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Sample records for ethical issues relating

  1. Ethical Issues Related to Restructuring.

    Mielke, Patricia L.; Schuh, John H.

    1995-01-01

    Offers a framework for thinking about ethical principles through the use of codes of ethics. Examines the ethical issues of restructuring and discusses specific ethical dilemmas. Specifically outlines ethics related to resources allocation and management, and details critical points in restructuring. Argues that ethical guidelines help shape…

  2. Ethical issues related to screening for Preeclampsia

    Jørgensen, Jennifer M.; Hedley, Paula L.; Gjerris, Mickey; Chistiansen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of new methods of treating and preventing disease raises many question of both technical and moral character. Currently, many studies focus on developing a screening test for preeclampsia (PE), a disease complicating 2–8% of pregnancies, potentially causing severe consequences...... feasibility and clinical efficacy, it also requires an analysis of how the test influences the conditions and choices for those tested. This study evaluates state-of-the-art techniques for preeclampsia screening in an ethical framework, pointing out the central areas of moral relevance within the context of...

  3. Ethics and Moral Issues in Public Relations Curricula.

    Harrison, Stanley L.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the role of ethics in the public relations curriculum. Notes textbooks used in ethics courses. Discusses how the topic of ethics fares in the most popular public relations texts (basic and advanced). (SR)

  4. Ethical issues relating to reproduction control and women's health.

    Schenker, J G; Eisenberg, V H

    1997-07-01

    There are many ethical aspects which derive from the application of reproduction control in women's health. Women's health can be enhanced if women are given the opportunity to make their own reproduction choices about sex, contraception, abortion and application of reproductive technologies. The main issues that raise ethical dilemmas following the development of assisted reproduction techniques are: the right to procreate or reproduce; the process of in vitro fertilization itself-is it morally acceptable to interfere in the reproduction process?; the moral status of the embryo; the involvement of a third party in the reproductive process by genetic material donation; the practice of surrogacy, cryopreservation of pre-embryos; genetic manipulation; experiments on pre-embryos, etc. Induced abortion raises ethical issues related to the rights of the woman versus the rights of the fetus. For those who consider life to begin at conception abortion always equals murder and is therefore forbidden. Those who believe in the absolute autonomy of the woman over her body take the other extreme approach. The discussion surrounding abortion usually centers on whether it should be legal or illegal. Access to safe abortion is critical to the health of women and to their autonomy. The development of new effective contraceptive methods has a profound impact on women's lives. By the use of contraception it is possible to lessen maternal, infant and child mortality and to reduce the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. Research and development of new effective reversible contraceptives for women and men is needed. Dissemination of information about the safety and effectiveness of contraceptive methods is of great importance. Female genital mutilation is still practiced worldwide due to customs and tradition among various ethnic groups. The procedure is considered to be medically detrimental to the physical and mental health of women and girls, and is considered by many as oppression of women. The practice has to be stopped. Recognition of the fetus as a 'patient' has a potential effect on women's right for autonomy; they have no legal obligation to undergo invasive procedures and to risk their health for the sake of their fetuses. The woman carries ethical obligations toward her fetus. This obligation should not be enforced by the law. At present women bear most of the burden of reproductive health. All of them have a right of access to fertility regulation. Governments and society must ensure the women's equal rights to health care just as men have in the regulation of their fertility. PMID:9253679

  5. Ethical issues related to biomonitoring studies on children

    Pedersen, Marie; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    recruitments. In the initial phase of planning a biomonitoring study consideration of communication of results including risk and means of risk prevention should be made. Ethical considerations regarding the study protocol should take into account (a) justification of biological sampling related to the...

  6. Ethical issues in dementia

    Whitehouse, Peter J

    2000-01-01

    The growing number of individuals affected by dementia will intensify the ethical issues that emerge in clinical practice and research, issues early in disease relate to genetic testing, use of medications in mildly affected persons, and diagnostic disclosure. Research issues relate to appropriate informed consent processes, conflict of interests, and research design issues, such as the use of placebos and the use of biological tissues, in the later stages of disease concern about appropriate...

  7. Ethical Issues Related to Research Involving Elderly Subjects

    Reich, Warren T.

    1978-01-01

    Drawing on ethical principles and general ethical rules governing aspects of human research, this article identifies and analyzes ethical problems distinctive to biomedical and behavioral research with aged subjects. Policy recommendations governing research in the aged are offered along with an agenda for an extensive research project in this

  8. Ethical issues in genetics.

    Shannon, T A

    1999-03-01

    The first section of the Notes on Moral Theology reviews ethical issues in genetics through the lenses of privacy-confidentiality; risk-benefit analysis in relation to prenatal diagnosis and gene therapy; and freedom-determinism/human dignity in the context of cloning. The author provides an overview of developments in genetics and highlights thematic issues common to these developments. PMID:12452146

  9. Ethical issues in immunisation.

    Isaacs, David; Kilham, Henry; Leask, Julie; Tobin, Bernadette

    2009-01-29

    Discussions about current and future immunisation programmes raise novel questions about familiar ethical issues. Two sets of ethical issues dominate these discussions. The first is the issue of compulsory immunisation: what should be done about parents who fail to immunise their children? The second is: given competing demands on health care budgets, how should principles of justice in access and distribution inform vaccination programmes? This paper considers these two issues in the light of traditional ethical principles. With respect to the first, we argue that compulsion is justified only in cases in which we know with practical certainty that parental failure to immunise puts their own child or other children at high risk of severe illness. We also argue that the state should compensate those who suffer vaccine-related injury. With respect to the second, we claim that allocating resources according to health care need requires establishing priorities between public health programmes such as immunisation and other treatment programmes. PMID:19026706

  10. Ethical issues related to chemotherapy in patients with gastric cancer

    J.K. Triantafillidis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative chemotherapy and radiation therapy is standard care in high risk patients who had undergone a curative resection of the primary tumor. Best survival results are achieved with three-drug regimens containing FU, an anthracycline, and cisplatin (ECF, although the recently presented REAL-2-trial, demonstrated a significant survival benefit for EOX (epirubicin, oxaliplatin, capecitabine over ECF. Consequently, chemotherapy could be offered to some proportion of patients with advanced gastric cancer taking into account the results of the available clinical trials. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy has the ability to downsize gastric tumours. It remains unclear however, how the neoadjuvant therapy may be integrated into the multimodality management of localized gastric cancer. According to recent studies, adjuvant chemotherapy resulted in a significant survival benefit in patients with gastric cancer. However, others did not recommend adjuvant chemotherapy as routine therapy. A lot of case reports with metastatic cancer treated with S-1 plus cisplatin have appeared in the recent literature with promising results. Therefore, such treatment could be offered to some patients with metastatic gastric cancer as a last hope. Patients with peritoneal dissemination should be submitted to chemotherapy after full explanation of the expected results. The use of chemotherapy in patients with linitis plastica remains controversial. Chemotherapy should be offered to patients with gastric cancer at advanced age. Nutrition therapy in advanced gastric cancer might offer improved quality of life especially to those with gastric outlet obstruction despite the associated increased cost. Other parameters related to the decision to give chemotherapy or not to gastric cancer patients are related to the role of patient relatives, the doctors’ training and availability, the psychological support of the patient, the doctor’s-patient relationships, and the right of the patient to receive the best available medical treatment. These parameters must be taken into account where dealing with a patient with gastric cancer who is a candidate for chemotherapy. Key words: Gastric cancer, Chemotherapy, Ethics

  11. Ethical issues in Finnish-Russian relations: Finnish perspective

    Polonsky, Gennady; Turunen, Erja

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the role which western, particularly Finnish companies play in shaping the moral and ethical environment of Russian business. The authors evaluate changes in attitudes and behaviour in Russia, comparing the situation before the introduction of market reform with the developments since. Based on empirical data and interviews conducted in Finland, the authors show that there are at least three groups of problems: Firstly, the low business culture of Russian entrepreneurs, se...

  12. On ethical issues in radiation protection

    From an ethical viewpoint the author surveys existing international radiation protection recommendations and standards. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the author discusses ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. (author)

  13. Ethical issues in psychopharmacology

    McHenry, L

    2006-01-01

    The marketing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the psychopharmacological industry presents a serious moral problem for the corporate model of medicine. In this paper I examine ethical issues relating to the efficacy and safety of these drugs. Pharmaceutical companies have a moral obligation to disclose all information in their possession bearing on the true risks and benefits of their drugs. Only then can patients make fully informed decisions about their treatment.

  14. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    In this note the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection and risk assessment/management, the authors review ethical thinking on five key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these five issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) Equity vs. Efficiency, (2) Health vs. Economics, (3) Individual Rights vs. Societal Benefits, (4) Due Process vs. Necessary Sacrifice, and (5) Stakeholder Consent vs. Management Decisions (authors)

  15. Ethical Issues in Physiatrist Practice

    Hand G

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Editorial on Ethical Issues. Medical ethics is at the centre of medical practice. It isrightly gaining much needed renewed focus and attentionin the evolving scenario. The impetus for it may beattributed to the revelations that arose through Nurembergtrials, the framework elements that define research andpublications related compulsions, and indeed the contextand state of affairs of present day medical jurisprudence.The physiatrist’s practice cannot remain untouched bythe moral and ethical dilemmas faced in today’s world.Although the pillars of the specialty are grounded in the

  16. Ethical Issues in the Conduct of Supervision.

    Sherry, Patrick

    1991-01-01

    Uses American Psychological Association code of ethics to understand ethical issues present in the conduct of supervision. Discusses ethical issues of responsibility, client and supervisee welfare, confidentiality, competency, moral and legal standards, public statements, and professional relationships in relation to supervision. (Author/NB)

  17. Antiprogestin drugs: ethical issues.

    Macklin, R

    1992-01-01

    Ethical issues of RU-486 in the US are the same as those of any new medical technology, but the politics of abortion can tempt us to believe that antiprogestins pose new ethical hazards. Good facts are needed to have good ethics. Risk-benefit assessments reveal medical facts and begin with clinical trials, evaluating RU-486's effectiveness and the degree and likelihood it causes harm, discomfort, and side effects. They should also consider social and psychological risks and benefits. Clinical trails in Los Angeles show that women who had previously undergone a surgical abortion method found RU-486 to be a less violent abortion method. Antiabortion proponents misconstrue this benefit to be a disadvantage, because they believe women undergoing abortion should suffer from pain and suffering. Even though an international convention ensures reproductive freedom for women, women must be informed about and have access to all family planning services in order to exercise this right. Ethics and the law require voluntary, informed consent. Yet, the US prevents workers at federally-funded family planning programs from providing clients any information on abortion, thereby violating this ethical requirement. Ethical precepts are also violated by denying women their right to privacy and by the punitive actions taken against women undergoing abortion by physicians, other health workers, and antiabortion proponents. Ru-486 allows women to undergo an abortion in private. Abortion opponents consider this privacy a disadvantage, because they lose targets for picketing, harassment, and violence. They believe that the improved access to abortion awarded by RU-486 would make abortion emotionally easier for women, leading to an increase in the number of abortions. Yet, there is no empirical evidence to support this. Again they see a benefit (decreased psychological stress) as a disadvantage. Ethical arguments show that RU-486 provides women greater health benefits, fosters their right to reproductive freedom, and improves the prospects for expanded social justice. PMID:1434763

  18. Hospital Malnutrition Related to Fasting and Underfeeding: Is It an Ethical Issue?

    Arenas Moya, Diego; Plascencia Gaitán, Alejandra; Ornelas Camacho, Denisse; Arenas Márquez, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    Hospital malnutrition is a relevant clinical issue present in about 50% of patients that is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost of care. Because of the relation of malnutrition with chronic and acute inflammatory processes secondary to disease, nutrition therapy is considered an important medical treatment. However, there is little discussion about the impact of another critical issue related to hospital malnutrition, that is, lack of appropriate food or nutrition therapy given to the patients. Unnecessary fasting practices and the use of inappropriate nutrition prescriptions result in underfeeding that can be a related or direct cause of hospital malnutrition, independent of disease or inflammatory state. Suboptimal prescription of oral, enteral, and parenteral nutrition should be analyzed and discussed from an ethical perspective since this practice has the potential to harm patients. In addition, absence or inadequate provision of nutrition may present barriers for improved patient outcomes and could be prevented by simply recognizing lack of knowledge, skills, or experience in nutrition and entrusting nutrition prescription to interdisciplinary teams with clinicians well prepared in nutrition sciences. This article reviews potential barriers to the prevention or treatment of hospital malnutrition and proposes specific actions that can help clinicians to overcome and implement optimal nutrition not just as medical therapy but also as a basic comfort care that may help patients nutritionally, clinically, physically, and emotionally. PMID:27208012

  19. Business Ethics: Some Theoretical Issues

    Lluka, Valon

    2010-01-01

    Ethics can be defined as a process of evaluating actions according to moral principal of values. Throughout the centuries people were trying to choose between profit and moral. Perhaps, some of them obtain both, but every time it could have roused ethical issues. Those issues concern fairness, justice, rightness or wrongness; as a result it can only be resolved according to ethical standards. Setting the ethical standards for the way of doing business in corporation is primarily task of m...

  20. Ethical issues in nanotechnology.

    Florczyk, Stephen J; Saha, Subrata

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing area in science involved with manipulating matter at the atomic or molecular level. Nanotechnology is typically defined at a scale on the order of less than approximately 100 nm. Matter possesses unique properties at these size levels that are neither Newtonian nor quantum, but between the two regimes.These unique properties have created significant interest and excitement, sparking numerous research investigations. Nanotechnology is a very broad field with many current and potential applications. Some important examples of applications include battlefield activated dynamic armor clothing for soldiers, additives to sunscreens, and diagnostic laboratories on a chip to monitor general personal health. Groundbreaking capabilities often raise new questions. Any new scientific or technological development has the usual concomitant associated ethical issues, specifically regarding containment and regulation. These ethical issues are more pronounced with nanotechnology due to the sharp divide between those who see its great potential and opponents who express fears. Nanotechnology supporters believe that it has the potential to transform our lives dramatically, while opponents of nanotechnology fear that self-replicating "nanobots" could escape from laboratories and reduce all life on earth to "gray goo. "These fears have swayed generally uninformed public opinions via the media and sensational entertainment. A critical discussion of ethical issues surrounding nanotechnology, including the interaction of nanotechnology with the body and the environment--nanobiotechnology--and regulation of nanotechnology, is presented. We advocate strong, uniform regulations for nanotechnology, but only the use of regulations as needed. The limited use of regulations prevents the regulations from becoming burdensome and inhibiting research in the field. PMID:19023950

  1. Ethical Issues Relative to Autonomy and Personal Control in Independent and Cognitively Impaired Elders.

    Rice, Virginia Hill; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues surrounding health care for independent elders, those in long-term care, and those with cognitive impairments, as well as death, dying, euthanasia, and assisted suicide. Suggests that nurses should focus on older adults' choice, autonomy, and personal control. (SK)

  2. Developing a research agenda on ethical issues related to using social media in healthcare.

    Adams, Samantha A; Van Veghel, Dennis; Dekker, Lukas

    2015-07-01

    The consequences of using publicly available social media applications specifically for healthcare purposes are largely unaddressed in current research. Where they are addressed, the focus is primarily on issues of privacy and data protection. We therefore use a case study of the first live Twitter heart operation in the Netherlands, in combination with recent literature on social media from other academic fields, to identify a wide range of ethical issues related to using social media for health-related purposes. Although this case reflects an innovative approach to public education and patient centeredness, it also illustrates the need for institutions to weigh the various aspects of use and to develop a plan to deal with these on a per case basis. Given the continual development of technologies, researchers may not yet be able to oversee and anticipate all of the potential implications. Further development of a research agenda on this topic, the promotion of guidelines and policies, and the publication of case studies that reveal the granularity of individual situations will therefore help raise awareness and assist physicians and institutions in using social media to support existing care services. PMID:26059955

  3. Public relations interns and ethical issues at work: Perceptions of student interns from three different universities

    Charles A. Lubbers; Pamela G. Bourland-Davis; Brad L. Rawlins

    2008-01-01

    Empirical investigations of internships have increased our understanding of variables influencing the success of the internship. Few of these investigations, however, have focused on the internship as a process of socialisation through which interns learn the values associated with the profession. And while ethics has also been investigated, the focus on public relations student perceptions of ethics as they are applied or experienced during their internships has not been studied to any exten...

  4. Ethical issues in neuroprosthetics

    Glannon, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Neuroprosthetics are artificial devices or systems designed to generate, restore or modulate a range of neurally mediated functions. These include sensorimotor, visual, auditory, cognitive affective and volitional functions that have been impaired or lost from congenital anomalies, traumatic brain injury, infection, amputation or neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Cochlear implants, visual prosthetics, deep brain stimulation, brain-computer interfaces, brain-to-brain interfaces and hippocampal prosthetics can bypass, replace or compensate for dysfunctional neural circuits, brain injury and limb loss. They can enable people with these conditions to gain or regain varying degrees of control of thought and behavior. These direct and indirect interventions in the brain raise general ethical questions about weighing the potential benefit of altering neural circuits against the potential harm from neurophysiological and psychological sequelae. Other ethical questions are more specific to the therapeutic goals of particular neuroprosthetics and the conditions for which they are indicated. These include informed consent, agency, autonomy (free will) and identity. Approach. This review is an analysis and discussion of these questions. It also includes consideration of social justice issues such as how to establish and implement fair selection criteria in providing access to neuroprosthetic research and balancing technological innovation with patients’ best interests. Main results. Neuroprosthetics can restore or improve motor and mental functions in bypassing areas of injury or modulating dysregulation in neural circuits. As enabling devices that integrate with these circuits, neuroprosthetics can restore varying degrees of autonomous agency for people affected by neurological and psychiatric disorders. They can also re-establish the connectedness and continuity of the psychological properties they had before injury or disease onset and thereby re-establish their identity. Neuroprosthetics can maximize benefit and minimize harm for people affected by damaged or dysfunctional brains and improve the quality of their lives. Significance. Provided that adequate protections are in place for research subjects and patients, the probable benefit of research into and therapeutic applications of neuroprosthetics outweighs the risk and therefore can be ethically justified. Depending on their neurogenerative potential, there may be an ethical obligation to conduct this research. Advances in neuroscience will generate new ethical and philosophical questions about people and their brains. These questions should shape the evolution and application of novel techniques to better understand and treat brain disorders.

  5. Ethical issues relating the the banking of umbilical cord blood in Mexico

    Valdez-Martinez Edith

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Umbilical cord banks are a central component, as umbilical cord tissue providers, in both medical treatment and scientific research with stem cells. But, whereas the creation of umbilical cord banks is seen as successful practice, it is perceived as a risky style of play by others. This article examines and discusses the ethical, medical and legal considerations that arise from the operation of umbilical cord banks in Mexico. Discussion A number of experts have stated that the use of umbilical cord goes beyond the mere utilization of human tissues for the purpose of treatment. This tissue is also used in research studies: genetic studies, studies to evaluate the effectiveness of new antibiotics, studies to identify new proteins, etc. Meanwhile, others claim that the law and other norms for the functioning of cord banks are not consistent and are poorly defined. Some of these critics point out that the confidentiality of donor information is handled differently in different places. The fact that private cord banks offer their services as "biological insurance" in order to obtain informed consent by promising the parents that the tissue that will be stored insures the health of their child in the future raises the issue of whether the consent is freely given or given under coercion. Another consideration that must be made in relation to privately owned cord banks has to do with the ownership of the stored umbilical cord. Summary Conflicts between moral principles and economic interests (non-moral principles cause dilemmas in the clinical practice of umbilical cord blood storage and use especially in privately owned banks. This article presents a reflection and some of the guidelines that must be followed by umbilical cord banks in order to deal with these conflicts. This reflection is based on the fundamental notions of ethics and public health and seeks to be a contribution towards the improvement of umbilical cord banks' performance.

  6. Ethics issues in retrievability

    We can isolate some issues, which should not be unresolved for a longer period of time. Disputes over well-defined waste management options fall in this category. The concept of retrievability has a possibility to invoke a series of questions in the minds of both specialists and non-specialists. It is intrinsically vague, in that it may refer to different phases in the repository's life, and to both open and closed repositories in the long time frame. Requirements for retrievability opens a series of issues, including open-ended philosophical question, which may give the impressions that things are not properly taken care of, since the experts differ in opinion. If such disputes cannot be resolved by consulting the existing legal framework, efforts should be made to put them to trial in the proper forum, i.e. parliament and national or local government or authorities, depending on the problem. In contrast, the value of institutional controls can easily be seen as an ethical value, whether included in the regulation of not. It has the potential to deter human intrusion and to allow remedial action by carrying information about a repository. (author)

  7. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs

    Verrinder, Joy M.; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students’ preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress. PMID:26934582

  8. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs.

    Verrinder, Joy M; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students' preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress. PMID:26934582

  9. Resolving Ethical Issues at School

    Benninga, Jacques S.

    2013-01-01

    Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a

  10. Models of an individual decision-making process related to ethical issues in business:The risk of framing effects

    Kliukinskaitė-Vigil, Virginija

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical paper at hand reviews 16 most often cited descriptive models of a manager's individual decision-making process related to ethical issues in business in general, international business and marketing fields in particular. The paper has a goal to point out the need to rephrase the dependent variable in the models in neutral terms to avoid framing effects in the three subject areas, as well as to rename the models accordingly. Copyright © 2009, Inderscience Publishers.

  11. Legal and Ethical Issues Related to the Management of Cultural Heritage in Space

    Walsh, Justin

    The recent discovery of water in darkened craters of the Moon's south pole is only the latest development drawing public and corporate interest to the possibilities of research and travel in outer space. Scientists pursuing fusion-generated power as a solution to global energy needs have also noted the relative abundance of Helium-3, an efficient fuel, on the Moon's surface, and there is the promise of other precious resources there as well. The implantation of colonies on the Moon or Mars, discussed for many decades as science fiction, therefore seems increasingly likely to happen. Some private companies and members of the public are even looking forward to the days when tourists will be able to travel for leisure beyond the earth's atmosphere. Most notably, the X Prize Foundation and Google are sponsoring a prize for the first private group to send an unmanned rover to the Moon as a way of advancing these agendas; 22 teams have registered for the competition, with some scheduled to launch by the end of 2010. Increased attention to outer space travel, exploration, and commercial exploitation has been paralleled by a rise in interest in the protection of cultural resources on Earth, such as ar-chaeological sites and historic monuments. Such sites and monuments already exist in outer space and on extraterrestrial planetary bodies. The Apollo 11 landing site, Tranquility Base, is only the most obvious example of a cultural site of outstanding significance in space. Satellites orbiting the earth -even defunct ones such as Vanguard 1, the oldest man-made object still in orbit, might be considered to have extraordinary historic and cultural value, too. As archae-ologists working on Earth have long recognized, once a site or object is damaged, it can never be perfectly restored to its original condition. Unfortunately, there are so far only a few vague guidelines, drafted in the 1960's and agreed upon by the international community, protecting mankind's cultural heritage in space. The United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967 -the primary document governing how nations act in outer space -is now hopelessly out-of-date. There is no mention in the treaty of cultural heritage (the UNESCO convention that concerns international protection of cultural heritage on Earth was not completed until 1970), nor was there any recognition of the role private groups and individuals might play in space exploration. This paper will outline key legal and ethical issues related to cultural heritage management and protection. It will also suggest some ways in which culturally significant sites in space can be protected for future study and even touristic appreciation.

  12. A review of ethical issues in dementia.

    Johnson, Rebecca A; Karlawish, Jason

    2015-10-01

    Dementia raises many ethical issues. The present review, taking note of the fact that the stages of dementia raise distinct ethical issues, focuses on three issues associated with stages of dementia's progression: (1) how the emergence of preclinical and asymptomatic but at-risk categories for dementia creates complex questions about preventive measures, risk disclosure, and protection from stigma and discrimination; (2) how despite efforts at dementia prevention, important research continues to investigate ways to alleviate clinical dementia's symptoms, and requires additional human subjects protections to ethically enroll persons with dementia; and (3) how in spite of research and prevention efforts, persons continue to need to live with dementia. This review highlights two major themes. First is how expanding the boundaries of dementias such as Alzheimer's to include asymptomatic but at-risk persons generate new ethical questions. One promising way to address these questions is to take an integrated approach to dementia ethics, which can include incorporating ethics-related data collection into the design of a dementia research study itself. Second is the interdisciplinary nature of ethical questions related to dementia, from health policy questions about insurance coverage for long-term care to political questions about voting, driving, and other civic rights and privileges to economic questions about balancing an employer's right to a safe and productive workforce with an employee's rights to avoid discrimination on the basis of their dementia risk. The review highlights these themes and emerging ethical issues in dementia. PMID:26061118

  13. Ethical issues in physical therapy

    Richardson, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare professionals can be confronted with a wide range of ethical and regulatory issues in today’s ever-changing practice environments. While achieving best practice standards, physical therapists may need to compromise what is best for patients due to fiscally driven rules, regulations, and limited benefits. Scenarios may surface where ethical issues and associated dilemmas become paramount between what is versus what should be. A challenge that should be in the forefront of profession...

  14. Drug use and abuse: the ethical issues.

    Almond, B

    1992-01-01

    Drug abuse is both a personal and a public issue, raising questions about individual rights and the boundaries of law, as well as about national sovereignty and international control. Ethical issues that arise under these headings may be related to certain broad ethical positions. The implications of adopting utilitarian assumptions may be contrasted with basing ethics on a theory of individual rights, closely related to a theory of human nature. Neither position justifies a libertarian presumption against control, for, first, an individual decision to expose one's mind and personality to the control of drugs cannot be ethically justified and, second, there are no ethical reasons, nor any compelling arguments from social and political theory, for decriminalizing non-medical drug use. PMID:1638919

  15. Ethical issues and Huntington's disease

    J G R, Kromberg; T-M, Wessels.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethical dilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's [...] disease, in which only one twin sought predictive testing for this dominantly inherited disease, created several ethical dilemmas. Another case where predictive testing was carried out on two young children, at high risk, by a laboratory at the request of an adoption agency and a doctor, with a view to giving information to the foster parents, also posed many ethical conundrums for the counsellor. The ethical issues that arose in these cases are discussed in this paper.

  16. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report

  17. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    Persson, Lars (ed.)

    2000-03-15

    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.

  18. Current ethical issues in IVF.

    Grobstein, C; Flower, M

    1985-12-01

    This article has briefly reviewed the range of public policy issues and ethical questions raised with respect to IVF. It then discussed selected issues that are now under policy debate and decision. Given the wide acceptance of IVF as a medical procedure for married couples, what variants might also be ethically defensible? IVF for unmarried couples appears defensible under specific conditions that are equally applicable to married couples. Involvement of third parties (gamete donation and gestational surrogacy) is more complex and needs case by case examination. Sperm donation appears to generate little that is ethically new when coupled with IVF but requires the same care and concern as AID. Egg or embryo donation, however, does raise new ethical questions that need close attention and continuing analysis. Freezing of human embryos also breaks new ethical ground, particularly in the options it generates beyond a narrowly defined medical domain. Certain of these options are better not undertaken without further public policy decision. Improvement of current procedures and techniques through effective clinical trials can be ethically carried out in terms of scientific and medical perspectives. However, efforts in this direction will be more effective if undertaken within a public policy framework that clearly defines acceptability during a transitional period of confidence-building. PMID:3833444

  19. Ethical issues in physical therapy.

    Richardson, Robert W

    2015-06-01

    Healthcare professionals can be confronted with a wide range of ethical and regulatory issues in today's ever-changing practice environments. While achieving best practice standards, physical therapists may need to compromise what is best for patients due to fiscally driven rules, regulations, and limited benefits. Scenarios may surface where ethical issues and associated dilemmas become paramount between what is versus what should be. A challenge that should be in the forefront of professional endeavors is staying current with published rules, regulations, and conditions of participation, as applied to various practice models and environments while still adhering to ethical codes. Knowing and utilizing available resources especially American Physical Therapy Association (APTA), websites, documents, and references can strengthen practice patterns and treatment options. PMID:25864102

  20. [Renal transplantation: ethical issues].

    Mamzer-Bruneel, Marie-France; Lafort, Emmanuelle Grand; Kreis, Henri; Thervet, ric; Martinez, Frank; Snanoudj, Renaud; Herv, Christian; Legendre, Christophe

    2012-12-01

    One of the most significant advances in medicine during the last 50 years is the development of organ transplantation. In the context of chronic kidney diseases, renal transplantation offers patients a better clinical outcome than other treatment options. However, the benefits of organ transplantation have not been maximized due to an inadequate supply of organs for transplantation. Despite the establishment of elaborate legal rules for organs procurement, both on deceased and living donors in numerous countries, ethical concerns remain. Most of them are consequences of the strategies implemented or proposed to address the so-called organ shortage. The involvement of society in these complex problems is crucial as numerous questions emerge: could actual state of organ procurement change? Is it possible and/or realistic to increase the number of organs, with respects to living donors or deceased persons? Is the shortage an indicator to limit the use of kidney transplantation? How do we maintain efficiency and justice, in this context. PMID:23168353

  1. Ethical issues in ecological restoration

    John Cairns Jr.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The acid test of humankind's relationship to natural systems is the degree to which ecological damage caused by humans is repaired by humans. Technology and science are available, so the remaining stimulus needed for implementation of ecological restoration is the ethical responsibility to do so. Ecological restoration can be regarded as enlightened self-interest for humankind since it increases both natural capital and ecosystem services. However, well-designed ecological restoration proecjts should have a major ethical component since the future of non-human life forms on Earth requires more than self-interest. Although the field of science has provided various rationales for ecological restoration, ethical issues associated with such activities must also be considered. If, as seems likely, human society and natural systems are co-evolving, restoration of damaged ecosystems will improve both ecological and human health. The term 'ecosocietal restoration' emphasizes this close relationship. However, if ecological restoration considers only human needs and does not emphasize ecological integrity, human-dominated ecosystems could become the norm. Such domination is already marked but the relationship could easily worsen. This article lists seven major ethical issues in ecological restoration. This list is not encyclopedic but illustrative. Finally, there are five questions that human society must address that require robust scientific information to make a sound ethical judgment.

  2. Ethical issues in optometric practice

    H. L. Sithole

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethics as a discipline is the study and analysis of values and standards related to duty, responsibility, and right and wrong behavior. The ethical obligations of optometry toward patients are similar to those of other health professionals. These obligations generally require optometrists to recognize, respect, and protect the rights of their patients. This approach encourages patients to participate actively in their care and allows them to develop arelationship with their optometrist based on trust. The ethical codes which contain guiding principles serve to help practitioners in their decisions and in practicing in accordance with a set of standards that are expected of a health care practitioner. There are four major ethical principles in health care, namely; beneficence, non-maleficence, and respect for autonomy and justice. Because these principles are easily recognized as being among the primary ethical goals of health care, using them as the basis for ethical analysis may help to explain the moral justification for certain professional actions as well as to identify unethical behavior. However, in clinical practice, the specific demands and rationales of these broad principles may be difficult to apply. This illustrates the paradox that whilst these principles are essential tools for ethical practice, if applied too rigidly, they can be problematic. How-ever, the goal of ethical decision making in optometry should be to identify one or more courses of action that will honor the profession’s essential values while minimizing conflict with other values and professional standards. Every profession, every practice and every practitioner is governed by not only legal constraints, but also by the ethical concerns of ensuring that the patient is properly served. Considering our practices from a patient’s perspective can help optometrists understand the multiple responsibilities of clinical practice. (S Afr Optom 2010 69(2 93-99

  3. Ethical issues in family law.

    Zaidel, S

    1993-01-01

    This article focuses on a few key ethical issues which arise in the context of family law. One of the issues faces mental health practitioners who are often engaged as expert witnesses in family law disputes. In another realm, family law attorneys face several fundamental ethical dilemmas in the course of their work. The client's right to appropriate treatment will be considered in the light of multidisciplinary services. On a broader level, the courts need to examine the ethical implications of the commonly used guideline in judicial process, 'the best interests of the child'. When these ethical issues are considered, it becomes clear what changes need to be made in individual practice, professional standards and social policy. The underlying premise is based on the knowledge we have gained in recent years through research and clinical experience with divorcing families. It is suggested that a radically different approach to society's handling of divorce is needed. Denmark's administrative handling of these problems is presented as a working alternative model. PMID:8231692

  4. To Know or Not to Know: Ethical Issues Related to Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease

    David Brax; Henrik Zetterberg; Niklas Mattsson

    2010-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), pathological processes start in the brain long before clinical dementia. Biomarkers reflecting brain alterations may therefore indicate disease at an early stage, enabling early diagnosis. This raises several ethical questions and the potential benefits of early diagnosis must be weighted against possible disadvantages. Currently, there are few strong arguments favouring early diagnosis, due to the lack of disease modifying therapy. Also, available diagnostic ...

  5. Ethical issues relating the the banking of umbilical cord blood in Mexico

    Valdez-Martinez Edith; Novello-Garza Barbara; Serrano-Delgado V Moises

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Umbilical cord banks are a central component, as umbilical cord tissue providers, in both medical treatment and scientific research with stem cells. But, whereas the creation of umbilical cord banks is seen as successful practice, it is perceived as a risky style of play by others. This article examines and discusses the ethical, medical and legal considerations that arise from the operation of umbilical cord banks in Mexico. Discussion A number of experts have stated that...

  6. To Know or Not to Know: Ethical Issues Related to Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease

    David Brax

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD, pathological processes start in the brain long before clinical dementia. Biomarkers reflecting brain alterations may therefore indicate disease at an early stage, enabling early diagnosis. This raises several ethical questions and the potential benefits of early diagnosis must be weighted against possible disadvantages. Currently, there are few strong arguments favouring early diagnosis, due to the lack of disease modifying therapy. Also, available diagnostic methods risk erroneous classifications, with potentially grave consequences. However, a possible benefit of early diagnosis even without disease modifying therapy is that it may enable early decision making when patients still have full decision competence, avoiding problems of hypothetical consents. It may also help identifying patients with cognitive dysfunction secondary to other diseases that may be responsive to treatment already today.

  7. Ethical issues in animal cloning.

    Fiester, Autumn

    2005-01-01

    The issue of human reproductive cloning has recently received a great deal attention in public discourse. Bioethicists, policy makers, and the media have been quick to identify the key ethical issues involved in human reproductive cloning and to argue, almost unanimously, for an international ban on such attempts. Meanwhile, scientists have proceeded with extensive research agendas in the cloning of animals. Despite this research, there has been little public discussion of the ethical issues raised by animal cloning projects. Polling data show that the public is decidedly against the cloning of animals. To understand the public's reaction and fill the void of reasoned debate about the issue, we need to review the possible objections to animal cloning and assess the merits of the anti-animal cloning stance. Some objections to animal cloning (e.g., the impact of cloning on the population of unwanted animals) can be easily addressed, while others (e.g., the health of cloned animals) require more serious attention by the public and policy makers. PMID:16085991

  8. Ethical issues in organ transplantation.

    Abouna, George M

    2003-01-01

    Clinical organ transplantation has been recognized as one of the most gripping medical advances of the century as it provides a way of giving the gift of life to patients with terminal failure of vital organs, which requires the participation of other fellow human beings and of society by donating organs from deceased or living individuals. The increasing incidence of vital organ failure and the inadequate supply of organs, especially from cadavers, has created a wide gap between organ supply and organ demand, which has resulted in very long waiting times to receive an organ as well as an increasing number of deaths while waiting. These events have raised many ethical, moral and societal issues regarding supply, the methods of organ allocation, the use of living donors as volunteers including minors. It has also led to the practice of organ sale by entrepreneurs for financial gains in some parts the world through exploitation of the poor, for the benefit of the wealthy. The current advances in immunology and tissue engineering and the use of animal organs, xenotransplantation, while offering very promising solutions to many of these problems, also raise additional ethical and medical issues which must be considered by the medical profession as well as society. This review deals with the ethical and moral issues generated by the current advances in organ transplantation, the problem of organ supply versus organ demand and the appropriate allocation of available organs. It deals with the risks and benefits of organ donation from living donors, the appropriate and acceptable methods to increase organ donation from the deceased through the adoption of the principle of 'presumed consent', the right methods of providing acceptable appreciation and compensation for the family of the deceased as well as volunteer and altruistic donors, and the duties and responsibilities of the medical profession and society to help fellow humans. The review also deals with the appropriate and ethically acceptable ways of utilizing the recent advances of stem cell transplantation from adult versus fetal donors, tissue engineering and the use of organs from animals or xenotransplantation. Data provided in support of the concept that clinical organ and tissue transplantation can be more beneficial and life saving if everyone involved in the process, including physicians and medical institutions, respect and consider the best interests of the patients, as well as honor the ethical, moral and religious values of society and are not tempted to seek personal fame or financial rewards. PMID:12566971

  9. Ethical issues in assisted reproduction.

    Marshall, B M

    1992-07-01

    Since the birth of Louise Brown in 1978, no other area in clinical practice and medical research has held the public interest to the same extent as the assisted reproductive technologies. This has led to the formation of committees of enquiry, guidelines from professional bodies, the passage of legislation, and the formation of legislative bodies. The ethical issues which arise in the clinical practice of assisted reproduction, the donation of gametes and embryos, and their cryopreservation, surrogacy, and human embryo research are reviewed. PMID:1309130

  10. Ethical Issues in Family Care Today.

    Barrett, Patrick; Butler, Mary; Hale, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    The abstract consideration of ethical questions in family and informal caregiving might rightly be criticized for ignoring the lived experience of people. This chapter seeks to avoid such oversight by reflecting on ethical issues in family care in a way that is based on careful social scientific inquiry into the well-being of caregivers. The chapter draws on our research and experience in working with family caregivers, both professionally and personally. We step back from a practical concern with policies to support the well-being of caregivers to consider ethical issues associated with their typically hidden role. The chapter begins by noting the growing reliance on family care today. It proceeds to outline the dynamic experience of moving into and out of the caregiver role, before discussing key ethical issues associated with family care. Many of these stem from the risk that caregivers can come to share in the reduced circumstances and vulnerability of those for whom they care. Critical ethical issues are related to the typically "unboundaried" responsibility of family caregivers for the well-being of the cared-for person, something that can be contrasted with the more boundaried and intermittent responsibility of formal caregivers. Additionally, all too often, family caregivers encounter situations where their responsibilities exceed their capacities, but where a choice to not provide care will result in harm to the cared-for person. In discussing these issues, this chapter seeks to make the case for developing more responsive forms of support that promote positive benefits for both caregivers and care recipients. PMID:26673377

  11. Issues in Media Ethics. ERIC Digest.

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that over the past decade incidents have occurred and new technologies have appeared which together have raised questions about the ethical values of American journalists, this Digest seeks to identify some of those ethical issues and to point to the work of those who have studied these issues. It addresses issues of plagiarism and…

  12. Resolving Ethical Issues when Conducting Sexuality Education

    Bruess, Clint E.; Greenberg, Jerrold S.

    2008-01-01

    Ethical issues about conducting sexuality education often arise. This paper describes one system of ethics and how the sexuality educator can use that system to determine whether an action is moral or immoral and, therefore, the appropriate action to take for that sexuality educator to be consistent with his or her values. Ethical principles are

  13. Ethical issues in pediatric perioperative nursing.

    Hamblet Berlandi, J L

    1997-03-01

    Pediatric perioperative nurses often face ethical issues in their daily practice. Some of these issues require the ability to make a quick decision. Resources and mechanisms nurses can use to gain the knowledge required for ethical decision making are to attend ethical, legal, and clinical conferences, read ethical articles in nursing, medical, legal and ethical journals, and discuss issues with colleagues. Consultation can be obtained through ethics advisory committees and ethicists or people knowledgeable about ethics. Nurses must be able to identify ethical issues and how ethical decisions are made in order to analyze arguments critically, reflect on decisions, and examine positions. Nurses must have the ability to acknowledge and identify a conflict that exists between personal and professional values and to attempt to resolve the conflict. Perioperative nurses need to accept responsibility for their actions and take reactions based on ethical reasoning when providing patient care. By being knowledgeable of ethical issues and how to address them, pediatric perioperative nurses are better prepared to provide comprehensive nursing care to all patients and families. PMID:9030656

  14. TYPOLOGY ETHICAL ISSUES GLOBAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    Л.П. ПЕТРАШКО

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  This academic paper refines and systematizes the following clasificational approaches for determining the typology of the ethical problems of the global business environment: macro level ethical problems, ethical problems of the relations between companies and their external environment, internal ethical problems of the companies in the context moral vectors. The author also illustrates the cross-cultural multi-vectoral perception of the ethical problems in the business communities of the world.

  15. Ethical issues in healthcare financing.

    Maharaj, S R; Paul, T J

    2011-07-01

    The four goals of good healthcare are to relieve symptoms, cure disease, prolong life and improve quality of life. Access to healthcare has been a perpetual challenge to healthcare providers who must take into account important factors such as equity, efficiency and effectiveness in designing healthcare systems to meet the four goals of good healthcare. The underlying philosophy may designate health as being a basic human right, an investment, a commodity to be bought and sold, a political demand or an expenditure. The design, policies and operational arrangements will usually reflect which of the above philosophies underpin the healthcare system, and consequently, access. Mechanisms for funding include fee-for-service, cost sharing (insurance, either private or government sponsored) free-of-fee at point of delivery (payments being made through general taxes, health levies, etc) or cost-recovery. For each of these methods of financial access to healthcare services, there are ethical issues which can compromise the four principles of ethical practices in healthcare, viz beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice. In times of economic recession, providing adequate healthcare will require governments, with support from external agencies, to focus on poverty reduction strategies through provision of preventive services such as immunization and nutrition, delivered at primary care facilities. To maximize the effect of such policies, it will be necessary to integrate policies to fashion an intersectoral approach. PMID:22097685

  16. Ethics, legal issues, and consent for fillers.

    Reisman, Neal R

    2006-10-01

    The huge patient demand for filler rejuvenation exposes plastic surgeons to legal issues. Plastic surgery statistics confirm a trend toward nonsurgical procedures, with a slight increase in surgical procedures overall from 2004 to 2005. Nonsurgical procedures, especially fillers, exhibited a 35% increase. Patients are seeding a quick-recovery, minimally invasive procedure that provides them maximal rejuvenation. This demand and media-driven exposure may create concerns for plastic surgeons as to patient selection and ethical, regulatory, and legal issues relating to filler choices and their use. This article addresses these concerns. PMID:17085219

  17. Telecare technologies and isolation: some ethical issues

    Eccles A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Eccles School of Social Work & Social Policy, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK Abstract: Telecare technologies involve the remote monitoring of patients who have health, rehabilitation or social needs. These technologies, although deployed unevenly in developed countries, represent a shift in the ways in which care is practiced. Research on the consequences of this shift away from more traditional "hands-on" care has focused primarily on quantitative measurement (for example cost savings with less attention paid to how recipients themselves experience these new care practices. This paper discusses two aspects of telecare technologies which are under researched; the potential for loneliness which may arise as a result of the use of these technologies, and the ethical issues raised by this. The primary locus of the discussion is the UK, where a major public policy shift towards telecare is under way and where telecare research based on randomized control trials has been particularly well funded by the government. The discussion concludes that there is indeed the potential for loneliness, a condition increasingly recognized as a significant factor in reducing overall health and well-being, in the use of these technologies. The ethical implications of this are not being sufficiently considered, in part because the ethical frameworks in use do not adequately address the issue of loneliness itself, given their bio-medical, rather than relational focus. The paper suggests two ways of redressing this. First, the addition of approaches to ethics other than bio-medical – particularly those with a relational and contextual focus – or greater exploration of how the two approaches might interact. Second, it suggests that a paradigm shift towards solutions other than technology-based care is overdue. This shift would not underplay the importance of technological contributions to care needs. It would, however, be an argument to suggest we proceed with some caution, advance the research evidence on the complexity of users' experiences of these technologies, and explore potentially simpler – and ethically more relational – approaches to care, such as shared or intergenerational living. Keywords: telecare, isolation, loneliness, ethics, public policy

  18. Ethical Issues in Fetal Management: A Cardiac Perspective

    Atul Malhotra; Samuel Menahem; Lynn Gillam

    2010-01-01

    The ethical issues behind the management of a fetus with a serious abnormality and the decisions made in relation to the outcome of the pregnancy are complex. This reflective paper deals with the ethical principles of managing a pregnancy with a congenital anomaly, with particular emphasis on the fetus with a serious cardiac abnormality. One major ethical concern is whether the fetus is or is not independent being to whom obligations of beneficence are owed. We review the debate on this matte...

  19. Ethical issues in a pediatric private practice.

    Jakubowitz, Melissa

    2011-11-01

    Building a successful pediatric private practice requires clinical expertise and an understanding of the business process, as well as familiarity with the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Code of Ethics. This article provides an overview of the ethical issues that may be encountered when building a practice, including a look at marketing and advertising, financial management, privacy, and documentation. Ethically sound decision making is a key to a successful business. PMID:22144085

  20. Ethical issues and societal expectations

    Daniel Metlay (NWTRB) declared that institutions had always recognised an ethical obligation to manage high- level radioactive waste in unprecedented ways. This obligation has not only endured, but has become more explicit and multidimensional and it now subsumed under a more general rubric of 'societal expectations'. D. Metlay directed attention toward the proceedings of previous RWMC-RF workshop ', which contains five essays, authored by Kjell Andersson, Andrew Blowers, Carl-Reinhold Braakenhielm, Francois Dermange, and Patricia Fleming, that are relevant to the question of ethical issues and societal expectations. D. Metlay observed that 'societal expectations' are hard to define and thus very hard to measure. They may vary considerably with time and from country to country. As an illustration he referred to an inquiry performed by a task group 30 years ago in a document entitled 'Proposed Goals for Radioactive Waste Management' (NUREG-0300) on behalf of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Conclusions from D. Metlay are that, for the most part, societal expectations in the United States appear to be quite stable over a period of more than 30 years. In two areas, however, there are clear differences in emphasis between expectations articulated in the last few years and those recorded in 1978. (1) While then there was emphasis on the operational reliability of organisations and institutions. In particular, much care was taken to discuss the inherent limitations on bureaucratic error-correction in the future. The focus is nowadays more on bureaucratic behaviours associated with carrying out decision-making processes in the present. (2) While there is current emphasis on the importance of trust, transparency, and accountability, the NRC document may cast some doubt on the reliability of a stepwise decision-making process. In the domain of radioactive waste management, error signals are notoriously unclear, and strong disagreements over objectives and value trade-offs often arise. Also, the key prerequisite for reliable error detection - independence - is often at odds with the key prerequisite for reliable error rectification-interdependence. He concluded that it is unclear just how far we have come in the last 30 years in meeting societal expectations for post-closure and post-monitoring repository performance

  1. Science and ethics: Some issues for education

    Andrew, Jennifer; Robottom, Ian

    2001-11-01

    Ethical issues concerning pain and suffering of animals are necessarily a consideration when it comes to killing pest or feral species in Australia. Within a continent where there are no large predators, many introduced animal species such as rabbits, foxes, horses, donkeys, camels, goats, and mice have been able to thrive, competing with the interests of farmers and graziers, and livestock and food production. These species, thus, gain the label of pest. Many methods now exist to kill these species and, consequently, ethical issues arise concerning the possible pain and suffering caused as a direct result of these methods. Yet within government and scientific communities, ethical issues are reduced to a secondary consideration without serious debate or contention. Ethical issues appear to be at odds with scientific agendas. How can environmental ethics be incorporated as part of science-based decision making that appeals to objectivity and scientific evidence? Within educational institutions as well, the same dilemma exists: How can ethical issues be addressed within the science curriculum and in the classroom? A greater understanding of various perspectives on the subject of environmental ethics and the value positions advocated by proponents of these perspectives may help teachers consider ways of handling such issues in the science classroom.

  2. [Ethical issue in animal experimentation].

    Parodi, André-Laurent

    2009-11-01

    In the 1970s, under pressure from certain sections of society and thanks to initiatives by several scientific research teams, committees charged with improving the conditions of laboratory animals started to be created, first in the United States and subsequently in Europe. This led to the development of an ethical approach to animal experimentation, taking into account new scientific advances. In addition to the legislation designed to provide a legal framework for animal experimentation and to avoid abuses, this ethical approach, based on the concept that animals are sentient beings, encourages greater respect of laboratory animals and the implementation of measures designed to reduce their suffering. Now, all animal experiments must first receive ethical approval--from in-house committees in the private sector and from regional committees for public institutions. Very recently, under the impetus of the French ministries of research and agriculture, the National committee for ethical animal experimentation published a national ethical charter on animal experimentation, setting the basis for responsible use of animals for scientific research and providing guidelines for the composition and functioning of ethics committees. Inspired by the scientific community itself this ethical standardization should help to assuage--but not eliminate--the reticence and hostility expressed by several sections of society. PMID:20669538

  3. Ethical Issues in Parent Training Programs.

    Sapon-Shevin, Mara

    1982-01-01

    Four areas of ethical concern are voiced in the training of parents of handicapped children: (1) selection of program goals, (2) problems involved with both positive reinforcement and punishment, (3) conflicts between experimentation and therapeutic intervention, and (4) level of parent training. Consideration of ethical issues at each step of

  4. Ethical Issues in Accounting: A Teaching Guide

    Doolan, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Theodore Roosevelt said, "To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society." With this quote in mind, this paper describes three ethical issues in the discipline area of accounting. The format of the paper is to first provide background information on the ethical question or scenario then to provide a…

  5. Ethical issues that confront nurses in private hospitals in the Western Cape Metropolitan area

    Stellenberg, Ethelwynn L.; Alta J. Dorse

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nurses are faced daily with a variety of ethical issues which could be as a result of budget cuts, target setting, the shortage of nurses and expertise. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to identify ethical issues related to patient care, to describe ethical issues related to patient diversity, rights and human dignity. To describe ethical issues related to caring in nursing and to the workplace environment. Method: A quantitative explorative descriptive researc...

  6. Ethical issues in gestational surrogacy.

    Ber, R

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of contraceptive technologies has resulted in the separation of sex and procreation. The introduction of new reproductive technologies (mainly IVF and embryo transfer) has led not only to the separation of procreation and sex, but also to the redefinition of the terms mother and family. For the purpose of this essay, I will distinguish between: 1. the genetic mother--the donor of the egg; 2. the gestational mother--she who bears and gives birth to the baby; 3. the social mother--the woman who raises the child. This essay will deal only with the form of gestational surrogacy in which the genetic parents intend to be the social parents, and the surrogate mother has no genetic relationship to the child she bears and delivers. I will raise questions regarding medical ethical aspects of surrogacy and the obligation(s) of the physician(s) to the parties involved. I will argue that the gestational surrogate is "a womb to rent," that there is great similarity between gestational commercial surrogacy and organ transplant marketing. Furthermore, despite claims to freedom of choice and free marketing, I will claim that gestational surrogacy is a form of prostitution and slavery, exploitation of the poor and needy by those who are better off. The right to be a parent, although not constitutional, is intuitive and deeply rooted. However, the issue remains whether this right overrules all other rights, and at what price to the parties involved. I will finally raise the following provocative question to society: In the interim period between today's limited technology and tomorrow's extra-corporeal gestation technology (ectogenesis), should utilizing females in PVS (persistent vehetative state) for gestational surrogacy be socially acceptable/permissible--provided they have left permission in writing? PMID:10967951

  7. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues

    The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of valuing the environment and implications for the definition of harm and monetary valuation of environmental goods; second, difficulties with scientific uncertainty and applications of the precautionary principle; and third, issues concerned with the distribution of risk and its relevance fo participation in decision-making. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors

  8. Ethical Issues in Pediatric Global Health.

    Adams, Lisa; Suresh, Gautham K; Lahey, Tim

    2016-02-01

    Children are vulnerable to the priorities and decision-making of adults. Usually, parents/caregivers make the difficult healthcare decisions for their children based on the recommendations from the child's healthcare providers. In global health work, healthcare team members from different countries and cultures may guide healthcare decisions by parents and children, and as a result ethical assumptions may not be shared. As a result, ethical issues in pediatric global health are numerous and complex. Here we discuss critical ethical issues in global health at an individual and organizational level in hopes this supports optimized decision-making on behalf of children worldwide. PMID:26613697

  9. Ethical Issues in Network System Design

    Duncan Langford

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, most desktop computers and PCs are networked that is, they have the ability to link to other machines, usually to access data and other information held remotely. Such machines may sometimes be connected directly to each other, as part of an office or company computer system. More frequently, however, connected machines are at a considerable distance from each other, typically connected through links to global systems such as the Internet, or World Wide Web (WWW. The networked machine itself may be anything from a powerful company computer with direct Internet connections, to a small hobbyist machine, accessing a bulletin board through telephone and modem. It is important to remember that, whatever the type or the location of networked machines, their access to the network, and the network itself, was planned and constructed following deliberate design considerations. In this paper I discuss some ways in which the technical design of computer systems might appropriately be influenced by ethical issues, and examine pressures on computer scientists and others to technically control network related actions perceived as 'unethical'. After examination of the current situation, I draw together the issues, and conclude by suggesting some ethically based recommendations for the future design of networked systems.

  10. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues

    The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to practical environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of who or what has moral standing; second the appropriate level of protection; and third compatibility with other environmental stressors. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds for efforts to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors. (author)

  11. Ethical and legal issues in suicide research.

    Mishara, Brian L; Weisstub, David N

    2005-01-01

    Moralist, libertarian and relativist ethical positions concerning suicide and its prevention are presented in order to clarify premises upon which ethical issues in suicide research may be resolved. Ethical concerns are differentiated from legal considerations and the implications of the vulnerability of suicidology research participants are discussed. Specific issues that arise in design, choice of participants, interpretation, diffusion of results and evaluative research are treated. These include: experimental methodologies, obtaining informed consent, deception and disclosure, studying innovative and unproven interventions, unknown consequences of participation, rescue criteria, disclosure of information to third parties, research with special populations, risks in publicizing results and measuring the value of human life. When specific legal obligations are lacking, ethical premises concerning the acceptability of suicide and obligations to intervene may influence research protocols. PMID:15710447

  12. Issues and Guidance in Research Ethics

    Ronald D. Francis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the principles that govern the outlook and decisions of research ethics committees. The purpose of the paper is to outline such underlying principles in order to aid understanding for researchers into aspects of social and commercial behaviour. Prior to conducting research in any corporate area there is an obligation toward any human participants. That obligation is set out most clearly in the information and forms put out by the various ethics committees charged with examining the proposal, and with giving formal ethical approval. The principles that invest the understanding of ethics committees are those of protecting the vulnerable, and of protecting justifiably good reputations. Ethics committees should be seen as enabling and protecting rather than as a barrier to research. Peer reviews should be seen to include ethics matters in research, and are thus a natural extension of the common scientific endeavour. To this end the article outlines and discusses the issues commonly addressed by research ethics committees. By highlighting these principles, this paper aims to give insights and suggestions that should make the ethics application task easier.

  13. Ethical issues in ecological restoration

    John Cairns Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The acid test of humankind's relationship to natural systems is the degree to which ecological damage caused by humans is repaired by humans. Technology and science are available, so the remaining stimulus needed for implementation of ecological restoration is the ethical responsibility to do so. Ecological restoration can be regarded as enlightened self-interest for humankind since it increases both natural capital and ecosystem services. However, well-designed ecological restoration proecjt...

  14. Ethical Issues of Reproductive Technologies: Legal and Ethical.

    Kammler, Kim

    Ethical issues which surround the reproductive technologies being used to assist infertile couples include social impact, surrogacy, access to service and confidentiality. The use of reproductive technologies does not appear to cause harm, and often does a lot of good for the family and society. Surrogacy could be a valuable tool for the infertile

  15. Ethical Issues of Reproductive Technologies: Legal and Ethical.

    Kammler, Kim

    Ethical issues which surround the reproductive technologies being used to assist infertile couples include social impact, surrogacy, access to service and confidentiality. The use of reproductive technologies does not appear to cause harm, and often does a lot of good for the family and society. Surrogacy could be a valuable tool for the infertile…

  16. Doping in Sport: Global Ethical Issues

    Angela J. Schneider; Fan Hong

    2007-01-01

    DESCRIPTION In this book the question of "How ethical is using performance improving drugs in sport?" is argued in global perspective. PURPOSE The ethical questions in sport are discussed comprehensively. Particularly, different cultures and approach of various countries to that issue were examined. FEATURES The book composed of 10 chapters following a thorough introduction from the editors in 194 pages. The titles are: 1.Fair is Fair, Or Is It? : A Moral Consideration of the Doping Wars in A...

  17. Nontechnical issues in waste management: ethical, institutional, and political concerns

    Hebert, J.A.; Rankin, W.L.; Brown, P.G.; Schuller, C.R; Smith, R.F.; Goodnight, J.A.; Lippek, H.E.

    1978-05-01

    The report consists of a presentation and distillation of major nontechnical issues surrounding commercial waste management, followed by ethical, institutional, and political analyses of these issues. The ethical analysis consists of a discusson of what is meant by ''ethics'' and ''morality'' in the waste management context and an illustrative attempt at an ethical analysis of the commercial nuclear waste problem. Two institutional analyses are presented: one is an analysis of the possible problems of long-term human institutions in waste management; the other is a presentation of institutional arrangements for the short term. A final chapter discusses issues and concerns involving intergovernmental relations--that is, local, state, and federal interface problems in waste management.

  18. Nontechnical issues in waste management: ethical, institutional, and political concerns

    The report consists of a presentation and distillation of major nontechnical issues surrounding commercial waste management, followed by ethical, institutional, and political analyses of these issues. The ethical analysis consists of a discusson of what is meant by ''ethics'' and ''morality'' in the waste management context and an illustrative attempt at an ethical analysis of the commercial nuclear waste problem. Two institutional analyses are presented: one is an analysis of the possible problems of long-term human institutions in waste management; the other is a presentation of institutional arrangements for the short term. A final chapter discusses issues and concerns involving intergovernmental relations--that is, local, state, and federal interface problems in waste management

  19. Ethical Issues in Health Services: A Report and Annotated Bibliography.

    Carmody, James

    This publication identifies, discusses, and lists areas for further research for five ethical issues related to health services: 1) the right to health care; 2) death and euthanasia; 3) human experimentation; 4) genetic engineering; and, 5) abortion. Following a discussion of each issue is a selected annotated bibliography covering the years 1967…

  20. Ethical issues and attitude in the Turkish banking sector

    Ayfer HORTACSU; Ozkan Gunay, E. Nur

    2004-01-01

    This study concentrates on the ethical issues and conditions prevailing in the Turkish banking environment. A selfadministered mail survey was conducted with 554 top bank managers in Turkey. Scenarios that were developed after a pilot study were factor analyzed. The objective of the study was to identify ethics related organizational, cognitive and affective dimensions that are likely to affect perceptions of bank managers in interpreting the eight factors and the remaining four scenarios. Th...

  1. Ethical issues in the treatment of cancer patients.

    Roy, D J

    1989-01-01

    Nineteen speakers at the International Conference on Supportive Care--More than Medicine, which was cosponsored by WHO and held in Chteau Montebello, Quebec, Canada, 18-21 July 1988, presented short introductory lectures and led the Ethics Working Group's discussions on the following ethical issues relating to cancer research and the treatment of cancer patients: telling the truth; allowing to die and practice of euthanasia; clinical research; and limited resources leading to hard choices. T...

  2. What Counts as a 'Social and Ethical Issue' in Nanotechnology?

    Bruce V. Lewenstein

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available As 'social and ethical issues' becomes a recurring phrase in the community paying attention to nanotechnology research, a crucial question becomes: what counts as a social and ethical issue? A typical list includes privacy, environmental health and safety, media hype, and other apparently unrelated issues. This article surveys those issues and suggests that concerns about fundamental concepts of ethics, such as fairness, justice, equity, and especially power, unite the various issues identified as 'social and ethical issues' in nanotechnology.

  3. Teaching Ethical Reflexivity in Information Systems: How to Equip Students to Deal with Moral and Ethical Issues of Emerging Information and Communication Technologies

    Stahl, Bernd Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Teaching ethics to students of information systems (IS) raises a number of conceptual and content-related issues. The present paper starts out by developing a conceptual framework of moral and ethical issues that distinguishes between moral intuition, explicit morality, ethical theory and meta-ethical reflection. This conceptual framework

  4. The Public Relations Law and Ethics Course.

    Leeper, Roy V.

    The Report of the 1999 Commission on Public Relations Education recommends that undergraduates study the legal and ethical issues involved in the practice of public relations. When the educator/author first began teaching a Communication Law course at Northwest Missouri State, it was offered through the Mass Communication Department, was required…

  5. Ethical issues in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    Sterodimas, Aris; Radwanski, Henrique N; Pitanguy, Ivo

    2011-04-01

    Plastic, reconstructive, and cosmetic surgery refers to a variety of operations performed in order to repair or restore body parts to look normal or to enhance a certain structure or anatomy that is already normal. Several ethical considerations such as a patient's right for autonomy, informed consent, beneficence, and nonmalfeasance need to be given careful consideration. The principal objective of the medical profession is to render services to humanity with full respect for human dignity. Plastic surgeons should merit the confidence of patients entrusted to their care, rendering to each a full measure of service and devotion. They require an extensive amount of education and training. The increases in demand for aesthetic plastic surgery and the advocacy of practice in the media have raised concerns about the circumstances under which cosmetic surgery is ethical and permissible. Innovative research, and new technologies derived from such research, almost always raises ethical and policy concerns. Medical ethics regulate what is, and what is not, correct in promoting plastic surgery to the public. It is essential to create an educated and informed public about the ethical issues in the plastic and reconstructive surgery field. Plastic surgeons need to carefully evaluate the degree of deformity, physical and emotional maturity, and desired outcome of patients who request plastic surgery procedures. Science is a powerful force for change in modern society and plastic surgeons have a responsibility to shepherd that change with thoughtful advocacy and careful ethical scrutiny of their own behavior. PMID:21336881

  6. Legal and ethical issues regarding social media and pharmacy education.

    Cain, Jeff; Fink, Joseph L

    2010-12-15

    Widespread use of social media applications like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter has introduced new complexities to the legal and ethical environment of higher education. Social communications have traditionally been considered private; however, now that much of this information is published online to the public, more insight is available to students' attitudes, opinions, and character. Pharmacy educators and administrators may struggle with the myriad of ethical and legal issues pertaining to social media communications and relationships with and among students. This article seeks to clarify some of these issues with a review of the legal facets and pertinent court cases related to social media. In addition, 5 core ethical issues are identified and discussed. The article concludes with recommendations for pharmacy educators with regard to preparing for and addressing potential legal issues pertaining to social media. PMID:21436925

  7. Ethical issues related to professional exposure of pregnant women in the medical field: monitoring and limiting effective dose.

    Santos, J A M; Nunes, R

    2011-03-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations for occupational exposed pregnant women do not imply necessarily the complete avoidance of work with radiation or radioactive materials. Instead, a careful review of the exposure conditions, once the pregnancy is declared, as part of the exercise of the ICRP optimisation principle (based in a teleological ethics point of view) is suggested. The dose limitation (following a deontological ethics point of view) of the fetus/embryo is, however, not clearly well established as happens in the case of workers or members of the public. Also, the justification of practices (to continue to work or not with radiation or radioactive materials) is not clearly addressed in most national or international recommendations. An analysis of this justification (bearing in mind both teleological and deontological ethics) is examined in this work having in mind the best interest of the child-to-be as well as other existing social and economical factors. PMID:21068015

  8. Ethical issues related to professional exposure of pregnant women in the medical field: Monitoring and limiting effective dose

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations for occupational exposed pregnant women do not imply necessarily the complete avoidance of work with radiation or radioactive materials. Instead, a careful review of the exposure conditions, once the pregnancy is declared, as part of the exercise of the ICRP optimisation principle (based in a teleological ethics point of view) is suggested. The dose limitation (following a deontological ethics point of view) of the fetus/embryo is, however, not clearly well established as happens in the case of workers or members of the public. Also, the justification of practices (to continue to work or not with radiation or radioactive materials) is not clearly addressed in most national or international recommendations. An analysis of this justification (bearing in mind both teleological and deontological ethics) is examined in this work having in mind the best interest of the child-to-be as well as other existing social and economical factors. (authors)

  9. Ethical issues concerning New Zealand sports doctors

    Anderson, L; Gerrard, D

    2005-01-01

    Success in sport can provide a source of national pride for a society, and vast financial and personal rewards for an individual athlete. It is therefore not surprising that many athletes will go to great lengths in pursuit of success. The provision of healthcare for elite sports people has the potential to create many ethical issues for sports doctors; however there has been little discussion of them to date. This study highlights these issues. Respondents to a questionnaire identified many ...

  10. The perceptions of danish physiotherapists on the ethical issues related to the physiotherapist-patient relationship during the first session: a phenomenological approach

    Praestegaard Jeanette

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the course of the last four decades, the profession of physiotherapy has progressively expanded its scope of responsibility and its focus on professional autonomy and evidence-based clinical practice. To preserve professional autonomy, it is crucial for the physiotherapy profession to meet society's expectations and demands of professional competence as well as ethical competence. Since it is becoming increasingly popular to choose a carrier in private practice in Denmark this context constitutes the frame of this study. Physiotherapy in private practice involves mainly a meeting between two partners: the physiotherapist and the patient. In the meeting, power asymmetry between the two partners is a condition that the physiotherapist has to handle. The aim of this study was to explore whether ethical issues rise during the first physiotherapy session discussed from the perspective of the physiotherapists in private practice. Methods A qualitative approach was chosen and semi-structured interviews with 21 physiotherapists were carried out twice and analysed by using a phenomenological framework. Results Four descriptive themes emerged: general reflections on ethics in physiotherapy; the importance of the first physiotherapy session; the influence of the clinical environment on the first session and; reflections and actions upon beneficence towards the patient within the first session. The results show that the first session and the clinical context in private practice are essential from an ethical perspective. Conclusions Ethical issues do occur within the first session, the consciousness about ethical issues differs in Danish physiotherapy private practice, and reflections and acts are to a lesser extent based on awareness of ethical theories, principles and ethical guidelines. Beneficence towards the patient is a fundamental aspect of the physiotherapists' understanding of the first session. However, if the physiotherapist lacks a deeper ethical awareness, the physiotherapist may reason and/or act ethically to a varying extent: only an ethically conscious physiotherapist will know when he or she reflects and acts ethically. Further exploration of ethical issues in private practice is recommendable, and as management policy is deeply embedded within the Danish public sector there are reasons to explore public contexts of physiotherapy as well.

  11. Surrogacy: ethical and legal issues.

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-10-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for" another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents. PMID:23293432

  12. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy “for” another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents. PMID:23293432

  13. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Pikee Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for"another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  14. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Pikee Saxena; Archana Mishra; Sonia Malik

    2012-01-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy “for” another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  15. Ethics in Relation to Islamic Finance Activities

    Ismail, Abdul Ghafar; Zali, Nor Azmidah

    2015-01-01

    Ethics has been fundamental in organizations and in specific, Islamic financial institutions have selected ethics as their core competencies. Islam accepts ethics as a good value in enhancing company performance since ethics is grounded by Shariah rules. The ethical issues have been raised steadily in business and they do not seem to settle as a lot of companies have not been aware of its importance. There are a lot of theories of ethics that have been introduced but the number of unethical b...

  16. Activity of Ethics Committees in Europe on issues related to clinical trials in paediatrics: Results of a survey

    Altavilla, A.; Giaquinto, C.; Giocanti, D.; Manfredi, C.; Aboulker, J.-P.; Bartoloni, F.; Cattani, E.; Giudice, M. L.; Mellado Peňa, M.J.; Nagler, R.; Peterson, C.; Vajnerová, Olga; Bonifazi, F.; Ceci, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, 1-2 (2009), s. 79-87. ISSN 1389-2827 Grant ostatní: EC(XE) LSHBCT-2005-005126 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : ethic committees * clinical trials * pediatrics Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines

  17. Exhibition Ethics - An Overview of Major Issues

    Andromache Gazi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Museum ethics are about value judgements. In making such judgements museum personnel is constantly valuing one option over another. This holds true for every aspect of museum work; from collecting policies and conservation to store priorities and exhibition. In recent decades there has been a growing concern in addressing ethical issues in museums as museum workers have developed cultural sensitivity and social responsiveness to a degree unseen before. Most codes of ethics urge museums to give appropriate consideration to represented groups or beliefs. In light of this, it has been recognised that exhibition of sensitive material, for example, must be done with great tact and respect for the feelings of religious, ethnic or other groups represented. Another issue concerns the display of unprovenanced material and repatriation.Yet, these are not the only ethical issues which exhibition developers are faced with. As museum workers we should constantly be reminded that exhibitions are active agents in the construction of knowledge. This paper discusses the hidden assumptions on which museum presentation and interpretation are often based. Decisions about what to include and what to exclude, what is valued and what is not, the means of presentation, language, and so on, all lead to presentational styles which may shape the public’s perception in unintended ways.

  18. Ethical issues in forecasting of natural hazards

    Tinti, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Natural hazards have by definition a large impact on the society and, therefore, since the beginning of science one of the major aspiration of mankind has been the prediction of natural calamities in the attempt to avoid or to mitigate their effects. In modern societies where science and technology have gained a foundational role, forecasts and predictions have become part of the every-day life and may also influence state policies and economic development. And in parallel with the growing importance of forecasting, even ethical problems for forecasters and for forecasters communities have started to appear. In this work two of the many geo-ethical issues are considered mostly: 1) how to cope with uncertainties that are inherently associated with any forecast statement; 2) how to handle predictions in scientific journals and scientific conferences The former issue is mainly related to the impact of predictions on the general public and on managers and operators in the civil protection field. Forecasters operate in specific contexts that 1) may change from country to country, depending on the local adopted best practices, but also, which is more constraining, on the local legal regulations and laws; 2) may change from discipline to discipline according to the development of the specific knowhow and the range of the forecast (from minutes to centuries) The second issue has to do with the communication of the scientific results on predictions and on prediction methods to the audience mainly composed of scientists, and involves one of the basic elements of science. In principle, scientists should use scientific communication means (papers in scientific journals, conferences, …) to illustrate results that are sound and certain, or the methods by means of which they conduct their research. But scientists involved in predictions have inherently to do with uncertainties, and, since there is no common agreement on how to deal with them, there is the risk that scientific results may be confused with opinions and opinions with scientific results, which creates confusion in the scientific community, in the science divulgators and in turn in the general public.

  19. Radiation protection: Some philosophical and ethical issues

    The ethical issue of justification has become an urgent issue in radiology. There has been a shift in emphasis in the discussion from what has been regarded as a rather paternalistic attitude of practitioners to one that stresses the rights of the individual patient. This article comments on this current move on the part of the profession by offering certain relevant philosophical considerations. Using a medical scenario as the context to comment on this shift, it discusses important and fundamental issues, such as the autonomy and the rights of the patient in addition to the question of consent on the patient's part.

  20. The Ethical Issues of Privacy, Confidentiality and Privileged Communication.

    Nunnelly, Diane T.

    School psychologists and other educators should be concerned about the issues of confidentiality, privacy and privileged communication in regard to school records such as psychological reports and intelligence test scores. Confidentiality relates to matters of professional ethics, privileged communication refers to legal rights, and privacy is a

  1. Social and Ethical Issues in Remediation

    The contamination of environments with radionuclides can give rise to consequences additional to the health risks from exposure to radiation. As experience from Chernobyl has demonstrated, both accident and remediation measures can have serious social, ethical and economic consequences. This paper presents a review of some of these issues and presents a checklist of the socioethical aspects of remediation measures. The paper also discusses remediation measures that are directed towards benefits other than dose reduction. (author)

  2. Lifestyle market segmentation - efficiency and ethical issues

    Pilstl, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    Lifestyle market segmentation can be very supportive for a successful marketing strategy of a company. However it is not clear whether lifestyle market segmentation is efficient and ethical or not. Several market segmentation concepts such as Cross-Cultural Consumer Characterization, VALS, PRIZM NE, Mosaic, ConneXions NE and GfK Roper Consumer Styles are analyzed in order to give an extensive overview of the offered concepts. The observation of efficiency issues in regards to market segmentat...

  3. Re-Examining Ethical Issue: Philosophical Considerations

    The paper reflects on the current trend among radiologists to move away from what is regarded as a paternalistic attitude existing among practitioners and to place more emphasis on the rights of individual patients with regard to the issue of justification. The ethical discussion addresses the autonomy and rights of the patient, as well as the question of consent on his or her part. (author)

  4. INTERNET OF THINGS – SOME ETHICAL ISSUES

    Daniela POPESCUL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to treat aspects that are related to the sensitivity of data, information and knowledge transmitted through Internet of Things, helping all people interested in these new ICT technologies to become aware of some ethical issues. In this new media, which is no more in its infancy, the vulnerabilities and attacks are various, caused by technological advances and proliferated through lack of users’ awareness. This warning message is needed because of data, information and knowledge transfer from virtual to physical devices that are connected to wireless networks of different sizes and importance. The transfer is augmented by the extended use of new technologies as RFID, NFC, sensors, 3G and 4G and brings along the adjustment of the traditional information security threats to this new environment, as well as the emergence of new characteristic dangers. The problems treated here are of interest both for each of us, as individuals, and for the organizations managers – especially in a world in which the borderline between the physical and virtual life is becoming more and more difficult to draw.

  5. Ethical issues in medico-legal exposures

    The Medical Exposure Directive (MED) 97/43/Euratom defines medico-legal procedures as 'procedures performed for insurance or legal purposes without a medical indication'. The term 'medico-legal exposures' covers a wide range of possible types of exposures, very different in nature, for which the only feature in common is the fact that the main reason for performing them does not relate directly to the health of the individual being exposed to ionising radiation. The key issue in medico-legal exposures is justification. Balancing the advantages and disadvantages of such exposures is complex because not only can these be difficult to quantify and hence compare, but often the advantage may be to society whereas the disadvantage is usually to an individual. This adds an additional layer of ethical complexity to the problem and one, which requires input from a number of sources beyond the established radiation protection community. Because medico-legal exposures are considered to be medical exposures, they are not subject to dose limits. In medico-legal exposures where the benefit is not necessarily to the individual undergoing the exposure, the question must be asked as to whether or not this is an appropriate framework within which to conduct such exposures. This paper looks at the current situation in Europe, highlighting some of the particular problems that have arisen, and tries to identify the areas, which require further clarification and guidance. (authors)

  6. Sexual Harassment as an Ethical Issue in Academic Life. Issues in Academic Ethics.

    Francis, Leslie Pickering

    This book provides a full examination of sexual harassment as an ethical issue in education. It considers issues raised by the definition, understanding, and regulation of campus sexual harassment and addresses the arguments that regulation may conflict with academic freedom and choice in relationships. Part 1 contains these chapters: (1) "Sexual…

  7. Teaching Ethics across the Public Relations Curriculum.

    Hutchison, Liese L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests ways of incorporating ethics across the undergraduate public relations curriculum. Reviews current coverage of ethics in public relations principles, writing, cases, and textbooks. Suggests other methods that teachers can use to incorporate ethical pedagogical tools in all public relations courses in an effort to develop students' ethical

  8. [NURSING ETHICS ISSUES IN PALLIATIVE CARE].

    González-Serna, José María; de Llanos Peña, Francisco

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the essential anthropological categories of terminal illness and the main attitudes of nurses for their care and the ethical criteria for indication and application of palliative therapies. We conclude that ethical attitudes of care in palliative care nursing are based in anthropological categories of dying process; the access granted to nurse by the patient and family within their privacy generates a relational context where communication can be made more effective and thus facilitate the coping existential, spiritual and psychosocial in illness and the process of diagnostic and prognostic information. The qualitative and quantitative clinical information provided by the nursing professional to multidisciplinary team on the evaluation of the effectiveness of care outcomes and therapies in the context of terminal illness assistance allows establishing a plan of treatment appropriate ethically. PMID:26117997

  9. A STUDY OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN BANKING INDUSTRY

    Vijay Joshi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance of a country is largely determined by banking and financial system. Banking and finance play a vital and crucial role in framing public policies in today’s business environment. This article highlights social and ethical issues such as social banking, ethical banking, green banking, global banking, rural banking, and agri-banking, which help in achieving sustainable development of banking and finance. For this purpose, we have gone through a series of development that are taking place in current business scenario. This paper is divided in four parts. First part discuss introduction of Banking Industry in India. Second part explains historical background of banking and its development. It also discusses concept of Banks. Third part analyzes the review of past studies on the theme. Fourth part highlights Social and Ethical issues related to Banking Industry and finally conclusion has been given.

  10. The effect of home and host country cultures on marketing managers` individual decision making related to ethical issues in MNCs :Inter- and intra-cultural study

    Kliukinskaitė-Vigil, Virginija

    2012-01-01

    The topic of business ethics has always been relevant, but never more so than at the present time of the global economic crisis. Nestlè, Lockheed, Union Carbide, Nike, Enron, Tyco, AIG, BP, Halliburton, Lehman Brothers, Bernard L. Madoff are just a few well-known names of businesses/related individuals that at one time or other openly failed ethically. Such cases have prompted researchers to analyze the causes of unethical behavior to understand what drives individuals in business organizatio...

  11. The effect of home and host country cultures on marketing managers` individual decision making related to ethical issues in MNCs : Inter- and intra-cultural study

    Kliukinskaitė-Vigil, Virginija

    2012-01-01

    The topic of business ethics has always been relevant, but never more so than at the present time of the global economic crisis. Nestlè, Lockheed, Union Carbide, Nike, Enron, Tyco, AIG, BP, Halliburton, Lehman Brothers, Bernard L. Madoff are just a few well-known names of businesses/related individuals that at one time or other openly failed ethically. Such cases have prompted researchers to analyze the causes of unethical behavior to understand what drives individuals in business organizatio...

  12. Environmental issues in Finnish school textbooks on religious education and ethics

    Essi Aarnio-Linnanvuori

    2013-01-01

    Solving global environmental problems requires a major change of values. As relates to environmental education, worldview, ethics and spiritual issues are important elements. But how are environmental issues included in such school subjects that especially discuss values and ethics? In this article I examine 24 Finnish religious education and ethics textbooks to analyze, to what extent environmental issues are integrated and discussed in them. I conclude that there is confusion about what env...

  13. A Draft Ethics Curriculum Based on Ethical Issues Experienced by Family Doctors in Dzce

    Akp?nar A et al.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine ethical issues experienced by family doctors in Dzce, the pilot province for implementation of the primary health care reform 'Transformation in Health' in Turkey in 2005.Method: We conducted this study between May and June 2007 in Dzce. A self-administered-questionnaire prepared by the researchers included 13 ethical issues inquiring about physicians' frequency of encounter, difficulty in managing the problem, and learning needs in ethical topics. Results: Fifty-seven percent of family doctors who were practicing in Dzce (56/98 took part in the study. Most of them (89.3% were in practice over a year, had more than 3000 registered patients (80.4% with homogenous distribution (67.9%. Physicians reported to encounter ethical dilemmas related to informed consent (72.7%, conflict of self-interest and altruism (44.6%, determining competency (41.8%, claims of alternative therapy (41.0%, relationship with representatives of drug companies (39.2%, truth-telling (28.6%, and resource allocation (27.3% at least once a month. Participants were experienced difficulties when solving dilemmas related to determining competency in patients, reporting incompetency of a colleague, informed consent, best interest of the child, truth-telling, conflict of self-interest and altruism, respectively. Best interest of the child, truth-telling, determining competency in patients, protecting others' interest and gaining informed consent were prioritized topics for education. Conclusion: Our results implied that family doctors experienced difficulties in ethical conduct during daily clinical practice. The most frequently mentioned ethical issues were evaluated with respect to expressed learning needs which served to develop a draft ethics curriculum.

  14. Ethical issues in organ and tissue transplantation.

    Abouna, George M

    2003-12-01

    Clinical organ transplantation provides a way of giving the gift of life to patients with terminal failure of vital organs, which requires the participation of other fellow human beings and of society by donating organs from deceased or living individuals. The increasing incidence of vital organ failure and the inadequate supply of organs, especially from cadavers, has created a wide gap between organ supply and organ demand, which has resulted in very long waiting times to receive an organ as well as an increasing number of deaths while waiting. These events have raised many ethical, moral and societal issues regarding supply, the methods of organ allocation the use of living donors as volunteers including minors. It has also led to the practice of organ sale by entrepreneurs for financial gains in some parts the world through exploitation of the poor, for the benefit of the wealthy. The current advances in immunology and tissue engineering and the use of animal organs, xenotransplantation, while offering very promising solutions to many of these problems, also raise additional ethical and medical issues, which must be considered by the medical profession as well as society. This review deals with the ethical and moral issues generated by the current advances in organ transplantation, the problem of organ supply versus organ demand and the appropriate allocation of available organs. It deals with the risks and benefits of organ donation from living donors, the appropriate and acceptable methods to increase organ donation from the deceased through the adoption of the principle of 'presumed consent', the right methods of providing acceptable appreciation and compensation for the family of the deceased as well as volunteer and altruistic donors, and the duties and responsibilities of the medical profession and society to help fellow humans. The review also deals with the appropriate and ethically acceptable ways of utilizing the recent advances of stem cell transplantation from adult versus fetal donors, tissue engineering and the use of organs from animals or xenotransplantation. It is emphasized that clinical organ and tissue transplantation can be more beneficial and life saving if everyone involved in the process, including physicians and medical institutions, respect and consider the best interests of the patients, as well as honor the ethical, moral and religious values of society. PMID:15859919

  15. Ethics problems and theories in public relations

    Grunig, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Public relations professionals encounter ethical problems as individuals who make decisions about their professional lives. They also serve as ethical counselors to organizations, a role in which they help organizations behave in ethical, responsible, and sustainable ways. This introduction defines ethics and social responsibility and discusses the possibilities and obstacles that public relations professionals face in the role of ethical counselor. Seven research problems in public relations...

  16. [Ethics and reproductive health: the issue of HPV vaccination].

    Mateji?, Bojana; Kesi?, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the vaccination status. PMID:23539924

  17. Ethics and reproductive health: The issue of HPV vaccination

    Mateji? Bojana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years, attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the vaccination status.

  18. Ethical issues in radiology: A philosophical perspective

    Given that there is much disagreement as to what constitutes 'philosophy', even among philosophers, it is a challenge to provide a philosophical perspective. There are, however, at least two areas that most philosophers would regard as coming within the terrain of philosophical thinking: (1) the clarification of issues and (2) providing some sort of a foundation on which further thinking can take place. Thus, by way of contributing a philosophical perspective to the discussion, this paper will clarify some of the more fundamental issues regarding ethical debates in the hope of establishing some kind of theoretical foundation on which to base the discussion of the more specific issues and of widening the scope of the discussion. (authors)

  19. DOPING IN SPORT: GLOBAL ETHICAL ISSUES

    Angela J. Schneider

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION In this book the question of "How ethical is using performance improving drugs in sport?" is argued in global perspective. PURPOSE The ethical questions in sport are discussed comprehensively. Particularly, different cultures and approach of various countries to that issue were examined. FEATURES The book composed of 10 chapters following a thorough introduction from the editors in 194 pages. The titles are: 1.Fair is Fair, Or Is It? : A Moral Consideration of the Doping Wars in American Sport; 2.Are Doping Sanctions Justified? A Moral Relativistic View; 3.Cultural Nuances: Doping, Cycling and the Tour de France; 4.On Transgendered Athletes, Fairness and Doping: An International Challenge; 5.Creating a Corporate Anti-doping Culture: The Role of Bulgarian Sports Governing Bodies; 6. Doping in the UK: Alain and Dwain, Rio and Greg - Not Guilty?; 7.The Japanese Debate Surrounding the Doping Ban: The Application of the Harm Principle; 8. Doping and Anti-doping in Sport in China: An Analysis of Recent and Present Attitudes and Actions; 9.Anti-doping in Sport: The Norwegian Perspective; 10.Ethics in Sport: The Greek Educational Perspective on Anti-doping. AUDIENCE Given that this book is about a popular topic in sport, it is a great interest to the sport public as well as students, researchers and practitioners in the sport and exercise disciplines.

  20. Economic thinking and ethics: an ethical approach for economical issues

    Thieme, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    The worldwide economic crisis of 2007/2008 popularised the ethical questions within economics. Currently, few mainstream economists tackle these questions and the typical curriculum of economics often lacks input on philosophy, ethics and the history of economic thoughts. However, economists confronted with ethical questions believe themeslves capable of answering them. As a result, the popular discussion about ethics and economics becomes a discussion about regulations. In contrast to that, ...

  1. Legal and ethical issues of uterus transplantation.

    Dickens, Bernard M

    2016-04-01

    The clinically detailed report of a successful uterus transplantation and live birth in Sweden, in which a family friend donated her uterus, provides a basis for expanded practice. Family members and friends can serve as living donors without offending legal or ethical prohibitions of paid organ donation, even though family members and friends often engage in reciprocal gift exchanges. Donations from living unrelated sources are more problematic, and there is a need to monitor donors' genuine altruism and motivation. Donation by deceased women-i.e. cadaveric donation-raises issues of uterus suitability for transplantation, and how death is diagnosed. Organs' suitability for donation is often achieved by ventilation to maintain cardiac function for blood circulation, but laws and cultures could deem that a heartbeat indicates donors' live status. Issues could arise concerning ownership and control of organs between recovery from donors and implantation into recipients, and on removal following childbirth, that require legal resolution. PMID:26873131

  2. The quality of medicines: an ethical issue?

    Ravinetto, Raffaella; Schiavett, Benedetta

    2015-01-01

    The Hippocratic maxim, "Do no harm," is a long-standing fundamental principle of medical ethics, encompassing both medical practice and medical research. Yet, not enough attention is given to the implications of this principle for sectors related to medical research and practice, such as the pharmaceutical sector. The regulation of the standards of quality in pharmaceutical production and distribution, for instance, is generally considered a purely technical - rather than ethical - subject. Poor enforcement of regulatory supervision of manufacturers and wholesalers of medicine exposes the end-users to low-quality pharmaceutical products, which will result in avoidable "harm", such as therapeutic failure, emergence of resistance and even direct toxicity. A glaring example of this in recent times was the death, in Pakistan, of 120 cardiovascular patients who had received a medicine contaminated with pyrimethamine (1). Due to the globalisation of the pharmaceutical supply chain and the lack of international regulatory oversight, stringent drug regulatory authorities in affluent countries are also exposed to challenges related to quality. In the USA, for instance, at least four patients died after using contaminated heparin from China (2). These and other unnecessary deaths, caused by medical products which harmed rather than benefited the patients, are unacceptable and should be questioned on ethical grounds. PMID:26592786

  3. Ethical issues when using social media for health outside professional relationships.

    DeCamp, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Social media have the potential to revolutionize health and healthcare, but fulfilling this potential requires attention to the ethical issues social media may raise. This article reviews the major ethical issues arising when social media are used for research, public health, mobile health applications, and global health. It focuses on social media use outside fiduciary relationships between healthcare professionals and patients. Emphasis is given to the potential of social media in these contexts, the ethical issues relatively unique to each, and where possible how existing ethical principles and frameworks could help navigate these issues. In some cases social media create the circumstance for particular ethical issues but also facilitate managing them, such as in informed consent for research. In other cases, disagreement exists about whether social media - despite their potential - should be used for certain purposes, such as in public health surveillance (where confidentiality represents a significant ethical concern). In still others, ethical uncertainty exists about how social media will affect ethical issues, such as inequality in global health. As social media technologies continue to develop, identifying and managing the ethical issues they raise will be critical to their success in improving health while preserving fundamental ethical values. PMID:25738215

  4. Ethical Issues Associated with Information and Communication Technology in Counseling and Guidance

    Sampson, James P., Jr.; Makela, Julia Panke

    2014-01-01

    For more than 50 years, literature on the use of information and communication technology in counseling and guidance has presented ethical issues related to the development and use of technologies in practice. This paper reviews the ethical issues raised, organizing them into three categories: Social equity, resources, and services. Career

  5. Ethical Issues Associated with Information and Communication Technology in Counseling and Guidance

    Sampson, James P., Jr.; Makela, Julia Panke

    2014-01-01

    For more than 50 years, literature on the use of information and communication technology in counseling and guidance has presented ethical issues related to the development and use of technologies in practice. This paper reviews the ethical issues raised, organizing them into three categories: Social equity, resources, and services. Career…

  6. Population, consumption and resources: ethical issues.

    Dasgupta, P

    1998-01-01

    This article offers several models that test concepts of optimum population and consumption: classical or utilitarian models, contractual models, and generation-relative ethical models. This article is based on a lecture presented in August 1995, at a conference organized by the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences. It is posited that classical utilitarianism casts the optimum population and consumption problem as a Genesis Problem. The authors argue that the Genesis problem is the wrong problem to study because there are no actual people. The Genesis problem asks how many people there ought to be ideally at what living standards. The unborn are not a class of people, just as mud on a river bank is not a mud hut. Actual persons and potential persons are categorically different. Actual persons have a claim that potential persons do not have. An overall ethical ordering over alternatives can only be conceived for each generation of actual people. The ethical point of view inevitably changes over time. For example, a generation in the first period consumes what they are given to consume by the older generation. In the second period, the younger generation is now the older generation who decide how many children to have and how to share nonstorable, all purpose consumption goods among themselves and future generations. Procreation is a means of making one's values durable. Human development is unfair. Those who live later benefit from the labor of their predecessors without paying the same price. Procreation and ecological preservation are a matter of ethics. PMID:12321783

  7. Depo-Provera--ethical issues in its testing and distribution.

    Potts, M.; Paxman, J M

    1984-01-01

    Ethical issues relating to the use of the injectable contraceptive in developed and developing countries alike involve public policy decisions concerning both criteria for testing a new drug and individual choices about using a specific form of contraception approved for national distribution. Drug testing consists of an important but still evolving set of procedures. Depo-Provera is not qualitatively different from any other drug and some unpredictable risks are inevitable, even after extens...

  8. Ethical Issues in Neuromarketing: "I Consume, Therefore I am!".

    Ulman, Yesim Isil; Cakar, Tuna; Yildiz, Gokcen

    2015-10-01

    Neuromarketing is a recent interdisciplinary field which crosses traditional boundaries between neuroscience, neuroeconomics and marketing research. Since this nascent field is primarily concerned with improving marketing strategies and promoting sales, there has been an increasing public aversion and protest against it. These protests can be exemplified by the reactions observed lately in Baylor School of Medicine and Emory University in the United States. The most recent attempt to stop ongoing neuromarketing research in France is also remarkable. The pertaining ethical issues have been continuously attracting much attention, especially since the number of neuromarketing companies has exceeded 300 world-wide. This paper begins with a brief introduction to the field of neurotechnology by presenting its current capabilities and limitations. Then, it will focus on the ethical issues and debates most related with the recent applications of this technology. The French Parliament's revision of rules on bioethics in 2004 has an exemplary role in our discussion. The proposal by Murphy et al. (2008) has attracted attention to the necessity of ethical codes structuring this field. A code has recently been declared by the Neuromarketing Science and Business Association. In this paper, it is argued that these technologies should be sufficiently discussed in public spheres and its use on humans should be fully carried out according to the ethical principles and legal regulations designed in line with human rights and human dignity. There is an urgent need in the interdisciplinary scientific bodies like ethics committees monitoring the research regarding the scientific and ethical values of nonmaleficence, beneficence, autonomy, confidentiality, right to privacy and protection of vulnerable groups. PMID:25150848

  9. [Ethical and legal issues in late stage of dementia].

    Fernandes, Lia

    2008-01-01

    As we enter the 21st century, growth of the elderly population, the costs of care, and the advances of medical science and technology will continue to have an impact on the patient-physician relationship. Transformation of the health care system will also raise ethical issues inherent to changing roles. The special nature of Alzheimer's patients and the natural course of their disease require special care on the part of physicians to meet the ethical challenges and establish medical goals, in conjunction with their patients and their families. In spite of these rapid advances in biomedical sciences, were not sufficiently developed in the most fitness answers, regarding special moral and ethical attitudes, which must be taken into account, in particular when we try to understand the experience of people with dementia. This article explores emerging issues in relation to awareness in dementia and its impact on legal and ethical matters. The different approaches and principles demonstrated in relation to ethical issues are discussed, with an exploration of the concepts of mental capacity, testamentary capacity, power of attorney, court of protection, advance directives, decision making, participation in research and treatment, informed consent and older people driving. The tensions that exist between the imperatives of doing no harm and of maintaining autonomy in addressing legal and ethical issues are highlighted. The review emphasizes the importance of considering competency and awareness as being multi-faceted, to be understood in the context of social interaction, trying to deal with the challenge of protecting, but not overprotecting, people with dementia. Late stage of dementia is a terminal disease where the goal of the care may not be prolongation of life at all costs, but rather achievement: quality of life, dignity and comfort. In the initial late dementia, quality of life is the target, treating medical problems and psychiatric symptoms. The dignity of people with severe dementia will be preserved, mostly when this influences patient's behaviour, maximizing individual Independence in daily living activities. Finally, comfort is the last and the most important goal of care in late stages of dementia, using appropriate medical strategies and eliminating aggressive interventions (cardiopulmonary resuscitation, acute care setting, tube feeding and antibiotic treatment). The future work will focus on promoting more evidence-based decision-making on treatment and guidelines for prognostic information. Physician must be knowledgeable about broadly intersecting medical, legal, finance and ethics, underlying the long-term management of dementia. PMID:18489837

  10. Ethical issues in caring for patients with dementia.

    Hughes, Julian; Common, Jill

    2015-08-01

    This article discusses issues that might count as 'ethical' in the care of people with dementia and some of the dilemmas that occur. Ethical theories, such as virtue ethics, deontology and consequentialism are discussed, and ethical approaches that can be useful are outlined. Thinking about matters case-by-case is another approach, one that forms the first component of the Nuffield Council's ethical framework for dementia care, which is described. Case examples are provided, raising issues of autonomy, diagnosis, restraint and withholding treatment. The notion of personhood and the need to understand the person with dementia as broadly as possible are emphasised. Recommendations for nursing practice are included. PMID:26243122

  11. Teaching Ethics across the Public Relations Curriculum.

    Hutchison, Liese L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests ways of incorporating ethics across the undergraduate public relations curriculum. Reviews current coverage of ethics in public relations principles, writing, cases, and textbooks. Suggests other methods that teachers can use to incorporate ethical pedagogical tools in all public relations courses in an effort to develop students' ethical…

  12. Ethical issues in deep brain stimulation

    Maartje Schermer

    2011-05-01

    With regard to DBS treatment, the most important issues are balancing risks and benefits and ensuring respect for the autonomous wish of the patient. This implies special attention to patient selection, psycho-social impact of treatment, effects on personal identity, and treatment of children. Moreover, it implies a careful informed consent process in which unrealistic expectations of patients and their families are addressed and in which special attention is given to competence. In the context of research, the fundamental ethical challenge is to promote high-quality scientific research in the interest of future patients, while at the same time safeguarding the rights and interests of vulnerable research subjects. Several guidelines have been proposed to ensure this. One of the preconditions to further development of responsible and transparent research practices is the establishment of a comprehensive registry.

  13. Ethical Issues in Cross-Cultural Research

    Honan, Eileen; Hamid, M. Obaidul; Alhamdan, Bandar; Phommalangsy, Phouvanh; Lingard, Bob

    2013-01-01

    The gap between theoretical expectations of research ethics as outlined in the bureaucratic processes associated with University Ethics Committees and the situated realities of students undertaking studies within their own sociocultural contexts is explored in this paper. In particular, the authors investigate differences in ethical norms and…

  14. Ethical Issues in Cross-Cultural Research

    Honan, Eileen; Hamid, M. Obaidul; Alhamdan, Bandar; Phommalangsy, Phouvanh; Lingard, Bob

    2013-01-01

    The gap between theoretical expectations of research ethics as outlined in the bureaucratic processes associated with University Ethics Committees and the situated realities of students undertaking studies within their own sociocultural contexts is explored in this paper. In particular, the authors investigate differences in ethical norms and

  15. Sorting Out the Uniqueness of Computer-Ethical Issues

    Johnson, Deborah G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper I build on Moor's idea that the task of computer ethics is to fill policy vacuum's created by the introduction of computer and information technology. The traditionalist account proposes that to solve computer ethical issues (and fill the policy vacuums) all we have to do is apply traditional moral norms and principles. I argue against this position and propose instead that we think of computer ethical issues as new species of generic moral problems. Computer technology changes ...

  16. Nurse managers' experience with ethical issues in six government hospitals in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study

    Musa Maizura

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurse managers have the burden of experiencing frequent ethical issues related to both their managerial and nursing care duties, according to previous international studies. However, no such study was published in Malaysia. The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' experience with ethical issues in six government hospitals in Malaysia including learning about the way they dealt with the issues. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in August-September, 2010 involving 417 (69.2% of total 603 nurse managers in the six Malaysian government hospitals. Data were collected using three-part self-administered questionnaire. Part I was regarding participants' demographics. Part II was about the frequency and areas of management where ethical issues were experienced, and scoring of the importance of 11 pre-identified ethical issues. Part III asked how they dealt with ethical issues in general; ways to deal with the 11 pre-identified ethical issues, and perceived stress level. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations and Pearson's Chi-square. Results A total of 397 (95.2% participants experienced ethical issues and 47.2% experienced them on weekly to daily basis. Experiencing ethical issues were not associated with areas of practice. Top area of management where ethical issues were encountered was "staff management", but "patient care" related ethical issues were rated as most important. Majority would "discuss with other nurses" in dealing generally with the issues. For pre-identified ethical issues regarding "patient care", "discuss with doctors" was preferred. Only 18.1% referred issues to "ethics committees" and 53.0% to the code of ethics. Conclusions Nurse managers, regardless of their areas of practice, frequently experienced ethical issues. For dealing with these, team-approach needs to be emphasized. Proper understanding of the code of ethics is needed to provide basis for reasoning.

  17. Addressing ethical issues in H3Africa research – the views of research ethics committee members

    de Vries, Jantina; Abayomi, Akin; Littler, Katherine; Madden, Ebony; McCurdy, Sheryl; Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Seeley, Janet; Staunton, Ciara; Tangwa, Godfrey; Tindana, Paulina; Troyer, Jennifer; . .

    2015-01-01

    In June 2014, the H3Africa Working Group on Ethics organised a workshop with members of over 40 research ethics committees from across Africa to discuss the ethical challenges raised in H3Africa research, and to receive input on the proposed H3Africa governance framework. Prominent amongst a myriad of ethical issues raised by meeting participants were concerns over consent for future use of samples and data, the role of community engagement in large international collaborative projects, and p...

  18. Antiprogestin drugs: ethical, legal and medical issues.

    Cook, R J; Grimes, D A

    1992-01-01

    RU 486 allows women the choice of a medical rather than a surgical abortion, and, for most women, the choice is one of procedure, not of whether to have an abortion. Issues surrounding RU 486 were explored in an American Society of Law and Medicine conference in December 1991 entitled "Antiprogestin Drugs: Ethical, Legal and Medical Issues." An introduction to 14 conference papers provides an overview of the proceedings. Baulieu, the father of RU 486, described updated developments in its use and the medically supervised method of abortion. Bygdeman and Swahn presented their work in Sweden on combining RU 486 with a prostaglandin to make abortion more effective. They suggested that the drug may be an attractive postovulation contraceptive. Greenslad et al. discussed service delivery aspects of the use of RU 486. Holt considered the implications of use of the drug in low-resource settings. A survey of obstetricians and gynecologists, presented by Heilig, indicates that 22% more physicians would perform a medical abortion. Patient perspectives were addressed by David, who stated that measuring acceptability of an abortion technique is difficult; women have historically used whatever method is available. A collaborative research project in India and Cuba on why women chose certain methods was reported by Winikoff et al. (90% of women would choose medical abortion if faced with the choice again). Berer analyzed French data on women's perspectives on medical vs. surgical abortion. The question of adolescent use of the drug was considered by Senderowitz, who lamented the lack of data on the subject and described what is known about adolescent pregnancy. Macklin proposed a framework for ethical analysis and used facts to address ethical questions. Weinstein provided another ethical framework, to analyze whether pharmacists have a right to refuse to provide abortifacient drugs. Buc approached the subject from a legal point of view and concluded that, whereas legal problems are minimal, political problem are of first concern. Boland described differences in introduction of the drug in France and Britain and the US. The theory of "use it or lose it" in patent legislation is applied differently in the US, France, and the UK. Hayhurst, in a complementary legal analysis, noted that Canadian importation would open access to affluent US women. Pine reported on the legal case Benten vs. Kessler, which did not result in successful importation of the drug for personal use, but resulted in some supportive language from the courts. By refusing to apply to the FDA for marketing approval, RU 486's manufacturer may be setting itself up for a boycott. Approaching the problem from these various perspectives addressed the challenge between medical advances and politics and highlighted the need to balance the benefits to women with perceived threats to values. PMID:1434754

  19. Ethically-based clinical decision-making in physical therapy: process and issues.

    Finch, Elspeth; Geddes, E Lynne; Larin, Hélène

    2005-01-01

    The identification and consideration of relevant ethical issues in clinical decision-making, and the education of health care professionals (HCPs) in these skills are key factors in providing quality health care. This qualitative study explores the way in which physical therapists (PTs) integrate ethical issues into clinical practice decisions and identifies ethical themes used by PTs. A purposive sample of eight PTs was asked to describe a recent ethically-based clinical decision. Transcribed interviews were coded and themes identified related to the following categories: 1) the integration of ethical issues in the clinical decision-making process, 2) patient welfare, 3) professional ethos of the PT, and 4) health care economics and business practices. Participants readily described clinical situations involving ethical issues but rarely identified specific conflicting ethical issues in their description. Ethical dilemmas were more frequently resolved when there were fewer emotional sequelae associated with the dilemma, and the PT had a clear understanding of professional ethos, valued patient autonomy, and explored a variety of alternative actions before implementing one. HCP students need to develop a clear professional ethos and an increased understanding of the economic factors that will present ethical issues in practice. PMID:16389696

  20. Ethical Concerns Related to Developing Pharmacogenomic Treatment Strategies for Addiction

    Shields, Alexandra E.

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) research is poised to enable physicians to identify optimally effective treatments for individual substance abusers based on their genetic profiles. This paper addresses ethical issues related to PGx treatment strategies for addiction, focusing especially on the use of race variables in genomics research and ensuring equitable access to novel PGx treatments. Unless the field addresses the ethical challenges posed by these issues, PGx treatment innovations for addiction ...

  1. Ethical, Legal and Social Issues related to the health data-warehouses: re-using health data in the research and public health research.

    Lamas, Eugenia; Barh, Anne; Brown, Dario; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Research derived from the application of information and communication technologies in medicine operates in a context involving the globalization of collecting, sharing, storage, transfer and re-use of personal health data. Health data computerization within Clinical Information Systems (as Electronic Healthcare Records) should allow the re-use of health data for clinical research and public health purposes. One of the objects allowing the integration of healthcare and research information systems is the health data-warehouse (DWH). However, ethical-legal frameworks in force are not adapted to these DWHs because they were not conceived for re-using data in a different context than the one of their acquisition. For that matter, access modalities to data-warehouses must ensure the respect of patients' rights: information to the patient, as well as confidentiality and security. Through a bibliography research, some Ethical, legal and Social Issues (ELSI) have been identified: Patients' rights Modalities of implementation of the DWs; Solidarity and common good; Transparency and Trust. Comparative analysis between the Directive 95/46/CE and the "Proposal for regulation on protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data" shows that this regulation pretends allowing the re-use of key-coded data when aimed at a scientific purpose. However, since this new regulation does not align with the ethical and legal requirements at an operational level, a Code of practice on secondary use of Medical Data in scientific Research Projects has been developed at the European Level. This Code provides guidance for Innovative Medicine Initiative (IMI) and will help to propose practical solutions to overcome the issue of the re-use of data for research purposes. PMID:25991247

  2. What happened to public responsibility? The lack of society in public relations codes of ethics

    Monica Walle

    2003-01-01

    The issue of ethics is complex and contentious. For public relations it is also critical, as the industry will only win the struggle to salvage its own reputation if it can clearly demonstrate not only a commitment to ethics, but also some means to enforce ethical standards. There are many ethical reasoning tools, both intricate and useful, that public relations practitioners use to try to make ethical decisions, and these have been widely discussed in textbooks and specialist articles (e.g. ...

  3. Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.

    Cohen, Libby

    Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…

  4. Ethical Issues for an Editorial Board: "Kairaranga"

    Clark, John

    2008-01-01

    With academic journals, we think of the ethical aspects of the research contained in the articles rather than with the journal itself. However, journal editing has its own set of ethical concerns, which this article addresses. One is ensuring that the anonymity of institutions and participants, in research and the reporting of practice, is

  5. Ethical issues in human genomics research in developing countries

    Mercereau-Puijalon Odile; Ibrahim Muntaser; Doumbo Ogobara; Bull Susan J; de Vries Jantina; Kwiatkowski Dominic; Parker Michael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide a powerful means of identifying genetic variants that play a role in common diseases. Such studies present important ethical challenges. An increasing number of GWAS is taking place in lower income countries and there is a pressing need to identify the particular ethical challenges arising in such contexts. In this paper, we draw upon the experiences of the MalariaGEN Consortium to identify specific ethical issues raised by su...

  6. Implementing Curricular Change through State-Mandated Testing: Ethical Issues.

    Mathison, Sandra

    1991-01-01

    Explores the ethical issues involved in using standardized tests to implement a state-level policy. Examines the fourth grade science program evaluation test administered in New York State for the first time in 1989. A utilitarian view of ethics ignores the consequences of testing for different constituents, obviates caring behavior, and damages…

  7. Mild cognitive impairment: Conceptual, assessment, ethical, and social issues

    Perla Werner

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Perla Werner1, Amos D Korczyn21Department of Gerontology, Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel; 2Sieratzki Chair of Neurology, Department of Neurology, Tel Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, IsraelAbstract: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is defined as a condition characterized by newly acquired cognitive decline to an extent that is beyond that expected for age or educational background, yet not causing significant functional impairment. The concept of MCI has received considerable attention in the literature over the past few years, and aspects related to its definition, prevalence, and evolution have been extensively studied and reviewed. Here we attempt to synthesize the implications of the current status of this entity, focusing on the conceptual, methodological, and, in particular, the social and ethical aspects of MCI which have attracted less attention. We discuss the weaknesses of the concept of MCI, which is heterogeneous in etiology, manifestations, and outcomes, and suggest that the emergence of the syndrome at this stage reflects industrial interests related to possible development of drugs for this disorder. On the other hand, the formal diagnosis of MCI, with its implications that the person may develop dementia, may have a grave impact on the psychological state of the individual, at a stage when prediction of outcome is tenuous and possibilities of useful interventions are meager. We present suggestions for the direction of future research in these areas.Keywords: mild cognitive impairment, assessment issues, ethical issues, social issues, dementia

  8. Ethical issues in Chinese aesthetic surgery.

    Li, Guang-Shuai; Dong, Ming-Min; Liu, Lin-Bo; Hu, Xiao-Ying

    2014-10-01

    Guided by the medical ethics principles of "four principles plus scope," Chinese aesthetic medical practitioners have proposed some extremely valuable ethical principles combined with the construction of aesthetic medicine and the requirements of clinical practice such as the principle of general nonmaleficence, the principle of local minimal invasiveness, the principle of informed consent, and the principle of respect and confidentiality. Chinese aesthetic surgical ethics provide valuable guidance for the practice of aesthetic medicine. Adherence to the ethics of Chinese aesthetic surgery provides an essential guide for the practice of aesthetic medicine in China. These principles protect both the medical practitioner and the patient, helping them to avoid unnecessary risks and disputes and ultimately promoting the sustainable development of aesthetic medicine. PMID:25028113

  9. Ethical issues in health workforce development

    Cash Richard

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the numbers of health workers and improving their skills requires that countries confront a number of ethical dilemmas. The ethical considerations in answering five important questions on enabling health workers to deal appropriately with the circumstances in which they must work are described. These include the problems of the standards of training and practice required in countries with differing levels of socioeconomic development and different priority diseases; how a society can be assured that health practitioners are properly trained; how a health system can support its workers; diversion of health workers and training institutions; and the teaching of ethical principles to student health workers. The ethics of setting standards for the skills and care provided by traditional health-care practitioners are also discussed.

  10. Ethical issues in human genome research.

    Murray, T H

    1991-01-01

    In addition to provocative questions about science policy, research on the human genome will generate important ethical questions in at least three categories. First, the possibility of greatly increased genetic information about individuals and populations will require choices to be made about what that information should be and about who should control the generation and dissemination of genetic information. Presymptomatic testing, carrier screening, workplace genetic screening, and testing by insurance companies pose significant ethical problems. Second, the burgeoning ability to manipulate human genotypes and phenotypes raises a number of important ethical questions. Third, increasing knowledge about genetic contributions to ethically and politically significant traits and behaviors will challenge our self-understanding and social institutions. PMID:1825074

  11. Ethical Issues in Marketing and Continuing Education.

    Martel, Laurence D.; Colley, Robert M.

    1986-01-01

    Raises ethical considerations relevant to the marketing of continuing education and suggests two approaches to their resolution: deontology (all actions guided by universal rules are moral) and teleology (consequences of an action determine whether it is moral). (CH)

  12. Ethical Issues in Providing Online Psychotherapeutic Interventions

    Childress, Craig A

    2000-01-01

    The Internet offers psychotherapists a new communication medium through which they can deliver psychotherapeutic interventions that are appropriate to the medium. Yet online psychotherapy also offers new ethical challenges for therapists interested in providing online psychotherapeutic services. The differences between interactive text-based communication and in-person verbal communication create new ethical challenges not previously encountered in face-to-face therapy. This article will exam...

  13. Radwastes and public ethics: issues and imperatives

    This paper, which was presented at the Health Physics Society annual meeting at Atlanta, conclude that the problem of radioactive waste management is neither unique and unprecedented, nor has it been properly formulated from an ethical perspective, and that to recover and maintain a balanced perspective on this particular biohazard and to introduce some corrective perception in the public mind becomes an ethical imperative. (author)

  14. Ethical and legal issues in aesthetic surgery

    Suresh Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Rapid growth and expansion of plastic surgery in general and aesthetic surgery in particular in the past decade has brought in its wake some confusions particularly raising questions for the surgeons conduct towards his colleagues and the patients in the light of ethical requirements. Some thoughts from eminent thinkers form a backdrop to consideration of theories of medical ethics. In this article raging and continuous debates on these subjects have been avoided to maintain the momentum. Apa...

  15. Creative accounting: Nature, incidence and ethical issues

    Amat, Oriol; Gowthorpe, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the nature and incidence of creative accounting practices within the context of ethical considerations.It explores several definitions of creative accounting and the potential and the range of reasons for a company's directors to engage in creative accounting. Later the paper considers the various ways in which creative accounting can be undertaken and summarizes some empirical research on the nature and incidence of creative accounting. The ethical dimen...

  16. Informacin mdica a pacientes y familiares: aspectos clnicos, ticos y legales / Clinical, ethical and legal issues on medical information to patients and relatives

    Jorge, Nogales-Gaete; Paola, Vargas-Silva; Ivn, Vidal-Caas.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Providing information to patients and relatives (IPAR) is a clinical, ethical and legal need. IPAR is inherent to the medical team work as diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are. In some cases, it is a key step for patient's recovery. From an ethical point of view, the patient is not only the sub [...] ject of the medical work but also its main owner and who must, previously informed, decide about options which would directly affect him. After the promulgation of a special law in Chile, this prerogative became a legal right. This paper proposes an empirically developed model or protocol that should be used to inform hospitalized patients and their relatives about their disease, in a pertinent way. Considering that IPAR is a skill that should be learned and practiced, the written protocol is provided to neurology residents as supporting material. Although IPAR protocols are completely justified, they have not been evaluated in terms of efficiency of communication, user satisfaction, patient and relatives reassurance and clinical impact. Therefore, they require a prospective validation.

  17. Technical and Ethical Issues in Indicator Systems

    Carol Taylor Fitz-Gibbon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Most indicator systems are top-down, published, management systems, addressing primarily the issue of public accountability. In contrast we describe here a university-based suite of "grass-roots," research-oriented indicator systems that are now subscribed to, voluntarily, by about 1 in 3 secondary schools and over 4,000 primary schools in England. The systems are also being used by groups in New Zealand, Australia and Hong Kong, and with international schools in 30 countries. These systems would not have grown had they not been cost-effective for schools. This demanded the technical excellence that makes possible the provision of one hundred percent accurate data in a very timely fashion. An infrastructure of powerful hardware and ever-improving software is needed, along with extensive programming to provide carefully chosen graphical and tabular presentations of data, giving at-a-glance comparative information. Highly skilled staff, always learning new techniques, have been essential, especially as we move into computer-based data collection. It has been important to adopt transparent, readily understood methods of data analysis where we are satisfied that these are accurate, and to model the processes that produce the data. This can mean, for example, modelling separate regression lines for 85 different examination syllabuses for one age group, because any aggregation can be shown to represent unfair comparisons. Ethical issues are surprisingly often lurking in technical decisions. For example, reporting outcomes from a continuous measure in terms of the percent of students who surpassed a certain level, produces unethical behavior: a concentration of teaching on borderline students. Distortion of behavior and data corruption are ever-present concerns in indicator systems. The systems we describe would have probably failed to thrive had they not addressed schools' on-going concerns about education. Moreover, data interpretation can only be completed in the schools, by those who know all the factors involved. Thus the commitment to working closely and collaboratively with schools in "distributed research" is important, along with "measuring what matters"... not only achievement. In particular the too-facile interpretation of correlation as causation that characterized much school effectiveness research had to be avoided and the need for experimentation promoted and demonstrated. Reasons for the exceptionally warm welcome from the teaching profession may include both threats (such as the unvalidated inspection regime run by the Office for Standards in Education and opportunities (such as site based management.

  18. Rapporteurs' report: Workshop on ethical issues in diagnostic radiology

    This paper presents the summary reports of the session rapporteurs at the Workshop on Ethical Issues in Diagnostic Radiology. The summaries reflect the extent to which the topics discussed are well reflected in the papers presented in this proceedings. (authors)

  19. Cardiovascular implantable electronic devices: patient education, information and ethical issues.

    Manaouil, Cécile; Gignon, Maxime; Traulle, Sarah

    2012-09-01

    Cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED) are implanted increasingly frequently. CIEDs are indicated for the treatment of bradycardia, tachycardia and heart failure and therefore improve quality of life and life expectancy. CIED can treat ventricular arrhythmias that would be fatal without immediate care. However, CIEDs raise several patient education, medico-legal, and ethical questions that will be addressed in this article. Information is a patient's right, and necessary for informed consent. When implanting a CIED, the patient must be educated about the need for the device, the function of the device, any restrictions that apply postimplant, and postimplant follow-up methods and schedules. This transfer of information to the patient makes the patient responsible. The occupational physician can determine whether a patient wearing a CIED is able to work. Under current French law, patients are not prohibited from working while wearing a CIED. However, access to certain job categories remains limited, such as jobs involving mechanical stress to the chest, exposure to electromagnetic fields, or jobs requiring permanent vigilance. Pacemakers and defibrillators are medical treatments and are subject to the same ethical and clinical considerations as any other treatment. However, stopping a pacemaker or a defibrillator raises different ethical issues. Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator shocks can be considered to be equivalent to resuscitation efforts and can be interpreted as being unreasonable in an end-of-life patient. Pacing is painless and it is unlikely to unnecessarily prolong the life of a patient with a terminal disease. Patients with a CIED should live as normally as possible, but must also be informed about the constraints related to the device and must inform each caregiver about the presence of the device. The forensic and ethical implications must be assessed in relation to current legislation. PMID:23248837

  20. ETHICAL ISSUE : A PROBLEM IN NIGERIA INSURANCE COMPANIES

    Akinbola, Isaac Likali Tsowa &; Ejide, Oluwakemi

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate and critically analyze claims management, an ethical issue in insurance companies in Nigeria, to find out if these insurance companies recognize it to be an ethical issue and also to find out how they handle insured’s claims. A qualitative research method was used in carrying out this study; data was sourced through interviews and by secondary data using literatures from books, journals, articles, and electronic websites. The researchers used purposive sampling ...

  1. Ethical issues in research involving children and young people

    This article identifies the key ethical issues that need to be addressed in any research study involving children and young people, accessed through the NHS. It makes specific reference to the Declaration of Helsinki and to additional guidance developed for researchers from a variety of disciplines, both within healthcare and in other fields of study. The focus of the paper is on defining the key ethical issues, identifying the complexities in the legislative framework underpinning research involving this patient group and offering practical advice on when, and how, ethical approval needs to be sought

  2. Ethical and legal issues in aesthetic surgery.

    Gupta, Suresh

    2012-09-01

    Rapid growth and expansion of plastic surgery in general and aesthetic surgery in particular in the past decade has brought in its wake some confusions particularly raising questions for the surgeons conduct towards his colleagues and the patients in the light of ethical requirements. Some thoughts from eminent thinkers form a backdrop to consideration of theories of medical ethics. In this article raging and continuous debates on these subjects have been avoided to maintain the momentum. Apart from the western thoughts, directions from our old scriptures on ethical conduct have been included to accommodate prevelant Indian practices. The confusion created by specialists advertising their abilities directly to the lay public following removal of ethical bars by the American Courts as also latitudes allowed by the General Medical Council of Great Britain have been discussed. The medical fraternity however has its reservations. Unnecessary skirmishes with the law arose in cosmetic surgery from the freedom exercised by the police to file criminal proceedings against attending doctors in the event of a patient's death with or without any evidence of wrong doing. This has now been curtailed in the judgement of the Supreme Court of India[1] where norms have been laid down for such prosecution. This has helped doctors to function without fear of harassment. An effort has been made to state a simple day-to-day routine for an ethical doctor-patient relationship. PMID:23450235

  3. Ethical and legal issues in aesthetic surgery

    Suresh Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth and expansion of plastic surgery in general and aesthetic surgery in particular in the past decade has brought in its wake some confusions particularly raising questions for the surgeons conduct towards his colleagues and the patients in the light of ethical requirements. Some thoughts from eminent thinkers form a backdrop to consideration of theories of medical ethics. In this article raging and continuous debates on these subjects have been avoided to maintain the momentum. Apart from the western thoughts, directions from our old scriptures on ethical conduct have been included to accommodate prevelant Indian practices. The confusion created by specialists advertising their abilities directly to the lay public following removal of ethical bars by the American Courts as also latitudes allowed by the General Medical Council of Great Britain have been discussed. The medical fraternity however has its reservations. Unnecessary skirmishes with the law arose in cosmetic surgery from the freedom exercised by the police to file criminal proceedings against attending doctors in the event of a patient′s death with or without any evidence of wrong doing. This has now been curtailed in the judgement of the Supreme Court of India[1] where norms have been laid down for such prosecution. This has helped doctors to function without fear of harassment. An effort has been made to state a simple day-to-day routine for an ethical doctor-patient relationship.

  4. Ethical issues faced by field primatologists: asking the relevant questions.

    Fedigan, Linda Marie

    2010-09-01

    Field primatologists face unusual ethical issues. We study animals rather than people and receive research approval from animal care rather than ethics committees. However, animal care evaluation forms are developed from concerns about laboratory animal research and are based on the "Three R's" for humane treatment of captive experimental subjects (replacement, reduction and refinement), which are only debatably relevant to field research. Scientists who study wild, free-ranging primates in host countries experience many ethical dilemmas seldom dealt with in animal care forms. This paper reviews the ethical issues many field primatologists say they face and how these might be better addressed by animal care forms. The ethical issues arising for field researchers are divided into three categories: "Presence, Protocols and People" and for each the most frequent issues are described. The most commonly mentioned ethical concern arising from our presence in the field is the possibility of disease transmission. Although most primate field studies employ only observational protocols, the practice of habituating our study animals to close human presence is an ethical concern for many since it can lessen the animals' fear of all humans, thereby facilitating undesirable behaviors (e.g., crop-raiding) and rendering them vulnerable to harm. Field primatologists who work in host countries must observe national laws and local traditions. As conservationists, primatologists must often negotiate between the resource needs and cultural practices of local people and the interests of the nonhuman primates. Many say they face more ethical dilemmas arising from human interactions than from research on the animals per se. This review concludes with suggestions for relevant questions to ask on animal care forms, and actions that field primatologists can take to better inform animal care committees about the common ethical issues we experience as well as how to develop guidelines for addressing them. PMID:20213821

  5. Informed recruitment in partner studies of HIV transmission: an ethical issue in couples research

    Gordon Elisa J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been devoted to ethical issues related to randomized controlled trials for HIV treatment and prevention. However, there has been less discussion of ethical issues surrounding families involved in observational studies of HIV transmission. This paper describes the process of ethical deliberation about how best to obtain informed consent from sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs tested for HIV, within a recent HIV study in Eastern Europe. The study aimed to assess the amount of HIV serodiscordance among IDUs and their sexual partners, identify barriers to harm reduction, and explore ways to optimize intervention programs. Including IDUs, either HIV-positive or at high risk for HIV, and their sexual partners would help to gain a more complete understanding of barriers to and opportunities for intervention. Discussion This paper focuses on the ethical dilemma regarding informed recruitment: whether researchers should disclose to sexual partners of IDUs that they were recruited because their partner injects drugs (i.e., their heightened risk for HIV. Disclosing risks to partners upholds the ethical value of respect for persons through informed consent. However, disclosure compromises the IDU's confidentiality, and potentially, the scientific validity of the research. Following a brief literature review, we summarize the researchers' systematic evaluation of this issue from ethical, scientific, and logistical perspectives. While the cultural context may be somewhat unique to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the issues raised and solutions proposed here inform epidemiological research designs and their underlying ethical tensions. Summary We present ethical arguments in favor of disclosure, discuss how cultural context shapes the ethical issues, and recommend refinement of guidance for couples research of communicable diseases to assist investigators encountering these ethical issues in the future.

  6. Theoretical frameworks used to discuss ethical issues in private physiotherapy practice and proposal of a new ethical tool.

    Drolet, Marie-Josée; Hudon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    In the past, several researchers in the field of physiotherapy have asserted that physiotherapy clinicians rarely use ethical knowledge to solve ethical issues raised by their practice. Does this assertion still hold true? Do the theoretical frameworks used by researchers and clinicians allow them to analyze thoroughly the ethical issues they encounter in their everyday practice? In our quest for answers, we conducted a literature review and analyzed the ethical theoretical frameworks used by physiotherapy researchers and clinicians to discuss the ethical issues raised by private physiotherapy practice. Our final analysis corpus consisted of thirty-nine texts. Our main finding is that researchers and clinicians in physiotherapy rarely use ethical knowledge to analyze the ethical issues raised in their practice and that gaps exist in the theoretical frameworks currently used to analyze these issues. Consequently, we developed, for ethical analysis, a four-part prism which we have called the Quadripartite Ethical Tool (QET). This tool can be incorporated into existing theoretical frameworks to enable professionals to integrate ethical knowledge into their ethical analyses. The innovative particularity of the QET is that it encompasses three ethical theories (utilitarism, deontologism, and virtue ethics) and axiological ontology (professional values) and also draws on both deductive and inductive approaches. It is our hope that this new tool will help researchers and clinicians integrate ethical knowledge into their analysis of ethical issues and contribute to fostering ethical analyses that are grounded in relevant philosophical and axiological foundations. PMID:24942342

  7. Ethical issues in human genomics research in developing countries

    Mercereau-Puijalon Odile

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS provide a powerful means of identifying genetic variants that play a role in common diseases. Such studies present important ethical challenges. An increasing number of GWAS is taking place in lower income countries and there is a pressing need to identify the particular ethical challenges arising in such contexts. In this paper, we draw upon the experiences of the MalariaGEN Consortium to identify specific ethical issues raised by such research in Africa, Asia and Oceania. Discussion We explore ethical issues in three key areas: protecting the interests of research participants, regulation of international collaborative genomics research and protecting the interests of scientists in low income countries. With regard to participants, important challenges are raised about community consultation and consent. Genomics research raises ethical and governance issues about sample export and ownership, about the use of archived samples and about the complexity of reviewing such large international projects. In the context of protecting the interests of researchers in low income countries, we discuss aspects of data sharing and capacity building that need to be considered for sustainable and mutually beneficial collaborations. Summary Many ethical issues are raised when genomics research is conducted on populations that are characterised by lower average income and literacy levels, such as the populations included in MalariaGEN. It is important that such issues are appropriately addressed in such research. Our experience suggests that the ethical issues in genomics research can best be identified, analysed and addressed where ethics is embedded in the design and implementation of such research projects.

  8. Ethical issues is psychological screening of nuclear power personnel

    Ethical issues of mandatory psychological screening of nuclear power plant personnel have not been explored adequately. This paper examines several ethical issues in this area that need more attention. (1) Informed Consent: psychologists' ethics (like those of virtually all science and practice-oriented disciplines) require subjects participating in research or practice to be informed of procedures applied to them, the purposes, and possible consequences. (2) Feedback: psychologists' ethical guidelines require feedback to assesses when it is requested. (3) Validity: psychologists' ethics require that they use instrumentation only for the purposes intended and only for uses for which there is a preponderance of validity data available. In short, there is no question that psychological tests can significantly improve the effectiveness of a work force when they are properly (i.e., validly) used by well-trained and qualified professional psychologists. However, with the abundance of clinicians who are providing such services and with the complexity of the ethical issues involved in conducting these screenings, employers in psychologically high-risk settings should proceed with great caution to assure that assesses are treated in a fair and ethical manner

  9. Introducing ethical, social and environmental issues in ICT engineering degrees

    Rafael Miñano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the experience of introducing ethical, social and environmental issues in undergraduate ICT engineering degrees at the Universidad Politécnica of Madrid. It is an example of both bottom-up and top-down approach, as it has been positively influenced by the European Higher Education Area framework and some external recommendations, plus the significant contribution regarding motivation, drive and previous experience of the teachers involved. The experience before the Bologna Process was concentrated on developing elective courses related on the field of the International Development Cooperation. The integration of those topics within the current engineering curricula, adapted to the European Higher Education Area framework, is being implemented in compulsory courses, elective activities and into Final Year Project. It implies a holistic and comprehensive approach, where appropriate contents, teaching methodologies and assessment methods have been adapted to deal with ethical, social and environmental issues in our academic context. Our work is still in progress and there are a lot of challenges to face, such as improving teaching methodologies, the assessment tools and the achievement of a broader implication of the faculty.

  10. Ethical issues of using psychological knowledge in the proceedings of the non-procedural forms

    Safuanov F.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the main ethical problems arising from the use of psychological knowledge in the criminal and civil proceedings in the form of non-procedural. Showing legal environment conducive to violations of ethics of psychological research reference and advisory nature: equality of the parties, the right of lawyers to draw on contractual basis to clarify issues related to the provision of legal aid. Reveals the main subjective factors of psychological research ethics violations: low level of professional competence psychologist, ignoring the principles of independence, objectivity, confidentiality. Suggests ways of overcoming the ethical issues - in the process of formation of graduate and postgraduate education of ethical competence, implementation of certain algorithms psychologist interaction with the side of a criminal or civil process - customer psychological services. It is proposed to consolidate legislation or regulations regulating certain kinds of non-procedural forms of use of psychological knowledge in the proceedings.

  11. Teaching Public Relations: The Role of Ethics.

    Harrison, Stanley L.

    Ethics is an area of increasing concern in U.S. colleges and universities. A recent survey of 183 institutions with major teaching focus on public relations (with 134 returns, for a 73% return rate), indicated that only one in four institutions offers a specific ethics course, and less than half of this group require it. Nevertheless, an…

  12. Work engagement in nursing practice: a relational ethics perspective.

    Keyko, Kacey

    2014-12-01

    The concept of work engagement has existed in business and psychology literature for some time. There is a significant body of research that positively correlates work engagement with organizational outcomes. To date, the interest in the work engagement of nurses has primarily been related to these organizational outcomes. However, the value of work engagement in nursing practice is not only an issue of organizational interest, but of ethical interest. The dialogue on work engagement in nursing must expand to include the ethical importance of engagement. The relational nature of work engagement and the multiple levels of influence on nurses' work engagement make a relational ethics approach to work engagement in nursing appropriate and necessary. Within a relational ethics perspective, it is evident that work engagement enables nurses to have meaningful relationships in their work and subsequently deliver ethical care. In this article, I argue that work engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice. If engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice, the environmental and organizational factors that influence work engagement must be closely examined to pursue the creation of moral communities within healthcare environments. PMID:24714045

  13. Ethical Issues Involved in Integrated Marketing Communication in Nigeria

    Ayozie Daniel Ogechukwu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available “When we consider corporate morality we must conclude that no price is too high, for in the long run we have no alternative to ethical business behaviour” Fred. T. Aller. “If I were to name the deadliest subversive force within capitalism, the single greatest source of its waning morality …. I would without hesitation name “Advertising and Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC”. How else should one identify a force that debases language, drains thought and undoes dignity. (Heilbroner .R. (1981. are prone to scrutiny by those who are concerned about the methods marketers use to sell their products and services. Proponents of advertising and IMC states that it is the life blood of business. That it provides consumers with information about products and services and encourages them to improve their standard of living. Advertising produces jobs and helps new companies enter the market place. Companies employ people who make the products and provide the services that advertising sells. Free market economic systems are based on competition which revolves around information, and nothing delivers information better and at less cost than advertising and integrated marketing communication (IMC (Becch .E., Belch M.A. 1998. Not everyone is sold on the value of advertising. Critics argued that most advertising and IMC is more than information. It creates needs, faults consumers and mesmerizes them. It makes consumers to buy that they originally do not want or wish to buy. Adverts suggest that our bodies should be leaner, our faces younger and our utensils cleaner. They point to the sultry, scantily and muscular clad bodies used in it to sell everything from perfume to beer, and argue that advertising promotes materialism, instant gratification, insecurity and greed. “Ethics also consists of certain rules and standards of conduct recognized as binding in a professional body or an Association”. This paper will define the concepts of law, ethics and morality, it will critically examine ethical issues in Advertising, public relations, targeting of integrated marketing communications efforts, public relations, sales promotions, personal selling, packaging and Telemarketing. It will also discuss the external constraints that influence the choice of product adverts and promotions and will provide practical examples and solutions and how to improve ethical conducts in Nigerian integrated marketing communications.

  14. Ethnic marketing possibilities and its ethics issues

    Agota Kozma

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the possibilities of ethnic marketing and its ethic connections. The differences found in our face-to-face interviews and analysing questionnaire data will provide opportunities for Hungarian small enterprises. Targeting ethnic groups for marketing purposes results in ethical difficulties. In Hungary, ethnic marketing is yet an inexperienced concept. Based on these ideas the authors examine the ins and outs of using ethnic marketing in case of Germans in Hungary. Consumers with German ethnic attitude really want German products and brands. At the same time, enterprises have to emphasise the products Germanness and character in a better/stronger way because this can help for better consumer decision making.

  15. Ethical issues in health research in children

    2008-01-01

    Health research is a moral duty because it is the foundation for evidence-based care by all health care practitioners. Specific Canadian policies and regulations govern the conduct of human research; ethics review of research is required before research is conducted. Research in children poses important challenges with regard to informed consent and assent, vulnerability and potential conflicts of interest (COI). Paediatric health researchers should advocate for research participation by chil...

  16. Stem Cells and Ethics: Current Issues

    McCormick, Jennifer Blair; Huso, Holly A.

    2009-01-01

    Much attention has recently turned to the promise and potential of human stem cells in therapeutic applications for the repair of cardiac tissue. The advances being made in the laboratory are exciting, and the pace at which research using human stem cells is moving from bench to bedside is extraordinary. The social, ethical, and policy considerations embedded within this area of research also require a large amount of attention and deliberation so that the scientific progress is able to succe...

  17. Ethical issues in communicating with participants

    Montada, Leo; Arbeitsgruppe "Verantwortung, Gerechtigkeit, Moral" der Universität Trier, FB I - Psychologie

    1998-01-01

    Communication is imbued with attitudes toward the addresses and conscious or unconscious conceptions about the relationships with them. Sensitivity for ethical conflicts as well as "handling" them largely depend on how the "subjects" "used" in research are perceived as well as on the relationships with them. Riegel (1979) as well as Baumrind (1980) have criticized the use of the term "subjects", and they proposed, among others, to replace it by the term "participant" since this concept implie...

  18. Framing of Ethical Issues in the Network Society

    Etter, Michael; Vestergaard Jørgensen, Anne

    Purpose: This study investigates the moral framing of an ethical issue by various actors and looks at the agenda setting effects between news media and the active online public as represented in social media. Design: We coded 4114 sentences manually and conducted an analysis of conditional...... probability of co-occurrence between actors and issues to identify associative frames. An ARIMA model and time series are applied to detect the interplay between the active online public and news media over a period of three months. Findings: The analysis reveals different framings of the ethical issue by...

  19. Legal and Ethical Issues Regarding Social Media and Pharmacy Education

    Cain, Jeff; Fink, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    Widespread use of social media applications like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter has introduced new complexities to the legal and ethical environment of higher education. Social communications have traditionally been considered private; however, now that much of this information is published online to the public, more insight is available to students' attitudes, opinions, and character. Pharmacy educators and administrators may struggle with the myriad of ethical and legal issues pertaining to...

  20. A STUDY OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN BANKING INDUSTRY

    Vijay Joshi; Dr. K.A. Goyal

    2011-01-01

    Economic performance of a country is largely determined by banking and financial system. Banking and finance play a vital and crucial role in framing public policies in today’s business environment. This article highlights social and ethical issues such as social banking, ethical banking, green banking, global banking, rural banking, and agri-banking, which help in achieving sustainable development of banking and finance. For this purpose, we have gone through a series of development that ar...

  1. A look at ethical issues in action research in education

    Banegas, Darío Luis; Villacañas de Castro, Luis Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    This reflective contribution covers a wide range of ethical issues which are bound to arise when teacher-researchers engage in technical, practical or critical models of action research. Once these three models are briefly explained, the paper proceeds to justify why ethical dilemmas are an intrinsic part of action research, precisely on account of its collaborative nature and of the diverse motivations, perspectives, and institutional roles held by its participants. As a result, questions ar...

  2. Legal and Ethical Issues in Evaluating Abortion Services.

    Ferris, Lori E.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on ethical and legal issues that arose in the evaluation of abortion services. Discusses the development of decision rules and tradeoffs in dealing with these issues to reach rational and objective decisions. Places the discussion in the context of balancing usefulness and propriety with respect to informed consent and privacy and makes

  3. Public Relations Ethics in Information Management

    Hrvoje Jakopović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Public relations is involved in all communication between an organization and the public. In the contemporary world, PR practitioners have become the facilitators of information. Information and communication technology (ICT have imposed new rules in the field of public relations. Communication strategy and information management have become crucial parts of modern public relations. People change their habits with regard to the consumption of traditional and new media. The challenges imposed by the development of information and communication technology are also related to understanding the new information society. For that reason information ethics deals with the ethical implications of dissemination, use, development and safety of information. Public relations follow new information and communication trends, and they need to build firm ethical principles for the age of information. The author examines the ethical implications of the framing concept in public relations.

  4. Nanomedicine-emerging or re-emerging ethical issues? A discussion of four ethical themes.

    Lenk, Christian; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2007-06-01

    Nanomedicine plays a prominent role among emerging technologies. The spectrum of potential applications is as broad as it is promising. It includes the use of nanoparticles and nanodevices for diagnostics, targeted drug delivery in the human body, the production of new therapeutic materials as well as nanorobots or nanoprotheses. Funding agencies are investing large sums in the development of this area, among them the European Commission, which has launched a large network for life-sciences related nanotechnology. At the same time government agencies as well as the private sector are putting forward reports of working groups that have looked into the promises and risks of these developments. This paper will begin with an introduction to the central ethical themes as identified by selected reports from Europe and beyond. In a next step, it will analyse the most frequently invoked ethical concerns-risk assessment and management, the issues of human identity and enhancement, possible implications for civil liberties (e.g. nanodevices that might be used for covert surveillance), and concerns about equity and fair access. Although it seems that the main ethical issues are not unique to nanotechnologies, the conclusion will argue against shrugging them off as non-specific items that have been considered before in the context of other biomedical technologies, such as gene therapy or xenotransplantation. Rather, the paper will call on ethicists to help foster a rational, fair and participatory discourse on the different potential applications of nanotechnologies in medicine, which can form the basis for informed and responsible societal and political decisions. PMID:16944265

  5. Moral Objectivity, Jurgen Habermas's Discourse Ethics, and Public Relations.

    Leeper, Roy V.

    1996-01-01

    States that while increasing attention is being paid by people in public relations to ethical theory, the predominant ethical perspective is still situational. Analyzes the applicability of the Discourse Ethics theory of Jurgen Habermas to public relations ethics. Concludes that Discourse Ethics holds the potential of a new, more objective…

  6. Have Ethic Issues Changed in Professions?

    Luepke-Estéfan, Erik

    2007-04-01

    Professions are important today due to the growing number and their development. Furthermore there is a technological development unimaginable in the previous centuries. At the beginning it was recognized that there were three professions: Priest, Ruler and Doctor, representing the classical conception of Universe divided into ``Macrocosmos'', ``Mesocosmos'' and ``Microcosmos'' respectively. Modern age means the beginning of a change in this classical conception; that has been arguable, until the actual view that it is difficult to define what an ethical behaviour is in the professionals. This presentation tries to show some of the difficulties and conflicts presented by the technological and professional development.

  7. Governing Nanotechnology: Social, Ethical and Human Issues

    Bainbridge, William

    This chapter is a human-centered survey of nanotechnology's broader implications, reporting on the early phase of work by social scientists, philosophers, and other scholars. It begins with the social science agenda developed by governments, and the heritage of research on technology and organizations that social science brings to this mission. It then outlines current thinking about nanotechnology's economic impacts, health or environmental impacts, and social contributions. It discusses how technology can be regulated by a combination of informal ethics and formal law, then concludes by considering the shape of popular nanotechnology culture, as reflected in science fiction, public perceptions, and education.

  8. Exploring the ethical and regulatory issues in pragmatic clinical trials.

    Califf, Robert M; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2015-10-01

    The need for high-quality evidence to support decision making about health and health care by patients, physicians, care providers, and policy-makers is well documented. However, serious shortcomings in evidence persist. Pragmatic clinical trials that use novel techniques including emerging information and communication technologies to explore important research questions rapidly and at a fraction of the cost incurred by more "traditional" research methods promise to help close this gap. Nevertheless, while pragmatic clinical trials can bridge clinical practice and research, they may also raise difficult ethical and regulatory challenges. In this article, the authors briefly survey the current state of evidence that is available to inform clinical care and other health-related decisions and discuss the potential for pragmatic clinical trials to improve this state of affairs. They then propose a new working definition for pragmatic research that centers upon fitness for informing decisions about health and health care. Finally, they introduce a project, jointly undertaken by the National Institutes of Health Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory and the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet), which addresses 11 key aspects of current systems for regulatory and ethical oversight of clinical research that pose challenges to conducting pragmatic clinical trials. In the series of articles commissioned on this topic published in this issue of Clinical Trials, each of these aspects is addressed in a dedicated article, with a special focus on the interplay between ethical and regulatory considerations and pragmatic clinical research aimed at informing "real-world" choices about health and health care. PMID:26374676

  9. Ethical Issues Encountered by Military Nurses During Wartime.

    Agazio, Janice; Goodman, Petra; Opanubi, Oluwakemi; McMullen, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Military nurses encounter similar issues as civilian nurses in daily practice situations; however, wartime and humanitarian missions may bring unique and difficult ethical dilemmas. While nursing has the American Nurses Association code of ethics to provide a framework to guide ethical practice decisions, conflicts may arise from the unique aspects of nursing within a wartime environment. Understanding those conflicts occuring within the military wartime scenario can provide nurses with experiential examples from which to derive strategies for personal coping and professional behavior and decision making. This chapter describes the research that has focused upon the identification of these issues, the effects from uresolved issues, and those directions for future research to better prepare miltiary nurses before and during deployment. PMID:26673384

  10. Nuclear energy - social and ethical issues

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the continued exploration and mining and the construction and operation of nuclear reactors, both domestically and for export, is and will continue to be ethically and socially sound. Benefit and risk should be shared equally in the ideal society, in the real world this does not seem possible, but nuclear power appears not to worsen the situation and may even improve it. The real risks of nuclear power are less than those tolerated by many in their daily lives, but the public is relucant to accept them. The diversion of effort from dealing with real risks to worrying about hypothetical ones can be a disservice to society. Technology is inherently value-free, but can be used to raise the standard of living and provide a lifestyle in which non-material values can thrive. Withholding uranium from world markets increases the pressure on oil and the probability of armed conflict. A connection is made between uranium supply and food production. Social justice is a vital concern, but boycotts and trade embargoes may worsen suffering and have little effect on oppressors. There are formally defined international obligations to share nuclear technology. Scientists and engineers have a responsibility, which they are living up to more frequently, to make their specialized knowledge available to decision makers, and to express the ethical basis for their work. Nuclear energy appears to be more benign to future generations than many other present-day activities. (LL)

  11. Individual and organizational predictors of the ethicality of graduate students' responses to research integrity issues.

    Langlais, Philip J; Bent, Blake J

    2014-12-01

    The development of effective means to enhance research integrity by universities requires baseline measures of individual, programmatic, and institutional factors known to contribute to ethical decision making and behavior. In the present study, master's thesis and Ph.D. students in the fields of biological, health and social sciences at a research extensive university completed a field appropriate measure of research ethical decision making and rated the seriousness of the research issue and importance for implementing the selection response. In addition they were asked to rate their perceptions of the institutional and departmental research climate and to complete a measure of utilitarian and formalistic predisposition. Female students were found to be more ethical in their decision making compared to male students. The research ethical decision measure was found to be related to participants' ethical predisposition and overall perception of organizational and departmental research climate; however, formalism was the only individual predictor to reach statistical significance and none of the individual subscales of the research climate measure were significantly correlated to ethicality. Participants' ratings of the seriousness of the issue were correlated with their ratings of the importance of carrying out their selected response but neither was significantly predictive of the ethicality of their responses. The implications of these findings for the development of more effective training programs and environments for graduate students in research ethics and integrity are discussed. PMID:24048818

  12. Ethical issues in videorecording patients lacking capacity to consent

    Carlo Petrini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Videorecording of patients requires the utmost respect for the privacy and confidentiality of the patients. Consent should be requested from patients for all videorecording. When a mental disability or mental or physical illness prevents patients from giving their permission, agreement to recording from a legal representative or from a close relative or carer are necessary. Three documents on this subject issued in the United Kingdom, the United State of America and Italy are briefly summarized and discussed. The problem of consent for videorecording is addressed particularly in reference to persons incapable of making decisions on their own, such as persons in vegetative state. The general ethical framework is outlined and a few practical proposals are given.

  13. Review for the volume Practicing Relational Ethics in Organizations, Authors: Gitte Haslebo, Maja Loua Haslebo, Taos Institute Publications, ISBN 978-0-9819076-8-0

    Antonio SANDU

    2012-01-01

    The volume Practicing Relational Ethics in Organizations having as authors Gitte Haslebo and Maja Loua Haslebo issued by Taos Institute Publications Ohio USA, discusses relational ethics and ethical practice in the organization. The problem of ethical practice in the organization besides being a necessity for business it overlaps with aspects of organizational culture, personnel management, leadership. Within the organizational ethics, the authors select the issue of relational ethics from a ...

  14. Nuclear Power as an Ethical Issue: Utilitarian Ethics and Egalitarian Responses.

    Hadjilambrinos, Constantine

    1990-01-01

    Described is the philosophical debate over the issue of nuclear power. Discussed are the utilitarian nature of the justification of nuclear power and the utilitarian approaches to the issue of nuclear power, the strengths and weaknesses of this approach, and utilitarian versus egalitarian ethics. (KR)

  15. Prevention, communication and equity in environmental epidemiology: ethical issues

    Giordana Pagliarani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In environmental epidemiology research, decisions about when and how to intervene requires adequate ethical reflection. In fact, different kinds of issues may arise about: research methods and knowledge production; management of the results in terms of their overall assessments or for the implementation of preventive actions; reclamation intervention. In this contribution we propose to consider three topics we regard as crucial to this ethical debate: the reporting of conclusive research data; the correct application of the precautionary principle; and the environmental equity issues.

  16. Issues in bioethics. Ethics and professional responsibilities.

    Aarons, D E

    2003-03-01

    The evolution of ethics in medicine has provided the concept of the learned physician who is trained in the scientific method (studying nature and philosophy), and who is wise, modest and humane. The physician's manner, deportment and character should be above reproach, and devotion to the productive art of medicine should supersede any desire for financial gain. Professionalism provides the organizational structure through which the medical doctor performs his/her healing role, and underscores the concept that medical professionals should be moral and devoted to the public good, displaying altruism at the expense of self-interest, and providing accountability. This article examines some of the obligations that arise within this milieu. PMID:12806746

  17. Ethical Issues in Nuclear Waste Management

    Nuclear experts claim that the health risks from radioactive waste disposal are low compared to other environmental hazards, yet the general public is sceptical of the industry's ability to guarantee acceptable safety standards. Many allude to what might be deemed morally relevant factors, such as potential harms to future generations, possibly catastrophic consequences and environmental effects. Industry has often tended to respond with a claim that the public has an irrational perception of radiation risks, particularly those from man-made rather than natural sources. From a philosophical point of view it is interesting to consider exactly how nuclear risks might differ from other hazards, not least to evaluate which ethically relevant factors could be used to defend the stringent demands made by society for nuclear waste disposal

  18. Ethical Issues in Nuclear Waste Management

    Oughton, Deborah [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry and Biotechnology

    2001-07-01

    Nuclear experts claim that the health risks from radioactive waste disposal are low compared to other environmental hazards, yet the general public is sceptical of the industry's ability to guarantee acceptable safety standards. Many allude to what might be deemed morally relevant factors, such as potential harms to future generations, possibly catastrophic consequences and environmental effects. Industry has often tended to respond with a claim that the public has an irrational perception of radiation risks, particularly those from man-made rather than natural sources. From a philosophical point of view it is interesting to consider exactly how nuclear risks might differ from other hazards, not least to evaluate which ethically relevant factors could be used to defend the stringent demands made by society for nuclear waste disposal.

  19. Ethical issues in neonatal intensive care.

    Orzalesi, Marcello M; Cuttini, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress in neonatal care have significantly improved the prognosis and chances of survival of critically ill or extremely preterm neonates and have modified the limits of viability. However, in some circumstances, when the child's death can only be briefly postponed at the price of severe suffering, or when survival is associated with severe disabilities and an intolerable life for the child and his/her parents, the application of the full armamentarium of modern neonatal intensive care may not be appropriate. In such circumstances the limitation of intensive treatments (withholding or withdrawing) and shift towards palliative care, can represent a more humane and reasonable alternative. This article examines and discusses the ethical principles underlying such difficult decisions, the most frequent situations in which these decisions may be considered, the role of parents in the decisional process, and the opinions and behaviours of neonatologists of several European neonatal intensive units as reported by the EURONIC study. PMID:21952152

  20. Identifying veterinary students' capacity for moral behavior concerning animal ethics issues.

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2014-01-01

    Veterinarians face unique animal ethics challenges as practitioners and policy advisors to government and industry. Changing societal attitudes, cultural diversity, and the often conflicting needs and interests of patients and clients contribute to moral distress. Yet little has been done to identify veterinarians' capacity to address these animal ethics issues. In this study, first-year and final-year veterinary students in an Australian university were surveyed to explore moral sensitivity, moral motivation, and moral character and their relationship with moral reasoning. The majority of students were concerned about animal ethics issues and had experienced moral distress in relation to the treatment of animals. Most believed that veterinarians should address the wider social issues of animal protection and that veterinary medicine should require a commitment to animals' interests over owners'/caregivers' interests. There was less agreement that the veterinary profession was sufficiently involved in addressing animal ethics issues. The principal motivators for studying veterinary medicine were, in declining importance, enjoyment in working with animals, helping sick and injured animals, and improving the way animals are treated. However, most students had taken little or no action to address animal ethics issues. These results suggest that both first- and fifth-year veterinary students are sensitive to animal ethics issues and are motivated to prioritize the interests of animals but have little experience in taking action to address these issues. Further research is needed to determine ways to identify and assess these moral behavior components in veterinary education to develop veterinarians' capacity to address animal ethics issues. PMID:25335645

  1. Ethical issues that confront nurses in private hospitals in the Western Cape Metropolitan area

    Ethelwynn L. Stellenberg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nurses are faced daily with a variety of ethical issues which could be as a result of budget cuts, target setting, the shortage of nurses and expertise. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to identify ethical issues related to patient care, to describe ethical issues related to patient diversity, rights and human dignity. To describe ethical issues related to caring in nursing and to the workplace environment. Method: A quantitative explorative descriptive research design was applied. A stratified sample of (n = 142/5% was drawn from all nurses and caregivers (N = 2990 working in a selected group of eight private hospitals. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. Statistical tests were applied to determine statistical relationships between variables. Results: Results included (95% of respondents provided safe and committed care to their patients, (99% loved to care for their patients and (93% believed in the Nurses’ Pledge of Service. Fifty percent (50% of the respondents indicated verbal abuse from patients and only (59% experienced openness and transparency in the work environment. Analysis further identified that the caregivers did not respect the noble tradition of the profession and experienced the most verbal abuse. Conclusion: This study has identified ethical issues which may give rise to conflict within the workplace environment if not adequately addressed by management. The study further showed that the use of caregivers not regulated in nursing practice may pose as a threat to the safety of the patient.

  2. Ethical issues and controversies in assisted reproductive technologies.

    Harvey, J C

    1992-10-01

    The current ethical issues and controversies concerning in vitro fertilization revolve around micromanipulation of the gametes, cryopreservation of the fertilized ova, selective termination in multiple pregnancies, surrogacy, and gamete donation. At the basis of these ethical issues is the philosophic question of personhood, or the term "human person," and the consideration given to the normal weight that is ascribed to the various forms of living matter that are found in the process of development after human spermatozoa have been placed together with harvested oocytes in the petri dish. The papers of very special importance and special importance written during the past year on these ethical problems are listed and classified. The summaries of their arguments and positions on these problems are enumerated. PMID:1391649

  3. The Role of Public Relations in the Institutionalization of Ethics.

    Fitzpatrick, Kathy R.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the role and perceived value of public relations in institutional ethics initiatives. Surveys ethics officers in North American institutions. Finds that public relations professionals are not playing key roles in the institutionalization of ethics, and that public relations remains a relatively untapped resource in ethics programs. (PA)

  4. Commodifying animals: ethical issues in genetic engineering of animals.

    Almond, B

    2000-03-01

    The genetic modification of living beings raises special ethical concerns which go beyond general discussion of animal rights or welfare. Although the goals may be similar, biotechnology has accelerated the process of modification of types traditionally carried out by cross-breeding. These changes are discussed in relation to two areas: biomedicine, and animal husbandry. Alternative ethical approaches are reviewed, and it is argued that the teleological thesis underlying virtue ethics has special relevance here. The case for and the case against genetic engineering and patenting of life-forms are examined, and conclusions are drawn which favour regulation, caution and respect for animals and animal species. PMID:15080125

  5. Ethical Issues Involving Research Conducted with Homebound Older Adults

    Locher, Julie L.; Bronstein, Janet; Robinson, Caroline O.; Williams, Charlotte; Ritchie, Christine S.

    2006-01-01

    Conducting research in the home setting with homebound older adults presents distinct ethical and practical challenges that require special consideration. This article describes the methodological issues that make studying homebound older adults especially vulnerable to therapeutic misconception and researcher role conflict and offers practical

  6. Ethical Issues in Counseling Adult Survivors of Incest.

    Daniluk, Judith C. and Haverkamp, Beth E.

    1993-01-01

    Counseling adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse raises ethical issues which include maintaining client confidentiality when the situations have been both immoral and illegal or working with survivors without appropriate training. Principles such as autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence and nonmaleficence, and self-interest are examined, as

  7. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues

    David B. Resnik

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.

  8. Ethical Issues in Social Work. An Annotated Bibliography.

    Elliott, Martha W., Comp.

    Designed as a practical aid to social work students and practitioners interested in approaching the ethical issues inherent in social work practice, this annotated bibliography lists over 500 books and articles, most of which were published between 1970 and 1983. The bibliography has two main parts, of which the first consists of selections from…

  9. Ethical Issues in Withholding Care from Severely Handicapped Infants.

    Cohen, Libby

    1981-01-01

    Ethical issues are examined that involve withholding medical treatment from severely handicapped infants. Although current laws do not sanction euthanasia, severely handicapped infants are often assisted in dying. Discussion includes society's apparent acceptance of this practice and several solutions to the problems. (Author)

  10. Ethical issues in predictive genetic testing: a public health perspective

    Fulda, K G; Lykens, K

    2006-01-01

    As a result of the increase in genetic testing and the fear of discrimination by insurance companies, employers, and society as a result of genetic testing, the disciplines of ethics, public health, and genetics have converged. Whether relatives of someone with a positive predictive genetic test should be notified of the results and risks is a matter urgently in need of debate. Such a debate must encompass the moral and ethical obligations of the diagnosing physician and the patient. The deci...

  11. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.

    Serour, G I

    2013-11-01

    Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral. PMID:24004295

  12. Social and ethical issues in environmental risk management.

    Oughton, Deborah H

    2011-07-01

    The recognition of the social and ethical aspects of radiation risk management has been an important part of international projects following the Chernobyl accident of 1986. This study comments on the science and policy issues in environmental risk assessment, including the social and ethical dimensions of emergency preparedness and remediation experiences gained from the Chernobyl accident. While the unique situation of Fukushima, combined with an earthquake and tsunami, raises its own social and political challenges, it is hoped that some of the lessons learnt from Chernobyl will be relevant to long-term management of the Fukushima site. PMID:21608106

  13. Disservice to Children; Advertising an Ethical issue

    Khan, Sameer Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    This study is conducted to expose the evidence about the effects of food advertising on children in Karachi, Pakistan. Advertising in itself is a powerfully suasive medium. Does food advertising leads to over weight and obese children? If it does than it raises questions about certain other serious health issues. What are the other supporting elements besides advertising leading to obesity? A small scale qualitative study was performed on school children and their parents to gather crucial i...

  14. Environmental Refugees: Ethical Issues Involving Overpopulation

    Cairns, John

    2010-01-01

    Environmental refugees are produced when the human population exceeds the carrying capacity of a particular region and its inhabitants are forced to search for a more hospitable area. Since not much has been done to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or other issues of global warming, there will continue to be more environmental refugees for the next decade or more. Considering that the biosphere is made up of finite resources and finite space per capita, an increasing population will cause mor...

  15. Technical and Ethical Issues in Indicator Systems

    Carol Taylor Fitz-Gibbon; Peter Tymms

    2002-01-01

    Most indicator systems are top-down, published, management systems, addressing primarily the issue of public accountability. In contrast we describe here a university-based suite of "grass-roots," research-oriented indicator systems that are now subscribed to, voluntarily, by about 1 in 3 secondary schools and over 4,000 primary schools in England. The systems are also being used by groups in New Zealand, Australia and Hong Kong, and with international schools in 30 countries. These systems w...

  16. The perceptions of danish physiotherapists on the ethical issues related to the physiotherapist-patient relationship during the first session: a phenomenological approach

    Praestegaard Jeanette; Gard Gunvor

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In the course of the last four decades, the profession of physiotherapy has progressively expanded its scope of responsibility and its focus on professional autonomy and evidence-based clinical practice. To preserve professional autonomy, it is crucial for the physiotherapy profession to meet society's expectations and demands of professional competence as well as ethical competence. Since it is becoming increasingly popular to choose a carrier in private practice in Denma...

  17. Piercing the veil: ethical issues in ethnographic research.

    Schrag, Brian

    2009-06-01

    It is not unusual for researchers in ethnography (and sometimes Institutional Review Boards) to assume that research of "public" behavior is morally unproblematic. I examine an historical case of ethnographic research and the sustained moral outrage to the research expressed by the subjects of that research. I suggest that the moral outrage was legitimate and articulate some of the ethical issues underlying that outrage. I argue that morally problematic Ethnographic research of public behavior can derive from research practice that includes a tendency to collapse the distinction between harm and moral wrong, a failure to take account of recent work on ethical issues in privacy; failure to appreciate the deception involved in ethnographers' failure to reveal their role as researchers to subjects and finally a failure to appropriately weigh the moral significance of issues of invasion of privacy and inflicted insight in both the research process and subsequent publication of research. PMID:19034693

  18. ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH

    ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH, designed to stimulate dialogue on ethical and regulatory issues in cancer research and promote awareness of developing policies and best practices.

  19. "Business Ethics Everywhere": An Experiential Exercise to Develop Students' Ability to Identify and Respond to Ethical Issues in Business

    Baker, Susan D.; Comer, Debra R.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces an experiential exercise that enhances students' ability to identify ethical issues and to respond to them in ways that consider the relationship between organizational factors and ethical action. Students identify a required number of ethical incidents in their workplaces during a specified period. Students submit a…

  20. Risk and supervised exercise: the example of anorexia to illustrate a new ethical issue in the traditional debates of medical ethics.

    Giordano, S

    2005-01-01

    Sport and physical activity is an area that remains relatively unexplored by contemporary bioethics. It is, however, an area in which important ethical issues arise. This paper explores the case of the participation of people with anorexia nervosa in exercise. Exercise is one of the central features of anorexia. The presence of anorexics in exercise classes is becoming an increasingly sensitive issue for instructors and fitness professionals. The ethics of teaching exercise to anorexics has, however, seldom, if ever, been addressed. Codes of ethics and legislation do not offer guidelines pertinent to the case and it is left unclear whether anorexics should be allowed to participate in exercise classes. It is shown by this paper that there are strong ethical reasons to let anorexics participate in exercise classes. However, the paper also explains why, despite these apparently cogent ethical reasons, there is no moral obligation to allow a person with anorexia to take part in exercise/sports activities. PMID:15634747

  1. Ethical, legal and practical issues of establishing an adipose stem cell bank for research.

    West, C C; Murray, I R; González, Z N; Hindle, P; Hay, D C; Stewart, K J; Péault, B

    2014-06-01

    Access to human tissue is critical to medical research, however the laws and regulations surrounding gaining ethical and legal access to tissue are often poorly understood. Recently, there has been a huge increase in the interest surrounding the therapeutic application of adipose tissue, and adipose-derived stem cells. To facilitate our own research interests and possibly assist our local colleagues and collaborators, we established a Research Tissue Bank (RTB) to collect, store and distribute human adipose tissue derived cells with all the appropriate ethical approval for subsequent downstream research. Here we examine the legal, ethical and practical issues relating to the banking of adipose tissue for research in the UK, and discuss relevant international guidelines and policies. We also share our experiences of establishing an RTB including the necessary infrastructure and the submission of an application to a Research Ethics Committee (REC). PMID:24529696

  2. The Investigation of the Opinions of Teacher Candidates about Current Ethical Issues in Terms of Various Variables

    ?smet KURT

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is planned for determining teacher candidates opinions about some bioethics issues which include ethical dilemmas. In this research in which quantitative research techniques was used, a study group consisted of 238 teacher candidates from eight different departments at Gazi University in 2011-2012 academic year. Bioethical Values Inventory including scenarios located in the center of ethical issues, such as genetic screening tests, reproductive technologies and euthanasia used as an assessment instrument. Preferences of teacher candidates on scenarios are examined by using research variables such as the gender and studied department. In addition ethical approaches when making their decisions on ethical problems were analyzed. It was observed that the teacher candidates changed the ethical approaches while making decision for each scenario were varied. The teachers overall judgments and ethical approach preferences for each scenario did not differentiate according to the department and gender. Only gender-related differences were identified in the genetic screening test scenario.

  3. Ethical issues in electronic health records: A general overview

    Fouzia F Ozair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic health record (EHR is increasingly being implemented in many developing countries. It is the need of the hour because it improves the quality of health care and is also cost-effective. Technologies can introduce some hazards hence safety of information in the system is a real challenge. Recent news of security breaches has put a question mark on this system. Despite its increased usefulness, and increasing enthusiasm in its adoption, not much attention is being paid to the ethical issues that might arise. Securing EHR with an encrypted password is a probable option. The purpose of this article is to discuss the various ethical issues arising in the use of the EHRs and their possible solutions.

  4. New ethical issues for radiation protection in diagnostic radiology

    The ethical basis for many medical practices has been challenged over the last two decades. Radiology has seen enormous growth during the same period. Many practices and equipment types, now commonplace, did not exist a generation ago. Yet the fundamental ethical basis for these practices has not seen a corresponding level of development. This is possibly an oversight, and may be particularly important given that these innovations have taken place over a period of changing social attitudes. Areas of concern include, for example, issues around justification, consent/authorisation, inadvertent irradiation of the foetus/embryo during pregnancy and the place of paternalism/individual autonomy in the structure of practice. This paper provides the background to a workshop on these issues held in late-2006 and presents a summary of its findings. (authors)

  5. Introducing ethical, social and environmental issues in ICT engineering degrees

    Rafael Miñano; Celia Fernández Aller; Áurea Anguera; Eloy Portillo

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the experience of introducing ethical, social and environmental issues in undergraduate ICT engineering degrees at the Universidad Politécnica of Madrid. It is an example of both bottom-up and top-down approach, as it has been positively influenced by the European Higher Education Area framework and some external recommendations, plus the significant contribution regarding motivation, drive and previous experience of the teachers involved. The experience before the Bologn...

  6. Ethical and social issues in the care of the newborn.

    Singh, Meharban

    2003-05-01

    Ethical and social issues are based upon a system of moral values that serve the best interests of the society in a humane and compassionate manner. The ethical decisions should be based upon the well-enunciated principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, parental autonomy, correct medical facts and justice. In view of our economic constraints, we should follow the philosophy of utilatarian ethics based on the concept of "value for money" and focus our resources and efforts for the care of salvageable babies. Nevertheless, we should try to ensure equitable development of health care of neonates at all levels, and NICU facilities should be developed in the country in a phased manner. In order to ensure justice and cost-effectiveness, the narrow principles of "best interest" of the child should be replaced by the concept of global beneficence to the family, society and the state. Neonatologists are often faced with a large number of ethical issues and dilemmas in the care of critically sick newborn babies and they should be resolved jointly by taking nurses, sub-speciality colleagues and family members into confidence. The technology should not be allowed to further dehumanize medicine and we must establish rapport and provide emotional support to the family members by showing our concern, sympathy and compassion in the care of their critically sick and extremely preterm babies. It is desirable that all the medical and nursing schools in the country should initiate regular education programs in the field of behavioural sciences, communication techniques and medical ethics for the benefit of graduate and postgraduate medical and nursing students. PMID:12841403

  7. Reflecting on ethical and legal issues in wildlife disease.

    McCallum, Hamish; Hocking, Barbara Ann

    2005-08-01

    Disease in wildlife raises a number of issues that have not been widely considered in the bioethical literature. However, wildlife disease has major implications for human welfare. The majority of emerging human infectious diseases are zoonotic: this is, they occur in humans by cross-species transmissions from animal hosts. Managing these diseases often involves balancing concerns with human health against animal welfare and conservation concerns. Many infectious diseases of domestic animals are shared with wild animals, although it is often unclear whether the infection spills over from wild animals to domestic animals or vice versa. Culling is the standard means of managing such diseases, bringing economic considerations, animal welfare and conservation into conflict. Infectious diseases are also major threatening processes in conservation biology and their appropriate management by culling, vaccination or treatment raises substantial animal ethics issues. One particular issue of great significance in Australia is an ongoing research program to develop genetically modified pathogens to control vertebrate pests including rabbits, foxes and house mice. Release of any self-replicating GMO vertebrate pathogen gives rise to a whole series of ethical questions. We briefly review current Australian legal responses to these problems. Finally, we present two unresolved problems of general importance that are exemplified by wildlife disease. First, to what extent can or should 'bioethics' be broadened beyond direct concerns with human welfare to animal welfare and environmental welfare? Second, how should the irreducible uncertainty of ecological systems be accounted for in ethical decision making? PMID:16222841

  8. Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture

    Livestock are vital to subsistence farming and sustainable livelihood in most developing countries. Of India's population of one billion people, more than 70 percent live in the rural areas. India also has more than 30 percent of the world's bovine population. This has resulted in not only egalitarian ownership of cattle, but also in an almost inseparable cultural and symbiotic relationship between rural families and their farm animals, particularly large ruminants. It is against this scenario that the ethical, social and environmental issues of gene-based technologies need to be carefully evaluated. The use of transgenic cows with modified milk composition or for any other purpose has little economic benefit in a system of 'production by masses', as typifies India and a few other developing countries, compared with 'mass production' systems in developed countries. Rather, the use of rDNA technology for developing drought-resistant fodder and forage crops is likely to bring immediate relief to most regions. Cattle, particularly in India, have poor quality feeds and this results in poor nutrition, with production of large amounts of methane. Irnmunocastration -through biotechnological means would also be advantageous. Developing countries like India need sustainable livelihood security, and, in this regard, gene-based technologies in animal agriculture seem more to raise ethical, social and environmental concerns, rather than being likely to transform 'subsistence farming' into vibrant agribusiness. Ethical issues concerning animal welfare, rights and integrity are also discussed, in addition to social, environmental and economic issues. (author)

  9. Ethical issues in patient safety: Implications for nursing management.

    Kangasniemi, Mari; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Jasper, Melanie; Turunen, Hannele

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the ethical issues impacting the phenomenon of patient safety and to present implications for nursing management. Previous knowledge of this perspective is fragmented. In this discussion, the main drivers are identified and formulated in 'the ethical imperative' of patient safety. Underlying values and principles are considered, with the aim of increasing their visibility for nurse managers' decision-making. The contradictory nature of individual and utilitarian safety is identified as a challenge in nurse management practice, together with the context of shared responsibility and identification of future challenges. As a conclusion, nurse managers play a strategic role in patient safety. Their role is to incorporate ethical values of patient safety into decision-making at all levels in an organization, and also to encourage clinical nurses to consider values in the provision of care to patients. Patient safety that is sensitive to ethics provides sustainable practice where the humanity and dignity of all stakeholders are respected. PMID:23702894

  10. Extending preimplantation genetic diagnosis: the ethical debate. Ethical issues in new uses of preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

    Robertson, John A

    2003-03-01

    The use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to screen embryos for aneuploidy and genetic disease is growing. New uses of PGD have been reported in the past year for screening embryos for susceptibility to cancer, for late-onset diseases, for HLA-matching for existing children, and for gender. These extensions have raised questions about their ethical acceptability and the adequacy of regulatory structures to review new uses. This article describes current and likely future uses of PGD, and then analyses the ethical issues posed by new uses of PGD to screen embryos for susceptibility and late-onset conditions, for HLA-matching for tissue donation to an existing child, and for gender selection. It also addresses ethical issues that would arise in more speculative scenarios of selecting embryos for hearing ability or sexual orientation. The article concludes that except for sex selection of the first child, most current extensions of PGD are ethically acceptable, and provides a framework for evaluating future extensions for nonmedical purposes that are still speculative. PMID:12615807

  11. The Ethical Issues Rating Scale: An Instrument for Measuring Ethical Orientation of College Students toward Various Business Practices.

    Daniel, Larry G.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Factor analysis of data from 213 college business students supported the existence of 5 constructs for the Ethical Issues Rating Scale, an instrument measuring respondents' assessment of the importance of various ethical issues. Suggestions about refining the instrument and using it are discussed. (SLD)

  12. Public acceptance of nuclear power - Some ethical issues

    With the increased public perception of the future scale of dependence on nuclear energy a debate has started, raising the level of public awareness of the social, political and technical risks that are inevitably associated with the large-scale and accelerating adoption of nuclear power generation. The nuclear industry has given a mixed response to this debate, to accusations of irresponsibility and to demands for more specific attention to the recognized hazards of the fuel cycle. In this situation, non-governmental bodies such as the World Council of Churches, has taken the responsibility to examine the issues so far identified and to place these in a social and ethical context. The W.C.C. general position on nuclear energy is presented. It includes the risk associated with nuclear technology; nuclear waste disposal; catastrophic accidents; accidents in reprocessing plants, low-level radiation; nuclear weapons; security; nuclear energy and a new international economic order; ethical and religious perspectives

  13. Pedagogical Ethics: A Review of the Literature for Public Relations and Advertising.

    Harrison, Stanley L.

    Ethics is of increasing concern to United States colleges and universities, according to a survey of 183 institutions on this issue focusing on two areas--public relations and advertising. A 75% return from 134 institutions disclosed that some 25% offer an ethics course but less than half require one. Overwhelmingly (93%), most respondents…

  14. Ethical Issues in E-Commerce on the Basis of Online Retailing

    Sinan Nardal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The rapid spread of e-commerce has created tremendous opportunities for economic efficiency and customer choice. Use of the global Internet computer network for ecommerce activities provides some advantages to the consumers on their daily life. On the other hand Internet represents a new environment for unethical behavior. While e-commerce has witnessed extensive growth in last decade, consumers concerns regarding ethical issues also continue to increase. Even many consumers and businesses are reveling in e-commerce; consumer problems related to online retail become the dark side of the issue. Approach: A survey on 400 online shoppers was conducted (three cities in Turkey (Izmir, Manisa, Mersin in order to measure consumers’ perceptions regarding the ethical issues of online retailing by using scale of Consumers’ Perceptions regarding to Ethics of Online Retailers (CPEOR. Results: Ethical problems like security, privacy, reliability and non deception on Internet are core issues that limit the growth of online retailing. Conclusion/Recommendation: Findings indicate that; four factors (security, privacy, non deception and reliability are strongly predictive of online consumers’ satisfaction. Also, this research will be beneficial to online retailers on their online retailing activities.

  15. Toward an Ideal Relational Ethic: Rethinking university-community engagement

    Steve Garlick

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how an ideal relational ethic based on Zygmunt Bauman’s (1995 notion of forms of togetherness is needed to underpin university-community engagement processes and practices. We focus on the notion of being-for, and suggest that it can be used as an ‘engagement bridge’ between higher education institutions, the creation of human capital and communities, and can be a means to achieve ethical outcomes to local concerns. Much of Bauman’s (1995; 2001; 2007 theoretical development has focussed on the liquidity of modernity, to give the impression that community - in the spatially, physically located and fixed sense of the term - no longer exists. This paper proposes that spatial dimensions, particularly in the context of developing relational ethics, are important. This is particularly so for paying adequate attention to context-specific values, principles and issues in communities, for developing enterprising human capital via engagement, and for addressing matters of socio-political importance such as the environment. Contemporary neo-liberal times require ethical and moral leadership from universities. This paper suggests that such leadership can be developed from focussing attention on the forms of togetherness fostered by university-community engagement.

  16. Ethical issues in DNA sequencing in the neonate.

    Dimmock, David P; Bick, David P

    2014-12-01

    With the recognition of genetic disorders in the newborn, there is the potential to offer new lifesaving therapies. For other conditions such as hypothyroidism in Down syndrome or hypercalemia in the 22q11 microdeltion syndrome, the early identification of an untreatable condition permits prompt screening for potential comorbid conditions. DNA testing for disorders and DNA-based screening are rapidly evolving. With new more powerful tests, there is an increasing ability to see into a potential future and change the outcome for newborns. However, there remain significant ethical and structural issues to be considered before routine implementation of DNA testing. PMID:25459786

  17. Ethical issues in cochlear implant surgery: an exploration into disease, disability, and the best interests of the child.

    Lane, Harlan; Grodin, Michael

    1997-09-01

    This paper examines ethical issues related to medical practices with children and adults who are members of a linguistic and cultural minority known as the DEAF-WORLD. Members of that culture characteristically have hearing parents and are treated by hearing professionals whose values, particularly concerning language, speech, and hearing, are typically quite different from their own. That disparity has long fueled a debate on several ethical issues, most recently the merits of cochlear implant surgery for DEAF children. We explore whether that surgery would be ethical if implants could deliver close to normal hearing for most implanted children, thereby diminishing the ranks of the DEAF-WORLD. The ethical implications of eugenic practices with the DEAF are explored, as are ethical quandaries in parental surrogacy for DEAF children, and their parallels in transracial adoption. PMID:11660356

  18. Neurofunctional Correlates of Ethical, Food-Related Decision-Making

    Cherry, J. Bradley C.; Bruce, Jared M.; Lusk, Jayson L.; Crespi, John M.; Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S.

    2015-01-01

    For consumers today, the perceived ethicality of a food’s production method can be as important a purchasing consideration as its price. Still, few studies have examined how, neurofunctionally, consumers are making ethical, food-related decisions. We examined how consumers’ ethical concern about a food’s production method may relate to how, neurofunctionally, they make decisions whether to purchase that food. Forty-six participants completed a measure of the extent to which they took ethical ...

  19. The Full Spectrum of Clinical Ethical Issues in Kidney Failure. Findings of a Systematic Qualitative Review

    Kahrass, Hannes; Strech, Daniel; Mertz, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Background When treating patients with kidney failure, unavoidable ethical issues often arise. Current clinical practice guidelines some of them, but lack comprehensive information about the full range of relevant ethical issues in kidney failure. A systematic literature review of such ethical issues supports medical professionalism in nephrology, and offers a solid evidential base for efforts that aim to improve ethical conduct in health care. Aim To identify the full spectrum of clinical ethical issues that can arise for patients with kidney failure in a systematic and transparent manner. Method A systematic review in Medline (publications in English or German between 2000 and 2014) and Google Books (with no restrictions) was conducted. Ethical issues were identified by qualitative text analysis and normative analysis. Results The literature review retrieved 106 references that together mentioned 27 ethical issues in clinical care of kidney failure. This set of ethical issues was structured into a matrix consisting of seven major categories and further first and second-order categories. Conclusions The systematically-derived matrix helps raise awareness and understanding of the complexity of ethical issues in kidney failure. It can be used to identify ethical issues that should be addressed in specific training programs for clinicians, clinical practice guidelines, or other types of policies dealing with kidney failure. PMID:26938863

  20. A handbook of ethical practice a practical guide to dealing with ethical issues in information and library work

    McMenemy, David; Burton, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This book looks at all of the ethical issues facing information and library professionals in one overarching, and practically-focused, text. As such, it is of great benefit to both practitioners and to LIS students. The focus of the book is two-fold: (1) It contains a detailed discussion of the issues that impact on the day-today practice of information workers in the 21st century; and (2) contains case studies discussing potential solutions to ethical problems faced. The book provides sections which work like flowcharts leading from ethical issues through decision points to proposed solutions

  1. Ethical issues in predictive genetic testing: a public health perspective.

    Fulda, K G; Lykens, K

    2006-03-01

    As a result of the increase in genetic testing and the fear of discrimination by insurance companies, employers, and society as a result of genetic testing, the disciplines of ethics, public health, and genetics have converged. Whether relatives of someone with a positive predictive genetic test should be notified of the results and risks is a matter urgently in need of debate. Such a debate must encompass the moral and ethical obligations of the diagnosing physician and the patient. The decision to inform or not will vary depending on what moral theory is used. Utilising the utilitarian and libertarian theories produces different outcomes. The principles of justice and non-maleficence will also play an important role in the decision. PMID:16507657

  2. Ethical and quasi-ethical issues in medical editing and publishing.

    Pitkin, R M

    1998-06-01

    The peer review system is a complex, delicately balanced, and dynamic system by which most new medical information is made known. The participants in the process - authors, reviewers, and editors - all have responsibilities to shoulder and rights that need to be protected. An ethical structure has evolved over time to accomplish these two goals. This paper discusses six of these ethical or quasi-ethical issues. Authorship is currently a contentious matter, in part because authors see it as a credit, whereas editors view it as responsibility. Conflict of interest, usually financial, which seems to be increasing with the growing commercialization of medicine, can undermine the credibility and integrity of publication. Confidentiality is an essential component of peer review to protect an author's creative work from exploitation or misappropriation and to protect reviewers from retribution. Redundant publication, publishing or attempting to publish essentially the same work more than once, is regarded seriously because it wastes a journal's resources, confuses later literature reviews, and depreciates the value of authorship. Advertising is a necessary fact of life for most medical journals, but safeguards must be in place to prevent its influencing editorial decisions. When fraud or plagiarism is alleged about something a journal has published, the journal is not equipped to undertake the kind of investigation needed, and should refer the matter to the institution that sponsored the research. PMID:9575262

  3. Ethical issues of transplanting organs from transgenic animals into human beings.

    Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human's body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal's organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

  4. Ethical Issues of Transplanting Organs from Transgenic Animals into Human Beings

    Shima Behnam Manesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human’s body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action. The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal’s organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven.

  5. Ethical, social, and legal issues surrounding studies of susceptible populations and individuals.

    Soskolne, C L

    1997-01-01

    Calls for professional accountability have resulted in the development of ethics guidelines by numerous specialty and subspecialty groups of scientists. Indeed, guidelines among some health professions now address vulnerable and dependent groups: but these are silent on issues related to biomarkers. In parallel, attention has been drawn to human rights concerns associated with attempts to detect hypersusceptible workers, especially in democratic countries. Despite this, concern for vulnerable...

  6. Dealing with Ethical Issues among Internet Users: Do We Need Legal Enforcement?

    Ali Salman; Suhana Saad; Mohd. Nor Shahizan Ali

    2013-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs), in particular of the Internet and of the World Wide Web, have paved the way for numerous ICT related development and initiative. In as much as there are beneficial usage of the Internet, there is also unethical usage and abuse. The Internet is like a double edge sword and care must be taken when indulging in this vast ocean of knowledge and information. Studies on ethical issue have centred much on internet security like hacking of personal i...

  7. What happened to public responsibility? The lack of society in public relations codes of ethics

    Monica Walle

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of ethics is complex and contentious. For public relations it is also critical, as the industry will only win the struggle to salvage its own reputation if it can clearly demonstrate not only a commitment to ethics, but also some means to enforce ethical standards. There are many ethical reasoning tools, both intricate and useful, that public relations practitioners use to try to make ethical decisions, and these have been widely discussed in textbooks and specialist articles (e.g. Johnston & Zawawi, 2000; Bivins, 1992; Wright, 1989a; Pratt, 1993; Kruckeberg, 1996. This article does not attempt a comprehensive overview of ethical schemas; rather, it takes one corner of the ethical practitioners kitbag of tools, the association code of conduct, and examines one aspect of code content; its stand on social duty. As practical ethics tools, codes clearly have strengths and weaknesses beyond their incorporation or otherwise of a specific duty to society clause (c.f. Roth & Stravpoulos, 1996;Wright, 1993; Zupko, 1994. However, this article suggests that the absence or flimsiness of such clauses in some of the worlds leading PR association codes is too important a weakness to pass without comment. This article is intended not as a definitive word on ethics code requirements, nor an overview of their effectiveness and enforcement, but rather as a means to ensure that the important debate about ethics continues.

  8. Ethical Issues Associated with the Use of Animal Experimentation in Behavioral Neuroscience Research

    Ohl, Frauke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314545255; Meijboom, Franck|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292714246

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research disciplines using animal experimentation, this field of endeavor makes a number of specific, ethically relevant, questions more explicit and, as a result, may expose to discussion a series of ethical iss...

  9. Key ethical issues encountered in healthcare organizations: perceptions of nurse executives.

    Cooper, Robert W; Frank, Garry L; Gouty, Carol Ann; Hansen, Mary C

    2002-06-01

    By the very nature of their daily work, nurse executives find themselves at the crossroads of the changing and challenging healthcare ethical environment in which clinical ethics and organizational ethics often collide. The authors present the findings of a survey of members of American Organization of Nurse Executives aimed at more clearly identifying the key ethical issues encountered in healthcare organizations by their nurse executives and others. Implications of the findings for healthcare organizations and their managers also are discussed briefly. PMID:12055489

  10. Issues related to geothermal development

    This paper reports on a number of potential barriers to geothermal development in Hawaii which have been overcome but some remain. Efforts continue to address issues relating to transmission, project economics, the regulatory process, resource verification, and public acceptance

  11. Experienced ethical issues of personalized data-mined media services

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2008-01-01

    This tentative PhD project description concerns the ethnographic examination of users’ experience of privacy issues and usability related to personalized data mined (web-) services for media content.......This tentative PhD project description concerns the ethnographic examination of users’ experience of privacy issues and usability related to personalized data mined (web-) services for media content....

  12. Legal and ethical issues in safe blood transfusion

    Shivaram Chandrashekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal issues play a vital role in providing a framework for the Indian blood transfusion service (BTS, while ethical issues pave the way for quality. Despite licensing of all blood banks, failure to revamp the Drugs and Cosmetic Act (D and C Act is impeding quality. Newer techniques like chemiluminescence or nucleic acid testing (NAT find no mention in the D and C Act. Specialised products like pooled platelet concentrates or modified whole blood, therapeutic procedures like erythropheresis, plasma exchange, stem cell collection and processing technologies like leukoreduction and irradiation are not a part of the D and C Act. A highly fragmented BTS comprising of over 2500 blood banks, coupled with a slow and tedious process of dual licensing (state and centre is a hindrance to smooth functioning of blood banks. Small size of blood banks compromises blood safety. New blood banks are opened in India by hospitals to meet requirements of insurance providers or by medical colleges as this a Medical Council of India (MCI requirement. Hospital based blood banks opt for replacement donation as they are barred by law from holding camps. Demand for fresh blood, lack of components, and lack of guidelines for safe transfusion leads to continued abuse of blood. Differential pricing of blood components is difficult to explain scientifically or ethically. Accreditation of blood banks along with establishment of regional testing centres could pave the way to blood safety. National Aids Control Organisation (NACO and National Blood Transfusion Council (NBTC deserve a more proactive role in the licensing process. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA needs to clarify that procedures or tests meant for enhancement of blood safety are not illegal.

  13. Teaching ethics in architecture: contexts, issues and strategies

    Jeffrey CHAN Kok Hui

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An exposition on teaching ethics in architecture is long overdue. While all research on ethics in architecture agrees to its importance, none has ventured further to consider how to teach ethics in architecture. It is presumed that ethics is either transmitted tacitly in the architectural design studio, or introduced within a seminar on professional practice. But neither option is adequate if the goal of teaching ethics in architecture is the capacity for heightened ethical awareness, sound moral reasoning and keen judgment. What then, is the recourse for the educator interested in developing this capacity in the student? In this paper, I suggest that the context where ethics in architecture is taught is just as important as how to teach it. Subsequently, I suggest four pedagogical strategies for teaching ethics in architecture. This paper should appeal to every educator in higher education, especially to educators teaching architecture, urban design and planning.

  14. Ethical issues in the professional work of psychologists: state of affairs in Slovenia

    Tina Zupan

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the state of affairs regarding professional ethics of Slovene psychologists, particularly regarding the implementation of ethical principles and psychologists' and students' knowledge of ethics and procedures in the cases of ethical dilemmas and violations. Two dedicated questionnaires were designed by the authors. 800 Slovene psychologists received the questionnaire and 150 of them responded. There were also 56 psychology students involved in the study. The results show some problematic issues such as: record keeping, exceptions of confidentiality, access to personal data, the content of informed consent, incompetence, copying of literature and diagnostic instruments – even not standardised ones, psychology students as subjects in psychological research, and lack of information on ethical aspects of students' practical work. Psychologists and students reported inadequate knowledge of professional ethics and suggested various kinds of ethical education. Institutions mostly enable psychologists to work within the Code of ethics. There are, however, conflicts regarding access to data and professional autonomy. Psychologists report conflicts between law and ethics, incorrect reports in media and lack of control over professional ethics. In the case of ethical violation psychologists do less than they should. They emphasise the problem of incompetence. The frequency and seriousness of certain violation were estimated. Ways of verifying knowledge, stimulating ethical conduct and taking different measures in the case of violations were suggested. The state of affairs in different working environments of psychologists was also described. Results show that psychologist who have worked in the field for a shorter period answer more frequently contrary to the Code of Ethics. Students' knowledge of ethics is mostly very satisfactory. The study emphasises the ethical aspects of psychological practice in Slovenia. It points to the issues that should be further analysed by the Slovene Psychological Association. It is a valuable source of information for the national Ethical Committee. Most important implications are that work to develop education in ethics and to pass the law on psychology in Slovenia should be pursued.

  15. An Ethical Issue in Medical Education of Obstetrics and Gynecology

    Kim, Tae-hee; Choi, Seung Do; Woo, Su-Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    There are four principles of medical ethics; Beneficence, Respect for autonomy, Non-maleficence, and Justice. It is not easy to apply to principles of medical ethics in the special circumstances of obstetrics and gynecology. Student doctors must learn to be familiar with principles of medical ethics tailored to the special circumstances while the obstetrics and gynecology practice.

  16. An Ethical Issue in Medical Education of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Choi, Seung Do; Woo, Su-Hyeon

    2015-12-01

    There are four principles of medical ethics; Beneficence, Respect for autonomy, Non-maleficence, and Justice. It is not easy to apply to principles of medical ethics in the special circumstances of obstetrics and gynecology. Student doctors must learn to be familiar with principles of medical ethics tailored to the special circumstances while the obstetrics and gynecology practice. PMID:26793677

  17. Applying Classical Ethical Theories to Ethical Decision Making in Public Relations: Perrier's Product Recall.

    Pratt, Cornelius B.

    1994-01-01

    Links ethical theories to the management of the product recall of the Perrier Group of America. Argues for a nonsituational theory-based eclectic approach to ethics in public relations to enable public relations practitioners, as strategic communication managers, to respond effectively to potentially unethical organizational actions. (SR)

  18. Ethical and Legal Issues in School Counseling. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest.

    Huey, Wayne C.; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.

    This digest summarizes ethical and legal issues affecting school counselors. It emphasizes the importance of ethical standards, and of knowing the content, purposes, and limitations of professional codes of conduct as general guidelines for addressing difficult issues. Advice is offered on how to address colleagues' unethical behavior, and on

  19. Exploring Ethical Issues Associated with Using Online Surveys in Educational Research

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Allen, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Online surveys are increasingly used in educational research, yet little attention has focused on ethical issues associated with their use in educational settings. Here, we draw on the broader literature to discuss 5 key ethical issues in the context of educational survey research: dual teacher/researcher roles; informed consent; use of

  20. Current and Emerging Ethical Issues in Counseling: A Delphi Study of Expert Opinions

    Herlihy, Barbara; Dufrene, Roxane L.

    2011-01-01

    A Delphi study was conducted to ascertain the opinions of panel experts regarding the most important current and emerging ethical issues facing the counseling profession. Expert opinions on ethical issues in counselor preparation also were sought. Eighteen panelists responded to 3 rounds of data collection interspersed with feedback. Themes that

  1. Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture

    Livestock are vital to sustainable agriculture in most developing countries. In Asia, in general, the integration of livestock, fish and crops has proved to be a sustainable system through centuries of experience. Traditional use of dung for manuring the fields and bullocks for ploughing is the 'biodynamic farming', which has special significance in dry land agriculture comprising about 65 percent of India's cropped area. Gene-based technologies will be useful for developing special draught breeds of cattle so that their valuable source of energy remains available especially to the small and marginal farmers. Further, the livestock in the developing countries form an essential part of an integrated agricultural system and, therefore, development strategies for gene-based applications should consider the total production system (i.e., breeding fodder and forage crops, animal and crop disease and pest management etc). The gene-technologies of relevance to the developing countries are (i) rumen molecular techniques for reducing methane production and for increasing protein and energy supply; ruminant food stuffs currently used in India and a few other developing countries are fibrous, low in nitrogen, and contain anti-nutritive factors, (ii) improving animal productivity in developing countries by manipulation of nutrition in utero to alter gene expression of key metabolic hormones and enzymes for a long period after birth in cattle, (iii) genetic resistance to Helminthes in sheep, and (iv) molecular methods of diagnosis, molecular epidemiology and treatment of swine fever. Although not gene-based, artificial insemination (AI) for genetic improvement of dairy cattle and buffalo, and embryo-transfer (ET) for rapid multiplication of elite cattle are also relevant. Cloning (of the 'Dolly' - the sheep kind) will be useful to revive the rare and endangered animal species such as one-horned rhinoceros, swamp deer, wild buffalo and dugongs in India, for restoring environmental balance and social harmony with the forest, coastal and hill communities of various regions of India. The ethical issues from a technological point of view centre around both gene-based and nongene- based technologies to improve the nutrition, health and productivity of the farm animals. In particular, a reference needs to be made to bovine somatotropin (bST), a natural growth hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary in all animals, with a major effect on the regulation of growth and also milk production. Since the quantities of bST obtained from slaughtered animals are quite small, recombinant DNA technology-based r-bST is produced, and widely used in the USA to increase the milk production by 10% to 20%. Exhaustive evaluation tests conducted in the USA have shown that r-bST has no harmful effects in milk, but a high production of milk makes higher demands on animal physiology, and if an adequate food supply is lacking, negative effects are observed on fertility besides other health problems, especially mastitis and ketosis. Presently, neither r-bST, nor adequate nutritious feed is available for millions of dairy cattle in the developing countries. The economic benefits of 'mass production' over 'production by masses' are obvious; further, the access to the r-bST in the 'mass production' system, but not in the system of 'production by masses' could accentuate the economic disparity. The above-said scenario has further ramifications in view of the implications arising from the WTO-related Agreement on Agriculture. With an array of domestic supports, products of 'mass production' could be dumped into developing countries causing a substantial rise in the already high levels of livelihood and food insecurity. Since the r-DNA based technologies for 'pharming' or for human food are not yet applied to farm animals in the developing countries there are no serious concerns of bio-safety, and violation of ethical norms. In the countries, where animals for human food are genetically altered, the issues of 'animal sentience' and 'telos' become quite pertinent. For example, the 'growth genes' introduced into pigs (i.e. Beltsville Pigs) to accelerate growth and produce leaner meat also result in a number of serious physical disabilities to the pigs. Of course, in the case of 'broiler' chickens too, it is true that their skeleton and cardio-vascular systems are more poorly developed than their muscles and gut. The broiler chickens never live their natural life and thus their rights are ignored. With an ever increasing concern for 'animal welfare', the need is to recognize the 'animal right' (the right not to be tortured and left in pain) and to introduce humane and kindly treatment so that the unpleasantness of pain is greatly reduced. The objection is about treating animals as 'raw materials' upon which our ends and purposes can be imposed regardless of the ends and purposes natural to them. Legislation introduced in Sweden stipulates that farm animals be allowed to live their lives in accordance with their telos - e.g. cattle to have the right to graze and chicken and pigs have the right to freedom of motion. This is abundantly relevant to the developing countries where mixed farming with goals of 'evergreen revolution' and organic approach can still allow a greater degree of telos and freedom of movement to the animals maintained for milk, meat or draught purposes. The challenge before us is to foster the advancement of science, particularly the new genetics, while addressing the concerns of society

  2. A Pedagogical Model for Ethical Inquiry into Socioscientific Issues In Science

    Saunders, Kathryn J.; Rennie, Léonie J.

    2013-02-01

    Internationally there is concern that many science teachers do not address socioscientific issues (SSI) in their classrooms, particularly those that are controversial. However with increasingly complex, science-based dilemmas being presented to society, such as cloning, genetic screening, alternative fuels, reproductive technologies and vaccination, there is a growing call for students to be more scientifically literate and to be able to make informed decisions on issues related to these dilemmas. There have been shifts in science curricula internationally towards a focus on scientific literacy, but research indicates that many secondary science teachers lack the support and confidence to address SSI in their classrooms. This paper reports on a project that developed a pedagogical model that scaffolded teachers through a series of stages in exploring a controversial socioscientific issue with students and supported them in the use of pedagogical strategies and facilitated ways of ethical thinking. The study builds on existing frameworks of ethical thinking. It presents an argument that in today's increasingly pluralistic society, these traditional frameworks need to be extended to acknowledge other worldviews and identities. Pluralism is proposed as an additional framework of ethical thinking in the pedagogical model, from which multiple identities, including cultural, ethnic, religious and gender perspectives, can be explored.

  3. Prisons' preparedness for pandemic flu and the ethical issues.

    van't Hoff, G; Fedosejeva, R; Mihailescu, L

    2009-06-01

    In Europe at any given time there are about 1,8 million people imprisoned in penal institutions. About 1 million personnel are working in prisons. With prisons, from the start there are fundamental problems in many parts of Europe. Poor housing conditions in prisons and a high proportion of prisoners who already suffer from severe health problems mean the chance of an outbreak in prison during a pandemic must be quite high. We expect it can be up to 90%. In this article we explain what the characteristics are of the prison population from a health point of view. A high rate of detainees suffers from mental health disorders and/or addiction. A high prevalence of communicable and infectious diseases is the rule, not an exception. According to the European Prison Rules and many other international rules, statements and documents prison health care should be an integral part of the public health system of any country. However, it has to be accepted that the prison population is the least popular in society and in politics. In reality in many countries in Europe the situation in prison cannot meet the level strived for by the European Prison Rules. We compare preparedness on pandemic flu in The Netherlands, Latvia and Romania. We explore the problems and ethical issues that may arise if a pandemic breaks out. There are three ethical dilemmas that require consideration: equivalence of care and prisoners' right to health care; prisoners' interests verses society's interests; countries in need and calls for bilateral help. PMID:19482323

  4. Public acceptance of nuclear power. Some ethical issues

    Through a careful process of investigation and inquiry, the World Council of Churches (WCC) has become aware of a decline of public confidence in existing social institutions responsible for maintaining and securing the nuclear fuel cycle. In addressing this concern, the World Council of Churches seeks a direct assurance from the IAEA and other responsible government bodies that new initiatives will be taken to resolve this anxiety and to place the acknowledged risks of an expanding nuclear power industry in a more realistic long-term perspective. The provision of energy resources for all peoples is an essential part of the struggle for a more just, participatory and sustainable society. In the light of current uncertainties over the maintenance of energy supplies, particularly to large urban communities, the WCC appreciates the necessity of retaining nuclear power as a viable option for the future in many countries. However, the credibility of the option can be achieved only through the resolution of the major questions that are inherent in the use of nuclear technology. The paper discusses the following questions, which must be tackled without further delay and certainly before a large and irreversible world-wide commitment is made: (1) The need for an open public debate. Without full public consultation on the social and ethical implications of long-term energy choices, decisions will be taken largely in terms of commercial and consequently short-term economic interest. (2) Facing the long-term risks of adopting nuclear technology. (3) Access versus security. Concern for the security of sensitive nuclear technologies has produced the secretive nuclear club. A just global society implies not merely equal opportunity to aspire and to achieve, but affirmative action to redress imbalances. (4) Military implications. (5) Social implications of nuclear energy. (6) Ethical and religious issues. (author)

  5. Neuroimaging techniques for memory detection: scientific, ethical, and legal issues.

    Meegan, Daniel V

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the use of neuroimaging techniques for forensic purposes. Memory detection techniques, including the well-publicized Brain Fingerprinting technique (Brain Fingerprinting Laboratories, Inc., Seattle WA), exploit the fact that the brain responds differently to sensory stimuli to which it has been exposed before. When a stimulus is specifically associated with a crime, the resulting brain activity should differentiate between someone who was present at the crime and someone who was not. This article reviews the scientific literature on three such techniques: priming, old/new, and P300 effects. The forensic potential of these techniques is evaluated based on four criteria: specificity, automaticity, encoding flexibility, and longevity. This article concludes that none of the techniques are devoid of forensic potential, although much research is yet to be done. Ethical issues, including rights to privacy and against self-incrimination, are discussed. A discussion of legal issues concludes that current memory detection techniques do not yet meet United States standards of legal admissibility. PMID:18236327

  6. Ethical and legal issues in renal transplantation in Nigeria.

    Ajayi, S O; Raji, Y; Salako, B L

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing number of patients being offered kidney transplantation by many centers in the developing world, it is not unexpected that there would be attendant ethical and legal issues even when the selection process for transplantation seems medically justified. Because of the inadequate infrastructure for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, coupled with the challenges of logistics for maintenance dialysis, transplantation would seem to be the best option for patients with end-stage renal failure, even in developed economies where these can easily be tackled. The main issues here revolve around incentives for donors, organ trade and trafficking and the economics of eliminating the waiting list and the criminal activities of organ trans-plantation. In the developing world, with the current level of corruption and poverty, there is a need to redouble efforts to monitor transplant activities. Professional bodies should take the lead in this regard. Furthermore, there is a need for governments to engage in public consultation and community awareness concerning organ donation in living and deceased persons. PMID:26787578

  7. Ethical and legal issues in renal transplantation in Nigeria

    S O Ajayi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of patients being offered kidney transplantation by many centers in the developing world, it is not unexpected that there would be attendant ethical and legal issues even when the selection process for transplantation seems medically justified. Because of the inadequate infrastructure for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, coupled with the challenges of logistics for maintenance dialysis, transplantation would seem to be the best option for patients with end-stage renal failure, even in developed economies where these can easily be tackled. The main issues here revolve around incentives for donors, organ trade and trafficking and the economics of eliminating the waiting list and the criminal activities of organ trans-plantation. In the developing world, with the current level of corruption and poverty, there is a need to redouble efforts to monitor transplant activities. Professional bodies should take the lead in this regard. Furthermore, there is a need for governments to engage in public consultation and community awareness concerning organ donation in living and deceased persons.

  8. Assessing Veterinary and Animal Science Students' Moral Judgment Development on Animal Ethics Issues.

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    Little has been done to assess veterinarians' moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues. Following development of the VetDIT, a new moral judgment measure for animal ethics issues, this study aimed to refine and further validate the VetDIT, and to identify effects of teaching interventions on moral judgment and changes in moral judgment over time. VetDIT-V1 was refined into VetDIT-V2, and V3 was developed as a post-intervention test to prevent repetition. To test these versions for comparability, veterinary and animal science students (n=271) were randomly assigned to complete different versions. The VetDIT discriminates between stages of moral judgment, condensed into three schemas: Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), and Universal Principles (UP). There were no differences in the scores for MN and UP between the versions, and we equated PI scores to account for differences between versions. Veterinary science students (n=130) who completed a three-hour small-group workshop on moral development theory and ethical decision making increased their use of UP in moral reasoning, whereas students (n=271) who received similar information in a 50-minute lecture did not. A longitudinal comparison of matched first- and third-year students (n=39) revealed no moral judgment development toward greater use of UP. The VetDIT is therefore useful for assessing moral judgment of animal and human ethics issues in veterinary and other animal-related professions. Intensive small-group workshops using moral development knowledge and skills, rather than lectures, are conducive to developing veterinary students' moral judgment. PMID:26200702

  9. Critical thinking by nurses on ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies.

    Botes, A

    2000-09-01

    This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decision-making. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169). Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15). 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34) and Strauss and Corbin (1990). The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990). The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985) and Morse (1994) related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based on these findings the researcher concluded that nurses are not thinking critically when making ethical decisions concerning the termination of pregnancies. Recommendations are made as a possible solution for this problem. PMID:11949153

  10. Critical thinking by nurses on ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies

    A. Botes

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169. Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15. 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34 and Strauss and Corbin (1990. The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990. The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985 and Morse (1994 related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based on these findings the researcher concluded that nurses are not thinking critically when making ethical decisions concerning the termination of pregnancies. Recommendations are made as a possible solution for this problem.

  11. Dealing with Ethical Issues among Internet Users: Do We Need Legal Enforcement?

    Ali Salman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICTs, in particular of the Internet and of the World Wide Web, have paved the way for numerous ICT related development and initiative. In as much as there are beneficial usage of the Internet, there is also unethical usage and abuse. The Internet is like a double edge sword and care must be taken when indulging in this vast ocean of knowledge and information. Studies on ethical issue have centred much on internet security like hacking of personal information and data theft, including in business. This paper will look at the recent trends related to the ethical usage of the Internet, especially involving social media usage and hacking of government websites and legal enforcement that can be used to address ethical issues among Internet users. Data is derived from secondary sources. From the secondary data or literature, hacking has been a subject of concern following the hackings of website of government departments by the group anonymous. There are some cases of internet abuse, especially social media involving scams and personal relationship. There is also the use of social media to incite hatred, especially against authorities leading to widespread unrest. Hence, this implies, putting in place some guiding principles and more stringent legal enforcement to curb the unethical use and abuse of the Internet.

  12. IMAGINATION, CREATIVITY AND FREEDOM: THINKING RELATIONAL ETHICS IN SOCIAL WORK

    Raquel Marta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Underlining the fundamental forms of subjectivity implicit on the of social work intervention, this article explores different contributions to contemporary social ethics. The work of the German philosopher Fichte provides a starting point from which to incorporate imagination and freedom in ethical thinking. The act of creative invention is not a solitary act, but developed in and through the relation with the Other. In this relation, attention to the context, to the moment and uniqueness of the ethical event are also considered as contributes to the social worker ethical thinking and action.

  13. Ethics or Choosing Complexity in Music Relations

    Schmidt, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The hardship and pleasure of a life in ethics, as in music, springs not from a commitment to the veneration of stability, refinement and consistency, as some political and aesthetic discourses often suggest. Rather, the productive tensions of ethical living arise from a restless interaction between constant motion and adaptability; both marks of…

  14. APLLICATION OF ENGINEERING ETHICS THROUGH EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

    Naveen K MEHTA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The profession of Engineering is one of the highly acclaimed professions. As the active members of this profession, engineers are expected to possess and practice ethical standards. The invaluable services offered by professionals require honesty, impartiality, fairness, integrity and equity. They should devote themselves for allround social welfare. Engineers should perform their duties with utmost care and concern. Through effective communication, Engineering Professionals can promote ethical practices. This paper explores application engineering ethics through effective communication.

  15. Corruption and ethical issues regarding public-private partnership

    Bianca COBÂRZAN

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper raises general questions about ethical problems that taint public-private partnership. Everybody talks about the economical benefits of encouraging firms to invest in the community using different incentives offered by the public institutions. In the same time, every day, newspapers bring to our attention cases of misuse of public resources for private gain or cases of private investors who give bribes in order to get a contract with a public institution. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize our understanding of the entrepreneurial movement and analyze its implications for potential problems of corruption that can arise in the relation between the public and the private sector.a

  16. Reviewing Albert J. Sullivan's Theory of Public Relations Ethics.

    Pearson, Ron

    1989-01-01

    Examines Albert J. Sullivan's general theory of public relations. Shows how this theory raises ethical questions. Identifies the philosophical arguments Sullivan appeals to in support of this theory. Suggests his ideas have contributed to the development of ethical theory in public relations. (MS)

  17. Review of existing issues, ethics and practices in general medical research and in radiation protection research

    A literature review was carried out in relation to general medical research and radiation protection research. A large number of documents were found concerning the subject of ethics in general medical research. For radiation protection research, the number of documents and the information available is very limited. A review of practices in 13 European countries concerning general medical research and radiation protection research was carried out by sending a questionnaire to each country. It was found that all countries reviewed were well regulated for general medical research. For research that involves ionising radiation, the UK and Ireland are by far the most regulated countries. For other countries, there does not seem to be much information available. From the literature review and the review of practices, a number of existing ethical issues were identified and exposed, and a number of conclusions were drawn. (authors)

  18. Ethical issues in autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT in advanced breast cancer: A systematic literature review

    Scheibler Fueloep

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An effectiveness assessment on ASCT in locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer identified serious ethical issues associated with this intervention. Our objective was to systematically review these aspects by means of a literature analysis. Methods We chose the reflexive Socratic approach as the review method using Hofmann's question list, conducted a comprehensive literature search in biomedical, psychological and ethics bibliographic databases and screened the resulting hits in a 2-step selection process. Relevant arguments were assembled from the included articles, and were assessed and assigned to the question list. Hofmann's questions were addressed by synthesizing these arguments. Results Of the identified 879 documents 102 included arguments related to one or more questions from Hofmann's question list. The most important ethical issues were the implementation of ASCT in clinical practice on the basis of phase-II trials in the 1990s and the publication of falsified data in the first randomized controlled trials (Bezwoda fraud, which caused significant negative effects on recruiting patients for further clinical trials and the doctor-patient relationship. Recent meta-analyses report a marginal effect in prolonging disease-free survival, accompanied by severe harms, including death. ASCT in breast cancer remains a stigmatized technology. Reported health-related-quality-of-life data are often at high risk of bias in favor of the survivors. Furthermore little attention has been paid to those patients who were dying. Conclusions The questions were addressed in different degrees of completeness. All arguments were assignable to the questions. The central ethical dimensions of ASCT could be discussed by reviewing the published literature.

  19. Ethical Issues in Addressing Inequity in/through ESL Research

    Lee, Ena

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a researcher's struggles with conducting "ethical" research when her case study reveals racializations faced by a minority teacher in a Canadian ESL program. How might becoming privy to research participants' experiences of inequity in ESL education complicate the notion of research ethics when "doing the right thing" runs…

  20. The Academic Librarian and Information Technology: Ethical Issues.

    Crowe, Lawson; Anthes, Susan H.

    1988-01-01

    Explores value conflicts and ethical dilemmas arising from the more substantive role required of the academic librarian by technological developments. Discussion focuses on the interactions of social values, values of professional librarianship, and personal values of the librarian and the user, with the ethical requirements inherent in…

  1. Attitudes toward Ethical Issues: A Survey of U.K. Reference Librarians and Schools of Librarianship and Information Science.

    Lonsdale, Dale; Oppenheim, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the results of a survey of academic reference librarians, library schools, and professional associations for information professionals in the United Kingdom that examined ethical issues in academic reference librarians' work, how professional associations relate to these matters, and how well library schools are preparing information…

  2. A Theory-Based Approach to Public Relations Ethics.

    Bivens, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the three areas that need to be addressed when considering the most beneficial context for teaching public relations ethics: core concepts and theories; relevant ethical theories; and the context in which the theory-based approach should be taught. (MG)

  3. Brains on Wheels: Theoretical and Ethical Issues in Bio-Robotics

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    A number of theoretical problems and a couple of ethical issues in bio-robotics are investigated. It is found that claims made by researchers to have constructed robots controlled by rat brains are not fully justified by the results of current research. Further, the ethical implications of the re...

  4. Ethical Issues Concerning the Use of Videoconferencing To Supervise International Social Work Field Practicum Students.

    Panos, Patrick T.; Panos, Angelea; Cox, Shirley E.; Roby, Jini L.; Matheson, Kenneth W.

    2002-01-01

    Examines current ethical guidelines affecting the use of videoconferencing in the supervision of social work students nationally and internationally. Suggests protocols to address ethical and professional practice issues that are likely to arise as a result of using videoconferencing to conduct supervision across international borders. (EV)

  5. APLLICATION OF ENGINEERING ETHICS THROUGH EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

    Naveen K. MEHTA; Dharmendra MEHTA; Er. Rajesh Kumar MEHTA

    2013-01-01

    The profession of Engineering is one of the highly acclaimed professions. As the active members of this profession, engineers are expected to possess and practice ethical standards. The invaluable services offered by professionals require honesty, impartiality, fairness, integrity and equity. They should devote themselves for allround social welfare. Engineers should perform their duties with utmost care and concern. Through effective communication, Engineering Professionals can promote ethic...

  6. Financial Compensation and Ethical Issues in Health Care

    Silva, Mary Cipriano

    1998-01-01

    As health care workers enter the twenty-first century, they must understand the relationships among market-driven forces, the health care workforce, and financial compensation. This understanding can be facilitated by a grasp of utilitarian ethical theory and by ethical tenets of justice such as distributive justice, material principles of justice, and justice as fairness. Health care workers also need to understand how unfair financial compensation can demoralize them and compromise their va...

  7. On ethical issues in radiation protection. Radiation protection recommendations and standards seen from an ethical perspective

    International radiation protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, the European Union and the ILO are surveyed from an ethical perspective. The authors come to the conclusion that the insights of ethical theories provide a number of ways in which current recommendations and standards for radiation protection could improve. (orig.)

  8. Critical Ethical Issues in Online Counseling: Assessing Current Practices with an Ethical Intent Checklist

    Shaw, Holly E.; Shaw, Sarah F.

    2006-01-01

    The authors used a 16-item Ethical Intent Checklist, developed from the American Counseling Association's (1999) Ethical Standards for Internet Online Counseling, to assess the current practices of 88 online counseling Web sites. Results showed fewer than half of online counselors were following the accepted practice on 8 of the 16 items. Online…

  9. Ethical issues in radiology: Perspectives from the Christian tradition

    The Christian ethical tradition introduces a number of key values into the clinical context. Moreover, although some denominational differences exist, these are essentially differences of emphasis rather than of substance. Among the central values which the Christian tradition promotes are: the dignity of the person, the individual as embodied spirit and the importance of the common good. Within the evolving discourse, social justice considerations have come to the fore as a critical concern within bio-ethics. In radiology, like most fields of clinical practice, practitioners frequently encounter conflicts and tensions of an ethical nature. Moreover, the manner in which these conflicts are articulated, conceptualised and ultimately resolved will depend, not only on how the scientific data are analysed and interpreted, but also on how different ethical frameworks are invoked in these disputes. The concern in this brief paper is to discuss the Christian ethical tradition as it is expressed in Roman Catholic and 'Protestant' denominations in the western church, considering the values and norms that underlie Christian ethical engagements with applied questions. (authors)

  10. Nursing students' experiences of ethical issues in clinical practice: A New Zealand study.

    Sinclair, J; Papps, E; Marshall, B

    2016-03-01

    Nursing students experience ethical problems in clinical practice in a different way from registered nurses. In order to develop ethical reasoning and competence in nursing students, nurse educators must recognise the unique issues students face. This research described the occurrence of ethical issues in clinical practice for 373 undergraduate nursing students who responded to a national questionnaire investigating the frequency of pre-determined ethical issues and the corresponding level of distress. Over two thirds of respondents experienced breaches of a patient's right to confidentiality, privacy, dignity or respect and 87% experienced unsafe working conditions. The most distressing issues were those that compromised patient safety, including unsafe healthcare practices, working conditions and suspected abuse or neglect. Themes that emerged from an open-ended question included lack of support and supervision, bullying and end of life issues. This research found the frequency at which ethical issues are experienced was highest in year three participants. However, the overall distress levels were lower for the majority of issues for those participants in the later part of their degree. Recommendations from this research include developing ethics education around the main concerns that students face in order to enhance students' understanding, resilience and ability to respond appropriately. PMID:27038081

  11. Ethics issues experienced in HBM within Portuguese health surveillance and research projects

    Miguel J Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In keeping with the fundamental practice of transparency in the discussion and resolution of ethics conflicts raised by research, a summary of ethics issues raised during Portuguese biomonitoring in health surveillance and research is presented and, where applicable, their resolution is described. Methods Projects underway aim to promote the surveillance of public health related to the presence of solid waste incinerators or to study associations between human exposure to environmental factors and adverse health effects. The methodological approach involves biomonitoring of heavy metals, dioxins and/or other persistent organic pollutants in tissues including blood, human milk and both scalp and pubic hair in groups such as the general population, children, pregnant women or women attempting pregnancy. As such, the projects entail the recruitment of individuals representing different demographic and health conditions, the collection of body tissues and personal data, and the processing of the data and results. Results The issue of autonomy is raised during the recruitment of participants and during the collection of samples and data. This right is protected by the requirement for prior written, informed consent from the participant or, in the case of children, from their guardian. Recruitment has been successful, among eligible participants, in spite of incentives rarely being offered. The exception has been in obtaining guardians' consent for children's participation, particularly for blood sampling. In an attempt to mitigate the harm-benefit ratio, current research efforts include alternative less invasive biomarkers. Surveys are currently being conducted under contract as independent biomonitoring actions and as such, must be explicitly disclosed as a potential conflict of interests. Communication of results to participants is in general only practised when a health issue is present and corrective action possible. Concerning human milk a careful approach is taken, considering breast-feeding's proven benefits. Conclusion No national legislation currently accounts for the surveillance component of biomonitoring as distinct from research. Ethics issues arising within the domain of research are resolved according to available regulations. For issues encountered during surveillance, the same principles are used as guidance, completed by the authors' best judgement and relevant ethics committees' findings.

  12. Ethical considerations

    Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed

  13. Societal and ethical issues in human biomonitoring – a view from science studies

    Bauer Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human biomonitoring (HBM has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing into focus the conditions of how and what is known in environmental health science. Methods In order to analyse the effects of HBM and the shift towards biomarker research in the assessment of environmental pollution in a broader societal context, selected analytical frameworks of science studies are introduced. To develop the epistemological perspective, concepts from "biomedical platform sociology" and the notion of "epistemic cultures" and "thought styles" are applied to the research infrastructures of HBM. Further, concepts of "biocitizenship" and "civic epistemologies" are drawn upon as analytical tools to discuss the visions and promises of HBM as well as related ethical problematisations. Results In human biomonitoring, two different epistemological cultures meet; these are environmental science with for instance pollution surveys and toxicological assessments on the one hand, and analytical epidemiology investigating the association between exposure and disease in probabilistic risk estimation on the other hand. The surveillance of exposure and dose via biomarkers as envisioned in HBM is shifting the site of exposure monitoring to the human body. Establishing an HBM platform faces not only the need to consider individual decision autonomy as an ethics issue, but also larger epistemological and societal questions, such as the mode of evidence demanded in science, policy and regulation. Conclusion The shift of exposure monitoring towards the biosurveillance of human populations involves fundamental changes in the ways environment, health and disease are conceptualised; this may lead to an individualisation of responsibilities for health risks and preventive action. Attention to the conditions of scientific knowledge generation and to their broader societal context is critical in order to make HBM contribute to environmental justice.

  14. Gender relations and economic issues.

    Elson, D

    1993-10-01

    While most discussions of economic issues pay no explicit attention to gender relations, most economic policy is marked by male bias which provides women with an unequal access to resources. This situation exists because most economists, officials, and business managers lack the imagination to see the gender impact of economic issues and most women's groups and researchers lack the language to portray this connection. This article explores some aspects of this gap and aims to provide women with the ability to effectively discuss economic issues. After an introduction, the article considers the basic problem caused by the fact that the economy is defined primarily in terms of money-making activities. This leads to a male bias since much of women's work occurs outside of the monetary sphere. The next section looks at how a failure to understand the significance of gender relations will interfere with the fulfillment of policy objectives. This discussion is followed by a description of how cutbacks in government expenditures increase the burden on women who must replace the services. Problems with the option of the private-sector replacing government services, such as the fact that increasing disposable income in households does not guarantee that unpaid labor will be reduced and the fact that the private sector may fail to expand in a productive way, are covered. The article then touches on the new emphasis placed by some economists and policy makers on cooperative and interactive solutions to these problems and ends by mentioning three new initiatives which seek to build capacity for gender-aware economic analysis: the development of a training program at Manchester University in the UK, coordination of an international research workshop by the University of Utah in the US, and development of an international association for feminist economics based in the US. PMID:12320735

  15. Scientific Productivity on Research in Ethical Issues over the Past Half Century: A JoinPoint Regression Analysis

    Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Trang, Nguyen Thi Huyen; Luan, Nguyen Thien; Anh, NguyenHoang; Nghi, Tran Diem; Hieu, Mai Van; Hirayama, Kenji; Karbwang, Juntra

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ethics is one of the main pillars in the development of science. We performed a JoinPoint regression analysis to analyze the trends of ethical issue research over the past half century. The question is whether ethical issues are neglected despite their importance in modern research.

  16. Ethical issues in neonatal paediatrics--the Singapore perspective.

    Ho, N K

    1995-11-01

    In Singapore, formulating ethical guidelines for people who live in a multiracial, multilingual, multicultural and multi-religious community can be difficult. The "individualised prognostic" strategy in the management of critically ill infants has been followed. Our neonatal paediatricians encounter the following ethical problems: extremely premature babies whose viability is doubtful, babies born with severe congenital malformations, babies born with signs of life in legal or therapeutic termination of pregnancy, the asphyxiated babies or babies with severe or extensive brain damage, and babies who are chronically sick and have no chance of recovery or leaving the hospital. Good ethical decisions require medical facts. The infant's diagnosis and prognosis must be accurate. There should also be detailed information that continuation of any form of medical treatment for the infant is futile, will do more harm than good and is inhumane. Ethical decisions should be made in the best interests of the infant. Dating of the infant's gestational age should be accurate and reliable, and there should also be unanimous definitions such as fetal viability, abortions and lethal malformations. Ethical guidelines and the law must also keep pace with changes in medical practice. PMID:8839009

  17. TEACHERS' OPINIONS RELATED WITH ETHIC BEHAVIOURS OF EDUCATION INSPECTORS

    U?URLU, Yrd.Do.Dr.Celal Teyyar

    2010-01-01

    Problem: Relation styles of education inspectors that take into consideration ethic values can provide teachers to have more morale and loyalty while working for their schools and students. Secondary school teachers' opinions related with ethic behaviors of education inspectors and sample situations the teachers have experienced are brought out by this search. Population of this study concerns 42 primary schools from Ad?yaman and its central counties. As applying to this poll at schools will ...

  18. TEACHERS OPINIONS RELATED WITH ETHIC BEHAVIOURS OF EDUCATION INSPECTORS

    U?URLU, Yrd.Do.Dr.Celal Teyyar

    2010-01-01

    Problem: Relation styles of education inspectors that take into consideration ethic values can provide teachers to have more morale and loyalty while working for their schools and students. Secondary school teachers opinions related with ethic behaviors of education inspectors and sample situations the teachers have experienced are brought out by this search. Population of this study concerns 42 primary schools from Ad?yaman and its central counties. As applying to this poll at schools will ...

  19. IMAGINATION, CREATIVITY AND FREEDOM: THINKING RELATIONAL ETHICS IN SOCIAL WORK

    Raquel Marta

    2014-01-01

    Underlining the fundamental forms of subjectivity implicit on the of social work intervention, this article explores different contributions to contemporary social ethics. The work of the German philosopher Fichte provides a starting point from which to incorporate imagination and freedom in ethical thinking. The act of creative invention is not a solitary act, but developed in and through the relation with the Other. In this relation, attention to the context, to the moment and uniqueness of...

  20. Rights at Risk : Ethical Issues in Risk Management

    Hermansson, Hélène

    2007-01-01

    he subject of this thesis is ethical aspects of decision-making concerning social risks. It is argued that a model for risk management must acknowledge several ethical aspects and, most crucial among these, the individual’s right not to be unfairly exposed to risks. Article I takes as its starting point the demand frequently expressed in the risk literature for consistent risk management. It is maintained that a model focusing on cost-benefit analysis does not respect the rights of the indivi...

  1. Ego development and the ethics of care and justice: the relations among them revisited.

    Skoe, Eva E A; von der, Lippe Anna L

    2002-08-01

    This study examined the links among ego development and the ethics of care and justice in 144 Norwegian men and women, 15 to 48 years old, taking into consideration age, sex, education, and verbal intelligence. As expected, the relationship between Loevinger's model of ego development and care-based moral reasoning as measured with Skoe's Ethic of Care Interview (ECI) was significantly stronger than the one between ego development and justice as measured with Rest's Defining Issues Test (DIT). Both ethics correlated significantly with verbal ability. Analyses showed that beyond its overlap with verbal intelligence, the variance shared between the ECI and ego development was substantial. By contrast, when verbal intelligence was controlled, the DIT was not significantly related to ego development or to the care ethic. PMID:12095188

  2. Artificial nutrition at the end of life: ethical issues.

    van de Vathorst, Suzanne

    2014-04-01

    Artificial nutrition is a medical treatment that first of all needs a sound scientific base before prescribing it. This base is absent for dying patients and patients in the end stage of dementia. Because feeding is a very emotional and symbolical issue, patient and family may request this treatment despite the lack of evidence. These issues should be addressed in good communication with patient and relatives. For comatose patients and patients in a persistent vegetative state artificial nutrition is a necessary support to bridge the time until either recovery is imminent or improbable. At that moment artificial nutrition no longer contributes to the life of the patient and should be ceased. Artificial nutrition has no place in patients that voluntary decide to stop eating and drinking in order to die. PMID:24810185

  3. The commercialization of human stem cells: ethical and policy issues.

    Resnik, David B

    2002-01-01

    The first stage of the human embryonic stem (ES) cell research debate revolved around fundamental questions, such as whether the research should be done at all, what types of research may be done, who should do the research, and how the research should be funded. Now that some of these questions are being answered, we are beginning to see the next stage of the debate: the battle for property rights relating to human ES cells. The reason why property rights will be a key issue in this debate is simple and easy to understand: it costs a great deal of money to do this research, to develop new products, and to implement therapies; and private companies, researchers, and health professionals require returns on investments and reimbursements for goods and services. This paper considers arguments for and against property rights relating to ES cells defends the following points: (1) It should be legal to buy and sell ES cells and products. (2) It should be legal to patent ES cells, products, and related technologies. (3) It should not be legal to buy, sell, or patent human embryos. (4) Patents on ES cells, products, and related technologies should not be excessively broad. (5) Patents on ES cells, products, and related technologies should be granted only when applicants state definite, plausible uses for their inventions. (6) There should be a research exemption in ES cell patenting to allow academic scientists to conduct research in regenerative medicine. (7) It may be appropriate to take steps to prevent companies from using patents in ES cells, products, and related technologies only to block competitors. (8) As the field of regenerative medicine continues to develop, societies should revisit issues relating to property rights on a continuing basis in order to develop policies and develop regulations to maximize the social, medical, economic, and scientific benefits of ES cell research and product development. PMID:12216741

  4. Ethical issues in the teaching and learning of health topics in schools: the conceptions of teacher trainees

    Paakkari, Leena; Välimaa, Raili

    2013-01-01

    There has been little research on how teacher trainees can be educated to deal with ethical issues, or on trainees' conceptions of these issues. Using written essays, this study aimed to examine health education teacher trainees' (N = 35) conceptions of the ethical aspects involved in teaching and learning health topics. A qualitative content analysis revealed three broad themes: health education as an ethical subject, the teacher as an ethical professional, and spaces for learning. The resul...

  5. STUDENTS’ OPPINION ABOUT PROFESSIONAL ETHICS RELATION OF THE TEACHERS

    Vera Stojanovska

    2013-01-01

    Professional teacher’s ethics is a collection of moral codes of their professional work. It is significant that the teaching profession respects certain designated professional-ethical codes of conduct between the teachers and the students, with their colleagues and other people they professionally cooperate with.     This study is focused on analysis of the professional ethical relation of teachers towards students, seen from student’s point of view. These are the results of student’s report...

  6. A Study of Facilitator Decisions on Ethical Adventure Issues.

    Long, Doug; DeTrude, Judy

    An increasing number of adventure facilitators are being trained in school settings. The common form of training consists of modeling the appropriate behavior to new facilitators followed by an apprenticeship period. An attempt was made to determine if adventure facilitators were making ethically correct decisions based upon their knowledge and

  7. ETHICAL ISSUES, SAFETY, AND DATA INTEGRITY IN CLINICAL TRIALS

    Published in 1974, the Belmont Report established the ethical principles for conducting clinical research in the United States. The essential concepts are respect for the research participant, beneficence for society at large, and justice (equal access to participation and equal treatment) toward su...

  8. Child Sexual Abuse Assessment: Issues in Professional Ethics.

    Milchman, Madelyn Simring

    1995-01-01

    Coordinates ethical codes for psychiatry, psychology, and social work and discusses their implications for child sexual abuse assessment in child protection and divorce/custody/visitation cases. Guidelines developed by the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children are also considered. Confidentiality, protection from harm, and bias…

  9. Thinking through the Issues in a Code of Ethics

    Davis, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In June 2005, seven people met at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) to develop a code of ethics governing all members of the university community. The initial group developed a preamble, that included reasons for establishing such a code and who was to be governed by the code, including rationale for following the guidelines. From this…

  10. Building the Bridge from Bench to Bedside: Ethical Issues in Translational Stem Cell Research

    Hug, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Translational stem cell research raises many interesting ethical questions, which have, to a greater or lesser degree, been debated at an international as well as at an interdisciplinary level. Nevertheless, there is still no international consensus regarding how a number of ethical questions related to this research should be answered. Many of these ethical questions create a real challenge to translation of basic research results into clinical applications. The overall aim of the thesis...

  11. Neurofunctional correlates of ethical, food-related decision-making.

    Cherry, J Bradley C; Bruce, Jared M; Lusk, Jayson L; Crespi, John M; Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    For consumers today, the perceived ethicality of a food's production method can be as important a purchasing consideration as its price. Still, few studies have examined how, neurofunctionally, consumers are making ethical, food-related decisions. We examined how consumers' ethical concern about a food's production method may relate to how, neurofunctionally, they make decisions whether to purchase that food. Forty-six participants completed a measure of the extent to which they took ethical concern into consideration when making food-related decisions. They then underwent a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans while performing a food-related decision-making (FRDM) task. During this task, they made 56 decisions whether to purchase a food based on either its price (i.e., high or low, the "price condition") or production method (i.e., with or without the use of cages, the "production method condition"), but not both. For 23 randomly selected participants, we performed an exploratory, whole-brain correlation between ethical concern and differential neurofunctional activity in the price and production method conditions. Ethical concern correlated negatively and significantly with differential neurofunctional activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). For the remaining 23 participants, we performed a confirmatory, region-of-interest (ROI) correlation between the same variables, using an 8-mm3 volume situated in the left dlPFC. Again, the variables correlated negatively and significantly. This suggests, when making ethical, food-related decisions, the more consumers take ethical concern into consideration, the less they may rely on neurofunctional activity in the left dlPFC, possibly because making these decisions is more routine for them, and therefore a more perfunctory process requiring fewer cognitive resources. PMID:25830288

  12. Ethics in research with human beings: some issues about Psychology tica em pesquisa com seres humanos: alguns tpicos sobre a psicologia

    Slvia Helena Koller

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some ethical issues in research with human beings, especially addressing the area of Psychology, such as the use of ethical codes; minimum risk; informed consent; debriefing; confidentiality; and ethical committees. It suggests ways for researchers to increase understanding and the proper use of the ethical codes, to guarantee their own protection, and to avoid abuses of power. Special attention is given to methodological issues related to ethics.Este artigo examina alguns aspectos ticos em pesquisa com seres humanos, especialmente endereando a rea da Psicologia, tais como o uso de resolues ticas; risco mnimo; consentimento livre e esclarecido; decepo; confidencialidade e atuao de comits de tica. Sugere caminhos aos pesquisadores para incrementar o entendimento e o uso apropriado de cdigos de tica, para garantir sua prpria proteo e evitar abuso de poder. Ateno especial dada a assuntos metodolgicos relacionados tica.

  13. Ethical issues and the importance of consensus for the intensive care team.

    Melia, K M

    2001-09-01

    This paper draws upon an empirical study and combines moral philosophical insights and sociological analysis to shed light on the ethical issues in intensive care. It is argued that moral philosophical debate often leaves aside the social context in which ethical decisions are taken and carried through. In order to gain an understanding of how intensive care is accomplished and specifically how ethical issues are handled, the study focused primarily on nurses' accounts of and views on the practices which form the everyday work of intensive care. A qualitative approach was adopted involving theoretical sampling and the constant comparative method of analysis. The paper argues that the most difficult ethical issue in intensive care, namely the withholding or withdrawal of treatment, is an area in which nursing and medical perspectives are often at odds. However, when the social context of clinical practice is taken into account, this paper argues. there is common ground between the two professions. It was found that the period during which the decision to withdraw treatment is being made, the members of the intensive care team closest to the bedside, nursing and medical staff. become impatient for some resolution of the situation. The differences of opinion which arise over the decision to withdraw are not simply to do with the way in which the situation is experienced by each professional group, proximity to the patient had a part to play in shaping their views rather than, as it is sometimes presumed. a simple rift between medicine and nursing. The data suggest that intensive care has to be a team effort. Even though there is no legal requirement for nurses to agree with the ICU decisions, there seems to be a strong desire within the intensive care team that moral consensus should be achieved in the interests of good patient care. Intensive care relies on the integrity of the team and the unfailing functioning of teamwork. Consequently, achieving this, it seems, is more important than other temporary lapses in interprofessional relations and disagreements over treatment in individual cases. Consensus is important and its achievement is a central, day to day working arrangement for insuring the solidarity of the team. PMID:11511047

  14. Addressing public concerns about ethical and environmental issues in the discussion on nuclear waste management

    According to Swiss Federal Law, the producers of radioactive waste are responsible for its safe disposal. The government, therefore, plays a relatively modest role in the public debate on nuclear waste management. Whenever asked to express an opinion, it tries to inform openly. Active public relations campaigns are led by the National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA). The operators of nuclear power plants are ready to compensate the siting community and its Canton for services rendered in the public interest. An important way to deal with ethical and environmental issues is the inclusion of opponents in every step of the time-consuming licensing procedure. This paper discusses the upcoming vote on a concession for a low and intermediate-level waste repository for which NAGRA is actively preparing. NAGRA's public relations work is based on recognition of the fact that the only way to diminish fear and gain credibility is to inform openly and regularly over many years, and to show that results achieved are based on serious, careful and transparent scientific work. Another aspect of radioactive waste management communication lies in the explanation of the ethics of 'inter-generational' and 'intra-generational' equity. Compensation will never make up for lack of safety. The ways in which the public voices its views are discussed, as well as the concept of seeking the co-operation of opponents in working groups. (author)

  15. Ethics instruction in an issues-oriented course on public health genetics.

    Modell, Stephen M; Citrin, Toby

    2002-02-01

    Public health ethics and genetics in public health have in the last decade emerged as fields in their own right. This article describes the ethics component of an "Issues in Public Health Genetics" course uniting the fields of genetics, ethics, and public health. As the third member of the University of Michigan Interdepartmental Concentration in Genetics, the course emphasizes the translation of ethical-social issues into substantive policies. A central tension repeated throughout the course exists between respect for individuals' libertarian interests and the welfare of the entire population. Students become familiar with the process of resolving conflicting values through interactive exercises addressing the health needs of diverse communities. Key lessons in course design are described. PMID:11822552

  16. Informed consent in experimentation involving mentally impaired persons: ethical issues

    Carlo Petrini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of experimentation involving subjects whose mental condition prevents them from understanding information and providing proper informed consent has been addressed in various codes, declarations, conventions, treaties and regulations adopted by national, international and supranational institutions and authorities. This article summarizes the basic ethical criteria these documents provide and stresses the historical development from the nearly total exclusion of incapacitated subjects, established in the mid-twentieth century, to their contemporary inclusion in clinical trials on certain ethical conditions. The problem of proxy consent by legal representatives for participation in clinical trials is addressed particularly in reference to current Italian regulations. Exceptions to human experimentation requirements in emergency situations are also briefly discussed.

  17. Ethical issues in radiation protection. Sievert lecture 1992

    Present radiation protection doctrine (ICRP 1990) is based on a body of scientific knowledge, one underlying assumption and three general principles. My objective is to discuss first the adequacy of the existing scientific information for the purpose of setting safety standards; then to consider the foundation of the underlying assumption; and finally, to discuss a few aspects of the general principles in the light of ethical considerations

  18. Ethical issues in the development of a vestibular prosthesis

    Poppendieck, Wigand; Hoffmann, Klaus-Peter; Merfeld, Daniel; Guyot, Jean-Philippe; Micera, Silvestro

    2011-01-01

    During the development of a neural prosthesis, various ethical aspects have to be considered. These range from the basic design of the prosthesis and manufacturing of the various components and the system using biocompatible materials to extensive in vitro and in vivo testing and investigations in the animal model, before taking the final step and going to human trials. As medical systems, neural prostheses have to be proven absolutely safe before considering any clinical study. In this work,...

  19. Elective surgery and the HIV-positive patient: medical, legal, and ethical issues.

    Clarke, S R; Gonsoulin, T P

    1999-05-01

    The ethical and legal issues surrounding the healthcare provider's obligation to provide care for patients have been a topic of debate since the beginning of modern medicine. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patient requesting cosmetic or elective surgery provides yet another situation in which the physician's ethical and legal responsibilities for the patient become a topic of debate. The risks involved to the physician and patient are first discussed, and then current ethical theory and legal decisions are reviewed. Finally, some conclusions are attempted from the varied opinions in the literature surrounding this controversial topic. PMID:10363477

  20. Ethical, social and public awareness issues in gene therapy EuropaBio.

    2002-01-01

    EuropaBio, the European Association for Bio-industries, represents 40 corporate members operating world wide and 14 national associations (totaling up to 700 small- and medium-sized enterprises) involved in research, development, testing, manufacturing, sales, and distribution of biotechnology-derived products and services in the field of health cae, agriculture, food, and the environment. AGE is a group of researchers and university professors involved in high-level professional activities related to bioethics, and particularly interested in ethical issues related to the development and use of modern technology. It is essential that industry actively participates in, and contributes to, the social debate on emerging technologies. Therefore, EuropaBio presents herein its view on gene therapy and its responsible development and use. PMID:12739548

  1. Family and Limitation of the Therapeutic Effort in Pediatric Intensive Care. Ethical Issues

    Ariel Efrn Uriarte Mndez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The fact of improving the quality of life of patients with incurable diseases and prolonging life in extremely serious cases has been related to the problem of defining when it is not ethically correct to prolong the agony. Almost all the medical literature addressing this issue refers to the patient and familys right to limit a futile therapy and its usefulness to avoid the unnecessary suffering of the patient. However, there is little information on how to act when the ralatives of the terminally ill child insist on continuing futile treatments that will only cause pain and increased suffering, without mentioning the unnecessary expenditure of resources, which puts the physician in a difficult position. This paper presents the criteria derived from the experience in the pediatric intensive care unit, especially those related to the interpretation of the concepts used in this context.

  2. Using the Emanuel et al. framework to assess ethical issues raised by a biomedical research ethics committee in South Africa.

    Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce M; Wassenaar, Douglas R

    2014-12-01

    The Emanuel, Wendler, and Grady framework was designed as a universal tool for use in many settings including developing countries. However, it is not known whether the work of African health research ethics committees (RECs) is compatible with this framework. The absence of any normative or empirical weighting of the eight principles within this framework suggests that different health RECs may raise some ethical issues more frequently than others when reviewing protocols. We used the Emanuel et al. framework to assess, code, and rank the most frequent ethical issues considered by a biomedical REC during review of research protocols for the years 2008 to 2012. We extracted data from the recorded minutes of a South African biomedical REC for the years 2008 to 2012, designed the data collection sheet according to the Emanuel et al. framework, and removed all identifiers during data processing and analysis. From the 98 protocols that we assessed, the most frequent issues that emerged were the informed consent, scientific validity, fair participant selection, and ongoing respect for participants. This study represents the first known attempt to analyze REC responses/minutes using the Emanuel et al. framework, and suggests that this framework may be useful in describing and categorizing the core activities of an REC. PMID:25747689

  3. ETHICAL ISSUES IN MARKETING: AN APPLICATION FOR UNDERSTANDING ETHICAL DECISION MAKING

    Parıltı, Nurettin; Külter Demirgüneş, Banu; Özsaçmacı, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    In recent years business ethics and social responsibility have gained great importance in marketing practices, especially in societal marketing practices. Businesses infinitely struggle to indicate their contributions to society. Consumers consciously evaluate this contribution. Manipulated consumer choices and unethical marketing applications can affect purchasing behavior. Particularly intense competition, globalization and societal consciousness transform businesses into social organizatio...

  4. Ethical Issues in Financing Health Care in Romania

    Cristina GAVRILOVICI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The allocation of financial resources in accordance with population health care needs represents a complex task, with practical and ethical dilemmas. The decisions regarding resource allocation are made at macro, mezzo and micro levels. Legislative authorities and government decide how to allocate limited resources based on cost effectiveness criteria. Managing directors of hospitals and research institutes take mezzo decisions, while doctors and researchers in healthcare area are responsible to make micro decisions. The aim of this paper is to assess the use of equity criteria for resource allocation in Romanian public hospitals. We found that resource allocation within the Romanian health system increases the inequalities among individuals and groups.

  5. A clinical perspective on ethical issues in genetic testing.

    Sijmons, R H; Van Langen, I M; Sijmons, J G

    2011-05-01

    Genetic testing is traditionally preceded by counselling to discuss its advantages and disadvantages with individuals so they can make informed decisions. The new technique of whole genome or exome sequencing, which is currently only used in research settings, can identify many gene mutations, including substantial numbers of mutations with unknown pathological effect; it may, therefore, threaten this balanced approach if it is used in a clinical setting. We discuss the ethical challenges of several approaches to pre- and postnatal DNA testing, individual privacy versus the interests of families and of scientists, and the clinician's duty to re-contact if new information or options become available. PMID:21574071

  6. Providing indigent care: strategic issues in management, marketing and ethics.

    Summers, J

    1986-08-01

    Uncompensated cares poses considerable management, marketing and ethical challenges to health care managers. A variety of responses are examined which offer the possibility of reducing the need for inpatient care and the cost of that care as well as for the enhancement of the organization's positioning in the marketing and sales environment. Some of the programs will require support from local community agencies or employers, but others will be quite feasible without such support. Additionally, the programs build on sensitivity to the hospital mission as opposed to turning away from it. PMID:10301007

  7. Managed care in mental health: the ethical issues.

    Boyle, P J; Callahan, D

    1995-01-01

    Praise and blame of managed mental health care are on the rise on many fronts, including allegations that it could adversely affect quality of care, access to care, the physician/patient relationship, and informed patient choice. Given the heterogeneity among managed mental health care organizations--each with differing practices--it is difficult to sift the ethically defensible concerns from the indefensible ones. In this paper we identify and examine the different moral concerns about managed mental health care and mark which problems have been addressed or are in need of resolution. We also identify which problems are unique to managed mental health care. PMID:7498905

  8. Ethical Issues Involved in Integrated Marketing Communication in Nigeria

    Ayozie Daniel Ogechukwu; Ayozie Kingsley Ndubueze; Ayozie Victoria Uche

    2011-01-01

    “When we consider corporate morality we must conclude that no price is too high, for in the long run we have no alternative to ethical business behaviour” Fred. T. Aller. “If I were to name the deadliest subversive force within capitalism, the single greatest source of its waning morality …. I would without hesitation name “Advertising and Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC)”. How else should one identify a force that debases language, drains thought and undoes dignity. (Heilbroner .R. (...

  9. Holistic science: An understanding of science education encompassing ethical and social issues

    Malekpour, Susan

    Science has often been viewed, by the majority of our educators and the general public, as being objective and emotionless. Based on this view, our educators teach science in the same manner, objectively and in an abstract form. This manner of teaching has hindered our learners' ability for active learning and distanced them from the subject matter. In this action research, I have examined holistic science pedagogy in conjunction with a constructivism theory. In holistic science pedagogy, scientific knowledge is combined with subjective personal experiences and social issues. There is an interaction between student and scientific data when the student's context, relationships, and lived experiences that play a role in the scientific recognition of the world were incorporated into the learning process. In this pedagogical model, the factual content was viewed from the context of social and ethical implications. By empowering learners with this ability, science knowledge will no longer be exclusive to a select group. This process empowers the general population with the ability to understand scientific knowledge and therefore the ability to make informed decisions based on this knowledge. The goal was to make curriculum developers more conscious of factors that can positively influence the learning process and increase student engagement and understanding within the science classroom. The holistic approach to science pedagogy has enlightened and empowered our adult learners more effectively. Learners became more actively engaged in their own process of learning. Teachers must be willing to listen and implement student suggestions on improving the teaching/learning process. Teachers should be willing to make the effort in connecting with their students by structuring courses so the topics would be relevant to the students in relation to real world and social/ethical and political issues. Holistic science pedagogy strives for social change through the empowerment of adult learners with scientific knowledge. This research has demonstrated that learners can better understand the decision-making process and more easily relate their experiences, and therefore their knowledge, to social/political and ethical issues.

  10. Policy, Equity and Priority: Ethical Issues of Stem Cell in Developing Countries

    B Larijani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ever-increasing advances in the field of bioethics have been encouraged by recent developments of biomedical technolo-gies. Stem cell research and therapy are among the most promising approaches in medicine of which are raised some ethical challenges. Likewise, the therapeutic potential of stem cell-based therapies created new policy concerns for health care systems, particularly the issue of equity, priority in resource allocation and justice. There are arguments against and in favor of funding for stem cell research. Governments have also diverse policies in encouraging private sector sponsorship to support researches. Iran is one of the pioneers in the field of human embryonic stem cell research in the region. The religious decrees permitting therapeutic purposes have paved the way for wide-ranging researches. Indeed, the researchers have an obligation to observe moral values. Therefore, the national specific guideline for gamete and embryo research, compiled in 2005, is followed in this issue. In this paper, we will discuss the major ethical concerns relating to the issue of equity and justice, and will review the regulatory policies for stem cell research and therapy. On the whole, stem cell research is a global enterprise about which there is a need to think in the context of globalisation and also from the perspective of the developing countries. Stem cell based therapies are expensive and technologically demanding, the low-resource healthcare systems need to consider a specific national policy and to weigh up costs and benefits to consider making such treatments available. We must ensure that rights, values and welfare of the donor, recipient and the community are respected.

  11. Ethical Issues in Neuroprognostication after Severe Pediatric Brain Injury.

    Kirschen, Matthew P; Walter, Jennifer K

    2015-09-01

    Neurologic outcome prediction, or neuroprognostication, after severe brain injury in children is a challenging task and has many ethical dimensions. Neurologists and intensivists are frequently asked by families to predict functional recovery after brain injury to help guide medical decision making despite limited outcome data. Using two clinical cases of children with severe brain injury from different mechanisms: hypoxic-ischemic injury secondary to cardiac arrest and traumatic brain injury, this article first addresses the importance of making a correct diagnosis in a child with a disorder of consciousness and then discusses some of the clinical challenges with deducing an accurate and timely outcome prediction. We further explore the ethical obligations of physicians when supporting parental decision making. We highlight the need to focus on how to elicit family values for a brain injured child, how to manage prognostic uncertainty, and how to effectively communicate with families in these challenging situations. We offer guidance for physicians when they have diverging views from families on aggressiveness of care or feel pressured to prognosticate with in a "window of opportunity" for limiting or withdrawing life sustaining therapies. We conclude with a discussion of the potential influence of emerging technologies, specifically advanced functional neuroimaging, on neurologic outcome prediction after severe brain injury. PMID:26358429

  12. Conflicts of duty and the virtues of Aristotle in public relations ethics: Continuing the conversation commenced by Monica Walle

    John Harrison

    2004-01-01

    Monica Walle's commentary on codes of ethics from five national public relations associations What happened to public responsibility? The lack of society in public relations codes of ethics, in the last issue of PRism (2003), made several useful points about potential conflicts of duty, and the manner in which the various codes are silent on the duty of the professional to the public interest. Indeed, it is this very notion of service to the community, and the upholding of the public interest...

  13. Ethical, legal and social issues to consider when designing a surrogacy law.

    Ekberg, Merryn Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this article is to address the ethical, legal and social issues that arise when a woman becomes pregnant and gives birth to a child with the intention of surrendering this child to another woman or couple. The secondary aim is to offer some recommendations that will be beneficial for the lawmakers, policymakers and regulators who design and enforce the rules and regulations that govern surrogacy arrangements. The article considers both commercial and altruistic surrogacy and highlights some of the similarities and differences between the two. Beginning with the initial question of whether surrogacy should be legal, the controversial questions raised relate to the time before conception, during the pregnancy and after the birth of the child. The article concludes that surrogacy arrangements are ethical and should be legal because they enable the medically and socially infertile, including singles and same-sex couples, the opportunity to become parents and to enjoy the lifelong pleasures of parenthood. For many, this will be the strongest argument for the legalisation of surrogacy and the greatest benefit to arise from surrogacy arrangements. PMID:24804538

  14. [Controversies over the surgical placebo: legal issues and the ethical debate].

    Hervé, C; Moutel, G; Meningaud, J P; Wolf, M; Lopes, M

    2000-06-17

    The debate on controlled surgery trials has had some rather "sensational" repercussions, enlivening the placebo issue. In France, there is a consensus on the ethical conditions necessary for proper protection of individual persons. This consensus has taken on a legal form with the promulgation of the Huriet law. For this reason, all studies and research protocols in medicine and surgery are examined by ethics committees (CCPPRB) who assess the inclusion conditions within the framework of biomedical research and in compliance with the concept that individual participants must be give proper protection. These committees are faced with increasingly complex situations, particularly concerning the pertinence of information give to the participant and the modalities of consent. In France, standard measures were established after a parliamentary debate issuing from a wider public debate. The issue has become a social transaction between biomedical research professionals and the society in general. The international debate over the surgery placebo is an interesting illustration of how mediation institutions, working along the principles of ethical committees, play a key role in social awareness of the ethical issues involved before an innovating practice is initiated. But how legitimate are sensational pieces published in the media, which as is clearly demonstrated with the debate over the surgical placebo, are almost always individual points of view? Shouldn't the debate take into account the contributions of ethical committees which integrate representatives of the social community as well as the importance of a legal framework for individual protection as proposed by the French law? Shouldn't personal points of view be counterbalanced by regularly expressed ethical committee opinions formed after appropriate ethics-oriented discussion going beyond the simple question of "should we do it", a question often dismissed by extreme theoretical arguments that leave unanswered the practical question of "how should we do it"? PMID:10906941

  15. Public Relations Ethics and Communitarianism: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Leeper, Kathie A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a preliminary examination of communitarianism and its emphasis on community and responsibility as an ethical base for public relations. Suggests that the emphasis business currently places on quality, social responsibility, and stewardship may fit within a communitarian approach. Argues that a communitarian base to public relations may…

  16. A Critical Review of Theories and Measures of Ethics-Related Leadership.

    Zhu, Weichun; Zheng, Xiaoming; Riggio, Ronald E; Zhang, Xi

    2015-06-01

    This chapter reviews the different theoretical perspectives and measurements of ethics-related leadership models, including ethical leadership, transformational leadership, authentic leadership, servant leadership, spiritual leadership, and a virtues-based approach to leadership ethics. The similarities and differences among these theoretical models and measures to ethics-related leadership are discussed. PMID:26894906

  17. Does the Defining Issues Test measure ethical judgment ability or political position?

    Bailey, Charles D

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the construct validity of the Defining Issues Test of ethical judgment (DIT/DIT-2). Alleging a political bias in the test, Emler and colleagues (1983, 1998, 1999, 2007), show that conservatives score higher when asked to fake as liberals, implying that they understand the reasoning associated with "higher" moral development but avoid items they see as liberally biased. DIT proponents challenge the internal validity of faking studies, advocating an explained-variance validation. This study takes a new approach: Adult participants complete the DIT-2, then evaluate the raw responses of others to discern political orientation and ethical development. Results show that individuals scoring higher on the DIT-2 rank others' ethical judgment in a way consistent with DIT-2-based rankings. Accuracy at assessing political orientation, however, is low. Results support the DIT-2's validity as a measure of ethical development, not an expression of political position. PMID:21675184

  18. The Teaching of Socioscientific Issues in Interdisciplinarity Biology-philosophy, an Ethical Stake and Citizenship Issue

    Kacem, Saida; Simonneaux, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    This research starts from a relatively optimistic thinking based on the fact that the teaching of the socioscientific issues through the practice of argued debates can contribute positively towards education in scientific citizenship. The teaching of techno-sciences raises topical questions which interfere in the classroom and at the same time…

  19. [Ethics and laws related to human subject research].

    Chiu, Hui-Ju; Lee, Ya-Ling; Chang, Su-Fen

    2011-10-01

    Advances in medical technology rely on human subject research to test the effects on real patients of unproven new drugs, equipment and techniques. Illegal human subject research happens occasionally and has led to subject injury and medical disputes. Familiarity with the laws and established ethics related to human subject research can minimize both injury and disputes. History is a mirror that permits reflection today on past experience. Discussing the Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki and Belmont Report, this article describes the laws, ethics, history and news related to human subject research as well as the current definition and characteristics of human subject research. Increasing numbers of nurses serve as research nurses and participate in human subject research. The authors hope this article can increase research nurse knowledge regarding laws and ethics in order to protect human research subjects adequately. PMID:22024809

  20. Animal Experimentation: Bringing Ethical Issues into Biology Teaching.

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2000-01-01

    There are many possibilities for the use of controversial issues such as animal experimentation in biology classrooms. Outlines a series of three lessons that asked senior biology students to consider the issue of animal experimentation from three perspectives. (Author/LM)

  1. Ethics, Law and Professional Issues Gallagher Ann and Hodge Sue Ethics, Law and Professional Issues 192pp £20.99 Palgrave Macmillan 9780230279940 0230279945 [Formula: see text].

    2014-10-01

    THE EDITORS provide a sound introduction to ethics, law and professional issues in health care. Scenarios before each chapter help the reader to digest and comprehend the information. My only criticism is that it is not directly relevant to nursing alone. Although there is some benefit in being aware of how other practitioners may be affected by these issues, another book aimed at nurses would be more appropriate. Later chapters about responding to unprofessional practice and promoting professional healthcare practice may be of more interest to nursing students and recently qualified healthcare professionals. PMID:25358983

  2. Aspectos éticos del comercio electrónico desde la perspectiva de los consumidores : Ethical issues in online retailing form consumers´perspective.

    Pascual del Riquelme Martínez, Mª Isabel

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose – The main goal of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the factors that currently represent some of the most important obstacles for a greater acceptance of the Internet as a shopping channel. Specifically, this research is focused on the study of the antecedents of consumers’ concerns, perceptions and beliefs about ethical issues in e-commerce, as these consumer ethical concerns are at the core of the most important barriers related to e-commerce ado...

  3. How the "Public Relations Journal" Responds to Criticism of Public Relations Ethics: A Qualitative Approach.

    Olasky, Marvin N.

    A quantitative analysis of 40 years of articles appearing in the "Public Relations Journal" was made to determine how the journal has responded to ethical criticism of public relations over the years. While 17% of the articles during one eight-year period discussed questions touching on ethics in some way, quantitative analytical tools did not…

  4. Ethical issues associated with the use of animal experimentation in behavioral neuroscience research.

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research disciplines using animal experimentation, this field of endeavor makes a number of specific, ethically relevant, questions more explicit and, as a result, may expose to discussion a series of ethical issues that have relevance beyond this field of science. We suggest that innovative research, by its very definition, demands out-of-the-box thinking. At the same time, standardization of animal models and test procedures for the sake of comparability across experiments inhibits the potential and willingness to leave well-established tracks of thinking, and leaves us wondering how open minded research is and whether it is the researcher's established perspective that drives the research rather than the research that drives the researcher's perspective. The chapter finishes by introducing subsequent chapters of this book volume on Ethical Issues in Behavioral Neuroscience. PMID:25023419

  5. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: ethical and legal issues in feeding and hydration.

    O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie; Baird Schwartz, Denise; Posthauer, Mary Ellen

    2013-06-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that individuals have the right to request or refuse nutrition and hydration as medical treatment. Registered dietitians (RDs) should work collaboratively as part of the interprofessional team to make recommendations on providing, withdrawing, or withholding nutrition and hydration in individual cases and serve as active members of institutional ethics committees. RDs have an active role in determining the nutrition and hydration requirements for individuals throughout the life span. When individuals choose to forgo any type of nutrition and hydration (natural or artificial), or when individuals lack decision-making capacity and others must decide whether or not to provide artificial nutrition and hydration, RDs have a professional role in the ethical deliberation around those decisions. Across the life span, there are multiple instances when nutrition and hydration issues create ethical dilemmas. There is strong clinical, ethical, and legal support both for and against the administration of food and water when issues arise regarding what is or is not wanted by the individual and what is or is not warranted by empirical clinical evidence. When a conflict arises, the decision requires ethical deliberation. RDs' understanding of nutrition and hydration within the context of nutritional requirements and cultural, social, psychological, and spiritual needs provide an essential basis for ethical deliberation. RDs, as health care team members, have the responsibility to promote use of advanced directives. RDs promote the rights of the individual and help the health care team implement appropriate therapy. This paper supports the "Practice Paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Ethical and Legal Issues of Feeding and Hydration" published on the Academy website at: www.eatright.org/positions. PMID:23684296

  6. Food Marketing to Children - Introduction to Ethical Issues

    Květa Olšanová

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The working paper provides an overview of key stakeholders involved in the food marketing to children in Europe and in the Czech Republic. It analyzes the role of the legislation as well as of voluntary codes of conduct in the food industry. The industry part of the issue is also covered by explanation of their role and position in the obesity issue. The form of food industry cooperation at the Food Chamber through a working group of involved companies is analyzed and an example of the corporate responsibility program is shown. The paper is going to serve as a review of the issue for further exploration needs.

  7. Considering ethical dilemmas related to brain death in newborns

    Ilias Chatziioannidis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain death (BD, as the irreversible and permanent loss of cerebral and brainstem function, is relatively uncommon among newborns who need life support. It is considered the result of an acute and irreversible central nervous system insult. Asphyxia, severe intracranial hemorrhage and infection are the most common causes of BD in children. BD diagnosis is usually based on clinical criteria. Dilemmas about life prolonging treatment for severely compromised infants as brain dead infants are has become challenging since neonatal intensive care unit (NICU care has developed, quality of life and resource issues are nowadays continuously underlined. Caring for premature babies is expensive and costs have risen especially since an increased number of infants with handicaps survives. Intensivists main duty is first to save lives and then to interrupt treatment in certain conditions like detrimental brain damage. The objective of this article is to present ethical decisions regarding brain dead newborns in order to balance between organ donation necessities and withholding/withdrawing treatment, with respect to the important role of infants parents in the process.

  8. Ethical Issues in Cooperative Education--The Practitioner's Perspective.

    Mark, Joan

    2001-01-01

    Raises issues of unethical student behavior in cooperative education, with examples of theft, abuse of workplace e-mail, fraudulent timesheets, and wrongful unemployment claims. Discusses new opportunities for unethical behavior created by technology and ways educators can respond. (SK)

  9. Geologic disposal of radioactive waste: Ethical and technical issues

    Ethical goals that future people should be protected and should not have to protect themselves from our radioactive waste are claimed by geologic repository projects. The best test of sufficient protection is to show that the calculated individual doses to future farming families are well below a regulatory limit. That limit should be no greater than what is now adopted to protect the public from operating licensed facilities. Present US calculations show doses, at times well beyond 10,000 years, that exceed current accepted limits by at least three orders of magnitude. Notwithstanding, there is a good chance that the goals can still be achieved by careful technical design of the geologic confinement system. But many in the US now propose ways that would allow greater individual exposures from radionuclides that eventually leak from a geologic repository. Examples include: (a) the 10,000-year cutoff proposed by industry, the US Congress, EPA, and DOE, thus obscuring the later times when higher doses are certain to result; (b) the vicinity-average dose proposed by industry and the US Congress; (c) the probabilistic critical groups proposed by EPRI and by the National Research Council's TYMS committee; (d) proposals to rely on future humans to detect and cleanup excessive amounts of radioactivity that may escape from a repository, and (e) the move to base compliance on calculated doses from well water drawn at considerable distance from Yucca Mountain. Each of these proposals would lead to a far more lenient radiation protection standard than current standards. Each of these proposals is without sufficient scientific basis for its use as a protector of public health. Each of these proposals would violate one or more of the ethical goals. Each is made without adequate discussion and explanation and without explaining how and why it would violate one or more of the ethical goals. What if serious work on alternatives fails to produce conservatively calculated and defensible doses that show that future people will be protected as well as present-day people are protected from licensed nuclear facilities? If so, the need for a geologic repository could be balanced against the desire for assuring such conservative and careful protection of public health. Relaxation of the safety standard itself, as attempted so prematurely by the House and Senate bills of the present and last Congress, should be made only after special review of that need by the scientific community and the public and approval by Congress. The desire for safeguards protection of buried spent nuclear fuel will be an additional burden on repository design and prediction of performance. Thus, the Yucca Mountain Project faces a demanding technical challenge. Similar challenges face policy makers. They must reject pressures for short-term expediency and economy lest, by enacting policies that compromise scientific validity and credibility, they further undermine public confidence and irreparably harm the programs for disposing of high-level radioactive waste

  10. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Protestant perspectives in the light of European Protestant and Reformed Churches.

    Birkhäuser, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Protestantism is not a centralized religion. It is composed by many independent Churches having different moral and ethical standards. This review concentrates on the ethical principles prevalent in most modern European Reformed Churches. It does not intend to discuss the ethical principles of many other Protestant Churches present mainly in the USA. The common foundations of Protestant theology are the "five sola ("Sola scriptura", Sola fide", "Sola gratia", Solus Christus or Solo Christo", "Soli deo gloria"). In opposition to the Catholic Church, no intermediary is needed between the Bible and the believer. As a consequence, Protestant Churches have no Magisterium, such as the Catholic Church. Therefore Protestant Churches cannot declare a certain position to be the "official position". Each Christian is personally responsible for all his acts, including his ethical behaviour. There is no complete unanimity among all Protestants on ethics or on any other issue. Human dignity, personal rights and self-determination have to be respected in each ethical consideration. The supersession of the Old Mosaic Covenant (including traditional Jewish law or Halakhah, maintained in Catholicism) by the New Covenant and by Christian Theology has an important impact on Protestant ethics in reproductive medicine. In the New Covenant, the Protestants Churches did not maintain the mandatory obligation from the old Mosaic Covenant to be fruitful and to multiply: there is no divine obligation by God to procreate. As a consequence, contraception is not a sin and not unethical. The status of the embryo is the key for the ethical consideration of all methods used in reproductive medicine. Most representatives of modern Protestant theology and bioethics defend the opinion that the embryo is not an independent human being as is the newborn child. For most Protestant bio-ethicists, as long as an embryo has no nervous system, no organs and no pain receptors, it cannot be seen as a human being sensu strictiori: the zygote is not yet a "human being". The ethical right to be protected prenatally increases gradually with the age and the development of the embryo. Following this so-called gradualist interpretation, the early stages of an embryo merit ethically a special status: although they have already "human life", they are not yet a "human being". All ethical considerations in modern reproductive medicine discussed in this review are based on this concept of the status of the embryo. It depends largely on the acceptance or rejection of this special status of the embryo, if a Protestant considers a certain method in reproductive medicine to be ethical or unethical. PMID:24079450

  11. Some Ethical Issues for Accountants in Antidumping Trade Cases: An Examination of Recent Case Studies with Emphasis on Latin America

    Robert W. McGee

    1998-01-01

    A search of the accounting, trade and ethics literature failed to find a single article that discussed the role that accountants play in assisting in the data gathering process of a trade investigation. Yet there are serious ethical issues that need to be addressed. Certain aspects of trade investigations are unethical, whether one takes a utilitarian or rights view of ethics, and accountants play a role in this unethical conduct. This paper looks at those issues and makes recommendations for...

  12. Myomas: anatomy and related issues.

    Tinelli, Andrea; Sparic, Radmila; Kadija, Saša; Babovic, Ivana; Tinelli, Raffaele; Mynbaev, Ospan A; Malvasi, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Myomas are the most common disorder of the female genital organs, occurring more frequently throughout women's reproductive years. Myomas are a major health issue all over the world. They develop as a monoclonal tumor from cells influenced by ovarian steroids, and mediated by surrounding myometrial cells by paracrine mechanisms. During its growth, a myoma compresses the surrounding tissue, causing the formation of a pseudocapsule, encapsulating the myoma. The mechanical properties of myomas are a key factor which can contribute to their growth. While myomas are essentially rigid, their pseudocapsule is more elastic, and this allows uterine adaptation to the growing myoma. Hence, the pseudocapsule induces displacement on the myometrium, which is not destructive since the integrity and contractility of uterine structure is maintained. Extensive research conducted on the myoma and its pseudocapsule has produced important data. Scientific research is still trying to clarify some of the evidence regarding the influence of myomas on infertility, especially in the case of intramural myomas. During fertility-sparing myoma surgery, data suggest that during myoma removal the pseudocapsule should be preserved. However, unsolved issues still exist on the cesarean myomectomy technique, since the age of pregnancy has been increasing in the new millennium, so patients present with myomas which should be removed before and during the cesarean section, or prior to applying for medically-assisted reproduction. PMID:26785282

  13. ETHICAL QUESTIONING RELATED TO GENE THERAPHY FOR INHERITED DISEASES TREATMENT

    JOS HENRY OSORIO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of exogenous genetic sequences named transgenes is known as gene therapy and has the purpose of correcting genotypic and phenotypic alterations in the human organism. This therapy can be carried out in somatic cells or in germinal cells. The ethical questioning related to somatic gene therapy has to do basically with the potential risks for health and the informed consent while germ-line gene therapy has the potential to affect permanently future generations. Since genic therapy involves much more than the simple alteration of genetic sequences, this revision presents the main ethical problems associated with gene therapy for inherited disease

  14. Toward an Ideal Relational Ethic: Rethinking university-community engagement

    Steve Garlick; Palmer, Victoria J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores how an ideal relational ethic based on Zygmunt Bauman’s (1995) notion of forms of togetherness is needed to underpin university-community engagement processes and practices. We focus on the notion of being-for, and suggest that it can be used as an ‘engagement bridge’ between higher education institutions, the creation of human capital and communities, and can be a means to achieve ethical outcomes to local concerns. Much of Bauman’s (1995; 2001; 2007) theoretical developm...

  15. Public acceptance of nuclear power. Some ethical issues

    The World Council of Churches is aware of a decline of public confidence in existing social institutions responsible for maintaining and securing the nuclear fuel cycle. In addressing this concern, the World Council of Churches seeks a direct assurance from the IAEA and other responsible governmental bodies that new initiatives will be taken to resolve this anxiety and to place the acknowledged risks of an expanding nuclear power industry in a more realistic long-term perspective. The provision of energy resources for all peoples is an essential part of the struggle for a more just, participatory and sustainable society. The W.C.C. appreciates the necessity of retaining nuclear power as a viable option for the future in many countries. However, the credibility of the option can be achieved only through the resolution of the major questions that are inherent in the use of nuclear technology. These questions must be tackled before a large and irreversible world-wide commitment is made. At present, the public debate is confused. Advocates of nuclear energy plead the achievements of unproven technology, minimizing the unsolved problems, while critics ignore the societal costs of other major energy options, and demand an unrealistic absolute perfection in the design and construction of nuclear power systems. The churches seek to encourage an informed public examination of these issues. The W.C.C. stresses the necessity of resolving the problems of secure waste disposal and those posed by the drift into a dependency on the plutonium fuel economy. A just global society implies not merely equal opportunity to aspire and to achieve, but affirmative action to redress imbalances. This is incompatible with the pseudo-secrecy and patronage practiced by developed nuclear countries. The W.C.C. is concerned how the ''access'' versus ''security'' issue is to be resolved. The development of nuclear energy for civilian purposes is linked with the development of nuclear weapons. The nature of this''coupling'' and the principles guiding those who try to contain the spread of nuclear weapons must be directly related to the anticipated future scale and technologies of nuclear energy production. Nuclear energy provides the only presently available alternative to fossil fuels and hydro-power for the supply of bulk electric energy. Woever, this sophisticated technology seems likely to reinforce the trend to centralization and urbanization of society which many are trying to reverse. At the same time many countries want the benefits of nuclear energy. The social implications of what is done need to be identified and explored. The validity of underlying presuppositions of faith and values that appear in the debate over the future role of nuclear energy needs to be acknowledged and examined. The World Council of Churches appeals to this body of expertise to provide a more considered response to these questions

  16. The Ethical Employee.

    2002

    A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.…

  17. A Global Perspective on Public Relations Ethics: The Middle East.

    Kruckeberg, Dean

    Sophisticated public relations is being practiced in the Middle East. However, the models used in that region are not identical to American models, nor are they identical to those in other Western countries usually considered part of the "First World." In particular, Moslem culture heavily influences Middle East practice. Can the ethics of public…

  18. Ethics and Reference Services.

    Danielson, Elena S.

    1997-01-01

    While revised ethical codes provide helpful guidelines, reference archivists face many ethical questions raised by rapidly evolving technology, changing expectations, and inconsistent privacy laws that have no clear answers. Discusses issues related to reference searching, codification of ethics, cultural property and the responsibility of…

  19. Ethical Issues and Considerations for Working with Community College Students with Severe and Persistent Mental Disorders

    Francis, Perry C.; Abbassi, Amir

    2010-01-01

    Students with severe and persistent mental illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders; moderate to severe mood, anxiety, dissociative, eating, or personality disorders) are attending community colleges in increasing numbers. Their need for counseling services presents counseling centers with unique ethical issues to consider. This…

  20. Ethical Issues and Considerations for Working with Community College Students with Severe and Persistent Mental Disorders

    Francis, Perry C.; Abbassi, Amir

    2010-01-01

    Students with severe and persistent mental illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders; moderate to severe mood, anxiety, dissociative, eating, or personality disorders) are attending community colleges in increasing numbers. Their need for counseling services presents counseling centers with unique ethical issues to consider. This

  1. Advances in Graduate Marketing Curriculum: Paying Attention to Ethical, Social, and Sustainability Issues

    Weber, James

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the impact of coercive, mimetic, and normative isomorphic pressures on the coverage and offering of courses addressing ethical, social, and sustainability issues (ESSI) in business schools' graduate marketing curricula. Data from the Aspen Institute's Beyond Grey Pinstripes program are analyzed to detect if

  2. Doing Sensitive Research Sensitively: Ethical and Methodological Issues in Researching Workplace Bullying

    Fahie, Declan

    2014-01-01

    Complex ethical and methodological issues can sometimes arise when conducting researchinto sensitive topics. By employing an autobiographic approach to explore the personaldilemmas that arose for the author while undertaking doctoral research on workplacebullying in Irish education, this article highlights potential difficulties and tensions whichmay arise for researchers (particularly those at the beginning of their careers) whenconducting sensitive research. Specific attention is paid to th...

  3. Advances in Graduate Marketing Curriculum: Paying Attention to Ethical, Social, and Sustainability Issues

    Weber, James

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the impact of coercive, mimetic, and normative isomorphic pressures on the coverage and offering of courses addressing ethical, social, and sustainability issues (ESSI) in business schools' graduate marketing curricula. Data from the Aspen Institute's Beyond Grey Pinstripes program are analyzed to detect if…

  4. How Do We Teach What Is Right? Research and Issues in Ethical and Moral Development.

    Perry, Constance M.

    1996-01-01

    Enhances understanding of values-education issues by addressing research on moral and ethical development. Presents Damon's tripartite distinction among moral reflection, moral emotion, and moral conduct--head, heart, and habit--to show moral development's complexity. Although promoting prosocial behavior is parents' responsibility, literature is…

  5. Ethical Issues in the Social Worker's Role in Physician-Assisted Suicide.

    Manetta, Ameda A.; Wells, Janice G.

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of an exploratory study of social workers' views on physician-assisted suicide (PAS), situations in which PAS would be favored, and whether there is a difference in education or training on mental health issues, ethics, or suicide between social workers who favor PAS and those who oppose PAS. (BF)

  6. Ethical issues, justification, referral criteria for budget limited and high-dose procedures

    This paper reviews some of the issues connected with questions of ethics, health economics, radiation dose and referral criteria arising from a workshop held under the auspices of the Sentinel Research Program FP6-012909. An extensive bibliography of further reading is included. (authors)

  7. Health effects of low-level radiation: ethical issues for patients and workforces

    In the light of recent media-driven furores concerning the sensitive matter of patient consent, and the new legislation that impinges upon this issue, the nature of ethical practices for epidemiological research needs to be looked at anew. This paper considers the present landscape, with particular reference to the nuclear workforce and BNFL's current practice in this regard. (author)

  8. Mode of Effective Connectivity within a Putative Neural Network Differentiates Moral Cognitions Related to Care and Justice Ethics

    Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G Andrew; Ely, Timothy D.; Snarey, John; Kilts, Clinton D

    2011-01-01

    Background Moral sensitivity refers to the interpretive awareness of moral conflict and can be justice or care oriented. Justice ethics is associated primarily with human rights and the application of moral rules, whereas care ethics is related to human needs and a situational approach involving social emotions. Among the core brain regions involved in moral issue processing are: medial prefrontal cortex, anterior (ACC) and posterior (PCC) cingulate cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus ...

  9. Review paper: Organ transplants: ethical, social, and religious issues in a multicultural society.

    Robson, Noor Zurani Md Haris; Razack, Azad Hassan; Dublin, Norman

    2010-07-01

    Recent advances in the fields of organ donation and organ transplant have introduced new hope for the treatment of serious diseases. However, this promise has been accompanied by several issues. The most common issue raised is ethical implications, but in a multicultural society like Malaysia, additional concerns arise pertaining to social and religious issues. These concerns needs to be addressed as attitudes toward and acceptability of organ donation varies according to social, culture, and religion. The diverse cultural, religious, and traditional concepts pertaining to organ donation may hamper its acceptability and cause a lack of willingness to donate organs. The purpose of this article is to briefly explore the ethical issues involved in organ transplant and the various religious opinions on organ donation. It is hoped that this knowledge and understanding may benefit both health care providers and patients in a multicultural society like Malaysia. PMID:20460294

  10. Managing ethical issues in sexual violence research using a pilot study

    S.E. Duma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Conducting research in the area of sexual violence has complex ethical and practical challenges for the researcher. Managing ethical issues in sexual violence is important and can be achieved through the use of pilot studies. The primary purpose of the pilot study was to identify and manage potential ethical and practical problems that could jeopardise the main study or violate the ethical and human rights of participants in the main study on womens journey of recovery from sexual assault. The secondary purpose was to collect preliminary data in order to determine the human, financial and time resources needed for a planned study. The methods and processes used in conducting the pilot study in the study on womens journey of recovery are discussed according to each of the objectives of the pilot study, methods used to achieve the objective, observations or findings made during the pilot study, and implications for the main study.This article aims to demonstrate how a pilot study was used to manage identified potential ethical and practical research issues during the recruitment of participants and data collection for the research that was conducted by the first author to investigate womens journey of recovery from sexual assault trauma within the first week following sexual assault.

  11. Food Marketing to Children - Introduction to Ethical Issues

    Květa Olšanová

    2013-01-01

    The working paper provides an overview of key stakeholders involved in the food marketing to children in Europe and in the Czech Republic. It analyzes the role of the legislation as well as of voluntary codes of conduct in the food industry. The industry part of the issue is also covered by explanation of their role and position in the obesity issue. The form of food industry cooperation at the Food Chamber through a working group of involved companies is analyzed and an example of the corpor...

  12. Ethical issues in palliative care. Views of patients, families, and nonphysician staff.

    Towers A; MacDonald N; Wallace E

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Much of what we know about ethical issues in palliative care comes from the perceptions of physicians and ethicists. In this study our goal was to hear other voices and to gain first-hand knowledge of the possibly contrasting views of patients, their families, nurses, volunteers, and other team members on end-of-life issues. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. SETTING: Inpatient and consultation palliative care service of the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montre...

  13. Ongoing ethical issues concerning authorship in biomedical journals: an integrative review

    Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; McLean, Loyola M; Baber, Rodney J

    2015-01-01

    Health professionals publishing within the field of health sciences continue to experience issues concerning appropriate authorship, which have clinical, ethical, and academic implications. This integrative review sought to explore the key issues concerning authorship from a bioethical standpoint, aiming to explore the key features of the authorship debate. Studies were identified through an electronic search, using the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL)...

  14. Plasma afterburners and related issues

    Huang, Chengkun

    2006-10-01

    In plasma wakefield acceleration experiments, the drive beam moves at the speed of light in the plasma and excites an accelerating plasma wakefield behind the driver. Therefore it is possible to use a trailing electron beam to extract energy from the plasma wave wake. Such a design, called the plasma afterburner, has been proposed to double the energy of the incoming beam train for a future linear collider. We investigate the nonlinear beam-plasma interaction in such scenario using a 3D computer modeling code, QuickPIC. We will report on the simulation results of a 1 TeV plasma afterburner design. Several issues such as efficient beam-loading and the stability of the beam in the plasma are also analyzed. The electron hosing instability in the blow-out regime of plasma wakefield acceleration is also investigated using linear perturbation theory upon the electron blow-out trajectory. The growth of the hosing instability is found to be affected by the plasma self-fields, the relativistic mass, the axial motion of plasma electrons and the position-dependent ion channel radius respectively. Therefore the hosing growth has dependence on the beam current, which is not found in the fluid theory. PIC simulations agree very well with this new theory.

  15. An Ethical Issue Scale for Community Pharmacy Setting (EISP): Development and Validation.

    Crnjanski, Tatjana; Krajnovic, Dusanka; Tadic, Ivana; Stojkov, Svetlana; Savic, Mirko

    2016-04-01

    Many problems that arise when providing pharmacy services may contain some ethical components and the aims of this study were to develop and validate a scale that could assess difficulties of ethical issues, as well as the frequency of those occurrences in everyday practice of community pharmacists. Development and validation of the scale was conducted in three phases: (1) generating items for the initial survey instrument after qualitative analysis; (2) defining the design and format of the instrument; (3) validation of the instrument. The constructed Ethical Issue scale for community pharmacy setting has two parts containing the same 16 items for assessing the difficulty and frequency thereof. The results of the 171 completely filled out scales were analyzed (response rate 74.89 %). The Cronbach's α value of the part of the instrument that examines difficulties of the ethical situations was 0.83 and for the part of the instrument that examined frequency of the ethical situations was 0.84. Test-retest reliability for both parts of the instrument was satisfactory with all Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values above 0.6, (for the part that examines severity ICC = 0.809, for the part that examines frequency ICC = 0.929). The 16-item scale, as a self assessment tool, demonstrated a high degree of content, criterion, and construct validity and test-retest reliability. The results support its use as a research tool to asses difficulty and frequency of ethical issues in community pharmacy setting. The validated scale needs to be further employed on a larger sample of pharmacists. PMID:25577229

  16. Teaching Business Ethics through Literature.

    Shepard, Jon M.; Goldsby, Michael G.; Gerde, Virginia W.

    1997-01-01

    Business students need a vocabulary of ethics consistent with the ideology of capitalism. An approach using business-related classic literature (such as "Babbitt") is a way to develop vocabulary and explore ethical issues. (SK)

  17. Public Relations Ethics in Information Management

    Hrvoje Jakopović

    2013-01-01

    Public relations is involved in all communication between an organization and the public. In the contemporary world, PR practitioners have become the facilitators of information. Information and communication technology (ICT) have imposed new rules in the field of public relations. Communication strategy and information management have become crucial parts of modern public relations. People change their habits with regard to the consumption of traditional and new media. The challenges imposed...

  18. Parenthood and the Internet: An Ethical Discussion about Online Sexual Issues against Children

    Denys A. Flores

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most controversial discussions about parenthood and the Internet is about the sexual offenses that children can face when surfing the Web. Moreover, how parents can protect them effectively is another point of interestin the current society. However, this issue has not been analysed from the ethical point of view due to the lack of cyberethics nowadays. Hence, in this article, the most common online threats against children are discussed considering the utilitarianism, the contractarianism, and the pluralism.Additionally, some procedures applied to protect children are analysed using the mentioned ethical frameworks.

  19. German law on circumcision and its debate: how an ethical and legal issue turned political.

    Aurenque, Diana; Wiesing, Urban

    2015-03-01

    The article aims to illuminate the recent debate in Germany about the legitimacy of circumcision for religious reasons. The aim is both to evaluate the new German law allowing religious circumcision, and to outline the resulting conflict between the surrounding ethical and legal issues. We first elucidate the diversity of legal and medical views on religious circumcision in Germany. Next we examine to what extent invasive and irreversible physical interventions on infant boys unable to given their consent should be carried out for non-medical reasons. To this end, the potential benefits and harms of circumcision for non-medical reasons are compared. We argue that circumcision does not provide any benefits for the 'child as a child' and poses only risks to boys. We then set out to clarify and analyse political (rather than ethical) justifications of the new circumcision law. We demonstrate through this analysis how the circumcision debate in Germany has been transformed from a legal and ethical problem into a political issue, due at least in part to Germany's unique historical context. Although such a particular political sensibility is entirely comprehensible, it raises particular problems when it comes to framing and responding to medical ethical issues - as in the case of religious circumcision. PMID:24372097

  20. Differences in Ethical Standards: Factoring in the Cultural Expectation in Public Relations Education.

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    Focusing on ethics in public relations from a multicultural point of view brings together elements which are critical to international public relations. The Public Relations-Ethics-Multicultural (PREM) model illustrates that articles can be found in the literature on ethics, public relations, and multicultural as individual concepts. The…

  1. Public relations ethics: A simpler (but not simplistic approach to the complexities

    Karey Harrison

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Professional public relations bodies internationally have established ethics codes in an attempt to regulate members’ ethical behaviour. This paper critiques the code-based framework on philosophical and practical grounds, suggesting that such frameworks are inadequate because they leave practitioners free to interpret these guides in ways that advance their own and their clients’ interests. We argue that this latitude does not foster ethical behaviour. We then contrast rule-following,action-based ethics with agent-based ethics, conceived in Aristotelian terms, and suggest that the virtue ethics advanced by Aristotle and his interpreters represents a more challenging but more authentically ethical path for practitioners to consider.

  2. Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States

    A Kanekar; Bitto, A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of...

  3. Research on Rural Economic Ethical Issues in other Countries since Modern Times

    Pingrong Tu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of the ethical problems of the rural economy abroad has formed a relatively mature theory of genre since modern times, such as Marx and Engels’ the moral theory of the peas ant economy; the “self-sufficiency”–smallholder survival moral theory of motivation by Chayanov, Polanyi, Scott; the “rational smallholders”–the profit-motive, economic-and-moral theory by Firth, Tax, Schultz, Popkin; Mendras’ economic and moral theory to explain “self-sufficient smallholders” motivation to “rational small- holders” profit motive; the “farmhouse economic ethical thought” by Gandi; Simon’s bounded rationality and effectiveness of rational peasant economy ethics, the proposals of the relevant international organizations of the rural economy ethics. Considering the magnitude of related research, it is significant to systematically analyze the theoretical interpretation of these studies, and promote the healthy and orderly development of the rural economy. Furthermore, it is also meaningful to consolidate the theoretical foundation of the rural economy ethics to clarify and ease of ethical confusion in the domestic and international economic and social development in rural areas to promote certain theoretical significance and practical value.

  4. Brain death and related issues

    Concerns about the erroneous diagnosis of death and premature burial have been expressed from times immemorial. Patients with brain stem death have absolutely no chance of recovery. Brain death is considered at par with death in most of the countries. General public in most parts of the world shows reluctance to accept this concept due to different social, cultural and religious backgrounds and state of literacy and awareness. The criteria for the diagnosis of brain death have been established which include certain pre-conditions, exclusions and tests of the brain stem function. These criteria are universally accepted. The criteria in children are somewhat different from the adults. The subject is intimately related with organ transplantation. If the patients is registered as organ donor or the family consents, organs can be harvested from brain dead patients for transplantation. Pakistan is amongst the few countries where no legislation exists to accept brain death as being at par with death of an individual, and to facilitate and regulate, cadaveric organ donation and transplantation. (author)

  5. Focus on Ethics and Public Relations Practice in a University Classroom

    Smudde, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Public relations action relies on sound decision making about how to inspire cooperation between an organization and its publics. Such thinking must uphold principles for ethical communication. Effectively combining ethics with public relations practice for students is key. A pedagogical approach to public relations ethics, hinging on selected…

  6. Focus on Ethics and Public Relations Practice in a University Classroom

    Smudde, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Public relations action relies on sound decision making about how to inspire cooperation between an organization and its publics. Such thinking must uphold principles for ethical communication. Effectively combining ethics with public relations practice for students is key. A pedagogical approach to public relations ethics, hinging on selected

  7. Insurability and the HIV epidemic: ethical issues in underwriting.

    Daniels, N

    1990-01-01

    The HIV epidemic has focused criticism on standard underwriting practices that exclude people with AIDS or at high risk for it from insurance coverage. Insurers have denied the charge that these practices are unfair, claiming instead that whatever is actuarially fair is fair or just. This defense will not work unless we assume that individuals are entitled to gain advantages and deserve losses merely as a result of their health status. That assumption is highly controversial at the level of theory and is inconsistent with many of our moral beliefs and practices, including our insurance practices. We should reject the insurers' argument. Justice in health care requires that we protect equality of opportunity, and that implies sharing the burden of protecting people against health risks. In a just healthcare system, whether mixed or purely public, the insurance scheme is in systematic terms actuarially unfair, for its overall social function must be to guarantee access to appropriate care. This does not mean that in our system insurers are ignoring their obligation to provide access to coverage. The obligation to assure access is primarily a social one, and the failures of access in our system are the result of public failures to meet those obligations. In a just but mixed system, there would be an explicit division of responsibility among public and private insurance schemes. In our mixed but unjust system, both legislators and insurers cynically pretend that the uninsured are the responsibility of the other. The attempt to treat actuarial fairness as a moral notion thus disguises what is really at issue, namely, the risk to insurers of adverse selection and the economic advantages of standard underwriting practices. Standard underwriting practices will be fair only if they are part of a just system, not if they simply are actuarially fair. The failure of the argument from actuarial fairness means that we must face an issue private insurers had hoped to avoid if we are to defend standard underwriting practices at all. In view of the clear risk that a mixed system will fail to assure access to care, the burden falls on defenders of a mixed system. They must show us that its social benefits outweigh its social costs, and that it is possible to have a mixed system that is not only just, but also is superior to a compulsory, universal insurance scheme. PMID:2292989

  8. Ethical issues raised by the new orientations in ergonomics and living labs.

    Barcenilla, Javier; Tijus, Charles

    2012-01-01

    User Experience Theory (UXT) provides us with criteria for designing products and technical systems for everyday activities (playing, learning, working,…) so as to satisfy users. Living Labs (LL), are plateforms used for the design and evaluation of technical systems. As such, they constitute tools that bring to this process some constraints., However these constraints have to be articulated to the UXT. In other words, UXT should specify the place, the role and function LL should play in the design of new products, how it should contribute to satisfying UX, and how the methods and techniques should be conceived or borrowed from other disciplines. UXT also raises ethical issues: impartiality (independent, public, replicable) of research models in the context of economical constraints (dependant, private, secret prototypes) and of industrial pressure, the use of intrusive and persuasive techniques, even with the prior informed consent of participants, ergo-marketing, deontology codes, the use of specific participants, belonging of an UX innovative solution, confidentiality with ICT, and so on. Because the UX, as well as LL literature, have shown little concerns for ethical considerations, till now, we define LL-UX ethical issues as a new research topic, and we list a number of problems to be solved in order to have an ethical LL-UX methodology for open innovation. PMID:22317534

  9. Immigration Reform and Related Issues. Perspectivas Publicas. Issue Update.

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    Asserting that immigration reform and related issues have commanded sustained attention in the opening weeks of the 99th Congress, this paper provides an overview of important developments in this area, and highlights steps taken by the National Council of La Raza to help shape these developments. The developments discussed include: (1) The…

  10. Environmental and ethical issues and waste management approaches

    Pronouncing the words ''radioactive waste'' can easily arouse mistrust, or even irrational fear, by wittingly or unwittingly referring to Hiroshima or Chernobyl, by exploiting the lax attitude to this type of waste in certain countries and by speculating on the complex issues involved, which are beyond the general public's grasp. It would be unacceptable to paint such a black picture of nuclear waste, just as it would be to keep glossing over the problems that it poses. Waste managers have a duty to convince scientists and politicians and public opinion in general, with arguments based on serious scientific research, that safe technical solutions do exist. But will this be enough? The general public of course knows very little about science. But people are prepared to put their trust in science provided that they are not subjected to a free for all between scientists from opposing camps attacking each other with unintelligible arguments. However, other types of reactions, more difficult to control, can be expected from some quarters of the general public. For instance, a reaction of instinctive and passionate mistrust has already emerged in different forms over the centuries, with its roots buried in ancestral culture and as such varying from region to region and country to country. Nuclear waste may also provide yet another opportunity to demonstrate opposition to something ostensibly being imposed by Central Government. The only solution here is for decisions to be worked out at grass roots level through a gradual process of wide consultation, with the necessary backing of elected local authorities. For these reasons, the process of setting up an underground laboratory possibly followed by radioactive waste storage has to be a gradual one, with thorough consultation at all levels at each stage under the constant supervision of ad hoc committees of scientific experts, each new step forward only being decided by the political authorities after completing the proper inquiry procedures. (O.M.)

  11. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities: review of clinical and ethical issues.

    Gekas, Jean; Langlois, Sylvie; Ravitsky, Vardit; Audibert, François; van den Berg, David Gradus; Haidar, Hazar; Rousseau, François

    2016-01-01

    Genomics-based non-invasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening) was proposed to reduce the number of invasive procedures in current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies. We review here the clinical and ethical issues of cfDNA screening. To date, it is not clear how cfDNA screening is going to impact the performances of clinical prenatal diagnosis and how it could be incorporated in real life. The direct marketing to users may have facilitated the early introduction of cfDNA screening into clinical practice despite limited evidence-based independent research data supporting this rapid shift. There is a need to address the most important ethical, legal, and social issues before its implementation in a mass setting. Its introduction might worsen current tendencies to neglect the reproductive autonomy of pregnant women. PMID:26893576

  12. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities: review of clinical and ethical issues

    Gekas, Jean; Langlois, Sylvie; Ravitsky, Vardit; Audibert, Franois; van den Berg, David Gradus; Haidar, Hazar; Rousseau, Franois

    2016-01-01

    Genomics-based non-invasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening) was proposed to reduce the number of invasive procedures in current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies. We review here the clinical and ethical issues of cfDNA screening. To date, it is not clear how cfDNA screening is going to impact the performances of clinical prenatal diagnosis and how it could be incorporated in real life. The direct marketing to users may have facilitated the early introduction of cfDNA screening into clinical practice despite limited evidence-based independent research data supporting this rapid shift. There is a need to address the most important ethical, legal, and social issues before its implementation in a mass setting. Its introduction might worsen current tendencies to neglect the reproductive autonomy of pregnant women.

  13. Investigation of nursing students and professional nurses attitudes towards ethical issues of assisted reproduction

    Balari C.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Various ethical problems have emerged regarding Assisted Reproduction (AR. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the attitudes of nursing students and professional nurses against assisted reproduction with emphasis on current ethical issues.Material and methods: The research sample consisted of 150 ATEI nursing students and 150 professional nurses. A questionnaire with open and closed type questionnaires was used. Contingency tables and ?2 test were used. Statistical significant was set at p<0.05. Results: Mean age of nurses was 34,417,28 years old, while mean age of students was 21,833,07 years old. Nursing students are more receptive regarding cryopreserved human germ cells for future use, cloning of embryos and AR above 40 years of age. Conclusions: The attitudes of professional nurses and nursing students upon bioethical issues of AR are quite different. Nursing students seem more receptive against new methods of AR.

  14. Ethical Issues in the End of Life Care for Cancer Patients in Iran

    Mina Mobasher

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the recent years, advances in medical technologies for end stage cancer patients’ care have affected the end-of-life decision-making in clinical practice and exposed oncologists to serious ethical dilemmas. But little is known about oncologists' viewpoints in our country regarding their ethical problems in this mention. We aimed to clarify the ethical dilemmas which Iranian oncologists may face in our health care setting and to determine factors influencing decision-making process.Methods: In this qualitative study, a phenomenological approach was used. We interviewed 8 cancer specialists in teaching hospitals in Iran and used content analysis to identify codes and categorize themes in the data.Results: During the process of analysis, three main themes emerged about ethical dilemmas in end of life care for advanced cancer patients: illness factors, socio-cultural context and patient-physician relationship. Cancer specialists identified ethical problems on several main issues, the most important of which were telling the truth in Iranian cultural context, uncertainty in end stage definition, multidisciplinary team working and cost consideration in Iranian health care system.Conclusion: Health care and insurance system in Iran face to end of life care challenges; therefore, health care providers and policy makers need to allocate appropriate resources and programs to improve quality of care in terminal stages. Appropriate physicians’ communication skills training, multidisciplinary team working and supplementary insurance services that provide essential health care can improve the quality of care of patients with end stages of cancer. The findings of this study can help us to provide ethical policies for decision-making in end-of-life care.

  15. An overview of surrogacy around the world: trends, questions and ethical issues.

    Armour, Kim L

    2012-01-01

    Although the birth of a child is typically considered a very happy time for parents, surrogacy is often unchartered territory that can become very stressful for all parties involved. Part of the stress stems from the fact that different states and countries have varying laws and regulations overseeing surrogacy. This article provides insight regarding surrogacy around the world, including professional, societal and ethical issues. PMID:22697226

  16. Fairness issues in emission permits allocation for climate policies: a study in experimental ethics

    Clement, Valérie; Brahic, Elodie

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses a range of fairness issues raised by the initial allocation of tradable carbon emission permits. The key objective is to enlight to what extend the allocation of GHGs emission permits may or should be used for income redistribution. For that purpose, the paper presents and analyses the main results of a quasi-experimental approach of the ethical preferences of the agents when they are faced with various mechanisms for allocating carbon emission permits. Since countries dif...

  17. Social, ethical and moral issues in the implementation of radioactive waste management objectives

    To date, the management of nuclear waste has included sizable releases to the environment. The economic result of these releases is opposed by the ethical issue. Questions of who will be responsible for the wastes are asked. The danger of trusting the experts is pointed out: information is withheld, data are suppressed, etc. The nuclear industry needs to restore confidence, but restoring competence must come first

  18. Methodological and ethical issues in research using social media: a metamethod of Human Papillomavirus vaccine studies

    Gustafson, Diana L; Woodworth, Claire F

    2014-01-01

    Background Online content is a primary source of healthcare information for internet-using adults and a rich resource for health researchers. This paper explores the methodological and ethical issues of engaging in health research using social media. Methods A metamethod was performed on systematically selected studies that used social media as a data source for exploring public awareness and beliefs about Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) and HPV vaccination. Seven electronic databases were searc...

  19. Ethical Issues in E-Commerce on the Basis of Online Retailing

    Sinan Nardal; Ayse Sahin

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The rapid spread of e-commerce has created tremendous opportunities for economic efficiency and customer choice. Use of the global Internet computer network for ecommerce activities provides some advantages to the consumers on their daily life. On the other hand Internet represents a new environment for unethical behavior. While e-commerce has witnessed extensive growth in last decade, consumers concerns regarding ethical issues also continue to increase. Even many consumer...

  20. Ethical Issues in Withholding or Withdrawal of Artificial Nutrition and Hydration

    Dimitriadou A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A I M : The purpose of this study was to identify and explore the main ethical dilemmas arising for a health care teamworking in a clinical nutrition unit when decisions about withholding or withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration(ANH of seriously ill patients have to be made. The potential factors influencing this decision-making processare also described.M A T E R I A L - M E T H O D : Fifteen health carers working in a Clinical Nutrition Unit in the United Kingdomparticipated in the study and qualitative research methods were used to gather data.R E S U L T S : The findings of the study illustrate that withdrawal of life-sustaining nourishment is one of themost difficult ethical dilemmas for the health care professionals. The reason for such difficulty is associated with thepotential outcome of that intervention, as it brings about a patient’s death. Furthermore, quality of life issues appearto influence the decision-making process. When the patient’s voice is absent, the health care team takes into accountthe perspectives of the patient’s family, in order to decide to abate life-sustaining nourishment.C O N C L U S I O N S : By exploring the health carers’ attitudes on ethical issues and identifying their involvementin the decision-making process, an in-depth understanding of the process is provided. The ethical decision-makingprocess is not an easy task. The question of whether ANH should be ethically withdrawn seems to be very complex.Health carers should take into consideration all the factors influencing the decision-making in order to contributemore effectively to facilitate the whole process.

  1. Ethical issues in the geriatric patient with advanced cancer 'living to the end'.

    Daher, M

    2013-10-01

    Cancer incidence will increase as the population ages; there will be a 50% increase in new cancer cases over the next 20 years, and the biggest rates of increase will occur in the developing world. Owing to technical advances in the care of critical illness, as it is the case in elderly people with advanced cancer, physicians, patients and families are often confronted with ambiguous circumstances in which medical advances may inadvertently prolong suffering and the dying process rather than bring healing and recovery. In this review of the ethical issues confronting physicians who care for patients with advanced life-limiting illnesses like cancer, a philosophical debate continues in the medical community regarding the rightness or wrongness of certain actions (e.g. physician-assisted death, euthanasia), while at the same time there is a strong desire to find a common ground for moral discourse that could guide medical decision-making in this difficult period in the lives of our patients. We will discuss how a good palliative care can be an alternative to these ethical dilemmas. Although some issues (e.g. the role of physician-assisted death in addressing suffering) remain very controversial, there is much common ground based on the application of the four major principles of medical ethics, no malfeasance, beneficence, autonomy and justice. Thus, the physician's primary commitment must always be the patient's welfare and best interests, whether the physician is treating illness or helping patients to cope with illness, disability and death. A key skill here is the communication of bad news and to negotiate a treatment plan that is acceptable to the patient, the family and the healthcare team. Attention to psychosocial issues demands involvement of the patients and their families as partners. Physicians should be sensitive to the range of psychosocial distress and social disruption common to dying patients and their families. Spiritual issues often come to the fore. An interdisciplinary healthcare team can help in these areas. The goals of this review are to raise the awareness of doctors, nurses and other members of the healthcare team to the important ethical issues that must be addressed in providing medical care to elderly patients with advanced cancer; and also to encourage members of the healthcare team to take the ethical issues seriously so that we can improve the circumstances of a vulnerable group of patients-the elderly patients with cancer. PMID:24001765

  2. E-Trade in an Ethical View

    Varinli, İnci; Öz, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    Electronic commerce, which can be explained as the buying and selling of goods and services electronically, usually via the internet. Because it effects and chances many things on social and commercial life, the ethical rules about electronic commerce must be reconsidered. In electronic commerce ethics, both adaptation of traditional ethical issues to new conditions and completely new ethical aspects must be considered. In this paper, ethical issues related to electronic commerce, especially ...

  3. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

    2001-05-01

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

  4. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards

  5. The relation between work ethics and work morality and the factors effecting work ethics in work-life

    Sibel Gök

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the importance of work ethics and morality has been increased. The effect of them in work-life and their relations with the subjects such as performance, loyalty, competition, etc. have been studied by a number of researchers. The work ethics and morality concepts are becoming widespread in business application, work-life and global trading. Therefore, they appear as a subject for further researches.In this study, the concepts of the work ethics, morality and the development of them in work-life are examined. The differences and similarities between work ethics and morality in terms of quality, content and comprehension etc. are described and discussed. The factors effecting work ethics in work-life, are represented in the light of literature. In our work, we explain and evaluate how the factors such as globalization, culture, social responsibility etc. are effecting it.

  6. The relation between work ethics and work morality and the factors effecting work ethics in work-life

    Sibel Gök

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the importance of work ethics and morality has been increased. The effect of them in work-life and their relations with the  subjects such as performance, loyalty, competition, etc. have been studied by a number of  researchers. The work ethics and morality concepts are becoming widespread in business application, work-life and global  trading. Therefore, they appear as a subject for further  researches.In this study, the concepts of the work ethics, morality and the development of them in work-life are examined. The differences and similarities between work ethics and morality in terms of quality, content and comprehension etc. are  described and discussed. The factors effecting work ethics in work-life, are represented in the light of literature. In our work, we explain and evaluate how the factors such as globalization, culture, social responsibility etc. are effecting it.

  7. Perspectives on Applied Ethics

    2007-01-01

    Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...

  8. British Students' Perceptions of Ethical Issues in International Marketing: An Empirical Investigation.

    Amin, Sammy G.

    1996-01-01

    A survey investigated 122 British business students' perceptions of ethics in international marketing practices, particularly as they are affected by demographic characteristics. In response to 12 specific scenarios, students indicated relatively liberal attitudes. Implications for global marketing specialists and for business education are

  9. Ethical decision-making in forensic psychology

    M. Swanepoel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive process for identifying and addressing primarily ethical issues related to the psychology profession in South Africa. In fulfilling this purpose, research was conducted of relevant ethical and to a lesser extent, legal aspects pertaining to the psychology profession. In an attempt to prevent unprofessional conduct claims against psychologists from succeeding and to alert psychologists to the concurrent ethical problems that may lead to malpractice suits, this article offers material on some important issues in the context of forensic psychology such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology as a profession, the Ethical Code of Professional Conduct to which a psychologist should adhere, ethical aspects and issues pertaining to forensic psychology in general, some ethical issues pertaining to child forensic psychology, summary guidelines for ethical decision-making and some steps to follow to ensure sound ethical decisionmaking.

  10. Ethical Decision-Making in the Domain of Whistle-Blowing: How Issue Characteristics Affect Judgments and Intentions

    Henik, Erika

    2005-01-01

    This study links the literatures on ethical decision-making and whistle-blowing to examine the effects of issue characteristics on the ethicality judgments and behavioral intentions of observers of organizational misconduct. Specifically, it investigates whether Moral Intensity, which has been found to influence a moral agent’s judgments and intentions, also influences an observer’s judgments and intentions to report acts deemed unethical. We find mixed support for Jones’s (1991) issue-contin...

  11. The Ethics of Big Data: Current and Foreseeable Issues in Biomedical Contexts.

    Mittelstadt, Brent Daniel; Floridi, Luciano

    2016-04-01

    The capacity to collect and analyse data is growing exponentially. Referred to as 'Big Data', this scientific, social and technological trend has helped create destabilising amounts of information, which can challenge accepted social and ethical norms. Big Data remains a fuzzy idea, emerging across social, scientific, and business contexts sometimes seemingly related only by the gigantic size of the datasets being considered. As is often the case with the cutting edge of scientific and technological progress, understanding of the ethical implications of Big Data lags behind. In order to bridge such a gap, this article systematically and comprehensively analyses academic literature concerning the ethical implications of Big Data, providing a watershed for future ethical investigations and regulations. Particular attention is paid to biomedical Big Data due to the inherent sensitivity of medical information. By means of a meta-analysis of the literature, a thematic narrative is provided to guide ethicists, data scientists, regulators and other stakeholders through what is already known or hypothesised about the ethical risks of this emerging and innovative phenomenon. Five key areas of concern are identified: (1) informed consent, (2) privacy (including anonymisation and data protection), (3) ownership, (4) epistemology and objectivity, and (5) 'Big Data Divides' created between those who have or lack the necessary resources to analyse increasingly large datasets. Critical gaps in the treatment of these themes are identified with suggestions for future research. Six additional areas of concern are then suggested which, although related have not yet attracted extensive debate in the existing literature. It is argued that they will require much closer scrutiny in the immediate future: (6) the dangers of ignoring group-level ethical harms; (7) the importance of epistemology in assessing the ethics of Big Data; (8) the changing nature of fiduciary relationships that become increasingly data saturated; (9) the need to distinguish between 'academic' and 'commercial' Big Data practices in terms of potential harm to data subjects; (10) future problems with ownership of intellectual property generated from analysis of aggregated datasets; and (11) the difficulty of providing meaningful access rights to individual data subjects that lack necessary resources. Considered together, these eleven themes provide a thorough critical framework to guide ethical assessment and governance of emerging Big Data practices. PMID:26002496

  12. Ethical Challenges when Interviewing Close Relatives Together – An Integrative Review

    Voltelen, Barbara; Konradsen, Hanne; Østergaard, Birte

    articles was analysed using thematic analysis with an inductive approach searching for themes about ethical considerations doing joint interviews. The SPIDER search tool was applied using keywords relatives, ethic, dyadic interview, challenges and qualitative methods created on the basis of relevant...... pseudonyms, Mesh and search terms. Results In total 17 articles were located, 9 containing relevant information about dyadic interviewing, only dealing subtly with questions of ethics. Another 8 articles addressed both dyadic interviewing and ethical considerations. Findings were divided into three different...

  13. Security Issues related with cloud computing

    Manju,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The term CLOUD means Common Location Independent Online Utility on Demand. It?s an emerging technology in IT industries. Cloud technologies are improving day by day and now it become a need for all small and large scale industries. Companies like Google, Amazon, Microsoft etc. is providing virtualized environment for user by which it omits the need for physical storage and others. But as the advantage of cloud computing is increasing day by day the issues are also threatening the IT industries. These issues related with the security of the data. The basic idea of this review paper is to elaborate the security issues related with cloud computing and what methods are implemented to improve these security. Certain algorithms like RSA, DES, and Ceaser Cipher etc. implemented to improve the security issues. In this paper we have implemented Identity based mRSA algorithm in this paper for improving security of data.

  14. Ethics and the promotion of consumer brands to children: Marketing public relations in the UK toy industry

    Della Pike; Nigel Jackon

    2006-01-01

    Toys represent children’s chief non-food desires, but there has been little research on the impact of public relations campaigns to promote toys to children. This study addressed two key related issues. First, it assessed the impact of marketing public relations messages on children. Second, it raised questions about the ethics of using marketing public relations to promote toys to children. We used focus groups with children in different age ranges, interviews with toy industry public relati...

  15. The new strategy to develop scenarios in compliance with legal and ethical issues

    Adnan Imeri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Service scenarios have a crucial role in the overall functionality of Information Systems (IS. They should be treated and examined very carefully in order to fulfill the end-user expectations and the overall platform behavior by itself. To have a qualitative scenarios it is not enough to treat only the user expectation but also these scenarios should be in compliance with legal and ethical issues otherwise it will be meaningless to have scenarios which are in contradiction with legal and ethical aspects. In this research document, we propose an approach to develop service scenarios in an early stage in order to start the development phase without any concern about compliance rules.

  16. The relation between work ethics and work morality and the factors effecting work ethics in work-life

    Sibel Gök

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the importance of work ethics and morality has been increased. The effect of them in work-life and their relations with the  subjects such as performance, loyalty, competition, etc. have been studied by a number of  researchers. The work ethics and morality concepts are becoming widespread in business application, work-life and global  trading. Therefore, they appear as a subject for further  researches.In this study, the concepts of the work ethics, moral...

  17. Ethics and the promotion of consumer brands to children: Marketing public relations in the UK toy industry

    Della Pike

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Toys represent children’s chief non-food desires, but there has been little research on the impact of public relations campaigns to promote toys to children. This study addressed two key related issues. First, it assessed the impact of marketing public relations messages on children. Second, it raised questions about the ethics of using marketing public relations to promote toys to children. We used focus groups with children in different age ranges, interviews with toy industry public relations practitioners, and a survey of members of the public. The results suggest that contrary to expected age association, the influence of public relations messages does not necessarily decrease with age. We also found, through adapting and applying Austin and Pinkleton’s levels of public relations impact, that there appear to be two ethical realities, one in industry, and one in society. We suggest a revision of Austin and Pinkleton’s model to reflect an ethical paradigm whereby an assessment of social, not industry, ethical reality determines practitioners’ judgement of ethical effect.

  18. Do Ethical Purchase Intentions Really Lead to Ethical Purchase Behavior? A Case of Animal-Testing Issues in Shampoo

    Alexandra Madar; Hazel H. Huang; Ting-Hsiang Tseng

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of consumers’ ethical buying intentions on their buying behavior. Using a survey approach, the findings suggest the link between ethical buying intentions and behavior depends on consumers’ awareness of the brand’s general corporate social responsibility activities. Only when consumers with ethical purchase intentions are aware of the brand’s CSR activities can their intentions translate into behavior.

  19. Issues related to field testing in tuff

    This paper has brought out the unique properties of tuffs and related them to needs associated with their use as a host rock for a high level nuclear waste repository. Major issues of temperature, pore water, joints, and depositional patterns have been identified and related responses and impacts outlined in Table 1. Planned experiments have been outlined and their relationships to the rock mechanics issues summarized in Table 2. The conclusions from this paper are: (1) tuff is a complex rock and basic phenomenological understanding is incomplete; and (2) available field test facilities will be used for a series of experiments designed to improve phenomenological understanding and support repository design efforts

  20. Mobile learning: a meta-ethical taxonomy

    Farrow, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I discuss some of the ethical issues relating to the use of mobile technologies in education. I argue that the frames of reference used by educators and technologists fail to capture the nature, scope and impact of ethical issues in mobile learning. A taxonomy of ethical issues based on dominant positions in meta-ethical moral theory is proposed. Using categories from the Mobile Technologies in Lifelong Learning (MOTILL) project, I show how this taxonomy can be applied in suc...

  1. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration.

    Schwartz, Denise Baird; Posthauer, Mary Ellen; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2013-07-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that individuals have the right to request or refuse nutrition and hydration as medical treatment. Registered dietitians should work collaboratively as part of an interprofessional team to make recommendations on providing, withdrawing, or withholding nutrition and hydration in individual cases and serve as active members of institutional ethics committees. This practice paper provides a proactive, integrated, systematic process to implement the Academy's position. The position and practice papers should be used together to address the history and supporting information of ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration identified by the Academy. Elements of collaborative ethical deliberation are provided for pediatrics and adults and in different conditions. The process of ethical deliberation is presented with the roles and responsibilities of the registered dietitian and the dietetic technician, registered. Understanding the importance and applying concepts dealing with cultural values and religious diversity is necessary to integrate clinical ethics into nutrition care. Incorporating screening for quality-of-life goals is essential before implementing the Nutrition Care Process and improving health literacy with individual interactions. Developing institution-specific policies and procedures is necessary to accelerate the practice change with artificial nutrition, clinical ethics, and quality improvement projects to determine best practice. This paper supports the "Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Ethical and Legal Issues of Feeding and Hydration" published in the June 2013 issue of the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. PMID:23790412

  2. Solicitude: balancing compassion and empowerment in a relational ethics of hope-an empirical-ethical study in palliative care.

    Olsman, Erik; Willems, Dick; Leget, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    The ethics of hope has often been understood as a conflict between duties: do not lie versus do not destroy hope. However, such a way of framing the ethics of hope may easily place healthcare professionals at the side of realism and patients at the side of (false) hope. That leaves unexamined relational dimensions of hope. The objective of this study was to describe a relational ethics of hope based on the perspectives of palliative care patients, their family members and their healthcare professionals. A qualitative longitudinal method based on narrative theories was used. Semi-structured interviews on hope were conducted with twenty-nine palliative care patients, nineteen friends or family members, and fifty-two healthcare professionals, which were recorded and transcribed. Data on hope were thematically analyzed. The researchers wrote memos and did member checking with participants. When participants spoke about hope, they referred to power and empowerment, like the powerful bonding of hope between patients and physicians. They also associated hope with the loss of hope and suffering. Several participating healthcare professionals tried to balance both sides, which involved acknowledgment of hope and suffering. Hope and power were reflected in the ethical concept of empowerment, whereas suffering and the loss of hope were reflected in the ethical concept of compassion. Empowerment and compassion can be balanced in solicitude. In conclusion, a relational ethics of hope requires solicitude, in which healthcare professionals are able to weigh empowerment and compassion within particular relationships. PMID:25944316

  3. TEACHERS’ OPINIONS RELATED WITH ETHIC BEHAVIOURS OF EDUCATION INSPECTORS

    Yrd.Doç.Dr.Celal Teyyar UĞURLU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem: Relation styles of education inspectors that take into consideration ethic values can provide teachers to have more morale and loyalty while working for their schools and students. Secondary school teachers’ opinions related with ethic behaviors of education inspectors and sample situations the teachers have experienced are brought out by this search. Population of this study concerns 42 primary schools from Adıyaman and its central counties. As applying to this poll at schools will create some problems (like time, cost and control difficulties %25 (twenty-five percent of the research population has been chosen randomly as cluster sample. (10 schools.All the teachers working in these schools were chosen randomly and they were all included in the study. Polls were applied to the all teachers from 10 schools. Returning and appropriate questionnaires for processing were evaluated.Method: A poll that had 22 questions with 5 multiple choices were used to collect data. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the data from the account of reliability based on data acquired from application was calculated as 87. SPSS packaged software was used to analyze the data, t test and one-way analysis of variance were used as statistical analysis methods. While commenting on arithmetic averages , ranges were evaluated like this.1.00 – 1.79 ‘very low’ , 1.80 – 2.59 ‘low’, 2.60 -3.39 ‘moderate’ , 3.40 – 4.19 ‘high’ ,4.20 – 5.00 ‘very high’. The highest score was 110 points and the lowest score was 22 points available for the questionnaire test, Mann Whitney U test ,one- way analysis of variance and Kruskal Wallish test were performed to test whether the opinions changed or not according to personal characteristics.Findings: As a result of this study, teachers have identified that ethical behavior level of education inspectors is at medium level. Variances like gender, the number of teachers at school and the question of desire to be an education inspector don’t show significant difference. While there is no significant difference between the opinions of people who have given positive answers to the question of ‘Would you like to be an education inspector?’ the opinions of people who have given positive answers to the question of ‘Do you believe in the necessity of the inspection?’ have showed significant difference according to those who have given negative answers. Suggestions: According to these results it can be advised that inspectors can be directed to in-service training study about ‘Ethics Training’ to develop their own ethical principles and to perform behaviors that have more humanistic nature and ethic principles.

  4. Care of critically ill newborns in India. Legal and ethical issues.

    Subramanian, K N; Paul, V K

    1995-06-01

    The nature of neonatal care in India is changing. While the quality of care will most likely improve as the economy grows, the eventual scope of change remains to be seen. Attitudinal and behavioral changes, in addition to better economic conditions, are needed to realize more appropriate interventions in neonatal care. Economic, cultural, religious, social, political, and other considerations may limit or affect neonatal care, especially for ELBW infants or infants with congenital malformations or brain injury. Various protections for critically ill newborns exist under Indian law and the Constitution of India. New laws are being enacted to enhance the level of protection conferred, including laws which ban amniocentesis for sex determination and define brain death in connection with the use of human organs for therapeutic purposes. The applicability of consumer protection laws to medical care is also being addressed. It is noted, however, that India lacks a multidisciplinary bioethics committee. An effort should be made to discuss the legal and ethical issues regarding the care of critically ill newborns, with discussions considering religious, cultural, traditional, and family values. Legal and ethical guidelines should be developed by institutions, medical councils, and society specific to newborn care, and medical, nursing, and other paramedical schools should include these issues as part of the required coursework. Physicians, nurses, philosophers, and attorneys with expertise in law and ethics should develop and teach these courses. Such measures over the long term will ensure that future health care providers are exposed to these issues, ideally with a view toward enhancing patient care. PMID:7636406

  5. Ethical Issues Raised by Epigenetic Testing for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Cannabis.

    Erwin, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetic testing is one of the most significant new technologies to provide insight into the behavioral and environmental factors that influence the development and reconfiguration of the human genetic code. This technology allows us to identify structural changes in the genome that occur due to exposure to a wide variety of substances including alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis. The information gained can be used to promote health but it also raises a variety of ethical, legal, and social issues. As society progresses in understanding the epigenetic mechanisms of substance use and addiction, there is an opportunity to use these use this knowledge to enable medical, behavioral, and environmental interventions to alleviate the burden of addiction. This article describes the ethical issues associated with use of epigenetic testing for alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis and the implications of this technology. A further review of the scientific basis for the relevance of epigenetics is found in the accompanying article by Philibert and Erwin in this issue. PMID:26358643

  6. Ethical Issues in Insurance Marketing.The Case of Western India

    Sorab Georgy Sadri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a paper based on empirical investigation conducted in Western India between 2002 and 2012 especially at a time when the Indian economy is in a stage of transition from state capitalism to free market capitalism, albeit both of a retarded variety. It takes the 7 Ps of services marketing and cross verifies responses against seven dimensions of ethical conduct. The study is based on questionnaires followed by interviews. The target respondents were life insurance employees of banc assurance involved in marketing life insurance policies to customers in the urban sector. The study brought to the fore the fact that commissions were more important that telling the truth while selling policies. In the process ethical considerations conveniently went out of the window. To protect the interest of the unsuspecting clients a plea is made to have governance machinery in place that will make the insurance marketing personnel accountable for what and how they sell their wares. This need is especially felt in a country where the social security net is virtually non existent and the erstwhile joint family system is on a fast decline. In such circumstances a lack of ethical norms on the part of the insurer is an unacceptable sociological proposition and borders on gross unethical behaviour. The task of people management experts to address this issue is of the paramount importance and urgency if the Indian life insurance industry is to sustain its social image in a highly competitive market where foreign players are steadily entering the domestic scene.

  7. Ethics and the compensation of immigrant workers for work-related injuries and illnesses.

    Gravel, Sylvie; Vissandjée, Bilkis; Lippel, Katherine; Brodeur, Jean-Marc; Patry, Louis; Champagne, François

    2010-10-01

    This paper examines the compensation process for work-related injuries and illnesses by assessing the trajectories of a sample of immigrant and non-immigrant workers (n = 104) in Montreal. Workers were interviewed to analyze the complexity associated with the compensation process. Experts specialized in compensation issues assessed the difficulty of the interviewees' compensation process. Immigrant workers faced greater difficulties with medical, legal, and administrative issues than non-immigrants did. While immigrant workers' claim forms tended to be written more often by employers or friends (58% vs. 8%), the claims were still more often contested by employers (64% vs. 24%). Immigrant workers were less likely to obtain a precise diagnosis (64% vs. 42%) and upon returning to work were more likely to face sub-optimal conditions. Such results throw into relief issues of ethics and equity in host societies that are building their economy with migrant workers. PMID:19308731

  8. Ethics issues in social media-based HIV prevention in low- and middle-income countries.

    Chiu, Chingche J; Menacho, Luis; Fisher, Celia; Young, Sean D

    2015-07-01

    Questions have been raised regarding participants' safety and comfort when participating in e-health education programs. Although researchers have begun to explore this issue in the United States, little research has been conducted in low- and middle-income countries, where Internet and social media use is rapidly growing. This article reports on a quantitative study with Peruvian men who have sex with men who had previously participated in the Harnessing Online Peer Education (HOPE) program, a Facebook-based HIV education program. The survey assessed participants' ethics-relevant perspectives during recruitment, consent, intervention, and follow-up. PMID:26059956

  9. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  10. Copyright Issues Relating to Database Use

    V.K. Gupta

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Databases are being created for dissemination of information in varioussectors such as industry, tourism and hotel, culture development, planning,agriculture, health, environment, science and technology, geography,population, etc This paper focusses on issues related to copyright protectionof these databases.http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dbit.17.4.3227

  11. Integration of business ethics and professional ethics auditor: dimensions of juridisation and codification

    Mikolaj Turzynski

    2011-01-01

    This article is about the integration issues of business ethics and professional conduct in relation to audit services rendered by auditors. Characterized in the selection of contemporary approaches to business ethics and professional ethics. The article poses the thesis that the integrative dimension of business ethics and the auditing profession is reflected in the processes of juridisation and codification.

  12. Gathering visual images of the 2004 tsunami: Journalists’ challenges and ethical issues

    James Hollings

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles a relatively unaddressed area of journalistic ethics by offering insights from working journalists into the conditions they face when reporting disasters. It covers the disaster reporting context in general, but with particular emphasis on the witnessing of disaster and subsequent impact on the journalist, and the processes of collection of visual imagery for print or broadcast. This research provides a complement to the large body of output-related analysis of photojournalism, by examining the sometimes messy and traumatic circumstances of the initial gathering of photojournalistic imagery and by foregrounding the role of the journalist not as objective news conduit but as feeling human being. Arguably, no attempt to judge the ethics of photojournalism is complete without some understanding of the conditions faced by journalists at the scene of a disaster.

  13. Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States

    A Kanekar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. Methods: An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported.  Results: Results indicated a variable amount of ethics' related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties' needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making.Conclusions: Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential.  In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health.  There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice.

  14. Case study research to reflect societal and ethical issues – Introduction of a research implementation plan for ICTs

    Yaghmaei, Emad; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the systematic procedures of case study research. A robust case study protocol in the context of societal and ethical issues with a relevant guidelines will set to show how data should collect, present, and analyze. This paper takes in particular the contex...... account of societal and ethical aspects, in particular RRI principles in emerging ICTs in a proper way....

  15. Ethical Issues in mHealth Research Involving Persons Living with HIV/AIDS and Substance Abuse

    Alain B. Labrique; Kirk, Gregory D.; Westergaard, Ryan P; Merritt, Maria W.

    2013-01-01

    We aim to raise awareness and stimulate dialogue among investigators and research ethics committees regarding ethical issues that arise specifically in the design and conduct of mHealth research involving persons living with HIV/AIDS and substance abuse. Following a brief background discussion of mHealth research in general, we offer a case example to illustrate the characteristics of mHealth research involving people living with HIV/AIDS and substance abuse. With reference to a well-establis...

  16. The Case of the Recycled Paper: The Case of the Busy Consultant (Ethical Issues in Business Communication).

    Reinsch, N. L., Jr; Driskill, Linda

    1993-01-01

    Presents two cases that illustrate some of the issues regularly faced by business communication educators: publications and conference presentations and consulting. Notes that each of the cases is followed by a series of specific questions addressing ethical issues raised in the cases. (RS)

  17. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-10-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at least in part, diverging results. This study investigates how students explain and understand their argumentation about dilemmas concerning gene testing for the purpose to reduce hereditary diseases. Thirteen students were interviewed about their views on this issue. Qualitative analysis was done primarily by relating students’ argumentation to their movements between ethics and morals as opposing poles. Students used either objective or subjective knowledge but had difficulties to integrate them. They tried to negotiate ethic arguments using utilitarian motives and medical knowledge with sympathy or irrational and personal arguments. They discussed the embryo’s moral status to decide if it was replaceable in a social group or not. The educational implications of the students’ use of knowledge in personal arguments are discussed.

  18. Radiation safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies

    Techniques related to the use of radiolabeled antibodies in humans are reviewed and evaluated in this report. It is intended as an informational resource for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and NRC licensees. Descriptions of techniques and health and safety issues are provided. Principal methods for labeling antibodies are summarized to help identify related radiation safety problems in the preparation of dosages for administration to patients. The descriptions are derived from an extensive literature review and consultations with experts in the field. A glossary of terms and acronyms is also included. An assessment was made of the extent of the involvement of organizations (other than the NRC) with safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies, in order to identify regulatory issues which require attention. Federal regulations and guides were also reviewed for their relevance. A few (but significant) differences between the use of common radiopharmaceuticals and radiolabeled antibodies were observed. The clearance rate of whole, radiolabeled immunoglobulin is somewhat slower than common radiopharmaceuticals, and new methods of administration are being used. New nuclides are being used or considered (e.g., Re-186 and At-211) for labeling antibodies. Some of these nuclides present new dosimetry, instrument calibration, and patient management problems. Subjects related to radiation safety that require additional research are identified. 149 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs

  19. An appraisal of ethical issues in end-of-life care.

    Ilemona, Ekore Rabi

    2014-01-01

    Caring for patients at the end-of-life period could involve a number of situations and incidents that pose moral dilemma for both the health workers and the patients' family members or loved ones. Some of these issues include shared decision-making, the right to refuse medical treatment, medical futility, and euthanasia versus assisted suicide, information disclosure (truth-telling), substitute decision-making, and confidentiality. They may seem improbable or remote, until one is confronted with them real-time. Providing good care for dying patients requires that physicians and other members of the health care team be knowledgeable of ethical issues pertinent to end-of-life care. PMID:25508493

  20. Legal issues and ethical dilemmas surrounding bone marrow transplantation in children.

    Williams, T E

    1984-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation is but one of numerous new medical technologies that have raised complex legal and ethical issues. Laws pertaining to medical advances have generally been passed in response to the need to resolve conflicts in judicial opinions rather than in anticipation of those issues which impinge on individual liberties. Bone marrow transplantation law is not an exception. It is, unfortunately, not a product of a planned dialogue between members of those disciplines that could contribute significantly to the development of model codes. Consequently it seems predictable that public policy concerning bone marrow transplantation may not be shaped by the leveling influence that the medical profession can bring to such discussions unless physicians take the initiative to lay the foundations for such dialogues. It is hoped that these discussions will help to enhance and not impede the application of bone marrow transplantation not only for more children but also for other conditions that are not currently treated successfully. PMID:6370014

  1. Assessing ethical and social issues of transtelephonic electrocardiography (TTEGG in Chile

    Eugenia Lamas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to focus on the ethical and social issues derived from the implementation of transtelephonic electrocardiography (TTECG in the public healthcare sector in Chile, studying patients and healthcare providers' acceptance and expectations concerning: (a TTECG effectiveness and safety; and (b data protection issues, such as confidentiality, privacy and security. For this purpose, we developed two psychosocial surveys; the first was addressed to patients receiving transtelephonic electrocardiogram (either in the emergency services of hospitals or in distant primary care services and the second one aimed at healthcare providers involved in either administering and/or interpreting it. Results included: (a major acceptability of TTECG in terms of safety and security; (b privacy and confidentiality of the patients were considered to be well protected; and (c the patient-doctor relationship was not affected by this device.

  2. ASPECTOS ETICOS EN LA INVESTIGACION CIENTIFICA ETHICAL ISSUES IN CIENTIFIC RESEARCH

    IRENE ACEVEDO PREZ

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available El escrito pretende mostrar los diferentes cdigos, declaraciones y normas que se han dictado en el mundo para la proteccin de los seres humanos sometidos a experimentacin cientfica. Se analiza el tema a la luz de los principios ticos y la situacin actual en Chile en relacin a la existencia de los comits de tica cientficosThe articles aim is to show all different codes, declarations and norms that have been dictated in the world, in order to protect the human beings submitted to scientific experimentation. The topic is analyzed considering ethical principles and the present situation in Chile, related to the existence of the scientific ethical committees

  3. Virtual colonoscopy: issues related to primary screening

    Virtual colonoscopy (VC) is a minimally invasive CT examination that has continued to rapidly evolve and improve as a diagnostic screening tool. Current state-of-the-art VC technique has already been shown to be highly effective for screening at the University of Wisconsin. Although more widespread implementation of VC screening faces multiple challenges and barriers, these are all greatly overshadowed by the immediate need for increased patient compliance in effective colorectal screening programs. Given the wide availability of CT and the favorable safety profile compared with optical colonoscopy, VC holds significant potential for addressing a very important yet preventable public health concern. This paper will briefly address some of the major issues related to the general application of VC for colorectal screening, such as diagnostic performance, development of an acceptable screening algorithm, and several technique-related issues. (orig.)

  4. e-Government Ethics : a Synergy of Computer Ethics, Information Ethics, and Cyber Ethics

    Arief Ramadhan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethics has become an important part in the interaction among humans being. This paper specifically discusses applied ethics as one type of ethics. There are three applied ethics that will be reviewed in this paper, i.e. computer ethics, information ethics, and cyber ethics. There are two aspects of the three applied ethics that were reviewed, i.e. their definition and the issues associated with them. The reviewing results of the three applied ethics are then used for defining e-Government ethics and formulating the issues of e-Government ethics. The e-Government ethics position, based on the previous three applied ethics, is also described in this paper. Computer ethics, information ethics and cyber ethics are considered as the foundations of e-Government ethics and several others applied ethics could enrich the e-Government ethics.

  5. The Ethics of Instructional Technology: Issues and Coping Strategies Experienced by Professional Technologists in Design and Training Situations in Higher Education

    Lin, Hong

    2007-01-01

    To correspond to the Association for Educational Communication Technology (AECT) Code of Professional Ethics and the professional journal TechTrends' ethics columns, this paper provides empirical data regarding ethical issues associated with the use of instructional technology in design and training situations. In-depth interviews of 20…

  6. Ethical issues related to chemotherapy in patients with gastric cancer

    J K Triantafillidis; Peros, G

    2007-01-01

    Postoperative chemotherapy and radiation therapy is standard care in high risk patients who had undergone a curative resection of the primary tumor. Best survival results are achieved with three-drug regimens containing FU, an anthracycline, and cisplatin (ECF), although the recently presented REAL-2-trial, demonstrated a significant survival benefit for EOX (epirubicin, oxaliplatin, capecitabine) over ECF. Consequently, chemotherapy could be offered to some proportion of patients with advanc...

  7. Ethical, legal and social issues related to cell therapy.

    Romeo-Casabona, Carlos M

    2008-01-01

    The author analyses the implications of cell therapy from a legal study that regulates the use of embryonic material: the regulation of the obtaining of cells, of research with embryos and their research and therapeutic use. There is a detailed look at the provisions in the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine of the Council of Europe and concludes that "therapeutic cloning" is not prohibited in our legal regulation. PMID:18942509

  8. Ethics on the Internet.

    Online & CD-ROM Review, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues related to the Internet based on two speeches given at the Online 95 conference. Topics include pornography; copyright; libel and slander; and censorship imposed on the Internet by the secret service in Israel. (LRW)

  9. Historical Roots and Future Perspectives Related to Nursing Ethics.

    Freitas, Lorraine

    1990-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of the development and refinement of the professional code from concerns about the ethical conduct of nurses to its present state as a professional code for all nurses. The relationship of the Ethics Committee of the American Nurses' Association to the development of the code is also discussed. (Author/MLW)

  10. Solo doctors and ethical isolation.

    Cooper, R J

    2009-11-01

    This paper uses the case of solo doctors to explore whether working in relative isolation from one's peers may be detrimental to ethical decision-making. Drawing upon the relevance of communication and interaction for ethical decision-making in the ethical theories of Habermas, Mead and Gadamer, it is argued that doctors benefit from ethical discussion with their peers and that solo practice may make this more difficult. The paper identifies a paucity of empirical research related to solo practice and ethics but draws upon more general medical ethics research and a study that identified ethical isolation among community pharmacists to support the theoretical claims made. The paper concludes by using the literary analogy of Soderberg's Doctor Glas to illustrate the issues raised and how ethical decision-making in relative isolation may be problematical. PMID:19880707

  11. Lifting the veil: a typological survey of the methodological features of Islamic ethical reasoning on biomedical issues.

    Abdur-Rashid, Khalil; Furber, Steven Woodward; Abdul-Basser, Taha

    2013-04-01

    We survey the meta-ethical tools and institutional processes that traditional Islamic ethicists apply when deliberating on bioethical issues. We present a typology of these methodological elements, giving particular attention to the meta-ethical techniques and devices that traditional Islamic ethicists employ in the absence of decisive or univocal authoritative texts or in the absence of established transmitted cases. In describing how traditional Islamic ethicists work, we demonstrate that these experts possess a variety of discursive tools. We find that the ethical responsa-i.e., the products of the application of the tools that we describe-are generally characterized by internal consistency. We also conclude that Islamic ethical reasoning on bioethical issues, while clearly scripture-based, is also characterized by strong consequentialist elements and possesses clear principles-based characteristics. The paper contributes to the study of bioethics by familiarizing non-specialists in Islamic ethics with the role, scope, and applicability of key Islamic ethical concepts, such as "aims" (maqāṣid), "universals" (kulliyyāt), "interest" (maṣlaḥa), "maxims" (qawā`id), "controls" (ḍawābit), "differentiators" (furūq), "preponderization" (tarjīḥ), and "extension" (tafrī`). PMID:23665956

  12. Public relations ethics: A simpler (but not simplistic) approach to the complexities

    Karey Harrison; Chris Galloway

    2005-01-01

    Professional public relations bodies internationally have established ethics codes in an attempt to regulate members’ ethical behaviour. This paper critiques the code-based framework on philosophical and practical grounds, suggesting that such frameworks are inadequate because they leave practitioners free to interpret these guides in ways that advance their own and their clients’ interests. We argue that this latitude does not foster ethical behaviour. We then contrast rule-following,action-...

  13. Research on Rural Economic Ethical Issues in other Countries since Modern Times

    Pingrong Tu

    2014-01-01

    The study of the ethical problems of the rural economy abroad has formed a relatively mature theory of genre since modern times, such as Marx and Engels’ the moral theory of the peas ant economy; the “self-sufficiency”–smallholder survival moral theory of motivation by Chayanov, Polanyi, Scott; the “rational smallholders”–the profit-motive, economic-and-moral theory by Firth, Tax, Schultz, Popkin; Mendras’ economic and moral theory to explain “self-sufficient smallholders” motivation to “rati...

  14. Ethical Issues in Doing Business in China(inde ?? Yapman?n Etik Sorunlar?

    Serkan ADA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s and 1990s China was cited by some of the international organizations because of its violations of basic human rights. However, multinational firms from most of the countries criticizing the Chinas violations began to do considerable amount of investments to China in the 1990s and 2000s. They moved their manufacturing activities to China because of valuable opportunities, incentives, and cheap work force. They pursued this action regardless of Chinese governments carelessness to its own citizens. Despite this fact, should these firms do additional investment in order to produce their products with lower levels of costs? Is this an ethical decision? In this study, this issue is argued out and some points are recommended from the perspective of international firms.

  15. [Direct-to-consumer genetic testing through Internet: marketing, ethical and social issues].

    Ducournau, Pascal; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Bulle, Alexandre; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    We probably did not anticipate all the consequences of the direct to consumer genetic tests on Internet, resulting from the combined skills of communication and genomic advances. What are the commercial strategies used by the companies offering direct-to-consumer genetic tests on Internet and what are the different social expectations on which they focus? Through a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the web sites offering such tests, it seems that these companies target a triple market based on: the "healthism" which raises health and hygiene to the top of the social values; the contemporary demands of the users to become actual actors of health decisions; and finally on the need for bio-social relationships. These three commercial strategies underlie various ethical and societal issues justifying a general analysis. PMID:21299969

  16. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context.

    Frewer, L J; Kleter, G A; Brennan, M; Coles, D; Fischer, A R H; Houdebine, L M; Mora, C; Millar, K; Salter, B

    2013-06-25

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) was mapped and reviewed. A foresight exercise was conducted to identity future developments. Three case studies (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) were applied to identify the issues raised, including the potential risks and benefits of GM animals from the perspectives of the production chain (economics and agri-food sector) and the life sciences (human and animal health, environmental impact, animal welfare and sustainable production). Ethical and policy concerns were examined through application of combined ethical matrix method and policy workshops. The case studies were also used to demonstrate the utility of public engagement in the policy process. The results suggest that public perceptions, ethical issues, the competitiveness of EU animal production and risk-benefit assessments that consider human and animal health, environmental impact and sustainable production need to be considered in EU policy development. Few issues were raised with application in the pharmaceutical sector, assuming ethical and economic issues were addressed in policy, but the introduction of agricultural GM animal applications should be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23567982

  17. The Magnus-Rademaker Scientific Film Collection: Ethical Issues on Animal Experimentation (1908-1940).

    Koehler, Peter J; Lameris, Bregt

    2016-01-01

    The Magnus-Rademaker scientific film collection (1908-1940) deals with the physiology of body posture by the equilibrium of reflex musculature contractions for which experimental studies were carried out with animals (e.g., labyrinthectomies, cerebellectomies, and brain stem sections) as well as observations done on patients. The films were made for demonstrations at congresses as well as educational objectives and film stills were published in their books. The purpose of the present study is to position these films and their makers within the contemporary discourse on ethical issues and animal rights in the Netherlands and the earlier international debates. Following an introduction on animal rights and antivivisection movements, we describe what Magnus and Rademaker thought about these issues. Their publications did not provide much information in this respect, probably reflecting their adherence to implicit ethical codes that did not need explicit mentioning in publications. Newspaper articles, however, revealed interesting information. Unnecessary suffering of an animal never found mercy in Magnus' opinion. The use of cinematography was expanded to the reduction of animal experimentation in student education, at least in the case of Rademaker, who in the 1930s was involved in a governmental committee for the regulation of vivisection and cooperated with the antivivisection movement. This resulted not only in a propaganda film for the movement but also in films that demonstrate physiological experiments for students with the purpose to avert repetition and to improve the teaching of experiments. We were able to identify the pertinent films in the Magnus-Rademaker film collection. The production of vivisection films with this purpose appears to have been common, as is shown in news messages in European medical journals of the period. PMID:26684427

  18. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities: review of clinical and ethical issues

    Gekas J

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Jean Gekas,1,2 Sylvie Langlois,3 Vardit Ravitsky,4 François Audibert,5 David Gradus van den Berg,6 Hazar Haidar,4 François Rousseau2,7 1Prenatal Diagnosis Unit, Department of Medical Genetics and Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, Canada; 2Department of Medical Biology, CHU de Québec, Québec City, QC, Canada; 3Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Bioethics Program, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Sainte-Justine, Montreal, QC, Canada; 6Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, Canada; 7Department of Molecular Biology, Medical Biochemistry and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, Canada Abstract: Genomics-based non-invasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening was proposed to reduce the number of invasive procedures in current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies. We review here the clinical and ethical issues of cfDNA screening. To date, it is not clear how cfDNA screening is going to impact the performances of clinical prenatal diagnosis and how it could be incorporated in real life. The direct marketing to users may have facilitated the early introduction of cfDNA screening into clinical practice despite limited evidence-based independent research data supporting this rapid shift. There is a need to address the most important ethical, legal, and social issues before its implementation in a mass setting. Its introduction might worsen current tendencies to neglect the reproductive autonomy of pregnant women. Keywords: prenatal diagnosis, Down syndrome, non-invasive prenatal testing, cell-free fetal DNA, informed consent, reproductive autonomy

  19. 77 FR 38631 - Request for Comments on Ethical Issues Associated with the Development of Medical Countermeasures...

    2012-06-28

    ... conduct of scientific research and healthcare delivery. Undertaking these duties, the Commission seeks to... surrounding clinical research with children, ethical considerations surrounding pediatric medical countermeasure research, and ethical considerations surrounding emergency access to and use of...

  20. When courts intervene: public health, legal and ethical issues surrounding HIV, pregnant women, and newborn infants.

    Tessmer-Tuck, Jennifer A; Poku, Joseph K; Burkle, Christopher M

    2014-11-01

    Ninety-three percent of pediatric AIDS cases are the result of perinatal HIV transmission, a disease that is almost entirely preventable with early intervention, which reduces the risk of perinatal HIV infection from 25% to woman's right to refuse medical testing and treatment, even though it may benefit her fetus/newborn infant. Federal courts also reliably respect the rights of parents to make health care decisions for their newborn infants, which may include declining medical testing and treatment. Confusing the issue of HIV testing and treatment, however, is the fact that there is no definitive United States Supreme Court ruling on the issue. State laws and standards vary widely and serve as guiding principles for practicing clinicians, who must be vigilant of ongoing legal challenges and changes in the states in which they practice. We present a case of an HIV-positive pregnant woman who declined treatment and then testing or treatment of her newborn infant. Ultimately, the legal system intervened. Given the rarity of such cases, we use this as a primer for the practicing clinician to highlight the public health, legal, and ethical issues surrounding prenatal and newborn infant HIV testing and treatment in the United States, including summarizing key state-to-state regulatory differences. PMID:24732002

  1. Making ethical deliberations public: Some provisional resources for youth research ethics

    Te Riele, K; Brooks, R

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this special edition of Youth Studies Australia is on questions, issues, challenges and (tentative) solutions in relation to ensuring that research with young people is conducted ethically. This introductory paper by the guest editors of this edition draws on ethical principles as outlined in the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans and in the Fairbridge Code of Ethics for youth work. The authors explain how these principles can inform ethical youth ...

  2. Ethical, legal and social issues in the context of the planning stages of the Southern African Human Genome Programme.

    de Vries, Jantina; Slabbert, Melodie; Pepper, Michael S

    2012-03-01

    As the focus on the origin of modern man appears to be moving from eastern to southern Africa, it is recognised that indigenous populations in southern Africa may be the most genetically diverse on the planet and hence a valuable resource for human genetic diversity studies. In order to build regional capacity for the generation, analysis and application of genomic data, the Southern African Human Genome Programme was recently launched with the aid of seed funding from the national Department of Science and Technology in South Africa. The purpose of the article is to investigate pertinent ethical, legal and social issues that have emerged during the planning stages of the Southern African Human Genome Programme. A careful consideration of key issues such as public perception of genomic research, issues relating to genetic and genomic discrimination and stigmatisation, informed consent, privacy and data protection, and the concept of genomic sovereignty, is of paramount importance in the early stages of the Programme. This article will also consider the present legal framework governing genomic research in South Africa and will conclude with proposals regarding such a framework for the future. PMID:22908741

  3. Applying Rawlsian Approaches to Resolve Ethical Issues: Inventory and Setting of a Research Agenda

    Doorn, N.

    2009-01-01

    Insights from social science are increasingly used in the field of applied ethics. However, recent insights have shown that the empirical branch of business ethics lacks thorough theoretical grounding. This article discusses the use of the Rawlsian methods of wide reflective equilibrium and overlapping consensus in the field of applied ethics. Instead of focussing on one single comprehensive ethical doctrine to provide adequate guidance for resolving moral dilemmas, these Rawlsian methods see...

  4. Applying Rawlsian Approaches to Resolve Ethical Issues: Inventory and Setting of a Research Agenda:

    Doorn, N.

    2009-01-01

    Insights from social science are increasingly used in the field of applied ethics. However, recent insights have shown that the empirical branch of business ethics lacks thorough theoretical grounding. This article discusses the use of the Rawlsian methods of wide reflective equilibrium and overlapping consensus in the field of applied ethics. Instead of focussing on one single comprehensive ethical doctrine to provide adequate guidance for resolving moral dilemmas, these Rawlsian methods see...

  5. Healthier? More Efficient? Fairer? An Overview of the Main Ethical Issues Raised by the Use of Ubicomp in the Workplace

    Céline Ehrwein NIHAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of Ambient Intelligence (AmI will radically transform our everyday life and social representations. These transformations will notably impact the working environment. The objective of this paper is to offer a first survey of the main ethical issues raised by the development of intelligent working environments (IWEs. It especially focuses on the capacity of such environments to collect and handle personal medical data. The first two sections of this paper aim to clarify the methodology (2 as well as the object (3 of the research. We then point out some of the main ethical issues raised by IWEs and their capacity to collect and handle medical data. The final section attempts to offer some elements of reflection regarding the ethical principles that should guide the development of IWEs in the future.

  6. What they really think: Resolving methodological issues in supply chain ethics research

    K. Chipp

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to further the theory and strengthen methodological approaches to the role of ethics in buyer-seller relationships. The paper explores opportunities to enhance response rates, validity and reliability in the research context of organisations seeking to understand the ethical beliefs their suppliers hold of their buying organisations. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research universe is a select business group, all of which are technologically literate and online. Innovative research sampling methods were selected to great effect. The method selected was saturation surveying, a process whereby all identifiable target respondents are surveyed. Instead of selecting between sampling techniques, the option of saturation surveying, cheaply available electronically, removes the focus from the decision to either sample probabilistically or not. Instead, as the entire universe can be contacted in a cost effective manner, the sampling frame becomes of paramount importance. Thus, the focus then shifts from accurately selecting respondents from the sampling frame towards enhancing the sampling frame itself. The sampling frame was improved through guidance from the literature. Findings: The paper demonstrates that this research approach was successful in that it generated a high response rate, suggesting great involvement amongst the supplier population in the topic at hand. It also indicates a lessening of non-response bias, as the response rate is more than double that of previous research into the area. Implications: This paper presents a comprehensive approach to researching ethics in buyer-seller relations. It further promotes the effective use of new sampling methods enabled by the Internet when directed towards selective populations. Originality/Value: The novel approach of sampling frame enhancement twined with saturation surveying has exciting implications for business research. The expansion of the sampling frame to a wider audience of suppliers has long been noted as necessary although not actioned. Furthermore, in terms of the little-studied nature of buyer-seller relations, the verification of the scale developed by Bendixon and Abratt (2007 affirms the robustness of this measure for ethics research. 

  7. Critique of the Classical Theory of Situational Ethics in U.S. Public Relations.

    Pratt, Cornelius B.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that ethics in public relations is a consequence of practitioners' perfunctory adherence to three motifs of situationism--"agapeic" love, human welfare, and happiness--rather than of their preference for situational ethics in its classical context. Suggests that practitioners' decisions be guided by these motifs while applying classical…

  8. 76 FR 14777 - Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Federal Labor Relations Authority

    2011-03-18

    ... Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Federal Labor Relations Authority AGENCY...: March 11, 2011. Robert I. Cusick, Director, Office of Government Ethics. BILLING CODE 6727-01-P ...;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0;to and codified in the Code...

  9. The Social Work Ethics Audit: A Risk-Management Strategy.

    Reamer, Frederic G.

    2000-01-01

    Article integrates current knowledge on social work ethics and introduces the concept of a social work ethics audit to aid social workers in their efforts to identify pertinent ethical issues; review and assess the adequacy of their current ethics-related practices; modify their practices as needed; and monitor the implementation of these changes.…

  10. A Prolegomenon to the Relation Between Accounting, Language and Ethics

    C. Edward Arrington

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay outlines the preliminary structure of a moral ontology of accounting understood as discourse. Tospeak of an ontology of accounting is to speak of the most general features of accounting, those features of itsexistence that are present irrespective of variations in observed “accountings,” of ways in which accountingmanifests itself in lived experience. To speak of a moral ontology is to construe those general features asproducts of human choices and actions which follow from axiological (value-based commitments to pursuethe good and just life, however that life might be understood, and indeed understood differently by differentpersons. Thus a moral ontology stands in distinction from, for example, a naturalistic ontology, one “freedfrom the freedom” of axiological horizons. Within its embeddedness in a moral ontology, the enactment ofaccounting takes empirical form as discourse – as an act of someone saying (writing something aboutsomething to someone else (Ricoeur, 1976; Arrington & Francis, 1993. Thus if we seek to understandaccounting’s force in the world, a force that is always valued and evaluated in terms of consequences for thegood and just life, we get our most general understandings from attending to the ethics of language and itsuse. My task in this essay is to introduce the structure of what the elements of accounting’s relation to theethics of language and its use might be. Expanding upon that structure remains a task for future work.

  11. Telos, conservation of welfare, and ethical issues in genetic engineering of animals.

    Rollin, Bernard E

    2015-01-01

    The most long-lived metaphysics or view of reality in the history of Western thought is Aristotle's teleology, which reigned for almost 2,000 years. Biology was expressed in terms of function or telos, and accorded perfectly with common sense. The rise of mechanistic, Newtonian science vanquished teleological explanations. Understanding and accommodating animal telos was essential to success in animal husbandry, which involved respect for telos, and was presuppositional to our "ancient contract" with domestic animals. Telos was further abandoned with the rise of industrial agriculture, which utilized "technological fixes" to force animal into environments they were unsuited for, while continuing to be productive. Loss of husbandry and respect for telos created major issues for farm animal welfare, and forced the creation of a new ethic demanding respect for telos. As genetic engineering developed, the notion arose of modifying animals to fit their environment in order to avoid animal suffering, rather than fitting them into congenial environments. Most people do not favor changing the animals, rather than changing the conditions under which they are reared. Aesthetic appreciation of husbandry and virtue ethics militate in favor of restoring husbandry, rather than radically changing animal teloi. One, however, does not morally wrong teloi by changing them-one can only wrong individuals. In biomedical research, we do indeed inflict major pain, suffering and disease on animals. And genetic engineering seems to augment our ability to create animals to model diseases, particularly more than 3,000 known human genetic diseases. The disease, known as Lesch-Nyhan's syndrome or HPRT deficiency, which causes self-mutilation and mental retardation, provides us with a real possibility for genetically creating "animal models" of this disease, animals doomed to a life of great and unalleviable suffering. This of course creates a major moral dilemma. Perhaps one can use the very genetic engineering which creates this dilemma to ablate consciousness in such animal models, thereby escaping a moral impasse. PMID:24496650

  12. Non-Voluntary Admission of Patients with Mental Disorders: Ethical and Social Issues

    Petronela CRACIUN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-voluntary admission of mentally ill patients is charged with multiple ethical issues and dilemmas, the most complicated being its dangerousness and predictability, the appropriate classification of patients into the corresponding risk category and the therapeutic decisions imposed in a paternalistic way. The paternalistic attitude of the physician is acceptable given that there is an obvious degree of social danger. The potentially violent, especially hetero-aggressive, behaviour has a great social impact resulting in patient stigmatization and isolation. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the social issues of patients with mental disorders, non-voluntary admitted. The study is retrospective and the data were collected from records of patients who have been non-voluntarily admitted from 2002 to 2011 in a psychiatric hospital in Iasi, Romania. The results show that among the risk factors in non-voluntary admission, hetero-aggressivity is one criterion under Article 45, paragraph a Law 487/2002, frequently met in the study batch. Additionally, many non-voluntary admitted patients with mental illness have no medical insurance, being unemployed, unmarried / divorced and having a low social support. Community must be tolerant towards the mentally ill, regardless of the social integration of these patients. After discharge, a better social support may improve the prognosis, influencing the occurrence and evolution of mental illnesses. A strong support network is protective whereas a weak or lacking support network would make patients more vulnerable to stressful life events.

  13. HIGHER ROMANIAN EDUCATION POST-BOLOGNA: REQUIRED CHANGES, INSTRUMENTS AND ETHICAL ISSUES

    Alexandru-Ionuţ Petrişor

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1999 Romania became part of the Bologna process, focused on the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System, design to increase the compatibility of European universities, ensuring the mobility of students and professors in the context of re-orienting education to the formation of competences continuously adapted to market requirements. This model draws the new education system closer to American education. The paper analyzes the importance of evaluation, proposing solutions to increase teaching efficiency, and also the often negative influence of promotion criteria, based on their characteristic ethical aspects. The paper underlines the importance of continuous evaluation based on more requirements, resulting into a more correct assessment of performance, but also the evaluation of the efficiency of the course and instructor by the students, proposing its assignment to an independent structure to diminish the bias of results. The paper also analyses the importance of promotion criteria based on the scientific activity and management of research in the detriment of focusing on teaching. The implications relate to the fact that management of research does not measure teaching performance or the professional profile, while scientometric measurements of results have profound ethical consequences, leading to a distorted scientific behavior and neglected teaching duties.

  14. Legal and ethical issues in neuroimaging research: human subjects protection, medical privacy, and the public communication of research results.

    Kulynych, Jennifer

    2002-12-01

    Humans subjects research entails significant legal and ethical obligations. Neuroimaging researchers must be familiar with the requirements of human subjects protection, including evolving standards for the protection of privacy and the disclosure of risk in "non-therapeutic" research. Techniques for creating veridical surface renderings from volumetric anatomical imaging data raise new privacy concerns, particularly under the federal medical privacy regulation. Additionally, neuroimaging researchers must consider their obligation to communicate research results responsibly. The emerging field of neuroethics should strive to raise awareness of these issues and to involve neuroimaging researchers in the legal, ethical, and policy debates that currently surround human subjects research. PMID:12480482

  15. Ethics and its challenges

    Johannes Michael Schnarrer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available I would like to look at some of the challenges of ethcis today. Therefore, in the first part I say something about ethics, the ethical theories and ethical concepts. Afterwords I am going to explain a little bit about the human dimensions, the dealing with experiences (i.e. work; because the human person has to decide the right thing in the right place on the right time, and in relatively freedom. In the end, there are some ideas about applied ethics which is necessary to focusing on the practical issues, too. Otherwise people who do not like the ethical discussions they could think that ethical ideas are selfsufficient and do not make sense, but I will tell them something else....

  16. Ethical practice of social media in public relations

    DiStaso, Marcia W

    2014-01-01

    Given the high rate of social media use by the public, organizations are compelled to engage with key audiences through these outlets. Social media engagement requires organizations to actively participate with public groups, and this highly-interactive exchange raises a new set of ethical concerns for communicators. In this rapidly changing communications environment, the long-term implications of social media are uncertain, and this book provides the much needed research to understand its impact on audiences and organizations.Through an examination of a broad range of ethics concepts includi

  17. Environmental issues related to uranium mining

    This paper introduces the environmental issues (both real and perceived) associated with uranium exploration, mining, milling, and tailings management. As well, some of the issues pertaining to the closeout of uranium tailings areas are discussed. These issues have received considerable attention in Canada in public inquiries and hearings that have been held across the country. The major conclusions of some of these hearings are also noted

  18. Research ethics and integrity for social scientists beyond regulatory compliance

    Israel, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This book explores recent developments and debates around researching ethically and with integrity, and complying with ethical requirements, and has been updated and expanded to now cover issues relating to international, indigenous, interdisciplinary and internet research.  

  19. The Design and Implementation of Ethics-Related Administrative Law in Eastern Europe

    Michael, Bryane; Bowser, Donald

    2013-01-01

    How can senior policymakers use data in the design of ethics (anti-corruption) related legislation and regulations? In this paper, we describe how to draft subsidiary legislation (mainly executive agency regulations) based on explicit or implied competencies given by national legislation. We then discuss how to conduct the organisational, legal, economic and audit analysis needed to allocate ethics-related rights and obligations across-government and within the Agency. We illustrate with an e...

  20. PROFESSIONALISM AND ETHICS: IS THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY DAMAGING THE HEALTH OF THE PUBLIC RELATIONS PROFESSION?

    Adnan Hussein

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In most parts of the world, public relations (PR is seeking recognition as a profession. The path to gaining professional status hinges on its adherence to professional ethical standards. This paper argues that it is inappropriate for public relations practitioners to represent the tobacco industry because it is against the PR ethics of upholding truth and public interest. The paper cites historical tobacco industry documents to reveal that the industry would not hesitate to use unethical means to maximise profits.

  1. Conflicts of duty and the virtues of Aristotle in public relations ethics: Continuing the conversation commenced by Monica Walle

    John Harrison

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Monica Walle’'s commentary on codes of ethics from five national public relations associations “What happened to public responsibility? The lack of society in public relations codes of ethics”, in the last issue of PRism (2003, made several useful points about potential conflicts of duty, and the manner in which the various codes are silent on the duty of the professional to the public interest. Indeed, it is this very notion of service to the community, and the upholding of the public interest against private interests--or the singular interest of publics--which is at the core of any definition of what it means to be a profession (Sallot, Cameron, & Lariscy, 1997. Issues arising from Walle’'s discussion of conflicts of duty, as well as several broader questions about the nature and functions of ethics codes, are discussed further here and illustrated by the recent and controversial ‘Timberlands’ case from New Zealand.

  2. Religious, Ethical and Legal Considerations in End-of-Life Issues: Fundamental Requisites for Medical Decision Making.

    Jahn Kassim, Puteri Nemie; Alias, Fadhlina

    2016-02-01

    Religion and spirituality have always played a major and intervening role in a person's life and health matters. With the influential development of patient autonomy and the right to self-determination, a patient's religious affiliation constitutes a key component in medical decision making. This is particularly pertinent in issues involving end-of-life decisions such as withdrawing and withholding treatment, medical futility, nutritional feeding and do-not-resuscitate orders. These issues affect not only the patient's values and beliefs, but also the family unit and members of the medical profession. The law also plays an intervening role in resolving conflicts between the sanctity of life and quality of life that are very much pronounced in this aspect of healthcare. Thus, the medical profession in dealing with the inherent ethical and legal dilemmas needs to be sensitive not only to patients' varying religious beliefs and cultural values, but also to the developing legal and ethical standards as well. There is a need for the medical profession to be guided on the ethical obligations, legal demands and religious expectations prior to handling difficult end-of-life decisions. The development of comprehensive ethical codes in congruence with developing legal standards may offer clear guidance to the medical profession in making sound medical decisions. PMID:25576401

  3. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  4. Issues related to cooperative implementation mechanisms

    This note by the secretariat seeks to focus discussions on some key issues regarding the design and functioning of the three new mechanisms, such as issues concerning mandates, cross-cutting as well as issues concerning individual mechanisms. The note addresses each mechanism separately in view of different origins, approaches, participants and possible applications. Reference is, however, made to similarities among the mechanisms, in particular where coordination of work on methodological and institutional issues and inter-institutional collaboration are concerned. The note suggests, in its concluding part, elements of a work programme up to and, to some extent, beyond COP 4. It draws upon the views submitted by Parties (document FCCC/SB/1998/MISC.1), contains reflections by the secretariat and builds on its consultations with other organizations having activities, under way or planned, that could contribute to the design or operation of the mechanisms. (au)

  5. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed

  6. Promoting Active Learning of Ethical Issues in Marketing Communications Using Debates

    Roy, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Expectations from the business world and business school accreditation bodies to create learning outcomes that enhance students' understanding of ethical concepts call for marketing educators to integrate ethics into their pedagogy. This paper summarizes a debate activity used in an undergraduate marketing communications course. Debates engage

  7. Ethical and Legal Issues Regarding Selective Abortion of Fetuses with Down Syndrome.

    Glover, Noreen M.; Glover, Samuel J.

    1996-01-01

    Selective abortion of fetuses with Down syndrome is discussed in terms of abortion perspectives, genetic testing, legislation, and ethical principles. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, fidelity, and justice are offered as guidelines for the examination of legal standards imposed by legislation. (Author/PB)

  8. Expanding Awareness: Issues in the Development of an Ethics Scale for the Social Work Profession

    Nathanson, Ilene L.; Giffords, Elissa D.; Calderon, Orly

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development of an ethics scale that measures adherence to social work ethical choices in specific situations. The purpose of this instrument is to provide data that demonstrate adherence to curriculum standards as set forth by the Council on Social Work Education. The authors present the conceptual framework from which…

  9. Expanding Awareness: Issues in the Development of an Ethics Scale for the Social Work Profession

    Nathanson, Ilene L.; Giffords, Elissa D.; Calderon, Orly

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development of an ethics scale that measures adherence to social work ethical choices in specific situations. The purpose of this instrument is to provide data that demonstrate adherence to curriculum standards as set forth by the Council on Social Work Education. The authors present the conceptual framework from which

  10. Ethical Issues in the Introduction of New Technologies: From Mis to POEM.

    Ferreres, Alberto R; Patti, Marco

    2015-07-01

    The ethical debate regarding the introduction of new technologies in the surgical health care environment is discussed in this manuscript, with a special emphasis on minimally invasive and NOTES procedures for the treatment of esophageal achalasia. It offers an overview of the ethical principles and considerations about the implementation of new techniques and technologies. PMID:25894402

  11. Promoting Active Learning of Ethical Issues in Marketing Communications Using Debates

    Roy, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Expectations from the business world and business school accreditation bodies to create learning outcomes that enhance students' understanding of ethical concepts call for marketing educators to integrate ethics into their pedagogy. This paper summarizes a debate activity used in an undergraduate marketing communications course. Debates engage…

  12. Ongoing ethical issues concerning authorship in biomedical journals: an integrative review

    Kornhaber RA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rachel Anne Kornhaber,1,2 Loyola M McLean,3–5 Rodney J Baber6,71Faculty of Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Alexandria, New South Wales, 2School of Nursing, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, 3Brain and Mind Centre and Westmead Psychotherapy Program, Discipline of Psychiatry, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, 4Sydney West and Greater Southern Psychiatry Training Network, Cumberland Hospital, Western Sydney Local Health District, 5Parramatta Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, 6Discipline of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Neonatology, Sydney Medical School, 7Royal North Shore Hospital, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia Abstract: Health professionals publishing within the field of health sciences continue to experience issues concerning appropriate authorship, which have clinical, ethical, and academic implications. This integrative review sought to explore the key issues concerning authorship from a bioethical standpoint, aiming to explore the key features of the authorship debate. Studies were identified through an electronic search, using the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, and Scopus databases of peer-reviewed research, published between 2009 and 2014, limited to English language research, with search terms developed to reflect the current issues of authorship. From among the 279 papers identified, 20 research papers met the inclusion criteria. Findings were compiled and then arranged to identify themes and relationships. The review incorporated a wide range of authorship issues encompassing equal-credited authors, honorary (guest/gift and ghost authorship, perception/experiences of authorship, and guidelines/policies. This review suggests that the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ (ICMJE recommended guidelines for authorship are not reflected in current authorship practices within the domain of health sciences in both low- and high-impact-factor journals. This devaluing of the true importance of authorship has the potential to affect the validity of authorship, diminish the real contributions of the true authors, and negatively affect patient care.Keywords: authorship, bioethics, equal credit, ghost, honorary, ICMJE

  13. Ethical and policy issues in cluster randomized trials: rationale and design of a mixed methods research study

    Chaudhry Shazia H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cluster randomized trials are an increasingly important methodological tool in health research. In cluster randomized trials, intact social units or groups of individuals, such as medical practices, schools, or entire communities – rather than individual themselves – are randomly allocated to intervention or control conditions, while outcomes are then observed on individual cluster members. The substantial methodological differences between cluster randomized trials and conventional randomized trials pose serious challenges to the current conceptual framework for research ethics. The ethical implications of randomizing groups rather than individuals are not addressed in current research ethics guidelines, nor have they even been thoroughly explored. The main objectives of this research are to: (1 identify ethical issues arising in cluster trials and learn how they are currently being addressed; (2 understand how ethics reviews of cluster trials are carried out in different countries (Canada, the USA and the UK; (3 elicit the views and experiences of trial participants and cluster representatives; (4 develop well-grounded guidelines for the ethical conduct and review of cluster trials by conducting an extensive ethical analysis and organizing a consensus process; (5 disseminate the guidelines to researchers, research ethics boards (REBs, journal editors, and research funders. Methods We will use a mixed-methods (qualitative and quantitative approach incorporating both empirical and conceptual work. Empirical work will include a systematic review of a random sample of published trials, a survey and in-depth interviews with trialists, a survey of REBs, and in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with trial participants and gatekeepers. The empirical work will inform the concurrent ethical analysis which will lead to a guidance document laying out principles, policy options, and rationale for proposed guidelines. An Expert Panel of researchers, ethicists, health lawyers, consumer advocates, REB members, and representatives from low-middle income countries will be appointed. A consensus conference will be convened and draft guidelines will be generated by the Panel; an e-consultation phase will then be launched to invite comments from the broader community of researchers, policy-makers, and the public before a final set of guidelines is generated by the Panel and widely disseminated by the research team.

  14. Ethical Issues in Using Twitter for Public Health Surveillance and Research: Developing a Taxonomy of Ethical Concepts From the Research Literature

    Conway, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background The rise of social media and microblogging platforms in recent years, in conjunction with the development of techniques for the processing and analysis of “big data”, has provided significant opportunities for public health surveillance using user-generated content. However, relatively little attention has been focused on developing ethically appropriate approaches to working with these new data sources. Objective Based on a review of the literature, this study seeks to develop a t...

  15. [Palliative care in pediatrics, ethics and relations with the patient].

    Friedel, Marie

    2014-01-01

    The extension of the Belgian law on euthanasia to minors during the course of 2014 raises questions with regard to the needs of children in the context of paediatric palliative care. These needs concern essentially the focus given to the interrelations between the child, their family and the caregiving team as well as to the relief of the physical, psychological and spiritual pain. Ethical guidelines help to fuel the discussions surrounding professional practices. PMID:25608370

  16. Implant ethics

    Hansson, S.

    2005-01-01

    Implant ethics is defined here as the study of ethical aspects of the lasting introduction of technological devices into the human body. Whereas technological implants relieve us of some of the ethical problems connected with transplantation, other difficulties arise that are in need of careful analysis. A systematic approach to implant ethics is proposed. The major specific problems are identified as those concerning end of life issues (turning off devices), enhancement of human capabilities...

  17. AN ETHICAL ASSESSMENT OF COMPUTER ETHICS USING SCENARIO APPROACH

    Maslin Masrom

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethics refers to a set of rules that define right and wrong behavior, used for moral decision making. In this case, computer ethics is one of the major issues in information technology (IT and information system (IS. The ethical behaviour of IT students and professionals need to be studied in an attempt to reduce many unethical practices such as software piracy, hacking, and software intellectual property violations. This paper attempts to address computer-related scenarios that can be used to examine the computer ethics. The computer-related scenario consists of a short description of an ethical situation whereby the subject of the study such as IT professionals or students, then rate the ethics of the scenario, namely attempt to identify the ethical issues involved. This paper also reviews several measures of computer ethics in different setting. The perceptions of various dimensions of ethical behaviour in IT that are related to the circumstances of the ethical scenario are also presented.

  18. What do Libyan doctors perceive as the benefits, ethical issues and influences of their interactions with pharmaceutical company representatives?

    Alssageer, Mustafa Ali; Kowalski, Stefan Robert

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Evidence suggests that 80-90% of doctors in most countries across the world are frequently visited by pharmaceutical company representatives (PCRs). The objective of study to examine perceptions of Libyan doctors between August and October 2010, regarding the benefits, ethical issues and influences of their interactions with (PCRs). Methods An anonymous questionnaire was circulated to 1,000 Libyan doctors in selected public and private practice settings in Tripoli, Benghazi and S...

  19. Experimental Methods in Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Course for Teaching Ethical Issues, Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, and Analysis

    Hall, Adam C.; Mary E. Harrington

    2003-01-01

    We have developed and recently taught a 200 level undergraduate course entitled, Experimental Methods in Neuroscience. This is a required course in an increasingly popular Neuroscience major at Smith College. Students are introduced initially to issues of animal ethics and experimentation, and are familiarized with our Animal Care Facility. Using an open field and rotarod apparatus, and the elevated plus and Barnes mazes, they conduct behavioral testing of two strains of mice, C57/BL/6J and...

  20. Genetic counseling and the ethical issues around direct to consumer genetic testing.

    Hawkins, Alice K; Ho, Anita

    2012-06-01

    Over the last several years, direct to consumer(DTC) genetic testing has received increasing attention in the public, healthcare and academic realms. DTC genetic testing companies face considerable criticism and scepticism,particularly from the medical and genetic counseling community. This raises the question of what specific aspects of DTC genetic testing provoke concerns, and conversely,promises, for genetic counselors. This paper addresses this question by exploring DTC genetic testing through an ethic allens. By considering the fundamental ethical approaches influencing genetic counseling (the ethic of care and principle-based ethics) we highlight the specific ethical concerns raised by DTC genetic testing companies. Ultimately,when considering the ethics of DTC testing in a genetic counseling context, we should think of it as a balancing act. We need careful and detailed consideration of the risks and troubling aspects of such testing, as well as the potentially beneficial direct and indirect impacts of the increased availability of DTC genetic testing. As a result it is essential that genetic counselors stay informed and involved in the ongoing debate about DTC genetic testing and DTC companies. Doing so will ensure that the ethical theories and principles fundamental to the profession of genetic counseling are promoted not just in traditional counseling sessions,but also on a broader level. Ultimately this will help ensure that the public enjoys the benefits of an increasingly genetic based healthcare system. PMID:22290190