August 2006 marked the 10th anniversary of landmark legislation when Israel's parliament passed the unique Patient's Rights Law. This law underscores the importance of medical ethics in Israeli society. During a seminar at the Shaare Zedek School of Nursing, third-year students performed a qualitative research study investigating ethical issues arising in the field of nursing, and how nursing staff dealt with these issues in relation to the law. The research was conducted using semistructured questionnaires. The results showed that the staff participants knew the law, but did not differentiate between legal and ethical problems. The establishment of a framework for dealing with these issues would help to promote professional ethics, encourage broad-based agreements related to ethical decisions, reduce ethical conflict, and increase implementation of the law on patients' rights. PMID:20610583
Yakov, Gila; Shilo, Yehudit; Shor, Tzippy
The implementation of new methods of treating and preventing disease raises many question of both technical and moral character. Currently, many studies focus on developing a screening test for preeclampsia (PE), a disease complicating 2-8% of pregnancies, potentially causing severe consequences for pregnant women and their fetuses. The purpose is to develop a test that can identify pregnancies at high risk for developing PE sufficiently early in pregnancy to allow for prophylaxis. However, the question of implementing a screening test for PE does not only involve an evaluation of technical feasibility and clinical efficacy, it also requires an analysis of how the test influences the conditions and choices for those tested. This study evaluates state-of-the-art techniques for preeclampsia screening in an ethical framework, pointing out the central areas of moral relevance within the context of such screening activity. Furthermore, we propose ethical guidelines that a screening programme for PE should meet in order to become an uncontroversial addition to prenatal health care. PMID:22994561
Jørgensen, Jennifer M; Hedley, Paula L; Gjerris, Mickey; Christiansen, Michael
The implementation of new methods of treating and preventing disease raises many question of both technical and moral character. Currently, many studies focus on developing a screening test for preeclampsia (PE), a disease complicating 2–8% of pregnancies, potentially causing severe consequences for pregnant women and their fetuses. The purpose is to develop a test that can identify pregnancies at high risk for developing PE sufficiently early in pregnancy to allow for prophylaxis. However, the question of implementing a screening test for PE does not only involve an evaluation of technical feasibility and clinical efficacy, it also requires an analysis of how the test influences the conditions and choices for those tested. This study evaluates state-of-the-art techniques for preeclampsia screening in an ethical framework, pointing out the central areas of moral relevance within the context of such screening activity. Furthermore, we propose ethical guidelines that a screening programme for PE should meet in order to become an uncontroversial addition to prenatal health care.
JØrgensen, Jennifer M.; Hedley, Paula L.
Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics…
The ethics of the clinical practice of transplanting human organs for end-stage organ disease is a fascinating topic. Who is the "owner" of the transplantable organs of a deceased, brain-dead patient? Who should have a right to receive these organs? Who set the boundaries between a living donor's autonomy and a "paternalistic" doctor? What constitutes a proper consent? These questions are only some of the ethical issues that have been discussed in the last 60 years. All of these ethical issues are intensified by the fact that supply of human organs does not match demand, and that, as a consequence, living-donor organ transplantation is widely utilized. The aim of this article is not to be exhaustive but to present the general ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice as applied to organ transplantation. Moreover, the topic of reimbursement for organ donation is also discussed. PMID:24705806
The growing number of individuals affected by dementia will intensify the ethical issues that emerge in clinical practice and research, issues early in disease relate to genetic testing, use of medications in mildly affected persons, and diagnostic disclosure. Research issues relate to appropriate informed consent processes, conflict of interests, and research design issues, such as the use of placebos and the use of biological tissues, in the later stages of disease concern about appropriate...
Whitehouse, Peter J.
School psychologists have an ethical imperative to determine the ways computers can facilitate practice because of the potential to improve effectiveness and efficiency. At the same time, psychologists have a parallel imperative to consider carefully ethical and professional practice implications. The aspects of computers that render them most…
Harvey, Virginia Smith; Carlson, Janet F.
Full Text Available Postoperative chemotherapy and radiation therapy is standard care in high risk patients who had undergone a curative resection of the primary tumor. Best survival results are achieved with three-drug regimens containing FU, an anthracycline, and cisplatin (ECF, although the recently presented REAL-2-trial, demonstrated a significant survival benefit for EOX (epirubicin, oxaliplatin, capecitabine over ECF. Consequently, chemotherapy could be offered to some proportion of patients with advanced gastric cancer taking into account the results of the available clinical trials. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy has the ability to downsize gastric tumours. It remains unclear however, how the neoadjuvant therapy may be integrated into the multimodality management of localized gastric cancer. According to recent studies, adjuvant chemotherapy resulted in a significant survival benefit in patients with gastric cancer. However, others did not recommend adjuvant chemotherapy as routine therapy. A lot of case reports with metastatic cancer treated with S-1 plus cisplatin have appeared in the recent literature with promising results. Therefore, such treatment could be offered to some patients with metastatic gastric cancer as a last hope. Patients with peritoneal dissemination should be submitted to chemotherapy after full explanation of the expected results. The use of chemotherapy in patients with linitis plastica remains controversial. Chemotherapy should be offered to patients with gastric cancer at advanced age. Nutrition therapy in advanced gastric cancer might offer improved quality of life especially to those with gastric outlet obstruction despite the associated increased cost. Other parameters related to the decision to give chemotherapy or not to gastric cancer patients are related to the role of patient relatives, the doctors’ training and availability, the psychological support of the patient, the doctor’s-patient relationships, and the right of the patient to receive the best available medical treatment. These parameters must be taken into account where dealing with a patient with gastric cancer who is a candidate for chemotherapy. Key words: Gastric cancer, Chemotherapy, Ethics
From an ethical viewpoint the author surveys existing international radiation protection recommendations and standards. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the author discusses ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. (author)
Emerging technologies provide the opportunity to develop innovative sustainable service models, capable of supporting adults with dementia at home. Devices range from simple stand-alone components that can generate a responsive alarm call to complex interoperable systems that even can be remotely controlled. From these complex systems the paradigm of the ubiquitous or ambient smart home has emerged, integrating technology, environmental design and traditional care provision. The service context is often complex, involving a variety of stakeholders and a range of interested agencies. Against this backdrop, as anecdotal evidence and government policies spawn further innovation it is critical that due consideration is given to the potential ethical ramifications at an individual, organisational and societal level. Well-grounded ethical thinking and proactive ethical responses to this innovation are required. Explicit policy and practice should therefore emerge which engenders confidence in existing supported living option schemes for adults with dementia and informs further innovation.
Martin, Suzanne; Bengtsson, Johan E.; Dröes, Rose-Marie
The continents of Africa and Asia have the highest number of HIV infected persons in the world. Worldwide there are 42 million and 29.7 million (70%) are in sub Saharan Africa [United Nations AIDS (UNAIDS). Available from: www.unaids.org]. The stigma and discrimination attached to HIV/AIDS are hampering control of the disease. Family life has greatly been disrupted by the pandemic. AIDS causes illness, disability and death as well as severe economic and emotional disruptions to the families. The epidemic is well established in South Africa. The mortality will be doubled over the next five years. A broad range of coercive measures has been considered to be applied internationally in the interest of controlling the spread of HIV. Responsibility of the employers to their HIV/AIDS employees at workplace, choice of termination of pregnancy when a woman is HIV positive, attitude of health care provider to their HIV infected patients, informed consent for taking blood to protect from transmission of infection in a case of accidental prick, and forced resignation from employment, are discussed in this manuscript. The ethical problems are highlighted, and possible solutions recommended. PMID:15914310
Meel, B L
In this note the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection and risk assessment/management, the authors review ethical thinking on five key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these five issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) Equity vs. Efficiency, (2) Health vs. Economics, (3) Individual Rights vs. Societal Benefits, (4) Due Process vs. Necessary Sacrifice, and (5) Stakeholder Consent vs. Management Decisions (authors)
Editorial on Ethical Issues. Medical ethics is at the centre of medical practice. It isrightly gaining much needed renewed focus and attentionin the evolving scenario. The impetus for it may beattributed to the revelations that arose through Nurembergtrials, the framework elements that define research andpublications related compulsions, and indeed the contextand state of affairs of present day medical jurisprudence.The physiatrist’s practice cannot remain untouched bythe moral and ethical...
There is growing debate over the transfer, or "placement," of embryos. During the first national conference on embryos (Emerging Issues in Embryo Adoption and Donation), funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Thomas C. Atwood, President and CEO of the National Council for Adoption, expressed his views and concerns regarding embryo "adoption." This article will highlight Mr. Atwood's presentation, offering a chance to examine and reflect on the scientific questions and moral implications of this new procedure. PMID:19263757
Catlin, Anita J
This article provides an overview of the ethical issues associated with penile transplantation, a form of composite tissue allografting. There is only one reported case of human penile transplantation, and, as such, this technique is considered to be experimental. The ethical issues at stake involve both the graft donor and the graft recipient. With regard to the recipient, there are significant concerns relating to surgical risks and benefits, informed consent, body image (including surgical expectations and outcomes) and compliance. Donor issues may include family consent and privacy, as well as graft harvesting (leaving the donor cadaver without a penis). Many of these ethical issues can be explored during the recipient's assessment and consent process. Because no medium-term or long-term outcome data for this procedure exist-only one such operation has ever been performed-the burdens and ethical issues concerning penile transplantation remain unknown. PMID:20835258
Zhang, Li-Chao; Zhao, Yong-Bing; Hu, Wei-Lie
This article provides an overview of the ethical issues associated with penile transplantation, a form of composite tissue allografting. There is only one reported case of human penile transplantation, and, as such, this technique is considered to be experimental. The ethical issues at stake involve both the graft donor and the graft recipient. With regard to the recipient, there are significant concerns relating to surgical risks and benefits, informed consent, body image (including surgical...
Zhang, Li-chao; Zhao, Yong-bing; Hu, Wei-lie
Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4th International BCI conference, which took place in May–June 2010 in Asilomar, California. We assessed respondents’ opinions about a number of topics. First, we investigated preferences for terminology and definitions relating to BCIs. Secon...
Nijboer, Femke; Clausen, Jens; Allison, Brendan Z.; Haselager, Pim
CSC 385. Professional and Ethical Issues in Computer Science (1) Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing in computer science. Student presentations and discussions of case studies relating to computer ethics.
Ethical issues in modern obstetrics commonly relate to a conflict between the rights and possibilities of the fetus versus those of the mother. After delivery, when the fetus by definition is a child, all legal rights are granted to this new individual. Whether any rights should be given or offered to the fetus is dependent on the prevailing situation. General rules are difficult to give due to the rapid evolution of clinical medicine-too firm rules given today could well be an obstacle in the near future. All cultures have well-established opinions regarding issues related to pregnancy and childbirth. Cultural and religious dogmas are often in conflict with modern medical technology and financial issues. In several modern societies, state laws regulate legal abortion and other aspects of termination of pregnancy. Current laws often determine not only decisions but also the minds of doctors, as well as of patients. Advanced medical technology has yielded a possibility of selective feticide. Again our experience with this new technique is limited, and several issues of ethical importance may arise from the use of such techniques. The indications for a selective feticide are dependent upon the benefits and risks of the procedure itself, and also on the selection process of what fetus should be aborted. Clearly, no definitive rules could be given at this stage of development. The advice given to the woman by her doctor is of critical importance for the outcome of the given pregnancy, be it selective feticide or legal abortion. However, the prevailing social welfare system and the support a woman could be given by her society are also factors. Should she give birth to a child with an inborn error of metabolism, or some other chronic illness? Drug abuse, including alcohol and, indeed, also tobacco, constitutes a special problem. In Sweden, drug-addicted pregnant women are hospitalized during their last trimester. This policy results in a drug-free last trimester and a reduction of afflicted newborns. Should a similar approach also be enforced when dealing with abuse of alcohol and tobacco during pregnancy? The improvement of in vitro fertilization techniques has introduced a novel concept, the surrogate mother. In some countries, this is forbidden by law, in others, it is an accepted medical practice, but several medico-legal as well as ethical issues warrant further clarification. What are the legal rights of the surrogate mother? Should there be an age limit for surrogate mothers? Who is responsible for problems in the pregnancy itself? In cases of male infertility, ethical issues may arise. Should the child have a legal right to learn the name of the biological father? Should there be a limit for the use of donor sperm in respect to number of fertility attempts, as well as potential female patients who may use the same sperm donor? PMID:8799757
Samsioe, G; Abreg, A
Full Text Available Editorial on Ethical Issues. Medical ethics is at the centre of medical practice. It isrightly gaining much needed renewed focus and attentionin the evolving scenario. The impetus for it may beattributed to the revelations that arose through Nurembergtrials, the framework elements that define research andpublications related compulsions, and indeed the contextand state of affairs of present day medical jurisprudence.The physiatrist’s practice cannot remain untouched bythe moral and ethical dilemmas faced in today’s world.Although the pillars of the specialty are grounded in the
The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article illustrates how pharmacogenetics promises drugs specific to an individual's condition. However, it poses some ethical concerns: invasion of medical privacy, unequal distribution of benefits, discrimination because it involves genetic tests, and research/business conflict-of-interest.
Carol Isaacson Barash (Genetics, Ethics & Policy Consulting, Inc.;)
Describes experiences teaching ethical issues in the conduct of research over several semesters using a simulation of research into obedience by S. Milgram in the early 1960s. Describes students' reactions to the simulation at emotional and intellectual levels and discusses the ethical dilemma these reactions have created for teachers…
Lucas, Keith B.; Lidstone, John G.
To discern the ethical issues involved in current gene therapy research, to explore the problems inherent in possible future gene therapies, and to encourage debate within the scientific community about ethical questions relevant to both, we surveyed American Society of Human Genetics scientists who engage in human genetics research. This study of the opinions of U.S. scientific experts about the ethical issues discussed in the literature on gene therapy contributes systematic data on the attitudes of those working in the field as well as elaborative comments. Our survey finds that respondents are highly supportive of the potential use of somatic cell gene therapy to cure serious diseases in adults and children as well as prospective offspring. A clear majority, however, believe that using such genetic techniques for enhancement purposes is unacceptable. Delineating the line between disease/disorder and improvement/enhancement poses a problem not easily resolved and one conducive to the growth of slippery-slope apprehensions. The majority of respondents also advocate germ-line therapy, in theory at least, and under similar restrictions, but they recognize the roadblock that the existence of unanticipated negative consequences currently presents. Another complex matter involves trying to determine appropriate reasons for choosing target diseases for research, for which the dichotomy between rare single-gene and common multifactorial diseases reveals an ongoing dilemma. PMID:12735489
Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing area in science involved with manipulating matter at the atomic or molecular level. Nanotechnology is typically defined at a scale on the order of less than approximately 100 nm. Matter possesses unique properties at these size levels that are neither Newtonian nor quantum, but between the two regimes.These unique properties have created significant interest and excitement, sparking numerous research investigations. Nanotechnology is a very broad field with many current and potential applications. Some important examples of applications include battlefield activated dynamic armor clothing for soldiers, additives to sunscreens, and diagnostic laboratories on a chip to monitor general personal health. Groundbreaking capabilities often raise new questions. Any new scientific or technological development has the usual concomitant associated ethical issues, specifically regarding containment and regulation. These ethical issues are more pronounced with nanotechnology due to the sharp divide between those who see its great potential and opponents who express fears. Nanotechnology supporters believe that it has the potential to transform our lives dramatically, while opponents of nanotechnology fear that self-replicating "nanobots" could escape from laboratories and reduce all life on earth to "gray goo. "These fears have swayed generally uninformed public opinions via the media and sensational entertainment. A critical discussion of ethical issues surrounding nanotechnology, including the interaction of nanotechnology with the body and the environment--nanobiotechnology--and regulation of nanotechnology, is presented. We advocate strong, uniform regulations for nanotechnology, but only the use of regulations as needed. The limited use of regulations prevents the regulations from becoming burdensome and inhibiting research in the field. PMID:19023950
Florczyk, Stephen J; Saha, Subrata
Teaching at a distance raises ethical issues particular to the distance context. When distance teaching is also online teaching, the situation is even more complex. Online teaching environments amplify the ethical issues faced by instructors and students. Online sites support complex discourses and multiple relationships; they cross physical,…
Anderson, Bill; Simpson, Mary
We can isolate some issues, which should not be unresolved for a longer period of time. Disputes over well-defined waste management options fall in this category. The concept of retrievability has a possibility to invoke a series of questions in the minds of both specialists and non-specialists. It is intrinsically vague, in that it may refer to different phases in the repository's life, and to both open and closed repositories in the long time frame. Requirements for retrievability opens a series of issues, including open-ended philosophical question, which may give the impressions that things are not properly taken care of, since the experts differ in opinion. If such disputes cannot be resolved by consulting the existing legal framework, efforts should be made to put them to trial in the proper forum, i.e. parliament and national or local government or authorities, depending on the problem. In contrast, the value of institutional controls can easily be seen as an ethical value, whether included in the regulation of not. It has the potential to deter human intrusion and to allow remedial action by carrying information about a repository. (author)
Full Text Available In recent years, increasingly, intensivists have focused attention on the ethical aspects of end-of- life care. This has led to shifts in the approach from aggressive interventions to one of mitigating pain and taking into account the wishes and sensibilities of the patients? families with regard to continuing futile care. While the legal implications of this change in practice has led to the evolution of precise guidelines in the US and in Europe, in India this vital area of critical care remains largely unexplored. This review outlines the recent changes in clinical practice based on ethical principles and the legality of limiting life support in the context of futile or end-of-life care. An appraisal of the ethical issues in critical care urges us to apply intensive care with humanity and compassion. We need to respect the choices and the emotional needs of the patient and his family. Our duties must include providing information, balanced interpretation of results & counseling of the family to enable them to take rational decisions. Our strategy in end-of-life care should be unambiguous and we should ensure that there is consensus among all the physicians involved in the patient's care. The medical community must work towards evolving legislation appropriate to Indian conditions.
Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…
Benninga, Jacques S.
An edited collection of chapters on ethical issues in working with young people - including confidentiality, faith-based work, work with black young people, practitioner research, youth workers as controllers.
This thesis is an attempt to raise some ethical issues that are specific to phase IV drug trials and to provide preliminary responses to such issues. We limited ourselves to issues of informed consent, risk-benefit assessment, and the therapeutic orientation of phase IV. On the issue of informed consent (IC) and phase IV, we deliberated on issues related to form and procedure. First, we demonstrated that in phase IV non-interventional studies, though IC remains the standard, the manner of...
Bernabe, R. D. L. C.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethical dilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's [...] disease, in which only one twin sought predictive testing for this dominantly inherited disease, created several ethical dilemmas. Another case where predictive testing was carried out on two young children, at high risk, by a laboratory at the request of an adoption agency and a doctor, with a view to giving information to the foster parents, also posed many ethical conundrums for the counsellor. The ethical issues that arose in these cases are discussed in this paper.
J G R, Kromberg; T-M, Wessels.
Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.
Persson, Lars (ed.)
This article provides an overview of ethical issues in private for-profit practice, with particular focus on expert testimony, using examples from a sample of claims filed with the National Association of Rehabilitation Professionals in the Private Sector and malpractice insurance companies. Complaints most frequently involve issues related to…
Weed, Roger O.
While ethical behavior has always been part of cardiac surgical practice, ethical deliberation has only recently become an important component of cardiac surgical practice. Issues such as informed consent, conflict of interest, and professional self-regulation, among many others, have increasingly attracted the attention of cardiac surgeons. This review covers several broad topics of interest to cardiac surgeons and cardiologists, and treats several other topics more briefly. There is much un...
Kavarana, Minoo N.; Sade, Robert M.
Major ethical considerations must be taken into account when providing counseling services to suicidal adolescents and their families. This article explores these ethical issues and the American Counseling Association and International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors ethical codes relevant to these issues. Related liability and…
Berg, Rachelle; Hendricks, Bret; Bradley, Loretta
Nanomedicine shows tremendous promise for improving medical diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, but it also raises a variety of ethical concerns. Because of the paucity of data on the physicochemical properties of nanoscale materials in biological systems, clinical trials of nanomedicine products present some unique challenges related to risk minimization, management and communication involving human subjects. Although these clinical trials do not raise any truly novel ethical issues, the r...
Resnik, David B.; Tinkle, Sally S.
Examines the ethical and legal dilemmas faced by mental health professionals who deal with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Concentrates on professional responsibility, competence, and confidentiality. Special attention is paid to court cases that have implications for counselors working with clients who…
Hughes, Rosemary B.; Friedman, Ann Lorentson
Complementary medicine is popular, yet ethical issues are rarely discussed. Misleading information, informed consent, publishing, and confidentiality are discussed in the light of medical ethics. The message that emerges is that, in complementary medicine, ethical issues are neglected and violated on a daily basis.
Ethical issues concerning pain and suffering of animals are necessarily a consideration in killing pest or feral species in Australia, but ethical issues are reduced to a secondary consideration and appear to be at odds with scientific agendas. Suggests that a greater understanding of various perspectives on the subject of environmental ethics may…
Andrew, Jennifer; Robottom, Ian
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), pathological processes start in the brain long before clinical dementia. Biomarkers reflecting brain alterations may therefore indicate disease at an early stage, enabling early diagnosis. This raises several ethical questions and the potential benefits of early diagnosis must be weighted against possible disadvantages. Currently, there are few strong arguments favouring early diagnosis, due to the lack of disease modifying therapy. Also, available diagnostic ...
David Brax; Henrik Zetterberg; Niklas Mattsson
Presently, there is a movement in the UK research governance framework towards what is referred to as proportional ethical review. Proportional ethical review is the notion that the level of ethical review and scrutiny given to a research project ought to reflect the level of ethical risk represented by that project. Relatively innocuous research should receive relatively minimal review and relatively risky research should receive intense scrutiny. Although conceptually attractive, the notion...
The American Anthropological Association has recently added number 23 to its series of special online publications. Edited by Joan Cassell and Sue-Ellen Jacobs, this collection of six essays is presented to "stimulate discussion and reflection on ethical issues" among anthropologists. Offerings include a background essay and annotated bibliography, two essays containing fictional ethical dilemmas and proposed solutions, an essay on introducing issues of ethical responsibility into the classroom, and guidelines on holding a workshop on ethical problems in fieldwork.
Ethical issues about conducting sexuality education often arise. This paper describes one system of ethics and how the sexuality educator can use that system to determine whether an action is moral or immoral and, therefore, the appropriate action to take for that sexuality educator to be consistent with his or her values. Ethical principles are…
Bruess, Clint E.; Greenberg, Jerrold S.
The purpose of this study is to treat aspects that are related to the sensitivity of data, information and knowledge transmitted through Internet of Things, helping all people interested in these new ICT technologies to become aware of some ethical issues. In this new media, which is no more in its infancy, the vulnerabilities and attacks are various, caused by technological advances and proliferated through lack of users’ awareness. This warning message is needed because of dat...
Popescul, Daniela; Georgescu, Mircea
Discusses examples of unique ethical issues faced by community college student programmers: member commitment, poor program attendance and lack of programming board diversity, and conflicts of interest (EV)
This academic paper refines and systematizes the following clasificational approaches for determining the typology of the ethical problems of the global business environment: macro level ethical problems, ethical problems of the relations between companies and their external environment, internal ethical problems of the companies in the context moral vectors. The author also illustrates the cross-cultural multi-vectoral perception of the ethical problems in the business communities of t...
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Full Text Available This academic paper refines and systematizes the following clasificational approaches for determining the typology of the ethical problems of the global business environment: macro level ethical problems, ethical problems of the relations between companies and their external environment, internal ethical problems of the companies in the context moral vectors. The author also illustrates the cross-cultural multi-vectoral perception of the ethical problems in the business communities of the world.
The four goals of good healthcare are to relieve symptoms, cure disease, prolong life and improve quality of life. Access to healthcare has been a perpetual challenge to healthcare providers who must take into account important factors such as equity, efficiency and effectiveness in designing healthcare systems to meet the four goals of good healthcare. The underlying philosophy may designate health as being a basic human right, an investment, a commodity to be bought and sold, a political demand or an expenditure. The design, policies and operational arrangements will usually reflect which of the above philosophies underpin the healthcare system, and consequently, access. Mechanisms for funding include fee-for-service, cost sharing (insurance, either private or government sponsored) free-of-fee at point of delivery (payments being made through general taxes, health levies, etc) or cost-recovery. For each of these methods of financial access to healthcare services, there are ethical issues which can compromise the four principles of ethical practices in healthcare, viz beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice. In times of economic recession, providing adequate healthcare will require governments, with support from external agencies, to focus on poverty reduction strategies through provision of preventive services such as immunization and nutrition, delivered at primary care facilities. To maximize the effect of such policies, it will be necessary to integrate policies to fashion an intersectoral approach. PMID:22097685
Maharaj, S R; Paul, T J
Basic moral principles and patient’s rights are always top of mind in planning and conducting clinical trials. Browse the conversations in this area to find information about ethical issues such as conflict of interest, and informed consent. Or to learn more about Ethical Issues, click here.
In this study, Turkish ICT student teachers' judgments and justifications in four scenarios involving ICT-related ethical problems were investigated. Scenarios were designed based on Mason's (1986) four ethical issues: privacy, accuracy, property and accessibility. The study was carried out in the fall of 2010. We used the critical incidents…
Alakurt, Turgay; Bardakci, Salih; Keser, Hafize
Problem statement: This article enhances the ethical issues consider the relationship between religious life and work ethics. Approach: Malaysia aim to achieved full developed nation’s, requires a professional workforce, not only educated and innovative, but ethically, with integrity, accountability, dynamic and committed to continuously increasing Muslim professionalism. In the context of the development of Muslim professionals with a holistic and integrated, Muslims needs to withholding T...
Mohamad Zaid Mohd Zin; Ahmad Faisal Mahdi; Azhar Abdul Rahman; Mohd Syahiran Abdul Latif; Rohaya Sulaiman; Nurul Khairiah Khalid; Nurfahiratul Azlina Ahmad; Ahamad Asmadi Sakat; Adi Yasran A A; Mohd Roslan Mohd Nor
The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of valuing the environment and implications for the definition of harm and monetary valuation of environmental goods; second, difficulties with scientific uncertainty and applications of the precautionary principle; and third, issues concerned with the distribution of risk and its relevance fo participation in decision-making. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors
In this article we address several ethical issues of concern for psychologists who are engaged in personality assessment in forensic settings such as for courts or attorneys. The ethical issues reviewed include the role of the psychologist as an expert witness, matters of competence, informed consent, confidentiality, multiple relationships, and special issues related to billing. Emphasis is placed on how psychologists can provide useful information to the courts in a manner consistent with the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, the Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologist's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists, and the APA's Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluations in Divorce Proceedings. The practical recommendations made in this article are consistent with the APA's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. PMID:11693856
Knapp, S; VandeCreek, L
This Science NetLinks lesson introduces students to the ethical implications of using our growing knowledge about the human genome to improve our personal and public health. Students will be asked to consider numerous ethical issues related to genetic testing and will find that there are no easy answers. Most importantly, students will learn that there is no one "answer" to an ethical question; rather, there exist a multitude of perspectives that must be taken into account. Ultimately, students will learn that making an ethical choice requires scientific knowledge and rational inquiry.
Daniel Metlay (NWTRB) declared that institutions had always recognised an ethical obligation to manage high- level radioactive waste in unprecedented ways. This obligation has not only endured, but has become more explicit and multidimensional and it now subsumed under a more general rubric of 'societal expectations'. D. Metlay directed attention toward the proceedings of previous RWMC-RF workshop ', which contains five essays, authored by Kjell Andersson, Andrew Blowers, Carl-Reinhold Braakenhielm, Francois Dermange, and Patricia Fleming, that are relevant to the question of ethical issues and societal expectations. D. Metlay observed that 'societal expectations' are hard to define and thus very hard to measure. They may vary considerably with time and from country to country. As an illustration he referred to an inquiry performed by a task group 30 years ago in a document entitled 'Proposed Goals for Radioactive Waste Management' (NUREG-0300) on behalf of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Conclusions from D. Metlay are that, for the most part, societal expectations in the United States appear to be quite stable over a period of more than 30 years. In two areas, however, there are clear differences in emphasis between expectations articulated in the last few years and those recorded in 1978. (1) While then there was emphasis on the operational reliability of organisations and institutions. In particular, much care was taken to discuss the inherent limitations oaken to discuss the inherent limitations on bureaucratic error-correction in the future. The focus is nowadays more on bureaucratic behaviours associated with carrying out decision-making processes in the present. (2) While there is current emphasis on the importance of trust, transparency, and accountability, the NRC document may cast some doubt on the reliability of a stepwise decision-making process. In the domain of radioactive waste management, error signals are notoriously unclear, and strong disagreements over objectives and value trade-offs often arise. Also, the key prerequisite for reliable error detection - independence - is often at odds with the key prerequisite for reliable error rectification-interdependence. He concluded that it is unclear just how far we have come in the last 30 years in meeting societal expectations for post-closure and post-monitoring repository performance
Fetal diagnosis has raised ethical issues since it was first developed in the 1940s and 1950s. Two controversial issues have predominated. First, when the techniques for prenatal diagnosis were invasive techniques, they created risks to the pregnant women. Second, prenatal diagnosis led to either prenatal treatment, which also generally had some risks to the pregnant woman, or to abortion, which has always been ethically controversial. In this article, we will review the history of ethical controversy over fetal diagnosis and discuss how they presage today's controversies. PMID:24515623
McMann, Conor L; Carter, Brian S; Lantos, John D
The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to practical environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of who or what has moral standing; second the appropriate level of protection; and third compatibility with other environmental stressors. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds for efforts to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors. (author)
Full Text Available Today, most desktop computers and PCs are networked that is, they have the ability to link to other machines, usually to access data and other information held remotely. Such machines may sometimes be connected directly to each other, as part of an office or company computer system. More frequently, however, connected machines are at a considerable distance from each other, typically connected through links to global systems such as the Internet, or World Wide Web (WWW. The networked machine itself may be anything from a powerful company computer with direct Internet connections, to a small hobbyist machine, accessing a bulletin board through telephone and modem. It is important to remember that, whatever the type or the location of networked machines, their access to the network, and the network itself, was planned and constructed following deliberate design considerations. In this paper I discuss some ways in which the technical design of computer systems might appropriately be influenced by ethical issues, and examine pressures on computer scientists and others to technically control network related actions perceived as 'unethical'. After examination of the current situation, I draw together the issues, and conclude by suggesting some ethically based recommendations for the future design of networked systems.
Teaching ethics to students of information systems (IS) raises a number of conceptual and content-related issues. The present paper starts out by developing a conceptual framework of moral and ethical issues that distinguishes between moral intuition, explicit morality, ethical theory and meta-ethical reflection. This conceptual framework…
Stahl, Bernd Carsten
Ethical issues which surround the reproductive technologies being used to assist infertile couples include social impact, surrogacy, access to service and confidentiality. The use of reproductive technologies does not appear to cause harm, and often does a lot of good for the family and society. Surrogacy could be a valuable tool for the infertile…
The report consists of a presentation and distillation of major nontechnical issues surrounding commercial waste management, followed by ethical, institutional, and political analyses of these issues. The ethical analysis consists of a discusson of what is meant by ''ethics'' and ''morality'' in the waste management context and an illustrative attempt at an ethical analysis of the commercial nuclear waste problem. Two institutional analyses are presented: one is an analysis of the possible problems of long-term human institutions in waste management; the other is a presentation of institutional arrangements for the short term. A final chapter discusses issues and concerns involving intergovernmental relations--that is, local, state, and federal interface problems in waste management
The report consists of a presentation and distillation of major nontechnical issues surrounding commercial waste management, followed by ethical, institutional, and political analyses of these issues. The ethical analysis consists of a discusson of what is meant by ''ethics'' and ''morality'' in the waste management context and an illustrative attempt at an ethical analysis of the commercial nuclear waste problem. Two institutional analyses are presented: one is an analysis of the possible problems of long-term human institutions in waste management; the other is a presentation of institutional arrangements for the short term. A final chapter discusses issues and concerns involving intergovernmental relations--that is, local, state, and federal interface problems in waste management.
Hebert, J.A.; Rankin, W.L.; Brown, P.G.; Schuller, C.R; Smith, R.F.; Goodnight, J.A.; Lippek, H.E.
In an era of increased need and expectation for confidentiality, the counseling record of the deceased client challenges confidentiality. Using ethical codes and legal mandates, the authors explore whether the counseling record of a deceased client should be released when the client's will and the client's counseling records are silent on this…
Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, Bret; Kabell, Douglas R.
This course was designed to meet the needs of engineers who are or will be moving into greater responsibility for management as they advance in the profession. The course emphasizes and bring together the theory of ethical behavior and the real world applications faced regularly in the business world today. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Students, 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators, Engineers
Cox, J. W.
Upstream/Downstream reminds us that there are four issues that are more or less distinctive to environmental ethics. First, and most distinctively, environmental issues involve the standing of nonhuman living things and systems. Thus, environmental politics is only partly a clash among the interest of the parties involved; it often involves actions on behalf of the existence rights of nonhuman life forms. Second, environmental ethics concern the intergenerational distribution of benefits more explicitly than do most other ethical issues, which brings out serious weaknesses in legal frameworks that rely on claims for damages. Third, the complexity and indirectness of many environmental impacts introduces a high degree of uncertainty and thus technical as well as ethical issues of prudent behavior. Specifically, where science may not fully reveal environmental risks, should development proceed; should analysis proceed if it is known to have a Pollyanna bias Fourth, insofar as environmental damage is typically done to common property, and thus its regulation is generally a matter for governmental regulation, the obligations of private actors to make sacrifices beyond what government requires is at issue - an issue that one would expect to be taken up at length in the other volumes.
Scherer, D. (ed.)
Suggests ways of incorporating ethics across the undergraduate public relations curriculum. Reviews current coverage of ethics in public relations principles, writing, cases, and textbooks. Suggests other methods that teachers can use to incorporate ethical pedagogical tools in all public relations courses in an effort to develop students' ethical…
Hutchison, Liese L.
It is undisputed that the companies’ performances are now more than ever, in the concerns caused by global competition and financial crisis. In this context, one of the interveners in the direction of performance is having an ethical and responsable behavior regrading the public. An ethical behavior is related first of all to the idea of morality, above respecting the law. „Ethics aims to the heart of the corporate’s reputation and in the end that is all you have if you hope to be succ...
Bunget, Ovidiu-constantin; David-sobolevschi, Maria-iulia
This article begins by raising issues around the way in which ethical approval for research is managed in university settings, where committees often base their assumptions on a principlist approach making a number of assumptions that we consider to be contestable, such as a neat separation between researcher and researched. However, collaborative…
Locke, Terry; Alcorn, Noeline; O'Neill, John
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the course of the last four decades, the profession of physiotherapy has progressively expanded its scope of responsibility and its focus on professional autonomy and evidence-based clinical practice. To preserve professional autonomy, it is crucial for the physiotherapy profession to meet society's expectations and demands of professional competence as well as ethical competence. Since it is becoming increasingly popular to choose a carrier in private practice in Denmark this context constitutes the frame of this study. Physiotherapy in private practice involves mainly a meeting between two partners: the physiotherapist and the patient. In the meeting, power asymmetry between the two partners is a condition that the physiotherapist has to handle. The aim of this study was to explore whether ethical issues rise during the first physiotherapy session discussed from the perspective of the physiotherapists in private practice. Methods A qualitative approach was chosen and semi-structured interviews with 21 physiotherapists were carried out twice and analysed by using a phenomenological framework. Results Four descriptive themes emerged: general reflections on ethics in physiotherapy; the importance of the first physiotherapy session; the influence of the clinical environment on the first session and; reflections and actions upon beneficence towards the patient within the first session. The results show that the first session and the clinical context in private practice are essential from an ethical perspective. Conclusions Ethical issues do occur within the first session, the consciousness about ethical issues differs in Danish physiotherapy private practice, and reflections and acts are to a lesser extent based on awareness of ethical theories, principles and ethical guidelines. Beneficence towards the patient is a fundamental aspect of the physiotherapists' understanding of the first session. However, if the physiotherapist lacks a deeper ethical awareness, the physiotherapist may reason and/or act ethically to a varying extent: only an ethically conscious physiotherapist will know when he or she reflects and acts ethically. Further exploration of ethical issues in private practice is recommendable, and as management policy is deeply embedded within the Danish public sector there are reasons to explore public contexts of physiotherapy as well.
Objective: The importance of pediatric research especially in the ethically proven trials resulted in considerable legislative attempts in association with compiling ethical guidelines. Because of children’s vulnerability conducting pediatric research raises different ethical issues; the two most important of which are informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. Differences in ethical standards and socio-cultural issues limit application of ethical standards.Methods: At the aim of finding...
Mina Mobasher; Pooneh Salari; Bagher Larijani
The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations for occupational exposed pregnant women do not imply necessarily the complete avoidance of work with radiation or radioactive materials. Instead, a careful review of the exposure conditions, once the pregnancy is declared, as part of the exercise of the ICRP optimisation principle (based in a teleological ethics point of view) is suggested. The dose limitation (following a deontological ethics point of view) of the fetus/embryo is, however, not clearly well established as happens in the case of workers or members of the public. Also, the justification of practices (to continue to work or not with radiation or radioactive materials) is not clearly addressed in most national or international recommendations. An analysis of this justification (bearing in mind both teleological and deontological ethics) is examined in this work having in mind the best interest of the child-to-be as well as other existing social and economical factors. (authors)
Delivering psychological services in rural communities presents a number of unique challenges for practitioners relative to their peers in urban and suburban communities. In this article, the authors describe the current context of rural schools and examine the ethical and legal issues school psychologists may face when practicing in rural…
Edwards, Lynn M.; Sullivan, Amanda L.
Natural hazards have by definition a large impact on the society and, therefore, since the beginning of science one of the major aspiration of mankind has been the prediction of natural calamities in the attempt to avoid or to mitigate their effects. In modern societies where science and technology have gained a foundational role, forecasts and predictions have become part of the every-day life and may also influence state policies and economic development. And in parallel with the growing importance of forecasting, even ethical problems for forecasters and for forecasters communities have started to appear. In this work two of the many geo-ethical issues are considered mostly: 1) how to cope with uncertainties that are inherently associated with any forecast statement; 2) how to handle predictions in scientific journals and scientific conferences The former issue is mainly related to the impact of predictions on the general public and on managers and operators in the civil protection field. Forecasters operate in specific contexts that 1) may change from country to country, depending on the local adopted best practices, but also, which is more constraining, on the local legal regulations and laws; 2) may change from discipline to discipline according to the development of the specific knowhow and the range of the forecast (from minutes to centuries) The second issue has to do with the communication of the scientific results on predictions and on prediction methods to the audience mainly composed of scientists, and involves one of the basic elements of science. In principle, scientists should use scientific communication means (papers in scientific journals, conferences, …) to illustrate results that are sound and certain, or the methods by means of which they conduct their research. But scientists involved in predictions have inherently to do with uncertainties, and, since there is no common agreement on how to deal with them, there is the risk that scientific results may be confused with opinions and opinions with scientific results, which creates confusion in the scientific community, in the science divulgators and in turn in the general public.
The ethical issue of justification has become an urgent issue in radiology. There has been a shift in emphasis in the discussion from what has been regarded as a rather paternalistic attitude of practitioners to one that stresses the rights of the individual patient. This article comments on this current move on the part of the profession by offering certain relevant philosophical considerations. Using a medical scenario as the context to comment on this shift, it discusses important and fundamental issues, such as the autonomy and the rights of the patient in addition to the question of consent on the patient's part.
Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy “for” another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.
Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia
Full Text Available Economic performance of a country is largely determined by banking and financial system. Banking and finance play a vital and crucial role in framing public policies in today’s business environment. This article highlights social and ethical issues such as social banking, ethical banking, green banking, global banking, rural banking, and agri-banking, which help in achieving sustainable development of banking and finance. For this purpose, we have gone through a series of development that are taking place in current business scenario. This paper is divided in four parts. First part discuss introduction of Banking Industry in India. Second part explains historical background of banking and its development. It also discusses concept of Banks. Third part analyzes the review of past studies on the theme. Fourth part highlights Social and Ethical issues related to Banking Industry and finally conclusion has been given.
Full Text Available Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, called as 'black death of our time'1 caused by humanimmunodeficiency virus still remaining a challenge to the medical world has spread its tentacles ominously thatmillions of people have breathed their last and others afflicted by it are counting days in great misery and despair forpre-mature extinction of their life.2 The tragedy is that it has spread from the high risk group to common populationassuming a menacing proportion.3 It has not remained as a mere matter of health to bother only medicalprofessionals. A person afflicted by it invites social stigma of a highest degree, which is worse than apartheid. It hasgenerated such sensitive and boiling legal, ethical and social issues posing serious challenge to the medicalprofessionals, health policy makers, law makers and common men. In this article an attempt is made to criticallyanalyse the legal, ethical and social issues stemming from HIV AIDS.
Venugopal. B. S.
Full Text Available Aim: To determine ethical issues experienced by family doctors in Düzce, the pilot province for implementation of the primary health care reform 'Transformation in Health' in Turkey in 2005.Method: We conducted this study between May and June 2007 in Düzce. A self-administered-questionnaire prepared by the researchers included 13 ethical issues inquiring about physicians' frequency of encounter, difficulty in managing the problem, and learning needs in ethical topics. Results: Fifty-seven percent of family doctors who were practicing in Düzce (56/98 took part in the study. Most of them (89.3% were in practice over a year, had more than 3000 registered patients (80.4% with homogenous distribution (67.9%. Physicians reported to encounter ethical dilemmas related to informed consent (72.7%, conflict of self-interest and altruism (44.6%, determining competency (41.8%, claims of alternative therapy (41.0%, relationship with representatives of drug companies (39.2%, truth-telling (28.6%, and resource allocation (27.3% at least once a month. Participants were experienced difficulties when solving dilemmas related to determining competency in patients, reporting incompetency of a colleague, informed consent, best interest of the child, truth-telling, conflict of self-interest and altruism, respectively. Best interest of the child, truth-telling, determining competency in patients, protecting others' interest and gaining informed consent were prioritized topics for education. Conclusion: Our results implied that family doctors experienced difficulties in ethical conduct during daily clinical practice. The most frequently mentioned ethical issues were evaluated with respect to expressed learning needs which served to develop a draft ethics curriculum.
Akp?nar A et al.
The paper reflects on the current trend among radiologists to move away from what is regarded as a paternalistic attitude existing among practitioners and to place more emphasis on the rights of individual patients with regard to the issue of justification. The ethical discussion addresses the autonomy and rights of the patient, as well as the question of consent on his or her part. (author)
The contamination of environments with radionuclides can give rise to consequences additional to the health risks from exposure to radiation. As experience from Chernobyl has demonstrated, both accident and remediation measures can have serious social, ethical and economic consequences. This paper presents a review of some of these issues and presents a ‘checklist’ of the socioethical aspects of remediation measures. The paper also discusses remediation measures that are directed towards benefits other than dose reduction. (author)
As 'social and ethical issues' becomes a recurring phrase in the community paying attention to nanotechnology research, a crucial question becomes: what counts as a social and ethical issue? A typical list includes privacy, environmental health and safety, media hype, and other apparently unrelated issues. This article surveys those issues and suggests that concerns about fundamental concepts of ethics, such as fairness, justice, equity, and especially power, unite the various issues identifi...
Lewenstein, Bruce V.
The Medical Exposure Directive (MED) 97/43/Euratom defines medico-legal procedures as 'procedures performed for insurance or legal purposes without a medical indication'. The term 'medico-legal exposures' covers a wide range of possible types of exposures, very different in nature, for which the only feature in common is the fact that the main reason for performing them does not relate directly to the health of the individual being exposed to ionising radiation. The key issue in medico-legal exposures is justification. Balancing the advantages and disadvantages of such exposures is complex because not only can these be difficult to quantify and hence compare, but often the advantage may be to society whereas the disadvantage is usually to an individual. This adds an additional layer of ethical complexity to the problem and one, which requires input from a number of sources beyond the established radiation protection community. Because medico-legal exposures are considered to be medical exposures, they are not subject to dose limits. In medico-legal exposures where the benefit is not necessarily to the individual undergoing the exposure, the question must be asked as to whether or not this is an appropriate framework within which to conduct such exposures. This paper looks at the current situation in Europe, highlighting some of the particular problems that have arisen, and tries to identify the areas, which require further clarification and guidance. (authors)rification and guidance. (authors)
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to treat aspects that are related to the sensitivity of data, information and knowledge transmitted through Internet of Things, helping all people interested in these new ICT technologies to become aware of some ethical issues. In this new media, which is no more in its infancy, the vulnerabilities and attacks are various, caused by technological advances and proliferated through lack of users’ awareness. This warning message is needed because of data, information and knowledge transfer from virtual to physical devices that are connected to wireless networks of different sizes and importance. The transfer is augmented by the extended use of new technologies as RFID, NFC, sensors, 3G and 4G and brings along the adjustment of the traditional information security threats to this new environment, as well as the emergence of new characteristic dangers. The problems treated here are of interest both for each of us, as individuals, and for the organizations managers – especially in a world in which the borderline between the physical and virtual life is becoming more and more difficult to draw.
Full Text Available The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years, attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the vaccination status.
This special issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics represents a sampling of projects fostered through the NIDA-funded Fordham University HIV Prevention Research Ethics Institute. The first three articles employ processes of co-learning to give voice to the experiences of individuals recovering from substance abuse and engaged in sex work who have participated in HIV prevention studies in the United States, India, and the Philippines. The fourth article describes a unique community-based approach to the development of research ethics training modules designed to increase participation of American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) tribal members as partners in research on health disparities. The last two articles focus a critical scholarly lens on two underexamined areas confronting IRB review of HIV research: The emerging and continuously changing ethical challenges of using social media sites for recruitment into HIV prevention research, and the handling of research-related complaints from participants involving perceived research harms or research experiences that do not accord with their initial expectations. Together, the articles in this special issue identify key ethical crossroads and provide suggestions for best practices that respect the values and merit the trust of research participants. PMID:24572078
Fisher, Celia B
The topic of business ethics has always been relevant, but never more so than at the present time of the global economic crisis. Nestlè, Lockheed, Union Carbide, Nike, Enron, Tyco, AIG, BP, Halliburton, Lehman Brothers, Bernard L. Madoff are just a few well-known names of businesses/related individuals that at one time or other openly failed ethically. Such cases have prompted researchers to analyze the causes of unethical behavior to understand what drives individuals in business organizati...
Full Text Available Joseph Olusesan Fadare1, Babatunde L Salako21Department of Medicine, Kogi State Specialist Hospital, Lokoja; 2Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaAbstract: Organ transplantation has become a life-saving procedure for many disease conditions hitherto considered incurable. Kidney transplantation, now the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, is the commonest solid organ transplantation carried out in the world at the moment and it is the only solid organ transplantation done in Nigeria. This procedure, in addition to prolonging lives, also provides better quality of life and is evaluated as cost-effective, because it makes more resources available to other sectors of the economy. Organ transplantation in general and kidney transplantation in particular are fraught with ethical issues and dilemmas worldwide. Some of the ethical issues arising in the setting of developing countries like Nigeria may differ from those in countries where this procedure is established. Informed consent of the donor and the recipient is a major requirement for both organ donation and transplantation. Regarding donation, the ethical issues may differ depending on the type of organ donation, ie, whether it is living-related, living-unrelated, cadaveric, or from brain-dead individuals. Commodification of organs is identified as an ethical dilemma, and arguments for and against this practice are put forward here. Confidentiality of donor information, fairness and equity in donor selection, and access to kidney transplantation when needed are also discussed. Finally, the issue of safety of organ harvesting for the donor and of the transplantation process itself, and the possible long-term consequences for both parties are investigated.Keywords: kidney transplantation, ethical issues, developing countries, Nigeria
Joseph Olusesan Fadare
In this article I explore ethical issues in relation to the topic of Aboriginal students who speak a dialect of English. Taking the form of a retrospective inquiry, I draw on data from an earlier study that examined Aboriginal English in the broader context of Aboriginal language loss and revival. Three interrelated ethical issues are discussed:…
For more than 50 years, literature on the use of information and communication technology in counseling and guidance has presented ethical issues related to the development and use of technologies in practice. This paper reviews the ethical issues raised, organizing them into three categories: Social equity, resources, and services. Career…
Sampson, James P., Jr.; Makela, Julia Panke
Purpose: This article is a commentary and discussion of ethical issues in dysphagia services as related to school-based practice in speech-language pathology. Method: A review of the literature on ethical issues in the provision of speech-language pathology services to individuals with dysphagia was conducted, with particular emphasis on students…
Huffman, Nancy P.; Owre, DeAnne W.
The worldwide economic crisis of 2007/2008 popularised the ethical questions within economics. Currently, few mainstream economists tackle these questions and the typical curriculum of economics often lacks input on philosophy, ethics and the history of economic thoughts. However, economists confronted with ethical questions believe themeslves capable of answering them. As a result, the popular discussion about ethics and economics becomes a discussion about regulations. In contrast to that, ...
Given that there is much disagreement as to what constitutes 'philosophy', even among philosophers, it is a challenge to provide a philosophical perspective. There are, however, at least two areas that most philosophers would regard as coming within the terrain of philosophical thinking: (1) the clarification of issues and (2) providing some sort of a foundation on which further thinking can take place. Thus, by way of contributing a philosophical perspective to the discussion, this paper will clarify some of the more fundamental issues regarding ethical debates in the hope of establishing some kind of theoretical foundation on which to base the discussion of the more specific issues and of widening the scope of the discussion. (authors)
In the aftermath of many disasters the silence is punctuated by the crying of infants, hungry infants. The aim of this paper is to discuss ethical issues in feeding infants after disasters. The Asia Pacific region generates 25% of the world's GDP, but experiences 45% of natural disasters and 42% of the economic losses due to disasters. The region has 61% of the world's population, but 86% of the population affected by disasters. Breastfeeding, exclusive to six months and continuing thereafter, is important for growth and the health of the infant in the short term and later in life. In most natural disasters, mothers and infants will both suffer, but in some disasters, such as earthquakes and building collapses, infants can survive in small spaces. Infants separated from mothers require a wet nurse (rarely available) or feeding with infant formula and sterile water. Formula companies often donate supplies of infant formula but distribution should follow ethical principles. Mothers who are injured or short of food can still continue breastfeeding and don't need formula. Where formula must be used, health workers need to follow the highest ethical standards to avoid promoting infant formula to vulnerable communities in the post recovery phase. PMID:22790353
Binns, Colin W; Lee, Mi Kyung; Tang, Li; Yu, Chuan; Hokama, Tomiko; Lee, Andy
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) has highlighted the need for discussion of ethical questions about TB diagnosis and treatment. Drug resistance is a human-made phenomenon. It is caused by lack of patient adherence in drug taking and/or physician failure in prescription making. The global burden of TB is also partly explained by the lack of industry motivation to develop new TB drugs and diagnostics. This article explores the primary ethical issues associated with TB diagnosis and treatment: the human rights requirements regarding universal access to care and universal standards of care, treatment exclusion and cessation, privacy and stigmatisation in the context of directly observed therapy, and diagnostic challenges posed by limited laboratory capacity. Inter alia, it argues that: 1) the ethical imperative to improve individual patient care is partly based on the need to prevent the spread of infection and the exacerbation of the problem of drug resistance; 2) human rights and the imperative to protect the greater good of public health may call for increased regulation of the private sector; and 3) industry should be given further incentives to develop new tools for TB control. PMID:21740653
Selgelid, M J; Reichman, L B
Full Text Available Problem statement: This article enhances the ethical issues consider the relationship between religious life and work ethics. Approach: Malaysia aim to achieved full developed nation’s, requires a professional workforce, not only educated and innovative, but ethically, with integrity, accountability, dynamic and committed to continuously increasing Muslim professionalism. In the context of the development of Muslim professionals with a holistic and integrated, Muslims needs to withholding Tawheed, the fundamentals of faith, based on Al-Quran and Hadith. Manifestations in life of the practice which accounts for worship and morality need to be implemented. Results: Islamic moral character requires the emphasize that following five key parameters of Islamic behavior which is justice, trust, righteousness, the struggle towards self-improvement and keeping promises. Conclusion: The properties of trust at work, honesty, responsibility and integrity should be established in each of the Muslims. Each institution needs to be continued in the religious education and level of consciousness must be nurtured and enhanced.
Mohamad Zaid Mohd Zin
Pharmacogenomics (PGx) research is poised to enable physicians to identify optimally effective treatments for individual substance abusers based on their genetic profiles. This paper addresses ethical issues related to PGx treatment strategies for addiction, focusing especially on the use of race variables in genomics research and ensuring equitable access to novel PGx treatments. Unless the field addresses the ethical challenges posed by these issues, PGx treatment innovations for addiction ...
Shields, Alexandra E.
Abstract The cluster randomized trial (CRT) is used increasingly in knowledge translation research, quality improvement research, community based intervention studies, public health research, and research in developing countries. However, cluster trials raise difficult ethical issues that challenge researchers, research ethics committees, regulators, and sponsors as they seek to fulfill responsibly their respective roles. Our project will provide a systematic analysis of the ethics ...
Donner Allan; Brehaut Jamie C; Boruch Robert; Binik Ariella; Taljaard Monica; Grimshaw Jeremy M; Weijer Charles; Eccles Martin P; Gallo Antonio; McRae Andrew D; Saginur Raphael; Zwarenstein Merrick
Advances in neuropsychiatric genetics hold great hopes for improved prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. However, the power of genetic testing to identify individuals at increased risk for disorders and to convey information about relatives creates a set of complex ethical issues. Public attitudes are inevitably affected by the shadow of eugenics, with its history of distorting scientific findings to serve socio-political ends. Nonetheless, the growing availability of genetic tests means tha...
Hoge, Steven K.; Appelbaum, Paul S.
Ethical issues relating to the use of the injectable contraceptive in developed and developing countries alike involve public policy decisions concerning both criteria for testing a new drug and individual choices about using a specific form of contraception approved for national distribution. Drug testing consists of an important but still evolving set of procedures. Depo-Provera is not qualitatively different from any other drug and some unpredictable risks are inevitable, even after extens...
Potts, M.; Paxman, J. M.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurse managers have the burden of experiencing frequent ethical issues related to both their managerial and nursing care duties, according to previous international studies. However, no such study was published in Malaysia. The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' experience with ethical issues in six government hospitals in Malaysia including learning about the way they dealt with the issues. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in August-September, 2010 involving 417 (69.2% of total 603 nurse managers in the six Malaysian government hospitals. Data were collected using three-part self-administered questionnaire. Part I was regarding participants' demographics. Part II was about the frequency and areas of management where ethical issues were experienced, and scoring of the importance of 11 pre-identified ethical issues. Part III asked how they dealt with ethical issues in general; ways to deal with the 11 pre-identified ethical issues, and perceived stress level. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations and Pearson's Chi-square. Results A total of 397 (95.2% participants experienced ethical issues and 47.2% experienced them on weekly to daily basis. Experiencing ethical issues were not associated with areas of practice. Top area of management where ethical issues were encountered was "staff management", but "patient care" related ethical issues were rated as most important. Majority would "discuss with other nurses" in dealing generally with the issues. For pre-identified ethical issues regarding "patient care", "discuss with doctors" was preferred. Only 18.1% referred issues to "ethics committees" and 53.0% to the code of ethics. Conclusions Nurse managers, regardless of their areas of practice, frequently experienced ethical issues. For dealing with these, team-approach needs to be emphasized. Proper understanding of the code of ethics is needed to provide basis for reasoning.
Rapid progress in biotechnology has introduced a host of pressing ethical and policy issues pertaining to stem cell research. In this review, we provide an overview of the most significant issues with which the stem cell research community should be familiar. We draw on a sample of the bioethics and scientific literatures to address issues that are specific to stem cell research and therapy, as well as issues that are important for stem cell research and therapy but also for translational research in related fields, and issues that apply to all clinical research and therapy. Although debate about the moral status of the embryo in human embryonic stem cell research continues to have relevance, the discovery of other highly multipotent stem cell types and alternative methods of isolating and creating highly multipotent stem cells has raised new questions and concerns. Induced pluripotent stem cells hold great promise, but care is needed to ensure their safety in translational clinical trials, despite the temptation to move quickly from bench to bedside. A variety of highly multipotent stem cells - such as mesenchymal stem/stromal cells and stem cells derived from amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood, adipose tissue, or urine - present the opportunity for widespread biobanking and increased access. With these increased opportunities, however, come pressing policy issues of consent, control, and justice. The imperatives to minimize risks of harm, obtain informed consent, reduce the likelihood of the therapeutic misconception, and facilitate sound translation from bench to bedside are not unique to stem cell research; their application to stem cell research and therapy nonetheless merits particular attention. Because stem cell research is both scientifically promising and ethically challenging, both the application of existing ethical frameworks and careful consideration of new ethical implications are necessary as this broad and diverse field moves forward. PMID:25157428
King, Nancy Mp; Perrin, Jacob
Neuromarketing is a recent interdisciplinary field which crosses traditional boundaries between neuroscience, neuroeconomics and marketing research. Since this nascent field is primarily concerned with improving marketing strategies and promoting sales, there has been an increasing public aversion and protest against it. These protests can be exemplified by the reactions observed lately in Baylor School of Medicine and Emory University in the United States. The most recent attempt to stop ongoing neuromarketing research in France is also remarkable. The pertaining ethical issues have been continuously attracting much attention, especially since the number of neuromarketing companies has exceeded 300 world-wide. This paper begins with a brief introduction to the field of neurotechnology by presenting its current capabilities and limitations. Then, it will focus on the ethical issues and debates most related with the recent applications of this technology. The French Parliament's revision of rules on bioethics in 2004 has an exemplary role in our discussion. The proposal by Murphy et al. (2008) has attracted attention to the necessity of ethical codes structuring this field. A code has recently been declared by the Neuromarketing Science and Business Association. In this paper, it is argued that these technologies should be sufficiently discussed in public spheres and its use on humans should be fully carried out according to the ethical principles and legal regulations designed in line with human rights and human dignity. There is an urgent need in the interdisciplinary scientific bodies like ethics committees monitoring the research regarding the scientific and ethical values of nonmaleficence, beneficence, autonomy, confidentiality, right to privacy and protection of vulnerable groups. PMID:25150848
Ulman, Yesim Isil; Cakar, Tuna; Yildiz, Gokcen
Abstract A rich and growing body of literature has emerged on ethics in epidemiologic research and public health practice. Recent articles have included conceptual frameworks of public health ethics and overviews of historical developments in the field. Several important topics in public health ethics have also been highlighted. Attention to ethical issues can facilitate the effective planning, implementation, and growth of a variety of public health programs and research activities...
Coughlin Steven S
There are few available resources for learning and teaching about ethical issues in neuroimaging research with children, who constitute a special and vulnerable population. Here, a brief review of ethical issues in developmental research, situated within the emerging field of neuroethics, highlights the increasingly interdisciplinary nature of…
With regard to DBS treatment, the most important issues are balancing risks and benefits and ensuring respect for the autonomous wish of the patient. This implies special attention to patient selection, psycho-social impact of treatment, effects on personal identity, and treatment of children. Moreover, it implies a careful informed consent process in which unrealistic expectations of patients and their families are addressed and in which special attention is given to competence. In the context of research, the fundamental ethical challenge is to promote high-quality scientific research in the interest of future patients, while at the same time safeguarding the rights and interests of vulnerable research subjects. Several guidelines have been proposed to ensure this. One of the preconditions to further development of responsible and transparent research practices is the establishment of a comprehensive registry.
The author conducted research on long-term postabortion experience guided by the principles of phenomenology, and she describes the ethical and methodological issues encountered during the study, in which she interviewed 17 women who were more than 5 years postabortion, in this article. Discussed here, in the context of abortion as a sensitive topic for researcher and participant, are personal bias; recruitment, protection, and interviewing of participants; data analysis; and communication of findings. During the research process, the author gave particular attention to the formulation of the consent form, contact with the participants, the interview technique, the choice of a transcriptionist, and the use of a second reader. She also acknowledged her personal position on abortion, the reality of role conflict, and the importance of debriefing. PMID:16513999
Hess, Rosanna F
Aim: To determine ethical issues experienced by family doctors in Düzce, the pilot province for implementation of the primary health care reform 'Transformation in Health' in Turkey in 2005.Method: We conducted this study between May and June 2007 in Düzce. A self-administered-questionnaire prepared by the researchers included 13 ethical issues inquiring about physicians' frequency of encounter, difficulty in managing the problem, and learning needs in ethical topics. Results: Fifty-seven p...
Et Al, Akp?nar A.
Pressure ulcers represent a considerable cost, both in terms of healthcare spending and quality of life. They are increasingly viewed in terms of patient harm. For clinicians involved in pressure ulcer prevention, ethical issues surrounding accountability may arise from both policy and practice perspectives. It may be useful for clinicians to refer to ethical theories and principles to create frameworks when addressing ethical dilemmas. However, such theories and principles have been criticised for their simplicity and over-generalisation. Alternative theories, for example, virtue ethics and experiential learning, can provide more comprehensive guidance and promote a pluralistic approach to tackling ethical dilemmas. PMID:25335632
This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empat...
...SERVICES Request for Comments on Ethical Issues Associated with the Development...requesting public comment on the ethical issues associated with the development...the Commission is examining ethical issues surrounding the development...
The gap between theoretical expectations of research ethics as outlined in the bureaucratic processes associated with University Ethics Committees and the situated realities of students undertaking studies within their own sociocultural contexts is explored in this paper. In particular, the authors investigate differences in ethical norms and…
Honan, Eileen; Hamid, M. Obaidul; Alhamdan, Bandar; Phommalangsy, Phouvanh; Lingard, Bob
As learning technologies become more prevalent in our organizations, concerns arise related to the ethical use of this technology. This paper examines ethical issues associated with the use of learning technologies in design and training situations. In-depth interviews of 20 practitioners were conducted. The top three concerns reported were…
Lin, Hong; Kolb, Judith A.
Genomic medicine is often presented as a new paradigm for personalized healthcare. Encompassing both a translational approach in research and a vision of future medical practice, genomic medicine may have important impact on the way healthcare professionals diagnostics, treat and prevent diseases. We discuss some ethical and social issues raised by the prospect of genome-based medical practice, namely: changing definitions of disease and identity, assessment of clinical validity and utility of genome screening, mastery of genomic information by healthcare professionals and its communication to patients, and questions related to the costs of genomic medicine for future healthcare. PMID:24800769
Barazzetti, Gaia; Kaufmann, Alain; Benaroyo, Lazare
In recent decades, both public health professionals and the populations targeted by prevention and health promotion programs have shown an increasing interest in ethical issues since some interventions have been seen as impinging on fundamental rights and values. Insofar as bioethics is not adapted to population interventions and community health issues, a specific expertise in public health ethics is now required. However, ethical expertise in this area faces many challenges. The purpose of this paper is to examine four of these challenges. The first three challenges concern professional or specialist expertise. The paper suggests that expertise in public health ethics should go beyond the search for greater sophistication in defining ethical principles. Experts in public health ethics also need to identify appropriate strategies to include public health professionals in ethical analysis and to adopt a critical and reflexive approach to the status of moral experts and moral expertise. However, the main challenge is to identify appropriate ways of reconciling lay and specialist ethical expertise. The paper argues that secular morality and common morality represent two key sources of lay ethics expertise and that the fundamental values that inform discourse ethics should be derived from both forms of expertise. PMID:22730610
Ethical issues abound in any relationship that is defined by differences between the parties in rank, status, and power. Such is the case in the relationship between a doctoral student in clinical psychology and his or her mentor. In this article, we examine several potential areas of ethical concern within the mentor-student relationship. We…
Rosenberg, Anna; Heimberg, Richard G.
Even though principles to guide practice are crucial, there are no hard-and-fast rules for resolving ethical issues--dilemmas that are not easily resolvable because they present opposing values and outcomes that may harm to certain groups of people if not properly considered. This article describes a number of ethical dilemmas faced as a workplace…
Described is the BSCS Center for Education and Medical Genetics project, designed to examine the treatment of ethical issues in the genetic counseling process and to develop and evaluate a model instructional program from increasing the ability of genetic counselors to recognize and deal with ethical problems. (Author/DS)
Biological Sciences Curriculum Study Journal, 1980
This book addresses many of the major decisions that academic administrators in higher education face on a daily basis, highlighting the relationship between the academic administrator and faculty members relative to several issues. Eight chapters examine: (1) "A Delicate Balance: Legal, Ethical, and Practical Issues"; (2) "Hiring Issues"; (3)…
Goonen, Norma M.; Blechman, Rachel S.
With its focus on the origin, extent, and future of life, Astrobiology raises exciting, multidisciplinary questions for science. At the same time, Astrobiology raises important questions for the humanities. For instance, the prospect of discovering extraterrestrial life - either intelligent or unintelligent - raises questions about humans’ place in the universe and our relationship with nature on planet Earth. Fundamentally, such questions are rooted in our understanding of what it means to be human. From a Christian perspective, the foundational claim about human nature is that all persons bear the "imago dei", the image of God. This concept forms the basis for how humans relate to one another (dignity) and how humans relate to nature (stewardship). For many Christians the "imago dei" also suggests that humans are at the center of the universe. The discovery of extraterrestrial life would be another scientific development - similar to evolution - that essentially de-centers humanity. For some Christian perspectives this de-centering may be problematic, but I will argue that the discovery of extraterrestrial life would actually offer a much needed theological corrective for contemporary Christians’ understanding of the "imago dei". I will make this argument by examining two clusters of ethical issues confronting Astrobiology: 1. What ethical obligations would human explorers owe to extraterrestrial life? Are there ethical obligations to protect extraterrestrial ecosystems from harm or exploitation by human explorers? Do our ethical considerations change, if the extraterrestrial life is a “second genesis;” in other words a form of life completely different and independent from the carbon-based life that we know on Earth? 2. Do we have an ethical obligation to promote life as much as we can? If human explorers discover extraterrestrial life and through examination determine that it is struggling to survive, do we have an ethical obligation to assist that ecological community to become stronger? If after a thorough investigation we determine that no life exists and that a planet is nothing more than a lifeless body of rocks and dust, do we have an ethical obligation to attempt the creation of life through a process called planetary ecosynthesis? Or, do we have the opposite obligation to respect the rocks and dust for what they are, and refrain from any attempts to engineer life on a lifeless planet? While these two clusters of issues pose new ethical questions, I will argue that from a Christian perspective the framework for responding to these challenges would remain the Genesis Creation stories and the concept of the "imago dei". However, the new ethical challenges posed by Astrobiology require a re-framing of the "imago dei" that is closer to the intent of the original scriptures and that predicts simultaneously the presence of extraterrestrial life and the de-centering of humanity.
Randolph, R. O.
Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…
In the past, several researchers in the field of physiotherapy have asserted that physiotherapy clinicians rarely use ethical knowledge to solve ethical issues raised by their practice. Does this assertion still hold true? Do the theoretical frameworks used by researchers and clinicians allow them to analyze thoroughly the ethical issues they encounter in their everyday practice? In our quest for answers, we conducted a literature review and analyzed the ethical theoretical frameworks used by physiotherapy researchers and clinicians to discuss the ethical issues raised by private physiotherapy practice. Our final analysis corpus consisted of thirty-nine texts. Our main finding is that researchers and clinicians in physiotherapy rarely use ethical knowledge to analyze the ethical issues raised in their practice and that gaps exist in the theoretical frameworks currently used to analyze these issues. Consequently, we developed, for ethical analysis, a four-part prism which we have called the Quadripartite Ethical Tool (QET). This tool can be incorporated into existing theoretical frameworks to enable professionals to integrate ethical knowledge into their ethical analyses. The innovative particularity of the QET is that it encompasses three ethical theories (utilitarism, deontologism, and virtue ethics) and axiological ontology (professional values) and also draws on both deductive and inductive approaches. It is our hope that this new tool will help researchers and clinicians integrate ethical knowledge into their analysis of ethical issues and contribute to fostering ethical analyses that are grounded in relevant philosophical and axiological foundations. PMID:24942342
Drolet, Marie-Josée; Hudon, Anne
This paper presents the summary reports of the session rapporteurs at the Workshop on Ethical Issues in Diagnostic Radiology. The summaries reflect the extent to which the topics discussed are well reflected in the papers presented in this proceedings. (authors)
Background Much attention has been devoted to ethical issues related to randomized controlled trials for HIV treatment and prevention. However, there has been less discussion of ethical issues surrounding families involved in observational studies of HIV transmission. This paper describes the process of ethical deliberation about how best to obtain informed consent from sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs) tested for HIV, within a recent HIV study in Eastern Europe. The study aimed to assess the amount of HIV serodiscordance among IDUs and their sexual partners, identify barriers to harm reduction, and explore ways to optimize intervention programs. Including IDUs, either HIV-positive or at high risk for HIV, and their sexual partners would help to gain a more complete understanding of barriers to and opportunities for intervention. Discussion This paper focuses on the ethical dilemma regarding informed recruitment: whether researchers should disclose to sexual partners of IDUs that they were recruited because their partner injects drugs (i.e., their heightened risk for HIV). Disclosing risks to partners upholds the ethical value of respect for persons through informed consent. However, disclosure compromises the IDU's confidentiality, and potentially, the scientific validity of the research. Following a brief literature review, we summarize the researchers' systematic evaluation of this issue from ethical, scientific, and logistical perspectives. While the cultural context may be somewhat unique to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the issues raised and solutions proposed here inform epidemiological research designs and their underlying ethical tensions. Summary We present ethical arguments in favor of disclosure, discuss how cultural context shapes the ethical issues, and recommend refinement of guidance for couples research of communicable diseases to assist investigators encountering these ethical issues in the future. PMID:19709442
McNutt, Louise-Anne; Gordon, Elisa J; Uusküla, Anneli
Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been devoted to ethical issues related to randomized controlled trials for HIV treatment and prevention. However, there has been less discussion of ethical issues surrounding families involved in observational studies of HIV transmission. This paper describes the process of ethical deliberation about how best to obtain informed consent from sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs tested for HIV, within a recent HIV study in Eastern Europe. The study aimed to assess the amount of HIV serodiscordance among IDUs and their sexual partners, identify barriers to harm reduction, and explore ways to optimize intervention programs. Including IDUs, either HIV-positive or at high risk for HIV, and their sexual partners would help to gain a more complete understanding of barriers to and opportunities for intervention. Discussion This paper focuses on the ethical dilemma regarding informed recruitment: whether researchers should disclose to sexual partners of IDUs that they were recruited because their partner injects drugs (i.e., their heightened risk for HIV. Disclosing risks to partners upholds the ethical value of respect for persons through informed consent. However, disclosure compromises the IDU's confidentiality, and potentially, the scientific validity of the research. Following a brief literature review, we summarize the researchers' systematic evaluation of this issue from ethical, scientific, and logistical perspectives. While the cultural context may be somewhat unique to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the issues raised and solutions proposed here inform epidemiological research designs and their underlying ethical tensions. Summary We present ethical arguments in favor of disclosure, discuss how cultural context shapes the ethical issues, and recommend refinement of guidance for couples research of communicable diseases to assist investigators encountering these ethical issues in the future.
Gordon Elisa J
This paper is concerned with the ethical issues arising for researchers engaged in the study of irregular migration. Based on the authors' research experiences, the paper goes beyond analysis of ethical dilemmas and aims to provide some guidance to researchers in this field. Irregular migration is by definition an elusive phenomenon as it takes place in violation of the law and at the margins of society. The very nature of this phenomenon raises important issues, including the sensitivity and...
Du?vell, Franck; Triandafyllidou, Anna; Vollmer, Bastian
The goal of this research is to obtain insight in how engineers deal with ethical issues in daily engineering design practice. It is reasonable to assume that ethical issues and the way engineers deal with them depend on characteristics of the design process. I have made use of Vincentis dimensions to characterize different design processes: design type and design hierarchy. In normal design the working principle, how the product works, and the normal configuration, the shape and parts of the...
Gorp, A. C.
This paper examines some ethical issues in research with human beings, especially addressing the area of Psychology, such as the use of ethical codes; minimum risk; informed consent; debriefing; confidentiality; and ethical committees. It suggests ways for researchers to increase understanding and the proper use of the ethical codes, to guarantee their own protection, and to avoid abuses of power. Special attention is given to methodological issues related to ethics.Este artigo examina al...
Sílvia Helena Koller
Psychosocial evaluation is recommended prior to bariatric surgery. Practice guidelines have been published on assessment methods for bariatric surgery candidates, but they have not emphasized ethical issues with this population. This review outlines ethical and professional considerations for behavioral healthcare providers who conduct pre-surgical assessments of bariatric surgery candidates by merging ethical principles for mental health professionals with current practices in pre-surgical assessments. Issues discussed include the following: (a) establishing and maintaining competence, (b) obtaining informed consent, (c) respecting confidentiality, (d) avoiding bias and discrimination, (e) avoiding and addressing dual roles, (f) selecting and using psychological tests, and (g) acknowledging limitations of psychosocial assessments. PMID:25411197
Rouleau, Codie R; Rash, Joshua A; Mothersill, Kerry J
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Providing information to patients and relatives (IPAR) is a clinical, ethical and legal need. IPAR is inherent to the medical team work as diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are. In some cases, it is a key step for patient's recovery. From an ethical point of view, the patient is not only the sub [...] ject of the medical work but also its main owner and who must, previously informed, decide about options which would directly affect him. After the promulgation of a special law in Chile, this prerogative became a legal right. This paper proposes an empirically developed model or protocol that should be used to inform hospitalized patients and their relatives about their disease, in a pertinent way. Considering that IPAR is a skill that should be learned and practiced, the written protocol is provided to neurology residents as supporting material. Although IPAR protocols are completely justified, they have not been evaluated in terms of efficiency of communication, user satisfaction, patient and relatives reassurance and clinical impact. Therefore, they require a prospective validation.
Jorge, Nogales-Gaete; Paola, Vargas-Silva; Iván, Vidal-Cañas.
Full Text Available Increasing the numbers of health workers and improving their skills requires that countries confront a number of ethical dilemmas. The ethical considerations in answering five important questions on enabling health workers to deal appropriately with the circumstances in which they must work are described. These include the problems of the standards of training and practice required in countries with differing levels of socioeconomic development and different priority diseases; how a society can be assured that health practitioners are properly trained; how a health system can support its workers; diversion of health workers and training institutions; and the teaching of ethical principles to student health workers. The ethics of setting standards for the skills and care provided by traditional health-care practitioners are also discussed.
This paper focuses on the possibilities of ethnic marketing and its ethic connections. The differences found in our face-to-face interviews and analysing questionnaire data will provide opportunities for Hungarian small enterprises. Targeting ethnic groups for marketing purposes results in ethical difficulties. In Hungary, ethnic marketing is yet an inexperienced concept. Based on these ideas the authors examine the ins and outs of using ethnic marketing in case of Germans in Hungary. Consume...
Agota Kozma; Annamaria Sas
This paper, which was presented at the Health Physics Society annual meeting at Atlanta, conclude that the problem of radioactive waste management is neither unique and unprecedented, nor has it been properly formulated from an ethical perspective, and that to recover and maintain a balanced perspective on this particular biohazard and to introduce some corrective perception in the public mind becomes an ethical imperative. (author)
Full Text Available Most indicator systems are top-down, published, management systems, addressing primarily the issue of public accountability. In contrast we describe here a university-based suite of "grass-roots," research-oriented indicator systems that are now subscribed to, voluntarily, by about 1 in 3 secondary schools and over 4,000 primary schools in England. The systems are also being used by groups in New Zealand, Australia and Hong Kong, and with international schools in 30 countries. These systems would not have grown had they not been cost-effective for schools. This demanded the technical excellence that makes possible the provision of one hundred percent accurate data in a very timely fashion. An infrastructure of powerful hardware and ever-improving software is needed, along with extensive programming to provide carefully chosen graphical and tabular presentations of data, giving at-a-glance comparative information. Highly skilled staff, always learning new techniques, have been essential, especially as we move into computer-based data collection. It has been important to adopt transparent, readily understood methods of data analysis where we are satisfied that these are accurate, and to model the processes that produce the data. This can mean, for example, modelling separate regression lines for 85 different examination syllabuses for one age group, because any aggregation can be shown to represent unfair comparisons. Ethical issues are surprisingly often lurking in technical decisions. For example, reporting outcomes from a continuous measure in terms of the percent of students who surpassed a certain level, produces unethical behavior: a concentration of teaching on borderline students. Distortion of behavior and data corruption are ever-present concerns in indicator systems. The systems we describe would have probably failed to thrive had they not addressed schools' on-going concerns about education. Moreover, data interpretation can only be completed in the schools, by those who know all the factors involved. Thus the commitment to working closely and collaboratively with schools in "distributed research" is important, along with "measuring what matters"... not only achievement. In particular the too-facile interpretation of correlation as causation that characterized much school effectiveness research had to be avoided and the need for experimentation promoted and demonstrated. Reasons for the exceptionally warm welcome from the teaching profession may include both threats (such as the unvalidated inspection regime run by the Office for Standards in Education and opportunities (such as site based management.
Carol Taylor Fitz-Gibbon
Ethical issues of mandatory psychological screening of nuclear power plant personnel have not been explored adequately. This paper examines several ethical issues in this area that need more attention. (1) Informed Consent: psychologists' ethics (like those of virtually all science and practice-oriented disciplines) require subjects participating in research or practice to be informed of procedures applied to them, the purposes, and possible consequences. (2) Feedback: psychologists' ethical guidelines require feedback to assesses when it is requested. (3) Validity: psychologists' ethics require that they use instrumentation only for the purposes intended and only for uses for which there is a preponderance of validity data available. In short, there is no question that psychological tests can significantly improve the effectiveness of a work force when they are properly (i.e., validly) used by well-trained and qualified professional psychologists. However, with the abundance of clinicians who are providing such services and with the complexity of the ethical issues involved in conducting these screenings, employers in psychologically high-risk settings should proceed with great caution to assure that assesses are treated in a fair and ethical manner
Age assessment in children and young adults is a relevant medicolegal issue due to the gradual increase of persons devoid of proper identification documents in European countries. Because of the illegal immigration and growing crime rates among children and adolescents, age estimation for forensic purposes is often required. The scientific research and the extensive experience of forensic experts in the last decades focused on the use of radiographic methods addressed to evaluate the degree of skeletal or dental development as the most accurate parameters to estimate the chronological age of children and adolescents. This paper analyzes the ethical issues related to age estimation procedures based on radiographic methods, showing how the ethical principles of beneficence, nonmalevolence, justice, and autonomy may be guaranteed during the execution of the age assessment in forensic practice. The procedure might be conducted in accordance with international guidelines and protocols, though they need a higher homogenization and standardization. A strong collaboration between various scientific societies of professionals (forensic odontologists, forensic pathologists, forensic anthropologist, radiologists, pediatricians, and psychologists), who have been involved in age estimation for years, is needed to reach this goal. PMID:24633466
Focardi, Martina; Pinchi, Vilma; De Luca, Federica; Norelli, Gian-Aristide
Questões éticas referentes às preferências do paciente em cuidados paliativos / Ethical issues related to patient preferences in palliative care / Las cuestiones éticas relacionadas con las preferencias del paciente en los cuidados paliativos
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O respeito à autonomia do paciente é um princípio ético reconhecido em diversas áreas da assistência à saúde, incluindo os cuidados paliativos, porém nem sempre as preferências do paciente são respeitadas. Uma melhor compreensão das questões éticas relacionadas ao exercício da autonomia do paciente [...] em cuidados paliativos é importante passo para embasar juízos éticos ponderados no cotidiano da assistência. Tendo isso em vista, este trabalho objetivou identificar e analisar questões éticas relacionadas às preferências do paciente e reconhecidas por profissionais no cotidiano de uma equipe de cuidados paliativos à luz do referencial bioético da casuística. Foram entrevistados onze profissionais de nível superior. As principais questões éticas identificadas foram: respeito à autonomia do paciente; veracidade e direito à informação; habilidades de comunicação; cerco do silêncio; participação no processo de deliberação; escolha do local de tratamento e morte. Abstract in spanish El respeto a la autonomía del paciente es un principio ético reconocido en muchas áreas de la salud, incluyendo los Cuidados Paliativos, pero no siempre se respetan las preferencias del paciente. Una mejor comprensión de las cuestiones éticas relacionadas con el ejercicio de la autonomía del pacient [...] e en los Cuidados Paliativos es un paso importante para apoyar los juicios éticos ponderados en la práctica diaria de la asistencia. Teniendo esto en cuenta, este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar y analizar las cuestiones éticas relacionadas con las preferencias del paciente y reconocidas por los profesionales en el día a día de un equipo de cuidados paliativos en el marco bioético de la casuística. Se entrevistó a once profesionales de nivel superior. Se identificaron las principales cuestiones éticas: el respeto a la autonomía del paciente, veracidad y el derecho a la información, habilidades de comunicación, asedio del silencio, participación en el proceso de deliberación, elección del lugar de tratamiento y muerte. Abstract in english The respect for patient's autonomy is an ethical principle recognized in many areas of health care including palliative care, but not always the patient's preferences are respected. A better understanding of ethical issues related to the exercise of patient's autonomy in Palliative Care is an import [...] ant step to support ethical judgments in daily practice. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and analyze ethical issues related to patient preferences recognized by professionals in the daily life of a Palliative Care team under the framework of Casuistry. Eleven practitioners were interviewed. The main ethical issues identified are: respect for patient autonomy, veracity and right to information, communication skills, conspiracy of silence, participation in the deliberation process, choice of place of treatment and death.
Carolina Becker Bueno de, Abreu; Paulo Antonio de Carvalho, Fortes.
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues in Science Web site is especially suitable for middle and high school students and teachers and tackles hard issues that face contemporary scientists every day. Connect to the ELSI pages to see a discussion of basic vs. applied research, equal access to medical screening, indoor air pollution, and personal privacy and medical databases.
School art therapists face numerous ethical dilemmas, from referrals to therapy, through privacy, safety and predictability in the art therapy room, to the need to balance cooperation with the educational staff and its expectations of shared information with loyalty to the patient. Breach of confidentiality also has legal implications. The…
The ethics of biobanking is one of the most controversial issues in current bioethics and public health debates. For some, biobanks offer the possibility of unprecedented advances which will revolutionise research and improve the health of future generations. For others they are worrying repositories of personal information and tissue which will be used without sufficient respect for those from whom they came. Wherever one stands on this spectrum, from an ethics perspective biobanks are revol...
Widdows, Heather; Cordell, Sean
Economic performance of a country is largely determined by banking and financial system. Banking and finance play a vital and crucial role in framing public policies in today’s business environment. This article highlights social and ethical issues such as social banking, ethical banking, green banking, global banking, rural banking, and agri-banking, which help in achieving sustainable development of banking and finance. For this purpose, we have gone through a series of development that ...
Vijay Joshi; Goyal, Dr K. A.
Abstract Background In keeping with the fundamental practice of transparency in the discussion and resolution of ethics conflicts raised by research, a summary of ethics issues raised during Portuguese biomonitoring in health surveillance and research is presented and, where applicable, their resolution is described. Methods Projects underway aim to promote the surveillance of public health related to the presence of solid waste incinerators or to study associat...
Pereira, Miguel J.; Geraldes V; Brantes Ana; Segurado Susana; Fa?tima, Reis M.; Simões Helena; Mauri?cio, Melim J.
The steadily growing field of brain-computer interfacing (BCI) may develop useful technologies, with a potential impact not only on individuals, but also on society as a whole. At the same time, the development of BCI presents significant ethical and legal challenges. In a workshop during the 4th International BCI meeting (Asilomar, California, 2010), six panel members from various BCI laboratories and companies set out to identify and disentangle ethical issues related to BCI use in four cas...
Vlek, Rutger; Steines, David; Szibbo, Dyana; Ku?bler, Andrea; Schneider, Mary-jane; Haselager, Pim; Nijboer, Femke
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the possibilities of ethnic marketing and its ethic connections. The differences found in our face-to-face interviews and analysing questionnaire data will provide opportunities for Hungarian small enterprises. Targeting ethnic groups for marketing purposes results in ethical difficulties. In Hungary, ethnic marketing is yet an inexperienced concept. Based on these ideas the authors examine the ins and outs of using ethnic marketing in case of Germans in Hungary. Consumers with German ethnic attitude really want German products and brands. At the same time, enterprises have to emphasise the products’ “Germanness” and character in a better/stronger way because this can help for better consumer decision making.
Full Text Available Background: Nurses are faced daily with a variety of ethical issues which could be as a result of budget cuts, target setting, the shortage of nurses and expertise. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to identify ethical issues related to patient care, to describe ethical issues related to patient diversity, rights and human dignity. To describe ethical issues related to caring in nursing and to the workplace environment. Method: A quantitative explorative descriptive research design was applied. A stratified sample of (n = 142/5% was drawn from all nurses and caregivers (N = 2990 working in a selected group of eight private hospitals. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. Statistical tests were applied to determine statistical relationships between variables. Results: Results included (95% of respondents provided safe and committed care to their patients, (99% loved to care for their patients and (93% believed in the Nurses’ Pledge of Service. Fifty percent (50% of the respondents indicated verbal abuse from patients and only (59% experienced openness and transparency in the work environment. Analysis further identified that the caregivers did not respect the noble tradition of the profession and experienced the most verbal abuse. Conclusion: This study has identified ethical issues which may give rise to conflict within the workplace environment if not adequately addressed by management. The study further showed that the use of caregivers not regulated in nursing practice may pose as a threat to the safety of the patient.
Ethelwynn L. Stellenberg
Health research is a moral duty because it is the foundation for evidence-based care by all health care practitioners. Specific Canadian policies and regulations govern the conduct of human research; ethics review of research is required before research is conducted. Research in children poses important challenges with regard to informed consent and assent, vulnerability and potential conflicts of interest (COI). Paediatric health researchers should advocate for research participation by chil...
There is great interest worldwide in discovering and developing a permanent source of tissues which would be capable of generating any cell type and which would avoid the problem of transplant rejection. Stem cells are cells that can specialize into the many different cells found in the human body. The ethical objections concerning stem cells have focused primarily on their source. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research offers great promise of cures for otherwise incurable conditions: s...
Mohammad Ali Kiani; Mohammad Reza Rasti Sani
This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, introduces the social and ethical issues of nanotechnology. In this activity, students will explore "possible social issues through case studies using popular films, books, and news stories. The lesson is intended to stimulate discussion about social and ethical issues related to nanotechnology as well as, in a broader context, the interaction of science and technology with society." This activity will take one 50 minute classroom session. A Teacher Preparation Guide, Student Guide, and Next Generation Manufacturing Standards for this lesson are included.
Clinical research has expanded tremendously in the past few decades and consequently there has been growing interest in the ethical guidelines that are being followed for the protection of human subjects. This review summarizes historical scandals and social responses chronologically from World War II to the Death of Ellen Roche (2001) to emphasize the lessons we must learn from history. International ethical guidelines for studies with human subjects are also briefly described in order to understand the circumstances of clinical research. The tasks and responsibilities of the institutions and investigators in human subject research to preserve the safety and welfare of research subjects are summarized. Next, several debated ethical issues and insights are arranged as controversial topics. This brief review and summary seeks to highlight important arguments and make suggestions to institutional review boards (IRBs) to contribute to the future evolution of ethics in clinical research as we advance forward. PMID:22323947
Kim, Won Oak
This chapter is a human-centered survey of nanotechnology's broader implications, reporting on the early phase of work by social scientists, philosophers, and other scholars. It begins with the social science agenda developed by governments, and the heritage of research on technology and organizations that social science brings to this mission. It then outlines current thinking about nanotechnology's economic impacts, health or environmental impacts, and social contributions. It discusses how technology can be regulated by a combination of informal ethics and formal law, then concludes by considering the shape of popular nanotechnology culture, as reflected in science fiction, public perceptions, and education.
Purpose: The objective of this study is to get feedback on faculty perception of ethical issues related to teaching, scholarship and service at a relatively new American-style university in the Middle-East. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire involving 21 scenarios with multiple choice answers was developed and distributed to all faculty…
Tabsh, Sami W.; El Kadi, Hany A.; Abdelfatah, Akmal S.
The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the continued exploration and mining and the construction and operation of nuclear reactors, both domestically and for export, is and will continue to be ethically and socially sound. Benefit and risk should be shared equally in the ideal society, in the real world this does not seem possible, but nuclear power appears not to worsen the situation and may even improve it. The real risks of nuclear power are less than those tolerated by many in their daily lives, but the public is relucant to accept them. The diversion of effort from dealing with real risks to worrying about hypothetical ones can be a disservice to society. Technology is inherently value-free, but can be used to raise the standard of living and provide a lifestyle in which non-material values can thrive. Withholding uranium from world markets increases the pressure on oil and the probability of armed conflict. A connection is made between uranium supply and food production. Social justice is a vital concern, but boycotts and trade embargoes may worsen suffering and have little effect on oppressors. There are formally defined international obligations to share nuclear technology. Scientists and engineers have a responsibility, which they are living up to more frequently, to make their specialized knowledge available to decision makers, and to express the ethical basis for their work. Nuclear energy appears to be more benign to future generations than many other present-day activities. (LL)
Qualitative research poses ethical issues and challenges unique to the study of human beings. In developing the interpersonal relationship that is critical to qualitative research, investigator and participant engage in a dialogic process that often evokes stories and memories that are remembered and reconstituted in ways that otherwise would not occur. Ethical issues are raised when this relationship not only provides qualitative research data, but also leads to some degree of therapeutic interaction for the participant. The purpose of this article is to examine some of the controversies inherent in the researcher's dilemma when this occurs, set within the context of a nursing caring theory (Swanson), and the International Council of Nurses Code of ethics for nurses, which provides guidance on global nursing practice. PMID:18272610
Eide, Phyllis; Kahn, David
When the challenges of providing speech-language pathology services in school settings intersect with the complexities of meeting the unique needs of students who stutter, clinicians may encounter a variety of ethical issues. This article explores some of the ethical challenges of treating stuttering in school settings by discussing three clinical scenarios. Seedhouse's Ethics Grid is provided as a scaffold to support the critical analysis of school-based stuttering treatment issues. Factors examined include creating and respecting autonomy, serving student needs, doing good and minimizing risks, and telling the truth and keeping promises. In addition, clinical outcomes are considered in terms of their impact on students and family members, clinicians, students with communication disorders other than stuttering, and school personnel. Finally, some of the practical concerns when treating stuttering in school settings are discussed, including the law, codes of practice, wishes of others, as well as the effectiveness and efficiency of actions. PMID:22144082
Watson, Jennifer B; Byrd, Courtney T; Moore, Barbara J
The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article demonstrates how transgenic technology has the potential of medical therapy, but it raises questions about these issues: creation of new life forms and crossing species boundaries, long-term effects on human health and the environment, blending of nonhuman animal and human DNA , and unintended personal, social, and cultural consequences.
Linda MacDonald Glenn (;)
Full Text Available This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.
David B. Resnik
Equal access to quality education forms a central principle in the South African Constitution. After South Africa's first democratic elections in 1994, the prevailing situation in many under-resourced schools was a lack of access to quality education. We outline six ethical issues in the decision to use radio to advance access and educational…
Naidoo, Gordon; Potter, Charles
This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.
Resnik, David B.
With rapidly increasing public use of the Internet and advances in Web technologies, family and consumer sciences researchers have the opportunity to conduct Internet-based research. However, online research raises critical ethical issues concerning human subjects that have an impact on research practices. This article provides a review of the…
Colvin, Jan; Lanigan, Jane
A reflective practitioners'anlaysis of student responses to ethical issues encountered during a workshop on International Business. The research was conducted with 1st year students of Bedrijfsmanagement MKB. The papaer reviews the literature and makes recoomendations for the business studies curriculum.
Reported are the results of a 1987 survey of U.S. chemical engineering departments on health and safety. Some details of what is being done at the University of Alabama are provided. A syllabus and reading resources for a survey course on safety, health, environmental, and ethical issues are included. (MVL)
Lane, Alan M.
Nuclear experts claim that the health risks from radioactive waste disposal are low compared to other environmental hazards, yet the general public is sceptical of the industry's ability to guarantee acceptable safety standards. Many allude to what might be deemed morally relevant factors, such as potential harms to future generations, possibly catastrophic consequences and environmental effects. Industry has often tended to respond with a claim that the public has an irrational perception of radiation risks, particularly those from man-made rather than natural sources. From a philosophical point of view it is interesting to consider exactly how nuclear risks might differ from other hazards, not least to evaluate which ethically relevant factors could be used to defend the stringent demands made by society for nuclear waste disposal
This article introduces an experiential exercise that enhances students' ability to identify ethical issues and to respond to them in ways that consider the relationship between organizational factors and ethical action. Students identify a required number of ethical incidents in their workplaces during a specified period. Students submit a…
Baker, Susan D.; Comer, Debra R.
Legal issues play a vital role in providing a framework for the Indian blood transfusion service (BTS), while ethical issues pave the way for quality. Despite licensing of all blood banks, failure to revamp the Drugs and Cosmetic Act (D and C Act) is impeding quality. Newer techniques like chemiluminescence or nucleic acid testing (NAT) find no mention in the D and C Act. Specialised products like pooled platelet concentrates or modified whole blood, therapeutic procedures like erythropheresi...
Chandrashekar, Shivaram; Kantharaj, Ambuja
This paper discussed the relationship between radiation protection system and ethical principle, viz. equity and efficiency. According to the authors' opinions, the main problem that the system of radiation protection facing now is the dose-limitation principle cannot incarnate the equity principle completely. Even though the distinguishing between practice and intervention is no other than solving the problem, but the scheme is not perfect still. Ethical issues should be given more attention and be more researched when we try to modify the radiation protection system today
This research study examined nine secondary American history textbooks regarding their treatment of 9/11 and related events. The analysis centered on both the knowledge included and excluded from the discussion in each book. Particular attention was given to the moral and ethical issues relevant to 9/11. Findings show that textbooks vary in their…
Romanowski, Michael H.
Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral. PMID:24004295
Serour, G I
The contemporary psychoanalytically inflected vocabulary of relational ethics centres on acknowledgement, witnessing and responsibility. It has become an important code for efforts to connect with otherness across fractures of hurt, oppression and suffering. One can see the deployment of this vocabulary to challenge patterns of exclusion and dehumanisation in zones of intense political conflict in many situations in which destructive hatred reigns. This paper traces some of the use of and dis...
The authors have undertaken an exploration of some significant social and ethical issues that arise in relation to the emerging field of Artificial Life (A-life). These issues have been approached from a philosophical perspective, taking into account reports of current developments in A-life research, and the application of A-life software in elementary school education. It has been suggested that the use of such systems may impact on the development of moral character in children, and illumi...
Grey, William; Bergmann, Neil; Thiel, Inari
The ethical basis for many medical practices has been challenged over the last two decades. Radiology has seen enormous growth during the same period. Many practices and equipment types, now commonplace, did not exist a generation ago. Yet the fundamental ethical basis for these practices has not seen a corresponding level of development. This is possibly an oversight, and may be particularly important given that these innovations have taken place over a period of changing social attitudes. Areas of concern include, for example, issues around justification, consent/authorisation, inadvertent irradiation of the foetus/embryo during pregnancy and the place of paternalism/individual autonomy in the structure of practice. This paper provides the background to a workshop on these issues held in late-2006 and presents a summary of its findings. (authors)
Conducting research in the home setting with home-bound older adults presents distinct ethical and practical challenges that require special consideration. This article describes the methodological issues that make studying homebound older adults especially vulnerable to therapeutic misconception and researcher role conflict and offers practical strategies for researchers to deal with these problems when studying this population. In writing this article, we draw on more than a decade of descr...
Locher, Julie L.; Bronstein, Janet; Robinson, Caroline O.; Williams, Charlotte; Ritchie, Christine S.
Organ donation after cardiac death (DCD) is increasingly considered as an option to address the shortage of organs available for transplantation, both in the United States and worldwide. The procedures for DCD differ from procedures for donation after brain death and are likely less familiar to emergency physicians (EPs), even as this process is increasingly involving emergency departments (EDs). This article explores the ED operational and ethical issues surrounding this procedure. PMID:24552527
Simon, Jeremy R; Schears, Raquel M; Padela, Aasim I
Full Text Available The complete sequencing of the human genome in 2003 has opened doors for new approaches to health promotion, maintenance, and treatment. Genetic research is now leading to a better understanding of the genetic components of common diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and stroke, and creating new, gene-based technologies for screening, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of both rare and common diseases. Nurses are on the forefront of care, and therefore will participate fully in genetic-based and genomic-based practice activities such as collecting family history, obtaining informed consent for genetic testing, and administering gene-based therapies. This new direction in healthcare calls for all nurses to be able to effectively translate genetic and genomic information to patients with an understanding of associated ethical issues. This article will present six genetic and genomic healthcare activities involving ethical issues of importance to nurses. For each activity discussed, an overview of current and/or emerging ethical issues will be presented. Approaches nurses can use to integrate comprehensive and current knowledge in genetics and genomics into their practice to most fully meet the needs of their patients, families, and society will also be described.
Dale Halsey Lea
Livestock are vital to subsistence farming and sustainable livelihood in most developing countries. Of India's population of one billion people, more than 70 percent live in the rural areas. India also has more than 30 percent of the world's bovine population. This has resulted in not only egalitarian ownership of cattle, but also in an almost inseparable cultural and symbiotic relationship between rural families and their farm animals, particularly large ruminants. It is against this scenario that the ethical, social and environmental issues of gene-based technologies need to be carefully evaluated. The use of transgenic cows with modified milk composition or for any other purpose has little economic benefit in a system of 'production by masses', as typifies India and a few other developing countries, compared with 'mass production' systems in developed countries. Rather, the use of rDNA technology for developing drought-resistant fodder and forage crops is likely to bring immediate relief to most regions. Cattle, particularly in India, have poor quality feeds and this results in poor nutrition, with production of large amounts of methane. Irnmunocastration -through biotechnological means would also be advantageous. Developing countries like India need sustainable livelihood security, and, in this regard, gene-based technologies in animal agriculture seem more to raise ethical, social and environmental concerns, rather than being likely to transform 'subsistence farmeing likely to transform 'subsistence farming' into vibrant agribusiness. Ethical issues concerning animal welfare, rights and integrity are also discussed, in addition to social, environmental and economic issues. (author)
Discusses ethical issues involved with person-based research. Discusses the ethical discourse embodied in the "Nuremberg Code," federal regulations, and the "Belmont Report." Discusses several specific issues in research ethics to illustrate how this discourse provides new ways of thinking about what must be done to treat research participants…
Anderson, Paul V.
Full Text Available Problem statement: The rapid spread of e-commerce has created tremendous opportunities for economic efficiency and customer choice. Use of the global Internet computer network for ecommerce activities provides some advantages to the consumers on their daily life. On the other hand Internet represents a new environment for unethical behavior. While e-commerce has witnessed extensive growth in last decade, consumers concerns regarding ethical issues also continue to increase. Even many consumers and businesses are reveling in e-commerce; consumer problems related to online retail become the dark side of the issue. Approach: A survey on 400 online shoppers was conducted (three cities in Turkey (Izmir, Manisa, Mersin in order to measure consumers? perceptions regarding the ethical issues of online retailing by using scale of Consumers? Perceptions regarding to Ethics of Online Retailers (CPEOR. Results: Ethical problems like security, privacy, reliability and non deception on Internet are core issues that limit the growth of online retailing. Conclusion/Recommendation: Findings indicate that; four factors (security, privacy, non deception and reliability are strongly predictive of online consumers? satisfaction. Also, this research will be beneficial to online retailers on their online retailing activities.
With the increased public perception of the future scale of dependence on nuclear energy a debate has started, raising the level of public awareness of the social, political and technical risks that are inevitably associated with the large-scale and accelerating adoption of nuclear power generation. The nuclear industry has given a mixed response to this debate, to accusations of irresponsibility and to demands for more specific attention to the recognized hazards of the fuel cycle. In this situation, non-governmental bodies such as the World Council of Churches, has taken the responsibility to examine the issues so far identified and to place these in a social and ethical context. The W.C.C. general position on nuclear energy is presented. It includes the risk associated with nuclear technology; nuclear waste disposal; catastrophic accidents; accidents in reprocessing plants, low-level radiation; nuclear weapons; security; nuclear energy and a new international economic order; ethical and religious perspectives
Many developed countries permit the export of pesticides that are banned, restricted, or unregistered within their own borders. This practice, which leads to the exposure of agricultural workers in developing countries to high levels of pesticides that are not permitted in the country of manufacture, raises many ethical issues as well as economic, social, political, and public health issues. Worldwide attempts to control export of such pesticides, through the FAO/UNEP Prior Informed Consent program, moves this issue in the right direction. This article explores the current U.S. and international practices, using the specific example of export of DBCP to banana-producing countries. The actions taken by multinational corporations, manufacturers of the pesticides, and public health officials in both the exporting and importing countries are explored, along with the impacts on workers, local economies, governments, and the environment. PMID:10330515
Lowry, L K; Frank, A L
With the recognition of genetic disorders in the newborn, there is the potential to offer new lifesaving therapies. For other conditions such as hypothyroidism in Down syndrome or hypercalemia in the 22q11 microdeltion syndrome, the early identification of an untreatable condition permits prompt screening for potential comorbid conditions. DNA testing for disorders and DNA-based screening are rapidly evolving. With new more powerful tests, there is an increasing ability to see into a potential future and change the outcome for newborns. However, there remain significant ethical and structural issues to be considered before routine implementation of DNA testing. PMID:25459786
Dimmock, David P; Bick, David P
An exposition on teaching ethics in architecture is long overdue. While all research on ethics in architecture agrees to its importance, none has ventured further to consider how to teach ethics in architecture. It is presumed that ethics is either transmitted tacitly in the architectural design studio, or introduced within a seminar on professional practice. But neither option is adequate if the goal of teaching ethics in architecture is the capacity for heightened ethical awareness, sound m...
Chan, Jeffrey Kok Hui
Full Text Available One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human’s body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action. The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal’s organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven.
Shima Behnam Manesh
One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human’s body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal’s organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334
Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan
This paper reports a literature review on the topic of ethical issues in in-depth interviews. The review returned three types of article: general discussion, issues in particular studies, and studies of interview-based research ethics. Whilst many of the issues discussed in these articles are generic to research ethics, such as confidentiality, they often had particular manifestations in this type of research. For example, privacy was a significant problem as interviews sometimes ...
Allmark, P.; Boote, J.; Chambers, E.; Clarke, A.; Mcdonnell, A.; Thompson, A.; Tod, A.
Presents A-B-C-D-E worksheet prepared to promote beneficence when considering ethical issues. Notes that components of worksheet are derived from ethical principles and ethical decision-making models. Sees worksheet as making abstract concepts of decision-making models concrete and practical and as providing shorthand for remembering key elements…
Sileo, Frank J.; Kopala, Mary
This website, provided through the Physics and Ethics Education Project (PEEP), contains resources for students and teachers to consider the ethical implications of physics. Information on a range of ethical issues, activities and challenges, and online discussions are available. Topics include climate change, weapons, space, energy resources, and others.
Discusses ethical issues that self-employed librarians must consider. Highlights include the lack of institutional support; the perceived value of the service; meeting client expectations and client dissatisfaction ethically; money and ethics, including how to charge for prior knowledge and experience; and client relationships, including working…
Sawyer, Deborah C.
Genetic counselling is provided in places where genetic tests are carried out. The process involves pre-test counselling as well as post-test counselling to enable the individuals to face the situation and take appropriate decisions with the right frame of mind. Major ethical principles which govern the attitudes and actions of counsellors include: respect for patient autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, or taking action to help benefit others and prevent harm, both physical and mental, and justice, which requires that services be distributed fairly to those in need. Other moral issues include veracity, the duty to disclose information or to be truthful, and respect for patient confidentiality. Nondirective counselling, a hallmark of this profession, is in accordance with the principle of individual autonomy. High prevalence of haemoglobinopathies with availability of good and sensitive carrier detection tests and prenatal diagnostic techniques makes these good candidates for population screening of carriers along with genetic counselling for primary prevention of the disease. Screening of the extended family members of the affected child, high risk communities and general population screening including antenatal women are the main target groups for planning a Haemoglobinopathy control programme. A critical mass of trained genetic counsellors who have understanding of the ethical issues and its appropriate handling with the required sensitivity is needed in India. PMID:22089619
ABSTRACT Purpose – The main goal of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the factors that currently represent some of the most important obstacles for a greater acceptance of the Internet as a shopping channel. Specifically, this research is focused on the study of the antecedents of consumers’ concerns, perceptions and beliefs about ethical issues in e-commerce, as these consumer ethical concerns are at the core of the most important barriers related to e-commerce...
Pascual Del Riquelme Marti?nez, Mª Isabel
Conducting research in the area of sexual violence has complex ethical and practical challenges for the researcher. Managing ethical issues in sexual violence is important and can be achieved through the use of pilot studies. The primary purpose of the pilot study was to identify and manage potential ethical and practical problems that could jeopardise the main study or violate the ethical and human rights of participants in the main study on women’s journey of recovery from sexual assau...
Duma, S. E.; Khanyile, T. D.; Daniels, F.
Using urban and rural community settings, this review article focuses on ethical issues associated with ethnographer-participant interaction and draws from the ethnographic accounts of Bronislaw Malinowski and Susan Krieger. As such, the following sections intend to illuminate the issue of ethics in ethnography research. As case studies, the…
Two recent books provide varied resources for exploring ethical issues in the social sciences. Reflection on ethical issues aims to sensitize scholars to a range of consequences of their research, and to scholars' responsibilities to their discipline, their colleagues, and the public. This review article assesses the utility of these texts (and of…
A Delphi study was conducted to ascertain the opinions of panel experts regarding the most important current and emerging ethical issues facing the counseling profession. Expert opinions on ethical issues in counselor preparation also were sought. Eighteen panelists responded to 3 rounds of data collection interspersed with feedback. Themes that…
Herlihy, Barbara; Dufrene, Roxane L.
Few studies examine ethical issues in bereavement research and none survey the opinions of bereaved individuals who have not previously participated in bereavement research. This study examined the theoretical opinions of bereaved adults about ethical issues such as attitudes toward bereavement research, timing and methods of recruitment, and…
Beck, Andrea M.; Konnert, Candace A.
Background The rise of social media and microblogging platforms in recent years, in conjunction with the development of techniques for the processing and analysis of “big data”, has provided significant opportunities for public health surveillance using user-generated content. However, relatively little attention has been focused on developing ethically appropriate approaches to working with these new data sources. Objective Based on a review of the literature, this study seeks to develop a taxonomy of public health surveillance-related ethical concepts that emerge when using Twitter data, with a view to: (1) explicitly identifying a set of potential ethical issues and concerns that may arise when researchers work with Twitter data, and (2) providing a starting point for the formation of a set of best practices for public health surveillance through the development of an empirically derived taxonomy of ethical concepts. Methods We searched Medline, Compendex, PsycINFO, and the Philosopher’s Index using a set of keywords selected to identify Twitter-related research papers that reference ethical concepts. Our initial set of queries identified 342 references across the four bibliographic databases. We screened titles and abstracts of these references using our inclusion/exclusion criteria, eliminating duplicates and unavailable papers, until 49 references remained. We then read the full text of these 49 articles and discarded 36, resulting in a final inclusion set of 13 articles. Ethical concepts were then identified in each of these 13 articles. Finally, based on a close reading of the text, a taxonomy of ethical concepts was constructed based on ethical concepts discovered in the papers. Results From these 13 articles, we iteratively generated a taxonomy of ethical concepts consisting of 10 top level categories: privacy, informed consent, ethical theory, institutional review board (IRB)/regulation, traditional research vs Twitter research, geographical information, researcher lurking, economic value of personal information, medical exceptionalism, and benefit of identifying socially harmful medical conditions. Conclusions In summary, based on a review of the literature, we present a provisional taxonomy of public health surveillance-related ethical concepts that emerge when using Twitter data. PMID:25533619
Full Text Available The paper raises general questions about ethical problems that taint public-private partnership. Everybody talks about the economical benefits of encouraging firms to invest in the community using different incentives offered by the public institutions. In the same time, every day, newspapers bring to our attention cases of misuse of public resources for private gain or cases of private investors who give bribes in order to get a contract with a public institution. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize our understanding of the entrepreneurial movement and analyze its implications for potential problems of corruption that can arise in the relation between the public and the private sector.
Internationally there is concern that many science teachers do not address socioscientific issues (SSI) in their classrooms, particularly those that are controversial. However with increasingly complex, science-based dilemmas being presented to society, such as cloning, genetic screening, alternative fuels, reproductive technologies and vaccination, there is a growing call for students to be more scientifically literate and to be able to make informed decisions on issues related to these dilemmas. There have been shifts in science curricula internationally towards a focus on scientific literacy, but research indicates that many secondary science teachers lack the support and confidence to address SSI in their classrooms. This paper reports on a project that developed a pedagogical model that scaffolded teachers through a series of stages in exploring a controversial socioscientific issue with students and supported them in the use of pedagogical strategies and facilitated ways of ethical thinking. The study builds on existing frameworks of ethical thinking. It presents an argument that in today's increasingly pluralistic society, these traditional frameworks need to be extended to acknowledge other worldviews and identities. Pluralism is proposed as an additional framework of ethical thinking in the pedagogical model, from which multiple identities, including cultural, ethnic, religious and gender perspectives, can be explored.
Saunders, Kathryn J.; Rennie, Léonie J.
Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed
Legal issues play a vital role in providing a framework for the Indian blood transfusion service (BTS), while ethical issues pave the way for quality. Despite licensing of all blood banks, failure to revamp the Drugs and Cosmetic Act (D and C Act) is impeding quality. Newer techniques like chemiluminescence or nucleic acid testing (NAT) find no mention in the D and C Act. Specialised products like pooled platelet concentrates or modified whole blood, therapeutic procedures like erythropheresis, plasma exchange, stem cell collection and processing technologies like leukoreduction and irradiation are not a part of the D and C Act. A highly fragmented BTS comprising of over 2500 blood banks, coupled with a slow and tedious process of dual licensing (state and centre) is a hindrance to smooth functioning of blood banks. Small size of blood banks compromises blood safety. New blood banks are opened in India by hospitals to meet requirements of insurance providers or by medical colleges as this a Medical Council of India (MCI) requirement. Hospital based blood banks opt for replacement donation as they are barred by law from holding camps. Demand for fresh blood, lack of components, and lack of guidelines for safe transfusion leads to continued abuse of blood. Differential pricing of blood components is difficult to explain scientifically or ethically. Accreditation of blood banks along with establishment of regional testing centres could pave the way to blood safety. National Aids Control Organisation (NACO) and National Blood Transfusion Council (NBTC) deserve a more proactive role in the licensing process. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) needs to clarify that procedures or tests meant for enhancement of blood safety are not illegal. PMID:25535417
Chandrashekar, Shivaram; Kantharaj, Ambuja
Legal issues play a vital role in providing a framework for the Indian blood transfusion service (BTS), while ethical issues pave the way for quality. Despite licensing of all blood banks, failure to revamp the Drugs and Cosmetic Act (D and C Act) is impeding quality. Newer techniques like chemiluminescence or nucleic acid testing (NAT) find no mention in the D and C Act. Specialised products like pooled platelet concentrates or modified whole blood, therapeutic procedures like erythropheresis, plasma exchange, stem cell collection and processing technologies like leukoreduction and irradiation are not a part of the D and C Act. A highly fragmented BTS comprising of over 2500 blood banks, coupled with a slow and tedious process of dual licensing (state and centre) is a hindrance to smooth functioning of blood banks. Small size of blood banks compromises blood safety. New blood banks are opened in India by hospitals to meet requirements of insurance providers or by medical colleges as this a Medical Council of India (MCI) requirement. Hospital based blood banks opt for replacement donation as they are barred by law from holding camps. Demand for fresh blood, lack of components, and lack of guidelines for safe transfusion leads to continued abuse of blood. Differential pricing of blood components is difficult to explain scientifically or ethically. Accreditation of blood banks along with establishment of regional testing centres could pave the way to blood safety. National Aids Control Organisation (NACO) and National Blood Transfusion Council (NBTC) deserve a more proactive role in the licensing process. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) needs to clarify that procedures or tests meant for enhancement of blood safety are not illegal.
Chandrashekar, Shivaram; Kantharaj, Ambuja
Full Text Available An exposition on teaching ethics in architecture is long overdue. While all research on ethics in architecture agrees to its importance, none has ventured further to consider how to teach ethics in architecture. It is presumed that ethics is either transmitted tacitly in the architectural design studio, or introduced within a seminar on professional practice. But neither option is adequate if the goal of teaching ethics in architecture is the capacity for heightened ethical awareness, sound moral reasoning and keen judgment. What then, is the recourse for the educator interested in developing this capacity in the student? In this paper, I suggest that the context where ethics in architecture is taught is just as important as how to teach it. Subsequently, I suggest four pedagogical strategies for teaching ethics in architecture. This paper should appeal to every educator in higher education, especially to educators teaching architecture, urban design and planning.
Jeffrey CHAN Kok Hui
Full Text Available This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169. Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15. 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34 and Strauss and Corbin (1990. The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990. The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985 and Morse (1994 related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based on these findings the researcher concluded that nurses are not thinking critically when making ethical decisions concerning the termination of pregnancies. Recommendations are made as a possible solution for this problem.
Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICTs, in particular of the Internet and of the World Wide Web, have paved the way for numerous ICT related development and initiative. In as much as there are beneficial usage of the Internet, there is also unethical usage and abuse. The Internet is like a double edge sword and care must be taken when indulging in this vast ocean of knowledge and information. Studies on ethical issue have centred much on internet security like hacking of personal information and data theft, including in business. This paper will look at the recent trends related to the ethical usage of the Internet, especially involving social media usage and hacking of government websites and legal enforcement that can be used to address ethical issues among Internet users. Data is derived from secondary sources. From the secondary data or literature, hacking has been a subject of concern following the hackings of website of government departments by the group anonymous. There are some cases of internet abuse, especially social media involving scams and personal relationship. There is also the use of social media to incite hatred, especially against authorities leading to widespread unrest. Hence, this implies, putting in place some guiding principles and more stringent legal enforcement to curb the unethical use and abuse of the Internet.
Abstract Purpose This article is aimed at describing the methodology of “ethical reasoning” that finally led TEDDYNoE (Task-force in Europe for Drug Development for the Young) to propose the integration of international human rights law to develop coherent and exhaustive ethical recommendations on paediatric research at a European level. Methods A large number of ethical guidelines and texts of varying...
Full Text Available The basic purpose of 1ibrarianship code is to form and build librarian personality who can make possible the same opportunity to acquiring knowledge for all users, irrespective of their different demands or special needs.When we discuss the importance of building librarian personality the demanding work with users we confront the problem of ethical treatment very often. Ethics advises only general rules which are rarely simple and they are frequently opposite to each other.The process of reacting between the librarian and the user - as with general information needs as with special functional needs - is also dependent on librarian's professional relation which is formed on important elements such as professional qualification,experiences, creativeness and ethics.We are also interested in question where is the border between ethical and non - ethical action in key situations when the 1ibrarian meets functionally handicapped user. Opportunities for non - ethical reaction of professional workers are much more possible if the library's premises and the furniture don't offer suitable conditions for adaptable communication with the handicapped.But on the other side the 1ibrarian has just because of the bad arhitectural conditions better occasion to introduce himself as one of the best ethically formed personalies compared with other professions. With adaptable communication, creative work and with professional relation in offering help to disabled people, the librarian can contribute to more quality service and even more - he/she becomes an example to other professions - also in ethical sense.
Through a careful process of investigation and inquiry, the World Council of Churches (WCC) has become aware of a decline of public confidence in existing social institutions responsible for maintaining and securing the nuclear fuel cycle. In addressing this concern, the World Council of Churches seeks a direct assurance from the IAEA and other responsible government bodies that new initiatives will be taken to resolve this anxiety and to place the acknowledged risks of an expanding nuclear power industry in a more realistic long-term perspective. The provision of energy resources for all peoples is an essential part of the struggle for a more just, participatory and sustainable society. In the light of current uncertainties over the maintenance of energy supplies, particularly to large urban communities, the WCC appreciates the necessity of retaining nuclear power as a viable option for the future in many countries. However, the credibility of the option can be achieved only through the resolution of the major questions that are inherent in the use of nuclear technology. The paper discusses the following questions, which must be tackled without further delay and certainly before a large and irreversible world-wide commitment is made: (1) The need for an open public debate. Without full public consultation on the social and ethical implications of long-term energy choices, decisions will be taken largely in terms of commercial and consequently short-term economic inte and consequently short-term economic interest. (2) Facing the long-term risks of adopting nuclear technology. (3) Access versus security. Concern for the security of sensitive nuclear technologies has produced the secretive nuclear club. A just global society implies not merely equal opportunity to aspire and to achieve, but affirmative action to redress imbalances. (4) Military implications. (5) Social implications of nuclear energy. (6) Ethical and religious issues. (author)
Clinical trials in xenotransplantation (XTx) that have just started to fulfil a long delayed promise should certainly be performed under the same guarantees for the subjects involved as any other experimentation in human medicine. The most important is the absolute respect for their fundamental rights and freedoms, especially for their autonomy, which is expressed through their informed consent as essential requirement for the carrying out of any clinical trial. This chapter focuses on the legal and ethical adaption of the clinical trial's general rules to the particular conditions of xenografting. They are mainly related to the possibility that transmissible xenogeneic agents come into being and become a risk for third parties, even for the whole society. This aspect makes XTx different from any other therapy in (bio)medicine. According to most literature and norm proposals, such xenogeneic infection risk would justify important changes in clinical trial regulation: last but not least, it could mean fundamental right limitations for the xenografted subjects. However, an analysis of the present ethical and legal background at national and international levels shows that such special treatment would be awkwardly acceptable. Information and recommendations on XTx and on its chances and risks when consenting to the trial would be more advisable than right constraining approaches. PMID:22566003
González, Jorge Guerra
A literature review was carried out in relation to general medical research and radiation protection research. A large number of documents were found concerning the subject of ethics in general medical research. For radiation protection research, the number of documents and the information available is very limited. A review of practices in 13 European countries concerning general medical research and radiation protection research was carried out by sending a questionnaire to each country. It was found that all countries reviewed were well regulated for general medical research. For research that involves ionising radiation, the UK and Ireland are by far the most regulated countries. For other countries, there does not seem to be much information available. From the literature review and the review of practices, a number of existing ethical issues were identified and exposed, and a number of conclusions were drawn. (authors)
Ethical issues and problems in business are receiving increasing attention, both in terms of criticism of examples of "bad" behaviour of business actors and in terms of the development of ethical codes of conduct in certain companies, ethical visions for businesses etc. In general, ethical problems seem to be increasingly prevalent in business, but ethics tend to be disregarded by traditional organisational and managerial theory. This calls for the development of an ethical perspective on b...
Discusses the results of a survey of academic reference librarians, library schools, and professional associations for information professionals in the United Kingdom that examined ethical issues in academic reference librarians' work, how professional associations relate to these matters, and how well library schools are preparing information…
Lonsdale, Dale; Oppenheim, Charles
As part of an expert panel convened to examine evidence and practice related to diverse aspects of driving evaluation and rehabilitation, consensus statements were developed on ethics. This paper provides context for the ethical obligation of practitioners to assess and make recommendations about the ability of clients to safely perform the activity of driving. It highlights key articles from the literature as well as principles from the Occupational Therapy Code of Ethics and Ethics Standards (2010). The statements support the importance of identifying impairments affecting driving, which could result in harm to the client as well as to the public. The ethical and professional obligation of practitioners to evaluate, make recommendations, and possibly report and/or refer to a driver rehabilitation specialist for further services is reinforced. PMID:24754765
Slater, Deborah Yarett
Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide a powerful means of identifying genetic variants that play a role in common diseases. Such studies present important ethical challenges. An increasing number of GWAS is taking place in lower income countries and there is a pressing need to identify the particular ethical challenges arising in such contexts. In this paper, we draw upon the experiences of the MalariaGEN Consortium to identify specific ethical is...
Mercereau-Puijalon Odile; Ibrahim Muntaser; Doumbo Ogobara; Bull Susan J; de Vries Jantina; Kwiatkowski Dominic; Parker Michael
Full Text Available The paper raises general questions about ethical problems that taint public-private partnership. Everybody talks about the economical benefits of encouraging firms to invest in the community using different incentives offered by the public institutions. In the same time, every day, newspapers bring to our attention cases of misuse of public resources for private gain or cases of private investors who give bribes in order to get a contract with a public institution. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize our understanding of the entrepreneurial movement and analyze its implications for potential problems of corruption that can arise in the relation between the public and the private sector.a
Created in 1994 by Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego, the Ethics Updates site is designed primarily to be used to ethics instructors and their students. However, the site is rather interesting, so members of the general public may find themselves making a few return visits. Visitors can use the drop-down tabs on the top of the homepage to make their way through sections that cover some of the basic theories of ethics and also learn more about applied ethics in relation to such issues as animal rights, torture, and world hunger. Moving on, the "Resources" area includes case studies for discussion, a glossary of terms, classic texts in ethics, and ethics surveys. The site is rounded out by a search engine and a selection of videos that deal with various topics in ethics.
Hinman, Lawrence M.
Abstract Background An effectiveness assessment on ASCT in locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer identified serious ethical issues associated with this intervention. Our objective was to systematically review these aspects by means of a literature analysis. Methods We chose the reflexive Socratic approach as the review method using Hofmann's question list, conducted a comprehensive literature search in biomedical, psychological and ethics bibliographic d...
Scheibler Fueloep; Herrmann-Frank Annegret; Droste Sigrid; Krones Tanja
A number of theoretical problems and a couple of ethical issues in bio-robotics are investigated. It is found that claims made by researchers to have constructed robots controlled by rat brains are not fully justified by the results of current research. Further, the ethical implications of the research are currently unclear.
Bentzen, Martin Mose
Being a parent is deeply demanding and one of the most important events in life; parents experience the deepening of human relationships with their partner, within their families, and in society, and moreover the fundamental relationship between parent and child. Every medical, social, and political effort must be made to prevent infertility but also to offer infertile couples the best diagnostic and therapeutic paths. Understanding the suffering of the couple and their families prevents and helps ease the possible psychological and social complications of infertility. Therefore, infertility concerns not only biomedical sciences but also psychological and social ones-ethics and law-in their combined efforts to identify areas of understanding and of research for solutions while respecting the dignity of the couple and unborn child. The Catholic Church offers an ongoing contribution through dialogue in looking for ethical principles guiding scientific and medical research respectful of the true life of human beings. PMID:24156989
Full Text Available Abstract Background In keeping with the fundamental practice of transparency in the discussion and resolution of ethics conflicts raised by research, a summary of ethics issues raised during Portuguese biomonitoring in health surveillance and research is presented and, where applicable, their resolution is described. Methods Projects underway aim to promote the surveillance of public health related to the presence of solid waste incinerators or to study associations between human exposure to environmental factors and adverse health effects. The methodological approach involves biomonitoring of heavy metals, dioxins and/or other persistent organic pollutants in tissues including blood, human milk and both scalp and pubic hair in groups such as the general population, children, pregnant women or women attempting pregnancy. As such, the projects entail the recruitment of individuals representing different demographic and health conditions, the collection of body tissues and personal data, and the processing of the data and results. Results The issue of autonomy is raised during the recruitment of participants and during the collection of samples and data. This right is protected by the requirement for prior written, informed consent from the participant or, in the case of children, from their guardian. Recruitment has been successful, among eligible participants, in spite of incentives rarely being offered. The exception has been in obtaining guardians' consent for children's participation, particularly for blood sampling. In an attempt to mitigate the harm-benefit ratio, current research efforts include alternative less invasive biomarkers. Surveys are currently being conducted under contract as independent biomonitoring actions and as such, must be explicitly disclosed as a potential conflict of interests. Communication of results to participants is in general only practised when a health issue is present and corrective action possible. Concerning human milk a careful approach is taken, considering breast-feeding's proven benefits. Conclusion No national legislation currently accounts for the surveillance component of biomonitoring as distinct from research. Ethics issues arising within the domain of research are resolved according to available regulations. For issues encountered during surveillance, the same principles are used as guidance, completed by the authors' best judgement and relevant ethics committees' findings.
Miguel J Pereira
International radiation protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, the European Union and the ILO are surveyed from an ethical perspective. The authors come to the conclusion that the insights of ethical theories provide a number of ways in which current recommendations and standards for radiation protection could improve. (orig.)
This is Part 2 of a two-part series on the ethical issues surrounding the use of placebo arms in clinical trials for psychiatric drugs. Part 1 discussed the ethical argument from a statistical, population-based perspective. Part 2 explores the ethical issues of placebo-controlled studies as they relate to individual psychiatric patients who may participate in them. Many patients who are candidates for psychiatric clinical trials would receive poor treatment for their mental illness under stan...
BACKGROUND: Ethics is one of the main pillars in the development of science. We performed a JoinPoint regression analysis to analyze the trends of ethical issue research over the past half century. The question is whether ethical issues are neglected despite their importance in modern research.
Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Trang, Nguyen Thi Huyen; Luan, Nguyen Thien; Anh, Nguyen hoang; Nghi, Tran Diem; Hieu, Mai; Hirayama, Kenji; Karbwang, Juntra
This paper examines ethical and social issues which have proved important when initiating and creating educational spaces within a virtual environment. It focuses on one project, identifying the key decisions made, the barriers to new practice encountered and the impact these had on the project. It demonstrates the importance of the ‘backstage’ ethical and social issues involved in the creation of a virtual education community and offers conclusions, and questions, which will inform futur...
Sheehy, K.; Ferguson, R.; Clough, G.
The pursuit of genomic research and biobanking has raised concerns and discussions about the ethical and legal implications. Given the specific challenges that surround such enterprise in low and middle income countries, it is pertinent to examine them in the light of the advent of Biobanking and Genomic research in Nigeria. In this paper I discuss the issues and suggest model solutions derived from advanced jurisdictions. These ethical and legal issues are discussed within the context of the...
Akintola, Simisola O.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human biomonitoring (HBM has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing into focus the conditions of how and what is known in environmental health science. Methods In order to analyse the effects of HBM and the shift towards biomarker research in the assessment of environmental pollution in a broader societal context, selected analytical frameworks of science studies are introduced. To develop the epistemological perspective, concepts from "biomedical platform sociology" and the notion of "epistemic cultures" and "thought styles" are applied to the research infrastructures of HBM. Further, concepts of "biocitizenship" and "civic epistemologies" are drawn upon as analytical tools to discuss the visions and promises of HBM as well as related ethical problematisations. Results In human biomonitoring, two different epistemological cultures meet; these are environmental science with for instance pollution surveys and toxicological assessments on the one hand, and analytical epidemiology investigating the association between exposure and disease in probabilistic risk estimation on the other hand. The surveillance of exposure and dose via biomarkers as envisioned in HBM is shifting the site of exposure monitoring to the human body. Establishing an HBM platform faces not only the need to consider individual decision autonomy as an ethics issue, but also larger epistemological and societal questions, such as the mode of evidence demanded in science, policy and regulation. Conclusion The shift of exposure monitoring towards the biosurveillance of human populations involves fundamental changes in the ways environment, health and disease are conceptualised; this may lead to an individualisation of responsibilities for health risks and preventive action. Attention to the conditions of scientific knowledge generation and to their broader societal context is critical in order to make HBM contribute to environmental justice.
The profession of Engineering is one of the highly acclaimed professions. As the active members of this profession, engineers are expected to possess and practice ethical standards. The invaluable services offered by professionals require honesty, impartiality, fairness, integrity and equity. They should devote themselves for allround social welfare. Engineers should perform their duties with utmost care and concern. Through effective communication, Engineering Professionals can promote ethic...
Mehta, Naveen K.; Mehta, Dharmendra; Mehta, Er Rajesh Kumar
The Christian ethical tradition introduces a number of key values into the clinical context. Moreover, although some denominational differences exist, these are essentially differences of emphasis rather than of substance. Among the central values which the Christian tradition promotes are: the dignity of the person, the individual as embodied spirit and the importance of the common good. Within the evolving discourse, social justice considerations have come to the fore as a critical concern within bio-ethics. In radiology, like most fields of clinical practice, practitioners frequently encounter conflicts and tensions of an ethical nature. Moreover, the manner in which these conflicts are articulated, conceptualised and ultimately resolved will depend, not only on how the scientific data are analysed and interpreted, but also on how different ethical frameworks are invoked in these disputes. The concern in this brief paper is to discuss the Christian ethical tradition as it is expressed in Roman Catholic and 'Protestant' denominations in the western church, considering the values and norms that underlie Christian ethical engagements with applied questions. (authors)
A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.…
Translational stem cell research raises many interesting ethical questions, which have, to a greater or lesser degree, been debated at an international as well as at an interdisciplinary level. Nevertheless, there is still no international consensus regarding how a number of ethical questions related to this research should be answered. Many of these ethical questions create a real challenge to translation of basic research results into clinical applications. The overall aim of the th...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few empirical studies have been found that explore ethical challenges among persons in high public positions that are responsible for elder care. The aim of this paper was to illuminate the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care as experienced by high level decision-makers. Methods A phenomenological-hermeneutic method was used to analyse the eighteen interviews conducted with political and civil servant high level decision-makers at the municipality and county council level from two counties in Sweden. The participants worked at a planning and control as well as executive level and had both budget and quality of elder care responsibilities. Results Both ethical dilemmas and the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care were revealed. No differences were seen between the politicians and the civil servants. The ethical dilemmas mostly concerned dealings with extensive care needs and working with a limited budget. The dilemmas were associated with a lack of good care and a lack of agreement concerning care such as vulnerable patients in inappropriate care settings, weaknesses in medical support, dissimilar focuses between the caring systems, justness in the distribution of care and deficient information. Being in ethically difficult situations was challenging. Associated with them were experiences of being exposed, having to be strategic and living with feelings such as aloneness and loneliness, uncertainty, lack of confirmation, the risk of being threatened or becoming a scapegoat and difficult decision avoidance. Conclusion Our paper provides further insight into the ethical dilemmas and ethical challenges met by high level decision-makers', which is important since the overall responsibility for elder care that is also ethically defensible rests with them. They have power and their decisions affect many stakeholders in elder care. Our results can be used to stimulate discussions between high level decision-makers and health care professionals concerning ways of dealing with ethical issues and the necessity of structures that facilitate dealing with them. Even if the high level decision-makers have learned to live with the ethical challenges that confronted them, it was obvious that they were not free from feelings of uncertainty, frustration and loneliness. Vulnerability was revealed regarding themselves and others. Their feelings of failure indicated that they felt something was at stake for the older adults in elder care and for themselves as well, in that there was the risk that important needs would go unmet.
The plight of women in poor nonindustrialized countries who have incurred catastrophic childbirth injuries, such as vesico-vaginal and recto-vaginal fistulas, from prolonged obstructed labor is receiving increased attention from the world medical community. While the good intentions that have prompted this greater concern are not in doubt, intentions by themselves are insufficient guarantees of ethical conduct in programs developed to repair these injuries. Clinical proposals put forward to deal with the problem of fistula must undergo critical analysis to insure that basic ethical requirements are met. This article emphasizes the vulnerability to exploitation of women with obstetric fistulas and reviews the basic principles of medical ethics relevant to fistula care. PMID:17765243
Wall, L L
According to Swiss Federal Law, the producers of radioactive waste are responsible for its safe disposal. The government, therefore, plays a relatively modest role in the public debate on nuclear waste management. Whenever asked to express an opinion, it tries to inform openly. Active public relations campaigns are led by the National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA). The operators of nuclear power plants are ready to compensate the siting community and its Canton for services rendered in the public interest. An important way to deal with ethical and environmental issues is the inclusion of opponents in every step of the time-consuming licensing procedure. This paper discusses the upcoming vote on a concession for a low and intermediate-level waste repository for which NAGRA is actively preparing. NAGRA's public relations work is based on recognition of the fact that the only way to diminish fear and gain credibility is to inform openly and regularly over many years, and to show that results achieved are based on serious, careful and transparent scientific work. Another aspect of radioactive waste management communication lies in the explanation of the ethics of 'inter-generational' and 'intra-generational' equity. Compensation will never make up for lack of safety. The ways in which the public voices its views are discussed, as well as the concept of seeking the co-operation of opponents in working groups. (author)roups. (author)
he subject of this thesis is ethical aspects of decision-making concerning social risks. It is argued that a model for risk management must acknowledge several ethical aspects and, most crucial among these, the individual’s right not to be unfairly exposed to risks. Article I takes as its starting point the demand frequently expressed in the risk literature for consistent risk management. It is maintained that a model focusing on cost-benefit analysis does not respect the rights of the indi...
Advances in medical technology rely on human subject research to test the effects on real patients of unproven new drugs, equipment and techniques. Illegal human subject research happens occasionally and has led to subject injury and medical disputes. Familiarity with the laws and established ethics related to human subject research can minimize both injury and disputes. History is a mirror that permits reflection today on past experience. Discussing the Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki and Belmont Report, this article describes the laws, ethics, history and news related to human subject research as well as the current definition and characteristics of human subject research. Increasing numbers of nurses serve as research nurses and participate in human subject research. The authors hope this article can increase research nurse knowledge regarding laws and ethics in order to protect human research subjects adequately. PMID:22024809
Chiu, Hui-Ju; Lee, Ya-Ling; Chang, Su-Fen
Reproductive technologies, drug discovery and exploration of the universe are areas of contemporary research that raise issues for individuals and society. Forward Thinking, Northern Ireland uses the development of communities of enquiry to promote discussion of these and other social and ethical issues in science with students aged 11-14 years.…
Dunlop, Lynda; Humes, Gill; Clarke, Linda; Martin, Valerie McKelvey
More than 1,000 Web-based locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs) are listed on the Website of the Human Genetic Variation Society (HGVS). These individual efforts, which often relate phenotype to genotype, are a valuable source of information for clinicians, patients, and their families, as well as for basic research. The initiators of the Human Variome Project recently recognized that having access to some of the immense resources of unpublished information already present in diagnostic laboratories would provide critical data to help manage genetic disorders. However, there are significant ethical issues involved in sharing these data worldwide. An international working group presents second-generation guidelines addressing ethical issues relating to the curation of human LSDBs that provide information via a Web-based interface. It is intended that these should help current and future curators and may also inform the future decisions of ethics committees and legislators. These guidelines have been reviewed by the Ethics Committee of the Human Genome Organization (HUGO). Hum Mutat 31:–6, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20683926
Povey, Sue; Al Aqeel, Aida I; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Dalgleish, Raymond; den Dunnen, Johan T; Firth, Helen V; Greenblatt, Marc S; Barash, Carol Isaacson; Parker, Michael; Patrinos, George P; Savige, Judith; Sobrido, Maria-Jesus; Winship, Ingrid; Cotton, Richard GH
The increasing demand of constituents to conduct analyses in order to help inform the decision-making process has led to the need for Institutional Research (IR) guidelines for community college educators. One method of maintaining the quality of research conducted by IR staff is to include professional development about ethics. This article…
Published in 1974, the Belmont Report established the ethical principles for conducting clinical research in the United States. The essential concepts are respect for the research participant, beneficence for society at large, and justice (equal access to participation and equal treatment) toward su...
The documentary analysis of email posts and archives for qualitative research has been outlined elsewhere (Murray & Sixsmith, 1998a; Murray and Sixsmith, in press). Although there is an increase in the number of studies being conducted on listserv and newsgroup material in health research, this has not always been accompanied by a careful, in-depth consideration of the concomitant ethical issues. Therefore, this article outlines the ethical considerations surrounding this form of research, in...
Sixsmith, Judith; Murray, Craig
In September this year the Nuffield Council on Bioethics held a meeting to disclose and discuss the main findings of their newly published report on the ethical issues associated with developments in pharmacogenetics research. The basics of pharmacogenetics science is briefly outlined, and then the extent to which the report was successful in addressing (or at least highlighting) the attendant social, ethical, and policy implications of pharmacogenetics research is evaluated.
The authors co-organized (Snyder and Crooks) and gave a keynote presentation at (Turner) a conference on ethical issues in medical tourism. Medical tourism involves travel across international borders with the intention of receiving medical care. This care is typically paid for out-of-pocket and is motivated by an interest in cost savings and/or avoiding wait times for care in the patient’s home country. This practice raises numerous ethical concerns, including potentially exacerbating heal...
Crooks, Valorie; Snyder, Jeremy; Turner, Leigh
Full Text Available Brain death (BD, as the irreversible and permanent loss of cerebral and brainstem function, is relatively uncommon among newborns who need life support. It is considered the result of an acute and irreversible central nervous system insult. Asphyxia, severe intracranial hemorrhage and infection are the most common causes of BD in children. BD diagnosis is usually based on clinical criteria. Dilemmas about life prolonging treatment for severely compromised infants – as brain dead infants are – has become challenging since neonatal intensive care unit (NICU care has developed, quality of life and resource issues are nowadays continuously underlined. Caring for premature babies is expensive and costs have risen especially since an increased number of infants with handicaps survives. Intensivists’ main duty is first to save lives and then to interrupt treatment in certain conditions like detrimental brain damage. The objective of this article is to present ethical decisions regarding brain dead newborns in order to balance between organ donation necessities and withholding/withdrawing treatment, with respect to the important role of infants’ parents in the process.
Full Text Available The introduction of exogenous genetic sequences named transgenes is known as gene therapy and has the purpose of correcting genotypic and phenotypic alterations in the human organism. This therapy can be carried out in somatic cells or in germinal cells. The ethical questioning related to somatic gene therapy has to do basically with the potential risks for health and the informed consent while germ-line gene therapy has the potential to affect permanently future generations. Since genic therapy involves much more than the simple alteration of genetic sequences, this revision presents the main ethical problems associated with gene therapy for inherited disease
JOSÉ HENRY OSORIO
Full Text Available Professional teacher’s ethics is a collection of moral codes of their professional work. It is significant that the teaching profession respects certain designated professional-ethical codes of conduct between the teachers and the students, with their colleagues and other people they professionally cooperate with. This study is focused on analysis of the professional ethical relation of teachers towards students, seen from student’s point of view. These are the results of student’s reported opinion of the eighth graders from six primary schools in the region of the city of Skopje. The obtained results show that teachers mainly keep in line with the moral codes of conduct with the students, but not always all teachers respect them.
To describe leadership as ethical is largely a perceptional phenomenon informed by beliefs about what is normatively appropriate. Yet there is a remarkable scarcity in the leadership literature regarding how to define what is “normatively appropriate”. To shed light on this issue, we draw upon Relational Models Theory (Fiske: 1992, Psychological Review, 99, 689-723), which differentiates between four types of relationships: communal sharing, authority ranking, equality matching, and marke...
Giessner, S. R.; Quaquebeke, N.
Several studies show that the findings of clinical trials are often not published in full, resulting in a biased presentation of results (publication bias). First, this paper discusses the ethical arguments in favour of complete transparency of biomedical research data. There are relevant deontological (like obligations towards study participants and research sponsors) and consequentialist (harm for patients and misallocation of scarce resources) ethical reasons for the full publication of all trial results, which cannot be overridden by counter arguments like freedom of research, data protection or the individual interests of researchers and manufacturers. The article therefore discusses (1) which strategies are appropriate to guarantee data transparency and (2) who bears responsibility for the implementation of these strategies. Finally, open questions and the need for further action will be discussed. PMID:21530911
Marckmann, Georg; Strech, Daniel
The Delphi methodology was used to explore the underlying ethics of nonsexual dual relationship. The goal was to clarify the definitions of appropriate and inappropriate dual relationships, to generate a list that experts in the field endorse as harms and benefits from nonsexual dual relationships, and to generate a list that experts in the field endorse as causes of harms and benefits from nonsexual dual relationships. These three goals are in response to three obstacles to consensus in the ...
Mamalakis, Philip Markos
Present radiation protection doctrine (ICRP 1990) is based on a body of scientific knowledge, one underlying assumption and three general principles. My objective is to discuss first the adequacy of the existing scientific information for the purpose of setting safety standards; then to consider the foundation of the underlying assumption; and finally, to discuss a few aspects of the general principles in the light of ethical considerations
This paper explores the ethical implications of introducing non-invasive prenatal diagnostic tests (NIPD tests) in prenatal screening for foetal abnormalities. NIPD tests are easy and safe and can be performed early in pregnancy. Precisely because of these features, it is feared that informed consent may become more difficult, that both testing and selective abortion will become ‘normalized', and that there will be a trend towards accepting testing for minor abnormalities and non-medical tr...
Jong, Antina; Dondorp, Wybo J.; Die-smulders, Christine E. M.; Frints, Suzanne G. M.; Wert, Guido M. W. R.
Research is needed in Canada to understand refugees’ health challenges and barriers to accessing health services. There are practical and ethical challenges for engaging refugees as participants. This study observed five recruitment methods and three informed consent strategies for four Government Assisted Refugee (GAR) language groups (Somali, Arabic, Karen and Farsi/Dari) in British Columbia. Demographic, attitudes and knowledge questionnaires were administered and language concordant ...
Gabriel, Patricia Susan
Four principles are taken as basis for the ethical analysis: autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice. Health is understood as a limited aspect of wellbeing. Food is understood as an important aspect of wellbeing, not only an instrument for health. Modern society is characterized by a tendency to identify wellbeing with external rather than subjective circumstances, to identify wellbeing with health, and to create exaggerated health expectations. Based upon this understanding, aspec...
Genetic counselling is provided in places where genetic tests are carried out. The process involves pre-test counselling as well as post-test counselling to enable the individuals to face the situation and take appropriate decisions with the right frame of mind. Major ethical principles which govern the attitudes and actions of counsellors include: respect for patient autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, or taking action to help benefit others and prevent harm, both physical and mental, an...
The aim of this article is to address the ethical, legal and social issues that arise when a woman becomes pregnant and gives birth to a child with the intention of surrendering this child to another woman or couple. The secondary aim is to offer some recommendations that will be beneficial for the lawmakers, policymakers and regulators who design and enforce the rules and regulations that govern surrogacy arrangements. The article considers both commercial and altruistic surrogacy and highlights some of the similarities and differences between the two. Beginning with the initial question of whether surrogacy should be legal, the controversial questions raised relate to the time before conception, during the pregnancy and after the birth of the child. The article concludes that surrogacy arrangements are ethical and should be legal because they enable the medically and socially infertile, including singles and same-sex couples, the opportunity to become parents and to enjoy the lifelong pleasures of parenthood. For many, this will be the strongest argument for the legalisation of surrogacy and the greatest benefit to arise from surrogacy arrangements. PMID:24804538
Ekberg, Merryn Elizabeth
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english Surgical techniques are not introduced into clinical practice as the result of randomised clinical trials (RCT), but usually through the gradual evolution of existing techniques or, more rarely, through audacious departures from the norm that are decided by a surgical team on the basis of experience [...] . Sham surgery is held by some to be not only an ethically acceptable procedure but also a perfectly fit and proper one, as it could endow surgical experiments with the strict methodological and statistical precision typically associated with RCTs. This article first briefly examines some of the methodological aspects of both RCTs and surgical experiments and then offers a few considerations regarding the ethical issues raised by sham surgery.
Full Text Available Professional public relations bodies internationally have established ethics codes in an attempt to regulate members’ ethical behaviour. This paper critiques the code-based framework on philosophical and practical grounds, suggesting that such frameworks are inadequate because they leave practitioners free to interpret these guides in ways that advance their own and their clients’ interests. We argue that this latitude does not foster ethical behaviour. We then contrast rule-following,action-based ethics with agent-based ethics, conceived in Aristotelian terms, and suggest that the virtue ethics advanced by Aristotle and his interpreters represents a more challenging but more authentically ethical path for practitioners to consider.
...The Federal Labor Relations Authority (FLRA...concurrence of the Office of Government Ethics (OGE), is...Conflict of interest, Government employees. Authority...the Federal Labor Relations Authority, with the...concurrence of the Office of Government Ethics, is...
Full Text Available The allocation of financial resources in accordance with population health care needs represents a complex task, with practical and ethical dilemmas. The decisions regarding resource allocation are made at macro, mezzo and micro levels. Legislative authorities and government decide how to allocate limited resources based on cost effectiveness criteria. Managing directors of hospitals and research institutes take mezzo decisions, while doctors and researchers in healthcare area are responsible to make micro decisions. The aim of this paper is to assess the use of equity criteria for resource allocation in Romanian public hospitals. We found that resource allocation within the Romanian health system increases the inequalities among individuals and groups.
This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research disciplines using animal experimentation, this field of endeavor makes a number of specific, ethically relevant, questions more explicit and, as a result, may expose to discussion a series of ethical issues that have relevance beyond this field of science. We suggest that innovative research, by its very definition, demands out-of-the-box thinking. At the same time, standardization of animal models and test procedures for the sake of comparability across experiments inhibits the potential and willingness to leave well-established tracks of thinking, and leaves us wondering how open minded research is and whether it is the researcher's established perspective that drives the research rather than the research that drives the researcher's perspective. The chapter finishes by introducing subsequent chapters of this book volume on Ethical Issues in Behavioral Neuroscience. PMID:25023419
Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck
Background: There is little guidance on the particular ethical concerns that research raises with a palliative care population. Aim: To present the process and outcomes of a workshop and consensus exercise on agreed best practice to accommodate ethical issues in research on palliative care. Design: Consultation workshop using the MORECare Transparent Expert Consultation approach. Prior to workshops, participants were sent overviews of ethical issues in palliative care. Following the w...
Gysels, M.; Evans, C. J.; Lewis, P.; Speck, P.; Benalia, H.; Preston, N. J.; Grande, G. E.; Short, V.; Owen-jones, E.; Todd, C. J.; Higginson, I. J.
Public relations action relies on sound decision making about how to inspire cooperation between an organization and its publics. Such thinking must uphold principles for ethical communication. Effectively combining ethics with public relations practice for students is key. A pedagogical approach to public relations ethics, hinging on selected…
Smudde, Peter M.
In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.
Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars
In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards
Clinical supervision is an essential aspect of every mental health professional's training. The importance of ensuring that supervision is provided competently, ethically, and legally is explained. The elements of the ethical practice of supervision are described and explained. Specific issues addressed include informed consent and the supervision contract, supervisor and supervisee competence, attention to issues of diversity and multicultural competence, boundaries and multiple relationships in the supervision relationship, documentation and record keeping by both supervisor and supervisee, evaluation and feedback, self-care and the ongoing promotion of wellness, emergency coverage, and the ending of the supervision relationship. Additionally, the role of clinical supervisor as mentor, professional role model, and gatekeeper for the profession are discussed. Specific recommendations are provided for ethically and effectively conducting the supervision relationship and for addressing commonly arising dilemmas that supervisors and supervisees may confront. PMID:25220636
Barnett, Jeffrey E; Molzon, Corey H
This article examines the superficial and deep ethical and moral dilemmas confronting ‘insider’ researchers which we term external and internal ethical engagement. External ethical engagement refers to the traditional, easily identifiable ethical issues that insider researchers attend to by submitting their application for ethical approval to their institution’s internal review board. Internal ethical engagement relates to the deeper level ethical and moral dilemmas that insider researc...
Floyd, Alan; Arthur, L.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive process for identifying and addressing primarily ethical issues related to the psychology profession in South Africa. In fulfilling this purpose, research was conducted of relevant ethical and to a lesser extent, legal aspects pertaining to the psychology profession. In an attempt to prevent unprofessional conduct claims against psychologists from succeeding and to alert psychologists to the concurrent ethical problems that may lead to malpractice suits, this article offers material on some important issues – in the context of forensic psychology – such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology as a profession, the Ethical Code of Professional Conduct to which a psychologist should adhere, ethical aspects and issues pertaining to forensic psychology in general, some ethical issues pertaining to child forensic psychology, summary guidelines for ethical decision-making and some steps to follow to ensure sound ethical decisionmaking.
Previous literature has documented the general issues psychologists often face while balancing their personal and professional lives. The struggle stems from attempting to satisfy the need to maintain a life outside of work while having the professional obligation to follow the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (Ethics Code) to prevent their personal lives from interfering with their professional roles and relationships. The present paper analyzes the subject of psychologists taking a public position on controversial public issues. Although the APA Ethics Code does not restrict how psychologists conduct themselves during their personal time, taking a public stance on a controversial issue could potentially strain professional relationships and inadvertently reflect negatively on the profession. The present paper examines ethical issues that a) should be taken into account before psychologists take a public position on a controversial issue, and b) are in conflict with APA's Ethics Code or current research. PMID:25342876
Haeny, Angela M
There are many possibilities for the use of controversial issues such as animal experimentation in biology classrooms. Outlines a series of three lessons that asked senior biology students to consider the issue of animal experimentation from three perspectives. (Author/LM)
Van Rooy, Wilhelmina
Selected clinical and ethical issues associated with providing supervision involving family violence cases are outlined. It is argued that supervisees helping clients with trauma histories require skills beyond learning how to process the trauma with their clients. Advocacy, social action, and coordinating case conferences are some of the…
McBride, Dawn L.
This paper reviews some of the issues connected with questions of ethics, health economics, radiation dose and referral criteria arising from a workshop held under the auspices of the Sentinel Research Program FP6-012909. An extensive bibliography of further reading is included. (authors)
The authors present the development of the Ethical and Legal Issues in Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale (ELICSES). The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) present a rationale for the ELICSES, (b) review statistical analysis procedures used to develop the ELICSES, and (c) offer implications for future research and counselor education.
Mullen, Patrick R.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Conley, Abigail H.
This article draws attention to the issue of parental severe mental illness and the ethical and clinical implications for counselors who work with this population. Parents with mental illness face a multitude of life challenges including, but not limited to, parenting difficulties, medication and hospitalization, custody and placement of their…
Spiegelhoff, Sarah F.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel
This article focuses on ethical issues faced in evaluation practice from the viewpoint of third generation of activity theory, which gives a constructive perspective on how contradictions can be a driving force behind interorganizational learning and development in multiactor networks. The problem field is firstly addressed through an illustration…
In this article, we explore the ethical issues pertaining to student-faculty mentoring relationships in graduate training programs, with a specific focus on understanding these concerns within a multicultural context. Multiculturalism, although broadly defined, is limited herein to race and ethnicity, gender and sexuality, age, religion, and…
Schlosser, Lewis Z.; Foley, Pamela F.
In the light of recent media-driven furores concerning the sensitive matter of patient consent, and the new legislation that impinges upon this issue, the nature of ethical practices for epidemiological research needs to be looked at anew. This paper considers the present landscape, with particular reference to the nuclear workforce and BNFL's current practice in this regard. (author)
Students with severe and persistent mental illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders; moderate to severe mood, anxiety, dissociative, eating, or personality disorders) are attending community colleges in increasing numbers. Their need for counseling services presents counseling centers with unique ethical issues to consider. This…
Francis, Perry C.; Abbassi, Amir
Pedagogical theories and the applications of information technology for language learning have been widely researched in various dimensions. However, ethical issues, such as online privacy and security, and learners' personal data disclosure, are not receiving enough research attention. The perceptions and attitudes from those who participate in…
Wang, Shudong; Heffernan, Neil
The authors identify, examine, and clarify three kinds of hindrances (dismissive/evasive tactics, logical stoppers, and ad hominem arguments) to teaching about ethical issues in P-12 schools. In discussing these three types of obstacles, they stress that the barriers themselves provide both challenges and opportunities for teachers. Indeed, they…
Simpson, Douglas J.; Hull, William J., Jr.
Conducting evaluations that are both valid and ethical is imperative for the support and sustainability of programs that address underserved and vulnerable populations. A key component is to have evaluators who are knowledgeable about relevant cultural issues and sensitive to population needs. Hispanics in rural settings are vulnerable for many…
Loi, Claudia X. Aguado; McDermott, Robert J.
This paper describes the difficulty with informed consent and debates whether or not whether adults should be able to ethically, morally, and legally consent for their children during the high-risk activity of space tourism. The experimental nature of space vehicles combined with the high likelihood of medical complications and the destination places space tourism legally in the category of "adventure activities," which include adventure travel to exotic locations as well as adventure sports, such as mountain climbing, rafting, etc. which carry a high risk of danger (http://rescommunis.wordpress.com/2008/02/14/interview-tracey-l-knutson-adventure-sports-defense-attorney-on-space-tourism-risk-and-informed-consente/). However, unlike other adventure sports, adults currently cannot consent for their minor children. Other topics also receive attention, such as a "mature minors" clause, radiation exposure of potential future children, and other difficulties preventing adults from legally consenting to space travel.
Marsh, Melvin S.
Full Text Available Conducting research in the area of sexual violence has complex ethical and practical challenges for the researcher. Managing ethical issues in sexual violence is important and can be achieved through the use of pilot studies. The primary purpose of the pilot study was to identify and manage potential ethical and practical problems that could jeopardise the main study or violate the ethical and human rights of participants in the main study on women’s journey of recovery from sexual assault. The secondary purpose was to collect preliminary data in order to determine the human, financial and time resources needed for a planned study. The methods and processes used in conducting the pilot study in the study on women’s journey of recovery are discussed according to each of the objectives of the pilot study, methods used to achieve the objective, observations or findings made during the pilot study, and implications for the main study.This article aims to demonstrate how a pilot study was used to manage identified potential ethical and practical research issues during the recruitment of participants and data collection for the research that was conducted by the first author to investigate women’s journey of recovery from sexual assault trauma within the first week following sexual assault.
Full Text Available The working paper provides an overview of key stakeholders involved in the food marketing to children in Europe and in the Czech Republic. It analyzes the role of the legislation as well as of voluntary codes of conduct in the food industry. The industry part of the issue is also covered by explanation of their role and position in the obesity issue. The form of food industry cooperation at the Food Chamber through a working group of involved companies is analyzed and an example of the corporate responsibility program is shown. The paper is going to serve as a review of the issue for further exploration needs.
Ethical goals that future people should be protected and should not have to protect themselves from our radioactive waste are claimed by geologic repository projects. The best test of sufficient protection is to show that the calculated individual doses to future farming families are well below a regulatory limit. That limit should be no greater than what is now adopted to protect the public from operating licensed facilities. Present US calculations show doses, at times well beyond 10,000 years, that exceed current accepted limits by at least three orders of magnitude. Notwithstanding, there is a good chance that the goals can still be achieved by careful technical design of the geologic confinement system. But many in the US now propose ways that would allow greater individual exposures from radionuclides that eventually leak from a geologic repository. Examples include: (a) the 10,000-year cutoff proposed by industry, the US Congress, EPA, and DOE, thus obscuring the later times when higher doses are certain to result; (b) the vicinity-average dose proposed by industry and the US Congress; (c) the probabilistic critical groups proposed by EPRI and by the National Research Council's TYMS committee; (d) proposals to rely on future humans to detect and cleanup excessive amounts of radioactivity that may escape from a repository, and (e) the move to base compliance on calculated doses from well water drawn at considerable distance from Yucca Mountain. Each of these proposals would lead to a far more lenient radiation protection standard than current standards. Each of these proposals is without sufficient scientific basis for its use as a protector of public health. Each of these proposals would violate one or more of the ethical goals. Each is made without adequate discussion and explanation and without explaining how and why it would violate one or more of the ethical goals. What if serious work on alternatives fails to produce conservatively calculated and defensible doses that show that future people will be protected as well as present-day people are protected from licensed nuclear facilities? If so, the need for a geologic repository could be balanced against the desire for assuring such conservative and careful protection of public health. Relaxation of the safety standard itself, as attempted so prematurely by the House and Senate bills of the present and last Congress, should be made only after special review of that need by the scientific community and the public and approval by Congress. The desire for safeguards protection of buried spent nuclear fuel will be an additional burden on repository design and prediction of performance. Thus, the Yucca Mountain Project faces a demanding technical challenge. Similar challenges face policy makers. They must reject pressures for short-term expediency and economy lest, by enacting policies that compromise scientific validity and credibility, they further undermine public confidence and irreparably harm the programs for disposing of high-level radioactive waste
Full Text Available One of the most controversial discussions about parenthood and the Internet is about the sexual offenses that children can face when surfing the Web. Moreover, how parents can protect them effectively is another point of interestin the current society. However, this issue has not been analysed from the ethical point of view due to the lack of cyberethics nowadays. Hence, in this article, the most common online threats against children are discussed considering the utilitarianism, the contractarianism, and the pluralism.Additionally, some procedures applied to protect children are analysed using the mentioned ethical frameworks.
Denys A. Flores
Toys represent children’s chief non-food desires, but there has been little research on the impact of public relations campaigns to promote toys to children. This study addressed two key related issues. First, it assessed the impact of marketing public relations messages on children. Second, it raised questions about the ethics of using marketing public relations to promote toys to children. We used focus groups with children in different age ranges, interviews with toy industry public rela...
Della Pike; Nigel Jackon
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english This article examines some of the ethical issues associated with the use of physical restraint in psychiatry and neurology. It offers no specific answers to individual operational problems, but a methodological matrix is proposed as an aid to experts in the various settings in which decisions are ta [...] ken. The subject is addressed mainly by considering two sources: reference documents published by eminent organisations, and the theoretical framework of ethical values (or principles). A number of analytical criteria arising from these sources are then identified and proposed. The proposed criteria can be applied in cases for which the legitimate use of restraint may be an option, bearing in mind that restraint is an extremely serious affront to human dignity and is widely held to be of no therapeutic value. Its abuse is illegitimate in both ethical and legal terms.
Full Text Available Toys represent children’s chief non-food desires, but there has been little research on the impact of public relations campaigns to promote toys to children. This study addressed two key related issues. First, it assessed the impact of marketing public relations messages on children. Second, it raised questions about the ethics of using marketing public relations to promote toys to children. We used focus groups with children in different age ranges, interviews with toy industry public relations practitioners, and a survey of members of the public. The results suggest that contrary to expected age association, the influence of public relations messages does not necessarily decrease with age. We also found, through adapting and applying Austin and Pinkleton’s levels of public relations impact, that there appear to be two ethical realities, one in industry, and one in society. We suggest a revision of Austin and Pinkleton’s model to reflect an ethical paradigm whereby an assessment of social, not industry, ethical reality determines practitioners’ judgement of ethical effect.
Monica Walle?'s commentary on codes of ethics from five national public relations associations ?What happened to public responsibility? The lack of society in public relations codes of ethics?, in the last issue of PRism (2003), made several useful points about potential conflicts of duty, and the manner in which the various codes are silent on the duty of the professional to the public interest. Indeed, it is this very notion of service to the community, and the upholding of the public in...
User Experience Theory (UXT) provides us with criteria for designing products and technical systems for everyday activities (playing, learning, working,…) so as to satisfy users. Living Labs (LL), are plateforms used for the design and evaluation of technical systems. As such, they constitute tools that bring to this process some constraints., However these constraints have to be articulated to the UXT. In other words, UXT should specify the place, the role and function LL should play in the design of new products, how it should contribute to satisfying UX, and how the methods and techniques should be conceived or borrowed from other disciplines. UXT also raises ethical issues: impartiality (independent, public, replicable) of research models in the context of economical constraints (dependant, private, secret prototypes) and of industrial pressure, the use of intrusive and persuasive techniques, even with the prior informed consent of participants, ergo-marketing, deontology codes, the use of specific participants, belonging of an UX innovative solution, confidentiality with ICT, and so on. Because the UX, as well as LL literature, have shown little concerns for ethical considerations, till now, we define LL-UX ethical issues as a new research topic, and we list a number of problems to be solved in order to have an ethical LL-UX methodology for open innovation. PMID:22317534
Barcenilla, Javier; Tijus, Charles
Full Text Available Background: In the recent years, advances in medical technologies for end stage cancer patients’ care have affected the end-of-life decision-making in clinical practice and exposed oncologists to serious ethical dilemmas. But little is known about oncologists' viewpoints in our country regarding their ethical problems in this mention. We aimed to clarify the ethical dilemmas which Iranian oncologists may face in our health care setting and to determine factors influencing decision-making process.Methods: In this qualitative study, a phenomenological approach was used. We interviewed 8 cancer specialists in teaching hospitals in Iran and used content analysis to identify codes and categorize themes in the data.Results: During the process of analysis, three main themes emerged about ethical dilemmas in end of life care for advanced cancer patients: illness factors, socio-cultural context and patient-physician relationship. Cancer specialists identified ethical problems on several main issues, the most important of which were telling the truth in Iranian cultural context, uncertainty in end stage definition, multidisciplinary team working and cost consideration in Iranian health care system.Conclusion: Health care and insurance system in Iran face to end of life care challenges; therefore, health care providers and policy makers need to allocate appropriate resources and programs to improve quality of care in terminal stages. Appropriate physicians’ communication skills training, multidisciplinary team working and supplementary insurance services that provide essential health care can improve the quality of care of patients with end stages of cancer. The findings of this study can help us to provide ethical policies for decision-making in end-of-life care.
The Live-in Caregiver Program (LCP) exists under Canada’s immigration policies. Working as live-in caregivers for two years gives individuals the opportunity to apply for permanent residency. The proportion of LCP workers has been overrepresented by Filipinas. By 2000, Filipinas made up 87 percent of all LCP caregivers. Using an ethics lens, this paper explores issues surrounding Filipina caregivers in the LCP. Joan Tronto’s (1993) work on ‘moral boundaries’ helps examine how existing...
To identify Chinese geneticists' views of ethical issues in genetic testing and screening, a national survey was conducted. Of 402 Chinese geneticists asked to participate, 255 (63%) returned by mail anonymous questionnaires. The majority of respondents thought that genetic testing should be offered in the workplace for alpha-antitrypsin deficiency (95%) and the predisposition of executives to heart disease, cancer, and diabetes (94%); that genetic testing should be included in preemployment ...
To date, the management of nuclear waste has included sizable releases to the environment. The economic result of these releases is opposed by the ethical issue. Questions of who will be responsible for the wastes are asked. The danger of trusting the experts is pointed out: information is withheld, data are suppressed, etc. The nuclear industry needs to restore confidence, but restoring competence must come first
Problem statement: The rapid spread of e-commerce has created tremendous opportunities for economic efficiency and customer choice. Use of the global Internet computer network for ecommerce activities provides some advantages to the consumers on their daily life. On the other hand Internet represents a new environment for unethical behavior. While e-commerce has witnessed extensive growth in last decade, consumers concerns regarding ethical issues also continue to increase. E...
Sinan Nardal; Ayse Sahin
In this paper we report on our experiences with using network analysis to discern and analyse ethical issues in research into, and the development of, a new wastewater treatment technology. Using network analysis, we preliminarily interpreted some of our observations in a Group Decision Room (GDR) session where we invited important stakeholders to think about the risks of this new technology. We show how a network approach is useful for understanding the observations, and suggests some releva...
Zwart, Sd; Poel, Ir; Mil, Hgj Harald; Brumsen, M.
In the recent years, new medical technologies and their probable misuses have emerged public concerns about medical ethics. Medical ethics is a practical discipline that provides a structured approach for identifying, analyzing, and resolving ethical issues in clinical medicine. "nIn this study we reviewed some new methods of teaching medical ethics in other countries by searching in internet and literature. "nTwo key features related to the teaching of medical ethics are active inv...
"Bagher Larijani; Elaheh Motevasseli
Full Text Available Ethics has become an important part in the interaction among humans being. This paper specifically discusses applied ethics as one type of ethics. There are three applied ethics that will be reviewed in this paper, i.e. computer ethics, information ethics, and cyber ethics. There are two aspects of the three applied ethics that were reviewed, i.e. their definition and the issues associated with them. The reviewing results of the three applied ethics are then used for defining e-Government ethics and formulating the issues of e-Government ethics. The e-Government ethics position, based on the previous three applied ethics, is also described in this paper. Computer ethics, information ethics and cyber ethics are considered as the foundations of e-Government ethics and several others applied ethics could enrich the e-Government ethics.
...The Federal Labor Relations Authority (FLRA...of the Office of Government Ethics (OGE...relating to labor relations, or from engaging...conflicts with official Government duties or responsibilities...Federal Labor Relations Authority. Approved...Director, Office of Government Ethics. [FR...
Studies on impairment in psychologists and other mental health practitioners began appearing in the literature 30-35 years ago. Since then, research and related scholarly writings have continued to be published to more fully understand this concept and its components. In school psychology, however, little has been written regarding school…
Mahoney, Emery B.; Morris, Richard J.
Several ethical issues confront the healthcare professional who is managing somatization in developing countries where cost constraints, low literacy, poverty, poor nutrition and infections and inadequate access to healthcare are common. The paper discusses these in the context of the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. Some of the ethical issues in managing somatization include being influenced by patient distress rather than rational medical decision-making, inadequate attention to the cultural meaning of symptoms, psychologizing versus medicalizing, the ethics of nomenclature and labels, communicating ethically with patients, and managing them adequately given lack of evidence and training. An ethical approach to managing somatization in this context would include using an integrated and simultaneous medical and psychiatric approach. To ensure patient beneficence, the medical, psychological and social assessment should be undertaken side-by-side as much as possible and should be cost effective. Respecting patient autonomy by using adequate communication methods and the patient's cultural model of the illness as part of management is also integral to ethical practice. In the developing world, issues of equity are also an important ethical concern. When more serious illnesses are the health priority, functional syndromes may not get equal importance or resources. PMID:23383669
Chandra, Prabha S; Satyanarayana, Veena A
Pronouncing the words ''radioactive waste'' can easily arouse mistrust, or even irrational fear, by wittingly or unwittingly referring to Hiroshima or Chernobyl, by exploiting the lax attitude to this type of waste in certain countries and by speculating on the complex issues involved, which are beyond the general public's grasp. It would be unacceptable to paint such a black picture of nuclear waste, just as it would be to keep glossing over the problems that it poses. Waste managers have a duty to convince scientists and politicians and public opinion in general, with arguments based on serious scientific research, that safe technical solutions do exist. But will this be enough? The general public of course knows very little about science. But people are prepared to put their trust in science provided that they are not subjected to a free for all between scientists from opposing camps attacking each other with unintelligible arguments. However, other types of reactions, more difficult to control, can be expected from some quarters of the general public. For instance, a reaction of instinctive and passionate mistrust has already emerged in different forms over the centuries, with its roots buried in ancestral culture and as such varying from region to region and country to country. Nuclear waste may also provide yet another opportunity to demonstrate opposition to something ostensibly being imposed by Central Government. The only solution here is for decisions to be only solution here is for decisions to be worked out at grass roots level through a gradual process of wide consultation, with the necessary backing of elected local authorities. For these reasons, the process of setting up an underground laboratory possibly followed by radioactive waste storage has to be a gradual one, with thorough consultation at all levels at each stage under the constant supervision of ad hoc committees of scientific experts, each new step forward only being decided by the political authorities after completing the proper inquiry procedures. (O.M.)
Patients who search for a better treatment, an increased quality of life, or even a chance to preserve life itself may claim to have an interest in accessing investigational medicinal products (IMP), particularly when no validated treatment for their disease or condition exists. For many, awaiting the uncertain and time-consuming process of converting an IMP into an approved drug may not appear a realistic option, as prognoses may be grim and a dramatic outcome may seem hard to avert. Gaining access to an IMP, however, often proves to be a difficult enterprise with a highly uncertain outcome. In addition, the process of seeking access to IMP is surrounded by various ethical issues that will be explored in this article. This paper explores the ethical concerns in two potential tracks of seeking access to IMP for minors: on an individual basis, or collectively, as a patient organisation. In this discourse, several unique ethical and regulatory concerns related to the direct negotiation of access to IMP for minor patients are identified, with a focus on product safety, the recruitment of research subjects, the unnoticed entry of market mechanisms in the recruitment of research subjects, and the sidelining of third parties in the recruitment process. The paper concludes with a concise reflection on the way forward. The quest for access to investigational drugs is particularly relevant to paediatric practice, in which a significant share of the drugs prescribed has never been tested in children or labelled for use in the paediatric population. PMID:20852303
Pinxten, Wim; Nys, Herman; Dierickx, Kris
This research is planned for determining teacher candidates’ opinions about some bioethics issues which include ethical dilemmas. In this research in which quantitative research techniques was used, a study group consisted of 238 teacher candidates from eight different departments at Gazi University in 2011-2012 academic year. Bioethical Values Inventory including scenarios located in the center of ethical issues, such as genetic screening tests, reproductive technologies and euthanasia use...
Kurt, I?smet; Keski?n Samanci, Nilay; O?zer Keski?n, Melike
Continued technological advances have made the prospect of routine whole-genome sequencing (WGS) imminent. To date, much of the discussion about WGS has focused on its application and use in clinical medicine. Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential integration of WGS into newborn screening programs. Given the structure and scope of these programs, it is possible that the early applications of WGS will occur in state-run newborn screening programs. Assessment of the pressin...
Tarini, Beth A.; Goldenberg, Aaron J.
A survey investigated 122 British business students' perceptions of ethics in international marketing practices, particularly as they are affected by demographic characteristics. In response to 12 specific scenarios, students indicated relatively liberal attitudes. Implications for global marketing specialists and for business education are…
Amin, Sammy G.
Educational researchers, like other academic investigators, are expected to carry out research in an ethical manner. This paper draws on the author's experience of conducting a research study related to social justice, which examines intergenerational dynamics and education amongst British Asian families. It discusses the importance of…
Basit, Tehmina N.
...the Commission will discuss issues of privacy and access related...discussing neuroscience and related ethical issues. DATES: The meeting will take...discussing neuroscience and related ethical issues. The draft meeting agenda...
To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at least in part, diverging results. This study investigates how students explain and understand their argumentation about dilemmas concerning gene testing for the purpose to reduce hereditary diseases. Thirteen students were interviewed about their views on this issue. Qualitative analysis was done primarily by relating students’ argumentation to their movements between ethics and morals as opposing poles. Students used either objective or subjective knowledge but had difficulties to integrate them. They tried to negotiate ethic arguments using utilitarian motives and medical knowledge with sympathy or irrational and personal arguments. They discussed the embryo’s moral status to decide if it was replaceable in a social group or not. The educational implications of the students’ use of knowledge in personal arguments are discussed.
Lindahl, Mats Gunnar
Elite gymnastics, and other sports where athletes and coaches are particularly concerned with aesthetic considerations, weight and shape, are fields within which the risk of eating disorders may be unusually high. Adolescent gymnasts, developing their own sense of self, at a time of life where body image concerns are common, often compete at the very top of the sport with a need to maintain a body shape and weight optimal for elite performance. Research into this field should address the range of sociological and ethical aspects of eating disorders in elite sport, their prevalence as well as the ethos of the sport itself. This paper addresses a range of conceptual, ethical and methodological issues relevant to conducting research in this sensitive yet important field. PMID:24533496
Tan, Jacinta; Bloodworth, Andrew; McNamee, Mike; Hewitt, Jeanette
Patients undergoing major surgery are at risk for postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). The consciousness of the POCD arises new ethical and medico---legal issues that should be identified, managed and, if possible, prevented. Elderly patients still represent a real challenge for physicians and medical science. This challenge can be surmounted not only through technical progress but also by safeguarding the correct ethical behavior at the base of each relationship between a patient and his physician. Effective communication with the elderly patient is a prerequisite for clear and complete information, involving family members and caregivers when necessary. In every case, the identification of patients with pre---existing risk factors of POCD, shortening the period of time preceding the surgery and a proper technique of the procedure as well as physical and intellectual exercises, nutrition and medication play an important role in decreasing the incidence of neurocognitive deficits in the elderly. PMID:25216219
Setacci, C; Sirignano, A; Ricci, G; Spagnolo, A G; Pugliese, F; Speziale, F
As the potential for the first human trials of somatic cell gene therapy nears, two ethical issues are examined: problems of moral choice for members of institutional review boards who consider the first protocols, for parents, and for the clinical researchers, and the special protections that may be required for the infants and children to be involved, and ethical objections to somatic cell therapy made by those concerned about a putative inevitable progression of genetic knowledge from therapy to mass genetic engineering in human reproduction. The author's viewpoint is that a consensus exists on the required moral approach to somatic cell therapy, but that no moral approach yet exists for experiments beyond this level, especially in the germline cells of human beings. PMID:3900265
Fletcher, J C
This study investigates the impact of consumers’ ethical buying intentions on their buying behavior. Using a survey approach, the findings suggest the link between ethical buying intentions and behavior depends on consumers’ awareness of the brand’s general corporate social responsibility activities. Only when consumers with ethical purchase intentions are aware of the brand’s CSR activities can their intentions translate into behavior.
Alexandra Madar; Huang, Hazel H.; Ting-Hsiang Tseng
The focus of this special edition of Youth Studies Australia is on questions, issues, challenges and (tentative) solutions in relation to ensuring that research with young people is conducted ethically. This introductory paper by the guest editors of this edition draws on ethical principles as outlined in the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans and in the Fairbridge Code of Ethics for youth work. The authors explain how these principles can inform ethical youth ...
Te Riele, K.; Brooks, R.
This paper tackles a relatively unaddressed area of journalistic ethics by offering insights from working journalists into the conditions they face when reporting disasters. It covers the disaster reporting context in general, but with particular emphasis on the witnessing of disaster and subsequent impact on the journalist, and the processes of collection of visual imagery for print or broadcast. This research provides a complement to the large body of output-related analysis of photojourn...
Prenatal ultrasound has opened new opportunities to examine, diagnose and treat the fetus, but these advances bring with them ethical dilemmas. In this chapter, I address the ethical principles that need to be considered when treating both mother and fetus as patients, and how these can be applied in practice. In particular, ultrasound practitioners have an ethical duty to maintain their theoretical knowledge and practical skills to ensure they advise parents correctly. I also discuss the ethical issues in carrying out intrauterine therapy, ultrasound-related research, and termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality. PMID:24374013
Professional public relations bodies internationally have established ethics codes in an attempt to regulate members’ ethical behaviour. This paper critiques the code-based framework on philosophical and practical grounds, suggesting that such frameworks are inadequate because they leave practitioners free to interpret these guides in ways that advance their own and their clients’ interests. We argue that this latitude does not foster ethical behaviour. We then contrast rule-following,act...
Karey Harrison; Chris Galloway
Ninety-three percent of pediatric AIDS cases are the result of perinatal HIV transmission, a disease that is almost entirely preventable with early intervention, which reduces the risk of perinatal HIV infection from 25% to ethical dilemmas can result. Federal courts consistently uphold a woman's right to refuse medical testing and treatment, even though it may benefit her fetus/newborn infant. Federal courts also reliably respect the rights of parents to make health care decisions for their newborn infants, which may include declining medical testing and treatment. Confusing the issue of HIV testing and treatment, however, is the fact that there is no definitive United States Supreme Court ruling on the issue. State laws and standards vary widely and serve as guiding principles for practicing clinicians, who must be vigilant of ongoing legal challenges and changes in the states in which they practice. We present a case of an HIV-positive pregnant woman who declined treatment and then testing or treatment of her newborn infant. Ultimately, the legal system intervened. Given the rarity of such cases, we use this as a primer for the practicing clinician to highlight the public health, legal, and ethical issues surrounding prenatal and newborn infant HIV testing and treatment in the United States, including summarizing key state-to-state regulatory differences. PMID:24732002
Tessmer-Tuck, Jennifer A; Poku, Joseph K; Burkle, Christopher M
Full Text Available This is a paper based on empirical investigation conducted in Western India between 2002 and 2012 especially at a time when the Indian economy is in a stage of transition from state capitalism to free market capitalism, albeit both of a retarded variety. It takes the 7 Ps of services marketing and cross verifies responses against seven dimensions of ethical conduct. The study is based on questionnaires followed by interviews. The target respondents were life insurance employees of banc assurance involved in marketing life insurance policies to customers in the urban sector. The study brought to the fore the fact that commissions were more important that telling the truth while selling policies. In the process ethical considerations conveniently went out of the window. To protect the interest of the unsuspecting clients a plea is made to have governance machinery in place that will make the insurance marketing personnel accountable for what and how they sell their wares. This need is especially felt in a country where the social security net is virtually non existent and the erstwhile joint family system is on a fast decline. In such circumstances a lack of ethical norms on the part of the insurer is an unacceptable sociological proposition and borders on gross unethical behaviour. The task of people management experts to address this issue is of the paramount importance and urgency if the Indian life insurance industry is to sustain its social image in a highly competitive market where foreign players are steadily entering the domestic scene.
Sorab Georgy Sadri
The aggressive militancy of many animal rights or "antivivisectionist" groups is causing great consternation but little action on the part of medical and surgical researchers. Pediatric surgeons are particularly affected, since issues of tissue healing, growth and development, and organ or total-body responses to surgical insults must be established in the live organism, usually in animal models that cannot be replaced by other methods. Investigators have been threatened physically; laboratories have been vandalized and valuable data destroyed. Biomedical researchers have been called "animal-Nazis." The proliferation of animal rights groups such as the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) have prompted the birth of pro-research organizations such as "Putting People First" and the "incurably ill For Animal Research" (iiFAR). The result of this pro and con activity is an extraordinary amount of time and expense devoted to cover the cost of new regulations and laboratory security (approximately $ 1.5 billion in the U. S. alone) at the expense of research budgets, adding to the increasing shortage of research funding. This situation has created dilemmas for the surgeon involved in basic animal research: is it worth taking personal risks to develop new techniques? Is it ethical to allow these fears to hinder progress in surgery? Should we do away with animal research entirely and test new techniques directly on children? Would that be ethical? These questions are difficult to answer, but must be addressed if we expect medicine to progress. PMID:24057778
Sonnino, R E; Banks, R E
Research activity in primary care is increasing rapidly, and raises a range of specific ethical issues. Many of these relate to the involvement of individuals in the community who are not seeking medical care and to the impact of research participation on relationships between general practitioners and their patients. The ethical issues pertinent to a range of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies in primary care are identified and considered.
Jones, R.; Murphy, E.; Crosland, A.
Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) designed to simultaneously prevent pregnancy and HIV could provide urgently needed tools to address unmet sexual and reproductive health needs of women worldwide. Late-stage clinical trials will be complex given the need to demonstrate efficacy for HIV and contraceptive indications simultaneously from a single product. Currently, HIV and pregnancy prevention trials have distinctive design features that will need to be reconciled in MPT trials. This article identifies several ethical issues uniquely associated with this research that will benefit from future deliberation and guidance to ensure that this globally important research can proceed efficiently and expeditiously. PMID:25113651
Cohen, Jessica A; Mastroianni, Anna C; Macklin, Ruth
This is Part 2 of a two-part series on the ethical issues surrounding the use of placebo arms in clinical trials for psychiatric drugs. Part 1 discussed the ethical argument from a statistical, population-based perspective. Part 2 explores the ethical issues of placebo-controlled studies as they relate to individual psychiatric patients who may participate in them. Many patients who are candidates for psychiatric clinical trials would receive poor treatment for their mental illness under standard treatment conditions. Industry-sponsored clinical trials often provide treatment resources otherwise not available to patients at a more intense level of care than the local standard. Moreover, study design features, such as those developed at University of California, San Diego (presented herein), can mitigate the risks of placebo arms. With this in mind, clinical trials represent an ethical option for many patients with chronic mental illness. PMID:20104288
Full Text Available This paper tackles a relatively unaddressed area of journalistic ethics by offering insights from working journalists into the conditions they face when reporting disasters. It covers the disaster reporting context in general, but with particular emphasis on the witnessing of disaster and subsequent impact on the journalist, and the processes of collection of visual imagery for print or broadcast. This research provides a complement to the large body of output-related analysis of photojournalism, by examining the sometimes messy and traumatic circumstances of the initial gathering of photojournalistic imagery and by foregrounding the role of the journalist not as objective news conduit but as feeling human being. Arguably, no attempt to judge the ethics of photojournalism is complete without some understanding of the conditions faced by journalists at the scene of a disaster.
Potential child participants in clinical research trials in low-income countries are often vulnerable because of poverty, high morbidity and mortality, inadequate education, and varied local cultural norms. However, vulnerability by itself must not be accepted as an obstacle blocking children from the health benefits that may accrue as an outcome of sound clinical research. As greater emphasis is placed on evidence-based treatment of children, it should be anticipated that there will be a growing call for agreement on principles to guide clinical investigations in low-income countries. There is now general acceptance of the view that children must be protected from non-evidence-based interventions and from substandard treatments. The questions remaining relate to how best to stimulate clinical research activity that will serve the needs of infants, children, and youth in developing countries and how best to assign priority to ethically sound research that will meet their clinical requirements. In low-income countries, 39 % of citizens are 13 years of age or younger, and consequently it is certain that clinical investigations of some new therapeutic products will be conducted there more frequently. This review offers some suggestions for approaches that will help to achieve more effective ethical consideration, including (1) improving the quality of research ethics boards; (2) fostering collaborative partnerships among important stakeholders; (3) making concerted efforts to build capacity; (4) improving the quality of the consent and waiver process; and (5) developing improved governance for harmonized ethics platforms. Continuing support by international organizations is required to sustain the establishment and maintenance of stronger research ethics boards to protect children enrolled in clinical trials. This review underscores the importance of developing a culture of solidarity and true partnership between developed and low-income country organizations, which will allow all those involved, and especially child patients, to benefit from the advancement of therapeutics. PMID:25404352
MacLeod, S M; Knoppert, D C; Stanton-Jean, M; Avard, D
We aim to raise awareness and stimulate dialogue among investigators and research ethics committees regarding ethical issues that arise specifically in the design and conduct of mHealth research involving persons living with HIV/AIDS and substance abuse. Following a brief background discussion of mHealth research in general, we offer a case example to illustrate the characteristics of mHealth research involving people living with HIV/AIDS and substance abuse. With reference to a well-establis...
Labrique, Alain B.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Westergaard, Ryan P.; Merritt, Maria W.
To correspond to the Association for Educational Communication Technology (AECT) Code of Professional Ethics and the professional journal TechTrends' ethics columns, this paper provides empirical data regarding ethical issues associated with the use of instructional technology in design and training situations. In-depth interviews of 20…
While freedom of movement has been one of the most highly respected human right across the EU, there are various aspects which come into play which still need to be resolved for this to be achieved in practice. One of these key issues is cross border health care. Indeed, there is an increasing awareness of standardisation of health service provision and cross border collaboration in the EU. However, certain groups particularly children may be at risk of suboptimal treatment as a result. We present the case of a child patient which highlights the complexity of this matter spanning family law, health law, social security law as well as ethical issues. EU legislation needs to ensure that children patients have access to high quality care across the EU borders. PMID:23109513
Mercieca, Cecilia; Aquilina, Kevin; Pullicino, Richard; Borg, Andrew A
Full Text Available During the past ten years the complex ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI typically surrounding large-scale genetic biobank research initiatives have been intensely debated in academic circles. In many ways genetic epidemiology has undergone a set of changes resembling what in physics has been called a transition into Big Science. This article outlines consequences of this transition and suggests that the change in scale implies challenges to the roles of scientists and public alike. An overview of key issues is presented, and it is argued that biobanks represent not just scientific endeavors with purely epistemic objectives, but also political projects with social implications. As such, they demand clever maneuvering among social interests to succeed.
Klaus Lindgaard Hoeyer
Full Text Available This essay outlines the preliminary structure of a moral ontology of accounting understood as discourse. Tospeak of an ontology of accounting is to speak of the most general features of accounting, those features of itsexistence that are present irrespective of variations in observed “accountings,” of ways in which accountingmanifests itself in lived experience. To speak of a moral ontology is to construe those general features asproducts of human choices and actions which follow from axiological (value-based commitments to pursuethe good and just life, however that life might be understood, and indeed understood differently by differentpersons. Thus a moral ontology stands in distinction from, for example, a naturalistic ontology, one “freedfrom the freedom” of axiological horizons. Within its embeddedness in a moral ontology, the enactment ofaccounting takes empirical form as discourse – as an act of someone saying (writing something aboutsomething to someone else (Ricoeur, 1976; Arrington & Francis, 1993. Thus if we seek to understandaccounting’s force in the world, a force that is always valued and evaluated in terms of consequences for thegood and just life, we get our most general understandings from attending to the ethics of language and itsuse. My task in this essay is to introduce the structure of what the elements of accounting’s relation to theethics of language and its use might be. Expanding upon that structure remains a task for future work.
C. Edward Arrington
The newly emerging field of machine ethics (Anderson and Anderson 2006) is concerned with adding an ethical dimension to machines. Unlike computer ethics -- which has traditionally focused on ethical issues surrounding humans' use of machines -- machine ethics is concerned with ensuring that the behavior of machines toward human users, and perhaps other machines as well, is ethically acceptable. In this article we discuss the importance of machine ethics, the need for machines that represent ...
Anderson, Michael; Anderson, Susan Leigh
The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) operates the largest integrated health care system within the United States. VA budgets continue to escalate in an environment of heightened financial prudence and accountability. Despite having received many awards in areas from patient satisfaction and safety to product innovations, like any health care system, the VA is not immune to ethical conflict that requires exploration and evaluation. Several VA dermatologists, including section chiefs, were interviewed, and their responses to ethical complexities encountered or anticipated were analyzed in fictional case scenarios. Five morally concerning issues were highlighted. These include (1) providing care in a teaching setting with limited resources to a patient population with few other health care alternatives; (2) stereotyping patients, altogether an uncommon act, is possibly easier to do in the VA and has the potential to negatively affect patient care; (3) service-related disability claim cases often include medical opinion and findings documented in the medical record when judgments are made, thus the VA physician can have a significant effect on the outcome of these claims; (4) whether the VA provides a setting for apathetic physicians to thrive or instead allows for a more meaningful work experience and then how to manage the subpar performer; (5) except for the treatment of HIV lipodystrophy with injectables, primary cosmetic procedures are prohibited at the VA and can lead to difficulties for the VA dermatologist attempting to comply in a era where dermatology is being more closely associated with cosmesis. PMID:22902226
Reich, Reuben; Stevens, Emily; Dellavalle, Robert P
We survey the meta-ethical tools and institutional processes that traditional Islamic ethicists apply when deliberating on bioethical issues. We present a typology of these methodological elements, giving particular attention to the meta-ethical techniques and devices that traditional Islamic ethicists employ in the absence of decisive or univocal authoritative texts or in the absence of established transmitted cases. In describing how traditional Islamic ethicists work, we demonstrate that these experts possess a variety of discursive tools. We find that the ethical responsa-i.e., the products of the application of the tools that we describe-are generally characterized by internal consistency. We also conclude that Islamic ethical reasoning on bioethical issues, while clearly scripture-based, is also characterized by strong consequentialist elements and possesses clear principles-based characteristics. The paper contributes to the study of bioethics by familiarizing non-specialists in Islamic ethics with the role, scope, and applicability of key Islamic ethical concepts, such as "aims" (maq??id), "universals" (kulliyy?t), "interest" (ma?la?a), "maxims" (qaw?`id), "controls" (?aw?bit), "differentiators" (fur?q), "preponderization" (tarj??), and "extension" (tafr?`). PMID:23665956
Abdur-Rashid, Khalil; Furber, Steven Woodward; Abdul-Basser, Taha
BackgroundClinical practice guidelines (CPGs), a core tool to foster medical professionalism, differ widely in whether and how they address disease-specific ethical issues (DSEIs), and current manuals for CPG development are silent on this issue. The implementation of an explicit method faces two core challenges: first, it adds further complexity to CPG development and requires human and financial resources. Second, in contrast to the in-depth treatment of ethical issues that is standard in bioethics, the inclusion of DSEIs in CPGs need to be more pragmatic, reductive, and simplistic, but without rendering the resulting recommendations useless or insufficiently justified. This paper outlines a six-step approach, EthicsGuide, for the systematic and transparent inclusion of ethical issues and recommendations in CPGs.MethodsThe development of EthicsGuide is based on (a) methodological standards in evidence-based CPG development, (b) principles of bioethics, (c) research findings on how DSEIs are currently addressed in CPGs, and (d) findings from two proof-of-concept analyses of the EthicsGuide approach.ResultsThe six steps are 1) determine the DSEI spectrum and the need for ethical recommendations; 2) develop statements on which to base ethical recommendations; 3) categorize, classify, condense, and paraphrase the statements; 4) write recommendations in a standard form; 5) validate and justify recommendations, making any necessary modifications; and 6) address consent. All six steps necessarily come into play when including DSEIs in CPGs.ConclusionsIf DSEIs are not explicitly addressed, they are unavoidably dealt with implicitly. We believe that as ethicists gain greater involvement in decision-making about health, personal rights, or economic issues, they should make their methods transparent and replicable by other researchers; and as ethical issues become more widely reflected in CPGs, CPG developers have to learn how to address them in a methodologically adequate way. The approach proposed should serve as a basis for further discussion on how to reach these goals. It breaks open the black box of what ethicists implicitly do when they develop recommendations. Further, interdisciplinary discussion and pilot tests are needed to explore the minimal requirements that guarantee a simplified procedure which is still acceptable and does not become mere window dressing. PMID:25472446
Mertz, Marcel; Strech, Daniel
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english In environmental epidemiology research, decisions about when and how to intervene requires adequate ethical reflection. In fact, different kinds of issues may arise about: research methods and knowledge production; management of the results in terms of their overall assessments or for the implementa [...] tion of preventive actions; reclamation intervention. In this contribution we propose to consider three topics we regard as crucial to this ethical debate: the reporting of conclusive research data; the correct application of the precautionary principle; and the environmental equity issues.
Giordana, Pagliarani; Caterina, Botti.
This case study discusses qualitative fieldwork in Malaysia. The trends in higher education led to investigating how and why young Indians and Chinese in Malaysia are using the university to pursue a life strategy. Given the importance of field context in designing and analysing research based on a qualitative methodology, conscious reflection on research design and objectivity is important when doing fieldwork. This case study discusses such reflections. Emphasis throughout is given to applied qualitative methodology and its contributions to the social sciences, in particular having to do with relational, emotional, and ethical issues associated with interviewing and personal observation. Although the empirical setting of this case is Southeast Asia, the various discussions and interrelatedness of methodology, theory, and empirical reflections will prove applicable to field studies throughout the world.
Svensson, Christian Franklin
Full Text Available The term CLOUD means Common Location Independent Online Utility on Demand. It?s an emerging technology in IT industries. Cloud technologies are improving day by day and now it become a need for all small and large scale industries. Companies like Google, Amazon, Microsoft etc. is providing virtualized environment for user by which it omits the need for physical storage and others. But as the advantage of cloud computing is increasing day by day the issues are also threatening the IT industries. These issues related with the security of the data. The basic idea of this review paper is to elaborate the security issues related with cloud computing and what methods are implemented to improve these security. Certain algorithms like RSA, DES, and Ceaser Cipher etc. implemented to improve the security issues. In this paper we have implemented Identity based mRSA algorithm in this paper for improving security of data.
Ethics refers to a set of rules that define right and wrong behavior, used for moral decision making. In this case, computer ethics is one of the major issues in information technology (IT) and information system (IS). The ethical behaviour of IT students and professionals need to be studied in an attempt to reduce many unethical practices such as software piracy, hacking, and software intellectual property violations. This paper attempts to address computer-related scenarios that can be used...
Maslin Masrom; Zuraini Ismail; Ramlah Hussein
In Turkey, there was no legal regulation of research on human beings until 1993. In that year "the amendment relating to drug researches" was issued. The main objectives of the regulation are to establish a central ethics committee and local ethics committees, and to provide administrative control.There are no compulsory clinical ethics lectures in the medical curriculum, so it is also proposed that research ethics committees (RECs) play a central educational role by helping physicians to be ...
Postoperative chemotherapy and radiation therapy is standard care in high risk patients who had undergone a curative resection of the primary tumor. Best survival results are achieved with three-drug regimens containing FU, an anthracycline, and cisplatin (ECF), although the recently presented REAL-2-trial, demonstrated a significant survival benefit for EOX (epirubicin, oxaliplatin, capecitabine) over ECF. Consequently, chemotherapy could be offered to some proportion of patients with advanc...
Triantafillidis, J. K.; Peros, G.
This paper deals with new pharmacological and technological developments in the manipulation and curtailment of our sleep needs. While humans have used various methods throughout history to lengthen diurnal wakefulness, recent advances have been achieved in manipulating the architecture of the brain states involved in sleep. The progress suggests that we will gradually become able to drastically manipulate our natural sleep-wake cycle. Our goal here is to promote discussion on the desirabilit...
Ravelingien, A.; Sandberg, A.
...Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues will conduct its ninth meeting...discuss topics related to the ethical issues associated with the development...meeting are, first, to discuss the ethical issues associated with the...
Stephen Hancocks' elegant editorial of 11 December 2011 raises interesting questions which deserve discussion. Most experienced dentists would agree that the less that is done to teeth for cosmetic reasons, the lesser are the risks of disappointment, failure of expectation, or threat of litigation. Yet there is an increasing number of cases where aesthetics are the primary concern for dentists and patients alike and some patients are consenting to treatment without being properly informed of the destructive nature of the procedures to their sound tooth tissue and structures to achieve the desired 'cosmetic' outcome. This raises ethical issues, as much of this overtreatment is unnecessarily destructive and goes against the healing and caring principles of the dental profession. PMID:22538895
The literature indicates that the health of women in Afghanistan is poor. In 1997 maternal mortality in Afghanistan was one of the worst in the world. Difficulties in establishing health services revolve around fundamentalist Islamic ideas and ongoing violence within Afghanistan. The literature holds advice on key behaviours for health professionals who may chose to work in Afghanistan. The literature also identifies the local level action that is occurring as the issue of women's health is recognised. Humanitarian assistance has been provided, with international aid agencies having to weigh the ethical responsibilities they hold and one agency tragically facing the violent loss of its own staff. Easy answers are not in the literature, merely an opportunity to understand, consider, and take action about what is facing women in Afghanistan and those who try to help. PMID:16893809
Explores four types of intervention available in treating self-injurious behavior (SIB). One effective, although controversial, treatment in reducing SIB involves use of Self-Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System (SIBIS), a device which delivers a mild electric shock following a blow to the head. Reviews and explains the ethical and legal issues…
A survey of 249 students at the State University of New York at Buffalo identified medical ethics issues arising during clinical training in professional norms, limits of intervention, defensive shielding of professional colleagues, respect toward patients, communication, and student boundaries. Concerns differed by student year, supporting…
Bissonette, Raymond; And Others
This article describes the development of a course which introduces students to issues of animal ethics, experimentation, and an Animal Care Facility. The experiments enable the students to gain confidence in collecting data, compiling large data sets, handling spreadsheets and graphing, applying appropriate statistics, and writing accurate and concise scientific reports in journal article format.
Adam C. Hall (Smith College; )
Discusses the ethical use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) and the lack of integration of information ethics into elementary, secondary, and higher education curricula. The development of information ethics instruction is proposed which would include such topics as intellectual property, destruction of digital property, confidentiality and…
Resta, Paul E.
Given the prevalence of school-age children and adolescents who are prescribed with and are taking psychotropic medications, a critical issue that school psychologists may likely encounter in contemporary practice is providing both quality and continuity of care to these students in the context of relevant legal and ethical parameters. With a…
Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.
This paper describes the approach of empirical ethics, a form of ethics that integrates non-positivist ethnographic empirical research and philosophy. Empirical ethics as it is discussed here builds on the 'empirical turn' in epistemology. It radicalizes the relational approach that care ethics introduced to think about care between people by drawing in relations between people and technologies as things people relate to. Empirical ethics studies care practices by analysing their intra-normativity, or the ways of living together the actors within these practices strive for or bring about as good practices. Different from care ethics, what care is and if it is good is not defined beforehand. A care practice may be contested by comparing it to alternative practices with different notions of good care. By contrasting practices as different ways of living together that are normatively oriented, suggestions for the best possible care may be argued for. Whether these suggestions will actually be put to practice is, however, again a relational question; new actors need to re-localize suggestions, to make them work in new practices and fit them in with local intra-normativities with their particular routines, material infrastructures, know-how and strivings. PMID:25023945
Luciano Floridi develops an original ethical framework for dealing with the new challenges posed by Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). ICTs have profoundly changed many aspects of life, including the nature of entertainment, work, communication, education, health care, industrial production and business, social relations, and conflicts. They have had a radical and widespread impact on our moral lives and on contemporary ethical debates. Privacy, ownership, freedom of speech, responsibility, technological determinism, the digital divide, and pornography online are only some of the pressing issues that characterise the ethical discourse in the information society. They are the subject of Information Ethics (IE), the new philosophical area of research that investigates the ethical impact of ICTs on human life and society. Since the seventies, IE has been a standard topic in many curricula. In recent years, there has been a flourishing of new university courses, international conferences, workshop...
Social neuroscience and its potential implications create an interesting case study for examining human research ethics policies on the topic of public communication of research. We reviewed mainstream national and international human research ethics guidelines and policies on issues of public communication of research. Our analysis relied on five thematic nets to capture the interactions between research and the public: public understanding, knowledge translation, public participation, social outcomes, and dual use. Coverage of these topics is sparse and inconsistent in mainstream policies and guidelines. We identify three options to address these gaps and analyze their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:22268503
Zimmerman, Emma; Racine, Eric
Full Text Available Non-voluntary admission of mentally ill patients is charged with multiple ethical issues and dilemmas, the most complicated being its dangerousness and predictability, the appropriate classification of patients into the corresponding risk category and the therapeutic decisions imposed in a paternalistic way. The paternalistic attitude of the physician is acceptable given that there is an obvious degree of social danger. The potentially violent, especially hetero-aggressive, behaviour has a great social impact resulting in patient stigmatization and isolation. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the social issues of patients with mental disorders, non-voluntary admitted. The study is retrospective and the data were collected from records of patients who have been non-voluntarily admitted from 2002 to 2011 in a psychiatric hospital in Iasi, Romania. The results show that among the risk factors in non-voluntary admission, hetero-aggressivity is one criterion under Article 45, paragraph a Law 487/2002, frequently met in the study batch. Additionally, many non-voluntary admitted patients with mental illness have no medical insurance, being unemployed, unmarried / divorced and having a low social support. Community must be tolerant towards the mentally ill, regardless of the social integration of these patients. After discharge, a better social support may improve the prognosis, influencing the occurrence and evolution of mental illnesses. A strong support network is protective whereas a weak or lacking support network would make patients more vulnerable to stressful life events.
The most long-lived metaphysics or view of reality in the history of Western thought is Aristotle's teleology teleology , which reigned for almost 2,000 years. Biology was expressed in terms of function or telos telos , and accorded perfectly with common sense. The rise of mechanistic, Newtonian science vanquished teleological explanations. Understanding and accommodating animal telos was essential to success in animal husbandry, which involved respect for telos, and was presuppositional to our "ancient contract" with domestic animals. Telos was further abandoned with the rise of industrial agriculture, which utilized "technological fixes" to force animal into environments they were unsuited for, while continuing to be productive. Loss of husbandry and respect for telos created major issues for farm animal welfare, and forced the creation of a new ethic demanding respect for telos. As genetic engineering developed, the notion arose of modifying animals to fit their environment in order to avoid animal suffering, rather than fitting them into congenial environments. Most people do not favor changing the animals, rather than changing the conditions under which they are reared. Aesthetic appreciation of husbandry and virtue ethics militate in favor of restoring husbandry, rather than radically changing animal teloi. One, however, does not morally wrong teloi by changing them-one can only wrong individuals. In biomedical research, we do indeed inflict major pain, suffering and disease on animals. And genetic engineering seems to augment our ability to create animals to model diseases, particularly more than 3,000 known human genetic diseases. The disease, known as Lesch-Nyhan's syndrome or HPRT deficiency, which causes self-mutilation and mental retardation, provides us with a real possibility for genetically creating "animal models" of this disease, animals doomed to a life of great and unalleviable suffering. This of course creates a major moral dilemma. Perhaps one can use the very genetic engineering which creates this dilemma to ablate consciousness in such animal models, thereby escaping a moral impasse. PMID:24496650
Rollin, Bernard E
Techniques related to the use of radiolabeled antibodies in humans are reviewed and evaluated in this report. It is intended as an informational resource for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and NRC licensees. Descriptions of techniques and health and safety issues are provided. Principal methods for labeling antibodies are summarized to help identify related radiation safety problems in the preparation of dosages for administration to patients. The descriptions are derived from an extensive literature review and consultations with experts in the field. A glossary of terms and acronyms is also included. An assessment was made of the extent of the involvement of organizations (other than the NRC) with safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies, in order to identify regulatory issues which require attention. Federal regulations and guides were also reviewed for their relevance. A few (but significant) differences between the use of common radiopharmaceuticals and radiolabeled antibodies were observed. The clearance rate of whole, radiolabeled immunoglobulin is somewhat slower than common radiopharmaceuticals, and new methods of administration are being used. New nuclides are being used or considered (e.g., Re-186 and At-211) for labeling antibodies. Some of these nuclides present new dosimetry, instrument calibration, and patient management problems. Subjects related to radiation safety that require additional research are identified. 149 refs., 3 figs.,search are identified. 149 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs
Ethics and regulation of contemporary marketing communication practices: an exploration of the perceptions of UK-based consumers towards the ethical issues raised by product placement in British TV shows
Product placement, as a variant of television programme sponsorship, has become a unique and evolving marketing communications tool in which brands are seamlessly embedded within the consumer's experiential world. Although studies have suggested that consumer attitudes towards product placement are generally positive, several issues of ethical concern have emerged. To date, there is a marked shortage of studies that address particular ethical issues in specific contexts of product placement p...
Tiwsakul, Rungpaka; Hackley, Chris
Presença do tema ética profissional nos periódicos brasileiros de Ciência da Informação e Biblioteconomia / Presence of professional ethics issue in Brazilian journals of Information Science and Librarianship
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A presença de discussões acerca de temas relativos à Ética na produção científica brasileira de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação é o enfoque principal deste texto, que advém da análise de periódicos desses campos de conhecimento e da prática profissional. Para isso, selecionou-se um título po [...] r cada região político-administrativa brasileira, Sul, Sudeste, Centro-Oeste e Nordeste, dentre os existentes, cuja edição tivesse se mantido regular no período de 1997 a 2006. Em cada um desses títulos, a partir de palavras-chave previamente definidas, foram identificados os artigos e ensaios que trataram do tema. Com isso, buscava-se conhecer os fundamentos filosóficos e doutrinários, as temáticas e abordagens, e as tendências da discussão Ética na produção periódica brasileira de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação. Metodologicamente, o trabalho envolve a identificação dos periódicos e dos textos publicados sobre a temática; a leitura e a descrição dos mesmos; a identificação dos aspectos apontados nos objetivos pretendidos; a análise dos discursos utilizando a técnica do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo; e a organização das idéias contidas visando chegar a uma síntese. Foram localizados 10 textos produzidos por 16 autores, sendo dois de 1997, quatro de 2005, quatro distribuídos de 1998 a 2004; nenhum foi encontrado referente ao ano de 2006. Foram identificadas como fundamentos éticos as Doutrinas da Ética do Discurso, da Ética da Alteridade e da Teoria Ético-política da Justiça; e foram também identificadas as temáticas, abordagens e tendências da discussão sobre a Ética, que revelaram a questão da postura profissional determinada pelo quadro atual da sociedade e das tecnologias. Conclui-se que apesar de existir preocupação com o tema Ética por parte de alguns profissionais da informação que escrevem e publicam sobre o assunto, o mesmo ainda é pouco explorado na literatura e está mais dirigido para questões gerais. Abstract in english The presence of discussions on issues relating to ethics in Brazilian scientific production of Librarianship and Information Science is the main focus of this text, which comes from the periodic review of these fields of knowledge and professional practice. For this reason, picked up a scientific pe [...] riodical title for each brazilian administrative region, whose editing had been maintained regularly over the period 1997 to 2006. In each of these periodical titles, from keywords previously defined, have been identified articles and essays which addressed the theme. With this, trying to be informed of the reasons for philosophical and doctrinal, the themes and approaches and trends of the discussion Ethics in regular production of Brazilian Librarianship and Information Science. Methodologically, the work involved identification of journals and texts published on the subject, reading and description of them; identification of the aspects highlighted in the objectives pursued, analysis of speech using the technique of Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo collective subject of discourse) - DSC; organization of the ideas contained, aiming to reach a synthesis. We found 10 texts produced by 16 authors, 2 of 1997, 4 in 2005, 4 distributed from 1998 to 2004 and none was found regarding the year 2006. They were identified as ethical foundations, the doctrines of Ethics of Speech, the Ethics of Otherness and Ethical-Political Theory of Justice, in addition to the issues, approaches and trends of the discussion Ethics, which show the issue of professional attitude determined by the current picture of society and current technologies. We conclude that although there is concern about the ethics issue by some of the professionals who write and publish information on the subject, it is still little explored in literature and is more focused on general issues.
Francisco das Chagas de, Souza; Katiusa, Stumpf.
Background: In the recent years, advances in medical technologies for end stage cancer patients’ care have affected the end-of-life decision-making in clinical practice and exposed oncologists to serious ethical dilemmas. But little is known about oncologists' viewpoints in our country regarding their ethical problems in this mention. We aimed to clarify the ethical dilemmas which Iranian oncologists may face in our health care setting and to determine factors influencing decision-making pr...
Mina Mobasher; Nouzar Nakhaee; Mamak Tahmasebi; Farzaneh ZaHedi; "Bagher Larijani
The history of ethics in clinical research parallels the history of abuse of human beings. The Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, and the Belmont Report laid the foundations for modern research ethics. In the United States, the OHRP and the FDA provide guidelines for the ethical conduct of research. Investigators should be familiar with regulations concerning informed consent, doing research in vulnerable populations, and protection of privacy. PMID:22099922
Schwenzer, Karen J
This case study of a woman who wants to terminate her pregnancy but does not have access to safe services explores the technical, ethical, and legal effects of the Mexico City Policy (Global Gag Rule) on health care providers working in developing countries. This woman's self-induced termination resulted in an incomplete abortion, and she sought care from a midwife. The current Mexico City Policy effectively limits a health care provider's ability to offer abortion services and counseling, even when these services are legal. The policy has an adverse impact on women's access to safe care. The provision of comprehensive postabortion care, not restricted by the Mexico City Policy, is the key to preventing abortion-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:15973273
Miller, Suellen; Billings, Deborah L
Greater attention needs to be given to ethics related to the use, organisation and coordination of participatory forms of water planning. Working with diverse groups of people on water management issues requires the ability to understand and collectively make a range of decisions on the content, design and implementation of participatory processes. Ethical questions and sensitivities arise in such work including issues of changing existing power structures, privacy conditions and cultural sen...
Daniell, K. A.; White, I.; Rollin, D.
This resource is a PDF that provides engaging, interactive, and classroom-friendly lesson ideas for integrating ethical issues into a science classroom. It also provides a basic background on ethics as a discipline, with straightforward descriptions of major ethical theories. Several decision-making frameworks are included to help students apply reasoned analysis to ethical issues.
The purpose of this study was to examine depressive symptoms and relationship satisfaction as problems related to relational ethics in one's family of origin and current partner relationships in a sample of 68 other-sex couples seeking therapy at a large university clinic. We used the Actor Partner Interdependence Model to analyze dyadic data collected prior to beginning therapy. Specifically, we found significant actor effects between relational ethics in one's family of origin and depressive symptoms, as well as between depressive symptoms and low relationship satisfaction for both male and female partners. We also found significant partner effects for relational ethics in current partner relationship, depressive symptoms, and low relationship satisfaction. Clinical application of contextual therapy theory is discussed. PMID:24798508
Gangamma, Rashmi; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Holowacz, Eugene; Hartwell, Erica E; Glebova, Tatiana
Based at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), the Ethics Education Library seeks "to connect people interested in developing new and interesting ethics training methods and programs, to disseminate best practices and tools that have already been developed, and to ultimately foster the creation of new methods and programs for teaching students about ethical issues inherent in research and practice." Visitors to the site can take advantage of the Browse feature to look for online tutorials, syllabi, teaching modules, and case studies. The case studies section has over 5,500 items, some of which are available in full and all of which have an abstract for perusal. Additionally, visitors can use the Publications area to find books, journal articles and other published materials relating to all areas of ethics education. These materials are arranged topically into sections that include bioethics, business ethics, and media ethics. Finally, visitors can scroll through the Ethics News on the right-hand side of the page for more information about current appearances of ethics in the daily news.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cluster randomized trials are an increasingly important methodological tool in health research. In cluster randomized trials, intact social units or groups of individuals, such as medical practices, schools, or entire communities – rather than individual themselves – are randomly allocated to intervention or control conditions, while outcomes are then observed on individual cluster members. The substantial methodological differences between cluster randomized trials and conventional randomized trials pose serious challenges to the current conceptual framework for research ethics. The ethical implications of randomizing groups rather than individuals are not addressed in current research ethics guidelines, nor have they even been thoroughly explored. The main objectives of this research are to: (1 identify ethical issues arising in cluster trials and learn how they are currently being addressed; (2 understand how ethics reviews of cluster trials are carried out in different countries (Canada, the USA and the UK; (3 elicit the views and experiences of trial participants and cluster representatives; (4 develop well-grounded guidelines for the ethical conduct and review of cluster trials by conducting an extensive ethical analysis and organizing a consensus process; (5 disseminate the guidelines to researchers, research ethics boards (REBs, journal editors, and research funders. Methods We will use a mixed-methods (qualitative and quantitative approach incorporating both empirical and conceptual work. Empirical work will include a systematic review of a random sample of published trials, a survey and in-depth interviews with trialists, a survey of REBs, and in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with trial participants and gatekeepers. The empirical work will inform the concurrent ethical analysis which will lead to a guidance document laying out principles, policy options, and rationale for proposed guidelines. An Expert Panel of researchers, ethicists, health lawyers, consumer advocates, REB members, and representatives from low-middle income countries will be appointed. A consensus conference will be convened and draft guidelines will be generated by the Panel; an e-consultation phase will then be launched to invite comments from the broader community of researchers, policy-makers, and the public before a final set of guidelines is generated by the Panel and widely disseminated by the research team.
Chaudhry Shazia H
Ethics contain a set of principles of personal and professional conduct .The concept of Business ethics relates itself to the norms and the ideals businessman and business groups adopt in course of their activities in business .Business ethics is an assertion of “be good” and “do good” in business. Ethical business practices has been a blessing to the enterprises as it ensures faith in society ,government trust ,business partners trust .on the other hand unethical busi...
According to the recent developments in radiological techniques, the role of radiology in the clinical management of patients is ever increasing and in turn, so is the importance of radiology in patient management. Thus far, there have been few open discussions about medical ethics related to radiology in Korea. Hence, concern about medical ethics as an essential field of radiology should be part of an improved resident training program and patient management. The categories of medical ethics related with radiology are ethics in the radiological management of patient, the relationship of radiologists with other medical professionals or companies, the hazard level of radiation for patients and radiologists, quality assurance of image products and modalities, research ethics, and other ethics issues related to teleradiology and fusion imaging. In order to achieve the goal of respectful progress in radiology as well as minimizing any adverse reaction from other medical professions or society, we should establish a strong basis of medical ethics through the continuous concern and self education
Describes the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, focusing on introduction and applicability; preamble; general principles; and ethical standards (resolving ethical issues, competence, human relations, privacy and confidentiality, advertising and other public statements, record keeping and…
American Psychologist, 2002
Environmental responsibility of corporations has been changed drastically in the last 20 years. In 1980s, pollution prevention was the main mandate for corporations and in 1990s global scale environmental issues such as global warming must be also considered by at least industries. In the year of 2000, United Nations decided to make a challenge towards sustainability of human activities on the Earth, and since then, every corporation must take this concept into account when policy for its own business is described. Within this framework, some companies have succeeded to be evaluated as “environmental conscious companies” and enjoyed success also in their business. The reality of sustainability is very complex and any company must consider rather long future, say more than 30 years, in the strategy of its operation. All engineers should watch the direction and the norm carefully, which their own company is now aiming at, with enough knowledge regarding the trend of total human activities in relation to the limitation of the Earth.
This handbook provides an accessible overview of the most important issues in information and computer ethics. It covers: foundational issues and methodological frameworks; theoretical issues affecting property, privacy, anonymity, and security; professional issues and the information-related professions; responsibility issues and risk assessment; regulatory issues and challenges; access and equity issues. Each chapter explains and evaluates the central positions and arguments on the respective issues, and ends with a bibliography that identifies the most important supplements available on the topic.
Himma, Kenneth E
Being raised in the genomic era may not only increase knowledge of available genetic testing but may also have an impact on how genetic information is perceived. However, little is known about how current adolescents react to the language commonly used by health care professionals providing prenatal counseling. In addition, as risk communication is related to numbers and figures, having different educational backgrounds may be associated with variability in risk perceptions. In order to investigate these issues, a previously developed questionnaire studying different ways of being told about hypothetical anomalies in a baby and corresponding risks (Abramsky and Fletcher Prenatal Diagnosis 22(13):1188-1194, 2002) was administered to high-school students in Sweden. A total of 344 questionnaires were completed by students belonging to a natural science or a social science program. The data show that teenage participants found technical jargon and words such as rare and abnormal more worrying than the presented comparison terms. Negative framing effects and perception differences related to numeric risk formats were also present. Additionally, participants' gender and educational program did not seem to have an effect on risk assessment. In addition to reporting the questionnaire results, we discuss the ethical implications of the data based on the norm of non-directiveness and make some recommendations for practice. In general, genetic counselors should be aware that the language used within clinical services can be influential on this group of upcoming counselees. PMID:22037899
Melas, Philippe A; Georgsson Öhman, Susanne; Juth, Niklas; Bui, The-Hung
Ethics has become an important part in the interaction among humans being. This paper specifically discusses applied ethics as one type of ethics. There are three applied ethics that will be reviewed in this paper, i.e. computer ethics, information ethics, and cyber ethics. There are two aspects of the three applied ethics that were reviewed, i.e. their definition and the issues associated with them. The reviewing results of the three applied ethics are then used for defining e-Government eth...
Arief Ramadhan; Dana Indra Sensuse; Aniati Murni Arymurthy
Research on teacher ethics and the moral dimensions of teaching has contributed to extensive and valuable knowledge, which has sometimes led to constructive syntheses of positions. Four research problems which have been elucidated are discussed in this article: the relationship between care and justice, the conflict between the ethics of virtue…
Expectations from the business world and business school accreditation bodies to create learning outcomes that enhance students' understanding of ethical concepts call for marketing educators to integrate ethics into their pedagogy. This paper summarizes a debate activity used in an undergraduate marketing communications course. Debates engage…
Roy, Donald P.
The use of human brain tissue in neuroscience research is increasing. Recent developments include transplanting neural tissue, growing or maintaining neural tissue in laboratories and using surgically removed tissue for experimentation. Also, it is likely that in the future there will be attempts at partial or complete brain transplants. A discussion of the ethical issues of using human brain tissue for research and brain transplantation has been organized around nine broadly defined topic ar...
Burd, L.; Gregory, J. M.; Kerbeshian, J.
We have developed and recently taught a 200 level undergraduate course entitled, ‘Experimental Methods in Neuroscience’. This is a required course in an increasingly popular Neuroscience major at Smith College. Students are introduced initially to issues of animal ethics and experimentation, and are familiarized with our Animal Care Facility. Using an open field and rotarod apparatus, and the elevated plus and Barnes mazes, they conduct behavioral testing of two strains of mice, C57/BL/6J...
Hall, Adam C.; Harrington, Mary E.
Created and maintained by the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University, the Ethics Connection demonstrates the power of the Web as an interactive information and communication medium. This site combines excellent content, form, and function to provide teachers, researchers, community leaders, and the public "with strategies to heighten ethical awareness and improve ethical decision making." The rich information resources at the Ethics Connection include an interactive forum for the discussion of ethical issues; an extensive collection of the latest news and publications on ethics, featuring the Markkula Center's own quarterly, Issues in Ethics; a collection of several case studies on ethics, which include message boards for visitors' comments; a Practicing Ethics section, offering numerous resources for day-to-day ethical decision making; and a compilation of 900 ethical links, all of which are categorized, rated, and reviewed.
On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The goal was not to provide answers to any of the issues or problems, simply to identify those topics that deserve our attention as a society. Some of the issues may benefit from legislation at the federal or state levels, others may be more appropriately addressed by the private sector. Participants at the roundtable included over a dozen experts in the areas of microbiology, intellectual property, agricultural biotechnology, microbial genomics, bioterrorism, economic development, biotechnology research, and bioethics. These experts came from federal and state government, industry and academia. The participants were asked to come to the roundtable with a written statement of the top three to five public policy/ ethical issues they viewed as most likely to be significant to the industry and to policy makers over the next several years.
Diane E. Hoffmann
Convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria vaccine trials in Africa: Report from the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme's Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre consultation, 10-11 February 2009, Durban, South Africa
Full Text Available Abstract Background Africa continues to bear a disproportionate share of the global HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB and malaria burden. The development and distribution of safe, effective and affordable vaccines is critical to reduce these epidemics. However, conducting HIV/AIDS, TB, and/or malaria vaccine trials simultaneously in developing countries, or in populations affected by all three diseases, is likely to result in numerous ethical challenges. Methods In order to explore convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trials in Africa, the Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre of the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme hosted a consultation on the Convergent Ethical Issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria Vaccine Trials in Africa in Durban, South Africa on the 10-11 February 2009. Results Key cross cutting ethical issues were prioritized during the consultation as community engagement; ancillary care obligations; care and treatment; informed consent; and resource sharing. Conclusion The consultation revealed that while there have been few attempts to find convergence on ethical issues between HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trial fields to date, there is much common ground and scope for convergence work between stakeholders in the three fields.
Epidemics of both HIV/AIDS and alcohol abuse in sub-Saharan Africa have spurred the conduct of local behavioral therapy trials for these problems, but the ethical issues involved in these trials have not been fully examined. In this paper, we discuss ethical issues that emerged during the conduct of a behavioral intervention adaptation and trial using cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in Eldoret, Kenya. The study was performed within our multina...
Papas, Rebecca K.; Gakinya, Benson N.; Baliddawa, Joyce B.; Martino, Steve; Bryant, Kendall J.; Meslin, Eric M.; Sidle, John E.
The number of states legalizing medical marijuana is increasing. Medical marijuana is possibly effective therapy for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Despite legalization at the state level, however, the current and contradictory federal drug enforcement policy creates the risk that physicians who recommend medical marijuana to their patients will lose their ability to prescribe medications. The federal-state tension has legal and ethical implications for neurologists who receive a request for medical marijuana from their patients since neurologists must strive to both relieve suffering and obey relevant laws. Recommendation of medical marijuana by neurologists to their patients is ethically permissible but is not ethically mandatory. PMID:25299291
Larriviere, Daniel G
Epidemics of both HIV/AIDS and alcohol abuse in sub-Saharan Africa have spurred the conduct of local behavioral therapy trials for these problems, but the ethical issues involved in these trials have not been fully examined. In this paper, we discuss ethical issues that emerged during the conduct of a behavioral intervention adaptation and trial using cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in Eldoret, Kenya. The study was performed within our multinational collaboration, the USAID-Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare Partnership. We discuss relevant ethical considerations and how we addressed them. PMID:22850141
Papas, Rebecca K; Gakinya, Benson N; Baliddawa, Joyce B; Martino, Steve; Bryant, Kendall J; Meslin, Eric M; Sidle, John E
Full Text Available Introduction. This research article analyses the positions of Andalusian journalists in relation to especially sensitive issues. Methods. The study combines qualitative and quantitative techniques: in-depth interviews and a questionnaire-based survey, respectively. Results. The professional work of Andalusian journalists is based more on the predominant values of their communities than on the deontological codes of the profession, which are unknown by the vast majority. Conclusions. Journalists exhibit a liberal spirit, which is characteristic of a secular society, and believe that the freedom of expression should be respected when dealing with especially sensitive issues, which must be resolved according to the particular circumstances of each case.
JC Suárez Villegas
Biomonitoring is one of the best available tools for the prevention of deleterious effects resulting from occupational exposure to chemicals. The availability of analytical techniques having low detection limits allows for the measurement of numerous biomarkers. Complemented with quality control programs, our ability to collect validated information on exposure to toxicants improves. This is important as exposure doses tend to decrease in workplaces. Concurrently, there is an increasing preoccupation towards skin exposure, which cannot currently be reliably assessed through external measurements. Furthermore, as lower exposure doses are encountered, background concentrations of some biomarkers become a serious limitation to their use. This prompts researchers to seek for minor, more specific metabolites, that may however be produced through metabolic pathways that are prone to larger inter-individual variations. Assessment of exposure to complex mixtures of chemicals is another major challenge. There is a growing interest towards ethical issues in biomonitoring. The understanding of the advantages and of the limits of this preventive approach may be very different among occupational health professionals, but more importantly, between health professionals and those they are seeking to protect, i.e., the workers themselves. Many organizations have proposed guideline values for biomarker concentrations, but these seldom find their way in the various countries' bylaws. Onr way in the various countries' bylaws. One underlying reason might be the greater complexity of the scientific aspects of biomarkers, whose understanding is required to set limit values, compared to the process of setting airborne limit concentrations. But the fact that the latter does not consider all aspects of biological complexity does not make it more reliable
The field of gene therapy is rapidly evolving, and while hopes of treating disorders of the central nervous system and ethical concerns have been articulated within the academic community, little is known about views and opinions of different stakeholder groups.
Robillard, Julie M; Whiteley, Louise Emma
Ethical dilemmas and regulatory concerns are highly significant in today's cancer research environment. Deep sequencing and bioinformatics technologies that enable identification of molecular signatures of cancer create novel ethical and regulatory challenges, including protecting research participant autonomy and privacy as increasing amounts of data are accumulated. As cancer research becomes more focused on a vision of genetically informed clinical care and precision medicine, decision-making becomes both more complex and more critical.
The article provides an overview of the main ethical and associated political-economic aspects of the preservation of born-digital content and the digitization of analogue content for purposes of preservation. The term “heritage” is used broadly to include scientific and scholarly publications and data. Although the preservation of heritage is generally seen as inherently “good,” this activity implies the exercise of difficult moral choices. The ethical complex...
Lor, Peter Johan; Britz, Johannes J.
The conduct of biomedical research involving the participation of human beings implicates a variety of ethical concerns pertaining to such values as dignity, bodily integrity, autonomy, and privacy. These ethical concerns have been translated into a complex regulatory apparatus in the USA, containing specific legal provisions concerning such matters as participant safety, informed consent, and confidentiality. A topic of particular interest for pathologists is the handling of human tissue spe...
Kapp, M. B.
Efforts to discern ethical behaviour can lead to quite different results. Gandhi uses the most wretched person as the guide, Gauss stresses central tendencies, and Hayek suggests that specialisation is essential for a productive society. Use of finance has always been a lightening rod for ethical debate. Microfinance (MF) serves the entrepreneurial working poor, getting people into business for themselves and moving the frontier of formal finance somewhat closer to Gandhi’s b...
Von Pischke, J. D.
This case is designed for use in courses that explore ethics or issues related to the change process. The superintendent in this case is faced with a decision that could facilitate the adoption of much needed reform in the district. This decision would not only assure better learning and brighter futures for thousands of students but avert his own…
Wegner, Scott; Moseman, Gerald; Watson, Robert
In many countries where the sale and purchase of donor oocytes is banned, a legal loophole often exploited is the use of free air tickets and hotel stay to entice prospective oocyte donors, in lieu of monetary payment. Such a means of procuring much-needed donor oocytes is ethically unsound. There is a lack of transparency and the personal motivation of the oocyte donor may be clouded by the desire for a 'free' holiday. Moreover, such a system is open to abuse by medical professionals. Private fertility clinics may source for oocyte donors to attract patients. The oocyte donor is paid nothing (except free travel and hotel stay), while the medical professional makes a handsome profit from treating infertile patients, which is not equitable. Medical professionals can also easily make a profit by marking up the price of air tickets and hotel stay to the patient (oocyte recipient). This would be thoroughly unprofessional, since the money earned is not directly related to the medical skills and expertise of the fertility specialist. Hence, it is imperative that various regulatory authorities should critically re-examine the giving of free travel and accommodation to oocyte donors, instead of monetary compensation. PMID:16409701
Heng, Boon Chin
The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive process for identifying and addressing primarily ethical issues related to the psychology profession in South Africa. In fulfilling this purpose, research was conducted of relevant ethical and to a lesser extent, legal aspects pertaining to the psychology profession. In an attempt to prevent unprofessional conduct claims against psychologists from succeeding and to alert psychologists to the concurrent ethical problems that may lead to...
A comprehensive reference source on ethical and security issues relating to the latest technologies. Topics include computer crime, information warfare, privacy, surveillance, intellectual property and education. For students, academics, and professionals.
Genetic counseling assists people in identifying potential or manifest genetic problems, understanding their implications, making decisions about what course to follow, and working through psychological and social aspects as they affect individuals or couples. Four ethical principles and related ethical issues pertaining to autonomy, beneficence…
Witmer, J. Melvin; And Others
The projects and aims of synthetic biology raise various ethical questions, challenging some of our basic moral concepts. This chapter addresses these issues in three steps. First, we present an overview of different types of ethical issues related to synthetic biology by assigning them to three main categories: method-related, application-related, and distribution-related issues. The first category concerns the procedure and aims of synthetic biology, the second deals with certain planned ap...
Deplazes, A.; Ganguli-mitra, A.; Biller-andorno, N.
This paper introduces the environmental issues (both real and perceived) associated with uranium exploration, mining, milling, and tailings management. As well, some of the issues pertaining to the closeout of uranium tailings areas are discussed. These issues have received considerable attention in Canada in public inquiries and hearings that have been held across the country. The major conclusions of some of these hearings are also noted
Full Text Available This paper analyses the legal and medical aspects of the work of ethics committees on abortion. According to the legislation of the Republic of Serbia, these committees are competent to determine justifiable terms for abortion after the twentieth week of the fetus. It is well known that abortion is not only a medical but a legal, ethic, social and demographic problem as well. A liberal solution in view of abortion in the first trimester has been accepted in most European countries, as by the legislature of the Republic of Serbia. Since prenatal diagnosis cannot always determine the fetus state with certainty but at times may do so at a later stage, abortion is then required when the child is already capable of extrauterine life. The necessity for performing abortion in the third trimester is thus a result of good knowledge of techno-medicine but also from the limited information it provides. In such situations, the physician needs confirmation and justification of his standpoint with respect to abortion through a legal formulation which should contain "minimum moral". Society has found a way to protect and help him through moral and ethic forms of prevention without anybody’s emotions being affected. Ethics committees should thus help the physician in view of determining the terms for performing late abortion, since the rules of doctor’s ethics are not sufficient in this case. The article especially analyses the work of the Ethics Committee of the Clinical Center in Kragujevac in the period 2000-2010. It is stated that the largest number of cases referred to determined diseases or fetus anomalies while only a negligible number (11.29% to the illness of the mother. There were no requests for abortions due to legal reasons (pregnancies from criminal offences. A significant number (40.28% of requests submitted to the Ethics Committee related to pregnancies under the 24th week of pregnancy. Since a pregnancy of 24 weeks represents a boundary line between a miscarriage and preterm birth, the paper proposes a shift in the boundary line of pregnancies which must be terminated according to the Ethics committee, from 20 weeks of gestation to 24 weeks of gestation. At the same time, the requirement for narrowing legal conditions for abortion in later phases of pregnancies is pointed out as well as abolition of legal indications.
This book provides an interdisciplinary collection of views on the ethical challenges and opportunities of workplaces in the Internet of things. Current developments within Ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) systems designed for the workplace are introduced and philosophical, organizational and socio-ethical considerations of ubicomp in workplaces are provided. Suggestions regarding the rules that should be respected in order to favor an adequate implementation of ubicomp in the workplace are offered, considering both intra-organizational but also wider societal concerns. The interdisciplinary collection of contributions invites the reader to engage in the discussion of ubicomp in everyday working environments.
Purpose: This study investigates the moral framing of an ethical issue by various actors and looks at the agenda setting effects between news media and the active online public as represented in social media. Design: We coded 4114 sentences manually and conducted an analysis of conditional probability of co-occurrence between actors and issues to identify associative frames. An ARIMA model and time series are applied to detect the interplay between the active online public and news media over a period of three months. Findings: The analysis reveals different framings of the ethical issue by various actors. Furthermore, evidence of a bi-directional relationship between news media and the active online public is found, whereby the news media more strongly precedes social media. Originality: We apply an audience-driven framework that conceptualizes parts of the general public as the active online public. This is the first study, where a time series analysis of associated frames between news media and social media is conducted.
Etter, Michael; Vestergaard JØrgensen, Anne
One of the first book-length anthologies explicitly devoted to diverse cultural perspectives, including core attention to East-West differences and similarities, on central issues in information ethics. Our introduction provides an overview of the individual chapters, draws these together to form a larger picture of current trends and developments, and then explores how these relate with information ethics more broadly, including future directions for research.
Modern medical practice is becoming increasingly pluralistic and diverse. Hence, cultural competency and awareness are given more focus in physician training seminars and within medical school curricula. A renewed interest in describing the varied ethical constructs of specific populations has taken place within medical literature. This paper aims to provide an overview of Islamic Medical Ethics. Beginning with a definition of Islamic Medical Ethics, the reader will be introduced to the scope of Islamic Medical Ethics literature, from that aimed at developing moral character to writings grounded in Islamic law. In the latter form, there is an attempt to derive an Islamic perspective on bioethical issues such as abortion, gender relations within the patient-doctor relationship, end-of-life care and euthanasia. It is hoped that the insights gained will aid both clinicians and ethicists to better understand the Islamic paradigm of medical ethics and thereby positively affect patient care. PMID:17845488
Padela, Aasim I
Reviews successful efforts to modify patterns of sexual arousal from psychoanalytical, behavioral, cognitive, group, and religious perspectives. Presents an ethical analysis of the American Counseling Association's resolution expressing concerns about conversion therapy. Concludes that efforts to assist homosexuals who wish to modify their…
Documentation for pedagogical purposes is an increasingly important practice in Sweden, in Europe, and in the United States. This article focuses on the ethical aspects that need to be addressed in documentation practices in preschool. The empirical material is drawn from the blogs of Swedish preschool teachers who recorded their thoughts on…
The discovery of the Nazi origins of the classic Pernkopf anatomy atlas is one example of scientific information obtained by doctors who violated the Hippocratic Oath. The ethical dilemmas that doctors and medical centers face as a result of this and other potentially tainted data is reviewed. (Author/AEF)
Israel, Howard A.
In an era when familiar categories of identity are breaking down, an argument is made for using post-structuralist vocabulary to talk about ethical practical action in mathematics education. Using aspects of Foucault's post-structuralism, an explanation is offered of how mathematical identifications are tied to the social organization of…
Educational researchers have a responsibility to ensure that in whatever research paradigm they work, the research that is conducted is done so within an "ethic of respect" to those who participate. This implies a number of responsibilities on the part of the researcher that include ensuring trust, dignity, privacy, confidentiality and anonymity.…
James, Nalita; Busher, Hugh
Full Text Available Education is intimately connected with ethics, because holistically speaking education is more than simply passing examinations and acquiring degrees. Education is character building and life long learning. Savants and philosophers throughout the history of humankind have borne testimony to this aspect of education. Today, there is a great deal of emphasis on continuous and life long learning which implies that education is a continual learning process and not merely relegated to certification. Our experience in the field of distance education indicates that the profile of distance learners varies, cutting across barriers of gender, class and caste. The distance learner may be suffering from a sense of isolation as he/she makes a return to study after a gap of time or while working. It is there that the distance educator makes a positive, ethical and interventionist role by helping the student to learn beyond the stereotypical classroom situation and can act effectively as the friend, philosopher and guide of the learner. Thus practicing what you preach is the moto of ethics in distance. Some of the more important ethical concerns associated with open and distance learning are not those that may be faced by learners. Instead, the challenges faced by those that design ODL or use it in their teaching can be seen as increasingly important. These challenges include globalization, which has emphasized instrumental rather than social aims of education, and the use of cognitive rather than affective pedagogies. For ODL designers and teachers, this has resulted in a concentration on cognitive tasks and market-driven aspects of open and distance learning at the expense of the social harmony that might otherwise be achieved. The overarching ethical concern for ODL practitioners should be to implement an appropriate pedagogy that will satisfy both instrumental and social aims. While this can be achieved, in part, through the use of the pedagogies outlined in this paper, the problem is seen as being associated with deeply interwoven social and cultural contexts. Consequently, there is a greater responsibility for all ODL practitioners to ensure that the choices that they make are ethical at all times, irrespective of the demands of any employer, institution or authority. This paper deals with ethics in general, its role in distance education and its significance to educational institutions.
S. N. Vikram RAJ URS
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: We describe the critical steps of the laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) technique and discuss how they impact upon the pertinent issues regarding prostate cancer surgery: blood loss, potency and continence. RESULTS: A major advantage of LRP is the reduced operative blood loss. The pr [...] ecise placement of the dorsal vein complex stitch associated with the tamponading effect of the CO2 pneumoperitoneum significantly decrease venous bleeding, which is the main source of blood loss during radical prostatectomy. At the Cleveland Clinic, the average blood loss of our first 100 patients was 322.5 ml, resulting in low transfusion rates. The continuous venous bleeding narrowed pelvic surgical field and poor visibility can adversely impact on nerve preservation during open radical prostatectomy. Laparoscopy, with its enhanced and magnified vision in a relatively bloodless field allows for excellent identification and handling of the neurovascular bundles. During open retropubic radical prostatectomy, the pubic bone may impair visibility and access to the urethral stump, and the surgeon must tie the knots relying on tactile sensation alone. Consequently, open prostatectomy is associated with a prolonged catheterization period of 2 - 3 weeks. Comparatively, during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy all sutures are meticulously placed and each is tied under complete visual control, resulting in a precise mucosa-to-mucosa approximation. CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic approach may represent a reliable less invasive alternative to the conventional open approach. Despite the encouraging preliminary anatomical and functional outcomes, prospective randomized comparative trials are required to critically evaluate the role of laparoscopy for this sophisticated and delicate operation.
Sidney C., Abreu; Inderbir S., Gill.
In recent years, non-pharmacologic approaches to modifying human neural activity have gained increasing attention. One of these approaches is brain stimulation, which involves either the direct application of electrical current to structures in the nervous system or the indirect application of current by means of electromagnetic induction. Interventions that manipulate the brain have generally been regarded as having both the potential to alleviate devastating brain-related conditions and the capacity to create unforeseen and unwanted consequences. Hence, although brain stimulation techniques offer considerable benefits to society, they also raise a number of ethical concerns. In this paper we will address various dilemmas related to brain stimulation in the context of clinical practice and biomedical research. We will survey current work involving deep brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. We will reflect upon relevant similarities and differences between them, and consider some potentially problematic issues that may arise within the framework of established principles of medical ethics: nonmaleficence and beneficence, autonomy, and justice. PMID:23733209
Cabrera, Laura Y; Evans, Emily L; Hamilton, Roy H
The issue-focused, reviewed, student article alarms that nations need to take preventative measures to curb the development and proliferation of biological and chemical weapons, such as: adopting a scientific code of ethics, incorporating ethics into graduate science courses, formulating accountability mechanisms for research, and raising academic, industry, and public awareness of ethical issues.
Daniel Reyes (Santa Clara University, California;)
This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.
This note by the secretariat seeks to focus discussions on some key issues regarding the design and functioning of the three new mechanisms, such as issues concerning mandates, cross-cutting as well as issues concerning individual mechanisms. The note addresses each mechanism separately in view of different origins, approaches, participants and possible applications. Reference is, however, made to similarities among the mechanisms, in particular where coordination of work on methodological and institutional issues and inter-institutional collaboration are concerned. The note suggests, in its concluding part, elements of a work programme up to and, to some extent, beyond COP 4. It draws upon the views submitted by Parties (document FCCC/SB/1998/MISC.1), contains reflections by the secretariat and builds on its consultations with other organizations having activities, under way or planned, that could contribute to the design or operation of the mechanisms. (au)
This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed
This article will discuss how m-commerce conducts transactions of the mobile device through Internet and how these technologies are developed throughout the years. The article will also judge the security and privacy levels when dealing with mobile commerce and what kind of issues are encountered when using mobile commerce systems. The article will also evaluate the solutions on how m-commerce issues are avoided and how they are tackled by the technology evolution
Ashish Wadhaval, Rugved Mehta
Full Text Available This article will discuss how m-commerce conducts transactions of the mobile device through Internet and how these technologies are developed throughout the years. The article will also judge the security and privacy levels when dealing with mobile commerce and what kind of issues are encountered when using mobile commerce systems. The article will also evaluate the solutions on how m-commerce issues are avoided and how they are tackled by the technology evolution
Ashish Wadhaval#1 , Rugved Mehta#2 , Ashlesha Gawade
Full Text Available In the absence of scientific clarity about the potential health effects of occupational exposure to nanoparticles, a need exists for guidance in decisionmaking about hazards, risks, and controls. An identification of the ethical issues involved may be useful to decision makers, particularly employers, workers, investors, and health authorities. Because the goal of occupational safety and health is the prevention of disease in workers, the situations that have ethical implications that most affect workers have been identified. These situations include the a identification and communication of hazards and risks by scientists, authorities, and employers; b workers' acceptance of risk; c selection and implementation of controls; d establishment of medical screening programs; and e investment in toxicologic and control research. The ethical issues involve the unbiased determination of hazards and risks, nonmaleficence (doing no harm, autonomy, justice, privacy, and promoting respect for persons. As the ethical issues are identified and explored, options for decision makers can be developed. Additionally, societal deliberations about workplace risks of nanotechnologies may be enhanced by special emphasis on small businesses and adoption of a global perspective.Na ausência de evidência quanto a potenciais efeitos da exposição a nanopartículas sobre a saúde ocupacional, existe necessidade de orientação para os gestores a respeito dos riscos, perigos e dos possíveis controles. A identificação de questões éticas envolvidas é útil, particularmente para empregadores, empregados, investidores e autoridades de saúde, uma vez que o sentido e a meta da segurança ocupacional e de saúde é a prevenção de doenças para os trabalhadores. Essa situação inclui: (a identificação e comunicação de riscos por cientistas, autoridades e empregadores; (b aceitação dos riscos por parte dos trabalhadores; (c seleção e implementação de controles; (d estabelecimento de programas de detecção precoce; e (e investimento em toxicologia e pesquisas de vigilância. A questão ética envolve determinação imparcial de riscos, não maleficência, autonomia, justiça, privacidade e promoção do respeito às pessoas. Identificadas e exploradas as questões éticas, várias opções se abrem ao gestor. Adicionalmente, deliberações societais acerca dos riscos no local de trabalho com nanotecnologia podem fundamentar a escolha por pequenos negócios dentro de uma perspectiva global.
Paul A. Schulte
It is widely accepted that Radiological Protection has a real social dimension and it is not restricted to the pure scientific and quantitative aspects. The quality in radiation protection is not reached by simply complying with current technical standards or by enforcing an improved or restricted regulation, but must also be pursued by promoting a culture of radiation protection. An effective dissemination of a radiation protection culture has to include education and training for those students who will become researchers in the involved fields, or who will be called in risk management and, as protection managers, will be asked to inform and train workers or to communicate with the public. Today, in most universities the education in ethics is a significant part of the training in medical, biological and biotechnological curricula but, it is still of poor consideration in those curricula which are traditionally related to Physical Science and even in those areas, like Health Physics, where implementation of interdisciplinary approaches and methodologies are important sources for progress. Moreover, recent advances in the research field of risk perception and communication are very rarely included in those courses. At the Health Physics post-graduate School of Milano State University, within the course of Radiation Protection, a new subject has been recently introduced facing the question of ethical problems and risk perception in radiation protection, and dealing wion in radiation protection, and dealing with the activity of international organisations aimed to establish ethical principles for protection against ionising radiation. By referring to this context, students realize how the analysis of radiological risk includes both technological and ethical aspects. The hope is that a new generation of experts in heath physics will promote a dynamic development of knowledge and a higher degree of awareness even in ethical aspects within the academic, institutional or professional fields of radiation protection. (author)
Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)
Increased International collaborative research activities in poor and low-income countries have several unique claims on our attention. First, the idea of involving human beings in research, putting forward participants openly to trials presents a novel experiment in which various academic disciplines can play in order to enhance fair studies. Second, apart from the need to conduct research in medical and health related areas, there have been many ethical challenges including the necessity to...
Butendeli, Cuthbert Kabero
Action-based legal theory is a discrete branch of praxeology and the basis of an emerging school of jurisprudence related to, but distinct from, natural law. Legal theory and economic theory share content that is part of praxeology itself: the action axiom, the a priori of argumentation, universalizable property theory, and counterfactual-deductive methodology. Praxeological property-norm justification is separate from the strictly ethical “ought” question of selecting ends in an action c...
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english There is skepticism and resistance to innovations associated with agro-biotechnology projects in the developing world, leading to the possibility of failure. The source of the skepticism is complex, but partly traceable to how local communities view genetically engineered crops, public perception on [...] the technology's implications, and views on the role of the private sector in public health and agriculture, especially in the developing world. We posit that a governance and management model in which ethical, social, cultural, and commercialization issues are accounted for and addressed is important in mitigating the risk of project failure and improving the appropriate adoption of agro-biotechnology in sub-Saharan Africa. We introduce a social audit model, which we term Ethical, Social, Cultural and Commercialization (ESC² ) auditing, and that we developed based on feedback from a number of stakeholders. We lay the foundation for its importance in agro-biotechnology development projects and show how the model can be applied to projects run by Public Private Partnerships. We argue that the implementation of the audit model can help build public trust through facilitating project accountability and transparency. The model also provides evidence on how ESC² issues are perceived by various stakeholders, which enables project managers to effectively monitor and improve project performance. Although this model was specifically designed for agro-biotechnology initiatives, we show how it can also be applied to other development projects.
Obidimma, Ezezika; Fiona, Thomas; Jim, Lavery; Abdallah, Daar; Peter, Singer.
Full Text Available There is skepticism and resistance to innovations associated with agro-biotechnology projects, leading to the possibility of failure. The source of the skepticism is complex, but partly traceable to how local communities view genetically engineered crops, public perception on the technology’s implications, and views on the role of the private sector in public health and agriculture, especially in the developing world. We posit that a governance and management model in which ethical, social, cultural, and commercialization issues are accounted for and addressed is important in mitigating risk of project failure and improving the appropriate adoption of agro-biotechnology in sub-Saharan Africa. We introduce a social audit model, which we term Ethical, Social, Cultural and Commercialization (ESC2 auditing and which we developed based on feedback from a number of stakeholders. We lay the foundation for its importance in agro-biotechnology development projects and show how the model can be applied to projects run by Public Private Partnerships. We argue that the implementation of the audit model can help to build public trust through facilitating project accountability and transparency. The model also provides evidence on how ESC2 issues are perceived by various stakeholders, which enables project managers to effectively monitor and improve project performance. Although this model was specifically designed for agro-biotechnology initiatives, we show how it can also be applied to other development projects.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A aplicação de novas tecnologias em pesquisas epidemiológicas sobre hepatites virais (HV) exige discussões éticas sobre inquéritos domiciliares de soroprevalência (IDS), estudos sentinelas (ES) e de registros de bancos de sangue (ERBS) e amostras de sorotecas (EAS). MÉTODOS: Discutem-se [...] fatores de força (FF) e fragilidade (FR) destas abordagens, argumentos/justificativas para sua utilização e alternativas, segundo os princípios éticos da Resolução CNS nº 196/96. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: As pesquisas sobre HV justificam-se por sua magnitude, gravidade, vulnerabilidade e necessidade de subsidiar protocolos diagnósticos/terapêuticos e estratégias de prevenção/controle. Em relação aos IDS, discutimos quanto a FF: autonomia do sujeito; representatividade amostral adequada; e FR: custo maior que benefícios; possibilidade de obter a informação por outros meios. Para os ES, FF: monitoramento das HV com custo operacional inferior ao dos IDS; ausência de danos adicionais ao sujeito; e FR: limitação relativa de representatividade. Para os ERBS, FF: monitoramento do VHB/VHC em doadores de sangue com baixo custo, sem risco adicional; e FR: limitação de representatividade. Quanto aos EAS, FF: preponderância de benefícios sobre riscos/custos; possibilidade de desvendar agravos desconhecidos e de oferecer diagnóstico precoce e tratamento; FR: material biológico e dados de uma pesquisa podem ser utilizados em outras. CONCLUSÃO: Estas discussões contribuem para embasar processos éticos, orientar a escolha do tipo de estudo epidemiológico e construir novos conceitos sobre estes temas. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies on viral hepatitis (VH) using new technologies raise ethical issues especially concerning community-based studies on seroprevalence (CSS), sentinel surveillance-based studies (SBS) the use of blood-bank registers (BBR) and serum stocks (SS). METHODS: Positive (PA) [...] and negative (NA) aspects of these different designs are discussed, pointing to alternatives, according to Resolution CNS nº 196/96. RESULTS: Priority for research is justified by VH magnitude, severity, and vulnerability, and need for development of diagnosis/therapy protocols and prevention/control strategies. With respect to CSS, PA was identified as: subject autonomy; adequate samples and as NA: costs override benefits, and availability of information from other sources. In relation to SBS, PA are: VH monitoring has lower operational costs than CSS; absence of additional injuries to subject; while NA is: relative restriction of representativeness. For BBR, PA is: the low cost of monitoring of HBV/HCV in blood donors and with no additional risk. PA has limited representativeness. SS studies present as PA: benefits higher than risks/costs; possibility of identification of new morbidity and offering of adequate diagnosis and treatment. NA is: biological material and research data can be used for other researches. CONCLUSION: The choice of study designs must take into account arguments for ethical investigation and consensus on the use of new technology.
Rosangela, Gaze; Diana Maul de, Carvalho; Clara Fumiko Tachibana, Yoshida; Luiz Fernando Rangel, Tura.
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A aplicação de novas tecnologias em pesquisas epidemiológicas sobre hepatites virais (HV exige discussões éticas sobre inquéritos domiciliares de soroprevalência (IDS, estudos sentinelas (ES e de registros de bancos de sangue (ERBS e amostras de sorotecas (EAS. MÉTODOS: Discutem-se fatores de força (FF e fragilidade (FR destas abordagens, argumentos/justificativas para sua utilização e alternativas, segundo os princípios éticos da Resolução CNS nº 196/96. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: As pesquisas sobre HV justificam-se por sua magnitude, gravidade, vulnerabilidade e necessidade de subsidiar protocolos diagnósticos/terapêuticos e estratégias de prevenção/controle. Em relação aos IDS, discutimos quanto a FF: autonomia do sujeito; representatividade amostral adequada; e FR: custo maior que benefícios; possibilidade de obter a informação por outros meios. Para os ES, FF: monitoramento das HV com custo operacional inferior ao dos IDS; ausência de danos adicionais ao sujeito; e FR: limitação relativa de representatividade. Para os ERBS, FF: monitoramento do VHB/VHC em doadores de sangue com baixo custo, sem risco adicional; e FR: limitação de representatividade. Quanto aos EAS, FF: preponderância de benefícios sobre riscos/custos; possibilidade de desvendar agravos desconhecidos e de oferecer diagnóstico precoce e tratamento; FR: material biológico e dados de uma pesquisa podem ser utilizados em outras. CONCLUSÃO: Estas discussões contribuem para embasar processos éticos, orientar a escolha do tipo de estudo epidemiológico e construir novos conceitos sobre estes temas.BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies on viral hepatitis (VH using new technologies raise ethical issues especially concerning community-based studies on seroprevalence (CSS, sentinel surveillance-based studies (SBS the use of blood-bank registers (BBR and serum stocks (SS. METHODS: Positive (PA and negative (NA aspects of these different designs are discussed, pointing to alternatives, according to Resolution CNS nº 196/96. RESULTS: Priority for research is justified by VH magnitude, severity, and vulnerability, and need for development of diagnosis/therapy protocols and prevention/control strategies. With respect to CSS, PA was identified as: subject autonomy; adequate samples and as NA: costs override benefits, and availability of information from other sources. In relation to SBS, PA are: VH monitoring has lower operational costs than CSS; absence of additional injuries to subject; while NA is: relative restriction of representativeness. For BBR, PA is: the low cost of monitoring of HBV/HCV in blood donors and with no additional risk. PA has limited representativeness. SS studies present as PA: benefits higher than risks/costs; possibility of identification of new morbidity and offering of adequate diagnosis and treatment. NA is: biological material and research data can be used for other researches. CONCLUSION: The choice of study designs must take into account arguments for ethical investigation and consensus on the use of new technology.
This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.
MUHAMMAD NUMAN ALI KHAN; DANISH JAMIL,
In the past, the training of health information professionals (HIPs) has focussed almost exclusively on technical matters, the concerns of software developers and purveyors have essentially centred on security and functionality, and health care providers have mainly worried about costs and efficiency. This paper outlines some ethical threats that are ignored by such a purely technical focus and argues that because of the increasing globalization of health care delivery through e-Health, and because of the international threats to confidentiality posed by legislation such as the US Patriot Act, the health informatics community should pursue a project of global certification for HIPs that includes information ethics as an integral component. It also argues that a corresponding certification process for health care institutions and software developers should be initiated. PMID:17911713
Kluge, Eike-Henner W
With the point of departure in the ongoing discussion of the professional and moral responsibility for those who are not equally included in the established health services, the question of how to include individuals and groups facing marginalisation is one of the major challenges within the ethics of care. This makes marginalisation a core concept in our time, which is challenged by, among other things, differentness with respect to ethnicity and social status as well as breach with norms an...
The right to refuse medical intervention is well established, but it remains unclear how best to respect and exercise this right in life support. Contemporary ethical guidelines for critical care give ambiguous advice, largely because they focus on the moral equivalence of withdrawing and withholding care without confronting the very real differences regarding who is aware and informed of intervention options and how patient values are communicated and enacted. In withholding care, doctors ty...
Gedge, E.; Giacomini, M.; Cook, D.
This is a paper based on empirical investigation conducted in Western India between 2002 and 2012 especially at a time when the Indian economy is in a stage of transition from state capitalism to free market capitalism, albeit both of a retarded variety. It takes the 7 Ps of services marketing and cross verifies responses against seven dimensions of ethical conduct. The study is based on questionnaires followed by interviews. The target respondents were life insurance employees of banc assura...
Sorab Georgy Sadri; Tara, Sharukh N.
Abstract This commentary examines the incursion on the neutrality of medical personnel now taking place as part of the human rights crises in Bahrain and Syria, and the ethical dilemmas which these incursions place not only in front of physicians practicing in those nations, but in front of the international community as a whole. In Bahrain, physicians have recently received harsh prison terms, apparently for treating demonstrators who clashed with government forces. In Syria...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved quality of care is a policy objective of health care systems around the world. Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice, and hence to reduce inappropriate care. It includes the study of influences on healthcare professionals' behaviour and methods to enable them to use research findings more effectively. Cluster randomized trials represent the optimal design for evaluating the effectiveness of implementation strategies. Various codes of medical ethics, such as the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki inform medical research, but their relevance to cluster randomised trials in implementation research is unclear. This paper discusses the applicability of various ethical codes to obtaining consent in cluster trials in implementation research. Discussion The appropriate application of biomedical codes to implementation research is not obvious. Discussion of the nature and practice of informed consent in implementation research cluster trials must consider the levels at which consent can be sought, and for what purpose it can be sought. The level at which an intervention is delivered can render the idea of patient level consent meaningless. Careful consideration of the ownership of information, and rights of access to and exploitation of data is required. For health care professionals and organizations, there is a balance between clinical freedom and responsibility to participate in research. Summary While ethical justification for clinical trials relies heavily on individual consent, for implementation research aspects of distributive justice, economics, and political philosophy underlie the debate. Societies may need to trade off decisions on the choice between individualized consent and valid implementation research. We suggest that social sciences codes could usefully inform the consideration of implementation research by members of Research Ethics Committees.
Eccles Martin P
In 2008, a laptop was stolen from a high school student in the USA. The laptop was being monitored by remote recovery software. The thief sold the laptop in question to another student who in turn sold it to a teacher. The software continued to monitor the private daily life of this teacher. This paper provides an overview of the resultant lawsuit. We examine the ethical, privacy and legal dilemmas highlighted by this case.
Shaun McBrearty; Nigel McKelvey; Kevin Curran
The Ethics Primer provides engaging, interactive, and classroom-friendly lesson ideas for integrating ethical issues into a science classroom. It also provides basic background on ethics as a discipline, with straightforward descriptions of major ethical theories. Several decision-making frameworks are included to help students apply reasoned analysis to ethical issues. Although the Primer is designed for secondary school science classrooms, it has been used by teachers in a variety of classes and grade levels. The Primer is free for download but the author requests information before accessing the file.
This paper attempts to give an insight into emerging ethical issues due to the increased usage of the Internet in our lives. We discuss three main theoretical approaches relating to the ethics involved in the information technology (IT) era: first, the use of IT as a tool; second, the use of social constructivist methods; and third, the approach of phenomenologists. Certain aspects of ethics and IT have been discussed based on a phenomenological approach and moral development. Further, ethical issues related to social networking sites are discussed. A plausible way to make the virtual world ethically responsive is collective responsibility which proposes that society has the power to influence but not control behavior in the virtual world. PMID:24469471
Sharma, Seemu; Lomash, Hitashi; Bawa, Seema
Full Text Available Action-based legal theory is a discrete branch of praxeology and the basis of an emerging school of jurisprudence related to, but distinct from, natural law. Legal theory and economic theory share content that is part of praxeology itself: the action axiom, the a priori of argumentation, universalizable property theory, and counterfactual-deductive methodology. Praxeological property-norm justification is separate from the strictly ethical “ought” question of selecting ends in an action context. Examples of action-based jurisprudence are found in existing “Austro-libertarian” literature. Legal theory and legal practice must remain distinct and work closely together if justice is to be found in real cases. Legal theorizing was shaped in religious ethical contexts, which contributed to confused field boundaries between law and ethics. The carrot and stick influence of rulers on theorists has distorted conventional economics and jurisprudence in particular directions over the course of centuries. An action-based approach is relatively immune to such sources of distortion in its methods and conclusions, but has tended historically to be marginalized from conventional institutions for this same reason.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english One of the earliest records of metal recovery by solution leaching is described by Agricola as 'juice of rock' in the 1550s. In these early years of hydrometallurgy and civil engineering, few controls and systems were employed to enhance recovery and protect the environment. Since that time, leachin [...] g (dump or heap) operations have made significant strides in increasing metal and solution recovery while protecting the environment, all goals of a sustainable operation. It is now recognized that the design and operation of modern heap leach facilities requires contributions from many fields of study, including hydrometallurgy, civil engineering, geotechnical engineering, unsaturated-flow hydrology, mine planning, geosynthetics engineering, geochemistry, process engineering, mechanical engineering, and electrical engineering. While advancements in these fields have resulted in more sustainable heap leach operations, challenges in the industry still exist. A number of heap leach operations exhibit poor or lower-than-predicted metal recovery, loss of solution flow and control within the ore heap, loss of ore heap stability under leach, failure of liner and/or solution recovery systems, and overtopping of process water ponds. A number of these issues may be the result of several compounding conditions. For example, poor metal recovery may be due to an inadequate scale-up assumption (scaling laboratory tests to field-size heaps), lack of control of the in-heap geochemical environment, changes in ore mineralogy from the original design, changes in mechanical and hydraulic properties of the ore from the original design, ore handling and pre-treatment, inadequate solution management system, and inadequate solution application. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss issues that may affect the sustainability of a heap leach operation. Since sustainability encompasses a broad range of topics and issues, the focus of this paper will be on issues affecting metal and solution recovery, solution flow and containment, and stability of the ore heap.
An instrument to assess 'ethical sensitivity' has been developed. The instrument presents four clinical vignettes and the respondent is asked to list the ethical issues related to each vignette. The responses are classified, post hoc, into the domains of autonomy, beneficence and justice. This instrument was used in 1990 to assess the ethical sensitivity of students in all four medical classes at the University of Toronto. Ethical sensitivity, as measured by this instrument, is not related to...
He?bert, P. C.; Meslin, E. M.; Dunn, E. V.
...advise the Designated Agency Ethics Official that all such persons...year, the Designated Agency Ethics Official shall take appropriate...title 18 of the United States Code; the Standards of Ethical...office of the Designated Agency Ethics Official for review by...
This report presents the technical basis for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) resolution of Generic Safety Issue 79, ''Unanalyzed Reactor Vessel (PWR) Thermal Stress During Natural Convection Cooldown.'' Included are discussions of pertinent technical background information, the historical development of the issue, the approach of the NRC staff and its contractor to the resolution, and the NRC staff technical conclusions with their supporting bases. The B ampersand W Owners Group (BWOG) prepared a detailed analysis of its 177-fuel-assembly reactor vessel under natural convection cooldown conditions. This report was reviewed by the NRC staff and its contractor, and conservative independent confirmatory stress analyses were performed by the NRC contractor in selected areas. To complete the review, an independent fracture mechanics evaluation was performed by the NRC staff. This report presents the NRC's review and evaluation of the BWOG report and the NRC's conclusion that the BWOG document, supported by the additional conservative independent analyses discussed above, provides an adequate basis for the resolution of the issue. 8 refs., 3 figs
Potential professional, legal, and ethical liabilities are addressed concerning the overall process for unescorted access at nuclear power plants. The authors suggest means by which action can be taken to reduce liability on behalf of utilities, contractors, and behavioral evaluators. Three main points are discussed based on the authors' experience in conducting behavioral evaluations and defending those evaluations. The authors hope that the process of evaluation screening can become more professional and will be considered with the same quality controls as the selection of materials and the building of a nuclear power plant
According to the Catholic Social Teaching, tax evasion is ethically reprehensible and people who do it commit sin. The Catholic Church based its opinion first of all on the Holy Scripture (the teaching of Jesus, St. Peter’s and St. Paul’s). Also pope John Paul II, primate of Poland Stefan cardinal Wyszy?ski and Joseph cardinal Höffner objected to tax frauds. The survey was conducted among the students of the University of Lodz and of the Medical University of Lodz. Its aim was to ex...
With public attention increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, there is enormous potential for the commercial use of biomass to accelerate. Renewable feedstocks such as biomass can provide more environmentally balanced sources of energy and other non-food products than fossil fuels. Biomass utilization is in a precarious position, however, with public attention increasingly focused on both its potential and the strength of the challenges it faces. The paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 through 4 catalogue the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups; wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier; gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 is devoted to a conclusion and summary
...S7-40-10] Roundtable on Issues Relating to Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange...relates to reporting requirements regarding conflict minerals originating in the Democratic...reporting regulations regarding the use of conflict minerals from the Democratic...
I offer a normative argument for a collaborative approach to teaching ethical issues in the sciences. Teaching science ethics requires expertise in at least two knowledge domains—the relevant science(s) and philosophical ethics. Accomplishing the aims of ethics education, while ensuring that science ethics discussions remain grounded in the best empirical science, can generally best be done through collaboration between a scientist and an ethicist. Ethics as a discipline is in danger of bei...
Kabasenche, William P.
This Web site contains The Ethics of Genetics, one of the Community Science Action Guides created by practicing educators working with The Franklin Institute and the Science Museum, London. The Ethics of Genetics presents some of these ethical issues within an academic setting designed for todays youth, and fits well with classroom material on cells, reproduction, and general biology. A series of questions -- each followed by a related lesson -- guides middle and high school students in exploring the ethical issues involved in genetics. The site also includes a detailed Teacher Preparation section, as well as useful Web links for additional information.
Prenatal diagnostic testing raises a number of important ethical issues, some related to diagnostic testing in general and others related to the special circumstances of pregnancy. These issues are most effectively addressed in the context of a broader understanding of the goals of prenatal diagnosis. Our dual obligations--to the pregnant woman and to the fetus--have an important influence on the goals of testing. Testing seldom leads to treatment beneficial to the fetus, but more often can b...
Gates, E. A.
The Ethics CORE Digital Library, funded by the National Science Foundation, "brings together information on best practices in research, ethics instruction and responding to ethical problems that arise in research and professional life." It's a remarkable site where visitors can make their way through ethics resources for dozens of different professions and activities. The Resources by Discipline area is a great place to start. Here you will find materials related to the biological sciences, business, computer & information science, along with 14 additional disciplines. The Current News area is a great place to learn about the latest updates from the field. Of note, these pieces can easily be used in the classroom or shared with colleagues. The dynamism of the site can be found at the Interact with Ethics CORE area. Active learning exercises can be found here, along with instructional materials and visitors' own lessons learned.
The traditional approach towards end-of-life decision-making in Italy has changed. Whilst article 32 of the Italian Constitution recognizes the 'right to health' that grants patients to withhold or withdraw medical treatment, the Italian Medical Ethics Code neglects any kind of assistance during death or euthanasia. Although norms seem clear, ethicists and lawyers continue to discuss if withdrawing treatment from an incompetent patient should be classified as immoral and/or illegal. This is the result of acceptance of concepts such as patient's autonomy and the "right to die". On one hand, ethicist and lawyers, valuing the patient's autonomy, believe that letting die cannot be punished. On the other hand, however, some conservative ethicists and lawyers argue that the right to life is absolute and imperative and therefore a physician must do everything possible to protect one's life. PMID:24552117