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Sample records for ethical issues relating

  1. Ethical Issues Related to Restructuring.

    Mielke, Patricia L.; Schuh, John H.

    1995-01-01

    Offers a framework for thinking about ethical principles through the use of codes of ethics. Examines the ethical issues of restructuring and discusses specific ethical dilemmas. Specifically outlines ethics related to resources allocation and management, and details critical points in restructuring. Argues that ethical guidelines help shape…

  2. Ethical issues related to screening for Preeclampsia

    Jørgensen, Jennifer M.; Hedley, Paula L.; Gjerris, Mickey;

    2014-01-01

    feasibility and clinical efficacy, it also requires an analysis of how the test influences the conditions and choices for those tested. This study evaluates state-of-the-art techniques for preeclampsia screening in an ethical framework, pointing out the central areas of moral relevance within the context of......The implementation of new methods of treating and preventing disease raises many question of both technical and moral character. Currently, many studies focus on developing a screening test for preeclampsia (PE), a disease complicating 2–8% of pregnancies, potentially causing severe consequences...... such screening activity. Furthermore, we propose ethical guidelines that a screening programme for PE should meet in order to become an uncontroversial addition to prenatal health care....

  3. Teacher-Student Sexual Relations: Key Risks and Ethical Issues

    Sikes, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics…

  4. Ethical issues regarding related and nonrelated living organ donors.

    Testa, Giuliano

    2014-07-01

    The ethics of the clinical practice of transplanting human organs for end-stage organ disease is a fascinating topic. Who is the "owner" of the transplantable organs of a deceased, brain-dead patient? Who should have a right to receive these organs? Who set the boundaries between a living donor's autonomy and a "paternalistic" doctor? What constitutes a proper consent? These questions are only some of the ethical issues that have been discussed in the last 60 years. All of these ethical issues are intensified by the fact that supply of human organs does not match demand, and that, as a consequence, living-donor organ transplantation is widely utilized. The aim of this article is not to be exhaustive but to present the general ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice as applied to organ transplantation. Moreover, the topic of reimbursement for organ donation is also discussed. PMID:24705806

  5. Ethical issues relating to reproduction control and women's health.

    Schenker, J G; Eisenberg, V H

    1997-07-01

    There are many ethical aspects which derive from the application of reproduction control in women's health. Women's health can be enhanced if women are given the opportunity to make their own reproduction choices about sex, contraception, abortion and application of reproductive technologies. The main issues that raise ethical dilemmas following the development of assisted reproduction techniques are: the right to procreate or reproduce; the process of in vitro fertilization itself-is it morally acceptable to interfere in the reproduction process?; the moral status of the embryo; the involvement of a third party in the reproductive process by genetic material donation; the practice of surrogacy, cryopreservation of pre-embryos; genetic manipulation; experiments on pre-embryos, etc. Induced abortion raises ethical issues related to the rights of the woman versus the rights of the fetus. For those who consider life to begin at conception abortion always equals murder and is therefore forbidden. Those who believe in the absolute autonomy of the woman over her body take the other extreme approach. The discussion surrounding abortion usually centers on whether it should be legal or illegal. Access to safe abortion is critical to the health of women and to their autonomy. The development of new effective contraceptive methods has a profound impact on women's lives. By the use of contraception it is possible to lessen maternal, infant and child mortality and to reduce the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. Research and development of new effective reversible contraceptives for women and men is needed. Dissemination of information about the safety and effectiveness of contraceptive methods is of great importance. Female genital mutilation is still practiced worldwide due to customs and tradition among various ethnic groups. The procedure is considered to be medically detrimental to the physical and mental health of women and girls, and is considered by many as

  6. Transplant Ethics: Let's Begin the Conversation Anew : A Critical Look at One Institute's Experience with Transplant Related Ethical Issues.

    Shafran, David; Smith, Martin L; Daly, Barbara J; Goldfarb, David

    2016-06-01

    Standardizing consultation processes is increasingly important as clinical ethics consultation (CEC) becomes more utilized in and vital to medical practice. Solid organ transplant represents a relatively nascent field replete with complex ethical issues that, while explored, have not been systematically classified. In this paper, we offer a proposed taxonomy that divides issues of resource allocation from viable solutions to the issue of organ shortage in transplant and then further distinguishes between policy and bedside level issues. We then identify all transplant related ethics consults performed at the Cleveland Clinic (CC) between 2008 and 2013 in order to identify how consultants conceptually framed their consultations by the domains they ascribe to the case. We code the CC domains to those in the Core Competencies for Healthcare Consultation Ethics in order to initiate a broader conversation regarding best practices in these highly complex cases. A discussion of the ethical issues underlying living donor and recipient related consults ensues. Finally, we suggest that the ethical domains prescribed in the Core Competencies provide a strong starting ground for a common intra-disciplinary language in the realm of formal CEC. PMID:26055878

  7. Ethical issues in immunisation.

    Isaacs, David; Kilham, Henry; Leask, Julie; Tobin, Bernadette

    2009-01-29

    Discussions about current and future immunisation programmes raise novel questions about familiar ethical issues. Two sets of ethical issues dominate these discussions. The first is the issue of compulsory immunisation: what should be done about parents who fail to immunise their children? The second is: given competing demands on health care budgets, how should principles of justice in access and distribution inform vaccination programmes? This paper considers these two issues in the light of traditional ethical principles. With respect to the first, we argue that compulsion is justified only in cases in which we know with practical certainty that parental failure to immunise puts their own child or other children at high risk of severe illness. We also argue that the state should compensate those who suffer vaccine-related injury. With respect to the second, we claim that allocating resources according to health care need requires establishing priorities between public health programmes such as immunisation and other treatment programmes. PMID:19026706

  8. Assistive Technologies and Issues Relating to Privacy, Ethics and Security

    Martin, Suzanne; Bengtsson, Johan E.; Dröes, Rose-Marie

    Emerging technologies provide the opportunity to develop innovative sustainable service models, capable of supporting adults with dementia at home. Devices range from simple stand-alone components that can generate a responsive alarm call to complex interoperable systems that even can be remotely controlled. From these complex systems the paradigm of the ubiquitous or ambient smart home has emerged, integrating technology, environmental design and traditional care provision. The service context is often complex, involving a variety of stakeholders and a range of interested agencies. Against this backdrop, as anecdotal evidence and government policies spawn further innovation it is critical that due consideration is given to the potential ethical ramifications at an individual, organisational and societal level. Well-grounded ethical thinking and proactive ethical responses to this innovation are required. Explicit policy and practice should therefore emerge which engenders confidence in existing supported living option schemes for adults with dementia and informs further innovation.

  9. Ethical issues in Finnish-Russian relations: Finnish perspective

    Polonsky, Gennady; Turunen, Erja

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the role which western, particularly Finnish companies play in shaping the moral and ethical environment of Russian business. The authors evaluate changes in attitudes and behaviour in Russia, comparing the situation before the introduction of market reform with the developments since. Based on empirical data and interviews conducted in Finland, the authors show that there are at least three groups of problems: Firstly, the low business culture of Russian entrepreneurs, se...

  10. On ethical issues in radiation protection

    From an ethical viewpoint the author surveys existing international radiation protection recommendations and standards. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the author discusses ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. (author)

  11. Ethical issues relating to renal transplantation from prediabetic living donor

    Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Valdez-Martínez, Edith; Bedolla, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Background In Mexico, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end − stage kidney disease, and some patients may be transplant candidates. Organ supply is limited because of cultural issues. And, there is a lack of standardized clinical guidelines regarding organ donation. These issues highlight the tension surrounding the fact that living donors are being selected despite being prediabetic. This article presents, examines and discusses using the principles of non-maleficience, autonomy, justic...

  12. Ethical issues in psychopharmacology

    McHenry, L

    2006-01-01

    The marketing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the psychopharmacological industry presents a serious moral problem for the corporate model of medicine. In this paper I examine ethical issues relating to the efficacy and safety of these drugs. Pharmaceutical companies have a moral obligation to disclose all information in their possession bearing on the true risks and benefits of their drugs. Only then can patients make fully informed decisions about their treatment.

  13. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    In this note the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection and risk assessment/management, the authors review ethical thinking on five key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these five issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) Equity vs. Efficiency, (2) Health vs. Economics, (3) Individual Rights vs. Societal Benefits, (4) Due Process vs. Necessary Sacrifice, and (5) Stakeholder Consent vs. Management Decisions (authors)

  14. ETHICAL ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

    2010-01-01

    The international business environment, through its cultural and economic diversity, often puts international managers in great difficulty as it generates a large variety of ethical issues. On a short term, finding a solution and respecting the organizational principles of business ethics could generate an increase of the organizational costs and, thus, a decrease of efficiency. But, on a long term, even though there is the possibility that the ethical management practices are not related to ...

  15. Ethical issues in physiotherapy

    Præstegaard, Jeanette; Gard, Gunvor

    2012-01-01

    as they are understood and experienced by Danish physiotherapists in outpatient, private practice. Methods: A qualitative approach was chosen and semistructured interviews with 21 physiotherapists were carried out twice and analyzed, using a phenomenological hermeneutic framework. Results: One main theme emerged...... in private practice is on a trajectory toward increased professionalism. Physiotherapists in private practice have many reflections on ethics and these reflections are primarily based on individual common sense arguments and on deontological understandings. As physiotherapy by condition is characterized...... by asymmetrical power encounters where the parties are in close physical and emotional contact, practiced physiotherapy has many ethical issues embedded. Some physiotherapists meet these issues in a professional manner, but others meet them in unconscious or unprofessional ways. An explicit ethical consciousness...

  16. Ethical Issues in the Conduct of Supervision.

    Sherry, Patrick

    1991-01-01

    Uses American Psychological Association code of ethics to understand ethical issues present in the conduct of supervision. Discusses ethical issues of responsibility, client and supervisee welfare, confidentiality, competency, moral and legal standards, public statements, and professional relationships in relation to supervision. (Author/NB)

  17. Ethical issues and addiction.

    Lambert, Binta; Scheiner, Melissa; Campbell, Deborah

    2010-04-01

    The epidemic of substance abuse continues to pose a significant challenge to clinicians nationwide. Although there is a tendency to simply associate drug abuse with poverty, the problem affects every social stratum gender and race; and pregnant women are no exception. Caring for pregnant, substance-using women and their infants presents complex legal and ethical issues. Debate is ongoing about whether criminal penalties should be imposed on women based solely on their use of alcohol and other drugs during pregnancy. Furthermore, controversies persist about the rights and wishes of pregnant women versus the interests of their fetuses. For health professionals, conflict arises when the pregnant woman chooses behaviors that have the potential to harm the developing fetus. The ethical dilemma arises from competing autonomy-based and beneficence-based obligations to the maternal-fetal dyad. This chapter explores the ethics-based conflicts in the delivery of health care to drug abusing pregnant women. PMID:20407974

  18. Hospital Malnutrition Related to Fasting and Underfeeding: Is It an Ethical Issue?

    Arenas Moya, Diego; Plascencia Gaitán, Alejandra; Ornelas Camacho, Denisse; Arenas Márquez, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    Hospital malnutrition is a relevant clinical issue present in about 50% of patients that is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost of care. Because of the relation of malnutrition with chronic and acute inflammatory processes secondary to disease, nutrition therapy is considered an important medical treatment. However, there is little discussion about the impact of another critical issue related to hospital malnutrition, that is, lack of appropriate food or nutrition therapy given to the patients. Unnecessary fasting practices and the use of inappropriate nutrition prescriptions result in underfeeding that can be a related or direct cause of hospital malnutrition, independent of disease or inflammatory state. Suboptimal prescription of oral, enteral, and parenteral nutrition should be analyzed and discussed from an ethical perspective since this practice has the potential to harm patients. In addition, absence or inadequate provision of nutrition may present barriers for improved patient outcomes and could be prevented by simply recognizing lack of knowledge, skills, or experience in nutrition and entrusting nutrition prescription to interdisciplinary teams with clinicians well prepared in nutrition sciences. This article reviews potential barriers to the prevention or treatment of hospital malnutrition and proposes specific actions that can help clinicians to overcome and implement optimal nutrition not just as medical therapy but also as a basic comfort care that may help patients nutritionally, clinically, physically, and emotionally. PMID:27208012

  19. Business Ethics: Some Theoretical Issues

    Lluka, Valon

    2010-01-01

    Ethics can be defined as a process of evaluating actions according to moral principal of values. Throughout the centuries people were trying to choose between profit and moral. Perhaps, some of them obtain both, but every time it could have roused ethical issues. Those issues concern fairness, justice, rightness or wrongness; as a result it can only be resolved according to ethical standards. Setting the ethical standards for the way of doing business in corporation is primarily task of m...

  20. Ethical issues in nanotechnology.

    Florczyk, Stephen J; Saha, Subrata

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing area in science involved with manipulating matter at the atomic or molecular level. Nanotechnology is typically defined at a scale on the order of less than approximately 100 nm. Matter possesses unique properties at these size levels that are neither Newtonian nor quantum, but between the two regimes.These unique properties have created significant interest and excitement, sparking numerous research investigations. Nanotechnology is a very broad field with many current and potential applications. Some important examples of applications include battlefield activated dynamic armor clothing for soldiers, additives to sunscreens, and diagnostic laboratories on a chip to monitor general personal health. Groundbreaking capabilities often raise new questions. Any new scientific or technological development has the usual concomitant associated ethical issues, specifically regarding containment and regulation. These ethical issues are more pronounced with nanotechnology due to the sharp divide between those who see its great potential and opponents who express fears. Nanotechnology supporters believe that it has the potential to transform our lives dramatically, while opponents of nanotechnology fear that self-replicating "nanobots" could escape from laboratories and reduce all life on earth to "gray goo. "These fears have swayed generally uninformed public opinions via the media and sensational entertainment. A critical discussion of ethical issues surrounding nanotechnology, including the interaction of nanotechnology with the body and the environment--nanobiotechnology--and regulation of nanotechnology, is presented. We advocate strong, uniform regulations for nanotechnology, but only the use of regulations as needed. The limited use of regulations prevents the regulations from becoming burdensome and inhibiting research in the field. PMID:19023950

  1. [Organ allocation. Ethical issues].

    Cattorini, P

    2010-01-01

    The criteria for allocating organs are one of the most debated ethical issue in the transplantation programs. The article examines some rules and principles followed by "Nord Italia Transplant program", summarized in its Principles' Charter and explained in a recent interdisciplinary book. General theories of justice and their application to individual clinical cases are commented and evaluated, in order to foster a public, democratic, transparent debate among professionals and citizens, scientific associations and customers' organizations. Some specific moral dilemmas are focused regarding the concepts of proportionate treatment, unselfish donation by living persons, promotion of local institutions efficiency. PMID:20677677

  2. Ethical Issues Relative to Autonomy and Personal Control in Independent and Cognitively Impaired Elders.

    Rice, Virginia Hill; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues surrounding health care for independent elders, those in long-term care, and those with cognitive impairments, as well as death, dying, euthanasia, and assisted suicide. Suggests that nurses should focus on older adults' choice, autonomy, and personal control. (SK)

  3. Developing a research agenda on ethical issues related to using social media in healthcare.

    Adams, Samantha A; Van Veghel, Dennis; Dekker, Lukas

    2015-07-01

    The consequences of using publicly available social media applications specifically for healthcare purposes are largely unaddressed in current research. Where they are addressed, the focus is primarily on issues of privacy and data protection. We therefore use a case study of the first live Twitter heart operation in the Netherlands, in combination with recent literature on social media from other academic fields, to identify a wide range of ethical issues related to using social media for health-related purposes. Although this case reflects an innovative approach to public education and patient centeredness, it also illustrates the need for institutions to weigh the various aspects of use and to develop a plan to deal with these on a per case basis. Given the continual development of technologies, researchers may not yet be able to oversee and anticipate all of the potential implications. Further development of a research agenda on this topic, the promotion of guidelines and policies, and the publication of case studies that reveal the granularity of individual situations will therefore help raise awareness and assist physicians and institutions in using social media to support existing care services. PMID:26059955

  4. Ethical issues in neuroprosthetics

    Glannon, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Neuroprosthetics are artificial devices or systems designed to generate, restore or modulate a range of neurally mediated functions. These include sensorimotor, visual, auditory, cognitive affective and volitional functions that have been impaired or lost from congenital anomalies, traumatic brain injury, infection, amputation or neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Cochlear implants, visual prosthetics, deep brain stimulation, brain-computer interfaces, brain-to-brain interfaces and hippocampal prosthetics can bypass, replace or compensate for dysfunctional neural circuits, brain injury and limb loss. They can enable people with these conditions to gain or regain varying degrees of control of thought and behavior. These direct and indirect interventions in the brain raise general ethical questions about weighing the potential benefit of altering neural circuits against the potential harm from neurophysiological and psychological sequelae. Other ethical questions are more specific to the therapeutic goals of particular neuroprosthetics and the conditions for which they are indicated. These include informed consent, agency, autonomy (free will) and identity. Approach. This review is an analysis and discussion of these questions. It also includes consideration of social justice issues such as how to establish and implement fair selection criteria in providing access to neuroprosthetic research and balancing technological innovation with patients’ best interests. Main results. Neuroprosthetics can restore or improve motor and mental functions in bypassing areas of injury or modulating dysregulation in neural circuits. As enabling devices that integrate with these circuits, neuroprosthetics can restore varying degrees of autonomous agency for people affected by neurological and psychiatric disorders. They can also re-establish the connectedness and continuity of the psychological properties they had before injury or disease onset and thereby

  5. Ethical Issues in Media Practice

    马慧

    2009-01-01

    Journalists are always confronted by ethical definitions on the daily basis during their media practice.In this article,some ethical issues happened in media practice are analyzed,and aspects of both news reporters and public opinion are deeply studied,and the balance between both professional and ethics is probed seriously as well.

  6. Ethical Issues in Online Education

    Anderson, Bill; Simpson, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Teaching at a distance raises ethical issues particular to the distance context. When distance teaching is also online teaching, the situation is even more complex. Online teaching environments amplify the ethical issues faced by instructors and students. Online sites support complex discourses and multiple relationships; they cross physical,…

  7. Ethics issues in retrievability

    We can isolate some issues, which should not be unresolved for a longer period of time. Disputes over well-defined waste management options fall in this category. The concept of retrievability has a possibility to invoke a series of questions in the minds of both specialists and non-specialists. It is intrinsically vague, in that it may refer to different phases in the repository's life, and to both open and closed repositories in the long time frame. Requirements for retrievability opens a series of issues, including open-ended philosophical question, which may give the impressions that things are not properly taken care of, since the experts differ in opinion. If such disputes cannot be resolved by consulting the existing legal framework, efforts should be made to put them to trial in the proper forum, i.e. parliament and national or local government or authorities, depending on the problem. In contrast, the value of institutional controls can easily be seen as an ethical value, whether included in the regulation of not. It has the potential to deter human intrusion and to allow remedial action by carrying information about a repository. (author)

  8. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs

    Verrinder, Joy M.; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students’ preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress. PMID:26934582

  9. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs.

    Verrinder, Joy M; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students' preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress. PMID:26934582

  10. Resolving Ethical Issues at School

    Benninga, Jacques S.

    2013-01-01

    Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

  11. Ethics Issues Snare School Leaders

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on ethics issues involving school leaders. Some superintendents have landed in murky ethical waters for their ties to for-profit companies, highlighting the temptations administrators face as industry and education increasingly intersect. Some questionable judgments by superintendents--from accepting company-paid trips to…

  12. Models of an individual decision-making process related to ethical issues in business: The risk of framing effects

    Kliukinskaitė-Vigil, Virginija

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical paper at hand reviews 16 most often cited descriptive models of a manager's individual decision-making process related to ethical issues in business in general, international business and marketing fields in particular. The paper has a goal to point out the need to rephrase the dependent variable in the models in neutral terms to avoid framing effects in the three subject areas, as well as to rename the models accordingly. Copyright © 2009, Inderscience Publishers.

  13. Legal and Ethical Issues Related to the Management of Cultural Heritage in Space

    Walsh, Justin

    in space. The United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967 -the primary document governing how nations act in outer space -is now hopelessly out-of-date. There is no mention in the treaty of cultural heritage (the UNESCO convention that concerns international protection of cultural heritage on Earth was not completed until 1970), nor was there any recognition of the role private groups and individuals might play in space exploration. This paper will outline key legal and ethical issues related to cultural heritage management and protection. It will also suggest some ways in which culturally significant sites in space can be protected for future study and even touristic appreciation.

  14. Ethical issues in physical therapy

    Richardson, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare professionals can be confronted with a wide range of ethical and regulatory issues in today’s ever-changing practice environments. While achieving best practice standards, physical therapists may need to compromise what is best for patients due to fiscally driven rules, regulations, and limited benefits. Scenarios may surface where ethical issues and associated dilemmas become paramount between what is versus what should be. A challenge that should be in the forefront of profession...

  15. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    Persson, Lars (ed.)

    2000-03-15

    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.

  16. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report

  17. Citation Frequency and Ethical Issue

    Ale Ebrahim, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Dear Editor: I read your publication ethics issue on “bogus impact factors” with great interest (1). I would like to initiate a new trend in manipulating the citation counts. There are several ethical approaches to increase the number of citations for a published paper (2). However, it is apparent that some manipulation of the number of citations is occurring (3, 4). Self - citations, “those in which the authors cite their own works” account for a significant portion o...

  18. Ethical issues in couple and family research.

    Margolin, Gayla; Chien, Deborah; Duman, Sarah E; Fauchier, Angèle; Gordis, Elana B; Oliver, Pamella H; Ramos, Michelle C; Vickerman, Katrina A

    2005-03-01

    Federal regulations, ethical standards, and state laws governing ethics do not adequately address important issues in couple and family research. Including multiple family members, particularly dependent minors, in research requires the special application of fundamental ethical issues, such as confidentiality, privacy, and informed consent. The sensitive, commingled nature of couple and family information necessitates clear policies about data ownership and disclosure. Researchers need to have respect for the family as a unit and to evaluate benefits versus harms for the family as well as for individuals. This article highlights areas of potential concern and ambiguity related to abuse reporting and Certificates of Confidentiality and also addresses ethical issues with observational data, intervention studies, longitudinal designs, and computer-assisted research. PMID:15796661

  19. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs

    Verrinder, Joy M.; Remo Ostini; Clive J C Phillips

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was co...

  20. Ethical Issues in Expert Opinions and Testimony.

    Weed, Roger O.

    2000-01-01

    This article provides an overview of ethical issues in private for-profit practice, with particular focus on expert testimony, using examples from a sample of claims filed with the National Association of Rehabilitation Professionals in the Private Sector and malpractice insurance companies. Complaints most frequently involve issues related to…

  1. Current ethical issues in IVF.

    Grobstein, C; Flower, M

    1985-12-01

    This article has briefly reviewed the range of public policy issues and ethical questions raised with respect to IVF. It then discussed selected issues that are now under policy debate and decision. Given the wide acceptance of IVF as a medical procedure for married couples, what variants might also be ethically defensible? IVF for unmarried couples appears defensible under specific conditions that are equally applicable to married couples. Involvement of third parties (gamete donation and gestational surrogacy) is more complex and needs case by case examination. Sperm donation appears to generate little that is ethically new when coupled with IVF but requires the same care and concern as AID. Egg or embryo donation, however, does raise new ethical questions that need close attention and continuing analysis. Freezing of human embryos also breaks new ethical ground, particularly in the options it generates beyond a narrowly defined medical domain. Certain of these options are better not undertaken without further public policy decision. Improvement of current procedures and techniques through effective clinical trials can be ethically carried out in terms of scientific and medical perspectives. However, efforts in this direction will be more effective if undertaken within a public policy framework that clearly defines acceptability during a transitional period of confidence-building. PMID:3833444

  2. [Renal transplantation: ethical issues].

    Mamzer-Bruneel, Marie-France; Laforêt, Emmanuelle Grand; Kreis, Henri; Thervet, Éric; Martinez, Frank; Snanoudj, Renaud; Hervé, Christian; Legendre, Christophe

    2012-12-01

    One of the most significant advances in medicine during the last 50 years is the development of organ transplantation. In the context of chronic kidney diseases, renal transplantation offers patients a better clinical outcome than other treatment options. However, the benefits of organ transplantation have not been maximized due to an inadequate supply of organs for transplantation. Despite the establishment of elaborate legal rules for organs procurement, both on deceased and living donors in numerous countries, ethical concerns remain. Most of them are consequences of the strategies implemented or proposed to address the so-called organ shortage. The involvement of society in these complex problems is crucial as numerous questions emerge: could actual state of organ procurement change? Is it possible and/or realistic to increase the number of organs, with respects to living donors or deceased persons? Is the shortage an indicator to limit the use of kidney transplantation? How do we maintain efficiency and justice, in this context. PMID:23168353

  3. Ethical issues in optometric practice

    H. L. Sithole

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethics as a discipline is the study and analysis of values and standards related to duty, responsibility, and right and wrong behavior. The ethical obligations of optometry toward patients are similar to those of other health professionals. These obligations generally require optometrists to recognize, respect, and protect the rights of their patients. This approach encourages patients to participate actively in their care and allows them to develop arelationship with their optometrist based on trust. The ethical codes which contain guiding principles serve to help practitioners in their decisions and in practicing in accordance with a set of standards that are expected of a health care practitioner. There are four major ethical principles in health care, namely; beneficence, non-maleficence, and respect for autonomy and justice. Because these principles are easily recognized as being among the primary ethical goals of health care, using them as the basis for ethical analysis may help to explain the moral justification for certain professional actions as well as to identify unethical behavior. However, in clinical practice, the specific demands and rationales of these broad principles may be difficult to apply. This illustrates the paradox that whilst these principles are essential tools for ethical practice, if applied too rigidly, they can be problematic. How-ever, the goal of ethical decision making in optometry should be to identify one or more courses of action that will honor the profession’s essential values while minimizing conflict with other values and professional standards. Every profession, every practice and every practitioner is governed by not only legal constraints, but also by the ethical concerns of ensuring that the patient is properly served. Considering our practices from a patient’s perspective can help optometrists understand the multiple responsibilities of clinical practice. (S Afr Optom 2010 69(2 93-99

  4. Ethical issues in family law.

    Zaidel, S

    1993-01-01

    This article focuses on a few key ethical issues which arise in the context of family law. One of the issues faces mental health practitioners who are often engaged as expert witnesses in family law disputes. In another realm, family law attorneys face several fundamental ethical dilemmas in the course of their work. The client's right to appropriate treatment will be considered in the light of multidisciplinary services. On a broader level, the courts need to examine the ethical implications of the commonly used guideline in judicial process, 'the best interests of the child'. When these ethical issues are considered, it becomes clear what changes need to be made in individual practice, professional standards and social policy. The underlying premise is based on the knowledge we have gained in recent years through research and clinical experience with divorcing families. It is suggested that a radically different approach to society's handling of divorce is needed. Denmark's administrative handling of these problems is presented as a working alternative model. PMID:8231692

  5. Ethical and legal issues related to the donation and use of nonstandard organs for transplants.

    Cronin, Antonia J

    2013-12-01

    Transplantation of nonstandard or expanded criteria donor organs creates several potential ethical and legal problems in terms of consent and liability, and new challenges for research and service development; it highlights the need for a system of organ donation that responds to an evolving ethical landscape and incorporates scientific innovation to meet the needs of recipients, but which also safeguards the interests and autonomy of the donor. In this article, the use of deceased donor organs for transplants that fail to meet standard donor criteria and the legitimacy of interventions and research aimed at optimizing their successful donation are discussed. PMID:24287346

  6. Ethical Issues related to First Time Patient Encounters – reflected from the perspective of physiotherapists in private practice

    Præstegaard, Jeanette; Gard, Gunvor

    2011-01-01

    between two partners: the physiotherapist and the patient. In the meeting, power asymmetry between the two partners is a condition that the physiotherapist has to handle. The aim of this study was to explore whether ethical issues rise during the first physiotherapy session discussed from the perspective...... of the physiotherapists in private practice. Methods A qualitative approach was chosen and semi-structured interviews with 21 physiotherapists were carried out twice and analysed by using a phenomenological framework. Results Four descriptive themes emerged: general reflections on ethics in physiotherapy; the importance...... the patient is a fundamental aspect of the physiotherapists' understanding of the first session. However, if the physiotherapist lacks a deeper ethical awareness, the physiotherapist may reason and/or act ethically to a varying extent: only an ethically conscious physiotherapist will know when he or she...

  7. Ethical issues in organ transplantation.

    Freeman, Richard B; Bernat, James L

    2012-01-01

    We discuss ethical issues of organ transplantation including the stewardship tension between physicians' duty to do everything possible for their patients and their duty to serve society by encouraging organ donation. We emphasize consideration of the role of the principles of justice, utility and equity in the just distribution of transplantable organ as scarce resources. We then consider ethical issues of determining death of the organ donor including the remaining controversies in brain death determination and the new controversies raised by circulatory death determination. We need uniformity in standards of death determination, agreement on the duration of asystole before death is declared, and consensus on the allowable circulatory interventions on the newly declared organ donor that are intended to improve organ function. We discuss the importance of maintaining the dead donor rule, despite the argument of some scholars to abandon it. PMID:23217432

  8. Ethical Issues in Sports Medicine

    Greenfield, Bruce H.; West, Charles Robert

    2012-01-01

    Ethical issues present a challenge for health care professionals working with athletes of sports teams. Health care professionals—including the team physician, the physical therapist, and the athletic trainer—are faced with the challenge of returning an athlete to competition as quickly as possible but as safely as possible. Conflicts of interest arise due to conflicting obligations of the team physician to the athlete and other members of the sports organization, including coaches and the te...

  9. Ethical Issues within the Gerontological Nursing Curriculum.

    Bahr, Rose Therese

    This presentation focuses on ethical issues that need to be addressed within the gerontological nursing curriculum for preparing nurses to become change agents and catalysts in the health care of the older population. Ethics and ethical principles are defined, and three ethical principles are discussed: justice; beneficence; and autonomy.…

  10. Did I Tell You That? Ethical Issues Related to Using Computational Methods to Discover Non-Disclosed Patient Characteristics.

    Cato, Kenrick D; Bockting, Walter; Larson, Elaine

    2016-07-01

    Widespread availability of electronic health records coupled with sophisticated statistical methods offer great potential for a variety of applications for health and disease surveillance, developing predictive models and advancing decision support for clinicians. However, use of "big data" mining and discovery techniques has also raised ethical issues such as how to balance privacy and autonomy with the wider public benefits of data sharing. Furthermore, electronic data are being increasingly used to identify individual characteristics, which can be useful for clinical prediction and management, but were not previously disclosed to a clinician. This process in computer parlance is called electronic phenotyping, and has a number of ethical implications. Using the Belmont Report's principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice as a framework, we examined the ethical issues posed by electronic phenotyping. Ethical issues identified include the ability of the patient to consent for the use of their information, the ability to suppress pediatric information, ensuring that the potential benefits justify the risks of harm to patients, and acknowledging that the clinician's biases or stereotypes, conscious or unintended, may become a factor in the therapeutic interaction. We illustrate these issues with two vignettes, using the person characteristic of gender minority status (i.e., transgender identity) and health history characteristic of substance abuse. Data mining has the potential to uncover patient characteristics previously obscured, which can provide clinicians with beneficial clinical information. Hence, ethical guidelines must be updated to ensure that electronic phenotyping supports the principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. PMID:27534587

  11. Ethical issues in gastroenterology research.

    Eastwood, Gregory L

    2015-03-01

    Ethical issues have become increasingly important in gastroenterology research. This is for several reasons, including (i) an understanding of how conflicts of interest might affect research, (ii) the influence of the drug and device industries on research, (iii) ghostwriting (taking credit for something you did not write), (iv) the occurrence of ethically inappropriate research and scientific misconduct, and (v) respect for the rights of research subjects. These include the rights (i) to give informed consent to participate after understanding the purposes, risks, and benefits of the research; (ii) to ask questions; and (iii) to withdraw from participation at any time. Notions of doing good (beneficence), avoiding harm (non-maleficence), confidentiality, and, most important, the primacy of the welfare of the patient or research subject can be traced to antiquity. In the modern era, the Nuremburg Code (1947), the Declaration of Helsinki (1964), the Belmont report (1979), and other events and reports have led to the refinement of ethical practices in both clinical and research domains, have reinforced those long observed principles, and have given rise to the newer principles of autonomy and justice. The ethical conduct of research not only promotes good research but also is in the best interests of research subjects, investigators, sponsors, patients, and the public. PMID:25827797

  12. Ethical issues in organ transplantation.

    Abouna, George M

    2003-01-01

    Clinical organ transplantation has been recognized as one of the most gripping medical advances of the century as it provides a way of giving the gift of life to patients with terminal failure of vital organs, which requires the participation of other fellow human beings and of society by donating organs from deceased or living individuals. The increasing incidence of vital organ failure and the inadequate supply of organs, especially from cadavers, has created a wide gap between organ supply and organ demand, which has resulted in very long waiting times to receive an organ as well as an increasing number of deaths while waiting. These events have raised many ethical, moral and societal issues regarding supply, the methods of organ allocation, the use of living donors as volunteers including minors. It has also led to the practice of organ sale by entrepreneurs for financial gains in some parts the world through exploitation of the poor, for the benefit of the wealthy. The current advances in immunology and tissue engineering and the use of animal organs, xenotransplantation, while offering very promising solutions to many of these problems, also raise additional ethical and medical issues which must be considered by the medical profession as well as society. This review deals with the ethical and moral issues generated by the current advances in organ transplantation, the problem of organ supply versus organ demand and the appropriate allocation of available organs. It deals with the risks and benefits of organ donation from living donors, the appropriate and acceptable methods to increase organ donation from the deceased through the adoption of the principle of 'presumed consent', the right methods of providing acceptable appreciation and compensation for the family of the deceased as well as volunteer and altruistic donors, and the duties and responsibilities of the medical profession and society to help fellow humans. The review also deals with the appropriate

  13. Ethical issues in assisted reproduction.

    Marshall, B M

    1992-07-01

    Since the birth of Louise Brown in 1978, no other area in clinical practice and medical research has held the public interest to the same extent as the assisted reproductive technologies. This has led to the formation of committees of enquiry, guidelines from professional bodies, the passage of legislation, and the formation of legislative bodies. The ethical issues which arise in the clinical practice of assisted reproduction, the donation of gametes and embryos, and their cryopreservation, surrogacy, and human embryo research are reviewed. PMID:1309130

  14. Ethical Issues in Family Care Today.

    Barrett, Patrick; Butler, Mary; Hale, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    The abstract consideration of ethical questions in family and informal caregiving might rightly be criticized for ignoring the lived experience of people. This chapter seeks to avoid such oversight by reflecting on ethical issues in family care in a way that is based on careful social scientific inquiry into the well-being of caregivers. The chapter draws on our research and experience in working with family caregivers, both professionally and personally. We step back from a practical concern with policies to support the well-being of caregivers to consider ethical issues associated with their typically hidden role. The chapter begins by noting the growing reliance on family care today. It proceeds to outline the dynamic experience of moving into and out of the caregiver role, before discussing key ethical issues associated with family care. Many of these stem from the risk that caregivers can come to share in the reduced circumstances and vulnerability of those for whom they care. Critical ethical issues are related to the typically "unboundaried" responsibility of family caregivers for the well-being of the cared-for person, something that can be contrasted with the more boundaried and intermittent responsibility of formal caregivers. Additionally, all too often, family caregivers encounter situations where their responsibilities exceed their capacities, but where a choice to not provide care will result in harm to the cared-for person. In discussing these issues, this chapter seeks to make the case for developing more responsive forms of support that promote positive benefits for both caregivers and care recipients. PMID:26673377

  15. Ethical Decision Making: Basic Issues

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, C. Bret

    2008-01-01

    Among counselors, ethical dilemmas occur often. Although ethical dilemmas are challenging, they can be solved by implementing a code of ethics and/or an ethical decision-making model. Using case studies, the authors illustrate how counselors can make informed, accurate decisions that are made to protect the welfare of the client. It also helps…

  16. Issues in Media Ethics. ERIC Digest.

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that over the past decade incidents have occurred and new technologies have appeared which together have raised questions about the ethical values of American journalists, this Digest seeks to identify some of those ethical issues and to point to the work of those who have studied these issues. It addresses issues of plagiarism and…

  17. Ethical Issues for Community College Student Programmers.

    Friedrich, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Discusses examples of unique ethical issues faced by community college student programmers: member commitment, poor program attendance and lack of programming board diversity, and conflicts of interest (EV)

  18. INTERNET OF THINGS – SOME ETHICAL ISSUES

    Daniela POPESCUL; Georgescu, Mircea

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to treat aspects that are related to the sensitivity of data, information and knowledge transmitted through Internet of Things, helping all people interested in these new ICT technologies to become aware of some ethical issues. In this new media, which is no more in its infancy, the vulnerabilities and attacks are various, caused by technological advances and proliferated through lack of users’ awareness. This warning message is needed because of data,...

  19. TYPOLOGY ETHICAL ISSUES GLOBAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    Л.П. ПЕТРАШКО

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  This academic paper refines and systematizes the following clasificational approaches for determining the typology of the ethical problems of the global business environment: macro level ethical problems, ethical problems of the relations between companies and their external environment, internal ethical problems of the companies in the context moral vectors. The author also illustrates the cross-cultural multi-vectoral perception of the ethical problems in the business communities of the world.

  20. Guidance in Social and Ethical Issues Related to Clinical, Diagnostic Care and Novel Therapies for Hereditary Neuromuscular Rare Diseases: “Translating“ the Translational

    McCormack, Pauline; Woods, Simon; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Hagger, Lynn; Herczegfalvi, Agnes; Heslop, Emma; Irwin, Joseph; Kirschner, Janbernd; Moeschen, Patrick; Muntoni, Francesco; Ouillade, Marie-Christine; Rahbek, Jes; Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph; Rouault, Francoise; Sejersen, Thomas; Vroom, Elizabeth; Straub, Volker; Bushby, Kate; Ferlini, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Drug trials in children engage with many ethical issues, from drug-related safety concerns to communication with patients and parents, and recruitment and informed consent procedures. This paper addresses the field of neuromuscular disorders where the possibility of genetic, mutation-specific treatments, has added new complexity. Not only must trial design address issues of equity of access, but researchers must also think through the implications of adopting a personalised medicine approach, which requires a precise molecular diagnosis, in addition to other implications of developing orphan drugs. It is against this background of change and complexity that the Project Ethics Council (PEC) was established within the TREAT-NMD EU Network of Excellence. The PEC is a high level advisory group that draws upon the expertise of its interdisciplinary membership which includes clinicians, lawyers, scientists, parents, representatives of patient organisations, social scientists and ethicists. In this paper we describe the establishment and terms of reference of the PEC, give an indication of the range and depth of its work and provide some analysis of the kinds of complex questions encountered. The paper describes how the PEC has responded to substantive ethical issues raised within the TREAT-NMD consortium and how it has provided a wider resource for any concerned parent, patient, or clinician to ask a question of ethical concern. Issues raised range from science related ethical issues, issues related to hereditary neuromuscular diseases and the new therapeutic approaches and questions concerning patients rights in the context of patient registries and bio-banks. We conclude by recommending the PEC as a model for similar research contexts in rare diseases. PMID:23330068

  1. Guidance in social and ethical issues related to clinical, diagnostic care and novel therapies for hereditary neuromuscular rare diseases: "translating" the translational.

    McCormack, Pauline; Woods, Simon; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Hagger, Lynn; Herczegfalvi, Agnes; Heslop, Emma; Irwin, Joseph; Kirschner, Janbernd; Moeschen, Patrick; Muntoni, Francesco; Ouillade, Marie-Christine; Rahbek, Jes; Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph; Rouault, Francoise; Sejersen, Thomas; Vroom, Elizabeth; Straub, Volker; Bushby, Kate; Ferlini, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Drug trials in children engage with many ethical issues, from drug-related safety concerns to communication with patients and parents, and recruitment and informed consent procedures. This paper addresses the field of neuromuscular disorders where the possibility of genetic, mutation-specific treatments, has added new complexity. Not only must trial design address issues of equity of access, but researchers must also think through the implications of adopting a personalised medicine approach, which requires a precise molecular diagnosis, in addition to other implications of developing orphan drugs. It is against this background of change and complexity that the Project Ethics Council (PEC) was established within the TREAT-NMD EU Network of Excellence. The PEC is a high level advisory group that draws upon the expertise of its interdisciplinary membership which includes clinicians, lawyers, scientists, parents, representatives of patient organisations, social scientists and ethicists. In this paper we describe the establishment and terms of reference of the PEC, give an indication of the range and depth of its work and provide some analysis of the kinds of complex questions encountered. The paper describes how the PEC has responded to substantive ethical issues raised within the TREAT-NMD consortium and how it has provided a wider resource for any concerned parent, patient, or clinician to ask a question of ethical concern. Issues raised range from science related ethical issues, issues related to hereditary neuromuscular diseases and the new therapeutic approaches and questions concerning patients rights in the context of patient registries and bio-banks. We conclude by recommending the PEC as a model for similar research contexts in rare diseases. PMID:23330068

  2. Katrina: macro-ethical issues for engineers.

    Newberry, Byron

    2010-09-01

    Hurricane Katrina was one of the worst disasters in United States history. Failures within New Orleans' engineered hurricane protection system (levees and floodwalls) contributed to the severity of the event and have drawn considerable public attention. In the time since Katrina, forensic investigations have uncovered a range of issues and problems related to the engineering work. In this article, my goal is to distill from these investigations, and the related literature that has accumulated, some overarching macro-ethical issues that are relevant for all engineers. I attempt to frame these issues, using illustrative examples taken from Katrina, in a way that might be of pedagogical use and benefit for engineering educators interested in engaging their students in discussions of engineering ethics, societal impact of engineered systems, engineering design, or related topics. Some of the issues discussed are problems of unanticipated failure modes, faulty assumptions, lack or misuse of information, the importance of resiliency, the effects of time, balancing competing interests, attending to the details of interfaces, the fickleness of risk perception, and how the past constrains the present. PMID:19821060

  3. Telecare technologies and isolation: some ethical issues

    Eccles A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Eccles School of Social Work & Social Policy, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK Abstract: Telecare technologies involve the remote monitoring of patients who have health, rehabilitation or social needs. These technologies, although deployed unevenly in developed countries, represent a shift in the ways in which care is practiced. Research on the consequences of this shift away from more traditional "hands-on" care has focused primarily on quantitative measurement (for example cost savings with less attention paid to how recipients themselves experience these new care practices. This paper discusses two aspects of telecare technologies which are under researched; the potential for loneliness which may arise as a result of the use of these technologies, and the ethical issues raised by this. The primary locus of the discussion is the UK, where a major public policy shift towards telecare is under way and where telecare research based on randomized control trials has been particularly well funded by the government. The discussion concludes that there is indeed the potential for loneliness, a condition increasingly recognized as a significant factor in reducing overall health and well-being, in the use of these technologies. The ethical implications of this are not being sufficiently considered, in part because the ethical frameworks in use do not adequately address the issue of loneliness itself, given their bio-medical, rather than relational focus. The paper suggests two ways of redressing this. First, the addition of approaches to ethics other than bio-medical – particularly those with a relational and contextual focus – or greater exploration of how the two approaches might interact. Second, it suggests that a paradigm shift towards solutions other than technology-based care is overdue. This shift would not underplay the importance of technological contributions to care needs. It would, however, be an argument to suggest we

  4. Research ethics issues in geriatric psychiatry.

    Dunn, Laura B; Misra, Sahana

    2009-06-01

    Progress in geriatric psychiatric research may be impeded by lack of attention to collecting evidence relevant to ethical issues. As has been noted for some time, unless proactive work is done to identify, clarify, and remediate ethical challenges (see Table 2 for research directions), deleterious effects on research can result, including research bans, unduly overprotective stances, or inaccurate weighing of risks and benefits of research by review boards. With regard to proxy consent, a number of issues require further study. These include: how state laws address (or fail to address) research involving cognitively impaired individuals and what effects this has on research conduct; how IRBs define and weigh risks and benefits in considering research involving proxy consent; how various stakeholders, including the general public, people with disorders that may impair decision-making capacity, and proxies themselves view proxy consent for research; and to what degree proxies' research decisions reflect what patients themselves would decide. The use of advanced directives as a stand alone method for future consent is fraught with difficulties around adequate informed consent for a particular study; however, future study may clarify if such directives provide surrogates with improved understanding of their relative's overall views of the research enterprise and possibly the types of studies they would be willing to participate in even if they are no longer able to provide their own consent. In depression and suicide research, further work is needed to develop standard procedures for meeting the ethical demands of research while conducting rigorous, crucial research. PMID:19486821

  5. Ethical issues in a pediatric private practice.

    Jakubowitz, Melissa

    2011-11-01

    Building a successful pediatric private practice requires clinical expertise and an understanding of the business process, as well as familiarity with the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Code of Ethics. This article provides an overview of the ethical issues that may be encountered when building a practice, including a look at marketing and advertising, financial management, privacy, and documentation. Ethically sound decision making is a key to a successful business. PMID:22144085

  6. Ethical Issues between Workforce and Religious Conviction

    Mohamad Zaid Mohd Zin; Ahmad Faisal Mahdi; Azhar Abdul Rahman; Mohd Syahiran Abdul Latif; Rohaya Sulaiman; Nurul Khairiah Khalid; Nurfahiratul Azlina Ahmad; Ahamad Asmadi Sakat; Adi Yasran A A; Mohd Roslan Mohd Nor

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: This article enhances the ethical issues consider the relationship between religious life and work ethics. Approach: Malaysia aim to achieved full developed nation’s, requires a professional workforce, not only educated and innovative, but ethically, with integrity, accountability, dynamic and committed to continuously increasing Muslim professionalism. In the context of the development of Muslim professionals with a holistic and integrated, Muslims needs to withholding Taw...

  7. Exhibition Ethics - An Overview of Major Issues

    Andromache Gazi

    2014-01-01

    Museum ethics are about value judgements. In making such judgements museum personnel is constantly valuing one option over another. This holds true for every aspect of museum work; from collecting policies and conservation to store priorities and exhibition. In recent decades there has been a growing concern in addressing ethical issues in museums as museum workers have developed cultural sensitivity and social responsiveness to a degree unseen before. Most codes of ethics urge museums to giv...

  8. Ethical issues and societal expectations

    Daniel Metlay (NWTRB) declared that institutions had always recognised an ethical obligation to manage high- level radioactive waste in unprecedented ways. This obligation has not only endured, but has become more explicit and multidimensional and it now subsumed under a more general rubric of 'societal expectations'. D. Metlay directed attention toward the proceedings of previous RWMC-RF workshop ', which contains five essays, authored by Kjell Andersson, Andrew Blowers, Carl-Reinhold Braakenhielm, Francois Dermange, and Patricia Fleming, that are relevant to the question of ethical issues and societal expectations. D. Metlay observed that 'societal expectations' are hard to define and thus very hard to measure. They may vary considerably with time and from country to country. As an illustration he referred to an inquiry performed by a task group 30 years ago in a document entitled 'Proposed Goals for Radioactive Waste Management' (NUREG-0300) on behalf of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Conclusions from D. Metlay are that, for the most part, societal expectations in the United States appear to be quite stable over a period of more than 30 years. In two areas, however, there are clear differences in emphasis between expectations articulated in the last few years and those recorded in 1978. (1) While then there was emphasis on the operational reliability of organisations and institutions. In particular, much care was taken to discuss the inherent limitations on bureaucratic error-correction in the future. The focus is nowadays more on bureaucratic behaviours associated with carrying out decision-making processes in the present. (2) While there is current emphasis on the importance of trust, transparency, and accountability, the NRC document may cast some doubt on the reliability of a stepwise decision-making process. In the domain of radioactive waste management, error signals are notoriously unclear, and strong disagreements over objectives and value trade

  9. Ethical issues in postauthorization drug trials

    Bernabe, R.D.L.C.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is an attempt to raise some ethical issues that are specific to phase IV drug trials and to provide preliminary responses to such issues. We limited ourselves to issues of informed consent, risk-benefit assessment, and the therapeutic orientation of phase IV. On the issue of informed con

  10. Ethical Issues in Continuing Professional Education.

    Lawler, Patricia Ann

    2000-01-01

    Continuing professional education practitioners often face ethical dilemmas regarding their obligations to multiple stakeholders and issues arising in new arenas such as the workplace, distance education, and collaboration with business. Codes of ethics can guide practice, but practitioners should also identify their personal core values system…

  11. Ethical Issues in Engineering Models : Personal Reflections

    Kleijnen, Jack P.C.

    2010-01-01

    I start this contribution with an overview of my personal involvement—as an Operations Research consultant—in several engineering case-studies that may raise ethical questions; these case studies employ simulation models. Next, I present an overview of the recent literature on ethical issues in mode

  12. Debating Diversity: Ethics and Controversial Public Issues

    Darr, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Ethics, Organizational Communication, Political Communication. Objectives: After completing this unit activity, students should be able to (1) apply multiple ethical perspectives to real-world diversity issues in a debate format, and (2) explain the role of informational and social category diversity in current controversies.

  13. Ethical Issues in Accounting: A Teaching Guide

    Doolan, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Theodore Roosevelt said, "To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society." With this quote in mind, this paper describes three ethical issues in the discipline area of accounting. The format of the paper is to first provide background information on the ethical question or scenario then to provide a…

  14. Ethical issues that confront nurses in private hospitals in the Western Cape Metropolitan area

    Ethelwynn L. Stellenberg; Alta J. Dorse

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nurses are faced daily with a variety of ethical issues which could be as a result of budget cuts, target setting, the shortage of nurses and expertise.Objectives: The objectives of the study were to identify ethical issues related to patient care, to describe ethical issues related to patient diversity, rights and human dignity. To describe ethical issues related to caring in nursing and to the workplace environment.Method: A quantitative explorative descriptive research design w...

  15. Ethical issues that confront nurses in private hospitals in the Western Cape Metropolitan area

    Ethelwynn L. Stellenberg; Alta J. Dorse

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nurses are faced daily with a variety of ethical issues which could be as a result of budget cuts, target setting, the shortage of nurses and expertise. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to identify ethical issues related to patient care, to describe ethical issues related to patient diversity, rights and human dignity. To describe ethical issues related to caring in nursing and to the workplace environment. Method: A quantitative explorative descriptive researc...

  16. [Ethical issues and countermeasures in AIDS prevention].

    Wang, Jie; Teng, Fei

    2013-08-01

    With the rapid spread of AIDS, the ethical issues of its prevention is intensify more and more, it mainly reflected in the four areas such as discrimination of disease and moral panic, individual rights and public health, privacy and right to know, social responsibility and behavior guidance. To resolve these ethical conflicts and safeguard legitimate rights of AIDS patients, we must adhere to love and tolerance, favorable and fair, the principles of autonomy and coordination, thus promoting AIDS prevention, maintaining social ethics and justice, equal and harmonious reconstruction of the ethical relationship. PMID:24228550

  17. Ethical issues in gestational surrogacy.

    Ber, R

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of contraceptive technologies has resulted in the separation of sex and procreation. The introduction of new reproductive technologies (mainly IVF and embryo transfer) has led not only to the separation of procreation and sex, but also to the redefinition of the terms mother and family. For the purpose of this essay, I will distinguish between: 1. the genetic mother--the donor of the egg; 2. the gestational mother--she who bears and gives birth to the baby; 3. the social mother--the woman who raises the child. This essay will deal only with the form of gestational surrogacy in which the genetic parents intend to be the social parents, and the surrogate mother has no genetic relationship to the child she bears and delivers. I will raise questions regarding medical ethical aspects of surrogacy and the obligation(s) of the physician(s) to the parties involved. I will argue that the gestational surrogate is "a womb to rent," that there is great similarity between gestational commercial surrogacy and organ transplant marketing. Furthermore, despite claims to freedom of choice and free marketing, I will claim that gestational surrogacy is a form of prostitution and slavery, exploitation of the poor and needy by those who are better off. The right to be a parent, although not constitutional, is intuitive and deeply rooted. However, the issue remains whether this right overrules all other rights, and at what price to the parties involved. I will finally raise the following provocative question to society: In the interim period between today's limited technology and tomorrow's extra-corporeal gestation technology (ectogenesis), should utilizing females in PVS (persistent vehetative state) for gestational surrogacy be socially acceptable/permissible--provided they have left permission in writing? PMID:10967951

  18. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues

    The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of valuing the environment and implications for the definition of harm and monetary valuation of environmental goods; second, difficulties with scientific uncertainty and applications of the precautionary principle; and third, issues concerned with the distribution of risk and its relevance fo participation in decision-making. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors

  19. 异种角膜移植伦理学相关问题的研究进展%Research progress in ethics related issues of xenocorneal transplantation

    隋东明; 张晶晶

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss and study the ethics related issues of xenocorneal transplantation.Methods The ethics related issues of xenocorneal transplantation were discussed through analysis of the cornea characteristics and present situation of corneal transplantation.Results The ethical problems faced by corneal transplantation mainly consisted of technical barriers social problems:immune rejection after corneal transplantation; species chosen whether or not to meet the ethical requirements,whether to violate the ethics; animal rights issues; whether can cause characteristics change of xenocorneal transplantation person; whether xenocorneal transplantation will lead to the spread of deadly diseases,and endanger public safety.Conclusions Xenocorneal transplantation can help patients regain their sight,its success requires not only the innovation breakthrough of science and technology,but also the attention of people on ethical issues of xenocorneal transplantation.%目的 对异种角膜移植的伦理学相关问题进行探讨与研究.方法 通过分析角膜的特性及异种角膜移植的现状,探讨异种角膜移植的伦理学问题.结果 异种角膜移植面临的伦理学问题主要有技术性伦理问题和社会性伦理问题:异种角膜移植后的免疫排斥问题;物种选择是否符合伦理要求,是否违背伦理道德;动物权利问题;异种角膜移植是否会引起人的特性改变;异种角膜移植是否会导致致命性疾病的传播,危害公共安全.结论 异种角膜移植能够帮助患者重获光明,其成功不但需要依靠科学技术的创新突破,更依赖人们对异种角膜移植伦理问题的重视.

  20. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues

    The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to practical environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of who or what has moral standing; second the appropriate level of protection; and third compatibility with other environmental stressors. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds for efforts to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors. (author)

  1. Issues and Guidance in Research Ethics

    Ronald D. Francis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the principles that govern the outlook and decisions of research ethics committees. The purpose of the paper is to outline such underlying principles in order to aid understanding for researchers into aspects of social and commercial behaviour. Prior to conducting research in any corporate area there is an obligation toward any human participants. That obligation is set out most clearly in the information and forms put out by the various ethics committees charged with examining the proposal, and with giving formal ethical approval. The principles that invest the understanding of ethics committees are those of protecting the vulnerable, and of protecting justifiably good reputations. Ethics committees should be seen as enabling and protecting rather than as a barrier to research. Peer reviews should be seen to include ethics matters in research, and are thus a natural extension of the common scientific endeavour. To this end the article outlines and discusses the issues commonly addressed by research ethics committees. By highlighting these principles, this paper aims to give insights and suggestions that should make the ethics application task easier.

  2. DOPING IN SPORT: GLOBAL ETHICAL ISSUES

    Angela J. Schneider; Fan Hong

    2007-01-01

    DESCRIPTION In this book the question of "How ethical is using performance improving drugs in sport?" is argued in global perspective. PURPOSE The ethical questions in sport are discussed comprehensively. Particularly, different cultures and approach of various countries to that issue were examined. FEATURES The book composed of 10 chapters following a thorough introduction from the editors in 194 pages. The titles are: 1.Fair is Fair, Or Is It? : A Moral Consideration of the Doping Wars in A...

  3. Ethical Issues of Reproductive Technologies: Legal and Ethical.

    Kammler, Kim

    Ethical issues which surround the reproductive technologies being used to assist infertile couples include social impact, surrogacy, access to service and confidentiality. The use of reproductive technologies does not appear to cause harm, and often does a lot of good for the family and society. Surrogacy could be a valuable tool for the infertile…

  4. Nontechnical issues in waste management: ethical, institutional, and political concerns

    The report consists of a presentation and distillation of major nontechnical issues surrounding commercial waste management, followed by ethical, institutional, and political analyses of these issues. The ethical analysis consists of a discusson of what is meant by ''ethics'' and ''morality'' in the waste management context and an illustrative attempt at an ethical analysis of the commercial nuclear waste problem. Two institutional analyses are presented: one is an analysis of the possible problems of long-term human institutions in waste management; the other is a presentation of institutional arrangements for the short term. A final chapter discusses issues and concerns involving intergovernmental relations--that is, local, state, and federal interface problems in waste management

  5. Nontechnical issues in waste management: ethical, institutional, and political concerns

    Hebert, J.A.; Rankin, W.L.; Brown, P.G.; Schuller, C.R; Smith, R.F.; Goodnight, J.A.; Lippek, H.E.

    1978-05-01

    The report consists of a presentation and distillation of major nontechnical issues surrounding commercial waste management, followed by ethical, institutional, and political analyses of these issues. The ethical analysis consists of a discusson of what is meant by ''ethics'' and ''morality'' in the waste management context and an illustrative attempt at an ethical analysis of the commercial nuclear waste problem. Two institutional analyses are presented: one is an analysis of the possible problems of long-term human institutions in waste management; the other is a presentation of institutional arrangements for the short term. A final chapter discusses issues and concerns involving intergovernmental relations--that is, local, state, and federal interface problems in waste management.

  6. Ethical issues in neonatal intensive care units.

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Xin-Xin; Wang, Xin-Ling

    2016-07-01

    On one hand, advances in neonatal care and rescue technology allow for the healthy survival or prolonged survival time of critically ill newborns who, in the past, would have been non-viable. On the other hand, many of the surviving critically ill infants have serious long-term disabilities. If an infant eventually cannot survive or is likely to suffer severe disability after surviving, ethical issues in the treatment process are inevitable, and this problem arises not only in developed countries but is also becoming increasingly prominent in developing countries. In addition, ethical concerns cannot be avoided in medical research. This review article introduces basic ethical guidelines that should be followed in clinical practice, including respecting the autonomy of the parents, giving priority to the best interests of the infant, the principle of doing no harm, and consent and the right to be informed. Furthermore, the major ethical concerns in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in China are briefly introduced. PMID:26382713

  7. Ethical issues in palliative care.

    Randall, F M

    1999-10-01

    The relief of suffering is one of the aims of health care. Pain relief is a moral obligation in health care, not an optional extra. Doctors have moral obligations to strive to relieve pain, to be competent in basic pain control, and to endeavour to give patients an adequate understanding of their illness and painkillers. The most common moral problem in pain control in terminally ill patients is the conflict between the obligation to relieve suffering and the obligation to prolong life. The law prohibits intentionally causing the death of another person. Debates follow as to what constitutes an intention to cause death, and what actually constitutes a cause of death. At present, doctors are legally permitted to give sedatives and analgesics to terminally ill patients with the intention of relieving suffering, even if life is shortened. The moral principle of the 'double effect' relates to this and is explained. It relies on a distinction between intended and foreseen effects of treatment. Some people dispute the distinction between intended and foreseen effects and claim that the principle of double effect allows doctors who intend euthanasia to carry it out under cover of the law. This debate is explored in the article. Finally, is it ever morally justifiable to end the patient's life on the grounds that this is the only way to end pain? Even if it is, should euthanasia be legalised? A brief comment on these issues, and the roles of law and morality, are made. PMID:10522743

  8. Ethical issues and attitude in the Turkish banking sector

    Ayfer HORTACSU; Ozkan Gunay, E. Nur

    2004-01-01

    This study concentrates on the ethical issues and conditions prevailing in the Turkish banking environment. A selfadministered mail survey was conducted with 554 top bank managers in Turkey. Scenarios that were developed after a pilot study were factor analyzed. The objective of the study was to identify ethics related organizational, cognitive and affective dimensions that are likely to affect perceptions of bank managers in interpreting the eight factors and the remaining four scenarios. Th...

  9. What Counts as a 'Social and Ethical Issue' in Nanotechnology?

    Bruce V. Lewenstein

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available As 'social and ethical issues' becomes a recurring phrase in the community paying attention to nanotechnology research, a crucial question becomes: what counts as a social and ethical issue? A typical list includes privacy, environmental health and safety, media hype, and other apparently unrelated issues. This article surveys those issues and suggests that concerns about fundamental concepts of ethics, such as fairness, justice, equity, and especially power, unite the various issues identified as 'social and ethical issues' in nanotechnology.

  10. Teaching Ethical Reflexivity in Information Systems: How to Equip Students to Deal with Moral and Ethical Issues of Emerging Information and Communication Technologies

    Stahl, Bernd Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Teaching ethics to students of information systems (IS) raises a number of conceptual and content-related issues. The present paper starts out by developing a conceptual framework of moral and ethical issues that distinguishes between moral intuition, explicit morality, ethical theory and meta-ethical reflection. This conceptual framework…

  11. Relational Ethics in Global Commerce

    Andrew Creed; Ambika Zutshi; Jane Ross

    2009-01-01

    This article identifies the fragility of relationships and ethical practices in the context of global commercial relationships and reflects upon the centrality of human relationships in commerce. The connections between people in global business are underpinned by ethical actions and outcomes and influenced by the degree that information and communication technology are part of the commercial relationship. Issues of trust, privacy, sharing, communication, security, anonymity, and learning eme...

  12. Legal and ethical issues regarding social media and pharmacy education.

    Cain, Jeff; Fink, Joseph L

    2010-12-15

    Widespread use of social media applications like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter has introduced new complexities to the legal and ethical environment of higher education. Social communications have traditionally been considered private; however, now that much of this information is published online to the public, more insight is available to students' attitudes, opinions, and character. Pharmacy educators and administrators may struggle with the myriad of ethical and legal issues pertaining to social media communications and relationships with and among students. This article seeks to clarify some of these issues with a review of the legal facets and pertinent court cases related to social media. In addition, 5 core ethical issues are identified and discussed. The article concludes with recommendations for pharmacy educators with regard to preparing for and addressing potential legal issues pertaining to social media. PMID:21436925

  13. Ethical Issues in Collaborative Action Research

    Locke, Terry; Alcorn, Noeline; O'Neill, John

    2013-01-01

    This article begins by raising issues around the way in which ethical approval for research is managed in university settings, where committees often base their assumptions on a principlist approach making a number of assumptions that we consider to be contestable, such as a neat separation between researcher and researched. However, collaborative…

  14. Ethical issues in irregular migration research

    F. Duvell; A. Triandafyllidou; B. Vollmer

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the ethical issues arising for researchers engaged in the study of irregular migration. Irregular migration is by definition an elusive phenomenon as it takes place in violation of the law and at the margins of society. This very nature of the phenomenon raises important

  15. Ethical issues related to professional exposure of pregnant women in the medical field: monitoring and limiting effective dose.

    Santos, J A M; Nunes, R

    2011-03-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations for occupational exposed pregnant women do not imply necessarily the complete avoidance of work with radiation or radioactive materials. Instead, a careful review of the exposure conditions, once the pregnancy is declared, as part of the exercise of the ICRP optimisation principle (based in a teleological ethics point of view) is suggested. The dose limitation (following a deontological ethics point of view) of the fetus/embryo is, however, not clearly well established as happens in the case of workers or members of the public. Also, the justification of practices (to continue to work or not with radiation or radioactive materials) is not clearly addressed in most national or international recommendations. An analysis of this justification (bearing in mind both teleological and deontological ethics) is examined in this work having in mind the best interest of the child-to-be as well as other existing social and economical factors. PMID:21068015

  16. Ethical issues related to professional exposure of pregnant women in the medical field: Monitoring and limiting effective dose

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations for occupational exposed pregnant women do not imply necessarily the complete avoidance of work with radiation or radioactive materials. Instead, a careful review of the exposure conditions, once the pregnancy is declared, as part of the exercise of the ICRP optimisation principle (based in a teleological ethics point of view) is suggested. The dose limitation (following a deontological ethics point of view) of the fetus/embryo is, however, not clearly well established as happens in the case of workers or members of the public. Also, the justification of practices (to continue to work or not with radiation or radioactive materials) is not clearly addressed in most national or international recommendations. An analysis of this justification (bearing in mind both teleological and deontological ethics) is examined in this work having in mind the best interest of the child-to-be as well as other existing social and economical factors. (authors)

  17. A review of ethical issues in transplantation.

    Rhodes, R

    1994-01-01

    Unavoidable and unique characteristics of the transplant surgeon's practice require difficult moral judgments. The two major areas of moral quandary are organ procurement and organ allocation. This paper outlines the key ethical issues in transplantation and draws attention to some of the recent literature that argues more specific issues in greater detail. The subjects discussed include brain death, living organ donation, procurement policies, organ sales, distributive justice, free riders (nondonators), duties and debts, and research. PMID:8183299

  18. Fundamental Ethical Issues in Unnecessary Surgical Procedures.

    Tayade, Motilal Chandu; Dalvi, Shashank D

    2016-04-01

    In clinical practice performing any surgical procedure is inconsistent because all surgical procedures carry definitely some degree of risk. Worldwide every year millions of patients go under knife, but many of them are enduring great pain and shelling out thousands and dollars for surgeries they don't really need. This review work was planned with an intention to focus attention towards it with reporting cited evidences of unnecessary surgical operations and discuss ethical issues concern with it. In present review the references search included standard citations Google scholar, MEDLINE and PUBMED. We also used Google search engine for screening various news concern with highlighting this topic in community and online media. For articles we go through more than 60 articles from worldwide and 12 news media views from Google search in last one year. We used following quotes for their search-unnecessary surgeries, second opinion, ethical issues in unnecessary surgeries. Geographical variations were also kept in view. Our intension was highlighting ethical issues concern with unnecessary surgical operations. Henceforth we excluded such work that does not concern with ethical issues. Unnecessary surgery is that which is medically unjustifiable when the risks and costs are more than the likely therapeutic benefits or relief to the patient based on the patient's lifestyle requirements. To avoid or minimize such interventions basic seeding of ethics in curriculum and strict laws will definitely helpful in clinical practice. In conclusion, our aim was to highlight this major issue and underline need of competency based medical bioethics education in Indian scenario. PMID:27190833

  19. The perceptions of danish physiotherapists on the ethical issues related to the physiotherapist-patient relationship during the first session: a phenomenological approach

    Praestegaard Jeanette

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the course of the last four decades, the profession of physiotherapy has progressively expanded its scope of responsibility and its focus on professional autonomy and evidence-based clinical practice. To preserve professional autonomy, it is crucial for the physiotherapy profession to meet society's expectations and demands of professional competence as well as ethical competence. Since it is becoming increasingly popular to choose a carrier in private practice in Denmark this context constitutes the frame of this study. Physiotherapy in private practice involves mainly a meeting between two partners: the physiotherapist and the patient. In the meeting, power asymmetry between the two partners is a condition that the physiotherapist has to handle. The aim of this study was to explore whether ethical issues rise during the first physiotherapy session discussed from the perspective of the physiotherapists in private practice. Methods A qualitative approach was chosen and semi-structured interviews with 21 physiotherapists were carried out twice and analysed by using a phenomenological framework. Results Four descriptive themes emerged: general reflections on ethics in physiotherapy; the importance of the first physiotherapy session; the influence of the clinical environment on the first session and; reflections and actions upon beneficence towards the patient within the first session. The results show that the first session and the clinical context in private practice are essential from an ethical perspective. Conclusions Ethical issues do occur within the first session, the consciousness about ethical issues differs in Danish physiotherapy private practice, and reflections and acts are to a lesser extent based on awareness of ethical theories, principles and ethical guidelines. Beneficence towards the patient is a fundamental aspect of the physiotherapists' understanding of the first session. However, if the physiotherapist

  20. The perceptions of Danish physiotherapists on the ethical issues related to the physiotherapist-patient relationship during the first physiotherapy session: A phenomenological approach

    Præstegaard, Jeanette; Gard, Gunvor

    2011-01-01

    between two partners: the physiotherapist and the patient. In the meeting, power asymmetry between the two partners is a condition that the physiotherapist has to handle. The aim of this study was to explore whether ethical issues rise during the first physiotherapy session discussed from the perspective...... of the physiotherapists in private practice. Methods: A qualitative approach was chosen and semi-structured interviews with 21 physiotherapists were carried out twice and analysed by using a phenomenological framework. Results: Four descriptive themes emerged: general reflections on ethics in physiotherapy....... Beneficence towards the patient is a fundamental aspect of the physiotherapists’ understanding of the first session. However, if the physiotherapist lacks a deeper ethical awareness, the physiotherapist may reason and/or act ethically to a varying extent: only an ethically conscious physiotherapist will know...

  1. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Pikee Saxena; Archana Mishra; Sonia Malik

    2012-01-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy “for” another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  2. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy “for” another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents. PMID:23293432

  3. Surrogacy: ethical and legal issues.

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-10-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for" another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents. PMID:23293432

  4. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Pikee Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for"another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  5. Exhibition Ethics - An Overview of Major Issues

    Andromache Gazi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Museum ethics are about value judgements. In making such judgements museum personnel is constantly valuing one option over another. This holds true for every aspect of museum work; from collecting policies and conservation to store priorities and exhibition. In recent decades there has been a growing concern in addressing ethical issues in museums as museum workers have developed cultural sensitivity and social responsiveness to a degree unseen before. Most codes of ethics urge museums to give appropriate consideration to represented groups or beliefs. In light of this, it has been recognised that exhibition of sensitive material, for example, must be done with great tact and respect for the feelings of religious, ethnic or other groups represented. Another issue concerns the display of unprovenanced material and repatriation. Yet, these are not the only ethical issues which exhibition developers are faced with. As museum workers we should constantly be reminded that exhibitions are active agents in the construction of knowledge. This paper discusses the hidden assumptions on which museum presentation and interpretation are often based. Decisions about what to include and what to exclude, what is valued and what is not, the means of presentation, language, and so on, all lead to presentational styles which may shape the public’s perception in unintended ways.

  6. Exhibition Ethics - An Overview of Major Issues

    Andromache Gazi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Museum ethics are about value judgements. In making such judgements museum personnel is constantly valuing one option over another. This holds true for every aspect of museum work; from collecting policies and conservation to store priorities and exhibition. In recent decades there has been a growing concern in addressing ethical issues in museums as museum workers have developed cultural sensitivity and social responsiveness to a degree unseen before. Most codes of ethics urge museums to give appropriate consideration to represented groups or beliefs. In light of this, it has been recognised that exhibition of sensitive material, for example, must be done with great tact and respect for the feelings of religious, ethnic or other groups represented. Another issue concerns the display of unprovenanced material and repatriation.Yet, these are not the only ethical issues which exhibition developers are faced with. As museum workers we should constantly be reminded that exhibitions are active agents in the construction of knowledge. This paper discusses the hidden assumptions on which museum presentation and interpretation are often based. Decisions about what to include and what to exclude, what is valued and what is not, the means of presentation, language, and so on, all lead to presentational styles which may shape the public’s perception in unintended ways.

  7. Activity of Ethics Committees in Europe on issues related to clinical trials in paediatrics: Results of a survey

    Altavilla, A.; Giaquinto, C.; Giocanti, D.; Manfredi, C.; Aboulker, J.-P.; Bartoloni, F.; Cattani, E.; Giudice, M. L.; Mellado Peňa, M.J.; Nagler, R.; Peterson, C.; Vajnerová, Olga; Bonifazi, F.; Ceci, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, 1-2 (2009), s. 79-87. ISSN 1389-2827 Grant ostatní: EC(XE) LSHBCT-2005-005126 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : ethic committees * clinical trials * pediatrics Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines

  8. Ethics in Relation to Islamic Finance Activities

    Ismail, Abdul Ghafar; Zali, Nor Azmidah

    2015-01-01

    Ethics has been fundamental in organizations and in specific, Islamic financial institutions have selected ethics as their core competencies. Islam accepts ethics as a good value in enhancing company performance since ethics is grounded by Shariah rules. The ethical issues have been raised steadily in business and they do not seem to settle as a lot of companies have not been aware of its importance. There are a lot of theories of ethics that have been introduced but the number of unethical b...

  9. Ethical issues in forecasting of natural hazards

    Tinti, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Natural hazards have by definition a large impact on the society and, therefore, since the beginning of science one of the major aspiration of mankind has been the prediction of natural calamities in the attempt to avoid or to mitigate their effects. In modern societies where science and technology have gained a foundational role, forecasts and predictions have become part of the every-day life and may also influence state policies and economic development. And in parallel with the growing importance of forecasting, even ethical problems for forecasters and for forecasters communities have started to appear. In this work two of the many geo-ethical issues are considered mostly: 1) how to cope with uncertainties that are inherently associated with any forecast statement; 2) how to handle predictions in scientific journals and scientific conferences The former issue is mainly related to the impact of predictions on the general public and on managers and operators in the civil protection field. Forecasters operate in specific contexts that 1) may change from country to country, depending on the local adopted best practices, but also, which is more constraining, on the local legal regulations and laws; 2) may change from discipline to discipline according to the development of the specific knowhow and the range of the forecast (from minutes to centuries) The second issue has to do with the communication of the scientific results on predictions and on prediction methods to the audience mainly composed of scientists, and involves one of the basic elements of science. In principle, scientists should use scientific communication means (papers in scientific journals, conferences, …) to illustrate results that are sound and certain, or the methods by means of which they conduct their research. But scientists involved in predictions have inherently to do with uncertainties, and, since there is no common agreement on how to deal with them, there is the risk that scientific

  10. Radiation protection: Some philosophical and ethical issues

    The ethical issue of justification has become an urgent issue in radiology. There has been a shift in emphasis in the discussion from what has been regarded as a rather paternalistic attitude of practitioners to one that stresses the rights of the individual patient. This article comments on this current move on the part of the profession by offering certain relevant philosophical considerations. Using a medical scenario as the context to comment on this shift, it discusses important and fundamental issues, such as the autonomy and the rights of the patient in addition to the question of consent on the patient's part.

  11. Key Ethical Issues in Pediatric Research: Islamic Perspective Iranian Experience

    Mina Mobasher; Pooneh Salari; Bagher Larijani

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The importance of pediatric research especially in the ethically proven trials resulted in considerable legislative attempts in association with compiling ethical guidelines. Because of children’s vulnerability conducting pediatric research raises different ethical issues; the two most important of which are informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. Differences in ethical standards and socio-cultural issues limit application of ethical standards.Methods: At the aim of finding a...

  12. School Psychology in Rural Contexts: Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues

    Edwards, Lynn M.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Delivering psychological services in rural communities presents a number of unique challenges for practitioners relative to their peers in urban and suburban communities. In this article, the authors describe the current context of rural schools and examine the ethical and legal issues school psychologists may face when practicing in rural…

  13. Re-Examining Ethical Issue: Philosophical Considerations

    The paper reflects on the current trend among radiologists to move away from what is regarded as a paternalistic attitude existing among practitioners and to place more emphasis on the rights of individual patients with regard to the issue of justification. The ethical discussion addresses the autonomy and rights of the patient, as well as the question of consent on his or her part. (author)

  14. Ethical Issues in Supply Chain Management

    Hulikal Venugopalan, Achala

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A supply chain is a system of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer. In the wake of globalization and liberalization policy, business ethics phenomenon in globalised business environment has become a critical issue that has attracted business and management research scholars to engage on crucial debates and discussion at both local as well as international forums. This is because globalizati...

  15. Lifestyle market segmentation - efficiency and ethical issues

    Pilstl, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    Lifestyle market segmentation can be very supportive for a successful marketing strategy of a company. However it is not clear whether lifestyle market segmentation is efficient and ethical or not. Several market segmentation concepts such as Cross-Cultural Consumer Characterization, VALS, PRIZM NE, Mosaic, ConneXions NE and GfK Roper Consumer Styles are analyzed in order to give an extensive overview of the offered concepts. The observation of efficiency issues in regards to market segmentat...

  16. Ethical issues in medico-legal exposures

    The Medical Exposure Directive (MED) 97/43/Euratom defines medico-legal procedures as 'procedures performed for insurance or legal purposes without a medical indication'. The term 'medico-legal exposures' covers a wide range of possible types of exposures, very different in nature, for which the only feature in common is the fact that the main reason for performing them does not relate directly to the health of the individual being exposed to ionising radiation. The key issue in medico-legal exposures is justification. Balancing the advantages and disadvantages of such exposures is complex because not only can these be difficult to quantify and hence compare, but often the advantage may be to society whereas the disadvantage is usually to an individual. This adds an additional layer of ethical complexity to the problem and one, which requires input from a number of sources beyond the established radiation protection community. Because medico-legal exposures are considered to be medical exposures, they are not subject to dose limits. In medico-legal exposures where the benefit is not necessarily to the individual undergoing the exposure, the question must be asked as to whether or not this is an appropriate framework within which to conduct such exposures. This paper looks at the current situation in Europe, highlighting some of the particular problems that have arisen, and tries to identify the areas, which require further clarification and guidance. (authors)

  17. INTERNET OF THINGS – SOME ETHICAL ISSUES

    Daniela POPESCUL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to treat aspects that are related to the sensitivity of data, information and knowledge transmitted through Internet of Things, helping all people interested in these new ICT technologies to become aware of some ethical issues. In this new media, which is no more in its infancy, the vulnerabilities and attacks are various, caused by technological advances and proliferated through lack of users’ awareness. This warning message is needed because of data, information and knowledge transfer from virtual to physical devices that are connected to wireless networks of different sizes and importance. The transfer is augmented by the extended use of new technologies as RFID, NFC, sensors, 3G and 4G and brings along the adjustment of the traditional information security threats to this new environment, as well as the emergence of new characteristic dangers. The problems treated here are of interest both for each of us, as individuals, and for the organizations managers – especially in a world in which the borderline between the physical and virtual life is becoming more and more difficult to draw.

  18. Ethical issues in artificial nutrition and hydration.

    Fine, Robert L

    2006-04-01

    From the time of Hippocrates, approximately 2500 years ago, medical ethics has been seen as an essential complement to medical science in pursuit of the healing art of medicine. This is no less true today, not only for physicians but also for other essential professionals involved in patient care, including clinical nutrition support practitioners. One aspect of medical ethics that the clinical nutritionist must face involves decisions to provide, withhold, or withdraw artificial nutrition and hydration. Such a decision is not only technical but often has a strong moral component as well. Although it is the physician who writes any such order, the clinical nutritionist as fellow professional should be a part not only of the scientific aspects of the order but of the moral discourse leading to such an order and may certainly be involved in counseling physicians, other healthcare providers, patients, and families alike. This paper is intended to give the clinical nutritionist a familiarity with the discipline of medical ethics and its proper relationship to medical science, politics, and law. This review will then offer a more specific analysis of the ethical aspects of decisions to initiate, withhold, or withdraw artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) and offer particular commentary on the ethically significant pronouncements of Pope John Paul II in March of 2004 related to vegetative patients and artificial or "assisted" nutrition and hydration. PMID:16556921

  19. Research on the professional ethics issues of CPA in China

    Zhang Xuejun; Liu Bin

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, auditing collusion cases have occured frequently, reducing the integrity degree of CPA. Of all reasons, we should pay attention to professional ethics issues most. Because of professional ethics issues, the public have lost confidence in the industry of CPA. The industry of CPA is faced with serious crisis. In the circumstance, this paper researched professional ethics issues of CPA. Firstly, it explained the connotation of professional ethics, emphasized the importance. Seco...

  20. [NURSING ETHICS ISSUES IN PALLIATIVE CARE].

    González-Serna, José María; de Llanos Peña, Francisco

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the essential anthropological categories of terminal illness and the main attitudes of nurses for their care and the ethical criteria for indication and application of palliative therapies. We conclude that ethical attitudes of care in palliative care nursing are based in anthropological categories of dying process; the access granted to nurse by the patient and family within their privacy generates a relational context where communication can be made more effective and thus facilitate the coping existential, spiritual and psychosocial in illness and the process of diagnostic and prognostic information. The qualitative and quantitative clinical information provided by the nursing professional to multidisciplinary team on the evaluation of the effectiveness of care outcomes and therapies in the context of terminal illness assistance allows establishing a plan of treatment appropriate ethically. PMID:26117997

  1. Water Development: A Philosophical and Ethical Issue

    Perkins, D.

    2015-12-01

    As one reviewer said about John McPhee's Encounters With the Archdruid:"So the real issues relate to what is natural? How should lands be used? What role do humans have in using, caring for, being part of the land and can we do so responsibly?" This quote applies equally to more than just land development -- it applies to water project too. Although Marc Reisner wrote Cadillac Desert in 1986, the lessons it presents about water development are current today. Not much has changed really in the past three decades. People still live in arid places where, perhaps, they should not live. Engineers still redesign nature to meet human needs, only to find out later that there are unintended consequences. About the only thing that has changed is that today the Bureau of Reclamation and other agencies do not spend megabucks to construct huge water projects. And, insignificant by comparison, some restoration and dam removal projects have begun on a limited scale. We developed an exercise, based on selected chapters from Reisner's book and a video derived from the book, to help students develop critical thinking and ethical reasoning skills. As we did so, we realized that there was much more that could be included. The ethical dilemmas associated with water development and related engineering projects are many. So, now, the original exercise has been expanded to 7 units. The original five units are based on Cadillac Desert. The sixth is based on a recent great documentary film, DamNation. The last unit is inspired by a terrific chapter from John McPhee's 1971 book Encounters with the Archdruid. The format is that student read articles and book chapters and then write responses to questions designed to get them to reflect on what they read. So, the exercises may be assigned as homework, but for the most value there must be some significant group discussions. If all units are used, this provides several weeks of homework for students, but instructors may cherry pick the units

  2. Ethical issues in Alzheimer's disease: an overview.

    Leuzy, Antoine; Gauthier, Serge

    2012-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) accounts for the majority of dementia cases and leaves clinicians, patients, family members, caregivers, and researchers faced with numerous ethical issues that vary and evolve as a function of disease stage and severity. While the disclosure of a diagnosis of AD dementia is difficult enough, advances in the neurobiology of AD--embodied in the recent revisions to the AD diagnostic guidelines--have translated into an increasing shift toward the diagnosis being made in its pre-dementia stages, when patients have full insight into their prognosis. Genetic issues in AD are significant in the case of rare families with an early onset (before age 65) form of the disease, owing to the presence of deterministic mutations. While genetic testing for the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene--a risk factor for sporadic AD--is widely debated, it may become necessary in the context of novel disease-modifying drugs. The current symptomatic drugs--cholinesterase inhibitors (CIs) and the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine--are relatively simple to use but their access is limited in many countries by economic considerations and therapeutic nihilism. Although their efficacy is modest, they influence the design of protocols for new drugs since placebo treatment in clinical trials involving patients with established dementia is rarely allowed beyond 3 months. Driving privileges are lost in the moderate stages of dementia, with this decision ideally reached using a standardized assessment algorithm. Physical restraints are still overused in moderate-to-severe stages, but the alternative non-pharmacological therapies and caregiver training programs are not yet fully validated using randomized studies. End-of-life care is slowly moving towards a palliative care approach similar to that for end-stage cancer. There will be new drugs in the near future, some of which will delay progression from prodromal stages to dementia, but their use will require careful stopping rules

  3. What Counts as a 'Social and Ethical Issue' in Nanotechnology?

    Bruce V. Lewenstein

    2005-01-01

    As 'social and ethical issues' becomes a recurring phrase in the community paying attention to nanotechnology research, a crucial question becomes: what counts as a social and ethical issue? A typical list includes privacy, environmental health and safety, media hype, and other apparently unrelated issues. This article surveys those issues and suggests that concerns about fundamental concepts of ethics, such as fairness, justice, equity, and especially power, unite the various issues identifi...

  4. Ethical issues in deep brain stimulation

    Maartje eSchermer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS is currently used to treat neurological disorders like Parkinson’s disease (PD, essential tremor and dystonia, and is explored as an experimental treatment for psychiatric disorders like Major Depression (MD and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD. This mini review discusses ethical issues in DBS treatment and research, as they have been discussed in the medical and ethical literature.With regard to DBS treatment, the most important issues are balancing risks and benefits and ensuring respect for the autonomous wish of the patient. This implies special attention to patient selection, psycho-social impact of treatment, effects on personal identity, and treatment of children. Moreover, it implies a careful informed consent process in which unrealistic expectations of patients and their families are addressed and in which special attention is given to competence. In the context of research, the fundamental ethical challenge is to promote high-quality scientific research in the interest of future patients, while at the same time safeguarding the rights and interests of vulnerable research subjects. Several guidelines have been proposed to ensure this. One of the preconditions to further development of responsible and transparent research practices is the establishment of a comprehensive registry.

  5. Environmental issues in Finnish school textbooks on religious education and ethics

    Essi Aarnio-Linnanvuori

    2013-01-01

    Solving global environmental problems requires a major change of values. As relates to environmental education, worldview, ethics and spiritual issues are important elements. But how are environmental issues included in such school subjects that especially discuss values and ethics? In this article I examine 24 Finnish religious education and ethics textbooks to analyze, to what extent environmental issues are integrated and discussed in them. I conclude that there is confusion about what env...

  6. The effect of home and host country cultures on marketing managers` individual decision making related to ethical issues in MNCs : Inter- and intra-cultural study

    Kliukinskaitė-Vigil, Virginija

    2012-01-01

    The topic of business ethics has always been relevant, but never more so than at the present time of the global economic crisis. Nestlè, Lockheed, Union Carbide, Nike, Enron, Tyco, AIG, BP, Halliburton, Lehman Brothers, Bernard L. Madoff are just a few well-known names of businesses/related individuals that at one time or other openly failed ethically. Such cases have prompted researchers to analyze the causes of unethical behavior to understand what drives individuals in business organizatio...

  7. A Draft Ethics Curriculum Based on Ethical Issues Experienced by Family Doctors in Düzce

    Akpınar A et al.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine ethical issues experienced by family doctors in Düzce, the pilot province for implementation of the primary health care reform 'Transformation in Health' in Turkey in 2005.Method: We conducted this study between May and June 2007 in Düzce. A self-administered-questionnaire prepared by the researchers included 13 ethical issues inquiring about physicians' frequency of encounter, difficulty in managing the problem, and learning needs in ethical topics. Results: Fifty-seven percent of family doctors who were practicing in Düzce (56/98 took part in the study. Most of them (89.3% were in practice over a year, had more than 3000 registered patients (80.4% with homogenous distribution (67.9%. Physicians reported to encounter ethical dilemmas related to informed consent (72.7%, conflict of self-interest and altruism (44.6%, determining competency (41.8%, claims of alternative therapy (41.0%, relationship with representatives of drug companies (39.2%, truth-telling (28.6%, and resource allocation (27.3% at least once a month. Participants were experienced difficulties when solving dilemmas related to determining competency in patients, reporting incompetency of a colleague, informed consent, best interest of the child, truth-telling, conflict of self-interest and altruism, respectively. Best interest of the child, truth-telling, determining competency in patients, protecting others' interest and gaining informed consent were prioritized topics for education. Conclusion: Our results implied that family doctors experienced difficulties in ethical conduct during daily clinical practice. The most frequently mentioned ethical issues were evaluated with respect to expressed learning needs which served to develop a draft ethics curriculum.

  8. Ethical issues in organ and tissue transplantation.

    Abouna, George M

    2003-12-01

    Clinical organ transplantation provides a way of giving the gift of life to patients with terminal failure of vital organs, which requires the participation of other fellow human beings and of society by donating organs from deceased or living individuals. The increasing incidence of vital organ failure and the inadequate supply of organs, especially from cadavers, has created a wide gap between organ supply and organ demand, which has resulted in very long waiting times to receive an organ as well as an increasing number of deaths while waiting. These events have raised many ethical, moral and societal issues regarding supply, the methods of organ allocation the use of living donors as volunteers including minors. It has also led to the practice of organ sale by entrepreneurs for financial gains in some parts the world through exploitation of the poor, for the benefit of the wealthy. The current advances in immunology and tissue engineering and the use of animal organs, xenotransplantation, while offering very promising solutions to many of these problems, also raise additional ethical and medical issues, which must be considered by the medical profession as well as society. This review deals with the ethical and moral issues generated by the current advances in organ transplantation, the problem of organ supply versus organ demand and the appropriate allocation of available organs. It deals with the risks and benefits of organ donation from living donors, the appropriate and acceptable methods to increase organ donation from the deceased through the adoption of the principle of 'presumed consent', the right methods of providing acceptable appreciation and compensation for the family of the deceased as well as volunteer and altruistic donors, and the duties and responsibilities of the medical profession and society to help fellow humans. The review also deals with the appropriate and ethically acceptable ways of utilizing the recent advances of stem cell

  9. [Ethics and reproductive health: the issue of HPV vaccination].

    Matejić, Bojana; Kesić, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the

  10. Ethics and reproductive health: The issue of HPV vaccination

    Matejić Bojana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years, attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years

  11. Ethical issues in radiology: A philosophical perspective

    Given that there is much disagreement as to what constitutes 'philosophy', even among philosophers, it is a challenge to provide a philosophical perspective. There are, however, at least two areas that most philosophers would regard as coming within the terrain of philosophical thinking: (1) the clarification of issues and (2) providing some sort of a foundation on which further thinking can take place. Thus, by way of contributing a philosophical perspective to the discussion, this paper will clarify some of the more fundamental issues regarding ethical debates in the hope of establishing some kind of theoretical foundation on which to base the discussion of the more specific issues and of widening the scope of the discussion. (authors)

  12. Ethical Issues between Workforce and Religious Conviction

    Mohamad Zaid Mohd Zin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This article enhances the ethical issues consider the relationship between religious life and work ethics. Approach: Malaysia aim to achieved full developed nation’s, requires a professional workforce, not only educated and innovative, but ethically, with integrity, accountability, dynamic and committed to continuously increasing Muslim professionalism. In the context of the development of Muslim professionals with a holistic and integrated, Muslims needs to withholding Tawheed, the fundamentals of faith, based on Al-Quran and Hadith. Manifestations in life of the practice which accounts for worship and morality need to be implemented. Results: Islamic moral character requires the emphasize that following five key parameters of Islamic behavior which is justice, trust, righteousness, the struggle towards self-improvement and keeping promises. Conclusion: The properties of trust at work, honesty, responsibility and integrity should be established in each of the Muslims. Each institution needs to be continued in the religious education and level of consciousness must be nurtured and enhanced.

  13. Ethical issues in kidney transplantation – reflections from Nigeria

    Joseph Olusesan Fadare

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Olusesan Fadare1, Babatunde L Salako21Department of Medicine, Kogi State Specialist Hospital, Lokoja; 2Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaAbstract: Organ transplantation has become a life-saving procedure for many disease conditions hitherto considered incurable. Kidney transplantation, now the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, is the commonest solid organ transplantation carried out in the world at the moment and it is the only solid organ transplantation done in Nigeria. This procedure, in addition to prolonging lives, also provides better quality of life and is evaluated as cost-effective, because it makes more resources available to other sectors of the economy. Organ transplantation in general and kidney transplantation in particular are fraught with ethical issues and dilemmas worldwide. Some of the ethical issues arising in the setting of developing countries like Nigeria may differ from those in countries where this procedure is established. Informed consent of the donor and the recipient is a major requirement for both organ donation and transplantation. Regarding donation, the ethical issues may differ depending on the type of organ donation, ie, whether it is living-related, living-unrelated, cadaveric, or from brain-dead individuals. Commodification of organs is identified as an ethical dilemma, and arguments for and against this practice are put forward here. Confidentiality of donor information, fairness and equity in donor selection, and access to kidney transplantation when needed are also discussed. Finally, the issue of safety of organ harvesting for the donor and of the transplantation process itself, and the possible long-term consequences for both parties are investigated.Keywords: kidney transplantation, ethical issues, developing countries, Nigeria

  14. Legal and ethical issues of uterus transplantation.

    Dickens, Bernard M

    2016-04-01

    The clinically detailed report of a successful uterus transplantation and live birth in Sweden, in which a family friend donated her uterus, provides a basis for expanded practice. Family members and friends can serve as living donors without offending legal or ethical prohibitions of paid organ donation, even though family members and friends often engage in reciprocal gift exchanges. Donations from living unrelated sources are more problematic, and there is a need to monitor donors' genuine altruism and motivation. Donation by deceased women-i.e. cadaveric donation-raises issues of uterus suitability for transplantation, and how death is diagnosed. Organs' suitability for donation is often achieved by ventilation to maintain cardiac function for blood circulation, but laws and cultures could deem that a heartbeat indicates donors' live status. Issues could arise concerning ownership and control of organs between recovery from donors and implantation into recipients, and on removal following childbirth, that require legal resolution. PMID:26873131

  15. The quality of medicines: an ethical issue?

    Ravinetto, Raffaella; Schiavett, Benedetta

    2015-01-01

    The Hippocratic maxim, "Do no harm," is a long-standing fundamental principle of medical ethics, encompassing both medical practice and medical research. Yet, not enough attention is given to the implications of this principle for sectors related to medical research and practice, such as the pharmaceutical sector. The regulation of the standards of quality in pharmaceutical production and distribution, for instance, is generally considered a purely technical - rather than ethical - subject. Poor enforcement of regulatory supervision of manufacturers and wholesalers of medicine exposes the end-users to low-quality pharmaceutical products, which will result in avoidable "harm", such as therapeutic failure, emergence of resistance and even direct toxicity. A glaring example of this in recent times was the death, in Pakistan, of 120 cardiovascular patients who had received a medicine contaminated with pyrimethamine (1). Due to the globalisation of the pharmaceutical supply chain and the lack of international regulatory oversight, stringent drug regulatory authorities in affluent countries are also exposed to challenges related to quality. In the USA, for instance, at least four patients died after using contaminated heparin from China (2). These and other unnecessary deaths, caused by medical products which harmed rather than benefited the patients, are unacceptable and should be questioned on ethical grounds. PMID:26592786

  16. Some ethical issues in technology transfer and applications

    Shine, Kenneth I.

    1995-10-01

    Health care systems all around the world are struggling to provide care in an era of limited resources. In an article entitled, 'Straight Talk About Rationing,' Arthur Kaplan reviews the work of the Swedish Commission designed to prioritize health care for that country. The commission identified three core principles that they felt should underlie decisions about priorities for health care. Those principles were (1) all human beings are equally valuable; (2) society must pay special attention to the needs of the weakest and most vulnerable; and (3) all other things being equal, cost efficiency in gaining the greatest return for the amount of money spent must prevail. These are three extremely useful principles which can be helpful to us as we consider many of the issues confronted in this country about the allocation of resources for health. I would like to consider three major issues. The first issue is the current evolving nature of health care and the ethical dilemmas that exist in the present system. In balancing increased access to care with decreasing cost, particularly in managed care, all of us are concerned about ethical issues. I would like to emphasize that the current system -- the system that we have lived with and is changing -- has inherent in it a series of ethical dilemmas. Secondly, I would like to consider issues related to productivity and its measurement in relation to technology. This relates to the third item in the Swedish Commission, which is the principle that we ought to spend money in the most cost-efficient way. Finally, I would like to discuss the dilemma of decision making about health and how that impacts upon the ethics of health care in the application of technology.

  17. Population, consumption and resources: ethical issues.

    Dasgupta, P

    1998-01-01

    This article offers several models that test concepts of optimum population and consumption: classical or utilitarian models, contractual models, and generation-relative ethical models. This article is based on a lecture presented in August 1995, at a conference organized by the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences. It is posited that classical utilitarianism casts the optimum population and consumption problem as a Genesis Problem. The authors argue that the Genesis problem is the wrong problem to study because there are no actual people. The Genesis problem asks how many people there ought to be ideally at what living standards. The unborn are not a class of people, just as mud on a river bank is not a mud hut. Actual persons and potential persons are categorically different. Actual persons have a claim that potential persons do not have. An overall ethical ordering over alternatives can only be conceived for each generation of actual people. The ethical point of view inevitably changes over time. For example, a generation in the first period consumes what they are given to consume by the older generation. In the second period, the younger generation is now the older generation who decide how many children to have and how to share nonstorable, all purpose consumption goods among themselves and future generations. Procreation is a means of making one's values durable. Human development is unfair. Those who live later benefit from the labor of their predecessors without paying the same price. Procreation and ecological preservation are a matter of ethics. PMID:12321783

  18. Ethical Issues Associated with Information and Communication Technology in Counseling and Guidance

    Sampson, James P., Jr.; Makela, Julia Panke

    2014-01-01

    For more than 50 years, literature on the use of information and communication technology in counseling and guidance has presented ethical issues related to the development and use of technologies in practice. This paper reviews the ethical issues raised, organizing them into three categories: Social equity, resources, and services. Career…

  19. Informed recruitment in partner studies of HIV transmission: an ethical issue in couples research

    Gordon Elisa J; McNutt Louise-Anne; Uusküla Anneli

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Much attention has been devoted to ethical issues related to randomized controlled trials for HIV treatment and prevention. However, there has been less discussion of ethical issues surrounding families involved in observational studies of HIV transmission. This paper describes the process of ethical deliberation about how best to obtain informed consent from sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs) tested for HIV, within a recent HIV study in Eastern Europe. The study ...

  20. Depo-Provera--ethical issues in its testing and distribution.

    Potts, M; Paxman, J M

    1984-01-01

    Ethical issues relating to the use of the injectable contraceptive in developed and developing countries alike involve public policy decisions concerning both criteria for testing a new drug and individual choices about using a specific form of contraception approved for national distribution. Drug testing consists of an important but still evolving set of procedures. Depo-Provera is not qualitatively different from any other drug and some unpredictable risks are inevitable, even after extens...

  1. Ethical Issues in Neuromarketing: "I Consume, Therefore I am!".

    Ulman, Yesim Isil; Cakar, Tuna; Yildiz, Gokcen

    2015-10-01

    Neuromarketing is a recent interdisciplinary field which crosses traditional boundaries between neuroscience, neuroeconomics and marketing research. Since this nascent field is primarily concerned with improving marketing strategies and promoting sales, there has been an increasing public aversion and protest against it. These protests can be exemplified by the reactions observed lately in Baylor School of Medicine and Emory University in the United States. The most recent attempt to stop ongoing neuromarketing research in France is also remarkable. The pertaining ethical issues have been continuously attracting much attention, especially since the number of neuromarketing companies has exceeded 300 world-wide. This paper begins with a brief introduction to the field of neurotechnology by presenting its current capabilities and limitations. Then, it will focus on the ethical issues and debates most related with the recent applications of this technology. The French Parliament's revision of rules on bioethics in 2004 has an exemplary role in our discussion. The proposal by Murphy et al. (2008) has attracted attention to the necessity of ethical codes structuring this field. A code has recently been declared by the Neuromarketing Science and Business Association. In this paper, it is argued that these technologies should be sufficiently discussed in public spheres and its use on humans should be fully carried out according to the ethical principles and legal regulations designed in line with human rights and human dignity. There is an urgent need in the interdisciplinary scientific bodies like ethics committees monitoring the research regarding the scientific and ethical values of nonmaleficence, beneficence, autonomy, confidentiality, right to privacy and protection of vulnerable groups. PMID:25150848

  2. Ethical issues in caring for patients with dementia.

    Hughes, Julian; Common, Jill

    2015-08-01

    This article discusses issues that might count as 'ethical' in the care of people with dementia and some of the dilemmas that occur. Ethical theories, such as virtue ethics, deontology and consequentialism are discussed, and ethical approaches that can be useful are outlined. Thinking about matters case-by-case is another approach, one that forms the first component of the Nuffield Council's ethical framework for dementia care, which is described. Case examples are provided, raising issues of autonomy, diagnosis, restraint and withholding treatment. The notion of personhood and the need to understand the person with dementia as broadly as possible are emphasised. Recommendations for nursing practice are included. PMID:26243122

  3. Teaching Ethics across the Public Relations Curriculum.

    Hutchison, Liese L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests ways of incorporating ethics across the undergraduate public relations curriculum. Reviews current coverage of ethics in public relations principles, writing, cases, and textbooks. Suggests other methods that teachers can use to incorporate ethical pedagogical tools in all public relations courses in an effort to develop students' ethical…

  4. ETHICAL ISSUES IN MARKETING REGARDING THE INTEGRATION OF ROMANIA IN THE ECONOMICAL AND SOCIAL STRUCTURES OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Mirela Stoian; Anca Elena Rădulescu

    2007-01-01

    An ethical issue is an identifiable situation or opportunity requiring an individual or organisation to choose between actions that must be evaluated as right or wrong, ethical or unethical. Product – related ethical issues generally arise when marketers fail to disclose the risks associated with a product, or information regarding the function, value or use of a product. In pricing, common ethical issues are price fixing or failure to disclose the full price of a purchase. The emotional and ...

  5. Sorting Out the Uniqueness of Computer-Ethical Issues

    Johnson, Deborah G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper I build on Moor's idea that the task of computer ethics is to fill policy vacuum's created by the introduction of computer and information technology. The traditionalist account proposes that to solve computer ethical issues (and fill the policy vacuums) all we have to do is apply traditional moral norms and principles. I argue against this position and propose instead that we think of computer ethical issues as new species of generic moral problems. Computer technology changes ...

  6. Nurse managers' experience with ethical issues in six government hospitals in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study

    Musa Maizura

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurse managers have the burden of experiencing frequent ethical issues related to both their managerial and nursing care duties, according to previous international studies. However, no such study was published in Malaysia. The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' experience with ethical issues in six government hospitals in Malaysia including learning about the way they dealt with the issues. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in August-September, 2010 involving 417 (69.2% of total 603 nurse managers in the six Malaysian government hospitals. Data were collected using three-part self-administered questionnaire. Part I was regarding participants' demographics. Part II was about the frequency and areas of management where ethical issues were experienced, and scoring of the importance of 11 pre-identified ethical issues. Part III asked how they dealt with ethical issues in general; ways to deal with the 11 pre-identified ethical issues, and perceived stress level. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations and Pearson's Chi-square. Results A total of 397 (95.2% participants experienced ethical issues and 47.2% experienced them on weekly to daily basis. Experiencing ethical issues were not associated with areas of practice. Top area of management where ethical issues were encountered was "staff management", but "patient care" related ethical issues were rated as most important. Majority would "discuss with other nurses" in dealing generally with the issues. For pre-identified ethical issues regarding "patient care", "discuss with doctors" was preferred. Only 18.1% referred issues to "ethics committees" and 53.0% to the code of ethics. Conclusions Nurse managers, regardless of their areas of practice, frequently experienced ethical issues. For dealing with these, team-approach needs to be emphasized. Proper understanding of the code of ethics is needed to provide basis for

  7. A call for responsibility in ethical issues for IS professionals

    Palmiter, C.W.

    1994-12-31

    In recent years there has been increased interest in the ethical values, beliefs and behavior of persons in the business world. Public abhorrence of questionable behavior of politicians, the savings and loan scandal and insider trading violations are just a few examples of many problems in business and professional life. A 1992 study by the Josephson Institute of Ethics involving 9,000 young people and adults revealed alarmingly low ethical characteristics in American institutions. Ferrell and Fraedrick have concluded that {open_quotes}business ethics is one of the most important concerns in today`s business world.{close_quote} A few professional organizations have tried to comprehend the ethical values, beliefs and behavior of their constituents. Vittrell has studied the frequency of ethical behavior for management information specialists. Martin and Peterson have examined the ethical issues of insider trading. Fimbel and Burstein have investigated the ethical values of technology professionals. Thornburg made use of a survey concerning the ethical beliefs and practices of human resources professionals. On a preliminary basis, these studies indicate the various ethical issues and uncertainties which are problematic for members of the various professions. Most business people are ethical segregationists, that is they tend to segregate their ethical values into one type of behavior for business and another type of behavior away from business. Managers accused of unethical behavior respond with, III am not that type of person. I am active in my church, in community affairs, a good family man, and so on.

  8. Ethical Concerns Related to Developing Pharmacogenomic Treatment Strategies for Addiction

    Shields, Alexandra E.

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) research is poised to enable physicians to identify optimally effective treatments for individual substance abusers based on their genetic profiles. This paper addresses ethical issues related to PGx treatment strategies for addiction, focusing especially on the use of race variables in genomics research and ensuring equitable access to novel PGx treatments. Unless the field addresses the ethical challenges posed by these issues, PGx treatment innovations for addiction ...

  9. A Draft Ethics Curriculum Based on Ethical Issues Experienced by Family Doctors in Düzce

    Akpınar A et al.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine ethical issues experienced by family doctors in Düzce, the pilot province for implementation of the primary health care reform 'Transformation in Health' in Turkey in 2005.Method: We conducted this study between May and June 2007 in Düzce. A self-administered-questionnaire prepared by the researchers included 13 ethical issues inquiring about physicians' frequency of encounter, difficulty in managing the problem, and learning needs in ethical topics. Results: Fifty-seven per...

  10. Ethical issues of using psychological knowledge in the proceedings of the non-procedural forms

    Safuanov F.S.

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the main ethical problems arising from the use of psychological knowledge in the criminal and civil proceedings in the form of non-procedural. Showing legal environment conducive to violations of ethics of psychological research reference and advisory nature: equality of the parties, the right of lawyers to draw on contractual basis to clarify issues related to the provision of legal aid. Reveals the main subjective factors of psychological research ethics violations: lo...

  11. Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.

    Cohen, Libby

    Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…

  12. Workplace Literacy: Ethical Issues through the Lens of Experience

    Folinsbee, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Even though principles to guide practice are crucial, there are no hard-and-fast rules for resolving ethical issues--dilemmas that are not easily resolvable because they present opposing values and outcomes that may harm to certain groups of people if not properly considered. This article describes a number of ethical dilemmas faced as a workplace…

  13. Implementing Curricular Change through State-Mandated Testing: Ethical Issues.

    Mathison, Sandra

    1991-01-01

    Explores the ethical issues involved in using standardized tests to implement a state-level policy. Examines the fourth grade science program evaluation test administered in New York State for the first time in 1989. A utilitarian view of ethics ignores the consequences of testing for different constituents, obviates caring behavior, and damages…

  14. Mild cognitive impairment: Conceptual, assessment, ethical, and social issues

    Perla Werner

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Perla Werner1, Amos D Korczyn21Department of Gerontology, Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel; 2Sieratzki Chair of Neurology, Department of Neurology, Tel Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, IsraelAbstract: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is defined as a condition characterized by newly acquired cognitive decline to an extent that is beyond that expected for age or educational background, yet not causing significant functional impairment. The concept of MCI has received considerable attention in the literature over the past few years, and aspects related to its definition, prevalence, and evolution have been extensively studied and reviewed. Here we attempt to synthesize the implications of the current status of this entity, focusing on the conceptual, methodological, and, in particular, the social and ethical aspects of MCI which have attracted less attention. We discuss the weaknesses of the concept of MCI, which is heterogeneous in etiology, manifestations, and outcomes, and suggest that the emergence of the syndrome at this stage reflects industrial interests related to possible development of drugs for this disorder. On the other hand, the formal diagnosis of MCI, with its implications that the person may develop dementia, may have a grave impact on the psychological state of the individual, at a stage when prediction of outcome is tenuous and possibilities of useful interventions are meager. We present suggestions for the direction of future research in these areas.Keywords: mild cognitive impairment, assessment issues, ethical issues, social issues, dementia

  15. Ethical Issues in Marketing and Continuing Education.

    Martel, Laurence D.; Colley, Robert M.

    1986-01-01

    Raises ethical considerations relevant to the marketing of continuing education and suggests two approaches to their resolution: deontology (all actions guided by universal rules are moral) and teleology (consequences of an action determine whether it is moral). (CH)

  16. Ethnic marketing possibilities and its ethics issues

    Agota Kozma; Annamaria Sas

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the possibilities of ethnic marketing and its ethic connections. The differences found in our face-to-face interviews and analysing questionnaire data will provide opportunities for Hungarian small enterprises. Targeting ethnic groups for marketing purposes results in ethical difficulties. In Hungary, ethnic marketing is yet an inexperienced concept. Based on these ideas the authors examine the ins and outs of using ethnic marketing in case of Germans in Hungary. Consume...

  17. Ethical Issues in Providing Online Psychotherapeutic Interventions

    Childress, Craig A

    2000-01-01

    The Internet offers psychotherapists a new communication medium through which they can deliver psychotherapeutic interventions that are appropriate to the medium. Yet online psychotherapy also offers new ethical challenges for therapists interested in providing online psychotherapeutic services. The differences between interactive text-based communication and in-person verbal communication create new ethical challenges not previously encountered in face-to-face therapy. This article will exam...

  18. Creative accounting: Nature, incidence and ethical issues

    Amat, Oriol; Gowthorpe, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the nature and incidence of creative accounting practices within the context of ethical considerations.It explores several definitions of creative accounting and the potential and the range of reasons for a company's directors to engage in creative accounting. Later the paper considers the various ways in which creative accounting can be undertaken and summarizes some empirical research on the nature and incidence of creative accounting. The ethical dimen...

  19. Ethical and legal issues in aesthetic surgery

    Suresh Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Rapid growth and expansion of plastic surgery in general and aesthetic surgery in particular in the past decade has brought in its wake some confusions particularly raising questions for the surgeons conduct towards his colleagues and the patients in the light of ethical requirements. Some thoughts from eminent thinkers form a backdrop to consideration of theories of medical ethics. In this article raging and continuous debates on these subjects have been avoided to maintain the momentum. Apa...

  20. Technical and Ethical Issues in Indicator Systems

    Carol Taylor Fitz-Gibbon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Most indicator systems are top-down, published, management systems, addressing primarily the issue of public accountability. In contrast we describe here a university-based suite of "grass-roots," research-oriented indicator systems that are now subscribed to, voluntarily, by about 1 in 3 secondary schools and over 4,000 primary schools in England. The systems are also being used by groups in New Zealand, Australia and Hong Kong, and with international schools in 30 countries. These systems would not have grown had they not been cost-effective for schools. This demanded the technical excellence that makes possible the provision of one hundred percent accurate data in a very timely fashion. An infrastructure of powerful hardware and ever-improving software is needed, along with extensive programming to provide carefully chosen graphical and tabular presentations of data, giving at-a-glance comparative information. Highly skilled staff, always learning new techniques, have been essential, especially as we move into computer-based data collection. It has been important to adopt transparent, readily understood methods of data analysis where we are satisfied that these are accurate, and to model the processes that produce the data. This can mean, for example, modelling separate regression lines for 85 different examination syllabuses for one age group, because any aggregation can be shown to represent unfair comparisons. Ethical issues are surprisingly often lurking in technical decisions. For example, reporting outcomes from a continuous measure in terms of the percent of students who surpassed a certain level, produces unethical behavior: a concentration of teaching on borderline students. Distortion of behavior and data corruption are ever-present concerns in indicator systems. The systems we describe would have probably failed to thrive had they not addressed schools' on-going concerns about education. Moreover, data interpretation can only be

  1. Rapporteurs' report: Workshop on ethical issues in diagnostic radiology

    This paper presents the summary reports of the session rapporteurs at the Workshop on Ethical Issues in Diagnostic Radiology. The summaries reflect the extent to which the topics discussed are well reflected in the papers presented in this proceedings. (authors)

  2. Respecting and Breaking Confidences: Conceptual, Ethical and Educational Issues.

    Cain, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Nurses need to understand what information is confidential and what constitutes breach of confidentiality. Ethical issues involved in informed consent and grounds for breaking confidentiality should be addressed in nursing-education curriculum. (SK)

  3. Reporting of Ethical Issues in Indian Physiotherapy Journals

    Sabapathy, S; Janakiraman, K; Srikesavan, CS; Ayyanar

    2009-01-01

    Background: Reporting of ethical issues in published articles not only improves the credibility of the journal and its published articles but also increases the confidence of the readers and general public. Purpose: The current study aimed to determine the current prevalence of reporting ethical issues in Indian Physiotherapy journals. Materials and methods: Two physiotherapy journals, the Journal of Indian Association of Physiotherapists (JIAP) and Indian Journal of Physiotherapy and O...

  4. ETHICAL ISSUE : A PROBLEM IN NIGERIA INSURANCE COMPANIES

    Akinbola, Isaac Likali Tsowa &; Ejide, Oluwakemi

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate and critically analyze claims management, an ethical issue in insurance companies in Nigeria, to find out if these insurance companies recognize it to be an ethical issue and also to find out how they handle insured’s claims. A qualitative research method was used in carrying out this study; data was sourced through interviews and by secondary data using literatures from books, journals, articles, and electronic websites. The researchers used purposive sampling ...

  5. The full spectrum of ethical issues in the care of patients with ALS: a systematic qualitative review.

    Seitzer, F; Kahrass, H; Neitzke, G; Strech, D

    2016-02-01

    Dealing systematically with ethical issues in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) care requires an unbiased awareness of all the relevant ethical issues. The aim of the study was to determine systematically and transparently the full spectrum of ethical issues in ALS care. We conducted a systematic review in Medline and Google Books (restricted to English and German literature published between 1993 and 2014). We applied qualitative text analysis and normative analysis to categorise the spectrum of ethical issues in ALS care. The literature review retrieved 56 references that together mentioned a spectrum of 103 ethical issues in ALS care. The spectrum was structured into six major categories that consist of first and second-order categories of ethical issues. The systematically derived spectrum of ethical issues in ALS care presented in this paper raises awareness and understanding of the complexity of ethical issues in ALS care. It also offers a basis for the systematic development of informational and training materials for health professionals, patients and their relatives, and society as a whole. Finally, it supports a rational and fair selection of all those ethical issues that should be addressed in health policies, position papers and clinical practice guidelines. Further research is needed to identify ways to systematically select the most relevant ethical issues not only in the clinical environment, but also for the development of clinical practice guidelines. PMID:26223806

  6. Ethical issues in the psychosocial assessment of bariatric surgery candidates.

    Rouleau, Codie R; Rash, Joshua A; Mothersill, Kerry J

    2016-07-01

    Psychosocial evaluation is recommended prior to bariatric surgery. Practice guidelines have been published on assessment methods for bariatric surgery candidates, but they have not emphasized ethical issues with this population. This review outlines ethical and professional considerations for behavioral healthcare providers who conduct pre-surgical assessments of bariatric surgery candidates by merging ethical principles for mental health professionals with current practices in pre-surgical assessments. Issues discussed include the following: (a) establishing and maintaining competence, (b) obtaining informed consent, (c) respecting confidentiality, (d) avoiding bias and discrimination, (e) avoiding and addressing dual roles, (f) selecting and using psychological tests, and (g) acknowledging limitations of psychosocial assessments. PMID:25411197

  7. Ethical issues in research involving children and young people

    This article identifies the key ethical issues that need to be addressed in any research study involving children and young people, accessed through the NHS. It makes specific reference to the Declaration of Helsinki and to additional guidance developed for researchers from a variety of disciplines, both within healthcare and in other fields of study. The focus of the paper is on defining the key ethical issues, identifying the complexities in the legislative framework underpinning research involving this patient group and offering practical advice on when, and how, ethical approval needs to be sought

  8. Ethical and legal issues in aesthetic surgery.

    Gupta, Suresh

    2012-09-01

    Rapid growth and expansion of plastic surgery in general and aesthetic surgery in particular in the past decade has brought in its wake some confusions particularly raising questions for the surgeons conduct towards his colleagues and the patients in the light of ethical requirements. Some thoughts from eminent thinkers form a backdrop to consideration of theories of medical ethics. In this article raging and continuous debates on these subjects have been avoided to maintain the momentum. Apart from the western thoughts, directions from our old scriptures on ethical conduct have been included to accommodate prevelant Indian practices. The confusion created by specialists advertising their abilities directly to the lay public following removal of ethical bars by the American Courts as also latitudes allowed by the General Medical Council of Great Britain have been discussed. The medical fraternity however has its reservations. Unnecessary skirmishes with the law arose in cosmetic surgery from the freedom exercised by the police to file criminal proceedings against attending doctors in the event of a patient's death with or without any evidence of wrong doing. This has now been curtailed in the judgement of the Supreme Court of India[1] where norms have been laid down for such prosecution. This has helped doctors to function without fear of harassment. An effort has been made to state a simple day-to-day routine for an ethical doctor-patient relationship. PMID:23450235

  9. Ethical and legal issues in aesthetic surgery

    Suresh Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth and expansion of plastic surgery in general and aesthetic surgery in particular in the past decade has brought in its wake some confusions particularly raising questions for the surgeons conduct towards his colleagues and the patients in the light of ethical requirements. Some thoughts from eminent thinkers form a backdrop to consideration of theories of medical ethics. In this article raging and continuous debates on these subjects have been avoided to maintain the momentum. Apart from the western thoughts, directions from our old scriptures on ethical conduct have been included to accommodate prevelant Indian practices. The confusion created by specialists advertising their abilities directly to the lay public following removal of ethical bars by the American Courts as also latitudes allowed by the General Medical Council of Great Britain have been discussed. The medical fraternity however has its reservations. Unnecessary skirmishes with the law arose in cosmetic surgery from the freedom exercised by the police to file criminal proceedings against attending doctors in the event of a patient′s death with or without any evidence of wrong doing. This has now been curtailed in the judgement of the Supreme Court of India[1] where norms have been laid down for such prosecution. This has helped doctors to function without fear of harassment. An effort has been made to state a simple day-to-day routine for an ethical doctor-patient relationship.

  10. Ethical and legal issues in xenotransplantation.

    Melo, H; Brandao, C; Rego, G; Nunes, R

    2001-10-01

    In most western countries, there is a 'human organ shortage' with waiting lists for the performance of transplantation. In a recent report of the UNOS Ethics Committee it is stated that there are approximately 31,000 potential recipients on waiting lists, but only one fourth of potential donors give their specific consent. Xenotransplantation--defined as the transplantation of animal cells, tissues or organs into human beings--is associated with particular ethical dilemmas, namely the problems of efficiency and safety of this medical procedure. The objective of this study is to analyse the ethical dilemmas in xenotransplantation with the background of a personal view of moral life. Also, xenotransplantation will be evaluated as far as the legal regulation of transplantation is concerned. In particular, we will consider patients rights in accordance with existing laws on organ and tissue transplantation, animal research and clinical trials. PMID:12058768

  11. Informed recruitment in partner studies of HIV transmission: an ethical issue in couples research

    Gordon Elisa J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been devoted to ethical issues related to randomized controlled trials for HIV treatment and prevention. However, there has been less discussion of ethical issues surrounding families involved in observational studies of HIV transmission. This paper describes the process of ethical deliberation about how best to obtain informed consent from sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs tested for HIV, within a recent HIV study in Eastern Europe. The study aimed to assess the amount of HIV serodiscordance among IDUs and their sexual partners, identify barriers to harm reduction, and explore ways to optimize intervention programs. Including IDUs, either HIV-positive or at high risk for HIV, and their sexual partners would help to gain a more complete understanding of barriers to and opportunities for intervention. Discussion This paper focuses on the ethical dilemma regarding informed recruitment: whether researchers should disclose to sexual partners of IDUs that they were recruited because their partner injects drugs (i.e., their heightened risk for HIV. Disclosing risks to partners upholds the ethical value of respect for persons through informed consent. However, disclosure compromises the IDU's confidentiality, and potentially, the scientific validity of the research. Following a brief literature review, we summarize the researchers' systematic evaluation of this issue from ethical, scientific, and logistical perspectives. While the cultural context may be somewhat unique to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the issues raised and solutions proposed here inform epidemiological research designs and their underlying ethical tensions. Summary We present ethical arguments in favor of disclosure, discuss how cultural context shapes the ethical issues, and recommend refinement of guidance for couples research of communicable diseases to assist investigators encountering these ethical issues in the future.

  12. Ethical issues is psychological screening of nuclear power personnel

    Ethical issues of mandatory psychological screening of nuclear power plant personnel have not been explored adequately. This paper examines several ethical issues in this area that need more attention. (1) Informed Consent: psychologists' ethics (like those of virtually all science and practice-oriented disciplines) require subjects participating in research or practice to be informed of procedures applied to them, the purposes, and possible consequences. (2) Feedback: psychologists' ethical guidelines require feedback to assesses when it is requested. (3) Validity: psychologists' ethics require that they use instrumentation only for the purposes intended and only for uses for which there is a preponderance of validity data available. In short, there is no question that psychological tests can significantly improve the effectiveness of a work force when they are properly (i.e., validly) used by well-trained and qualified professional psychologists. However, with the abundance of clinicians who are providing such services and with the complexity of the ethical issues involved in conducting these screenings, employers in psychologically high-risk settings should proceed with great caution to assure that assesses are treated in a fair and ethical manner

  13. Medical performance : Ethical and conceptual issues

    Widder, J

    1996-01-01

    Following an introductory criticism of the Hippocratic Oath and a health-maximizing principle as ethical basis for health care, an evaluation of medical performance is presented according to 3 underlying concepts, namely 1) the act of performing medical procedures itself, 2) effectiveness and 3) eff

  14. The Development of Ethical Issues Facing Boards of Directors: A Model with Implications

    Ian Jones; Michael Pollitt

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a model of how ethical issues develop over time using an ethical issue life cycle with three phases. Illustrates the model with reference to ethical issues currently facing UK boards of directors, and uses the Bible to further develop the model to suggest how company boards might respond to ethical issues as they progress.

  15. Introducing ethical, social and environmental issues in ICT engineering degrees

    Rafael Miñano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the experience of introducing ethical, social and environmental issues in undergraduate ICT engineering degrees at the Universidad Politécnica of Madrid. It is an example of both bottom-up and top-down approach, as it has been positively influenced by the European Higher Education Area framework and some external recommendations, plus the significant contribution regarding motivation, drive and previous experience of the teachers involved. The experience before the Bologna Process was concentrated on developing elective courses related on the field of the International Development Cooperation. The integration of those topics within the current engineering curricula, adapted to the European Higher Education Area framework, is being implemented in compulsory courses, elective activities and into Final Year Project. It implies a holistic and comprehensive approach, where appropriate contents, teaching methodologies and assessment methods have been adapted to deal with ethical, social and environmental issues in our academic context. Our work is still in progress and there are a lot of challenges to face, such as improving teaching methodologies, the assessment tools and the achievement of a broader implication of the faculty.

  16. Age estimation for forensic purposes in Italy: ethical issues.

    Focardi, Martina; Pinchi, Vilma; De Luca, Federica; Norelli, Gian-Aristide

    2014-05-01

    Age assessment in children and young adults is a relevant medicolegal issue due to the gradual increase of persons devoid of proper identification documents in European countries. Because of the illegal immigration and growing crime rates among children and adolescents, age estimation for forensic purposes is often required. The scientific research and the extensive experience of forensic experts in the last decades focused on the use of radiographic methods addressed to evaluate the degree of skeletal or dental development as the most accurate parameters to estimate the chronological age of children and adolescents. This paper analyzes the ethical issues related to age estimation procedures based on radiographic methods, showing how the ethical principles of beneficence, nonmalevolence, justice, and autonomy may be guaranteed during the execution of the age assessment in forensic practice. The procedure might be conducted in accordance with international guidelines and protocols, though they need a higher homogenization and standardization. A strong collaboration between various scientific societies of professionals (forensic odontologists, forensic pathologists, forensic anthropologist, radiologists, pediatricians, and psychologists), who have been involved in age estimation for years, is needed to reach this goal. PMID:24633466

  17. Ethical issues of using psychological knowledge in the proceedings of the non-procedural forms

    Safuanov F.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the main ethical problems arising from the use of psychological knowledge in the criminal and civil proceedings in the form of non-procedural. Showing legal environment conducive to violations of ethics of psychological research reference and advisory nature: equality of the parties, the right of lawyers to draw on contractual basis to clarify issues related to the provision of legal aid. Reveals the main subjective factors of psychological research ethics violations: low level of professional competence psychologist, ignoring the principles of independence, objectivity, confidentiality. Suggests ways of overcoming the ethical issues - in the process of formation of graduate and postgraduate education of ethical competence, implementation of certain algorithms psychologist interaction with the side of a criminal or civil process - customer psychological services. It is proposed to consolidate legislation or regulations regulating certain kinds of non-procedural forms of use of psychological knowledge in the proceedings.

  18. Work engagement in nursing practice: a relational ethics perspective.

    Keyko, Kacey

    2014-12-01

    The concept of work engagement has existed in business and psychology literature for some time. There is a significant body of research that positively correlates work engagement with organizational outcomes. To date, the interest in the work engagement of nurses has primarily been related to these organizational outcomes. However, the value of work engagement in nursing practice is not only an issue of organizational interest, but of ethical interest. The dialogue on work engagement in nursing must expand to include the ethical importance of engagement. The relational nature of work engagement and the multiple levels of influence on nurses' work engagement make a relational ethics approach to work engagement in nursing appropriate and necessary. Within a relational ethics perspective, it is evident that work engagement enables nurses to have meaningful relationships in their work and subsequently deliver ethical care. In this article, I argue that work engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice. If engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice, the environmental and organizational factors that influence work engagement must be closely examined to pursue the creation of moral communities within healthcare environments. PMID:24714045

  19. Ethnic marketing possibilities and its ethics issues

    Agota Kozma

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the possibilities of ethnic marketing and its ethic connections. The differences found in our face-to-face interviews and analysing questionnaire data will provide opportunities for Hungarian small enterprises. Targeting ethnic groups for marketing purposes results in ethical difficulties. In Hungary, ethnic marketing is yet an inexperienced concept. Based on these ideas the authors examine the ins and outs of using ethnic marketing in case of Germans in Hungary. Consumers with German ethnic attitude really want German products and brands. At the same time, enterprises have to emphasise the products’ “Germanness” and character in a better/stronger way because this can help for better consumer decision making.

  20. Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Research

    Lo, Bernard; Parham, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    Stem cell research offers great promise for understanding basic mechanisms of human development and differentiation, as well as the hope for new treatments for diseases such as diabetes, spinal cord injury, Parkinson’s disease, and myocardial infarction. However, human stem cell (hSC) research also raises sharp ethical and political controversies. The derivation of pluripotent stem cell lines from oocytes and embryos is fraught with disputes about the onset of human personhood. The reprogramm...

  1. Ethical issues in communicating with participants

    Montada, Leo; Arbeitsgruppe "Verantwortung, Gerechtigkeit, Moral" der Universität Trier, FB I - Psychologie

    1998-01-01

    Communication is imbued with attitudes toward the addresses and conscious or unconscious conceptions about the relationships with them. Sensitivity for ethical conflicts as well as "handling" them largely depend on how the "subjects" "used" in research are perceived as well as on the relationships with them. Riegel (1979) as well as Baumrind (1980) have criticized the use of the term "subjects", and they proposed, among others, to replace it by the term "participant" since this concept implie...

  2. Prevention, communication and equity in environmental epidemiology: ethical issues

    2011-01-01

    In environmental epidemiology research, decisions about when and how to intervene requires adequate ethical reflection. In fact, different kinds of issues may arise about: research methods and knowledge production; management of the results in terms of their overall assessments or for the implementation of preventive actions; reclamation intervention. In this contribution we propose to consider three topics we regard as crucial to this ethical debate: the reporting of conclusive research data...

  3. Ethical and methodological issues in research with Sami experiencing disability

    Melbøe, Line; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Johnsen, Bjørn-Eirik; Fedreheim, Gunn Elin; Dinesen, Tone; Minde, Gunn-Tove; Rustad, Marit

    2016-01-01

    Background. A study of disability among the indigenous Sami people in Norway presented a number of ethical and methodological challenges rarely addressed in the literature.Objectives. The main study was designed to examine and understand the everyday life, transitions between life stages and democratic participation of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. Hence, the purpose of this article is to increase the understanding of possible ethical and methodological issues in research wit...

  4. The Study Of Ethical Issues In Restaurant Of Karachi Pakistan

    Rimsha Zafar; Samreen Lodhi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ethics includes social cultural and moral values of an organization. Nowadays restaurant are involving in deceptive advertisement unhygienic food and poor food quality these out key ethical issues in restaurants of Karachi Pakistan. In this study researcher focuses on three main variables hygienic factor deceptive advertisements and food quality. All these three variables have been taken and gathered the data through mail survey questionnaire and email sample size of 200 respondents ...

  5. Ethical and Scientific Issues of Nanotechnology in the Workplace

    Schulte, Paul A.; Salamanca-Buentello, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    In the absence of scientific clarity about the potential health effects of occupational exposure to nanoparticles, a need exists for guidance in decisionmaking about hazards, risks, and controls. An identification of the ethical issues involved may be useful to decision makers, particularly employers, workers, investors, and health authorities. Because the goal of occupational safety and health is the prevention of disease in workers, the situations that have ethical implications that most af...

  6. Integrating Ethics and Diversity Issues into Economic and Business Statistics.

    Rose, Margarita M.

    1996-01-01

    Addressing ethics and diversity issues in statistics curriculum not only meets accreditation criteria but creates interesting and relevant applications of statistical tools. Objectives should be to recognize unethical uses of statistics, appreciate their usefulness in diversity issues, and recognize diversity in a population using statistical…

  7. Legal and Ethical Issues in Evaluating Abortion Services.

    Ferris, Lori E.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on ethical and legal issues that arose in the evaluation of abortion services. Discusses the development of decision rules and tradeoffs in dealing with these issues to reach rational and objective decisions. Places the discussion in the context of balancing usefulness and propriety with respect to informed consent and privacy and makes…

  8. Ethics in research with human beings: some issues about Psychology Ética em pesquisa com seres humanos: alguns tópicos sobre a psicologia

    Sílvia Helena Koller

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines some ethical issues in research with human beings, especially addressing the area of Psychology, such as the use of ethical codes; minimum risk; informed consent; debriefing; confidentiality; and ethical committees. It suggests ways for researchers to increase understanding and the proper use of the ethical codes, to guarantee their own protection, and to avoid abuses of power. Special attention is given to methodological issues related to ethics.Este artigo examina alguns...

  9. Public Relations Ethics in Information Management

    Hrvoje Jakopović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Public relations is involved in all communication between an organization and the public. In the contemporary world, PR practitioners have become the facilitators of information. Information and communication technology (ICT have imposed new rules in the field of public relations. Communication strategy and information management have become crucial parts of modern public relations. People change their habits with regard to the consumption of traditional and new media. The challenges imposed by the development of information and communication technology are also related to understanding the new information society. For that reason information ethics deals with the ethical implications of dissemination, use, development and safety of information. Public relations follow new information and communication trends, and they need to build firm ethical principles for the age of information. The author examines the ethical implications of the framing concept in public relations.

  10. Ethical and methodological issues in research with Sami experiencing disability

    Melbøe, Line; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Johnsen, Bjørn-Eirik; Fedreheim, Gunn Elin; Dinesen, Tone; Minde, Gunn-Tove; Rustad, Marit

    2016-01-01

    Background A study of disability among the indigenous Sami people in Norway presented a number of ethical and methodological challenges rarely addressed in the literature. Objectives The main study was designed to examine and understand the everyday life, transitions between life stages and democratic participation of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. Hence, the purpose of this article is to increase the understanding of possible ethical and methodological issues in research within this field. The article describes and discusses ethical and methodological issues that arose when conducting our study and identifies some strategies for addressing issues like these. Methods The ethical and methodological issues addressed in the article are based on a qualitative study among indigenous Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. The data in this study were collected through 31 semi-structured in-depth interviews with altogether 24 Sami people experiencing disability and 13 next of kin of Sami people experiencing disability (8 mothers, 2 fathers, 2 sister and 1 guardian). Findings and discussion The researchers identified 4 main areas of ethical and methodological issues. We present these issues chronologically as they emerged in the research process: 1) concept of knowledge when designing the study, 2) gaining access, 3) data collection and 4) analysis and accountability. Conclusion The knowledge generated from this study has the potential to benefit future health research, specifically of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability, as well as health research concerning indigenous people in general, providing scientific-based insight into important ethical and methodological issues in research with indigenous people experiencing disability. PMID:27396747

  11. Governing Nanotechnology: Social, Ethical and Human Issues

    Bainbridge, William

    This chapter is a human-centered survey of nanotechnology's broader implications, reporting on the early phase of work by social scientists, philosophers, and other scholars. It begins with the social science agenda developed by governments, and the heritage of research on technology and organizations that social science brings to this mission. It then outlines current thinking about nanotechnology's economic impacts, health or environmental impacts, and social contributions. It discusses how technology can be regulated by a combination of informal ethics and formal law, then concludes by considering the shape of popular nanotechnology culture, as reflected in science fiction, public perceptions, and education.

  12. Have Ethic Issues Changed in Professions?

    Luepke-Estéfan, Erik

    2007-04-01

    Professions are important today due to the growing number and their development. Furthermore there is a technological development unimaginable in the previous centuries. At the beginning it was recognized that there were three professions: Priest, Ruler and Doctor, representing the classical conception of Universe divided into ``Macrocosmos'', ``Mesocosmos'' and ``Microcosmos'' respectively. Modern age means the beginning of a change in this classical conception; that has been arguable, until the actual view that it is difficult to define what an ethical behaviour is in the professionals. This presentation tries to show some of the difficulties and conflicts presented by the technological and professional development.

  13. Exploring the ethical and regulatory issues in pragmatic clinical trials.

    Califf, Robert M; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2015-10-01

    The need for high-quality evidence to support decision making about health and health care by patients, physicians, care providers, and policy-makers is well documented. However, serious shortcomings in evidence persist. Pragmatic clinical trials that use novel techniques including emerging information and communication technologies to explore important research questions rapidly and at a fraction of the cost incurred by more "traditional" research methods promise to help close this gap. Nevertheless, while pragmatic clinical trials can bridge clinical practice and research, they may also raise difficult ethical and regulatory challenges. In this article, the authors briefly survey the current state of evidence that is available to inform clinical care and other health-related decisions and discuss the potential for pragmatic clinical trials to improve this state of affairs. They then propose a new working definition for pragmatic research that centers upon fitness for informing decisions about health and health care. Finally, they introduce a project, jointly undertaken by the National Institutes of Health Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory and the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet), which addresses 11 key aspects of current systems for regulatory and ethical oversight of clinical research that pose challenges to conducting pragmatic clinical trials. In the series of articles commissioned on this topic published in this issue of Clinical Trials, each of these aspects is addressed in a dedicated article, with a special focus on the interplay between ethical and regulatory considerations and pragmatic clinical research aimed at informing "real-world" choices about health and health care. PMID:26374676

  14. Ethical Issues Encountered by Military Nurses During Wartime.

    Agazio, Janice; Goodman, Petra; Opanubi, Oluwakemi; McMullen, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Military nurses encounter similar issues as civilian nurses in daily practice situations; however, wartime and humanitarian missions may bring unique and difficult ethical dilemmas. While nursing has the American Nurses Association code of ethics to provide a framework to guide ethical practice decisions, conflicts may arise from the unique aspects of nursing within a wartime environment. Understanding those conflicts occuring within the military wartime scenario can provide nurses with experiential examples from which to derive strategies for personal coping and professional behavior and decision making. This chapter describes the research that has focused upon the identification of these issues, the effects from uresolved issues, and those directions for future research to better prepare miltiary nurses before and during deployment. PMID:26673384

  15. Rethinking responsibility in radiography: Some ethical issues in South Africa

    Harriet Rosanne Etheredge

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The field of radiography in South Africa is complex and presents a multitude of ethical issues. The discipline is often regarded as a supporting function in the healthcare chain, and a stepping-stone in the diagnostic process. This status of the discipline seems to have left many radiographers in a position of substantial confusion. In the course of numerous bioethics presentations for radiographers in South Africa, several ethical and legal issues have recurrently come to my attention. This article aims to address some of these issues and to offer ethically and legally acceptable solutions. The proposed solutions are not absolute – they are based on personal discussions and experiences – and their practicability needs to be scrutinised. Consequently, this article should be seen as a starting point only.

  16. Moral Objectivity, Jurgen Habermas's Discourse Ethics, and Public Relations.

    Leeper, Roy V.

    1996-01-01

    States that while increasing attention is being paid by people in public relations to ethical theory, the predominant ethical perspective is still situational. Analyzes the applicability of the Discourse Ethics theory of Jurgen Habermas to public relations ethics. Concludes that Discourse Ethics holds the potential of a new, more objective…

  17. Nuclear energy - social and ethical issues

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the continued exploration and mining and the construction and operation of nuclear reactors, both domestically and for export, is and will continue to be ethically and socially sound. Benefit and risk should be shared equally in the ideal society, in the real world this does not seem possible, but nuclear power appears not to worsen the situation and may even improve it. The real risks of nuclear power are less than those tolerated by many in their daily lives, but the public is relucant to accept them. The diversion of effort from dealing with real risks to worrying about hypothetical ones can be a disservice to society. Technology is inherently value-free, but can be used to raise the standard of living and provide a lifestyle in which non-material values can thrive. Withholding uranium from world markets increases the pressure on oil and the probability of armed conflict. A connection is made between uranium supply and food production. Social justice is a vital concern, but boycotts and trade embargoes may worsen suffering and have little effect on oppressors. There are formally defined international obligations to share nuclear technology. Scientists and engineers have a responsibility, which they are living up to more frequently, to make their specialized knowledge available to decision makers, and to express the ethical basis for their work. Nuclear energy appears to be more benign to future generations than many other present-day activities. (LL)

  18. Individual and organizational predictors of the ethicality of graduate students' responses to research integrity issues.

    Langlais, Philip J; Bent, Blake J

    2014-12-01

    The development of effective means to enhance research integrity by universities requires baseline measures of individual, programmatic, and institutional factors known to contribute to ethical decision making and behavior. In the present study, master's thesis and Ph.D. students in the fields of biological, health and social sciences at a research extensive university completed a field appropriate measure of research ethical decision making and rated the seriousness of the research issue and importance for implementing the selection response. In addition they were asked to rate their perceptions of the institutional and departmental research climate and to complete a measure of utilitarian and formalistic predisposition. Female students were found to be more ethical in their decision making compared to male students. The research ethical decision measure was found to be related to participants' ethical predisposition and overall perception of organizational and departmental research climate; however, formalism was the only individual predictor to reach statistical significance and none of the individual subscales of the research climate measure were significantly correlated to ethicality. Participants' ratings of the seriousness of the issue were correlated with their ratings of the importance of carrying out their selected response but neither was significantly predictive of the ethicality of their responses. The implications of these findings for the development of more effective training programs and environments for graduate students in research ethics and integrity are discussed. PMID:24048818

  19. Ethical issues in bone marrow transplantation in children.

    Bendorf, Aric; Kerridge, Ian H

    2011-09-01

    In the 50 years since the first successful human bone marrow transplant (BMT) was performed in 1959, BMT has become the optimal therapy for a wide variety of life-threatening paediatric haematological, immunological and genetic disorders. Unfortunately, while BMT generally provides the only possibility of cure for such afflicted children, few (25%) have a matched sibling available, and suitably matched unrelated donors are often not identified for many children in need of BMT. And even where BMT is possible, treatment is complex and arduous and associated with significant mortality and morbidity. The issues raised when either or both the donor and recipient are children and lack the capacity to make informed and rational decisions relating to BMT pose great challenges for all involved. This paper examines some of the ethical dilemmas that confront patients, families and medical practitioners when considering bone marrow transplantation in a child. PMID:21951444

  20. Ethical issues in videorecording patients lacking capacity to consent

    Carlo Petrini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Videorecording of patients requires the utmost respect for the privacy and confidentiality of the patients. Consent should be requested from patients for all videorecording. When a mental disability or mental or physical illness prevents patients from giving their permission, agreement to recording from a legal representative or from a close relative or carer are necessary. Three documents on this subject issued in the United Kingdom, the United State of America and Italy are briefly summarized and discussed. The problem of consent for videorecording is addressed particularly in reference to persons incapable of making decisions on their own, such as persons in vegetative state. The general ethical framework is outlined and a few practical proposals are given.

  1. Ethical Consumption amongst Chinese Students (In UK): An Empirical Study on Ethical Consumption Issues

    WU, YX

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This paper aims to explore the ethical consumption issues among the overseas Chinese students in UK. In other words, this paper attempts to gain an understanding of the factors or motivations that drive Chinese students to consume ethically or reject to do so. The research conducted used qualitative research method (semi-structured interview) on 12 Chinese students study at Business School in University of Nottingham. The collected data from the researched Chinese students...

  2. Nuclear Power as an Ethical Issue: Utilitarian Ethics and Egalitarian Responses.

    Hadjilambrinos, Constantine

    1990-01-01

    Described is the philosophical debate over the issue of nuclear power. Discussed are the utilitarian nature of the justification of nuclear power and the utilitarian approaches to the issue of nuclear power, the strengths and weaknesses of this approach, and utilitarian versus egalitarian ethics. (KR)

  3. Prevention, communication and equity in environmental epidemiology: ethical issues

    Giordana Pagliarani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In environmental epidemiology research, decisions about when and how to intervene requires adequate ethical reflection. In fact, different kinds of issues may arise about: research methods and knowledge production; management of the results in terms of their overall assessments or for the implementation of preventive actions; reclamation intervention. In this contribution we propose to consider three topics we regard as crucial to this ethical debate: the reporting of conclusive research data; the correct application of the precautionary principle; and the environmental equity issues.

  4. Prevention, communication and equity in environmental epidemiology: ethical issues.

    Pagliarani, Giovanna; Botti, Caterina

    2011-01-01

    In environmental epidemiology research, decisions about when and how to intervene requires adequate ethical reflection. In fact, different kinds of issues may arise about: research methods and knowledge production; management of the results in terms of their overall assessments or for the implementation of preventive actions; reclamation intervention. In this contribution we propose to consider three topics we regard as crucial to this ethical debate: the reporting of conclusive research data; the correct application of the precautionary principle; and the environmental equity issues. PMID:21952151

  5. The Study Of Ethical Issues In Restaurant Of Karachi Pakistan

    Rimsha Zafar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethics includes social cultural and moral values of an organization. Nowadays restaurant are involving in deceptive advertisement unhygienic food and poor food quality these out key ethical issues in restaurants of Karachi Pakistan. In this study researcher focuses on three main variables hygienic factor deceptive advertisements and food quality. All these three variables have been taken and gathered the data through mail survey questionnaire and email sample size of 200 respondents from different areas of Karachi male and female age group between 20 to 40 years. Data compiled and analyzed through Statistical techniques like descriptive correlate and regression. The results show that ethics influence hygienic factor whereas deceptive advertisement and food quality of a restaurant is better known when a family buy the food at restaurant. Therefore it is very important for restaurants to train their employees and give them a better knowledge of ethics.

  6. Ethical Issues in Rehabilitation Counselor Supervision and the New 2010 Code of Ethics

    Glosoff, Harriet L.; Matrone, Kathe F.

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 revision of the "Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors" addresses changes in ethical standards related to rehabilitation counselor supervision. In an effort to promote awareness of these changes, this article offers a brief overview of the revisions and implications for practice including the responsibility of…

  7. Review for the volume Practicing Relational Ethics in Organizations, Authors: Gitte Haslebo, Maja Loua Haslebo, Taos Institute Publications, ISBN 978-0-9819076-8-0

    Antonio SANDU

    2012-01-01

    The volume Practicing Relational Ethics in Organizations having as authors Gitte Haslebo and Maja Loua Haslebo issued by Taos Institute Publications Ohio USA, discusses relational ethics and ethical practice in the organization. The problem of ethical practice in the organization besides being a necessity for business it overlaps with aspects of organizational culture, personnel management, leadership. Within the organizational ethics, the authors select the issue of relational ethics from a ...

  8. Ethical issues in neonatal intensive care

    Marcello M. Orzalesi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in neonatal care have significantly improved the prognosis and chances of survival of critically ill or extremely preterm neonates and have modified the limits of viability. However, in some circumstances, when the child's death can only be briefly postponed at the price of severe suffering, or when survival is associated with severe disabilities and an intolerable life for the child and his/her parents, the application of the full armamentarium of modern neonatal intensive care may not be appropriate. In such circumstances the limitation of intensive treatments (withholding or withdrawing and shift towards palliative care, can represent a more humane and reasonable alternative. This article examines and discusses the ethical principles underlying such difficult decisions, the most frequent situations in which these decisions may be considered, the role of parents in the decisional process, and the opinions and behaviours of neonatologists of several European neonatal intensive units as reported by the EURONIC study.

  9. Ethical Issues in Nuclear Waste Management

    Nuclear experts claim that the health risks from radioactive waste disposal are low compared to other environmental hazards, yet the general public is sceptical of the industry's ability to guarantee acceptable safety standards. Many allude to what might be deemed morally relevant factors, such as potential harms to future generations, possibly catastrophic consequences and environmental effects. Industry has often tended to respond with a claim that the public has an irrational perception of radiation risks, particularly those from man-made rather than natural sources. From a philosophical point of view it is interesting to consider exactly how nuclear risks might differ from other hazards, not least to evaluate which ethically relevant factors could be used to defend the stringent demands made by society for nuclear waste disposal

  10. Ethical issues of expert witness testimony.

    Ferreres, Alberto R

    2014-07-01

    Being a surgical expert witness (EW) in professional liability claims implies ethical responsibilities, which are usually unknown to the parties who try to obtain such testimony as well as to the surgeons involved in providing the expert opinion required by the courts. Giving medical testimony can be included in the field of surgery since (1) being an expert medical witness and judge the performance of another surgeon means that the witness must have a medical license and preferably be board-certified as a surgeon, and (2) the EW opinion sets the standard of care to be applied in each particular case. Thus, the role of the surgeon EW in the legal arena must have the same degree of integrity as the surgeon in his practice with direct patient care and it should be reviewed and subject to regulation. PMID:24852436

  11. Ethical Issues in Nuclear Waste Management

    Oughton, Deborah [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry and Biotechnology

    2001-07-01

    Nuclear experts claim that the health risks from radioactive waste disposal are low compared to other environmental hazards, yet the general public is sceptical of the industry's ability to guarantee acceptable safety standards. Many allude to what might be deemed morally relevant factors, such as potential harms to future generations, possibly catastrophic consequences and environmental effects. Industry has often tended to respond with a claim that the public has an irrational perception of radiation risks, particularly those from man-made rather than natural sources. From a philosophical point of view it is interesting to consider exactly how nuclear risks might differ from other hazards, not least to evaluate which ethically relevant factors could be used to defend the stringent demands made by society for nuclear waste disposal.

  12. Ethics in Disciplines and Professions Related to Evaluation.

    Fitzpatrick, Jody L., Ed.; Morris, Michael, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Examines ethical codes within evaluation and related disciplines and processions and discusses implications for content, dissemination, and compliance. An immediate issue is expanding the dialog that the American Evaluation Association document "Guiding Principles for Evaluators" was intended to create. (Author/SLD)

  13. Ethical issues that confront nurses in private hospitals in the Western Cape Metropolitan area

    Ethelwynn L. Stellenberg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nurses are faced daily with a variety of ethical issues which could be as a result of budget cuts, target setting, the shortage of nurses and expertise. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to identify ethical issues related to patient care, to describe ethical issues related to patient diversity, rights and human dignity. To describe ethical issues related to caring in nursing and to the workplace environment. Method: A quantitative explorative descriptive research design was applied. A stratified sample of (n = 142/5% was drawn from all nurses and caregivers (N = 2990 working in a selected group of eight private hospitals. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. Statistical tests were applied to determine statistical relationships between variables. Results: Results included (95% of respondents provided safe and committed care to their patients, (99% loved to care for their patients and (93% believed in the Nurses’ Pledge of Service. Fifty percent (50% of the respondents indicated verbal abuse from patients and only (59% experienced openness and transparency in the work environment. Analysis further identified that the caregivers did not respect the noble tradition of the profession and experienced the most verbal abuse. Conclusion: This study has identified ethical issues which may give rise to conflict within the workplace environment if not adequately addressed by management. The study further showed that the use of caregivers not regulated in nursing practice may pose as a threat to the safety of the patient.

  14. Ethical issues and controversies in assisted reproductive technologies.

    Harvey, J C

    1992-10-01

    The current ethical issues and controversies concerning in vitro fertilization revolve around micromanipulation of the gametes, cryopreservation of the fertilized ova, selective termination in multiple pregnancies, surrogacy, and gamete donation. At the basis of these ethical issues is the philosophic question of personhood, or the term "human person," and the consideration given to the normal weight that is ascribed to the various forms of living matter that are found in the process of development after human spermatozoa have been placed together with harvested oocytes in the petri dish. The papers of very special importance and special importance written during the past year on these ethical problems are listed and classified. The summaries of their arguments and positions on these problems are enumerated. PMID:1391649

  15. "Let Me Keep My Dead Husband's Sperm": Ethical Issues in Posthumous Reproduction.

    Panagiotopoulou, Nikoletta; Karavolos, Stamatios

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of posthumous reproduction when the surviving partner is female has brought to light many ethical, moral, social, and legal issues. This review aims to summarize these issues and to assist clinicians who may be faced with such requests. A question list, used for health technologies assessment, was utilized in a question-answer approach as the review methodology. Of the 1,208 publications identified through a comprehensive literature search in biomedical, psychological, and ethical databases, 31 articles included arguments related to one or more questions from the predefined question set. Key stakeholders identified include the deceased, the requesting party, the resultant child, the physician, and society. Key ethical issues relevant to posthumous reproduction include the four traditional pillars of medical ethics--autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice--as well as the stakeholders' rights and sociocultural attitudes. The ethical framework formulated by these issues has been incorporated in a clinical ethics decision-making tool that could prove useful to clinicians and decision makers. PMID:26132061

  16. Environmental Issues in Finnish School Textbooks on Religious Education and Ethics

    Essi Aarnio-Linnanvuori

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Solving global environmental problems requires a major change of values. As relates to environmental education, worldview, ethics and spiritual issues are important elements. But how are environmental issues included in such school subjects that especially discuss values and ethics? In this article I examine 24 Finnish religious education and ethics textbooks to analyze, to what extent environmental issues are integrated and discussed in them. I conclude that there is confusion about what environmental education can be in societal school subjects. The environmental texts in textbooks do not always draw on the specific content of the societal subject in question but repeat content from the natural sciences. Therefore, I suggest contexts and perspectives for discussing environmental issues that would comport with these subjects and supplement existing environmental education at school.

  17. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues

    Resnik, David B.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.

  18. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.

    Serour, G I

    2013-11-01

    Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral. PMID:24004295

  19. Technical and Ethical Issues in Indicator Systems

    Carol Taylor Fitz-Gibbon; Peter Tymms

    2002-01-01

    Most indicator systems are top-down, published, management systems, addressing primarily the issue of public accountability. In contrast we describe here a university-based suite of "grass-roots," research-oriented indicator systems that are now subscribed to, voluntarily, by about 1 in 3 secondary schools and over 4,000 primary schools in England. The systems are also being used by groups in New Zealand, Australia and Hong Kong, and with international schools in 30 countries. These systems w...

  20. Environmental Refugees: Ethical Issues Involving Overpopulation

    Cairns, John

    2010-01-01

    Environmental refugees are produced when the human population exceeds the carrying capacity of a particular region and its inhabitants are forced to search for a more hospitable area. Since not much has been done to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or other issues of global warming, there will continue to be more environmental refugees for the next decade or more. Considering that the biosphere is made up of finite resources and finite space per capita, an increasing population will cause mor...

  1. Disservice to Children; Advertising an Ethical issue

    Khan, Sameer Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    This study is conducted to expose the evidence about the effects of food advertising on children in Karachi, Pakistan. Advertising in itself is a powerfully suasive medium. Does food advertising leads to over weight and obese children? If it does than it raises questions about certain other serious health issues. What are the other supporting elements besides advertising leading to obesity? A small scale qualitative study was performed on school children and their parents to gather crucial i...

  2. [Commentary on 'Ethical issues in living renal transplantation'].

    Spinsanti, S

    2006-01-01

    Legalizing kidney market: ethics considerations. The paper by E A Friedman and A L Friedman, advocating suitable kidney sale legislation, recently published in Kidney International, has aroused some controversy among the Italian Society of Nephrology Mailing List members (ML-SIN). A previous article reviewed the main issues and summarized Italian nephrologists' opinions. Generally speaking, ML-SIN participants were critical towards this proposal; the most widespread opinion was that trade of organs for transplant purposes is unethical and that Friedman's legislative suggestion is unlikely to succeed in Italy. To complete discussion, we report also the opinion of an authoritative Ethics expert. PMID:17123265

  3. Ethics in family violence research: cross-cultural issues.

    Fontes, L A

    1998-01-01

    This article examines ethical issues in cross-cultural research on family violence. It suggests ways for researchers to increase understanding and avoid abuses of power. Special attention to informed consent, definition of the sample, composition of the research team, research methods, and potential harm and benefit are considered key to designing ethical cross-cultural research. The discussion is illustrated with examples from the literature and from the author's experiences conducting research on sexual abuse in a shanty town in Chile and with Puerto Ricans in the U.S. PMID:14627049

  4. Discussion on radiation protection system from ethical issues

    This paper discussed the relationship between radiation protection system and ethical principle, viz. equity and efficiency. According to the authors' opinions, the main problem that the system of radiation protection facing now is the dose-limitation principle cannot incarnate the equity principle completely. Even though the distinguishing between practice and intervention is no other than solving the problem, but the scheme is not perfect still. Ethical issues should be given more attention and be more researched when we try to modify the radiation protection system today

  5. Piercing the veil: ethical issues in ethnographic research.

    Schrag, Brian

    2009-06-01

    It is not unusual for researchers in ethnography (and sometimes Institutional Review Boards) to assume that research of "public" behavior is morally unproblematic. I examine an historical case of ethnographic research and the sustained moral outrage to the research expressed by the subjects of that research. I suggest that the moral outrage was legitimate and articulate some of the ethical issues underlying that outrage. I argue that morally problematic Ethnographic research of public behavior can derive from research practice that includes a tendency to collapse the distinction between harm and moral wrong, a failure to take account of recent work on ethical issues in privacy; failure to appreciate the deception involved in ethnographers' failure to reveal their role as researchers to subjects and finally a failure to appropriately weigh the moral significance of issues of invasion of privacy and inflicted insight in both the research process and subsequent publication of research. PMID:19034693

  6. Ethical issues in field research: balancing competing values.

    O'Neill, P

    1990-04-01

    An ethical issue becomes a dilemma when the psychologist is pulled in different directions by competing values. This paper will focus on the conflict between experimental and ethical values inherent in field research. The problem has special significance in community psychology, which gives priority to studying, in natural settings, those affected by social problems. An example is given of research that required observation of family interaction in the homes of convicted child abusers. The case demonstrates that the value of ecological validity often conflicts with the need to protect privacy and obtain uncoerced consent. Other ethical constraints, including the duty to report lawbreaking and to protect the public from harm, may threaten research validity. PMID:16977736

  7. ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH

    ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH, designed to stimulate dialogue on ethical and regulatory issues in cancer research and promote awareness of developing policies and best practices.

  8. Professional Ethics and Libraries: a brief overview of Current Issues in Spain

    Candás-Romero, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The object of this presentation is to make an overview about Ethics in Libraries in Spain. It briefly analyze four subjects: academic and professional overview, associations and ethical codes, current issues, and future issues.

  9. "Business Ethics Everywhere": An Experiential Exercise to Develop Students' Ability to Identify and Respond to Ethical Issues in Business

    Baker, Susan D.; Comer, Debra R.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces an experiential exercise that enhances students' ability to identify ethical issues and to respond to them in ways that consider the relationship between organizational factors and ethical action. Students identify a required number of ethical incidents in their workplaces during a specified period. Students submit a…

  10. Nurse managers' experience with ethical issues in six government hospitals in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study

    Musa Maizura; Harun-Or-Rashid Md; Sakamoto Junichi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Nurse managers have the burden of experiencing frequent ethical issues related to both their managerial and nursing care duties, according to previous international studies. However, no such study was published in Malaysia. The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' experience with ethical issues in six government hospitals in Malaysia including learning about the way they dealt with the issues. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in August-Septembe...

  11. Chinese college students’ understanding of Internet ethical issues: A survey of awareness

    Yuelin; LI; Ying; LI; Ang; LI

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines Chinese college students’ awareness of ethical issues surrounding the use of information resources and the Internet and their attitude to these issues. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted. Two hundred questionnaires were distributed to students of 9 universities at different levels in Tianjin, China; 171 were returned. Descriptive statistics were performed to analyze the data. Findings: The results indicate that Chinese college students usually ignored the negative influence of fake or pornographic or other indecent information, invasion of privacy and theft of confidential information, and violation of intellectual property rights. Although they could distinguish to some extent between ethical and unethical behavior, they were not concerned about others’ unethical behavior on the Web. The study also indicates that gender, age, academic major and expertise in using computers were related to the students’ awareness of ethical issues relating to the use of the Internet and their attitude to these issues.Research limitations: The sample is limited to the universities in Tianjin. A larger sample, which includes colleges and universities in the western or other developing areas in China, is needed to further validate our findings.Practical implications: The study helps educators and academic librarians better understand Chinese college students’ awareness of and attitude to ethical issues surrounding the use of the Internet. It thus could assist them in the improvement of information ethics education for college students.Originality/value: This study was one of the first empirical studies to investigate the factors influencing Chinese college students’ awareness of and attitude to Internet ethical issues.

  12. Risk and supervised exercise: the example of anorexia to illustrate a new ethical issue in the traditional debates of medical ethics.

    Giordano, S

    2005-01-01

    Sport and physical activity is an area that remains relatively unexplored by contemporary bioethics. It is, however, an area in which important ethical issues arise. This paper explores the case of the participation of people with anorexia nervosa in exercise. Exercise is one of the central features of anorexia. The presence of anorexics in exercise classes is becoming an increasingly sensitive issue for instructors and fitness professionals. The ethics of teaching exercise to anorexics has, however, seldom, if ever, been addressed. Codes of ethics and legislation do not offer guidelines pertinent to the case and it is left unclear whether anorexics should be allowed to participate in exercise classes. It is shown by this paper that there are strong ethical reasons to let anorexics participate in exercise classes. However, the paper also explains why, despite these apparently cogent ethical reasons, there is no moral obligation to allow a person with anorexia to take part in exercise/sports activities. PMID:15634747

  13. Ethical Issues in Maternal and Child Health Nursing: Challenges Faced By Maternal and Child Health Nurses and Strategies for Decision Making

    Aderemi R.A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health care givers, particularly midwives, perinatal and neonatal nurses, face ethical issues possibly because of their interactions with patients and clients in the reproductive age groups. These issues are multiple and quite complex. Aim: To identify the ethical issues related to maternal and child care, the challenges faced by the nurses and to profer strategies for decision making. Methods: This is a literature review on ethical issues in maternal and child heal...

  14. Moral and Ethical Issues: Are they the Missing Links in University Programs?

    María Eugenia Guerrero Useda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Now that there is greater consensus on the merit of teaching ethics and continuing the moral education of youth at the university level, it is necessary to determine what constitute core values and the pedagogical conditions necessary for teaching them. This article presents the results of research that attempts to establish the function effectively assigned to the teaching of ethics and moral education in the context of higher education. Based on documentary research, followed by a comparative study with theoretical sampling, we found that while 52% of the programs reviewed had at least one course related to the teaching of ethics, there were no contents geared specifically to the teaching of moral action. In law and medicine the trend toward professional ethics prevails, while engineering programs veer towards issues of social responsibility. Judging by our analysis of 120 course subjects, moral training of the individual is absent from university curricula.

  15. New ethical issues for radiation protection in diagnostic radiology

    The ethical basis for many medical practices has been challenged over the last two decades. Radiology has seen enormous growth during the same period. Many practices and equipment types, now commonplace, did not exist a generation ago. Yet the fundamental ethical basis for these practices has not seen a corresponding level of development. This is possibly an oversight, and may be particularly important given that these innovations have taken place over a period of changing social attitudes. Areas of concern include, for example, issues around justification, consent/authorisation, inadvertent irradiation of the foetus/embryo during pregnancy and the place of paternalism/individual autonomy in the structure of practice. This paper provides the background to a workshop on these issues held in late-2006 and presents a summary of its findings. (authors)

  16. Organ donation and pre-emptive kidney transplantation: ethical issues.

    Petrini, C

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that pre-emptive transplants have several clinical advantages. However, pre-emptive transplants raise a number of ethical issues. Pre-emptive transplants from living donors offer distinctly greater benefits than those from deceased donors and some pre-emptive transplantation programmes actively encourage living organ donations. Moreover, the offer of a pre-emptive transplant to a patient who is not yet on dialysis unquestionably penalises patients already on dialysis who may have been on the waiting list for a long time. Therefore preemptive transplants give rise to conflicts between justice and utility. Several factors should be considered: health conditions, clinical urgency, probability of imminent worsening of a patient's clinical condition, the future chances of finding a matching organ, and others. From the various values at stake, ethical issues are analysed in search of an acceptable synthesis. PMID:24045524

  17. Ethical issues in electronic health records: A general overview

    Fouzia F Ozair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic health record (EHR is increasingly being implemented in many developing countries. It is the need of the hour because it improves the quality of health care and is also cost-effective. Technologies can introduce some hazards hence safety of information in the system is a real challenge. Recent news of security breaches has put a question mark on this system. Despite its increased usefulness, and increasing enthusiasm in its adoption, not much attention is being paid to the ethical issues that might arise. Securing EHR with an encrypted password is a probable option. The purpose of this article is to discuss the various ethical issues arising in the use of the EHRs and their possible solutions.

  18. Donation after cardiac death and the emergency department: ethical issues.

    Simon, Jeremy R; Schears, Raquel M; Padela, Aasim I

    2014-01-01

    Organ donation after cardiac death (DCD) is increasingly considered as an option to address the shortage of organs available for transplantation, both in the United States and worldwide. The procedures for DCD differ from procedures for donation after brain death and are likely less familiar to emergency physicians (EPs), even as this process is increasingly involving emergency departments (EDs). This article explores the ED operational and ethical issues surrounding this procedure. PMID:24552527

  19. Introducing ethical, social and environmental issues in ICT engineering degrees

    Rafael Miñano; Celia Fernández Aller; Áurea Anguera; Eloy Portillo

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the experience of introducing ethical, social and environmental issues in undergraduate ICT engineering degrees at the Universidad Politécnica of Madrid. It is an example of both bottom-up and top-down approach, as it has been positively influenced by the European Higher Education Area framework and some external recommendations, plus the significant contribution regarding motivation, drive and previous experience of the teachers involved. The experience before the Bologn...

  20. Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture

    Livestock are vital to subsistence farming and sustainable livelihood in most developing countries. Of India's population of one billion people, more than 70 percent live in the rural areas. India also has more than 30 percent of the world's bovine population. This has resulted in not only egalitarian ownership of cattle, but also in an almost inseparable cultural and symbiotic relationship between rural families and their farm animals, particularly large ruminants. It is against this scenario that the ethical, social and environmental issues of gene-based technologies need to be carefully evaluated. The use of transgenic cows with modified milk composition or for any other purpose has little economic benefit in a system of 'production by masses', as typifies India and a few other developing countries, compared with 'mass production' systems in developed countries. Rather, the use of rDNA technology for developing drought-resistant fodder and forage crops is likely to bring immediate relief to most regions. Cattle, particularly in India, have poor quality feeds and this results in poor nutrition, with production of large amounts of methane. Irnmunocastration -through biotechnological means would also be advantageous. Developing countries like India need sustainable livelihood security, and, in this regard, gene-based technologies in animal agriculture seem more to raise ethical, social and environmental concerns, rather than being likely to transform 'subsistence farming' into vibrant agribusiness. Ethical issues concerning animal welfare, rights and integrity are also discussed, in addition to social, environmental and economic issues. (author)

  1. Ethical issues in patient safety: Implications for nursing management.

    Kangasniemi, Mari; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Jasper, Melanie; Turunen, Hannele

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the ethical issues impacting the phenomenon of patient safety and to present implications for nursing management. Previous knowledge of this perspective is fragmented. In this discussion, the main drivers are identified and formulated in 'the ethical imperative' of patient safety. Underlying values and principles are considered, with the aim of increasing their visibility for nurse managers' decision-making. The contradictory nature of individual and utilitarian safety is identified as a challenge in nurse management practice, together with the context of shared responsibility and identification of future challenges. As a conclusion, nurse managers play a strategic role in patient safety. Their role is to incorporate ethical values of patient safety into decision-making at all levels in an organization, and also to encourage clinical nurses to consider values in the provision of care to patients. Patient safety that is sensitive to ethics provides sustainable practice where the humanity and dignity of all stakeholders are respected. PMID:23702894

  2. The Ethical Issues Rating Scale: An Instrument for Measuring Ethical Orientation of College Students toward Various Business Practices.

    Daniel, Larry G.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Factor analysis of data from 213 college business students supported the existence of 5 constructs for the Ethical Issues Rating Scale, an instrument measuring respondents' assessment of the importance of various ethical issues. Suggestions about refining the instrument and using it are discussed. (SLD)

  3. Public acceptance of nuclear power - Some ethical issues

    With the increased public perception of the future scale of dependence on nuclear energy a debate has started, raising the level of public awareness of the social, political and technical risks that are inevitably associated with the large-scale and accelerating adoption of nuclear power generation. The nuclear industry has given a mixed response to this debate, to accusations of irresponsibility and to demands for more specific attention to the recognized hazards of the fuel cycle. In this situation, non-governmental bodies such as the World Council of Churches, has taken the responsibility to examine the issues so far identified and to place these in a social and ethical context. The W.C.C. general position on nuclear energy is presented. It includes the risk associated with nuclear technology; nuclear waste disposal; catastrophic accidents; accidents in reprocessing plants, low-level radiation; nuclear weapons; security; nuclear energy and a new international economic order; ethical and religious perspectives

  4. Review for the volume Practicing Relational Ethics in Organizations, Authors: Gitte Haslebo, Maja Loua Haslebo, Taos Institute Publications, ISBN 978-0-9819076-8-0

    Antonio SANDU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The volume Practicing Relational Ethics in Organizations having as authors Gitte Haslebo and Maja Loua Haslebo issued by Taos Institute Publications Ohio USA, discusses relational ethics and ethical practice in the organization. The problem of ethical practice in the organization besides being a necessity for business it overlaps with aspects of organizational culture, personnel management, leadership. Within the organizational ethics, the authors select the issue of relational ethics from a social, constructionist and appreciative perspective. The authors (Haslebo and Haslebo, 2012 aim to inspire the readers through a complex approach of ethical relations within the organization that are fundamentally unpredictable and subject to continuous change.

  5. Developing a research agenda on ethical issues related to using social media in healthcare : Lessons from the first Dutch Twitter heart operation

    Adams, S.A.; van Veghel, Dennis; Dekker, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of using publicly available social media applications specifically for healthcare purposes are largely unaddressed in current research. Where they are addressed, the focus is primarily on issues of privacy and data protection. We therefore use a case study of the first live Twitter

  6. Issues of Business Ethics in Domestic and International Businesses: A Critical Study

    Aytac Gokmen; A. Turan Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Ethics is a significant issue in business both on the firm level and wider phases. Ethics indicate what is right and what is wrong in business branches also lead employees and stakeholders with moral values. Ethics is the basics for an impartial internal environment in an organization. An ethical climate constituted on fair foundations and lead by executives upholding ethical standards in the first instance tend to be more achieved when compared to other firms, since fair organizational inter...

  7. Ethical Issues in E-Commerce on the Basis of Online Retailing

    Sinan Nardal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The rapid spread of e-commerce has created tremendous opportunities for economic efficiency and customer choice. Use of the global Internet computer network for ecommerce activities provides some advantages to the consumers on their daily life. On the other hand Internet represents a new environment for unethical behavior. While e-commerce has witnessed extensive growth in last decade, consumers concerns regarding ethical issues also continue to increase. Even many consumers and businesses are reveling in e-commerce; consumer problems related to online retail become the dark side of the issue. Approach: A survey on 400 online shoppers was conducted (three cities in Turkey (Izmir, Manisa, Mersin in order to measure consumers’ perceptions regarding the ethical issues of online retailing by using scale of Consumers’ Perceptions regarding to Ethics of Online Retailers (CPEOR. Results: Ethical problems like security, privacy, reliability and non deception on Internet are core issues that limit the growth of online retailing. Conclusion/Recommendation: Findings indicate that; four factors (security, privacy, non deception and reliability are strongly predictive of online consumers’ satisfaction. Also, this research will be beneficial to online retailers on their online retailing activities.

  8. Pedagogical Ethics: A Review of the Literature for Public Relations and Advertising.

    Harrison, Stanley L.

    Ethics is of increasing concern to United States colleges and universities, according to a survey of 183 institutions on this issue focusing on two areas--public relations and advertising. A 75% return from 134 institutions disclosed that some 25% offer an ethics course but less than half require one. Overwhelmingly (93%), most respondents…

  9. Identifying Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research with Minors Adolescents: Results of a Delphi Study

    Elisabeta Ioana Hiriscau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Research with minors, especially for preventive purposes, e.g., suicide prevention, investigating risk or self-destructive behaviors such as deviance, drug abuse, or suicidal behavior, is ethically sensitive. We present a Delphi study exploring the ethical implications of the needs formulated by researchers in an international pre-conference who would benefit from ethics support and guidance in conducting Mental Health Research with minors. The resulting List of Ethical Issues (LEI was submitted to a 2-rounds Delphi process via the Internet, including 34 multidisciplinary experts. In the first round, the experts reviewed the LEI and completed a questionnaire. Results from this round were analyzed and grouped in nine categories comprising 40 items. In the second round, the experts had to agree/disagree with the needs expressed in the LEI leading to a final list of 25 ethical issues considered relevant for Mental Health Research with minors such as: confidentiality of the sensitive data, competence for consenting alone and risk of harm and stigma related to the methodology used in research. It was shown that studies like SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe trigger among researchers wishes to obtain specific recommendations helping to comply with standards for good practice in conducting research with minors.

  10. Identifying Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research with Minors Adolescents: Results of a Delphi Study.

    Hiriscau, Elisabeta Ioana; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Wasserman, Danuta; Reiter-Theil, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Research with minors, especially for preventive purposes, e.g., suicide prevention, investigating risk or self-destructive behaviors such as deviance, drug abuse, or suicidal behavior, is ethically sensitive. We present a Delphi study exploring the ethical implications of the needs formulated by researchers in an international pre-conference who would benefit from ethics support and guidance in conducting Mental Health Research with minors. The resulting List of Ethical Issues (LEI) was submitted to a 2-rounds Delphi process via the Internet, including 34 multidisciplinary experts. In the first round, the experts reviewed the LEI and completed a questionnaire. Results from this round were analyzed and grouped in nine categories comprising 40 items. In the second round, the experts had to agree/disagree with the needs expressed in the LEI leading to a final list of 25 ethical issues considered relevant for Mental Health Research with minors such as: confidentiality of the sensitive data, competence for consenting alone and risk of harm and stigma related to the methodology used in research. It was shown that studies like SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) trigger among researchers wishes to obtain specific recommendations helping to comply with standards for good practice in conducting research with minors. PMID:27187425

  11. ETHICAL ISSUES IN PRIVATE COMMERCIAL BANKS IN PAKISTAN

    Nanik Ram

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research addressed the ethical issues in Private Commercial Banks in Pakistan. Data were collected from 500 respondents/Customers from cross sectional data by using simple random technique and data were analyses by using SPSS-18 version. A structural questionnaire was used as basic tool for data collection, analysis, validity and reliability. It was revealed that private commercial banks are not caring for the customers specially, four old Banks UBL, HBL, MCB, ABL. It was further concluded that most of the staff members who interact with the customers is non MBAs so that’s why their attitude towards the customers are not friendly.

  12. Toward an Ideal Relational Ethic: Rethinking university-community engagement

    Steve Garlick

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how an ideal relational ethic based on Zygmunt Bauman’s (1995 notion of forms of togetherness is needed to underpin university-community engagement processes and practices. We focus on the notion of being-for, and suggest that it can be used as an ‘engagement bridge’ between higher education institutions, the creation of human capital and communities, and can be a means to achieve ethical outcomes to local concerns. Much of Bauman’s (1995; 2001; 2007 theoretical development has focussed on the liquidity of modernity, to give the impression that community - in the spatially, physically located and fixed sense of the term - no longer exists. This paper proposes that spatial dimensions, particularly in the context of developing relational ethics, are important. This is particularly so for paying adequate attention to context-specific values, principles and issues in communities, for developing enterprising human capital via engagement, and for addressing matters of socio-political importance such as the environment. Contemporary neo-liberal times require ethical and moral leadership from universities. This paper suggests that such leadership can be developed from focussing attention on the forms of togetherness fostered by university-community engagement.

  13. Ethical issues in cochlear implant surgery: an exploration into disease, disability, and the best interests of the child.

    Lane, Harlan; Grodin, Michael

    1997-09-01

    This paper examines ethical issues related to medical practices with children and adults who are members of a linguistic and cultural minority known as the DEAF-WORLD. Members of that culture characteristically have hearing parents and are treated by hearing professionals whose values, particularly concerning language, speech, and hearing, are typically quite different from their own. That disparity has long fueled a debate on several ethical issues, most recently the merits of cochlear implant surgery for DEAF children. We explore whether that surgery would be ethical if implants could deliver close to normal hearing for most implanted children, thereby diminishing the ranks of the DEAF-WORLD. The ethical implications of eugenic practices with the DEAF are explored, as are ethical quandaries in parental surrogacy for DEAF children, and their parallels in transracial adoption. PMID:11660356

  14. Sensitive and controversial ethical issues subject of groundbreaking Toronto exhibit.

    Kezwer, G; Kramer, D.

    1996-01-01

    Medical research and practice have always posed many ethical dilemmas for scientists and physicians, but technologic advances mean that the questions are becoming even more difficult. That is why an exhibit, A Question of Truth, that is being prepared at Toronto's Ontario Science Centre is so timely. It examines the biases and political climates in which science operates, as well as the relative subjectivity of truth, knowledge and reality.

  15. A handbook of ethical practice a practical guide to dealing with ethical issues in information and library work

    McMenemy, David; Burton, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This book looks at all of the ethical issues facing information and library professionals in one overarching, and practically-focused, text. As such, it is of great benefit to both practitioners and to LIS students. The focus of the book is two-fold: (1) It contains a detailed discussion of the issues that impact on the day-today practice of information workers in the 21st century; and (2) contains case studies discussing potential solutions to ethical problems faced. The book provides sections which work like flowcharts leading from ethical issues through decision points to proposed solutions

  16. Progression in Ethical Reasoning When Addressing Socio-scientific Issues in Biotechnology

    Berne, Birgitta

    2014-11-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of an intervention in a Swedish school in which the author, a teacher-researcher, sought to develop students' (14-15 years old) ethical reasoning in science through the use of peer discussions about socio-scientific issues. Prior to the student discussions various prompts were used to highlight different aspects of the issues. In addition, students were given time to search for further information themselves. Analysis of students' written arguments, from the beginning of the intervention and afterwards, suggests that many students seem to be moving away from their use of everyday language towards using scientific concepts in their arguments. In addition, they moved from considering cloning and 'designer babies' solely in terms of the present to considering them in terms of the future. Furthermore, the students started to approach the issues in additional ways using not only consequentialism but also the approaches of virtue ethics, and rights and duties. Students' progression in ethical reasoning could be related to the characteristics of the interactions in peer discussions as students who critically and constructively argued with each other's ideas, and challenged each other's claims, made progress in more aspects of ethical reasoning than students merely using cumulative talk. As such, the work provides valuable indications for the importance of introducing peer discussions and debates about SSIs in connection to biotechnology into the teaching of science in schools.

  17. Ethical issues in predictive genetic testing: a public health perspective.

    Fulda, K G; Lykens, K

    2006-03-01

    As a result of the increase in genetic testing and the fear of discrimination by insurance companies, employers, and society as a result of genetic testing, the disciplines of ethics, public health, and genetics have converged. Whether relatives of someone with a positive predictive genetic test should be notified of the results and risks is a matter urgently in need of debate. Such a debate must encompass the moral and ethical obligations of the diagnosing physician and the patient. The decision to inform or not will vary depending on what moral theory is used. Utilising the utilitarian and libertarian theories produces different outcomes. The principles of justice and non-maleficence will also play an important role in the decision. PMID:16507657

  18. Ethical issues in using data from quality management programs.

    Nerenz, David R

    2009-08-01

    Since the advent of formal, data-driven quality improvement programs in health care in the late 1980s and early 1990s, there are have been questions raised about requirements for ethical committee review of quality improvement activities. A form of consensus emerged through a series of articles published between 1996 and 2007, but there is still significant variation among ethics review committees and individual project leaders in applying broad policies on requirements for committee review and/or written informed consent by participants. Recent developments in quality management, particularly the creation and use of multi-site disease registries, have raised new questions about requirements for review and consent, since the activities often have simultaneous research and quality improvement goals. This article discusses ways in which policies designed for local quality improvement projects and data bases may be adapted to apply to multi-site registries and research projects related to them. PMID:19365642

  19. Ethical and quasi-ethical issues in medical editing and publishing.

    Pitkin, R M

    1998-06-01

    The peer review system is a complex, delicately balanced, and dynamic system by which most new medical information is made known. The participants in the process - authors, reviewers, and editors - all have responsibilities to shoulder and rights that need to be protected. An ethical structure has evolved over time to accomplish these two goals. This paper discusses six of these ethical or quasi-ethical issues. Authorship is currently a contentious matter, in part because authors see it as a credit, whereas editors view it as responsibility. Conflict of interest, usually financial, which seems to be increasing with the growing commercialization of medicine, can undermine the credibility and integrity of publication. Confidentiality is an essential component of peer review to protect an author's creative work from exploitation or misappropriation and to protect reviewers from retribution. Redundant publication, publishing or attempting to publish essentially the same work more than once, is regarded seriously because it wastes a journal's resources, confuses later literature reviews, and depreciates the value of authorship. Advertising is a necessary fact of life for most medical journals, but safeguards must be in place to prevent its influencing editorial decisions. When fraud or plagiarism is alleged about something a journal has published, the journal is not equipped to undertake the kind of investigation needed, and should refer the matter to the institution that sponsored the research. PMID:9575262

  20. Ethical issues of transplanting organs from transgenic animals into human beings.

    Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human's body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal's organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

  1. Ethical Issues of Transplanting Organs from Transgenic Animals into Human Beings

    Shima Behnam Manesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human’s body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action. The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal’s organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven.

  2. Ethical issues in the use of in-depth interviews: literature review and discussion

    Allmark, Peter; Boote, Jonathan; Chambers, E.; Clarke, Amanda; McDonnell, A.; Thompson, Andrew; Tod, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a literature review on the topic of ethical issues in in-depth interviews. The review returned three types of article: general discussion, issues in particular studies, and studies of interview-based research ethics. Whilst many of the issues discussed in these articles are generic to research ethics, such as confidentiality, they often had particular manifestations in this type of research. For example, privacy was a significant problem as interviews sometimes probe unexpe...

  3. Dealing with Ethical Issues among Internet Users: Do We Need Legal Enforcement?

    Ali Salman; Suhana Saad; Mohd. Nor Shahizan Ali

    2013-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs), in particular of the Internet and of the World Wide Web, have paved the way for numerous ICT related development and initiative. In as much as there are beneficial usage of the Internet, there is also unethical usage and abuse. The Internet is like a double edge sword and care must be taken when indulging in this vast ocean of knowledge and information. Studies on ethical issue have centred much on internet security like hacking of personal i...

  4. Educational and Social-Ethical Issues in the Pursuit of Molecular Medicine

    Konstantinopoulos, Panagiotis A.; Karamouzis, Michalis V.; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2008-01-01

    Molecular medicine is transforming everyday clinical practice from an empirical art to a rational ortho-molecular science. The prevailing concept in this emerging framework of molecular medicine is a personalized approach to disease prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. In this mini-review, we discuss the educational and social-ethical issues raised by the advances of biomedical research as related to medical practice; outline the implications of molecular medicine for patients, ph...

  5. Ethical Issues Associated with the Use of Animal Experimentation in Behavioral Neuroscience Research

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research disciplines using animal experimentation, this field of endeavor makes a number of specific, ethically relevant, questions more explicit and, as a result, may expose to discussion a series of ethical iss...

  6. Experienced ethical issues of personalized data-mined media services

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2008-01-01

    This tentative PhD project description concerns the ethnographic examination of users’ experience of privacy issues and usability related to personalized data mined (web-) services for media content.......This tentative PhD project description concerns the ethnographic examination of users’ experience of privacy issues and usability related to personalized data mined (web-) services for media content....

  7. Medical Ethics

    ... have an ethical aspect. For example, there are ethical issues relating to End of life care: Should a patient receive nutrition? What about advance directives and resuscitation orders? Abortion: When does life begin? Is it ethical to terminate a pregnancy with a birth defect? ...

  8. Framing of Ethical Issues in the Network Society

    Etter, Michael; Vestergaard Jørgensen, Anne

    Purpose: This study investigates the moral framing of an ethical issue by various actors and looks at the agenda setting effects between news media and the active online public as represented in social media. Design: We coded 4114 sentences manually and conducted an analysis of conditional...... various actors. Furthermore, evidence of a bi-directional relationship between news media and the active online public is found, whereby the news media more strongly precedes social media. Originality: We apply an audience-driven framework that conceptualizes parts of the general public as the active...... online public. This is the first study, where a time series analysis of associated frames between news media and social media is conducted....

  9. Ethical issues in the professional work of psychologists: state of affairs in Slovenia

    Tina Zupan

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the state of affairs regarding professional ethics of Slovene psychologists, particularly regarding the implementation of ethical principles and psychologists' and students' knowledge of ethics and procedures in the cases of ethical dilemmas and violations. Two dedicated questionnaires were designed by the authors. 800 Slovene psychologists received the questionnaire and 150 of them responded. There were also 56 psychology students involved in the study. The results show some problematic issues such as: record keeping, exceptions of confidentiality, access to personal data, the content of informed consent, incompetence, copying of literature and diagnostic instruments – even not standardised ones, psychology students as subjects in psychological research, and lack of information on ethical aspects of students' practical work. Psychologists and students reported inadequate knowledge of professional ethics and suggested various kinds of ethical education. Institutions mostly enable psychologists to work within the Code of ethics. There are, however, conflicts regarding access to data and professional autonomy. Psychologists report conflicts between law and ethics, incorrect reports in media and lack of control over professional ethics. In the case of ethical violation psychologists do less than they should. They emphasise the problem of incompetence. The frequency and seriousness of certain violation were estimated. Ways of verifying knowledge, stimulating ethical conduct and taking different measures in the case of violations were suggested. The state of affairs in different working environments of psychologists was also described. Results show that psychologist who have worked in the field for a shorter period answer more frequently contrary to the Code of Ethics. Students' knowledge of ethics is mostly very satisfactory. The study emphasises the ethical aspects of psychological practice in Slovenia. It

  10. Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture

    environmental balance and social harmony with the forest, coastal and hill communities of various regions of India. The ethical issues from a technological point of view centre around both gene-based and nongene- based technologies to improve the nutrition, health and productivity of the farm animals. In particular, a reference needs to be made to bovine somatotropin (bST), a natural growth hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary in all animals, with a major effect on the regulation of growth and also milk production. Since the quantities of bST obtained from slaughtered animals are quite small, recombinant DNA technology-based r-bST is produced, and widely used in the USA to increase the milk production by 10% to 20%. Exhaustive evaluation tests conducted in the USA have shown that r-bST has no harmful effects in milk, but a high production of milk makes higher demands on animal physiology, and if an adequate food supply is lacking, negative effects are observed on fertility besides other health problems, especially mastitis and ketosis. Presently, neither r-bST, nor adequate nutritious feed is available for millions of dairy cattle in the developing countries. The economic benefits of 'mass production' over 'production by masses' are obvious; further, the access to the r-bST in the 'mass production' system, but not in the system of 'production by masses' could accentuate the economic disparity. The above-said scenario has further ramifications in view of the implications arising from the WTO-related Agreement on Agriculture. With an array of domestic supports, products of 'mass production' could be dumped into developing countries causing a substantial rise in the already high levels of livelihood and food insecurity. Since the r-DNA based technologies for 'pharming' or for human food are not yet applied to farm animals in the developing countries there are no serious concerns of bio-safety, and violation of ethical norms. In the countries, where animals for human food are

  11. Current and Emerging Ethical Issues in Counseling: A Delphi Study of Expert Opinions

    Herlihy, Barbara; Dufrene, Roxane L.

    2011-01-01

    A Delphi study was conducted to ascertain the opinions of panel experts regarding the most important current and emerging ethical issues facing the counseling profession. Expert opinions on ethical issues in counselor preparation also were sought. Eighteen panelists responded to 3 rounds of data collection interspersed with feedback. Themes that…

  12. Exploring Ethical Issues Associated with Using Online Surveys in Educational Research

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Allen, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Online surveys are increasingly used in educational research, yet little attention has focused on ethical issues associated with their use in educational settings. Here, we draw on the broader literature to discuss 5 key ethical issues in the context of educational survey research: dual teacher/researcher roles; informed consent; use of…

  13. Ethical Issues and the Life Sciences. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems.

    Kieffer, George H.

    This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This study guide on Ethical Issues and the Life Sciences includes the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) The Search for an Ethic; (3) Biomedical Issues including…

  14. Review Article: Ethical Issues in the Study of Second Language Acquisition--Resources for Researchers

    Thomas, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Two recent books provide varied resources for exploring ethical issues in the social sciences. Reflection on ethical issues aims to sensitize scholars to a range of consequences of their research, and to scholars' responsibilities to their discipline, their colleagues, and the public. This review article assesses the utility of these texts (and of…

  15. Ethical and Legal Issues in School Counseling. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest.

    Huey, Wayne C.; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.

    This digest summarizes ethical and legal issues affecting school counselors. It emphasizes the importance of ethical standards, and of knowing the content, purposes, and limitations of professional codes of conduct as general guidelines for addressing difficult issues. Advice is offered on how to address colleagues' unethical behavior, and on…

  16. A Pedagogical Model for Ethical Inquiry into Socioscientific Issues In Science

    Saunders, Kathryn J.; Rennie, Léonie J.

    2013-02-01

    Internationally there is concern that many science teachers do not address socioscientific issues (SSI) in their classrooms, particularly those that are controversial. However with increasingly complex, science-based dilemmas being presented to society, such as cloning, genetic screening, alternative fuels, reproductive technologies and vaccination, there is a growing call for students to be more scientifically literate and to be able to make informed decisions on issues related to these dilemmas. There have been shifts in science curricula internationally towards a focus on scientific literacy, but research indicates that many secondary science teachers lack the support and confidence to address SSI in their classrooms. This paper reports on a project that developed a pedagogical model that scaffolded teachers through a series of stages in exploring a controversial socioscientific issue with students and supported them in the use of pedagogical strategies and facilitated ways of ethical thinking. The study builds on existing frameworks of ethical thinking. It presents an argument that in today's increasingly pluralistic society, these traditional frameworks need to be extended to acknowledge other worldviews and identities. Pluralism is proposed as an additional framework of ethical thinking in the pedagogical model, from which multiple identities, including cultural, ethnic, religious and gender perspectives, can be explored.

  17. Public acceptance of nuclear power. Some ethical issues

    Through a careful process of investigation and inquiry, the World Council of Churches (WCC) has become aware of a decline of public confidence in existing social institutions responsible for maintaining and securing the nuclear fuel cycle. In addressing this concern, the World Council of Churches seeks a direct assurance from the IAEA and other responsible government bodies that new initiatives will be taken to resolve this anxiety and to place the acknowledged risks of an expanding nuclear power industry in a more realistic long-term perspective. The provision of energy resources for all peoples is an essential part of the struggle for a more just, participatory and sustainable society. In the light of current uncertainties over the maintenance of energy supplies, particularly to large urban communities, the WCC appreciates the necessity of retaining nuclear power as a viable option for the future in many countries. However, the credibility of the option can be achieved only through the resolution of the major questions that are inherent in the use of nuclear technology. The paper discusses the following questions, which must be tackled without further delay and certainly before a large and irreversible world-wide commitment is made: (1) The need for an open public debate. Without full public consultation on the social and ethical implications of long-term energy choices, decisions will be taken largely in terms of commercial and consequently short-term economic interest. (2) Facing the long-term risks of adopting nuclear technology. (3) Access versus security. Concern for the security of sensitive nuclear technologies has produced the secretive nuclear club. A just global society implies not merely equal opportunity to aspire and to achieve, but affirmative action to redress imbalances. (4) Military implications. (5) Social implications of nuclear energy. (6) Ethical and religious issues. (author)

  18. Prisons' preparedness for pandemic flu and the ethical issues.

    van't Hoff, G; Fedosejeva, R; Mihailescu, L

    2009-06-01

    In Europe at any given time there are about 1,8 million people imprisoned in penal institutions. About 1 million personnel are working in prisons. With prisons, from the start there are fundamental problems in many parts of Europe. Poor housing conditions in prisons and a high proportion of prisoners who already suffer from severe health problems mean the chance of an outbreak in prison during a pandemic must be quite high. We expect it can be up to 90%. In this article we explain what the characteristics are of the prison population from a health point of view. A high rate of detainees suffers from mental health disorders and/or addiction. A high prevalence of communicable and infectious diseases is the rule, not an exception. According to the European Prison Rules and many other international rules, statements and documents prison health care should be an integral part of the public health system of any country. However, it has to be accepted that the prison population is the least popular in society and in politics. In reality in many countries in Europe the situation in prison cannot meet the level strived for by the European Prison Rules. We compare preparedness on pandemic flu in The Netherlands, Latvia and Romania. We explore the problems and ethical issues that may arise if a pandemic breaks out. There are three ethical dilemmas that require consideration: equivalence of care and prisoners' right to health care; prisoners' interests verses society's interests; countries in need and calls for bilateral help. PMID:19482323

  19. Ethical and legal issues in renal transplantation in Nigeria.

    Ajayi, S O; Raji, Y; Salako, B L

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing number of patients being offered kidney transplantation by many centers in the developing world, it is not unexpected that there would be attendant ethical and legal issues even when the selection process for transplantation seems medically justified. Because of the inadequate infrastructure for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, coupled with the challenges of logistics for maintenance dialysis, transplantation would seem to be the best option for patients with end-stage renal failure, even in developed economies where these can easily be tackled. The main issues here revolve around incentives for donors, organ trade and trafficking and the economics of eliminating the waiting list and the criminal activities of organ trans-plantation. In the developing world, with the current level of corruption and poverty, there is a need to redouble efforts to monitor transplant activities. Professional bodies should take the lead in this regard. Furthermore, there is a need for governments to engage in public consultation and community awareness concerning organ donation in living and deceased persons. PMID:26787578

  20. Ethical and legal issues in renal transplantation in Nigeria

    S O Ajayi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of patients being offered kidney transplantation by many centers in the developing world, it is not unexpected that there would be attendant ethical and legal issues even when the selection process for transplantation seems medically justified. Because of the inadequate infrastructure for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, coupled with the challenges of logistics for maintenance dialysis, transplantation would seem to be the best option for patients with end-stage renal failure, even in developed economies where these can easily be tackled. The main issues here revolve around incentives for donors, organ trade and trafficking and the economics of eliminating the waiting list and the criminal activities of organ trans-plantation. In the developing world, with the current level of corruption and poverty, there is a need to redouble efforts to monitor transplant activities. Professional bodies should take the lead in this regard. Furthermore, there is a need for governments to engage in public consultation and community awareness concerning organ donation in living and deceased persons.

  1. Assessing Veterinary and Animal Science Students' Moral Judgment Development on Animal Ethics Issues.

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    Little has been done to assess veterinarians' moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues. Following development of the VetDIT, a new moral judgment measure for animal ethics issues, this study aimed to refine and further validate the VetDIT, and to identify effects of teaching interventions on moral judgment and changes in moral judgment over time. VetDIT-V1 was refined into VetDIT-V2, and V3 was developed as a post-intervention test to prevent repetition. To test these versions for comparability, veterinary and animal science students (n=271) were randomly assigned to complete different versions. The VetDIT discriminates between stages of moral judgment, condensed into three schemas: Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), and Universal Principles (UP). There were no differences in the scores for MN and UP between the versions, and we equated PI scores to account for differences between versions. Veterinary science students (n=130) who completed a three-hour small-group workshop on moral development theory and ethical decision making increased their use of UP in moral reasoning, whereas students (n=271) who received similar information in a 50-minute lecture did not. A longitudinal comparison of matched first- and third-year students (n=39) revealed no moral judgment development toward greater use of UP. The VetDIT is therefore useful for assessing moral judgment of animal and human ethics issues in veterinary and other animal-related professions. Intensive small-group workshops using moral development knowledge and skills, rather than lectures, are conducive to developing veterinary students' moral judgment. PMID:26200702

  2. Critical thinking by nurses on ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies

    A. Botes

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169. Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15. 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34 and Strauss and Corbin (1990. The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990. The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985 and Morse (1994 related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based

  3. Dealing with Ethical Issues among Internet Users: Do We Need Legal Enforcement?

    Ali Salman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICTs, in particular of the Internet and of the World Wide Web, have paved the way for numerous ICT related development and initiative. In as much as there are beneficial usage of the Internet, there is also unethical usage and abuse. The Internet is like a double edge sword and care must be taken when indulging in this vast ocean of knowledge and information. Studies on ethical issue have centred much on internet security like hacking of personal information and data theft, including in business. This paper will look at the recent trends related to the ethical usage of the Internet, especially involving social media usage and hacking of government websites and legal enforcement that can be used to address ethical issues among Internet users. Data is derived from secondary sources. From the secondary data or literature, hacking has been a subject of concern following the hackings of website of government departments by the group anonymous. There are some cases of internet abuse, especially social media involving scams and personal relationship. There is also the use of social media to incite hatred, especially against authorities leading to widespread unrest. Hence, this implies, putting in place some guiding principles and more stringent legal enforcement to curb the unethical use and abuse of the Internet.

  4. Exploring the relevance of social justice within a relational nursing ethic.

    Woods, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In the last few decades, a growing number of commentators have questioned the appropriateness of the 'justice view' of ethics as a suitable approach in health care ethics, and most certainly in nursing. Essentially, in their ethical deliberations, it is argued that nurses do not readily adopt the high degree of impartiality and objectivity that is associated with a justice view; instead their moral practices are more accurately reflected through the use of alternative approaches such as relational or care-based ethics. Yet, it has also been argued that this viewpoint does not necessarily 'do justice' to the broader moral responsibilities of nurses towards humanity in general, i.e. to the wider socio-cultural and socio-political issues in society, and to the concept of social justice in particular. This criticism has triggered a much closer examination of relational and care-based ethics in nursing at levels beyond individual responsiveness within relationships and brought into the spotlight the need for a more ethically refined nursing response to an increasingly complex set of socio-cultural inequalities. This article explores a relational ethic within nursing practices with contemporary ideas regarding social justice. In particular, it is argued that the synergy between the two actually produces an ethic that is capable of not only challenging the continuing predominance of justice-based ethics within health care, but of replacing it. Subsequently, in the discussion that follows, it is suggested that a combined social justice and relational care-based approach, as a social ethic, should guide the moral deliberations and actions of nurses. It is maintained that such an approach is not only possible, but crucial if nurses are to realize their full potential as ethical agents for individual and social good. PMID:22176548

  5. APLLICATION OF ENGINEERING ETHICS THROUGH EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

    Naveen K MEHTA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The profession of Engineering is one of the highly acclaimed professions. As the active members of this profession, engineers are expected to possess and practice ethical standards. The invaluable services offered by professionals require honesty, impartiality, fairness, integrity and equity. They should devote themselves for allround social welfare. Engineers should perform their duties with utmost care and concern. Through effective communication, Engineering Professionals can promote ethical practices. This paper explores application engineering ethics through effective communication.

  6. Corruption and ethical issues regarding public-private partnership

    Bianca COBÂRZAN

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper raises general questions about ethical problems that taint public-private partnership. Everybody talks about the economical benefits of encouraging firms to invest in the community using different incentives offered by the public institutions. In the same time, every day, newspapers bring to our attention cases of misuse of public resources for private gain or cases of private investors who give bribes in order to get a contract with a public institution. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize our understanding of the entrepreneurial movement and analyze its implications for potential problems of corruption that can arise in the relation between the public and the private sector.a

  7. Ethics or Choosing Complexity in Music Relations

    Schmidt, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The hardship and pleasure of a life in ethics, as in music, springs not from a commitment to the veneration of stability, refinement and consistency, as some political and aesthetic discourses often suggest. Rather, the productive tensions of ethical living arise from a restless interaction between constant motion and adaptability; both marks of…

  8. Review of existing issues, ethics and practices in general medical research and in radiation protection research

    A literature review was carried out in relation to general medical research and radiation protection research. A large number of documents were found concerning the subject of ethics in general medical research. For radiation protection research, the number of documents and the information available is very limited. A review of practices in 13 European countries concerning general medical research and radiation protection research was carried out by sending a questionnaire to each country. It was found that all countries reviewed were well regulated for general medical research. For research that involves ionising radiation, the UK and Ireland are by far the most regulated countries. For other countries, there does not seem to be much information available. From the literature review and the review of practices, a number of existing ethical issues were identified and exposed, and a number of conclusions were drawn. (authors)

  9. PETROBRAS’S BLOG AND JOURNALISM: what ethical issues are we talking about?

    Edson Fernando Dalmonte

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the case of Petrobras’s blog, called Facts and Data (Fatos e Dados, created to be a channel for direct communication with the society and a place for presenting the official version of information concerning this state-owned company. Taken as a parameter for questions relating to the ethical issues involved in this communication experience, it suggests some reflections beyond possible redefinitions of making communication as opposed to doing journalism. In presenting its version of events directly to the society, the company opted for a model of unmediated communication, which requires the redefinition of the speech platforms and visibility. It also proposes a reflection on discourse ethics, especially regarding the ideal of individual participation in the processes of debate concerning matters of public interest.

  10. Small-Business Owner-Managers’ Perceptions of Business Ethics and CSR-Related Concepts.

    Fassin, Yves; Van Rossem, Annick; Buelens, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Recent academic articles point to an increased vagueness and overlap in concepts related to business ethics and corporate responsibility. Further, the perception of these notions can differ in the small-business world from the original academic definitions. This paper focuses on the cognition of small-business owners. Given the impact of small-business owner-managers on their ventures, corporate responsibility and ethical issues can take a different route in SMEs. The small-business...

  11. HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT, DELIBERATIVE PROCESS, AND ETHICALLY CONTESTED ISSUES.

    Daniels, Norman; van der Wilt, Gert Jan

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare technology assessment (HTA) aims to support decisions as to which technologies should be used in which situations to optimize value. Because such decisions will create winners and losers, they are bound to be controversial. HTA, then, faces a dilemma: should it stay away from such controversies, remaining a source of incomplete advice and risking an important kind of marginalization, or should it enter the controversy? The question is a challenging one, because we lack agreement on principles that are fine grained enough to tell us what choices we should make. In this study, we will argue that HTA should take a stand on ethical issues raised by the technology that is being investigated. To do so, we propose adding a form of procedural justice to HTA to arrive at decisions that the public can regard as legitimate and fair. A fair process involves deliberation about the reasons, evidence, and rationales that are considered relevant to meeting population-health needs fairly. One important way to make sure that there is real deliberation about relevant reasons is to include a range of stakeholders in the deliberative process. To illustrate how such deliberation might work, we use the case of cochlear implants for deaf children. PMID:27472157

  12. Current ethical issues in HIV/AIDS research and HIV/AIDS care.

    Hlongwa, P

    2016-04-01

    HIV/AIDS is a global public health concern with more than 30 million deaths having been reported. Over 70% of the 35 million people with HIV/AIDS live in sub-Saharan Africa. The current available antiretroviral treatments are limited because they do not cure but slow the progression of disease. Therefore, care and treatment for HIV/AIDS and its related research, especially in HIV-preventive vaccine trials, require stringent ethical guidelines because of the vulnerability of the affected individuals as it with all clinical trials. These guidelines should incorporate the basic principles in ethics which include autonomy of individuals, beneficence, non-malfeasance and justice in the care and participation of individuals in research. With at least one in five African adults infected with the disease living in sub-Saharan Africa, this review will discuss the current ethical issues in HIV care and HIV research based on the South African context as well as exploring some of the issues globally. PMID:27109274

  13. Ethical issues in the management of chronic nonmalignant pain.

    Pappagallo, M; Heinberg, L J

    1997-01-01

    Chronic pain represents a challenge to patients, families, employers, and the physicians who care for these individuals. Opioids remain the mainstay of the analgesic medications for the treatment of both acute and chronic pain. Controlled release preparations of morphine, oxycodone, fentanyl and long acting opioid agents such as methadone and levorphanol have been medically and ethically accepted in managing chronic cancer pain. However, the continued use of these medications for patients with chronic noncancer pain has been fiercely debated. This article attempts to reconcile the medical and ethical dilemma of using opioid medications for chronic noncancer pain. Growing clinical experience in the field of pain medicine has helped to clarify: (1) the misunderstanding of addiction, physical dependence and analgesic tolerance, (2) the misconception that chronic opioid therapy inevitably causes personality changes, depression, and impairment of cognitive and physical function, (3) the lack of information on the correct use of opioid analgesics with regard to titration and management of related side effects. The behavioral management of pain patients undergoing chronic opioid therapy is also discussed. A protocol for optimal patient management is proposed. Particular emphasis is given to the consent form, behavioral contracting, and the consequences of noncompliance. The importance of psychologic evaluation before a long-term opioid trial, to minimize future complications, is stressed. Although most patients on the opioid regimen do well, special attention must be given to patients with current addiction, a past history of addiction, or current misuse of opioid medications. Pharmacologic and conservative interventions are often warranted in those patients with significant behavioral problems. If such strategies fail, and chronic opioid therapy is deemed necessary, some treatment guidelines are offered. PMID:9311061

  14. A systematic format for resolving ethical issues in clinical periodontics.

    Schloss, Alexander J

    2012-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas are becoming increasingly common in dentistry and periodontics. Clinicians, challenged with such dilemmas, may not know how to apply the appropriate moral reasoning needed to resolve these situations especially when any of the five fundamental principles of ethics that form the foundation of the American Dental Association Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct--patient autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity--come into conflict with each other. The author describes one clinical case that presented with an ethical dilemma. An analytic framework, used in medicine, is introduced and used to solve the clinical case on whether to proceed with periodontal surgery on a patient who is not aware of his terminal prognosis from metastatic prostate cancer. Upon using the analytic framework, recommendations are made on the ethically appropriate path for the periodontist to follow in providing care for the patient's periodontal problem consistent with the principles of patient autonomy, respect for persons, and veracity. PMID:23189804

  15. Ethics.

    Pellegrino, E D

    1989-05-19

    This article is from the 1989 CONTEMPO issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, the purpose of which is to keep physicians informed of recent developments in different areas of medicine through brief overviews by specialists in each field. In his article on ethics, Pellegrino focuses on the issues of euthanasia and fetal research. The practice of active, voluntary euthanasia raises questions about the difference between killing a terminally ill patient and withholding or withdrawing life-prolonging treatment, the limits of patient autonomy, the compatibility of active euthanasia with professional ethics, and the social consequences of legalizing euthanasia. The debate over the use of fetal tissue for research and treatment centers on the issue of induced abortion. PMID:2709576

  16. Brains on Wheels: Theoretical and Ethical Issues in Bio-Robotics

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    A number of theoretical problems and a couple of ethical issues in bio-robotics are investigated. It is found that claims made by researchers to have constructed robots controlled by rat brains are not fully justified by the results of current research. Further, the ethical implications of the...

  17. Ethical Issues Concerning the Use of Videoconferencing To Supervise International Social Work Field Practicum Students.

    Panos, Patrick T.; Panos, Angelea; Cox, Shirley E.; Roby, Jini L.; Matheson, Kenneth W.

    2002-01-01

    Examines current ethical guidelines affecting the use of videoconferencing in the supervision of social work students nationally and internationally. Suggests protocols to address ethical and professional practice issues that are likely to arise as a result of using videoconferencing to conduct supervision across international borders. (EV)

  18. Brains on Wheels: Theoretical and Ethical Issues in Bio-Robotics

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    A number of theoretical problems and a couple of ethical issues in bio-robotics are investigated. It is found that claims made by researchers to have constructed robots controlled by rat brains are not fully justified by the results of current research. Further, the ethical implications of the re...

  19. Psychiatric Training Program Engagement with the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Educational Issue, Not Strictly an Ethical One

    Mohl, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the educational and ethical issues involved in interactions between departments of psychiatry and the pharmaceutical industry. METHODS: The author analyzes the history of attitudes toward pharmaceutical companies, various conflicting ethical principles that apply, and areas of confluence and conflict of interest between…

  20. Ethical Issues to Consider in the Design of HIV Prevention Trials Involving Transgender People.

    Singh, Jerome Amir

    2016-08-15

    Although transgender women have been included in HIV prevention pre-exposure prophylaxis studies, no pre-exposure prophylaxis study has focused exclusively on transgender persons. Drawing on the cardinal principles of ethics espoused in the Belmont Report, this work highlights, among other issues, that (1) the principle of Justice requires the HIV prevention field to focus exclusively on transgender persons, (2) the disclosure of potential study-related risks to study participants demonstrates Respect for Persons, and (3) devising risk mitigation plans, optimizing a proposed study's standard of care, and the provision of ancillary care satisfy the principle of Beneficence. PMID:27429192

  1. Ethical issues in male sterilization in developing countries.

    Rizvi, S A; Naqvi, S A; Hussain, Z

    1995-11-01

    The history of sterilization dates back to the time of Hippocrates, when female sterilization was recommended for preventing hereditary mental diseases. James Blundell introduced surgical sterilization in 1823 for the prevention of high risk pregnancies. Vasectomy was first performed in the US at the end of the 19th century, mainly to prevent hereditary disorders. Male sterilization was a means of genocide during Nazi rule in Germany. Religious beliefs have the most powerful impact on the practice or nonpractice of family planning. In the teachings of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, only sporadic references explicitly prohibit contraception, yet various religious edicts have interpreted these references too broadly by advocating prohibition of most contraceptive methods. Recently, the world community endorsed the basic right of couples to decide the number of children they want and the right to family planning with free informed choice. An integral part of a successful family planning program is voluntarism. In Europe and North America sterilization is legal, except in Italy, France, and Turkey. In Latin America sterilization is illegal in a number of countries; in Burma and Vietnam restrictions are in place; and in Africa fertility regulation is illegal in one-third of the countries. Informed consent before sterilization during counseling by a skilled, unbiased counselor is indispensable. All family planning services should be part of the national health care system including the voluntary contraception services. Incentives may compromise voluntarism. Most programs require a minimum age and a minimum number of children, marital status, and spousal consent. For sterilization, a waiting period of 1-30 days has been recommended. The exclusion of childless and single individuals has been challenged as a violation of human rights. For mentally retarded people parents or guardians provide consent. Major ethical issues in the future could emerge concerning novel

  2. APLLICATION OF ENGINEERING ETHICS THROUGH EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

    Naveen K. MEHTA; Dharmendra MEHTA; Er. Rajesh Kumar MEHTA

    2013-01-01

    The profession of Engineering is one of the highly acclaimed professions. As the active members of this profession, engineers are expected to possess and practice ethical standards. The invaluable services offered by professionals require honesty, impartiality, fairness, integrity and equity. They should devote themselves for allround social welfare. Engineers should perform their duties with utmost care and concern. Through effective communication, Engineering Professionals can promote ethic...

  3. Ethical issues in engineering models: An operations researcher's reflections.

    Kleijnen, Jack P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This article starts with an overview of the author’s personal involvement—as an Operations Research consultant—in several engineering case-studies that may raise ethical questions; e.g., case-studies on nuclear waste, water management, sustainable ecology, military tactics, and animal welfare. All these case studies employ computer simulation models. In general, models are meant to solve practical problems, which may have ethical implications for the various stakeholders; namely, the modelers...

  4. Awareness of ethical issues in medical education: an interactive teach-the-teacher course

    Chiapponi, Costanza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We conducted an international, interdisciplinary teach-the-teacher course to sensitize physicians from different countries to ethical issues in medical education. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of this course.Method: Before and after participating in a short session on ethical issues in medical education, 97 physicians from different countries in Africa, Asia, and Europe completed a self-assessment questionnaire on their competence and interest in this field. The short session consisted of working in small groups to identify, analyze and discuss ethical dilemmas described in case vignettes adapted from published examples or written by medical students. In addition to the questionnaire, we conducted a large-group experience to explore four basic orientations of participants in ethical thinking: relativism, intentionalism, consequentialism, and absolutism.Results: We found a significant self-perceived increase in the participants’ ability to identify and describe ethical issues and students’ dilemmas, in their knowledge about these issues and teaching professionalism, and in their ability to describe both students’ perspectives and teachers’ and students’ behaviors. In addition, participants’ feeling of understanding their own culturally learned patterns of determining what is right and wrong increased after taking part in the course. The four contrasting basic ethical orientations showed no significant differences between participants regarding nationality, age, or gender. Conclusion: Ethics of education is an important issue for medical teachers. Teachers’ self-perceived competence can be increased by working on case vignettes in small groups.

  5. Ethical issues in radiology: Perspectives from the Christian tradition

    The Christian ethical tradition introduces a number of key values into the clinical context. Moreover, although some denominational differences exist, these are essentially differences of emphasis rather than of substance. Among the central values which the Christian tradition promotes are: the dignity of the person, the individual as embodied spirit and the importance of the common good. Within the evolving discourse, social justice considerations have come to the fore as a critical concern within bio-ethics. In radiology, like most fields of clinical practice, practitioners frequently encounter conflicts and tensions of an ethical nature. Moreover, the manner in which these conflicts are articulated, conceptualised and ultimately resolved will depend, not only on how the scientific data are analysed and interpreted, but also on how different ethical frameworks are invoked in these disputes. The concern in this brief paper is to discuss the Christian ethical tradition as it is expressed in Roman Catholic and 'Protestant' denominations in the western church, considering the values and norms that underlie Christian ethical engagements with applied questions. (authors)

  6. Ethics issues experienced in HBM within Portuguese health surveillance and research projects

    Miguel J Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In keeping with the fundamental practice of transparency in the discussion and resolution of ethics conflicts raised by research, a summary of ethics issues raised during Portuguese biomonitoring in health surveillance and research is presented and, where applicable, their resolution is described. Methods Projects underway aim to promote the surveillance of public health related to the presence of solid waste incinerators or to study associations between human exposure to environmental factors and adverse health effects. The methodological approach involves biomonitoring of heavy metals, dioxins and/or other persistent organic pollutants in tissues including blood, human milk and both scalp and pubic hair in groups such as the general population, children, pregnant women or women attempting pregnancy. As such, the projects entail the recruitment of individuals representing different demographic and health conditions, the collection of body tissues and personal data, and the processing of the data and results. Results The issue of autonomy is raised during the recruitment of participants and during the collection of samples and data. This right is protected by the requirement for prior written, informed consent from the participant or, in the case of children, from their guardian. Recruitment has been successful, among eligible participants, in spite of incentives rarely being offered. The exception has been in obtaining guardians' consent for children's participation, particularly for blood sampling. In an attempt to mitigate the harm-benefit ratio, current research efforts include alternative less invasive biomarkers. Surveys are currently being conducted under contract as independent biomonitoring actions and as such, must be explicitly disclosed as a potential conflict of interests. Communication of results to participants is in general only practised when a health issue is present and corrective action possible

  7. Ethics of professional relations to functionally handicapped users

    Mateja Griljc

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic purpose of 1ibrarianship code is to form and build librarian personality who can make possible the same opportunity to acquiring knowledge for all users, irrespective of their different demands or special needs.When we discuss the importance of building librarian personality the demanding work with users we confront the problem of ethical treatment very often. Ethics advises only general rules which are rarely simple and they are frequently opposite to each other.The process of reacting between the librarian and the user - as with general information needs as with special functional needs - is also dependent on librarian's professional relation which is formed on important elements such as professional qualification,experiences, creativeness and ethics.We are also interested in question where is the border between ethical and non - ethical action in key situations when the 1ibrarian meets functionally handicapped user. Opportunities for non - ethical reaction of professional workers are much more possible if the library's premises and the furniture don't offer suitable conditions for adaptable communication with the handicapped.But on the other side the 1ibrarian has just because of the bad arhitectural conditions better occasion to introduce himself as one of the best ethically formed personalies compared with other professions. With adaptable communication, creative work and with professional relation in offering help to disabled people, the librarian can contribute to more quality service and even more - he/she becomes an example to other professions - also in ethical sense.

  8. Societal and ethical issues in human biomonitoring – a view from science studies

    Bauer Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human biomonitoring (HBM has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing into focus the conditions of how and what is known in environmental health science. Methods In order to analyse the effects of HBM and the shift towards biomarker research in the assessment of environmental pollution in a broader societal context, selected analytical frameworks of science studies are introduced. To develop the epistemological perspective, concepts from "biomedical platform sociology" and the notion of "epistemic cultures" and "thought styles" are applied to the research infrastructures of HBM. Further, concepts of "biocitizenship" and "civic epistemologies" are drawn upon as analytical tools to discuss the visions and promises of HBM as well as related ethical problematisations. Results In human biomonitoring, two different epistemological cultures meet; these are environmental science with for instance pollution surveys and toxicological assessments on the one hand, and analytical epidemiology investigating the association between exposure and disease in probabilistic risk estimation on the other hand. The surveillance of exposure and dose via biomarkers as envisioned in HBM is shifting the site of exposure monitoring to the human body. Establishing an HBM platform faces not only the need to consider individual decision autonomy as an ethics issue, but also larger epistemological and societal questions, such as the mode of evidence demanded in science, policy and regulation. Conclusion The shift of exposure monitoring towards the biosurveillance of human populations involves fundamental

  9. Ethical considerations

    Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed

  10. Gender relations and economic issues.

    Elson, D

    1993-10-01

    While most discussions of economic issues pay no explicit attention to gender relations, most economic policy is marked by male bias which provides women with an unequal access to resources. This situation exists because most economists, officials, and business managers lack the imagination to see the gender impact of economic issues and most women's groups and researchers lack the language to portray this connection. This article explores some aspects of this gap and aims to provide women with the ability to effectively discuss economic issues. After an introduction, the article considers the basic problem caused by the fact that the economy is defined primarily in terms of money-making activities. This leads to a male bias since much of women's work occurs outside of the monetary sphere. The next section looks at how a failure to understand the significance of gender relations will interfere with the fulfillment of policy objectives. This discussion is followed by a description of how cutbacks in government expenditures increase the burden on women who must replace the services. Problems with the option of the private-sector replacing government services, such as the fact that increasing disposable income in households does not guarantee that unpaid labor will be reduced and the fact that the private sector may fail to expand in a productive way, are covered. The article then touches on the new emphasis placed by some economists and policy makers on cooperative and interactive solutions to these problems and ends by mentioning three new initiatives which seek to build capacity for gender-aware economic analysis: the development of a training program at Manchester University in the UK, coordination of an international research workshop by the University of Utah in the US, and development of an international association for feminist economics based in the US. PMID:12320735

  11. Good and bad in business : an ethical perspective on stakeholder relations

    Nylén, Ulrica

    1996-01-01

    Ethical issues and problems in business are receiving increasing attention, both in terms of criticism of examples of "bad" behaviour of business actors and in terms of the development of ethical codes of conduct in certain companies, ethical visions for businesses etc. In general, ethical problems seem to be increasingly prevalent in business, but ethics tend to be disre­garded by traditional organisational and managerial theory. This calls for the development of an ethical perspective on bu...

  12. Pharmaceuticalisation and ethical review in South Asia: issues of scope and authority for practitioners and policy makers.

    Simpson, Bob; Khatri, Rekha; Ravindran, Deapica; Udalagama, Tharindi

    2015-04-01

    Ethical review by expert committee continues to be the first line of defence when it comes to protecting human subjects recruited into clinical trials. Drawing on a large scale study of biomedical experimentation across South Asia, and specifically on interviews with 24 ethical review committee [ERC] members across India, Sri Lanka and Nepal, this article identifies some of the tensions that emerge for ERC members as the capacity to conduct credible ethical review of clinical trials is developed across the region. The article draws attention to fundamental issues of scope and authority in the operation of ethical review. On the one hand, ERC members experience a powerful pull towards harmonisation and a strong alignment with international standards deemed necessary for the global pharmaceutical assemblage to consolidate and extend. On the other hand, they must deal with what is in effect the double jeopardy of ethical review in developing world contexts. ERC members must undertake review but are frequently made aware of their responsibility to protect interests that go beyond the 'human subject' and into the realms of development and national interest [for example, in relation to literacy and informed consent]. These dilemmas are indicative of broader questions about where ethical review sits in institutional terms and how it might develop to best ensure improved human subject protection given growth of industry-led research. PMID:24768272

  13. IMAGINATION, CREATIVITY AND FREEDOM: THINKING RELATIONAL ETHICS IN SOCIAL WORK

    Raquel Marta

    2014-01-01

    Underlining the fundamental forms of subjectivity implicit on the of social work intervention, this article explores different contributions to contemporary social ethics. The work of the German philosopher Fichte provides a starting point from which to incorporate imagination and freedom in ethical thinking. The act of creative invention is not a solitary act, but developed in and through the relation with the Other. In this relation, attention to the context, to the moment and uniqueness of...

  14. TEACHERS’ OPINIONS RELATED WITH ETHIC BEHAVIOURS OF EDUCATION INSPECTORS

    UĞURLU, Yrd.Doç.Dr.Celal Teyyar

    2010-01-01

    Problem: Relation styles of education inspectors that take into consideration ethic values can provide teachers to have more morale and loyalty while working for their schools and students. Secondary school teachers’ opinions related with ethic behaviors of education inspectors and sample situations the teachers have experienced are brought out by this search. Population of this study concerns 42 primary schools from Adıyaman and its central counties. As applying to this poll at schools will ...

  15. Artificial nutrition at the end of life: ethical issues.

    van de Vathorst, Suzanne

    2014-04-01

    Artificial nutrition is a medical treatment that first of all needs a sound scientific base before prescribing it. This base is absent for dying patients and patients in the end stage of dementia. Because feeding is a very emotional and symbolical issue, patient and family may request this treatment despite the lack of evidence. These issues should be addressed in good communication with patient and relatives. For comatose patients and patients in a persistent vegetative state artificial nutrition is a necessary support to bridge the time until either recovery is imminent or improbable. At that moment artificial nutrition no longer contributes to the life of the patient and should be ceased. Artificial nutrition has no place in patients that voluntary decide to stop eating and drinking in order to die. PMID:24810185

  16. What Are the Ethical Issues Facing Global-Health Trainees Working Overseas? A Multi-Professional Qualitative Study.

    Harrison, James D; Logar, Tea; Le, Phuoc; Glass, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify global health ethical issues that health professional trainees may encounter during electives or placements in resource-limited countries. We conducted a qualitative study involving focus groups and an interview at the University of California San Francisco. Participants were multi-professional from the Schools of Medicine, Nursing and Pharmacy and had experience working, or teaching, as providers in resource-limited countries. Eighteen participants provided examples of ethical dilemmas associated with global-health outreach work. Ethical dilemmas fell into four major themes relating to (1) cultural differences (informed consent, truth-telling, autonomy); (2) professional issues (power dynamics, training of local staff, corruption); (3) limited resources (scope of practice, material shortages); (4) personal moral development (dealing with moral distress, establishing a moral compass, humility and self awareness). Three themes (cultural differences, professional issues, limited resources) were grouped under the core category of "external environmental and/or situational issues" that trainees are confronted when overseas. The fourth theme, moral development, refers to the development of a moral compass and the exercise of humility and self-awareness. The study has identified case vignettes that can be used for curriculum content for global-health ethics training. PMID:27417631

  17. ETHICAL ISSUES, SAFETY, AND DATA INTEGRITY IN CLINICAL TRIALS

    Published in 1974, the Belmont Report established the ethical principles for conducting clinical research in the United States. The essential concepts are respect for the research participant, beneficence for society at large, and justice (equal access to participation and equal treatment) toward su...

  18. Thinking through the Issues in a Code of Ethics

    Davis, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In June 2005, seven people met at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) to develop a code of ethics governing all members of the university community. The initial group developed a preamble, that included reasons for establishing such a code and who was to be governed by the code, including rationale for following the guidelines. From this…

  19. Ethical Issues Affecting Human Participants in Community College Research

    Wurtz, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The increasing demand of constituents to conduct analyses in order to help inform the decision-making process has led to the need for Institutional Research (IR) guidelines for community college educators. One method of maintaining the quality of research conducted by IR staff is to include professional development about ethics. This article…

  20. Informed Consent: An Ethical Issue in Conducting Research with Male Partner Violent Offenders

    Crane, Cory A.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Mandel, Dolores; Easton, Caroline J.

    2013-01-01

    Ethical codes help guide the methods of research that involve samples gathered from “at-risk” populations. The current paper reviews general as well as specific ethical principles related to gathering informed consent from partner violent offenders mandated to outpatient treatment, a group that may be at increased risk of unintentional coercion in behavioral sciences research due to court-mandates that require outpatient treatment without the ethical protections imbued upon prison populations...

  1. STUDENTS’ OPPINION ABOUT PROFESSIONAL ETHICS RELATION OF THE TEACHERS

    Vera Stojanovska

    2013-01-01

    Professional teacher’s ethics is a collection of moral codes of their professional work. It is significant that the teaching profession respects certain designated professional-ethical codes of conduct between the teachers and the students, with their colleagues and other people they professionally cooperate with.     This study is focused on analysis of the professional ethical relation of teachers towards students, seen from student’s point of view. These are the results of student’s report...

  2. Neurofunctional correlates of ethical, food-related decision-making.

    Cherry, J Bradley C; Bruce, Jared M; Lusk, Jayson L; Crespi, John M; Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    For consumers today, the perceived ethicality of a food's production method can be as important a purchasing consideration as its price. Still, few studies have examined how, neurofunctionally, consumers are making ethical, food-related decisions. We examined how consumers' ethical concern about a food's production method may relate to how, neurofunctionally, they make decisions whether to purchase that food. Forty-six participants completed a measure of the extent to which they took ethical concern into consideration when making food-related decisions. They then underwent a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans while performing a food-related decision-making (FRDM) task. During this task, they made 56 decisions whether to purchase a food based on either its price (i.e., high or low, the "price condition") or production method (i.e., with or without the use of cages, the "production method condition"), but not both. For 23 randomly selected participants, we performed an exploratory, whole-brain correlation between ethical concern and differential neurofunctional activity in the price and production method conditions. Ethical concern correlated negatively and significantly with differential neurofunctional activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). For the remaining 23 participants, we performed a confirmatory, region-of-interest (ROI) correlation between the same variables, using an 8-mm3 volume situated in the left dlPFC. Again, the variables correlated negatively and significantly. This suggests, when making ethical, food-related decisions, the more consumers take ethical concern into consideration, the less they may rely on neurofunctional activity in the left dlPFC, possibly because making these decisions is more routine for them, and therefore a more perfunctory process requiring fewer cognitive resources. PMID:25830288

  3. Addressing public concerns about ethical and environmental issues in the discussion on nuclear waste management

    According to Swiss Federal Law, the producers of radioactive waste are responsible for its safe disposal. The government, therefore, plays a relatively modest role in the public debate on nuclear waste management. Whenever asked to express an opinion, it tries to inform openly. Active public relations campaigns are led by the National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA). The operators of nuclear power plants are ready to compensate the siting community and its Canton for services rendered in the public interest. An important way to deal with ethical and environmental issues is the inclusion of opponents in every step of the time-consuming licensing procedure. This paper discusses the upcoming vote on a concession for a low and intermediate-level waste repository for which NAGRA is actively preparing. NAGRA's public relations work is based on recognition of the fact that the only way to diminish fear and gain credibility is to inform openly and regularly over many years, and to show that results achieved are based on serious, careful and transparent scientific work. Another aspect of radioactive waste management communication lies in the explanation of the ethics of 'inter-generational' and 'intra-generational' equity. Compensation will never make up for lack of safety. The ways in which the public voices its views are discussed, as well as the concept of seeking the co-operation of opponents in working groups. (author)

  4. Engineering Ethics

    Didier, Christelle

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the author presents the research field called "engineering ethics" and analyses some ethical issues related to the engineering profession. Ce chapitre dresse un état des lieux du champ de recherche intitulé depuis les années 1980 "engineering ethics"en anglais. Il présente quelques enjeux éthiques que soulève le métier d'ingénieur.

  5. Antisocial personality disorder: diagnostic, ethical and treatment issues.

    Kaylor, L

    1999-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a complex disorder that creates a diagnostic, ethical, and treatment dilemma for mental health professionals. Psychosocial, biological, and cultural influences play a role in the development of ASPD. People with ASPD often had harsh early childhoods that impaired their ability to trust in adulthood. Research supports intriguing biological links, but it remains unclear if biological differences are the cause or the effect of ASPD. Individualism, patriarchy, and widespread media violence create the cultural context for the development of ASPD. ASPD is difficult to clinically diagnose and treat, and there is controversy concerning whether ASPD is a psychiatric or a legal-ethical problem. However, the management of ASPD often falls to mental health services. This article addresses treatment and primary prevention of ASPD in a way that is relevant to mental health practice. PMID:10633643

  6. Informed consent in experimentation involving mentally impaired persons: ethical issues

    Carlo Petrini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of experimentation involving subjects whose mental condition prevents them from understanding information and providing proper informed consent has been addressed in various codes, declarations, conventions, treaties and regulations adopted by national, international and supranational institutions and authorities. This article summarizes the basic ethical criteria these documents provide and stresses the historical development from the nearly total exclusion of incapacitated subjects, established in the mid-twentieth century, to their contemporary inclusion in clinical trials on certain ethical conditions. The problem of proxy consent by legal representatives for participation in clinical trials is addressed particularly in reference to current Italian regulations. Exceptions to human experimentation requirements in emergency situations are also briefly discussed.

  7. Ethical and Moral Courage is Distress among Professional Nurses: A Workplace Issue.

    Brown, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Ethics and moral issues do impact the manner in which professional nurses perform their major duties. Moral distress often conflict with an ethical appropriate course of action that is known, but cannot be implemented. This distress has been associated with job dissatisfaction, burnout, early retirement, withdrawal from the moral dimensions of direct patient care, and others just leaving the profession altogether. In the workplace, institutions must make an assertive effort in providing resources and addressing situations that cause personal anxiety and depression that adversely affects total patient care. The American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN) has addressed ethical issues and moral distress in practices that support nurses with moral courage, when encountering ethical conflicts. Ask, Affirm, Assess and Act are the 4 A's that AACN believes should be a part of an organization's strategic plan to create a healthy workplace environment. PMID:26336663

  8. Ethical issues in the development of a vestibular prosthesis

    Poppendieck, Wigand; Hoffmann, Klaus-Peter; Merfeld, Daniel; Guyot, Jean-Philippe; Micera, Silvestro

    2011-01-01

    During the development of a neural prosthesis, various ethical aspects have to be considered. These range from the basic design of the prosthesis and manufacturing of the various components and the system using biocompatible materials to extensive in vitro and in vivo testing and investigations in the animal model, before taking the final step and going to human trials. As medical systems, neural prostheses have to be proven absolutely safe before considering any clinical study. In this work,...

  9. Ethical challenges of the new economy: An agenda of issues

    Argandoña, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    The new economy is a technological revolution involving the information and communication technologies which affects almost all aspects of the economy, business, and our personal lives. The problems it raises for businesses are not radically new, least of all from an ethical viewpoint. However, they deserve particular attention, especially now, in the first years of the 21st century, when we are feeling the full impact of the changes brought about by this technological revolution. In this art...

  10. Ethical issues in radiation protection. Sievert lecture 1992

    Present radiation protection doctrine (ICRP 1990) is based on a body of scientific knowledge, one underlying assumption and three general principles. My objective is to discuss first the adequacy of the existing scientific information for the purpose of setting safety standards; then to consider the foundation of the underlying assumption; and finally, to discuss a few aspects of the general principles in the light of ethical considerations

  11. Ethical issues in long-term psychiatric management.

    Dickenson, D

    1997-01-01

    Two general ethical problems in psychiatry are thrown into sharp relief by long term care. This article discusses each in turn, in the context of two anonymised case studies from actual clinical practice. First, previous mental health legislation soothed doubts about patients' refusal of consent by incorporating time limits on involuntary treatment. When these are absent, as in the provisions for long term care which have recently come into force, the justification for compulsory treatment an...

  12. What Are the Ethical Issues Facing Global-Health Trainees Working Overseas? A Multi-Professional Qualitative Study

    James D. Harrison

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify global health ethical issues that health professional trainees may encounter during electives or placements in resource-limited countries. We conducted a qualitative study involving focus groups and an interview at the University of California San Francisco. Participants were multi-professional from the Schools of Medicine, Nursing and Pharmacy and had experience working, or teaching, as providers in resource-limited countries. Eighteen participants provided examples of ethical dilemmas associated with global-health outreach work. Ethical dilemmas fell into four major themes relating to (1 cultural differences (informed consent, truth-telling, autonomy; (2 professional issues (power dynamics, training of local staff, corruption; (3 limited resources (scope of practice, material shortages; (4 personal moral development (dealing with moral distress, establishing a moral compass, humility and self awareness. Three themes (cultural differences, professional issues, limited resources were grouped under the core category of “external environmental and/or situational issues” that trainees are confronted when overseas. The fourth theme, moral development, refers to the development of a moral compass and the exercise of humility and self-awareness. The study has identified case vignettes that can be used for curriculum content for global-health ethics training.

  13. Ethical issues in the documentary data analysis of Internet posts and archives.

    Sixsmith, Judith; Murray, Craig

    2001-01-01

    The documentary analysis of email posts and archives for qualitative research has been outlined elsewhere (Murray & Sixsmith, 1998a; Murray and Sixsmith, in press). Although there is an increase in the number of studies being conducted on listserv and newsgroup material in health research, this has not always been accompanied by a careful, in-depth consideration of the concomitant ethical issues. Therefore, this article outlines the ethical considerations surrounding this form of research, in...

  14. Ethical considerations for evaluating the issue of physical restraint in psychiatry

    Carlo Petrini

    2013-01-01

    This article examines some of the ethical issues associated with the use of physical restraint in psychiatry and neurology. It offers no specific answers to individual operational problems, but a methodological matrix is proposed as an aid to experts in the various settings in which decisions are taken. The subject is addressed mainly by considering two sources: reference documents published by eminent organisations, and the theoretical framework of ethical values (or principles). A number of...

  15. Ethical issues in using Twitter for population-level depression monitoring: a qualitative study

    Mikal, Jude; Hurst, Samantha; Conway, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, significant research effort has focused on using Twitter (and other social media) to investigate mental health at the population-level. While there has been influential work in developing ethical guidelines for Internet discussion forum-based research in public health, there is currently limited work focused on addressing ethical problems in Twitter-based public health research, and less still that considers these issues from users’ own perspectives. In this work, we aim ...

  16. Issues and Challenges in Research on the Ethics of Medical Tourism: Reflections from a Conference

    Crooks, Valorie; Snyder, Jeremy; Turner, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    The authors co-organized (Snyder and Crooks) and gave a keynote presentation at (Turner) a conference on ethical issues in medical tourism. Medical tourism involves travel across international borders with the intention of receiving medical care. This care is typically paid for out-of-pocket and is motivated by an interest in cost savings and/or avoiding wait times for care in the patient’s home country. This practice raises numerous ethical concerns, including potentially exacerbating health...

  17. Sorting out the mess. A Review of Definitions of Ethical Issues in Business

    Egels, Niklas

    2005-01-01

    Hundreds of concepts have been proposed for describing how ethical issues in business should be defined. In this paper, I review how the six most commonly used concepts have been defined. This is a contribution to the international business ethics research, since hardly any academic work has reviewed more than one or two concepts simultaneously. The results from the review show that differences as well as similarities exist between the concepts in terms of context, content and perspectives. I...

  18. Identifying the Discomfort: An Examination of Ethical Issues Encountered by MSW Students during Field Placement

    Dodd, Sarah-Jane

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine which ethical issues graduate social work students experienced most frequently during their field placement, the resources students used to resolve these issues, and whether such resources were helpful. The results indicate that conflicts concerning beneficence versus agency policy and…

  19. Ethical, social and public awareness issues in gene therapy EuropaBio.

    2002-01-01

    EuropaBio, the European Association for Bio-industries, represents 40 corporate members operating world wide and 14 national associations (totaling up to 700 small- and medium-sized enterprises) involved in research, development, testing, manufacturing, sales, and distribution of biotechnology-derived products and services in the field of health cae, agriculture, food, and the environment. AGE is a group of researchers and university professors involved in high-level professional activities related to bioethics, and particularly interested in ethical issues related to the development and use of modern technology. It is essential that industry actively participates in, and contributes to, the social debate on emerging technologies. Therefore, EuropaBio presents herein its view on gene therapy and its responsible development and use. PMID:12739548

  20. ETHICAL ISSUES IN MARKETING: AN APPLICATION FOR UNDERSTANDING ETHICAL DECISION MAKING

    Parıltı, Nurettin; Külter Demirgüneş, Banu; Özsaçmacı, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    In recent years business ethics and social responsibility have gained great importance in marketing practices, especially in societal marketing practices. Businesses infinitely struggle to indicate their contributions to society. Consumers consciously evaluate this contribution. Manipulated consumer choices and unethical marketing applications can affect purchasing behavior. Particularly intense competition, globalization and societal consciousness transform businesses into social organizatio...

  1. Independent ethical review of studies involving personal medical records. Report of a working group to the Royal College of Physicians Committee on Ethical Issues in Medicine.

    1994-01-01

    There is a duty to use available information for the general good where this can be done without detriment. It is, in principle, ethically acceptable to use personal medical records without approaching or involving the patients concerned, provided that confidentiality and anonymity are preserved; such use does not require independent ethical approval provided that confidentiality is assured and subject to safeguards described below. Epidemiologists have a special interest in the use of personal medical records in their work (in this context the use of health-related registers and existing biological samples may be included), though access to such data involves professional staff in all medical specialties, not only those in epidemiology. The following guidance is based on a report of a working group (which included non-medical members) to the Royal College of Physicians Committee on Ethical Issues in Medicine. Activities such as medical audit, epidemiological surveillance, inquiries designed to establish indices of morbidity and mortality and outbreak investigations all constitute medical practice and as such do not require independent ethical review. Research involving access to medical records, health-related registers, or existing biological samples only, without direct patient involvement, requires neither explicit individual patient consent nor independent ethical review provided that: a) explicit consent to access a person's records is obtained either from official custodians of the records (who have a duty to satisfy themselves as to the bona fides and competence of the investigator) or from the patient's clinician: the decision to access personal medical information should not be left to the sole discretion of the investigator.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7807434

  2. A clinical perspective on ethical issues in genetic testing.

    Sijmons, R H; Van Langen, I M; Sijmons, J G

    2011-05-01

    Genetic testing is traditionally preceded by counselling to discuss its advantages and disadvantages with individuals so they can make informed decisions. The new technique of whole genome or exome sequencing, which is currently only used in research settings, can identify many gene mutations, including substantial numbers of mutations with unknown pathological effect; it may, therefore, threaten this balanced approach if it is used in a clinical setting. We discuss the ethical challenges of several approaches to pre- and postnatal DNA testing, individual privacy versus the interests of families and of scientists, and the clinician's duty to re-contact if new information or options become available. PMID:21574071

  3. Holistic science: An understanding of science education encompassing ethical and social issues

    Malekpour, Susan

    Science has often been viewed, by the majority of our educators and the general public, as being objective and emotionless. Based on this view, our educators teach science in the same manner, objectively and in an abstract form. This manner of teaching has hindered our learners' ability for active learning and distanced them from the subject matter. In this action research, I have examined holistic science pedagogy in conjunction with a constructivism theory. In holistic science pedagogy, scientific knowledge is combined with subjective personal experiences and social issues. There is an interaction between student and scientific data when the student's context, relationships, and lived experiences that play a role in the scientific recognition of the world were incorporated into the learning process. In this pedagogical model, the factual content was viewed from the context of social and ethical implications. By empowering learners with this ability, science knowledge will no longer be exclusive to a select group. This process empowers the general population with the ability to understand scientific knowledge and therefore the ability to make informed decisions based on this knowledge. The goal was to make curriculum developers more conscious of factors that can positively influence the learning process and increase student engagement and understanding within the science classroom. The holistic approach to science pedagogy has enlightened and empowered our adult learners more effectively. Learners became more actively engaged in their own process of learning. Teachers must be willing to listen and implement student suggestions on improving the teaching/learning process. Teachers should be willing to make the effort in connecting with their students by structuring courses so the topics would be relevant to the students in relation to real world and social/ethical and political issues. Holistic science pedagogy strives for social change through the empowerment of

  4. Policy, Equity and Priority: Ethical Issues of Stem Cell in Developing Countries

    B Larijani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ever-increasing advances in the field of bioethics have been encouraged by recent developments of biomedical technolo-gies. Stem cell research and therapy are among the most promising approaches in medicine of which are raised some ethical chal¬lenges. Likewise, the therapeutic potential of stem cell-based therapies created new policy concerns for health care sys¬tems, particularly the issue of equity, priority in resource allocation and justice. There are arguments against and in favor of funding for stem cell research. Governments have also diverse policies in en¬couraging private sector sponsorship to support researches. Iran is one of the pioneers in the field of human embry¬onic stem cell research in the region. The religious de¬crees per¬mitting therapeutic purposes have paved the way for wide-ranging researches. Indeed, the researchers have an obli¬gation to observe moral values. Therefore, the national specific guideline for gamete and embryo research, com¬piled in 2005, is followed in this issue. In this paper, we will discuss the major ethical concerns relating to the issue of equity and justice, and will review the regulatory policies for stem cell research and therapy. On the whole, stem cell research is a global enterprise about which there is a need to think in the context of glob¬alisation and also from the perspective of the developing countries. Stem cell based therapies are expensive and tech¬nologically demanding, the low-resource healthcare systems need to consider a specific national policy and to weigh up costs and benefits to consider making such treatments available. We must ensure that rights, values and wel¬fare of the donor, recipient and the community are respected.

  5. Ethical, legal and social issues to consider when designing a surrogacy law.

    Ekberg, Merryn Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this article is to address the ethical, legal and social issues that arise when a woman becomes pregnant and gives birth to a child with the intention of surrendering this child to another woman or couple. The secondary aim is to offer some recommendations that will be beneficial for the lawmakers, policymakers and regulators who design and enforce the rules and regulations that govern surrogacy arrangements. The article considers both commercial and altruistic surrogacy and highlights some of the similarities and differences between the two. Beginning with the initial question of whether surrogacy should be legal, the controversial questions raised relate to the time before conception, during the pregnancy and after the birth of the child. The article concludes that surrogacy arrangements are ethical and should be legal because they enable the medically and socially infertile, including singles and same-sex couples, the opportunity to become parents and to enjoy the lifelong pleasures of parenthood. For many, this will be the strongest argument for the legalisation of surrogacy and the greatest benefit to arise from surrogacy arrangements. PMID:24804538

  6. Bone marrow transplantation in the prevention of intellectual disability due to inherited metabolic disease: ethical issues.

    Louhiala, P

    2009-07-01

    Many inherited metabolic diseases may lead to varying degrees of brain damage and thus also to intellectual disability. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been used for over two decades as a form of secondary prevention to stop or reverse the progress of the disease process in some of these conditions. At the population level the impact of BMT on the prevalence of intellectual disability is minute, but at the individual level its impact on the prognosis of the disease and the well-being of the patient can be substantial. The dark side of BMT use is the burden of side effects, complications and transplantation-related mortality in less successful cases. The ethical issues involved in this therapy are discussed in this review. PMID:19567689

  7. The Teaching of Socioscientific Issues in Interdisciplinarity Biology-philosophy, an Ethical Stake and Citizenship Issue

    Kacem, Saida; Simonneaux, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    This research starts from a relatively optimistic thinking based on the fact that the teaching of the socioscientific issues through the practice of argued debates can contribute positively towards education in scientific citizenship. The teaching of techno-sciences raises topical questions which interfere in the classroom and at the same time…

  8. Does the Defining Issues Test measure ethical judgment ability or political position?

    Bailey, Charles D

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the construct validity of the Defining Issues Test of ethical judgment (DIT/DIT-2). Alleging a political bias in the test, Emler and colleagues (1983, 1998, 1999, 2007), show that conservatives score higher when asked to fake as liberals, implying that they understand the reasoning associated with "higher" moral development but avoid items they see as liberally biased. DIT proponents challenge the internal validity of faking studies, advocating an explained-variance validation. This study takes a new approach: Adult participants complete the DIT-2, then evaluate the raw responses of others to discern political orientation and ethical development. Results show that individuals scoring higher on the DIT-2 rank others' ethical judgment in a way consistent with DIT-2-based rankings. Accuracy at assessing political orientation, however, is low. Results support the DIT-2's validity as a measure of ethical development, not an expression of political position. PMID:21675184

  9. Examining Ethical and Moral Values of Public Relations People.

    Wright, Donald K.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the basic ethical and moral values of public relations practitioners, emphasizing the sender in the communication process. Finds that the structure of moral values in the North American public relations person includes the influences of socio-economics, religion, social responsibility, and finances. (MS)

  10. A Critical Review of Theories and Measures of Ethics-Related Leadership.

    Zhu, Weichun; Zheng, Xiaoming; Riggio, Ronald E; Zhang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the different theoretical perspectives and measurements of ethics-related leadership models, including ethical leadership, transformational leadership, authentic leadership, servant leadership, spiritual leadership, and a virtues-based approach to leadership ethics. The similarities and differences among these theoretical models and measures to ethics-related leadership are discussed. PMID:26894906

  11. Animal Experimentation: Bringing Ethical Issues into Biology Teaching.

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2000-01-01

    There are many possibilities for the use of controversial issues such as animal experimentation in biology classrooms. Outlines a series of three lessons that asked senior biology students to consider the issue of animal experimentation from three perspectives. (Author/LM)

  12. Aspectos éticos del comercio electrónico desde la perspectiva de los consumidores : Ethical issues in online retailing form consumers´perspective.

    Pascual del Riquelme Martínez, Mª Isabel

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose – The main goal of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the factors that currently represent some of the most important obstacles for a greater acceptance of the Internet as a shopping channel. Specifically, this research is focused on the study of the antecedents of consumers’ concerns, perceptions and beliefs about ethical issues in e-commerce, as these consumer ethical concerns are at the core of the most important barriers related to e-commerce ado...

  13. Ethical challenges related to elder care. High level decision-makers' experiences

    Kihlgren Mona

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few empirical studies have been found that explore ethical challenges among persons in high public positions that are responsible for elder care. The aim of this paper was to illuminate the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care as experienced by high level decision-makers. Methods A phenomenological-hermeneutic method was used to analyse the eighteen interviews conducted with political and civil servant high level decision-makers at the municipality and county council level from two counties in Sweden. The participants worked at a planning and control as well as executive level and had both budget and quality of elder care responsibilities. Results Both ethical dilemmas and the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care were revealed. No differences were seen between the politicians and the civil servants. The ethical dilemmas mostly concerned dealings with extensive care needs and working with a limited budget. The dilemmas were associated with a lack of good care and a lack of agreement concerning care such as vulnerable patients in inappropriate care settings, weaknesses in medical support, dissimilar focuses between the caring systems, justness in the distribution of care and deficient information. Being in ethically difficult situations was challenging. Associated with them were experiences of being exposed, having to be strategic and living with feelings such as aloneness and loneliness, uncertainty, lack of confirmation, the risk of being threatened or becoming a scapegoat and difficult decision avoidance. Conclusion Our paper provides further insight into the ethical dilemmas and ethical challenges met by high level decision-makers', which is important since the overall responsibility for elder care that is also ethically defensible rests with them. They have power and their decisions affect many stakeholders in elder care. Our results can be used to

  14. Ethical issues associated with the use of animal experimentation in behavioral neuroscience research.

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research disciplines using animal experimentation, this field of endeavor makes a number of specific, ethically relevant, questions more explicit and, as a result, may expose to discussion a series of ethical issues that have relevance beyond this field of science. We suggest that innovative research, by its very definition, demands out-of-the-box thinking. At the same time, standardization of animal models and test procedures for the sake of comparability across experiments inhibits the potential and willingness to leave well-established tracks of thinking, and leaves us wondering how open minded research is and whether it is the researcher's established perspective that drives the research rather than the research that drives the researcher's perspective. The chapter finishes by introducing subsequent chapters of this book volume on Ethical Issues in Behavioral Neuroscience. PMID:25023419

  15. Accounting-related transmission issues

    Various initiatives have been undertaken by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to deregulate wholesale electric energy markets. These initiatives have focused on restructuring the transmission systems in the US and recently have culminated in a proposal requiring formation of and participation in regional transmission organizations. The overall form of regulation selected to determine rates for transmission entities as well as underlying regulatory decisions reached on key issues will have profound implications for transmission entities. For example, traditional cost-based regulation would require one set of accounting and reporting rules, while incentive-based regulation may not be subject to those same rules. An overview of some of the major accounting and financial reporting issues that will need to be considered is presented

  16. [Ethics and laws related to human subject research].

    Chiu, Hui-Ju; Lee, Ya-Ling; Chang, Su-Fen

    2011-10-01

    Advances in medical technology rely on human subject research to test the effects on real patients of unproven new drugs, equipment and techniques. Illegal human subject research happens occasionally and has led to subject injury and medical disputes. Familiarity with the laws and established ethics related to human subject research can minimize both injury and disputes. History is a mirror that permits reflection today on past experience. Discussing the Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki and Belmont Report, this article describes the laws, ethics, history and news related to human subject research as well as the current definition and characteristics of human subject research. Increasing numbers of nurses serve as research nurses and participate in human subject research. The authors hope this article can increase research nurse knowledge regarding laws and ethics in order to protect human research subjects adequately. PMID:22024809

  17. How the "Public Relations Journal" Responds to Criticism of Public Relations Ethics: A Qualitative Approach.

    Olasky, Marvin N.

    A quantitative analysis of 40 years of articles appearing in the "Public Relations Journal" was made to determine how the journal has responded to ethical criticism of public relations over the years. While 17% of the articles during one eight-year period discussed questions touching on ethics in some way, quantitative analytical tools did not…

  18. Food Marketing to Children - Introduction to Ethical Issues

    Květa Olšanová

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The working paper provides an overview of key stakeholders involved in the food marketing to children in Europe and in the Czech Republic. It analyzes the role of the legislation as well as of voluntary codes of conduct in the food industry. The industry part of the issue is also covered by explanation of their role and position in the obesity issue. The form of food industry cooperation at the Food Chamber through a working group of involved companies is analyzed and an example of the corporate responsibility program is shown. The paper is going to serve as a review of the issue for further exploration needs.

  19. Of mode of reasoning and context: Danish evidence of accounting student’s moral reasoning abilities in resolving ethical dilemmas related to fraud

    Pillalamarri, Sudarshan Kumar; Holm, Claus

    reasoning. The purpose of this study is three-fold, using Kohlberg’s theory of cognitive moral development; this study aims to examine the effect of mode of reasoning on ethical decision-making. Secondly, this study presents the respondents with two ethical contexts in auditing viz. fraud and mundane. The...... aim is to examine the effect of facing ethical dilemmas arising out of detection of fraud, on the ethical decision-making ability of students. The impetus behind this is to observe the preparedness of accounting students in dealing with issues related to fraud. Finally, this study aims to examine the...... were focused on ethical decision making ability of Danish auditors’, this study closes the loop by presenting an accounting students perspective. By providing an understanding of the complex issues involved in ethical decision-making, this study also serves strategically in strengthening ethics...

  20. Ethical Issues in Cooperative Education--The Practitioner's Perspective.

    Mark, Joan

    2001-01-01

    Raises issues of unethical student behavior in cooperative education, with examples of theft, abuse of workplace e-mail, fraudulent timesheets, and wrongful unemployment claims. Discusses new opportunities for unethical behavior created by technology and ways educators can respond. (SK)

  1. Intra-Hospital Committee for Donation of Organs and Tissues for Transplant: ethical issues

    Josiane Cappellaro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to demonstrate ethical aspects involved in the donation, collection and transplantation of organs and tissues through the experiences of workers in an intra-hospital committee for donation of organs and tissues for transplant. Exploratory qualitative research developed with eleven health workers. Data collection was performed at a university hospital in Pelotas, RS, Brazil, in the period of January-March 2010, through interviews. Data analysis resulted in the following categories: understanding of brain death diagnosis as an ethical issue; and, ethical issues experienced by workers in the relationship established with the family. It was concluded that such situations instigate workers to reflect on their attitudes, values, and their role as a health team member and protector of lives.

  2. Geologic disposal of radioactive waste: Ethical and technical issues

    Pigford, T.H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Ethical goals that future people should be protected and should not have to protect themselves from our radioactive waste are claimed by geologic repository projects. The best test of sufficient protection is to show that the calculated individual doses to future farming families are well below a regulatory limit. That limit should be no greater than what is now adopted to protect the public from operatinglicensed facilities. Present US calculations show doses, at times well beyond 10,000 years, that exceed current accepted limits by at least three orders of magnitude. Notwithstanding, there is a good chance that the goals can still be achieved by careful technical design of the geologic confinement system. But many in the US now propose ways that would allow greater individual exposures from radionuclides that eventually leak from a geologic repository. Examples include: (a) the 10,000-year cutoff proposed by industry, the US Congress, EPA, and DOE, thus obscuring the later times when higher doses are certain to result; (b) the vicinity-average dose proposed by industry and the US Congress; (c) the probabilistic critical groups proposed by EPRI and by the National Research Council's TYMS committee; (d) proposals to rely on future humans to detect and cleanup excessive amounts of radioactivity that may escape from a repository, and (e) the move to base compliance on calculated doses from well water drawn at considerable distance from Yucca Mountain. Each of these proposals would lead to a far more lenient radiation protection standard than current standards. Each of these proposals is without sufficient scientific basis for its use as a protector of public health. Each of these proposals would violate one or more of the ethical goals. Each is made without adequate discussion and explanation and without explaining how and why it would violate one or more of the ethical goals. What if serious work on alternatives fails to produce conservatively calculated and

  3. Geologic disposal of radioactive waste: Ethical and technical issues

    Ethical goals that future people should be protected and should not have to protect themselves from our radioactive waste are claimed by geologic repository projects. The best test of sufficient protection is to show that the calculated individual doses to future farming families are well below a regulatory limit. That limit should be no greater than what is now adopted to protect the public from operating licensed facilities. Present US calculations show doses, at times well beyond 10,000 years, that exceed current accepted limits by at least three orders of magnitude. Notwithstanding, there is a good chance that the goals can still be achieved by careful technical design of the geologic confinement system. But many in the US now propose ways that would allow greater individual exposures from radionuclides that eventually leak from a geologic repository. Examples include: (a) the 10,000-year cutoff proposed by industry, the US Congress, EPA, and DOE, thus obscuring the later times when higher doses are certain to result; (b) the vicinity-average dose proposed by industry and the US Congress; (c) the probabilistic critical groups proposed by EPRI and by the National Research Council's TYMS committee; (d) proposals to rely on future humans to detect and cleanup excessive amounts of radioactivity that may escape from a repository, and (e) the move to base compliance on calculated doses from well water drawn at considerable distance from Yucca Mountain. Each of these proposals would lead to a far more lenient radiation protection standard than current standards. Each of these proposals is without sufficient scientific basis for its use as a protector of public health. Each of these proposals would violate one or more of the ethical goals. Each is made without adequate discussion and explanation and without explaining how and why it would violate one or more of the ethical goals. What if serious work on alternatives fails to produce conservatively calculated and

  4. Ethics of Clinical Decision-Making for Older Drivers: Reporting Health-Related Driving Risk.

    Mazer, Barbara; Laliberté, Maude; Hunt, Matthew; Lemoignan, Josée; Gélinas, Isabelle; Vrkljan, Brenda; Naglie, Gary; Marshall, Shawn

    2016-06-01

    The number of older drivers will continue to increase as the population ages. Health care professionals have the responsibility of providing care and maintaining confidentiality for their patients while ensuring public safety. This article discusses the ethics of clinical decision-making pertaining to reporting health-related driving risk of older drivers to licensing authorities. Ethical considerations inherent in reporting driving risk, including autonomy, confidentiality, therapeutic relationships, and the uncertainty about determining individual driving safety and risk, are discussed. We also address the moral agency of reporting health-related driving risk and raise the question of whose responsibility it is to report. Issues of uncertainty surrounding clinical reasoning and concepts related to risk assessment are also discussed. Finally, we present two case studies to illustrate some of the issues and challenges faced by health care professionals as they seek to balance their responsibilities for their patients while ensuring road safety for all citizens. PMID:27117942

  5. Some Ethical Issues for Accountants in Antidumping Trade Cases: An Examination of Recent Case Studies with Emphasis on Latin America

    Robert W. McGee

    1998-01-01

    A search of the accounting, trade and ethics literature failed to find a single article that discussed the role that accountants play in assisting in the data gathering process of a trade investigation. Yet there are serious ethical issues that need to be addressed. Certain aspects of trade investigations are unethical, whether one takes a utilitarian or rights view of ethics, and accountants play a role in this unethical conduct. This paper looks at those issues and makes recommendations for...

  6. Myomas: anatomy and related issues.

    Tinelli, Andrea; Sparic, Radmila; Kadija, Saša; Babovic, Ivana; Tinelli, Raffaele; Mynbaev, Ospan A; Malvasi, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Myomas are the most common disorder of the female genital organs, occurring more frequently throughout women's reproductive years. Myomas are a major health issue all over the world. They develop as a monoclonal tumor from cells influenced by ovarian steroids, and mediated by surrounding myometrial cells by paracrine mechanisms. During its growth, a myoma compresses the surrounding tissue, causing the formation of a pseudocapsule, encapsulating the myoma. The mechanical properties of myomas are a key factor which can contribute to their growth. While myomas are essentially rigid, their pseudocapsule is more elastic, and this allows uterine adaptation to the growing myoma. Hence, the pseudocapsule induces displacement on the myometrium, which is not destructive since the integrity and contractility of uterine structure is maintained. Extensive research conducted on the myoma and its pseudocapsule has produced important data. Scientific research is still trying to clarify some of the evidence regarding the influence of myomas on infertility, especially in the case of intramural myomas. During fertility-sparing myoma surgery, data suggest that during myoma removal the pseudocapsule should be preserved. However, unsolved issues still exist on the cesarean myomectomy technique, since the age of pregnancy has been increasing in the new millennium, so patients present with myomas which should be removed before and during the cesarean section, or prior to applying for medically-assisted reproduction. PMID:26785282

  7. 企业媒体公关营销操作中的道德问题探究%Exploration of Ethical Issues in the Corporate Media and Public Relations in the Marketing Operation

    宋子慧

    2012-01-01

    媒体公关营销是当前现代企业树立形象、提高知名度、进行产品营销的主流手段,然而,企业在运用中,为达到自身利益最大化,常出现一些不道德行为,如发布虚假新闻,引起媒体关注;与媒体合谋,庸俗地新闻炒作;利用虚假广告,欺骗消费者;借助网络媒介,制造网络谣言,恶意攻击竞争对手等。这些行为不但致使企业不能持续发展,还严重地破坏了社会的和谐。因此,需要企业在媒体公关营销手段的运用中进行道德提升,以真诚的态度与媒体合作,从"受众本位"进行互动传播,规范自身行为,净化网络环境。%A public relations of media marketing is the main means to establish the image of modern enterprise, to improve popularity and to carry out marketing products. However, in the use of this method, in order to maximize their own interests, some immoral behaviors often appear, such as the publication of false news, which have attracted the media attention; collision with the media, to produce vulgar press speculation; using false advertising to fraud consumers; manufacturing network rumors with the help of network media to maliciously attack the competitors, etc.. These behaviors not only result in the failure of the development of the enterprise, and also seriously break the social harmony. Therefore, it's necessary for the enterprise to improve their ethical attitude in the use of public relation of media marketing, and cooperate with the media with a sincere attitude, on the basis of audience centered to interact, regulate their own behavior, and to purify the internet environment.

  8. Toward an Ideal Relational Ethic: Rethinking university-community engagement

    Steve Garlick; Victoria J. Palmer

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores how an ideal relational ethic based on Zygmunt Bauman’s (1995) notion of forms of togetherness is needed to underpin university-community engagement processes and practices. We focus on the notion of being-for, and suggest that it can be used as an ‘engagement bridge’ between higher education institutions, the creation of human capital and communities, and can be a means to achieve ethical outcomes to local concerns. Much of Bauman’s (1995; 2001; 2007) theoretical developm...

  9. The Ethical Employee.

    2002

    A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.…

  10. Health effects of low-level radiation: ethical issues for patients and workforces

    In the light of recent media-driven furores concerning the sensitive matter of patient consent, and the new legislation that impinges upon this issue, the nature of ethical practices for epidemiological research needs to be looked at anew. This paper considers the present landscape, with particular reference to the nuclear workforce and BNFL's current practice in this regard. (author)

  11. Increasing Interest, Confidence and Understanding of Ethical Issues in Science through Case-Based Instructional Technology.

    Lundeberg, Mary A.; Bergland, Mark; Klyczek, Karen; Mogen, Kim; Johnson, Doug; Harmes, Nina

    Software designed to promote the use of open-ended investigations in science education was evaluated in a study of whether using case-based simulation enhances students' understanding of ethical issues and data interpretation in science. The software was a DNA gel electrophoresis simulation that enabled students to conduct simulated genetic tests.…

  12. Ethical issues, justification, referral criteria for budget limited and high-dose procedures

    This paper reviews some of the issues connected with questions of ethics, health economics, radiation dose and referral criteria arising from a workshop held under the auspices of the Sentinel Research Program FP6-012909. An extensive bibliography of further reading is included. (authors)

  13. Ethical issues in rehabilitation: a qualitative analysis of dilemmas identified by occupational therapists.

    Foye, Sarah Jajesnica; Kirschner, Kristi L; Brady Wagner, Lynne C; Stocking, Carol; Siegler, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Little available research exists to address the range of ethical issues encountered by occupational therapists (OTs) in their daily clinical work. The few articles in the literature have tended to be case-based or anecdotal or have focused on professional issues rather than clinical issues. To characterize the array of clinical ethical issues in occupational therapy, we asked OTs in a free-standing academic rehabilitation hospital to describe in some detail up to three scenarios or situations from their clinical practice that raised morally troubling questions. A coding system was developed to preserve the richness of the detail but to allow for some categorization of the topics. A second section of the survey asked the therapists to rate whether various traditional ethics topics were of high, medium, or low interest to them. A third section asked that they identify the formats that would be most appealing to them for future educational interventions. Of the 56 therapists surveyed, 38 (or 68%) responded. The three self-generated topics mentioned most frequently by the therapists were (in decreasing order of frequency): reimbursement pressures, conflicts around goal setting, and patient/family refusal of team recommendations. The respondents were particularly interested in knowing more about patient-centered ethics topics, such as conflict resolution between teams and patients and the patient's role in decision making. Furthermore, they indicated a strong preference for interdisciplinary and interactive educational formats. PMID:14523711

  14. Advances in Graduate Marketing Curriculum: Paying Attention to Ethical, Social, and Sustainability Issues

    Weber, James

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the impact of coercive, mimetic, and normative isomorphic pressures on the coverage and offering of courses addressing ethical, social, and sustainability issues (ESSI) in business schools' graduate marketing curricula. Data from the Aspen Institute's Beyond Grey Pinstripes program are analyzed to detect if…

  15. How Do We Teach What Is Right? Research and Issues in Ethical and Moral Development.

    Perry, Constance M.

    1996-01-01

    Enhances understanding of values-education issues by addressing research on moral and ethical development. Presents Damon's tripartite distinction among moral reflection, moral emotion, and moral conduct--head, heart, and habit--to show moral development's complexity. Although promoting prosocial behavior is parents' responsibility, literature is…

  16. Ethical Issues and Considerations for Working with Community College Students with Severe and Persistent Mental Disorders

    Francis, Perry C.; Abbassi, Amir

    2010-01-01

    Students with severe and persistent mental illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders; moderate to severe mood, anxiety, dissociative, eating, or personality disorders) are attending community colleges in increasing numbers. Their need for counseling services presents counseling centers with unique ethical issues to consider. This…

  17. Ethical Issues in the Social Worker's Role in Physician-Assisted Suicide.

    Manetta, Ameda A.; Wells, Janice G.

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of an exploratory study of social workers' views on physician-assisted suicide (PAS), situations in which PAS would be favored, and whether there is a difference in education or training on mental health issues, ethics, or suicide between social workers who favor PAS and those who oppose PAS. (BF)

  18. Ethics and Reference Services.

    Danielson, Elena S.

    1997-01-01

    While revised ethical codes provide helpful guidelines, reference archivists face many ethical questions raised by rapidly evolving technology, changing expectations, and inconsistent privacy laws that have no clear answers. Discusses issues related to reference searching, codification of ethics, cultural property and the responsibility of…

  19. Managing ethical issues in sexual violence research using a pilot study

    S.E. Duma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Conducting research in the area of sexual violence has complex ethical and practical challenges for the researcher. Managing ethical issues in sexual violence is important and can be achieved through the use of pilot studies. The primary purpose of the pilot study was to identify and manage potential ethical and practical problems that could jeopardise the main study or violate the ethical and human rights of participants in the main study on women’s journey of recovery from sexual assault. The secondary purpose was to collect preliminary data in order to determine the human, financial and time resources needed for a planned study. The methods and processes used in conducting the pilot study in the study on women’s journey of recovery are discussed according to each of the objectives of the pilot study, methods used to achieve the objective, observations or findings made during the pilot study, and implications for the main study.This article aims to demonstrate how a pilot study was used to manage identified potential ethical and practical research issues during the recruitment of participants and data collection for the research that was conducted by the first author to investigate women’s journey of recovery from sexual assault trauma within the first week following sexual assault.

  20. Ethical Issues Surrounding End-of-Life Care: A Narrative Review

    Sameera Karnik; Amar Kanekar

    2016-01-01

    End-of-life care decision making carries paramount importance due to the advancements in medical sciences. Since medical science has evolved over the time and now has a potentiality to reshape the circumstances during death and in turn prolong lives, various ethical issues surround end-of-life care. The purpose of this narrative review is to discuss issues such as autonomous decision making, importance of advance directives, rationing of care in futile treatments and costs involved in providi...

  1. Ongoing ethical issues concerning authorship in biomedical journals: an integrative review

    Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; McLean, Loyola M; Baber, Rodney J

    2015-01-01

    Health professionals publishing within the field of health sciences continue to experience issues concerning appropriate authorship, which have clinical, ethical, and academic implications. This integrative review sought to explore the key issues concerning authorship from a bioethical standpoint, aiming to explore the key features of the authorship debate. Studies were identified through an electronic search, using the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL)...

  2. Periodontal Research: Basics and beyond – Part II (Ethical issues, sampling, outcome measures and bias)

    Haritha Avula

    2013-01-01

    A good research beginning refers to formulating a well-defined research question, developing a hypothesis and choosing an appropriate study design. The first part of the review series has discussed these issues in depth and this paper intends to throw light on other issues pertaining to the implementation of research. These include the various ethical norms and standards in human experimentation, the eligibility criteria for the participants, sampling methods and sample size calculation, vari...

  3. Ethical Considerations for Psychologists Taking a Public Stance on Controversial Issues: The Balance Between Personal and Professional Life.

    Haeny, Angela M

    2014-07-01

    Previous literature has documented the general issues psychologists often face while balancing their personal and professional lives. The struggle stems from attempting to satisfy the need to maintain a life outside of work while having the professional obligation to follow the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (Ethics Code) to prevent their personal lives from interfering with their professional roles and relationships. The present paper analyzes the subject of psychologists taking a public position on controversial public issues. Although the APA Ethics Code does not restrict how psychologists conduct themselves during their personal time, taking a public stance on a controversial issue could potentially strain professional relationships and inadvertently reflect negatively on the profession. The present paper examines ethical issues that a) should be taken into account before psychologists take a public position on a controversial issue, and b) are in conflict with APA's Ethics Code or current research. PMID:25342876

  4. An Ethical Issue Scale for Community Pharmacy Setting (EISP): Development and Validation.

    Crnjanski, Tatjana; Krajnovic, Dusanka; Tadic, Ivana; Stojkov, Svetlana; Savic, Mirko

    2016-04-01

    Many problems that arise when providing pharmacy services may contain some ethical components and the aims of this study were to develop and validate a scale that could assess difficulties of ethical issues, as well as the frequency of those occurrences in everyday practice of community pharmacists. Development and validation of the scale was conducted in three phases: (1) generating items for the initial survey instrument after qualitative analysis; (2) defining the design and format of the instrument; (3) validation of the instrument. The constructed Ethical Issue scale for community pharmacy setting has two parts containing the same 16 items for assessing the difficulty and frequency thereof. The results of the 171 completely filled out scales were analyzed (response rate 74.89%). The Cronbach's α value of the part of the instrument that examines difficulties of the ethical situations was 0.83 and for the part of the instrument that examined frequency of the ethical situations was 0.84. Test-retest reliability for both parts of the instrument was satisfactory with all Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values above 0.6, (for the part that examines severity ICC = 0.809, for the part that examines frequency ICC = 0.929). The 16-item scale, as a self assessment tool, demonstrated a high degree of content, criterion, and construct validity and test-retest reliability. The results support its use as a research tool to asses difficulty and frequency of ethical issues in community pharmacy setting. The validated scale needs to be further employed on a larger sample of pharmacists. PMID:25577229

  5. Ethical issues in informed consent with substance abusers.

    McCrady, B S; Bux, D A

    1999-04-01

    Alcohol and drug abusers present issues that complicate the informed consent process. The present study examined the practices of federally funded clinical investigators in obtaining informed consent from alcohol and drug abusers. Ninety-one (51%) researchers completed a 27-item survey on informed consent issues. The majority of investigators (57%) recruited participants susceptible to coercion; most used procedures to minimize coercion. Two thirds of researchers used objective means to determine competence to give consent and comprehension of consent forms. Virtually all investigators had policies to deal with suicidality, homicidality, or reports of child abuse; less than 1/2 informed participants of these limits to confidentiality. Almost 50% of investigators had dealt with intoxicated or suicidal participants; 12% had encountered homicidal participants; and 23% had encountered child abuse or neglect. Half of the sample used collateral data sources; about 1/2 of these obtained written informed consent from collaterals. Guidelines for informed consent with substance abusers are suggested. PMID:10224728

  6. Public Relations Ethics in Information Management

    Hrvoje Jakopović

    2013-01-01

    Public relations is involved in all communication between an organization and the public. In the contemporary world, PR practitioners have become the facilitators of information. Information and communication technology (ICT) have imposed new rules in the field of public relations. Communication strategy and information management have become crucial parts of modern public relations. People change their habits with regard to the consumption of traditional and new media. The challenges imposed...

  7. Contemporary ethical issues in human milk-banking in the United States.

    Miracle, Donna J; Szucs, Kinga A; Torke, Alexia M; Helft, Paul R

    2011-12-01

    Donor human milk has been used in the United States for >90 years, but recent advances in human milk science and laboratory techniques have led to increasing use of this resource. Pediatricians began using donor human milk in the 1900s in response to anecdotal observation that premature infants had better health outcomes when receiving their own mothers' milk. Since then, a formalized human milk-banking system developed in the mid-1980s and distributed >1 million ounces of pasteurized donor human milk in 2008. Despite growth in the use of pasteurized donor human milk, there is little discussion in the medical literature regarding the ethical considerations of collection and use of this resource. Key ethical considerations include issues surrounding medical decision-making and informed consent, increasing the limited supply of human milk, how ethically to allocate this scarce resource, and concerns linked to the marketing of a human milk. PMID:22084324

  8. Human-animal chimeras: ethical issues about farming chimeric animals bearing human organs.

    Bourret, Rodolphe; Martinez, Eric; Vialla, François; Giquel, Chloé; Thonnat-Marin, Aurélie; De Vos, John

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in stem cells and gene engineering have paved the way for the generation of interspecies chimeras, such as animals bearing an organ from another species. The production of a rat pancreas by a mouse has demonstrated the feasibility of this approach. The next step will be the generation of larger chimeric animals, such as pigs bearing human organs. Because of the dramatic organ shortage for transplantation, the medical needs for such a transgressive practice are indisputable. However, there are serious technical barriers and complex ethical issues that must be discussed and solved before producing human organs in animals. The main ethical issues are the risks of consciousness and of human features in the chimeric animal due to a too high contribution of human cells to the brain, in the first case, or for instance to limbs, in the second. Another critical point concerns the production of human gametes by such chimeric animals. These worst-case scenarios are obviously unacceptable and must be strictly monitored by careful risk assessment, and, if necessary, technically prevented. The public must be associated with this ethical debate. Scientists and physicians have a critical role in explaining the medical needs, the advantages and limits of this potential medical procedure, and the ethical boundaries that must not be trespassed. If these prerequisites are met, acceptance of such a new, borderline medical procedure may prevail, as happened before for in-vitro fertilization or preimplantation genetic diagnosis. PMID:27356872

  9. Focus on Ethics and Public Relations Practice in a University Classroom

    Smudde, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Public relations action relies on sound decision making about how to inspire cooperation between an organization and its publics. Such thinking must uphold principles for ethical communication. Effectively combining ethics with public relations practice for students is key. A pedagogical approach to public relations ethics, hinging on selected…

  10. Ethical Issues Raised by Private Practice Physiotherapy Are More Diverse than First Meets the Eye: Recommendations from a Literature Review

    Hudon, Anne; Drolet, Marie-Josée; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Physiotherapy in private practice differs from physiotherapy practised in a public setting in several ways, the most evident of which is the for-profit nature of private physiotherapy clinics; these differences can generate distinct and challenging ethical issues. The objectives of this article are to identify ethical issues encountered by physiotherapists in private practice settings and to identify potential solutions and recommendations to address these issues. Method: After a lit...

  11. Ethical issues in organ donation and transplantation: are we helping a few at the-expense of many?

    DePalma, J A; Townsend, R

    1996-05-01

    Ethical issues have always been apparent in the transplantation process and are becoming more evident as the demand for organs increases. The basic question is how just and ethical are the new policies enacted to encourage organ donation, considering that they affect the total public and benefit the small percentage of patients who require transplantation? Pros and cons of several of these policies will be discussed as will several clinical situations that raise ethical questions. PMID:8705695

  12. Practicing School Psychology while Impaired: Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues

    Mahoney, Emery B.; Morris, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on impairment in psychologists and other mental health practitioners began appearing in the literature 30-35 years ago. Since then, research and related scholarly writings have continued to be published to more fully understand this concept and its components. In school psychology, however, little has been written regarding school…

  13. Environmental and ethical issues and waste management approaches

    Pronouncing the words ''radioactive waste'' can easily arouse mistrust, or even irrational fear, by wittingly or unwittingly referring to Hiroshima or Chernobyl, by exploiting the lax attitude to this type of waste in certain countries and by speculating on the complex issues involved, which are beyond the general public's grasp. It would be unacceptable to paint such a black picture of nuclear waste, just as it would be to keep glossing over the problems that it poses. Waste managers have a duty to convince scientists and politicians and public opinion in general, with arguments based on serious scientific research, that safe technical solutions do exist. But will this be enough? The general public of course knows very little about science. But people are prepared to put their trust in science provided that they are not subjected to a free for all between scientists from opposing camps attacking each other with unintelligible arguments. However, other types of reactions, more difficult to control, can be expected from some quarters of the general public. For instance, a reaction of instinctive and passionate mistrust has already emerged in different forms over the centuries, with its roots buried in ancestral culture and as such varying from region to region and country to country. Nuclear waste may also provide yet another opportunity to demonstrate opposition to something ostensibly being imposed by Central Government. The only solution here is for decisions to be worked out at grass roots level through a gradual process of wide consultation, with the necessary backing of elected local authorities. For these reasons, the process of setting up an underground laboratory possibly followed by radioactive waste storage has to be a gradual one, with thorough consultation at all levels at each stage under the constant supervision of ad hoc committees of scientific experts, each new step forward only being decided by the political authorities after completing the proper

  14. On being responsible: ethical issues in appeals to personal responsibility in health campaigns.

    Guttman, N; Ressler, W H

    2001-01-01

    Appeals to personal responsibility are highly prevalent in health communication campaigns, but their use entails both moral and strategic considerations. This article provides an overview of the notion of personal responsibility as a persuasive appeal in public health communication campaigns and an analysis of concomitant ethical implications. Whereas the issue of responsibility often is acknowledged by practitioners and scholars as a perennial challenge in health interventions, conceptual tools for the identification of its subtle manifestations are not readily available. This article outlines a framework that contextualizes potentially paradoxical consequences of campaign appeals to personal responsibility that can be explained by the medieval allegory of the "Tragedy of the Commons," psychological attribution theory, and public health concerns regarding "blaming the victim." Practice-oriented questions are introduced to help identify ethical issues in personal responsibility appeals that can be utilized in the design and implementation of health campaigns. PMID:11405077

  15. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities: review of clinical and ethical issues.

    Gekas, Jean; Langlois, Sylvie; Ravitsky, Vardit; Audibert, François; van den Berg, David Gradus; Haidar, Hazar; Rousseau, François

    2016-01-01

    Genomics-based non-invasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening) was proposed to reduce the number of invasive procedures in current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies. We review here the clinical and ethical issues of cfDNA screening. To date, it is not clear how cfDNA screening is going to impact the performances of clinical prenatal diagnosis and how it could be incorporated in real life. The direct marketing to users may have facilitated the early introduction of cfDNA screening into clinical practice despite limited evidence-based independent research data supporting this rapid shift. There is a need to address the most important ethical, legal, and social issues before its implementation in a mass setting. Its introduction might worsen current tendencies to neglect the reproductive autonomy of pregnant women. PMID:26893576

  16. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities: review of clinical and ethical issues

    Gekas, Jean; Langlois, Sylvie; Ravitsky, Vardit; Audibert, François; van den Berg, David Gradus; Haidar, Hazar; Rousseau, François

    2016-01-01

    Genomics-based non-invasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening) was proposed to reduce the number of invasive procedures in current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies. We review here the clinical and ethical issues of cfDNA screening. To date, it is not clear how cfDNA screening is going to impact the performances of clinical prenatal diagnosis and how it could be incorporated in real life. The direct marketing to users may have facilitated the early introduction of cfDNA screening into clinical practice despite limited evidence-based independent research data supporting this rapid shift. There is a need to address the most important ethical, legal, and social issues before its implementation in a mass setting. Its introduction might worsen current tendencies to neglect the reproductive autonomy of pregnant women. PMID:26893576

  17. Ethical Issues in the End of Life Care for Cancer Patients in Iran

    Mina Mobasher

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the recent years, advances in medical technologies for end stage cancer patients’ care have affected the end-of-life decision-making in clinical practice and exposed oncologists to serious ethical dilemmas. But little is known about oncologists' viewpoints in our country regarding their ethical problems in this mention. We aimed to clarify the ethical dilemmas which Iranian oncologists may face in our health care setting and to determine factors influencing decision-making process.Methods: In this qualitative study, a phenomenological approach was used. We interviewed 8 cancer specialists in teaching hospitals in Iran and used content analysis to identify codes and categorize themes in the data.Results: During the process of analysis, three main themes emerged about ethical dilemmas in end of life care for advanced cancer patients: illness factors, socio-cultural context and patient-physician relationship. Cancer specialists identified ethical problems on several main issues, the most important of which were telling the truth in Iranian cultural context, uncertainty in end stage definition, multidisciplinary team working and cost consideration in Iranian health care system.Conclusion: Health care and insurance system in Iran face to end of life care challenges; therefore, health care providers and policy makers need to allocate appropriate resources and programs to improve quality of care in terminal stages. Appropriate physicians’ communication skills training, multidisciplinary team working and supplementary insurance services that provide essential health care can improve the quality of care of patients with end stages of cancer. The findings of this study can help us to provide ethical policies for decision-making in end-of-life care.

  18. Philosophical and ethical issues in human organ transplantation.

    Mackenzie, K M

    Organ transplantation has moved over 30 years from being experimental and heroic to being the treatment of choice in many terminal diseases of vital organs, such as biliary atresis, which would require a liver transplant, or pulmonary fibrosis, which would require a heart/lung transplant. There are now many more older and chronically sick people than ever before (Hudak et al, 1998). Transplantation offers hope for an improved quality of life. All patients have a right to care, although there remains a dichotomy between the holistic model of care and the medical model. The UKCC's (1992) Code of Professional Conduct informs practice, and clauses 1 and 5 are of particular importance in relation to this client group. This article looks at some of the problems patients may develop pre- and post-transplant and the support required to overcome or minimize these problems. Implications for healthcare staff are considered. PMID:12070387

  19. An overview of surrogacy around the world: trends, questions and ethical issues.

    Armour, Kim L

    2012-01-01

    Although the birth of a child is typically considered a very happy time for parents, surrogacy is often unchartered territory that can become very stressful for all parties involved. Part of the stress stems from the fact that different states and countries have varying laws and regulations overseeing surrogacy. This article provides insight regarding surrogacy around the world, including professional, societal and ethical issues. PMID:22697226

  20. Ethical and legal issues in organ transplantation: Indian scenario.

    Mathiharan, Karunakaran

    2011-07-01

    In 1994, the Government of India enacted the Transplantation of Human Organs Act (THOA) to prevent commercial dealings in human organs. However, a greater number of scandals involving medical practitioners and others in the kidney trade has surfaced periodically in every state in India. The present regulatory system has failed mainly due to the misuse of Section 9(3) of the THOA, which approves the consent given by a live unrelated donor for the removal of organs for the reason of affection or attachment towards the recipient or for any other special reason. Currently in India, approximately 3500-4000 kidney transplants and 150-200 liver transplants are performed annually. However, the availability of organs from brain-dead persons is very low. As a result, live related or unrelated donors form the main source of organ transplantation. Therefore, physicians and policy-makers should re-examine the value of introducing regulated incentive-based organ donation to increase the supply of organs for transplantation and to end unlawful financial transaction. PMID:21905567

  1. Ethical issues in the geriatric patient with advanced cancer 'living to the end'.

    Daher, M

    2013-10-01

    Cancer incidence will increase as the population ages; there will be a 50% increase in new cancer cases over the next 20 years, and the biggest rates of increase will occur in the developing world. Owing to technical advances in the care of critical illness, as it is the case in elderly people with advanced cancer, physicians, patients and families are often confronted with ambiguous circumstances in which medical advances may inadvertently prolong suffering and the dying process rather than bring healing and recovery. In this review of the ethical issues confronting physicians who care for patients with advanced life-limiting illnesses like cancer, a philosophical debate continues in the medical community regarding the rightness or wrongness of certain actions (e.g. physician-assisted death, euthanasia), while at the same time there is a strong desire to find a common ground for moral discourse that could guide medical decision-making in this difficult period in the lives of our patients. We will discuss how a good palliative care can be an alternative to these ethical dilemmas. Although some issues (e.g. the role of physician-assisted death in addressing suffering) remain very controversial, there is much common ground based on the application of the four major principles of medical ethics, no malfeasance, beneficence, autonomy and justice. Thus, the physician's primary commitment must always be the patient's welfare and best interests, whether the physician is treating illness or helping patients to cope with illness, disability and death. A key skill here is the communication of bad news and to negotiate a treatment plan that is acceptable to the patient, the family and the healthcare team. Attention to psychosocial issues demands involvement of the patients and their families as partners. Physicians should be sensitive to the range of psychosocial distress and social disruption common to dying patients and their families. Spiritual issues often come to the

  2. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards

  3. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

    2001-05-01

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

  4. Ethical Issues Surrounding End-of-Life Care: A Narrative Review.

    Karnik, Sameera; Kanekar, Amar

    2016-01-01

    End-of-life care decision making carries paramount importance due to the advancements in medical sciences. Since medical science has evolved over the time and now has a potentiality to reshape the circumstances during death and in turn prolong lives, various ethical issues surround end-of-life care. The purpose of this narrative review is to discuss issues such as autonomous decision making, importance of advance directives, rationing of care in futile treatments and costs involved in providing end-of-life care. Even though much progress has been made in this area continued advancement in medical science demands further research into this topic. PMID:27417612

  5. The relation between work ethics and work morality and the factors effecting work ethics in work-life

    Sibel Gök

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the importance of work ethics and morality has been increased. The effect of them in work-life and their relations with the  subjects such as performance, loyalty, competition, etc. have been studied by a number of  researchers. The work ethics and morality concepts are becoming widespread in business application, work-life and global  trading. Therefore, they appear as a subject for further  researches.In this study, the concepts of the work ethics, morality and the development of them in work-life are examined. The differences and similarities between work ethics and morality in terms of quality, content and comprehension etc. are  described and discussed. The factors effecting work ethics in work-life, are represented in the light of literature. In our work, we explain and evaluate how the factors such as globalization, culture, social responsibility etc. are effecting it.

  6. The relation between work ethics and work morality and the factors effecting work ethics in work-life

    Sibel Gök

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the importance of work ethics and morality has been increased. The effect of them in work-life and their relations with the subjects such as performance, loyalty, competition, etc. have been studied by a number of researchers. The work ethics and morality concepts are becoming widespread in business application, work-life and global trading. Therefore, they appear as a subject for further researches.In this study, the concepts of the work ethics, morality and the development of them in work-life are examined. The differences and similarities between work ethics and morality in terms of quality, content and comprehension etc. are described and discussed. The factors effecting work ethics in work-life, are represented in the light of literature. In our work, we explain and evaluate how the factors such as globalization, culture, social responsibility etc. are effecting it.

  7. Perspectives on Applied Ethics

    2007-01-01

    Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...

  8. Solicitude: balancing compassion and empowerment in a relational ethics of hope—an empirical-ethical study in palliative care

    Olsman, Erik; Willems, Dick; Leget, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The ethics of hope has often been understood as a conflict between duties: do not lie versus do not destroy hope. However, such a way of framing the ethics of hope may easily place healthcare professionals at the side of realism and patients at the side of (false) hope. That leaves unexamined relational dimensions of hope. The objective of this study was to describe a relational ethics of hope based on the perspectives of palliative care patients, their family members and their healthcare pro...

  9. 'I'm more sick than my doctors think': ethical issues in managing somatization in developing countries.

    Chandra, Prabha S; Satyanarayana, Veena A

    2013-02-01

    Several ethical issues confront the healthcare professional who is managing somatization in developing countries where cost constraints, low literacy, poverty, poor nutrition and infections and inadequate access to healthcare are common. The paper discusses these in the context of the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. Some of the ethical issues in managing somatization include being influenced by patient distress rather than rational medical decision-making, inadequate attention to the cultural meaning of symptoms, psychologizing versus medicalizing, the ethics of nomenclature and labels, communicating ethically with patients, and managing them adequately given lack of evidence and training. An ethical approach to managing somatization in this context would include using an integrated and simultaneous medical and psychiatric approach. To ensure patient beneficence, the medical, psychological and social assessment should be undertaken side-by-side as much as possible and should be cost effective. Respecting patient autonomy by using adequate communication methods and the patient's cultural model of the illness as part of management is also integral to ethical practice. In the developing world, issues of equity are also an important ethical concern. When more serious illnesses are the health priority, functional syndromes may not get equal importance or resources. PMID:23383669

  10. Ethical decision-making in forensic psychology

    M. Swanepoel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive process for identifying and addressing primarily ethical issues related to the psychology profession in South Africa. In fulfilling this purpose, research was conducted of relevant ethical and to a lesser extent, legal aspects pertaining to the psychology profession. In an attempt to prevent unprofessional conduct claims against psychologists from succeeding and to alert psychologists to the concurrent ethical problems that may lead to malpractice suits, this article offers material on some important issues – in the context of forensic psychology – such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology as a profession, the Ethical Code of Professional Conduct to which a psychologist should adhere, ethical aspects and issues pertaining to forensic psychology in general, some ethical issues pertaining to child forensic psychology, summary guidelines for ethical decision-making and some steps to follow to ensure sound ethical decisionmaking.

  11. Ethical Decision-Making in the Domain of Whistle-Blowing: How Issue Characteristics Affect Judgments and Intentions

    Henik, Erika

    2005-01-01

    This study links the literatures on ethical decision-making and whistle-blowing to examine the effects of issue characteristics on the ethicality judgments and behavioral intentions of observers of organizational misconduct. Specifically, it investigates whether Moral Intensity, which has been found to influence a moral agent’s judgments and intentions, also influences an observer’s judgments and intentions to report acts deemed unethical. We find mixed support for Jones’s (1991) issue-contin...

  12. The Ethics of Big Data: Current and Foreseeable Issues in Biomedical Contexts.

    Mittelstadt, Brent Daniel; Floridi, Luciano

    2016-04-01

    The capacity to collect and analyse data is growing exponentially. Referred to as 'Big Data', this scientific, social and technological trend has helped create destabilising amounts of information, which can challenge accepted social and ethical norms. Big Data remains a fuzzy idea, emerging across social, scientific, and business contexts sometimes seemingly related only by the gigantic size of the datasets being considered. As is often the case with the cutting edge of scientific and technological progress, understanding of the ethical implications of Big Data lags behind. In order to bridge such a gap, this article systematically and comprehensively analyses academic literature concerning the ethical implications of Big Data, providing a watershed for future ethical investigations and regulations. Particular attention is paid to biomedical Big Data due to the inherent sensitivity of medical information. By means of a meta-analysis of the literature, a thematic narrative is provided to guide ethicists, data scientists, regulators and other stakeholders through what is already known or hypothesised about the ethical risks of this emerging and innovative phenomenon. Five key areas of concern are identified: (1) informed consent, (2) privacy (including anonymisation and data protection), (3) ownership, (4) epistemology and objectivity, and (5) 'Big Data Divides' created between those who have or lack the necessary resources to analyse increasingly large datasets. Critical gaps in the treatment of these themes are identified with suggestions for future research. Six additional areas of concern are then suggested which, although related have not yet attracted extensive debate in the existing literature. It is argued that they will require much closer scrutiny in the immediate future: (6) the dangers of ignoring group-level ethical harms; (7) the importance of epistemology in assessing the ethics of Big Data; (8) the changing nature of fiduciary relationships that

  13. Ethical issues in and beyond prospective clinical trials of human gene therapy.

    Fletcher, J C

    1985-08-01

    As the potential for the first human trials of somatic cell gene therapy nears, two ethical issues are examined: problems of moral choice for members of institutional review boards who consider the first protocols, for parents, and for the clinical researchers, and the special protections that may be required for the infants and children to be involved, and ethical objections to somatic cell therapy made by those concerned about a putative inevitable progression of genetic knowledge from therapy to mass genetic engineering in human reproduction. The author's viewpoint is that a consensus exists on the required moral approach to somatic cell therapy, but that no moral approach yet exists for experiments beyond this level, especially in the germline cells of human beings. PMID:3900265

  14. Ethical issues of clinical trials in paediatric oncology from 2003 to 2013: a systematic review.

    Dupont, Jean-Claude K; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Doz, François

    2016-05-01

    A state-of-the art approach to the debates on ethical issues is key in order to gain guidance on research practices involving sick children and adolescents, as well as to identify research avenues in which it might be worth cooperating, to generate better or supplementary evidence. Based on a systematic literature search using MEDLINE, we report the main ethical developments in paediatric oncology clinical trials from 2003-13. The present knowledge about normative and empirical ethical demands in this setting is quantified and summarised in a list of 46 issues. This list primarily aims to provide readers with a comprehensive account of the main decision nodes and professional attitudes that enable families to make a safe, competent, and satisfactory decision about their child's enrolment, or non-participation, in cancer clinical trials. Our systematic Review shows how important it is for professionals to engage in a constant reflection on optimum trial designs, on the effect of offering trial participation on key family dynamics, and on the ways to understand families' needs and values accurately. In view of present scientific developments, we further emphasise the need to enhance societal awareness about research in children and adolescents, to prevent so-called research fatigue in small populations due to multiple solicitations or inadequate legal demands, and to reassess longstanding ethical certainties in the strictest view of promoting sick children's interests. This systematic Review allows a series of questions to be drawn to guide and encourage collective and individual endeavours that should lead to constant improvements in our research practices in paediatric clinical oncology research. PMID:27301046

  15. The relation between work ethics and work morality and the factors effecting work ethics in work-life

    Sibel Gök

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the importance of work ethics and morality has been increased. The effect of them in work-life and their relations with the  subjects such as performance, loyalty, competition, etc. have been studied by a number of  researchers. The work ethics and morality concepts are becoming widespread in business application, work-life and global  trading. Therefore, they appear as a subject for further  researches.In this study, the concepts of the work ethics, moral...

  16. The relation between work ethics and work morality and the factors effecting work ethics in work-life

    GÖK, Sibel

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the importance of work ethics and morality has been increased. The effect of them in work-life and their relations with the  subjects such as performance, loyalty, competition, etc. have been studied by a number of  researchers. The work ethics and morality concepts are becoming widespread in business application, work-life and global  trading. Therefore, they appear as a subject for further  researches.In this study, the concepts of the work ethics, morality and the developm...

  17. Seeking Ethics-Related Causes for Obtaining Employee Pay Satisfaction: A focus on Ethical Leadership

    Ruiz Palomino, Pablo; Sáez Martínez, Francisco J.; Martínez Cañas, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    For decades, the determination of causes for employee pay satisfaction has been han important area of study, surely due to the important role that this job attitude is thought to have in getting a sustained competitive advantage. Traditionally research on this issue has been paying attention on job related inputs, both extrinsic and intrinsic related-factors to the job itself. Together with job inputs, fairness issues have been showing an important role in explaining the employee pay satisfat...

  18. Issues related to field testing in tuff

    This paper has brought out the unique properties of tuffs and related them to needs associated with their use as a host rock for a high level nuclear waste repository. Major issues of temperature, pore water, joints, and depositional patterns have been identified and related responses and impacts outlined in Table 1. Planned experiments have been outlined and their relationships to the rock mechanics issues summarized in Table 2. The conclusions from this paper are: (1) tuff is a complex rock and basic phenomenological understanding is incomplete; and (2) available field test facilities will be used for a series of experiments designed to improve phenomenological understanding and support repository design efforts

  19. Issues related to field testing in tuff

    Zimmerman, R.M.

    1982-12-31

    This paper has brought out the unique properties of tuffs and related them to needs associated with their use as a host rock for a high level nuclear waste repository. Major issues of temperature, pore water, joints, and depositional patterns have been identified and related responses and impacts outlined in Table 1. Planned experiments have been outlined and their relationships to the rock mechanics issues summarized in Table 2. The conclusions from this paper are: (1) tuff is a complex rock and basic phenomenological understanding is incomplete; and (2) available field test facilities will be used for a series of experiments designed to improve phenomenological understanding and support repository design efforts.

  20. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration.

    Schwartz, Denise Baird; Posthauer, Mary Ellen; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2013-07-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that individuals have the right to request or refuse nutrition and hydration as medical treatment. Registered dietitians should work collaboratively as part of an interprofessional team to make recommendations on providing, withdrawing, or withholding nutrition and hydration in individual cases and serve as active members of institutional ethics committees. This practice paper provides a proactive, integrated, systematic process to implement the Academy's position. The position and practice papers should be used together to address the history and supporting information of ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration identified by the Academy. Elements of collaborative ethical deliberation are provided for pediatrics and adults and in different conditions. The process of ethical deliberation is presented with the roles and responsibilities of the registered dietitian and the dietetic technician, registered. Understanding the importance and applying concepts dealing with cultural values and religious diversity is necessary to integrate clinical ethics into nutrition care. Incorporating screening for quality-of-life goals is essential before implementing the Nutrition Care Process and improving health literacy with individual interactions. Developing institution-specific policies and procedures is necessary to accelerate the practice change with artificial nutrition, clinical ethics, and quality improvement projects to determine best practice. This paper supports the "Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Ethical and Legal Issues of Feeding and Hydration" published in the June 2013 issue of the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. PMID:23790412

  1. Mobile learning: a meta-ethical taxonomy

    Farrow, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I discuss some of the ethical issues relating to the use of mobile technologies in education. I argue that the frames of reference used by educators and technologists fail to capture the nature, scope and impact of ethical issues in mobile learning. A taxonomy of ethical issues based on dominant positions in meta-ethical moral theory is proposed. Using categories from the Mobile Technologies in Lifelong Learning (MOTILL) project, I show how this taxonomy can be applied in suc...

  2. Solicitude: balancing compassion and empowerment in a relational ethics of hope-an empirical-ethical study in palliative care.

    Olsman, Erik; Willems, Dick; Leget, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    The ethics of hope has often been understood as a conflict between duties: do not lie versus do not destroy hope. However, such a way of framing the ethics of hope may easily place healthcare professionals at the side of realism and patients at the side of (false) hope. That leaves unexamined relational dimensions of hope. The objective of this study was to describe a relational ethics of hope based on the perspectives of palliative care patients, their family members and their healthcare professionals. A qualitative longitudinal method based on narrative theories was used. Semi-structured interviews on hope were conducted with twenty-nine palliative care patients, nineteen friends or family members, and fifty-two healthcare professionals, which were recorded and transcribed. Data on hope were thematically analyzed. The researchers wrote memos and did member checking with participants. When participants spoke about hope, they referred to power and empowerment, like the powerful bonding of hope between patients and physicians. They also associated hope with the loss of hope and suffering. Several participating healthcare professionals tried to balance both sides, which involved acknowledgment of hope and suffering. Hope and power were reflected in the ethical concept of empowerment, whereas suffering and the loss of hope were reflected in the ethical concept of compassion. Empowerment and compassion can be balanced in solicitude. In conclusion, a relational ethics of hope requires solicitude, in which healthcare professionals are able to weigh empowerment and compassion within particular relationships. PMID:25944316

  3. Ethical Issues Raised by Epigenetic Testing for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Cannabis.

    Erwin, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetic testing is one of the most significant new technologies to provide insight into the behavioral and environmental factors that influence the development and reconfiguration of the human genetic code. This technology allows us to identify structural changes in the genome that occur due to exposure to a wide variety of substances including alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis. The information gained can be used to promote health but it also raises a variety of ethical, legal, and social issues. As society progresses in understanding the epigenetic mechanisms of substance use and addiction, there is an opportunity to use these use this knowledge to enable medical, behavioral, and environmental interventions to alleviate the burden of addiction. This article describes the ethical issues associated with use of epigenetic testing for alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis and the implications of this technology. A further review of the scientific basis for the relevance of epigenetics is found in the accompanying article by Philibert and Erwin in this issue. PMID:26358643

  4. TEACHERS’ OPINIONS RELATED WITH ETHIC BEHAVIOURS OF EDUCATION INSPECTORS

    Yrd.Doç.Dr.Celal Teyyar UĞURLU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem: Relation styles of education inspectors that take into consideration ethic values can provide teachers to have more morale and loyalty while working for their schools and students. Secondary school teachers’ opinions related with ethic behaviors of education inspectors and sample situations the teachers have experienced are brought out by this search. Population of this study concerns 42 primary schools from Adıyaman and its central counties. As applying to this poll at schools will create some problems (like time, cost and control difficulties %25 (twenty-five percent of the research population has been chosen randomly as cluster sample. (10 schools.All the teachers working in these schools were chosen randomly and they were all included in the study. Polls were applied to the all teachers from 10 schools. Returning and appropriate questionnaires for processing were evaluated.Method: A poll that had 22 questions with 5 multiple choices were used to collect data. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the data from the account of reliability based on data acquired from application was calculated as 87. SPSS packaged software was used to analyze the data, t test and one-way analysis of variance were used as statistical analysis methods. While commenting on arithmetic averages , ranges were evaluated like this.1.00 – 1.79 ‘very low’ , 1.80 – 2.59 ‘low’, 2.60 -3.39 ‘moderate’ , 3.40 – 4.19 ‘high’ ,4.20 – 5.00 ‘very high’. The highest score was 110 points and the lowest score was 22 points available for the questionnaire test, Mann Whitney U test ,one- way analysis of variance and Kruskal Wallish test were performed to test whether the opinions changed or not according to personal characteristics.Findings: As a result of this study, teachers have identified that ethical behavior level of education inspectors is at medium level. Variances like gender, the number of teachers at school and the question of desire to be

  5. Ethical issues: impact of the animal rights movement on surgical research.

    Sonnino, R E; Banks, R E

    1996-08-01

    The aggressive militancy of many animal rights or "antivivisectionist" groups is causing great consternation but little action on the part of medical and surgical researchers. Pediatric surgeons are particularly affected, since issues of tissue healing, growth and development, and organ or total-body responses to surgical insults must be established in the live organism, usually in animal models that cannot be replaced by other methods. Investigators have been threatened physically; laboratories have been vandalized and valuable data destroyed. Biomedical researchers have been called "animal-Nazis." The proliferation of animal rights groups such as the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) have prompted the birth of pro-research organizations such as "Putting People First" and the "incurably ill For Animal Research" (iiFAR). The result of this pro and con activity is an extraordinary amount of time and expense devoted to cover the cost of new regulations and laboratory security (approximately $ 1.5 billion in the U. S. alone) at the expense of research budgets, adding to the increasing shortage of research funding. This situation has created dilemmas for the surgeon involved in basic animal research: is it worth taking personal risks to develop new techniques? Is it ethical to allow these fears to hinder progress in surgery? Should we do away with animal research entirely and test new techniques directly on children? Would that be ethical? These questions are difficult to answer, but must be addressed if we expect medicine to progress. PMID:24057778

  6. Ethical Issues in Insurance Marketing.The Case of Western India

    Sorab Georgy Sadri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a paper based on empirical investigation conducted in Western India between 2002 and 2012 especially at a time when the Indian economy is in a stage of transition from state capitalism to free market capitalism, albeit both of a retarded variety. It takes the 7 Ps of services marketing and cross verifies responses against seven dimensions of ethical conduct. The study is based on questionnaires followed by interviews. The target respondents were life insurance employees of banc assurance involved in marketing life insurance policies to customers in the urban sector. The study brought to the fore the fact that commissions were more important that telling the truth while selling policies. In the process ethical considerations conveniently went out of the window. To protect the interest of the unsuspecting clients a plea is made to have governance machinery in place that will make the insurance marketing personnel accountable for what and how they sell their wares. This need is especially felt in a country where the social security net is virtually non existent and the erstwhile joint family system is on a fast decline. In such circumstances a lack of ethical norms on the part of the insurer is an unacceptable sociological proposition and borders on gross unethical behaviour. The task of people management experts to address this issue is of the paramount importance and urgency if the Indian life insurance industry is to sustain its social image in a highly competitive market where foreign players are steadily entering the domestic scene.

  7. Ethical issues for late-stage trials of multipurpose prevention technologies for HIV and pregnancy.

    Cohen, Jessica A; Mastroianni, Anna C; Macklin, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) designed to simultaneously prevent pregnancy and HIV could provide urgently needed tools to address unmet sexual and reproductive health needs of women worldwide. Late-stage clinical trials will be complex given the need to demonstrate efficacy for HIV and contraceptive indications simultaneously from a single product. Currently, HIV and pregnancy prevention trials have distinctive design features that will need to be reconciled in MPT trials. This article identifies several ethical issues uniquely associated with this research that will benefit from future deliberation and guidance to ensure that this globally important research can proceed efficiently and expeditiously. PMID:25113651

  8. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  9. Addressing ethical issues in geriatrics and long-term care: ethics education at the Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care.

    Gordon, M; Turner, L; Bourret, E

    2000-01-01

    An innovative program in ethics education exists at Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care. This program can serve as a helpful model for long-term care and geriatric care facilities seeking to implement formal training programs in bioethics. Various aspects of the ethics education program are examined. In addition to describing the role of the ethics committee and research ethics board, consideration is given to case consultations, ethics rounds, the training of junior physicians and medical students, grand rounds and the planning of conferences and guest lectures. With regard to educational content in bioethics, health law, professional guidelines and the principlist approach of Beauchamp and Childress are used to explore the ethical dimensions of particular cases. Given the clinical context of the educational initiatives, the pedagogical approach is predominately case-based. While the bioethics literature emphasizes the patient-physician relationship, ethics education at Baycrest recognizes the importance of multiple professions. Physicians, nurses, social workers, speech pathologists, nutritionists and other health care providers are involved in ethical deliberation and education. PMID:11143884

  10. Integration of business ethics and professional ethics auditor: dimensions of juridisation and codification

    Mikolaj Turzynski

    2011-01-01

    This article is about the integration issues of business ethics and professional conduct in relation to audit services rendered by auditors. Characterized in the selection of contemporary approaches to business ethics and professional ethics. The article poses the thesis that the integrative dimension of business ethics and the auditing profession is reflected in the processes of juridisation and codification.

  11. Ethical Issues in mHealth Research Involving Persons Living with HIV/AIDS and Substance Abuse

    Alain B. Labrique; Kirk, Gregory D.; Westergaard, Ryan P; Merritt, Maria W.

    2013-01-01

    We aim to raise awareness and stimulate dialogue among investigators and research ethics committees regarding ethical issues that arise specifically in the design and conduct of mHealth research involving persons living with HIV/AIDS and substance abuse. Following a brief background discussion of mHealth research in general, we offer a case example to illustrate the characteristics of mHealth research involving people living with HIV/AIDS and substance abuse. With reference to a well-establis...

  12. Ethical Considerations for Psychologists Taking a Public Stance on Controversial Issues: The Balance Between Personal and Professional Life

    Haeny, Angela M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature has documented the general issues psychologists often face while balancing their personal and professional lives. The struggle stems from attempting to satisfy the need to maintain a life outside of work while having the professional obligation to follow the American Psychological Association’s (APA’s) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (Ethics Code) to prevent their personal lives from interfering with their professional roles and relationships. The p...

  13. The Case of the Recycled Paper: The Case of the Busy Consultant (Ethical Issues in Business Communication).

    Reinsch, N. L., Jr; Driskill, Linda

    1993-01-01

    Presents two cases that illustrate some of the issues regularly faced by business communication educators: publications and conference presentations and consulting. Notes that each of the cases is followed by a series of specific questions addressing ethical issues raised in the cases. (RS)

  14. [Social consensus on medical technology policy: ethical issues and citizen participation].

    Sato, Hajime

    2004-01-01

    Social consensus is considered to be a necessary condition for a policy to be introduced and implemented effectively. This is the case with the approval, regulation and prohibition of certain advanced medical research and technology, especially when they could invoke moral disputes in society. Public policies on organ transplantation, definition of death, euthanasia, genetic screening and diagnosis, and human stem cell research are recent examples. The concept of consensus, however, is elusive, along with the measures to secure it. Technocratic decision making, as a paternalistic activity frequently led by experts, sometimes poses a challenge to democratic decision making, supposedly based on a well-informed and rational public. It also remains to be proved whether public involvement in policymaking can be a solution to ethical value conflicts in society. From the perspective of policy sciences, this paper first introduces the concept of consensus, especially consensus on moral issues in pluralistic societies, and its implications to public policy, including citizen participation in decision making. Then, it briefly explains the historical background with which social consensus and public involvement have increasingly flourished in the field of technology assessments and technology policy making, including biomedical technology. Next, major institutions, governmental and nongovernmental, involved in the ethical aspects of medical research and technology, are presented along with their efforts for citizen participation. Finally, the paper discusses some of the future agendas on this issue. PMID:15007900

  15. Regulatory and ethical issues for phase I in utero gene transfer studies.

    Strong, Carson

    2011-11-01

    Clinical gene transfer research has involved adult and child subjects, and it is expected that gene transfer in fetal subjects will occur in the future. Some genetic diseases have serious adverse effects on the fetus before birth, and there is hope that prenatal gene therapy could prevent such disease progression. Research in animal models of prenatal gene transfer is actively being pursued. The prospect of human phase I in utero gene transfer studies raises important regulatory and ethical issues. One issue not previously addressed arises in applying U.S. research regulations to such studies. Specifically, current regulations state that research involving greater than minimal risk to the fetus and no prospect of direct benefit to the fetus or pregnant woman is not permitted. Phase I studies will involve interventions such as needle insertions through the uterus, which carry risks to the fetus including spontaneous abortion and preterm birth. It is possible that these risks will be regarded as exceeding minimal. Also, some regard the probability of therapeutic benefit in phase I studies to be so low that these studies do not satisfy the regulatory requirement that they "hold out the prospect of direct benefit" to subjects. On the basis of these considerations, investigators and institutional review boards might reasonably conclude that some phase I in utero studies are not to be permitted. This paper identifies considerations that are relevant to such judgments and explores ethically acceptable ways in which phase I studies can be designed so that they are permitted by the regulations. PMID:21846200

  16. Radiation safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies

    Techniques related to the use of radiolabeled antibodies in humans are reviewed and evaluated in this report. It is intended as an informational resource for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and NRC licensees. Descriptions of techniques and health and safety issues are provided. Principal methods for labeling antibodies are summarized to help identify related radiation safety problems in the preparation of dosages for administration to patients. The descriptions are derived from an extensive literature review and consultations with experts in the field. A glossary of terms and acronyms is also included. An assessment was made of the extent of the involvement of organizations (other than the NRC) with safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies, in order to identify regulatory issues which require attention. Federal regulations and guides were also reviewed for their relevance. A few (but significant) differences between the use of common radiopharmaceuticals and radiolabeled antibodies were observed. The clearance rate of whole, radiolabeled immunoglobulin is somewhat slower than common radiopharmaceuticals, and new methods of administration are being used. New nuclides are being used or considered (e.g., Re-186 and At-211) for labeling antibodies. Some of these nuclides present new dosimetry, instrument calibration, and patient management problems. Subjects related to radiation safety that require additional research are identified. 149 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs

  17. An appraisal of ethical issues in end-of-life care.

    Ilemona, Ekore Rabi

    2014-01-01

    Caring for patients at the end-of-life period could involve a number of situations and incidents that pose moral dilemma for both the health workers and the patients' family members or loved ones. Some of these issues include shared decision-making, the right to refuse medical treatment, medical futility, and euthanasia versus assisted suicide, information disclosure (truth-telling), substitute decision-making, and confidentiality. They may seem improbable or remote, until one is confronted with them real-time. Providing good care for dying patients requires that physicians and other members of the health care team be knowledgeable of ethical issues pertinent to end-of-life care. PMID:25508493

  18. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-10-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at least in part, diverging results. This study investigates how students explain and understand their argumentation about dilemmas concerning gene testing for the purpose to reduce hereditary diseases. Thirteen students were interviewed about their views on this issue. Qualitative analysis was done primarily by relating students’ argumentation to their movements between ethics and morals as opposing poles. Students used either objective or subjective knowledge but had difficulties to integrate them. They tried to negotiate ethic arguments using utilitarian motives and medical knowledge with sympathy or irrational and personal arguments. They discussed the embryo’s moral status to decide if it was replaceable in a social group or not. The educational implications of the students’ use of knowledge in personal arguments are discussed.

  19. Virtual colonoscopy: issues related to primary screening

    Virtual colonoscopy (VC) is a minimally invasive CT examination that has continued to rapidly evolve and improve as a diagnostic screening tool. Current state-of-the-art VC technique has already been shown to be highly effective for screening at the University of Wisconsin. Although more widespread implementation of VC screening faces multiple challenges and barriers, these are all greatly overshadowed by the immediate need for increased patient compliance in effective colorectal screening programs. Given the wide availability of CT and the favorable safety profile compared with optical colonoscopy, VC holds significant potential for addressing a very important yet preventable public health concern. This paper will briefly address some of the major issues related to the general application of VC for colorectal screening, such as diagnostic performance, development of an acceptable screening algorithm, and several technique-related issues. (orig.)

  20. e-Government Ethics : a Synergy of Computer Ethics, Information Ethics, and Cyber Ethics

    Arief Ramadhan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethics has become an important part in the interaction among humans being. This paper specifically discusses applied ethics as one type of ethics. There are three applied ethics that will be reviewed in this paper, i.e. computer ethics, information ethics, and cyber ethics. There are two aspects of the three applied ethics that were reviewed, i.e. their definition and the issues associated with them. The reviewing results of the three applied ethics are then used for defining e-Government ethics and formulating the issues of e-Government ethics. The e-Government ethics position, based on the previous three applied ethics, is also described in this paper. Computer ethics, information ethics and cyber ethics are considered as the foundations of e-Government ethics and several others applied ethics could enrich the e-Government ethics.

  1. The Ethics of Instructional Technology: Issues and Coping Strategies Experienced by Professional Technologists in Design and Training Situations in Higher Education

    Lin, Hong

    2007-01-01

    To correspond to the Association for Educational Communication Technology (AECT) Code of Professional Ethics and the professional journal TechTrends' ethics columns, this paper provides empirical data regarding ethical issues associated with the use of instructional technology in design and training situations. In-depth interviews of 20…

  2. Ethical issues related to biomonitoring studies on children

    Pedersen, Marie; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2007-01-01

    data respecting data protection including the right to know or not to know. Data protection is important because stakeholders may also ask for insight at various steps during human biomonitoring activities including children. Finally it is generally recommended that aim, methods, and results from...... biomonitoring studies should be communicated and study persons notified for further use of data and samples....

  3. Corporate Governance in the Debate on CSR and Ethics: Sensemaking of Social Issues in Management by Authorities and CEOs

    Y. FASSIN; A. VAN ROSSEM; 103-111,

    2010-01-01

    Research Question/Issue: The aim of the present exploratory cognitive study is to uncover how opinion leaders, i.e. CEOs and other authorities in the domain of social issues in management, understand and differentiate the various concepts pertaining to corporate governance, CSR and business ethics. The present study with the Repertory Grid Technique (RGT) extends the sensemaking analysis, to the whole spectrum of social issues in management. For this research 41 RGT interviews were conducted ...

  4. Historical Roots and Future Perspectives Related to Nursing Ethics.

    Freitas, Lorraine

    1990-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of the development and refinement of the professional code from concerns about the ethical conduct of nurses to its present state as a professional code for all nurses. The relationship of the Ethics Committee of the American Nurses' Association to the development of the code is also discussed. (Author/MLW)

  5. Differentiating the Related Concepts of Ethics, Morality, Law, and Justice.

    Ray, Terry T.

    1996-01-01

    Four terms central to the dialog about ethics are defined and differentiated: ethics; morality; justice; and law. Several problems in understanding the terms are identified, including differences between the classical and current meanings, common but inappropriate usages, confusion of one term for another, and merging of terms in common usage.…

  6. Lifting the veil: a typological survey of the methodological features of Islamic ethical reasoning on biomedical issues.

    Abdur-Rashid, Khalil; Furber, Steven Woodward; Abdul-Basser, Taha

    2013-04-01

    We survey the meta-ethical tools and institutional processes that traditional Islamic ethicists apply when deliberating on bioethical issues. We present a typology of these methodological elements, giving particular attention to the meta-ethical techniques and devices that traditional Islamic ethicists employ in the absence of decisive or univocal authoritative texts or in the absence of established transmitted cases. In describing how traditional Islamic ethicists work, we demonstrate that these experts possess a variety of discursive tools. We find that the ethical responsa-i.e., the products of the application of the tools that we describe-are generally characterized by internal consistency. We also conclude that Islamic ethical reasoning on bioethical issues, while clearly scripture-based, is also characterized by strong consequentialist elements and possesses clear principles-based characteristics. The paper contributes to the study of bioethics by familiarizing non-specialists in Islamic ethics with the role, scope, and applicability of key Islamic ethical concepts, such as "aims" (maqāṣid), "universals" (kulliyyāt), "interest" (maṣlaḥa), "maxims" (qawā`id), "controls" (ḍawābit), "differentiators" (furūq), "preponderization" (tarjīḥ), and "extension" (tafrī`). PMID:23665956

  7. Solo doctors and ethical isolation.

    Cooper, R J

    2009-11-01

    This paper uses the case of solo doctors to explore whether working in relative isolation from one's peers may be detrimental to ethical decision-making. Drawing upon the relevance of communication and interaction for ethical decision-making in the ethical theories of Habermas, Mead and Gadamer, it is argued that doctors benefit from ethical discussion with their peers and that solo practice may make this more difficult. The paper identifies a paucity of empirical research related to solo practice and ethics but draws upon more general medical ethics research and a study that identified ethical isolation among community pharmacists to support the theoretical claims made. The paper concludes by using the literary analogy of Soderberg's Doctor Glas to illustrate the issues raised and how ethical decision-making in relative isolation may be problematical. PMID:19880707

  8. Social Work Values and Ethics: Reflections on the Profession's Odssey

    Frederic G. Reamer

    2005-01-01

    Social workers' understanding of ethical issues has matured significantly. This article traces the evolution of the profession's approach to the values and ethics. During its history, social work has moved through four major periods-- the morality period, the values period, the ethical theories and decision-making period, and the ethical standards and risk-management (the prevention of ethics complaints and ethics related lawsuits) is diverting social workers from in-depth exploration of core...

  9. Historical roots and future perspectives related to nursing ethics.

    Freitas, L

    1990-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of the development and the refinement of the professional code from concerns about the ethical conduct of nurses to its present state as a professional code for all nurses. The importance and the relationship of the Ethics Committee of the American Nurses' Association (ANA) to the development of the code and other ANA programs and structural units is also presented. The recognized need for a code of ethics to establish nursing as a profession has been present throughout the evolution of the professional nursing organization. A distinction between ethical conduct of nurses and a code of ethics for professional nurses has been made by nursing leaders. The code has been refined to reflect nursing's changing relationship to society and the societal concerns of the times. PMID:2198306

  10. Legal and ethical issues in the international transaction of donor sperm and eggs.

    Heng, Boon Chin

    2007-04-01

    Pertinent ethical and legal issues in the international transaction of donor sperm and eggs are discussed. Firstly, there may be legislative and ethical "contradiction" by the local health authority in permitting import of donor gametes, due to varying policies on donor reimbursement in different countries. This is particularly significant in countries where the underlying principle of gamete donation is altruistic motivation, and where reimbursement is given only for direct "out-of-pocket" expenses i.e. traveling costs. Secondly, there is a lack of clear and coherent internationally-binding legislation and regulatory guidelines overseeing the exchange of donor gametes across international borders. In particular, provisions should be made for donor traceability if gametes are sourced from abroad. Thirdly, in the case of "frozen-egg donation" from abroad, patients must rightfully be informed that current cryopreservation technology is still sub-optimal, and all studies have consistently shown that the chances of conception are always lower with "frozen-eggs" compared to freshly-retrieved eggs. Finally, regulatory safeguards should be put in place to prevent fertility clinics and medical professionals from "re-selling" imported donor gametes at a profit to the patient, since it would be thoroughly unprofessional for them to earn a profit simply through the 'brokerage' of donated human material. PMID:17450429

  11. A Snap Shot on Business Ethic and Ethic in Business

    Hassan Danaee Fard; Mohammad Reza Noruzi

    2011-01-01

    An ethical issue in business is increasing and it is being focused on by the business markets,customers and communities. It was important from the beginning and is important also now as well. Andevery company or organization for being survival and comparative should pay much more attention to thisimportant. This paper aims to study the ethic and some of related issues around it.

  12. Eurocord position on ethical and legal issues involved in cord blood transplantation.

    Fernandez, M N

    1998-07-01

    The Eurocord group held a round table discussion on the topic of ethical and legal issues involved in cord blood transplantation at the group's 2nd annual meeting at Annecy in May 1997. As chairman of the session the author was commissioned to put in writing the group's consensus on the subject. This covers the topics of: cord blood collections for autologous and intra-familiar usage; procreation for the purpose of haematopoietic progenitor cell donation for transplantation of a family member; cord blood banking including safety requirements and quality control regulations; patient priorities for usage of stored units; and patent rights. This paper's text was submitted for review to other participating members of the group. No amendments were made. The author feels confident that the paper faithfully reflects the consensus achieved. PMID:9715901

  13. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context.

    Frewer, L J; Kleter, G A; Brennan, M; Coles, D; Fischer, A R H; Houdebine, L M; Mora, C; Millar, K; Salter, B

    2013-06-25

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) was mapped and reviewed. A foresight exercise was conducted to identity future developments. Three case studies (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) were applied to identify the issues raised, including the potential risks and benefits of GM animals from the perspectives of the production chain (economics and agri-food sector) and the life sciences (human and animal health, environmental impact, animal welfare and sustainable production). Ethical and policy concerns were examined through application of combined ethical matrix method and policy workshops. The case studies were also used to demonstrate the utility of public engagement in the policy process. The results suggest that public perceptions, ethical issues, the competitiveness of EU animal production and risk-benefit assessments that consider human and animal health, environmental impact and sustainable production need to be considered in EU policy development. Few issues were raised with application in the pharmaceutical sector, assuming ethical and economic issues were addressed in policy, but the introduction of agricultural GM animal applications should be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23567982

  14. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities: review of clinical and ethical issues

    Gekas J

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Jean Gekas,1,2 Sylvie Langlois,3 Vardit Ravitsky,4 François Audibert,5 David Gradus van den Berg,6 Hazar Haidar,4 François Rousseau2,7 1Prenatal Diagnosis Unit, Department of Medical Genetics and Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, Canada; 2Department of Medical Biology, CHU de Québec, Québec City, QC, Canada; 3Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Bioethics Program, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Sainte-Justine, Montreal, QC, Canada; 6Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, Canada; 7Department of Molecular Biology, Medical Biochemistry and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, Canada Abstract: Genomics-based non-invasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening was proposed to reduce the number of invasive procedures in current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies. We review here the clinical and ethical issues of cfDNA screening. To date, it is not clear how cfDNA screening is going to impact the performances of clinical prenatal diagnosis and how it could be incorporated in real life. The direct marketing to users may have facilitated the early introduction of cfDNA screening into clinical practice despite limited evidence-based independent research data supporting this rapid shift. There is a need to address the most important ethical, legal, and social issues before its implementation in a mass setting. Its introduction might worsen current tendencies to neglect the reproductive autonomy of pregnant women. Keywords: prenatal diagnosis, Down syndrome, non-invasive prenatal testing, cell-free fetal DNA, informed consent, reproductive autonomy

  15. The Magnus-Rademaker Scientific Film Collection: Ethical Issues on Animal Experimentation (1908-1940).

    Koehler, Peter J; Lameris, Bregt

    2016-01-01

    The Magnus-Rademaker scientific film collection (1908-1940) deals with the physiology of body posture by the equilibrium of reflex musculature contractions for which experimental studies were carried out with animals (e.g., labyrinthectomies, cerebellectomies, and brain stem sections) as well as observations done on patients. The films were made for demonstrations at congresses as well as educational objectives and film stills were published in their books. The purpose of the present study is to position these films and their makers within the contemporary discourse on ethical issues and animal rights in the Netherlands and the earlier international debates. Following an introduction on animal rights and antivivisection movements, we describe what Magnus and Rademaker thought about these issues. Their publications did not provide much information in this respect, probably reflecting their adherence to implicit ethical codes that did not need explicit mentioning in publications. Newspaper articles, however, revealed interesting information. Unnecessary suffering of an animal never found mercy in Magnus' opinion. The use of cinematography was expanded to the reduction of animal experimentation in student education, at least in the case of Rademaker, who in the 1930s was involved in a governmental committee for the regulation of vivisection and cooperated with the antivivisection movement. This resulted not only in a propaganda film for the movement but also in films that demonstrate physiological experiments for students with the purpose to avert repetition and to improve the teaching of experiments. We were able to identify the pertinent films in the Magnus-Rademaker film collection. The production of vivisection films with this purpose appears to have been common, as is shown in news messages in European medical journals of the period. PMID:26684427

  16. Empirical and normative ethics: a synthesis relating to the care of older patients.

    Jonasson, Lise-Lotte; Liss, Per-Erik; Westerlind, Björn; Berterö, Carina

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize the concepts from empirical studies and analyze, compare and interrelate them with normative ethics. The International Council of Nurses (ICN) and the Health and Medical Service Act are normative ethics. Five concepts were used in the analysis; three from the grounded theory studies and two from the theoretical framework on normative ethics. A simultaneous concept analysis resulted in five outcomes: interconnectedness, interdependence, corroboratedness, completeness and good care are all related to the empirical perspective of the nurse's interaction with the older patient, and the normative perspective, i.e. that found in ICN code and SFS law. Empirical ethics and normative ethics are intertwined according to the findings of this study. Normative ethics influence the nurse's practical performance and could be supporting documents for nurses as professionals. PMID:21733960

  17. Ethical issues in the professional work of psychologists: state of affairs in Slovenia

    Tina Zupan; Valentin Bucik

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the state of affairs regarding professional ethics of Slovene psychologists, particularly regarding the implementation of ethical principles and psychologists' and students' knowledge of ethics and procedures in the cases of ethical dilemmas and violations. Two dedicated questionnaires were designed by the authors. 800 Slovene psychologists received the questionnaire and 150 of them responded. There were also 56 psychology students involved in ...

  18. Applying Rawlsian Approaches to Resolve Ethical Issues: Inventory and Setting of a Research Agenda

    Doorn, N.

    2009-01-01

    Insights from social science are increasingly used in the field of applied ethics. However, recent insights have shown that the empirical branch of business ethics lacks thorough theoretical grounding. This article discusses the use of the Rawlsian methods of wide reflective equilibrium and overlapping consensus in the field of applied ethics. Instead of focussing on one single comprehensive ethical doctrine to provide adequate guidance for resolving moral dilemmas, these Rawlsian methods see...

  19. Healthier? More Efficient? Fairer? An Overview of the Main Ethical Issues Raised by the Use of Ubicomp in the Workplace

    Céline Ehrwein NIHAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of Ambient Intelligence (AmI will radically transform our everyday life and social representations. These transformations will notably impact the working environment. The objective of this paper is to offer a first survey of the main ethical issues raised by the development of intelligent working environments (IWEs. It especially focuses on the capacity of such environments to collect and handle personal medical data. The first two sections of this paper aim to clarify the methodology (2 as well as the object (3 of the research. We then point out some of the main ethical issues raised by IWEs and their capacity to collect and handle medical data. The final section attempts to offer some elements of reflection regarding the ethical principles that should guide the development of IWEs in the future.

  20. What they really think: Resolving methodological issues in supply chain ethics research

    K. Chipp

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to further the theory and strengthen methodological approaches to the role of ethics in buyer-seller relationships. The paper explores opportunities to enhance response rates, validity and reliability in the research context of organisations seeking to understand the ethical beliefs their suppliers hold of their buying organisations. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research universe is a select business group, all of which are technologically literate and online. Innovative research sampling methods were selected to great effect. The method selected was saturation surveying, a process whereby all identifiable target respondents are surveyed. Instead of selecting between sampling techniques, the option of saturation surveying, cheaply available electronically, removes the focus from the decision to either sample probabilistically or not. Instead, as the entire universe can be contacted in a cost effective manner, the sampling frame becomes of paramount importance. Thus, the focus then shifts from accurately selecting respondents from the sampling frame towards enhancing the sampling frame itself. The sampling frame was improved through guidance from the literature. Findings: The paper demonstrates that this research approach was successful in that it generated a high response rate, suggesting great involvement amongst the supplier population in the topic at hand. It also indicates a lessening of non-response bias, as the response rate is more than double that of previous research into the area. Implications: This paper presents a comprehensive approach to researching ethics in buyer-seller relations. It further promotes the effective use of new sampling methods enabled by the Internet when directed towards selective populations. Originality/Value: The novel approach of sampling frame enhancement twined with saturation surveying has exciting implications for business research. The expansion of the sampling frame

  1. Ethics of professional relations to functionally handicapped users

    Mateja Griljc

    1999-01-01

    The basic purpose of 1ibrarianship code is to form and build librarian personality who can make possible the same opportunity to acquiring knowledge for all users, irrespective of their different demands or special needs.When we discuss the importance of building librarian personality the demanding work with users we confront the problem of ethical treatment very often. Ethics advises only general rules which are rarely simple and they are frequently opposite to each other.The process of reac...

  2. Ethical issues regarding the donation and source of cells for tissue engineering: a European focus group study

    Oerlemans, A.J.M.; Berg, P.P. van den; Leeuwen, E. van; Dekkers, W.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women a

  3. Ethical issues regarding the donation and source of cells for tissue engineering : a European focus group study

    van den Berg, P.P.; van Leeuwen, E.; Dekkers, W.J.M.; Oerlemans, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women a

  4. The Social Work Ethics Audit: A Risk-Management Strategy.

    Reamer, Frederic G.

    2000-01-01

    Article integrates current knowledge on social work ethics and introduces the concept of a social work ethics audit to aid social workers in their efforts to identify pertinent ethical issues; review and assess the adequacy of their current ethics-related practices; modify their practices as needed; and monitor the implementation of these changes.…

  5. Telos, conservation of welfare, and ethical issues in genetic engineering of animals.

    Rollin, Bernard E

    2015-01-01

    The most long-lived metaphysics or view of reality in the history of Western thought is Aristotle's teleology, which reigned for almost 2,000 years. Biology was expressed in terms of function or telos, and accorded perfectly with common sense. The rise of mechanistic, Newtonian science vanquished teleological explanations. Understanding and accommodating animal telos was essential to success in animal husbandry, which involved respect for telos, and was presuppositional to our "ancient contract" with domestic animals. Telos was further abandoned with the rise of industrial agriculture, which utilized "technological fixes" to force animal into environments they were unsuited for, while continuing to be productive. Loss of husbandry and respect for telos created major issues for farm animal welfare, and forced the creation of a new ethic demanding respect for telos. As genetic engineering developed, the notion arose of modifying animals to fit their environment in order to avoid animal suffering, rather than fitting them into congenial environments. Most people do not favor changing the animals, rather than changing the conditions under which they are reared. Aesthetic appreciation of husbandry and virtue ethics militate in favor of restoring husbandry, rather than radically changing animal teloi. One, however, does not morally wrong teloi by changing them-one can only wrong individuals. In biomedical research, we do indeed inflict major pain, suffering and disease on animals. And genetic engineering seems to augment our ability to create animals to model diseases, particularly more than 3,000 known human genetic diseases. The disease, known as Lesch-Nyhan's syndrome or HPRT deficiency, which causes self-mutilation and mental retardation, provides us with a real possibility for genetically creating "animal models" of this disease, animals doomed to a life of great and unalleviable suffering. This of course creates a major moral dilemma. Perhaps one can use the very

  6. On detector related machine and instrumentation issues

    This is a summary report of the panel discussions on detector related machine and instrumentation issues. Each of the panel members presented an introductory presentation of the following topics. Those are the three most revealing future experiments (by G. Kane), calorimetry for jets and total energy (by U. Amaldi), tracking and momentum (by R. Schwitters), identification of e, μ and other particles (by G. Wolf), trigger and data acquisition (by M. Breidenbach) and building large detectors in cooperation with industry (by S. Orito). In the discussion on the detectors at future large hadron colliders, much emphasis was given to calorimetric measurement, muon measurement, and microvertex detection. There is a need for inexpensive and radiation-hardened front-end electronics for all detectors. As to data acquisition and analysis, the use of a sequence of successive trigger levels with a large number of emulators (of the order of 100) in the last stage and the use of optical discs for data storage would be needed at the highest luminosity. It is clear that the development of the instrumentation technique mentioned constitutes a prerequisite for the efficient use of future large hadron colliders. When considering the detectors for future large positron-electron colliders, some of the technical problems mentioned were drastically simplified, in particular those related to the high collision rate like signal pile-up, radiation damage and fast data processing. (Kato, T.)

  7. Case study research to reflect societal and ethical issues – Introduction of a research implementation plan for ICTs

    Yaghmaei, Emad; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the systematic procedures of case study research. A robust case study protocol in the context of societal and ethical issues with a relevant guidelines will set to show how data should collect, present, and analyze. This paper takes in particular the contex...... account of societal and ethical aspects, in particular RRI principles in emerging ICTs in a proper way.......The purpose of this paper is to provide the systematic procedures of case study research. A robust case study protocol in the context of societal and ethical issues with a relevant guidelines will set to show how data should collect, present, and analyze. This paper takes in particular the context...... of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) as the phenomenon and investigates on how to apply the methodologies, which could assist us to identify the boundaries between societal and ethical issues and the emerging ICTs. As such, to interpret the collected data and build theory inductively, to have...

  8. Environmental issues related to uranium mining

    This paper introduces the environmental issues (both real and perceived) associated with uranium exploration, mining, milling, and tailings management. As well, some of the issues pertaining to the closeout of uranium tailings areas are discussed. These issues have received considerable attention in Canada in public inquiries and hearings that have been held across the country. The major conclusions of some of these hearings are also noted

  9. Ethical practice of social media in public relations

    DiStaso, Marcia W

    2014-01-01

    Given the high rate of social media use by the public, organizations are compelled to engage with key audiences through these outlets. Social media engagement requires organizations to actively participate with public groups, and this highly-interactive exchange raises a new set of ethical concerns for communicators. In this rapidly changing communications environment, the long-term implications of social media are uncertain, and this book provides the much needed research to understand its impact on audiences and organizations.Through an examination of a broad range of ethics concepts includi

  10. Statystyka a etyka/Statistics and Ethics Approach to the Issue of Social Elites

    Bohdan Wyznikiewicz

    2015-01-01

    The article concerns ethical rules complied with both by public statistics and users of public statistics. Ethical rules in statistics are partly codified in the European Statistics Code of Practice published by Eurostat, the statistical bureau of the European Union. Implementation of this code is subject to periodical reviews. The second part of the paper deals with various manipulations of statistical data performed by its users. The thesis of the paper states that if non-ethical practices ...

  11. Ethical Challenges when Interviewing Close Relatives Together – An Integrative Review

    Voltelen, Barbara; Konradsen, Hanne; Østergaard, Birte

    2015-01-01

    . The purpose of this study is to describe the special ethical perspectives concerning joint interviews with interrelated persons. Method An integrative review was performed. A search was conducted in Pub Med, Cinahl, Philosophers Index and Academic Search from 1980 -2014. Data corpus from the 17......Background and purpose Interviewing two interrelated persons (or more) simultaneously might pose different ethical considerations than interviewing just one person. Such ethical considerations, however, remain largely undescribed in literature, challenging the researcher who wishes to conduct them...... articles was analysed using thematic analysis with an inductive approach searching for themes about ethical considerations doing joint interviews. The SPIDER search tool was applied using keywords relatives, ethic, dyadic interview, challenges and qualitative methods created on the basis of relevant...

  12. Ethical Challenges when Interviewing Close Relatives Together – An Integrative Review

    Voltelen, Barbara; Konradsen, Hanne; Østergaard, Birte

    . The purpose of this study is to describe the special ethical perspectives concerning joint interviews with interrelated persons. Method An integrative review was performed. A search was conducted in Pub Med, Cinahl, Philosophers Index and Academic Search from 1980 -2014. Data corpus from the 17......Background and purpose Interviewing two interrelated persons (or more) simultaneously might pose different ethical considerations than interviewing just one person. Such ethical considerations, however, remain largely undescribed in literature, challenging the researcher who wishes to conduct them...... articles was analysed using thematic analysis with an inductive approach searching for themes about ethical considerations doing joint interviews. The SPIDER search tool was applied using keywords relatives, ethic, dyadic interview, challenges and qualitative methods created on the basis of relevant...

  13. Research ethics and integrity for social scientists beyond regulatory compliance

    Israel, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This book explores recent developments and debates around researching ethically and with integrity, and complying with ethical requirements, and has been updated and expanded to now cover issues relating to international, indigenous, interdisciplinary and internet research.  

  14. Ethical issues of informed consent: mothers' experiences enrolling their children in bone marrow transplantation research.

    Stevens, Patricia E; Pletsch, Pamela K

    2002-04-01

    Twelve mothers whose children had undergone bone marrow transplantation were interviewed about their experiences giving informed consent. They were asked to describe how they were introduced to bone marrow transplantation as a course of action to treat their gravely ill children, what their understanding of the protocol was, and the process by which they gave their consent. Their stories reveal complex ethical issues that may surface in the course of informed consent for research involving children. Findings suggest that mothers perceive life-and-death circumstances when a child is offered bone marrow transplantation, altering the voluntary nature of the research enterprise. The emotional trauma of the diagnosis decreases a mother's ability to absorb and understand vital information, and the emergent nature of the children's condition and the urgency to begin treatment further compromise informed consent by constricting the time and resources mothers may need to make a decision. Once a protocol is underway, mothers often experience regrets and self-recriminations about their decision to consent. Recommendations are offered that expand upon the current cognitive/rational approach to informed consent and take into account emotional experiences and the importance of building relationships to ensure informed consent over the life of a clinical trial. PMID:11984094

  15. Multiple BM harvests in pediatric donors for thalassemic siblings: safety, efficacy and ethical issues.

    Biral, E; Chiesa, R; Cappelli, B; Roccia, T; Frugnoli, I; Noè, A; Soliman, C; Fiori, R; Cursi, L; Cattaneo, F; Evangelio, C; Miniero, R; Ciceri, F; Roncarolo, M G; Marktel, S

    2008-09-01

    Allogeneic BMT represents the only chance of cure for beta-thalassemia. Occasionally, two affected individuals from the same family share a matched healthy sibling. Moreover, a high incidence of transplant rejection is still observed in Pesaro class III patients, requiring a second BMT procedure. In these settings, one option is to perform a second BM harvest from the same donor. Although BM harvest is a safe procedure in children, ethical issues concerning this invasive practice still arise. Here, we describe our series of seven pediatric, healthy donors, who donated BM more than once in favor of their beta-thalassemic HLA-identical siblings between June 2005 and January 2008. Three donors donated BM twice to two affected siblings and four donors donated twice for the same sibling following graft rejection of the first BMT. All donors tolerated the procedures well and no relevant side effects occurred. There was no significant difference between the two harvests concerning cell yield and time to engraftment. Our experience shows that for pediatric donors, a second BM donation is safe and feasible and good cellularity can be obtained. We suggest that a second harvest of a pediatric donor can be performed when a strong indication for BMT exists. PMID:18574444

  16. Cancer diagnosis in people with severe mental illness: practical and ethical issues.

    Howard, Louise M; Barley, Elizabeth A; Davies, Elizabeth; Rigg, Anne; Lempp, Heidi; Rose, Diana; Taylor, David; Thornicroft, Graham

    2010-08-01

    There has been increasing recognition of the high physical morbidity in patients with severe mental illness, but little has been written about cancer in these patients. Therefore, we review the published work on risk of cancer in patients with severe mental illness, treatment challenges, and ethical issues. Severe mental illness is associated with behaviours that predispose an individual to an increased risk of some cancers, including lung and breast cancer, although lower rates of other cancers are reported in this population. Severe mental illness is also associated with disparities in screening for cancer and with higher case-fatality rates. This higher rate is partly due to the specific challenges of treating these patients, including medical comorbidity, drug interactions, lack of capacity, and difficulties in coping with the treatment regimen as a result of psychiatric symptoms. To ensure that patients with severe mental illness receive effective treatment, inequalities in care need to be addressed by all health-care professionals involved, including those from mental health services and the surgical and oncology teams. PMID:20599423

  17. Child with idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis: a case report from Pakistan with multiple ethical and moral issues.

    Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali; Rahman, Arshalooz

    2012-08-01

    This report discusses the case of a young Pakistani child diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH). The key features of IPH were iron deficiency anemia and pulmonary symptoms due to recurrent pulmonary hemorrhages. The child showed complications of the disease process because of late diagnosis. Because various ethical and moral issues were associated with the diagnosis and management of IPH, this case provides insights about the care burden of health care professionals and a child's parents in a Pakistani pediatric setting. During the course of the child's treatment at one of the private tertiary care settings of Karachi, Pakistan, the key challenges were as follows: declaring the diagnosis to the parents, dealing with the request of the child's parents for withdrawal of ventilatory support and withholding treatment, deciding the code status of the child, and ensuring the quality of the child's life after discharge from the hospital. It was learned from this case report that shared decision making and open communication with the child's family enabled the pediatric health care professionals to determine what was in the best interest of the child, resulting in provision of effective palliative care to the child. Moreover, it was realized that early detection of the disease and availability of hospice care can facilitate palliative care of children diagnosed with IPH. PMID:21968218

  18. PROFESSIONALISM AND ETHICS: IS THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY DAMAGING THE HEALTH OF THE PUBLIC RELATIONS PROFESSION?

    Adnan Hussein

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In most parts of the world, public relations (PR is seeking recognition as a profession. The path to gaining professional status hinges on its adherence to professional ethical standards. This paper argues that it is inappropriate for public relations practitioners to represent the tobacco industry because it is against the PR ethics of upholding truth and public interest. The paper cites historical tobacco industry documents to reveal that the industry would not hesitate to use unethical means to maximise profits.

  19. Issues Related to EU's Foreign Policy

    2006-01-01

    @@ The European Union (EU) is widely regarded as an important international actor, and usually referred to as a big power like the U. S. , Russia, China and Japan. So naturally the foreign policy of the EU has caught attention of both officials and scholars over the world. However, the EU is also a combination of sovereign states, its foreign policy is different from others, and perhaps this is often ignored. For instance, unlike a single nation state, the EU's influence and power are different in various policy fields due to its different ways of decision-making and implementation. Also, different from the common currency, the forming of the common foreign policy of the EU doesn't mean the disappearance of respective member state's foreign policy. Only seeing or emphasizing one respect will lead to a misunderstanding of the EU. Moreover, as a unique "supranational and intergovernmental" organization in the world, the EU has too many complex institutions, names and terms. Of course, the situation is not better in the field of foreign policy, and it easily leads to confusion and misunderstanding. It is also necessary to point out that the EU is still in the process of evolvement, and in particular, as one of the major reforms of the EU in recent years, the foreign policy-making mechanism has been in the center of change and adjustment. It is no doubt that this adds to the difficulties of studying and understanding the EU's foreign policy. In a word, the author thinks it is necessary to raise some major issues related to the EU's foreign policy and delve into it in connecting with the EU's current development.

  20. Staff Attitudes to Talking Openly About Ethical Dilemmas

    Trapp, Leila

    2011-01-01

    , research on business ethics communication and behavior indicates a relatively clear, positive link between open workplace dialogue about ethical issues and ethical conduct. In this paper, I therefore address the question: What influences employee attitudes to talking openly about ethical issues? Answers...... are proposed on the basis of focus group interviews with staff at the Denmark and Brazil affiliates of the global healthcare company Novo Nordisk. It was found that interest in discussing ethical issues was influenced by two main factors: employee conceptualizations of business ethics, and the level...

  1. Ethical and Legal Issues Regarding Selective Abortion of Fetuses with Down Syndrome.

    Glover, Noreen M.; Glover, Samuel J.

    1996-01-01

    Selective abortion of fetuses with Down syndrome is discussed in terms of abortion perspectives, genetic testing, legislation, and ethical principles. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, fidelity, and justice are offered as guidelines for the examination of legal standards imposed by legislation. (Author/PB)

  2. Ethical Issues in the Introduction of New Technologies: From Mis to POEM.

    Ferreres, Alberto R; Patti, Marco

    2015-07-01

    The ethical debate regarding the introduction of new technologies in the surgical health care environment is discussed in this manuscript, with a special emphasis on minimally invasive and NOTES procedures for the treatment of esophageal achalasia. It offers an overview of the ethical principles and considerations about the implementation of new techniques and technologies. PMID:25894402

  3. Promoting Active Learning of Ethical Issues in Marketing Communications Using Debates

    Roy, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Expectations from the business world and business school accreditation bodies to create learning outcomes that enhance students' understanding of ethical concepts call for marketing educators to integrate ethics into their pedagogy. This paper summarizes a debate activity used in an undergraduate marketing communications course. Debates engage…

  4. Expanding Awareness: Issues in the Development of an Ethics Scale for the Social Work Profession

    Nathanson, Ilene L.; Giffords, Elissa D.; Calderon, Orly

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development of an ethics scale that measures adherence to social work ethical choices in specific situations. The purpose of this instrument is to provide data that demonstrate adherence to curriculum standards as set forth by the Council on Social Work Education. The authors present the conceptual framework from which…

  5. Applying Rawlsian Approaches to Resolve Ethical Issues: Inventory and Setting of a Research Agenda

    Doorn, N.

    2009-01-01

    Insights from social science are increasingly used in the field of applied ethics. However, recent insights have shown that the empirical branch of business ethics lacks thorough theoretical grounding. This article discusses the use of the Rawlsian methods of wide reflective equilibrium and overlapp

  6. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  7. Issues related to cooperative implementation mechanisms

    This note by the secretariat seeks to focus discussions on some key issues regarding the design and functioning of the three new mechanisms, such as issues concerning mandates, cross-cutting as well as issues concerning individual mechanisms. The note addresses each mechanism separately in view of different origins, approaches, participants and possible applications. Reference is, however, made to similarities among the mechanisms, in particular where coordination of work on methodological and institutional issues and inter-institutional collaboration are concerned. The note suggests, in its concluding part, elements of a work programme up to and, to some extent, beyond COP 4. It draws upon the views submitted by Parties (document FCCC/SB/1998/MISC.1), contains reflections by the secretariat and builds on its consultations with other organizations having activities, under way or planned, that could contribute to the design or operation of the mechanisms. (au)

  8. Ethical, legal, and societal issues and recommendations for controlled and uncontrolled DCD.

    Haase, Bernadette; Bos, Michael; Boffa, Catherine; Lewis, Penney; Rudge, Chris; Valero, Ricard; Wind, Tineke; Wright, Linda

    2016-07-01

    This report deals with organ retrieval procedures in both controlled and uncontrolled DCD, looking at the ethical, legal, and psychosocial aspects during the different phases of the process. A recently published report by the UK Donation Ethics Committee (UKDEC) has served as an important reference document to outline the steps in the controlled DCD patient-donor pathway (Academy of Medical Royal Colleges. UK Donation Ethics Committee. An ethical framework for controlled donation after circulatory death. December 2011). For uncontrolled DCD, the UKDEC pathway description was adapted. At the 6th International Conference in Organ Donation held in Paris in 2013, an established expert European Working Group reviewed the UKDEC reports, which were then considered along with the available published literature. Along this pathway, the crucial ethical, legal, and psychosocial aspects have been flagged, and relevant recommendations have been formulated based on a consensus of the working group. PMID:26581182

  9. Ethical and policy issues in cluster randomized trials: rationale and design of a mixed methods research study

    Chaudhry Shazia H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cluster randomized trials are an increasingly important methodological tool in health research. In cluster randomized trials, intact social units or groups of individuals, such as medical practices, schools, or entire communities – rather than individual themselves – are randomly allocated to intervention or control conditions, while outcomes are then observed on individual cluster members. The substantial methodological differences between cluster randomized trials and conventional randomized trials pose serious challenges to the current conceptual framework for research ethics. The ethical implications of randomizing groups rather than individuals are not addressed in current research ethics guidelines, nor have they even been thoroughly explored. The main objectives of this research are to: (1 identify ethical issues arising in cluster trials and learn how they are currently being addressed; (2 understand how ethics reviews of cluster trials are carried out in different countries (Canada, the USA and the UK; (3 elicit the views and experiences of trial participants and cluster representatives; (4 develop well-grounded guidelines for the ethical conduct and review of cluster trials by conducting an extensive ethical analysis and organizing a consensus process; (5 disseminate the guidelines to researchers, research ethics boards (REBs, journal editors, and research funders. Methods We will use a mixed-methods (qualitative and quantitative approach incorporating both empirical and conceptual work. Empirical work will include a systematic review of a random sample of published trials, a survey and in-depth interviews with trialists, a survey of REBs, and in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with trial participants and gatekeepers. The empirical work will inform the concurrent ethical analysis which will lead to a guidance document laying out principles, policy options, and rationale for proposed guidelines. An

  10. AN ETHICAL ASSESSMENT OF COMPUTER ETHICS USING SCENARIO APPROACH

    Maslin Masrom; Zuraini Ismail; Ramlah Hussein

    2010-01-01

    Ethics refers to a set of rules that define right and wrong behavior, used for moral decision making. In this case, computer ethics is one of the major issues in information technology (IT) and information system (IS). The ethical behaviour of IT students and professionals need to be studied in an attempt to reduce many unethical practices such as software piracy, hacking, and software intellectual property violations. This paper attempts to address computer-related scenarios that can be used...

  11. ETHICAL DIMENSION OF CSR: A PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Archana Barua

    2013-01-01

    A philosophical perspective on ethics, including issues related to corporate social responsibility, keeps room for a second order discourse on some such practices asking meta ethical questions such as is there a gap between “is” and “ought”, between facts and value, that makes it difficult to bridge the gap between existing corporate behaviour and its aspired ethical goal ? Is there scope for some kind of situated and context dependent variations in this regard that will make ethics more busi...

  12. Ethics in Public Administration: Evidence from Slovenia

    Zlatko NEDELKO; Vojko POTOCAN

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to examine how employees’ personal ethics, expressed through their personal values and attitudes toward social and environmental issues, are associated with the ethics of organizations in public administration. The authors introduce their own theoretical model that examines the relations between employees’ personal ethics – expressed through employees’ personal values and attitudes toward natural and social environments – and the ethics of public administrati...

  13. Ethical Issues in the Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Controlled Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.

    Dalle Ave, A L; Shaw, D M; Bernat, J L

    2016-08-01

    The use of donor extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to improve graft outcomes by some controlled donation after circulatory determination of death (cDCDD) programs raises ethical issues. We reviewed cDCDD protocols using ECMO and the relevant ethics literature to analyze these issues. It is not obvious that ECMO in cDCDD improves graft outcomes. In our opinion, ECMO implemented before death can interfere with end-of-life care and damage bodily integrity. By restoring systemic circulation, ECMO risks invalidating the preceding declaration of death if brain and cardiac perfusion is not adequately excluded because of malfunction or misplacement of the supradiaphragmatic aortic occlusion balloon. The use of ECMO is not compatible with the acronym DCDD because circulation is restored after the determination of death. Because of these deficiencies, we concluded that other techniques are preferable, such as rapid recovery or in situ cold infusion. If ECMO is performed, it requires a specific informed consent and transparency. PMID:26999771

  14. ETHICS, THE ACTUAL STAKE OF RESTRUCTURING THE TRADE RELATIONS

    Theodor Valentin Purcarea; Anca Purcarea

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the ethical binom promise-expectation specific to the relationship firm-consumer ,being built upon certain previous researches which discovered: significant changes in consumers’ values and life styles influencing the process of collectingin- formation about products; efforts carried out by com- panies in order to understand the present consumer’ requirements, to prioritize their requirements, co-operate with them to suggest priorities and enhance satisfaction; the growi...

  15. Medication-Related Practice Roles: An Ethical and Legal Primer for School Psychologists

    Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Given the prevalence of school-age children and adolescents who are prescribed with and are taking psychotropic medications, a critical issue that school psychologists may likely encounter in contemporary practice is providing both quality and continuity of care to these students in the context of relevant legal and ethical parameters. With a…

  16. AN ETHICAL ASSESSMENT OF COMPUTER ETHICS USING SCENARIO APPROACH

    Maslin Masrom

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethics refers to a set of rules that define right and wrong behavior, used for moral decision making. In this case, computer ethics is one of the major issues in information technology (IT and information system (IS. The ethical behaviour of IT students and professionals need to be studied in an attempt to reduce many unethical practices such as software piracy, hacking, and software intellectual property violations. This paper attempts to address computer-related scenarios that can be used to examine the computer ethics. The computer-related scenario consists of a short description of an ethical situation whereby the subject of the study such as IT professionals or students, then rate the ethics of the scenario, namely attempt to identify the ethical issues involved. This paper also reviews several measures of computer ethics in different setting. The perceptions of various dimensions of ethical behaviour in IT that are related to the circumstances of the ethical scenario are also presented.

  17. Personal genome testing: Test characteristics to clarify the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues

    Janssens A Cecile JW

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As genetics technology proceeds, practices of genetic testing have become more heterogeneous: many different types of tests are finding their way to the public in different settings and for a variety of purposes. This diversification is relevant to the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues (ELSI surrounding genetic testing, which must evolve to encompass these differences. One important development is the rise of personal genome testing on the basis of genetic profiling: the testing of multiple genetic variants simultaneously for the prediction of common multifactorial diseases. Currently, an increasing number of companies are offering personal genome tests directly to consumers and are spurring ELSI-discussions, which stand in need of clarification. This paper presents a systematic approach to the ELSI-evaluation of personal genome testing for multifactorial diseases along the lines of its test characteristics. Discussion This paper addresses four test characteristics of personal genome testing: its being a non-targeted type of testing, its high analytical validity, low clinical validity and problematic clinical utility. These characteristics raise their own specific ELSI, for example: non-targeted genetic profiling poses serious problems for information provision and informed consent. Questions about the quantity and quality of the necessary information, as well as about moral responsibilities with regard to the provision of information are therefore becoming central themes within ELSI-discussions of personal genome testing. Further, the current low level of clinical validity of genetic profiles raises questions concerning societal risks and regulatory requirements, whereas simultaneously it causes traditional ELSI-issues of clinical genetics, such as psychological and health risks, discrimination, and stigmatization, to lose part of their relevance. Also, classic notions of clinical utility are challenged by the

  18. Ethical Issues Recognized by Critical Care Nurses in the Intensive Care Units of a Tertiary Hospital during Two Separate Periods

    Park, Dong Won; Moon, Jae Young; Ku, Eun Yong; Kim, Sun Jong; Koo, Young-Mo; Kim, Ock-Joo; Lee, Soon Haeng; Jo, Min-Woo; Lim, Chae-Man; Armstrong, John David; Koh, Younsuck

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the changes in ethical issues in everyday clinical practice recognized by critical care nurses during two observation periods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data obtained by prospective questionnaire surveys of nurses in the intensive care units (ICU) of a tertiary university-affiliated hospital in Seoul, Korea. Data were collected prospectively during two different periods, February 2002-January 2003 (Period 1) and August 2011-July 2012 (Period 2...

  19. Experimental Methods in Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Course for Teaching Ethical Issues, Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, and Analysis

    Hall, Adam C.; Harrington, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed and recently taught a 200 level undergraduate course entitled, ‘Experimental Methods in Neuroscience’. This is a required course in an increasingly popular Neuroscience major at Smith College. Students are introduced initially to issues of animal ethics and experimentation, and are familiarized with our Animal Care Facility. Using an open field and rotarod apparatus, and the elevated plus and Barnes mazes, they conduct behavioral testing of two strains of mice, C57/BL/6J and...

  20. What do Libyan doctors perceive as the benefits, ethical issues and influences of their interactions with pharmaceutical company representatives?

    Alssageer, Mustafa Ali; Kowalski, Stefan Robert

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Evidence suggests that 80-90% of doctors in most countries across the world are frequently visited by pharmaceutical company representatives (PCRs). The objective of study to examine perceptions of Libyan doctors between August and October 2010, regarding the benefits, ethical issues and influences of their interactions with (PCRs). Methods An anonymous questionnaire was circulated to 1,000 Libyan doctors in selected public and private practice settings in Tripoli, Benghazi and S...