a shopping channel. Specifically, this research is focused on the study of the antecedents of consumers’ concerns, perceptions and beliefs about ethical issues in e-commerce, as these consumer ethical concerns are at the core of the most important barriers related to e-commerce ado...

  3. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: ethical and legal issues in feeding and hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie; Baird Schwartz, Denise; Posthauer, Mary Ellen

    2013-06-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that individuals have the right to request or refuse nutrition and hydration as medical treatment. Registered dietitians (RDs) should work collaboratively as part of the interprofessional team to make recommendations on providing, withdrawing, or withholding nutrition and hydration in individual cases and serve as active members of institutional ethics committees. RDs have an active role in determining the nutrition and hydration requirements for individuals throughout the life span. When individuals choose to forgo any type of nutrition and hydration (natural or artificial), or when individuals lack decision-making capacity and others must decide whether or not to provide artificial nutrition and hydration, RDs have a professional role in the ethical deliberation around those decisions. Across the life span, there are multiple instances when nutrition and hydration issues create ethical dilemmas. There is strong clinical, ethical, and legal support both for and against the administration of food and water when issues arise regarding what is or is not wanted by the individual and what is or is not warranted by empirical clinical evidence. When a conflict arises, the decision requires ethical deliberation. RDs' understanding of nutrition and hydration within the context of nutritional requirements and cultural, social, psychological, and spiritual needs provide an essential basis for ethical deliberation. RDs, as health care team members, have the responsibility to promote use of advanced directives. RDs promote the rights of the individual and help the health care team implement appropriate therapy. This paper supports the "Practice Paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Ethical and Legal Issues of Feeding and Hydration" published on the Academy website at: www.eatright.org/positions. PMID:23684296

  4. A Review of Indian Publications on Ethical Issues Regarding Capacity, Informed Consent, and Placebo Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedi, Santosh K

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the ethical aspects of psychiatric research in India. There were a few studies on research on informed consent and capacity in psychiatric practice. Using the key words Consent Psychiatry India 35 references were found in PubMed, of which 5 related to mental health. Using the key words Decision making and capacity India 10 references were found in PubMed, but none were related to mental health. Using the key words: ethics, placebo controlled trials, India, eight repor...

  5. Food Marketing to Children - Introduction to Ethical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kv?ta Olanov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The working paper provides an overview of key stakeholders involved in the food marketing to children in Europe and in the Czech Republic. It analyzes the role of the legislation as well as of voluntary codes of conduct in the food industry. The industry part of the issue is also covered by explanation of their role and position in the obesity issue. The form of food industry cooperation at the Food Chamber through a working group of involved companies is analyzed and an example of the corporate responsibility program is shown. The paper is going to serve as a review of the issue for further exploration needs.

  6. Considering ethical dilemmas related to brain death in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Chatziioannidis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain death (BD, as the irreversible and permanent loss of cerebral and brainstem function, is relatively uncommon among newborns who need life support. It is considered the result of an acute and irreversible central nervous system insult. Asphyxia, severe intracranial hemorrhage and infection are the most common causes of BD in children. BD diagnosis is usually based on clinical criteria. Dilemmas about life prolonging treatment for severely compromised infants as brain dead infants are has become challenging since neonatal intensive care unit (NICU care has developed, quality of life and resource issues are nowadays continuously underlined. Caring for premature babies is expensive and costs have risen especially since an increased number of infants with handicaps survives. Intensivists main duty is first to save lives and then to interrupt treatment in certain conditions like detrimental brain damage. The objective of this article is to present ethical decisions regarding brain dead newborns in order to balance between organ donation necessities and withholding/withdrawing treatment, with respect to the important role of infants parents in the process.

  7. Geologic disposal of radioactive waste: Ethical and technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethical goals that future people should be protected and should not have to protect themselves from our radioactive waste are claimed by geologic repository projects. The best test of sufficient protection is to show that the calculated individual doses to future farming families are well below a regulatory limit. That limit should be no greater than what is now adopted to protect the public from operating licensed facilities. Present US calculations show doses, at times well beyond 10,000 years, that exceed current accepted limits by at least three orders of magnitude. Notwithstanding, there is a good chance that the goals can still be achieved by careful technical design of the geologic confinement system. But many in the US now propose ways that would allow greater individual exposures from radionuclides that eventually leak from a geologic repository. Examples include: (a) the 10,000-year cutoff proposed by industry, the US Congress, EPA, and DOE, thus obscuring the later times when higher doses are certain to result; (b) the vicinity-average dose proposed by industry and the US Congress; (c) the probabilistic critical groups proposed by EPRI and by the National Research Council's TYMS committee; (d) proposals to rely on future humans to detect and cleanup excessive amounts of radioactivity that may escape from a repository, and (e) the move to base compliance on calculated doses from well water drawn at considerable distance from Yucca Mountain. Each of these proposals would lead to a far more lenient radiation protection standard than current standards. Each of these proposals is without sufficient scientific basis for its use as a protector of public health. Each of these proposals would violate one or more of the ethical goals. Each is made without adequate discussion and explanation and without explaining how and why it would violate one or more of the ethical goals. What if serious work on alternatives fails to produce conservatively calculated and defensible doses that show that future people will be protected as well as present-day people are protected from licensed nuclear facilities? If so, the need for a geologic repository could be balanced against the desire for assuring such conservative and careful protection of public health. Relaxation of the safety standard itself, as attempted so prematurely by the House and Senate bills of the present and last Congress, should be made only after special review of that need by the scientific community and the public and approval by Congress. The desire for safeguards protection of buried spent nuclear fuel will be an additional burden on repository design and prediction of performance. Thus, the Yucca Mountain Project faces a demanding technical challenge. Similar challenges face policy makers. They must reject pressures for short-term expediency and economy lest, by enacting policies that compromise scientific validity and credibility, they further undermine public confidence and irreparably harm the programs for disposing of high-level radioactive waste

  8. ETHICAL QUESTIONING RELATED TO GENE THERAPHY FOR INHERITED DISEASES TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOS HENRY OSORIO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of exogenous genetic sequences named transgenes is known as gene therapy and has the purpose of correcting genotypic and phenotypic alterations in the human organism. This therapy can be carried out in somatic cells or in germinal cells. The ethical questioning related to somatic gene therapy has to do basically with the potential risks for health and the informed consent while germ-line gene therapy has the potential to affect permanently future generations. Since genic therapy involves much more than the simple alteration of genetic sequences, this revision presents the main ethical problems associated with gene therapy for inherited disease

  9. The Ethical Employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.

  10. Ethical Issues and Considerations for Working with Community College Students with Severe and Persistent Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Perry C.; Abbassi, Amir

    2010-01-01

    Students with severe and persistent mental illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders; moderate to severe mood, anxiety, dissociative, eating, or personality disorders) are attending community colleges in increasing numbers. Their need for counseling services presents counseling centers with unique ethical issues to consider. This

  11. Advances in Graduate Marketing Curriculum: Paying Attention to Ethical, Social, and Sustainability Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, James

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the impact of coercive, mimetic, and normative isomorphic pressures on the coverage and offering of courses addressing ethical, social, and sustainability issues (ESSI) in business schools' graduate marketing curricula. Data from the Aspen Institute's Beyond Grey Pinstripes program are analyzed to detect if

  12. Health effects of low-level radiation: ethical issues for patients and workforces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the light of recent media-driven furores concerning the sensitive matter of patient consent, and the new legislation that impinges upon this issue, the nature of ethical practices for epidemiological research needs to be looked at anew. This paper considers the present landscape, with particular reference to the nuclear workforce and BNFL's current practice in this regard. (author)

  13. Teaching about Ethics through Socioscientific Issues in Physics and Chemistry: Teacher Candidates' Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Sarah Elizabeth; Nieswandt, Martina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify and explain the origins of physics and chemistry teacher candidates' beliefs about teaching about ethics through socioscientific issues (SSI). This study utilized a series of in-depth interviews, while the participants (n = 12) were enrolled in a 9-month teacher education program at an urban

  14. Ethical Issues in the Social Worker's Role in Physician-Assisted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manetta, Ameda A.; Wells, Janice G.

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of an exploratory study of social workers' views on physician-assisted suicide (PAS), situations in which PAS would be favored, and whether there is a difference in education or training on mental health issues, ethics, or suicide between social workers who favor PAS and those who oppose PAS. (BF)

  15. Ethical Issues in Agency Evaluation from the Viewpoint of Activity Theory: A Basis for Interorganizational Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huotari, Risto

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on ethical issues faced in evaluation practice from the viewpoint of third generation of activity theory, which gives a constructive perspective on how contradictions can be a driving force behind interorganizational learning and development in multiactor networks. The problem field is firstly addressed through an illustration

  16. Conducting Program Evaluation with Hispanics in Rural Settings: Ethical Issues and Evaluation Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Claudia X. Aguado; McDermott, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Conducting evaluations that are both valid and ethical is imperative for the support and sustainability of programs that address underserved and vulnerable populations. A key component is to have evaluators who are knowledgeable about relevant cultural issues and sensitive to population needs. Hispanics in rural settings are vulnerable for many

  17. Impact of Parental Severe Mental Illness: Ethical and Clinical Issues for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelhoff, Sarah F.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This article draws attention to the issue of parental severe mental illness and the ethical and clinical implications for counselors who work with this population. Parents with mental illness face a multitude of life challenges including, but not limited to, parenting difficulties, medication and hospitalization, custody and placement of their

  18. Ethical issues, justification, referral criteria for budget limited and high-dose procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews some of the issues connected with questions of ethics, health economics, radiation dose and referral criteria arising from a workshop held under the auspices of the Sentinel Research Program FP6-012909. An extensive bibliography of further reading is included. (authors)

  19. Ethical Issues in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Perceptions of Teachers and Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shudong; Heffernan, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Pedagogical theories and the applications of information technology for language learning have been widely researched in various dimensions. However, ethical issues, such as online privacy and security, and learners' personal data disclosure, are not receiving enough research attention. The perceptions and attitudes from those who participate in

  20. Development of the Ethical and Legal Issues in Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Patrick R.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Conley, Abigail H.

    2014-01-01

    The authors present the development of the Ethical and Legal Issues in Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale (ELICSES). The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) present a rationale for the ELICSES, (b) review statistical analysis procedures used to develop the ELICSES, and (c) offer implications for future research and counselor education.

  1. Discussing Ethical Issues in the Classroom: Leveraging Pedagogical Moments that May Otherwise Undermine Important Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Douglas J.; Hull, William J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The authors identify, examine, and clarify three kinds of hindrances (dismissive/evasive tactics, logical stoppers, and ad hominem arguments) to teaching about ethical issues in P-12 schools. In discussing these three types of obstacles, they stress that the barriers themselves provide both challenges and opportunities for teachers. Indeed, they

  2. Advances in Graduate Marketing Curriculum: Paying Attention to Ethical, Social, and Sustainability Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, James

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the impact of coercive, mimetic, and normative isomorphic pressures on the coverage and offering of courses addressing ethical, social, and sustainability issues (ESSI) in business schools' graduate marketing curricula. Data from the Aspen Institute's Beyond Grey Pinstripes program are analyzed to detect if…

  3. Food Marketing to Children - Introduction to Ethical Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Květa Olšanová

    2013-01-01

    The working paper provides an overview of key stakeholders involved in the food marketing to children in Europe and in the Czech Republic. It analyzes the role of the legislation as well as of voluntary codes of conduct in the food industry. The industry part of the issue is also covered by explanation of their role and position in the obesity issue. The form of food industry cooperation at the Food Chamber through a working group of involved companies is analyzed and an example of the corpor...

  4. Managing ethical issues in sexual violence research using a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Duma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Conducting research in the area of sexual violence has complex ethical and practical challenges for the researcher. Managing ethical issues in sexual violence is important and can be achieved through the use of pilot studies. The primary purpose of the pilot study was to identify and manage potential ethical and practical problems that could jeopardise the main study or violate the ethical and human rights of participants in the main study on womens journey of recovery from sexual assault. The secondary purpose was to collect preliminary data in order to determine the human, financial and time resources needed for a planned study. The methods and processes used in conducting the pilot study in the study on womens journey of recovery are discussed according to each of the objectives of the pilot study, methods used to achieve the objective, observations or findings made during the pilot study, and implications for the main study.This article aims to demonstrate how a pilot study was used to manage identified potential ethical and practical research issues during the recruitment of participants and data collection for the research that was conducted by the first author to investigate womens journey of recovery from sexual assault trauma within the first week following sexual assault.

  5. Mode of Effective Connectivity within a Putative Neural Network Differentiates Moral Cognitions Related to Care and Justice Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G Andrew; Ely, Timothy D.; Snarey, John; Kilts, Clinton D

    2011-01-01

    Background Moral sensitivity refers to the interpretive awareness of moral conflict and can be justice or care oriented. Justice ethics is associated primarily with human rights and the application of moral rules, whereas care ethics is related to human needs and a situational approach involving social emotions. Among the core brain regions involved in moral issue processing are: medial prefrontal cortex, anterior (ACC) and posterior (PCC) cingulate cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus ...

  6. Ongoing ethical issues concerning authorship in biomedical journals: an integrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; McLean, Loyola M; Baber, Rodney J

    2015-01-01

    Health professionals publishing within the field of health sciences continue to experience issues concerning appropriate authorship, which have clinical, ethical, and academic implications. This integrative review sought to explore the key issues concerning authorship from a bioethical standpoint, aiming to explore the key features of the authorship debate. Studies were identified through an electronic search, using the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL)...

  7. Periodontal Research: Basics and beyond Part II (Ethical issues, sampling, outcome measures and bias)

    OpenAIRE

    Avula, Haritha

    2013-01-01

    A good research beginning refers to formulating a well-defined research question, developing a hypothesis and choosing an appropriate study design. The first part of the review series has discussed these issues in depth and this paper intends to throw light on other issues pertaining to the implementation of research. These include the various ethical norms and standards in human experimentation, the eligibility criteria for the participants, sampling methods and sample size calculation, vari...

  8. Ethical Considerations for Psychologists Taking a Public Stance on Controversial Issues: The Balance Between Personal and Professional Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeny, Angela M

    2014-07-01

    Previous literature has documented the general issues psychologists often face while balancing their personal and professional lives. The struggle stems from attempting to satisfy the need to maintain a life outside of work while having the professional obligation to follow the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (Ethics Code) to prevent their personal lives from interfering with their professional roles and relationships. The present paper analyzes the subject of psychologists taking a public position on controversial public issues. Although the APA Ethics Code does not restrict how psychologists conduct themselves during their personal time, taking a public stance on a controversial issue could potentially strain professional relationships and inadvertently reflect negatively on the profession. The present paper examines ethical issues that a) should be taken into account before psychologists take a public position on a controversial issue, and b) are in conflict with APA's Ethics Code or current research. PMID:25342876

  9. The relation between work ethics and work morality and the factors effecting work ethics in work-life

    OpenAIRE

    Sibel Gk

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the importance of work ethics and morality has been increased. The effect of them in work-life and their relations with the subjects such as performance, loyalty, competition, etc. have been studied by a number of researchers. The work ethics and morality concepts are becoming widespread in business application, work-life and global trading. Therefore, they appear as a subject for further researches.In this study, the concepts of the work ethics, morality and the developm...

  10. Ethical issues in informed consent with substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrady, B S; Bux, D A

    1999-04-01

    Alcohol and drug abusers present issues that complicate the informed consent process. The present study examined the practices of federally funded clinical investigators in obtaining informed consent from alcohol and drug abusers. Ninety-one (51%) researchers completed a 27-item survey on informed consent issues. The majority of investigators (57%) recruited participants susceptible to coercion; most used procedures to minimize coercion. Two thirds of researchers used objective means to determine competence to give consent and comprehension of consent forms. Virtually all investigators had policies to deal with suicidality, homicidality, or reports of child abuse; less than 1/2 informed participants of these limits to confidentiality. Almost 50% of investigators had dealt with intoxicated or suicidal participants; 12% had encountered homicidal participants; and 23% had encountered child abuse or neglect. Half of the sample used collateral data sources; about 1/2 of these obtained written informed consent from collaterals. Guidelines for informed consent with substance abusers are suggested. PMID:10224728

  11. Ethics Issues on Land Services Reformation in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Afif Hamka; Azima A. M.; Suhana Saad1,

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, public demand for the availability of land has been increased due to population growth and the development while the land itself it was never increased. In an effort to improve the public service, then the government has established a policy of service to the community in the management and development of land development. It has issued instructions to the State Minister for Agrarian Affairs / Head of National Land Agency No. 3 of 1998 On Improving Efficiency and Quality of Comm...

  12. Parenthood and the Internet: An Ethical Discussion about Online Sexual Issues against Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys A. Flores

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most controversial discussions about parenthood and the Internet is about the sexual offenses that children can face when surfing the Web. Moreover, how parents can protect them effectively is another point of interestin the current society. However, this issue has not been analysed from the ethical point of view due to the lack of cyberethics nowadays. Hence, in this article, the most common online threats against children are discussed considering the utilitarianism, the contractarianism, and the pluralism.Additionally, some procedures applied to protect children are analysed using the mentioned ethical frameworks.

  13. Using a Relational Models Perspective to Understand Normatively Appropriate Conduct in Ethical Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Giessner, S.R.; Quaquebeke, N. van

    2011-01-01

    To describe leadership as ethical is largely a perceptional phenomenon informed by beliefs about what is normatively appropriate. Yet there is a remarkable scarcity in the leadership literature regarding how to define what is normatively appropriate. To shed light on this issue, we draw upon Relational Models Theory (Fiske: 1992, Psychological Review, 99, 689-723), which differentiates between four types of relationships: communal sharing, authority ranking, equality matching, and market pr...

  14. Public relations ethics: A simpler (but not simplistic approach to the complexities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karey Harrison

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Professional public relations bodies internationally have established ethics codes in an attempt to regulate members ethical behaviour. This paper critiques the code-based framework on philosophical and practical grounds, suggesting that such frameworks are inadequate because they leave practitioners free to interpret these guides in ways that advance their own and their clients interests. We argue that this latitude does not foster ethical behaviour. We then contrast rule-following,action-based ethics with agent-based ethics, conceived in Aristotelian terms, and suggest that the virtue ethics advanced by Aristotle and his interpreters represents a more challenging but more authentically ethical path for practitioners to consider.

  15. Research on Rural Economic Ethical Issues in other Countries since Modern Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingrong Tu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of the ethical problems of the rural economy abroad has formed a relatively mature theory of genre since modern times, such as Marx and Engels the moral theory of the peas ant economy; the self-sufficiencysmallholder survival moral theory of motivation by Chayanov, Polanyi, Scott; the rational smallholdersthe profit-motive, economic-and-moral theory by Firth, Tax, Schultz, Popkin; Mendras economic and moral theory to explain self-sufficient smallholders motivation to rational small- holders profit motive; the farmhouse economic ethical thought by Gandi; Simons bounded rationality and effectiveness of rational peasant economy ethics, the proposals of the relevant international organizations of the rural economy ethics. Considering the magnitude of related research, it is significant to systematically analyze the theoretical interpretation of these studies, and promote the healthy and orderly development of the rural economy. Furthermore, it is also meaningful to consolidate the theoretical foundation of the rural economy ethics to clarify and ease of ethical confusion in the domestic and international economic and social development in rural areas to promote certain theoretical significance and practical value.

  16. Focus on Ethics and Public Relations Practice in a University Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smudde, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Public relations action relies on sound decision making about how to inspire cooperation between an organization and its publics. Such thinking must uphold principles for ethical communication. Effectively combining ethics with public relations practice for students is key. A pedagogical approach to public relations ethics, hinging on selected

  17. Focus on Ethics and Public Relations Practice in a University Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smudde, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Public relations action relies on sound decision making about how to inspire cooperation between an organization and its publics. Such thinking must uphold principles for ethical communication. Effectively combining ethics with public relations practice for students is key. A pedagogical approach to public relations ethics, hinging on selected…

  18. Ethical issues raised by the new orientations in ergonomics and living labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcenilla, Javier; Tijus, Charles

    2012-01-01

    User Experience Theory (UXT) provides us with criteria for designing products and technical systems for everyday activities (playing, learning, working,) so as to satisfy users. Living Labs (LL), are plateforms used for the design and evaluation of technical systems. As such, they constitute tools that bring to this process some constraints., However these constraints have to be articulated to the UXT. In other words, UXT should specify the place, the role and function LL should play in the design of new products, how it should contribute to satisfying UX, and how the methods and techniques should be conceived or borrowed from other disciplines. UXT also raises ethical issues: impartiality (independent, public, replicable) of research models in the context of economical constraints (dependant, private, secret prototypes) and of industrial pressure, the use of intrusive and persuasive techniques, even with the prior informed consent of participants, ergo-marketing, deontology codes, the use of specific participants, belonging of an UX innovative solution, confidentiality with ICT, and so on. Because the UX, as well as LL literature, have shown little concerns for ethical considerations, till now, we define LL-UX ethical issues as a new research topic, and we list a number of problems to be solved in order to have an ethical LL-UX methodology for open innovation. PMID:22317534

  19. Practicing School Psychology while Impaired: Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Emery B.; Morris, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on impairment in psychologists and other mental health practitioners began appearing in the literature 30-35 years ago. Since then, research and related scholarly writings have continued to be published to more fully understand this concept and its components. In school psychology, however, little has been written regarding school

  20. Environmental and ethical issues and waste management approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronouncing the words ''radioactive waste'' can easily arouse mistrust, or even irrational fear, by wittingly or unwittingly referring to Hiroshima or Chernobyl, by exploiting the lax attitude to this type of waste in certain countries and by speculating on the complex issues involved, which are beyond the general public's grasp. It would be unacceptable to paint such a black picture of nuclear waste, just as it would be to keep glossing over the problems that it poses. Waste managers have a duty to convince scientists and politicians and public opinion in general, with arguments based on serious scientific research, that safe technical solutions do exist. But will this be enough? The general public of course knows very little about science. But people are prepared to put their trust in science provided that they are not subjected to a free for all between scientists from opposing camps attacking each other with unintelligible arguments. However, other types of reactions, more difficult to control, can be expected from some quarters of the general public. For instance, a reaction of instinctive and passionate mistrust has already emerged in different forms over the centuries, with its roots buried in ancestral culture and as such varying from region to region and country to country. Nuclear waste may also provide yet another opportunity to demonstrate opposition to something ostensibly being imposed by Central Government. The only solution here is for decisions to be worked out at grass roots level through a gradual process of wide consultation, with the necessary backing of elected local authorities. For these reasons, the process of setting up an underground laboratory possibly followed by radioactive waste storage has to be a gradual one, with thorough consultation at all levels at each stage under the constant supervision of ad hoc committees of scientific experts, each new step forward only being decided by the political authorities after completing the proper inquiry procedures. (O.M.)

  1. [Withdrawing and withholding treatments in acute severe stroke patients: clinical and ethical issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Sophie

    2012-05-01

    Stroke prognosis remains difficult to determine. It depends on stroke severity, patient's age and his rehabilitation ability. In essence, individual prediction is uncertain. Neurological severity is related to many factors such as low blood pressure or hyperthermia, which are important to consider before prognosticate. Do-not-resuscitate orders are given in up to 30% of acute stroke. More than 50% of them are given upon admission (in the first 24h of stroke). Withdrawing and withholding treatments are usually decided when neurological prognosis is supposed to be "catastrophic". Other factors, such as physician's disability representation or hospital use of aggressive procedures, certain daily routines or organizational constraints, are also probably implied. In France, end-of-life decisions are guided by the law: "loi relative aux droits des malades et la fin de vie du 22 avril 2005". Palliative approach in severe stroke remains unknown and rarely developed, but is necessary to implement in such situations with high mortality rate. End-of-life decisions in severe stroke have several ethical issues such as the definition of what could be an "unacceptable" disability for the individual and/or the society. PMID:22381811

  2. TEACHERS OPINIONS RELATED WITH ETHIC BEHAVIOURS OF EDUCATION INSPECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrd.Do.Dr.Celal Teyyar U?URLU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem: Relation styles of education inspectors that take into consideration ethic values can provide teachers to have more morale and loyalty while working for their schools and students. Secondary school teachers opinions related with ethic behaviors of education inspectors and sample situations the teachers have experienced are brought out by this search. Population of this study concerns 42 primary schools from Ad?yaman and its central counties. As applying to this poll at schools will create some problems (like time, cost and control difficulties %25 (twenty-five percent of the research population has been chosen randomly as cluster sample. (10 schools.All the teachers working in these schools were chosen randomly and they were all included in the study. Polls were applied to the all teachers from 10 schools. Returning and appropriate questionnaires for processing were evaluated.Method: A poll that had 22 questions with 5 multiple choices were used to collect data. Cronbachs alpha coefficient of the data from the account of reliability based on data acquired from application was calculated as 87. SPSS packaged software was used to analyze the data, t test and one-way analysis of variance were used as statistical analysis methods. While commenting on arithmetic averages , ranges were evaluated like this.1.00 1.79 very low , 1.80 2.59 low, 2.60 -3.39 moderate , 3.40 4.19 high ,4.20 5.00 very high. The highest score was 110 points and the lowest score was 22 points available for the questionnaire test, Mann Whitney U test ,one- way analysis of variance and Kruskal Wallish test were performed to test whether the opinions changed or not according to personal characteristics.Findings: As a result of this study, teachers have identified that ethical behavior level of education inspectors is at medium level. Variances like gender, the number of teachers at school and the question of desire to be an education inspector dont show significant difference. While there is no significant difference between the opinions of people who have given positive answers to the question of Would you like to be an education inspector? the opinions of people who have given positive answers to the question of Do you believe in the necessity of the inspection? have showed significant difference according to those who have given negative answers. Suggestions: According to these results it can be advised that inspectors can be directed to in-service training study about Ethics Training to develop their own ethical principles and to perform behaviors that have more humanistic nature and ethic principles.

  3. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities: review of clinical and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekas, Jean; Langlois, Sylvie; Ravitsky, Vardit; Audibert, François; van den Berg, David Gradus; Haidar, Hazar; Rousseau, François

    2016-01-01

    Genomics-based non-invasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening) was proposed to reduce the number of invasive procedures in current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies. We review here the clinical and ethical issues of cfDNA screening. To date, it is not clear how cfDNA screening is going to impact the performances of clinical prenatal diagnosis and how it could be incorporated in real life. The direct marketing to users may have facilitated the early introduction of cfDNA screening into clinical practice despite limited evidence-based independent research data supporting this rapid shift. There is a need to address the most important ethical, legal, and social issues before its implementation in a mass setting. Its introduction might worsen current tendencies to neglect the reproductive autonomy of pregnant women. PMID:26893576

  4. Investigation of nursing students and professional nurses attitudes towards ethical issues of assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balari C.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Various ethical problems have emerged regarding Assisted Reproduction (AR. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the attitudes of nursing students and professional nurses against assisted reproduction with emphasis on current ethical issues.Material and methods: The research sample consisted of 150 ATEI nursing students and 150 professional nurses. A questionnaire with open and closed type questionnaires was used. Contingency tables and ?2 test were used. Statistical significant was set at p<0.05. Results: Mean age of nurses was 34,417,28 years old, while mean age of students was 21,833,07 years old. Nursing students are more receptive regarding cryopreserved human germ cells for future use, cloning of embryos and AR above 40 years of age. Conclusions: The attitudes of professional nurses and nursing students upon bioethical issues of AR are quite different. Nursing students seem more receptive against new methods of AR.

  5. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities: review of clinical and ethical issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekas, Jean; Langlois, Sylvie; Ravitsky, Vardit; Audibert, Franois; van den Berg, David Gradus; Haidar, Hazar; Rousseau, Franois

    2016-01-01

    Genomics-based non-invasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening) was proposed to reduce the number of invasive procedures in current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies. We review here the clinical and ethical issues of cfDNA screening. To date, it is not clear how cfDNA screening is going to impact the performances of clinical prenatal diagnosis and how it could be incorporated in real life. The direct marketing to users may have facilitated the early introduction of cfDNA screening into clinical practice despite limited evidence-based independent research data supporting this rapid shift. There is a need to address the most important ethical, legal, and social issues before its implementation in a mass setting. Its introduction might worsen current tendencies to neglect the reproductive autonomy of pregnant women.

  6. Immigration Reform and Related Issues. Perspectivas Publicas. Issue Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    Asserting that immigration reform and related issues have commanded sustained attention in the opening weeks of the 99th Congress, this paper provides an overview of important developments in this area, and highlights steps taken by the National Council of La Raza to help shape these developments. The developments discussed include: (1) The…

  7. Ethical Issues in the End of Life Care for Cancer Patients in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mobasher

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the recent years, advances in medical technologies for end stage cancer patients’ care have affected the end-of-life decision-making in clinical practice and exposed oncologists to serious ethical dilemmas. But little is known about oncologists' viewpoints in our country regarding their ethical problems in this mention. We aimed to clarify the ethical dilemmas which Iranian oncologists may face in our health care setting and to determine factors influencing decision-making process.Methods: In this qualitative study, a phenomenological approach was used. We interviewed 8 cancer specialists in teaching hospitals in Iran and used content analysis to identify codes and categorize themes in the data.Results: During the process of analysis, three main themes emerged about ethical dilemmas in end of life care for advanced cancer patients: illness factors, socio-cultural context and patient-physician relationship. Cancer specialists identified ethical problems on several main issues, the most important of which were telling the truth in Iranian cultural context, uncertainty in end stage definition, multidisciplinary team working and cost consideration in Iranian health care system.Conclusion: Health care and insurance system in Iran face to end of life care challenges; therefore, health care providers and policy makers need to allocate appropriate resources and programs to improve quality of care in terminal stages. Appropriate physicians’ communication skills training, multidisciplinary team working and supplementary insurance services that provide essential health care can improve the quality of care of patients with end stages of cancer. The findings of this study can help us to provide ethical policies for decision-making in end-of-life care.

  8. Chinese geneticists' views of ethical issues in genetic testing and screening: evidence for eugenics in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, X.

    1998-01-01

    To identify Chinese geneticists' views of ethical issues in genetic testing and screening, a national survey was conducted. Of 402 Chinese geneticists asked to participate, 255 (63%) returned by mail anonymous questionnaires. The majority of respondents thought that genetic testing should be offered in the workplace for alpha-antitrypsin deficiency (95%) and the predisposition of executives to heart disease, cancer, and diabetes (94%); that genetic testing should be included in preemployment ...

  9. Policy, Equity and Priority: Ethical Issues of Stem Cell in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Larijani, B.; Zahedi, F

    2008-01-01

    Ever-increasing advances in the field of bioethics have been encouraged by recent developments of biomedical technolo-gies. Stem cell research and therapy are among the most promising approaches in medicine of which are raised some ethical challenges. Likewise, the therapeutic potential of stem cell-based therapies created new policy concerns for health care systems, particularly the issue of equity, priority in resource allocation and justice. There are arguments against an...

  10. Translating personalized medicine using new genetic technologies in clinical practice: the ethical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Ormond, Kelly E.; Cho, Mildred K

    2014-01-01

    The integration of new genetic technologies into clinical practice holds great promise for the personalization of medical care, particularly the use of large-scale DNA sequencing for genome-wide genetic testing. However, these technologies also yield unprecedented amounts of information whose clinical implications are not fully understood, and we are still developing technical standards for measuring sequence accuracy. These technical and clinical challenges raise ethical issues that are simi...

  11. An overview of surrogacy around the world: trends, questions and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Kim L

    2012-01-01

    Although the birth of a child is typically considered a very happy time for parents, surrogacy is often unchartered territory that can become very stressful for all parties involved. Part of the stress stems from the fact that different states and countries have varying laws and regulations overseeing surrogacy. This article provides insight regarding surrogacy around the world, including professional, societal and ethical issues. PMID:22697226

  12. Ethical Issues in E-Commerce on the Basis of Online Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Sinan Nardal; Ayse Sahin

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The rapid spread of e-commerce has created tremendous opportunities for economic efficiency and customer choice. Use of the global Internet computer network for ecommerce activities provides some advantages to the consumers on their daily life. On the other hand Internet represents a new environment for unethical behavior. While e-commerce has witnessed extensive growth in last decade, consumers concerns regarding ethical issues also continue to increase. Even many consumer...

  13. Medical and ethical issues in genetic screening--an academic view.

    OpenAIRE

    Holtzman, N A

    1996-01-01

    This article is intended to acquaint those whose principal concerns are the health and safety of workers with genetic screening and some of the medical and ethical issues it raises. Population-based genetic screening increasingly is being considered for predicting future disease in the person being screened. A major problem in screening for alleles that contribute to the development of common, multifactorial disorders is low sensitivity and positive predictive value. In many instances, no dem...

  14. Ethical Issues in Withholding or Withdrawal of Artificial Nutrition and Hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitriadou A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A I M : The purpose of this study was to identify and explore the main ethical dilemmas arising for a health care teamworking in a clinical nutrition unit when decisions about withholding or withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration(ANH of seriously ill patients have to be made. The potential factors influencing this decision-making processare also described.M A T E R I A L - M E T H O D : Fifteen health carers working in a Clinical Nutrition Unit in the United Kingdomparticipated in the study and qualitative research methods were used to gather data.R E S U L T S : The findings of the study illustrate that withdrawal of life-sustaining nourishment is one of themost difficult ethical dilemmas for the health care professionals. The reason for such difficulty is associated with thepotential outcome of that intervention, as it brings about a patients death. Furthermore, quality of life issues appearto influence the decision-making process. When the patients voice is absent, the health care team takes into accountthe perspectives of the patients family, in order to decide to abate life-sustaining nourishment.C O N C L U S I O N S : By exploring the health carers attitudes on ethical issues and identifying their involvementin the decision-making process, an in-depth understanding of the process is provided. The ethical decision-makingprocess is not an easy task. The question of whether ANH should be ethically withdrawn seems to be very complex.Health carers should take into consideration all the factors influencing the decision-making in order to contributemore effectively to facilitate the whole process.

  15. Ethical issues in the geriatric patient with advanced cancer 'living to the end'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, M

    2013-10-01

    Cancer incidence will increase as the population ages; there will be a 50% increase in new cancer cases over the next 20 years, and the biggest rates of increase will occur in the developing world. Owing to technical advances in the care of critical illness, as it is the case in elderly people with advanced cancer, physicians, patients and families are often confronted with ambiguous circumstances in which medical advances may inadvertently prolong suffering and the dying process rather than bring healing and recovery. In this review of the ethical issues confronting physicians who care for patients with advanced life-limiting illnesses like cancer, a philosophical debate continues in the medical community regarding the rightness or wrongness of certain actions (e.g. physician-assisted death, euthanasia), while at the same time there is a strong desire to find a common ground for moral discourse that could guide medical decision-making in this difficult period in the lives of our patients. We will discuss how a good palliative care can be an alternative to these ethical dilemmas. Although some issues (e.g. the role of physician-assisted death in addressing suffering) remain very controversial, there is much common ground based on the application of the four major principles of medical ethics, no malfeasance, beneficence, autonomy and justice. Thus, the physician's primary commitment must always be the patient's welfare and best interests, whether the physician is treating illness or helping patients to cope with illness, disability and death. A key skill here is the communication of bad news and to negotiate a treatment plan that is acceptable to the patient, the family and the healthcare team. Attention to psychosocial issues demands involvement of the patients and their families as partners. Physicians should be sensitive to the range of psychosocial distress and social disruption common to dying patients and their families. Spiritual issues often come to the fore. An interdisciplinary healthcare team can help in these areas. The goals of this review are to raise the awareness of doctors, nurses and other members of the healthcare team to the important ethical issues that must be addressed in providing medical care to elderly patients with advanced cancer; and also to encourage members of the healthcare team to take the ethical issues seriously so that we can improve the circumstances of a vulnerable group of patients-the elderly patients with cancer. PMID:24001765

  16. The relation between work ethics and work morality and the factors effecting work ethics in work-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Gk

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the importance of work ethics and morality has been increased. The effect of them in work-life and their relations with the subjects such as performance, loyalty, competition, etc. have been studied by a number of researchers. The work ethics and morality concepts are becoming widespread in business application, work-life and global trading. Therefore, they appear as a subject for further researches.In this study, the concepts of the work ethics, morality and the development of them in work-life are examined. The differences and similarities between work ethics and morality in terms of quality, content and comprehension etc. are described and discussed. The factors effecting work ethics in work-life, are represented in the light of literature. In our work, we explain and evaluate how the factors such as globalization, culture, social responsibility etc. are effecting it.

  17. The relation between work ethics and work morality and the factors effecting work ethics in work-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Gk

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the importance of work ethics and morality has been increased. The effect of them in work-life and their relations with the subjects such as performance, loyalty, competition, etc. have been studied by a number of researchers. The work ethics and morality concepts are becoming widespread in business application, work-life and global trading. Therefore, they appear as a subject for further researches.In this study, the concepts of the work ethics, morality and the development of them in work-life are examined. The differences and similarities between work ethics and morality in terms of quality, content and comprehension etc. are described and discussed. The factors effecting work ethics in work-life, are represented in the light of literature. In our work, we explain and evaluate how the factors such as globalization, culture, social responsibility etc. are effecting it.

  18. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards

  19. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

    2001-05-01

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

  20. E-Trade in an Ethical View

    OpenAIRE

    Varinli, İnci; Öz, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    Electronic commerce, which can be explained as the buying and selling of goods and services electronically, usually via the internet. Because it effects and chances many things on social and commercial life, the ethical rules about electronic commerce must be reconsidered. In electronic commerce ethics, both adaptation of traditional ethical issues to new conditions and completely new ethical aspects must be considered. In this paper, ethical issues related to electronic commerce, especially ...

  1. Perspectives on Applied Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...

  2. Ethical Issues in Covering Teen Suicide Stories: Deadly Dilemmas and Fatal Flaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Susan

    A study examined news coverage by "The Saint Petersburg Times" of a local double teen suicide in August 1993. Focusing on how the story was covered, the study explored the newspaper's decision-making process, analyzing the process in relation to standard philosophical methods in ethics and recognized journalistic principles. As background,

  3. British Students' Perceptions of Ethical Issues in International Marketing: An Empirical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Sammy G.

    1996-01-01

    A survey investigated 122 British business students' perceptions of ethics in international marketing practices, particularly as they are affected by demographic characteristics. In response to 12 specific scenarios, students indicated relatively liberal attitudes. Implications for global marketing specialists and for business education are

  4. Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G B

    1996-10-01

    The four principles of ethical behaviour are autonomy of the patient, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. The physician must strive to do what is best for the patient while respecting that person's wishes. This allows for decision-making, including withdrawal of care, using the patient's advance directives. Brain death is equivalent to death and should not pose decision-making problems. Making decisions for the patient who was never competent requires close co-operation among physicians, other care-givers and substitute decision-makers, while respecting ethical principles and the risk-to-benefit ratio. In most countries euthanasia, while controversial, is illegal. Safeguards and ethical principles for the enrollment of patients in clinical trials, the importance of informed consent and conduct as an expert witness all involve the above ethical principles and responsibility. PMID:9117081

  5. Critical Issues in School Employee Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, David L.

    1995-01-01

    Salient school employee-relations issues include elimination of positions because of budgetary austerity; and managerial initiatives toward higher productivity through enhanced technology and an ever-smaller, core, full-time workforce. (MLF)

  6. Ethical decision-making in forensic psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Swanepoel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive process for identifying and addressing primarily ethical issues related to the psychology profession in South Africa. In fulfilling this purpose, research was conducted of relevant ethical and to a lesser extent, legal aspects pertaining to the psychology profession. In an attempt to prevent unprofessional conduct claims against psychologists from succeeding and to alert psychologists to the concurrent ethical problems that may lead to malpractice suits, this article offers material on some important issues in the context of forensic psychology such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology as a profession, the Ethical Code of Professional Conduct to which a psychologist should adhere, ethical aspects and issues pertaining to forensic psychology in general, some ethical issues pertaining to child forensic psychology, summary guidelines for ethical decision-making and some steps to follow to ensure sound ethical decisionmaking.

  7. Genetic testing and its implications: human genetics researchers grapple with ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabino, Isaac

    2003-01-01

    To better understand ethical issues involved in the field of human genetics and promote debate within the scientific community, the author surveyed scientists who engage in human genetics research about the pros, cons, and ethical implications of genetic testing. This study contributes systematic data on attitudes of scientific experts. The survey finds respondents are highly supportive of voluntary testing and the right to know one's genetic heritage. The majority consider in utero testing and consequent pregnancy termination acceptable for cases involving likelihood of serious disease but disapprove for genetic reasons they consider arbitrary, leaving a gray area of distinguishing between treatment of disorders and enhancement still to be resolved. While safeguarding patient confidentiality versus protecting at-risk third parties (kin, reproductive partners) presents a dilemma, preserving privacy from misuse by institutional third parties (employers, insurers) garners strong consensus for legislation against discrimination. Finally, a call is made for greater genetic literacy. PMID:16208885

  8. Ethical issues arising from variation in health services utilization at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, William Brinson; Nelson, William A

    2011-01-01

    Research on health services delivery, particularly at the end of life, has demonstrated that more care does not necessarily lead to better technical quality, patient satisfaction, or outcomes. These findings raise three ethical issues: (1) justice in the allocation of scarce resources across health service areas; (2) nonmaleficence in the provision of appropriate amounts of care to patients; and (3) transparency about local healthcare practice so patients can make enlightened decisions about healthcare choices. We conclude that in this era of healthcare accountability, managers and clinicians can use these ethical principles to drive change in the process of providing more efficient, more effective, and more patient-centered care, especially at the end of life. PMID:21488560

  9. Ethics and the promotion of consumer brands to children: Marketing public relations in the UK toy industry

    OpenAIRE

    Della Pike; Nigel Jackon

    2006-01-01

    Toys represent children’s chief non-food desires, but there has been little research on the impact of public relations campaigns to promote toys to children. This study addressed two key related issues. First, it assessed the impact of marketing public relations messages on children. Second, it raised questions about the ethics of using marketing public relations to promote toys to children. We used focus groups with children in different age ranges, interviews with toy industry public relati...

  10. Ethics and the promotion of consumer brands to children: Marketing public relations in the UK toy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Pike

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Toys represent childrens chief non-food desires, but there has been little research on the impact of public relations campaigns to promote toys to children. This study addressed two key related issues. First, it assessed the impact of marketing public relations messages on children. Second, it raised questions about the ethics of using marketing public relations to promote toys to children. We used focus groups with children in different age ranges, interviews with toy industry public relations practitioners, and a survey of members of the public. The results suggest that contrary to expected age association, the influence of public relations messages does not necessarily decrease with age. We also found, through adapting and applying Austin and Pinkletons levels of public relations impact, that there appear to be two ethical realities, one in industry, and one in society. We suggest a revision of Austin and Pinkletons model to reflect an ethical paradigm whereby an assessment of social, not industry, ethical reality determines practitioners judgement of ethical effect.

  11. Do Ethical Purchase Intentions Really Lead to Ethical Purchase Behavior? A Case of Animal-Testing Issues in Shampoo

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Madar; Hazel H. Huang; Ting-Hsiang Tseng

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of consumers ethical buying intentions on their buying behavior. Using a survey approach, the findings suggest the link between ethical buying intentions and behavior depends on consumers awareness of the brands general corporate social responsibility activities. Only when consumers with ethical purchase intentions are aware of the brands CSR activities can their intentions translate into behavior.

  12. Security Issues related with cloud computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The term CLOUD means Common Location Independent Online Utility on Demand. It?s an emerging technology in IT industries. Cloud technologies are improving day by day and now it become a need for all small and large scale industries. Companies like Google, Amazon, Microsoft etc. is providing virtualized environment for user by which it omits the need for physical storage and others. But as the advantage of cloud computing is increasing day by day the issues are also threatening the IT industries. These issues related with the security of the data. The basic idea of this review paper is to elaborate the security issues related with cloud computing and what methods are implemented to improve these security. Certain algorithms like RSA, DES, and Ceaser Cipher etc. implemented to improve the security issues. In this paper we have implemented Identity based mRSA algorithm in this paper for improving security of data.

  13. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Denise Baird; Posthauer, Mary Ellen; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2013-07-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that individuals have the right to request or refuse nutrition and hydration as medical treatment. Registered dietitians should work collaboratively as part of an interprofessional team to make recommendations on providing, withdrawing, or withholding nutrition and hydration in individual cases and serve as active members of institutional ethics committees. This practice paper provides a proactive, integrated, systematic process to implement the Academy's position. The position and practice papers should be used together to address the history and supporting information of ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration identified by the Academy. Elements of collaborative ethical deliberation are provided for pediatrics and adults and in different conditions. The process of ethical deliberation is presented with the roles and responsibilities of the registered dietitian and the dietetic technician, registered. Understanding the importance and applying concepts dealing with cultural values and religious diversity is necessary to integrate clinical ethics into nutrition care. Incorporating screening for quality-of-life goals is essential before implementing the Nutrition Care Process and improving health literacy with individual interactions. Developing institution-specific policies and procedures is necessary to accelerate the practice change with artificial nutrition, clinical ethics, and quality improvement projects to determine best practice. This paper supports the "Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Ethical and Legal Issues of Feeding and Hydration" published in the June 2013 issue of the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. PMID:23790412

  14. Ethical Issues Raised by Epigenetic Testing for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetic testing is one of the most significant new technologies to provide insight into the behavioral and environmental factors that influence the development and reconfiguration of the human genetic code. This technology allows us to identify structural changes in the genome that occur due to exposure to a wide variety of substances including alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis. The information gained can be used to promote health but it also raises a variety of ethical, legal, and social issues. As society progresses in understanding the epigenetic mechanisms of substance use and addiction, there is an opportunity to use these use this knowledge to enable medical, behavioral, and environmental interventions to alleviate the burden of addiction. This article describes the ethical issues associated with use of epigenetic testing for alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis and the implications of this technology. A further review of the scientific basis for the relevance of epigenetics is found in the accompanying article by Philibert and Erwin in this issue. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26358643

  15. Ethical Issues in Insurance Marketing.The Case of Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorab Georgy Sadri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a paper based on empirical investigation conducted in Western India between 2002 and 2012 especially at a time when the Indian economy is in a stage of transition from state capitalism to free market capitalism, albeit both of a retarded variety. It takes the 7 Ps of services marketing and cross verifies responses against seven dimensions of ethical conduct. The study is based on questionnaires followed by interviews. The target respondents were life insurance employees of banc assurance involved in marketing life insurance policies to customers in the urban sector. The study brought to the fore the fact that commissions were more important that telling the truth while selling policies. In the process ethical considerations conveniently went out of the window. To protect the interest of the unsuspecting clients a plea is made to have governance machinery in place that will make the insurance marketing personnel accountable for what and how they sell their wares. This need is especially felt in a country where the social security net is virtually non existent and the erstwhile joint family system is on a fast decline. In such circumstances a lack of ethical norms on the part of the insurer is an unacceptable sociological proposition and borders on gross unethical behaviour. The task of people management experts to address this issue is of the paramount importance and urgency if the Indian life insurance industry is to sustain its social image in a highly competitive market where foreign players are steadily entering the domestic scene.

  16. Ethics issues in social media-based HIV prevention in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chingche J; Menacho, Luis; Fisher, Celia; Young, Sean D

    2015-07-01

    Questions have been raised regarding participants' safety and comfort when participating in e-health education programs. Although researchers have begun to explore this issue in the United States, little research has been conducted in low- and middle-income countries, where Internet and social media use is rapidly growing. This article reports on a quantitative study with Peruvian men who have sex with men who had previously participated in the Harnessing Online Peer Education (HOPE) program, a Facebook-based HIV education program. The survey assessed participants' ethics-relevant perspectives during recruitment, consent, intervention, and follow-up. PMID:26059956

  17. Confusion and ethical issues surrounding the role of Japanese midwives in childbirth and abortion: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Maki

    2011-12-01

    This qualitative study describes midwives' experiences in providing care in both pregnancy termination and childbirth in Japan. Midwives working in the general hospital maternity unit assist in both, which is an ethical issue warranting further exploration. Eleven midwives working in a general hospital were interviewed using a semistructured interview, and responses were coded using thematic analysis. Two major themes emerged: the experience of midwives involved in childbirth and pregnancy termination (three subthemes: confusion about care of the baby and aborted fetus, inability to cater to different mothers' needs, and establishing emotional control) and professional awareness and attitude as a midwife (three subthemes: consistency with professional principles, suppression of feelings in relation to aborted fetus, and previous and current professional identities). We found that midwives are isolated in this important social moral issue and its accompanying professional confusion. Suppressing their feelings remains the most common way of dealing with the ambivalence of the roles they fulfill. Improved working conditions and enhanced training on aspects of professional ethics would assist in reducing professional confusion. PMID:22093688

  18. Ethics and the compensation of immigrant workers for work-related injuries and illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Sylvie; Vissandjée, Bilkis; Lippel, Katherine; Brodeur, Jean-Marc; Patry, Louis; Champagne, François

    2010-10-01

    This paper examines the compensation process for work-related injuries and illnesses by assessing the trajectories of a sample of immigrant and non-immigrant workers (n = 104) in Montreal. Workers were interviewed to analyze the complexity associated with the compensation process. Experts specialized in compensation issues assessed the difficulty of the interviewees' compensation process. Immigrant workers faced greater difficulties with medical, legal, and administrative issues than non-immigrants did. While immigrant workers' claim forms tended to be written more often by employers or friends (58% vs. 8%), the claims were still more often contested by employers (64% vs. 24%). Immigrant workers were less likely to obtain a precise diagnosis (64% vs. 42%) and upon returning to work were more likely to face sub-optimal conditions. Such results throw into relief issues of ethics and equity in host societies that are building their economy with migrant workers. PMID:19308731

  19. Gathering visual images of the 2004 tsunami: Journalists challenges and ethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hollings

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles a relatively unaddressed area of journalistic ethics by offering insights from working journalists into the conditions they face when reporting disasters. It covers the disaster reporting context in general, but with particular emphasis on the witnessing of disaster and subsequent impact on the journalist, and the processes of collection of visual imagery for print or broadcast. This research provides a complement to the large body of output-related analysis of photojournalism, by examining the sometimes messy and traumatic circumstances of the initial gathering of photojournalistic imagery and by foregrounding the role of the journalist not as objective news conduit but as feeling human being. Arguably, no attempt to judge the ethics of photojournalism is complete without some understanding of the conditions faced by journalists at the scene of a disaster.

  20. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging

  1. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-10-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at least in part, diverging results. This study investigates how students explain and understand their argumentation about dilemmas concerning gene testing for the purpose to reduce hereditary diseases. Thirteen students were interviewed about their views on this issue. Qualitative analysis was done primarily by relating students’ argumentation to their movements between ethics and morals as opposing poles. Students used either objective or subjective knowledge but had difficulties to integrate them. They tried to negotiate ethic arguments using utilitarian motives and medical knowledge with sympathy or irrational and personal arguments. They discussed the embryo’s moral status to decide if it was replaceable in a social group or not. The educational implications of the students’ use of knowledge in personal arguments are discussed.

  2. An appraisal of ethical issues in end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilemona, Ekore Rabi

    2014-01-01

    Caring for patients at the end-of-life period could involve a number of situations and incidents that pose moral dilemma for both the health workers and the patients' family members or loved ones. Some of these issues include shared decision-making, the right to refuse medical treatment, medical futility, and euthanasia versus assisted suicide, information disclosure (truth-telling), substitute decision-making, and confidentiality. They may seem improbable or remote, until one is confronted with them real-time. Providing good care for dying patients requires that physicians and other members of the health care team be knowledgeable of ethical issues pertinent to end-of-life care. PMID:25508493

  3. Legal and Ethical issues when using Antiandrogenic Pharmacotherapy with Sex Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Harrison

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of sex offenders and more specifically the treatment of high-risk sex offenders is a subject of great importance for practitioners, professionals, policymakers and the public at large. Whilst treatment is thought to largely centre upon cognitive-behavioural methods and other psychotherapy techniques, in more recent years the use of pharmacotherapy has also begun to gain ground. Current debate often centres upon how effective such treatment is; with both supporters and opponents of its use existing. This article, however, does not specifically look at whether pharmacotherapy as a method of treatment with sex offenders actually works, but rather looks at the legal and ethical issues surrounding its use. In particular it considers issues such as whether the treatment should be voluntary or mandatory; whether it should indeed even be classified as treatment or should instead be seen as punishment and finally whether it should be used with convicted offenders or made freely available to all.

  4. An appraisal of ethical issues in end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilemona, Ekore Rabi

    2014-01-01

    Caring for patients at the end-of-life period could involve a number of situations and incidents that pose moral dilemma for both the health workers and the patients' family members or loved ones. Some of these issues include shared decision-making, the right to refuse medical treatment, medical futility, and euthanasia versus assisted suicide, information disclosure (truth-telling), substitute decision-making, and confidentiality. They may seem improbable or remote, until one is confronted with them real-time. Providing good care for dying patients requires that physicians and other members of the health care team be knowledgeable of ethical issues pertinent to end-of-life care. PMID:25470866

  5. ASPECTOS ETICOS EN LA INVESTIGACION CIENTIFICA ETHICAL ISSUES IN CIENTIFIC RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRENE ACEVEDO PREZ

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available El escrito pretende mostrar los diferentes cdigos, declaraciones y normas que se han dictado en el mundo para la proteccin de los seres humanos sometidos a experimentacin cientfica. Se analiza el tema a la luz de los principios ticos y la situacin actual en Chile en relacin a la existencia de los comits de tica cientficosThe articles aim is to show all different codes, declarations and norms that have been dictated in the world, in order to protect the human beings submitted to scientific experimentation. The topic is analyzed considering ethical principles and the present situation in Chile, related to the existence of the scientific ethical committees

  6. e-Government Ethics : a Synergy of Computer Ethics, Information Ethics, and Cyber Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Ramadhan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethics has become an important part in the interaction among humans being. This paper specifically discusses applied ethics as one type of ethics. There are three applied ethics that will be reviewed in this paper, i.e. computer ethics, information ethics, and cyber ethics. There are two aspects of the three applied ethics that were reviewed, i.e. their definition and the issues associated with them. The reviewing results of the three applied ethics are then used for defining e-Government ethics and formulating the issues of e-Government ethics. The e-Government ethics position, based on the previous three applied ethics, is also described in this paper. Computer ethics, information ethics and cyber ethics are considered as the foundations of e-Government ethics and several others applied ethics could enrich the e-Government ethics.

  7. Radiation safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques related to the use of radiolabeled antibodies in humans are reviewed and evaluated in this report. It is intended as an informational resource for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and NRC licensees. Descriptions of techniques and health and safety issues are provided. Principal methods for labeling antibodies are summarized to help identify related radiation safety problems in the preparation of dosages for administration to patients. The descriptions are derived from an extensive literature review and consultations with experts in the field. A glossary of terms and acronyms is also included. An assessment was made of the extent of the involvement of organizations (other than the NRC) with safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies, in order to identify regulatory issues which require attention. Federal regulations and guides were also reviewed for their relevance. A few (but significant) differences between the use of common radiopharmaceuticals and radiolabeled antibodies were observed. The clearance rate of whole, radiolabeled immunoglobulin is somewhat slower than common radiopharmaceuticals, and new methods of administration are being used. New nuclides are being used or considered (e.g., Re-186 and At-211) for labeling antibodies. Some of these nuclides present new dosimetry, instrument calibration, and patient management problems. Subjects related to radiation safety that require additional research are identified. 149 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs

  8. The Ethics of Instructional Technology: Issues and Coping Strategies Experienced by Professional Technologists in Design and Training Situations in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong

    2007-01-01

    To correspond to the Association for Educational Communication Technology (AECT) Code of Professional Ethics and the professional journal TechTrends' ethics columns, this paper provides empirical data regarding ethical issues associated with the use of instructional technology in design and training situations. In-depth interviews of 20

  9. Ethical issues related to chemotherapy in patients with gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    J.K. Triantafillidis; Peros, G

    2007-01-01

    Postoperative chemotherapy and radiation therapy is standard care in high risk patients who had undergone a curative resection of the primary tumor. Best survival results are achieved with three-drug regimens containing FU, an anthracycline, and cisplatin (ECF), although the recently presented REAL-2-trial, demonstrated a significant survival benefit for EOX (epirubicin, oxaliplatin, capecitabine) over ECF. Consequently, chemotherapy could be offered to some proportion of patients with advanc...

  10. Ethical issues and policy analysis for genetic testing: Huntington's disease as a paradigm for diseases with a late onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilani, Anjali

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the main ethical issues that arise when testing for genetic diseases with a late adult onset, such as Huntington's disease, take place. It is imperative to study genetic testing for HD and similar diseases because of the potential to influence future medical advances and the growing number of individuals who are considered pre-symptomatic. The main ethical issues are consent and privacy, prenatal testing and its implications, in addition to insurance discrimination. These issues are viewed from the perspective of genetic counselors, patients, the families of patients, and insurance companies. Policies put forth by the United States National Society of Genetic Counselors ("NSGC"), the Task Force on Genetic Testing, and the President's Council for Bioethics are also analyzed. Finally, new recommendations are proposed in order to ameliorate the ethical dilemmas encountered in genetic testing. These recommendations are largely based on existing policies and therefore involve amending current policies rather than revamping them. PMID:16270448

  11. Ongoing ethical issues concerning authorship in biomedical journals: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; McLean, Loyola M; Baber, Rodney J

    2015-01-01

    Health professionals publishing within the field of health sciences continue to experience issues concerning appropriate authorship, which have clinical, ethical, and academic implications. This integrative review sought to explore the key issues concerning authorship from a bioethical standpoint, aiming to explore the key features of the authorship debate. Studies were identified through an electronic search, using the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Scopus databases of peer-reviewed research, published between 2009 and 2014, limited to English language research, with search terms developed to reflect the current issues of authorship. From among the 279 papers identified, 20 research papers met the inclusion criteria. Findings were compiled and then arranged to identify themes and relationships. The review incorporated a wide range of authorship issues encompassing equal-credited authors, honorary (guest/gift) and ghost authorship, perception/experiences of authorship, and guidelines/policies. This review suggests that the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' (ICMJE) recommended guidelines for authorship are not reflected in current authorship practices within the domain of health sciences in both low-and high-impact-factor journals. This devaluing of the true importance of authorship has the potential to affect the validity of authorship, diminish the real contributions of the true authors, and negatively affect patient care. PMID:26257520

  12. Solo doctors and ethical isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R J

    2009-11-01

    This paper uses the case of solo doctors to explore whether working in relative isolation from one's peers may be detrimental to ethical decision-making. Drawing upon the relevance of communication and interaction for ethical decision-making in the ethical theories of Habermas, Mead and Gadamer, it is argued that doctors benefit from ethical discussion with their peers and that solo practice may make this more difficult. The paper identifies a paucity of empirical research related to solo practice and ethics but draws upon more general medical ethics research and a study that identified ethical isolation among community pharmacists to support the theoretical claims made. The paper concludes by using the literary analogy of Soderberg's Doctor Glas to illustrate the issues raised and how ethical decision-making in relative isolation may be problematical. PMID:19880707

  13. A Snap Shot on Business Ethic and Ethic in Business

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Danaee Fard; Mohammad Reza Noruzi,

    2011-01-01

    An ethical issue in business is increasing and it is being focused on by the business markets,customers and communities. It was important from the beginning and is important also now as well. Andevery company or organization for being survival and comparative should pay much more attention to thisimportant. This paper aims to study the ethic and some of related issues around it.

  14. Ethical Issues in Doing Business in China(inde ?? Yapman?n Etik Sorunlar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan ADA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s and 1990s China was cited by some of the international organizations because of its violations of basic human rights. However, multinational firms from most of the countries criticizing the Chinas violations began to do considerable amount of investments to China in the 1990s and 2000s. They moved their manufacturing activities to China because of valuable opportunities, incentives, and cheap work force. They pursued this action regardless of Chinese governments carelessness to its own citizens. Despite this fact, should these firms do additional investment in order to produce their products with lower levels of costs? Is this an ethical decision? In this study, this issue is argued out and some points are recommended from the perspective of international firms.

  15. The Magnus-Rademaker Scientific Film Collection: Ethical Issues on Animal Experimentation (1908-1940).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Peter J; Lameris, Bregt

    2016-01-01

    The Magnus-Rademaker scientific film collection (1908-1940) deals with the physiology of body posture by the equilibrium of reflex musculature contractions for which experimental studies were carried out with animals (e.g., labyrinthectomies, cerebellectomies, and brain stem sections) as well as observations done on patients. The films were made for demonstrations at congresses as well as educational objectives and film stills were published in their books. The purpose of the present study is to position these films and their makers within the contemporary discourse on ethical issues and animal rights in the Netherlands and the earlier international debates. Following an introduction on animal rights and antivivisection movements, we describe what Magnus and Rademaker thought about these issues. Their publications did not provide much information in this respect, probably reflecting their adherence to implicit ethical codes that did not need explicit mentioning in publications. Newspaper articles, however, revealed interesting information. Unnecessary suffering of an animal never found mercy in Magnus' opinion. The use of cinematography was expanded to the reduction of animal experimentation in student education, at least in the case of Rademaker, who in the 1930s was involved in a governmental committee for the regulation of vivisection and cooperated with the antivivisection movement. This resulted not only in a propaganda film for the movement but also in films that demonstrate physiological experiments for students with the purpose to avert repetition and to improve the teaching of experiments. We were able to identify the pertinent films in the Magnus-Rademaker film collection. The production of vivisection films with this purpose appears to have been common, as is shown in news messages in European medical journals of the period. PMID:26684427

  16. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, L J; Kleter, G A; Brennan, M; Coles, D; Fischer, A R H; Houdebine, L M; Mora, C; Millar, K; Salter, B

    2013-06-25

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) was mapped and reviewed. A foresight exercise was conducted to identity future developments. Three case studies (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) were applied to identify the issues raised, including the potential risks and benefits of GM animals from the perspectives of the production chain (economics and agri-food sector) and the life sciences (human and animal health, environmental impact, animal welfare and sustainable production). Ethical and policy concerns were examined through application of combined ethical matrix method and policy workshops. The case studies were also used to demonstrate the utility of public engagement in the policy process. The results suggest that public perceptions, ethical issues, the competitiveness of EU animal production and risk-benefit assessments that consider human and animal health, environmental impact and sustainable production need to be considered in EU policy development. Few issues were raised with application in the pharmaceutical sector, assuming ethical and economic issues were addressed in policy, but the introduction of agricultural GM animal applications should be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23567982

  17. 77 FR 38631 - Request for Comments on Ethical Issues Associated with the Development of Medical Countermeasures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... conduct of scientific research and healthcare delivery. Undertaking these duties, the Commission seeks to... surrounding clinical research with children, ethical considerations surrounding pediatric medical countermeasure research, and ethical considerations surrounding emergency access to and use of...

  18. When courts intervene: public health, legal and ethical issues surrounding HIV, pregnant women, and newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessmer-Tuck, Jennifer A; Poku, Joseph K; Burkle, Christopher M

    2014-11-01

    Ninety-three percent of pediatric AIDS cases are the result of perinatal HIV transmission, a disease that is almost entirely preventable with early intervention, which reduces the risk of perinatal HIV infection from 25% to woman's right to refuse medical testing and treatment, even though it may benefit her fetus/newborn infant. Federal courts also reliably respect the rights of parents to make health care decisions for their newborn infants, which may include declining medical testing and treatment. Confusing the issue of HIV testing and treatment, however, is the fact that there is no definitive United States Supreme Court ruling on the issue. State laws and standards vary widely and serve as guiding principles for practicing clinicians, who must be vigilant of ongoing legal challenges and changes in the states in which they practice. We present a case of an HIV-positive pregnant woman who declined treatment and then testing or treatment of her newborn infant. Ultimately, the legal system intervened. Given the rarity of such cases, we use this as a primer for the practicing clinician to highlight the public health, legal, and ethical issues surrounding prenatal and newborn infant HIV testing and treatment in the United States, including summarizing key state-to-state regulatory differences. PMID:24732002

  19. Applying Rawlsian Approaches to Resolve Ethical Issues: Inventory and Setting of a Research Agenda:

    OpenAIRE

    Doorn, N., van

    2009-01-01

    Insights from social science are increasingly used in the field of applied ethics. However, recent insights have shown that the empirical branch of business ethics lacks thorough theoretical grounding. This article discusses the use of the Rawlsian methods of wide reflective equilibrium and overlapping consensus in the field of applied ethics. Instead of focussing on one single comprehensive ethical doctrine to provide adequate guidance for resolving moral dilemmas, these Rawlsian methods see...

  20. Case study research to reflect societal and ethical issues – Introduction of a research implementation plan for ICTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yaghmaei, Emad; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the systematic procedures of case study research. A robust case study protocol in the context of societal and ethical issues with a relevant guidelines will set to show how data should collect, present, and analyze. This paper takes in particular the context...... account of societal and ethical aspects, in particular RRI principles in emerging ICTs in a proper way....... of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) as the phenomenon and investigates on how to apply the methodologies, which could assist us to identify the boundaries between societal and ethical issues and the emerging ICTs. As such, to interpret the collected data and build theory inductively, to have...

  1. Healthier? More Efficient? Fairer? An Overview of the Main Ethical Issues Raised by the Use of Ubicomp in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cline Ehrwein NIHAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of Ambient Intelligence (AmI will radically transform our everyday life and social representations. These transformations will notably impact the working environment. The objective of this paper is to offer a first survey of the main ethical issues raised by the development of intelligent working environments (IWEs. It especially focuses on the capacity of such environments to collect and handle personal medical data. The first two sections of this paper aim to clarify the methodology (2 as well as the object (3 of the research. We then point out some of the main ethical issues raised by IWEs and their capacity to collect and handle medical data. The final section attempts to offer some elements of reflection regarding the ethical principles that should guide the development of IWEs in the future.

  2. Ethical Values, the Flow of Journalistic Information and Public Relations Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael; Martinson, David L.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on a study that found that public relations practitioners respond in different ways to different moral-ethical dilemmas and that they tend to think they are accountable in some situations to an authority higher than management. Concludes that subjectivism is the prevailing moral-ethical theory of practitioners. (FL)

  3. 76 FR 14777 - Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Federal Labor Relations Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Federal Labor Relations Authority AGENCY...: March 11, 2011. Robert I. Cusick, Director, Office of Government Ethics. BILLING CODE 6727-01-P ...;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0;to and codified in the Code...

  4. A Prolegomenon to the Relation Between Accounting, Language and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Edward Arrington

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay outlines the preliminary structure of a moral ontology of accounting understood as discourse. Tospeak of an ontology of accounting is to speak of the most general features of accounting, those features of itsexistence that are present irrespective of variations in observed “accountings,” of ways in which accountingmanifests itself in lived experience. To speak of a moral ontology is to construe those general features asproducts of human choices and actions which follow from axiological (value-based commitments to pursuethe good and just life, however that life might be understood, and indeed understood differently by differentpersons. Thus a moral ontology stands in distinction from, for example, a naturalistic ontology, one “freedfrom the freedom” of axiological horizons. Within its embeddedness in a moral ontology, the enactment ofaccounting takes empirical form as discourse – as an act of someone saying (writing something aboutsomething to someone else (Ricoeur, 1976; Arrington & Francis, 1993. Thus if we seek to understandaccounting’s force in the world, a force that is always valued and evaluated in terms of consequences for thegood and just life, we get our most general understandings from attending to the ethics of language and itsuse. My task in this essay is to introduce the structure of what the elements of accounting’s relation to theethics of language and its use might be. Expanding upon that structure remains a task for future work.

  5. Triniteit en etiek: Van 'n relasionele God tot 'n etiek van die ander / Trinity and ethics: From a relational God to an ethic of the Other

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rian, Venter.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the question whether the new appreciation for the doctrine of the Trinity could generate significant ethical implications. More specifically it investigates whether the identity of God in the Christian tradition does open new ethical sensibilities. The so-called Trinitarian Ren [...] aissance is briefly mapped, and the views of the theologians Zizioulas and Moltmann are described for an illustration of the turn to relationality. Critical resistance to a socially oriented doctrine of the Trinity is taken into account, but it is not considered as final and persuasive. Two theologians - Volf and Cunningham - are studied and how their theology addresses from a Trinitarian perspective ethical issues and specifically the problem of the Other. The article concludes that the doctrine of the Trinity could make a contribution to the public discourse on alterity. The Christian understanding of God could open avenues for understanding a most urgent contemporary problem. The Other is viewed as constitutive for own identity; and at the same time identity is realised by the embrace and care of the Other.

  6. Telos, conservation of welfare, and ethical issues in genetic engineering of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Bernard E

    2015-01-01

    The most long-lived metaphysics or view of reality in the history of Western thought is Aristotle's teleology, which reigned for almost 2,000 years. Biology was expressed in terms of function or telos, and accorded perfectly with common sense. The rise of mechanistic, Newtonian science vanquished teleological explanations. Understanding and accommodating animal telos was essential to success in animal husbandry, which involved respect for telos, and was presuppositional to our "ancient contract" with domestic animals. Telos was further abandoned with the rise of industrial agriculture, which utilized "technological fixes" to force animal into environments they were unsuited for, while continuing to be productive. Loss of husbandry and respect for telos created major issues for farm animal welfare, and forced the creation of a new ethic demanding respect for telos. As genetic engineering developed, the notion arose of modifying animals to fit their environment in order to avoid animal suffering, rather than fitting them into congenial environments. Most people do not favor changing the animals, rather than changing the conditions under which they are reared. Aesthetic appreciation of husbandry and virtue ethics militate in favor of restoring husbandry, rather than radically changing animal teloi. One, however, does not morally wrong teloi by changing them-one can only wrong individuals. In biomedical research, we do indeed inflict major pain, suffering and disease on animals. And genetic engineering seems to augment our ability to create animals to model diseases, particularly more than 3,000 known human genetic diseases. The disease, known as Lesch-Nyhan's syndrome or HPRT deficiency, which causes self-mutilation and mental retardation, provides us with a real possibility for genetically creating "animal models" of this disease, animals doomed to a life of great and unalleviable suffering. This of course creates a major moral dilemma. Perhaps one can use the very genetic engineering which creates this dilemma to ablate consciousness in such animal models, thereby escaping a moral impasse. PMID:24496650

  7. Non-Voluntary Admission of Patients with Mental Disorders: Ethical and Social Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela CRACIUN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-voluntary admission of mentally ill patients is charged with multiple ethical issues and dilemmas, the most complicated being its dangerousness and predictability, the appropriate classification of patients into the corresponding risk category and the therapeutic decisions imposed in a paternalistic way. The paternalistic attitude of the physician is acceptable given that there is an obvious degree of social danger. The potentially violent, especially hetero-aggressive, behaviour has a great social impact resulting in patient stigmatization and isolation. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the social issues of patients with mental disorders, non-voluntary admitted. The study is retrospective and the data were collected from records of patients who have been non-voluntarily admitted from 2002 to 2011 in a psychiatric hospital in Iasi, Romania. The results show that among the risk factors in non-voluntary admission, hetero-aggressivity is one criterion under Article 45, paragraph a Law 487/2002, frequently met in the study batch. Additionally, many non-voluntary admitted patients with mental illness have no medical insurance, being unemployed, unmarried / divorced and having a low social support. Community must be tolerant towards the mentally ill, regardless of the social integration of these patients. After discharge, a better social support may improve the prognosis, influencing the occurrence and evolution of mental illnesses. A strong support network is protective whereas a weak or lacking support network would make patients more vulnerable to stressful life events.

  8. Ethical practice of social media in public relations

    CERN Document Server

    DiStaso, Marcia W

    2014-01-01

    Given the high rate of social media use by the public, organizations are compelled to engage with key audiences through these outlets. Social media engagement requires organizations to actively participate with public groups, and this highly-interactive exchange raises a new set of ethical concerns for communicators. In this rapidly changing communications environment, the long-term implications of social media are uncertain, and this book provides the much needed research to understand its impact on audiences and organizations.Through an examination of a broad range of ethics concepts includi

  9. Qualitative Methodology in Unfamiliar Cultures : Relational and Ethical Aspects of Fieldwork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Christian Franklin

    2014-01-01

    This case study discusses qualitative fieldwork in Malaysia. The trends in higher education led to investigating how and why young Indians and Chinese in Malaysia are using the university to pursue a life strategy. Given the importance of field context in designing and analysing research based on a qualitative methodology, conscious reflection on research design and objectivity is important when doing fieldwork. This case study discusses such reflections. Emphasis throughout is given to applied qualitative methodology and its contributions to the social sciences, in particular having to do with relational, emotional, and ethical issues associated with interviewing and personal observation. Although the empirical setting of this case is Southeast Asia, the various discussions and interrelatedness of methodology, theory, and empirical reflections will prove applicable to field studies throughout the world

  10. Contentious issues in research on trafficked women working in the sex industry: study design, ethics, and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikel, Julie; Hoban, Elizabeth

    2005-11-01

    The trafficking of women and children for work in the globalized sex industry is a global social problem. Quality data is needed to provide a basis for legislation, policy, and programs, but first, numerous research design, ethical, and methodological problems must be addressed. Research design issues in studying women trafficked for sex work (WTSW) include how to (a) develop coalitions to fund and support research, (b) maintain a critical stance on prostitution, and therefore WTSW (c) use multiple paradigms and methods to accurately reflect WTSW's reality, (d) present the purpose of the study, and (e) protect respondents' identities. Ethical issues include (a) complications with informed consent procedures, (b) problematic access to WTSW (c) loss of WTSW to follow-up, (d) inability to intervene in illegal acts or human rights violations, and (e) the need to maintain trustworthiness as researchers. Methodological issues include (a) constructing representative samples, (b) managing media interest, and (c) handling incriminating materials about law enforcement and immigration. PMID:19827235

  11. Environmental issues related to uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the environmental issues (both real and perceived) associated with uranium exploration, mining, milling, and tailings management. As well, some of the issues pertaining to the closeout of uranium tailings areas are discussed. These issues have received considerable attention in Canada in public inquiries and hearings that have been held across the country. The major conclusions of some of these hearings are also noted

  12. Research ethics and integrity for social scientists beyond regulatory compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This book explores recent developments and debates around researching ethically and with integrity, and complying with ethical requirements, and has been updated and expanded to now cover issues relating to international, indigenous, interdisciplinary and internet research.  

  13. PROFESSIONALISM AND ETHICS: IS THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY DAMAGING THE HEALTH OF THE PUBLIC RELATIONS PROFESSION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Hussein

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In most parts of the world, public relations (PR is seeking recognition as a profession. The path to gaining professional status hinges on its adherence to professional ethical standards. This paper argues that it is inappropriate for public relations practitioners to represent the tobacco industry because it is against the PR ethics of upholding truth and public interest. The paper cites historical tobacco industry documents to reveal that the industry would not hesitate to use unethical means to maximise profits.

  14. [The issue of autonomy in medical ethics: philosophy of Karol Wojty?a].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebrj, Les?aw T; Olejniczak, Marek; Kru?lak, Agnieszka

    2007-01-01

    The issue of autonomy seems to play a very central and fundamental role in contemporary medical ethics. However, it should be emphasized, that there is no agreement on how the concept of autonomy ought to be understood. Although as the main intellectual framework to describe the meaning of "autonomy" is the use of philosophical system of John St. Mill or Immanuel Kant, one could identify the tendency to redefine the concept under study. The aim of this article was to find out if the philosophy of Karol Wojtyla could provide--interesting from the bioethical point of view--insights into understanding of the idea of autonomy. The Wojtyla's critique of Kant's and Mill's understanding of autonomy was shortly described and the main elements of Wojtyla's concept of autonomy were analyzed. On the basis of these considerations it was assumed that philosophical background of Wojtyla is so different from those which are used in the contemporary, especially so called Anglo-American, bioethics that introducing it "elements" of his thinking would lead to misunderstandings and indeed even serious errors. On the other hand, however, philosophical works of Wojtyla seems to be very influential in developing 'personalistic' bioethics. But this bioethics could be accepted only by people who share Wojtyla's ontological and probably also theological or religious assumptions. PMID:18595515

  15. Chinese geneticists' views of ethical issues in genetic testing and screening: evidence for eugenics in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X

    1998-09-01

    To identify Chinese geneticists' views of ethical issues in genetic testing and screening, a national survey was conducted. Of 402 Chinese geneticists asked to participate, 255 (63%) returned by mail anonymous questionnaires. The majority of respondents thought that genetic testing should be offered in the workplace for alpha-antitrypsin deficiency (95%) and the predisposition of executives to heart disease, cancer, and diabetes (94%); that genetic testing should be included in preemployment physical examinations (86%); that governments should require premarital carrier tests (86%), newborn screening for sickle cell (77%), and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (71%); and that children should be tested for genes for late-onset disorders such as Huntington disease (85%), susceptibility to cancers (85%), familial hypercholesterolemia (84%), alcoholism (69%), and Alzheimer disease (61%). Most believed that partners should know each other's genetic status before marriage (92%), that carriers of the same defective gene should not mate with each other (91%), and that women should have a prenatal diagnosis if medically indicated (91%). The majority said that in China decisions about family planning were shared by the couple (82%). More than half had views that, in China, there were no laws to prohibit disability discrimination (64%), particularly to protect people with adult polycystic kidney disease (57%), cystic fibrosis (56%), or genetic predisposition to other diseases (50%). To some extent, these results might provide a basis for a discussion of eugenics in China, particularly about China's Maternal and Infant Health Care Law (1994). PMID:9718350

  16. Reprint of "Ethical issues with artificial nutrition of children with degenerative brain diseases".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlschtter, Alfried; Riga, Carolina; Crespo, Dolores; Torres, Jos Manuel; Penchaszadeh, Victor; Schulz, Angela

    2015-10-01

    This report highlights viewpoints of the authors and comments from the auditory at a workshop, held during the 14th international Congress on neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) in Crdoba, Argentina, on ethical aspects of artificial nutrition in children with degenerative brain diseases. The discussion centers on what constitutes the best interest of a patient whose personality was immature before the onset of the disease, who has become demented during its course and is unable to communicate his/her own positions and desires. There is wide consensus that in a child with advanced disease who cannot be fed naturally, decisions to withhold nutrition or to institute or stop artificial nutrition, should only be made by parents (or their representatives) who are adequately prepared on an intellectual and emotional level. We try to show that such decisions are highly individual but can be made in a rationally and emotionally acceptable way after a careful and prolonged dialogue between families and professionals. A checklist summarizes important considerations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Current Research on the Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (Batten Disease)". PMID:26071856

  17. Ethical issues with artificial nutrition of children with degenerative brain diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlschtter, Alfried; Riga, Carolina; Crespo, Dolores; Torres, Jos Manuel; Penchaszadeh, Victor; Schulz, Angela

    2015-07-01

    This report highlights viewpoints of the authors and comments from the auditory at a workshop, held during the 14th international Congress on neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) in Crdoba, Argentina, on ethical aspects of artificial nutrition in children with degenerative brain diseases. The discussion centers on what constitutes the best interest of a patient whose personality was immature before the onset of the disease, who has become demented during its course and is unable to communicate his/her own positions and desires. There is wide consensus that in a child with advanced disease who cannot be fed naturally, decisions to withhold nutrition or to institute or stop artificial nutrition, should only be made by parents (or their representatives) who are adequately prepared on an intellectual and emotional level. We try to show that such decisions are highly individual but can be made in a rationally and emotionally acceptable way after a careful and prolonged dialogue between families and professionals. A checklist summarizes important considerations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Current Research on the Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (Batten Disease)". PMID:25795594

  18. Conflicts of duty and the virtues of Aristotle in public relations ethics: Continuing the conversation commenced by Monica Walle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Harrison

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Monica Walle’'s commentary on codes of ethics from five national public relations associations “What happened to public responsibility? The lack of society in public relations codes of ethics”, in the last issue of PRism (2003, made several useful points about potential conflicts of duty, and the manner in which the various codes are silent on the duty of the professional to the public interest. Indeed, it is this very notion of service to the community, and the upholding of the public interest against private interests--or the singular interest of publics--which is at the core of any definition of what it means to be a profession (Sallot, Cameron, & Lariscy, 1997. Issues arising from Walle’'s discussion of conflicts of duty, as well as several broader questions about the nature and functions of ethics codes, are discussed further here and illustrated by the recent and controversial ‘Timberlands’ case from New Zealand.

  19. Ethical and Legal Issues Regarding Selective Abortion of Fetuses with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Noreen M.; Glover, Samuel J.

    1996-01-01

    Selective abortion of fetuses with Down syndrome is discussed in terms of abortion perspectives, genetic testing, legislation, and ethical principles. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, fidelity, and justice are offered as guidelines for the examination of legal standards imposed by legislation. (Author/PB)

  20. Promoting Active Learning of Ethical Issues in Marketing Communications Using Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Expectations from the business world and business school accreditation bodies to create learning outcomes that enhance students' understanding of ethical concepts call for marketing educators to integrate ethics into their pedagogy. This paper summarizes a debate activity used in an undergraduate marketing communications course. Debates engage

  1. Expanding Awareness: Issues in the Development of an Ethics Scale for the Social Work Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Ilene L.; Giffords, Elissa D.; Calderon, Orly

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development of an ethics scale that measures adherence to social work ethical choices in specific situations. The purpose of this instrument is to provide data that demonstrate adherence to curriculum standards as set forth by the Council on Social Work Education. The authors present the conceptual framework from which

  2. Engineering the Brain: Ethical Issues and the Introduction of Neural Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eran; Brown, Tim; Sample, Matthew; Truitt, Anjali R; Goering, Sara

    2015-11-01

    Neural engineering technologies such as implanted deep brain stimulators and brain-computer interfaces represent exciting and potentially transformative tools for improving human health and well-being. Yet their current use and future prospects raise a variety of ethical and philosophical concerns. Devices that alter brain function invite us to think deeply about a range of ethical concerns-identity, normality, authority, responsibility, privacy, and justice. If a device is stimulating my brain while I decide upon an action, am I still the author of the action? Does a device make the interiority of my experience accessible to others? Will the device change the way I think of myself and others think of me? Such fundamental questions arise even when a device is designed for only a relatively circumscribed purpose, such as restoring functioning via a smart prosthetic. We are part of a National Science Foundation-funded Engineering Research Center tasked with investigating philosophical and social implications of neural engineering research and technologies. Neural devices already in clinical use, such as deep brain stimulators for Parkinson's disease or essential tremor, have spurred healthy debate about such implications. Devices currently under development-such as the BrainGate System of implanted brain sensors coupled to robotics in persons with paralysis, exoskeletons for augmented movement, transcranial do-it-yourself stimulators, closed-loop brain stimulating systems, or even brain-to-brain interfacing-promise to extend and deepen these debates. At our center, brain-computer interfaces are the principal focus of work. Even acknowledging that the clinical translation of neural devices and seamless integration by end users may still largely reside in the future, the potential these devices hold calls for careful early analysis. The launching of the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative in April 2013 provides further impetus for this work. PMID:26556144

  3. Implant ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, S.

    2005-01-01

    Implant ethics is defined here as the study of ethical aspects of the lasting introduction of technological devices into the human body. Whereas technological implants relieve us of some of the ethical problems connected with transplantation, other difficulties arise that are in need of careful analysis. A systematic approach to implant ethics is proposed. The major specific problems are identified as those concerning end of life issues (turning off devices), enhancement of human capabilities...

  4. Ethical and policy issues in cluster randomized trials: rationale and design of a mixed methods research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhry Shazia H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cluster randomized trials are an increasingly important methodological tool in health research. In cluster randomized trials, intact social units or groups of individuals, such as medical practices, schools, or entire communities – rather than individual themselves – are randomly allocated to intervention or control conditions, while outcomes are then observed on individual cluster members. The substantial methodological differences between cluster randomized trials and conventional randomized trials pose serious challenges to the current conceptual framework for research ethics. The ethical implications of randomizing groups rather than individuals are not addressed in current research ethics guidelines, nor have they even been thoroughly explored. The main objectives of this research are to: (1 identify ethical issues arising in cluster trials and learn how they are currently being addressed; (2 understand how ethics reviews of cluster trials are carried out in different countries (Canada, the USA and the UK; (3 elicit the views and experiences of trial participants and cluster representatives; (4 develop well-grounded guidelines for the ethical conduct and review of cluster trials by conducting an extensive ethical analysis and organizing a consensus process; (5 disseminate the guidelines to researchers, research ethics boards (REBs, journal editors, and research funders. Methods We will use a mixed-methods (qualitative and quantitative approach incorporating both empirical and conceptual work. Empirical work will include a systematic review of a random sample of published trials, a survey and in-depth interviews with trialists, a survey of REBs, and in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with trial participants and gatekeepers. The empirical work will inform the concurrent ethical analysis which will lead to a guidance document laying out principles, policy options, and rationale for proposed guidelines. An Expert Panel of researchers, ethicists, health lawyers, consumer advocates, REB members, and representatives from low-middle income countries will be appointed. A consensus conference will be convened and draft guidelines will be generated by the Panel; an e-consultation phase will then be launched to invite comments from the broader community of researchers, policy-makers, and the public before a final set of guidelines is generated by the Panel and widely disseminated by the research team.

  5. Ethical Issues in Using Twitter for Public Health Surveillance and Research: Developing a Taxonomy of Ethical Concepts From the Research Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background The rise of social media and microblogging platforms in recent years, in conjunction with the development of techniques for the processing and analysis of “big data”, has provided significant opportunities for public health surveillance using user-generated content. However, relatively little attention has been focused on developing ethically appropriate approaches to working with these new data sources. Objective Based on a review of the literature, this study seeks to develop a t...

  6. [Palliative care in pediatrics, ethics and relations with the patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Marie

    2014-01-01

    The extension of the Belgian law on euthanasia to minors during the course of 2014 raises questions with regard to the needs of children in the context of paediatric palliative care. These needs concern essentially the focus given to the interrelations between the child, their family and the caregiving team as well as to the relief of the physical, psychological and spiritual pain. Ethical guidelines help to fuel the discussions surrounding professional practices. PMID:25608370

  7. Presena do tema tica profissional nos peridicos brasileiros de Cincia da Informao e Biblioteconomia / Presence of professional ethics issue in Brazilian journals of Information Science and Librarianship

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco das Chagas de, Souza; Katiusa, Stumpf.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A presena de discusses acerca de temas relativos tica na produo cientfica brasileira de Biblioteconomia e Cincia da Informao o enfoque principal deste texto, que advm da anlise de peridicos desses campos de conhecimento e da prtica profissional. Para isso, selecionou-se um ttulo po [...] r cada regio poltico-administrativa brasileira, Sul, Sudeste, Centro-Oeste e Nordeste, dentre os existentes, cuja edio tivesse se mantido regular no perodo de 1997 a 2006. Em cada um desses ttulos, a partir de palavras-chave previamente definidas, foram identificados os artigos e ensaios que trataram do tema. Com isso, buscava-se conhecer os fundamentos filosficos e doutrinrios, as temticas e abordagens, e as tendncias da discusso tica na produo peridica brasileira de Biblioteconomia e Cincia da Informao. Metodologicamente, o trabalho envolve a identificao dos peridicos e dos textos publicados sobre a temtica; a leitura e a descrio dos mesmos; a identificao dos aspectos apontados nos objetivos pretendidos; a anlise dos discursos utilizando a tcnica do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo; e a organizao das idias contidas visando chegar a uma sntese. Foram localizados 10 textos produzidos por 16 autores, sendo dois de 1997, quatro de 2005, quatro distribudos de 1998 a 2004; nenhum foi encontrado referente ao ano de 2006. Foram identificadas como fundamentos ticos as Doutrinas da tica do Discurso, da tica da Alteridade e da Teoria tico-poltica da Justia; e foram tambm identificadas as temticas, abordagens e tendncias da discusso sobre a tica, que revelaram a questo da postura profissional determinada pelo quadro atual da sociedade e das tecnologias. Conclui-se que apesar de existir preocupao com o tema tica por parte de alguns profissionais da informao que escrevem e publicam sobre o assunto, o mesmo ainda pouco explorado na literatura e est mais dirigido para questes gerais. Abstract in english The presence of discussions on issues relating to ethics in Brazilian scientific production of Librarianship and Information Science is the main focus of this text, which comes from the periodic review of these fields of knowledge and professional practice. For this reason, picked up a scientific pe [...] riodical title for each brazilian administrative region, whose editing had been maintained regularly over the period 1997 to 2006. In each of these periodical titles, from keywords previously defined, have been identified articles and essays which addressed the theme. With this, trying to be informed of the reasons for philosophical and doctrinal, the themes and approaches and trends of the discussion Ethics in regular production of Brazilian Librarianship and Information Science. Methodologically, the work involved identification of journals and texts published on the subject, reading and description of them; identification of the aspects highlighted in the objectives pursued, analysis of speech using the technique of Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo collective subject of discourse) - DSC; organization of the ideas contained, aiming to reach a synthesis. We found 10 texts produced by 16 authors, 2 of 1997, 4 in 2005, 4 distributed from 1998 to 2004 and none was found regarding the year 2006. They were identified as ethical foundations, the doctrines of Ethics of Speech, the Ethics of Otherness and Ethical-Political Theory of Justice, in addition to the issues, approaches and trends of the discussion Ethics, which show the issue of professional attitude determined by the current picture of society and current technologies. We conclude that although there is concern about the ethics issue by some of the professionals who write and publish information on the subject, it is still little explored in literature and is more focused on general issues.

  8. Pertinent issues related to laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sidney C., Abreu; Inderbir S., Gill.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We describe the critical steps of the laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) technique and discuss how they impact upon the pertinent issues regarding prostate cancer surgery: blood loss, potency and continence. RESULTS: A major advantage of LRP is the reduced operative blood loss. The pr [...] ecise placement of the dorsal vein complex stitch associated with the tamponading effect of the CO2 pneumoperitoneum significantly decrease venous bleeding, which is the main source of blood loss during radical prostatectomy. At the Cleveland Clinic, the average blood loss of our first 100 patients was 322.5 ml, resulting in low transfusion rates. The continuous venous bleeding narrowed pelvic surgical field and poor visibility can adversely impact on nerve preservation during open radical prostatectomy. Laparoscopy, with its enhanced and magnified vision in a relatively bloodless field allows for excellent identification and handling of the neurovascular bundles. During open retropubic radical prostatectomy, the pubic bone may impair visibility and access to the urethral stump, and the surgeon must tie the knots relying on tactile sensation alone. Consequently, open prostatectomy is associated with a prolonged catheterization period of 2 - 3 weeks. Comparatively, during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy all sutures are meticulously placed and each is tied under complete visual control, resulting in a precise mucosa-to-mucosa approximation. CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic approach may represent a reliable less invasive alternative to the conventional open approach. Despite the encouraging preliminary anatomical and functional outcomes, prospective randomized comparative trials are required to critically evaluate the role of laparoscopy for this sophisticated and delicate operation.

  9. Issues related to cooperative implementation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note by the secretariat seeks to focus discussions on some key issues regarding the design and functioning of the three new mechanisms, such as issues concerning mandates, cross-cutting as well as issues concerning individual mechanisms. The note addresses each mechanism separately in view of different origins, approaches, participants and possible applications. Reference is, however, made to similarities among the mechanisms, in particular where coordination of work on methodological and institutional issues and inter-institutional collaboration are concerned. The note suggests, in its concluding part, elements of a work programme up to and, to some extent, beyond COP 4. It draws upon the views submitted by Parties (document FCCC/SB/1998/MISC.1), contains reflections by the secretariat and builds on its consultations with other organizations having activities, under way or planned, that could contribute to the design or operation of the mechanisms. (au)

  10. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  11. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed

  12. AN ETHICAL ASSESSMENT OF COMPUTER ETHICS USING SCENARIO APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslin Masrom

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethics refers to a set of rules that define right and wrong behavior, used for moral decision making. In this case, computer ethics is one of the major issues in information technology (IT and information system (IS. The ethical behaviour of IT students and professionals need to be studied in an attempt to reduce many unethical practices such as software piracy, hacking, and software intellectual property violations. This paper attempts to address computer-related scenarios that can be used to examine the computer ethics. The computer-related scenario consists of a short description of an ethical situation whereby the subject of the study such as IT professionals or students, then rate the ethics of the scenario, namely attempt to identify the ethical issues involved. This paper also reviews several measures of computer ethics in different setting. The perceptions of various dimensions of ethical behaviour in IT that are related to the circumstances of the ethical scenario are also presented.

  13. Towards an empirical ethics in care: relations with technologies in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pols, Jeannette

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes the approach of empirical ethics, a form of ethics that integrates non-positivist ethnographic empirical research and philosophy. Empirical ethics as it is discussed here builds on the 'empirical turn' in epistemology. It radicalizes the relational approach that care ethics introduced to think about care between people by drawing in relations between people and technologies as things people relate to. Empirical ethics studies care practices by analysing their intra-normativity, or the ways of living together the actors within these practices strive for or bring about as good practices. Different from care ethics, what care is and if it is good is not defined beforehand. A care practice may be contested by comparing it to alternative practices with different notions of good care. By contrasting practices as different ways of living together that are normatively oriented, suggestions for the best possible care may be argued for. Whether these suggestions will actually be put to practice is, however, again a relational question; new actors need to re-localize suggestions, to make them work in new practices and fit them in with local intra-normativities with their particular routines, material infrastructures, know-how and strivings. PMID:25023945

  14. Genetic counseling and the ethical issues around direct to consumer genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Alice K; Ho, Anita

    2012-06-01

    Over the last several years, direct to consumer(DTC) genetic testing has received increasing attention in the public, healthcare and academic realms. DTC genetic testing companies face considerable criticism and scepticism,particularly from the medical and genetic counseling community. This raises the question of what specific aspects of DTC genetic testing provoke concerns, and conversely,promises, for genetic counselors. This paper addresses this question by exploring DTC genetic testing through an ethic allens. By considering the fundamental ethical approaches influencing genetic counseling (the ethic of care and principle-based ethics) we highlight the specific ethical concerns raised by DTC genetic testing companies. Ultimately,when considering the ethics of DTC testing in a genetic counseling context, we should think of it as a balancing act. We need careful and detailed consideration of the risks and troubling aspects of such testing, as well as the potentially beneficial direct and indirect impacts of the increased availability of DTC genetic testing. As a result it is essential that genetic counselors stay informed and involved in the ongoing debate about DTC genetic testing and DTC companies. Doing so will ensure that the ethical theories and principles fundamental to the profession of genetic counseling are promoted not just in traditional counseling sessions,but also on a broader level. Ultimately this will help ensure that the public enjoys the benefits of an increasingly genetic based healthcare system. PMID:22290190

  15. Personal genome testing: Test characteristics to clarify the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssens A Cecile JW

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As genetics technology proceeds, practices of genetic testing have become more heterogeneous: many different types of tests are finding their way to the public in different settings and for a variety of purposes. This diversification is relevant to the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues (ELSI surrounding genetic testing, which must evolve to encompass these differences. One important development is the rise of personal genome testing on the basis of genetic profiling: the testing of multiple genetic variants simultaneously for the prediction of common multifactorial diseases. Currently, an increasing number of companies are offering personal genome tests directly to consumers and are spurring ELSI-discussions, which stand in need of clarification. This paper presents a systematic approach to the ELSI-evaluation of personal genome testing for multifactorial diseases along the lines of its test characteristics. Discussion This paper addresses four test characteristics of personal genome testing: its being a non-targeted type of testing, its high analytical validity, low clinical validity and problematic clinical utility. These characteristics raise their own specific ELSI, for example: non-targeted genetic profiling poses serious problems for information provision and informed consent. Questions about the quantity and quality of the necessary information, as well as about moral responsibilities with regard to the provision of information are therefore becoming central themes within ELSI-discussions of personal genome testing. Further, the current low level of clinical validity of genetic profiles raises questions concerning societal risks and regulatory requirements, whereas simultaneously it causes traditional ELSI-issues of clinical genetics, such as psychological and health risks, discrimination, and stigmatization, to lose part of their relevance. Also, classic notions of clinical utility are challenged by the newer notion of 'personal utility.' Summary Consideration of test characteristics is essential to any valuable discourse on the ELSI of personal genome testing for multifactorial diseases. Four key characteristics of the test - targeted/non-targeted testing, analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility - together determine the applicability and the relevance of ELSI to specific tests. The paper identifies and discusses four areas of interest for the ELSI-debate on personal genome testing: informational problems, risks, regulatory issues, and the notion of personal utility.

  16. Experimental Methods in Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Course for Teaching Ethical Issues, Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Adam C.; Mary E. Harrington

    2003-01-01

    We have developed and recently taught a 200 level undergraduate course entitled, Experimental Methods in Neuroscience. This is a required course in an increasingly popular Neuroscience major at Smith College. Students are introduced initially to issues of animal ethics and experimentation, and are familiarized with our Animal Care Facility. Using an open field and rotarod apparatus, and the elevated plus and Barnes mazes, they conduct behavioral testing of two strains of mice, C57/BL/6J and...

  17. Ethical Issues Recognized by Critical Care Nurses in the Intensive Care Units of a Tertiary Hospital during Two Separate Periods

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Dong Won; Moon, Jae Young; Ku, Eun Yong; Kim, Sun Jong; Koo, Young-Mo; Kim, Ock-Joo; Lee, Soon Haeng; Jo, Min-Woo; Lim, Chae-Man; Armstrong, John David; Koh, Younsuck

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the changes in ethical issues in everyday clinical practice recognized by critical care nurses during two observation periods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data obtained by prospective questionnaire surveys of nurses in the intensive care units (ICU) of a tertiary university-affiliated hospital in Seoul, Korea. Data were collected prospectively during two different periods, February 2002-January 2003 (Period 1) and August 2011-July 2012 (Period 2...

  18. What do Libyan doctors perceive as the benefits, ethical issues and influences of their interactions with pharmaceutical company representatives?

    OpenAIRE

    Alssageer, Mustafa Ali; Kowalski, Stefan Robert

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Evidence suggests that 80-90% of doctors in most countries across the world are frequently visited by pharmaceutical company representatives (PCRs). The objective of study to examine perceptions of Libyan doctors between August and October 2010, regarding the benefits, ethical issues and influences of their interactions with (PCRs). Methods An anonymous questionnaire was circulated to 1,000 Libyan doctors in selected public and private practice settings in Tripoli, Benghazi and S...

  19. Using Eight Key Questions as an Inquiry-Based Framework for Ethical Reasoning Issues in a General Education Earth Systems and Climate Change Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. A.; Ball, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    An important objective in general education geoscience courses is to help students evaluate social and ethical issues based upon scientific knowledge. It can be difficult for instructors trained in the physical sciences to design effective ways of including ethical issues in large lecture courses where whole-class discussions are not practical. The Quality Enhancement Plan for James Madison University, "The Madison Collaborative: Ethical Reasoning in Action," (http://www.jmu.edu/mc/index.shtml) has identified eight key questions to be used as a framework for developing ethical reasoning exercises and evaluating student learning. These eight questions are represented by the acronym FOR CLEAR and are represented by the concepts of Fairness, Outcomes, Responsibilities, Character, Liberty, Empathy, Authority, and Rights. In this study, we use the eight key questions as an inquiry-based framework for addressing ethical issues in a 100-student general education Earth systems and climate change course. Ethical reasoning exercises are presented throughout the course and range from questions of personal behavior to issues regarding potential future generations and global natural resources. In the first few exercises, key questions are identified for the students and calibrated responses are provided as examples. By the end of the semester, students are expected to identify key questions themselves and justify their own ethical and scientific reasoning. Evaluation rubrics are customized to this scaffolding approach to the exercises. Student feedback and course data will be presented to encourage discussion of this and other approaches to explicitly incorporating ethical reasoning in general education geoscience courses.

  20. Staff Attitudes to Talking Openly About Ethical Dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Leila

    2011-01-01

    To ensure ethical employee behavior, companies often utilize several forms of mostly one-way communication such as codes of conduct. The extent to which these efforts, in addition to informing about the company stance on ethics, are able to positively influence behavior is disputed. In contrast, research on business ethics communication and behavior indicates a relatively clear, positive link between open workplace dialogue about ethical issues and ethical conduct. In this paper, I therefore add...

  1. Medical marijuana for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: legal and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larriviere, Daniel G

    2014-10-01

    The number of states legalizing medical marijuana is increasing. Medical marijuana is possibly effective therapy for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Despite legalization at the state level, however, the current and contradictory federal drug enforcement policy creates the risk that physicians who recommend medical marijuana to their patients will lose their ability to prescribe medications. The federal-state tension has legal and ethical implications for neurologists who receive a request for medical marijuana from their patients since neurologists must strive to both relieve suffering and obey relevant laws. Recommendation of medical marijuana by neurologists to their patients is ethically permissible but is not ethically mandatory. PMID:25299291

  2. Contemporary Issues in Higher Education. Self-Regulation and the Ethical Roles of the Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, John B., Ed.; Peltason, J. W., Ed.

    Self-regulation within higher education is discussed in 10 chapters. Topics include: self-regulation and institutional relations, academic inquiry and integrity, the American Council on Education's Office on Self-Regulation Initiatives, the relationship between the public and private educational sectors, equity and quality issues, and the

  3. Issues of Language Choice, Ethics and Equity: Japanese Retirees Living in Malaysia as Their Second Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapa, Siti Hamin; Musaev, Talaibek; Hieda, Natsue; Amzah, Normalis

    2013-01-01

    This paper will discuss two issues related to Japanese retirees adopting Malaysia as their second home. The first is that of the preferred language choice of the retirees. To collect data for language choice a self-report questionnaire was administered and an interview was conducted. The findings suggest that the majority of the retirees chose

  4. Biomonitoring in occupational health: Scientific, socio-ethical, and regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomonitoring is one of the best available tools for the prevention of deleterious effects resulting from occupational exposure to chemicals. The availability of analytical techniques having low detection limits allows for the measurement of numerous biomarkers. Complemented with quality control programs, our ability to collect validated information on exposure to toxicants improves. This is important as exposure doses tend to decrease in workplaces. Concurrently, there is an increasing preoccupation towards skin exposure, which cannot currently be reliably assessed through external measurements. Furthermore, as lower exposure doses are encountered, background concentrations of some biomarkers become a serious limitation to their use. This prompts researchers to seek for minor, more specific metabolites, that may however be produced through metabolic pathways that are prone to larger inter-individual variations. Assessment of exposure to complex mixtures of chemicals is another major challenge. There is a growing interest towards ethical issues in biomonitoring. The understanding of the advantages and of the limits of this preventive approach may be very different among occupational health professionals, but more importantly, between health professionals and those they are seeking to protect, i.e., the workers themselves. Many organizations have proposed guideline values for biomarker concentrations, but these seldom find their way in the various countries' bylaws. One underlying reason might be the greater complexity of the scientific aspects of biomarkers, whose understanding is required to set limit values, compared to the process of setting airborne limit concentrations. But the fact that the latter does not consider all aspects of biological complexity does not make it more reliable

  5. Ethical issues in genetics and public health in Latin America with a focus on Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penchaszadeh, Victor B

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the health situation and developments in medical genetics and bioethics in Latin America, with a focus on Argentina. The region is the most inequitable in the world, with an average Gini Index of 52.5 and 25% of the population living in poverty. Health expenditures are low and health systems are fragmented and privatised, with curtailed governmental responsibility and regulation. Health-care decision making is mostly in the hands of private insurance corporations and the medical-industrial complex, so that what is (or is not) covered by health plans is arbitrary and determined by the market and not by population health needs. This inequity and the lack of meaningful governmental intervention in the provision of health care, including genetic services, are at the heart of the bioethical dilemmas in Latin America. It is not surprising, therefore, that bioethics in the region has developed an approach grounded in social justice, equity and human rights as guiding principles, in contrast to the individualism espoused by Anglo-Saxon bioethics. The main ethical issues identified in genetics in Latin America are (1) inequity in access to genetic services, particularly in prenatal diagnosis, (2) genetic discrimination and (3) the lack of adherence to internationally accepted requisites of clinical validity and utility for diagnostic and predictive genetic testing. In this context, there is a risk that the impressive advances in genetics/genomics occurring in developed countries may fail to improve the public's health and deepen inequity, with the implementation of expensive genetic technologies of unproven validity. PMID:25666434

  6. Social, Legal, and Political Responses to Ethical Issues in the Use of Children as Experimental Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Mark S.

    1978-01-01

    After discussing the economic and social pressures which may impinge upon parental judgment in the experimental setting, the article reviews several divergent opinions on the ethics of child research. (Author)

  7. Utilizing social media to study information-seeking and ethical issues in gene therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robillard, Julie M; Whiteley, Louise Emma; Johnson, Thomas Wade; Lim, Jonathan; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Illes, Judy

    2013-01-01

    The field of gene therapy is rapidly evolving, and while hopes of treating disorders of the central nervous system and ethical concerns have been articulated within the academic community, little is known about views and opinions of different stakeholder groups.

  8. Ethical Issues in Engineering Models: An Operations Researchers Reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Kleijnen, Jack P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This article starts with an overview of the authors personal involvementas an Operations Research consultantin several engineering case-studies that may raise ethical questions; e.g., case-studies on nuclear waste, water management, sustainable ecology, military tactics, and animal welfare. All these case studies employ computer simulation models. In general, models are meant to solve practical problems, which may have ethical implications for the various stakeholders; namely, the modelers...

  9. What they really think : resolving methodological issues in supply chain ethics research

    OpenAIRE

    Chipp, K.; Goldman, M.; Kleyn, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this paper is to further the theory and strengthen methodological approaches to the role of ethics in buyer-seller relationships. The paper explores opportunities to enhance response rates, validity and reliability in the research context of organisations seeking to understand the ethical beliefs their suppliers hold of their buying organisations. DESIGN / METHODOLOGY / APPROACH: The research universe is a select business group, all of which are technologically literat...

  10. Doing Fieldwork on State Organizations in Democratic Settings: Ethical Issues of Research in Refugee Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Tomkinson, Sule

    2014-01-01

    By drawing on eighteen months of ethnographic fieldwork and my field diaries in refugee decision-making in Canada, I make three arguments in this article. First, the binary of research in closed vs. open settings may have contributed to overlooking of ethical challenges of research in state organizations in democratic settings. We have to overcome this binary by opening a dialogue among ethnographers. Second, despite well-developed and diverse nature of scholarship on Research Ethics' Board's...

  11. Utilizing social media to study information-seeking and ethical issues in gene therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robillard, Julie M; Whiteley, Louise Emma; Johnson, Thomas Wade; Lim, Jonathan; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Illes, Judy

    2013-01-01

    The field of gene therapy is rapidly evolving, and while hopes of treating disorders of the central nervous system and ethical concerns have been articulated within the academic community, little is known about views and opinions of different stakeholder groups.......The field of gene therapy is rapidly evolving, and while hopes of treating disorders of the central nervous system and ethical concerns have been articulated within the academic community, little is known about views and opinions of different stakeholder groups....

  12. Pollution in textbooks from 16 countries : socio-economic and ethical issues; individual or social responsibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Cludia; Tracana, Rosa Branca; Ferreira, Maria Eduarda; De Carvalho, Graa Simes

    2008-01-01

    In this study it was intended to analyse the progression of the socio-economic and ethical dimensions within the topic pollution, in the textbooks of 16 countries, along their school system, by looking at the Socio-economic and Ethical Dimensions as well as at the Approaches to solve pollution problems, within the conception Individual vs social. In this work we analysed textbooks from sixteen countries from Europe (West to East: Portugal, France, Italy, Malta, Germany, Hungary, Poland, R...

  13. Gandhi vs Gauss: ethical issues in micro and small business finance

    OpenAIRE

    Von Pischke, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Efforts to discern ethical behaviour can lead to quite different results. Gandhi uses the most wretched person as the guide, Gauss stresses central tendencies, and Hayek suggests that specialisation is essential for a productive society. Use of finance has always been a lightening rod for ethical debate. Microfinance (MF) serves the entrepreneurial working poor, getting people into business for themselves and moving the frontier of formal finance somewhat closer to Gandhis ben...

  14. Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diane E. Hoffmann

    2003-09-12

    On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The goal was not to provide answers to any of the issues or problems, simply to identify those topics that deserve our attention as a society. Some of the issues may benefit from legislation at the federal or state levels, others may be more appropriately addressed by the private sector. Participants at the roundtable included over a dozen experts in the areas of microbiology, intellectual property, agricultural biotechnology, microbial genomics, bioterrorism, economic development, biotechnology research, and bioethics. These experts came from federal and state government, industry and academia. The participants were asked to come to the roundtable with a written statement of the top three to five public policy/ ethical issues they viewed as most likely to be significant to the industry and to policy makers over the next several years.

  15. Children with Cancer: School Related Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartin, Barbara C.; Murdick, Nikki L.

    2009-01-01

    School gives purpose to a student's life. Today, students with cancer and cancer survivors are encouraged to continue their educational experiences to maintain a sense of normalcy. This manuscript discusses the research findings on medical, physical, and cognitive issues that students with cancer and cancer survivors may encounter in their

  16. Ethical attitudes of Andalusian journalists to deal with especially sensitive issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Surez Villegas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This research article analyses the positions of Andalusian journalists in relation to especially sensitive issues. Methods. The study combines qualitative and quantitative techniques: in-depth interviews and a questionnaire-based survey, respectively. Results. The professional work of Andalusian journalists is based more on the predominant values of their communities than on the deontological codes of the profession, which are unknown by the vast majority. Conclusions. Journalists exhibit a liberal spirit, which is characteristic of a secular society, and believe that the freedom of expression should be respected when dealing with especially sensitive issues, which must be resolved according to the particular circumstances of each case.

  17. Ethics of palliative care in late-stage cancer management and end-of-life issues in a depressed economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuneke, F N

    2015-12-01

    The Hippocratic Oath has often been referred to as the ethical foundation of medical practice with the key restriction "cause no harm" which is also the principle of benevolence in bioethics. In medical profession, the Oath still exemplifies the key virtues of a doctor in its emphasis on the obligations toward the well-being of the individual patient. In management of end-stage cancer in a depressed economy such as Nigeria, we frequently encounter a wide range of ethical issues that arise in the provision of palliative care mostly due to the prevailing economic situation and cultural setting. Since most of these patients came from a lower economic class of the society, with little or no formal education and lived at a subsistence level, they often find it difficult to provide the medications needed. In a poor setting where health inequity is rife, and ignorance and poverty are commonplace, a good understanding of medical ethics with a good model of health care system will contribute to the health professional's decision-making that will be in the best interest of the patients. Physicians must protect the lives of their patients and should never hasten their death. In end-stage cancer management, we have to relieve suffering and pains, promote palliative care, and give psychological support but never abandoning the patient or initiate terminating their life. This presentation is a clinical analysis of the ethical issues regarding the management of end-stage cancer patients in a poor economy with a critical overview of end-of-life issues in African perspective. PMID:26620617

  18. How do medical journalists treat cancer-related issues?

    OpenAIRE

    Nakada, Haruka; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kishi, Yukiko; Yuji, Koichiro; Matsumura, Tomoko; Kami, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients can obtain information about their illness through a variety of media sources. Therefore, it is important to know how medical journalists treat cancer-related issues; to that end, we sent self-administered questionnaires to 364 journalists in 82 organisations who had reported on medical issues for the Japanese media, asking for their reasons for reporting on cancer-related issues and the difficulties they had faced. The most common reason for reporting on health-related issues...

  19. Sustainable issues related to heap leaching operations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.F., Lupo.

    Full Text Available One of the earliest records of metal recovery by solution leaching is described by Agricola as 'juice of rock' in the 1550s. In these early years of hydrometallurgy and civil engineering, few controls and systems were employed to enhance recovery and protect the environment. Since that time, leachin [...] g (dump or heap) operations have made significant strides in increasing metal and solution recovery while protecting the environment, all goals of a sustainable operation. It is now recognized that the design and operation of modern heap leach facilities requires contributions from many fields of study, including hydrometallurgy, civil engineering, geotechnical engineering, unsaturated-flow hydrology, mine planning, geosynthetics engineering, geochemistry, process engineering, mechanical engineering, and electrical engineering. While advancements in these fields have resulted in more sustainable heap leach operations, challenges in the industry still exist. A number of heap leach operations exhibit poor or lower-than-predicted metal recovery, loss of solution flow and control within the ore heap, loss of ore heap stability under leach, failure of liner and/or solution recovery systems, and overtopping of process water ponds. A number of these issues may be the result of several compounding conditions. For example, poor metal recovery may be due to an inadequate scale-up assumption (scaling laboratory tests to field-size heaps), lack of control of the in-heap geochemical environment, changes in ore mineralogy from the original design, changes in mechanical and hydraulic properties of the ore from the original design, ore handling and pre-treatment, inadequate solution management system, and inadequate solution application. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss issues that may affect the sustainability of a heap leach operation. Since sustainability encompasses a broad range of topics and issues, the focus of this paper will be on issues affecting metal and solution recovery, solution flow and containment, and stability of the ore heap.

  20. Technical findings related to Generic Issue 79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the technical basis for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) resolution of Generic Safety Issue 79, ''Unanalyzed Reactor Vessel (PWR) Thermal Stress During Natural Convection Cooldown.'' Included are discussions of pertinent technical background information, the historical development of the issue, the approach of the NRC staff and its contractor to the resolution, and the NRC staff technical conclusions with their supporting bases. The B ampersand W Owners Group (BWOG) prepared a detailed analysis of its 177-fuel-assembly reactor vessel under natural convection cooldown conditions. This report was reviewed by the NRC staff and its contractor, and conservative independent confirmatory stress analyses were performed by the NRC contractor in selected areas. To complete the review, an independent fracture mechanics evaluation was performed by the NRC staff. This report presents the NRC's review and evaluation of the BWOG report and the NRC's conclusion that the BWOG document, supported by the additional conservative independent analyses discussed above, provides an adequate basis for the resolution of the issue. 8 refs., 3 figs

  1. The ethics of information

    CERN Document Server

    Floridi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Luciano Floridi develops an original ethical framework for dealing with the new challenges posed by Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). ICTs have profoundly changed many aspects of life, including the nature of entertainment, work, communication, education, health care, industrial production and business, social relations, and conflicts. They have had a radical and widespread impact on our moral lives and on contemporary ethical debates. Privacy, ownership, freedom of speech, responsibility, technological determinism, the digital divide, and pornography online are only some of the pressing issues that characterise the ethical discourse in the information society. They are the subject of Information Ethics (IE), the new philosophical area of research that investigates the ethical impact of ICTs on human life and society. Since the seventies, IE has been a standard topic in many curricula. In recent years, there has been a flourishing of new university courses, international conferences, workshop...

  2. Unresolved legal and ethical issues in research of adults with severe traumatic brain injury: analysis of an ongoing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Theresa Louise-Bender; Jaffe, Nancy Oddi; Savage, Teresa; Collins, Eileen; Warden, Deborah

    2004-03-01

    This paper synthesizes federal and state laws and bioethics literature with observations from an ongoing research protocol to identify, define, and clarify the unresolved legal and ethical issues regarding research involving adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Solutions that protect rights and minimize unnecessary impediments to valuable clinical and scientific inquiry are also illustrated using the same protocol. Research was performed at intensive care, inpatient rehabilitation, and long-term acute chronic hospitals. Our research protocol identified five areas of law impacting adults with TBI: advanced directives, healthcare surrogacy acts, probate acts, power of attorney acts, and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. The published bioethics literature and responses from local human subject institutional review boards (IRBs) suggest that some of the unresolved ethical issues in research include defining vulnerability, defining informed voluntary consent, determining competency and/or decision-making capacity, using caregivers as subjects, and conducting multisite cooperative studies. Collaboration with IRB members and administrators as well as legal and research ethic scholars developed procedures that protect rights while avoiding unnecessary impediments to research. Investigations of persons with TBI and other cognitive impairments are governed by complicated and inconsistent regulations within the Common Rule and federal and state statues. A need for clear and consistent regulatory guidance regarding multisite studies of TBI persists. In lieu of regulatory guidance, carefully researched solutions for critical peer review are needed to guide future multisite investigations of TBI. PMID:15558370

  3. Relations between Corporate Social Responsibility and Engineering Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Itaru

    Environmental responsibility of corporations has been changed drastically in the last 20 years. In 1980s, pollution prevention was the main mandate for corporations and in 1990s global scale environmental issues such as global warming must be also considered by at least industries. In the year of 2000, United Nations decided to make a challenge towards sustainability of human activities on the Earth, and since then, every corporation must take this concept into account when policy for its own business is described. Within this framework, some companies have succeeded to be evaluated as environmental conscious companies and enjoyed success also in their business. The reality of sustainability is very complex and any company must consider rather long future, say more than 30 years, in the strategy of its operation. All engineers should watch the direction and the norm carefully, which their own company is now aiming at, with enough knowledge regarding the trend of total human activities in relation to the limitation of the Earth.

  4. The Teaching of Life-Line Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, James A.

    1977-01-01

    Outlines techniques used in teaching a course in "life-line" ethics, in which the events of conception, birth and death are related to ethical issues of abortion, suicide, euthanasia, etc. Several modes of actively involving students are described. Lists seven reference for information on bioethical issues. (CS)

  5. Managing workplace ethics : how to improve your organisation's ethical health and achieve organisational integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Plant, Kato

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the issue of management or governance of ethics within organisations in the public and private sectors has come to the fore. For several valid business reasons organisations have been forced to become socially responsible, to act with increased ethical sensitivity and to report on the organisation's performance relative to its ethics statement to all stakeholders. Organisations that recognise the strategic importance of ethics within business and pro-acti...

  6. Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With public attention increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, there is enormous potential for the commercial use of biomass to accelerate. Renewable feedstocks such as biomass can provide more environmentally balanced sources of energy and other non-food products than fossil fuels. Biomass utilization is in a precarious position, however, with public attention increasingly focused on both its potential and the strength of the challenges it faces. The paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 through 4 catalogue the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups; wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier; gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 is devoted to a conclusion and summary

  7. Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, M. [Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy; Ranney, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Now that public attention has grown increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, the commercial use of biomass could greatly accelerate. Renewable feedstocks like biomass can provide better environmentally balanced sources of energy and other nonfood products than fossil fuels. The future of biomass is uncertain, however, because public attention focuses on both its potential and its challenges. This paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 and 4 catalog the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large-scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups: wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier: gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 provides a conclusion and summary.

  8. Economic issues relating to power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial distress alongside high rates of growth, stagnant organizations coexistent with upgraded technologies, richly endowed regions marked by low levels of electricity consumption and the long wait for private power in face of mounting shortfalls are among the contradictions marking the power sector. Decades of public financing support could shore up the rates of growth but forms of past intervention failed to address critical institutional and regulatory issues. Key areas that need intervention have now been identified, although several are yet to be tackled. This paper discusses the more important of the problem areas holding up significant economic gains that could be realized through cost reductions, the needed levels of investments, operation of market forces and targeting of resources to promote equitable growth. The slow pace of progress is a matter for concern. Effectiveness of many of the policy initiatives of government is also dependent on providing well thought out policy supports. (author)

  9. Enseanza de la tica y la educacin moral, permanecen ausentes de los programas universitarios? / Moral and Ethical Issues: Are they the Missing Links in University Programs?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mara Eugenia, Guerrero Useda; Diomedes Andrs, Gmez Paternina.

    Full Text Available Hoy en da, existiendo mayor consenso sobre la virtud de ensear tica y de continuar la educacin moral de los jvenes en el mbito universitario, es preciso determinar cules son los valores fundamentales y cules las condiciones pedaggicas de su enseanza? Este artculo presenta los resultados [...] de una investigacin tendiente a establecer la funcin realmente asignada a la enseanza de la tica y a la educacin moral de la persona en el contexto universitario. A partir de una investigacin documental, seguida de un estudio comparado con muestreo terico, se encontr que mientras el 52% de los programas revisados tenan al menos un curso asociado a la enseanza de la tica, no hay contenidos orientados especficamente a la educacin de la accin moral. En las carreras de derecho y medicina prima la tendencia hacia la tica profesional, mientras en ingeniera civil se encaminan a la responsabilidad social. Se concluy, a partir del anlisis del contenido de 120 asignaturas, que la formacin moral de la persona sigue ausente del currculo universitario. Abstract in english Now that there is greater consensus on the merit of teaching ethics and continuing the moral education of youth at the university level, it is necessary to determine what constitute core values and the pedagogical conditions necessary for teaching them. This article presents the results of research [...] that attempts to establish the function effectively assigned to the teaching of ethics and moral education in the context of higher education. Based on documentary research, followed by a comparative study with theoretical sampling, we found that while 52% of the programs reviewed had at least one course related to the teaching of ethics, there were no contents geared specifically to the teaching of moral action. In law and medicine the trend toward professional ethics prevails, while engineering programs veer towards issues of social responsibility. Judging by our analysis of 120 course subjects, moral training of the individual is absent from university curricula.

  10. Ubiquitous computing in the workplace what ethical issues? : an interdisciplinary perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Nihan, Céline

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an interdisciplinary collection of views on the ethical challenges and opportunities of workplaces in the Internet of things. Current developments within Ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) systems designed for the workplace are introduced and philosophical, organizational and socio-ethical considerations of ubicomp in workplaces are provided. Suggestions regarding the rules that should be respected in order to favor an adequate implementation of ubicomp in the workplace are offered, considering both intra-organizational but also wider societal concerns. The interdisciplinary collection of contributions invites the reader to engage in the discussion of ubicomp in everyday working environments.      

  11. Ethical issues surrounding the use of images from donated cadavers in the anatomical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, Jon; Callahan, David; Wee, Richman

    2016-01-01

    Body donor programs rely on the generosity and trust of the public to facilitate the provision of cadaver resources for anatomical education and research. The uptake and adoption of emerging technologies, including those allowing the acquisition and distribution of images, are becoming more widespread, including within anatomical science education. Images of cadavers are useful for research and education, and their supply and distribution have commercial potential for textbooks and online education. It is unclear whether the utilization of images of donated cadavers are congruent with donor expectations, societal norms and boundaries of established public understanding. Presently, no global "best practices" or standards exist, nor is there a common model requiring specific image-related consent from body donors. As ongoing success of body donation programs relies upon the ethical and institutional governance of body utilization to maintain trust and a positive relationship with potential donors and the community, discussions considering the potential impact of image misuse are important. This paper discusses the subject of images of donated cadavers, commenting on images in non-specific use, education, research, and commercial applications. It explores the role and significance of such images in the context of anatomical science and society, and discusses how misuse - including unconsented use - of images has the potential to affect donor program success, suggesting that informed consent is currently necessary for all images arising from donated cadavers. Its purpose is to encourage discussion to guide responsible utilization of cadaver images, while protecting the interests of body donors and the public. Clin. Anat. 29:30-36, 2016. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26474731

  12. Hippocrates and Bernays: A Medical Ethics Perspective on the Ethics of Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruckeberg, Dean

    While comparisons of public relations practitioners and attorneys remain attractive among practitioners and scholars searching for evidence of public relation's emergence as a profession, practitioners would be better served by emulating physicians in their "healing" role rather than attorneys in their "advocacy" role. Public relations's use of

  13. Research on Offshore Service Outsourcing and the Related Issue of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wenzhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the trend of economic globalization, offshore service outsourcing is developing rapidly and its related Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR issues emerge as a result. However, so far, the related research findings are limited. This study based on the CSR theory of stakeholders and the special characteristics of international service outsourcing, discusses the related CSR issues such as the unemployment problem of outsourcer country, the unfair employment problem of recipient country, etc. In the end, it proposes some corresponding countermeasures to solve these problems, such as: firms of offshore service outsourcing should refer to the international standards of social responsibility such as UN Global Compact, OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and ISO26000, etc., to establish a proper code of ethics within the organization, consult with the host countrys stakeholders to understand their concerns of CSR issues impacting on their benefits, try best to reduce the related job losses and protect the interests of employees by training and education to improve their skills and strengthen communication channels with the stakeholders like the government, communities, suppliers and employees, etc., so as to increase their awareness of CSR issues and take measures to resolve these issues. And the administrative authority of the government should play an import role in the creation of a capable or proficient supervision on the CSR issue of offshore service outsourcing, etc.

  14. Ethical decision-making in forensic psychology / Etiese besluitneming in forensiese sielkunde

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Swanepoel.

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive process for identifying and addressing primarily ethical issues related to the psychology profession in South Africa. In fulfilling this purpose, research was conducted of relevant ethical and to a lesser extent, legal aspects pertaining to t [...] he psychology profession. In an attempt to prevent unprofessional conduct claims against psychologists from succeeding and to alert psychologists to the concurrent ethical problems that may lead to malpractice suits, this article offers material on some important issues - in the context of forensic psychology - such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology as a profession, the Ethical Code of Professional Conduct to which a psychologist should adhere, ethical aspects and issues pertaining to forensic psychology in general, some ethical issues pertaining to child forensic psychology, summary guidelines for ethical decision-making and some steps to follow to ensure sound ethical decision-making.

  15. Post-Structuralism and Ethical Practical Action: Issues of Identity and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshaw, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    In an era when familiar categories of identity are breaking down, an argument is made for using post-structuralist vocabulary to talk about ethical practical action in mathematics education. Using aspects of Foucault's post-structuralism, an explanation is offered of how mathematical identifications are tied to the social organization of

  16. Issues of Indigenous Representation: White Advocacy and the Complexities of Ethical Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesche, Richard; Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the tensions and complexities for two principals as they work towards equity and improved social and educational outcomes for their Indigenous students. Drawing on Foucault's fourfold ethical frame and poststructuralist notions of the subject, this paper presents the different ways the white female principals of Indigenous

  17. Therapeutic Implications of Pharmacotherapy: Current Trends and Ethical Issues.(practice & Theory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jason H.; Anderson, Shannon M.

    2004-01-01

    The use of psychotropic medications (pharmacotherapy) in conjunction with psychotherapy is regarded as the standard of care for many mental health disorders. Counselors, therefore, need to be knowledgeable about psychopharmacology to monitor its impact on the therapeutic relationship and on client outcome. Discussed are potential ethical dilemmas

  18. The Nazi Origins of Eduard Pernkopf's "Topographische Anatomie des Menschen:" The Biomedical Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Howard A.

    1998-01-01

    The discovery of the Nazi origins of the classic Pernkopf anatomy atlas is one example of scientific information obtained by doctors who violated the Hippocratic Oath. The ethical dilemmas that doctors and medical centers face as a result of this and other potentially tainted data is reviewed. (Author/AEF)

  19. Ethical Issues in Pedagogical Documentation: Representations of Children through Digital Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Anne-Li

    2012-01-01

    Documentation for pedagogical purposes is an increasingly important practice in Sweden, in Europe, and in the United States. This article focuses on the ethical aspects that need to be addressed in documentation practices in preschool. The empirical material is drawn from the blogs of Swedish preschool teachers who recorded their thoughts on

  20. Efforts To Modify Sexual Orientation: A Review of Outcome Literature and Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throckmorton, Warren

    1998-01-01

    Reviews successful efforts to modify patterns of sexual arousal from psychoanalytical, behavioral, cognitive, group, and religious perspectives. Presents an ethical analysis of the American Counseling Association's resolution expressing concerns about conversion therapy. Concludes that efforts to assist homosexuals who wish to modify their