WorldWideScience
1

Ethical issues related to screening for preeclampsia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The implementation of new methods of treating and preventing disease raises many question of both technical and moral character. Currently, many studies focus on developing a screening test for preeclampsia (PE), a disease complicating 2-8% of pregnancies, potentially causing severe consequences for pregnant women and their fetuses. The purpose is to develop a test that can identify pregnancies at high risk for developing PE sufficiently early in pregnancy to allow for prophylaxis. However, the question of implementing a screening test for PE does not only involve an evaluation of technical feasibility and clinical efficacy, it also requires an analysis of how the test influences the conditions and choices for those tested. This study evaluates state-of-the-art techniques for preeclampsia screening in an ethical framework, pointing out the central areas of moral relevance within the context of such screening activity. Furthermore, we propose ethical guidelines that a screening programme for PE should meet in order to become an uncontroversial addition to prenatal health care. PMID:22994561

Jørgensen, Jennifer M; Hedley, Paula L; Gjerris, Mickey; Christiansen, Michael

2014-09-01

2

Ethical Issues in Paediatric Practice - Part III: Issues relating to the dying process  

OpenAIRE

Despite the application of robust ethical principles, complex issues in child care commonly result in ethical dilemmas with no clear answers. This is especially so in those ‘life and death’ decisions relating to continuing curative therapy or opting for palliative care. As with many situations in paediatrics, these decisions are complicated by difficulties in establishing clear prognostic outcomes both in terms of disease progression and timescales, the child's reliance on third parties, ...

Attard-montalto, S.

2002-01-01

3

Ethical issues in dementia  

OpenAIRE

The growing number of individuals affected by dementia will intensify the ethical issues that emerge in clinical practice and research, issues early in disease relate to genetic testing, use of medications in mildly affected persons, and diagnostic disclosure. Research issues relate to appropriate informed consent processes, conflict of interests, and research design issues, such as the use of placebos and the use of biological tissues, in the later stages of disease concern about appropriate...

Whitehouse, Peter J.

2000-01-01

4

On ethical issues in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From an ethical viewpoint the author surveys existing international radiation protection recommendations and standards. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the author discusses ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. (author)

5

Assistive Technologies and Issues Relating to Privacy, Ethics and Security  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging technologies provide the opportunity to develop innovative sustainable service models, capable of supporting adults with dementia at home. Devices range from simple stand-alone components that can generate a responsive alarm call to complex interoperable systems that even can be remotely controlled. From these complex systems the paradigm of the ubiquitous or ambient smart home has emerged, integrating technology, environmental design and traditional care provision. The service context is often complex, involving a variety of stakeholders and a range of interested agencies. Against this backdrop, as anecdotal evidence and government policies spawn further innovation it is critical that due consideration is given to the potential ethical ramifications at an individual, organisational and societal level. Well-grounded ethical thinking and proactive ethical responses to this innovation are required. Explicit policy and practice should therefore emerge which engenders confidence in existing supported living option schemes for adults with dementia and informs further innovation.

Martin, Suzanne; Bengtsson, Johan E.; Dröes, Rose-Marie

6

Ethical issues in psychopharmacology  

OpenAIRE

The marketing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the psychopharmacological industry presents a serious moral problem for the corporate model of medicine. In this paper I examine ethical issues relating to the efficacy and safety of these drugs. Pharmaceutical companies have a moral obligation to disclose all information in their possession bearing on the true risks and benefits of their drugs. Only then can patients make fully informed decisions about their treatment.

Mchenry, L.

2006-01-01

7

Ethical issues in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this note the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection and risk assessment/management, the authors review ethical thinking on five key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these five issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) Equity vs. Efficiency, (2) Health vs. Economics, (3) Individual Rights vs. Societal Benefits, (4) Due Process vs. Necessary Sacrifice, and (5) Stakeholder Consent vs. Management Decisions (authors)

8

Ethical Issues in Physiatrist Practice  

OpenAIRE

Editorial on Ethical Issues. Medical ethics is at the centre of medical practice. It isrightly gaining much needed renewed focus and attentionin the evolving scenario. The impetus for it may beattributed to the revelations that arose through Nurembergtrials, the framework elements that define research andpublications related compulsions, and indeed the contextand state of affairs of present day medical jurisprudence.The physiatrist’s practice cannot remain untouched bythe moral and ethical...

Hand G

2008-01-01

9

The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders’ Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing  

OpenAIRE

Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4th International BCI conference, which took place in May–June 2010 in Asilomar, California. We assessed respondents’ opinions about a number of topics. First, we investigated preferences for terminology and definitions relating to BCIs. Secon...

Nijboer, Femke; Clausen, Jens; Allison, Brendan Z.; Haselager, Pim

2011-01-01

10

Professional and Ethical Issues in Computer Science  

Science.gov (United States)

CSC 385. Professional and Ethical Issues in Computer Science (1) Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing in computer science. Student presentations and discussions of case studies relating to computer ethics.

Dr. Ron Vetter

11

Ethical Issues in Physiatrist Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Editorial on Ethical Issues. Medical ethics is at the centre of medical practice. It isrightly gaining much needed renewed focus and attentionin the evolving scenario. The impetus for it may beattributed to the revelations that arose through Nurembergtrials, the framework elements that define research andpublications related compulsions, and indeed the contextand state of affairs of present day medical jurisprudence.The physiatrist’s practice cannot remain untouched bythe moral and ethical dilemmas faced in today’s world.Although the pillars of the specialty are grounded in the

Hand G

2008-04-01

12

Ethical issues related to computerised family medical histories in sickle cell disease: Inforare.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Inforare project aims to set up a system for the sharing of clinical and familial data, in order to study how genes are related to the severity of sickle cell disease. While the computerisation of clinical records represents a valuable research goal, an ethical framework is necessary to guarantee patients' protection and their rights in this developing field. Issues relating to patient information during the Inforare study were analysed by the steering committee. Several major concerns were discussed by the committee and formalized in the patients' information letter: educating patients to aid the recruitment of family members, rules of confidentiality and the disclosure of aggregate, individual and unexpected research results. This paper presents the main issues addressed. PMID:20826869

Franrenet, Sandra; Duchange, Nathalie; Galactéros, Fréderic; Quantin, Catherine; Cohen, Olivier; Nzouakou, Ruben; Sudraud, Sophie; Hervé, Christian; Moutel, Grégoire

2010-10-01

13

Ethical Issues in Pharmacogenetics  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article illustrates how pharmacogenetics promises drugs specific to an individual's condition. However, it poses some ethical concerns: invasion of medical privacy, unequal distribution of benefits, discrimination because it involves genetic tests, and research/business conflict-of-interest.

Carol Isaacson Barash (Genetics, Ethics & Policy Consulting, Inc.; )

2001-02-01

14

Antiprogestin drugs: ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical issues of RU-486 in the US are the same as those of any new medical technology, but the politics of abortion can tempt us to believe that antiprogestins pose new ethical hazards. Good facts are needed to have good ethics. Risk-benefit assessments reveal medical facts and begin with clinical trials, evaluating RU-486's effectiveness and the degree and likelihood it causes harm, discomfort, and side effects. They should also consider social and psychological risks and benefits. Clinical trails in Los Angeles show that women who had previously undergone a surgical abortion method found RU-486 to be a less violent abortion method. Antiabortion proponents misconstrue this benefit to be a disadvantage, because they believe women undergoing abortion should suffer from pain and suffering. Even though an international convention ensures reproductive freedom for women, women must be informed about and have access to all family planning services in order to exercise this right. Ethics and the law require voluntary, informed consent. Yet, the US prevents workers at federally-funded family planning programs from providing clients any information on abortion, thereby violating this ethical requirement. Ethical precepts are also violated by denying women their right to privacy and by the punitive actions taken against women undergoing abortion by physicians, other health workers, and antiabortion proponents. Ru-486 allows women to undergo an abortion in private. Abortion opponents consider this privacy a disadvantage, because they lose targets for picketing, harassment, and violence. They believe that the improved access to abortion awarded by RU-486 would make abortion emotionally easier for women, leading to an increase in the number of abortions. Yet, there is no empirical evidence to support this. Again they see a benefit (decreased psychological stress) as a disadvantage. Ethical arguments show that RU-486 provides women greater health benefits, fosters their right to reproductive freedom, and improves the prospects for expanded social justice. PMID:1434763

Macklin, R

1992-01-01

15

Ethical Issues in Teaching about Research Ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes experiences teaching ethical issues in the conduct of research over several semesters using a simulation of research into obedience by S. Milgram in the early 1960s. Describes students' reactions to the simulation at emotional and intellectual levels and discusses the ethical dilemma these reactions have created for teachers…

Lucas, Keith B.; Lidstone, John G.

2000-01-01

16

Business Ethics: Some Theoretical Issues  

OpenAIRE

Ethics can be defined as a process of evaluating actions according to moral principal of values. Throughout the centuries people were trying to choose between profit and moral. Perhaps, some of them obtain both, but every time it could have roused ethical issues. Those issues concern fairness, justice, rightness or wrongness; as a result it can only be resolved according to ethical standards. Setting the ethical standards for the way of doing business in corporation is primarily task of m...

Lluka, Valon

2010-01-01

17

Ethical Issues Relative to Autonomy and Personal Control in Independent and Cognitively Impaired Elders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses ethical issues surrounding health care for independent elders, those in long-term care, and those with cognitive impairments, as well as death, dying, euthanasia, and assisted suicide. Suggests that nurses should focus on older adults' choice, autonomy, and personal control. (SK)

Rice, Virginia Hill; And Others

1997-01-01

18

Ethical Issues in Public Service  

OpenAIRE

The issue of ethics is beginning to gain ground in public Organization. Ethics are Standards and rules that are meant to be guiding principles for any institution such as public, private and Governmental. This research work examines the ethical issues in public services sectors in Nigeria. This paper is concerned with unethical behaviours in the public service among the public servants in Nigeria. Adopting the historical and literature review methods, this paper examines the historical antece...

Adebayo Adeyinka

2014-01-01

19

Limitation of life support in the ICU: Ethical issues relating to end of life care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, increasingly, intensivists have focused attention on the ethical aspects of end-of- life care. This has led to shifts in the approach from aggressive interventions to one of mitigating pain and taking into account the wishes and sensibilities of the patients? families with regard to continuing futile care. While the legal implications of this change in practice has led to the evolution of precise guidelines in the US and in Europe, in India this vital area of critical care remains largely unexplored. This review outlines the recent changes in clinical practice based on ethical principles and the legality of limiting life support in the context of futile or end-of-life care. An appraisal of the ethical issues in critical care urges us to apply intensive care with humanity and compassion. We need to respect the choices and the emotional needs of the patient and his family. Our duties must include providing information, balanced interpretation of results & counseling of the family to enable them to take rational decisions. Our strategy in end-of-life care should be unambiguous and we should ensure that there is consensus among all the physicians involved in the patient's care. The medical community must work towards evolving legislation appropriate to Indian conditions.

Mani R

2003-01-01

20

Sports medicine: some ethical issues.  

OpenAIRE

The ethical aspects of sports medicine have hitherto received little scrutiny, in contrast to its legal implications, which have recently been subject to much greater discussion. However, the differences that are apparent between sports medicine and 'mainstream' areas of clinical practice can shed new light on a number of the central issues within health-care ethics. By means of hypothetical case studies, this paper seeks to examine some of these issues within a sports medicine context. Speci...

Sim, J.

1993-01-01

21

Ethical issues in sexual misconduct by clinicians.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual misconduct by clinicians in the form of sexual relations with patients has long been recognized as an ethics violation and an activity suitable for assessment by the ethics committees of institutions and local and national professional organizations. The issue can be examined from the vantage point of several types of duties which bear ethical implications; these ethical duties proceed from the following four notions in this area: Sexual misconduct represents a violation of professional ethics as a fiduciary breach, abuse of a power asymmetry, exploitation of vulnerability and use of undue influence. While objections to these criteria may be raised in terms of freedom of association and consent, the violation of ethical principles by sexual misconduct remains clear. PMID:7799541

Gutheil, T G

1994-01-01

22

Legal and Ethical Issues Related to the Management of Cultural Heritage in Space  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent discovery of water in darkened craters of the Moon's south pole is only the latest development drawing public and corporate interest to the possibilities of research and travel in outer space. Scientists pursuing fusion-generated power as a solution to global energy needs have also noted the relative abundance of Helium-3, an efficient fuel, on the Moon's surface, and there is the promise of other precious resources there as well. The implantation of colonies on the Moon or Mars, discussed for many decades as science fiction, therefore seems increasingly likely to happen. Some private companies and members of the public are even looking forward to the days when tourists will be able to travel for leisure beyond the earth's atmosphere. Most notably, the X Prize Foundation and Google are sponsoring a prize for the first private group to send an unmanned rover to the Moon as a way of advancing these agendas; 22 teams have registered for the competition, with some scheduled to launch by the end of 2010. Increased attention to outer space travel, exploration, and commercial exploitation has been paralleled by a rise in interest in the protection of cultural resources on Earth, such as ar-chaeological sites and historic monuments. Such sites and monuments already exist in outer space and on extraterrestrial planetary bodies. The Apollo 11 landing site, Tranquility Base, is only the most obvious example of a cultural site of outstanding significance in space. Satellites orbiting the earth -even defunct ones such as Vanguard 1, the oldest man-made object still in orbit, might be considered to have extraordinary historic and cultural value, too. As archae-ologists working on Earth have long recognized, once a site or object is damaged, it can never be perfectly restored to its original condition. Unfortunately, there are so far only a few vague guidelines, drafted in the 1960's and agreed upon by the international community, protecting mankind's cultural heritage in space. The United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967 -the primary document governing how nations act in outer space -is now hopelessly out-of-date. There is no mention in the treaty of cultural heritage (the UNESCO convention that concerns international protection of cultural heritage on Earth was not completed until 1970), nor was there any recognition of the role private groups and individuals might play in space exploration. This paper will outline key legal and ethical issues related to cultural heritage management and protection. It will also suggest some ways in which culturally significant sites in space can be protected for future study and even touristic appreciation.

Walsh, Justin

23

Ethical issues and Huntington's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethical dilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's disease, in which only one twin sought predictive testing for this dominantly inherited disease, created several ethical dilemmas. Another case where predictive testing was carried out on two young children, at high risk, by a laboratory at the request of an adoption agency and a doctor, with a view to giving information to the foster parents, also posed many ethical conundrums for the counsellor. The ethical issues that arose in these cases are discussed in this paper.  PMID:24300652

Kromberg, Jennifer G R; Wessels, Tina-Marié

2013-12-01

24

Ethical issues in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.

Persson, Lars (ed.)

2000-03-15

25

Ethical Issues in Public Service  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issue of ethics is beginning to gain ground in public Organization. Ethics are Standards and rules that are meant to be guiding principles for any institution such as public, private and Governmental. This research work examines the ethical issues in public services sectors in Nigeria. This paper is concerned with unethical behaviours in the public service among the public servants in Nigeria. Adopting the historical and literature review methods, this paper examines the historical antecedents of Civil Service in Nigeria; and reveals some specific unethical behaviour among the career Civil Service System proposed which include; Searching and Tracing of files and other documents, Gratification for service render, Deliberate Deception, Sale of Information or Espionage, Unlawful Conduct. All these come under the umbrella of corruption and indiscipline. The paper recommended some possible solutions that improve the Ethical standard in the public service.

Adebayo Adeyinka

2014-09-01

26

Ethical Issues in Cardiac Surgery  

OpenAIRE

While ethical behavior has always been part of cardiac surgical practice, ethical deliberation has only recently become an important component of cardiac surgical practice. Issues such as informed consent, conflict of interest, and professional self-regulation, among many others, have increasingly attracted the attention of cardiac surgeons. This review covers several broad topics of interest to cardiac surgeons and cardiologists, and treats several other topics more briefly. There is much un...

Kavarana, Minoo N.; Sade, Robert M.

2012-01-01

27

Some relevant ethical issues in relation to freshwater resources and groundwater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Freshwater resources are limited and the demand for water is steadily growing. In some areas a large proportion of available water resources are already committed. This justifies the concern manifested by social groups and many individuals. There are two more freshwater available, which means interfering more with the environment, affecting human communities and depleting groundwater reserves. The other consists of correcting the current and often highly inefficient use of freshwater in order to reduce demand, and at the same time protecting groundwater reserves and preventing further degradation by contamination. These are economic and human resources. Available, usable freshwater resources must be assessed, while taking into account the uncertainty associated with natural processes, and seeking long-term sustainability within a changing setting. In this respect groundwater is still a poorly managed and, to some extent, misunderstood essential freshwater resource. The sustainability of long-term groundwater use is compatible with limited depletion of aquifer reserves only in the short term. Solving current and future problems involves not only science and technology, but also economics, public understanding and political will. All of these issues must be guided by ethical considerations. (Author) 44 refs.

Custodio, E.

2000-07-01

28

Ethical Issues within the Gerontological Nursing Curriculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation focuses on ethical issues that need to be addressed within the gerontological nursing curriculum for preparing nurses to become change agents and catalysts in the health care of the older population. Ethics and ethical principles are defined, and three ethical principles are discussed: justice; beneficence; and autonomy.…

Bahr, Rose Therese

29

Ethical issues in contraceptive technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although family planning has been practiced throughout the world since earliest times, the population and family planning field is still confronted by difficult ethical issues. More contraceptive research is needed within developing countries so that the resulting technology will reflect local conditions. The politicization of contraceptive development and testing impedes consideration of the ethical issues. High ethical standards must be maintained, with attention to such aspects as the choice of human subjects to avoid double standards or discriminatory practices. The World Health Organization is helping to resolve ethical problems of contraceptive testing through its network of test centers in both developed and developing countries. Those who argue that it is unethical to offer contraceptives without providing health coverage as well overlook the contribution of birth spacing to health. Access to full and accurate information and services for family planning has been accepted as a basic human right. The consent of the individual choosing a contraceptive method must remain inviolate. There should be no preselection of method by program or service personnel, and no information on the contraceptive should be withheld. The issues of spousal and parental consent and withholding services from unmarried persons must be faced in diverse social and cultural contexts. In the debate over abortion, the ethics of withholding a technique known to be less hazardous than carrying a pregnancy to term should be considered, as should the morality of denying to the poor a service available to wealthier women regardless of its legality. Governments or programs which manipulate the availability of family planning information or services for demographic or other reasons are acting unethically. PMID:12338979

Sai, F T

1983-08-01

30

To Know or Not to Know: Ethical Issues Related to Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease  

OpenAIRE

In Alzheimer's disease (AD), pathological processes start in the brain long before clinical dementia. Biomarkers reflecting brain alterations may therefore indicate disease at an early stage, enabling early diagnosis. This raises several ethical questions and the potential benefits of early diagnosis must be weighted against possible disadvantages. Currently, there are few strong arguments favouring early diagnosis, due to the lack of disease modifying therapy. Also, available diagnostic ...

David Brax; Henrik Zetterberg; Niklas Mattsson

2010-01-01

31

Ethical issues in gastroenterology research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical issues have become increasingly important in gastroenterology research. This is for several reasons, including (i) an understanding of how conflicts of interest might affect research, (ii) the influence of the drug and device industries on research, (iii) ghostwriting (taking credit for something you did not write), (iv) the occurrence of ethically inappropriate research and scientific misconduct, and (v) respect for the rights of research subjects. These include the rights (i) to give informed consent to participate after understanding the purposes, risks, and benefits of the research; (ii) to ask questions; and (iii) to withdraw from participation at any time. Notions of doing good (beneficence), avoiding harm (non-maleficence), confidentiality, and, most important, the primacy of the welfare of the patient or research subject can be traced to antiquity. In the modern era, the Nuremburg Code (1947), the Declaration of Helsinki (1964), the Belmont report (1979), and other events and reports have led to the refinement of ethical practices in both clinical and research domains, have reinforced those long observed principles, and have given rise to the newer principles of autonomy and justice. The ethical conduct of research not only promotes good research but also is in the best interests of research subjects, investigators, sponsors, patients, and the public. PMID:25827797

Eastwood, Gregory L

2015-03-01

32

Proportional ethical review and the identification of ethical issues  

OpenAIRE

Presently, there is a movement in the UK research governance framework towards what is referred to as proportional ethical review. Proportional ethical review is the notion that the level of ethical review and scrutiny given to a research project ought to reflect the level of ethical risk represented by that project. Relatively innocuous research should receive relatively minimal review and relatively risky research should receive intense scrutiny. Although conceptually attractive, the notion...

Hunter, D.

2007-01-01

33

Handbook on Ethical Issues in Anthropology  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Anthropological Association has recently added number 23 to its series of special online publications. Edited by Joan Cassell and Sue-Ellen Jacobs, this collection of six essays is presented to "stimulate discussion and reflection on ethical issues" among anthropologists. Offerings include a background essay and annotated bibliography, two essays containing fictional ethical dilemmas and proposed solutions, an essay on introducing issues of ethical responsibility into the classroom, and guidelines on holding a workshop on ethical problems in fieldwork.

34

Ethical issues in animal cloning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue of human reproductive cloning has recently received a great deal attention in public discourse. Bioethicists, policy makers, and the media have been quick to identify the key ethical issues involved in human reproductive cloning and to argue, almost unanimously, for an international ban on such attempts. Meanwhile, scientists have proceeded with extensive research agendas in the cloning of animals. Despite this research, there has been little public discussion of the ethical issues raised by animal cloning projects. Polling data show that the public is decidedly against the cloning of animals. To understand the public's reaction and fill the void of reasoned debate about the issue, we need to review the possible objections to animal cloning and assess the merits of the anti-animal cloning stance. Some objections to animal cloning (e.g., the impact of cloning on the population of unwanted animals) can be easily addressed, while others (e.g., the health of cloned animals) require more serious attention by the public and policy makers. PMID:16085991

Fiester, Autumn

2005-01-01

35

Ethical Decision Making: Basic Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

Among counselors, ethical dilemmas occur often. Although ethical dilemmas are challenging, they can be solved by implementing a code of ethics and/or an ethical decision-making model. Using case studies, the authors illustrate how counselors can make informed, accurate decisions that are made to protect the welfare of the client. It also helps…

Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, C. Bret

2008-01-01

36

Ethical Issues | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Science.gov (United States)

Basic moral principles and patient’s rights are always top of mind in planning and conducting clinical trials. Browse the conversations in this area to find information about ethical issues such as conflict of interest, and informed consent. Or to learn more about Ethical Issues, click here.

37

Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of valuing the environment and implications for the definition of harm and monetary valuation of environmental goods; second, difficulties with scientific uncertainty and applications of the precautionary principle; and third, issues concerned with the distribution of risk and its relevance fo participation in decision-making. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors.

Oughton, Deborah E-mail: deborah.oughton@ijvf.nlh.no

2003-07-01

38

Ethical issues in public health policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethics in public health policy is given the least importance and rarely discussed. Resolving ethical issues in public health is often an arduous task as these are complicated and require careful handling. Using four case studies, we discuss issues pertaining to pertussis and brain damage, water fluoridation and dental caries, infection with the human immunodeficiency virus and the right to marriage, and the debate surrounding universal salt iodization. The core issue in all these examples pertains to the relevance of ethics in public health policy. PMID:12044125

Anand, K; Baridalyne, N; Moorthy, D; Kapoor, S K; Sankar, R; Pandav, C S

2002-01-01

39

Ethical Issues in Continuing Professional Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Continuing professional education practitioners often face ethical dilemmas regarding their obligations to multiple stakeholders and issues arising in new arenas such as the workplace, distance education, and collaboration with business. Codes of ethics can guide practice, but practitioners should also identify their personal core values system…

Lawler, Patricia Ann

2000-01-01

40

Relational ethics and psychosomatic assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main ethical perspective in the clinical relationship takes into consideration the vulnerability of the clinical condition before threats and risks that can undermine the integrity and dignity of the person. Psychosomatic medicine faces complex cases whose ethical problems cannot only be solved by applying top-down deontological or utilitarian approaches, principlism, which is limited mainly to easing ethical tensions, or a bottom-up approach, the casuistic model, case-based reasoning. In introducing vulnerability as the core of ethical questioning as a principle ontological priority over other principles, relational ethics refers to the appreciation of the responsibility of health professionals through which a health care professional and the patient 'together' can construct more reasonable and prudential courses of action with, for, and by the patient. The model of relational ethics is based on three main aspects, clinically integrated approach, science/philosophy partnership, and deliberative process, that when taken together, form an intermediate model that ensures prudent and reasonable decision-making. The three structural elements and characteristics of relational ethics create and maintain a responsible relationship between the professional and the patient being aware that the mutual vulnerability of health professional and the patient has a moral value and recognizing that their relationship will allow for personal development of each. I conceptualized the model of relational ethics as one that embraces the meta-ethical principles of vulnerability, dignity, responsibility, and respect for autonomy as they are considered by many international declarations or conventions. This model integrates three key polarities: ensure conditions of authenticity, facilitate a process of cooperative mutuality, and promote opportunities for growth and development. Relational ethics can be used to solve major ethical problems in psychosomatic medicine, capacity , informed consent, and confidentiality. PMID:22056907

Barbosa, António

2012-01-01

41

Ethical issues in fetal diagnosis and treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fetal diagnosis has raised ethical issues since it was first developed in the 1940s and 1950s. Two controversial issues have predominated. First, when the techniques for prenatal diagnosis were invasive techniques, they created risks to the pregnant women. Second, prenatal diagnosis led to either prenatal treatment, which also generally had some risks to the pregnant woman, or to abortion, which has always been ethically controversial. In this article, we will review the history of ethical controversy over fetal diagnosis and discuss how they presage today's controversies. PMID:24515623

McMann, Conor L; Carter, Brian S; Lantos, John D

2014-08-01

42

Informed consent & ethical issues in paediatric psychopharmacology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Issues relating to informed consent and ethics in paediatric psychopharmacology limit research in this population. Children vary in their levels of cognitive development, and presence of psychiatric disorder may further impair their ability to give informed consent. In decisional impairment subjects, various methods used for consent are assent/dissent; inclusion of advance directives; and/or alternative decision-makers. India is emerging as a new market for clinical trials in recent years. Moreover, in India the sociocultural realities are different from those in the western countries making it necessary for professionals to be cautious in conducting drug trials. In this review, issues regarding informed consent in children and adolescent with psychiatric diagnosis are discussed for information, discussion and debate by professionals, parents, society and legal experts to create awareness and to facilitate development of guidelines that are appropriate and applicable to the Indian system. PMID:19287054

Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B N

2009-01-01

43

Teaching Ethical Reflexivity in Information Systems: How to Equip Students to Deal with Moral and Ethical Issues of Emerging Information and Communication Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching ethics to students of information systems (IS) raises a number of conceptual and content-related issues. The present paper starts out by developing a conceptual framework of moral and ethical issues that distinguishes between moral intuition, explicit morality, ethical theory and meta-ethical reflection. This conceptual framework…

Stahl, Bernd Carsten

2011-01-01

44

Nontechnical issues in waste management: ethical, institutional, and political concerns  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report consists of a presentation and distillation of major nontechnical issues surrounding commercial waste management, followed by ethical, institutional, and political analyses of these issues. The ethical analysis consists of a discusson of what is meant by ''ethics'' and ''morality'' in the waste management context and an illustrative attempt at an ethical analysis of the commercial nuclear waste problem. Two institutional analyses are presented: one is an analysis of the possible problems of long-term human institutions in waste management; the other is a presentation of institutional arrangements for the short term. A final chapter discusses issues and concerns involving intergovernmental relations--that is, local, state, and federal interface problems in waste management

45

Nontechnical issues in waste management: ethical, institutional, and political concerns  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report consists of a presentation and distillation of major nontechnical issues surrounding commercial waste management, followed by ethical, institutional, and political analyses of these issues. The ethical analysis consists of a discusson of what is meant by ''ethics'' and ''morality'' in the waste management context and an illustrative attempt at an ethical analysis of the commercial nuclear waste problem. Two institutional analyses are presented: one is an analysis of the possible problems of long-term human institutions in waste management; the other is a presentation of institutional arrangements for the short term. A final chapter discusses issues and concerns involving intergovernmental relations--that is, local, state, and federal interface problems in waste management.

Hebert, J.A.; Rankin, W.L.; Brown, P.G.; Schuller, C.R; Smith, R.F.; Goodnight, J.A.; Lippek, H.E.

1978-05-01

46

A course treating ethical issues in physics  

Science.gov (United States)

A course focusing on ethical issues in physics has been taught to undergraduate students at Eastern Michigan University since 1988. The course covers both responsible conduct of research and ethical issues associated with how physicists interact with the rest of society. Since most undergraduate physics majors will not have a career in academia, it is important that a course such as this address issues that will be relevant to physicists in a wide range of job situations. There is a wealth of published work that can be drawn on for reading assignments.

Thomsen, Marshall

2007-03-01

47

Ethical Issues in Health Services: A Report and Annotated Bibliography.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication identifies, discusses, and lists areas for further research for five ethical issues related to health services: 1) the right to health care; 2) death and euthanasia; 3) human experimentation; 4) genetic engineering; and, 5) abortion. Following a discussion of each issue is a selected annotated bibliography covering the years 1967…

Carmody, James

48

Issues and Guidance in Research Ethics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper addresses the principles that govern the outlook and decisions of research ethics committees. The purpose of the paper is to outline such underlying principles in order to aid understanding for researchers into aspects of social and commercial behaviour. Prior to conducting research in any corporate area there is an obligation toward any human participants. That obligation is set out most clearly in the information and forms put out by the various ethics committees charged with examining the proposal, and with giving formal ethical approval. The principles that invest the understanding of ethics committees are those of protecting the vulnerable, and of protecting justifiably good reputations. Ethics committees should be seen as enabling and protecting rather than as a barrier to research. Peer reviews should be seen to include ethics matters in research, and are thus a natural extension of the common scientific endeavour. To this end the article outlines and discusses the issues commonly addressed by research ethics committees. By highlighting these principles, this paper aims to give insights and suggestions that should make the ethics application task easier.

Ronald D. Francis

2014-09-01

49

Electronic Surveys: Ethical Issues for Researchers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic surveys are a fast and low-cost research option which is just beginning to be used in student affairs. Researchers considering electronic surveys should be aware of ethical issues concerning representativeness, data analysis, confidentiality, and quotations. Describes issues that are different from similar problems with mail-out…

Goree, Cathryn T.; Marszalek, John F., III

1995-01-01

50

Doping in Sport: Global Ethical Issues  

OpenAIRE

DESCRIPTION In this book the question of "How ethical is using performance improving drugs in sport?" is argued in global perspective. PURPOSE The ethical questions in sport are discussed comprehensively. Particularly, different cultures and approach of various countries to that issue were examined. FEATURES The book composed of 10 chapters following a thorough introduction from the editors in 194 pages. The titles are: 1.Fair is Fair, Or Is It? : A Moral Consideration of the Doping Wars in A...

Schneider, Angela J.; Fan Hong

2007-01-01

51

Ethical Issues in Engineering Models: Personal Reflections  

OpenAIRE

I start this contribution with an overview of my personal involvement—as an Operations Research consultant—in several engineering case-studies that may raise ethical questions; these case studies employ simulation models. Next, I present an overview of the recent literature on ethical issues in modeling, focusing on the validation of the model’s assumptions; the decisive role of these assumptions leads to the quest for robust models. Actually, models are meant to solve practical problem...

Kleijnen, Jack P. C.

2010-01-01

52

Ethical Issues in Recruiting Faculty.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of journalism faculty (n=407) suggests that ethical standards in college faculty recruitment can not be taken for granted. As the recruitment process becomes more competitive and applicant numbers dwindle, the process should be carefully examined to ensure that truth, trust, and honesty are characteristic of the recruiting procedure. (MSE)

Van Ommeren, Roger; And Others

1991-01-01

53

Ethical issues in the treatment of cancer patients.  

OpenAIRE

Nineteen speakers at the International Conference on Supportive Care--More than Medicine, which was cosponsored by WHO and held in Château Montebello, Quebec, Canada, 18-21 July 1988, presented short introductory lectures and led the Ethics Working Group's discussions on the following ethical issues relating to cancer research and the treatment of cancer patients: telling the truth; allowing to die and practice of euthanasia; clinical research; and limited resources leading to hard choices. ...

Roy, D. J.

1989-01-01

54

Ethical issues and attitude in the Turkish banking sector  

OpenAIRE

This study concentrates on the ethical issues and conditions prevailing in the Turkish banking environment. A selfadministered mail survey was conducted with 554 top bank managers in Turkey. Scenarios that were developed after a pilot study were factor analyzed. The objective of the study was to identify ethics related organizational, cognitive and affective dimensions that are likely to affect perceptions of bank managers in interpreting the eight factors and the remaining four scenarios....

Hortacsu, Ayfer; Ozkan Gunay, E. Nur

2004-01-01

55

Ethical Issues in Technology Management  

Science.gov (United States)

This course was designed to meet the needs of engineers who are or will be moving into greater responsibility for management as they advance in the profession. The course emphasizes and bring together the theory of ethical behavior and the real world applications faced regularly in the business world today. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Students, 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators, Engineers

Cox, J.W.

56

Teaching Ethics across the Public Relations Curriculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suggests ways of incorporating ethics across the undergraduate public relations curriculum. Reviews current coverage of ethics in public relations principles, writing, cases, and textbooks. Suggests other methods that teachers can use to incorporate ethical pedagogical tools in all public relations courses in an effort to develop students' ethical

Hutchison, Liese L.

2002-01-01

57

Reproductive medicine and Turner syndrome: ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the ethical issues raised by the medical responses to Turner syndrome (TS). It explores the issues and challenges faced by women with Turner, and by prospective parents of a child with Turner. It focuses on four issues: the use of GH to increase height; the use of third-party oocytes to enable women with Turner to become pregnant; the parental decision to remove and cryopreserve ovarian tissue from a child with Turner; and the termination of fetuses diagnosed with Turner. Many of the challenges associated with TS are directly or indirectly related to social attitudes and practices, from harsh teasing in school to health professionals' assumption that a woman will abort a fetus diagnosed with Turner. All the interventions designed to alleviate the difficulties faced by women with TS should be employed with caution, in part because they raise significant concerns about risk and consent; in part because they offer a medical response to problems that are to some extent social. PMID:23020911

Wasserman, David; Asch, Adrienne

2012-10-01

58

Ethics and internal audit: whistleblowing issues  

OpenAIRE

It is undisputed that the companies’ performances are now more than ever, in the concerns caused by global competition and financial crisis. In this context, one of the interveners in the direction of performance is having an ethical and responsable behavior regrading the public. An ethical behavior is related first of all to the idea of morality, above respecting the law. „Ethics aims to the heart of the corporate’s reputation and in the end that is all you have if you hope to be succ...

Bunget, Ovidiu-constantin; David-sobolevschi, Maria-iulia

2009-01-01

59

Ethical Issues in Collaborative Action Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This article begins by raising issues around the way in which ethical approval for research is managed in university settings, where committees often base their assumptions on a principlist approach making a number of assumptions that we consider to be contestable, such as a neat separation between researcher and researched. However, collaborative…

Locke, Terry; Alcorn, Noeline; O'Neill, John

2013-01-01

60

Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Ethical Issues and Recommendations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores issues and ethics of interdisciplinary care based upon discussion among five experienced mental health professionals. Presents their recommendations for effective interdisciplinary work including, ensuring clients give informed consent, maintaining confidentiality, and making sure paraprofessionals and families are involved. Reports that…

Paproski, D. L.; Haverkamp, Beth E.

2000-01-01

61

The perceptions of danish physiotherapists on the ethical issues related to the physiotherapist-patient relationship during the first session: a phenomenological approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In the course of the last four decades, the profession of physiotherapy has progressively expanded its scope of responsibility and its focus on professional autonomy and evidence-based clinical practice. To preserve professional autonomy, it is crucial for the physiotherapy profession to meet society's expectations and demands of professional competence as well as ethical competence. Since it is becoming increasingly popular to choose a carrier in private practice in Denmark this context constitutes the frame of this study. Physiotherapy in private practice involves mainly a meeting between two partners: the physiotherapist and the patient. In the meeting, power asymmetry between the two partners is a condition that the physiotherapist has to handle. The aim of this study was to explore whether ethical issues rise during the first physiotherapy session discussed from the perspective of the physiotherapists in private practice. Methods A qualitative approach was chosen and semi-structured interviews with 21 physiotherapists were carried out twice and analysed by using a phenomenological framework. Results Four descriptive themes emerged: general reflections on ethics in physiotherapy; the importance of the first physiotherapy session; the influence of the clinical environment on the first session and; reflections and actions upon beneficence towards the patient within the first session. The results show that the first session and the clinical context in private practice are essential from an ethical perspective. Conclusions Ethical issues do occur within the first session, the consciousness about ethical issues differs in Danish physiotherapy private practice, and reflections and acts are to a lesser extent based on awareness of ethical theories, principles and ethical guidelines. Beneficence towards the patient is a fundamental aspect of the physiotherapists' understanding of the first session. However, if the physiotherapist lacks a deeper ethical awareness, the physiotherapist may reason and/or act ethically to a varying extent: only an ethically conscious physiotherapist will know when he or she reflects and acts ethically. Further exploration of ethical issues in private practice is recommendable, and as management policy is deeply embedded within the Danish public sector there are reasons to explore public contexts of physiotherapy as well.

Praestegaard Jeanette

2011-10-01

62

Ethical issues concerning New Zealand sports doctors  

OpenAIRE

Success in sport can provide a source of national pride for a society, and vast financial and personal rewards for an individual athlete. It is therefore not surprising that many athletes will go to great lengths in pursuit of success. The provision of healthcare for elite sports people has the potential to create many ethical issues for sports doctors; however there has been little discussion of them to date. This study highlights these issues. Respondents to a questionnaire identified many ...

Anderson, L.; Gerrard, D.

2005-01-01

63

Key Ethical Issues in Pediatric Research: Islamic Perspective, Iranian Experience  

OpenAIRE

Objective: The importance of pediatric research especially in the ethically proven trials resulted in considerable legislative attempts in association with compiling ethical guidelines. Because of children’s vulnerability conducting pediatric research raises different ethical issues; the two most important of which are informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. Differences in ethical standards and socio-cultural issues limit application of ethical standards.Methods: At the aim of finding...

Mina Mobasher; Pooneh Salari; Bagher Larijani

2012-01-01

64

Ethical issues related to professional exposure of pregnant women in the medical field: Monitoring and limiting effective dose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations for occupational exposed pregnant women do not imply necessarily the complete avoidance of work with radiation or radioactive materials. Instead, a careful review of the exposure conditions, once the pregnancy is declared, as part of the exercise of the ICRP optimisation principle (based in a teleological ethics point of view) is suggested. The dose limitation (following a deontological ethics point of view) of the fetus/embryo is, however, not clearly well established as happens in the case of workers or members of the public. Also, the justification of practices (to continue to work or not with radiation or radioactive materials) is not clearly addressed in most national or international recommendations. An analysis of this justification (bearing in mind both teleological and deontological ethics) is examined in this work having in mind the best interest of the child-to-be as well as other existing social and economical factors. (authors)

65

Ethical issues in forecasting of natural hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural hazards have by definition a large impact on the society and, therefore, since the beginning of science one of the major aspiration of mankind has been the prediction of natural calamities in the attempt to avoid or to mitigate their effects. In modern societies where science and technology have gained a foundational role, forecasts and predictions have become part of the every-day life and may also influence state policies and economic development. And in parallel with the growing importance of forecasting, even ethical problems for forecasters and for forecasters communities have started to appear. In this work two of the many geo-ethical issues are considered mostly: 1) how to cope with uncertainties that are inherently associated with any forecast statement; 2) how to handle predictions in scientific journals and scientific conferences The former issue is mainly related to the impact of predictions on the general public and on managers and operators in the civil protection field. Forecasters operate in specific contexts that 1) may change from country to country, depending on the local adopted best practices, but also, which is more constraining, on the local legal regulations and laws; 2) may change from discipline to discipline according to the development of the specific knowhow and the range of the forecast (from minutes to centuries) The second issue has to do with the communication of the scientific results on predictions and on prediction methods to the audience mainly composed of scientists, and involves one of the basic elements of science. In principle, scientists should use scientific communication means (papers in scientific journals, conferences, …) to illustrate results that are sound and certain, or the methods by means of which they conduct their research. But scientists involved in predictions have inherently to do with uncertainties, and, since there is no common agreement on how to deal with them, there is the risk that scientific results may be confused with opinions and opinions with scientific results, which creates confusion in the scientific community, in the science divulgators and in turn in the general public.

Tinti, Stefano

2014-05-01

66

Activity of Ethics Committees in Europe on issues related to clinical trials in paediatrics: Results of a survey.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 11, 1-2 (2009), s. 79-87. ISSN 1389-2827 Grant ostatní: EC(XE) LSHBCT-2005-005126 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : ethic committees * clinical trials * pediatrics Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines

Altavilla, A.; Giaquinto, C.; Giocanti, D.; Manfredi, C.; Aboulker, J.-P.; Bartoloni, F.; Cattani, E.; Giudice, M. L.; Mellado Pe?a, M.J.; Nagler, R.; Peterson, C.; Vajnerová, Olga; Bonifazi, F.; Ceci, A.

2009-01-01

67

Radiation protection: Some philosophical and ethical issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ethical issue of justification has become an urgent issue in radiology. There has been a shift in emphasis in the discussion from what has been regarded as a rather paternalistic attitude of practitioners to one that stresses the rights of the individual patient. This article comments on this current move on the part of the profession by offering certain relevant philosophical considerations. Using a medical scenario as the context to comment on this shift, it discusses important and fundamental issues, such as the autonomy and the rights of the patient in addition to the question of consent on the patient's part.

Sia, Santiago, E-mail: ssia@milltown-institute.i [Faculty of Philosophy, Milltown Institute, Dublin 6 (Ireland); Chhem, Rethy K., E-mail: r.chhem@iaea.or [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Czarwinski, Renate, E-mail: R.Czarwinski@iaea.or [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Radiation Safety and Monitoring Section, Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety (Austria)

2010-10-15

68

Radiation protection: Some philosophical and ethical issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ethical issue of justification has become an urgent issue in radiology. There has been a shift in emphasis in the discussion from what has been regarded as a rather paternalistic attitude of practitioners to one that stresses the rights of the individual patient. This article comments on this current move on the part of the profession by offering certain relevant philosophical considerations. Using a medical scenario as the context to comment on this shift, it discusses important and fundamental issues, such as the autonomy and the rights of the patient in addition to the question of consent on the patient's part.

69

Surrogacy: ethical and legal issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for" another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents. PMID:23293432

Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

2012-10-01

70

Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues  

OpenAIRE

Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy “for” another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

2012-01-01

71

Environmental issues in Finnish school textbooks on religious education and ethics  

OpenAIRE

Solving global environmental problems requires a major change of values. As relates to environmental education, worldview, ethics and spiritual issues are important elements. But how are environmental issues included in such school subjects that especially discuss values and ethics? In this article I examine 24 Finnish religious education and ethics textbooks to analyze, to what extent environmental issues are integrated and discussed in them. I conclude that there is confusion about what env...

Essi Aarnio-Linnanvuori

2013-01-01

72

Ethical issues in communicating science.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of the publicized work on scientific ethics concentrates on establishing professional norms and avoiding misconduct. The successful communication of science is the responsibility of all involved in the process. In one study, the increased incidence of autism and other social developmental disorders in males was investigated by examining individuals with Turner's syndrome (XO females). In the national newspaper this became "Genetic X-factor explains why boys will always be boys". The steps by which a study on developmental disorders, published in a highly prestigious journal, was transformed into an article in the science section which 'explained' the socially expected gender-based behavior of genetically normal children are fascinating and, unfortunately far too typical. The scientists wrote an excellent article that has just one sentence at the end that hesitantly suggests that the findings might, with further study, have some relevance to understanding normal behavior. The general interest article in the front of the journal gave a good account of the research, but suggested more strongly that there could be an in-built biological dimorphism in social cognition. This was misrepresented in the press as proof of gender differences that "undermines the trend towards sexual equality", and both illustrates cultural bias and provides fodder for feminist critiques of science. The study has been made to appear to be biased in favor of justifying the social structure of society, and yet it was the translation from the scientific study to national news that produced this transformation to biased genetic determinism. It is poor communication of the actual science, coupled with a lack of skepticism on the part of the public, that contributes to such a misapplication of science. Scientists should resist the urge to generalize their results to make them more compelling. The science community should not allow misconstructions of scientific facts to go unchallenged. Journalists, for both the scientific publication and the newspaper, should resist the inclination to embellish the finding with social significance that is not present. For their part, readers must be doubly skeptical of any finding that appears to underwrite any current social hierarchy. We are all responsible for a communication and interpretation of science that is as accurate and socially responsible as possible. PMID:11228768

Garrett, J M; Bird, S J

2000-10-01

73

A STUDY OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN BANKING INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic performance of a country is largely determined by banking and financial system. Banking and finance play a vital and crucial role in framing public policies in today’s business environment. This article highlights social and ethical issues such as social banking, ethical banking, green banking, global banking, rural banking, and agri-banking, which help in achieving sustainable development of banking and finance. For this purpose, we have gone through a series of development that are taking place in current business scenario. This paper is divided in four parts. First part discuss introduction of Banking Industry in India. Second part explains historical background of banking and its development. It also discusses concept of Banks. Third part analyzes the review of past studies on the theme. Fourth part highlights Social and Ethical issues related to Banking Industry and finally conclusion has been given.

Vijay Joshi

2011-10-01

74

Hiv And Aids: Legal And Ethical Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, called as 'black death of our time'1 caused by humanimmunodeficiency virus still remaining a challenge to the medical world has spread its tentacles ominously thatmillions of people have breathed their last and others afflicted by it are counting days in great misery and despair forpre-mature extinction of their life.2 The tragedy is that it has spread from the high risk group to common populationassuming a menacing proportion.3 It has not remained as a mere matter of health to bother only medicalprofessionals. A person afflicted by it invites social stigma of a highest degree, which is worse than apartheid. It hasgenerated such sensitive and boiling legal, ethical and social issues posing serious challenge to the medicalprofessionals, health policy makers, law makers and common men. In this article an attempt is made to criticallyanalyse the legal, ethical and social issues stemming from HIV AIDS.

Venugopal. B. S.

2013-08-01

75

Social and Ethical Issues in Remediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contamination of environments with radionuclides can give rise to consequences additional to the health risks from exposure to radiation. As experience from Chernobyl has demonstrated, both accident and remediation measures can have serious social, ethical and economic consequences. This paper presents a review of some of these issues and presents a ‘checklist’ of the socioethical aspects of remediation measures. The paper also discusses remediation measures that are directed towards benefits other than dose reduction. (author)

76

Re-Examining Ethical Issue: Philosophical Considerations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper reflects on the current trend among radiologists to move away from what is regarded as a paternalistic attitude existing among practitioners and to place more emphasis on the rights of individual patients with regard to the issue of justification. The ethical discussion addresses the autonomy and rights of the patient, as well as the question of consent on his or her part. (author)

77

What Counts as a 'Social and Ethical Issue' in Nanotechnology?  

OpenAIRE

As 'social and ethical issues' becomes a recurring phrase in the community paying attention to nanotechnology research, a crucial question becomes: what counts as a social and ethical issue? A typical list includes privacy, environmental health and safety, media hype, and other apparently unrelated issues. This article surveys those issues and suggests that concerns about fundamental concepts of ethics, such as fairness, justice, equity, and especially power, unite the various issues identifi...

Lewenstein, Bruce V.

2005-01-01

78

Ethical issues in medico-legal exposures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Medical Exposure Directive (MED) 97/43/Euratom defines medico-legal procedures as 'procedures performed for insurance or legal purposes without a medical indication'. The term 'medico-legal exposures' covers a wide range of possible types of exposures, very different in nature, for which the only feature in common is the fact that the main reason for performing them does not relate directly to the health of the individual being exposed to ionising radiation. The key issue in medico-legal exposures is justification. Balancing the advantages and disadvantages of such exposures is complex because not only can these be difficult to quantify and hence compare, but often the advantage may be to society whereas the disadvantage is usually to an individual. This adds an additional layer of ethical complexity to the problem and one, which requires input from a number of sources beyond the established radiation protection community. Because medico-legal exposures are considered to be medical exposures, they are not subject to dose limits. In medico-legal exposures where the benefit is not necessarily to the individual undergoing the exposure, the question must be asked as to whether or not this is an appropriate framework within which to conduct such exposures. This paper looks at the current situation in Europe, highlighting some of the particular problems that have arisen, and tries to identify the areas, which require further clarification and guidance. (authors)rification and guidance. (authors)

79

[Ethics and reproductive health: the issue of HPV vaccination].  

Science.gov (United States)

The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the vaccination status. PMID:23539924

Mateji?, Bojana; Kesi?, Vesna

2013-01-01

80

The effect of home and host country cultures on marketing managers` individual decision making related to ethical issues in MNCs :Inter- and intra-cultural study  

OpenAIRE

The topic of business ethics has always been relevant, but never more so than at the present time of the global economic crisis. Nestlè, Lockheed, Union Carbide, Nike, Enron, Tyco, AIG, BP, Halliburton, Lehman Brothers, Bernard L. Madoff are just a few well-known names of businesses/related individuals that at one time or other openly failed ethically. Such cases have prompted researchers to analyze the causes of unethical behavior to understand what drives individuals in business organizati...

Kliukinskaite?-vigil, Virginija

2012-01-01

81

Scientists’ perception of ethical issues in nanomedicine - a case study  

OpenAIRE

Research and development in nanomedicine has been accompanied by the consideration of ethical issues; however, little is known about how researchers working in this area perceive such issues. Extracting data from 22 semi-structured interviews with nanomedicine practitioners, this case study explores scientists’ attitude towards and knowledge of ethical issues. We found that scientists reflect with ambiguity on the reputed novelty of nanomedicine and what are ethical issues and risks in thei...

Costa, Helena Silva; Sethe, Sebastian; Pe?go, Ana P.; Olsson, I. Anna S.

2011-01-01

82

"But My Students All Speak English": Ethical Research Issues of Aboriginal English  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article I explore ethical issues in relation to the topic of Aboriginal students who speak a dialect of English. Taking the form of a retrospective inquiry, I draw on data from an earlier study that examined Aboriginal English in the broader context of Aboriginal language loss and revival. Three interrelated ethical issues are discussed:…

Wiltse, Lynne

2011-01-01

83

Ethical Concerns Related to Developing Pharmacogenomic Treatment Strategies for Addiction  

OpenAIRE

Pharmacogenomics (PGx) research is poised to enable physicians to identify optimally effective treatments for individual substance abusers based on their genetic profiles. This paper addresses ethical issues related to PGx treatment strategies for addiction, focusing especially on the use of race variables in genomics research and ensuring equitable access to novel PGx treatments. Unless the field addresses the ethical challenges posed by these issues, PGx treatment innovations for addiction ...

Shields, Alexandra E.

2011-01-01

84

Ethical issues in radiology: A philosophical perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Given that there is much disagreement as to what constitutes 'philosophy', even among philosophers, it is a challenge to provide a philosophical perspective. There are, however, at least two areas that most philosophers would regard as coming within the terrain of philosophical thinking: (1) the clarification of issues and (2) providing some sort of a foundation on which further thinking can take place. Thus, by way of contributing a philosophical perspective to the discussion, this paper will clarify some of the more fundamental issues regarding ethical debates in the hope of establishing some kind of theoretical foundation on which to base the discussion of the more specific issues and of widening the scope of the discussion. (authors)

85

Preconception care and genetic risk: ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preconception care to address genetic risks in reproduction may be offered either individually to couples with a known or suspected increased risk of having a child with a genetic disorder, or systematically to couples or individuals of reproductive age. The identification of couples at risk of transmitting a (serious) genetic disorder allows those couples to refrain from having children or to adapt their reproductive plans (using prenatal or preimplantation diagnosis, donor gametes, or adoption). Ethical issues concern the possible objectives of providing these options through preconception genetic counseling or screening, objections to abortion and embryo-selection, concerns about eugenics and medicalization, and issues arising in the professional-client relationship and/or in the light of the normative framework for population screening. Although enhancing reproductive autonomy rather than prevention should be regarded as the primary aim of preconception care for genetic risks, directive counseling may well be acceptable in exceptional cases, and prevention in the sense of avoiding serious suffering may be an appropriate objective of specific community-based preconception screening programmes. The seemingly unavoidable prospect of comprehensive preconception screening raises further ethical issues. PMID:22205578

De Wert, Guido M W R; Dondorp, Wybo J; Knoppers, Bartha M

2012-07-01

86

DOPING IN SPORT: GLOBAL ETHICAL ISSUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DESCRIPTION In this book the question of "How ethical is using performance improving drugs in sport?" is argued in global perspective. PURPOSE The ethical questions in sport are discussed comprehensively. Particularly, different cultures and approach of various countries to that issue were examined. FEATURES The book composed of 10 chapters following a thorough introduction from the editors in 194 pages. The titles are: 1.Fair is Fair, Or Is It? : A Moral Consideration of the Doping Wars in American Sport; 2.Are Doping Sanctions Justified? A Moral Relativistic View; 3.Cultural Nuances: Doping, Cycling and the Tour de France; 4.On Transgendered Athletes, Fairness and Doping: An International Challenge; 5.Creating a Corporate Anti-doping Culture: The Role of Bulgarian Sports Governing Bodies; 6. Doping in the UK: Alain and Dwain, Rio and Greg - Not Guilty?; 7.The Japanese Debate Surrounding the Doping Ban: The Application of the Harm Principle; 8. Doping and Anti-doping in Sport in China: An Analysis of Recent and Present Attitudes and Actions; 9.Anti-doping in Sport: The Norwegian Perspective; 10.Ethics in Sport: The Greek Educational Perspective on Anti-doping. AUDIENCE Given that this book is about a popular topic in sport, it is a great interest to the sport public as well as students, researchers and practitioners in the sport and exercise disciplines.

Angela J. Schneider

2007-09-01

87

Nurse managers' experience with ethical issues in six government hospitals in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurse managers have the burden of experiencing frequent ethical issues related to both their managerial and nursing care duties, according to previous international studies. However, no such study was published in Malaysia. The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' experience with ethical issues in six government hospitals in Malaysia including learning about the way they dealt with the issues. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in August-September, 2010 involving 417 (69.2% of total 603 nurse managers in the six Malaysian government hospitals. Data were collected using three-part self-administered questionnaire. Part I was regarding participants' demographics. Part II was about the frequency and areas of management where ethical issues were experienced, and scoring of the importance of 11 pre-identified ethical issues. Part III asked how they dealt with ethical issues in general; ways to deal with the 11 pre-identified ethical issues, and perceived stress level. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations and Pearson's Chi-square. Results A total of 397 (95.2% participants experienced ethical issues and 47.2% experienced them on weekly to daily basis. Experiencing ethical issues were not associated with areas of practice. Top area of management where ethical issues were encountered was "staff management", but "patient care" related ethical issues were rated as most important. Majority would "discuss with other nurses" in dealing generally with the issues. For pre-identified ethical issues regarding "patient care", "discuss with doctors" was preferred. Only 18.1% referred issues to "ethics committees" and 53.0% to the code of ethics. Conclusions Nurse managers, regardless of their areas of practice, frequently experienced ethical issues. For dealing with these, team-approach needs to be emphasized. Proper understanding of the code of ethics is needed to provide basis for reasoning.

Musa Maizura

2011-11-01

88

Genetic susceptibility testing for neurodegenerative diseases: Ethical and practice issues  

OpenAIRE

As the genetics of neurodegenerative disease become better understood, opportunities for genetic susceptibility testing for at-risk individuals will increase. Such testing raises important ethical and practice issues related to test access, informed consent, risk estimation and communication, return of results, and policies to prevent genetic discrimination. The advent of direct-to-consumer genetic susceptibility testing for various neurodegenerative disorders (including Alzheimer’s disease...

Roberts, J. Scott; Uhlmann, Wendy R.

2013-01-01

89

Depo-Provera--ethical issues in its testing and distribution.  

OpenAIRE

Ethical issues relating to the use of the injectable contraceptive in developed and developing countries alike involve public policy decisions concerning both criteria for testing a new drug and individual choices about using a specific form of contraception approved for national distribution. Drug testing consists of an important but still evolving set of procedures. Depo-Provera is not qualitatively different from any other drug and some unpredictable risks are inevitable, even after extens...

Potts, M.; Paxman, J. M.

1984-01-01

90

Medical Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

... have an ethical aspect. For example, there are ethical issues relating to End of life care: Should a patient receive nutrition? What about advance directives and resuscitation orders? Abortion: When does life begin? Is it ethical to ...

91

[Ethical and legal issues in late stage of dementia].  

Science.gov (United States)

As we enter the 21st century, growth of the elderly population, the costs of care, and the advances of medical science and technology will continue to have an impact on the patient-physician relationship. Transformation of the health care system will also raise ethical issues inherent to changing roles. The special nature of Alzheimer's patients and the natural course of their disease require special care on the part of physicians to meet the ethical challenges and establish medical goals, in conjunction with their patients and their families. In spite of these rapid advances in biomedical sciences, were not sufficiently developed in the most fitness answers, regarding special moral and ethical attitudes, which must be taken into account, in particular when we try to understand the experience of people with dementia. This article explores emerging issues in relation to awareness in dementia and its impact on legal and ethical matters. The different approaches and principles demonstrated in relation to ethical issues are discussed, with an exploration of the concepts of mental capacity, testamentary capacity, power of attorney, court of protection, advance directives, decision making, participation in research and treatment, informed consent and older people driving. The tensions that exist between the imperatives of doing no harm and of maintaining autonomy in addressing legal and ethical issues are highlighted. The review emphasizes the importance of considering competency and awareness as being multi-faceted, to be understood in the context of social interaction, trying to deal with the challenge of protecting, but not overprotecting, people with dementia. Late stage of dementia is a terminal disease where the goal of the care may not be prolongation of life at all costs, but rather achievement: quality of life, dignity and comfort. In the initial late dementia, quality of life is the target, treating medical problems and psychiatric symptoms. The dignity of people with severe dementia will be preserved, mostly when this influences patient's behaviour, maximizing individual Independence in daily living activities. Finally, comfort is the last and the most important goal of care in late stages of dementia, using appropriate medical strategies and eliminating aggressive interventions (cardiopulmonary resuscitation, acute care setting, tube feeding and antibiotic treatment). The future work will focus on promoting more evidence-based decision-making on treatment and guidelines for prognostic information. Physician must be knowledgeable about broadly intersecting medical, legal, finance and ethics, underlying the long-term management of dementia. PMID:18489837

Fernandes, Lia

2008-01-01

92

Ethical issues in epidemiologic research and public health practice  

OpenAIRE

Abstract A rich and growing body of literature has emerged on ethics in epidemiologic research and public health practice. Recent articles have included conceptual frameworks of public health ethics and overviews of historical developments in the field. Several important topics in public health ethics have also been highlighted. Attention to ethical issues can facilitate the effective planning, implementation, and growth of a variety of public health programs and research activities. Public h...

Coughlin Steven S

2006-01-01

93

Recognizing bioethical issues and ethical qualification in nursing students and faculty in South Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of nursing faculty members in charge of ethics education is important. Although all nursing students receive the same bioethics education, their experiences differ, related to ethical qualification, which depends on the personal socialization process. This Korean study aimed to provide nursing faculty members with the basic data to help them develop as bioethics experts and provide nursing students with knowledge to improve their ethical decision-making abilities. We used a survey design to assess recognition of bioethical issues and ethical qualification in nursing students and faculty members. A total of 1225 undergraduate students and 140 faculty members participated in this study. The results revealed that nursing students and nursing faculty members generally understood the seriousness of various bioethical issues and both considered the most serious issue to concern abortion. Ethical behavior can be improved by education, and accordingly, nursing ethics should be a mandatory subject, rather than an elective one. PMID:23361146

Choe, Kwisoon; Song, Eunju; Kang, Youngmi

2013-03-01

94

Neuroimaging Research with Children: Ethical Issues and Case Scenarios  

Science.gov (United States)

There are few available resources for learning and teaching about ethical issues in neuroimaging research with children, who constitute a special and vulnerable population. Here, a brief review of ethical issues in developmental research, situated within the emerging field of neuroethics, highlights the increasingly interdisciplinary nature of…

Coch, Donna

2007-01-01

95

Critical thinking by nurses on ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies  

OpenAIRE

This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empat...

Botes, A.

2000-01-01

96

Critical Issues: Case Study of a Professional Organization Grappling with Ethical Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considers how ethics have become an imperative within the social-science community. Trace the development of a code of ethics by the National Reading Conference, a group of educational researchers concerned with issues of literacy, in order to learn more about how such statements are formed and what particular ethical issues this professional…

Siegel, Marjorie; Barr, Rebecca

1997-01-01

97

Ethical Issues in Cross-Cultural Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The gap between theoretical expectations of research ethics as outlined in the bureaucratic processes associated with University Ethics Committees and the situated realities of students undertaking studies within their own sociocultural contexts is explored in this paper. In particular, the authors investigate differences in ethical norms and…

Honan, Eileen; Hamid, M. Obaidul; Alhamdan, Bandar; Phommalangsy, Phouvanh; Lingard, Bob

2013-01-01

98

Antiprogestin drugs: ethical, legal and medical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

RU 486 allows women the choice of a medical rather than a surgical abortion, and, for most women, the choice is one of procedure, not of whether to have an abortion. Issues surrounding RU 486 were explored in an American Society of Law and Medicine conference in December 1991 entitled "Antiprogestin Drugs: Ethical, Legal and Medical Issues." An introduction to 14 conference papers provides an overview of the proceedings. Baulieu, the father of RU 486, described updated developments in its use and the medically supervised method of abortion. Bygdeman and Swahn presented their work in Sweden on combining RU 486 with a prostaglandin to make abortion more effective. They suggested that the drug may be an attractive postovulation contraceptive. Greenslad et al. discussed service delivery aspects of the use of RU 486. Holt considered the implications of use of the drug in low-resource settings. A survey of obstetricians and gynecologists, presented by Heilig, indicates that 22% more physicians would perform a medical abortion. Patient perspectives were addressed by David, who stated that measuring acceptability of an abortion technique is difficult; women have historically used whatever method is available. A collaborative research project in India and Cuba on why women chose certain methods was reported by Winikoff et al. (90% of women would choose medical abortion if faced with the choice again). Berer analyzed French data on women's perspectives on medical vs. surgical abortion. The question of adolescent use of the drug was considered by Senderowitz, who lamented the lack of data on the subject and described what is known about adolescent pregnancy. Macklin proposed a framework for ethical analysis and used facts to address ethical questions. Weinstein provided another ethical framework, to analyze whether pharmacists have a right to refuse to provide abortifacient drugs. Buc approached the subject from a legal point of view and concluded that, whereas legal problems are minimal, political problem are of first concern. Boland described differences in introduction of the drug in France and Britain and the US. The theory of "use it or lose it" in patent legislation is applied differently in the US, France, and the UK. Hayhurst, in a complementary legal analysis, noted that Canadian importation would open access to affluent US women. Pine reported on the legal case Benten vs. Kessler, which did not result in successful importation of the drug for personal use, but resulted in some supportive language from the courts. By refusing to apply to the FDA for marketing approval, RU 486's manufacturer may be setting itself up for a boycott. Approaching the problem from these various perspectives addressed the challenge between medical advances and politics and highlighted the need to balance the benefits to women with perceived threats to values. PMID:1434754

Cook, R J; Grimes, D A

1992-01-01

99

Ethical issues posed by cluster randomized trials in health research  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The cluster randomized trial (CRT) is used increasingly in knowledge translation research, quality improvement research, community based intervention studies, public health research, and research in developing countries. However, cluster trials raise difficult ethical issues that challenge researchers, research ethics committees, regulators, and sponsors as they seek to fulfill responsibly their respective roles. Our project will provide a systematic analysis of the ethics of cluster...

Donner Allan; Brehaut Jamie C; Boruch Robert; Binik Ariella; Taljaard Monica; Grimshaw Jeremy M; Weijer Charles; Eccles Martin P; Gallo Antonio; McRae Andrew D; Saginur Raphael; Zwarenstein Merrick

2011-01-01

100

Ethical issues in human genomics research in developing countries  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide a powerful means of identifying genetic variants that play a role in common diseases. Such studies present important ethical challenges. An increasing number of GWAS is taking place in lower income countries and there is a pressing need to identify the particular ethical challenges arising in such contexts. In this paper, we draw upon the experiences of the MalariaGEN Consortium to identify specific ethical issues raised by su...

Mercereau-Puijalon Odile; Ibrahim Muntaser; Doumbo Ogobara; Bull Susan J; de Vries Jantina; Kwiatkowski Dominic; Parker Michael

2011-01-01

101

Ethical Issues in Mentoring Doctoral Students in Clinical Psychology  

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Ethical issues abound in any relationship that is defined by differences between the parties in rank, status, and power. Such is the case in the relationship between a doctoral student in clinical psychology and his or her mentor. In this article, we examine several potential areas of ethical concern within the mentor-student relationship. We…

Rosenberg, Anna; Heimberg, Richard G.

2009-01-01

102

Review for the volume Practicing Relational Ethics in Organizations, Authors: Gitte Haslebo, Maja Loua Haslebo, Taos Institute Publications, ISBN 978-0-9819076-8-0  

OpenAIRE

The volume Practicing Relational Ethics in Organizations having as authors Gitte Haslebo and Maja Loua Haslebo issued by Taos Institute Publications Ohio USA, discusses relational ethics and ethical practice in the organization. The problem of ethical practice in the organization besides being a necessity for business it overlaps with aspects of organizational culture, personnel management, leadership. Within the organizational ethics, the authors select the issue of relational ethics from a ...

Sandu, Antonio

2012-01-01

103

Public Relations Ethics in Information Management  

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Full Text Available Public relations is involved in all communication between an organization and the public. In the contemporary world, PR practitioners have become the facilitators of information. Information and communication technology (ICT have imposed new rules in the field of public relations. Communication strategy and information management have become crucial parts of modern public relations. People change their habits with regard to the consumption of traditional and new media. The challenges imposed by the development of information and communication technology are also related to understanding the new information society. For that reason information ethics deals with the ethical implications of dissemination, use, development and safety of information. Public relations follow new information and communication trends, and they need to build firm ethical principles for the age of information. The author examines the ethical implications of the framing concept in public relations.

Hrvoje Jakopovi?

2013-06-01

104

Ethical Issues in Rural Counselling Practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Counselors in rural areas face unique challenges in striving to practice ethically and meet the needs of clients and communities. These challenges lead rural counselors to examine and question their daily practice and lives in an attempt to balance ethical codes with the realities of rural life. Describes these challenges and suggestions to…

Schank, Janet A.

1998-01-01

105

Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…

Cohen, Libby

106

Theoretical frameworks used to discuss ethical issues in private physiotherapy practice and proposal of a new ethical tool.  

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In the past, several researchers in the field of physiotherapy have asserted that physiotherapy clinicians rarely use ethical knowledge to solve ethical issues raised by their practice. Does this assertion still hold true? Do the theoretical frameworks used by researchers and clinicians allow them to analyze thoroughly the ethical issues they encounter in their everyday practice? In our quest for answers, we conducted a literature review and analyzed the ethical theoretical frameworks used by physiotherapy researchers and clinicians to discuss the ethical issues raised by private physiotherapy practice. Our final analysis corpus consisted of thirty-nine texts. Our main finding is that researchers and clinicians in physiotherapy rarely use ethical knowledge to analyze the ethical issues raised in their practice and that gaps exist in the theoretical frameworks currently used to analyze these issues. Consequently, we developed, for ethical analysis, a four-part prism which we have called the Quadripartite Ethical Tool (QET). This tool can be incorporated into existing theoretical frameworks to enable professionals to integrate ethical knowledge into their ethical analyses. The innovative particularity of the QET is that it encompasses three ethical theories (utilitarism, deontologism, and virtue ethics) and axiological ontology (professional values) and also draws on both deductive and inductive approaches. It is our hope that this new tool will help researchers and clinicians integrate ethical knowledge into their analysis of ethical issues and contribute to fostering ethical analyses that are grounded in relevant philosophical and axiological foundations. PMID:24942342

Drolet, Marie-Josée; Hudon, Anne

2015-02-01

107

Rapporteurs' report: Workshop on ethical issues in diagnostic radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the summary reports of the session rapporteurs at the Workshop on Ethical Issues in Diagnostic Radiology. The summaries reflect the extent to which the topics discussed are well reflected in the papers presented in this proceedings. (authors)

108

Informed recruitment in partner studies of HIV transmission: an ethical issue in couples research  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Much attention has been devoted to ethical issues related to randomized controlled trials for HIV treatment and prevention. However, there has been less discussion of ethical issues surrounding families involved in observational studies of HIV transmission. This paper describes the process of ethical deliberation about how best to obtain informed consent from sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs) tested for HIV, within a recent HIV study in Eastern Europe. The study aimed to assess the amount of HIV serodiscordance among IDUs and their sexual partners, identify barriers to harm reduction, and explore ways to optimize intervention programs. Including IDUs, either HIV-positive or at high risk for HIV, and their sexual partners would help to gain a more complete understanding of barriers to and opportunities for intervention. Discussion This paper focuses on the ethical dilemma regarding informed recruitment: whether researchers should disclose to sexual partners of IDUs that they were recruited because their partner injects drugs (i.e., their heightened risk for HIV). Disclosing risks to partners upholds the ethical value of respect for persons through informed consent. However, disclosure compromises the IDU's confidentiality, and potentially, the scientific validity of the research. Following a brief literature review, we summarize the researchers' systematic evaluation of this issue from ethical, scientific, and logistical perspectives. While the cultural context may be somewhat unique to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the issues raised and solutions proposed here inform epidemiological research designs and their underlying ethical tensions. Summary We present ethical arguments in favor of disclosure, discuss how cultural context shapes the ethical issues, and recommend refinement of guidance for couples research of communicable diseases to assist investigators encountering these ethical issues in the future. PMID:19709442

McNutt, Louise-Anne; Gordon, Elisa J; Uusküla, Anneli

2009-01-01

109

[Ethical, legal and social issues in regenerative medicine].  

Science.gov (United States)

Regenerative medicine, currently on the stage of research, implies important ethical issues. Current main stream is the embryonic stem cell research which implies destruction of embryo in order to derive ES cells. Is such a use (destruction) of a human embryo, which is called a "germ of human life" in Japanese Society, ethically permitted or not? If yes, in which conditions? Expected clinical use of ES cells and differentiated cells thereof requires therapeutic cloning, on which arises also the ethical permissibility. Such heavy ethical obstacle leads researchers to the utilization of adult stem cells. Recent appearance of iPS cell (induced pluri-potential stem cell) does not escape from ethical issues, although the destruction of embryo is avoided. PMID:18464522

Ida, Ryuichi

2008-05-01

110

Ethical Issues in Irregular Migration Research in Europe  

OpenAIRE

This paper is concerned with the ethical issues arising for researchers engaged in the study of irregular migration. Based on the authors' research experiences, the paper goes beyond analysis of ethical dilemmas and aims to provide some guidance to researchers in this field. Irregular migration is by definition an elusive phenomenon as it takes place in violation of the law and at the margins of society. The very nature of this phenomenon raises important issues, including the sensitivity and...

Du?vell, Franck; Triandafyllidou, Anna; Vollmer, Bastian

2010-01-01

111

Información médica a pacientes y familiares: aspectos clínicos, éticos y legales / Clinical, ethical and legal issues on medical information to patients and relatives  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Providing information to patients and relatives (IPAR) is a clinical, ethical and legal need. IPAR is inherent to the medical team work as diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are. In some cases, it is a key step for patient's recovery. From an ethical point of view, the patient is not only the sub [...] ject of the medical work but also its main owner and who must, previously informed, decide about options which would directly affect him. After the promulgation of a special law in Chile, this prerogative became a legal right. This paper proposes an empirically developed model or protocol that should be used to inform hospitalized patients and their relatives about their disease, in a pertinent way. Considering that IPAR is a skill that should be learned and practiced, the written protocol is provided to neurology residents as supporting material. Although IPAR protocols are completely justified, they have not been evaluated in terms of efficiency of communication, user satisfaction, patient and relatives reassurance and clinical impact. Therefore, they require a prospective validation.

Jorge, Nogales-Gaete; Paola, Vargas-Silva; Iván, Vidal-Cañas.

1190-11-01

112

Ethicality and confidentiality: Is there an inverse-care issue in general practice ethics?  

OpenAIRE

This paper discusses confidentiality as a routine issue of concern to British general practitioners participating in a qualitative study as well as in contemporaneous practice literature. While keen to reflect on routine issues, such as confidentiality, participants who professed a lack of expertise in medical ethics also perceived reluctance or inability to access educational resources or ethics support. Such lack of ability might include a perception of non-entitlement to access advice and ...

Papanikitas, A.

2011-01-01

113

Ethical and legal issues in aesthetic surgery  

OpenAIRE

Rapid growth and expansion of plastic surgery in general and aesthetic surgery in particular in the past decade has brought in its wake some confusions particularly raising questions for the surgeons conduct towards his colleagues and the patients in the light of ethical requirements. Some thoughts from eminent thinkers form a backdrop to consideration of theories of medical ethics. In this article raging and continuous debates on these subjects have been avoided to maintain the momentum. Apa...

Gupta, Suresh

2012-01-01

114

Radwastes and public ethics: issues and imperatives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper, which was presented at the Health Physics Society annual meeting at Atlanta, conclude that the problem of radioactive waste management is neither unique and unprecedented, nor has it been properly formulated from an ethical perspective, and that to recover and maintain a balanced perspective on this particular biohazard and to introduce some corrective perception in the public mind becomes an ethical imperative. (author)

115

Ethical Issues in Providing Online Psychotherapeutic Interventions  

OpenAIRE

The Internet offers psychotherapists a new communication medium through which they can deliver psychotherapeutic interventions that are appropriate to the medium. Yet online psychotherapy also offers new ethical challenges for therapists interested in providing online psychotherapeutic services. The differences between interactive text-based communication and in-person verbal communication create new ethical challenges not previously encountered in face-to-face therapy. This article will exam...

Childress, Craig A.

2000-01-01

116

Technical and Ethical Issues in Indicator Systems  

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Full Text Available Most indicator systems are top-down, published, management systems, addressing primarily the issue of public accountability. In contrast we describe here a university-based suite of "grass-roots," research-oriented indicator systems that are now subscribed to, voluntarily, by about 1 in 3 secondary schools and over 4,000 primary schools in England. The systems are also being used by groups in New Zealand, Australia and Hong Kong, and with international schools in 30 countries. These systems would not have grown had they not been cost-effective for schools. This demanded the technical excellence that makes possible the provision of one hundred percent accurate data in a very timely fashion. An infrastructure of powerful hardware and ever-improving software is needed, along with extensive programming to provide carefully chosen graphical and tabular presentations of data, giving at-a-glance comparative information. Highly skilled staff, always learning new techniques, have been essential, especially as we move into computer-based data collection. It has been important to adopt transparent, readily understood methods of data analysis where we are satisfied that these are accurate, and to model the processes that produce the data. This can mean, for example, modelling separate regression lines for 85 different examination syllabuses for one age group, because any aggregation can be shown to represent unfair comparisons. Ethical issues are surprisingly often lurking in technical decisions. For example, reporting outcomes from a continuous measure in terms of the percent of students who surpassed a certain level, produces unethical behavior: a concentration of teaching on borderline students. Distortion of behavior and data corruption are ever-present concerns in indicator systems. The systems we describe would have probably failed to thrive had they not addressed schools' on-going concerns about education. Moreover, data interpretation can only be completed in the schools, by those who know all the factors involved. Thus the commitment to working closely and collaboratively with schools in "distributed research" is important, along with "measuring what matters"... not only achievement. In particular the too-facile interpretation of correlation as causation that characterized much school effectiveness research had to be avoided and the need for experimentation promoted and demonstrated. Reasons for the exceptionally warm welcome from the teaching profession may include both threats (such as the unvalidated inspection regime run by the Office for Standards in Education and opportunities (such as site based management.

Carol Taylor Fitz-Gibbon

2002-01-01

117

Ethical issues is psychological screening of nuclear power personnel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethical issues of mandatory psychological screening of nuclear power plant personnel have not been explored adequately. This paper examines several ethical issues in this area that need more attention. (1) Informed Consent: psychologists' ethics (like those of virtually all science and practice-oriented disciplines) require subjects participating in research or practice to be informed of procedures applied to them, the purposes, and possible consequences. (2) Feedback: psychologists' ethical guidelines require feedback to assesses when it is requested. (3) Validity: psychologists' ethics require that they use instrumentation only for the purposes intended and only for uses for which there is a preponderance of validity data available. In short, there is no question that psychological tests can significantly improve the effectiveness of a work force when they are properly (i.e., validly) used by well-trained and qualified professional psychologists. However, with the abundance of clinicians who are providing such services and with the complexity of the ethical issues involved in conducting these screenings, employers in psychologically high-risk settings should proceed with great caution to assure that assesses are treated in a fair and ethical manner

118

Ethical and legal issues in aesthetic surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid growth and expansion of plastic surgery in general and aesthetic surgery in particular in the past decade has brought in its wake some confusions particularly raising questions for the surgeons conduct towards his colleagues and the patients in the light of ethical requirements. Some thoughts from eminent thinkers form a backdrop to consideration of theories of medical ethics. In this article raging and continuous debates on these subjects have been avoided to maintain the momentum. Apart from the western thoughts, directions from our old scriptures on ethical conduct have been included to accommodate prevelant Indian practices. The confusion created by specialists advertising their abilities directly to the lay public following removal of ethical bars by the American Courts as also latitudes allowed by the General Medical Council of Great Britain have been discussed. The medical fraternity however has its reservations. Unnecessary skirmishes with the law arose in cosmetic surgery from the freedom exercised by the police to file criminal proceedings against attending doctors in the event of a patient's death with or without any evidence of wrong doing. This has now been curtailed in the judgement of the Supreme Court of India[1] where norms have been laid down for such prosecution. This has helped doctors to function without fear of harassment. An effort has been made to state a simple day-to-day routine for an ethical doctor-patient relationship. PMID:23450235

Gupta, Suresh

2012-09-01

119

Questões éticas referentes às preferências do paciente em cuidados paliativos / Ethical issues related to patient preferences in palliative care / Las cuestiones éticas relacionadas con las preferencias del paciente en los cuidados paliativos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O respeito à autonomia do paciente é um princípio ético reconhecido em diversas áreas da assistência à saúde, incluindo os cuidados paliativos, porém nem sempre as preferências do paciente são respeitadas. Uma melhor compreensão das questões éticas relacionadas ao exercício da autonomia do paciente [...] em cuidados paliativos é importante passo para embasar juízos éticos ponderados no cotidiano da assistência. Tendo isso em vista, este trabalho objetivou identificar e analisar questões éticas relacionadas às preferências do paciente e reconhecidas por profissionais no cotidiano de uma equipe de cuidados paliativos à luz do referencial bioético da casuística. Foram entrevistados onze profissionais de nível superior. As principais questões éticas identificadas foram: respeito à autonomia do paciente; veracidade e direito à informação; habilidades de comunicação; cerco do silêncio; participação no processo de deliberação; escolha do local de tratamento e morte. Abstract in spanish El respeto a la autonomía del paciente es un principio ético reconocido en muchas áreas de la salud, incluyendo los Cuidados Paliativos, pero no siempre se respetan las preferencias del paciente. Una mejor comprensión de las cuestiones éticas relacionadas con el ejercicio de la autonomía del pacient [...] e en los Cuidados Paliativos es un paso importante para apoyar los juicios éticos ponderados en la práctica diaria de la asistencia. Teniendo esto en cuenta, este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar y analizar las cuestiones éticas relacionadas con las preferencias del paciente y reconocidas por los profesionales en el día a día de un equipo de cuidados paliativos en el marco bioético de la casuística. Se entrevistó a once profesionales de nivel superior. Se identificaron las principales cuestiones éticas: el respeto a la autonomía del paciente, veracidad y el derecho a la información, habilidades de comunicación, asedio del silencio, participación en el proceso de deliberación, elección del lugar de tratamiento y muerte. Abstract in english The respect for patient's autonomy is an ethical principle recognized in many areas of health care including palliative care, but not always the patient's preferences are respected. A better understanding of ethical issues related to the exercise of patient's autonomy in Palliative Care is an import [...] ant step to support ethical judgments in daily practice. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and analyze ethical issues related to patient preferences recognized by professionals in the daily life of a Palliative Care team under the framework of Casuistry. Eleven practitioners were interviewed. The main ethical issues identified are: respect for patient autonomy, veracity and right to information, communication skills, conspiracy of silence, participation in the deliberation process, choice of place of treatment and death.

Carolina Becker Bueno de, Abreu; Paulo Antonio de Carvalho, Fortes.

2014-08-01

120

Ethical issues in family violence research in healthcare settings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research ethics is always important. However, it is especially crucial with sensitive research topics such as family violence. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss some crucial issues regarding intimate partner violence and child maltreatment, based on the authors' own research experiences. We focus on and discuss examples concerning the definition of family violence, research design, ethical approval, participant recruitment and safety and data collection and processing. During the research process, the significance of teamwork is emphasized. Support provided by the participants to each other and support given by experienced researchers within the team is very important for high ethical standards. PMID:23793068

Paavilainen, Eija; Lepistö, Sari; Flinck, Aune

2014-02-01

121

Legal and Ethical Issues in Evaluating Abortion Services.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focuses on ethical and legal issues that arose in the evaluation of abortion services. Discusses the development of decision rules and tradeoffs in dealing with these issues to reach rational and objective decisions. Places the discussion in the context of balancing usefulness and propriety with respect to informed consent and privacy and makes…

Ferris, Lori E.

2000-01-01

122

Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues in Science (ELSI)  

Science.gov (United States)

Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues in Science Web site is especially suitable for middle and high school students and teachers and tackles hard issues that face contemporary scientists every day. Connect to the ELSI pages to see a discussion of basic vs. applied research, equal access to medical screening, indoor air pollution, and personal privacy and medical databases.

123

Ethical and Scientific Issues of Nanotechnology in the Workplace  

OpenAIRE

In the absence of scientific clarity about the potential health effects of occupational exposure to nanoparticles, a need exists for guidance in decisionmaking about hazards, risks, and controls. An identification of the ethical issues involved may be useful to decision makers, particularly employers, workers, investors, and health authorities. Because the goal of occupational safety and health is the prevention of disease in workers, the situations that have ethical implications that most af...

Schulte, Paul A.; Salamanca-buentello, Fabio

2006-01-01

124

A STUDY OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN BANKING INDUSTRY  

OpenAIRE

Economic performance of a country is largely determined by banking and financial system. Banking and finance play a vital and crucial role in framing public policies in today’s business environment. This article highlights social and ethical issues such as social banking, ethical banking, green banking, global banking, rural banking, and agri-banking, which help in achieving sustainable development of banking and finance. For this purpose, we have gone through a series of development that ...

Vijay Joshi; Goyal, Dr K. A.

2011-01-01

125

Legal and Ethical Issues Regarding Social Media and Pharmacy Education  

OpenAIRE

Widespread use of social media applications like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter has introduced new complexities to the legal and ethical environment of higher education. Social communications have traditionally been considered private; however, now that much of this information is published online to the public, more insight is available to students' attitudes, opinions, and character. Pharmacy educators and administrators may struggle with the myriad of ethical and legal issues pertaining to...

Cain, Jeff; Fink, Joseph L.

2010-01-01

126

Ethical Issues in School Art Therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

School art therapists face numerous ethical dilemmas, from referrals to therapy, through privacy, safety and predictability in the art therapy room, to the need to balance cooperation with the educational staff and its expectations of shared information with loyalty to the patient. Breach of confidentiality also has legal implications. The…

Moriya, Dafna

2006-01-01

127

Mining ethical issues: the new prohibitionists  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mining and energy industry is under assault today for reasons that have less to do with alleged technical failures and much more to do with ethical complaints about a rate of growth in population that industrial products from mining resources have made possible. The political agendas of Western industrialized nations have been driven during the past quarter century by those whose social philosophy advocates a new ethic of biocentric equality, whereby humans must be forced to being `living as if Nature mattered`. A Green ethic requires that `a violent, plundering humankind` must abandon its alleged rape of the earth and derive its ethical norms from pre-existing ecosystemic harmonies to preserve a fragile and precarious balance existing in Nature. From the perspective of history, there is nothing new about such complaints, current complaints about the use of fossil fuels and pollution from mining, echo similar complaints in past periods. Current Green thinking seeks to impose a global government upon sovereign states, using invented emergencies such as global warming. The economic consequences of cutting greenhouse gas emissions would be catastrophic for the US coal, chemical, automobile, and petroleum industries, and for the US economy in general.

Maxey, M.N. [University of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). College of Engineering

1997-10-01

128

Ethical Issues Recognized by Critical Care Nurses in the Intensive Care Units of a Tertiary Hospital during Two Separate Periods.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research aimed to investigate the changes in ethical issues in everyday clinical practice recognized by critical care nurses during two observation periods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data obtained by prospective questionnaire surveys of nurses in the intensive care units (ICU) of a tertiary university-affiliated hospital in Seoul, Korea. Data were collected prospectively during two different periods, February 2002-January 2003 (Period 1) and August 2011-July 2012 (Period 2). Significantly fewer cases with ethical issues were reported in Period 2 than in Period 1 (89 cases [2.1%] of 4,291 ICU admissions vs. 51 [0.5%] of 9,302 ICU admissions, respectively; P ethical issues in both Periods occurred in MICU. The major source of ethical issues in Periods 1 and 2 was behavior-related. Among behaviorrelated issues, inappropriate healthcare professional behavior was predominant in both periods and mainly involved resident physicians. Ethical issue numbers regarding end-oflife (EOL) care significantly decreased in the proportion with respect to ethical issues during Period 2 (P = 0.044). In conclusion, the decreased incidence of cases with identified ethical issues in Period 2 might be associated with ethical enhancement related with EOL and improvements in the ICU care environment of the studied hospital. However, behaviorrelated issues involving resident physicians represent a considerable proportion of ethical issues encountered by critical care nurses. A systemic approach to solve behavior-related issues of resident physicians seems to be required to enhance an ethical environment in the studied ICU. PMID:25829820

Park, Dong Won; Moon, Jae Young; Ku, Eun Yong; Kim, Sun Jong; Koo, Young-Mo; Kim, Ock-Joo; Lee, Soon Haeng; Jo, Min-Woo; Lim, Chae-Man; Armstrong, John David; Koh, Younsuck

2015-04-01

129

Ethical Issues in Rehabilitation Counselor Supervision and the New 2010 Code of Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2010 revision of the "Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors" addresses changes in ethical standards related to rehabilitation counselor supervision. In an effort to promote awareness of these changes, this article offers a brief overview of the revisions and implications for practice including the responsibility of…

Glosoff, Harriet L.; Matrone, Kathe F.

2010-01-01

130

Ethical issues that confront nurses in private hospitals in the Western Cape Metropolitan area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Nurses are faced daily with a variety of ethical issues which could be as a result of budget cuts, target setting, the shortage of nurses and expertise. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to identify ethical issues related to patient care, to describe ethical issues related to patient diversity, rights and human dignity. To describe ethical issues related to caring in nursing and to the workplace environment. Method: A quantitative explorative descriptive research design was applied. A stratified sample of (n = 142/5% was drawn from all nurses and caregivers (N = 2990 working in a selected group of eight private hospitals. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. Statistical tests were applied to determine statistical relationships between variables. Results: Results included (95% of respondents provided safe and committed care to their patients, (99% loved to care for their patients and (93% believed in the Nurses’ Pledge of Service. Fifty percent (50% of the respondents indicated verbal abuse from patients and only (59% experienced openness and transparency in the work environment. Analysis further identified that the caregivers did not respect the noble tradition of the profession and experienced the most verbal abuse. Conclusion: This study has identified ethical issues which may give rise to conflict within the workplace environment if not adequately addressed by management. The study further showed that the use of caregivers not regulated in nursing practice may pose as a threat to the safety of the patient.

Ethelwynn L. Stellenberg

2014-06-01

131

Using Media to Explore Social and Ethical Issues in Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, introduces the social and ethical issues of nanotechnology. In this activity, students will explore "possible social issues through case studies using popular films, books, and news stories. The lesson is intended to stimulate discussion about social and ethical issues related to nanotechnology as well as, in a broader context, the interaction of science and technology with society." This activity will take one 50 minute classroom session. A Teacher Preparation Guide, Student Guide, and Next Generation Manufacturing Standards for this lesson are included. 

132

Multiple pregnancy: legal and ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple pregnancy is increasingly considered a complication of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and ovarian stimulation for natural fertilization. Harms to fetuses, newborn and older children, mothers, families, and healthcare systems are encouraging single embryo transfer. When patients knowingly accept multiple pregnancy risks from IVF or ovarian stimulation, they are unlikely to succeed in litigation against healthcare providers for wrongful pregnancy or wrongful birth. More challenging are impaired children's claims for "wrongful life." These are unlikely to succeed against parents, but courts are ambivalent to claims against healthcare providers. Historically, courts rejected these claims, under the principle that live birth is not a legal injury. European and other courts, however, have been more sympathetic to these claims. Multiple pregnancy treated by fetal reduction is not usually found to offend abortion laws. This poses ethical concerns, however, of "lifeboat ethics," involving how fetal reduction choices are made. PMID:18854244

Dickens, Bernard M; Cook, Rebecca J

2008-12-01

133

Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Transplantation  

OpenAIRE

There is great interest worldwide in discovering and developing a permanent source of tissues which would be capable of generating any cell type and which would avoid the problem of transplant rejection. Stem cells are cells that can specialize into the many different cells found in the human body. The ethical objections concerning stem cells have focused primarily on their source. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research offers great promise of cures for otherwise incurable conditions: s...

Mohammad Ali Kiani; Mohammad Reza Rasti Sani

2014-01-01

134

Ethical issues in health research in children  

OpenAIRE

Health research is a moral duty because it is the foundation for evidence-based care by all health care practitioners. Specific Canadian policies and regulations govern the conduct of human research; ethics review of research is required before research is conducted. Research in children poses important challenges with regard to informed consent and assent, vulnerability and potential conflicts of interest (COI). Paediatric health researchers should advocate for research participation by chil...

2008-01-01

135

Key Ethical Issues in Pediatric Research: Islamic Perspective, Iranian Experience  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective The importance of pediatric research especially in the ethically proven trials resulted in considerable legislative attempts in association with compiling ethical guidelines. Because of children's vulnerability conducting pediatric research raises different ethical issues; the two most important of which are informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. Differences in religious and socio-cultural context limit implication of ethical standards. Methods At the aim of finding a solution we critically reviewed guidelines, and literatures as well as Islamic points in addition to comparing different viewpoints in application of ethical standards in pediatric research. Findings The literature review showed that pediatric research guidelines and authors’ viewpoints have the same basic ethical core, but there are some variations; depend on cultural, religious, and social differences. Furthermore, these standards have some limitations in defining informed consent according to child's age and capacity upon application. Conclusion In this regard Islamic approach and definition about growth development and puberty sheds light and clarifies a clearer and more rational address to the issue. PMID:23429172

Mobasher, Mina; Salari, Pooneh; Larijani, Bagher

2012-01-01

136

Ethical issues posed by cluster randomized trials in health research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The cluster randomized trial (CRT is used increasingly in knowledge translation research, quality improvement research, community based intervention studies, public health research, and research in developing countries. However, cluster trials raise difficult ethical issues that challenge researchers, research ethics committees, regulators, and sponsors as they seek to fulfill responsibly their respective roles. Our project will provide a systematic analysis of the ethics of cluster trials. Here we have outlined a series of six areas of inquiry that must be addressed if the cluster trial is to be set on a firm ethical foundation: 1. Who is a research subject? 2. From whom, how, and when must informed consent be obtained? 3. Does clinical equipoise apply to CRTs? 4. How do we determine if the benefits outweigh the risks of CRTs? 5. How ought vulnerable groups be protected in CRTs? 6. Who are gatekeepers and what are their responsibilities? Subsequent papers in this series will address each of these areas, clarifying the ethical issues at stake and, where possible, arguing for a preferred solution. Our hope is that these papers will serve as the basis for the creation of international ethical guidelines for the design and conduct of cluster randomized trials.

Donner Allan

2011-04-01

137

Prevention, communication and equity in environmental epidemiology: ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

In environmental epidemiology research, decisions about when and how to intervene requires adequate ethical reflection. In fact, different kinds of issues may arise about: research methods and knowledge production; management of the results in terms of their overall assessments or for the implementation of preventive actions; reclamation intervention. In this contribution we propose to consider three topics we regard as crucial to this ethical debate: the reporting of conclusive research data; the correct application of the precautionary principle; and the environmental equity issues. PMID:21952151

Pagliarani, Giovanna; Botti, Caterina

2011-01-01

138

Ethical issues in the development of ICT mediated support for daily living in adolescents with autism : The ethics of HANDS  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The EU-funded project HANDS was aimed at assisting young people with an autism spectrum disorder to increase their participation in social life. The core of the project was the development of a mobile device using personalizable software utilizing persuasive technology techniques. This chapter analyzes the ethical issues raised by the project itself and some of the broader issues raised by the use of persuasive technologies in a population with autism spectrum disorder. These include issues relating to consent and assent procedures, the potential conflict of interest of teachers as researchers and co-producers of knowledge, and questions concerning privacy and parental access to data. In addition the chapter also provides an account of the advice given by the project's ethics advisory board.

Holm, SØren; Ploug, Thomas

2012-01-01

139

Confronting an influenza pandemic: ethical and scientific issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prolonged concern over the potential for a global influenza pandemic to cause perhaps many millions of fatalities is a chilling one. After the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) scares [1], attention has turned towards the possibility of an avian influenza virus hybridizing with a human influenza virus to create a highly virulent, as yet unknown, killer, on a scale unseen since the Spanish flu outbreak of 1918, which produced more fatalities than the Great War. In deciding how countries should react to this potential pandemic, individually and collectively, a reasonable and practical balance must be struck between the rights and obligations of individual citizens and protection of the wider community and, indeed, society as a whole. In this communication, ethical issues are discussed in the context of some of the scientific questions relating to a potential influenza pandemic. Among these issues are the rights and obligations of healthcare professionals, difficulties surrounding resource allocation, policies that have an impact on liberty and trade, when and how to introduce any vaccine or other form of mass treatment, global governance questions and the role of health policies in contemporary society. By considering these issues and questions in advance of an influenza, or indeed any other, pandemic commencing, countries can be better prepared to deal with the inevitably difficult decisions required during such events, rather than dusting down outdated previous plans, or making and implementing policy in an ad hoc manner with a resultant higher risk of adverse consequences. PMID:17073773

Schuklenk, U; Gartland, K M A

2006-12-01

140

Nuclear energy - social and ethical issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the continued exploration and mining and the construction and operation of nuclear reactors, both domestically and for export, is and will continue to be ethically and socially sound. Benefit and risk should be shared equally in the ideal society, in the real world this does not seem possible, but nuclear power appears not to worsen the situation and may even improve it. The real risks of nuclear power are less than those tolerated by many in their daily lives, but the public is relucant to accept them. The diversion of effort from dealing with real risks to worrying about hypothetical ones can be a disservice to society. Technology is inherently value-free, but can be used to raise the standard of living and provide a lifestyle in which non-material values can thrive. Withholding uranium from world markets increases the pressure on oil and the probability of armed conflict. A connection is made between uranium supply and food production. Social justice is a vital concern, but boycotts and trade embargoes may worsen suffering and have little effect on oppressors. There are formally defined international obligations to share nuclear technology. Scientists and engineers have a responsibility, which they are living up to more frequently, to make their specialized knowledge available to decision makers, and to express the ethical basis for their work. Nuclear energy appears to be more benign to future generations than many other present-day activities. (LL)

141

Ethical Issues Involving Research Conducted with Homebound Older Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

Conducting research in the home setting with homebound older adults presents distinct ethical and practical challenges that require special consideration. This article describes the methodological issues that make studying homebound older adults especially vulnerable to therapeutic misconception and researcher role conflict and offers practical…

Locher, Julie L.; Bronstein, Janet; Robinson, Caroline O.; Williams, Charlotte; Ritchie, Christine S.

2006-01-01

142

Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues  

OpenAIRE

This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.

Resnik, David B.

2008-01-01

143

Exploring ethical issues with students of Business Management: an analysis  

OpenAIRE

A reflective practitioners'anlaysis of student responses to ethical issues encountered during a workshop on International Business. The research was conducted with 1st year students of Bedrijfsmanagement MKB. The papaer reviews the literature and makes recoomendations for the business studies curriculum.

Renou, Nicole

2013-01-01

144

Ethical Issues and Best Practice Considerations for Internet Research  

Science.gov (United States)

With rapidly increasing public use of the Internet and advances in Web technologies, family and consumer sciences researchers have the opportunity to conduct Internet-based research. However, online research raises critical ethical issues concerning human subjects that have an impact on research practices. This article provides a review of the…

Colvin, Jan; Lanigan, Jane

2005-01-01

145

Ethical Issues in Nuclear Waste Management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear experts claim that the health risks from radioactive waste disposal are low compared to other environmental hazards, yet the general public is sceptical of the industry's ability to guarantee acceptable safety standards. Many allude to what might be deemed morally relevant factors, such as potential harms to future generations, possibly catastrophic consequences and environmental effects. Industry has often tended to respond with a claim that the public has an irrational perception of radiation risks, particularly those from man-made rather than natural sources. From a philosophical point of view it is interesting to consider exactly how nuclear risks might differ from other hazards, not least to evaluate which ethically relevant factors could be used to defend the stringent demands made by society for nuclear waste disposal.

Oughton, Deborah [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry and Biotechnology

2001-07-01

146

Legal and ethical issues in safe blood transfusion  

OpenAIRE

Legal issues play a vital role in providing a framework for the Indian blood transfusion service (BTS), while ethical issues pave the way for quality. Despite licensing of all blood banks, failure to revamp the Drugs and Cosmetic Act (D and C Act) is impeding quality. Newer techniques like chemiluminescence or nucleic acid testing (NAT) find no mention in the D and C Act. Specialised products like pooled platelet concentrates or modified whole blood, therapeutic procedures like erythropheresi...

Chandrashekar, Shivaram; Kantharaj, Ambuja

2014-01-01

147

Ethics Issues on Land Services Reformation in Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasingly, public demand for the availability of land has been increased due to population growth and the development while the land itself it was never increased. In an effort to improve the public service, then the government has established a policy of service to the community in the management and development of land development. It has issued instructions to the State Minister for Agrarian Affairs / Head of National Land Agency No. 3 of 1998 On Improving Efficiency and Quality of Community Service in the Land Service. Service management carried out by government officials in various service sectors, particularly those involving civil rights and the fulfillment of basic needs of society, including the ministry of land, the way it works is still far from the expected.The issue of ethics in Indonesia actually has much discussed but less thoroughly discussed, as there is in developed countries. Although it has been realized that one of the fundamental weaknesses in the public service in Indonesia is a matter of ethics and morality, ethics is often seen as a less important element in the public service. Another very serious problem in the context of ethics is corruption in the public service. As a country known to be very religious, is an ironic thing when Indonesia is among the most corrupted countries in the world. Issues of Corruption Collusion and Nepotism are a very serious problem facing this nation. As if - if transparency, and fairness accountability never known.Ethics is only limited as a discourse or just written in the law books – but only on legislation alone and is not in reality or not happening in the community. No implementation of principles of ethics such as transparency, accountability, and justice are always complaints by the people who deal with the land office.

Muhammad Afif Hamka

2012-04-01

148

The Investigation of the Opinions of Teacher Candidates about Current Ethical Issues in Terms of Various Variables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research is planned for determining teacher candidates’ opinions about some bioethics issues which include ethical dilemmas. In this research in which quantitative research techniques was used, a study group consisted of 238 teacher candidates from eight different departments at Gazi University in 2011-2012 academic year. Bioethical Values Inventory including scenarios located in the center of ethical issues, such as genetic screening tests, reproductive technologies and euthanasia used as an assessment instrument. Preferences of teacher candidates on scenarios are examined by using research variables such as the gender and studied department. In addition ethical approaches when making their decisions on ethical problems were analyzed. It was observed that the teacher candidates changed the ethical approaches while making decision for each scenario were varied. The teachers’ overall judgments and ethical approach preferences for each scenario did not differentiate according to the department and gender. Only gender-related differences were identified in the genetic screening test scenario.

?smet KURT

2013-01-01

149

Discussion on radiation protection system from ethical issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discussed the relationship between radiation protection system and ethical principle, viz. equity and efficiency. According to the authors' opinions, the main problem that the system of radiation protection facing now is the dose-limitation principle cannot incarnate the equity principle completely. Even though the distinguishing between practice and intervention is no other than solving the problem, but the scheme is not perfect still. Ethical issues should be given more attention and be more researched when we try to modify the radiation protection system today

150

Discussion on radiation protection system from ethical issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discussed the relationship between radiation protection system and ethical principle, viz. equity and efficiency. According to the authors' opinions, the main problem that the system of radiation protection facing now is the dose-limitation principle cannot incarnate the equity principle completely. Even though the distinguishing between practice and intervention is no other than solving the problem, but the scheme is not perfect still. Ethical issues should be given more attention and be more researched when we try to modify the radiation protection system tod0008.

Li, Xutong [Nuclear Safety Center, Beijing (China); Guo, Qiuju [Peking Univ., Beijing (China)

2002-07-01

151

Piercing the veil: ethical issues in ethnographic research.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is not unusual for researchers in ethnography (and sometimes Institutional Review Boards) to assume that research of "public" behavior is morally unproblematic. I examine an historical case of ethnographic research and the sustained moral outrage to the research expressed by the subjects of that research. I suggest that the moral outrage was legitimate and articulate some of the ethical issues underlying that outrage. I argue that morally problematic Ethnographic research of public behavior can derive from research practice that includes a tendency to collapse the distinction between harm and moral wrong, a failure to take account of recent work on ethical issues in privacy; failure to appreciate the deception involved in ethnographers' failure to reveal their role as researchers to subjects and finally a failure to appropriately weigh the moral significance of issues of invasion of privacy and inflicted insight in both the research process and subsequent publication of research. PMID:19034693

Schrag, Brian

2009-06-01

152

Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral. PMID:24004295

Serour, G I

2013-11-01

153

New ethical issues for radiation protection in diagnostic radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ethical basis for many medical practices has been challenged over the last two decades. Radiology has seen enormous growth during the same period. Many practices and equipment types, now commonplace, did not exist a generation ago. Yet the fundamental ethical basis for these practices has not seen a corresponding level of development. This is possibly an oversight, and may be particularly important given that these innovations have taken place over a period of changing social attitudes. Areas of concern include, for example, issues around justification, consent/authorisation, inadvertent irradiation of the foetus/embryo during pregnancy and the place of paternalism/individual autonomy in the structure of practice. This paper provides the background to a workshop on these issues held in late-2006 and presents a summary of its findings. (authors)

154

Ethical issues in the bioprediction of brain-based disorder  

OpenAIRE

The development of predictive biomarkers in neuroscience is increasingly enabling bioprediction of adverse behavioural events, from psychosis to impulsive violent reaction. Because many brain-based disorders can be thought of as end-states of a long development, bioprediction carries immense therapeutic potential. In this thesis, I analyse issues raised by the development of bioprediction of brain-based disorder. I argue that ethical analysis of probabilities and risk information biopredic...

Baum, Matthew L.; Savulescu, Julian; Sheehan, Mark

2013-01-01

155

Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Livestock are vital to subsistence farming and sustainable livelihood in most developing countries. Of India's population of one billion people, more than 70 percent live in the rural areas. India also has more than 30 percent of the world's bovine population. This has resulted in not only egalitarian ownership of cattle, but also in an almost inseparable cultural and symbiotic relationship between rural families and their farm animals, particularly large ruminants. It is against this scenario that the ethical, social and environmental issues of gene-based technologies need to be carefully evaluated. The use of transgenic cows with modified milk composition or for any other purpose has little economic benefit in a system of 'production by masses', as typifies India and a few other developing countries, compared with 'mass production' systems in developed countries. Rather, the use of rDNA technology for developing drought-resistant fodder and forage crops is likely to bring immediate relief to most regions. Cattle, particularly in India, have poor quality feeds and this results in poor nutrition, with production of large amounts of methane. Irnmunocastration -through biotechnological means would also be advantageous. Developing countries like India need sustainable livelihood security, and, in this regard, gene-based technologies in animal agriculture seem more to raise ethical, social and environmental concerns, rather than being likely to transform 'subsistence farmeing likely to transform 'subsistence farming' into vibrant agribusiness. Ethical issues concerning animal welfare, rights and integrity are also discussed, in addition to social, environmental and economic issues. (author)

156

Ethical Issues in Sports Medicine: A Review and Justification for Ethical Decision Making and Reasoning  

OpenAIRE

Ethical issues present a challenge for health care professionals working with athletes of sports teams. Health care professionals—including the team physician, the physical therapist, and the athletic trainer—are faced with the challenge of returning an athlete to competition as quickly as possible but as safely as possible. Conflicts of interest arise due to conflicting obligations of the team physician to the athlete and other members of the sports organization, including coaches and th...

Greenfield, Bruce H.; West, Charles Robert

2012-01-01

157

What happened to public responsibility? The lack of society in public relations codes of ethics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issue of ethics is complex and contentious. For public relations it is also critical, as the industry will only win the struggle to salvage its own reputation if it can clearly demonstrate not only a commitment to ethics, but also some means to enforce ethical standards. There are many ethical reasoning tools, both intricate and useful, that public relations practitioners use to try to make ethical decisions, and these have been widely discussed in textbooks and specialist articles (e.g. Johnston & Zawawi, 2000; Bivins, 1992; Wright, 1989a; Pratt, 1993; Kruckeberg, 1996. This article does not attempt a comprehensive overview of ethical schemas; rather, it takes one corner of the ethical practitioner’s kitbag of tools, the association code of conduct, and examines one aspect of code content; its stand on social duty. As practical ethics tools, codes clearly have strengths and weaknesses beyond their incorporation or otherwise of a specific ‘duty to society’ clause (c.f. Roth & Stravpoulos, 1996;Wright, 1993; Zupko, 1994. However, this article suggests that the absence or flimsiness of such clauses in some of the world’s leading PR association codes is too important a weakness to pass without comment. This article is intended not as a definitive word on ethics code requirements, nor an overview of their effectiveness and enforcement, but rather as a means to ensure that the important debate about ethics continues.

Monica Walle

2003-01-01

158

Issues of Business Ethics in Domestic and International Businesses: A Critical Study  

OpenAIRE

Ethics is a significant issue in business both on the firm level and wider phases. Ethics indicate what is right and what is wrong in business branches also lead employees and stakeholders with moral values. Ethics is the basics for an impartial internal environment in an organization. An ethical climate constituted on fair foundations and lead by executives upholding ethical standards in the first instance tend to be more achieved when compared to other firms, since fair organizational inter...

Aytac Gokmen; Turan Ozturk, A.

2012-01-01

159

Ethical issues in conducting research with deaf populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users represent a small population at risk for marginalization from research and surveillance activities resulting from cultural, language, and ethical challenges. The Deaf community's view of deafness as a cultural identity, rather than a disability, contradicts the medical community's perception of deafness as a disease or deficiency in need of correction or elimination. These differences continue to have significant cultural and social implications within the Deaf community, resulting in mistrust of research opportunities. Two particularly contentious ethical topics for the Deaf community are the absence of community representation in genetic research and the lack of accessible informed consents and research materials. This article outlines a series of innovative strategies and solutions to these issues, including the importance of community representation and collaboration with researchers studying deaf populations. PMID:24134363

McKee, Michael; Schlehofer, Deirdre; Thew, Denise

2013-12-01

160

Public acceptance of nuclear power - Some ethical issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the increased public perception of the future scale of dependence on nuclear energy a debate has started, raising the level of public awareness of the social, political and technical risks that are inevitably associated with the large-scale and accelerating adoption of nuclear power generation. The nuclear industry has given a mixed response to this debate, to accusations of irresponsibility and to demands for more specific attention to the recognized hazards of the fuel cycle. In this situation, non-governmental bodies such as the World Council of Churches, has taken the responsibility to examine the issues so far identified and to place these in a social and ethical context. The W.C.C. general position on nuclear energy is presented. It includes the risk associated with nuclear technology; nuclear waste disposal; catastrophic accidents; accidents in reprocessing plants, low-level radiation; nuclear weapons; security; nuclear energy and a new international economic order; ethical and religious perspectives

161

Survey of ethical issues reported by Indian medical students: basis for design of a new curriculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Education in ethics is now a formal part of the undergraduate medical curriculum. However, most courses are structured around principles and case studies more appropriate to western countries. The cultures and practices of countries like India differ from those of western countries. It is, therefore, essential that our teaching should address the issues which are the most relevant to our setting. An anonymised, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey of medical students was carried out to get a picture of the ethical problems faced by students in India. The data were categorised into issues related to professional behaviour and ethical dilemmas. Unprofessional behaviour was among the issues reported as a matter of concern by a majority of the medical students. The survey highlights the need to design the curriculum in a way that reflects the structure of medical education in India, where patients are not always considered socio-culturally equal by students or the medical staff. This perspective must underpin any further efforts to address education in ethics in India. PMID:24509105

Rose, Anuradha; George, Kuryan; T, Arul Dhas; Pulimood, Anna Benjamin

2014-01-01

162

77 FR 38631 - Request for Comments on Ethical Issues Associated with the Development of Medical Countermeasures...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Issues Associated with the Development of Medical Countermeasures for Children...issues associated with the development of medical countermeasures for children...ethical issues surrounding the development of medical treatments to keep...

2012-06-28

163

[Prevention of doping in sports: epidemiological issues and ethical implications].  

Science.gov (United States)

Owing to a widespread diffusion, the consumption of banned and potentially harmful substances in sports has become a problem for the public health. Current estimations of the prevalence of doping in sports are rather uncertain, as most investigative tools do not reflect an absolute statistical power. However, the emerging scenario reflects a concerning underestimation by Structures and Institutions that should establish definitive rules and set reliable controls. Owing to restricted resources, prevention and fight against doping must be supported by meditated and rational strategies, with the aim to identify suitable contests and accurate procedures, considering carefully ethical issues that may arise from the positivity of the athletes to antidoping controls. PMID:15532876

Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Guidi, Giancesare

2004-01-01

164

Ethical Issues of Transplanting Organs from Transgenic Animals into Human Beings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human’s body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action. The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal’s organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven.

Shima Behnam Manesh

2014-04-01

165

Ethical Issues of Transplanting Organs from Transgenic Animals into Human Beings  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human’s body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal’s organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

2014-01-01

166

Screening for fetal and genetic abnormality: social and ethical issues.  

OpenAIRE

In answer to questions raised by practitioners, an ethics of genetic screening is located in a tension between liberty and responsibility in three respects: (1) to nature and biological processes; (2) to the disposal of human life; and (3) to the relation of persons to society. Under (1), the obligation to pursue research, fundamental as well as applied, is affirmed, offering the benefit of economy with fetal life, but requiring discrimination between the beneficial, the trivial, and the biza...

Dunstan, G. R.

1988-01-01

167

The "Veil of Ignorance": Exploring Ethical Issues in the Employment Interview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents an exercise where students explore ethical implications of the employment interview by framing a set of ethical guidelines for a hypothetical hiring case in which they will play one of several roles. Finds that students become keenly aware of the influence of social and professional roles on how people view the ethical issues in the…

Ralston, Steven M.

2000-01-01

168

Educational and Social-Ethical Issues in the Pursuit of Molecular Medicine  

OpenAIRE

Molecular medicine is transforming everyday clinical practice from an empirical art to a rational ortho-molecular science. The prevailing concept in this emerging framework of molecular medicine is a personalized approach to disease prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. In this mini-review, we discuss the educational and social-ethical issues raised by the advances of biomedical research as related to medical practice; outline the implications of molecular medicine for patients, ph...

Konstantinopoulos, Panagiotis A.; Karamouzis, Michalis V.; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G.

2008-01-01

169

Dealing with Ethical Issues among Internet Users: Do We Need Legal Enforcement?  

OpenAIRE

Information and communication technologies (ICTs), in particular of the Internet and of the World Wide Web, have paved the way for numerous ICT related development and initiative. In as much as there are beneficial usage of the Internet, there is also unethical usage and abuse. The Internet is like a double edge sword and care must be taken when indulging in this vast ocean of knowledge and information. Studies on ethical issue have centred much on internet security like hacking of personal i...

Ali Salman; Suhana Saad; Mohd. Nor Shahizan Ali

2013-01-01

170

Ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is from the 1989 CONTEMPO issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, the purpose of which is to keep physicians informed of recent developments in different areas of medicine through brief overviews by specialists in each field. In his article on ethics, Pellegrino focuses on the issues of euthanasia and fetal research. The practice of active, voluntary euthanasia raises questions about the difference between killing a terminally ill patient and withholding or withdrawing life-prolonging treatment, the limits of patient autonomy, the compatibility of active euthanasia with professional ethics, and the social consequences of legalizing euthanasia. The debate over the use of fetal tissue for research and treatment centers on the issue of induced abortion. PMID:2709576

Pellegrino, E D

1989-05-19

171

Social/Ethical Issues in Predictive Insider Threat Monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Combining traditionally monitored cybersecurity data with other kinds of organizational data is one option for inferring the motivations of individuals, which may in turn allow early prediction and mitigation of insider threats. While unproven, some researchers believe that this combination of data may yield better results than either cybersecurity or organizational data would in isolation. However, this nontraditional approach creates a potential conflict between goals, such as conflicts between organizational security improvements and individual privacy considerations. There are many facets to debate. Should warning signs of a potential malicious insider be addressed before a malicious event has occurred to prevent harm to the organization and discourage the insider from violating the organization’s rules? Would intervention violate employee trust or legal guidelines? What about the possibilities of misuse? Predictive approaches cannot be validated a priori; false accusations can affect the career of the accused; and collection/monitoring of certain types of data may affect employee morale. In this chapter, we explore some of the social and ethical issues stemming from predictive insider threat monitoring and discuss ways that a predictive modeling approach brings to the forefront social and ethical issues that should be considered and resolved by stakeholders and communities of interest.

Greitzer, Frank L.; Frincke, Deborah A.; Zabriskie, Mariah

2011-01-01

172

Ethical issues in the use of genetic information.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in molecular genetics promise to deepen our understanding of the biological basis of human behavior and shed light on the pathophysiology of mental illness. Genetic research is likely to improve our ability to develop somatic treatments for psychiatric syndromes as well as to identify targets for environmental intervention. However, population-screening tests for disorders with multifactorial inheritance may offer little clinical benefit to outweigh their potential for misuse. Relevant legal issues surrounding the use of genetic information in psychiatry include the perceived need for laws to prevent insurance and employment discrimination, and concerns about genetic status as a possible excuse for criminal behavior. Relevant ethical issues include threats to patient privacy and confidentiality and the importance of fairly distributing the benefits and burdens of genetic advances. PMID:16200687

Dinwiddie, Stephen H; Hoop, Jinger; Gershon, Elliot S

2004-11-01

173

Pulsed dye laser therapy for port-wine stains in children: psychosocial and ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The port-wine stain is a disfiguring vascular birthmark that commonly occurs on the face. Amelioration of this condition in children was difficult or impossible until the introduction of the flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser in the late 1980s. This article provides an interdisciplinary social and ethical examination of pulsed dye laser therapy for port-wine stain in childhood. Specific issues raised relate to the management of pain during therapy, rationale for care, expectations of treatment, the high costs of care, equity, marketing pressures, and therapeutic activism. Laser therapy in the dermatologic care of children is an exciting innovation that has transformed clinical practice and raised important social, ethical, and health policy issues. PMID:8463892

Strauss, R P; Resnick, S D

1993-04-01

174

STUDENTS’ OPPINION ABOUT PROFESSIONAL ETHICS RELATION OF THE TEACHERS  

OpenAIRE

Professional teacher’s ethics is a collection of moral codes of their professional work. It is significant that the teaching profession respects certain designated professional-ethical codes of conduct between the teachers and the students, with their colleagues and other people they professionally cooperate with.     This study is focused on analysis of the professional ethical relation of teachers towards students, seen from student’s point of view. These are the results of student?...

Vera Stojanovska

2013-01-01

175

The importance of expressly examining global warming policy issues through an ethical prism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A vast scientific and economic literature on global warming has emerged in the last two decades. Surprisingly, however, there has been little written on the ethical dimensions of human-induced climate change despite the numerous, obvious, and profoundly important ethical questions raised by human activities that are now clearly threatening human health, the environment, and many things humans value greatly. This paper argues that ethical analysis of global warming issues is practically imperative for two reasons. First, unless ethical analysis is made of global warming issues, ethically dubious decisions about global warming will be made because many of the most important ethical considerations are hidden in what appear to be ethically neutral scientific and economic arguments about global warming policy options. Secondly, unless issues of ethics, justice and equity are expressly dealt with, urgently needed global solutions to global warming will not likely be adopted by many nations. That is, an ethical focus on global warming matters is the key to achieve a globally acceptable solution and to harness political support for action. The paper concludes with a recommendation on how institutions and nations should go about implementing express examination of the ethical dimensions of global warming questions. The paper argues for express identification of ethical issues often hidden in scientific and economic analyses of global warming policy options. (Author)

Brown, Donald A. [Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Pennsylvania Consortium for Interdisciplinary Environmental Policy, Harrisburg, PA (United States)

2003-12-01

176

Do new Ethical Issues Arise at Each Stage of Nanotechnological Development?  

OpenAIRE

The literature concerning ethical issues associated with nanotechnologies has become prolific. However, it has been claimed that ethical problems are only at stake with rather sophisticated nanotechnologies such as active nanostructures, integrated nanosystems and heterogeneous molecular nanosystems, whereas more basic nanotechnologies such as passive nanostructures mainly pose technical difficulties. In this paper I argue that fundamental ethical issues are already at stake with this more ba...

Kermisch, Ce?line

2011-01-01

177

Ethical considerations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed

178

Ethical and Legal Issues in School Counseling. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest.  

Science.gov (United States)

This digest summarizes ethical and legal issues affecting school counselors. It emphasizes the importance of ethical standards, and of knowing the content, purposes, and limitations of professional codes of conduct as general guidelines for addressing difficult issues. Advice is offered on how to address colleagues' unethical behavior, and on…

Huey, Wayne C.; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.

179

Review Article: Ethical Issues in the Study of Second Language Acquisition--Resources for Researchers  

Science.gov (United States)

Two recent books provide varied resources for exploring ethical issues in the social sciences. Reflection on ethical issues aims to sensitize scholars to a range of consequences of their research, and to scholars' responsibilities to their discipline, their colleagues, and the public. This review article assesses the utility of these texts (and of…

Thomas, Margaret

2009-01-01

180

Ethical Issues in the Study of Bereavement: The Opinions of Bereaved Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies examine ethical issues in bereavement research and none survey the opinions of bereaved individuals who have not previously participated in bereavement research. This study examined the theoretical opinions of bereaved adults about ethical issues such as attitudes toward bereavement research, timing and methods of recruitment, and…

Beck, Andrea M.; Konnert, Candace A.

2007-01-01

181

Corruption and Ethical Issues Regarding Public-Private Partnership  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper raises general questions about  ethical problems that taint public-private  partnership. Everybody talks about the  economical benefits of encouraging firms  to invest in the community using different  incentives offered by the public institutions.  In the same time, every day, newspapers  bring to our attention cases of misuse of  public resources for private gain or cases  of private investors who give bribes in order  to get a contract with a public institution.  The purpose of this paper is to synthesize  our understanding of the entrepreneurial  movement and analyze its implications for  potential problems of corruption that can  arise in the relation between the public and the private sector.

Bianca COBÂRZAN

2005-10-01

182

Legal and ethical issues in safe blood transfusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Legal issues play a vital role in providing a framework for the Indian blood transfusion service (BTS), while ethical issues pave the way for quality. Despite licensing of all blood banks, failure to revamp the Drugs and Cosmetic Act (D and C Act) is impeding quality. Newer techniques like chemiluminescence or nucleic acid testing (NAT) find no mention in the D and C Act. Specialised products like pooled platelet concentrates or modified whole blood, therapeutic procedures like erythropheresis, plasma exchange, stem cell collection and processing technologies like leukoreduction and irradiation are not a part of the D and C Act. A highly fragmented BTS comprising of over 2500 blood banks, coupled with a slow and tedious process of dual licensing (state and centre) is a hindrance to smooth functioning of blood banks. Small size of blood banks compromises blood safety. New blood banks are opened in India by hospitals to meet requirements of insurance providers or by medical colleges as this a Medical Council of India (MCI) requirement. Hospital based blood banks opt for replacement donation as they are barred by law from holding camps. Demand for fresh blood, lack of components, and lack of guidelines for safe transfusion leads to continued abuse of blood. Differential pricing of blood components is difficult to explain scientifically or ethically. Accreditation of blood banks along with establishment of regional testing centres could pave the way to blood safety. National Aids Control Organisation (NACO) and National Blood Transfusion Council (NBTC) deserve a more proactive role in the licensing process. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) needs to clarify that procedures or tests meant for enhancement of blood safety are not illegal. PMID:25535417

Chandrashekar, Shivaram; Kantharaj, Ambuja

2014-09-01

183

Critical thinking by nurses on ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169. Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15. 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34 and Strauss and Corbin (1990. The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990. The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985 and Morse (1994 related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based on these findings the researcher concluded that nurses are not thinking critically when making ethical decisions concerning the termination of pregnancies. Recommendations are made as a possible solution for this problem.

A. Botes

2000-09-01

184

Dealing with Ethical Issues among Internet Users: Do We Need Legal Enforcement?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICTs, in particular of the Internet and of the World Wide Web, have paved the way for numerous ICT related development and initiative. In as much as there are beneficial usage of the Internet, there is also unethical usage and abuse. The Internet is like a double edge sword and care must be taken when indulging in this vast ocean of knowledge and information. Studies on ethical issue have centred much on internet security like hacking of personal information and data theft, including in business. This paper will look at the recent trends related to the ethical usage of the Internet, especially involving social media usage and hacking of government websites and legal enforcement that can be used to address ethical issues among Internet users. Data is derived from secondary sources. From the secondary data or literature, hacking has been a subject of concern following the hackings of website of government departments by the group anonymous. There are some cases of internet abuse, especially social media involving scams and personal relationship. There is also the use of social media to incite hatred, especially against authorities leading to widespread unrest. Hence, this implies, putting in place some guiding principles and more stringent legal enforcement to curb the unethical use and abuse of the Internet.

Ali Salman

2013-05-01

185

Ethical and regulatory issues surrounding African traditional medicine in the context of HIV/AIDS.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been estimated that more than 80% of people in Africa use traditional medicine (TM). With the HIV/AIDS epidemic claiming many lives in Africa, the majority of people affected rely on TM mainly because it is relatively affordable and available to the poor populations who cannot afford orthodox medicine. Whereas orthodox medicine is practiced under stringent regulations and ethical guidelines emanating from The Nuremburg Code, African TM seems to be exempt from such scrutiny. Although recently there have been calls for TM to be incorporated into the health care system, less emphasis has been placed on ethical and regulatory issues. In this paper, an overview of the use of African TM in general, and for HIV/AIDS in particular, is given, followed by a look at: (i) the relative laxity in the application of ethical standards and regulatory requirements with regards to TM; (ii) the importance of research on TM in order to improve and demystify its therapeutic qualities; (iii) the need to tailor-make intellectual property laws to protect traditional knowledge and biodiversity. A framework of partnerships involving traditional healers' associations, scientists, policy makers, patients, community leaders, members of the communities, and funding organizations is suggested as a possible method to tackle these issues. It is hoped that this paper will stimulate objective and constructive debate that could enhance the protection of patients' welfare. PMID:17355329

Nyika, Aceme

2007-04-01

186

Doing the Right Thing: Ethical Issues in Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent ethical lapses in corporate America have motivated institutions of higher education to focus more attention on their ethical responsibilities. These responsibilities include creating ethical learning environments in which students can learn the principles and traditions of professional practice and develop knowledge and skills to help them…

Couch, Sue

2005-01-01

187

Ethical key issues and fundamental rights in paediatric research  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Purpose This article is aimed at describing the methodology of “ethical reasoning” that finally led TEDDYNoE (Task-force in Europe for Drug Development for the Young) to propose the integration of international human rights law to develop coherent and exhaustive ethical recommendations on paediatric research at a European level. Methods A large number of ethical guidelines and texts of varying...

Altavilla, Annagrazia

2010-01-01

188

Ethical Issues of Scientific Inquiry in Health Science Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

This monograph contains 13 papers on the ethics of planning, conducting, and reporting research in health sciences education. It includes four background papers and nine perspective papers. The titles are: (1) "The Imperative for Ethical Conduct in Scientific Inquiry" (Steve M. Dorman); (2) "Fundamental Principles of Ethical Research in Health…

Pigg, R. Morgan, Jr., Ed.

1994-01-01

189

Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Livestock are vital to sustainable agriculture in most developing countries. In Asia, in general, the integration of livestock, fish and crops has proved to be a sustainable system through centuries of experience. Traditional use of dung for manuring the fields and bullocks for ploughing is the 'biodynamic farming', which has special significance in dry land agriculture comprising about 65 percent of India's cropped area. Gene-based technologies will be useful for developing special draught breeds of cattle so that their valuable source of energy remains available especially to the small and marginal farmers. Further, the livestock in the developing countries form an essential part of an integrated agricultural system and, therefore, development strategies for gene-based applications should consider the total production system (i.e., breeding fodder and forage crops, animal and crop disease and pest management etc). The gene-technologies of relevance to the developing countries are (i) rumen molecular techniques for reducing methane production and for increasing protein and energy supply; ruminant food stuffs currently used in India and a few other developing countries are fibrous, low in nitrogen, and contain anti-nutritive factors, (ii) improving animal productivity in developing countries by manipulation of nutrition in utero to alter gene expression of key metabolic hormones and enzymes for a long period after birth in cattle, (iii) genetic resistance to Helminthetle, (iii) genetic resistance to Helminthes in sheep, and (iv) molecular methods of diagnosis, molecular epidemiology and treatment of swine fever. Although not gene-based, artificial insemination (AI) for genetic improvement of dairy cattle and buffalo, and embryo-transfer (ET) for rapid multiplication of elite cattle are also relevant. Cloning (of the 'Dolly' - the sheep kind) will be useful to revive the rare and endangered animal species such as one-horned rhinoceros, swamp deer, wild buffalo and dugongs in India, for restoring environmental balance and social harmony with the forest, coastal and hill communities of various regions of India. The ethical issues from a technological point of view centre around both gene-based and nongene- based technologies to improve the nutrition, health and productivity of the farm animals. In particular, a reference needs to be made to bovine somatotropin (bST), a natural growth hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary in all animals, with a major effect on the regulation of growth and also milk production. Since the quantities of bST obtained from slaughtered animals are quite small, recombinant DNA technology-based r-bST is produced, and widely used in the USA to increase the milk production by 10% to 20%. Exhaustive evaluation tests conducted in the USA have shown that r-bST has no harmful effects in milk, but a high production of milk makes higher demands on animal physiology, and if an adequate food supply is lacking, negative effects are observed on fertility besides other health problems, especially mastitis and ketosis. Presently, neither r-bST, nor adequate nutritious feed is available for millions of dairy cattle in the developing countries. The economic benefits of 'mass production' over 'production by masses' are obvious; further, the access to the r-bST in the 'mass production' system, but not in the system of 'production by masses' could accentuate the economic disparity. The above-said scenario has further ramifications in view of the implications arising from the WTO-related Agreement on Agriculture. With an array of domestic supports, products of 'mass production' could be dumped into developing countries causing a substantial rise in the already high levels of livelihood and food insecurity. Since the r-DNA based technologies for 'pharming' or for human food are not yet applied to farm animals in the developing countries there are no serious concerns of bio-safety, and violation of ethical norms. In the countries, where animals for human food are genetically altered, the issues of 'animal sentience'

190

Ethics of professional relations to functionally handicapped users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The basic purpose of 1ibrarianship code is to form and build librarian personality who can make possible the same opportunity to acquiring knowledge for all users, irrespective of their different demands or special needs.When we discuss the importance of building librarian personality the demanding work with users we confront the problem of ethical treatment very often. Ethics advises only general rules which are rarely simple and they are frequently opposite to each other.The process of reacting between the librarian and the user - as with general information needs as with special functional needs - is also dependent on librarian's professional relation which is formed on important elements such as professional qualification,experiences, creativeness and ethics.We are also interested in question where is the border between ethical and non - ethical action in key situations when the 1ibrarian meets functionally handicapped user. Opportunities for non - ethical reaction of professional workers are much more possible if the library's premises and the furniture don't offer suitable conditions for adaptable communication with the handicapped.But on the other side the 1ibrarian has just because of the bad arhitectural conditions better occasion to introduce himself as one of the best ethically formed personalies compared with other professions. With adaptable communication, creative work and with professional relation in offering help to disabled people, the librarian can contribute to more quality service and even more - he/she becomes an example to other professions - also in ethical sense.

Mateja Griljc

1999-01-01

191

Review of existing issues, ethics and practices in general medical research and in radiation protection research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A literature review was carried out in relation to general medical research and radiation protection research. A large number of documents were found concerning the subject of ethics in general medical research. For radiation protection research, the number of documents and the information available is very limited. A review of practices in 13 European countries concerning general medical research and radiation protection research was carried out by sending a questionnaire to each country. It was found that all countries reviewed were well regulated for general medical research. For research that involves ionising radiation, the UK and Ireland are by far the most regulated countries. For other countries, there does not seem to be much information available. From the literature review and the review of practices, a number of existing ethical issues were identified and exposed, and a number of conclusions were drawn. (authors)

192

PETROBRAS’S BLOG AND JOURNALISM: what ethical issues are we talking about?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses the case of Petrobras’s blog, called Facts and Data (Fatos e Dados, created to be a channel for direct communication with the society and a place for presenting the official version of information concerning this state-owned company. Taken as a parameter for questions relating to the ethical issues involved in this communication experience, it suggests some reflections beyond possible redefinitions of making communication as opposed to doing journalism. In presenting its version of events directly to the society, the company opted for a model of unmediated communication, which requires the redefinition of the speech platforms and visibility. It also proposes a reflection on discourse ethics, especially regarding the ideal of individual participation in the processes of debate concerning matters of public interest.

Edson Fernando Dalmonte

2010-12-01

193

Ethical issues in cardiovascular risk management: Patients need nurses' support.  

Science.gov (United States)

Involving patients in decisions on primary prevention can be questioned from an ethical perspective, due to a tension between health promotion activities and patient autonomy. A nurse-led intervention for prevention of cardiovascular diseases, including counselling (risk communication, and elements of shared decision-making and motivational interviewing) and supportive tools such as a decision aid, was implemented in primary care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nurse-led intervention from an ethical perspective by exploring in detail the experiences of patients with the intervention, and their views on the role of both the nurse and patient. The study had a qualitative design. 18 patients who had received the intervention participated. Data were gathered by in-depth interviews. The interviews were analysed using directed content analysis. The findings revealed that patients perceived the consultations not as an infringement on their autonomy, but as supportive to risk reduction efforts they tried but found hard to realise. They specifically emphasised the role of the nurse, and appreciated the nurse's realistic advice, encouragement, and help in understanding. Patients' views on and experiences with risk management are in line with notions of relational autonomy, caring cooperation and communicative action found in the literature. We conclude that patients define the relationship with the nurse as shared work in the process of developing a healthier lifestyle. PMID:24258253

Loon, Marije S Koelewijn-van; van Dijk-de Vries, Anneke; van der Weijden, Trudy; Elwyn, Glyn; Widdershoven, Guy Am

2013-11-19

194

Consensus statements on occupational therapy ethics related to driving.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of an expert panel convened to examine evidence and practice related to diverse aspects of driving evaluation and rehabilitation, consensus statements were developed on ethics. This paper provides context for the ethical obligation of practitioners to assess and make recommendations about the ability of clients to safely perform the activity of driving. It highlights key articles from the literature as well as principles from the Occupational Therapy Code of Ethics and Ethics Standards (2010). The statements support the importance of identifying impairments affecting driving, which could result in harm to the client as well as to the public. The ethical and professional obligation of practitioners to evaluate, make recommendations, and possibly report and/or refer to a driver rehabilitation specialist for further services is reinforced. PMID:24754765

Slater, Deborah Yarett

2014-04-01

195

Ethical issues in autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT in advanced breast cancer: A systematic literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background An effectiveness assessment on ASCT in locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer identified serious ethical issues associated with this intervention. Our objective was to systematically review these aspects by means of a literature analysis. Methods We chose the reflexive Socratic approach as the review method using Hofmann's question list, conducted a comprehensive literature search in biomedical, psychological and ethics bibliographic databases and screened the resulting hits in a 2-step selection process. Relevant arguments were assembled from the included articles, and were assessed and assigned to the question list. Hofmann's questions were addressed by synthesizing these arguments. Results Of the identified 879 documents 102 included arguments related to one or more questions from Hofmann's question list. The most important ethical issues were the implementation of ASCT in clinical practice on the basis of phase-II trials in the 1990s and the publication of falsified data in the first randomized controlled trials (Bezwoda fraud, which caused significant negative effects on recruiting patients for further clinical trials and the doctor-patient relationship. Recent meta-analyses report a marginal effect in prolonging disease-free survival, accompanied by severe harms, including death. ASCT in breast cancer remains a stigmatized technology. Reported health-related-quality-of-life data are often at high risk of bias in favor of the survivors. Furthermore little attention has been paid to those patients who were dying. Conclusions The questions were addressed in different degrees of completeness. All arguments were assignable to the questions. The central ethical dimensions of ASCT could be discussed by reviewing the published literature.

Scheibler Fueloep

2011-04-01

196

Perceived importance of sustainability and ethics related to fish: a consumer behavior perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although sustainability and ethics are of increasing public importance, little research has been conducted to reveal its association with fish consumer behavior. Cross-sectional data were collected through a postal self-administered survey (June 2005) from a sample of 381 Flemish women aged 20-50 years. Consumers attach high perceived importance to sustainability and ethics related to fish. However, this perceived importance is neither correlated with fish consumption frequency nor with general attitude toward eating fish. Refusing to eat wild fish is grounded in sustainability and ethical concerns, whereas the decision not to eat farmed fish is associated with a lower expected intrinsic quality rather than shaped by importance attached to sustainability and ethical issues. PMID:18074896

Verbeke, Wim; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Sioen, Isabelle; Van Camp, John; De Henauw, Stefaan

2007-11-01

197

Ethics Updates  

Science.gov (United States)

Created in 1994 by Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego, the Ethics Updates site is designed primarily to be used to ethics instructors and their students. However, the site is rather interesting, so members of the general public may find themselves making a few return visits. Visitors can use the drop-down tabs on the top of the homepage to make their way through sections that cover some of the basic theories of ethics and also learn more about applied ethics in relation to such issues as animal rights, torture, and world hunger. Moving on, the "Resources" area includes case studies for discussion, a glossary of terms, classic texts in ethics, and ethics surveys. The site is rounded out by a search engine and a selection of videos that deal with various topics in ethics.

Hinman, Lawrence M.

198

Corruption and ethical issues regarding public-private partnership  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper raises general questions about ethical problems that taint public-private partnership. Everybody talks about the economical benefits of encouraging firms to invest in the community using different incentives offered by the public institutions. In the same time, every day, newspapers bring to our attention cases of misuse of public resources for private gain or cases of private investors who give bribes in order to get a contract with a public institution. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize our understanding of the entrepreneurial movement and analyze its implications for potential problems of corruption that can arise in the relation between the public and the private sector.a

Bianca COBÂRZAN

2005-10-01

199

Brains on Wheels: Theoretical and Ethical Issues in Bio-Robotics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A number of theoretical problems and a couple of ethical issues in bio-robotics are investigated. It is found that claims made by researchers to have constructed robots controlled by rat brains are not fully justified by the results of current research. Further, the ethical implications of the research are currently unclear.

Bentzen, Martin Mose

2014-01-01

200

Neurofunctional Correlates of Ethical, Food-Related Decision-Making  

Science.gov (United States)

For consumers today, the perceived ethicality of a food’s production method can be as important a purchasing consideration as its price. Still, few studies have examined how, neurofunctionally, consumers are making ethical, food-related decisions. We examined how consumers’ ethical concern about a food’s production method may relate to how, neurofunctionally, they make decisions whether to purchase that food. Forty-six participants completed a measure of the extent to which they took ethical concern into consideration when making food-related decisions. They then underwent a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans while performing a food-related decision-making (FRDM) task. During this task, they made 56 decisions whether to purchase a food based on either its price (i.e., high or low, the “price condition”) or production method (i.e., with or without the use of cages, the “production method condition”), but not both. For 23 randomly selected participants, we performed an exploratory, whole-brain correlation between ethical concern and differential neurofunctional activity in the price and production method conditions. Ethical concern correlated negatively and significantly with differential neurofunctional activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). For the remaining 23 participants, we performed a confirmatory, region-of-interest (ROI) correlation between the same variables, using an 8-mm3 volume situated in the left dlPFC. Again, the variables correlated negatively and significantly. This suggests, when making ethical, food-related decisions, the more consumers take ethical concern into consideration, the less they may rely on neurofunctional activity in the left dlPFC, possibly because making these decisions is more routine for them, and therefore a more perfunctory process requiring fewer cognitive resources. PMID:25830288

Cherry, J. Bradley C.; Bruce, Jared M.; Lusk, Jayson L.; Crespi, John M.; Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S.

2015-01-01

201

Neurofunctional correlates of ethical, food-related decision-making.  

Science.gov (United States)

For consumers today, the perceived ethicality of a food's production method can be as important a purchasing consideration as its price. Still, few studies have examined how, neurofunctionally, consumers are making ethical, food-related decisions. We examined how consumers' ethical concern about a food's production method may relate to how, neurofunctionally, they make decisions whether to purchase that food. Forty-six participants completed a measure of the extent to which they took ethical concern into consideration when making food-related decisions. They then underwent a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans while performing a food-related decision-making (FRDM) task. During this task, they made 56 decisions whether to purchase a food based on either its price (i.e., high or low, the "price condition") or production method (i.e., with or without the use of cages, the "production method condition"), but not both. For 23 randomly selected participants, we performed an exploratory, whole-brain correlation between ethical concern and differential neurofunctional activity in the price and production method conditions. Ethical concern correlated negatively and significantly with differential neurofunctional activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). For the remaining 23 participants, we performed a confirmatory, region-of-interest (ROI) correlation between the same variables, using an 8-mm3 volume situated in the left dlPFC. Again, the variables correlated negatively and significantly. This suggests, when making ethical, food-related decisions, the more consumers take ethical concern into consideration, the less they may rely on neurofunctional activity in the left dlPFC, possibly because making these decisions is more routine for them, and therefore a more perfunctory process requiring fewer cognitive resources. PMID:25830288

Cherry, J Bradley C; Bruce, Jared M; Lusk, Jayson L; Crespi, John M; Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

2015-01-01

202

Non-invasive prenatal testing: ethical issues explored.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the ethical implications of introducing non-invasive prenatal diagnostic tests (NIPD tests) in prenatal screening for foetal abnormalities. NIPD tests are easy and safe and can be performed early in pregnancy. Precisely because of these features, it is feared that informed consent may become more difficult, that both testing and selective abortion will become 'normalized', and that there will be a trend towards accepting testing for minor abnormalities and non-medical traits as well. In our view, however, the real moral challenge of NIPD testing consists in the possibility of linking up a technique with these features (easy, safe and early) with new genomic technologies that allow prenatal diagnostic testing for a much broader range of abnormalities than is the case in current procedures. An increase in uptake and more selective abortions need not in itself be taken to signal a thoughtless acceptance of these procedures. However, combining this with considerably enlarging the scope of NIPD testing will indeed make informed consent more difficult and challenge the notion of prenatal screening as serving reproductive autonomy. If broad NIPD testing includes later-onset diseases, the 'right not to know' of the future child will become a new issue in the debate about prenatal screening. With regard to the controversial issue of selective abortion, it may make a morally relevant difference that after NIPD testing, abortion can be done early. A lower moral status may be attributed to the foetus at that moment, given the dominant opinion that the moral status of the foetus progressively increases with its development. PMID:19953123

de Jong, Antina; Dondorp, Wybo J; de Die-Smulders, Christine E M; Frints, Suzanne G M; de Wert, Guido M W R

2010-03-01

203

Ethical Issues in Providing Library Services to Distance Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors, library practitioners from either side of the Atlantic Ocean, embarked on a dialogue about the ethical challenges encountered in providing library services to distance learners. Unable to find an existing, appropriate ethical framework for their discussion, they agreed to devise their own, informed by relevant professional codes and…

Needham, Gill; Johnson, Kay

2007-01-01

204

Ethical Issues in Addressing Inequity in/through ESL Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This article outlines a researcher's struggles with conducting "ethical" research when her case study reveals racializations faced by a minority teacher in a Canadian ESL program. How might becoming privy to research participants' experiences of inequity in ESL education complicate the notion of research ethics when "doing the right thing" runs…

Lee, Ena

2011-01-01

205

Toward an Ideal Relational Ethic: Rethinking university-community engagement  

OpenAIRE

This paper explores how an ideal relational ethic based on Zygmunt Bauman’s (1995) notion of forms of togetherness is needed to underpin university-community engagement processes and practices. We focus on the notion of being-for, and suggest that it can be used as an ‘engagement bridge’ between higher education institutions, the creation of human capital and communities, and can be a means to achieve ethical outcomes to local concerns. Much of Bauman’s (1995; 2001; 2007) theoretical ...

Steve Garlick; Palmer, Victoria J.

2008-01-01

206

Ethics issues experienced in HBM within Portuguese health surveillance and research projects  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In keeping with the fundamental practice of transparency in the discussion and resolution of ethics conflicts raised by research, a summary of ethics issues raised during Portuguese biomonitoring in health surveillance and research is presented and, where applicable, their resolution is described. Methods Projects underway aim to promote the surveillance of public health related to the presence of solid waste incinerators or to study associations between human exposure to environmental factors and adverse health effects. The methodological approach involves biomonitoring of heavy metals, dioxins and/or other persistent organic pollutants in tissues including blood, human milk and both scalp and pubic hair in groups such as the general population, children, pregnant women or women attempting pregnancy. As such, the projects entail the recruitment of individuals representing different demographic and health conditions, the collection of body tissues and personal data, and the processing of the data and results. Results The issue of autonomy is raised during the recruitment of participants and during the collection of samples and data. This right is protected by the requirement for prior written, informed consent from the participant or, in the case of children, from their guardian. Recruitment has been successful, among eligible participants, in spite of incentives rarely being offered. The exception has been in obtaining guardians' consent for children's participation, particularly for blood sampling. In an attempt to mitigate the harm-benefit ratio, current research efforts include alternative less invasive biomarkers. Surveys are currently being conducted under contract as independent biomonitoring actions and as such, must be explicitly disclosed as a potential conflict of interests. Communication of results to participants is in general only practised when a health issue is present and corrective action possible. Concerning human milk a careful approach is taken, considering breast-feeding's proven benefits. Conclusion No national legislation currently accounts for the surveillance component of biomonitoring as distinct from research. Ethics issues arising within the domain of research are resolved according to available regulations. For issues encountered during surveillance, the same principles are used as guidance, completed by the authors' best judgement and relevant ethics committees' findings.

Miguel J Pereira

2008-01-01

207

Scientific Productivity on Research in Ethical Issues over the Past Half Century: A JoinPoint Regression Analysis  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Ethics is one of the main pillars in the development of science. We performed a JoinPoint regression analysis to analyze the trends of ethical issue research over the past half century. The question is whether ethical issues are neglected despite their importance in modern research.

Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Trang, Nguyen Thi Huyen; Luan, Nguyen Thien; Anh, Nguyen hoang; Nghi, Tran Diem; Hieu, Mai; Hirayama, Kenji; Karbwang, Juntra

2014-01-01

208

Clinical genetic research 3: Genetics ELSI (Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues) research.  

Science.gov (United States)

ELSI (Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues) is a widely used acronym in the bioethics literature that encompasses a broad range of research areas involved in examining the various impacts of science and technology on society. In Canada, GE3LS (Genetics, Ethical, Economic, Environmental, Legal, Social issues) is the term used to describe ELSI studies. It is intentionally more expansive in that GE3LS explicitly brings economic and environmental issues under its purview. ELSI/GE3LS research has become increasingly important in recent years as there has been a greater emphasis on "translational research" that moves genomics from the bench to the clinic. The purpose of this chapter is to outline a range of ELSI-related work that might be conducted as part of a large scale genetics or genomics research project, and to provide some practical insights on how a scientific research team might incorporate a strong and effective ELSI program within its broader research mandate. We begin by describing the historical context of ELSI research and the development of GE3LS research in the Canadian context. We then illustrate how some ELSI research might unfold by outlining a variety of research questions and the various methodologies that might be employed in addressing them in an area of ELSI research that is encompassed under the term "public engagement." We conclude with some practical pointers about how to build an effective ELSI/GE3LS team and focus within a broader scientific research program. PMID:25694322

Pullman, Daryl; Etchegary, Holly

2015-01-01

209

Ethical and Legal Issues in Biobanking for Genomic Research in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The pursuit of genomic research and biobanking has raised concerns and discussions about the ethical and legal implications. Given the specific challenges that surround such enterprise in low and middle income countries, it is pertinent to examine them in the light of the advent of Biobanking and Genomic research in Nigeria. In this paper I discuss the issues and suggest model solutions derived from advanced jurisdictions. These ethical and legal issues are discussed within the context of the...

Akintola, Simisola O.

2012-01-01

210

Societal and ethical issues in human biomonitoring – a view from science studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Human biomonitoring (HBM has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing into focus the conditions of how and what is known in environmental health science. Methods In order to analyse the effects of HBM and the shift towards biomarker research in the assessment of environmental pollution in a broader societal context, selected analytical frameworks of science studies are introduced. To develop the epistemological perspective, concepts from "biomedical platform sociology" and the notion of "epistemic cultures" and "thought styles" are applied to the research infrastructures of HBM. Further, concepts of "biocitizenship" and "civic epistemologies" are drawn upon as analytical tools to discuss the visions and promises of HBM as well as related ethical problematisations. Results In human biomonitoring, two different epistemological cultures meet; these are environmental science with for instance pollution surveys and toxicological assessments on the one hand, and analytical epidemiology investigating the association between exposure and disease in probabilistic risk estimation on the other hand. The surveillance of exposure and dose via biomarkers as envisioned in HBM is shifting the site of exposure monitoring to the human body. Establishing an HBM platform faces not only the need to consider individual decision autonomy as an ethics issue, but also larger epistemological and societal questions, such as the mode of evidence demanded in science, policy and regulation. Conclusion The shift of exposure monitoring towards the biosurveillance of human populations involves fundamental changes in the ways environment, health and disease are conceptualised; this may lead to an individualisation of responsibilities for health risks and preventive action. Attention to the conditions of scientific knowledge generation and to their broader societal context is critical in order to make HBM contribute to environmental justice.

Bauer Susanne

2008-01-01

211

Internet research and ethics: transformative issues in nursing education research.  

Science.gov (United States)

As practice in the educational and clinical settings seeks to be evidence based, faculty are increasingly required to conduct research and publish the results to advance the science of our profession. The purpose of this article is to discuss transformative research ethics because Internet use is an increasing component of current research studies. How nurse educators can engage in research-utilizing methodologies inclusive of technology while adhering to ethical standards developed before the advance of the Internet is reviewed. Recommendations are cited to address the new questions that arise at institutional review board meetings resulting from potential ethical implications of using students or research participants in cyber space. PMID:24720940

Mahon, Pamela Young

2014-01-01

212

Financial Compensation and Ethical Issues in Health Care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As health care workers enter the twenty-first century, they must understand the relationships among market-driven forces, the health care workforce, and financial compensation. This understanding can be facilitated by a grasp of utilitarian ethical theory and by ethical tenets of justice such as distributive justice, material principles of justice, and justice as fairness. Health care workers also need to understand how unfair financial compensation can demoralize them and compromise their values. However, professional associations and health care managers can take a proactive stance to ensure that organizations are ethical in their approach to financial compensation.

Silva, Mary Cipriano

1998-06-01

213

Pharmaceuticalisation and ethical review in South Asia: Issues of scope and authority for practitioners and policy makers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical review by expert committee continues to be the first line of defence when it comes to protecting human subjects recruited into clinical trials. Drawing on a large scale study of biomedical experimentation across South Asia, and specifically on interviews with 24 ethical review committee [ERC] members across India, Sri Lanka and Nepal, this article identifies some of the tensions that emerge for ERC members as the capacity to conduct credible ethical review of clinical trials is developed across the region. The article draws attention to fundamental issues of scope and authority in the operation of ethical review. On the one hand, ERC members experience a powerful pull towards harmonisation and a strong alignment with international standards deemed necessary for the global pharmaceutical assemblage to consolidate and extend. On the other hand, they must deal with what is in effect the double jeopardy of ethical review in developing world contexts. ERC members must undertake review but are frequently made aware of their responsibility to protect interests that go beyond the 'human subject' and into the realms of development and national interest [for example, in relation to literacy and informed consent]. These dilemmas are indicative of broader questions about where ethical review sits in institutional terms and how it might develop to best ensure improved human subject protection given growth of industry-led research. PMID:24768272

Simpson, Bob; Khatri, Rekha; Ravindran, Deapica; Udalagama, Tharindi

2015-04-01

214

Ethical issues in engineering models: An operations researcher's reflections  

OpenAIRE

This article starts with an overview of the author’s personal involvement—as an Operations Research consultant—in several engineering case-studies that may raise ethical questions; e.g., case-studies on nuclear waste, water management, sustainable ecology, military tactics, and animal welfare. All these case studies employ computer simulation models. In general, models are meant to solve practical problems, which may have ethical implications for the various stakeholders; namely, the mo...

Kleijnen, Jack P. C.

2011-01-01

215

The Ethical Employee.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.…

2002

216

Building the Bridge from Bench to Bedside: Ethical Issues in Translational Stem Cell Research  

OpenAIRE

Translational stem cell research raises many interesting ethical questions, which have, to a greater or lesser degree, been debated at an international as well as at an interdisciplinary level. Nevertheless, there is still no international consensus regarding how a number of ethical questions related to this research should be answered. Many of these ethical questions create a real challenge to translation of basic research results into clinical applications. The overall aim of the thesis...

Hug, Kristina

2012-01-01

217

Ethical issues in neonatal paediatrics--the Singapore perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Singapore, formulating ethical guidelines for people who live in a multiracial, multilingual, multicultural and multi-religious community can be difficult. The "individualised prognostic" strategy in the management of critically ill infants has been followed. Our neonatal paediatricians encounter the following ethical problems: extremely premature babies whose viability is doubtful, babies born with severe congenital malformations, babies born with signs of life in legal or therapeutic termination of pregnancy, the asphyxiated babies or babies with severe or extensive brain damage, and babies who are chronically sick and have no chance of recovery or leaving the hospital. Good ethical decisions require medical facts. The infant's diagnosis and prognosis must be accurate. There should also be detailed information that continuation of any form of medical treatment for the infant is futile, will do more harm than good and is inhumane. Ethical decisions should be made in the best interests of the infant. Dating of the infant's gestational age should be accurate and reliable, and there should also be unanimous definitions such as fetal viability, abortions and lethal malformations. Ethical guidelines and the law must also keep pace with changes in medical practice. PMID:8839009

Ho, N K

1995-11-01

218

[Ethics and laws related to human subject research].  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in medical technology rely on human subject research to test the effects on real patients of unproven new drugs, equipment and techniques. Illegal human subject research happens occasionally and has led to subject injury and medical disputes. Familiarity with the laws and established ethics related to human subject research can minimize both injury and disputes. History is a mirror that permits reflection today on past experience. Discussing the Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki and Belmont Report, this article describes the laws, ethics, history and news related to human subject research as well as the current definition and characteristics of human subject research. Increasing numbers of nurses serve as research nurses and participate in human subject research. The authors hope this article can increase research nurse knowledge regarding laws and ethics in order to protect human research subjects adequately. PMID:22024809

Chiu, Hui-Ju; Lee, Ya-Ling; Chang, Su-Fen

2011-10-01

219

Systematically evaluating the impact of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) on health care delivery: a matrix of ethical implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Swiss hospitals were required to implement a prospective payment system for reimbursement using a diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) classification system by the beginning of 2012. Reforms to a health care system should be assessed for their impact, including their impact on ethically relevant factors. Over a number of years and in a number of countries, questions have been raised in the literature about the ethical implications of the implementation of DRGs. However, despite this, researchers have not attempted to identify the major ethical issues associated with DRGs systematically. To address this gap in the literature, we have developed a matrix for identifying the ethical implications of the implementation of DRGs. It was developed using a literature review, and empirical studies on DRGs, as well as a review and analysis of existing ethics frameworks. The matrix consists of the ethically relevant parameters of health care systems on which DRGs are likely to have an impact; the ethical values underlying these parameters; and examples of specific research questions associated with DRGs to illustrate how the matrix can be applied. While the matrix has been developed in light of the Swiss health care reform, it could be used as a basis for identifying the ethical implications of DRG-based systems worldwide and for highlighting the ethical implications of other kinds of provider payment systems (PPS). PMID:24388050

Fourie, Carina; Biller-Andorno, Nikola; Wild, Verina

2014-04-01

220

Ethical issues in the neonatal intensive care unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The case of Baby Y presented a difficult and complex ethical dilemma for the family and the staff involved. The issues of religious beliefs and law, up-holding these beliefs in the center of a religious community, financial concerns, and health care workers disagreeing about carrying out treatments made this case one that few will forget. When asked after Baby Y died how they felt, many members of the staff answered that it should not have gone on as long as it did and that they learned a lot from the family and the experience. Palliative care has been well associated with the adult cancer population in the form of hospice care. It is the hope that this well-integrated aspect of care crosses over to the NICU population. Many of the patients in the types of cases mentioned previously stay in the NICU for extended periods of time until a decision is made clear or the infant expires on his own time. The hustle and bustle of a busy, open, and not-so-private NICU is not the place for this to take place. The NICU should have a designated place where these infants can be cared for better in a more family-centered and staff-friendly environment. Pain management is another important aspect of palliative care. Comfort of the infant is of utmost importance, as it helps the family believe the suffering is under control. During the last few days or weeks of life, the family should have time that is peaceful and restful, and, eventually, the infant should have a pain-free death.Lastly, a part of the palliative care philosophy and approach includes providing treatments that may ap-pear to prolong the inevitable but in fact help the process along to resolution. In the case of Baby Y, surgery to repair some of the defects may have allowed her to go home with her family and spend her short life with them. This was the wish of the mother,especially, and it never happened. It may well be the"what if" she continues to ask for the rest of her life. PMID:15145372

Conway, Alison; Moloney-Harmon, Patricia A

2004-06-01

221

Ethical issues in vesico-vaginal fistula care and research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The plight of women in poor nonindustrialized countries who have incurred catastrophic childbirth injuries, such as vesico-vaginal and recto-vaginal fistulas, from prolonged obstructed labor is receiving increased attention from the world medical community. While the good intentions that have prompted this greater concern are not in doubt, intentions by themselves are insufficient guarantees of ethical conduct in programs developed to repair these injuries. Clinical proposals put forward to deal with the problem of fistula must undergo critical analysis to insure that basic ethical requirements are met. This article emphasizes the vulnerability to exploitation of women with obstetric fistulas and reviews the basic principles of medical ethics relevant to fistula care. PMID:17765243

Wall, L L

2007-11-01

222

Considering ethical dilemmas related to brain death in newborns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brain death (BD, as the irreversible and permanent loss of cerebral and brainstem function, is relatively uncommon among newborns who need life support. It is considered the result of an acute and irreversible central nervous system insult. Asphyxia, severe intracranial hemorrhage and infection are the most common causes of  BD in children. BD diagnosis is usually based on clinical criteria. Dilemmas about life prolonging treatment for severely compromised infants – as brain dead infants are – has become challenging since neonatal intensive care unit (NICU care has developed, quality of life and resource issues are nowadays continuously underlined. Caring for premature babies is expensive and costs have risen especially since an increased number of infants with handicaps survives. Intensivists’ main duty is first to save lives and then to interrupt treatment in certain conditions like detrimental brain damage. The objective of this article is to present ethical decisions regarding brain dead newborns in order to balance between organ donation necessities and withholding/withdrawing treatment, with respect to the important role of infants’ parents in the process.

Ilias Chatziioannidis

2014-01-01

223

Using the emanuel et Al. Framework to assess ethical issues raised by a biomedical research ethics committee in South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Emanuel, Wendler, and Grady framework was designed as a universal tool for use in many settings including developing countries. However, it is not known whether the work of African health research ethics committees (RECs) is compatible with this framework. The absence of any normative or empirical weighting of the eight principles within this framework suggests that different health RECs may raise some ethical issues more frequently than others when reviewing protocols. We used the Emanuel et al. framework to assess, code, and rank the most frequent ethical issues considered by a biomedical REC during review of research protocols for the years 2008 to 2012. We extracted data from the recorded minutes of a South African biomedical REC for the years 2008 to 2012, designed the data collection sheet according to the Emanuel et al. framework, and removed all identifiers during data processing and analysis. From the 98 protocols that we assessed, the most frequent issues that emerged were the informed consent, scientific validity, fair participant selection, and ongoing respect for participants. This study represents the first known attempt to analyze REC responses/minutes using the Emanuel et al. framework, and suggests that this framework may be useful in describing and categorizing the core activities of an REC. PMID:25747689

Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce M; Wassenaar, Douglas R

2014-12-01

224

Pharmacogenetics, ethical issues: review of the Nuffield Council on Bioethics Report  

OpenAIRE

In September this year the Nuffield Council on Bioethics held a meeting to disclose and discuss the main findings of their newly published report on the ethical issues associated with developments in pharmacogenetics research. The basics of pharmacogenetics science is briefly outlined, and then the extent to which the report was successful in addressing (or at least highlighting) the attendant social, ethical, and policy implications of pharmacogenetics research is evaluated.

Corrigan, O

2005-01-01

225

On ethical issues in radiation protection. Radiation protection recommendations and standards seen from an ethical perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

International radiation protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, the European Union and the ILO are surveyed from an ethical perspective. The authors come to the conclusion that the insights of ethical theories provide a number of ways in which current recommendations and standards for radiation protection could improve. (orig.) [German] Internationale Strahlenschutzstandards und Empfehlungen von ICRP, IAEA, EU und ILO werden unter Gesichtspunkten der Ethik ueberprueft. Die Autoren kommen zu dem Schluss, dass die Kenntnis von Ethik-Theorien eine Reihe von Moeglichkeiten eroeffnet, wie die gegenwaertigen Standards und Empfehlungen fuer den Strahlenschutz verbessert werden koennten. (orig.)

Corbett, R.H. [Hairmyres Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom). 2. Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Persson, L.

2004-07-01

226

Ethical Issues Affecting Human Participants in Community College Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing demand of constituents to conduct analyses in order to help inform the decision-making process has led to the need for Institutional Research (IR) guidelines for community college educators. One method of maintaining the quality of research conducted by IR staff is to include professional development about ethics. This article…

Wurtz, Keith

2011-01-01

227

Thinking through the Issues in a Code of Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

In June 2005, seven people met at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) to develop a code of ethics governing all members of the university community. The initial group developed a preamble, that included reasons for establishing such a code and who was to be governed by the code, including rationale for following the guidelines. From this…

Davis, Michael

2008-01-01

228

ETHICAL ISSUES, SAFETY, AND DATA INTEGRITY IN CLINICAL TRIALS  

Science.gov (United States)

Published in 1974, the Belmont Report established the ethical principles for conducting clinical research in the United States. The essential concepts are respect for the research participant, beneficence for society at large, and justice (equal access to participation and equal treatment) toward su...

229

Ethics and the School Administrator: Balancing Today's Complex Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a research-based book to help school administrators understand and more effectively deal with the ethical compromises that arise as a result of the complex organizational and interpersonal demands of their leadership roles. The author combines personal knowledge, candid revelations, and interview data from five dedicated school…

Mahoney, Dan

2006-01-01

230

STUDENTS’ OPPINION ABOUT PROFESSIONAL ETHICS RELATION OF THE TEACHERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Professional teacher’s ethics is a collection of moral codes of their professional work. It is significant that the teaching profession respects certain designated professional-ethical codes of conduct between the teachers and the students, with their colleagues and other people they professionally cooperate with.     This study is focused on analysis of the professional ethical relation of teachers towards students, seen from student’s point of view. These are the results of student’s reported opinion of the eighth graders from six primary schools in the region of the city of Skopje. The obtained results show that teachers mainly keep in line with the moral codes of conduct with the students, but not always all teachers respect them.

Vera Stojanovska

2013-12-01

231

Ethics and policy issues for stem cell research and pulmonary medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stem cell research and related initiatives in regenerative medicine, cell-based therapy, and tissue engineering have generated considerable scientific and public interest. Researchers are applying stem cell technologies to chest medicine in a variety of ways: using stem cells as models for drug discovery, testing stem cell-based therapies for conditions as diverse as COPD and cystic fibrosis, and producing functional lung and tracheal tissue for physiologic modeling and potential transplantation. Although significant scientific obstacles remain, it is likely that stem cell-based regenerative medicine will have a significant clinical impact in chest medicine. However, stem cell research has also generated substantial controversy, posing a variety of ethical and regulatory challenges for research and clinical practice. Some of the most prominent ethical questions related to the use of stem cell technologies in chest medicine include (1) implications for donors, (2) scientific prerequisites for clinical testing and use, (3) stem cell tourism, (4) innovation and clinical use of emerging stem cell-based interventions, (5) responsible translation of stem cell-based therapies to clinical use, and (6) appropriate and equitable access to emerging therapies. Having a sense of these issues should help to put emerging scientific advances into appropriate context and to ensure the responsible clinical translation of promising therapeutics. PMID:25732448

Lowenthal, Justin; Sugarman, Jeremy

2015-03-01

232

Passionate scholarship or academic safety: an ethical issue.  

Science.gov (United States)

Are we passionate scholars or is academic safety something to which we aspire? Do we teach our students one thing and practice another? Are some forms of scholarship more acclaimed than others, some methodologies more acceptable? What are the ethical implications in these various questions? In this article, I outline my experiences, both as a student researcher and as an educator, that have brought me to ask these things. Holism is an ideal that many nursing students are taught and encouraged to bring to their practice, and yet holism does not seem, in many instances, to be supported in academia or in bedside practice. I suggest the possible causes for these difficulties and propose solutions. I suggest that the bedrock of ethical practice, both in the academy and with patients, is to bring all of who we are, the alchemic mystery of holism, to everything we do. PMID:24919600

Merryfeather, Lyn

2015-03-01

233

Ethical Issues Involved in Integrated Marketing Communication in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

“When we consider corporate morality we must conclude that no price is too high, for in the long run we have no alternative to ethical business behaviour” Fred. T. Aller. “If I were to name the deadliest subversive force within capitalism, the single greatest source of its waning morality …. I would without hesitation name “Advertising and Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC)”. How else should one identify a force that debases language, drains thought and undoes dignity. (Heil...

Ayozie Daniel Ogechukwu; Ayozie Kingsley Ndubueze; Ayozie Victoria Uche

2011-01-01

234

Ethical Issues in Conducting Research with Deaf Populations  

OpenAIRE

Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users represent a small population at risk of marginalization from research and surveillance activities as a result of cultural, language, and ethical challenges. The Deaf community's view of deafness as a cultural identity, rather than a disability, contradicts the medical community's perception of deafness as a disease or deficiency in need of correction or elimination. These differences continue to have significant cultural and social implications within t...

Mckee, Michael M.; Schlehofer, Deirdre; Thew, Denise

2013-01-01

235

Ethical issues in radiation protection. Sievert lecture 1992  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Present radiation protection doctrine (ICRP 1990) is based on a body of scientific knowledge, one underlying assumption and three general principles. My objective is to discuss first the adequacy of the existing scientific information for the purpose of setting safety standards; then to consider the foundation of the underlying assumption; and finally, to discuss a few aspects of the general principles in the light of ethical considerations

236

Ethical and social issues of embryonic stem cell technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Therapeutic cloning is debated as a cure for a host of diseases in the developed world. The likely source for the materials for therapeutic cloning, human ova, would be poor women and women from the developing world. The ethics and potential social consequences inherent in this technology are fraught and encourage the com modification and abstraction of one of the fundamental conditions of human life. PMID:15705144

Cregan, K

2005-02-01

237

Non-invasive prenatal testing: ethical issues explored  

OpenAIRE

This paper explores the ethical implications of introducing non-invasive prenatal diagnostic tests (NIPD tests) in prenatal screening for foetal abnormalities. NIPD tests are easy and safe and can be performed early in pregnancy. Precisely because of these features, it is feared that informed consent may become more difficult, that both testing and selective abortion will become ‘normalized', and that there will be a trend towards accepting testing for minor abnormalities and non-medical tr...

Jong, Antina; Dondorp, Wybo J.; Die-smulders, Christine E. M.; Frints, Suzanne G. M.; Wert, Guido M. W. R.

2009-01-01

238

Mandatory cancer risk warnings on alcoholic beverages: what are the ethical issues?  

Science.gov (United States)

The link between alcohol consumption and cancer is well established, but public awareness of the risk remains low. Mandated warning labels have been suggested as a way of ensuring "informed choice" about alcohol consumption. In this article we explore various ethical issues that may arise in connection with cancer warning labels on alcoholic beverages; in particular we highlight the potentially questionable autonomy of alcohol consumption decisions (either with or without labels) and consider the implications if the autonomy of drinking behavior is substantially compromised. Our discussion demonstrates the need for the various ethical issues to be considered and addressed in any decision to mandate cancer warning labels. PMID:25786002

Louise, Jennie; Eliott, Jaklin; Olver, Ian; Braunack-Mayer, Annette

2015-03-01

239

Ethical problems in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards

240

Ethical problems in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

2001-05-01

241

MORECare research methods guidance development: recommendations for ethical issues in palliative and end-of-life care research  

OpenAIRE

Background: There is little guidance on the particular ethical concerns that research raises with a palliative care population. Aim: To present the process and outcomes of a workshop and consensus exercise on agreed best practice to accommodate ethical issues in research on palliative care. Design: Consultation workshop using the MORECare Transparent Expert Consultation approach. Prior to workshops, participants were sent overviews of ethical issues in palliative care. Following the w...

Gysels, M.; Evans, C. J.; Lewis, P.; Speck, P.; Benalia, H.; Preston, N. J.; Grande, G. E.; Short, V.; Owen-jones, E.; Todd, C. J.; Higginson, I. J.

2013-01-01

242

Ethical issues associated with the use of animal experimentation in behavioral neuroscience research.  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research disciplines using animal experimentation, this field of endeavor makes a number of specific, ethically relevant, questions more explicit and, as a result, may expose to discussion a series of ethical issues that have relevance beyond this field of science. We suggest that innovative research, by its very definition, demands out-of-the-box thinking. At the same time, standardization of animal models and test procedures for the sake of comparability across experiments inhibits the potential and willingness to leave well-established tracks of thinking, and leaves us wondering how open minded research is and whether it is the researcher's established perspective that drives the research rather than the research that drives the researcher's perspective. The chapter finishes by introducing subsequent chapters of this book volume on Ethical Issues in Behavioral Neuroscience. PMID:25023419

Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

2015-01-01

243

Maternal brain death during pregnancy. Medical and ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present in detail a case of a 27-year-old primigravida who was maintained in a brain-dead state for nine weeks. An apparently normal and healthy male infant weighing 1440 g was delivered. The newborn did well and was found to be growing and developing normally at 18 months of age. Although the technical aspects of prolonged life support are demanding and the economic costs are very high (+217,784), there are ample ethical arguments justifying the separation of brain death and somatic death and the maintenance of the brain-dead mother so that her unborn fetus can develop and mature. PMID:3392814

Field, D R; Gates, E A; Creasy, R K; Jonsen, A R; Laros, R K

1988-08-12

244

Ethical, environmental and social issues for machine vision in manufacturing industry  

Science.gov (United States)

Some of the ethical, environmental and social issues relating to the design and use of machine vision systems in manufacturing industry are highlighted. The authors' aim is to emphasize some of the more important issues, and raise general awareness of the need to consider the potential advantages and hazards of machine vision technology. However, in a short article like this, it is impossible to cover the subject comprehensively. This paper should therefore be seen as a discussion document, which it is hoped will provoke more detailed consideration of these very important issues. It follows from an article presented at last year's workshop. Five major topics are discussed: (1) The impact of machine vision systems on the environment; (2) The implications of machine vision for product and factory safety, the health and well-being of employees; (3) The importance of intellectual integrity in a field requiring a careful balance of advanced ideas and technologies; (4) Commercial and managerial integrity; and (5) The impact of machine visions technology on employment prospects, particularly for people with low skill levels.

Batchelor, Bruce G.; Whelan, Paul F.

1995-10-01

245

Researching from within: external and internal ethical engagement  

OpenAIRE

This article examines the superficial and deep ethical and moral dilemmas confronting ‘insider’ researchers which we term external and internal ethical engagement. External ethical engagement refers to the traditional, easily identifiable ethical issues that insider researchers attend to by submitting their application for ethical approval to their institution’s internal review board. Internal ethical engagement relates to the deeper level ethical and moral dilemmas that insider researc...

Floyd, Alan; Arthur, L.

2012-01-01

246

Cancer survivors. Work related issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

New and more effective treatments for cancer have resulted in individuals living longer with a better quality of life. Many more survivors are employed in the workplace. Cancer is no longer only an issue for survivors and their families; it has become an issue for the employer and the workplace. This article describes survey results of 4,364 long term cancer survivors in which they were asked to respond to items describing their ability to work, job discrimination, and quality of life. Thirty-five percent of survivors were working at the time they completed the survey, and 8.5% considered themselves unable to work. This research has shown that age, gender, ethnic group, and cancer type affected the working status of the survivors. Of survivors continuing to work, 7.3% indicated they had experienced job discrimination. The results indicate most cancer survivors do not perceive employment related problems, and are readily assimilated into the work force. Job discrimination and the ability to work is a quality of life issue. PMID:12033089

Schultz, Pamela N; Beck, Martha L; Stava, Charles; Sellin, Rena V

2002-05-01

247

Perspectives on Applied Ethics  

OpenAIRE

Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...

2007-01-01

248

Cultural and ethical issues concerning research on American Indian youth.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of American Indian youths illustrates competing pressures between research and ethics. A stakeholder-researcher team developed three plans to protect participants. The first allowed participants to skip potentially upsetting interview sections. The second called for participants to skip potentially upsetting interview sections. The second called for participants flagged for abuse or suicidality to receive referrals, emergency 24-hr clinical backup, or both. The third, based on the community's desire to promote service access, included giving participants a list of service resources. Interviewers gave referrals to participants flagged as having mild problems, and reported participants with serious problems to supervisors for clinical backup. Participants seldom chose to skip sections, so data integrity was not compromised. However, participants did have more problems than expected (e.g., 1 in 3 had thought about suicide, 1 in 5 had attempted suicide, and 1 in 4 reported abuse), so service agencies were not equipped to respond. Researchers must accept the competing pressures and find ethically appropriate compromises that will not undermine research integrity. PMID:16127856

Stiffman, Arlene; Brown, Eddie; Striley, Catherine Woodstock; Ostmann, Emily; Chowa, Gina

2005-01-01

249

Clinical supervision of psychotherapy: essential ethics issues for supervisors and supervisees.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical supervision is an essential aspect of every mental health professional's training. The importance of ensuring that supervision is provided competently, ethically, and legally is explained. The elements of the ethical practice of supervision are described and explained. Specific issues addressed include informed consent and the supervision contract, supervisor and supervisee competence, attention to issues of diversity and multicultural competence, boundaries and multiple relationships in the supervision relationship, documentation and record keeping by both supervisor and supervisee, evaluation and feedback, self-care and the ongoing promotion of wellness, emergency coverage, and the ending of the supervision relationship. Additionally, the role of clinical supervisor as mentor, professional role model, and gatekeeper for the profession are discussed. Specific recommendations are provided for ethically and effectively conducting the supervision relationship and for addressing commonly arising dilemmas that supervisors and supervisees may confront. PMID:25220636

Barnett, Jeffrey E; Molzon, Corey H

2014-11-01

250

Ethical issues in human reproduction: Protestant perspectives in the light of European Protestant and Reformed Churches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Protestantism is not a centralized religion. It is composed by many independent Churches having different moral and ethical standards. This review concentrates on the ethical principles prevalent in most modern European Reformed Churches. It does not intend to discuss the ethical principles of many other Protestant Churches present mainly in the USA. The common foundations of Protestant theology are the "five sola ("Sola scriptura", Sola fide", "Sola gratia", Solus Christus or Solo Christo", "Soli deo gloria"). In opposition to the Catholic Church, no intermediary is needed between the Bible and the believer. As a consequence, Protestant Churches have no Magisterium, such as the Catholic Church. Therefore Protestant Churches cannot declare a certain position to be the "official position". Each Christian is personally responsible for all his acts, including his ethical behaviour. There is no complete unanimity among all Protestants on ethics or on any other issue. Human dignity, personal rights and self-determination have to be respected in each ethical consideration. The supersession of the Old Mosaic Covenant (including traditional Jewish law or Halakhah, maintained in Catholicism) by the New Covenant and by Christian Theology has an important impact on Protestant ethics in reproductive medicine. In the New Covenant, the Protestants Churches did not maintain the mandatory obligation from the old Mosaic Covenant to be fruitful and to multiply: there is no divine obligation by God to procreate. As a consequence, contraception is not a sin and not unethical. The status of the embryo is the key for the ethical consideration of all methods used in reproductive medicine. Most representatives of modern Protestant theology and bioethics defend the opinion that the embryo is not an independent human being as is the newborn child. For most Protestant bio-ethicists, as long as an embryo has no nervous system, no organs and no pain receptors, it cannot be seen as a human being sensu strictiori: the zygote is not yet a "human being". The ethical right to be protected prenatally increases gradually with the age and the development of the embryo. Following this so-called gradualist interpretation, the early stages of an embryo merit ethically a special status: although they have already "human life", they are not yet a "human being". All ethical considerations in modern reproductive medicine discussed in this review are based on this concept of the status of the embryo. It depends largely on the acceptance or rejection of this special status of the embryo, if a Protestant considers a certain method in reproductive medicine to be ethical or unethical. PMID:24079450

Birkhäuser, Martin

2013-11-01

251

Gender relations and economic issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

While most discussions of economic issues pay no explicit attention to gender relations, most economic policy is marked by male bias which provides women with an unequal access to resources. This situation exists because most economists, officials, and business managers lack the imagination to see the gender impact of economic issues and most women's groups and researchers lack the language to portray this connection. This article explores some aspects of this gap and aims to provide women with the ability to effectively discuss economic issues. After an introduction, the article considers the basic problem caused by the fact that the economy is defined primarily in terms of money-making activities. This leads to a male bias since much of women's work occurs outside of the monetary sphere. The next section looks at how a failure to understand the significance of gender relations will interfere with the fulfillment of policy objectives. This discussion is followed by a description of how cutbacks in government expenditures increase the burden on women who must replace the services. Problems with the option of the private-sector replacing government services, such as the fact that increasing disposable income in households does not guarantee that unpaid labor will be reduced and the fact that the private sector may fail to expand in a productive way, are covered. The article then touches on the new emphasis placed by some economists and policy makers on cooperative and interactive solutions to these problems and ends by mentioning three new initiatives which seek to build capacity for gender-aware economic analysis: the development of a training program at Manchester University in the UK, coordination of an international research workshop by the University of Utah in the US, and development of an international association for feminist economics based in the US. PMID:12320735

Elson, D

1993-10-01

252

Ethical Considerations for Psychologists Taking a Public Stance on Controversial Issues: The Balance Between Personal and Professional Life.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous literature has documented the general issues psychologists often face while balancing their personal and professional lives. The struggle stems from attempting to satisfy the need to maintain a life outside of work while having the professional obligation to follow the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (Ethics Code) to prevent their personal lives from interfering with their professional roles and relationships. The present paper analyzes the subject of psychologists taking a public position on controversial public issues. Although the APA Ethics Code does not restrict how psychologists conduct themselves during their personal time, taking a public stance on a controversial issue could potentially strain professional relationships and inadvertently reflect negatively on the profession. The present paper examines ethical issues that a) should be taken into account before psychologists take a public position on a controversial issue, and b) are in conflict with APA's Ethics Code or current research. PMID:25342876

Haeny, Angela M

2014-07-01

253

Advances in Graduate Marketing Curriculum: Paying Attention to Ethical, Social, and Sustainability Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

This research explores the impact of coercive, mimetic, and normative isomorphic pressures on the coverage and offering of courses addressing ethical, social, and sustainability issues (ESSI) in business schools' graduate marketing curricula. Data from the Aspen Institute's Beyond Grey Pinstripes program are analyzed to detect if…

Weber, James

2013-01-01

254

Ethical, Legal and Professional Issues in Family Therapy: A Graduate Level Course.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports on the curricular components of a 16-week graduate course entitled "Ethical, Legal and Professional Issues in Family Therapy." To aid in replication and assessment, selected teaching strategies are also presented. Course topics include feminism and hedonism, confidentiality, paradox, malpractice, court testimony, job hunting, private…

Piercy, Fred P.; Sprenkle, Douglas H.

1983-01-01

255

Impact of Parental Severe Mental Illness: Ethical and Clinical Issues for Counselors  

Science.gov (United States)

This article draws attention to the issue of parental severe mental illness and the ethical and clinical implications for counselors who work with this population. Parents with mental illness face a multitude of life challenges including, but not limited to, parenting difficulties, medication and hospitalization, custody and placement of their…

Spiegelhoff, Sarah F.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel

2011-01-01

256

Issues Supervising Family Violence Cases: Advocacy, Ethical Documentation, and Supervisees' Reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

Selected clinical and ethical issues associated with providing supervision involving family violence cases are outlined. It is argued that supervisees helping clients with trauma histories require skills beyond learning how to process the trauma with their clients. Advocacy, social action, and coordinating case conferences are some of the…

McBride, Dawn L.

2010-01-01

257

Health effects of low-level radiation: ethical issues for patients and workforces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the light of recent media-driven furores concerning the sensitive matter of patient consent, and the new legislation that impinges upon this issue, the nature of ethical practices for epidemiological research needs to be looked at anew. This paper considers the present landscape, with particular reference to the nuclear workforce and BNFL's current practice in this regard. (author)

258

Ethical Issues in the Social Worker's Role in Physician-Assisted Suicide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents results of an exploratory study of social workers' views on physician-assisted suicide (PAS), situations in which PAS would be favored, and whether there is a difference in education or training on mental health issues, ethics, or suicide between social workers who favor PAS and those who oppose PAS. (BF)

Manetta, Ameda A.; Wells, Janice G.

2001-01-01

259

Health effects of low-level radiation: ethical issues for patients and workforces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the light of recent media-driven furores concerning the sensitive matter of patient consent, and the new legislation that impinges upon this issue, the nature of ethical practices for epidemiological research needs to be looked at anew. This paper considers the present landscape, with particular reference to the nuclear workforce and BNFL's current practice in this regard. (author)

Slovak, A. [British Nuclear Fuels, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

2003-06-01

260

Ethical issues in international collaborative research on the human genome: The HGP and the HGDP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This special feature describes the ethical issues in international collaborative research on the human genome, both regarding the Human Genome Project (HGP), which is concerned with genetic mapping, and the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP), which is an effort to document the genetic variation of the human species worldwide. 88 refs.

Knoppers, B.M.; Hirtle, M.; Lormeau, S. [Universite de Montreal (Canada)

1996-06-01

261

Ethical Issues and Considerations for Working with Community College Students with Severe and Persistent Mental Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

Students with severe and persistent mental illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders; moderate to severe mood, anxiety, dissociative, eating, or personality disorders) are attending community colleges in increasing numbers. Their need for counseling services presents counseling centers with unique ethical issues to consider. This…

Francis, Perry C.; Abbassi, Amir

2010-01-01

262

Ethical issues, justification, referral criteria for budget limited and high-dose procedures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews some of the issues connected with questions of ethics, health economics, radiation dose and referral criteria arising from a workshop held under the auspices of the Sentinel Research Program FP6-012909. An extensive bibliography of further reading is included. (authors)

263

[Patient autonomy and informed consent - ethical and legal issues].  

Science.gov (United States)

Informing patients about the benefits and risks of and alternatives to proposed medical or surgical procedures is crucial to the patient-physician relationship. It is a legal and ethical precondition to a patient's informed consent to a course of action. Particularly in cases of serious illness and when there are far reaching implications for a patient's lifestyle, this process entails much more than just imparting information. Indeed, it is a dialogue through which the physician empowers the patient to reach a decision which reflects the patient's life situation and system of values. This process promotes patient autonomy. Studies have shown that this approach builds trust, increases patient satisfaction with health care and results in a higher degree of professional fulfilment for the physician. PMID:25850648

Wolf-Braun, Barbara; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

2015-03-01

264

Ethical Issues Regarding Informed Consent for Minors for Space Tourism  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the difficulty with informed consent and debates whether or not whether adults should be able to ethically, morally, and legally consent for their children during the high-risk activity of space tourism. The experimental nature of space vehicles combined with the high likelihood of medical complications and the destination places space tourism legally in the category of "adventure activities," which include adventure travel to exotic locations as well as adventure sports, such as mountain climbing, rafting, etc. which carry a high risk of danger (http://rescommunis.wordpress.com/2008/02/14/interview-tracey-l-knutson-adventure-sports-defense-attorney-on-space-tourism-risk-and-informed-consente/). However, unlike other adventure sports, adults currently cannot consent for their minor children. Other topics also receive attention, such as a "mature minors" clause, radiation exposure of potential future children, and other difficulties preventing adults from legally consenting to space travel.

Marsh, Melvin S.

2010-01-01

265

TEACHERS’ OPINIONS RELATED WITH ETHIC BEHAVIOURS OF EDUCATION INSPECTORS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem: Relation styles of education inspectors that take into consideration ethic values can provide teachers to have more morale and loyalty while working for their schools and students. Secondary school teachers’ opinions related with ethic behaviors of education inspectors and sample situations the teachers have experienced are brought out by this search. Population of this study concerns 42 primary schools from Ad?yaman and its central counties. As applying to this poll at schools will create some problems (like time, cost and control difficulties %25 (twenty-five percent of the research population has been chosen randomly as cluster sample. (10 schools.All the teachers working in these schools were chosen randomly and they were all included in the study. Polls were applied to the all teachers from 10 schools. Returning and appropriate questionnaires for processing were evaluated.Method: A poll that had 22 questions with 5 multiple choices were used to collect data. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the data from the account of reliability based on data acquired from application was calculated as 87. SPSS packaged software was used to analyze the data, t test and one-way analysis of variance were used as statistical analysis methods. While commenting on arithmetic averages , ranges were evaluated like this.1.00 – 1.79 ‘very low’ , 1.80 – 2.59 ‘low’, 2.60 -3.39 ‘moderate’ , 3.40 – 4.19 ‘high’ ,4.20 – 5.00 ‘very high’. The highest score was 110 points and the lowest score was 22 points available for the questionnaire test, Mann Whitney U test ,one- way analysis of variance and Kruskal Wallish test were performed to test whether the opinions changed or not according to personal characteristics.Findings: As a result of this study, teachers have identified that ethical behavior level of education inspectors is at medium level. Variances like gender, the number of teachers at school and the question of desire to be an education inspector don’t show significant difference. While there is no significant difference between the opinions of people who have given positive answers to the question of ‘Would you like to be an education inspector?’ the opinions of people who have given positive answers to the question of ‘Do you believe in the necessity of the inspection?’ have showed significant difference according to those who have given negative answers. Suggestions: According to these results it can be advised that inspectors can be directed to in-service training study about ‘Ethics Training’ to develop their own ethical principles and to perform behaviors that have more humanistic nature and ethic principles.

Yrd.Doç.Dr.Celal Teyyar U?URLU

2010-09-01

266

Managing ethical issues in sexual violence research using a pilot study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conducting research in the area of sexual violence has complex ethical and practical challenges for the researcher. Managing ethical issues in sexual violence is important and can be achieved through the use of pilot studies. The primary purpose of the pilot study was to identify and manage potential ethical and practical problems that could jeopardise the main study or violate the ethical and human rights of participants in the main study on women’s journey of recovery from sexual assault. The secondary purpose was to collect preliminary data in order to determine the human, financial and time resources needed for a planned study. The methods and processes used in conducting the pilot study in the study on women’s journey of recovery are discussed according to each of the objectives of the pilot study, methods used to achieve the objective, observations or findings made during the pilot study, and implications for the main study.This article aims to demonstrate how a pilot study was used to manage identified potential ethical and practical research issues during the recruitment of participants and data collection for the research that was conducted by the first author to investigate women’s journey of recovery from sexual assault trauma within the first week following sexual assault.

S.E. Duma

2009-09-01

267

Conflicts of duty and the virtues of Aristotle in public relations ethics: Continuing the conversation commenced by Monica Walle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Monica Walle?'s commentary on codes of ethics from five national public relations associations ?What happened to public responsibility? The lack of society in public relations codes of ethics?, in the last issue of PRism (2003, made several useful points about potential conflicts of duty, and the manner in which the various codes are silent on the duty of the professional to the public interest. Indeed, it is this very notion of service to the community, and the upholding of the public interest against private interests--or the singular interest of publics--which is at the core of any definition of what it means to be a profession (Sallot, Cameron, & Lariscy, 1997. Issues arising from Walle?'s discussion of conflicts of duty, as well as several broader questions about the nature and functions of ethics codes, are discussed further here and illustrated by the recent and controversial ?Timberlands? case from New Zealand.

John Harrison

2004-06-01

268

The Teaching of Socioscientific Issues in Interdisciplinarity Biology-philosophy, an Ethical Stake and Citizenship Issue  

Science.gov (United States)

This research starts from a relatively optimistic thinking based on the fact that the teaching of the socioscientific issues through the practice of argued debates can contribute positively towards education in scientific citizenship. The teaching of techno-sciences raises topical questions which interfere in the classroom and at the same time…

Kacem, Saida; Simonneaux, Laurence

2009-01-01

269

Transhuman and posthuman – on relevance of "cyborgisation" on legal and ethical issues  

OpenAIRE

I will discuss issues which can be seen as taken strictly from the science fiction literature. Nonetheless, I would like to demonstrate that those issues not so far from now will have a big influence on the ethical discourse and also the law and social philosophy. The first part aims at clarifying concept of “cyborg” and “cyborgization”. I will consider only meanings coined for scientific or philosophical purposes. I will also indicate two experiments, which bring to life “the first...

Michalczak, Rafa?

2012-01-01

270

Societal and ethical issues in human biomonitoring – a view from science studies  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Human biomonitoring (HBM) has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing into focus the conditions of how and what is k...

Bauer Susanne

2008-01-01

271

Legal, ethical, and professional issues to consider when communicating via the Internet: a suggested response model and policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Providing nutrition information via the Internet enables dietetics professionals to expand their practices, markets, and networks, but also presents new legal, ethical, and professional issues. Based on her experiences responding to unsolicited questions through a Spanish-language nutrition Web site, this author presents issues related to electronic communication, a process for formulating responses, and makes suggestions for a policy. The issues include the global nature of cyberspace; cultural variations in Spanish-language food terms and models, credentialing, licensure, and scope of practice; presentation of credentials; the inquirer's knowledge and information sources; the nature of the cyberspace relationship; and protection of the client and the professional. These issues have created a need for an electronic communication policy and some components of such a policy are identified, including the nature of electronic nutrition, distinguishing between public and client-specific communication, question-and-answer formats, opening and closing caveats, and recording processes. PMID:10570681

Rodriguez, J C

1999-11-01

272

Geologic disposal of radioactive waste: Ethical and technical issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethical goals that future people should be protected and should not have to protect themselves from our radioactive waste are claimed by geologic repository projects. The best test of sufficient protection is to show that the calculated individual doses to future farming families are well below a regulatory limit. That limit should be no greater than what is now adopted to protect the public from operatinglicensed facilities. Present US calculations show doses, at times well beyond 10,000 years, that exceed current accepted limits by at least three orders of magnitude. Notwithstanding, there is a good chance that the goals can still be achieved by careful technical design of the geologic confinement system. But many in the US now propose ways that would allow greater individual exposures from radionuclides that eventually leak from a geologic repository. Examples include: (a) the 10,000-year cutoff proposed by industry, the US Congress, EPA, and DOE, thus obscuring the later times when higher doses are certain to result; (b) the vicinity-average dose proposed by industry and the US Congress; (c) the probabilistic critical groups proposed by EPRI and by the National Research Council's TYMS committee; (d) proposals to rely on future humans to detect and cleanup excessive amounts of radioactivity that may escape from a repository, and (e) the move to base compliance on calculated doses from well water drawn at considerable distance from Yucca Mountain. Each of these proposals would lead to a far more lenient radiation protection standard than current standards. Each of these proposals is without sufficient scientific basis for its use as a protector of public health. Each of these proposals would violate one or more of the ethical goals. Each is made without adequate discussion and explanation and without explaining how and why it would violate one or more of the ethical goals. What if serious work on alternatives fails to produce conservatively calculated and defensible doses that show that future people will be protected as well as present-day people are protected from licensed nuclear facilities? If so, the need for a geologic repository could be balanced against the desire for assuring such conservative and careful protection of public health. Relaxation of the safety standard itself, as attempted so prematurely by the House and Senate bills of the present and last Congress, should be made only after specialreview of that need by the scientific community and the public and approval by Congress. The desire for safeguards protection of buried spent nuclear fuel will be an additional burden on repository design and prediction of performance. Thus, the Yucca Mountain Project faces a demanding technical challenge. Similar challenges face policy makers. They must reject pressures for short-term expediency and economy lest, by enacting policies that compromise scientific validity and credibility, they further undermine public confidence and irreparably harm the programs for disposing of high-level radioactive waste.

Pigford, T.H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1999-12-01

273

Parenthood and the Internet: An Ethical Discussion about Online Sexual Issues against Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most controversial discussions about parenthood and the Internet is about the sexual offenses that children can face when surfing the Web. Moreover, how parents can protect them effectively is another point of interestin the current society. However, this issue has not been analysed from the ethical point of view due to the lack of cyberethics nowadays. Hence, in this article, the most common online threats against children are discussed considering the utilitarianism, the contractarianism, and the pluralism.Additionally, some procedures applied to protect children are analysed using the mentioned ethical frameworks.

Denys A. Flores

2012-07-01

274

Ethics and the promotion of consumer brands to children: Marketing public relations in the UK toy industry  

OpenAIRE

Toys represent children’s chief non-food desires, but there has been little research on the impact of public relations campaigns to promote toys to children. This study addressed two key related issues. First, it assessed the impact of marketing public relations messages on children. Second, it raised questions about the ethics of using marketing public relations to promote toys to children. We used focus groups with children in different age ranges, interviews with toy industry public rela...

Della Pike; Nigel Jackon

2006-01-01

275

Informed consent and ethical issues in military medical research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Informed consent in military research shares many of the same fundamental principles and regulations that govern civilian biomedical research. In fact, much of modern research ethics is grounded in events that occurred in the context of war or government-sponsored research. Despite these similarities and common origins, research in the military has additional requirements designed to preserve service members' informed consent rights. The special nature of the superior-subordinate relationship in the military necessitates careful protections to avoid perceptions of coercion or undue influence on a military subject. Additionally, current legal and regulatory requirements for advanced informed consent significantly restrict the flexibility of the military to conduct research using waiver of consent. This has implications on the ability of the nation to develop effective medical treatments for the global war on terrorism. Nevertheless, work is under way to realign defense research policy with the norms of civilian biomedical practice. Future directions include the adoption of waivers for military emergency research, and the cautious introduction of human subject studies on the battlefield. This paper discusses historical background, regulatory differences, and concerns and challenges of some of these regulatory differences for research personnel that apply to informed consent and waiver of said informed consent for emergency research conducted by the U.S. military. PMID:16264083

McManus, John; Mehta, Sumeru G; McClinton, Annette R; De Lorenzo, Robert A; Baskin, Toney W

2005-11-01

276

Conflicts of duty and the virtues of Aristotle in public relations ethics: Continuing the conversation commenced by Monica Walle  

OpenAIRE

Monica Walle?'s commentary on codes of ethics from five national public relations associations ?What happened to public responsibility? The lack of society in public relations codes of ethics?, in the last issue of PRism (2003), made several useful points about potential conflicts of duty, and the manner in which the various codes are silent on the duty of the professional to the public interest. Indeed, it is this very notion of service to the community, and the upholding of the public in...

John Harrison

2004-01-01

277

Ethics in science and environmental politics: issues for interdisciplinary teams  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The quest for sustainable use of the planet will require evidence, analysis and judgment from a wide array of disciplines. In order to produce a systematic and orderly analysis of this information, a synthesis will be essential. This synthesis will be generated most effectively if the individuals designing the research and providing the data interact in a variety of ways. Disciplines are isolated from each other and not accustomed to working together; however, this isolation is changing rapidly. Still, there are many issues not yet satisfactorily resolved. This manuscript illustrates these issues and makes suggestions for improving the situation.

John Cairns Jr.

2001-11-01

278

Food Marketing to Children - Introduction to Ethical Issues  

OpenAIRE

The working paper provides an overview of key stakeholders involved in the food marketing to children in Europe and in the Czech Republic. It analyzes the role of the legislation as well as of voluntary codes of conduct in the food industry. The industry part of the issue is also covered by explanation of their role and position in the obesity issue. The form of food industry cooperation at the Food Chamber through a working group of involved companies is analyzed and an example of the corpor...

Kv?ta Olšanová

2013-01-01

279

Ethical considerations for evaluating the issue of physical restraint in psychiatry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english This article examines some of the ethical issues associated with the use of physical restraint in psychiatry and neurology. It offers no specific answers to individual operational problems, but a methodological matrix is proposed as an aid to experts in the various settings in which decisions are ta [...] ken. The subject is addressed mainly by considering two sources: reference documents published by eminent organisations, and the theoretical framework of ethical values (or principles). A number of analytical criteria arising from these sources are then identified and proposed. The proposed criteria can be applied in cases for which the legitimate use of restraint may be an option, bearing in mind that restraint is an extremely serious affront to human dignity and is widely held to be of no therapeutic value. Its abuse is illegitimate in both ethical and legal terms.

Carlo, Petrini.

2013-09-01

280

Ethical issues in informed consent with substance abusers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alcohol and drug abusers present issues that complicate the informed consent process. The present study examined the practices of federally funded clinical investigators in obtaining informed consent from alcohol and drug abusers. Ninety-one (51%) researchers completed a 27-item survey on informed consent issues. The majority of investigators (57%) recruited participants susceptible to coercion; most used procedures to minimize coercion. Two thirds of researchers used objective means to determine competence to give consent and comprehension of consent forms. Virtually all investigators had policies to deal with suicidality, homicidality, or reports of child abuse; less than 1/2 informed participants of these limits to confidentiality. Almost 50% of investigators had dealt with intoxicated or suicidal participants; 12% had encountered homicidal participants; and 23% had encountered child abuse or neglect. Half of the sample used collateral data sources; about 1/2 of these obtained written informed consent from collaterals. Guidelines for informed consent with substance abusers are suggested. PMID:10224728

McCrady, B S; Bux, D A

1999-04-01

281

Health Care Ethics: Dilemmas, Issues and Conflicts. Midwest Alliance in Nursing Annual Fall Workshop (6th, Indianapolis, Indiana, September 5-6, 1985).  

Science.gov (United States)

A variety of ethical issues confronting the nursing profession are examined in these proceedings. The following papers are presented: (1) "Ethics: Care & Conflict," by Leah Curtin; (2) "The Interface of Politics and Ethics in Nursing," by Mila Aroskar; (3) "Pluralistic Ethical Decision-Making," by Rita Payton; (4) "Compassion, Technology & the…

Prock, Valencia N., Ed.; And Others

282

Ethical Issues in E-Commerce on the Basis of Online Retailing  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: The rapid spread of e-commerce has created tremendous opportunities for economic efficiency and customer choice. Use of the global Internet computer network for ecommerce activities provides some advantages to the consumers on their daily life. On the other hand Internet represents a new environment for unethical behavior. While e-commerce has witnessed extensive growth in last decade, consumers concerns regarding ethical issues also continue to increase. Even many consumer...

Sinan Nardal; Ayse Sahin

2011-01-01

283

A network approach for distinguishing ethical issues in research and development  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we report on our experiences with using network analysis to discern and analyse ethical issues in research into, and the development of, a new wastewater treatment technology. Using network analysis, we preliminarily interpreted some of our observations in a Group Decision Room (GDR) session where we invited important stakeholders to think about the risks of this new technology. We show how a network approach is useful for understanding the observations, and suggests some releva...

Zwart, Sd; Poel, Ir; Mil, Hgj Harald; Brumsen, M.

2006-01-01

284

Chinese geneticists' views of ethical issues in genetic testing and screening: evidence for eugenics in China.  

OpenAIRE

To identify Chinese geneticists' views of ethical issues in genetic testing and screening, a national survey was conducted. Of 402 Chinese geneticists asked to participate, 255 (63%) returned by mail anonymous questionnaires. The majority of respondents thought that genetic testing should be offered in the workplace for alpha-antitrypsin deficiency (95%) and the predisposition of executives to heart disease, cancer, and diabetes (94%); that genetic testing should be included in preemployment ...

Mao, X.

1998-01-01

285

Practicing School Psychology while Impaired: Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on impairment in psychologists and other mental health practitioners began appearing in the literature 30-35 years ago. Since then, research and related scholarly writings have continued to be published to more fully understand this concept and its components. In school psychology, however, little has been written regarding school…

Mahoney, Emery B.; Morris, Richard J.

2012-01-01

286

Environmental and ethical issues and waste management approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pronouncing the words ''radioactive waste'' can easily arouse mistrust, or even irrational fear, by wittingly or unwittingly referring to Hiroshima or Chernobyl, by exploiting the lax attitude to this type of waste in certain countries and by speculating on the complex issues involved, which are beyond the general public's grasp. It would be unacceptable to paint such a black picture of nuclear waste, just as it would be to keep glossing over the problems that it poses. Waste managers have a duty to convince scientists and politicians and public opinion in general, with arguments based on serious scientific research, that safe technical solutions do exist. But will this be enough? The general public of course knows very little about science. But people are prepared to put their trust in science provided that they are not subjected to a free for all between scientists from opposing camps attacking each other with unintelligible arguments. However, other types of reactions, more difficult to control, can be expected from some quarters of the general public. For instance, a reaction of instinctive and passionate mistrust has already emerged in different forms over the centuries, with its roots buried in ancestral culture and as such varying from region to region and country to country. Nuclear waste may also provide yet another opportunity to demonstrate opposition to something ostensibly being imposed by Central Government. The only solution here is for decisions to be only solution here is for decisions to be worked out at grass roots level through a gradual process of wide consultation, with the necessary backing of elected local authorities. For these reasons, the process of setting up an underground laboratory possibly followed by radioactive waste storage has to be a gradual one, with thorough consultation at all levels at each stage under the constant supervision of ad hoc committees of scientific experts, each new step forward only being decided by the political authorities after completing the proper inquiry procedures. (O.M.)

287

Ethics, Reflexivity and Access in Educational Research: Issues in Intergenerational Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

Educational researchers, like other academic investigators, are expected to carry out research in an ethical manner. This paper draws on the author's experience of conducting a research study related to social justice, which examines intergenerational dynamics and education amongst British Asian families. It discusses the importance of…

Basit, Tehmina N.

2013-01-01

288

British Students' Perceptions of Ethical Issues in International Marketing: An Empirical Investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey investigated 122 British business students' perceptions of ethics in international marketing practices, particularly as they are affected by demographic characteristics. In response to 12 specific scenarios, students indicated relatively liberal attitudes. Implications for global marketing specialists and for business education are…

Amin, Sammy G.

1996-01-01

289

Philosophical and ethical issues in human organ transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organ transplantation has moved over 30 years from being experimental and heroic to being the treatment of choice in many terminal diseases of vital organs, such as biliary atresis, which would require a liver transplant, or pulmonary fibrosis, which would require a heart/lung transplant. There are now many more older and chronically sick people than ever before (Hudak et al, 1998). Transplantation offers hope for an improved quality of life. All patients have a right to care, although there remains a dichotomy between the holistic model of care and the medical model. The UKCC's (1992) Code of Professional Conduct informs practice, and clauses 1 and 5 are of particular importance in relation to this client group. This article looks at some of the problems patients may develop pre- and post-transplant and the support required to overcome or minimize these problems. Implications for healthcare staff are considered. PMID:12070387

Mackenzie, K M

290

Accounting-related transmission issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various initiatives have been undertaken by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to deregulate wholesale electric energy markets. These initiatives have focused on restructuring the transmission systems in the US and recently have culminated in a proposal requiring formation of and participation in regional transmission organizations. The overall form of regulation selected to determine rates for transmission entities as well as underlying regulatory decisions reached on key issues will have profound implications for transmission entities. For example, traditional cost-based regulation would require one set of accounting and reporting rules, while incentive-based regulation may not be subject to those same rules. An overview of some of the major accounting and financial reporting issues that will need to be considered is presented

291

Ethical and legal issues in organ transplantation: Indian scenario.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1994, the Government of India enacted the Transplantation of Human Organs Act (THOA) to prevent commercial dealings in human organs. However, a greater number of scandals involving medical practitioners and others in the kidney trade has surfaced periodically in every state in India. The present regulatory system has failed mainly due to the misuse of Section 9(3) of the THOA, which approves the consent given by a live unrelated donor for the removal of organs for the reason of affection or attachment towards the recipient or for any other special reason. Currently in India, approximately 3500-4000 kidney transplants and 150-200 liver transplants are performed annually. However, the availability of organs from brain-dead persons is very low. As a result, live related or unrelated donors form the main source of organ transplantation. Therefore, physicians and policy-makers should re-examine the value of introducing regulated incentive-based organ donation to increase the supply of organs for transplantation and to end unlawful financial transaction. PMID:21905567

Mathiharan, Karunakaran

2011-07-01

292

Making ethical deliberations public: Some provisional resources for youth research ethics  

OpenAIRE

The focus of this special edition of Youth Studies Australia is on questions, issues, challenges and (tentative) solutions in relation to ensuring that research with young people is conducted ethically. This introductory paper by the guest editors of this edition draws on ethical principles as outlined in the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans and in the Fairbridge Code of Ethics for youth work. The authors explain how these principles can inform ethical youth ...

Te Riele, K.; Brooks, R.

2012-01-01

293

Investigating eating disorders in elite gymnasts: conceptual, ethical and methodological issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elite gymnastics, and other sports where athletes and coaches are particularly concerned with aesthetic considerations, weight and shape, are fields within which the risk of eating disorders may be unusually high. Adolescent gymnasts, developing their own sense of self, at a time of life where body image concerns are common, often compete at the very top of the sport with a need to maintain a body shape and weight optimal for elite performance. Research into this field should address the range of sociological and ethical aspects of eating disorders in elite sport, their prevalence as well as the ethos of the sport itself. This paper addresses a range of conceptual, ethical and methodological issues relevant to conducting research in this sensitive yet important field. PMID:24533496

Tan, Jacinta; Bloodworth, Andrew; McNamee, Mike; Hewitt, Jeanette

2014-01-01

294

Do Ethical Purchase Intentions Really Lead to Ethical Purchase Behavior? A Case of Animal-Testing Issues in Shampoo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of consumers’ ethical buying intentions on their buying behavior. Using a survey approach, the findings suggest the link between ethical buying intentions and behavior depends on consumers’ awareness of the brand’s general corporate social responsibility activities. Only when consumers with ethical purchase intentions are aware of the brand’s CSR activities can their intentions translate into behavior.

Alexandra Madar

2013-06-01

295

Do Ethical Purchase Intentions Really Lead to Ethical Purchase Behavior? A Case of Animal-Testing Issues in Shampoo  

OpenAIRE

This study investigates the impact of consumers’ ethical buying intentions on their buying behavior. Using a survey approach, the findings suggest the link between ethical buying intentions and behavior depends on consumers’ awareness of the brand’s general corporate social responsibility activities. Only when consumers with ethical purchase intentions are aware of the brand’s CSR activities can their intentions translate into behavior.

Alexandra Madar; Huang, Hazel H.; Ting-Hsiang Tseng

2013-01-01

296

Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that individuals have the right to request or refuse nutrition and hydration as medical treatment. Registered dietitians should work collaboratively as part of an interprofessional team to make recommendations on providing, withdrawing, or withholding nutrition and hydration in individual cases and serve as active members of institutional ethics committees. This practice paper provides a proactive, integrated, systematic process to implement the Academy's position. The position and practice papers should be used together to address the history and supporting information of ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration identified by the Academy. Elements of collaborative ethical deliberation are provided for pediatrics and adults and in different conditions. The process of ethical deliberation is presented with the roles and responsibilities of the registered dietitian and the dietetic technician, registered. Understanding the importance and applying concepts dealing with cultural values and religious diversity is necessary to integrate clinical ethics into nutrition care. Incorporating screening for quality-of-life goals is essential before implementing the Nutrition Care Process and improving health literacy with individual interactions. Developing institution-specific policies and procedures is necessary to accelerate the practice change with artificial nutrition, clinical ethics, and quality improvement projects to determine best practice. This paper supports the "Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Ethical and Legal Issues of Feeding and Hydration" published in the June 2013 issue of the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. PMID:23790412

Schwartz, Denise Baird; Posthauer, Mary Ellen; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

2013-07-01

297

Gathering visual images of the 2004 tsunami: Journalists’ challenges and ethical issues  

OpenAIRE

This paper tackles a relatively unaddressed area of journalistic ethics by offering insights from working journalists into the conditions they face when reporting disasters. It covers the disaster reporting context in general, but with particular emphasis on the witnessing of disaster and subsequent impact on the journalist, and the processes of collection of visual imagery for print or broadcast. This research provides a complement to the large body of output-related analysis of photojourn...

James Hollings

2006-01-01

298

The Social Work Ethics Audit: A Risk-Management Strategy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Article integrates current knowledge on social work ethics and introduces the concept of a social work ethics audit to aid social workers in their efforts to identify pertinent ethical issues; review and assess the adequacy of their current ethics-related practices; modify their practices as needed; and monitor the implementation of these changes.…

Reamer, Frederic G.

2000-01-01

299

Confusion and ethical issues surrounding the role of Japanese midwives in childbirth and abortion: a qualitative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative study describes midwives' experiences in providing care in both pregnancy termination and childbirth in Japan. Midwives working in the general hospital maternity unit assist in both, which is an ethical issue warranting further exploration. Eleven midwives working in a general hospital were interviewed using a semistructured interview, and responses were coded using thematic analysis. Two major themes emerged: the experience of midwives involved in childbirth and pregnancy termination (three subthemes: confusion about care of the baby and aborted fetus, inability to cater to different mothers' needs, and establishing emotional control) and professional awareness and attitude as a midwife (three subthemes: consistency with professional principles, suppression of feelings in relation to aborted fetus, and previous and current professional identities). We found that midwives are isolated in this important social moral issue and its accompanying professional confusion. Suppressing their feelings remains the most common way of dealing with the ambivalence of the roles they fulfill. Improved working conditions and enhanced training on aspects of professional ethics would assist in reducing professional confusion. PMID:22093688

Mizuno, Maki

2011-12-01

300

Public relations ethics: A simpler (but not simplistic) approach to the complexities  

OpenAIRE

Professional public relations bodies internationally have established ethics codes in an attempt to regulate members’ ethical behaviour. This paper critiques the code-based framework on philosophical and practical grounds, suggesting that such frameworks are inadequate because they leave practitioners free to interpret these guides in ways that advance their own and their clients’ interests. We argue that this latitude does not foster ethical behaviour. We then contrast rule-following,act...

Karey Harrison; Chris Galloway

2005-01-01

301

Historical Roots and Future Perspectives Related to Nursing Ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article traces the evolution of the development and refinement of the professional code from concerns about the ethical conduct of nurses to its present state as a professional code for all nurses. The relationship of the Ethics Committee of the American Nurses' Association to the development of the code is also discussed. (Author/MLW)

Freitas, Lorraine

1990-01-01

302

Primary care research ethics.  

OpenAIRE

Research activity in primary care is increasing rapidly, and raises a range of specific ethical issues. Many of these relate to the involvement of individuals in the community who are not seeking medical care and to the impact of research participation on relationships between general practitioners and their patients. The ethical issues pertinent to a range of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies in primary care are identified and considered.

Jones, R.; Murphy, E.; Crosland, A.

1995-01-01

303

Ethical review of health-related biotechnology research in Africa: a role for the Pan African Bioethics Initiative (PABIN).  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper reviews the status of nature and functions of the Pan African Bioethics Initiative (PABIN) a voluntary organization, founded in 2001 by leading members of the African health research and bioethics communities, with the aim of enhancing ethical awareness in Africa, in general, and building ethical clearance capacity in all African countries in particular. PABIN, with a membership drawn from more than 20 African countries is a member of the forum of the WHO/TDR Strategic Initiative for Developing Capacity in Ethical Review (SIDCER). PABIN works closely with its sister forums in Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and North America as well as other continental and international organizations that promote bioethics in health research. PABIN has conducted three conferences and several seminars in collaboration with continental and international partners on subjects of ethical concerns in Africa. Strategically, PABIN aims at assisting in the development of competent in-country bioethics review systems in all African countries. Notable among the contemporary issues that is on the PABIN agenda is addressing the repercussions of the active pursuit by pharmaceutical and other commercial interests from the Western developed countries to conduct all sorts of clinical biomedical trials on African populations before marketing such biotechnological products and services. This drive has brought with it highly controversial ethical issues at a time when both technical and organizational capacity are lacking in much of Africa to address the ethical concerns that are arising from some health-related researches. PABIN seeks to assure that the expected health and social benefits derivable from biotechnology are reaped in accordance with internationally accepted norms. PMID:17703564

Petros, B

2007-01-01

304

When courts intervene: public health, legal and ethical issues surrounding HIV, pregnant women, and newborn infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ninety-three percent of pediatric AIDS cases are the result of perinatal HIV transmission, a disease that is almost entirely preventable with early intervention, which reduces the risk of perinatal HIV infection from 25% to ethical dilemmas can result. Federal courts consistently uphold a woman's right to refuse medical testing and treatment, even though it may benefit her fetus/newborn infant. Federal courts also reliably respect the rights of parents to make health care decisions for their newborn infants, which may include declining medical testing and treatment. Confusing the issue of HIV testing and treatment, however, is the fact that there is no definitive United States Supreme Court ruling on the issue. State laws and standards vary widely and serve as guiding principles for practicing clinicians, who must be vigilant of ongoing legal challenges and changes in the states in which they practice. We present a case of an HIV-positive pregnant woman who declined treatment and then testing or treatment of her newborn infant. Ultimately, the legal system intervened. Given the rarity of such cases, we use this as a primer for the practicing clinician to highlight the public health, legal, and ethical issues surrounding prenatal and newborn infant HIV testing and treatment in the United States, including summarizing key state-to-state regulatory differences. PMID:24732002

Tessmer-Tuck, Jennifer A; Poku, Joseph K; Burkle, Christopher M

2014-11-01

305

Ethical Issues in Insurance Marketing.The Case of Western India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a paper based on empirical investigation conducted in Western India between 2002 and 2012 especially at a time when the Indian economy is in a stage of transition from state capitalism to free market capitalism, albeit both of a retarded variety. It takes the 7 Ps of services marketing and cross verifies responses against seven dimensions of ethical conduct. The study is based on questionnaires followed by interviews. The target respondents were life insurance employees of banc assurance involved in marketing life insurance policies to customers in the urban sector. The study brought to the fore the fact that commissions were more important that telling the truth while selling policies. In the process ethical considerations conveniently went out of the window. To protect the interest of the unsuspecting clients a plea is made to have governance machinery in place that will make the insurance marketing personnel accountable for what and how they sell their wares. This need is especially felt in a country where the social security net is virtually non existent and the erstwhile joint family system is on a fast decline. In such circumstances a lack of ethical norms on the part of the insurer is an unacceptable sociological proposition and borders on gross unethical behaviour. The task of people management experts to address this issue is of the paramount importance and urgency if the Indian life insurance industry is to sustain its social image in a highly competitive market where foreign players are steadily entering the domestic scene.

Sorab Georgy Sadri

2012-10-01

306

Ethical Issues in mHealth Research Involving Persons Living with HIV/AIDS and Substance Abuse  

OpenAIRE

We aim to raise awareness and stimulate dialogue among investigators and research ethics committees regarding ethical issues that arise specifically in the design and conduct of mHealth research involving persons living with HIV/AIDS and substance abuse. Following a brief background discussion of mHealth research in general, we offer a case example to illustrate the characteristics of mHealth research involving people living with HIV/AIDS and substance abuse. With reference to a well-establis...

Labrique, Alain B.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Westergaard, Ryan P.; Merritt, Maria W.

2013-01-01

307

Ethical Considerations for Psychologists Taking a Public Stance on Controversial Issues: The Balance Between Personal and Professional Life  

OpenAIRE

Previous literature has documented the general issues psychologists often face while balancing their personal and professional lives. The struggle stems from attempting to satisfy the need to maintain a life outside of work while having the professional obligation to follow the American Psychological Association’s (APA’s) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (Ethics Code) to prevent their personal lives from interfering with their professional roles and relationships. T...

Haeny, Angela M.

2013-01-01

308

Triniteit en etiek: Van 'n relasionele God tot 'n etiek van die ander / Trinity and ethics: From a relational God to an ethic of the Other  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: Afrikaner Abstract in english The article addresses the question whether the new appreciation for the doctrine of the Trinity could generate significant ethical implications. More specifically it investigates whether the identity of God in the Christian tradition does open new ethical sensibilities. The so-called Trinitarian Ren [...] aissance is briefly mapped, and the views of the theologians Zizioulas and Moltmann are described for an illustration of the turn to relationality. Critical resistance to a socially oriented doctrine of the Trinity is taken into account, but it is not considered as final and persuasive. Two theologians - Volf and Cunningham - are studied and how their theology addresses from a Trinitarian perspective ethical issues and specifically the problem of the Other. The article concludes that the doctrine of the Trinity could make a contribution to the public discourse on alterity. The Christian understanding of God could open avenues for understanding a most urgent contemporary problem. The Other is viewed as constitutive for own identity; and at the same time identity is realised by the embrace and care of the Other.

Rian, Venter.

2012-08-01

309

Ethics and its challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available I would like to look at some of the challenges of ethcis today. Therefore, in the first part I say something about ethics, the ethical theories and ethical concepts. Afterwords I am going to explain a little bit about the human dimensions, the dealing with experiences (i.e. work; because the human person has to decide the right thing in the right place on the right time, and in relatively freedom. In the end, there are some ideas about applied ethics which is necessary to focusing on the practical issues, too. Otherwise people who do not like the ethical discussions they could think that ethical ideas are selfsufficient and do not make sense, but I will tell them something else....

Johannes Michael Schnarrer

2006-04-01

310

The Ethics of Instructional Technology: Issues and Coping Strategies Experienced by Professional Technologists in Design and Training Situations in Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

To correspond to the Association for Educational Communication Technology (AECT) Code of Professional Ethics and the professional journal TechTrends' ethics columns, this paper provides empirical data regarding ethical issues associated with the use of instructional technology in design and training situations. In-depth interviews of 20…

Lin, Hong

2007-01-01

311

Brain death and related issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concerns about the erroneous diagnosis of death and premature burial have been expressed from times immemorial. Patients with brain stem death have absolutely no chance of recovery. Brain death is considered at par with death in most of the countries. General public in most parts of the world shows reluctance to accept this concept due to different social, cultural and religious backgrounds and state of literacy and awareness. The criteria for the diagnosis of brain death have been established which include certain pre-conditions, exclusions and tests of the brain stem function. These criteria are universally accepted. The criteria in children are somewhat different from the adults. The subject is intimately related with organ transplantation. If the patients is registered as organ donor or the family consents, organs can be harvested from brain dead patients for transplantation. Pakistan is amongst the few countries where no legislation exists to accept brain death as being at par with death of an individual, and to facilitate and regulate, cadaveric organ donation and transplantation. (author)

312

Regulatory and ethical issues for phase I in utero gene transfer studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical gene transfer research has involved adult and child subjects, and it is expected that gene transfer in fetal subjects will occur in the future. Some genetic diseases have serious adverse effects on the fetus before birth, and there is hope that prenatal gene therapy could prevent such disease progression. Research in animal models of prenatal gene transfer is actively being pursued. The prospect of human phase I in utero gene transfer studies raises important regulatory and ethical issues. One issue not previously addressed arises in applying U.S. research regulations to such studies. Specifically, current regulations state that research involving greater than minimal risk to the fetus and no prospect of direct benefit to the fetus or pregnant woman is not permitted. Phase I studies will involve interventions such as needle insertions through the uterus, which carry risks to the fetus including spontaneous abortion and preterm birth. It is possible that these risks will be regarded as exceeding minimal. Also, some regard the probability of therapeutic benefit in phase I studies to be so low that these studies do not satisfy the regulatory requirement that they "hold out the prospect of direct benefit" to subjects. On the basis of these considerations, investigators and institutional review boards might reasonably conclude that some phase I in utero studies are not to be permitted. This paper identifies considerations that are relevant to such judgments and explores ethically acceptable ways in which phase I studies can be designed so that they are permitted by the regulations. PMID:21846200

Strong, Carson

2011-11-01

313

Comparison of urban and rural respondents' experience and opinion of ethical issues in medical care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ninety-four urban and 54 rural respondents who had undergone hospitalisation in the previous three years were interviewed using a semistructured interview schedule to ascertain their experiences and opinion regarding ethical issues. The interview focussed particularly on patients' satisfaction and expectations about information provided by medical professionals on various aspects of their illness. Results revealed that both the groups were satisfied with the amount of information they had received during their hospitalisation. Rural respondents were comparatively less satisfied with the information they received regarding complications of illness, possible side effects/complications of treatment, and nature of investigations. A higher proportion of urban respondents required information about other available treatment options and possible outcome of illness if left untreated. A higher number of urban respondents felt that provision of information about illness may have harmful consequences to the patient, and more frequently reported that receiving information was the patient's right. These results suggest that although both urban and rural respondents were sensitive to ethical issues, the response of urban respondents from developing countries is more akin to that of their counterparts in the developed countries. PMID:2286513

Sriram, T G; Radhika, M R; Shanmugham, V; Murthy, R S

1990-01-01

314

An appraisal of ethical issues in end-of-life care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Caring for patients at the end-of-life period could involve a number of situations and incidents that pose moral dilemma for both the health workers and the patients' family members or loved ones. Some of these issues include shared decision-making, the right to refuse medical treatment, medical futility, and euthanasia versus assisted suicide, information disclosure (truth-telling), substitute decision-making, and confidentiality. They may seem improbable or remote, until one is confronted with them real-time. Providing good care for dying patients requires that physicians and other members of the health care team be knowledgeable of ethical issues pertinent to end-of-life care. PMID:25470866

Ilemona, Ekore Rabi

2014-01-01

315

An appraisal of ethical issues in end-of-life care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Caring for patients at the end-of-life period could involve a number of situations and incidents that pose moral dilemma for both the health workers and the patients' family members or loved ones. Some of these issues include shared decision-making, the right to refuse medical treatment, medical futility, and euthanasia versus assisted suicide, information disclosure (truth-telling), substitute decision-making, and confidentiality. They may seem improbable or remote, until one is confronted with them real-time. Providing good care for dying patients requires that physicians and other members of the health care team be knowledgeable of ethical issues pertinent to end-of-life care. PMID:25508493

Ilemona, Ekore Rabi

2014-01-01

316

Size matters: the ethical, legal, and social issues surrounding large-scale genetic biobank initiatives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the past ten years the complex ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI typically surrounding large-scale genetic biobank research initiatives have been intensely debated in academic circles. In many ways genetic epidemiology has undergone a set of changes resembling what in physics has been called a transition into Big Science. This article outlines consequences of this transition and suggests that the change in scale implies challenges to the roles of scientists and public alike. An overview of key issues is presented, and it is argued that biobanks represent not just scientific endeavors with purely epistemic objectives, but also political projects with social implications. As such, they demand clever maneuvering among social interests to succeed.

Klaus Lindgaard Hoeyer

2012-04-01

317

Machine Ethics: Creating an Ethical Intelligent Agent  

OpenAIRE

The newly emerging field of machine ethics (Anderson and Anderson 2006) is concerned with adding an ethical dimension to machines. Unlike computer ethics -- which has traditionally focused on ethical issues surrounding humans' use of machines -- machine ethics is concerned with ensuring that the behavior of machines toward human users, and perhaps other machines as well, is ethically acceptable. In this article we discuss the importance of machine ethics, the need for machines that represent ...

Anderson, Michael; Anderson, Susan Leigh

2007-01-01

318

Ethical issues in videorecording patients lacking capacity to consent / Problematiche etiche nella videoregistrazione di pazienti inabili al consenso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english Videorecording of patients requires the utmost respect for the privacy and confidentiality of the patients. Consent should be requested from patients for all videorecording. When a mental disability or mental or physical illness prevents patients from giving their permission, agreement to recording [...] from a legal representative or from a close relative or carer are necessary. Three documents on this subject issued in the United Kingdom, the United State of America and Italy are briefly summarized and discussed. The problem of consent for videorecording is addressed particularly in reference to persons incapable of making decisions on their own, such as persons in vegetative state. The general ethical framework is outlined and a few practical proposals are given.

Carlo, Petrini.

319

Ethics Column: "Errors, the Nursing Shortage and Ethics: Survey Results  

OpenAIRE

Welcome to this issue of the Ethics Column of the Online Journal of Issues in Nursing (OJIN). This issue summarizes and highlights trends from the OJIN survey on "Errors, Shortage and Ethics" that 1,386 of you participated in from October 30, 2002 to December 10, 2002. The survey had two major purposes: (a) first, to identify registered nurses’ (RNs) perceived experience with clinical errors or untoward clinical incidents over the past year, whether the errors/incidents were related to t...

Ludwick, R. Silva

2003-01-01

320

Qualitative Methodology in Unfamiliar Cultures : Relational and Ethical Aspects of Fieldwork  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This case study discusses qualitative fieldwork in Malaysia. The trends in higher education led to investigating how and why young Indians and Chinese in Malaysia are using the university to pursue a life strategy. Given the importance of field context in designing and analysing research based on a qualitative methodology, conscious reflection on research design and objectivity is important when doing fieldwork. This case study discusses such reflections. Emphasis throughout is given to applied qualitative methodology and its contributions to the social sciences, in particular having to do with relational, emotional, and ethical issues associated with interviewing and personal observation. Although the empirical setting of this case is Southeast Asia, the various discussions and interrelatedness of methodology, theory, and empirical reflections will prove applicable to field studies throughout the world

Svensson, Christian Franklin

2014-01-01

321

AN ETHICAL ASSESSMENT OF COMPUTER ETHICS USING SCENARIO APPROACH  

OpenAIRE

Ethics refers to a set of rules that define right and wrong behavior, used for moral decision making. In this case, computer ethics is one of the major issues in information technology (IT) and information system (IS). The ethical behaviour of IT students and professionals need to be studied in an attempt to reduce many unethical practices such as software piracy, hacking, and software intellectual property violations. This paper attempts to address computer-related scenarios that can be used...

Maslin Masrom; Zuraini Ismail; Ramlah Hussein

2010-01-01

322

Systematic and transparent inclusion of ethical issues and recommendations in clinical practice guidelines: a six-step approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

BackgroundClinical practice guidelines (CPGs), a core tool to foster medical professionalism, differ widely in whether and how they address disease-specific ethical issues (DSEIs), and current manuals for CPG development are silent on this issue. The implementation of an explicit method faces two core challenges: first, it adds further complexity to CPG development and requires human and financial resources. Second, in contrast to the in-depth treatment of ethical issues that is standard in bioethics, the inclusion of DSEIs in CPGs need to be more pragmatic, reductive, and simplistic, but without rendering the resulting recommendations useless or insufficiently justified. This paper outlines a six-step approach, EthicsGuide, for the systematic and transparent inclusion of ethical issues and recommendations in CPGs.MethodsThe development of EthicsGuide is based on (a) methodological standards in evidence-based CPG development, (b) principles of bioethics, (c) research findings on how DSEIs are currently addressed in CPGs, and (d) findings from two proof-of-concept analyses of the EthicsGuide approach.ResultsThe six steps are 1) determine the DSEI spectrum and the need for ethical recommendations; 2) develop statements on which to base ethical recommendations; 3) categorize, classify, condense, and paraphrase the statements; 4) write recommendations in a standard form; 5) validate and justify recommendations, making any necessary modifications; and 6) address consent. All six steps necessarily come into play when including DSEIs in CPGs.ConclusionsIf DSEIs are not explicitly addressed, they are unavoidably dealt with implicitly. We believe that as ethicists gain greater involvement in decision-making about health, personal rights, or economic issues, they should make their methods transparent and replicable by other researchers; and as ethical issues become more widely reflected in CPGs, CPG developers have to learn how to address them in a methodologically adequate way. The approach proposed should serve as a basis for further discussion on how to reach these goals. It breaks open the black box of what ethicists implicitly do when they develop recommendations. Further, interdisciplinary discussion and pilot tests are needed to explore the minimal requirements that guarantee a simplified procedure which is still acceptable and does not become mere window dressing. PMID:25472446

Mertz, Marcel; Strech, Daniel

2014-12-01

323

Evaluation of research ethics committees in Turkey  

OpenAIRE

In Turkey, there was no legal regulation of research on human beings until 1993. In that year "the amendment relating to drug researches" was issued. The main objectives of the regulation are to establish a central ethics committee and local ethics committees, and to provide administrative control.There are no compulsory clinical ethics lectures in the medical curriculum, so it is also proposed that research ethics committees (RECs) play a central educational role by helping physicians to be ...

Arda, B.

2000-01-01

324

AN ETHICAL ASSESSMENT OF COMPUTER ETHICS USING SCENARIO APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethics refers to a set of rules that define right and wrong behavior, used for moral decision making. In this case, computer ethics is one of the major issues in information technology (IT and information system (IS. The ethical behaviour of IT students and professionals need to be studied in an attempt to reduce many unethical practices such as software piracy, hacking, and software intellectual property violations. This paper attempts to address computer-related scenarios that can be used to examine the computer ethics. The computer-related scenario consists of a short description of an ethical situation whereby the subject of the study such as IT professionals or students, then rate the ethics of the scenario, namely attempt to identify the ethical issues involved. This paper also reviews several measures of computer ethics in different setting. The perceptions of various dimensions of ethical behaviour in IT that are related to the circumstances of the ethical scenario are also presented.

Maslin Masrom

2010-06-01

325

Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) was mapped and reviewed. A foresight exercise was conducted to identity future developments. Three case studies (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) were applied to identify the issues raised, including the potential risks and benefits of GM animals from the perspectives of the production chain (economics and agri-food sector) and the life sciences (human and animal health, environmental impact, animal welfare and sustainable production). Ethical and policy concerns were examined through application of combined ethical matrix method and policy workshops. The case studies were also used to demonstrate the utility of public engagement in the policy process. The results suggest that public perceptions, ethical issues, the competitiveness of EU animal production and risk-benefit assessments that consider human and animal health, environmental impact and sustainable production need to be considered in EU policy development. Few issues were raised with application in the pharmaceutical sector, assuming ethical and economic issues were addressed in policy, but the introduction of agricultural GM animal applications should be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23567982

Frewer, L J; Kleter, G A; Brennan, M; Coles, D; Fischer, A R H; Houdebine, L M; Mora, C; Millar, K; Salter, B

2013-06-25

326

The Design and Implementation of Ethics-Related Administrative Law in Eastern Europe  

OpenAIRE

How can senior policymakers use data in the design of ethics (anti-corruption) related legislation and regulations? In this paper, we describe how to draft subsidiary legislation (mainly executive agency regulations) based on explicit or implied competencies given by national legislation. We then discuss how to conduct the organisational, legal, economic and audit analysis needed to allocate ethics-related rights and obligations across-government and within the Agency. We illustrate with an e...

Michael, Bryane; Bowser, Donald

2013-01-01

327

PROFESSIONALISM AND ETHICS: IS THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY DAMAGING THE HEALTH OF THE PUBLIC RELATIONS PROFESSION?  

OpenAIRE

In most parts of the world, public relations (PR) is seeking recognition as a profession. The path to gaining professional status hinges on its adherence to professional ethical standards. This paper argues that it is inappropriate for public relations practitioners to represent the tobacco industry because it is against the PR ethics of upholding truth and public interest. The paper cites historical tobacco industry documents to reveal that the industry would not hesitate to use unethical me...

Adnan Hussein; Khor Yoke Lim

2006-01-01

328

PROFESSIONALISM AND ETHICS: IS THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY DAMAGING THE HEALTH OF THE PUBLIC RELATIONS PROFESSION?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In most parts of the world, public relations (PR is seeking recognition as a profession. The path to gaining professional status hinges on its adherence to professional ethical standards. This paper argues that it is inappropriate for public relations practitioners to represent the tobacco industry because it is against the PR ethics of upholding truth and public interest. The paper cites historical tobacco industry documents to reveal that the industry would not hesitate to use unethical means to maximise profits.

Adnan Hussein

2006-01-01

329

Ethical, legal and social issues related to cell therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The author analyses the implications of cell therapy from a legal study that regulates the use of embryonic material: the regulation of the obtaining of cells, of research with embryos and their research and therapeutic use. There is a detailed look at the provisions in the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine of the Council of Europe and concludes that "therapeutic cloning" is not prohibited in our legal regulation. PMID:18942509

Romeo-Casabona, Carlos M

2008-01-01

330

Ethical dilemmas in clinical genetics.  

OpenAIRE

This paper discusses the results of a survey of medical and paramedical opinion relating to various difficult ethical issues in clinical genetics. These include the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship, prenatal diagnosis and termination, and Huntington's chorea. It is suggested that this method provides a useful means of assessing what is ethically acceptable in contemporary society.

Young, I. D.

1984-01-01

331

Ethics in Field-Based Research: Contractual and Relational Responsibilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The desire to abolish the gap between research theory and classroom practice has sparked an increasing interest in field-based research among science educators. Although most researchers are aware of the standard meanings of informed consent and confidentiality, and there are some codes of ethical principles published by such groups as the…

Brickhouse, Nancy W.

332

Ethical Issues in Doing Business in China(Çin’de ?? Yapman?n Etik Sorunlar?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the 1980s and 1990s China was cited by some of the international organizations because of its violations of basic human rights. However, multinational firms from most of the countries criticizing the China’s violations began to do considerable amount of investments to China in the 1990s and 2000s. They moved their manufacturing activities to China because of valuable opportunities, incentives, and cheap work force. They pursued this action regardless of Chinese government’s carelessness to its own citizens. Despite this fact, should these firms do additional investment in order to produce their products with lower levels of costs? Is this an ethical decision? In this study, this issue is argued out and some points are recommended from the perspective of international firms.

Serkan ADA

2007-01-01

333

Biomedical, ethical, and moral issues being forced by advanced medical technologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Technology is rampant, exponentially growing beyond the bounds normally comprehensible by the human mind. Many of these technologies are so fundamentally disruptive that they challenge the very practice of science. Discoveries once unimaginable except in science fiction are appearing at such a rapid rate that there is no time to evaluate their moral and ethical implications in a deliberate and measured fashion. Genetic engineering, human cloning, tissue engineering, intelligent robotics, nanotechnology, suspended animation, regeneration, and species prolongation are but a few that will revolutionize what it means to be human and what the ultimate fate of the species may be. Unless these issues are addressed at this time, we shall face the consequences of an uncontrolled and unprepared future. PMID:14606491

Satava, Richard M

2003-09-01

334

[Direct-to-consumer genetic testing through Internet: marketing, ethical and social issues].  

Science.gov (United States)

We probably did not anticipate all the consequences of the direct to consumer genetic tests on Internet, resulting from the combined skills of communication and genomic advances. What are the commercial strategies used by the companies offering direct-to-consumer genetic tests on Internet and what are the different social expectations on which they focus? Through a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the web sites offering such tests, it seems that these companies target a triple market based on: the "healthism" which raises health and hygiene to the top of the social values; the contemporary demands of the users to become actual actors of health decisions; and finally on the need for bio-social relationships. These three commercial strategies underlie various ethical and societal issues justifying a general analysis. PMID:21299969

Ducournau, Pascal; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Bulle, Alexandre; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne

2011-01-01

335

Consent and participation: ethical issues in the treatment of children in out-of-home care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mental health service (MHS) providers confront questions of informed consent for evaluation and treatment of children in state custody who are placed in residential or foster care programs, where legal responsibility is shared between state and parent. There are ethical issues encountered by MHS providers who work with this growing population of children in placement. Matters of informed consent and access to information about treatment influence relationships with the parents, legal guardians, Child Protective Service workers, and the child. These specific concerns are addressed: informed consent, the right to be informed, and the rights of parents or foster carers to participate in a child's treatment. Recommendations for resolving dilemmas faced by MHS providers are discussed. PMID:15709858

Molin, Ronald; Palmer, Sally

2005-01-01

336

Experimental Methods in Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Course for Teaching Ethical Issues, Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, and Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the development of a course which introduces students to issues of animal ethics, experimentation, and an Animal Care Facility. The experiments enable the students to gain confidence in collecting data, compiling large data sets, handling spreadsheets and graphing, applying appropriate statistics, and writing accurate and concise scientific reports in journal article format.

Adam C. Hall (Smith College; )

2003-11-01

337

Ethical Issues in Guidance and Counselling in Medical Education: Conflicts in a Learner-Centred Approach and a Hermeneutic Resolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses ethical issues concerning dichotomies which may occur in educational counseling in one kind of vocational training, medical education. Suggests that this kind of learner-centered mentoring is problematic when there is a parallel imperative to protect the common good. (Author/GCP)

Talbot, Martin

2000-01-01

338

The Teaching of Life-Line Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

Outlines techniques used in teaching a course in "life-line" ethics, in which the events of conception, birth and death are related to ethical issues of abortion, suicide, euthanasia, etc. Several modes of actively involving students are described. Lists seven reference for information on bioethical issues. (CS)

Bridger, James A.

1977-01-01

339

Towards a Christian ethic of work in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available This paper draws on the academic field of Christian ethics and focuses attention on an ethic of work within the South African context. Key terms such as 'an ethic of work', 'a work ethic' and 'ethics at work' are discussed in relation to varied experiences of work. The issues of why one ought to wor [...] k and what constitutes 'good' work are discussed with reference to current ethical and economic challenges. I argue that a Christian worldview, or understanding of reality, provides a much more credible contribution to an ethic of work than either a materialist view of reality or a system of patronage.

Louise, Kretzschmar.

2012-12-01

340

Experiental Teaching Strategies Applied to an Ethics and Professional Issues Course.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective ethics training requires more than being knowledgeable about the code of ethics. Ethical decision-making requires higher order cognitive skills and an examination of personal values. Didactic course work establishes a foundation, but it must be supplemented with experiential activities that will provide the student with first-hand…

Kaczmarek, Peggy

341

Towards an empirical ethics in care: relations with technologies in health care.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the approach of empirical ethics, a form of ethics that integrates non-positivist ethnographic empirical research and philosophy. Empirical ethics as it is discussed here builds on the 'empirical turn' in epistemology. It radicalizes the relational approach that care ethics introduced to think about care between people by drawing in relations between people and technologies as things people relate to. Empirical ethics studies care practices by analysing their intra-normativity, or the ways of living together the actors within these practices strive for or bring about as good practices. Different from care ethics, what care is and if it is good is not defined beforehand. A care practice may be contested by comparing it to alternative practices with different notions of good care. By contrasting practices as different ways of living together that are normatively oriented, suggestions for the best possible care may be argued for. Whether these suggestions will actually be put to practice is, however, again a relational question; new actors need to re-localize suggestions, to make them work in new practices and fit them in with local intra-normativities with their particular routines, material infrastructures, know-how and strivings. PMID:25023945

Pols, Jeannette

2015-02-01

342

[Palliative care in pediatrics, ethics and relations with the patient].  

Science.gov (United States)

The extension of the Belgian law on euthanasia to minors during the course of 2014 raises questions with regard to the needs of children in the context of paediatric palliative care. These needs concern essentially the focus given to the interrelations between the child, their family and the caregiving team as well as to the relief of the physical, psychological and spiritual pain. Ethical guidelines help to fuel the discussions surrounding professional practices. PMID:25608370

Friedel, Marie

2014-01-01

343

Using critical literacy to explore genetics and its ethical, legal, and social issues with in-service secondary teachers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The described interdisciplinary course helped a mixed population of in-service secondary English and biology teacher-participants increase their genetics content knowledge and awareness of Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) that arose from discoveries and practices associated with the Human Genome Project. This was accomplished by applying a critical literacy approach that allows people develop cognitive skills such that they are able to "read the world" (Wink, 2004). The approach is one that permits readers to go beyond the literal text to examine what is present as well as what is missing as it relates to issues of equity and fairness. Becoming critically literate enabled these teacher-participants to challenge the subtle attitudes, values, and beliefs conveyed by a range of written and oral texts. The teacher-participants in this course improved their critical literacy skills by actively reading, critically writing about, and using evidence to support their conclusions about issues arising from advances in human genetics. A biologist, a linguist, and an educator collaboratively designed and taught the course. The personalized focus on the integration of thoughtful reading and writing in this class enhanced the teacher-participants' (n = 16) professional and intellectual development and will potentially improve learning in their biology and English classrooms in the future. PMID:21123688

Gleason, Michael L; Melançon, Megan E; Kleine, Karynne L M

2010-01-01

344

Non-Voluntary Admission of Patients with Mental Disorders: Ethical and Social Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Non-voluntary admission of mentally ill patients is charged with multiple ethical issues and dilemmas, the most complicated being its dangerousness and predictability, the appropriate classification of patients into the corresponding risk category and the therapeutic decisions imposed in a paternalistic way. The paternalistic attitude of the physician is acceptable given that there is an obvious degree of social danger. The potentially violent, especially hetero-aggressive, behaviour has a great social impact resulting in patient stigmatization and isolation. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the social issues of patients with mental disorders, non-voluntary admitted. The study is retrospective and the data were collected from records of patients who have been non-voluntarily admitted from 2002 to 2011 in a psychiatric hospital in Iasi, Romania. The results show that among the risk factors in non-voluntary admission, hetero-aggressivity is one criterion under Article 45, paragraph a Law 487/2002, frequently met in the study batch. Additionally, many non-voluntary admitted patients with mental illness have no medical insurance, being unemployed, unmarried / divorced and having a low social support. Community must be tolerant towards the mentally ill, regardless of the social integration of these patients. After discharge, a better social support may improve the prognosis, influencing the occurrence and evolution of mental illnesses. A strong support network is protective whereas a weak or lacking support network would make patients more vulnerable to stressful life events.

Petronela CRACIUN

2013-08-01

345

Telos, conservation of welfare, and ethical issues in genetic engineering of animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most long-lived metaphysics or view of reality in the history of Western thought is Aristotle's teleologyTeleology , which reigned for almost 2,000 years. Biology was expressed in terms of function or telos Telos , and accorded perfectly with common sense. The rise of mechanistic, Newtonian science vanquished teleological explanations. Understanding and accommodating animal telos was essential to success in animal husbandry, which involved respect for telos, and was presuppositional to our "ancient contract" with domestic animals. Telos was further abandoned with the rise of industrial agriculture, which utilized "technological fixes" to force animal into environments they were unsuited for, while continuing to be productive. Loss of husbandry and respect for telos created major issues for farm animal welfare, and forced the creation of a new ethic demanding respect for telos. As genetic engineering developed, the notion arose of modifying animals to fit their environment in order to avoid animal suffering, rather than fitting them into congenial environments. Most people do not favor changing the animals, rather than changing the conditions under which they are reared. Aesthetic appreciation of husbandry and virtue ethics militate in favor of restoring husbandry, rather than radically changing animal teloi. One, however, does not morally wrong teloi by changing them-one can only wrong individuals. In biomedical research, we do indeed inflict major pain, suffering and disease on animals. And genetic engineering seems to augment our ability to create animals to model diseases, particularly more than 3,000 known human genetic diseases. The disease, known as Lesch-Nyhan's syndrome or HPRT deficiency, which causes self-mutilation and mental retardation, provides us with a real possibility for genetically creating "animal models" of this disease, animals doomed to a life of great and unalleviable suffering. This of course creates a major moral dilemma. Perhaps one can use the very genetic engineering which creates this dilemma to ablate consciousness in such animal models, thereby escaping a moral impasse. PMID:24496650

Rollin, Bernard E

2015-01-01

346

To name or not to name? An overview of the social and ethical issues raised by removing anonymity from sperm donors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to focus on the ethical issues raised by the removal of anonymity from sperm donors. The increasing currency of a 'right to genetic truth' is clearly visible in the drive to revise the legislation on donor anonymity in Western and European countries. The ethical debate is polarized between the 'right to privacy' of the donor or parent and the 'right to know' of the prospective child. However, it is evident that religious, social and cultural attitudes have an overarching impact on attitudes towards sperm donation generally and anonymity specifically. In Asian countries, the social and cultural heritage is hugely diverse and different from those of the West. This review considers the research exploring the complexity of ethical issues informing this debate, and argues that parent's decisions to reveal donor insemination origins to their children are highly complex and relate to a range of social and cultural attitudes that have not been addressed within the policy to remove anonymity from sperm donors. PMID:20622888

Burr, Jennifer A

2010-11-01

347

Radiation safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Techniques related to the use of radiolabeled antibodies in humans are reviewed and evaluated in this report. It is intended as an informational resource for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and NRC licensees. Descriptions of techniques and health and safety issues are provided. Principal methods for labeling antibodies are summarized to help identify related radiation safety problems in the preparation of dosages for administration to patients. The descriptions are derived from an extensive literature review and consultations with experts in the field. A glossary of terms and acronyms is also included. An assessment was made of the extent of the involvement of organizations (other than the NRC) with safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies, in order to identify regulatory issues which require attention. Federal regulations and guides were also reviewed for their relevance. A few (but significant) differences between the use of common radiopharmaceuticals and radiolabeled antibodies were observed. The clearance rate of whole, radiolabeled immunoglobulin is somewhat slower than common radiopharmaceuticals, and new methods of administration are being used. New nuclides are being used or considered (e.g., Re-186 and At-211) for labeling antibodies. Some of these nuclides present new dosimetry, instrument calibration, and patient management problems. Subjects related to radiation safety that require additional research are identified. 149 refs., 3 figs.,search are identified. 149 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs

348

Legal issues related to parenthood after cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer and procreation raise a host of novel legal issues involving the rights of those trying to create families after cancer treatment and any resulting children, as well as the responsibilities of those who assist them. Recent court decisions, although neither consistent nor plentiful, highlight the emerging legal issues for patients, providers, and offspring. This article explores a number of legal issues related to cancer and parenthood, including: 1) patients' cryopreservation of sperm, eggs, or embryos and subsequent access to and use by them or their former partners; 2) fertility preservation in minor patients; 3) posthumous reproduction and legal parentage issues for children born from cryopreserved embryos or gametes; 4) wrongful life or wrongful birth claims of children born following their parents' cancer treatments; 5) access to, and discrimination in, medical treatment or alternative family-building options; and 6) professional responsibility and liability for providers relating to the potential fertility impact of cancer treatment. The limited, evolving court decisions, through the application of legal principles such as negligence, malpractice, discrimination, and parentage principles, provide some guidance for patients, providers, and policymakers in approaching the unique challenges presented by fertility preservation in the context of cancer treatments. PMID:15784839

Crockin, Susan L

2005-01-01

349

Virtual colonoscopy: issues related to primary screening  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Virtual colonoscopy (VC) is a minimally invasive CT examination that has continued to rapidly evolve and improve as a diagnostic screening tool. Current state-of-the-art VC technique has already been shown to be highly effective for screening at the University of Wisconsin. Although more widespread implementation of VC screening faces multiple challenges and barriers, these are all greatly overshadowed by the immediate need for increased patient compliance in effective colorectal screening programs. Given the wide availability of CT and the favorable safety profile compared with optical colonoscopy, VC holds significant potential for addressing a very important yet preventable public health concern. This paper will briefly address some of the major issues related to the general application of VC for colorectal screening, such as diagnostic performance, development of an acceptable screening algorithm, and several technique-related issues. (orig.)

350

Ethics and regulation of contemporary marketing communication practices: an exploration of the perceptions of UK-based consumers towards the ethical issues raised by product placement in British TV shows  

OpenAIRE

Product placement, as a variant of television programme sponsorship, has become a unique and evolving marketing communications tool in which brands are seamlessly embedded within the consumer's experiential world. Although studies have suggested that consumer attitudes towards product placement are generally positive, several issues of ethical concern have emerged. To date, there is a marked shortage of studies that address particular ethical issues in specific contexts of product placement p...

Tiwsakul, Rungpaka; Hackley, Chris

2005-01-01

351

Statistical issues about solar-climate relations  

OpenAIRE

The relationship between solar activity and temperature variation is a frequently discussed issue in climatology. This relationships is usually hypothesized on the basis of statistical analyses of temperature time series and time series related to solar activity. Recent studies (Le Mouël et al., 2008, 2009; Courtillot et al., 2010) focus on the variabilities of temperature and solar activity records to identify their relationships. We discuss the meaning of such analyses and propose a genera...

Yiou, P.; Bard, E.; Dandin, P.; Legras, B.; Naveau, P.; Rust, H. W.; Terray, L.; Vrac, M.

2010-01-01

352

Advantages and trade-offs of introducing ethical issues in computing through a dedicated course or through modules in relevant content courses in the curriculum  

OpenAIRE

We discuss two alternatives for introducing consideration of ethical questions in the computer science curriculum. These alternatives are 1) a selfcontained course on ethical issues in computing, and 2) introduction of modules devoted to ethical questions throughout the curriculum in content courses such as software engineering, databases, data mining, artificial intelligence, and systems. We discuss the advantages and the potential “hidden messages” involved in each of these approaches. ...

Fleischman, William M.; Joyce, Daniel T.

2011-01-01

353

Ethics and Participatory Water Planning  

OpenAIRE

Greater attention needs to be given to ethics related to the use, organisation and coordination of participatory forms of water planning. Working with diverse groups of people on water management issues requires the ability to understand and collectively make a range of decisions on the content, design and implementation of participatory processes. Ethical questions and sensitivities arise in such work including issues of changing existing power structures, privacy conditions and cultural sen...

Daniell, K. A.; White, I.; Rollin, D.

2009-01-01

354

Presença do tema ética profissional nos periódicos brasileiros de Ciência da Informação e Biblioteconomia / Presence of professional ethics issue in Brazilian journals of Information Science and Librarianship  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A presença de discussões acerca de temas relativos à Ética na produção científica brasileira de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação é o enfoque principal deste texto, que advém da análise de periódicos desses campos de conhecimento e da prática profissional. Para isso, selecionou-se um título po [...] r cada região político-administrativa brasileira, Sul, Sudeste, Centro-Oeste e Nordeste, dentre os existentes, cuja edição tivesse se mantido regular no período de 1997 a 2006. Em cada um desses títulos, a partir de palavras-chave previamente definidas, foram identificados os artigos e ensaios que trataram do tema. Com isso, buscava-se conhecer os fundamentos filosóficos e doutrinários, as temáticas e abordagens, e as tendências da discussão Ética na produção periódica brasileira de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação. Metodologicamente, o trabalho envolve a identificação dos periódicos e dos textos publicados sobre a temática; a leitura e a descrição dos mesmos; a identificação dos aspectos apontados nos objetivos pretendidos; a análise dos discursos utilizando a técnica do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo; e a organização das idéias contidas visando chegar a uma síntese. Foram localizados 10 textos produzidos por 16 autores, sendo dois de 1997, quatro de 2005, quatro distribuídos de 1998 a 2004; nenhum foi encontrado referente ao ano de 2006. Foram identificadas como fundamentos éticos as Doutrinas da Ética do Discurso, da Ética da Alteridade e da Teoria Ético-política da Justiça; e foram também identificadas as temáticas, abordagens e tendências da discussão sobre a Ética, que revelaram a questão da postura profissional determinada pelo quadro atual da sociedade e das tecnologias. Conclui-se que apesar de existir preocupação com o tema Ética por parte de alguns profissionais da informação que escrevem e publicam sobre o assunto, o mesmo ainda é pouco explorado na literatura e está mais dirigido para questões gerais. Abstract in english The presence of discussions on issues relating to ethics in Brazilian scientific production of Librarianship and Information Science is the main focus of this text, which comes from the periodic review of these fields of knowledge and professional practice. For this reason, picked up a scientific pe [...] riodical title for each brazilian administrative region, whose editing had been maintained regularly over the period 1997 to 2006. In each of these periodical titles, from keywords previously defined, have been identified articles and essays which addressed the theme. With this, trying to be informed of the reasons for philosophical and doctrinal, the themes and approaches and trends of the discussion Ethics in regular production of Brazilian Librarianship and Information Science. Methodologically, the work involved identification of journals and texts published on the subject, reading and description of them; identification of the aspects highlighted in the objectives pursued, analysis of speech using the technique of Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo collective subject of discourse) - DSC; organization of the ideas contained, aiming to reach a synthesis. We found 10 texts produced by 16 authors, 2 of 1997, 4 in 2005, 4 distributed from 1998 to 2004 and none was found regarding the year 2006. They were identified as ethical foundations, the doctrines of Ethics of Speech, the Ethics of Otherness and Ethical-Political Theory of Justice, in addition to the issues, approaches and trends of the discussion Ethics, which show the issue of professional attitude determined by the current picture of society and current technologies. We conclude that although there is concern about the ethics issue by some of the professionals who write and publish information on the subject, it is still little explored in literature and is more focused on general issues.

Francisco das Chagas de, Souza; Katiusa, Stumpf.

2009-12-01

355

Ethical Issues in the End of Life Care for Cancer Patients in Iran  

OpenAIRE

Background: In the recent years, advances in medical technologies for end stage cancer patients’ care have affected the end-of-life decision-making in clinical practice and exposed oncologists to serious ethical dilemmas. But little is known about oncologists' viewpoints in our country regarding their ethical problems in this mention. We aimed to clarify the ethical dilemmas which Iranian oncologists may face in our health care setting and to determine factors influencing decision-making pr...

Mina Mobasher; Nouzar Nakhaee; Mamak Tahmasebi; Farzaneh ZaHedi; Bagher Larijani

2013-01-01

356

Enhancing humanistic skills: an experiential approach to learning about ethical issues in health care.  

OpenAIRE

An outstanding feature of the study of nursing ethics is that it raises questions concerning moral virtue, conscience, consistency and character. A considerable section of the literature is devoted to ideas of how best to teach ethics to health professionals. It has been shown that when faced with ethical dilemmas nurses tended to rely on intuition and instinct to resolve them, with little systematic analysis to help the process. Nurses who have been in practice for a number of years may expe...

Sofaer, B.

1995-01-01

357

BUSINESS ETHICS  

OpenAIRE

Ethics contain a set of principles of personal and professional conduct .The concept of Business ethics relates itself to the norms and the ideals businessman and business groups adopt in course of their activities in business .Business ethics is an assertion of “be good” and “do good” in business. Ethical business practices has been a blessing to the enterprises as it ensures faith in society ,government trust ,business partners trust .on the other hand unethical busi...

Raman Arora

2014-01-01

358

Relations between Corporate Social Responsibility and Engineering Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental responsibility of corporations has been changed drastically in the last 20 years. In 1980s, pollution prevention was the main mandate for corporations and in 1990s global scale environmental issues such as global warming must be also considered by at least industries. In the year of 2000, United Nations decided to make a challenge towards sustainability of human activities on the Earth, and since then, every corporation must take this concept into account when policy for its own business is described. Within this framework, some companies have succeeded to be evaluated as “environmental conscious companies” and enjoyed success also in their business. The reality of sustainability is very complex and any company must consider rather long future, say more than 30 years, in the strategy of its operation. All engineers should watch the direction and the norm carefully, which their own company is now aiming at, with enough knowledge regarding the trend of total human activities in relation to the limitation of the Earth.

Yasui, Itaru

359

Medical Ethics in Radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the recent developments in radiological techniques, the role of radiology in the clinical management of patients is ever increasing and in turn, so is the importance of radiology in patient management. Thus far, there have been few open discussions about medical ethics related to radiology in Korea. Hence, concern about medical ethics as an essential field of radiology should be part of an improved resident training program and patient management. The categories of medical ethics related with radiology are ethics in the radiological management of patient, the relationship of radiologists with other medical professionals or companies, the hazard level of radiation for patients and radiologists, quality assurance of image products and modalities, research ethics, and other ethics issues related to teleradiology and fusion imaging. In order to achieve the goal of respectful progress in radiology as well as minimizing any adverse reaction from other medical professions or society, we should establish a strong basis of medical ethics through the continuous concern and self education

360

Ethical and policy issues in cluster randomized trials: rationale and design of a mixed methods research study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cluster randomized trials are an increasingly important methodological tool in health research. In cluster randomized trials, intact social units or groups of individuals, such as medical practices, schools, or entire communities – rather than individual themselves – are randomly allocated to intervention or control conditions, while outcomes are then observed on individual cluster members. The substantial methodological differences between cluster randomized trials and conventional randomized trials pose serious challenges to the current conceptual framework for research ethics. The ethical implications of randomizing groups rather than individuals are not addressed in current research ethics guidelines, nor have they even been thoroughly explored. The main objectives of this research are to: (1 identify ethical issues arising in cluster trials and learn how they are currently being addressed; (2 understand how ethics reviews of cluster trials are carried out in different countries (Canada, the USA and the UK; (3 elicit the views and experiences of trial participants and cluster representatives; (4 develop well-grounded guidelines for the ethical conduct and review of cluster trials by conducting an extensive ethical analysis and organizing a consensus process; (5 disseminate the guidelines to researchers, research ethics boards (REBs, journal editors, and research funders. Methods We will use a mixed-methods (qualitative and quantitative approach incorporating both empirical and conceptual work. Empirical work will include a systematic review of a random sample of published trials, a survey and in-depth interviews with trialists, a survey of REBs, and in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with trial participants and gatekeepers. The empirical work will inform the concurrent ethical analysis which will lead to a guidance document laying out principles, policy options, and rationale for proposed guidelines. An Expert Panel of researchers, ethicists, health lawyers, consumer advocates, REB members, and representatives from low-middle income countries will be appointed. A consensus conference will be convened and draft guidelines will be generated by the Panel; an e-consultation phase will then be launched to invite comments from the broader community of researchers, policy-makers, and the public before a final set of guidelines is generated by the Panel and widely disseminated by the research team.

Chaudhry Shazia H

2009-07-01

361

The dual epidemics of tuberculosis and AIDS: ethical and policy issues in screening and treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the recent increase in cases of tuberculosis is addressed, there is a danger that the need for increased protection of the public health will create a climate in which the rights of individuals with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may be disregarded. This paper considers ethical and policy issues in the control of tuberculosis. The authors conclude that mandatory HIV testing is not critical to effective tuberculosis control, and that although individuals infected with HIV are at increased risk for developing tuberculosis, exclusionary employment practices are not justified. Because failure to complete the course of tuberculosis treatment increases the prospect that drug-resistant strains will develop, it is crucial to require all those who commence treatment to complete their therapy. To ensure the completion of treatment, special attention must be paid to the needs of the homeless, drug users, and those with psychiatric impairments. In addition, all tuberculosis patients should begin their posthospital care under direct observation. Patients who fail to complete treatment despite efforts to encourage and facilitate their cooperation should be subject to confinement after a hearing with full due process protections. PMID:8484443

Bayer, R; Dubler, N N; Landesman, S

1993-05-01

362

ACOG Committee Opinion No. 600: Ethical issues in the care of the obese woman.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rates of obesity in the United States have increased rapidly over the past several decades, and physicians should be prepared to care for obese patients in a nonjudgmental manner, being cognizant of the medical, social, and ethical implications of obesity. It is the responsibility of the physician to recognize the medical risks that are associated with obesity and to counsel the patient regarding these risks in an unbiased manner, respecting her autonomy and maintaining her dignity. Classifying obesity as a medical condition can serve to reduce bias toward obese patients and to change the approach toward the patient from one of blame to one of caring. It is unethical for physicians to refuse to accept a patient or decline to continue care that is within their scope of practice solely because the patient is obese. However, if physicians lack the resources necessary for the safe and effective care of the obese patient, consultation or referral or both are appropriate. Obesity education that focuses on the specific medical, cultural, and social issues of the obese woman should be incorporated into physician education at all levels. PMID:24848919

2014-06-01

363

Multiple BM harvests in pediatric donors for thalassemic siblings: safety, efficacy and ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Allogeneic BMT represents the only chance of cure for beta-thalassemia. Occasionally, two affected individuals from the same family share a matched healthy sibling. Moreover, a high incidence of transplant rejection is still observed in Pesaro class III patients, requiring a second BMT procedure. In these settings, one option is to perform a second BM harvest from the same donor. Although BM harvest is a safe procedure in children, ethical issues concerning this invasive practice still arise. Here, we describe our series of seven pediatric, healthy donors, who donated BM more than once in favor of their beta-thalassemic HLA-identical siblings between June 2005 and January 2008. Three donors donated BM twice to two affected siblings and four donors donated twice for the same sibling following graft rejection of the first BMT. All donors tolerated the procedures well and no relevant side effects occurred. There was no significant difference between the two harvests concerning cell yield and time to engraftment. Our experience shows that for pediatric donors, a second BM donation is safe and feasible and good cellularity can be obtained. We suggest that a second harvest of a pediatric donor can be performed when a strong indication for BMT exists. PMID:18574444

Biral, E; Chiesa, R; Cappelli, B; Roccia, T; Frugnoli, I; Noè, A; Soliman, C; Fiori, R; Cursi, L; Cattaneo, F; Evangelio, C; Miniero, R; Ciceri, F; Roncarolo, M G; Marktel, S

2008-09-01

364

Knowledge management and electronic care records: Incorporating social, legal and ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many challenges face developers of secure computer-based clinical systems but the technical problems are overshadowed by many obstacles, key amongst them being social and ethical issues. A sound Knowledge Management (KM) structure within clinical environments can recognise the responsibility of healthcare professionals to keep patient clinical data (for example, electronic care record (ECR) systems) secure. An arrangement is proposed that gives the most senior clinician in a healthcare facility the ultimate responsibility for security of clinical data held in the organisation. Ideally, the senior clinician would possess training and experience in information systems and their security. Contracts should be developed between healthcare facilities and their patients, defining the limits to the use and disclosure of clinical health data. However, we are observing increasing confusion about the term 'Knowledge Management' which may be limited both its efficacy and effectiveness. Health organisations are referring to the term in various contexts and health informatics articles frequently use the term and interpret it in diverse ways. Given the divergence of views, this paper will attempt to establish KM's efficacy for the implementation of electronic care record systems. PMID:17095821

Bassinder, James; Bali, Rajeev K; Naguib, Raouf

2006-01-01

365

Dementia and ethics: the views of informal carers  

OpenAIRE

There has been little work on the ethical issues facing non-professionals who care for relatives or others with dementia. A qualitative pilot study was conducted in ten such individuals, eight of them women, caring for persons drawn mainly from one general practice. The interviews indicated that many of the dilemmas faced by carers are ethical and that the issues differ from those faced by professionals. Ethical issues are sometimes the most troublesome matter for care...

Hughes, Julian C.; Hope, Tony; Reader, Steve; Rice, Dee

2002-01-01

366

Ethical and Legal Issues Regarding Selective Abortion of Fetuses with Down Syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selective abortion of fetuses with Down syndrome is discussed in terms of abortion perspectives, genetic testing, legislation, and ethical principles. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, fidelity, and justice are offered as guidelines for the examination of legal standards imposed by legislation. (Author/PB)

Glover, Noreen M.; Glover, Samuel J.

1996-01-01

367

Promoting Active Learning of Ethical Issues in Marketing Communications Using Debates  

Science.gov (United States)

Expectations from the business world and business school accreditation bodies to create learning outcomes that enhance students' understanding of ethical concepts call for marketing educators to integrate ethics into their pedagogy. This paper summarizes a debate activity used in an undergraduate marketing communications course. Debates engage…

Roy, Donald P.

2012-01-01

368

Experimental Methods in Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Course for Teaching Ethical Issues, Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, and Analysis  

OpenAIRE

We have developed and recently taught a 200 level undergraduate course entitled, ‘Experimental Methods in Neuroscience’. This is a required course in an increasingly popular Neuroscience major at Smith College. Students are introduced initially to issues of animal ethics and experimentation, and are familiarized with our Animal Care Facility. Using an open field and rotarod apparatus, and the elevated plus and Barnes mazes, they conduct behavioral testing of two strains of mice, C57/BL/6J...

Hall, Adam C.; Harrington, Mary E.

2003-01-01

369

Issues related to non-heart-beating organ donation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the enactment of the Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994, the brain dead person remains the primary source of organs legally obtained for transplantation purposes in India. With the increasing demand of organs for transplantation purposes, non-heart-beating donors can help meet this need. However, the process of retrieving organs in non-heart-beating donors is more complex and raises ethical and legal as well as medical issues. This essay discusses some of these concerns. PMID:20432884

Bardale, Rajesh

2010-01-01

370

Ethical challenges with hemodialysis patients who lack decision-making capacity: behavioral issues, surrogate decision-makers, and end-of-life situations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemodialysis (HD) is routinely offered to patients with end-stage renal disease in the United States who are ineligible for other renal replacement modalities. The frequency of HD among the US population is greater than all other countries, except Taiwan and Japan. In US, patients are often dialyzed irrespective of age, comorbidities, prognosis, or decision-making capacity. Determination of when patients can no longer dialyze is variable and can be dialysis-center specific. Determinants may be related to progressive comorbidities and frailty, mobility or access issues, patient self-determination, or an inability to tolerate the treatment safely for any number of reasons (e.g., hypotension, behavioral issues). Behavioral issues may impact the safety of not only patients themselves, but also those around them. In this article the authors present the case of an elderly patient on HD with progressive cognitive impairment and combative behavior placing him and others at risk of physical harm. The authors discuss the medical, ethical, legal, and psychosocial challenges to care of such patients who lack decision-making capacity with a focus on variable approaches by regions and culture. This manuscript provides recommendations and highlights resources to assist nephrologists, dialysis personnel, ethics consultants, and palliative medicine teams in managing such patients to resolve conflict. PMID:24988063

Feely, Molly A; Albright, Robert C; Thorsteinsdottir, Björg; Moss, Alvin H; Swetz, Keith M

2014-09-01

371

Convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria vaccine trials in Africa: Report from the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme's Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre consultation, 10-11 February 2009, Durban, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Africa continues to bear a disproportionate share of the global HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB and malaria burden. The development and distribution of safe, effective and affordable vaccines is critical to reduce these epidemics. However, conducting HIV/AIDS, TB, and/or malaria vaccine trials simultaneously in developing countries, or in populations affected by all three diseases, is likely to result in numerous ethical challenges. Methods In order to explore convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trials in Africa, the Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre of the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme hosted a consultation on the Convergent Ethical Issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria Vaccine Trials in Africa in Durban, South Africa on the 10-11 February 2009. Results Key cross cutting ethical issues were prioritized during the consultation as community engagement; ancillary care obligations; care and treatment; informed consent; and resource sharing. Conclusion The consultation revealed that while there have been few attempts to find convergence on ethical issues between HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trial fields to date, there is much common ground and scope for convergence work between stakeholders in the three fields.

Essack Zaynab

2010-03-01

372

Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The goal was not to provide answers to any of the issues or problems, simply to identify those topics that deserve our attention as a society. Some of the issues may benefit from legislation at the federal or state levels, others may be more appropriately addressed by the private sector. Participants at the roundtable included over a dozen experts in the areas of microbiology, intellectual property, agricultural biotechnology, microbial genomics, bioterrorism, economic development, biotechnology research, and bioethics. These experts came from federal and state government, industry and academia. The participants were asked to come to the roundtable with a written statement of the top three to five public policy/ ethical issues they viewed as most likely to be significant to the industry and to policy makers over the next several years.

Diane E. Hoffmann

2003-09-12

373

Legal and ethical issues in genetic testing and counseling for susceptibility to breast, ovarian and colon cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prediction of susceptibility to heritable breast, ovarian and colon cancer raises important legal and ethical concerns. Health care professionals have a duty to disclose sufficient information to enable patients to make informed decisions. They must also safeguard the confidentiality of patient data. These duties may come into conflict if a positive finding in one patient implies that family members are also at risk. A legal distinction is made between a breach of confidentiality and the legitimate sharing of information in a patient's interest or to prevent harm to a third party. Physicians also have a fiduciary duty to warn. Other issues concern the legal liability assumed by genetic counsellors, whose disclosures may influence decisions about childbearing, for example, and the risk of socioeconomic discrimination faced by people with a known genetic susceptibility. Traditional ethical orientations and principals may be applied to these and other questions, but feminist ethics will likely have particular importance in the development of an ethical stance toward testing and counseling for heritable breast and ovarian cancer. PMID:8634959

Dickens, B M; Pei, N; Taylor, K M

1996-03-15

374

Issues of Language Choice, Ethics and Equity: Japanese Retirees Living in Malaysia as Their Second Home  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper will discuss two issues related to Japanese retirees adopting Malaysia as their second home. The first is that of the preferred language choice of the retirees. To collect data for language choice a self-report questionnaire was administered and an interview was conducted. The findings suggest that the majority of the retirees chose…

Stapa, Siti Hamin; Musaev, Talaibek; Hieda, Natsue; Amzah, Normalis

2013-01-01

375

Ethical issues in pediatric intensive care in developing countries: combining western technology and eastern wisdom.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of traditional ethical principles in developing countries may not, indeed should not, conform to the western philosophy and ideology. The principle of distributive justice is of utmost importance when critical resources are scarce. There is no ethical imperative, nor is one followed even in the most advanced countries, that every citizen is entitled to the very best available care. However, a society must establish a uniform code of ethics that can be applied nationally, whereby all citizens are eligible for a minimum acceptable level of care. The traditional principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice are still applicable in structuring an ethical framework that is most suited for the country's needs and resources. PMID:15876764

Sarnaik, Ashok P; Daphtary, Kshama; Sarnaik, Ajit A

2005-04-01

376

Utilizing social media to study information-seeking and ethical issues in gene therapy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The field of gene therapy is rapidly evolving, and while hopes of treating disorders of the central nervous system and ethical concerns have been articulated within the academic community, little is known about views and opinions of different stakeholder groups.

Robillard, Julie M; Whiteley, Louise Emma

2013-01-01

377

Public issues perceived from the theological left flank: The social ethics of Ramsden Balmforth in the Union of South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available For decades research into the history of Christian social ethics in South Africa has illuminated responses within a broad spectrum of major denominations to public issues, but has thus far shed considerably less light on how believers outside these denominations reacted to various questions. Unitari [...] ans are in the latter camp. Although few in number, they offered opinions and engaged in activities from a noteworthy intellectual perspective which was largely an extension of nineteenth- century developments in European theology, philosophy, and political thought amalgamated with a focus on the ethical teachings of Jesus. For forty years beginning in 1897 while he ministered to the Free Protestant Church in Cape Town, English-born Ramsden Balmforth commented prolifically on a variety of important issues and in some instances participated in movements to redress grievances voiced by disadvantaged groups within the ethnic amalgam of the Union of South Africa. The present study examines several of this Christian socialist's positions against the backdrop of his meta-ethical precepts.

Frederick, Hale.

2012-05-01

378

A matter of accuracy. Nanobiochips in diagnostics and in research: ethical issues as value trade-offs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper deals with the introduction of nanotechnology in biochips. Based on interviews and theoretical reflections, it explores blind spots left by technology assessment and ethical investigations. These have focused on possible consequences of increased diffusability of a diagnostic device, neglecting both the context of research as well as increased accuracy, despite it being a more essential feature of nanobiochip projects. Also, rather than one of many parallel aspects (technical, legal and social) in innovation processes, ethics is considered here as a ubiquitous system of choices between sometimes antagonistic values. Thus, the paper investigates what is at stake when accuracy is balanced with other practical values in different contexts. Dramatic nanotechnological increase of accuracy in biochips can raise ethical issues, since it is at odds with other values such as diffusability and reliability. But those issues will not be as revolutionary as is often claimed: neither in diagnostics, because accuracy of measurements is not accuracy of diagnostics; nor in research, because a boost in measurement accuracy is not sufficient to overcome significance-chasing malpractices. The conclusion extends to methodological recommendations. PMID:24793012

Le Roux, Ronan

2015-04-01

379

The Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues Impacted by Modern Assisted Reproductive Technologies  

OpenAIRE

Background. While assisted reproductive technology (ART), including in vitro fertilization has given hope to millions of couples suffering from infertility, it has also introduced countless ethical, legal, and social challenges. The objective of this paper is to identify the aspects of ART that are most relevant to present-day society and discuss the multiple ethical, legal, and social challenges inherent to this technology. Scope of Review. This paper evaluates some of the most visible and c...

Brezina, Paul R.; Yulian Zhao

2012-01-01

380

Ethical and legal issues in research involving human subjects: do you want a piece of me?  

OpenAIRE

The conduct of biomedical research involving the participation of human beings implicates a variety of ethical concerns pertaining to such values as dignity, bodily integrity, autonomy, and privacy. These ethical concerns have been translated into a complex regulatory apparatus in the USA, containing specific legal provisions concerning such matters as participant safety, informed consent, and confidentiality. A topic of particular interest for pathologists is the handling of human tissue spe...

Kapp, M. B.

2006-01-01

381

Enseñanza de la ética y la educación moral, ¿permanecen ausentes de los programas universitarios? / Moral and Ethical Issues: Are they the Missing Links in University Programs?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Hoy en día, existiendo mayor consenso sobre la virtud de enseñar ética y de continuar la educación moral de los jóvenes en el ámbito universitario, es preciso determinar ¿cuáles son los valores fundamentales y cuáles las condiciones pedagógicas de su enseñanza? Este artículo presenta los resultados [...] de una investigación tendiente a establecer la función realmente asignada a la enseñanza de la ética y a la educación moral de la persona en el contexto universitario. A partir de una investigación documental, seguida de un estudio comparado con muestreo teórico, se encontró que mientras el 52% de los programas revisados tenían al menos un curso asociado a la enseñanza de la ética, no hay contenidos orientados específicamente a la educación de la acción moral. En las carreras de derecho y medicina prima la tendencia hacia la ética profesional, mientras en ingeniería civil se encaminan a la responsabilidad social. Se concluyó, a partir del análisis del contenido de 120 asignaturas, que la formación moral de la persona sigue ausente del currículo universitario. Abstract in english Now that there is greater consensus on the merit of teaching ethics and continuing the moral education of youth at the university level, it is necessary to determine what constitute core values and the pedagogical conditions necessary for teaching them. This article presents the results of research [...] that attempts to establish the function effectively assigned to the teaching of ethics and moral education in the context of higher education. Based on documentary research, followed by a comparative study with theoretical sampling, we found that while 52% of the programs reviewed had at least one course related to the teaching of ethics, there were no contents geared specifically to the teaching of moral action. In law and medicine the trend toward professional ethics prevails, while engineering programs veer towards issues of social responsibility. Judging by our analysis of 120 course subjects, moral training of the individual is absent from university curricula.

María Eugenia, Guerrero Useda; Diomedes Andrés, Gómez Paternina.

382

Ethical decision-making in forensic psychology  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive process for identifying and addressing primarily ethical issues related to the psychology profession in South Africa. In fulfilling this purpose, research was conducted of relevant ethical and to a lesser extent, legal aspects pertaining to the psychology profession. In an attempt to prevent unprofessional conduct claims against psychologists from succeeding and to alert psychologists to the concurrent ethical problems that may lead to...

Swanepoel, M.

2010-01-01

383

Needs and necessities of medical ethics education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent years, new medical technologies and their probable misuses have emerged public concerns about medical ethics. Medical ethics is a practical discipline that provides a structured approach for identifying, analyzing, and resolving ethical issues in clinical medicine. "nIn this study we reviewed some new methods of teaching medical ethics in other countries by searching in internet and literature. "nTwo key features related to the teaching of medical ethics are active involvement of students in the learning process instead of merely lecturing about the ethical principles and assessing how students apply their knowledge of ethical principles in simulated and actual situations. In many countries such as Iran, medical schools attempted to address medical ethics issues in formal ethics classes. "nIt is clear that the traditional method is no longer sufficient to meet the needs of practitioners and societies and new methods particularly those emphasize on active learning, individual participation, group interactions, and a process - based approach, should be developed and implemented. In addition, a concerted effort to improve education in medical ethics will benefit the medical profession and services to patients. Therefore, we recommend policy makers of medical ethics education to change the traditional methods to the modern methods; which are used now in the world.

Bagher Larijani

2006-03-01

384

Encyclopedia of information ethics and security  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comprehensive reference source on ethical and security issues relating to the latest technologies. Topics include computer crime, information warfare, privacy, surveillance, intellectual property and education. For students, academics, and professionals.

385

Technology in Art Therapy: Ethical Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

As technology advances, art therapy practices are adapting to the demands of a new cultural climate. Art therapists face a number of ethical challenges as they interact with increasingly diverse populations and employ new media. This article addresses some of the ethical and professional issues related to the use of technology in clinical…

Alders, Amanda; Beck, Liz; Allen, Pat B.; Mosinski, Barbara

2011-01-01

386

On detector related machine and instrumentation issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a summary report of the panel discussions on detector related machine and instrumentation issues. Each of the panel members presented an introductory presentation of the following topics. Those are the three most revealing future experiments (by G. Kane), calorimetry for jets and total energy (by U. Amaldi), tracking and momentum (by R. Schwitters), identification of e, ? and other particles (by G. Wolf), trigger and data acquisition (by M. Breidenbach) and building large detectors in cooperation with industry (by S. Orito). In the discussion on the detectors at future large hadron colliders, much emphasis was given to calorimetric measurement, muon measurement, and microvertex detection. There is a need for inexpensive and radiation-hardened front-end electronics for all detectors. As to data acquisition and analysis, the use of a sequence of successive trigger levels with a large number of emulators (of the order of 100) in the last stage and the use of optical discs for data storage would be needed at the highest luminosity. It is clear that the development of the instrumentation technique mentioned constitutes a prerequisite for the efficient use of future large hadron colliders. When considering the detectors for future large positron-electron colliders, some of the technical problems mentioned were drastically simplified, in particular those related to the high collision rate like signal pile-up, radiation damage and fast data processing. (Kato, T.) and fast data processing. (Kato, T.)

387

Evidence and Ethics (Editorial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Welcome to the December issue of EBLIP, the final issue of my first year as Editor-in-Chief. A year which I have thoroughly enjoyed and one where the fears over what to write in my editorials haven’t materialised. This quarter, ethics has featured quite heavily in my working life so I decided to make this the topic of the editorial, sharing some of my thoughts regarding evidence, ethics and how ethical principles are implemented within the EBLIP journal.Ethics are “principles of conduct or standards of behaviour governing an individual or profession” (Library and Information Science Editorial Committee, 2010, and as individuals or professionals we may be governed by various ethical codes. As I'm sure you know, EBLIP originated in the health domain, where ethical values and ethical research feature strongly. Indeed, by its formal definition, research cannot take place unless “ethical approval” from an appropriate committee has been granted. The practicalities of taking research through the ethical approval process can often be time consuming, and those involved in research need to bear this in mind when planning a project. Each committee will have a slightly different form and process (which can add to the frustration of the researcher, but basically will make their decision to approve on the basis that the research includes obtaining informed consent from participants (i.e., participants know what the research is about and what their involvement will mean; that the research will not cause harm to participants; that confidentiality will be maintained; and that the research undertaken is methodologically rigorous and worthwhile. Preparing a proposal for ethical approval, whilst time consuming, makes the researcher think about all aspects of the research and how it is going to be operationalized, which can save lots of time and effort in the long run and may well also improve the research design. These principles are the same whatever discipline the research takes place in, and should be something that we are aware of as consumers of evidence. Within LIS in the UK, ethical principles have been put to the fore within a new professional framework (CILIP Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals, 2012a. The framework outlines the broad range of skills required by workers across the LIS profession, placing these on a wheel with ethics and values in the centre, as they underpin the profession. Placing ethics and values at the core in this way helps us set our knowledge into a wider context and, I believe, is one of the ways that we can make a difference as LIS professionals. At the same time, our ethical values and principles help to differentiate us from other professions and help to define what we do as LIS professionals. These ethical principles are outlined in a code (CILIP Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals, 2012b, which sets out professional responsibilities in relation to users, colleagues, and the information community and society. The elements which are particularly relevant to EBLIP, and which are espoused in the scope and mission of the journal, include maintaining and enhancing professional knowledge and competence, sharing results of research and development, encouraging best practice, and promoting equitable access to information. There are also ethical codes of practice for journal editors, these include one for LIS editors (Library and Information Science Editorial Committee, 2010 and a more general one which originated in the medical and health domain (Committee on Publication Ethics: COPE, 2011. Both of these guide journal editors in relating to readers, authors, reviewers, and publishers, and both seek to establish best practice for journal publishing. For the EBLIP journal, these codes of practice provide a useful framework for ensuring the journal operates in a professional and ethical way. A recent example where the codes have been used in EBLIP is in dealing with a submission from one of the editorial team (Koufogiannakis, 2012. Str

Alison Brettle

2012-12-01

388

Legal and medical aspects of the ethics committee’s work relating to abortion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyses the legal and medical aspects of the work of ethics committees on abortion. According to the legislation of the Republic of Serbia, these committees are competent to determine justifiable terms for abortion after the twentieth week of the fetus. It is well known that abortion is not only a medical but a legal, ethic, social and demographic problem as well. A liberal solution in view of abortion in the first trimester has been accepted in most European countries, as by the legislature of the Republic of Serbia. Since prenatal diagnosis cannot always determine the fetus state with certainty but at times may do so at a later stage, abortion is then required when the child is already capable of extrauterine life. The necessity for performing abortion in the third trimester is thus a result of good knowledge of techno-medicine but also from the limited information it provides. In such situations, the physician needs confirmation and justification of his standpoint with respect to abortion through a legal formulation which should contain "minimum moral". Society has found a way to protect and help him through moral and ethic forms of prevention without anybody’s emotions being affected. Ethics committees should thus help the physician in view of determining the terms for performing late abortion, since the rules of doctor’s ethics are not sufficient in this case. The article especially analyses the work of the Ethics Committee of the Clinical Center in Kragujevac in the period 2000-2010. It is stated that the largest number of cases referred to determined diseases or fetus anomalies while only a negligible number (11.29% to the illness of the mother. There were no requests for abortions due to legal reasons (pregnancies from criminal offences. A significant number (40.28% of requests submitted to the Ethics Committee related to pregnancies under the 24th week of pregnancy. Since a pregnancy of 24 weeks represents a boundary line between a miscarriage and preterm birth, the paper proposes a shift in the boundary line of pregnancies which must be terminated according to the Ethics committee, from 20 weeks of gestation to 24 weeks of gestation. At the same time, the requirement for narrowing legal conditions for abortion in later phases of pregnancies is pointed out as well as abolition of legal indications.

Ponjavi? Zoran

2011-01-01

389

Ethical intensive care research: development of an ethics handbook.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conduct of research involving humans in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting is complex and challenging. The vulnerable nature of critically ill patients raises issues of patient safety, and informed consent is difficult. With an increasing global interest in human research ethics, broadened government mandates have targeted improvements in research participant protection and research governance. A parallel rise in health consumerism and advocacy for privacy and protection of personal health information requires a clear understanding of the research participant role and importance of risk disclosure. In addition, the potential for conflicts of interest in a climate of increasingly competitive research funding, requires caution and transparency in related financial and contractual arrangements. The Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group (ANZICS CTG) fosters collaborative ICU research activity. We have developed An Ethics Handbook for Researchers (EH) for the ANZICS CTG for intended use by researchers in Australian and New Zealand ICUs. The purpose of the EH is to act as a practical advisory guide/supplement; to add clarification regarding ethical issues specific to intensive care research, to assist in the expedition of ethics committee research submission and to summarise available useful resources. This article introduces a précis of key issues from the EH including specific ethical difficulties pertaining to ICU research, a summary of the process by which ethics committee decisions in Australia and New Zealand are informed, and the use of ethical checklists to assist researchers. PMID:16539587

Rischbieth, A; Blythe, D

2005-12-01

390

Environmental issues related to uranium mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper introduces the environmental issues (both real and perceived) associated with uranium exploration, mining, milling, and tailings management. As well, some of the issues pertaining to the closeout of uranium tailings areas are discussed. These issues have received considerable attention in Canada in public inquiries and hearings that have been held across the country. The major conclusions of some of these hearings are also noted

391

Professionalism in Service Marketing: The Role of Standards and Ethics: A Study of the Nigeria Institute of Public Relations  

OpenAIRE

The level and rate of growth in public relations practice in Nigeria though encouraging, the developmental striveis slow. The later accounts for the retarded growth rate of professionalism status attainment in the practice ofpublic relations in Nigeria. This work therefore considered the role and relevance of standards in the practice ofpublic relations, built on ethics and ethical values; as basic requirements for professionalism. It appraised thepractice of public relations vis-à-vis other...

Ndu, Oko A. E.; Nnolim D. A.; Nwaizugbo C. I.

2014-01-01

392

Re-conceptualizing Neurosis as a Degree of Egocentricity: Ethical Issues in Psychological Theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychology's historical rejection of ethics has led to an oversimplification of the origins and treatments of mental disorders. In this article, we present an analysis of how classical neurosis can be reformulated from an ethical and psychological interaction. We focus on the crucial role that egocentricity plays and argue that this term can help to clarify how ego defensive ethical decisions can undermine psychological capacities and contribute to a progressive depersonalization that can result in typical clinical disorders. In Christian anthropology, the virtues, especially humility and love have a crucial role in the positive growth of human affective and cognitive capacities. In addition, the person in his/her nature is endowed with the capacity to transcend the self and to escape egocentricity through self-giving love of God and of others. This capacity of self-giving is diametrically opposed to egocentricity and opens a new way for possible psychological recovery. PMID:25216966

Alvarez-Segura, M; Echavarria, M F; Vitz, P C

2014-09-13

393

Information technology ethics : cultural perspectives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One of the first book-length anthologies explicitly devoted to diverse cultural perspectives, including core attention to East-West differences and similarities, on central issues in information ethics. Our introduction provides an overview of the individual chapters, draws these together to form a larger picture of current trends and developments, and then explores how these relate with information ethics more broadly, including future directions for research.

Ess, Charles

2007-01-01

394

Framing of Ethical Issues in the Network Society : The Interplay between the Active Online Public and News Media  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose: This study investigates the moral framing of an ethical issue by various actors and looks at the agenda setting effects between news media and the active online public as represented in social media. Design: We coded 4114 sentences manually and conducted an analysis of conditional probability of co-occurrence between actors and issues to identify associative frames. An ARIMA model and time series are applied to detect the interplay between the active online public and news media over a period of three months. Findings: The analysis reveals different framings of the ethical issue by various actors. Furthermore, evidence of a bi-directional relationship between news media and the active online public is found, whereby the news media more strongly precedes social media. Originality: We apply an audience-driven framework that conceptualizes parts of the general public as the active online public. This is the first study, where a time series analysis of associated frames between news media and social media is conducted.

Etter, Michael; Vestergaard JØrgensen, Anne

395

Ubiquitous computing in the workplace what ethical issues? : an interdisciplinary perspective  

CERN Document Server

This book provides an interdisciplinary collection of views on the ethical challenges and opportunities of workplaces in the Internet of things. Current developments within Ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) systems designed for the workplace are introduced and philosophical, organizational and socio-ethical considerations of ubicomp in workplaces are provided. Suggestions regarding the rules that should be respected in order to favor an adequate implementation of ubicomp in the workplace are offered, considering both intra-organizational but also wider societal concerns. The interdisciplinary collection of contributions invites the reader to engage in the discussion of ubicomp in everyday working environments.      

Nihan, Céline

2015-01-01

396

The ethical issues in uranium mining research in the Navajo Nation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We explore the experience of Navajo communities living under the shadow of nuclear age fallout who were subjects of five decades of research. In this historical analysis of public health (epidemiological) research conducted in the Navajo lands since the inception of uranium mining from the 1950s untill the end of the 20th century, we analyze the successes and failures in the research initiatives conducted on Navajo lands, the ethical breaches, and the harms and benefits that this research has brought about to the community. We discuss how scientific and moral uncertainty, lack of full stakeholder participation and community wide outreach and education can impact ethical decisions made in research. PMID:17844786

Panikkar, Bindu; Brugge, Doug

2007-01-01

397

Experimental methods in neuroscience: an undergraduate neuroscience laboratory course for teaching ethical issues, laboratory techniques, experimental design, and analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed and recently taught a 200 level undergraduate course entitled, 'Experimental Methods in Neuroscience'. This is a required course in an increasingly popular Neuroscience major at Smith College. Students are introduced initially to issues of animal ethics and experimentation, and are familiarized with our Animal Care Facility. Using an open field and rotarod apparatus, and the elevated plus and Barnes mazes, they conduct behavioral testing of two strains of mice, C57/BL/6J and 129S1/SvImJ, known to exhibit distinct behavioral traits. The group then employs histological techniques to prepare brain sections for observing neuroanatomical variation between strains (for example, 129S1/SvImJ mice are occasionally acallosal). In the final laboratory exercise, they assay the acetylcholinesterase activity in fore- and hindbrains from each strain. The experiments enable the students to gain confidence in collecting data, compiling large data sets, handling spreadsheets and graphing, applying appropriate statistics, and writing accurate and concise scientific reports in journal article format. The course concludes with pairs of students conducting self-designed independent projects using the acquired behavioral, histological or neurochemical techniques. Experimental Methods in Neuroscience is proving particularly successful as it is relatively straightforward for students to design interesting experiments, gain experience in neuroscience experimentation without excessive use of animals, gather substantial data sets, and develop skills in scientific report writing and presentation at an early stage in their neuroscience curricula. Furthermore, the course has emerged as a centralizing focus for our neuroscience program and is suitable for transfer to and adaptation by other institutions. PMID:23493933

Hall, Adam C; Harrington, Mary E

2003-01-01

398

Research on Offshore Service Outsourcing and the Related Issue of Corporate Social Responsibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the trend of economic globalization, offshore service outsourcing is developing rapidly and its related Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR issues emerge as a result. However, so far, the related research findings are limited. This study based on the CSR theory of stakeholders and the special characteristics of international service outsourcing, discusses the related CSR issues such as the unemployment problem of outsourcer country, the unfair employment problem of recipient country, etc. In the end, it proposes some corresponding countermeasures to solve these problems, such as: firms of offshore service outsourcing should refer to the international standards of social responsibility such as UN Global Compact, OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and ISO26000, etc., to establish a proper code of ethics within the organization, consult with the host country’s stakeholders to understand their concerns of CSR issues impacting on their benefits, try best to reduce the related job losses and protect the interests of employees by training and education to improve their skills and strengthen communication channels with the stakeholders like the government, communities, suppliers and employees, etc., so as to increase their awareness of CSR issues and take measures to resolve these issues. And the administrative authority of the government should play an import role in the creation of a capable or proficient supervision on the CSR issue of offshore service outsourcing, etc.

Zhu Wenzhong

2013-01-01

399

Ethics of the profession of public relations--does the public relations affects on journalism in Croatia?  

Science.gov (United States)

The UK's leading professional body for public relations "Chartered Institute of Public Relations" (CIPR) said that the public relations is about reputation--they are the result of what you do, what you say and what others say about you. Furthermore CIPR says that public relations are discipline whose objectives are safeguarding reputation, establishing understanding and pot pores, and the impact on the thinking and behavior of the public. Although the primary goal of public relations is to preserve and build a reputation, to tell the truth to a customer who has hired experts in this area, it seems that in its own way of development, public relations practitioners have stopped worrying about their reputation and the perception of the discipline within the public they address. All relevant professional bodies for public relations, including the Croatian Association for Public Relation (HUOJ), had set up codes of ethics and high standards according which the members and practitioners should be evaluated. Among other things stays that practitioner of public relations is required to check the reliability and accuracy of the data prior to their distribution and nurture honesty and accountability to the public interest. It seems that right this instruction of code of ethics has been often violated. In a public speech in Croatia, and therefore in the media, exist manipulation, propaganda, and all the techniques of spin, which practitioners of public relations are skillfully using in the daily transfer of information to the users and target groups. The aim of this paper is to determine what is the perception of the profession to the public. As in today's journalism increasingly present plume of public relations, we wish to comment on the part where journalism ends and begins PR and vice versa. In this paper, we analyze and compare codes of ethics ethics associations for public relations, as well as codes of ethics journalists' associations, in order to answer the question of where the boundaries of public relations and journalism are. Where one ends and the other begins, and the extent to which these two professions touch and affect each other. Is manipulation and spin present in the media, that is the questions that we seek the answer in this paper. PMID:24308204

Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana

2013-09-01

400

Iconoclastic ethics.  

OpenAIRE

Arguments are advanced, on a pragmatic basis, for preferring a 'situational' approach to medical ethical problems, rather than an approach based on any one of the dogmatic formulations on offer. The consequences of such a preference are exemplified in relation to confidentiality; and in relation to the ethical dilemmas which surround the beginning and the end of terrestrial human life.

Black, D.

1984-01-01

401

The Ethics of Biowarfare  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue-focused, reviewed, student article alarms that nations need to take preventative measures to curb the development and proliferation of biological and chemical weapons, such as: adopting a scientific code of ethics, incorporating ethics into graduate science courses, formulating accountability mechanisms for research, and raising academic, industry, and public awareness of ethical issues.

Daniel Reyes (Santa Clara University, California; )

2003-02-01

402

Ethical Use of Information Technologies in Education: Important Issues for America's Schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to the rapid growth of computer crime and such illegitimate practices as piracy and fraud, the National Institute of Justice and the Office for Educational Research and Improvement have formed a partnership to promote school programs on the ethical uses of new technologies. This report, the first of the partnership, is designed to…

Sivin, Jay P.; Bialo, Ellen R.

403

Post-Structuralism and Ethical Practical Action: Issues of Identity and Power  

Science.gov (United States)

In an era when familiar categories of identity are breaking down, an argument is made for using post-structuralist vocabulary to talk about ethical practical action in mathematics education. Using aspects of Foucault's post-structuralism, an explanation is offered of how mathematical identifications are tied to the social organization of…

Walshaw, Margaret

2013-01-01

404

Ethical Issues in Online Educational Research: Protecting Privacy, Establishing Authenticity in Email Interviewing  

Science.gov (United States)

Educational researchers have a responsibility to ensure that in whatever research paradigm they work, the research that is conducted is done so within an "ethic of respect" to those who participate. This implies a number of responsibilities on the part of the researcher that include ensuring trust, dignity, privacy, confidentiality and anonymity.…

James, Nalita; Busher, Hugh

2007-01-01

405

The Nazi Origins of Eduard Pernkopf's "Topographische Anatomie des Menschen:" The Biomedical Ethical Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery of the Nazi origins of the classic Pernkopf anatomy atlas is one example of scientific information obtained by doctors who violated the Hippocratic Oath. The ethical dilemmas that doctors and medical centers face as a result of this and other potentially tainted data is reviewed. (Author/AEF)

Israel, Howard A.

1998-01-01

406

Genetic Testing and Its Implications: Human Genetics Researchers Grapple with Ethical Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contributes systematic data on the attitudes of scientific experts who engage in human genetics research about the pros, cons, and ethical implications of genetic testing. Finds that they are highly supportive of voluntary testing and the right to know one's genetic heritage. Calls for greater genetic literacy. (Contains 87 references.) (Author/NB)

Rabino, Isaac

2003-01-01

407

ETHICAL ISSUES IN OPEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO EXPECTATIONS AND REALITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Education is intimately connected with ethics, because holistically speaking education is more than simply passing examinations and acquiring degrees. Education is character building and life long learning. Savants and philosophers throughout the history of humankind have borne testimony to this aspect of education. Today, there is a great deal of emphasis on continuous and life long learning which implies that education is a continual learning process and not merely relegated to certification. Our experience in the field of distance education indicates that the profile of distance learners varies, cutting across barriers of gender, class and caste. The distance learner may be suffering from a sense of isolation as he/she makes a return to study after a gap of time or while working. It is there that the distance educator makes a positive, ethical and interventionist role by helping the student to learn beyond the stereotypical classroom situation and can act effectively as the friend, philosopher and guide of the learner. Thus practicing what you preach is the moto of ethics in distance. Some of the more important ethical concerns associated with open and distance learning are not those that may be faced by learners. Instead, the challenges faced by those that design ODL or use it in their teaching can be seen as increasingly important. These challenges include globalization, which has emphasized instrumental rather than social aims of education, and the use of cognitive rather than affective pedagogies. For ODL designers and teachers, this has resulted in a concentration on cognitive tasks and market-driven aspects of open and distance learning at the expense of the social harmony that might otherwise be achieved. The overarching ethical concern for ODL practitioners should be to implement an appropriate pedagogy that will satisfy both instrumental and social aims. While this can be achieved, in part, through the use of the pedagogies outlined in this paper, the problem is seen as being associated with deeply interwoven social and cultural contexts. Consequently, there is a greater responsibility for all ODL practitioners to ensure that the choices that they make are ethical at all times, irrespective of the demands of any employer, institution or authority. This paper deals with ethics in general, its role in distance education and its significance to educational institutions.

S. N. Vikram RAJ URS

2013-10-01

408

Self-Consciousness, Caring, Relationality: an Investigation into the Experience of Shame and its Ethical Role  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the studies of emotion, shame is classified under several labels: a self-conscious emotion, an emotion of self-assessment, a social emotion, and a moral emotion. All of them are supposed to pick out a defining characteristic of shame. Though all of these labels will be under scrutiny at some point in this dissertation, my primary focus is the last label. My guiding question is: is shame a moral emotion? Does it have a fundamental relationship to ethics or the ethical? Does it have a crucial role or significance in this respect? If so, what exactly? Or is ethics rather a contingent aspect of some prominent episodes of shame? This is the broad question that I intend to explore and clarify throughout this study. In my view, shame is not a unitary phenomenon, but comes in a range of varieties that are linked by what Wittgenstein (1953) called family resemblance. Not all of them have moral significance or a moral role, but I will argue that a general capacity to feel shame, especially the central varieties of discretion shame and disgrace shame, is a fundamental part of the sensibilities that make us ethical, it is a fundamental element of the ground from which ethics can take off. By this, I do not mean that shame is always virtuous or always guided by moral concerns, but rather that it discloses a form of subjectivity that stands in and is constituted by a particular form of relationality and responsiveness to others and to itself, a form of interdependence that combines vulnerability and responsibility.

Montes Sanchez, Alba

2014-01-01

409

DNA banking and DNA databanking: Legal, ethical, and public policy issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this research was to provide support to enable the authors to: (1) perform legal and empirical research and critically analyze DNA banking and DNA databanking as those activities are conducted by state forensic laboratories, the military, academic researchers, and commercial enterprises; and (2) develop a broadcast quality educational videotape for viewing by the general public about DNA technology and the privacy and related issues that it raises. The grant thus had both a research and analysis component and a public education component. This report outlines the work completed under the project.

Reilly, P.R.; McEwen, J.E.; Lawyer, J.D.; Small, D.

1997-04-30

410

Pertinent issues related to laparoscopic radical prostatectomy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: We describe the critical steps of the laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) technique and discuss how they impact upon the pertinent issues regarding prostate cancer surgery: blood loss, potency and continence. RESULTS: A major advantage of LRP is the reduced operative blood loss. The pr [...] ecise placement of the dorsal vein complex stitch associated with the tamponading effect of the CO2 pneumoperitoneum significantly decrease venous bleeding, which is the main source of blood loss during radical prostatectomy. At the Cleveland Clinic, the average blood loss of our first 100 patients was 322.5 ml, resulting in low transfusion rates. The continuous venous bleeding narrowed pelvic surgical field and poor visibility can adversely impact on nerve preservation during open radical prostatectomy. Laparoscopy, with its enhanced and magnified vision in a relatively bloodless field allows for excellent identification and handling of the neurovascular bundles. During open retropubic radical prostatectomy, the pubic bone may impair visibility and access to the urethral stump, and the surgeon must tie the knots relying on tactile sensation alone. Consequently, open prostatectomy is associated with a prolonged catheterization period of 2 - 3 weeks. Comparatively, during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy all sutures are meticulously placed and each is tied under complete visual control, resulting in a precise mucosa-to-mucosa approximation. CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic approach may represent a reliable less invasive alternative to the conventional open approach. Despite the encouraging preliminary anatomical and functional outcomes, prospective randomized comparative trials are required to critically evaluate the role of laparoscopy for this sophisticated and delicate operation.

Sidney C., Abreu; Inderbir S., Gill.

2003-12-01

411

Action-Based Jurisprudence: Praxeological Legal Theory in Relation to Economic Theory, Ethics, and Legal Practice  

OpenAIRE

Action-based legal theory is a discrete branch of praxeology and the basis of an emerging school of jurisprudence related to, but distinct from, natural law. Legal theory and economic theory share content that is part of praxeology itself: the action axiom, the a priori of argumentation, universalizable property theory, and counterfactual-deductive methodology. Praxeological property-norm justification is separate from the strictly ethical “ought” question of selecting ends in an action c...

Konrad Graf

2011-01-01

412

Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed

413

Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

Colaccino, J.

1996-12-01

414

Mobile Commerce and Related Mobile Security Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article will discuss how m-commerce conducts transactions of the mobile device through Internet and how these technologies are developed throughout the years. The article will also judge the security and privacy levels when dealing with mobile commerce and what kind of issues are encountered when using mobile commerce systems. The article will also evaluate the solutions on how m-commerce issues are avoided and how they are tackled by the technology evolution

Ashish Wadhaval#1 , Rugved Mehta#2 , Ashlesha Gawade

2013-04-01

415

Mobile Commerce and Related Mobile Security Issues  

OpenAIRE

This article will discuss how m-commerce conducts transactions of the mobile device through Internet and how these technologies are developed throughout the years. The article will also judge the security and privacy levels when dealing with mobile commerce and what kind of issues are encountered when using mobile commerce systems. The article will also evaluate the solutions on how m-commerce issues are avoided and how they are tackled by the technology evolution

Ashish Wadhaval, Rugved Mehta

2013-01-01

416

Research ethics for clinical researchers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter describes the history of the development of modern research ethics. The governance of research ethics is discussed and varies according to geographical location. However, the guidelines used for research ethics review are very similar across a wide variety of jurisdictions. The paramount importance of protecting the privacy and confidentiality of research participants is discussed at length. Particular emphasis is placed on the process of informed consent, and step-by-step practical guidelines are described. The issue of research in vulnerable populations is touched upon and guidelines are provided. Practical advice is provided for researchers to guide their interactions with research ethics boards. Issues related to scientific misconduct and research fraud are not dealt with in this paper. PMID:25694302

Harnett, John D; Neuman, Richard

2015-01-01

417

Issues Raised in Relation to Radioactive Waste Management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nirex has undertaken various consultations with different stakeholders to identify their issues and concerns about radioactive waste management in general and specific aspects of Nirex's work. This paper will outline what dialogue techniques Nirex has undertaken and the issues and concerns that people have raised during the events. It will outline some of the work that Nirex is undertaking to address stakeholders' issues and concerns. Nirex has used a variety of dialogue techniques co-ordinated under the Nirex Involvement Programme to engage with stakeholders about the work we undertake. We are now trying to address the issues, concerns, scenarios and questions raised in our work programme. Key lessons that we have learned in undertaking the dialogues include: The importance of appropriate facilitation and organisation of meetings; The need for a clear purpose for meetings; Being flexible to the needs of the attendees and the issues they raise; Providing feedback to those who participate and following up issues. Through engaging with the public Nirex has learned that: Radioactive waste is not an everyday concern for people; The public can, will and want to engage with the issue of radioactive waste management. This includes engaging with the ethical debate. To facilitate this Nirex and others need to: Provide information in a neutral form outlining the pros and cons and including various people's opinions; Use proactive techniques to allow access and space for people ques to allow access and space for people to discuss the issues; Demonstrate how people's opinions have been taken into account. People understand the issues very differently to the way institutions understand them. There is a need for institutions to learn to understand public concerns and the ways in which the public understand issues, as well as for the public to understand the institutional positions better. We are using these insights to develop our future work in this area

418

A Social Audit Model for Agro-biotechnology Initiatives in Developing Countries: Accounting for Ethical, Social, Cultural, and Commercialization Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is skepticism and resistance to innovations associated with agro-biotechnology projects, leading to the possibility of failure. The source of the skepticism is complex, but partly traceable to how local communities view genetically engineered crops, public perception on the technology’s implications, and views on the role of the private sector in public health and agriculture, especially in the developing world. We posit that a governance and management model in which ethical, social, cultural, and commercialization issues are accounted for and addressed is important in mitigating risk of project failure and improving the appropriate adoption of agro-biotechnology in sub-Saharan Africa. We introduce a social audit model, which we term Ethical, Social, Cultural and Commercialization (ESC2 auditing and which we developed based on feedback from a number of stakeholders. We lay the foundation for its importance in agro-biotechnology development projects and show how the model can be applied to projects run by Public Private Partnerships. We argue that the implementation of the audit model can help to build public trust through facilitating project accountability and transparency. The model also provides evidence on how ESC2 issues are perceived by various stakeholders, which enables project managers to effectively monitor and improve project performance. Although this model was specifically designed for agro-biotechnology initiatives, we show how it can also be applied to other development projects.

Obidimma Ezezika

2009-10-01

419

A Social Audit Model for Agro-biotechnology Initiatives in Developing Countries: Accounting for Ethical, Social, Cultural, and Commercialization Issues  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english There is skepticism and resistance to innovations associated with agro-biotechnology projects in the developing world, leading to the possibility of failure. The source of the skepticism is complex, but partly traceable to how local communities view genetically engineered crops, public perception on [...] the technology's implications, and views on the role of the private sector in public health and agriculture, especially in the developing world. We posit that a governance and management model in which ethical, social, cultural, and commercialization issues are accounted for and addressed is important in mitigating the risk of project failure and improving the appropriate adoption of agro-biotechnology in sub-Saharan Africa. We introduce a social audit model, which we term Ethical, Social, Cultural and Commercialization (ESC² ) auditing, and that we developed based on feedback from a number of stakeholders. We lay the foundation for its importance in agro-biotechnology development projects and show how the model can be applied to projects run by Public Private Partnerships. We argue that the implementation of the audit model can help build public trust through facilitating project accountability and transparency. The model also provides evidence on how ESC² issues are perceived by various stakeholders, which enables project managers to effectively monitor and improve project performance. Although this model was specifically designed for agro-biotechnology initiatives, we show how it can also be applied to other development projects.

Obidimma, Ezezika; Fiona, Thomas; Jim, Lavery; Abdallah, Daar; Peter, Singer.

2009-10-01

420

Reflexões éticas acerca dos estudos de soroprevelência de hepatites virais Ethical issues about seroprevalence studies on viral hepatitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A aplicação de novas tecnologias em pesquisas epidemiológicas sobre hepatites virais (HV exige discussões éticas sobre inquéritos domiciliares de soroprevalência (IDS, estudos sentinelas (ES e de registros de bancos de sangue (ERBS e amostras de sorotecas (EAS. MÉTODOS: Discutem-se fatores de força (FF e fragilidade (FR destas abordagens, argumentos/justificativas para sua utilização e alternativas, segundo os princípios éticos da Resolução CNS nº 196/96. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: As pesquisas sobre HV justificam-se por sua magnitude, gravidade, vulnerabilidade e necessidade de subsidiar protocolos diagnósticos/terapêuticos e estratégias de prevenção/controle. Em relação aos IDS, discutimos quanto a FF: autonomia do sujeito; representatividade amostral adequada; e FR: custo maior que benefícios; possibilidade de obter a informação por outros meios. Para os ES, FF: monitoramento das HV com custo operacional inferior ao dos IDS; ausência de danos adicionais ao sujeito; e FR: limitação relativa de representatividade. Para os ERBS, FF: monitoramento do VHB/VHC em doadores de sangue com baixo custo, sem risco adicional; e FR: limitação de representatividade. Quanto aos EAS, FF: preponderância de benefícios sobre riscos/custos; possibilidade de desvendar agravos desconhecidos e de oferecer diagnóstico precoce e tratamento; FR: material biológico e dados de uma pesquisa podem ser utilizados em outras. CONCLUSÃO: Estas discussões contribuem para embasar processos éticos, orientar a escolha do tipo de estudo epidemiológico e construir novos conceitos sobre estes temas.BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies on viral hepatitis (VH using new technologies raise ethical issues especially concerning community-based studies on seroprevalence (CSS, sentinel surveillance-based studies (SBS the use of blood-bank registers (BBR and serum stocks (SS. METHODS: Positive (PA and negative (NA aspects of these different designs are discussed, pointing to alternatives, according to Resolution CNS nº 196/96. RESULTS: Priority for research is justified by VH magnitude, severity, and vulnerability, and need for development of diagnosis/therapy protocols and prevention/control strategies. With respect to CSS, PA was identified as: subject autonomy; adequate samples and as NA: costs override benefits, and availability of information from other sources. In relation to SBS, PA are: VH monitoring has lower operational costs than CSS; absence of additional injuries to subject; while NA is: relative restriction of representativeness. For BBR, PA is: the low cost of monitoring of HBV/HCV in blood donors and with no additional risk. PA has limited representativeness. SS studies present as PA: benefits higher than risks/costs; possibility of identification of new morbidity and offering of adequate diagnosis and treatment. NA is: biological material and research data can be used for other researches. CONCLUSION: The choice of study designs must take into account arguments for ethical investigation and consensus on the use of new technology.

Rosangela Gaze

2006-06-01

421

Reflexões éticas acerca dos estudos de soroprevelência de hepatites virais / Ethical issues about seroprevalence studies on viral hepatitis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A aplicação de novas tecnologias em pesquisas epidemiológicas sobre hepatites virais (HV) exige discussões éticas sobre inquéritos domiciliares de soroprevalência (IDS), estudos sentinelas (ES) e de registros de bancos de sangue (ERBS) e amostras de sorotecas (EAS). MÉTODOS: Discutem-se [...] fatores de força (FF) e fragilidade (FR) destas abordagens, argumentos/justificativas para sua utilização e alternativas, segundo os princípios éticos da Resolução CNS nº 196/96. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: As pesquisas sobre HV justificam-se por sua magnitude, gravidade, vulnerabilidade e necessidade de subsidiar protocolos diagnósticos/terapêuticos e estratégias de prevenção/controle. Em relação aos IDS, discutimos quanto a FF: autonomia do sujeito; representatividade amostral adequada; e FR: custo maior que benefícios; possibilidade de obter a informação por outros meios. Para os ES, FF: monitoramento das HV com custo operacional inferior ao dos IDS; ausência de danos adicionais ao sujeito; e FR: limitação relativa de representatividade. Para os ERBS, FF: monitoramento do VHB/VHC em doadores de sangue com baixo custo, sem risco adicional; e FR: limitação de representatividade. Quanto aos EAS, FF: preponderância de benefícios sobre riscos/custos; possibilidade de desvendar agravos desconhecidos e de oferecer diagnóstico precoce e tratamento; FR: material biológico e dados de uma pesquisa podem ser utilizados em outras. CONCLUSÃO: Estas discussões contribuem para embasar processos éticos, orientar a escolha do tipo de estudo epidemiológico e construir novos conceitos sobre estes temas. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies on viral hepatitis (VH) using new technologies raise ethical issues especially concerning community-based studies on seroprevalence (CSS), sentinel surveillance-based studies (SBS) the use of blood-bank registers (BBR) and serum stocks (SS). METHODS: Positive (PA) [...] and negative (NA) aspects of these different designs are discussed, pointing to alternatives, according to Resolution CNS nº 196/96. RESULTS: Priority for research is justified by VH magnitude, severity, and vulnerability, and need for development of diagnosis/therapy protocols and prevention/control strategies. With respect to CSS, PA was identified as: subject autonomy; adequate samples and as NA: costs override benefits, and availability of information from other sources. In relation to SBS, PA are: VH monitoring has lower operational costs than CSS; absence of additional injuries to subject; while NA is: relative restriction of representativeness. For BBR, PA is: the low cost of monitoring of HBV/HCV in blood donors and with no additional risk. PA has limited representativeness. SS studies present as PA: benefits higher than risks/costs; possibility of identification of new morbidity and offering of adequate diagnosis and treatment. NA is: biological material and research data can be used for other researches. CONCLUSION: The choice of study designs must take into account arguments for ethical investigation and consensus on the use of new technology.

Rosangela, Gaze; Diana Maul de, Carvalho; Clara Fumiko Tachibana, Yoshida; Luiz Fernando Rangel, Tura.

2006-06-01

422

Staff Attitudes to Talking Openly About Ethical Dilemmas : The Role of Business Ethics Conceptions and Trust  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To ensure ethical employee behavior, companies often utilize several forms of mostly one-way communication such as codes of conduct. The extent to which these efforts, in addition to informing about the company stance on ethics, are able to positively influence behavior is disputed. In contrast, research on business ethics communication and behavior indicates a relatively clear, positive link between open workplace dialogue about ethical issues and ethical conduct. In this paper, I therefore address the question: What influences employee attitudes to talking openly about ethical issues? Answers are proposed on the basis of focus group interviews with staff at the Denmark and Brazil affiliates of the global healthcare company Novo Nordisk. It was found that interest in discussing ethical issues was influenced by two main factors: employee conceptualizations of business ethics, and the level of inter-collegial trust, credibility, and confidence. In this paper, by examining these phenomena, I am at providinginsight that can both inform scholars in these fields as well as help managers in their attempts to promote open workplace dialogue about ethical issues.

Trapp, Leila

2011-01-01

423

Risk Communication in Assisted Reproduction in Latvia: From Private Experience to Ethical Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the process of risk communication in the context of assisted reproduction in Latvia. The paper is based on a qualitative methodology and two types of data: media analysis and 30 semi-structured interviews (11 patients, 4 egg donors, 15 experts. The study explores a broad definition of risk communication and explores three types of risks: health, psychosocial, and moral. We ask (1, who is involved in risk communication, (2, how risks are discussed using different channels of communication, and (3, what ethical problems arise during this process. In the process of analysis, we identified four types of information channels and two strategies of risk communication used by patients, as well as several ethical problems. In our view, the analysis of risk communication practices is significant to improve patient/physician relationship, as well as better meet patients' needs for comprehensive risk information.

Signe Mezinska

2013-05-01

424

Ethical issues in the introduction of case management for elderly people.  

Science.gov (United States)

As case management is under development in France for elderly people, this study sets out to identify and analyse key situations responsible for ethical dilemmas for French case managers. We based our study on the analyses of individual interviews made with case managers and focus-group discussions, bringing together all case managers working in local organisations running for at least a year. We identified three situations giving rise to ethical dilemmas: in the order of importance, the refusals of care, the practicalities of collecting and sharing personal data and the allocation of resources. These three situations can lead to conflict between the principle of beneficence and those of respect for autonomy, non-maleficence and justice. We describe here how French case managers practically deal with these situations. PMID:22918055

Corvol, Aline; Moutel, Grégoire; Gagnon, Dominique; Nugue, Mathilde; Saint-Jean, Olivier; Somme, Dominique

2013-02-01

425

Action-Based Jurisprudence: Praxeological Legal Theory in Relation to Economic Theory, Ethics, and Legal Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Action-based legal theory is a discrete branch of praxeology and the basis of an emerging school of jurisprudence related to, but distinct from, natural law. Legal theory and economic theory share content that is part of praxeology itself: the action axiom, the a priori of argumentation, universalizable property theory, and counterfactual-deductive methodology. Praxeological property-norm justification is separate from the strictly ethical “ought” question of selecting ends in an action context. Examples of action-based jurisprudence are found in existing “Austro-libertarian” literature. Legal theory and legal practice must remain distinct and work closely together if justice is to be found in real cases. Legal theorizing was shaped in religious ethical contexts, which contributed to confused field boundaries between law and ethics. The carrot and stick influence of rulers on theorists has distorted conventional economics and jurisprudence in particular directions over the course of centuries. An action-based approach is relatively immune to such sources of distortion in its methods and conclusions, but has tended historically to be marginalized from conventional institutions for this same reason.

Konrad Graf

2011-08-01

426

Ethical Issues in Insurance Marketing.The Case of Western India  

OpenAIRE

This is a paper based on empirical investigation conducted in Western India between 2002 and 2012 especially at a time when the Indian economy is in a stage of transition from state capitalism to free market capitalism, albeit both of a retarded variety. It takes the 7 Ps of services marketing and cross verifies responses against seven dimensions of ethical conduct. The study is based on questionnaires followed by interviews. The target respondents were life insurance employees of banc assura...

Sorab Georgy Sadri; Tara, Sharukh N.

2012-01-01

427

Regulatory and Ethical Issues for Phase I In Utero Gene Transfer Studies  

OpenAIRE

Clinical gene transfer research has involved adult and child subjects, and it is expected that gene transfer in fetal subjects will occur in the future. Some genetic diseases have serious adverse effects on the fetus before birth, and there is hope that prenatal gene therapy could prevent such disease progression. Research in animal models of prenatal gene transfer is actively being pursued. The prospect of human phase I in utero gene transfer studies raises important regulatory and ethical i...

Strong, Carson

2011-01-01

428

Ethical issues in implementation research: a discussion of the problems in achieving informed consent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved quality of care is a policy objective of health care systems around the world. Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice, and hence to reduce inappropriate care. It includes the study of influences on healthcare professionals' behaviour and methods to enable them to use research findings more effectively. Cluster randomized trials represent the optimal design for evaluating the effectiveness of implementation strategies. Various codes of medical ethics, such as the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki inform medical research, but their relevance to cluster randomised trials in implementation research is unclear. This paper discusses the applicability of various ethical codes to obtaining consent in cluster trials in implementation research. Discussion The appropriate application of biomedical codes to implementation research is not obvious. Discussion of the nature and practice of informed consent in implementation research cluster trials must consider the levels at which consent can be sought, and for what purpose it can be sought. The level at which an intervention is delivered can render the idea of patient level consent meaningless. Careful consideration of the ownership of information, and rights of access to and exploitation of data is required. For health care professionals and organizations, there is a balance between clinical freedom and responsibility to participate in research. Summary While ethical justification for clinical trials relies heavily on individual consent, for implementation research aspects of distributive justice, economics, and political philosophy underlie the debate. Societies may need to trade off decisions on the choice between individualized consent and valid implementation research. We suggest that social sciences codes could usefully inform the consideration of implementation research by members of Research Ethics Committees.

Eccles Martin P

2008-12-01

429

Ethical, legal and social issues of genetic studies with African immigrants as research subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is growing interest in exploring gene-environment interactions in the etiology of diseases in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Our experience working with the Sudanese immigrant population in Omaha, NE, makes clear the pressing need for geneticists and federal and local funding agencies to address the ethical, legal and social implications of genetic research with such vulnerable populations. Our work raises several questions. How does one design research with African immigrant participants to assure it is ethical? Many immigrants may not understand the purposes, risks and benefits involved in research because of low literacy rates, one of the results of civil wars, or concepts of biologic science foreign to their cultures. Is it possible to obtain truly informed consent? Do African immigrants perceive genetic research using them as subjects as racist? Is genetic research on minorities "biopiracy" or "bio-colonialism?" In our experience, some Sudanese immigrants have challenged the legality and ethics of genetic studies with profit-making as an end. We have concluded that it is essential to educate African immigrant or any other non-English-speaking immigrant participants in research using lay language and graphic illustrations before obtaining consent. Cultural proficiency is important in gaining the trust of African immigrants; profit-sharing may encourage their participation in genetic research to benefit all; involvement of African immigrant community leaders in planning, delivery and evaluation using the community-based participatory research approach will facilitate healthcare promotion, health literacy education, as well as genetic research. It is crucial to address the ethical, legal and social implications of genetic studies with African immigrants as research subjects. PMID:18807438

Gong, Gordon; Kosoko-Lasaki, Sade; Haynatzki, Gleb; Cook, Cynthia; O'Brien, Richard L; Houtz, Lynne E

2008-09-01

430

Ethical issues when involving people newly diagnosed with dementia in research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim To discuss the methodological and ethical review challenges encountered by researchers who want to enable people with dementia to be involved in research. Background There has been increasing recognition of the importance of involving people with dementia in research. However, an argument has centred on the protection of these vulnerable clients versus their freedom to be involved as participants in research. People with dementia do have the right to have their experiences explored. Involving this client group in research is essential to gain a true understanding of their needs. Data sources The lead author's experience of conducting a study in which people newly diagnosed with dementia were recruited as research participants. Review methods An interpretive phenomenological approach was adopted during this qualitative study, with data collected by means of one to one interviews with people newly diagnosed with dementia. Discussion This study was completed within the set timeframe, but a large part of the work was spent gaining ethical approval. This meant that the timeframe of the study period was reduced and as a result, it was only possible to recruit three participants. However, people with dementia are perhaps one of the most vulnerable client groups and it is only right that they should not be subjected to harm. Conclusion Ethical review is an important part of research. Meeting the ethical requirements of research involving people with dementia requires time and careful preparation to ensure that researchers safeguard the interests of this vulnerable client group, while also allowing the participants the opportunity to exercise their autonomy to their fullest potential. Implications for research/practice Conducting research that involves people with dementia may be time consuming, but it is only fair that this client group are afforded the freedom to be involved in research. This small time-limited study points to the need for larger pilot studies to hear from individuals what needs they have following a diagnosis of dementia. PMID:25783149

Holland, Suzanne; Kydd, Angela

2015-03-01

431

Committee opinion no.564: ethical issues with vaccination for the obstetrician-gynecologist.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of the growing importance of infectious disease prevention in the individual patient and the larger community, it is vital that Fellows of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists be prepared to navigate the practical and ethical challenges that come with vaccination. Health care professionals have an ethical obligation to keep their patients' best interests in mind by following evidence-based guidelines to encourage patients to be vaccinated and to be vaccinated themselves. College Fellows should counsel their patients about vaccination in an evidence-based manner that allows patients to make an informed decision about the use of these agents in their health care. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that no evi-dence exists of risk to the fetus from vaccinating pregnant women with noninfectious virus or bacterial vaccines or toxoids. Mandatory vaccination of health care professionals may be an ethically justified strategy in cases in which the harm to patients and the general population is believed to outweigh the autonomy of individual physicians. PMID:23635768

2013-05-01

432

47 CFR 19.735-105 - Availability of ethics and other conduct related regulations and statutes.  

Science.gov (United States)

...advise the Designated Agency Ethics Official that all such persons...year, the Designated Agency Ethics Official shall take appropriate...title 18 of the United States Code; the Standards of Ethical...office of the Designated Agency Ethics Official for review by...

2010-10-01

433

Ethical considerations in longitudinal studies of human infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical issues and their optimal solutions in longitudinal infant studies have not received adequate attention in the literature. To address this gap, this manuscript pulls from universal research ethics, ethical guidelines for infant and child research, and ethical guidelines for longitudinal research and combines them in the context of infant longitudinal research with typically-developing infants. Topics explored relate to participant consent to research studies, the participant-observer relationship, and closure of developmental studies in this targeted population. Additionally, this manuscript highlights the importance and need for new and more relevant considerations of ethical procedures that concern infants involved in longitudinal research. PMID:25626155

Thurman, Sabrina L

2015-02-01

434

After the Financial Crisis: The Ethics and Economics Debate Revisited  

OpenAIRE

The recent international events, with a major financial crisis all over the world, involve important questions about the relation between ethics and economics and the responsibilities of the economic market in relation to broader social and political concerns. This paper addresses this issue in five parts 1) Ethics in economic history 2) The neoliberal concept of economics 3) Welfare economics and the criticism of neo-classical concepts of rationality 4) Ethics within economics 5) Economic an...

Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

2010-01-01

435

Latent tuberculous infection: ethical considerations in formulating public health policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is increasing interest in the introduction of public health policies relating to latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). However, there has been little previous systematic engagement with LTBI from an ethical perspective. This article offers a general overview of ethical issues in relation to LTBI, with particular focus on those aspects relevant to the development and implementation of public health policy. Key characteristics of LTBI are discussed from an ethical perspective, with examples of challenging situations for policy makers. PMID:25574909

Denholm, J T; Matteelli, A; Reis, A

2015-02-01

436

Sustainable issues related to heap leaching operations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english One of the earliest records of metal recovery by solution leaching is described by Agricola as 'juice of rock' in the 1550s. In these early years of hydrometallurgy and civil engineering, few controls and systems were employed to enhance recovery and protect the environment. Since that time, leachin [...] g (dump or heap) operations have made significant strides in increasing metal and solution recovery while protecting the environment, all goals of a sustainable operation. It is now recognized that the design and operation of modern heap leach facilities requires contributions from many fields of study, including hydrometallurgy, civil engineering, geotechnical engineering, unsaturated-flow hydrology, mine planning, geosynthetics engineering, geochemistry, process engineering, mechanical engineering, and electrical engineering. While advancements in these fields have resulted in more sustainable heap leach operations, challenges in the industry still exist. A number of heap leach operations exhibit poor or lower-than-predicted metal recovery, loss of solution flow and control within the ore heap, loss of ore heap stability under leach, failure of liner and/or solution recovery systems, and overtopping of process water ponds. A number of these issues may be the result of several compounding conditions. For example, poor metal recovery may be due to an inadequate scale-up assumption (scaling laboratory tests to field-size heaps), lack of control of the in-heap geochemical environment, changes in ore mineralogy from the original design, changes in mechanical and hydraulic properties of the ore from the original design, ore handling and pre-treatment, inadequate solution management system, and inadequate solution application. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss issues that may affect the sustainability of a heap leach operation. Since sustainability encompasses a broad range of topics and issues, the focus of this paper will be on issues affecting metal and solution recovery, solution flow and containment, and stability of the ore heap.

J.F., Lupo.

1021-10-01

437

Security Issues related with cloud computing  

OpenAIRE

The term CLOUD means Common Location Independent Online Utility on Demand. It?s an emerging technology in IT industries. Cloud technologies are improving day by day and now it become a need for all small and large scale industries. Companies like Google, Amazon, Microsoft etc. is providing virtualized environment for user by which it omits the need for physical storage and others. But as the advantage of cloud computing is increasing day by day the issues are also threatenin...

Manju; Vashis, Dr P. C.

2014-01-01

438

Ethical issues experienced by mental health nurses in the administration of antipsychotic depot and long-acting intramuscular injections: A qualitative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ethical issues experienced by mental health nurses in administering antipsychotic depot and long-acting intramuscular injections (LAI) were explored in the present study. Mental health nurses face ethically-difficult situations when administering these medications. A phenomenological research method guided by Max van Manen's human science approach describes and interprets the ethical issues involved in performing the procedure. Purposive and snowball sampling was used to select eight participants from two mental health hospitals. Semistructured interviews were carried out to collect data. A thematic analysis was conducted on the data. The four main themes that emerged from the analyses were: (i) lack of alternatives; (ii) safety; (iii) feeling uncomfortable; and (iv) difficulty maintaining the therapeutic relationship. The findings suggest that mental health nurses face ethical challenges in administering LAI. The findings raise much needed awareness of the need for mental health nurses and nurse educators to consider the ethical issues experienced while performing the procedure. There is a need for nurse education providers and organizations to provide opportunities for mental health nurses to address their 'lived experiences'. Educational courses are needed to equip mental health nurses with the technical and critical thinking skills to administer safe and effective antipsychotic depot and LAI. PMID:25394562

Smith, James Paul; Herber, Oliver Rudolf

2014-11-14

439

When Ethics Survive Where People Do Not  

OpenAIRE

The provision of health care service in resource-poor settings is associated with a broad set of ethical issues. Devakumar's case discusses the ethical issues related to the inability to treat in a cholera clinic patients who do not have cholera. This paper gives a closer look on the context in which Devakumar's case took place. It also analyses the potential local and organizational factors that gives rise to ethical dilemmas and aggravate them. It also proposes a framework to help in the pr...

Hussein, Ghaiath M. A.

2010-01-01

440

Handling ethical, legal and social issues in birth cohort studies involving genetic research: responses from studies in six countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to study specific conditions (e.g. autism, asthma or may have a broad aim to research a range of factors that influence the health and development of children. Studies are increasingly intended to serve as research platforms by providing access to data and biological samples to researchers over many years. This study examines how six birth cohort studies in North America and Europe that involve genetic research handle key ethical, legal and social (ELS issues: recruitment, especially parental authority to include a child in research; initial parental consent and subsequent assent and/or consent from the maturing child; withdrawal; confidentiality and sample/data protection; handling sensitive information; and disclosure of results. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out in 2008/09 with investigators involved in six birth cohort studies in Canada, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands and the United States. Interviewees self-identified as being knowledgeable about ELS aspects of the study. Interviews were conducted in English. Results The studies vary in breadth of initial consent, but none adopt a blanket consent for future use of samples/data. Ethics review of new studies is a common requirement. Studies that follow children past early childhood recognise a need to seek assent/consent as the child matures. All studies limit access to identifiable data and advise participants of the right to withdraw. The clearest differences among studies concern handling of sensitive information and return of results. In all studies, signs of child abuse require reports to authorities, but this disclosure duty is not always stated in consent materials. Studies vary in whether they will return to participants results of routine tests/measures, but none inform participants about findings with unknown clinical significance. Conclusions Analysis of how cohort studies in various jurisdictions handle key ELS issues provides informative data for comparison and contrast. Consideration of these and other examples and further scholarly exploration of ELS issues provides insight on how best to address these aspects in ways that respect the well-being of participants, especially children who become research subjects at the start of their lives.

LeGrandeur Jane

2010-03-01

441

Cultural and ethical issues in Korea's recent elder abuse reporting system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary purpose of this article is to examine the relevance of cultural values, such as familism and individualism, that influence public policy implementation processes for protecting older adults in Korea and the United States. The secondary purpose is to identify ethical dilemmas and policy implications for effectively implementing the recently developed public law designed to protect vulnerable older adults in Korea. This article discusses both similarities and differences found in the two countries' elder abuse reporting systems and the service delivery systems for protecting older adults at risk of abuse and neglect. PMID:19347717

Doe, Sondra Seungja; Han, Hye Kyung; McCaslin, Rosemary

2009-04-01

442

Ethical Issues in Withholding or Withdrawal of Artificial Nutrition and Hydration  

OpenAIRE

A I M : The purpose of this study was to identify and explore the main ethical dilemmas arising for a health care teamworking in a clinical nutrition unit when decisions about withholding or withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration(ANH) of seriously ill patients have to be made. The potential factors influencing this decision-making processare also described.M A T E R I A L - M E T H O D : Fifteen health carers working in a Clinical Nutrition Unit in the United Kingdomparticipated in ...

Dimitriadou A.; Matziari Ch.; Kyparos A.; Rammos K.; Tsaloglidou A.

2008-01-01

443

The communication of science as an ethical issue: the case of Raffaele Bendandi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a ever more connected world, whether justified or not, the possibility that scientific information can be used to produce generalized behaviors by populations results in the need to better understand the processes of science communication. Consequently, it raises serious questions about the ethical message of the communication itself, and the way in which scientists can interface with people with no scientific training. This article analyses the case of the supposed prediction of the well-known geophysicist Raffaele Bendandi and the earthquake of Rome predicted for May 2011 that never happened.

Teodoro Georgiadis

2012-07-01

444

Professional, legal, and ethical issues raised by behavioral screening for unescorted access to nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Potential professional, legal, and ethical liabilities are addressed concerning the overall process for unescorted access at nuclear power plants. The authors suggest means by which action can be taken to reduce liability on behalf of utilities, contractors, and behavioral evaluators. Three main points are discussed based on the authors' experience in conducting behavioral evaluations and defending those evaluations. The authors hope that the process of evaluation screening can become more professional and will be considered with the same quality controls as the selection of materials and the building of a nuclear power plant

445

The Relation between Theory of Justice of John Rawls by Kant's Ethics and Hegel's philosophy of Right  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the famous book on political philosophy of Karl Popper and in support of the liberal doctrine titled" Open society and its enemies", the most famous theory of John Rawls, the university of Harwaed professor in political philosophy in, which a book titled" A theory of justice "was published in 1971. This book includes several articles that eventually, has formed like a book has increased a wide audience in the university and professional journals, particularly in English –speaking countries. Rawls book, based on ethical approach –the political challenge with common issues, including comments utilitarianism payment. Rawl's theory of john Stuart Mill, David Hume and the ethical discussion sidgwick quit common and was considered beyond established based tradition of ethical contractivism and deontological ethics theory of Kant and Hegel's philosophy of right to and re-design concepts of his theory in the tradition of normative political philosophy west restored."Theory of justice" due to the boroad variety of social sciences, audience many attracted. Readers of this theory found a wide variety of disciplines ranging from psychology and economic to ethical issues. Selected topic for which it repeatedly Rawls in his book and his theory named the Kantian and did not name in Hegel, the Hegelian's philosophy of Right theory of the hidden angles of this article will focus on, as well as his abut influence on some views Interpreters.

Dirbaz, A

2011-01-01

446

Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Now that public attention has grown increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, the commercial use of biomass could greatly accelerate. Renewable feedstocks like biomass can provide better environmentally balanced sources of energy and other nonfood products than fossil fuels. The future of biomass is uncertain, however, because public attention focuses on both its potential and its challenges. This paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 and 4 catalog the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large-scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups: wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier: gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 provides a conclusion and summary.

Hughes, M. [Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy; Ranney, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-12-31

447

Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With public attention increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, there is enormous potential for the commercial use of biomass to accelerate. Renewable feedstocks such as biomass can provide more environmentally balanced sources of energy and other non-food products than fossil fuels. Biomass utilization is in a precarious position, however, with public attention increasingly focused on both its potential and the strength of the challenges it faces. The paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 through 4 catalogue the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups; wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier; gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 is devoted to a conclusion and summary

448

Community Science Action Guides: The Ethics of Genetics  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web site contains The Ethics of Genetics, one of the Community Science Action Guides created by practicing educators working with The Franklin Institute and the Science Museum, London. The Ethics of Genetics "presents some of these ethical issues within an academic setting designed for today's youth," and fits well with classroom material on cells, reproduction, and general biology. A series of questions -- each followed by a related lesson -- guides middle and high school students in exploring the ethical issues involved in genetics. The site also includes a detailed Teacher Preparation section, as well as useful Web links for additional information.

449

Economic issues relating to power sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Financial distress alongside high rates of growth, stagnant organizations coexistent with upgraded technologies, richly endowed regions marked by low levels of electricity consumption and the long wait for private power in face of mounting shortfalls are among the contradictions marking the power sector. Decades of public financing support could shore up the rates of growth but forms of past intervention failed to address critical institutional and regulatory issues. Key areas that need intervention have now been identified, although several are yet to be tackled. This paper discusses the more important of the problem areas holding up significant economic gains that could be realized through cost reductions, the needed levels of investments, operation of market forces and targeting of resources to promo