The implementation of new methods of treating and preventing disease raises many question of both technical and moral character. Currently, many studies focus on developing a screening test for preeclampsia (PE), a disease complicating 2â??8% of pregnancies, potentially causing severe consequences for pregnant women and their fetuses. The purpose is to develop a test that can identify pregnancies at high risk for developing PE sufficiently early in pregnancy to allow for prophylaxis. However, the question of implementing a screening test for PE does not only involve an evaluation of technical feasibility and clinical efficacy, it also requires an analysis of how the test influences the conditions and choices for those tested. This study evaluates state-of-the-art techniques for preeclampsia screening in an ethical framework, pointing out the central areas of moral relevance within the context of such screening activity. Furthermore, we propose ethical guidelines that a screening programme for PE should meet in order to become an uncontroversial addition to prenatal health care.
JÃ¸rgensen, Jennifer M.; Hedley, Paula L.
Despite the application of robust ethical principles, complex issues in child care commonly result in ethical dilemmas with no clear answers. This is especially so in those ‘life and death’ decisions relating to continuing curative therapy or opting for palliative care. As with many situations in paediatrics, these decisions are complicated by difficulties in establishing clear prognostic outcomes both in terms of disease progression and timescales, the child's reliance on third parties, ...
There are many ethical aspects which derive from the application of reproduction control in women's health. Women's health can be enhanced if women are given the opportunity to make their own reproduction choices about sex, contraception, abortion and application of reproductive technologies. The main issues that raise ethical dilemmas following the development of assisted reproduction techniques are: the right to procreate or reproduce; the process of in vitro fertilization itself-is it morally acceptable to interfere in the reproduction process?; the moral status of the embryo; the involvement of a third party in the reproductive process by genetic material donation; the practice of surrogacy, cryopreservation of pre-embryos; genetic manipulation; experiments on pre-embryos, etc. Induced abortion raises ethical issues related to the rights of the woman versus the rights of the fetus. For those who consider life to begin at conception abortion always equals murder and is therefore forbidden. Those who believe in the absolute autonomy of the woman over her body take the other extreme approach. The discussion surrounding abortion usually centers on whether it should be legal or illegal. Access to safe abortion is critical to the health of women and to their autonomy. The development of new effective contraceptive methods has a profound impact on women's lives. By the use of contraception it is possible to lessen maternal, infant and child mortality and to reduce the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. Research and development of new effective reversible contraceptives for women and men is needed. Dissemination of information about the safety and effectiveness of contraceptive methods is of great importance. Female genital mutilation is still practiced worldwide due to customs and tradition among various ethnic groups. The procedure is considered to be medically detrimental to the physical and mental health of women and girls, and is considered by many as oppression of women. The practice has to be stopped. Recognition of the fetus as a 'patient' has a potential effect on women's right for autonomy; they have no legal obligation to undergo invasive procedures and to risk their health for the sake of their fetuses. The woman carries ethical obligations toward her fetus. This obligation should not be enforced by the law. At present women bear most of the burden of reproductive health. All of them have a right of access to fertility regulation. Governments and society must ensure the women's equal rights to health care just as men have in the regulation of their fertility. PMID:9253679
Schenker, J G; Eisenberg, V H
Key concepts which should be recognized to understand today's medical ethics required for information management regarding clinical research are privacy protection, use limitation, individual participation, and accountability. Special attention should be paid to concepts other than privacy protection, because they are fairly new to medical professionals. Furthermore, in laboratory medicine, we have real problems, for example, how to protect privacy concerning specimens gathered from patients. Therefore, there have been many kinds of rules or guidelines established recently. Although we tend to strictly follow these guidelines, it is not always clear which guidelines should be applied to certain cases, or they do not always exactly correspond to a specific case. The full understanding of the principles of medical ethics represented by these guidelines is essential. In this paper, a clinical research document reviewed by an ethical review board is shown as an example. PMID:21626879
The growing number of individuals affected by dementia will intensify the ethical issues that emerge in clinical practice and research, issues early in disease relate to genetic testing, use of medications in mildly affected persons, and diagnostic disclosure. Research issues relate to appropriate informed consent processes, conflict of interests, and research design issues, such as the use of placebos and the use of biological tissues, in the later stages of disease concern about appropriate...
Background In Mexico, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end???stage kidney disease, and some patients may be transplant candidates. Organ supply is limited because of cultural issues. And, there is a lack of standardized clinical guidelines regarding organ donation. These issues highlight the tension surrounding the fact that living donors are being selected despite being prediabetic. This article presents, examines and discusses using the principles of non-maleficience, autonomy, justice and the constitutionally guaranteed right to health, the ethical considerations that arise from considering a prediabetic person as a potential kidney donor. Discussion Diabetes is an absolute contraindication for donating a kidney. However, the transplant protocols most frequently used in Mexico do not consider prediabetes as exclusion criteria. In prediabetic persons there are well known metabolic alterations that may compromise the long???term outcomes of the transplant if such donors are accepted. Even so, many of them are finally included because there are not enough donor candidates. Both, families and hospitals face the need to rapidly accept prediabetic donors before the clinical conditions of the recipient and the evolution of the disease exclude him/her as a transplant candidate; however, when using a kidney potentially damaged by prediabetes, neither the donor’s nor the recipient’s long term health is usually considered. Considering the ethical implication as well as the clinical and epidemiological evidence, we conclude that prediabetic persons are not suitable candidates for kidney donation. This recommendation should be taken into consideration by Mexican health institutions who should rewrite their transplant protocols. Summary We argue that the decision to use a kidney from a living donor known to be pre-diabetic or from those persons with family history of T2DM, obesity, hypertension, or renal failure, should be considered unethical in Mexico if the donor bases the decision to donate on socially acceptable norms rather than informed consent as understood in modern medicine.
At least 1 million teenagers in the United States get pregnant every year; 350,000 teenagers choose to terminate their pregnancies by abortion. Doctors who examine teenagers usually find that their patients come in fairly late, and some teenagers may carry their pregnancy to term while others request abortions as late as the 2nd trimester. Abortion as well as full-term pregnancy are procedures that carry extreme mental stress. Many teenagers that go through with either procedure suffer mental breakdowns. Adolescents' stages of moral development can be classified into a 3 major categories: preconventional; conventional; or postconventional. Preconventional behavior may consist of worry about the reactions of individuals holding power over the adolescent's life; conventional behavior may consist of the adolescent conforming, as well as maintaining societal rules; and postconventional behavior may consist of the wishes of the adolescent outweighing societal expectations in their decision-making. The legal aspects concerning adolescents seeking abortions are governed by the "mature minor doctrine". Some abortions can be performed on adolescents without parental support; however, recent court decisions have provided certain measures for "immature minors." Recent debates on ethical and moral issues have been on the autonomy of the adolescent to make decisions on their own and the rights of the fetus versus the mother. Counseling is available for adolescents unsure of what decisions to make the unable to get support from their families. PMID:2755733
Silber, T J
Emerging technologies provide the opportunity to develop innovative sustainable service models, capable of supporting adults with dementia at home. Devices range from simple stand-alone components that can generate a responsive alarm call to complex interoperable systems that even can be remotely controlled. From these complex systems the paradigm of the ubiquitous or ambient smart home has emerged, integrating technology, environmental design and traditional care provision. The service context is often complex, involving a variety of stakeholders and a range of interested agencies. Against this backdrop, as anecdotal evidence and government policies spawn further innovation it is critical that due consideration is given to the potential ethical ramifications at an individual, organisational and societal level. Well-grounded ethical thinking and proactive ethical responses to this innovation are required. Explicit policy and practice should therefore emerge which engenders confidence in existing supported living option schemes for adults with dementia and informs further innovation.
Martin, Suzanne; Bengtsson, Johan E.; Dröes, Rose-Marie
This paper explores the role which western, particularly Finnish companies play in shaping the moral and ethical environment of Russian business. The authors evaluate changes in attitudes and behaviour in Russia, comparing the situation before the introduction of market reform with the developments since. Based on empirical data and interviews conducted in Finland, the authors show that there are at least three groups of problems: Firstly, the low business culture of Russian entrepreneurs, se...
Polonsky, Gennady; Turunen, Erja
The marketing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the psychopharmacological industry presents a serious moral problem for the corporate model of medicine. In this paper I examine ethical issues relating to the efficacy and safety of these drugs. Pharmaceutical companies have a moral obligation to disclose all information in their possession bearing on the true risks and benefits of their drugs. Only then can patients make fully informed decisions about their treatment.
Full Text Available Editorial on Ethical Issues. Medical ethics is at the centre of medical practice. It isrightly gaining much needed renewed focus and attentionin the evolving scenario. The impetus for it may beattributed to the revelations that arose through Nurembergtrials, the framework elements that define research andpublications related compulsions, and indeed the contextand state of affairs of present day medical jurisprudence.The physiatrist’s practice cannot remain untouched bythe moral and ethical dilemmas faced in today’s world.Although the pillars of the specialty are grounded in the
Discusses ethics from a group practitioner's viewpoint in seven articles. Presents specific ethical issues in implementing group techniques, especially confidentiality. Summarizes survey results from 12 group experts' descriptions of critical group work incidents. Considers ethical development training for group leaders and program evaluation and…
Kottler, Jeffrey A., Ed.
Discusses ethical issues surrounding health care for independent elders, those in long-term care, and those with cognitive impairments, as well as death, dying, euthanasia, and assisted suicide. Suggests that nurses should focus on older adults' choice, autonomy, and personal control. (SK)
Rice, Virginia Hill; And Others
A gerontology course on moral and ethical issues in aging must choose between advocacy or scientific objectivity, relative orientation or absolute standards, theoretical intellectual versus applied/personal orientation, and age-specific or age-irrelevant viewpoint. (SK)
Kosberg, Jordan I.; Mangum, Wiley P.
Teaching at a distance raises ethical issues particular to the distance context. When distance teaching is also online teaching, the situation is even more complex. Online teaching environments amplify the ethical issues faced by instructors and students. Online sites support complex discourses and multiple relationships; they cross physical,…
Anderson, Bill; Simpson, Mary
We can isolate some issues, which should not be unresolved for a longer period of time. Disputes over well-defined waste management options fall in this category. The concept of retrievability has a possibility to invoke a series of questions in the minds of both specialists and non-specialists. It is intrinsically vague, in that it may refer to different phases in the repository's life, and to both open and closed repositories in the long time frame. Requirements for retrievability opens a series of issues, including open-ended philosophical question, which may give the impressions that things are not properly taken care of, since the experts differ in opinion. If such disputes cannot be resolved by consulting the existing legal framework, efforts should be made to put them to trial in the proper forum, i.e. parliament and national or local government or authorities, depending on the problem. In contrast, the value of institutional controls can easily be seen as an ethical value, whether included in the regulation of not. It has the potential to deter human intrusion and to allow remedial action by carrying information about a repository. (author)
This article reports on ethics issues involving school leaders. Some superintendents have landed in murky ethical waters for their ties to for-profit companies, highlighting the temptations administrators face as industry and education increasingly intersect. Some questionable judgments by superintendents--from accepting company-paid trips to…
Borja, Rhea R.
Full Text Available In recent years, increasingly, intensivists have focused attention on the ethical aspects of end-of- life care. This has led to shifts in the approach from aggressive interventions to one of mitigating pain and taking into account the wishes and sensibilities of the patients? families with regard to continuing futile care. While the legal implications of this change in practice has led to the evolution of precise guidelines in the US and in Europe, in India this vital area of critical care remains largely unexplored. This review outlines the recent changes in clinical practice based on ethical principles and the legality of limiting life support in the context of futile or end-of-life care. An appraisal of the ethical issues in critical care urges us to apply intensive care with humanity and compassion. We need to respect the choices and the emotional needs of the patient and his family. Our duties must include providing information, balanced interpretation of results & counseling of the family to enable them to take rational decisions. Our strategy in end-of-life care should be unambiguous and we should ensure that there is consensus among all the physicians involved in the patient's care. The medical community must work towards evolving legislation appropriate to Indian conditions.
Social transition causes shifts and changes in the relationship between health professionals and their patients. In their professional capacity, it is important today for nurses to handle ethical dilemmas properly, in a manner that fosters an ethical environment. This article investigates the ethical concerns and decision processes of nurses from a knowledge construction perspective, and examines such issues as patient needs, staff perceptions, organizational benefits, and professional image. The decision making methods commonly used when facing ethical dilemma explored in this study include the traditional problem solving, nursing process, MORAL model, and Murphy's methods. Although decision making for ethical dilemmas is governed by no universal rule, nurses are responsible to try to foster a trusting relationship between employee and employer, health care providers and patients, and the organization and colleagues. When decision making on ethical dilemmas is properly executed quality care will be delivered and malpractice can be reduced. PMID:16222641
Wang, Shu-Fang; Hung, Chich-Hsiu
The theoretical paper at hand reviews 16 most often cited descriptive models of a manager's individual decision-making process related to ethical issues in business in general, international business and marketing fields in particular. The paper has a goal to point out the need to rephrase the dependent variable in the models in neutral terms to avoid framing effects in the three subject areas, as well as to rename the models accordingly. Copyright © 2009, Inderscience Publishers.
Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.
Persson, Lars (ed.)
Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report
Full Text Available The acid test of humankind's relationship to natural systems is the degree to which ecological damage caused by humans is repaired by humans. Technology and science are available, so the remaining stimulus needed for implementation of ecological restoration is the ethical responsibility to do so. Ecological restoration can be regarded as enlightened self-interest for humankind since it increases both natural capital and ecosystem services. However, well-designed ecological restoration proecjts should have a major ethical component since the future of non-human life forms on Earth requires more than self-interest. Although the field of science has provided various rationales for ecological restoration, ethical issues associated with such activities must also be considered. If, as seems likely, human society and natural systems are co-evolving, restoration of damaged ecosystems will improve both ecological and human health. The term 'ecosocietal restoration' emphasizes this close relationship. However, if ecological restoration considers only human needs and does not emphasize ecological integrity, human-dominated ecosystems could become the norm. Such domination is already marked but the relationship could easily worsen. This article lists seven major ethical issues in ecological restoration. This list is not encyclopedic but illustrative. Finally, there are five questions that human society must address that require robust scientific information to make a sound ethical judgment.
John Cairns Jr.
One of the most significant advances in medicine during the last 50 years is the development of organ transplantation. In the context of chronic kidney diseases, renal transplantation offers patients a better clinical outcome than other treatment options. However, the benefits of organ transplantation have not been maximized due to an inadequate supply of organs for transplantation. Despite the establishment of elaborate legal rules for organs procurement, both on deceased and living donors in numerous countries, ethical concerns remain. Most of them are consequences of the strategies implemented or proposed to address the so-called organ shortage. The involvement of society in these complex problems is crucial as numerous questions emerge: could actual state of organ procurement change? Is it possible and/or realistic to increase the number of organs, with respects to living donors or deceased persons? Is the shortage an indicator to limit the use of kidney transplantation? How do we maintain efficiency and justice, in this context. PMID:23168353
Mamzer-Bruneel, Marie-France; Laforêt, Emmanuelle Grand; Kreis, Henri; Thervet, Éric; Martinez, Frank; Snanoudj, Renaud; Hervé, Christian; Legendre, Christophe
Transplantation of nonstandard or expanded criteria donor organs creates several potential ethical and legal problems in terms of consent and liability, and new challenges for research and service development; it highlights the need for a system of organ donation that responds to an evolving ethical landscape and incorporates scientific innovation to meet the needs of recipients, but which also safeguards the interests and autonomy of the donor. In this article, the use of deceased donor organs for transplants that fail to meet standard donor criteria and the legitimacy of interventions and research aimed at optimizing their successful donation are discussed. PMID:24287346
Cronin, Antonia J
Assistive technologies (AT) can provide significant assistance in accomplishing the tasks of daily living for persons who have disabilities. Five types of ethical principles underlie the distribution and use of AT: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, autonomy and fidelity. Beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, most directly affect the…
Cook, Albert M.
Complementary medicine is popular, yet ethical issues are rarely discussed. Misleading information, informed consent, publishing, and confidentiality are discussed in the light of medical ethics. The message that emerges is that, in complementary medicine, ethical issues are neglected and violated on a daily basis.
Abstract Background Umbilical cord banks are a central component, as umbilical cord tissue providers, in both medical treatment and scientific research with stem cells. But, whereas the creation of umbilical cord banks is seen as successful practice, it is perceived as a risky style of play by others. This article examines and discusses the ethical, medical and legal considerations that arise from the operation of umbilical cord banks in Mexico. Discussion A num...
Moises, Serrano-delgado V.; Novello-Garza Barbara; Valdez-Martinez Edith
The American Anthropological Association has recently added number 23 to its series of special online publications. Edited by Joan Cassell and Sue-Ellen Jacobs, this collection of six essays is presented to "stimulate discussion and reflection on ethical issues" among anthropologists. Offerings include a background essay and annotated bibliography, two essays containing fictional ethical dilemmas and proposed solutions, an essay on introducing issues of ethical responsibility into the classroom, and guidelines on holding a workshop on ethical problems in fieldwork.
Clinical organ transplantation has been recognized as one of the most gripping medical advances of the century as it provides a way of giving the gift of life to patients with terminal failure of vital organs, which requires the participation of other fellow human beings and of society by donating organs from deceased or living individuals. The increasing incidence of vital organ failure and the inadequate supply of organs, especially from cadavers, has created a wide gap between organ supply and organ demand, which has resulted in very long waiting times to receive an organ as well as an increasing number of deaths while waiting. These events have raised many ethical, moral and societal issues regarding supply, the methods of organ allocation, the use of living donors as volunteers including minors. It has also led to the practice of organ sale by entrepreneurs for financial gains in some parts the world through exploitation of the poor, for the benefit of the wealthy. The current advances in immunology and tissue engineering and the use of animal organs, xenotransplantation, while offering very promising solutions to many of these problems, also raise additional ethical and medical issues which must be considered by the medical profession as well as society. This review deals with the ethical and moral issues generated by the current advances in organ transplantation, the problem of organ supply versus organ demand and the appropriate allocation of available organs. It deals with the risks and benefits of organ donation from living donors, the appropriate and acceptable methods to increase organ donation from the deceased through the adoption of the principle of 'presumed consent', the right methods of providing acceptable appreciation and compensation for the family of the deceased as well as volunteer and altruistic donors, and the duties and responsibilities of the medical profession and society to help fellow humans. The review also deals with the appropriate and ethically acceptable ways of utilizing the recent advances of stem cell transplantation from adult versus fetal donors, tissue engineering and the use of organs from animals or xenotransplantation. Data provided in support of the concept that clinical organ and tissue transplantation can be more beneficial and life saving if everyone involved in the process, including physicians and medical institutions, respect and consider the best interests of the patients, as well as honor the ethical, moral and religious values of society and are not tempted to seek personal fame or financial rewards. PMID:12566971
Abouna, George M
Drug trials in children engage with many ethical issues, from drug-related safety concerns to communication with patients and parents, and recruitment and informed consent procedures. This paper addresses the field of neuromuscular disorders where the possibility of genetic, mutation-specific treatments, has added new complexity. Not only must trial design address issues of equity of access, but researchers must also think through the implications of adopting a personalised medicine approach,...
Mccormack, P.; Woods, S.; Aartsma-rus, A.; Hagger, L.; Herczegfalvi, A.; Heslop, E.; Irwin, J.; Kirschner, J.; Moeschen, P.; Muntoni, F.; Ouillade, M. C.; Rahbek, J.; Rehmann-sutter, C.; Rouault, F.; Sejersen, T.
The ethical issues behind the management of a fetus with a serious abnormality and the decisions made in relation to the outcome of the pregnancy are complex. This reflective paper deals with the ethical principles of managing a pregnancy with a congenital anomaly, with particular emphasis on the fetus with a serious cardiac abnormality. One major ethical concern is whether the fetus is or is not independent being to whom obligations of beneficence are owed. We review the debate on this matte...
Malhotra, Atul; Menahem, Samuel; Gillam, Lynn
Problem statement: This article enhances the ethical issues consider the relationship between religious life and work ethics. Approach: Malaysia aim to achieved full developed nation’s, requires a professional workforce, not only educated and innovative, but ethically, with integrity, accountability, dynamic and committed to continuously increasing Muslim professionalism. In the context of the development of Muslim professionals with a holistic and integrated, Muslims needs to withholding T...
Mohamad Zaid Mohd Zin; Ahmad Faisal Mahdi; Azhar Abdul Rahman; Mohd Syahiran Abdul Latif; Rohaya Sulaiman; Nurul Khairiah Khalid; Nurfahiratul Azlina Ahmad; Ahamad Asmadi Sakat; Adi Yasran A A; Mohd Roslan Mohd Nor
Problem statement: This article enhances the ethical issues consider the relationship between religious life and work ethics. Approach: Malaysia aim to achieved full developed nation’s, requires a professional workforce, not only educated and innovative, but ethically, with integrity, accountability, dynamic and committed to continuously increasing Muslim professionalism. In the context of the development of Muslim professionals with a holistic and integrated, Muslims needs to withholding T...
Mohamad Zaid Mohd Zin; Ahmad Faisal Mahdi; Azhar Abdul Rahman; Mohd Syahiran Abdul Latif; Rohaya Sulaiman; Nurul Khairiah Khalid; Nurfahiratul Azlina Ahmad; Ahamad Asmadi Sakat; Adi Yasran A A; Mohd Roslan Mohd Nor
Daniel Metlay (NWTRB) declared that institutions had always recognised an ethical obligation to manage high- level radioactive waste in unprecedented ways. This obligation has not only endured, but has become more explicit and multidimensional and it now subsumed under a more general rubric of 'societal expectations'. D. Metlay directed attention toward the proceedings of previous RWMC-RF workshop ', which contains five essays, authored by Kjell Andersson, Andrew Blowers, Carl-Reinhold Braakenhielm, Francois Dermange, and Patricia Fleming, that are relevant to the question of ethical issues and societal expectations. D. Metlay observed that 'societal expectations' are hard to define and thus very hard to measure. They may vary considerably with time and from country to country. As an illustration he referred to an inquiry performed by a task group 30 years ago in a document entitled 'Proposed Goals for Radioactive Waste Management' (NUREG-0300) on behalf of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Conclusions from D. Metlay are that, for the most part, societal expectations in the United States appear to be quite stable over a period of more than 30 years. In two areas, however, there are clear differences in emphasis between expectations articulated in the last few years and those recorded in 1978. (1) While then there was emphasis on the operational reliability of organisations and institutions. In particular, much care was taken to discuss the inherent limitations on bureaucratic error-correction in the future. The focus is nowadays more on bureaucratic behaviours associated with carrying out decision-making processes in the present. (2) While there is current emphasis on the importance of trust, transparency, and accountability, the NRC document may cast some doubt on the reliability of a stepwise decision-making process. In the domain of radioactive waste management, error signals are notoriously unclear, and strong disagreements over objectives and value trade-offs often arise. Also, the key prerequisite for reliable error detection - independence - is often at odds with the key prerequisite for reliable error rectification-interdependence. He concluded that it is unclear just how far we have come in the last 30 years in meeting societal expectations for post-closure and post-monitoring repository performance
In the 1970s, under pressure from certain sections of society and thanks to initiatives by several scientific research teams, committees charged with improving the conditions of laboratory animals started to be created, first in the United States and subsequently in Europe. This led to the development of an ethical approach to animal experimentation, taking into account new scientific advances. In addition to the legislation designed to provide a legal framework for animal experimentation and to avoid abuses, this ethical approach, based on the concept that animals are sentient beings, encourages greater respect of laboratory animals and the implementation of measures designed to reduce their suffering. Now, all animal experiments must first receive ethical approval--from in-house committees in the private sector and from regional committees for public institutions. Very recently, under the impetus of the French ministries of research and agriculture, the National committee for ethical animal experimentation published a national ethical charter on animal experimentation, setting the basis for responsible use of animals for scientific research and providing guidelines for the composition and functioning of ethics committees. Inspired by the scientific community itself this ethical standardization should help to assuage--but not eliminate--the reticence and hostility expressed by several sections of society. PMID:20669538
Fetal diagnosis has raised ethical issues since it was first developed in the 1940s and 1950s. Two controversial issues have predominated. First, when the techniques for prenatal diagnosis were invasive techniques, they created risks to the pregnant women. Second, prenatal diagnosis led to either prenatal treatment, which also generally had some risks to the pregnant woman, or to abortion, which has always been ethically controversial. In this article, we will review the history of ethical controversy over fetal diagnosis and discuss how they presage today's controversies. PMID:24515623
McMann, Conor L; Carter, Brian S; Lantos, John D
I start this contribution with an overview of my personal involvement—as an Operations Research consultant—in several engineering case-studies that may raise ethical questions; these case studies employ simulation models. Next, I present an overview of the recent literature on ethical issues in modeling, focusing on the validation of the model’s assumptions; the decisive role of these assumptions leads to the quest for robust models. Actually, models are meant to solve practical problem...
Kleijnen, Jack P. C.
DESCRIPTION In this book the question of "How ethical is using performance improving drugs in sport?" is argued in global perspective. PURPOSE The ethical questions in sport are discussed comprehensively. Particularly, different cultures and approach of various countries to that issue were examined. FEATURES The book composed of 10 chapters following a thorough introduction from the editors in 194 pages. The titles are: 1.Fair is Fair, Or Is It? : A Moral Consideration of the Doping W...
The report consists of a presentation and distillation of major nontechnical issues surrounding commercial waste management, followed by ethical, institutional, and political analyses of these issues. The ethical analysis consists of a discusson of what is meant by ''ethics'' and ''morality'' in the waste management context and an illustrative attempt at an ethical analysis of the commercial nuclear waste problem. Two institutional analyses are presented: one is an analysis of the possible problems of long-term human institutions in waste management; the other is a presentation of institutional arrangements for the short term. A final chapter discusses issues and concerns involving intergovernmental relations--that is, local, state, and federal interface problems in waste management
This publication identifies, discusses, and lists areas for further research for five ethical issues related to health services: 1) the right to health care; 2) death and euthanasia; 3) human experimentation; 4) genetic engineering; and, 5) abortion. Following a discussion of each issue is a selected annotated bibliography covering the years 1967…
The relief of suffering is one of the aims of health care. Pain relief is a moral obligation in health care, not an optional extra. Doctors have moral obligations to strive to relieve pain, to be competent in basic pain control, and to endeavour to give patients an adequate understanding of their illness and painkillers. The most common moral problem in pain control in terminally ill patients is the conflict between the obligation to relieve suffering and the obligation to prolong life. The law prohibits intentionally causing the death of another person. Debates follow as to what constitutes an intention to cause death, and what actually constitutes a cause of death. At present, doctors are legally permitted to give sedatives and analgesics to terminally ill patients with the intention of relieving suffering, even if life is shortened. The moral principle of the 'double effect' relates to this and is explained. It relies on a distinction between intended and foreseen effects of treatment. Some people dispute the distinction between intended and foreseen effects and claim that the principle of double effect allows doctors who intend euthanasia to carry it out under cover of the law. This debate is explored in the article. Finally, is it ever morally justifiable to end the patient's life on the grounds that this is the only way to end pain? Even if it is, should euthanasia be legalised? A brief comment on these issues, and the roles of law and morality, are made. PMID:10522743
Randall, F M
This document contains chapter 6 (5 articles) of a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "Ethics Comes of Age: Introduction to the Special Issue" (Jeffrey A. Kottler)…
Kottler, Jeffrey A.; And Others
Plastic, reconstructive, and cosmetic surgery refers to a variety of operations performed in order to repair or restore body parts to look normal or to enhance a certain structure or anatomy that is already normal. Several ethical considerations such as a patient's right for autonomy, informed consent, beneficence, and nonmalfeasance need to be given careful consideration. The principal objective of the medical profession is to render services to humanity with full respect for human dignity. Plastic surgeons should merit the confidence of patients entrusted to their care, rendering to each a full measure of service and devotion. They require an extensive amount of education and training. The increases in demand for aesthetic plastic surgery and the advocacy of practice in the media have raised concerns about the circumstances under which cosmetic surgery is ethical and permissible. Innovative research, and new technologies derived from such research, almost always raises ethical and policy concerns. Medical ethics regulate what is, and what is not, correct in promoting plastic surgery to the public. It is essential to create an educated and informed public about the ethical issues in the plastic and reconstructive surgery field. Plastic surgeons need to carefully evaluate the degree of deformity, physical and emotional maturity, and desired outcome of patients who request plastic surgery procedures. Science is a powerful force for change in modern society and plastic surgeons have a responsibility to shepherd that change with thoughtful advocacy and careful ethical scrutiny of their own behavior. PMID:21336881
Sterodimas, Aris; Radwanski, Henrique N; Pitanguy, Ivo
Explores issues and ethics of interdisciplinary care based upon discussion among five experienced mental health professionals. Presents their recommendations for effective interdisciplinary work including, ensuring clients give informed consent, maintaining confidentiality, and making sure paraprofessionals and families are involved. Reports that…
Paproski, D. L.; Haverkamp, Beth E.
Ethics education aims to train physicians to identify and resolve ethical issues. To address ethical concerns, physicians may need to confront each other. We surveyed medical students to determine if their comfort challenging members of their ward teams about ethical issues varies by specialty and what attributes of students and their teams contributed to that comfort. Compared to other specialties, students felt significantly less comfortable challenging team members about ethical issues on ...
Clever, Sarah L.; Edwards, Kelly A.; Feudtner, Chris; Braddock, Clarence H.
Accepted version of an article published in the journal:International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics, Inderscience Publishers Published version available at: http://inderscience.metapress.com/link.asp?id=b0213827772k8p46
Kliukinskaite? Vigil, Virginija
Mass-care events, such as pandemic influenza, could reach such devastating proportions that there will be the need to make difficult triage decisions that will ultimately result in the deaths or severe disability of patients in large numbers. The method by which we determine how triage of scarce health care resources will be performed must be clearly defined prior to a disaster event. This paper will discuss several of the ethical principles that must be weighed in developing a mass-care triage plan, as well as steps to facilitate its implementation. Development of triage policies in such an event should be developed in an open and transparent manner, be reasonable in design, include the views of the critical stakeholders, and be responsive to and provide a mechanism for accountability, with a clearly defined goal of the just triage of limited health care resources. Planning failure will result in increased deaths from poor triage processes and substantial mistrust of the health care system and its practitioners. PMID:18218150
O'Laughlin, Daniel T; Hick, John L
Full Text Available Museum ethics are about value judgements. In making such judgements museum personnel is constantly valuing one option over another. This holds true for every aspect of museum work; from collecting policies and conservation to store priorities and exhibition. In recent decades there has been a growing concern in addressing ethical issues in museums as museum workers have developed cultural sensitivity and social responsiveness to a degree unseen before. Most codes of ethics urge museums to give appropriate consideration to represented groups or beliefs. In light of this, it has been recognised that exhibition of sensitive material, for example, must be done with great tact and respect for the feelings of religious, ethnic or other groups represented. Another issue concerns the display of unprovenanced material and repatriation.Yet, these are not the only ethical issues which exhibition developers are faced with. As museum workers we should constantly be reminded that exhibitions are active agents in the construction of knowledge. This paper discusses the hidden assumptions on which museum presentation and interpretation are often based. Decisions about what to include and what to exclude, what is valued and what is not, the means of presentation, language, and so on, all lead to presentational styles which may shape the public’s perception in unintended ways.
Natural hazards have by definition a large impact on the society and, therefore, since the beginning of science one of the major aspiration of mankind has been the prediction of natural calamities in the attempt to avoid or to mitigate their effects. In modern societies where science and technology have gained a foundational role, forecasts and predictions have become part of the every-day life and may also influence state policies and economic development. And in parallel with the growing importance of forecasting, even ethical problems for forecasters and for forecasters communities have started to appear. In this work two of the many geo-ethical issues are considered mostly: 1) how to cope with uncertainties that are inherently associated with any forecast statement; 2) how to handle predictions in scientific journals and scientific conferences The former issue is mainly related to the impact of predictions on the general public and on managers and operators in the civil protection field. Forecasters operate in specific contexts that 1) may change from country to country, depending on the local adopted best practices, but also, which is more constraining, on the local legal regulations and laws; 2) may change from discipline to discipline according to the development of the specific knowhow and the range of the forecast (from minutes to centuries) The second issue has to do with the communication of the scientific results on predictions and on prediction methods to the audience mainly composed of scientists, and involves one of the basic elements of science. In principle, scientists should use scientific communication means (papers in scientific journals, conferences, …) to illustrate results that are sound and certain, or the methods by means of which they conduct their research. But scientists involved in predictions have inherently to do with uncertainties, and, since there is no common agreement on how to deal with them, there is the risk that scientific results may be confused with opinions and opinions with scientific results, which creates confusion in the scientific community, in the science divulgators and in turn in the general public.
Full Text Available Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, called as 'black death of our time'1 caused by humanimmunodeficiency virus still remaining a challenge to the medical world has spread its tentacles ominously thatmillions of people have breathed their last and others afflicted by it are counting days in great misery and despair forpre-mature extinction of their life.2 The tragedy is that it has spread from the high risk group to common populationassuming a menacing proportion.3 It has not remained as a mere matter of health to bother only medicalprofessionals. A person afflicted by it invites social stigma of a highest degree, which is worse than apartheid. It hasgenerated such sensitive and boiling legal, ethical and social issues posing serious challenge to the medicalprofessionals, health policy makers, law makers and common men. In this article an attempt is made to criticallyanalyse the legal, ethical and social issues stemming from HIV AIDS.
Venugopal. B. S.
As 'social and ethical issues' becomes a recurring phrase in the community paying attention to nanotechnology research, a crucial question becomes: what counts as a social and ethical issue? A typical list includes privacy, environmental health and safety, media hype, and other apparently unrelated issues. This article surveys those issues and suggests that concerns about fundamental concepts of ethics, such as fairness, justice, equity, and especially power, unite the various issues identifi...
Full Text Available Aim: To determine ethical issues experienced by family doctors in Düzce, the pilot province for implementation of the primary health care reform 'Transformation in Health' in Turkey in 2005.Method: We conducted this study between May and June 2007 in Düzce. A self-administered-questionnaire prepared by the researchers included 13 ethical issues inquiring about physicians' frequency of encounter, difficulty in managing the problem, and learning needs in ethical topics. Results: Fifty-seven percent of family doctors who were practicing in Düzce (56/98 took part in the study. Most of them (89.3% were in practice over a year, had more than 3000 registered patients (80.4% with homogenous distribution (67.9%. Physicians reported to encounter ethical dilemmas related to informed consent (72.7%, conflict of self-interest and altruism (44.6%, determining competency (41.8%, claims of alternative therapy (41.0%, relationship with representatives of drug companies (39.2%, truth-telling (28.6%, and resource allocation (27.3% at least once a month. Participants were experienced difficulties when solving dilemmas related to determining competency in patients, reporting incompetency of a colleague, informed consent, best interest of the child, truth-telling, conflict of self-interest and altruism, respectively. Best interest of the child, truth-telling, determining competency in patients, protecting others' interest and gaining informed consent were prioritized topics for education. Conclusion: Our results implied that family doctors experienced difficulties in ethical conduct during daily clinical practice. The most frequently mentioned ethical issues were evaluated with respect to expressed learning needs which served to develop a draft ethics curriculum.
Akp?nar A et al.
The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the vaccination status. PMID:23539924
Mateji?, Bojana; Kesi?, Vesna
The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vacci...
This special issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics represents a sampling of projects fostered through the NIDA-funded Fordham University HIV Prevention Research Ethics Institute. The first three articles employ processes of co-learning to give voice to the experiences of individuals recovering from substance abuse and engaged in sex work who have participated in HIV prevention studies in the United States, India, and the Philippines. The fourth article describes a unique community-based approach to the development of research ethics training modules designed to increase participation of American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) tribal members as partners in research on health disparities. The last two articles focus a critical scholarly lens on two underexamined areas confronting IRB review of HIV research: The emerging and continuously changing ethical challenges of using social media sites for recruitment into HIV prevention research, and the handling of research-related complaints from participants involving perceived research harms or research experiences that do not accord with their initial expectations. Together, the articles in this special issue identify key ethical crossroads and provide suggestions for best practices that respect the values and merit the trust of research participants. PMID:24572078
Fisher, Celia B
Background: Nursing is an occupation that deals with humans and relies upon human relationships. Nursing care, which is an important component of these relationships, involves protection, forbearance, attention, and worry. Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the ethical beliefs of psychiatric nurses and ethical problems encountered. Research Design: The study design was descriptive and cross-sectional. Research context: Methods comprised of a questionnaire administered to psychiatric nurses (n?=?202) from five psychiatric hospitals in Istanbul, Turkey, instruction in psychiatric nursing ethics, discussion of reported ethical problems by nursing focus groups, and analysis of questionnaires and reports by academicians with clinical experience. Participants: Participants consist of the nurses who volunteered to take part in the study from the five psychiatric hospitals (n?=?202), which were selected with cluster sampling method. Ethical considerations: Written informed consent of each participant was taken prior to the study. Findings: The results indicated that nurses needed additional education in psychiatric ethics. Insufficient personnel, excessive workload, working conditions, lack of supervision, and in-service training were identified as leading to unethical behaviors. Ethical code or nursing care -related problems included (a) neglect, (b) rude/careless behavior, (c) disrespect of patient rights and human dignity, (d) bystander apathy, (e) lack of proper communication, (f) stigmatization, (g) authoritarian attitude/intimidation, (h) physical interventions during restraint, (i) manipulation by reactive emotions, (j) not asking for permission, (k) disrespect of privacy, (l) dishonesty or lack of clarity, (m) exposure to unhealthy physical conditions, and (n) violation of confidence. Discussion: The results indicate that ethical codes of nursing in psychiatric inpatient units are inadequate and standards of care are poor. Conclusion: In order to address those issues, large-scale research needs to be conducted in psychiatric nursing with a focus on case studies and criteria for evaluation of service, and competency and responsibility needs to be established in psychiatric nursing education and practice. PMID:24091350
Clinical organ transplantation provides a way of giving the gift of life to patients with terminal failure of vital organs, which requires the participation of other fellow human beings and of society by donating organs from deceased or living individuals. The increasing incidence of vital organ failure and the inadequate supply of organs, especially from cadavers, has created a wide gap between organ supply and organ demand, which has resulted in very long waiting times to receive an organ as well as an increasing number of deaths while waiting. These events have raised many ethical, moral and societal issues regarding supply, the methods of organ allocation the use of living donors as volunteers including minors. It has also led to the practice of organ sale by entrepreneurs for financial gains in some parts the world through exploitation of the poor, for the benefit of the wealthy. The current advances in immunology and tissue engineering and the use of animal organs, xenotransplantation, while offering very promising solutions to many of these problems, also raise additional ethical and medical issues, which must be considered by the medical profession as well as society. This review deals with the ethical and moral issues generated by the current advances in organ transplantation, the problem of organ supply versus organ demand and the appropriate allocation of available organs. It deals with the risks and benefits of organ donation from living donors, the appropriate and acceptable methods to increase organ donation from the deceased through the adoption of the principle of 'presumed consent', the right methods of providing acceptable appreciation and compensation for the family of the deceased as well as volunteer and altruistic donors, and the duties and responsibilities of the medical profession and society to help fellow humans. The review also deals with the appropriate and ethically acceptable ways of utilizing the recent advances of stem cell transplantation from adult versus fetal donors, tissue engineering and the use of organs from animals or xenotransplantation. It is emphasized that clinical organ and tissue transplantation can be more beneficial and life saving if everyone involved in the process, including physicians and medical institutions, respect and consider the best interests of the patients, as well as honor the ethical, moral and religious values of society. PMID:15859919
Abouna, George M
The topic of business ethics has always been relevant, but never more so than at the present time of the global economic crisis. Nestlè, Lockheed, Union Carbide, Nike, Enron, Tyco, AIG, BP, Halliburton, Lehman Brothers, Bernard L. Madoff are just a few well-known names of businesses/related individuals that at one time or other openly failed ethically. Such cases have prompted researchers to analyze the causes of unethical behavior to understand what drives individuals in business organizati...
Full Text Available Problem statement: This article enhances the ethical issues consider the relationship between religious life and work ethics. Approach: Malaysia aim to achieved full developed nation’s, requires a professional workforce, not only educated and innovative, but ethically, with integrity, accountability, dynamic and committed to continuously increasing Muslim professionalism. In the context of the development of Muslim professionals with a holistic and integrated, Muslims needs to withholding Tawheed, the fundamentals of faith, based on Al-Quran and Hadith. Manifestations in life of the practice which accounts for worship and morality need to be implemented. Results: Islamic moral character requires the emphasize that following five key parameters of Islamic behavior which is justice, trust, righteousness, the struggle towards self-improvement and keeping promises. Conclusion: The properties of trust at work, honesty, responsibility and integrity should be established in each of the Muslims. Each institution needs to be continued in the religious education and level of consciousness must be nurtured and enhanced.
Mohamad Zaid Mohd Zin
Full Text Available Joseph Olusesan Fadare1, Babatunde L Salako21Department of Medicine, Kogi State Specialist Hospital, Lokoja; 2Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaAbstract: Organ transplantation has become a life-saving procedure for many disease conditions hitherto considered incurable. Kidney transplantation, now the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, is the commonest solid organ transplantation carried out in the world at the moment and it is the only solid organ transplantation done in Nigeria. This procedure, in addition to prolonging lives, also provides better quality of life and is evaluated as cost-effective, because it makes more resources available to other sectors of the economy. Organ transplantation in general and kidney transplantation in particular are fraught with ethical issues and dilemmas worldwide. Some of the ethical issues arising in the setting of developing countries like Nigeria may differ from those in countries where this procedure is established. Informed consent of the donor and the recipient is a major requirement for both organ donation and transplantation. Regarding donation, the ethical issues may differ depending on the type of organ donation, ie, whether it is living-related, living-unrelated, cadaveric, or from brain-dead individuals. Commodification of organs is identified as an ethical dilemma, and arguments for and against this practice are put forward here. Confidentiality of donor information, fairness and equity in donor selection, and access to kidney transplantation when needed are also discussed. Finally, the issue of safety of organ harvesting for the donor and of the transplantation process itself, and the possible long-term consequences for both parties are investigated.Keywords: kidney transplantation, ethical issues, developing countries, Nigeria
Joseph Olusesan Fadare
Advances in cloning technology and successful cloning experiments in animals raised concerns about the possibility of human cloning in recent years. Despite many objections, this is not only a possibility but also a reality. Human cloning is a scientific revolution. However, it also introduces the potential for physical and psychosocial harm to human beings. From this point of view, it raises profound ethical, social and health related concerns. Human cloning would have an impact on the practice of nursing because it could result in the creation of new physiological and psychosocial conditions that would require nursing care. The nursing profession must therefore evaluate the ethics of human cloning, in particular the potential role of nurses. This article reviews the ethical considerations of reproductive human cloning, discusses the main reasons for concern, and reflects a nursing perspective regarding this issue. PMID:12762459
Purpose: This article is a commentary and discussion of ethical issues in dysphagia services as related to school-based practice in speech-language pathology. Method: A review of the literature on ethical issues in the provision of speech-language pathology services to individuals with dysphagia was conducted, with particular emphasis on students…
Huffman, Nancy P.; Owre, DeAnne W.
New surgical technologies may challenge societal values, and their adoption may lead to ethical challenges. Despite proven cost-effectiveness, obesity (bariatric) surgery and its public funding have been questioned on ethical arguments relating to, for example, the self-inflicted or non-disease nature of obesity. Our aim was to analyze the ethical issues relevant to bariatric surgery. A comprehensive health technology assessment was conducted on bariatric surgery for morbid obesity using the EUnetHTA method, including a fully integrated ethical analysis. The ethical arguments suggesting that obesity should not be surgically treated because it is self-inflicted were rejected. Medicalization of obesity may have both positive and negative effects that impact the various stakeholders differently, thus being difficult to balance. Informing bariatric surgery patients and actively supporting their autonomy is exceptionally important, as the benefits and harms of both obesity and bariatric surgery are complex, and the outcome depends on how well the patient understands and adheres to the life-long changes in eating habits required. Justice considerations are important in organizing surgical treatment of obesity, as the obese are discriminated against in many ways and obesity is more common in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations who might have problems of access to treatments. Obesity should be treated like other diseases in health care, and obesity surgery rationed like other cost-effective treatments. Positive actions to ensure patient autonomy and just access to surgical treatments may be warranted. PMID:21479827
Saarni, Samuli I; Anttila, Heidi; Saarni, Suoma E; Mustajoki, Pertti; Koivukangas, Vesa; Ikonen, Tuija S; Malmivaara, Antti
Advances in neuropsychiatric genetics hold great hopes for improved prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. However, the power of genetic testing to identify individuals at increased risk for disorders and to convey information about relatives creates a set of complex ethical issues. Public attitudes are inevitably affected by the shadow of eugenics, with its history of distorting scientific findings to serve socio-political ends. Nonetheless, the growing availability of genetic tests means tha...
Hoge, Steven K.; Appelbaum, Paul S.
Ethical issues relating to the use of the injectable contraceptive in developed and developing countries alike involve public policy decisions concerning both criteria for testing a new drug and individual choices about using a specific form of contraception approved for national distribution. Drug testing consists of an important but still evolving set of procedures. Depo-Provera is not qualitatively different from any other drug and some unpredictable risks are inevitable, even after extens...
With regard to DBS treatment, the most important issues are balancing risks and benefits and ensuring respect for the autonomous wish of the patient. This implies special attention to patient selection, psycho-social impact of treatment, effects on personal identity, and treatment of children. Moreover, it implies a careful informed consent process in which unrealistic expectations of patients and their families are addressed and in which special attention is given to competence. In the context of research, the fundamental ethical challenge is to promote high-quality scientific research in the interest of future patients, while at the same time safeguarding the rights and interests of vulnerable research subjects. Several guidelines have been proposed to ensure this. One of the preconditions to further development of responsible and transparent research practices is the establishment of a comprehensive registry.
Competency in ethical decision making is an identified expectation of the baccalaureate degree graduate. Values, both personal and professional, do not provide a systematic foundation for ethical decision making. The nurse is a unique health care provider and as such is faced with ethical decision of practice that are derived from and are relevant to that role. An understanding of ethical principles and theories as well as application of them to the role of the professional nurse is essential to ethical decision making in nursing practice. Seventy four per cent of recent graduates stated that the ethical content in their nursing programs most influenced their ethical decision-making skills, yet, only 23% used an ethical model or framework in analyzing and resolving the ethical dilemma of practice. The usual format for presentation of this content is a course in ethics. The content of such courses should include ethical theories and principles and their application to the practice of nursing. Teaching methodologies include guided case analysis and written responses to cases and current issues. Placement of separate required ethics courses remains a problem because of the overwhelming amount of content in baccalaureate degree curricula. Research has tentatively validated the need for a separate required course in nursing ethics. Further studies are necessary. If ethics content is integrated throughout the curriculum, it should be presented early with continual reinforcement and with the use of a specific ethics textbook. Research indicates that students who have completed a nursing ethics course not only know the correct ethical action but are more likely to implement it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2726574
Gaul, A L
Student evaluations should "be ethical, fair, useful, feasible, and accurate" [JCSEE (2003). "The student evaluation standards." Arlen Gullickson, Chair. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin]. This study focuses on defining ethical behavior and examining educators' ethical judgments in relation to assessment. It describes the results from a web-based survey…
Green, Susan K.; Johnson, Robert L.; Kim, Do-Hong; Pope, Nakia S.
The ministry of health and family welfare published the national vaccination policy in April 2011. The policy document drew severe criticism from several public health experts. A review of the print and web-based literature on the national vaccine policy was done and the issues of ethics and equity involved in introducing new vaccines under the Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) were studied. The average coverage of the UIP vaccines at the national level is below 50%. Despite this, the policy document did not state any concrete strategy for increasing the coverage. The main stumbling block for evidence-based vaccine policy in India is the lack of reliable epidemiological data, which makes it difficult for the National Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation to offer sound technical advice to the government. No attempts have been made to prioritise diseases or the selection of vaccines. The policy suggests the introduction of the following vaccines in the UIP: Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcal vaccine, rotavirus vaccines and human papillomavirus (HPV). This selection is on the grounds of the vaccines' availability, not on the basis of epidemiological evidence or proven cost-effectiveness. This is a critical review of the current vaccination policy and the move to include the rotavirus and HPV vaccines in the UIP. PMID:23912732
Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…
Even though principles to guide practice are crucial, there are no hard-and-fast rules for resolving ethical issues--dilemmas that are not easily resolvable because they present opposing values and outcomes that may harm to certain groups of people if not properly considered. This article describes a number of ethical dilemmas faced as a workplace…
Full Text Available Background: Reporting of ethical issues in published articles not only improves the credibility of the journal and its published articles but also increases the confidence of the readers and general public.Purpose: The current study aimed to determine the current prevalence of reporting ethical issues in Indian Physiotherapy journals.Materials and methods: Two physiotherapy journals, the Journal of Indian Association of Physiotherapists (JIAP and Indian Journal of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy (IJPOT were searched for articles on human participants. The ethical issues expected to be reported were; ethical committee clearance, informed consent, photograph consent, and acknowledgements. Out of total 73 studies identified, 53 studies were from IJPOT (2007-2008 and 20 studies were from JIAP (2005-2008 and were included for final analysis. Analysis was done descriptively using percentiles for each of the four ethical issues.Results: Ethical committee clearance was mentioned in 14/73 studies (19.17%; informed consent in 38/68 studies, assent in 3/6 studies (50%, picture consent in 1/5 studies (20%, parent/guardian consent in 4/8 studies (50% and acknowledgments in 8/73 studies (10.95%.Conclusion: The poor status of ethical reporting and lack of proper guidelines were evident in our findings. There is an immediate need for improving the situation considering the international reporting guidelines for research ethics.
S. Srikesavan Sabapathy
Full Text Available Perla Werner1, Amos D Korczyn21Department of Gerontology, Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel; 2Sieratzki Chair of Neurology, Department of Neurology, Tel Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, IsraelAbstract: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is defined as a condition characterized by newly acquired cognitive decline to an extent that is beyond that expected for age or educational background, yet not causing significant functional impairment. The concept of MCI has received considerable attention in the literature over the past few years, and aspects related to its definition, prevalence, and evolution have been extensively studied and reviewed. Here we attempt to synthesize the implications of the current status of this entity, focusing on the conceptual, methodological, and, in particular, the social and ethical aspects of MCI which have attracted less attention. We discuss the weaknesses of the concept of MCI, which is heterogeneous in etiology, manifestations, and outcomes, and suggest that the emergence of the syndrome at this stage reflects industrial interests related to possible development of drugs for this disorder. On the other hand, the formal diagnosis of MCI, with its implications that the person may develop dementia, may have a grave impact on the psychological state of the individual, at a stage when prediction of outcome is tenuous and possibilities of useful interventions are meager. We present suggestions for the direction of future research in these areas.Keywords: mild cognitive impairment, assessment issues, ethical issues, social issues, dementia
In November 1998, President Clinton charged the National Bioethics Advisory Commission with the task of conducting a thorough review of the issues associated with human stem cell research, balancing all ethical and medical considerations. The President's ...
Raises ethical considerations relevant to the marketing of continuing education and suggests two approaches to their resolution: deontology (all actions guided by universal rules are moral) and teleology (consequences of an action determine whether it is moral). (CH)
Martel, Laurence D.; Colley, Robert M.
In addition to provocative questions about science policy, research on the human genome will generate important ethical questions in at least three categories. First, the possibility of greatly increased genetic information about individuals and populations will require choices to be made about what that information should be and about who should control the generation and dissemination of genetic information. Presymptomatic testing, carrier screening, workplace genetic screening, and testing by insurance companies pose significant ethical problems. Second, the burgeoning ability to manipulate human genotypes and phenotypes raises a number of important ethical questions. Third, increasing knowledge about genetic contributions to ethically and politically significant traits and behaviors will challenge our self-understanding and social institutions.
Murray, T.H. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (USA))
Full Text Available Increasing the numbers of health workers and improving their skills requires that countries confront a number of ethical dilemmas. The ethical considerations in answering five important questions on enabling health workers to deal appropriately with the circumstances in which they must work are described. These include the problems of the standards of training and practice required in countries with differing levels of socioeconomic development and different priority diseases; how a society can be assured that health practitioners are properly trained; how a health system can support its workers; diversion of health workers and training institutions; and the teaching of ethical principles to student health workers. The ethics of setting standards for the skills and care provided by traditional health-care practitioners are also discussed.
Rapid growth and expansion of plastic surgery in general and aesthetic surgery in particular in the past decade has brought in its wake some confusions particularly raising questions for the surgeons conduct towards his colleagues and the patients in the light of ethical requirements. Some thoughts from eminent thinkers form a backdrop to consideration of theories of medical ethics. In this article raging and continuous debates on these subjects have been avoided to maintain the momentum. Apa...
This paper, which was presented at the Health Physics Society annual meeting at Atlanta, conclude that the problem of radioactive waste management is neither unique and unprecedented, nor has it been properly formulated from an ethical perspective, and that to recover and maintain a balanced perspective on this particular biohazard and to introduce some corrective perception in the public mind becomes an ethical imperative. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been devoted to ethical issues related to randomized controlled trials for HIV treatment and prevention. However, there has been less discussion of ethical issues surrounding families involved in observational studies of HIV transmission. This paper describes the process of ethical deliberation about how best to obtain informed consent from sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs tested for HIV, within a recent HIV study in Eastern Europe. The study aimed to assess the amount of HIV serodiscordance among IDUs and their sexual partners, identify barriers to harm reduction, and explore ways to optimize intervention programs. Including IDUs, either HIV-positive or at high risk for HIV, and their sexual partners would help to gain a more complete understanding of barriers to and opportunities for intervention. Discussion This paper focuses on the ethical dilemma regarding informed recruitment: whether researchers should disclose to sexual partners of IDUs that they were recruited because their partner injects drugs (i.e., their heightened risk for HIV. Disclosing risks to partners upholds the ethical value of respect for persons through informed consent. However, disclosure compromises the IDU's confidentiality, and potentially, the scientific validity of the research. Following a brief literature review, we summarize the researchers' systematic evaluation of this issue from ethical, scientific, and logistical perspectives. While the cultural context may be somewhat unique to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the issues raised and solutions proposed here inform epidemiological research designs and their underlying ethical tensions. Summary We present ethical arguments in favor of disclosure, discuss how cultural context shapes the ethical issues, and recommend refinement of guidance for couples research of communicable diseases to assist investigators encountering these ethical issues in the future.
Gordon Elisa J
Rapid growth and expansion of plastic surgery in general and aesthetic surgery in particular in the past decade has brought in its wake some confusions particularly raising questions for the surgeons conduct towards his colleagues and the patients in the light of ethical requirements. Some thoughts from eminent thinkers form a backdrop to consideration of theories of medical ethics. In this article raging and continuous debates on these subjects have been avoided to maintain the momentum. Apart from the western thoughts, directions from our old scriptures on ethical conduct have been included to accommodate prevelant Indian practices. The confusion created by specialists advertising their abilities directly to the lay public following removal of ethical bars by the American Courts as also latitudes allowed by the General Medical Council of Great Britain have been discussed. The medical fraternity however has its reservations. Unnecessary skirmishes with the law arose in cosmetic surgery from the freedom exercised by the police to file criminal proceedings against attending doctors in the event of a patient's death with or without any evidence of wrong doing. This has now been curtailed in the judgement of the Supreme Court of India where norms have been laid down for such prosecution. This has helped doctors to function without fear of harassment. An effort has been made to state a simple day-to-day routine for an ethical doctor-patient relationship. PMID:23450235
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in english Providing information to patients and relatives (IPAR) is a clinical, ethical and legal need. IPAR is inherent to the medical team work as diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are. In some cases, it is a key step for patient's recovery. From an ethical point of view, the patient is not only the sub [...] ject of the medical work but also its main owner and who must, previously informed, decide about options which would directly affect him. After the promulgation of a special law in Chile, this prerogative became a legal right. This paper proposes an empirically developed model or protocol that should be used to inform hospitalized patients and their relatives about their disease, in a pertinent way. Considering that IPAR is a skill that should be learned and practiced, the written protocol is provided to neurology residents as supporting material. Although IPAR protocols are completely justified, they have not been evaluated in terms of efficiency of communication, user satisfaction, patient and relatives reassurance and clinical impact. Therefore, they require a prospective validation.
Nogales-Gaete, Jorge; Vargas-Silva, Paola; Vidal-Cañas, Iván.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS provide a powerful means of identifying genetic variants that play a role in common diseases. Such studies present important ethical challenges. An increasing number of GWAS is taking place in lower income countries and there is a pressing need to identify the particular ethical challenges arising in such contexts. In this paper, we draw upon the experiences of the MalariaGEN Consortium to identify specific ethical issues raised by such research in Africa, Asia and Oceania. Discussion We explore ethical issues in three key areas: protecting the interests of research participants, regulation of international collaborative genomics research and protecting the interests of scientists in low income countries. With regard to participants, important challenges are raised about community consultation and consent. Genomics research raises ethical and governance issues about sample export and ownership, about the use of archived samples and about the complexity of reviewing such large international projects. In the context of protecting the interests of researchers in low income countries, we discuss aspects of data sharing and capacity building that need to be considered for sustainable and mutually beneficial collaborations. Summary Many ethical issues are raised when genomics research is conducted on populations that are characterised by lower average income and literacy levels, such as the populations included in MalariaGEN. It is important that such issues are appropriately addressed in such research. Our experience suggests that the ethical issues in genomics research can best be identified, analysed and addressed where ethics is embedded in the design and implementation of such research projects.
Full Text Available Objective: The importance of pediatric research especially in the ethically proven trials resulted in considerable legislative attempts in association with compiling ethical guidelines. Because of children’s vulnerability conducting pediatric research raises different ethical issues; the two most important of which are informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. Differences in ethical standards and socio-cultural issues limit application of ethical standards.Methods: At the aim of finding a solution we critically reviewed guidelines, and literatures as well as Islamic points in addition to comparing different viewpoints in application of ethical standards in pediatric researchFindings: The literature review showed that pediatric research guidelines and authors viewpoints have the same basic ethical core, but there are some variations; depend on cultural, religious, and social differences. Furthermore, these standards have some limitations in defining informed consent according to child’s age and capacity upon applicationConclusion: In this regard Islamic approach and definition about growth development and puberty shed light and clarifies a clearer and more rational address to the issue.
Ethical issues of mandatory psychological screening of nuclear power plant personnel have not been explored adequately. This paper examines several ethical issues in this area that need more attention. (1) Informed Consent: psychologists' ethics (like those of virtually all science and practice-oriented disciplines) require subjects participating in research or practice to be informed of procedures applied to them, the purposes, and possible consequences. (2) Feedback: psychologists' ethical guidelines require feedback to assesses when it is requested. (3) Validity: psychologists' ethics require that they use instrumentation only for the purposes intended and only for uses for which there is a preponderance of validity data available. In short, there is no question that psychological tests can significantly improve the effectiveness of a work force when they are properly (i.e., validly) used by well-trained and qualified professional psychologists. However, with the abundance of clinicians who are providing such services and with the complexity of the ethical issues involved in conducting these screenings, employers in psychologically high-risk settings should proceed with great caution to assure that assesses are treated in a fair and ethical manner.
This paper examines some ethical issues in research with human beings, especially addressing the area of Psychology, such as the use of ethical codes; minimum risk; informed consent; debriefing; confidentiality; and ethical committees. It suggests ways for researchers to increase understanding and the proper use of the ethical codes, to guarantee their own protection, and to avoid abuses of power. Special attention is given to methodological issues related to ethics.Este artigo examina al...
Age assessment in children and young adults is a relevant medicolegal issue due to the gradual increase of persons devoid of proper identification documents in European countries. Because of the illegal immigration and growing crime rates among children and adolescents, age estimation for forensic purposes is often required. The scientific research and the extensive experience of forensic experts in the last decades focused on the use of radiographic methods addressed to evaluate the degree of skeletal or dental development as the most accurate parameters to estimate the chronological age of children and adolescents. This paper analyzes the ethical issues related to age estimation procedures based on radiographic methods, showing how the ethical principles of beneficence, nonmalevolence, justice, and autonomy may be guaranteed during the execution of the age assessment in forensic practice. The procedure might be conducted in accordance with international guidelines and protocols, though they need a higher homogenization and standardization. A strong collaboration between various scientific societies of professionals (forensic odontologists, forensic pathologists, forensic anthropologist, radiologists, pediatricians, and psychologists), who have been involved in age estimation for years, is needed to reach this goal. PMID:24633466
Focardi, Martina; Pinchi, Vilma; De Luca, Federica; Norelli, Gian-Aristide
Full Text Available “When we consider corporate morality we must conclude that no price is too high, for in the long run we have no alternative to ethical business behaviour” Fred. T. Aller. “If I were to name the deadliest subversive force within capitalism, the single greatest source of its waning morality …. I would without hesitation name “Advertising and Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC”. How else should one identify a force that debases language, drains thought and undoes dignity. (Heilbroner .R. (1981. are prone to scrutiny by those who are concerned about the methods marketers use to sell their products and services. Proponents of advertising and IMC states that it is the life blood of business. That it provides consumers with information about products and services and encourages them to improve their standard of living. Advertising produces jobs and helps new companies enter the market place. Companies employ people who make the products and provide the services that advertising sells. Free market economic systems are based on competition which revolves around information, and nothing delivers information better and at less cost than advertising and integrated marketing communication (IMC (Becch .E., Belch M.A. 1998. Not everyone is sold on the value of advertising. Critics argued that most advertising and IMC is more than information. It creates needs, faults consumers and mesmerizes them. It makes consumers to buy that they originally do not want or wish to buy. Adverts suggest that our bodies should be leaner, our faces younger and our utensils cleaner. They point to the sultry, scantily and muscular clad bodies used in it to sell everything from perfume to beer, and argue that advertising promotes materialism, instant gratification, insecurity and greed. “Ethics also consists of certain rules and standards of conduct recognized as binding in a professional body or an Association”. This paper will define the concepts of law, ethics and morality, it will critically examine ethical issues in Advertising, public relations, targeting of integrated marketing communications efforts, public relations, sales promotions, personal selling, packaging and Telemarketing. It will also discuss the external constraints that influence the choice of product adverts and promotions and will provide practical examples and solutions and how to improve ethical conducts in Nigerian integrated marketing communications.
Ayozie Daniel Ogechukwu
Research ethics is always important. However, it is especially crucial with sensitive research topics such as family violence. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss some crucial issues regarding intimate partner violence and child maltreatment, based on the authors' own research experiences. We focus on and discuss examples concerning the definition of family violence, research design, ethical approval, participant recruitment and safety and data collection and processing. During the research process, the significance of teamwork is emphasized. Support provided by the participants to each other and support given by experienced researchers within the team is very important for high ethical standards. PMID:23793068
Paavilainen, Eija; Lepistö, Sari; Flinck, Aune
In the absence of scientific clarity about the potential health effects of occupational exposure to nanoparticles, a need exists for guidance in decisionmaking about hazards, risks, and controls. An identification of the ethical issues involved may be useful to decision makers, particularly employers, workers, investors, and health authorities. Because the goal of occupational safety and health is the prevention of disease in workers, the situations that have ethical implications that most af...
Widespread use of social media applications like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter has introduced new complexities to the legal and ethical environment of higher education. Social communications have traditionally been considered private; however, now that much of this information is published online to the public, more insight is available to students' attitudes, opinions, and character. Pharmacy educators and administrators may struggle with the myriad of ethical and legal issues pertaining to...
Cain, Jeff; Fink, Joseph L.
Focuses on ethical and legal issues that arose in the evaluation of abortion services. Discusses the development of decision rules and tradeoffs in dealing with these issues to reach rational and objective decisions. Places the discussion in the context of balancing usefulness and propriety with respect to informed consent and privacy and makes…
Ferris, Lori E.
Health research is a moral duty because it is the foundation for evidence-based care by all health care practitioners. Specific Canadian policies and regulations govern the conduct of human research; ethics review of research is required before research is conducted. Research in children poses important challenges with regard to informed consent and assent, vulnerability and potential conflicts of interest (COI). Paediatric health researchers should advocate for research participation by chil...
This letter was drafted as a result of a dayschool sponsored by the Human Reproduction Study Group of the British Sociological Association. The meeting considered the findings of the Report of the Committee on the Ethics of Gene Therapy, the Clothier Report (see Bulletin 75). Held at Manchester Town Hall on 9th May, the meeting was attended by participants representing various professions and academic disciplines. PMID:16144145
Stem cell research offers great promise for understanding basic mechanisms of human development and differentiation, as well as the hope for new treatments for diseases such as diabetes, spinal cord injury, Parkinson’s disease, and myocardial infarction. However, human stem cell (hSC) research also raises sharp ethical and political controversies. The derivation of pluripotent stem cell lines from oocytes and embryos is fraught with disputes about the onset of human personhood. The reprogra...
The consideration of ethical issues relating to pediatric environmental health is a recent phenomenon. Discussions of biomedical ethics, research on children, and environmental health research have a longer history. In the late 1990s, researchers at the Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, undertook a study to compare the effectiveness of several methods of reducing lead risk in housing. In a preliminary finding in the case of Grimes v. Kennedy Krieger Institute, Inc., a Maryland...
Paulson, Jerome A.
Background: In keeping with the fundamental practice of transparency in the discussion and resolution of ethics conflicts raised by research, a summary of ethics issues raised during Portuguese biomonitoring in health surveillance and research is presented and, where applicable, their resolution is described. Methods: Projects underway aim to promote the surveillance of public health related to the presence of solid waste incinerators or to study associations between human exposur...
Reis, M. Fa?tima; Segurado, Susana; Brantes, Ana; Simo?es, Helena Teresinha; Melim, J. Mauri?cio; Geraldes, V.; Miguel, Jose? Pereira
Background: In keeping with the fundamental practice of transparency in the discussion and resolution of ethics conflicts raised by research, a summary of ethics issues raised during Portuguese biomonitoring in health surveillance and research is presented and, where applicable, their resolution is described. Methods: Projects underway aim to promote the surveillance of public health related to the presence of solid waste incinerators or to study associations between human exposure to envi...
Reis, M. Fa?tima; Segurado, Susana; Brantes, Ana; Simo?es, Helena Teresinha; Melim, J. Mauri?cio; Geraldes, V.; Miguel, J. Pereira
When physicians and surgeons investigate new drugs or devices, they must adhere to stringent regulatory standards governing human experimentation. Although these standards and regulations are not perfect, they serve to protect the interests of patients and research subjects. By contrast, few standards or regulations exist for innovative procedures, including new surgical techniques. Surgeons apply the term "innovative surgery" to describe practices ranging from minor technical modifications in standard procedures to non-validated investigational approaches indistinguishable from human research. By focusing on recent innovations in surgery, including colorectal surgery, this article proposes an ethical model of surgical innovation that protects patients while maintaining professional self-regulation of surgical advances. PMID:15906138
Marron, Jonathan M; Siegler, Mark
Professions are important today due to the growing number and their development. Furthermore there is a technological development unimaginable in the previous centuries. At the beginning it was recognized that there were three professions: Priest, Ruler and Doctor, representing the classical conception of Universe divided into ``Macrocosmos'', ``Mesocosmos'' and ``Microcosmos'' respectively. Modern age means the beginning of a change in this classical conception; that has been arguable, until the actual view that it is difficult to define what an ethical behaviour is in the professionals. This presentation tries to show some of the difficulties and conflicts presented by the technological and professional development.
Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating perfectionism, as the project, shared by biotechnologies and nanotechnologies, of human enhancement. This project is commonly criticized (by Jean-Pierre Dupuy or Michael Sandel as representing a kind of hyper-agency, a Promethean aspiration to remake nature, including human nature, to serve our purposes, and satisfy our desires. It should thus be addressed as a metaphysical or even theological problem. We would like to argue that this project is not so much Promethean as it is Pelagian. It does not aim so much at being as powerful as God, than at achieving individual, personal felicity, the way Pelagus argued that all men could achieve their own perfection. We argue that the claim of perfectionism is first an ethical one, since it pertains to what Sidgwick called 'egoist hedonism'. We then question this claim from a social point of view: What kind of social relationships is implied by the quest for individual perfectionism. This is an ethical as well as an epistemological question.
The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the continued exploration and mining and the construction and operation of nuclear reactors, both domestically and for export, is and will continue to be ethically and socially sound. Benefit and risk should be shared equally in the ideal society, in the real world this does not seem possible, but nuclear power appears not to worsen the situation and may even improve it. The real risks of nuclear power are less than those tolerated by many in their daily lives, but the public is relucant to accept them. The diversion of effort from dealing with real risks to worrying about hypothetical ones can be a disservice to society. Technology is inherently value-free, but can be used to raise the standard of living and provide a lifestyle in which non-material values can thrive. Withholding uranium from world markets increases the pressure on oil and the probability of armed conflict. A connection is made between uranium supply and food production. Social justice is a vital concern, but boycotts and trade embargoes may worsen suffering and have little effect on oppressors. There are formally defined international obligations to share nuclear technology. Scientists and engineers have a responsibility, which they are living up to more frequently, to make their specialized knowledge available to decision makers, and to express the ethical basis for their work. Nuclear energy appears to be more benign to future generations than many other present-day activities. (LL)
Sport and physical activity is an area that remains relatively unexplored by contemporary bioethics. It is, however, an area in which important ethical issues arise. This paper explores the case of the participation of people with anorexia nervosa in exercise. Exercise is one of the central features of anorexia. The presence of anorexics in exercise classes is becoming an increasingly sensitive issue for instructors and fitness professionals. The ethics of teaching exercise to anorexics has, ...
Equal access to quality education forms a central principle in the South African Constitution. After South Africa's first democratic elections in 1994, the prevailing situation in many under-resourced schools was a lack of access to quality education. We outline six ethical issues in the decision to use radio to advance access and educational…
Naidoo, Gordon; Potter, Charles
This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.
Resnik, David B.
Full Text Available This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.
David B. Resnik
With rapidly increasing public use of the Internet and advances in Web technologies, family and consumer sciences researchers have the opportunity to conduct Internet-based research. However, online research raises critical ethical issues concerning human subjects that have an impact on research practices. This article provides a review of the…
Colvin, Jan; Lanigan, Jane
A reflective practitioners'anlaysis of student responses to ethical issues encountered during a workshop on International Business. The research was conducted with 1st year students of Bedrijfsmanagement MKB. The papaer reviews the literature and makes recoomendations for the business studies curriculum.
Draws on research with Brazilian street children to present methodological and ethical challenges inherent in research with street children; provides suggestions for overcoming these challenges. Issues of concern include the following: definition and sampling, and lack of clarity in these areas; measurement aspects, including surveys,…
Hutz, Claudio S.; Koller, Silvia H.
Purpose: The objective of this study is to get feedback on faculty perception of ethical issues related to teaching, scholarship and service at a relatively new American-style university in the Middle-East. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire involving 21 scenarios with multiple choice answers was developed and distributed to all faculty…
Tabsh, Sami W.; El Kadi, Hany A.; Abdelfatah, Akmal S.
This article introduces an experiential exercise that enhances students' ability to identify ethical issues and to respond to them in ways that consider the relationship between organizational factors and ethical action. Students identify a required number of ethical incidents in their workplaces during a specified period. Students submit a…
Baker, Susan D.; Comer, Debra R.
In the absence of scientific clarity about the potential health effects of occupational exposure to nanoparticles, a need exists for guidance in decisionmaking about hazards, risks, and controls. An identification of the ethical issues involved may be useful to decision makers, particularly employers, workers, investors, and health authorities. Because the goal of occupational safety and health is the prevention of disease in workers, the situations that have ethical implications that most affect workers have been identified. These situations include the a) identification and communication of hazards and risks by scientists, authorities, and employers; b) workers’ acceptance of risk; c) selection and implementation of controls; d) establishment of medical screening programs; and e) investment in toxicologic and control research. The ethical issues involve the unbiased determination of hazards and risks, nonmaleficence (doing no harm), autonomy, justice, privacy, and promoting respect for persons. As the ethical issues are identified and explored, options for decision makers can be developed. Additionally, societal deliberations about workplace risks of nanotechnologies may be enhanced by special emphasis on small businesses and adoption of a global perspective.
Schulte, Paul A.; Salamanca-Buentello, Fabio
Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral. PMID:24004295
Serour, G I
Most indicator systems are top-down, published, management systems, addressing primarily the issue of public accountability. In contrast we describe here a university-based suite of "grass-roots," research-oriented indicator systems that are now subscribed to, voluntarily, by about 1 in 3 secondary schools and over 4,000 primary schools in England. The systems are also being used by groups in New Zealand, Australia and Hong Kong, and with international schools in 30 countries. These systems w...
Carol Taylor Fitz-Gibbon; Peter Tymms
Access to human tissue is critical to medical research, however the laws and regulations surrounding gaining ethical and legal access to tissue are often poorly understood. Recently, there has been a huge increase in the interest surrounding the therapeutic application of adipose tissue, and adipose-derived stem cells. To facilitate our own research interests and possibly assist our local colleagues and collaborators, we established a Research Tissue Bank (RTB) to collect, store and distribute human adipose tissue derived cells with all the appropriate ethical approval for subsequent downstream research. Here we examine the legal, ethical and practical issues relating to the banking of adipose tissue for research in the UK, and discuss relevant international guidelines and policies. We also share our experiences of establishing an RTB including the necessary infrastructure and the submission of an application to a Research Ethics Committee (REC). PMID:24529696
West, C C; Murray, I R; González, Z N; Hindle, P; Hay, D C; Stewart, K J; Péault, B
Abstract Background In the course of the last four decades, the profession of physiotherapy has progressively expanded its scope of responsibility and its focus on professional autonomy and evidence-based clinical practice. To preserve professional autonomy, it is crucial for the physiotherapy profession to meet society's expectations and demands of professional competence as well as ethical competence. Since it is becoming increasingly popular to choose a carrier in private ...
Praestegaard Jeanette; Gard Gunvor
Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate debate as a method of teaching pharmacy undergraduate students about ethical issues. Design. Debate workshops with 5 hours of contact with student peers and facilitators and 5 hours of self-study were developed for second-year pharmacy students. Student development of various skills and understanding of the topic were assessed by staff members and student peers. Assessment. One hundred fifty students completed the workshops. The mean score for debating was 25.9 out of 30, with scores ranging from 23.2 to 28.7. Seventy percent of students agreed that the debates were a useful teaching method in the degree program. Conclusion. A series of workshops using debates effectively delivered course content on ethical issues and resulted in pharmacy students developing skills such as teamwork, peer assessment, communication, and critical evaluation. These findings suggest that pharmacy students respond favorably to a program using debates as a teaching tool. PMID:24761018
Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Barry, Johanne; Donnelly, Ryan; Hughes, Fiona; Jones, David; Laverty, Garry; Parsons, Carole; Ryan, Cristin
This article is a consensus statement by an international interdisciplinary group of academic experts and Canadian policy-makers on emerging ethical, legal and social issues in human embryonic stem cells (hESC) research in Canada. The process of researching consensus included consultations with key stakeholders in hESC research (regulations, stem cell researchers, and research ethics experts), preparation and distribution of background papers, and an international workshop held in Montreal in February 2007 to discuss the papers and debate recommendations. The recommendations provided in the consensus statement focus on issues of immediate relevance to Canadian policy-makers, including informed consent to hESC research, the use of fresh embryos in research, management of conflicts of interest, and the relevance of public opinion research to policy-making. PMID:17915069
Caulfield, Timothy; Ogbogu, Ubaka; Nelson, Erin; Einsiedel, Edna; Knoppers, Bartha; McDonald, Michael; Brunger, Fern; Downey, Robin; Fernando, Kanchana; Galipeau, Jacques; Geransar, Rose; Griener, Glenn; Grenier, Glenn; Hyun, Insoo; Isasi, Rosario; Kardel, Melanie; Knowles, Lori; Kucic, Terrence; Lotjonen, Salla; Lyall, Drew; Magnus, David; Mathews, Debra J H; Nisbet, Matthew; Nisker, Jeffrey; Pare, Guillaume; Pattinson, Shaun; Pullman, Daryl; Rudnicki, Michael; Williams-Jones, Bryn; Zimmerman, Susan
There is considerable evidence that pre-emptive transplants have several clinical advantages. However, pre-emptive transplants raise a number of ethical issues. Pre-emptive transplants from living donors offer distinctly greater benefits than those from deceased donors and some pre-emptive transplantation programmes actively encourage living organ donations. Moreover, the offer of a pre-emptive transplant to a patient who is not yet on dialysis unquestionably penalises patients already on dialysis who may have been on the waiting list for a long time. Therefore preemptive transplants give rise to conflicts between justice and utility. Several factors should be considered: health conditions, clinical urgency, probability of imminent worsening of a patient's clinical condition, the future chances of finding a matching organ, and others. From the various values at stake, ethical issues are analysed in search of an acceptable synthesis. PMID:24045524
Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate debate as a method of teaching pharmacy undergraduate students about ethical issues. Design. Debate workshops with 5 hours of contact with student peers and facilitators and 5 hours of self-study were developed for second-year pharmacy students. Student development of various skills and understanding of the topic were assessed by staff members and student peers. Assessment. One hundred fifty students completed the workshops. The mean score for debating was 25.9 out of 30, with scores ranging from 23.2 to 28.7. Seventy percent of students agreed that the debates were a useful teaching method in the degree program. Conclusion. A series of workshops using debates effectively delivered course content on ethical issues and resulted in pharmacy students developing skills such as teamwork, peer assessment, communication, and critical evaluation. These findings suggest that pharmacy students respond favorably to a program using debates as a teaching tool.
Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Barry, Johanne; Donnelly, Ryan; Hughes, Fiona; Jones, David; Laverty, Garry; Parsons, Carole; Ryan, Cristin
Conducting research in the home setting with home-bound older adults presents distinct ethical and practical challenges that require special consideration. This article describes the methodological issues that make studying homebound older adults especially vulnerable to therapeutic misconception and researcher role conflict and offers practical strategies for researchers to deal with these problems when studying this population. In writing this article, we draw on more than a decade of descr...
Locher, Julie L.; Bronstein, Janet; Robinson, Caroline O.; Williams, Charlotte; Ritchie, Christine S.
Organ donation after cardiac death (DCD) is increasingly considered as an option to address the shortage of organs available for transplantation, both in the United States and worldwide. The procedures for DCD differ from procedures for donation after brain death and are likely less familiar to emergency physicians (EPs), even as this process is increasingly involving emergency departments (EDs). This article explores the ED operational and ethical issues surrounding this procedure. PMID:24552527
Simon, Jeremy R; Schears, Raquel M; Padela, Aasim I
The use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to screen embryos for aneuploidy and genetic disease is growing. New uses of PGD have been reported in the past year for screening embryos for susceptibility to cancer, for late-onset diseases, for HLA-matching for existing children, and for gender. These extensions have raised questions about their ethical acceptability and the adequacy of regulatory structures to review new uses. This article describes current and likely future uses of PGD, and then analyses the ethical issues posed by new uses of PGD to screen embryos for susceptibility and late-onset conditions, for HLA-matching for tissue donation to an existing child, and for gender selection. It also addresses ethical issues that would arise in more speculative scenarios of selecting embryos for hearing ability or sexual orientation. The article concludes that except for sex selection of the first child, most current extensions of PGD are ethically acceptable, and provides a framework for evaluating future extensions for nonmedical purposes that are still speculative. PMID:12615807
Robertson, John A
Full Text Available The complete sequencing of the human genome in 2003 has opened doors for new approaches to health promotion, maintenance, and treatment. Genetic research is now leading to a better understanding of the genetic components of common diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and stroke, and creating new, gene-based technologies for screening, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of both rare and common diseases. Nurses are on the forefront of care, and therefore will participate fully in genetic-based and genomic-based practice activities such as collecting family history, obtaining informed consent for genetic testing, and administering gene-based therapies. This new direction in healthcare calls for all nurses to be able to effectively translate genetic and genomic information to patients with an understanding of associated ethical issues. This article will present six genetic and genomic healthcare activities involving ethical issues of importance to nurses. For each activity discussed, an overview of current and/or emerging ethical issues will be presented. Approaches nurses can use to integrate comprehensive and current knowledge in genetics and genomics into their practice to most fully meet the needs of their patients, families, and society will also be described.
Dale Halsey Lea
Disease in wildlife raises a number of issues that have not been widely considered in the bioethical literature. However, wildlife disease has major implications for human welfare. The majority of emerging human infectious diseases are zoonotic: this is, they occur in humans by cross-species transmissions from animal hosts. Managing these diseases often involves balancing concerns with human health against animal welfare and conservation concerns. Many infectious diseases of domestic animals are shared with wild animals, although it is often unclear whether the infection spills over from wild animals to domestic animals or vice versa. Culling is the standard means of managing such diseases, bringing economic considerations, animal welfare and conservation into conflict. Infectious diseases are also major threatening processes in conservation biology and their appropriate management by culling, vaccination or treatment raises substantial animal ethics issues. One particular issue of great significance in Australia is an ongoing research program to develop genetically modified pathogens to control vertebrate pests including rabbits, foxes and house mice. Release of any self-replicating GMO vertebrate pathogen gives rise to a whole series of ethical questions. We briefly review current Australian legal responses to these problems. Finally, we present two unresolved problems of general importance that are exemplified by wildlife disease. First, to what extent can or should 'bioethics' be broadened beyond direct concerns with human welfare to animal welfare and environmental welfare? Second, how should the irreducible uncertainty of ecological systems be accounted for in ethical decision making? PMID:16222841
McCallum, Hamish; Hocking, Barbara Ann
Livestock are vital to subsistence farming and sustainable livelihood in most developing countries. Of India's population of one billion people, more than 70 percent live in the rural areas. India also has more than 30 percent of the world's bovine population. This has resulted in not only egalitarian ownership of cattle, but also in an almost inseparable cultural and symbiotic relationship between rural families and their farm animals, particularly large ruminants. It is against this scenario that the ethical, social and environmental issues of gene-based technologies need to be carefully evaluated. The use of transgenic cows with modified milk composition or for any other purpose has little economic benefit in a system of 'production by masses', as typifies India and a few other developing countries, compared with 'mass production' systems in developed countries. Rather, the use of rDNA technology for developing drought-resistant fodder and forage crops is likely to bring immediate relief to most regions. Cattle, particularly in India, have poor quality feeds and this results in poor nutrition, with production of large amounts of methane. Irnmunocastration -through biotechnological means would also be advantageous. Developing countries like India need sustainable livelihood security, and, in this regard, gene-based technologies in animal agriculture seem more to raise ethical, social and environmental concerns, rather than being likely to transform 'subsistence farming' into vibrant agribusiness. Ethical issues concerning animal welfare, rights and integrity are also discussed, in addition to social, environmental and economic issues. (author)
Ethics is a significant issue in business both on the firm level and wider phases. Ethics indicate what is right and what is wrong in business branches also lead employees and stakeholders with moral values. Ethics is the basics for an impartial internal environment in an organization. An ethical climate constituted on fair foundations and lead by executives upholding ethical standards in the first instance tend to be more achieved when compared to other firms, since fair organizational inter...
Aytac Gokmen; Turan Ozturk, A.
A description is given of the ethical issues encountered by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in its regulation of new life-saving devices. Issues related both to clinical investigation and to marketing approval of the devices are examined. The potential role of engineers in addressing these issues is discussed. PMID:18244066
Rahmoeller, G A
Full Text Available Problem statement: The rapid spread of e-commerce has created tremendous opportunities for economic efficiency and customer choice. Use of the global Internet computer network for ecommerce activities provides some advantages to the consumers on their daily life. On the other hand Internet represents a new environment for unethical behavior. While e-commerce has witnessed extensive growth in last decade, consumers concerns regarding ethical issues also continue to increase. Even many consumers and businesses are reveling in e-commerce; consumer problems related to online retail become the dark side of the issue. Approach: A survey on 400 online shoppers was conducted (three cities in Turkey (Izmir, Manisa, Mersin in order to measure consumers? perceptions regarding the ethical issues of online retailing by using scale of Consumers? Perceptions regarding to Ethics of Online Retailers (CPEOR. Results: Ethical problems like security, privacy, reliability and non deception on Internet are core issues that limit the growth of online retailing. Conclusion/Recommendation: Findings indicate that; four factors (security, privacy, non deception and reliability are strongly predictive of online consumers? satisfaction. Also, this research will be beneficial to online retailers on their online retailing activities.
Many developed countries permit the export of pesticides that are banned, restricted, or unregistered within their own borders. This practice, which leads to the exposure of agricultural workers in developing countries to high levels of pesticides that are not permitted in the country of manufacture, raises many ethical issues as well as economic, social, political, and public health issues. Worldwide attempts to control export of such pesticides, through the FAO/UNEP Prior Informed Consent program, moves this issue in the right direction. This article explores the current U.S. and international practices, using the specific example of export of DBCP to banana-producing countries. The actions taken by multinational corporations, manufacturers of the pesticides, and public health officials in both the exporting and importing countries are explored, along with the impacts on workers, local economies, governments, and the environment. PMID:10330515
Lowry, L K; Frank, A L
Full Text Available This research addressed the ethical issues in Private Commercial Banks in Pakistan. Data were collected from 500 respondents/Customers from cross sectional data by using simple random technique and data were analyses by using SPSS-18 version. A structural questionnaire was used as basic tool for data collection, analysis, validity and reliability. It was revealed that private commercial banks are not caring for the customers specially, four old Banks UBL, HBL, MCB, ABL. It was further concluded that most of the staff members who interact with the customers is non MBAs so that’s why their attitude towards the customers are not friendly.
In answer to questions raised by practitioners, an ethics of genetic screening is located in a tension between liberty and responsibility in three respects: (1) to nature and biological processes; (2) to the disposal of human life; and (3) to the relation of persons to society. Under (1), the obligation to pursue research, fundamental as well as applied, is affirmed, offering the benefit of economy with fetal life, but requiring discrimination between the beneficial, the trivial, and the biza...
Human Biological Materials (HBMs) are an invaluable resource in biomedical research. OBJECTIVE: To determine if researchers and a Research Ethics Committee (REC) at a South African institution addressed ethical issues pertaining to HBMs in collaborative research with developed countries. STUDY DESIGN: Ethically approved retrospective cross-sectional descriptive audit. RESULTS: Of the 1305 protocols audited, 151 (11.57%) fulfilled the study's inclusion criteria. Compared to other developed countries, a majority of sponsors (90) were from the USA (p = 0.0001). The principle investigators (PIs) in all 151 protocols informed the REC of their intent to store HBMs. Only 132 protocols informed research participants (P ethical and regulatory issues pertaining to HBMs. There was a lack of congruence between the ethical guidelines of developed countries and their actions which are central to the access to HBMs in collaborative research. HBMs may be leaving South Africa without EPs and MTAs during the process of international collaborative research. PMID:23724945
Sathar, Aslam; Dhai, Amaboo; van der Linde, Stephan
This article discusses the case of Petrobras’s blog, called Facts and Data (Fatos e Dados), created to be a channel for direct communication with the society and a place for presenting the official version of information concerning this state-owned company. Taken as a parameter for questions relating to the ethical issues involved in this communication experience, it suggests some reflections beyond possible redefinitions of making communication as opposed to doing journalism. In presen...
Edson Fernando Dalmonte
This article discusses the case of Petrobras’s blog, called Facts and Data (Fatos e Dados), created to be a channel for direct communication with the society and a place for presenting the official version of information concerning this state-owned company. Taken as a parameter for questions relating to the ethical issues involved in this communication experience, it suggests some reflections beyond possible redefinitions of making communication as opposed to doing journalism. In presenting...
Edson Fernando Dalmonte
Calls for professional accountability have resulted in the development of ethics guidelines by numerous specialty and subspecialty groups of scientists. Indeed, guidelines among some health professions now address vulnerable and dependent groups: but these are silent on issues related to biomarkers. In parallel, attention has been drawn to human rights concerns associated with attempts to detect hypersusceptible workers, especially in democratic countries. Despite this, concern for vulnerable...
Soskolne, C. L.
Information and communication technologies (ICTs), in particular of the Internet and of the World Wide Web, have paved the way for numerous ICT related development and initiative. In as much as there are beneficial usage of the Internet, there is also unethical usage and abuse. The Internet is like a double edge sword and care must be taken when indulging in this vast ocean of knowledge and information. Studies on ethical issue have centred much on internet security like hacking of personal i...
There is growing concern about the reuse and exploitation of biological materials (human tissues) for use in research worldwide. Most discussions about samples have taken place in developed countries, where genetic manipulation techniques have greatly advanced in recent years. There is very little discussion in developing countries, although collaborative research with institutions from developed countries is on the increase. The study sought to identify and describe ethical issues arising in the storage, reuse and exportation of samples in a developing country. Research protocols presented to two Ethics Review Committees in Kenya during a period of two years were reviewed. A record was made of the protocol title, sample collected, request for storage, reuse or exportation and whether or not subject consent was sought. The findings indicated that about 25% out of the 388 protocols sought permission for reuse and only half of those actually informed subjects of the contemplated re-use. Less than 20% requested storage and again, about half of them sought consent from subjects. There is an indication that investigators do not see the need to seek consent for storage, reuse and exportation of samples. It is proposed that these issues should be addressed through policy interventions at both the national and global levels. PMID:16425489
Langat, Simon K
Volume I: Selected ethical issues in the management of reproductive health hazards in the workplace; The moral issues; Ethical issues in risk assessment and the 'right to know'; The policy options before Congress; Ethical issues in discrimination and job ...
The literature concerning ethical issues associated with nanotechnologies has become prolific. However, it has been claimed that ethical problems are only at stake with rather sophisticated nanotechnologies such as active nanostructures, integrated nanosystems and heterogeneous molecular nanosystems, whereas more basic nanotechnologies such as passive nanostructures mainly pose technical difficulties. In this paper I argue that fundamental ethical issues are already at stake with this more ba...
Full Text Available An exposition on teaching ethics in architecture is long overdue. While all research on ethics in architecture agrees to its importance, none has ventured further to consider how to teach ethics in architecture. It is presumed that ethics is either transmitted tacitly in the architectural design studio, or introduced within a seminar on professional practice. But neither option is adequate if the goal of teaching ethics in architecture is the capacity for heightened ethical awareness, sound moral reasoning and keen judgment. What then, is the recourse for the educator interested in developing this capacity in the student? In this paper, I suggest that the context where ethics in architecture is taught is just as important as how to teach it. Subsequently, I suggest four pedagogical strategies for teaching ethics in architecture. This paper should appeal to every educator in higher education, especially to educators teaching architecture, urban design and planning.
Jeffrey CHAN Kok Hui
Full Text Available This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169. Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15. 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34 and Strauss and Corbin (1990. The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990. The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985 and Morse (1994 related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based on these findings the researcher concluded that nurses are not thinking critically when making ethical decisions concerning the termination of pregnancies. Recommendations are made as a possible solution for this problem.
Livestock are vital to sustainable agriculture in most developing countries. In Asia, in general, the integration of livestock, fish and crops has proved to be a sustainable system through centuries of experience. Traditional use of dung for manuring the fields and bullocks for ploughing is the 'biodynamic farming', which has special significance in dry land agriculture comprising about 65 percent of India's cropped area. Gene-based technologies will be useful for developing special draught breeds of cattle so that their valuable source of energy remains available especially to the small and marginal farmers. Further, the livestock in the developing countries form an essential part of an integrated agricultural system and, therefore, development strategies for gene-based applications should consider the total production system (i.e., breeding fodder and forage crops, animal and crop disease and pest management etc). The gene-technologies of relevance to the developing countries are (i) rumen molecular techniques for reducing methane production and for increasing protein and energy supply; ruminant food stuffs currently used in India and a few other developing countries are fibrous, low in nitrogen, and contain anti-nutritive factors, (ii) improving animal productivity in developing countries by manipulation of nutrition in utero to alter gene expression of key metabolic hormones and enzymes for a long period after birth in cattle, (iii) genetic resistance to Helminthes in sheep, and (iv) molecular methods of diagnosis, molecular epidemiology and treatment of swine fever. Although not gene-based, artificial insemination (AI) for genetic improvement of dairy cattle and buffalo, and embryo-transfer (ET) for rapid multiplication of elite cattle are also relevant. Cloning (of the 'Dolly' - the sheep kind) will be useful to revive the rare and endangered animal species such as one-horned rhinoceros, swamp deer, wild buffalo and dugongs in India, for restoring environmental balance and social harmony with the forest, coastal and hill communities of various regions of India. The ethical issues from a technological point of view centre around both gene-based and nongene- based technologies to improve the nutrition, health and productivity of the farm animals. In particular, a reference needs to be made to bovine somatotropin (bST), a natural growth hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary in all animals, with a major effect on the regulation of growth and also milk production. Since the quantities of bST obtained from slaughtered animals are quite small, recombinant DNA technology-based r-bST is produced, and widely used in the USA to increase the milk production by 10% to 20%. Exhaustive evaluation tests conducted in the USA have shown that r-bST has no harmful effects in milk, but a high production of milk makes higher demands on animal physiology, and if an adequate food supply is lacking, negative effects are observed on fertility besides other health problems, especially mastitis and ketosis. Presently, neither r-bST, nor adequate nutritious feed is available for millions of dairy cattle in the developing countries. The economic benefits of 'mass production' over 'production by masses' are obvious; further, the access to the r-bST in the 'mass production' system, but not in the system of 'production by masses' could accentuate the economic disparity. The above-said scenario has further ramifications in view of the implications arising from the WTO-related Agreement on Agriculture. With an array of domestic supports, products of 'mass production' could be dumped into developing countries causing a substantial rise in the already high levels of livelihood and food insecurity. Since the r-DNA based technologies for 'pharming' or for human food are not yet applied to farm animals in the developing countries there are no serious concerns of bio-safety, and violation of ethical norms. In the countries, where animals for human food are genetically altered, the issues of 'animal sentience' and 'telos' become quite pertinent. For e
Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICTs, in particular of the Internet and of the World Wide Web, have paved the way for numerous ICT related development and initiative. In as much as there are beneficial usage of the Internet, there is also unethical usage and abuse. The Internet is like a double edge sword and care must be taken when indulging in this vast ocean of knowledge and information. Studies on ethical issue have centred much on internet security like hacking of personal information and data theft, including in business. This paper will look at the recent trends related to the ethical usage of the Internet, especially involving social media usage and hacking of government websites and legal enforcement that can be used to address ethical issues among Internet users. Data is derived from secondary sources. From the secondary data or literature, hacking has been a subject of concern following the hackings of website of government departments by the group anonymous. There are some cases of internet abuse, especially social media involving scams and personal relationship. There is also the use of social media to incite hatred, especially against authorities leading to widespread unrest. Hence, this implies, putting in place some guiding principles and more stringent legal enforcement to curb the unethical use and abuse of the Internet.
... ca Interests: Jacques Derrida; violence; law; marginality; social theory; sovereignty Special Issue Information Dear Colleagues, Food Studies scholars have demonstrated the significance of what we eat to identities and processes of subjectification, while philosophers have argued for the need to think about subjectivity relationally. Bringing together these strands of thought, this special topics issue of Societies will assemble a collection of articles ...
The hardship and pleasure of a life in ethics, as in music, springs not from a commitment to the veneration of stability, refinement and consistency, as some political and aesthetic discourses often suggest. Rather, the productive tensions of ethical living arise from a restless interaction between constant motion and adaptability; both marks of…
The performance of Clinical Trials can give rise to ethical problems especially between the researchers and the promotors but sometimes also with those who are in charge of the publication of results. Medicine and the Pharmaceutical Industry must face up to the need to try and save a marriage that is not only one of convenience but most of all lifesaving. The Industry supports the major slice of Postgraduate and Continuous Medical Education with its main goal being the promotion of its products. The Educational component we doctors are interested in is usually secondary for the Industry. A Clinical Trial comprises several steps beginning with the design of its protocol, its discussion by promotors and scientists and its performance where researchers, monitors, and official auditors have the main role. The analysis of the results should be handled by official boards unrelated to either promotors or researchers and their publication should be undertaken by a reliable Medical Journal whose editorial board would authenticate the accomplished scientific work. Ethical Commissions, both national and institutional, have a unique role in the analysis and authorization of Clinical Trials. Before any drug is put onto the pharmaceutical market, it is obligatory that the four successive phases of Clinical Pharmacological Studies be accomplished. A common problem we usually face is to differentiate a Phase IV from just a Promotional Trial. When a Promotional Trial is done, all the clinical goals of investigation have already been reached. The objectives of Promotional Trials are merely related to the Marketing Department and disregard any scientific purposes. Promotional Trials should not involve Universities, Hospitals and other official Institutions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1605075
Full Text Available Ethics is a significant issue in business both on the firm level and wider phases. Ethics indicate what is right and what is wrong in business branches also lead employees and stakeholders with moral values. Ethics is the basics for an impartial internal environment in an organization. An ethical climate constituted on fair foundations and lead by executives upholding ethical standards in the first instance tend to be more achieved when compared to other firms, since fair organizational internal environment motivates employees by satisfying their necessities, enhancing the organizational performance initially, then to bringing about industry and country wide developments. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review ethical management and corporate performance with a theoretical point of view, also with comprising the international business dimension of ethics and its significance for businesses resting on profound publications.
Full Text Available This article discusses the case of Petrobras’s blog, called Facts and Data (Fatos e Dados, created to be a channel for direct communication with the society and a place for presenting the official version of information concerning this state-owned company. Taken as a parameter for questions relating to the ethical issues involved in this communication experience, it suggests some reflections beyond possible redefinitions of making communication as opposed to doing journalism. In presenting its version of events directly to the society, the company opted for a model of unmediated communication, which requires the redefinition of the speech platforms and visibility. It also proposes a reflection on discourse ethics, especially regarding the ideal of individual participation in the processes of debate concerning matters of public interest.
Edson Fernando Dalmonte
Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed
Although much debate has taken place within the literature on the differences between research and clinical audit, the ethical dimensions of audit have frequently been neglected. Furthermore, no research has of yet explored what ethical issues auditors consider in relation to their projects or how they manage them in practice. Using data collected from audit documentation, semi-structured interviews and a researcher-administered questionnaire, this study sought to advance this position by exploring how 14 clinicians undertook audits in one mental health Trust addressed the ethical dimensions of their project. Analysis of the data revealed that the Trust had no formal mechanisms for reviewing and monitoring audit projects whilst other informal mechanisms were not utilized by all auditors. A number of projects had contact with both clinicians and service users through interviews, focus groups and questionnaires; however, issues such as informed consent, confidentiality and anonymity were not adequately addressed by auditors. The implications of these findings are discussed and recommendations for practice outlined. PMID:15720505
Difficulties faced in the nursing routine, mainly in hospitals, have been reported without the resulting ethical implications to workers and especially to clients, been sufficiently questioned. The work organization can be the main source of suffering to nursing workers, related to the exercise of power of different actors involved in the health institutions, which can potentially cause multiple problems and distress of ethical order. This study aims to make a critical reflection about some relations between the nursing work organization, power relations and its ethical dimension. Strategies for an ethical performance of nurses and other nursing professionals in the organization of work in the healthcare institutions point to the need of these professionals exercise power in an ethical way. PMID:17653435
Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Lunardi Filho, Wilson Danilo; da Silveira, Rosemary Silva; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos; Dei Svaldi, Jacqueline Sallete; Bulhosa, Michele Salum
The current generation of biologic markers have three characteristics that differentiate them from previous ones. These include the ability to detect xenobiotics at concentrations at the cellular and molecular level, to detect earlier biologic changes presumptive of disease or disease risk, and to identify a detailed continuum of events between an exposure and resultant disease. If biomarkers are to enhance cancer epidemiology, they must be valid, reliable, and practical. When these characteristics have not been previously demonstrated, pilot studies should be conducted prior to the primary study. Interdisciplinary communication and collaboration is required so that useful markers are selected and that collection and handling, assay, and interpretation are appropriate. The status of many biomarkers is that they have been developed in the laboratory but lack validation for field use. Validation of a marker for use in a population requires attention to issues of background prevalence, sample size, natural history, persistence, variability, confounding factors, and predictive value. Additionally, practical features such as subject preparation, access to specimens, specimen storage aspects, and costs must be clarified. Ultimately, the use of biologic markers in epidemiologic studies will depend on how well the markers increase ability to reduce misclassification, provide for better interpretation of exposure-disease associations, and increase opportunities for prevention. Validation studies and general research using biomarkers also have clinical, ethical, and legal implications. These range from communicating uncertainty about the meaning of a marker to the kinds of societal response that result when groups or individuals are identified as having an abnormal marker frequency.
Schulte, P.A. (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States))
The authors, library practitioners from either side of the Atlantic Ocean, embarked on a dialogue about the ethical challenges encountered in providing library services to distance learners. Unable to find an existing, appropriate ethical framework for their discussion, they agreed to devise their own, informed by relevant professional codes and…
Needham, Gill; Johnson, Kay
This article outlines a researcher's struggles with conducting "ethical" research when her case study reveals racializations faced by a minority teacher in a Canadian ESL program. How might becoming privy to research participants' experiences of inequity in ESL education complicate the notion of research ethics when "doing the right thing" runs…
This paper explores the ethical implications of introducing non-invasive prenatal diagnostic tests (NIPD tests) in prenatal screening for foetal abnormalities. NIPD tests are easy and safe and can be performed early in pregnancy. Precisely because of these features, it is feared that informed consent may become more difficult, that both testing and selective abortion will become 'normalized', and that there will be a trend towards accepting testing for minor abnormalities and non-medical traits as well. In our view, however, the real moral challenge of NIPD testing consists in the possibility of linking up a technique with these features (easy, safe and early) with new genomic technologies that allow prenatal diagnostic testing for a much broader range of abnormalities than is the case in current procedures. An increase in uptake and more selective abortions need not in itself be taken to signal a thoughtless acceptance of these procedures. However, combining this with considerably enlarging the scope of NIPD testing will indeed make informed consent more difficult and challenge the notion of prenatal screening as serving reproductive autonomy. If broad NIPD testing includes later-onset diseases, the 'right not to know' of the future child will become a new issue in the debate about prenatal screening. With regard to the controversial issue of selective abortion, it may make a morally relevant difference that after NIPD testing, abortion can be done early. A lower moral status may be attributed to the foetus at that moment, given the dominant opinion that the moral status of the foetus progressively increases with its development. PMID:19953123
de Jong, Antina; Dondorp, Wybo J; de Die-Smulders, Christine E M; Frints, Suzanne G M; de Wert, Guido M W R
Full Text Available As health care workers enter the twenty-first century, they must understand the relationships among market-driven forces, the health care workforce, and financial compensation. This understanding can be facilitated by a grasp of utilitarian ethical theory and by ethical tenets of justice such as distributive justice, material principles of justice, and justice as fairness. Health care workers also need to understand how unfair financial compensation can demoralize them and compromise their values. However, professional associations and health care managers can take a proactive stance to ensure that organizations are ethical in their approach to financial compensation.
Silva, Mary Cipriano
As practice in the educational and clinical settings seeks to be evidence based, faculty are increasingly required to conduct research and publish the results to advance the science of our profession. The purpose of this article is to discuss transformative research ethics because Internet use is an increasing component of current research studies. How nurse educators can engage in research-utilizing methodologies inclusive of technology while adhering to ethical standards developed before the advance of the Internet is reviewed. Recommendations are cited to address the new questions that arise at institutional review board meetings resulting from potential ethical implications of using students or research participants in cyber space. PMID:24720940
Mahon, Pamela Young
ABSTRACT As part of an expert panel convened to examine evidence and practice related to diverse aspects of driving evaluation and rehabilitation, consensus statements were developed on ethics. This paper provides context for the ethical obligation of practitioners to assess and make recommendations about the ability of clients to safely perform the activity of driving. It highlights key articles from the literature as well as principles from the Occupational Therapy Code of Ethics and Ethics Standards (2010). The statements support the importance of identifying impairments affecting driving, which could result in harm to the client as well as to the public. The ethical and professional obligation of practitioners to evaluate, make recommendations, and possibly report and/or refer to a driver rehabilitation specialist for further services is reinforced. PMID:24754765
Slater, Deborah Yarett
Background In keeping with the fundamental practice of transparency in the discussion and resolution of ethics conflicts raised by research, a summary of ethics issues raised during Portuguese biomonitoring in health surveillance and research is presented and, where applicable, their resolution is described. Methods Projects underway aim to promote the surveillance of public health related to the presence of solid waste incinerators or to study associations between human exposure to environmental factors and adverse health effects. The methodological approach involves biomonitoring of heavy metals, dioxins and/or other persistent organic pollutants in tissues including blood, human milk and both scalp and pubic hair in groups such as the general population, children, pregnant women or women attempting pregnancy. As such, the projects entail the recruitment of individuals representing different demographic and health conditions, the collection of body tissues and personal data, and the processing of the data and results. Results The issue of autonomy is raised during the recruitment of participants and during the collection of samples and data. This right is protected by the requirement for prior written, informed consent from the participant or, in the case of children, from their guardian. Recruitment has been successful, among eligible participants, in spite of incentives rarely being offered. The exception has been in obtaining guardians' consent for children's participation, particularly for blood sampling. In an attempt to mitigate the harm-benefit ratio, current research efforts include alternative less invasive biomarkers. Surveys are currently being conducted under contract as independent biomonitoring actions and as such, must be explicitly disclosed as a potential conflict of interests. Communication of results to participants is in general only practised when a health issue is present and corrective action possible. Concerning human milk a careful approach is taken, considering breast-feeding's proven benefits. Conclusion No national legislation currently accounts for the surveillance component of biomonitoring as distinct from research. Ethics issues arising within the domain of research are resolved according to available regulations. For issues encountered during surveillance, the same principles are used as guidance, completed by the authors' best judgement and relevant ethics committees' findings.
Reis, M Fatima; Segurado, Susana; Brantes, Ana; Simoes, Helena Teresinha; Melim, J Mauricio; Geraldes, V; Miguel, J Pereira
Full Text Available Abstract Background In keeping with the fundamental practice of transparency in the discussion and resolution of ethics conflicts raised by research, a summary of ethics issues raised during Portuguese biomonitoring in health surveillance and research is presented and, where applicable, their resolution is described. Methods Projects underway aim to promote the surveillance of public health related to the presence of solid waste incinerators or to study associations between human exposure to environmental factors and adverse health effects. The methodological approach involves biomonitoring of heavy metals, dioxins and/or other persistent organic pollutants in tissues including blood, human milk and both scalp and pubic hair in groups such as the general population, children, pregnant women or women attempting pregnancy. As such, the projects entail the recruitment of individuals representing different demographic and health conditions, the collection of body tissues and personal data, and the processing of the data and results. Results The issue of autonomy is raised during the recruitment of participants and during the collection of samples and data. This right is protected by the requirement for prior written, informed consent from the participant or, in the case of children, from their guardian. Recruitment has been successful, among eligible participants, in spite of incentives rarely being offered. The exception has been in obtaining guardians' consent for children's participation, particularly for blood sampling. In an attempt to mitigate the harm-benefit ratio, current research efforts include alternative less invasive biomarkers. Surveys are currently being conducted under contract as independent biomonitoring actions and as such, must be explicitly disclosed as a potential conflict of interests. Communication of results to participants is in general only practised when a health issue is present and corrective action possible. Concerning human milk a careful approach is taken, considering breast-feeding's proven benefits. Conclusion No national legislation currently accounts for the surveillance component of biomonitoring as distinct from research. Ethics issues arising within the domain of research are resolved according to available regulations. For issues encountered during surveillance, the same principles are used as guidance, completed by the authors' best judgement and relevant ethics committees' findings.
Miguel J Pereira
As health care workers enter the twenty-first century, they must understand the relationships among market-driven forces, the health care workforce, and financial compensation. This understanding can be facilitated by a grasp of utilitarian ethical theory and by ethical tenets of justice such as distributive justice, material principles of justice, and justice as fairness. Health care workers also need to understand how unfair financial compensation can demoralize them and compromise their va...
This article starts with an overview of the author’s personal involvement—as an Operations Research consultant—in several engineering case-studies that may raise ethical questions; e.g., case-studies on nuclear waste, water management, sustainable ecology, military tactics, and animal welfare. All these case studies employ computer simulation models. In general, models are meant to solve practical problems, which may have ethical implications for the various stakeholders; namely, the mo...
Kleijnen, Jack P. C.
Although sustainability and ethics are of increasing public importance, little research has been conducted to reveal its association with fish consumer behavior. Cross-sectional data were collected through a postal self-administered survey (June 2005) from a sample of 381 Flemish women aged 20-50 years. Consumers attach high perceived importance to sustainability and ethics related to fish. However, this perceived importance is neither correlated with fish consumption frequency nor with general attitude toward eating fish. Refusing to eat wild fish is grounded in sustainability and ethical concerns, whereas the decision not to eat farmed fish is associated with a lower expected intrinsic quality rather than shaped by importance attached to sustainability and ethical issues. PMID:18074896
Verbeke, Wim; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Sioen, Isabelle; Van Camp, John; De Henauw, Stefaan
During the past decades, the number of altruistic living unrelated kidney donations has substantially increased in developed countries. However, the altruistic supply of transplantable kidneys has remained much less than the demand. As a result, severe kidney shortage has been associated with increasing number of patient deaths and increasing number of commercial transplants and transplant tourism. Studies have shown that there is still a need for living kidney donation because even all potential brain-dead donors cannot supply the escalating need for kidneys. The use of living unrelated kidney donors should be morally and ethically justified and should be compatible with ethical principles. Many experts believe that increasing number of patient deaths and commercial transplants will continue to happen if kidney donation system remains merely altruistic. While some transplant professionals support a paid and regulated system to eliminate kidney shortage, others argue that it will be destructive. Iran has a 20-year experience with a compensated and regulated living unrelated kidney donation program. This transplantation model was adopted in 1988, and successfully eliminated kidney transplant waiting list by the end of 1999. Currently, more than 50% of patients with end-stage kidney disease in Iran are living with a functioning graft. This Iranian transplantation model has many ethical successes. However, because it has not been well regulated by transplant ethicists, some ethical shortcomings have remained. Unfortunately, due to lack of interest and expertise in health authorities, the number of serious ethical failures is also increasing in this transplantation model. PMID:19841520
Ghods, Ahad J
Full Text Available During the past decades, the number of altruistic living unrelated kidney donations has substantially increased in developed countries. However, the altruistic supply of transplantable kidneys has remained much less than the demand. As a result, severe kidney shortage has been associated with increasing number of patient deaths and increasing number of commercial transplants and transplant tourism. Studies have shown that there is still a need for living kidney donation because even all potential brain-dead donors cannot supply the escalating need for kidneys. The use of living unrelated kidney donors should be morally and ethically justified and should be compatible with ethical principles. Many experts believe that increasing number of patient deaths and commercial transplants will continue to happen if kidney donation system remains merely altruistic. While some transplant professionals support a paid and regulated system to eliminate kidney shortage, others argue that it will be destructive. Iran has a 20-year experience with a compensated and regulated living unrelated kidney donation program. This transplantation model was adopted in 1988, and successfully eliminated kidney transplant waiting list by the end of 1999. Currently, more than 50% of patients with end-stage kidney disease in Iran are living with a functioning graft. This Iranian transplantation model has many ethical successes. However, because it has not been well regulated by transplant ethicists, some ethical shortcomings have remained. Unfortunately, due to lack of interest and expertise in health authorities, the number of serious ethical failures is also increasing in this transplantation model.
Ahad J Ghods
Full Text Available This paper examines some ethical issues in research with human beings, especially addressing the area of Psychology, such as the use of ethical codes; minimum risk; informed consent; debriefing; confidentiality; and ethical committees. It suggests ways for researchers to increase understanding and the proper use of the ethical codes, to guarantee their own protection, and to avoid abuses of power. Special attention is given to methodological issues related to ethics.Este artigo examina alguns aspectos éticos em pesquisa com seres humanos, especialmente endereçando a área da Psicologia, tais como o uso de resoluções éticas; risco mínimo; consentimento livre e esclarecido; decepção; confidencialidade e atuação de comitês de ética. Sugere caminhos aos pesquisadores para incrementar o entendimento e o uso apropriado de códigos de ética, para garantir sua própria proteção e evitar abuso de poder. Atenção especial é dada a assuntos metodológicos relacionados à ética.
Sílvia Helena Koller
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este artigo examina alguns aspectos éticos em pesquisa com seres humanos, especialmente endereçando a área da Psicologia, tais como o uso de resoluções éticas; risco mínimo; consentimento livre e esclarecido; decepção; confidencialidade e atuação de comitês de ética. Sugere caminhos aos pesquisadore [...] s para incrementar o entendimento e o uso apropriado de códigos de ética, para garantir sua própria proteção e evitar abuso de poder. Atenção especial é dada a assuntos metodológicos relacionados à ética. Abstract in english This paper examines some ethical issues in research with human beings, especially addressing the area of Psychology, such as the use of ethical codes; minimum risk; informed consent; debriefing; confidentiality; and ethical committees. It suggests ways for researchers to increase understanding and t [...] he proper use of the ethical codes, to guarantee their own protection, and to avoid abuses of power. Special attention is given to methodological issues related to ethics.
Sílvia Helena, Koller.
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este artigo examina alguns aspectos éticos em pesquisa com seres humanos, especialmente endereçando a área da Psicologia, tais como o uso de resoluções éticas; risco mínimo; consentimento livre e esclarecido; decepção; confidencialidade e atuação de comitês de ética. Sugere caminhos aos pesquisadore [...] s para incrementar o entendimento e o uso apropriado de códigos de ética, para garantir sua própria proteção e evitar abuso de poder. Atenção especial é dada a assuntos metodológicos relacionados à ética. Abstract in english This paper examines some ethical issues in research with human beings, especially addressing the area of Psychology, such as the use of ethical codes; minimum risk; informed consent; debriefing; confidentiality; and ethical committees. It suggests ways for researchers to increase understanding and t [...] he proper use of the ethical codes, to guarantee their own protection, and to avoid abuses of power. Special attention is given to methodological issues related to ethics.
Sílvia Helena, Koller.
he subject of this thesis is ethical aspects of decision-making concerning social risks. It is argued that a model for risk management must acknowledge several ethical aspects and, most crucial among these, the individual’s right not to be unfairly exposed to risks. Article I takes as its starting point the demand frequently expressed in the risk literature for consistent risk management. It is maintained that a model focusing on cost-benefit analysis does not respect the rights of the indi...
The increasing demand of constituents to conduct analyses in order to help inform the decision-making process has led to the need for Institutional Research (IR) guidelines for community college educators. One method of maintaining the quality of research conducted by IR staff is to include professional development about ethics. This article…
Although all practicing psychologists share common ethical concerns, the industrial/organizational (I/O) psychologist has additional concerns which are unique to his discipline. The institutional setting of his practice both isolates him from role models and professional colleagues and threatens his identity as a psychologist. In the organization,…
Lowman, Rodney L.
This is Part 2 of a two-part series on the ethical issues surrounding the use of placebo arms in clinical trials for psychiatric drugs. Part 1 discussed the ethical argument from a statistical, population-based perspective. Part 2 explores the ethical issues of placebo-controlled studies as they relate to individual psychiatric patients who may participate in them. Many patients who are candidates for psychiatric clinical trials would receive poor treatment for their mental illness under stan...
For many years, medical aptitude in occupational health, a French exception, did not raise any particular issue. However, from the 1980's onwards, this concept has been approached from a more critical point of view, authors questioning its compatibility with personal liberty. The increase in precarious working conditions have but reinforced such criticism, raising the question of the confrontation of such a concept with due respect of the right to work and the right for health protection. Special decrees, in particular the CMR decree (relating to carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic substances for reproduction), issued in 2001, have added further force to the debate, particularly with regard to the problematic compatibility between the notice of aptitude and the respect of medical ethics and deontology. After having exposed the reasons behind the debate on aptitude in occupational health, and having identified the associated ethical issues, we will discuss the eventuality of the concept's abolition, together with possible replacement solutions. PMID:19705645
Clin, Bénédicte; Gournay, Maryvonne; Letourneux, Marc; Marquignon, Marie-France; Papin, Frédérique; Ferrant, Ophélie; Launoy, Guy
In France, lobbying consulting is at the same time a recent and not well received activity, conversely to the United States. The influence of public decision making is certainly a particularly sensitive occupation, at both managerial and societal levels. This is why ethics as applied to business can play a central role in its establishment. This paper examines the practices and issues of ethics in lobbying consulting. The chosen field in this exploratory study is France. The case of a lobbyin...
Major, R. W.; Rival, Madina
Reproductive technologies, drug discovery and exploration of the universe are areas of contemporary research that raise issues for individuals and society. Forward Thinking, Northern Ireland uses the development of communities of enquiry to promote discussion of these and other social and ethical issues in science with students aged 11-14 years.…
Dunlop, Lynda; Humes, Gill; Clarke, Linda; Martin, Valerie McKelvey
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a complex disorder that creates a diagnostic, ethical, and treatment dilemma for mental health professionals. Psychosocial, biological, and cultural influences play a role in the development of ASPD. People with ASPD often had harsh early childhoods that impaired their ability to trust in adulthood. Research supports intriguing biological links, but it remains unclear if biological differences are the cause or the effect of ASPD. Individualism, patriarchy, and widespread media violence create the cultural context for the development of ASPD. ASPD is difficult to clinically diagnose and treat, and there is controversy concerning whether ASPD is a psychiatric or a legal-ethical problem. However, the management of ASPD often falls to mental health services. This article addresses treatment and primary prevention of ASPD in a way that is relevant to mental health practice. PMID:10633643
This paper explores the ethical implications of introducing non-invasive prenatal diagnostic tests (NIPD tests) in prenatal screening for foetal abnormalities. NIPD tests are easy and safe and can be performed early in pregnancy. Precisely because of these features, it is feared that informed consent may become more difficult, that both testing and selective abortion will become ‘normalized', and that there will be a trend towards accepting testing for minor abnormalities and non-medical tr...
Four principles are taken as basis for the ethical analysis: autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice. Health is understood as a limited aspect of wellbeing. Food is understood as an important aspect of wellbeing, not only an instrument for health. Modern society is characterized by a tendency to identify wellbeing with external rather than subjective circumstances, to identify wellbeing with health, and to create exaggerated health expectations. Based upon this understanding, aspec...
A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few empirical studies have been found that explore ethical challenges among persons in high public positions that are responsible for elder care. The aim of this paper was to illuminate the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care as experienced by high level decision-makers. Methods A phenomenological-hermeneutic method was used to analyse the eighteen interviews conducted with political and civil servant high level decision-makers at the municipality and county council level from two counties in Sweden. The participants worked at a planning and control as well as executive level and had both budget and quality of elder care responsibilities. Results Both ethical dilemmas and the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care were revealed. No differences were seen between the politicians and the civil servants. The ethical dilemmas mostly concerned dealings with extensive care needs and working with a limited budget. The dilemmas were associated with a lack of good care and a lack of agreement concerning care such as vulnerable patients in inappropriate care settings, weaknesses in medical support, dissimilar focuses between the caring systems, justness in the distribution of care and deficient information. Being in ethically difficult situations was challenging. Associated with them were experiences of being exposed, having to be strategic and living with feelings such as aloneness and loneliness, uncertainty, lack of confirmation, the risk of being threatened or becoming a scapegoat and difficult decision avoidance. Conclusion Our paper provides further insight into the ethical dilemmas and ethical challenges met by high level decision-makers', which is important since the overall responsibility for elder care that is also ethically defensible rests with them. They have power and their decisions affect many stakeholders in elder care. Our results can be used to stimulate discussions between high level decision-makers and health care professionals concerning ways of dealing with ethical issues and the necessity of structures that facilitate dealing with them. Even if the high level decision-makers have learned to live with the ethical challenges that confronted them, it was obvious that they were not free from feelings of uncertainty, frustration and loneliness. Vulnerability was revealed regarding themselves and others. Their feelings of failure indicated that they felt something was at stake for the older adults in elder care and for themselves as well, in that there was the risk that important needs would go unmet.
In the face of extraordinary advances in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of human diseases, devastating illnesses such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and diseases of the nervous system, such as Parkinson's Disease and Alzheimer's Disease, continue to deprive people of health, independence, and well-being. Research in human developmental biology has led to the discovery of human stem cells (precursor cells that can give rise to multiple tissue types), including embryonic stem (ES) cells, embryonic germ (EG) cells, and adult stem cells. Recently, techniques have been developed for the in vitro culture of stem cells, providing unprecedented opportunities for studying and understanding human embryology. As a result, scientists can now carry out experiments aimed at determining the mechanisms underlying the conversion of a single, undifferentiated cell, the fertilized egg, into the different cells comprising the organs and tissues of the human body. Although it is impossible to predict the outcomes, scientists and the public will gain immense new knowledge in the biology of human development that will likely hold remarkable potential for therapies and cures. Derivation of ES cells from early human embryos, and EG stem cells from aborted fetal tissues raise ethical, legal, religious, and policy questions that are the subject of ongoing public debate. As a contribution to that debate AAAS and ICS produced a series of recommendations for conducting stem cell research in an ethical manner. AAAS and ICS recognize that there are varied social, political, ethical, and religious view points to be considered in discussions about the scientific use of tissue from human embryos and fetuses. Scientists do not presume to know all the answers and ramifications of basic research in human stem cells. Therefore, it is important to promote continued dialogue among all segments of society concerning the implications of human stem cell research.This resource includes the full stem cell report of this study and other resources for additional information on stem cells.
Recent advances in the fields of organ donation and organ transplant have introduced new hope for the treatment of serious diseases. However, this promise has been accompanied by several issues. The most common issue raised is ethical implications, but in a multicultural society like Malaysia, additional concerns arise pertaining to social and religious issues. These concerns needs to be addressed as attitudes toward and acceptability of organ donation varies according to social, culture, and...
"Recent advances in the fields of organ donation and organ transplant have introduced new hope for the treatment of serious diseases. However, this promise has been accompanied by several issues. The most common issue raised is ethical implications, but in a multicultural society like Malaysia, additional concerns arise pertaining to social and religious issues. These concerns needs to be addressed as attitudes toward and acceptability of organ donation varies according to social, culture...
Full Text Available The allocation of financial resources in accordance with population health care needs represents a complex task, with practical and ethical dilemmas. The decisions regarding resource allocation are made at macro, mezzo and micro levels. Legislative authorities and government decide how to allocate limited resources based on cost effectiveness criteria. Managing directors of hospitals and research institutes take mezzo decisions, while doctors and researchers in healthcare area are responsible to make micro decisions. The aim of this paper is to assess the use of equity criteria for resource allocation in Romanian public hospitals. We found that resource allocation within the Romanian health system increases the inequalities among individuals and groups.
Medical advances over the past 50 years have helped countless patients with advanced cardiac disease or who are critically ill in the intensive care unit (ICU), but have added to the ethical complexity of the care provided by clinicians, particularly at the end of life. Palliative care has the primary aim of improving symptom burden, quality of life, and the congruence of the medical plan with a patient's goals of care. This article explores ethical issues encountered in the cardiac ICU, discusses key analyses of these issues, and addresses how palliative care might assist medical teams in approaching these challenges. PMID:24188227
Swetz, Keith M; Mansel, J Keith
The debate surrounding neurologically devastated newborns, whether due to severe prematurity or genetic malformations, has continued for over 40 years. Duff and Campbell (1973) first discussed allowing these children to die in the 1970s. In the 1980s, others fought to make sure these children with disabilities were afforded all the rights of other children. Recently, some commentators have advocated for withdrawal of therapies and even euthanasia in the Netherlands. Who is right? What are the ethical principles that should be followed? What decisions are appropriate for distraught parents to make? This chapter reviews international views, laws, and guidelines surrounding the therapies and limitations of care for these imperiled newborns. An ethical argument is presented for how to determine best interests for these special children utilizing the best interest standard. Parents and physicians need to use their individual expertise and values to work together to determine each individual child's best interests. Physicians may have to carry the burden for making final determinations to alleviate the guilt families may have in deciding to limit therapies. PMID:24182380
Koogler, Tracy K
Full Text Available Professional teacher’s ethics is a collection of moral codes of their professional work. It is significant that the teaching profession respects certain designated professional-ethical codes of conduct between the teachers and the students, with their colleagues and other people they professionally cooperate with. This study is focused on analysis of the professional ethical relation of teachers towards students, seen from student’s point of view. These are the results of student’s reported opinion of the eighth graders from six primary schools in the region of the city of Skopje. The obtained results show that teachers mainly keep in line with the moral codes of conduct with the students, but not always all teachers respect them.
Protestantism is not a centralized religion. It is composed by many independent Churches having different moral and ethical standards. This review concentrates on the ethical principles prevalent in most modern European Reformed Churches. It does not intend to discuss the ethical principles of many other Protestant Churches present mainly in the USA. The common foundations of Protestant theology are the "five sola ("Sola scriptura", Sola fide", "Sola gratia", Solus Christus or Solo Christo", "Soli deo gloria"). In opposition to the Catholic Church, no intermediary is needed between the Bible and the believer. As a consequence, Protestant Churches have no Magisterium, such as the Catholic Church. Therefore Protestant Churches cannot declare a certain position to be the "official position". Each Christian is personally responsible for all his acts, including his ethical behaviour. There is no complete unanimity among all Protestants on ethics or on any other issue. Human dignity, personal rights and self-determination have to be respected in each ethical consideration. The supersession of the Old Mosaic Covenant (including traditional Jewish law or Halakhah, maintained in Catholicism) by the New Covenant and by Christian Theology has an important impact on Protestant ethics in reproductive medicine. In the New Covenant, the Protestants Churches did not maintain the mandatory obligation from the old Mosaic Covenant to be fruitful and to multiply: there is no divine obligation by God to procreate. As a consequence, contraception is not a sin and not unethical. The status of the embryo is the key for the ethical consideration of all methods used in reproductive medicine. Most representatives of modern Protestant theology and bioethics defend the opinion that the embryo is not an independent human being as is the newborn child. For most Protestant bio-ethicists, as long as an embryo has no nervous system, no organs and no pain receptors, it cannot be seen as a human being sensu strictiori: the zygote is not yet a "human being". The ethical right to be protected prenatally increases gradually with the age and the development of the embryo. Following this so-called gradualist interpretation, the early stages of an embryo merit ethically a special status: although they have already "human life", they are not yet a "human being". All ethical considerations in modern reproductive medicine discussed in this review are based on this concept of the status of the embryo. It depends largely on the acceptance or rejection of this special status of the embryo, if a Protestant considers a certain method in reproductive medicine to be ethical or unethical. PMID:24079450
The history of infection control is ancient and inextricably bound to the histories of disease, medicine, and nursing. This history reveals the beliefs about the cause of infectious disease through time and the remedies enacted in response. Implicit in this history is an ethical history reflecting the relationship of the infected individual to the group and the power of the state to institute protective measures. In the Middle Ages, for example, a requiem mass or mass for the dead was held for lepers in which the church was draped in black and dirt thrown on the lepers' head. Afterward, they were lead to the leprosaria and given a rattle they were required to use to warn others of their approach. PMID:10222928
Schmid, M M; Liaschenko, J
There are many possibilities for the use of controversial issues such as animal experimentation in biology classrooms. Outlines a series of three lessons that asked senior biology students to consider the issue of animal experimentation from three perspectives. (Author/LM)
Van Rooy, Wilhelmina
Fresh embryos resulting from in vitro fertilization, including many of poor quality, can provide sources of human embryonic stem cell lines. We consider why some donate such embryos for this research, address relevant ethical and policy issues, and present core guidelines for fresh embryo donation based on those of Canada. PMID:18462692
Cohen, Cynthia B; Brandhorst, Bruce; Nagy, Andras; Leader, Arthur; Dickens, Bernard; Isasi, Rosario M; Evans, Donald; Knoppers, Bartha M
The statutory and regulatory requirements governing medical device development and approval are reviewed. Some of the procedures that the US Food and Drug Administration has implemented to loosen the strictures that impede development and approval of new medical devices are discussed. Some of the ethical issues associated with these procedures are examined. PMID:18238327
Bronzino, J D; Flannery, E J; Wade, M
This article focuses on ethical issues faced in evaluation practice from the viewpoint of third generation of activity theory, which gives a constructive perspective on how contradictions can be a driving force behind interorganizational learning and development in multiactor networks. The problem field is firstly addressed through an illustration…
Technologically Enhanced Performance (TEP) is the application of technology to improve the performance of knowledge workers. TEP is both an intellectual and ideological complement to the field of Adult Education. As such, much can be learned about ethical issues associated with implementing TEP from the established research and literature base in…
Mabry, Christie Knittel; O'Driscoll, Tony
Knowledge of issues that include due process, discrimination, validity, reliability, and inference will assist school administrators in reworking evaluation systems to meet legal and ethical requirements. In so doing, systems become more research based, accurate, and of value in improving teacher effectiveness and providing defensible evidence for…
Presents results of an exploratory study of social workers' views on physician-assisted suicide (PAS), situations in which PAS would be favored, and whether there is a difference in education or training on mental health issues, ethics, or suicide between social workers who favor PAS and those who oppose PAS. (BF)
Manetta, Ameda A.; Wells, Janice G.
This paper reviews some of the issues connected with questions of ethics, health economics, radiation dose and referral criteria arising from a workshop held under the auspices of the Sentinel Research Program FP6-012909. An extensive bibliography of further reading is included. (authors)
In the light of recent media-driven furores concerning the sensitive matter of patient consent, and the new legislation that impinges upon this issue, the nature of ethical practices for epidemiological research needs to be looked at anew. This paper considers the present landscape, with particular reference to the nuclear workforce and BNFL's current practice in this regard. (author)
This special feature describes the ethical issues in international collaborative research on the human genome, both regarding the Human Genome Project (HGP), which is concerned with genetic mapping, and the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP), which is an effort to document the genetic variation of the human species worldwide. 88 refs.
Knoppers, B.M.; Hirtle, M.; Lormeau, S. [Universite de Montreal (Canada)
This research explores the impact of coercive, mimetic, and normative isomorphic pressures on the coverage and offering of courses addressing ethical, social, and sustainability issues (ESSI) in business schools' graduate marketing curricula. Data from the Aspen Institute's Beyond Grey Pinstripes program are analyzed to detect if…
Selected clinical and ethical issues associated with providing supervision involving family violence cases are outlined. It is argued that supervisees helping clients with trauma histories require skills beyond learning how to process the trauma with their clients. Advocacy, social action, and coordinating case conferences are some of the…
McBride, Dawn L.
The authors present the development of the Ethical and Legal Issues in Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale (ELICSES). The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) present a rationale for the ELICSES, (b) review statistical analysis procedures used to develop the ELICSES, and (c) offer implications for future research and counselor education.
Mullen, Patrick R.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Conley, Abigail H.
Full Text Available Professional public relations bodies internationally have established ethics codes in an attempt to regulate members’ ethical behaviour. This paper critiques the code-based framework on philosophical and practical grounds, suggesting that such frameworks are inadequate because they leave practitioners free to interpret these guides in ways that advance their own and their clients’ interests. We argue that this latitude does not foster ethical behaviour. We then contrast rule-following,action-based ethics with agent-based ethics, conceived in Aristotelian terms, and suggest that the virtue ethics advanced by Aristotle and his interpreters represents a more challenging but more authentically ethical path for practitioners to consider.
To describe leadership as ethical is largely a perceptional phenomenon informed by beliefs about what is normatively appropriate. Yet there is a remarkable scarcity in the leadership literature regarding how to define what is “normatively appropriate”. To shed light on this issue, we draw upon Relational Models Theory (Fiske: 1992, Psychological Review, 99, 689-723), which differentiates between four types of relationships: communal sharing, authority ranking, equality matching, and marke...
Giessner, S. R.; Quaquebeke, N.
Raises issues of unethical student behavior in cooperative education, with examples of theft, abuse of workplace e-mail, fraudulent timesheets, and wrongful unemployment claims. Discusses new opportunities for unethical behavior created by technology and ways educators can respond. (SK)
2 concepts are central to the ethics of government family planning policies in the US: the goal of equality for women depends on control over their reproductive lives; and the Constitution protects liberty and privacy. Both of these considerations are grounded on constitutional principles that recognize the primacy of individual decision making, particularly when that decision making involves religious, ethical, or moral choices about private areas of one's life. The guarantee of individual liberty requires that both privacy and personal choice prevail over the mandatory imposition of a family planning policy for either demographic, religious, or ideological reasons. The Supreme Court, when it overturned restrictive abortion laws in 1973, based its decision on the constitutional right of privacy. Poor women and minors are particularly vulnerable to restrictions in the areas of family planning and reproductive health. For both of these classes of women, the ability to make choices has been diminished by such legal requirements as mandatory parental involvement or by the withdrawal of public funds for contraceptive or abortion services. For those persons who must depend on public assistance for medical care, legal restrictions on how public money is spent can be as effective as outright prohibitions. Nor are physicians exempt from financial restrictions. If doctors who counseled patients about family planning or provided them with contraceptives were rendered ineligible from government benefits, the effect would be similar to that of making the activities illegal. In 1976 Congress virtually ended public funding for abortion services, although it continues to fund all other legal and medically necessary services. Through financial restrictions, the US family planning policy treats poor women in a discriminatory manner. Although the Supreme Court has stated that minors have a right to both contraceptives and abortion, minors as a class enjoy less constitutional protection than adult women. Consequently, minors' rights to confidential reproductive health care are increasingly being limited. The articulated purpose of laws restricting minors' confidentiality is to involve parents and thus somehow enhance the "wisdom" of a minor's decision, but such laws have an impact that is punitive. In June 1983 the Supreme Court reaffirmed its 1973 decision when it ruled that the government cannot interfere with a woman's "fundamental right to the highly personal choice whether or not to terminate her pregnancy." PMID:12338973
Abstract Background Human biomonitoring (HBM) has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing into focus the conditions of ...
I will discuss issues which can be seen as taken strictly from the science fiction literature. Nonetheless, I would like to demonstrate that those issues not so far from now will have a big influence on the ethical discourse and also the law and social philosophy. The first part aims at clarifying concept of “cyborg” and “cyborgization”. I will consider only meanings coined for scientific or philosophical purposes. I will also indicate two experiments, which bring to life “the first...
Full Text Available One of the most controversial discussions about parenthood and the Internet is about the sexual offenses that children can face when surfing the Web. Moreover, how parents can protect them effectively is another point of interestin the current society. However, this issue has not been analysed from the ethical point of view due to the lack of cyberethics nowadays. Hence, in this article, the most common online threats against children are discussed considering the utilitarianism, the contractarianism, and the pluralism.Additionally, some procedures applied to protect children are analysed using the mentioned ethical frameworks.
Denys A. Flores
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The quest for sustainable use of the planet will require evidence, analysis and judgment from a wide array of disciplines. In order to produce a systematic and orderly analysis of this information, a synthesis will be essential. This synthesis will be generated most effectively if the individuals designing the research and providing the data interact in a variety of ways. Disciplines are isolated from each other and not accustomed to working together; however, this isolation is changing rapidly. Still, there are many issues not yet satisfactorily resolved. This manuscript illustrates these issues and makes suggestions for improving the situation.
John Cairns Jr.
Purpose: This paper explores ethical issues related to the involvement of children in health-related research through the application of a conceptual model (the Miller and Kenny framework) to a current clinical trial on casting protocols for equinus gait of children with cerebral palsy (CP).
Kelly, Barbara; Mackay-lyons, Marilyn J.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive process for identifying and addressing primarily ethical issues related to the psychology profession in South Africa. In fulfilling this purpose, research was conducted of relevant ethical and to a lesser extent, legal aspects pertaining to the psychology profession. In an attempt to prevent unprofessional conduct claims against psychologists from succeeding and to alert psychologists to the concurrent ethical problems that may lead to malpractice suits, this article offers material on some important issues – in the context of forensic psychology – such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology as a profession, the Ethical Code of Professional Conduct to which a psychologist should adhere, ethical aspects and issues pertaining to forensic psychology in general, some ethical issues pertaining to child forensic psychology, summary guidelines for ethical decision-making and some steps to follow to ensure sound ethical decisionmaking.
While cancer rates continue to increase, therapy has dramatically decreased the mortality rates. The increased efficacy of current therapies may unfortunately have profound toxic effects on gamete function in both adolescent and reproductive age groups, with infertility as an expected consequence of cancer therapy. Significant progress in the advancement of fertility preservation therapies provides realistic options for future fertility in cancer survivors. However, a number of challenging issues need to be considered when presenting fertility preservation options. This overview highlights some of these considerations including religious-cultural-ethical values, access to care and cost of services, developmental capacity and consent, and posthumous reproduction. PMID:24088162
Ayensu-Coker, Leslie; Essig, Ellen; Breech, Lesley L; Lindheim, Steven
To evaluate decision-making factors of pediatric surgeons when faced with ethical dilemmas in a clinical setting, questionnaires were mailed to members of the Canadian Association of Paediatric Surgeons. The surgeons were asked to respond to scenarios regarding ethical dilemmas in the treatment of children. Fifty-one responses (57%) were computer analyzed based on chosen responses to the clinical dilemma and demographic factors such as age, sex, marital status, country of citizenship, religion, and "religiousness," a determination of religious conviction as viewed by the respondent. In addition, ethical convictions were sought regarding abortion, fetal research, AIDS, HIV testing, denial of medical care due to religious beliefs (Jehovah's Witness), and limitations in health care access for indigents. In general, respondents found it difficult to separate ethical guidelines for determining aggressive treatment--absolute value of life; best interests of the child; parental authority; and ability of the child to engage in social, intellectual, or emotional attachments (quality of life)--in the face of actual patient care issues. In fact, results of this survey indicate that the operating surgeon applies his/her medical knowledge and surgical "experience" to each individual case, incorporating his or her own ethical beliefs (in a respondent's words: "In the operating room, the surgeon must satisfy his own conscience in making decisions") while cognizant of legal guidelines for "standard care" ("Decisions would be based on personal experience, and what the local society believes to be right").(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1479494
Bagwell, C E; Goodwin, S R
This article examines social research on the relations between (young) women's bodies and images through Bergson's method of intuition, which suggests that the only way a thing can be known is through coinciding with the uniqueness of its becoming. I suggest that in this aim, intuition is, necessarily, an intimate research method. Rather than apply Bergson's argument to this area of social research, I examine the resonances between his philosophical method and the moves within social research...
Making ethical decision rarely involves a simple yes or no answer. Matters of confidentiality are no different. This article examines how school counselors must draw the line between protecting a student's privacy and providing information to parents and administrators. (GCP)
This paper explores some ethical dilemmas faced while doing fieldwork. Ethical norms are not enough to appraise the relationship between researchers and participants; a reflexivity practice is needed to understand the dilemmas aroused during this process. Here four issues faced during fieldwork are presented. The academic social time usually defines the schedule of fieldwork; hence, the researcher may decide to follow the academic schedule or to arrange a different schedule with informants. Researchers usually decide which part of their identity will be disclosed for introducing themselves to the informants; but may also decide to hide who really he/she is. Researchers may cope with the dilemma to disclose their private life to informants during the fieldwork. Researchers also may decide to behave according to academic cultural norms of reciprocity or according to the cultural norms of participants. Finally, a reflexivity movement should be developed in Iberoamerica to define an agenda on ethical issues and to develop decolonizing strategies to debate these ethical dilemmas. PMID:22450400
User Experience Theory (UXT) provides us with criteria for designing products and technical systems for everyday activities (playing, learning, working,…) so as to satisfy users. Living Labs (LL), are plateforms used for the design and evaluation of technical systems. As such, they constitute tools that bring to this process some constraints., However these constraints have to be articulated to the UXT. In other words, UXT should specify the place, the role and function LL should play in the design of new products, how it should contribute to satisfying UX, and how the methods and techniques should be conceived or borrowed from other disciplines. UXT also raises ethical issues: impartiality (independent, public, replicable) of research models in the context of economical constraints (dependant, private, secret prototypes) and of industrial pressure, the use of intrusive and persuasive techniques, even with the prior informed consent of participants, ergo-marketing, deontology codes, the use of specific participants, belonging of an UX innovative solution, confidentiality with ICT, and so on. Because the UX, as well as LL literature, have shown little concerns for ethical considerations, till now, we define LL-UX ethical issues as a new research topic, and we list a number of problems to be solved in order to have an ethical LL-UX methodology for open innovation. PMID:22317534
Barcenilla, Javier; Tijus, Charles
Full Text Available Background/Aim: Various ethical problems have emerged regarding Assisted Reproduction (AR. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the attitudes of nursing students and professional nurses against assisted reproduction with emphasis on current ethical issues.Material and methods: The research sample consisted of 150 ATEI nursing students and 150 professional nurses. A questionnaire with open and closed type questionnaires was used. Contingency tables and ?2 test were used. Statistical significant was set at p<0.05. Results: Mean age of nurses was 34,41±7,28 years old, while mean age of students was 21,83±3,07 years old. Nursing students are more receptive regarding cryopreserved human germ cells for future use, cloning of embryos and AR above 40 years of age. Conclusions: The attitudes of professional nurses and nursing students upon bioethical issues of AR are quite different. Nursing students seem more receptive against new methods of AR.
Although the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors has published clear guidance on the authorship of scientific papers, short?term contract research workers, who perform much of the research that is reported in the biomedical literature, are often at a disadvantage in terms of recognition, reward and career progression. This article identifies several professional, ethical and operational issues associated with the assignment of authorship, describes how a university department...
Newman, A.; Jones, R.
Problem statement: The rapid spread of e-commerce has created tremendous opportunities for economic efficiency and customer choice. Use of the global Internet computer network for ecommerce activities provides some advantages to the consumers on their daily life. On the other hand Internet represents a new environment for unethical behavior. While e-commerce has witnessed extensive growth in last decade, consumers concerns regarding ethical issues also continue to increase. E...
Sinan Nardal; Ayse Sahin
• Cord blood banking raises ethical and legal issues which highlight the need for careful regulatory approaches to the emerging bioeconomy. • Consent processes for both private and public banking should be inclusive and representative of the different familial interests in the cord blood. • Property law is a potentially useful way of understanding the mechanisms for donation to both public and private banks. • Increasing tensions between public and private models of banking may require the adoption of hybrid forms of banking. PMID:23984790
Stewart, Cameron L; Aparicio, Lorena C; Kerridge, Ian H
To date, the management of nuclear waste has included sizable releases to the environment. The economic result of these releases is opposed by the ethical issue. Questions of who will be responsible for the wastes are asked. The danger of trusting the experts is pointed out: information is withheld, data are suppressed, etc. The nuclear industry needs to restore confidence, but restoring competence must come first
Cancer incidence will increase as the population ages; there will be a 50% increase in new cancer cases over the next 20 years, and the biggest rates of increase will occur in the developing world. Owing to technical advances in the care of critical illness, as it is the case in elderly people with advanced cancer, physicians, patients and families are often confronted with ambiguous circumstances in which medical advances may inadvertently prolong suffering and the dying process rather than bring healing and recovery. In this review of the ethical issues confronting physicians who care for patients with advanced life-limiting illnesses like cancer, a philosophical debate continues in the medical community regarding the rightness or wrongness of certain actions (e.g. physician-assisted death, euthanasia), while at the same time there is a strong desire to find a common ground for moral discourse that could guide medical decision-making in this difficult period in the lives of our patients. We will discuss how a good palliative care can be an alternative to these ethical dilemmas. Although some issues (e.g. the role of physician-assisted death in addressing suffering) remain very controversial, there is much common ground based on the application of the four major principles of medical ethics, no malfeasance, beneficence, autonomy and justice. Thus, the physician's primary commitment must always be the patient's welfare and best interests, whether the physician is treating illness or helping patients to cope with illness, disability and death. A key skill here is the communication of bad news and to negotiate a treatment plan that is acceptable to the patient, the family and the healthcare team. Attention to psychosocial issues demands involvement of the patients and their families as partners. Physicians should be sensitive to the range of psychosocial distress and social disruption common to dying patients and their families. Spiritual issues often come to the fore. An interdisciplinary healthcare team can help in these areas. The goals of this review are to raise the awareness of doctors, nurses and other members of the healthcare team to the important ethical issues that must be addressed in providing medical care to elderly patients with advanced cancer; and also to encourage members of the healthcare team to take the ethical issues seriously so that we can improve the circumstances of a vulnerable group of patients-the elderly patients with cancer. PMID:24001765
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Human Research Protection (OHRP) has mandated that all research sites outside the United States that participate in research funded by the U.S. Government must file documentation certifying that each research site observes the Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects and has an independent ethics committee. Sites participating in trials sponsored by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) must also undergo regular on-site audits.
In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation – ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide an update of selected topics that have evolved since 2005.
Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kaariainen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Francoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stephane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan
Various initiatives have been undertaken by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to deregulate wholesale electric energy markets. These initiatives have focused on restructuring the transmission systems in the US and recently have culminated in a proposal requiring formation of and participation in regional transmission organizations. The overall form of regulation selected to determine rates for transmission entities as well as underlying regulatory decisions reached on key issues will have profound implications for transmission entities. For example, traditional cost-based regulation would require one set of accounting and reporting rules, while incentive-based regulation may not be subject to those same rules. An overview of some of the major accounting and financial reporting issues that will need to be considered is presented
Full Text Available The qualitative merit of examination or test-taking for diagnostic, placement and quality control is usually measured in terms of its appropriateness and the quality assurance of its outcomes. Consequently, it becomes inevitable that for any examination to be credible, it must possess key elements which are validity and reliability. These key elements can only be present if examination is free and fair, devoid of cheating and all sorts of malpractices. This presupposes that examination conduct must be guided by a set of rules and ethical standards. Considering the strategic importance of examinations in the society and the numerous unanswered questions of moral integrity bedevilling the conduct of public examinations in Nigeria, this paper articulated the ethical issues and challenges facing the correct conduct of public examinations in Nigeria. Suggestions and recommendations were proposed with a view to enhancing the qualitative merit and the integrity of the nation’s educational enterprise.
Arijesuyo Amos Emiloju
Elite gymnastics, and other sports where athletes and coaches are particularly concerned with aesthetic considerations, weight and shape, are fields within which the risk of eating disorders may be unusually high. Adolescent gymnasts, developing their own sense of self, at a time of life where body image concerns are common, often compete at the very top of the sport with a need to maintain a body shape and weight optimal for elite performance. Research into this field should address the range of sociological and ethical aspects of eating disorders in elite sport, their prevalence as well as the ethos of the sport itself. This paper addresses a range of conceptual, ethical and methodological issues relevant to conducting research in this sensitive yet important field. PMID:24533496
Tan, Jacinta; Bloodworth, Andrew; McNamee, Mike; Hewitt, Jeanette
Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of consumers’ ethical buying intentions on their buying behavior. Using a survey approach, the findings suggest the link between ethical buying intentions and behavior depends on consumers’ awareness of the brand’s general corporate social responsibility activities. Only when consumers with ethical purchase intentions are aware of the brand’s CSR activities can their intentions translate into behavior.
This study investigates the impact of consumers’ ethical buying intentions on their buying behavior. Using a survey approach, the findings suggest the link between ethical buying intentions and behavior depends on consumers’ awareness of the brand’s general corporate social responsibility activities. Only when consumers with ethical purchase intentions are aware of the brand’s CSR activities can their intentions translate into behavior.
Alexandra Madar; Huang, Hazel H.; Ting-Hsiang Tseng
Discusses ethical issues related to the Internet based on two speeches given at the Online 95 conference. Topics include pornography; copyright; libel and slander; and censorship imposed on the Internet by the secret service in Israel. (LRW)
Online & CD-ROM Review, 1996
This qualitative study describes midwives' experiences in providing care in both pregnancy termination and childbirth in Japan. Midwives working in the general hospital maternity unit assist in both, which is an ethical issue warranting further exploration. Eleven midwives working in a general hospital were interviewed using a semistructured interview, and responses were coded using thematic analysis. Two major themes emerged: the experience of midwives involved in childbirth and pregnancy termination (three subthemes: confusion about care of the baby and aborted fetus, inability to cater to different mothers' needs, and establishing emotional control) and professional awareness and attitude as a midwife (three subthemes: consistency with professional principles, suppression of feelings in relation to aborted fetus, and previous and current professional identities). We found that midwives are isolated in this important social moral issue and its accompanying professional confusion. Suppressing their feelings remains the most common way of dealing with the ambivalence of the roles they fulfill. Improved working conditions and enhanced training on aspects of professional ethics would assist in reducing professional confusion. PMID:22093688
Full Text Available This is a paper based on empirical investigation conducted in Western India between 2002 and 2012 especially at a time when the Indian economy is in a stage of transition from state capitalism to free market capitalism, albeit both of a retarded variety. It takes the 7 Ps of services marketing and cross verifies responses against seven dimensions of ethical conduct. The study is based on questionnaires followed by interviews. The target respondents were life insurance employees of banc assurance involved in marketing life insurance policies to customers in the urban sector. The study brought to the fore the fact that commissions were more important that telling the truth while selling policies. In the process ethical considerations conveniently went out of the window. To protect the interest of the unsuspecting clients a plea is made to have governance machinery in place that will make the insurance marketing personnel accountable for what and how they sell their wares. This need is especially felt in a country where the social security net is virtually non existent and the erstwhile joint family system is on a fast decline. In such circumstances a lack of ethical norms on the part of the insurer is an unacceptable sociological proposition and borders on gross unethical behaviour. The task of people management experts to address this issue is of the paramount importance and urgency if the Indian life insurance industry is to sustain its social image in a highly competitive market where foreign players are steadily entering the domestic scene.
Sorab Georgy Sadri
Heart disease is a complex condition that is a leading cause of death worldwide. It is often seen as a disease of affluence, yet is strongly associated with a gradient in socio-economic status. Its highly complex causality means that many different facets of social and economic life are implicated in its aetiology, including factors such as workplace hierarchy and agricultural policy, together with other well-known factors such as what passes for individual 'lifestyle'. The very untangling of causes for heart disease thus inevitably raises social, moral and political issues. These include the proper role of the individual and of larger social forces in its aetiology, prevention and treatment. The construction of risk factors for heart disease likewise is enmeshed with questions of distributive justice in the responsible targeting of those at risk for heart disease, a debate which has received much overt attention in the medical literature, but less attention within the ethical literature. Strategies for addressing a condition of such complex causality can be highly diverse, from pharmaceutical to social interventions, and value issues attach to the choice and presentation of such strategies. For example, prevention strategies may raise complex issues of responsibility and of judgements of what it is to 'live well'. Further ethical debate on this highly political disease would be welcome. PMID:19531165
Though not often addressed as a moral issue, the incomes of physicians and other health professionals are fraught with ethical significance. While there is no perfect means of determining appropriate income level, possible approaches include market worth, comparable worth, societal worth, and fairness. In fact, however, income is not the only reward that makes a medical career worthwhile, and a preoccupation with wealth can impede the pursuit of other equally worthy objectives. In an era when financial incentives and disincentives tend to receive the lionshare of attention, it is vital that physicians continue to bear these other objectives in mind. PMID:15668646
Gunderman, Richard B; Hubbard, Mark Adam
Concerns about the erroneous diagnosis of death and premature burial have been expressed from times immemorial. Patients with brain stem death have absolutely no chance of recovery. Brain death is considered at par with death in most of the countries. General public in most parts of the world shows reluctance to accept this concept due to different social, cultural and religious backgrounds and state of literacy and awareness. The criteria for the diagnosis of brain death have been established which include certain pre-conditions, exclusions and tests of the brain stem function. These criteria are universally accepted. The criteria in children are somewhat different from the adults. The subject is intimately related with organ transplantation. If the patients is registered as organ donor or the family consents, organs can be harvested from brain dead patients for transplantation. Pakistan is amongst the few countries where no legislation exists to accept brain death as being at par with death of an individual, and to facilitate and regulate, cadaveric organ donation and transplantation. (author)
Article is an exploration of some of the ethical issues facing rehabilitation counselors who provide clinical supervision. Ethical issues related to competence, evaluation and due process, dual relationships, confidentiality, and informed consent are discussed. (Contains 28references, 2 tables, and 1 appendix.) (Author)
Blackwell, Terry L.; Strohmer, Douglas C.; Belcas, Eva M.; Burton, Kathryn A.
In the world of microfinance, interest rate ethics is an important issue, thrown into the limelight by the Initial Public Offering of Compartamos which resulted in millions of dollars of gains, some of which found their way into private pockets. These high gains were based on high interest rates, raising ethical questions. The paper then uses a stakeholder analysis to explain the interests of different stakeholders in this case and present that fairness to one group of stakeholders is often a...
In the absence of scientific clarity about the potential health effects of occupational exposure to nanoparticles, a need exists for guidance in decisionmaking about hazards, risks, and controls. An identification of the ethical issues involved may be useful to decision makers, particularly employers, workers, investors, and health authorities. Because the goal of occupational safety and health is the prevention of disease in workers, the situations that have ethical implications that most af...
Asserting that immigration reform and related issues have commanded sustained attention in the opening weeks of the 99th Congress, this paper provides an overview of important developments in this area, and highlights steps taken by the National Council of La Raza to help shape these developments. The developments discussed include: (1) The…
National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.
Addresses issues in preparing teachers to be moral decision makers, examining assumptions in holistic teacher education. The article discusses how 195 teacher education programs address ethical and moral issues. It describes how a team of educators created and implemented a program addressing elements of holistic education, noting practical…
Chattin-McNichols, John; And Others
For pt.I see ibid., vol.9, no.2, p.79-81 (1990). The ethical issues raised by the fact that patients/subjects are less protected in non-investigational-device-exemption (non-IDE) use of unapproved medical devices than in IDE use are examined. Practice, research, and nonvalidated practice, an intervention that falls into the region between pure practice and pure research, are defined and examined with respect to non-IDE use of unapproved medical devices. Two types of non-IDE use are considered: that which would be permitted under the feasibility studies mechanism, and emergency use. Ethical issues in both cases are discussed. It is concluded that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) must not only expand the freedom of scientific investigators to develop new medical devices, allowing flexibility in defined non-IDE contexts that will not jeopardize the safety or welfare of patients, but also clearly and concisely define the procedures which outline this expanded freedom. PMID:18238337
Bronzino, J D; Flannery, E J; Wade, M
Social consensus is considered to be a necessary condition for a policy to be introduced and implemented effectively. This is the case with the approval, regulation and prohibition of certain advanced medical research and technology, especially when they could invoke moral disputes in society. Public policies on organ transplantation, definition of death, euthanasia, genetic screening and diagnosis, and human stem cell research are recent examples. The concept of consensus, however, is elusive, along with the measures to secure it. Technocratic decision making, as a paternalistic activity frequently led by experts, sometimes poses a challenge to democratic decision making, supposedly based on a well-informed and rational public. It also remains to be proved whether public involvement in policymaking can be a solution to ethical value conflicts in society. From the perspective of policy sciences, this paper first introduces the concept of consensus, especially consensus on moral issues in pluralistic societies, and its implications to public policy, including citizen participation in decision making. Then, it briefly explains the historical background with which social consensus and public involvement have increasingly flourished in the field of technology assessments and technology policy making, including biomedical technology. Next, major institutions, governmental and nongovernmental, involved in the ethical aspects of medical research and technology, are presented along with their efforts for citizen participation. Finally, the paper discusses some of the future agendas on this issue. PMID:15007900
Full Text Available During the past ten years the complex ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI typically surrounding large-scale genetic biobank research initiatives have been intensely debated in academic circles. In many ways genetic epidemiology has undergone a set of changes resembling what in physics has been called a transition into Big Science. This article outlines consequences of this transition and suggests that the change in scale implies challenges to the roles of scientists and public alike. An overview of key issues is presented, and it is argued that biobanks represent not just scientific endeavors with purely epistemic objectives, but also political projects with social implications. As such, they demand clever maneuvering among social interests to succeed.
Klaus Lindgaard Hoeyer
Article integrates current knowledge on social work ethics and introduces the concept of a social work ethics audit to aid social workers in their efforts to identify pertinent ethical issues; review and assess the adequacy of their current ethics-related practices; modify their practices as needed; and monitor the implementation of these changes.…
Reamer, Frederic G.
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This paper discusses ethical dilemmas in early childhood education as identified by 26 kindergarten and early elementary school teachers. Ethical dilemmas are investigated in the theoretical framework of virtue epistemology. The method used in the study is a relational reading of teachers' narratives. Interpretive accounts are created to allow…
Tirri, Kirsi; Husu, Jukka
Denial of pregnancy is an important condition that is more common than expected, with an incidence at 20 weeks gestation of approximately 1 in 475. The proportion of cases persisting until delivery is about 1 in 2500, a rate similar to that of eclampsia. Denial of pregnancy poses adverse consequences including psychological distress, unassisted delivery and neonaticide. It is difficult to predict which women will develop denial of pregnancy. There are a number of forms of denial of pregnancy, including psychotic and non-psychotic variants. Denial of pregnancy is a 'red flag' that should trigger referral for psychiatric assessment. A national registry may help to provide more information about this condition and implement appropriate care. This condition poses challenging legal and ethical issues including assessment of maternal capacity, evaluation of maternal (and possibly fetal) best interests and the possibility of detention in hospital. PMID:21725094
Jenkins, Angela; Millar, Simon; Robins, James
As the focus on the origin of modern man appears to be moving from eastern to southern Africa, it is recognised that indigenous populations in southern Africa may be the most genetically diverse on the planet and hence a valuable resource for human genetic diversity studies. In order to build regional capacity for the generation, analysis and application of genomic data, the Southern African Human Genome Programme was recently launched with the aid of seed funding from the national Department of Science and Technology in South Africa. The purpose of the article is to investigate pertinent ethical, legal and social issues that have emerged during the planning stages of the Southern African Human Genome Programme. A careful consideration of key issues such as public perception of genomic research, issues relating to genetic and genomic discrimination and stigmatisation, informed consent, privacy and data protection, and the concept of genomic sovereignty, is of paramount importance in the early stages of the Programme. This article will also consider the present legal framework governing genomic research in South Africa and will conclude with proposals regarding such a framework for the future. PMID:22908741
de Vries, Jantina; Slabbert, Melodie; Pepper, Michael S
Insights from social science are increasingly used in the field of applied ethics. However, recent insights have shown that the empirical branch of business ethics lacks thorough theoretical grounding. This article discusses the use of the Rawlsian methods of wide reflective equilibrium and overlapping consensus in the field of applied ethics. Instead of focussing on one single comprehensive ethical doctrine to provide adequate guidance for resolving moral dilemmas, these Rawlsian methods see...
This paper holds that despite, or perhaps because of, the development of recent ideas about diversity and cultural relativity, universities are obligated to teach communication ethics. Further, it holds that the implications of giving bachelor's degrees to students who do not have a solid grasp of universal ethical guidelines are potentially…
Martinson, Jay; Haughey, Paul
Full Text Available This essay outlines the preliminary structure of a moral ontology of accounting understood as discourse. Tospeak of an ontology of accounting is to speak of the most general features of accounting, those features of itsexistence that are present irrespective of variations in observed “accountings,” of ways in which accountingmanifests itself in lived experience. To speak of a moral ontology is to construe those general features asproducts of human choices and actions which follow from axiological (value-based commitments to pursuethe good and just life, however that life might be understood, and indeed understood differently by differentpersons. Thus a moral ontology stands in distinction from, for example, a naturalistic ontology, one “freedfrom the freedom” of axiological horizons. Within its embeddedness in a moral ontology, the enactment ofaccounting takes empirical form as discourse – as an act of someone saying (writing something aboutsomething to someone else (Ricoeur, 1976; Arrington & Francis, 1993. Thus if we seek to understandaccounting’s force in the world, a force that is always valued and evaluated in terms of consequences for thegood and just life, we get our most general understandings from attending to the ethics of language and itsuse. My task in this essay is to introduce the structure of what the elements of accounting’s relation to theethics of language and its use might be. Expanding upon that structure remains a task for future work.
C. Edward Arrington
Ethics refers to a set of rules that define right and wrong behavior, used for moral decision making. In this case, computer ethics is one of the major issues in information technology (IT) and information system (IS). The ethical behaviour of IT students and professionals need to be studied in an attempt to reduce many unethical practices such as software piracy, hacking, and software intellectual property violations. This paper attempts to address computer-related scenarios that can be used...
In Turkey, there was no legal regulation of research on human beings until 1993. In that year "the amendment relating to drug researches" was issued. The main objectives of the regulation are to establish a central ethics committee and local ethics committees, and to provide administrative control.There are no compulsory clinical ethics lectures in the medical curriculum, so it is also proposed that research ethics committees (RECs) play a central educational role by helping physicians to be ...
Retention and turnover of staff, particularly highly skilled nurses, are important issues for administrators in the current health care environment. The purpose of this article is to review the literature to improve our understanding of factors related to staff retention. Group cohesion, job stress, manager style, and autonomy are examined. Strategies to improve retention, which focus on these critical factors, are described. PMID:12271763
Wells, Nancy; Roberts, Laura; Medlin, Lisa Cagle
Full Text Available Ethics refers to a set of rules that define right and wrong behavior, used for moral decision making. In this case, computer ethics is one of the major issues in information technology (IT and information system (IS. The ethical behaviour of IT students and professionals need to be studied in an attempt to reduce many unethical practices such as software piracy, hacking, and software intellectual property violations. This paper attempts to address computer-related scenarios that can be used to examine the computer ethics. The computer-related scenario consists of a short description of an ethical situation whereby the subject of the study such as IT professionals or students, then rate the ethics of the scenario, namely attempt to identify the ethical issues involved. This paper also reviews several measures of computer ethics in different setting. The perceptions of various dimensions of ethical behaviour in IT that are related to the circumstances of the ethical scenario are also presented.
The context of a field is always necessary to regard both when designing and analysing results derived from qualitative methodology. When entering into a field it is necessary to consciously reflect on design and objectivity, and the case will discuss these reflections. Throughout the case the emphasis is on applied qualitative methodology and the contribution this may bring to social science. The reflections on the use of qualitative methodology in this field work will deal with relational, emotional and ethical issues when interviewing and doing observation. Though the empirical setting is in South-East Asia, the discussions and the interrelatedness of methodology, theory and empirical reflections will present points, which prove to be applicable to fields throughout the world. As references this case will contribute to the field by applying both Scandinavian and international approaches to the methodological and theoretical perspectives.
Svensson, Christian Franklin
This case study discusses qualitative fieldwork in Malaysia. The trends in higher education led to investigating how and why young Indians and Chinese in Malaysia are using the university to pursue a life strategy. Given the importance of field context in designing and analysing research based on a qualitative methodology, conscious reflection on research design and objectivity is important when doing fieldwork. This case study discusses such reflections. Emphasis throughout is given to applied qualitative methodology and its contributions to the social sciences, in particular having to do with relational, emotional, and ethical issues associated with interviewing and personal observation. Although the empirical setting of this case is Southeast Asia, the various discussions and interrelatedness of methodology, theory, and empirical reflections will prove applicable to field studies throughout the world.
Svensson, Christian Franklin
Effort towards the development of a vestibular implant for human use are being made. This paper will summarize the first important steps conducted in Geneva towards this ambitious goal. Basically, we have faced three major issues. First, an ethical issue. While it was clear that such development would require the collaboration of human volunteers, it was also clear that stimulation of the vestibular system may produce periods of significant incomfort. We know today how to minimize (and potentially eliminate) this type of incomfort. The second issue was anatomical. The anatomical topology of the vestibular system is complex, and of potentially dangerous access (i.e. facial nerve damage). We choose not to place the electrodes inside the ampullae but close the vestibular nerve branches, to avoid any opening of the inner ear and limit the risk of hearing loss. Work on cadaver heads, confirmed by acute stimulations trials on patients undergoing ear surgery under local anesthesia, demonstrated that it is possible to stimulate selectively both the posterior and lateral ampullary nerves, and elicit the expected vertical and horizontal nystagmic responses. The third issue was physiological. One of the goal of a vestibular implant will be to produce smooth eye movements to stabilize gaze direction when the head is moving. Indeed, after restoring a baseline or "rest" activity in the vestibular pathways with steady-state electrical stimulation, we demonstrated that modulation of this stimulation is producing smooth eye movements. In conclusion, humans can adapt to electrical stimulation of the vestibular system without too much discomfort. Surgical access to the posterior and lateral ampullary nerves have been developed and, electrical stimulation of the vestibular system can be used to artificially elicit smooth eye movements of different speeds and directions, once the system is in adapted state. Therefore, the major prerequisites to develop a prototype vestibular implant for human use are fulfilled. PMID:22699147
Guyot, Jean-Philippe; Gay, Annietta; Kos, Maria Izabel; Pelizzone, Marco
Full Text Available Non-voluntary admission of mentally ill patients is charged with multiple ethical issues and dilemmas, the most complicated being its dangerousness and predictability, the appropriate classification of patients into the corresponding risk category and the therapeutic decisions imposed in a paternalistic way. The paternalistic attitude of the physician is acceptable given that there is an obvious degree of social danger. The potentially violent, especially hetero-aggressive, behaviour has a great social impact resulting in patient stigmatization and isolation. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the social issues of patients with mental disorders, non-voluntary admitted. The study is retrospective and the data were collected from records of patients who have been non-voluntarily admitted from 2002 to 2011 in a psychiatric hospital in Iasi, Romania. The results show that among the risk factors in non-voluntary admission, hetero-aggressivity is one criterion under Article 45, paragraph a Law 487/2002, frequently met in the study batch. Additionally, many non-voluntary admitted patients with mental illness have no medical insurance, being unemployed, unmarried / divorced and having a low social support. Community must be tolerant towards the mentally ill, regardless of the social integration of these patients. After discharge, a better social support may improve the prognosis, influencing the occurrence and evolution of mental illnesses. A strong support network is protective whereas a weak or lacking support network would make patients more vulnerable to stressful life events.
Virtual colonoscopy (VC) is a minimally invasive CT examination that has continued to rapidly evolve and improve as a diagnostic screening tool. Current state-of-the-art VC technique has already been shown to be highly effective for screening at the University of Wisconsin. Although more widespread implementation of VC screening faces multiple challenges and barriers, these are all greatly overshadowed by the immediate need for increased patient compliance in effective colorectal screening programs. Given the wide availability of CT and the favorable safety profile compared with optical colonoscopy, VC holds significant potential for addressing a very important yet preventable public health concern. This paper will briefly address some of the major issues related to the general application of VC for colorectal screening, such as diagnostic performance, development of an acceptable screening algorithm, and several technique-related issues. (orig.)
Ethics and regulation of contemporary marketing communication practices: an exploration of the perceptions of UK-based consumers towards the ethical issues raised by product placement in British TV shows
Product placement, as a variant of television programme sponsorship, has become a unique and evolving marketing communications tool in which brands are seamlessly embedded within the consumer's experiential world. Although studies have suggested that consumer attitudes towards product placement are generally positive, several issues of ethical concern have emerged. To date, there is a marked shortage of studies that address particular ethical issues in specific contexts of product placement p...
Tiwsakul, Rungpaka; Hackley, Chris
Presença do tema ética profissional nos periódicos brasileiros de Ciência da Informação e Biblioteconomia / Presence of professional ethics issue in Brazilian journals of Information Science and Librarianship
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A presença de discussões acerca de temas relativos à Ética na produção científica brasileira de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação é o enfoque principal deste texto, que advém da análise de periódicos desses campos de conhecimento e da prática profissional. Para isso, selecionou-se um título po [...] r cada região político-administrativa brasileira, Sul, Sudeste, Centro-Oeste e Nordeste, dentre os existentes, cuja edição tivesse se mantido regular no período de 1997 a 2006. Em cada um desses títulos, a partir de palavras-chave previamente definidas, foram identificados os artigos e ensaios que trataram do tema. Com isso, buscava-se conhecer os fundamentos filosóficos e doutrinários, as temáticas e abordagens, e as tendências da discussão Ética na produção periódica brasileira de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação. Metodologicamente, o trabalho envolve a identificação dos periódicos e dos textos publicados sobre a temática; a leitura e a descrição dos mesmos; a identificação dos aspectos apontados nos objetivos pretendidos; a análise dos discursos utilizando a técnica do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo; e a organização das idéias contidas visando chegar a uma síntese. Foram localizados 10 textos produzidos por 16 autores, sendo dois de 1997, quatro de 2005, quatro distribuídos de 1998 a 2004; nenhum foi encontrado referente ao ano de 2006. Foram identificadas como fundamentos éticos as Doutrinas da Ética do Discurso, da Ética da Alteridade e da Teoria Ético-política da Justiça; e foram também identificadas as temáticas, abordagens e tendências da discussão sobre a Ética, que revelaram a questão da postura profissional determinada pelo quadro atual da sociedade e das tecnologias. Conclui-se que apesar de existir preocupação com o tema Ética por parte de alguns profissionais da informação que escrevem e publicam sobre o assunto, o mesmo ainda é pouco explorado na literatura e está mais dirigido para questões gerais. Abstract in english The presence of discussions on issues relating to ethics in Brazilian scientific production of Librarianship and Information Science is the main focus of this text, which comes from the periodic review of these fields of knowledge and professional practice. For this reason, picked up a scientific pe [...] riodical title for each brazilian administrative region, whose editing had been maintained regularly over the period 1997 to 2006. In each of these periodical titles, from keywords previously defined, have been identified articles and essays which addressed the theme. With this, trying to be informed of the reasons for philosophical and doctrinal, the themes and approaches and trends of the discussion Ethics in regular production of Brazilian Librarianship and Information Science. Methodologically, the work involved identification of journals and texts published on the subject, reading and description of them; identification of the aspects highlighted in the objectives pursued, analysis of speech using the technique of Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo collective subject of discourse) - DSC; organization of the ideas contained, aiming to reach a synthesis. We found 10 texts produced by 16 authors, 2 of 1997, 4 in 2005, 4 distributed from 1998 to 2004 and none was found regarding the year 2006. They were identified as ethical foundations, the doctrines of Ethics of Speech, the Ethics of Otherness and Ethical-Political Theory of Justice, in addition to the issues, approaches and trends of the discussion Ethics, which show the issue of professional attitude determined by the current picture of society and current technologies. We conclude that although there is concern about the ethics issue by some of the professionals who write and publish information on the subject, it is still little explored in literature and is more focused on general issues.
Francisco das Chagas de, Souza; Katiusa, Stumpf.
In recent years, the issue of management or governance of ethics within organisations in the public and private sectors has come to the fore. For several valid business reasons organisations have been forced to become socially responsible, to act with increased ethical sensitivity and to report on the organisation's performance relative to its ethics statement to all stakeholders. Organisations that recognise the strategic importance of ethics within business and pro-acti...
Many opinions and ideas about aging exist. Biological theories have taken hold of the popular and scientific imagination as potential answers to a "cure" for aging. However, it is not clear what exactly is being cured or whether aging could be classified as a disease. Some scientists are convinced that aging will be biologically alterable and that the human lifespan will be vastly extendable. Other investigators believe that aging is an elusive target that may only be "statistically" manipulatable through a better understanding of the operational principles of systems situated within complex environments. Not only is there confusion over definitions but also as to the safety of any potential intervention. Curing cell death, for example, may lead to cell cancer. The search for a cure for aging is not a clearly beneficial endeavour. This paper will first, describe contemporary ideas about aging processes and second, describe several current life extension technologies. Third, it analyses these theories and technologies, focusing on two representative and differing scientific points of view. The paper also considers the public health dilemma that arises from life extension research and examines two issues, risk/benefit ratio and informed consent, that are key to developing ethical guidelines for life extension technologies. PMID:16645801
Outlines techniques used in teaching a course in "life-line" ethics, in which the events of conception, birth and death are related to ethical issues of abortion, suicide, euthanasia, etc. Several modes of actively involving students are described. Lists seven reference for information on bioethical issues. (CS)
Bridger, James A.
Confidentiality has always been the most fundamental part of the counselor's code of ethics. Today's professional must rely on his own ethical priorities and on an ever-increasing knowledge of his field and his role in it, until the discrepancies between laws and regulations and personal involvements are made clear. (Author)
Kazalunas, John R.
Selective abortion of fetuses with Down syndrome is discussed in terms of abortion perspectives, genetic testing, legislation, and ethical principles. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, fidelity, and justice are offered as guidelines for the examination of legal standards imposed by legislation. (Author/PB)
Glover, Noreen M.; Glover, Samuel J.
The development of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) will radically transform our everyday life and social representations. These transformations will notably impact the working environment. The objective of this paper is to offer a first survey of the main ethical issues raised by the development of intelligent working environments (IWEs). It especially focuses on the capacity of such environments to collect and handle personal medical data. The first two sections of this paper aim to...
Nihan, Ce?line Ehrwein
Full Text Available Abstract Background As genetics technology proceeds, practices of genetic testing have become more heterogeneous: many different types of tests are finding their way to the public in different settings and for a variety of purposes. This diversification is relevant to the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues (ELSI surrounding genetic testing, which must evolve to encompass these differences. One important development is the rise of personal genome testing on the basis of genetic profiling: the testing of multiple genetic variants simultaneously for the prediction of common multifactorial diseases. Currently, an increasing number of companies are offering personal genome tests directly to consumers and are spurring ELSI-discussions, which stand in need of clarification. This paper presents a systematic approach to the ELSI-evaluation of personal genome testing for multifactorial diseases along the lines of its test characteristics. Discussion This paper addresses four test characteristics of personal genome testing: its being a non-targeted type of testing, its high analytical validity, low clinical validity and problematic clinical utility. These characteristics raise their own specific ELSI, for example: non-targeted genetic profiling poses serious problems for information provision and informed consent. Questions about the quantity and quality of the necessary information, as well as about moral responsibilities with regard to the provision of information are therefore becoming central themes within ELSI-discussions of personal genome testing. Further, the current low level of clinical validity of genetic profiles raises questions concerning societal risks and regulatory requirements, whereas simultaneously it causes traditional ELSI-issues of clinical genetics, such as psychological and health risks, discrimination, and stigmatization, to lose part of their relevance. Also, classic notions of clinical utility are challenged by the newer notion of 'personal utility.' Summary Consideration of test characteristics is essential to any valuable discourse on the ELSI of personal genome testing for multifactorial diseases. Four key characteristics of the test - targeted/non-targeted testing, analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility - together determine the applicability and the relevance of ELSI to specific tests. The paper identifies and discusses four areas of interest for the ELSI-debate on personal genome testing: informational problems, risks, regulatory issues, and the notion of personal utility.
Janssens A Cecile JW
Short-term service-learning programs that focus on global health are expanding rapidly, spurred by students' desire to be of service in a world that has been made to seem small by new technology and universities' willingness to embrace the goal of educating global citizens. In this commentary, the author uses experiences from a recent trip she led to Ghana as a backdrop against which to explore some of the ethical and practical issues that arise when U.S. students work in health-related programs in developing countries. At minimum, the author argues, these programs should lead students to consider issues such as which basic services people are entitled to, regardless of where and in what circumstances they live, and how differences in access to social and economic resources contribute to health disparities on a global scale. She also suggests that sponsoring institutions should consider what is owed to the countries and communities in which their students learn. Finally, she underscores the circumstances under which service-learning programs can truly benefit the cause of global health. PMID:23887005
Based at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), the Ethics Education Library seeks "to connect people interested in developing new and interesting ethics training methods and programs, to disseminate best practices and tools that have already been developed, and to ultimately foster the creation of new methods and programs for teaching students about ethical issues inherent in research and practice." Visitors to the site can take advantage of the Browse feature to look for online tutorials, syllabi, teaching modules, and case studies. The case studies section has over 5,500 items, some of which are available in full and all of which have an abstract for perusal. Additionally, visitors can use the Publications area to find books, journal articles and other published materials relating to all areas of ethics education. These materials are arranged topically into sections that include bioethics, business ethics, and media ethics. Finally, visitors can scroll through the Ethics News on the right-hand side of the page for more information about current appearances of ethics in the daily news.
On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The goal was not to provide answers to any of the issues or problems, simply to identify those topics that deserve our attention as a society. Some of the issues may benefit from legislation at the federal or state levels, others may be more appropriately addressed by the private sector. Participants at the roundtable included over a dozen experts in the areas of microbiology, intellectual property, agricultural biotechnology, microbial genomics, bioterrorism, economic development, biotechnology research, and bioethics. These experts came from federal and state government, industry and academia. The participants were asked to come to the roundtable with a written statement of the top three to five public policy/ ethical issues they viewed as most likely to be significant to the industry and to policy makers over the next several years.
Diane E. Hoffmann
Novas discusses the implications of a new study in PLoS Medicine, in which executives and senior managers from bioscience firms were asked what their companies were doing to promote ethical behaviour.
Epidemics of both HIV/AIDS and alcohol abuse in sub-Saharan Africa have spurred the conduct of local behavioral therapy trials for these problems, but the ethical issues involved in these trials have not been fully examined. In this paper, we discuss ethical issues that emerged during the conduct of a behavioral intervention adaptation and trial using cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in Eldoret, Kenya. The study was performed within our multina...
Papas, Rebecca K.; Gakinya, Benson N.; Baliddawa, Joyce B.; Martino, Steve; Bryant, Kendall J.; Meslin, Eric M.; Sidle, John E.
The article provides an overview of the main ethical and associated political-economic aspects of the preservation of born-digital content and the digitization of analogue content for purposes of preservation. The term “heritage” is used broadly to include scientific and scholarly publications and data. Although the preservation of heritage is generally seen as inherently “good,” this activity implies the exercise of difficult moral choices. The ethical complex...
Lor, Peter Johan; Britz, Johannes J.
This article starts with an overview of the author’s personal involvement—as an Operations Research consultant—in several engineering case-studies that may raise ethical questions; e.g., case-studies on nuclear waste, water management, sustainable ecology, military tactics, and animal welfare. All these case studies employ computer simulation models. In general, models are meant to solve practical problems, which may have ethical implications for the various stakeholders; namely, the mo...
PURPOSE: The aim of this paper is to further the theory and strengthen methodological approaches to the role of ethics in buyer-seller relationships. The paper explores opportunities to enhance response rates, validity and reliability in the research context of organisations seeking to understand the ethical beliefs their suppliers hold of their buying organisations. DESIGN / METHODOLOGY / APPROACH: The research universe is a select business group, all of which are technologically literat...
Chipp, K.; Goldman, M.; Kleyn, Nicola
Convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria vaccine trials in Africa: Report from the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme's Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre consultation, 10-11 February 2009, Durban, South Africa
Full Text Available Abstract Background Africa continues to bear a disproportionate share of the global HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB and malaria burden. The development and distribution of safe, effective and affordable vaccines is critical to reduce these epidemics. However, conducting HIV/AIDS, TB, and/or malaria vaccine trials simultaneously in developing countries, or in populations affected by all three diseases, is likely to result in numerous ethical challenges. Methods In order to explore convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trials in Africa, the Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre of the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme hosted a consultation on the Convergent Ethical Issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria Vaccine Trials in Africa in Durban, South Africa on the 10-11 February 2009. Results Key cross cutting ethical issues were prioritized during the consultation as community engagement; ancillary care obligations; care and treatment; informed consent; and resource sharing. Conclusion The consultation revealed that while there have been few attempts to find convergence on ethical issues between HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trial fields to date, there is much common ground and scope for convergence work between stakeholders in the three fields.
Full Text Available Entity-Relationship (ER modeling plays a major role in relational database design. The data requirementsare conceptualized using an ER model and then transformed to relations. If the requirements are wellunderstood by the designer and then if the ER modelis modeled and transformed to relations, the resultantrelations will be normalized. However the choice ofmodeling relationships between entities withappropriate degree and cardinality ratio has a verysevere impact on database design. In this paper, wefocus on the issues related to modeling binary relationships, ternary relationships, decomposing ternaryrelationships to binary equivalents and transforming the same to relations. The impact of applying highernormal forms to relations with composite keys is analyzed. We have also proposed a methodology whichdatabase designers must follow during each phase ofdatabase design
Full Text Available Introduction. This research article analyses the positions of Andalusian journalists in relation to especially sensitive issues. Methods. The study combines qualitative and quantitative techniques: in-depth interviews and a questionnaire-based survey, respectively. Results. The professional work of Andalusian journalists is based more on the predominant values of their communities than on the deontological codes of the profession, which are unknown by the vast majority. Conclusions. Journalists exhibit a liberal spirit, which is characteristic of a secular society, and believe that the freedom of expression should be respected when dealing with especially sensitive issues, which must be resolved according to the particular circumstances of each case.
JC Suárez Villegas
Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Hoy en día, existiendo mayor consenso sobre la virtud de enseñar ética y de continuar la educación moral de los jóvenes en el ámbito universitario, es preciso determinar ¿cuáles son los valores fundamentales y cuáles las condiciones pedagógicas de su enseñanza? Este artículo presenta los resultados [...] de una investigación tendiente a establecer la función realmente asignada a la enseñanza de la ética y a la educación moral de la persona en el contexto universitario. A partir de una investigación documental, seguida de un estudio comparado con muestreo teórico, se encontró que mientras el 52% de los programas revisados tenían al menos un curso asociado a la enseñanza de la ética, no hay contenidos orientados específicamente a la educación de la acción moral. En las carreras de derecho y medicina prima la tendencia hacia la ética profesional, mientras en ingeniería civil se encaminan a la responsabilidad social. Se concluyó, a partir del análisis del contenido de 120 asignaturas, que la formación moral de la persona sigue ausente del currículo universitario. Abstract in english Now that there is greater consensus on the merit of teaching ethics and continuing the moral education of youth at the university level, it is necessary to determine what constitute core values and the pedagogical conditions necessary for teaching them. This article presents the results of research [...] that attempts to establish the function effectively assigned to the teaching of ethics and moral education in the context of higher education. Based on documentary research, followed by a comparative study with theoretical sampling, we found that while 52% of the programs reviewed had at least one course related to the teaching of ethics, there were no contents geared specifically to the teaching of moral action. In law and medicine the trend toward professional ethics prevails, while engineering programs veer towards issues of social responsibility. Judging by our analysis of 120 course subjects, moral training of the individual is absent from university curricula.
María Eugenia, Guerrero Useda; Diomedes Andrés, Gómez Paternina.
Environmental responsibility of corporations has been changed drastically in the last 20 years. In 1980s, pollution prevention was the main mandate for corporations and in 1990s global scale environmental issues such as global warming must be also considered by at least industries. In the year of 2000, United Nations decided to make a challenge towards sustainability of human activities on the Earth, and since then, every corporation must take this concept into account when policy for its own business is described. Within this framework, some companies have succeeded to be evaluated as “environmental conscious companies” and enjoyed success also in their business. The reality of sustainability is very complex and any company must consider rather long future, say more than 30 years, in the strategy of its operation. All engineers should watch the direction and the norm carefully, which their own company is now aiming at, with enough knowledge regarding the trend of total human activities in relation to the limitation of the Earth.
The use of human embryos in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research raises significant ethical and policy issues associated with their donation. Recent research conducted in several countries assesses the percent of persons with cryopreserved and fresh supernumerary embryos willing to donate them for research, their reasons for considering this option, and the concerns they raise about its personal import. Such research provides new insights into rising ethical and policy questions associated with embryo donation for hESC research that should be addressed. In response to such questions, it is argued here that consent to the donation of supernumerary embryos for hESC research should be sought in two or three stages, depending on whether fresh or frozen embryos are at issue, in order to provide patients and their partners with sufficient time and information before they make a final decision. In addition, steps should be taken to support the voluntariness of their decisions by having personnel other than the treating reproductive specialist or stem cell investigators solicit their consent. Prospective embryo donors should also be given a choice about the uses to which hESCs derived from their donated embryos will be put in order to honor their ethical convictions and ensure that there are sufficient embryos for this research. The well-being and rights of those who donate embryos for this research require the sort of support and protection that can be provided by an ethical and policy framework that allows hESC investigations to move forward according to standards that are transparent and that resound with public values. PMID:19255878
Cohen, Cynthia B
The debate about ethics in research with human beings has historically emphasized experimental studies because of their greater potential to harm the subjects involved. However, observational studies also include risks and relevant questions to be discussed. This article aims to present and discuss the ethical aspects involved in the implementation of ELSA-Brasil, a longitudinal multicenter study, with public funding, in which the research subjects and investigators are employees of the same institutions. The procedures adopted to meet the ethical requirements and commitments are described, as well as the casuistics that guided the actions according to their guiding principles (beneficence, autonomy and social justice). We present some moral problems that required consideration of risks and benefits at the confluence with the study's objectives, and we conclude with comments on the peculiarities and the potential benefits of a longitudinal study. PMID:24346717
Aquino, Estela M L; Vasconcellos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Araújo, Maria Jenny; Santos, Simone M; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Duncan, Bruce B
This paper introduces the environmental issues (both real and perceived) associated with uranium exploration, mining, milling, and tailings management. As well, some of the issues pertaining to the closeout of uranium tailings areas are discussed. These issues have received considerable attention in Canada in public inquiries and hearings that have been held across the country. The major conclusions of some of these hearings are also noted
Two papers, Legal and Ethical Issues in the Regulation and Development of Engineering Achievements in Medical Technology parts I and II were written in 1990 by three authors of diverse backgrounds and published in the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine in March of the same year. Part I of the paper discusses the existing Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements that existed in 1990 to regulate the clinical trial process for medical devices, obtaining Marketing Approval and exceptions that may allow the use of unapproved devices. The paper discusses how the FDA has loosened some of the stringent regulations to further its goal of encouraging new development while protecting public health and maintaining ethical standards. Part H of the paper focuses on the ethical implications of the process of introducing a new technology to the market place, specifically in the usage of unapproved technologies for emergency use and feasibility studies. This paper discusses the topics covered in the two papers and the changes that have been made to the FDA guidelines since their publication in 1990. PMID:17959479
Purpose: This study investigates the moral framing of an ethical issue by various actors and looks at the agenda setting effects between news media and the active online public as represented in social media. Design: We coded 4114 sentences manually and conducted an analysis of conditional probability of co-occurrence between actors and issues to identify associative frames. An ARIMA model and time series are applied to detect the interplay between the active online public and news media over a period of three months. Findings: The analysis reveals different framings of the ethical issue by various actors. Furthermore, evidence of a bi-directional relationship between news media and the active online public is found, whereby the news media more strongly precedes social media. Originality: We apply an audience-driven framework that conceptualizes parts of the general public as the active online public. This is the first study, where a time series analysis of associated frames between news media and social media is conducted.
Etter, Michael; Vestergaard JÃ¸rgensen, Anne
HIV PREVENTION RESEARCH AMONG SEVERELY MENTALLY ILL LATINAS: AN EXAMINATION OF ETHICAL ISSUES IN THE CONTEXT OF GENDER AND CULTURE LA INVESTIGACIÓN DE LA PREVENCIÓN DE VIH EN MUJERES LATINAS CON ENFERMEDAD MENTAL GRAVE: EVALUACIÓN DE CUESTIONES ÉTICAS EN EL CONTEXTO DEL GÉNERO Y LA CULTURA PESQUISA SOBRE A PREVENÇÃO DO HIV EM MULHERES LATINAS COM ENFERMIDADE MENTAL GRAVE: UM EXAME DE QUESTÕES ÉTICAS NO CONTEXTO DO GÊNERO E DA CULTURA
We examine the interplay between ethical issues, gender, and culture in the context of our study which examines the context of HIV risk among Puerto Rican and Mexican women with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. Culture and gender are considered in the evaluation of ethical questions related to scientific issues, research team issues, analysis of risks and benefits of participating, confidentiality of data and privacy of the study participants, selection and recruitment, ...
Contributes systematic data on the attitudes of scientific experts who engage in human genetics research about the pros, cons, and ethical implications of genetic testing. Finds that they are highly supportive of voluntary testing and the right to know one's genetic heritage. Calls for greater genetic literacy. (Contains 87 references.) (Author/NB)
In response to the rapid growth of computer crime and such illegitimate practices as piracy and fraud, the National Institute of Justice and the Office for Educational Research and Improvement have formed a partnership to promote school programs on the ethical uses of new technologies. This report, the first of the partnership, is designed to…
Sivin, Jay P.; Bialo, Ellen R.
With increasing numbers of single-parent and two-career families, more parents and other community members lack the time to instill in children the values and ethics they have traditionally provided. This document addresses the challenges faced by educators as they teach these values, and it reports on successful approaches in the field, both on…
Amundson, Kristen J.
Educational researchers have a responsibility to ensure that in whatever research paradigm they work, the research that is conducted is done so within an "ethic of respect" to those who participate. This implies a number of responsibilities on the part of the researcher that include ensuring trust, dignity, privacy, confidentiality and anonymity.…
James, Nalita; Busher, Hugh
The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive process for identifying and addressing primarily ethical issues related to the psychology profession in South Africa. In fulfilling this purpose, research was conducted of relevant ethical and to a lesser extent, legal aspects pertaining to the psychology profession. In an attempt to prevent unprofessional conduct claims against psychologists from succeeding and to alert psychologists to the concurrent ethical problems that may lead to...
Full Text Available PURPOSE: We describe the critical steps of the laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP technique and discuss how they impact upon the pertinent issues regarding prostate cancer surgery: blood loss, potency and continence. RESULTS: A major advantage of LRP is the reduced operative blood loss. The precise placement of the dorsal vein complex stitch associated with the tamponading effect of the CO2 pneumoperitoneum significantly decrease venous bleeding, which is the main source of blood loss during radical prostatectomy. At the Cleveland Clinic, the average blood loss of our first 100 patients was 322.5 ml, resulting in low transfusion rates. The continuous venous bleeding narrowed pelvic surgical field and poor visibility can adversely impact on nerve preservation during open radical prostatectomy. Laparoscopy, with its enhanced and magnified vision in a relatively bloodless field allows for excellent identification and handling of the neurovascular bundles. During open retropubic radical prostatectomy, the pubic bone may impair visibility and access to the urethral stump, and the surgeon must tie the knots relying on tactile sensation alone. Consequently, open prostatectomy is associated with a prolonged catheterization period of 2 - 3 weeks. Comparatively, during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy all sutures are meticulously placed and each is tied under complete visual control, resulting in a precise mucosa-to-mucosa approximation. CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic approach may represent a reliable less invasive alternative to the conventional open approach. Despite the encouraging preliminary anatomical and functional outcomes, prospective randomized comparative trials are required to critically evaluate the role of laparoscopy for this sophisticated and delicate operation.
Sidney C. Abreu
This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed
This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.
This note by the secretariat seeks to focus discussions on some key issues regarding the design and functioning of the three new mechanisms, such as issues concerning mandates, cross-cutting as well as issues concerning individual mechanisms. The note addresses each mechanism separately in view of different origins, approaches, participants and possible applications. Reference is, however, made to similarities among the mechanisms, in particular where coordination of work on methodological and institutional issues and inter-institutional collaboration are concerned. The note suggests, in its concluding part, elements of a work programme up to and, to some extent, beyond COP 4. It draws upon the views submitted by Parties (document FCCC/SB/1998/MISC.1), contains reflections by the secretariat and builds on its consultations with other organizations having activities, under way or planned, that could contribute to the design or operation of the mechanisms. (au)
Full Text Available This article will discuss how m-commerce conducts transactions of the mobile device through Internet and how these technologies are developed throughout the years. The article will also judge the security and privacy levels when dealing with mobile commerce and what kind of issues are encountered when using mobile commerce systems. The article will also evaluate the solutions on how m-commerce issues are avoided and how they are tackled by the technology evolution
Ashish Wadhaval#1 , Rugved Mehta#2 , Ashlesha Gawade
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Na ausência de evidência quanto a potenciais efeitos da exposição a nanopartículas sobre a saúde ocupacional, existe necessidade de orientação para os gestores a respeito dos riscos, perigos e dos possíveis controles. A identificação de questões éticas envolvidas é útil, particularmente para emprega [...] dores, empregados, investidores e autoridades de saúde, uma vez que o sentido e a meta da segurança ocupacional e de saúde é a prevenção de doenças para os trabalhadores. Essa situação inclui: (a) identificação e comunicação de riscos por cientistas, autoridades e empregadores; (b) aceitação dos riscos por parte dos trabalhadores; (c) seleção e implementação de controles; (d) estabelecimento de programas de detecção precoce; e (e) investimento em toxicologia e pesquisas de vigilância. A questão ética envolve determinação imparcial de riscos, não maleficência, autonomia, justiça, privacidade e promoção do respeito às pessoas. Identificadas e exploradas as questões éticas, várias opções se abrem ao gestor. Adicionalmente, deliberações societais acerca dos riscos no local de trabalho com nanotecnologia podem fundamentar a escolha por pequenos negócios dentro de uma perspectiva global. Abstract in english In the absence of scientific clarity about the potential health effects of occupational exposure to nanoparticles, a need exists for guidance in decisionmaking about hazards, risks, and controls. An identification of the ethical issues involved may be useful to decision makers, particularly employer [...] s, workers, investors, and health authorities. Because the goal of occupational safety and health is the prevention of disease in workers, the situations that have ethical implications that most affect workers have been identified. These situations include the a) identification and communication of hazards and risks by scientists, authorities, and employers; b) workers' acceptance of risk; c) selection and implementation of controls; d) establishment of medical screening programs; and e) investment in toxicologic and control research. The ethical issues involve the unbiased determination of hazards and risks, nonmaleficence (doing no harm), autonomy, justice, privacy, and promoting respect for persons. As the ethical issues are identified and explored, options for decision makers can be developed. Additionally, societal deliberations about workplace risks of nanotechnologies may be enhanced by special emphasis on small businesses and adoption of a global perspective.
Paul A., Schulte; Fabio, Salamanca-Buentello.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Na ausência de evidência quanto a potenciais efeitos da exposição a nanopartículas sobre a saúde ocupacional, existe necessidade de orientação para os gestores a respeito dos riscos, perigos e dos possíveis controles. A identificação de questões éticas envolvidas é útil, particularmente para emprega [...] dores, empregados, investidores e autoridades de saúde, uma vez que o sentido e a meta da segurança ocupacional e de saúde é a prevenção de doenças para os trabalhadores. Essa situação inclui: (a) identificação e comunicação de riscos por cientistas, autoridades e empregadores; (b) aceitação dos riscos por parte dos trabalhadores; (c) seleção e implementação de controles; (d) estabelecimento de programas de detecção precoce; e (e) investimento em toxicologia e pesquisas de vigilância. A questão ética envolve determinação imparcial de riscos, não maleficência, autonomia, justiça, privacidade e promoção do respeito às pessoas. Identificadas e exploradas as questões éticas, várias opções se abrem ao gestor. Adicionalmente, deliberações societais acerca dos riscos no local de trabalho com nanotecnologia podem fundamentar a escolha por pequenos negócios dentro de uma perspectiva global. Abstract in english In the absence of scientific clarity about the potential health effects of occupational exposure to nanoparticles, a need exists for guidance in decisionmaking about hazards, risks, and controls. An identification of the ethical issues involved may be useful to decision makers, particularly employer [...] s, workers, investors, and health authorities. Because the goal of occupational safety and health is the prevention of disease in workers, the situations that have ethical implications that most affect workers have been identified. These situations include the a) identification and communication of hazards and risks by scientists, authorities, and employers; b) workers' acceptance of risk; c) selection and implementation of controls; d) establishment of medical screening programs; and e) investment in toxicologic and control research. The ethical issues involve the unbiased determination of hazards and risks, nonmaleficence (doing no harm), autonomy, justice, privacy, and promoting respect for persons. As the ethical issues are identified and explored, options for decision makers can be developed. Additionally, societal deliberations about workplace risks of nanotechnologies may be enhanced by special emphasis on small businesses and adoption of a global perspective.
Paul A., Schulte; Fabio, Salamanca-Buentello.
Full Text Available In the absence of scientific clarity about the potential health effects of occupational exposure to nanoparticles, a need exists for guidance in decisionmaking about hazards, risks, and controls. An identification of the ethical issues involved may be useful to decision makers, particularly employers, workers, investors, and health authorities. Because the goal of occupational safety and health is the prevention of disease in workers, the situations that have ethical implications that most affect workers have been identified. These situations include the a identification and communication of hazards and risks by scientists, authorities, and employers; b workers' acceptance of risk; c selection and implementation of controls; d establishment of medical screening programs; and e investment in toxicologic and control research. The ethical issues involve the unbiased determination of hazards and risks, nonmaleficence (doing no harm, autonomy, justice, privacy, and promoting respect for persons. As the ethical issues are identified and explored, options for decision makers can be developed. Additionally, societal deliberations about workplace risks of nanotechnologies may be enhanced by special emphasis on small businesses and adoption of a global perspective.Na ausência de evidência quanto a potenciais efeitos da exposição a nanopartículas sobre a saúde ocupacional, existe necessidade de orientação para os gestores a respeito dos riscos, perigos e dos possíveis controles. A identificação de questões éticas envolvidas é útil, particularmente para empregadores, empregados, investidores e autoridades de saúde, uma vez que o sentido e a meta da segurança ocupacional e de saúde é a prevenção de doenças para os trabalhadores. Essa situação inclui: (a identificação e comunicação de riscos por cientistas, autoridades e empregadores; (b aceitação dos riscos por parte dos trabalhadores; (c seleção e implementação de controles; (d estabelecimento de programas de detecção precoce; e (e investimento em toxicologia e pesquisas de vigilância. A questão ética envolve determinação imparcial de riscos, não maleficência, autonomia, justiça, privacidade e promoção do respeito às pessoas. Identificadas e exploradas as questões éticas, várias opções se abrem ao gestor. Adicionalmente, deliberações societais acerca dos riscos no local de trabalho com nanotecnologia podem fundamentar a escolha por pequenos negócios dentro de uma perspectiva global.
Paul A. Schulte
Full Text Available Assessment is a powerful tool which can shape curriculum, teaching and learning. One of the major topics which has been the focus of so much debate among the scholars is the concept of ethics in educational assessment systems. The purpose of this paper is to touch upon the issue of ethics in language assessment from validity perspectives. To ensure effective planning, implementation, and evaluation of learning, certain principles and guidelines for beliefs and behaviors are adopted. These principles and guidelines are identified as ethical standards. The central question to be addressed here is whether any test can be defended as ethical, or moral. This study also examines professional ethics, specifically ethical principles as they relate to educational assessment. And finally, some suggestions and guidelines will be offered for applying ethics in educational assessment to maximize validity and fair application of language test scores.
As technology advances, art therapy practices are adapting to the demands of a new cultural climate. Art therapists face a number of ethical challenges as they interact with increasingly diverse populations and employ new media. This article addresses some of the ethical and professional issues related to the use of technology in clinical…
Alders, Amanda; Beck, Liz; Allen, Pat B.; Mosinski, Barbara
Zoonoses constitute more than 60% of all known infectious diseases and 75% of emerging infectious diseases. Their impact is not monitored, prevented and treated in an integrated way. The efficacy of therapeutic interventions for zoonotic diseases is deemed to be comparable across species with scientifically valid results originating from a range of animal experiments. Ethical obligations limit the number of animals used in experiments as well as reduce repetition of studies. The evidence based on randomized controlled trails and systematic reviews for the effectiveness of health care interventions is often inconclusive. Subjecting human volunteers to risk in the absence of scientifically valid results from animal experiments is unethical. The One Health concept is a comparative, clinical approach directed towards zoonoses which present challenges to research workers and clinicians. Optimal health for all--One Health--should be underpinned by ethically conducted research in animals or humans and the results should be complementary to both. PMID:23301381
Asokan, G V; Fedorowicz, Z; Tharyan, P; Vanitha, A
Effective pain relief, especially at the end of life, is a primary ethical obligation based upon the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, patient autonomy, and particularly the concept of double effect. The pragmatic foundation of pain management begins with a complete assessment, which incorporates “WILDA” (words, intensity, location, duration, aggravating/alleviating factors) and considers the components of total pain: physical, emotional, social, and spiritual pain. Opioids are t...
Fine, Robert L.
Nirex has undertaken various consultations with different stakeholders to identify their issues and concerns about radioactive waste management in general and specific aspects of Nirex's work. This paper will outline what dialogue techniques Nirex has undertaken and the issues and concerns that people have raised during the events. It will outline some of the work that Nirex is undertaking to address stakeholders' issues and concerns. Nirex has used a variety of dialogue techniques co-ordinated under the Nirex Involvement Programme to engage with stakeholders about the work we undertake. We are now trying to address the issues, concerns, scenarios and questions raised in our work programme. Key lessons that we have learned in undertaking the dialogues include: The importance of appropriate facilitation and organisation of meetings; The need for a clear purpose for meetings; Being flexible to the needs of the attendees and the issues they raise; Providing feedback to those who participate and following up issues. Through engaging with the public Nirex has learned that: Radioactive waste is not an everyday concern for people; The public can, will and want to engage with the issue of radioactive waste management. This includes engaging with the ethical debate. To facilitate this Nirex and others need to: Provide information in a neutral form outlining the pros and cons and including various people's opinions; Use proactive techniques to allow access and space for people to discuss the issues; Demonstrate how people's opinions have been taken into account. People understand the issues very differently to the way institutions understand them. There is a need for institutions to learn to understand public concerns and the ways in which the public understand issues, as well as for the public to understand the institutional positions better. We are using these insights to develop our future work in this area
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english There is skepticism and resistance to innovations associated with agro-biotechnology projects in the developing world, leading to the possibility of failure. The source of the skepticism is complex, but partly traceable to how local communities view genetically engineered crops, public perception on [...] the technology's implications, and views on the role of the private sector in public health and agriculture, especially in the developing world. We posit that a governance and management model in which ethical, social, cultural, and commercialization issues are accounted for and addressed is important in mitigating the risk of project failure and improving the appropriate adoption of agro-biotechnology in sub-Saharan Africa. We introduce a social audit model, which we term Ethical, Social, Cultural and Commercialization (ESC² ) auditing, and that we developed based on feedback from a number of stakeholders. We lay the foundation for its importance in agro-biotechnology development projects and show how the model can be applied to projects run by Public Private Partnerships. We argue that the implementation of the audit model can help build public trust through facilitating project accountability and transparency. The model also provides evidence on how ESC² issues are perceived by various stakeholders, which enables project managers to effectively monitor and improve project performance. Although this model was specifically designed for agro-biotechnology initiatives, we show how it can also be applied to other development projects.
Ezezika, Obidimma; Thomas, Fiona; Lavery, Jim; Daar, Abdallah; Singer, Peter.
Full Text Available With the trend of economic globalization, offshore service outsourcing is developing rapidly and its related Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR issues emerge as a result. However, so far, the related research findings are limited. This study based on the CSR theory of stakeholders and the special characteristics of international service outsourcing, discusses the related CSR issues such as the unemployment problem of outsourcer country, the unfair employment problem of recipient country, etc. In the end, it proposes some corresponding countermeasures to solve these problems, such as: firms of offshore service outsourcing should refer to the international standards of social responsibility such as UN Global Compact, OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and ISO26000, etc., to establish a proper code of ethics within the organization, consult with the host country’s stakeholders to understand their concerns of CSR issues impacting on their benefits, try best to reduce the related job losses and protect the interests of employees by training and education to improve their skills and strengthen communication channels with the stakeholders like the government, communities, suppliers and employees, etc., so as to increase their awareness of CSR issues and take measures to resolve these issues. And the administrative authority of the government should play an import role in the creation of a capable or proficient supervision on the CSR issue of offshore service outsourcing, etc.
Purpose: In this series of articles--"Research Ethics I", "Research Ethics II", and "Research Ethics III"--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. In "Research Ethics I", they present a historical overview of the evolution of…
Horner, Jennifer; Minifie, Fred D.
Full Text Available This paper analyses the legal and medical aspects of the work of ethics committees on abortion. According to the legislation of the Republic of Serbia, these committees are competent to determine justifiable terms for abortion after the twentieth week of the fetus. It is well known that abortion is not only a medical but a legal, ethic, social and demographic problem as well. A liberal solution in view of abortion in the first trimester has been accepted in most European countries, as by the legislature of the Republic of Serbia. Since prenatal diagnosis cannot always determine the fetus state with certainty but at times may do so at a later stage, abortion is then required when the child is already capable of extrauterine life. The necessity for performing abortion in the third trimester is thus a result of good knowledge of techno-medicine but also from the limited information it provides. In such situations, the physician needs confirmation and justification of his standpoint with respect to abortion through a legal formulation which should contain "minimum moral". Society has found a way to protect and help him through moral and ethic forms of prevention without anybody’s emotions being affected. Ethics committees should thus help the physician in view of determining the terms for performing late abortion, since the rules of doctor’s ethics are not sufficient in this case. The article especially analyses the work of the Ethics Committee of the Clinical Center in Kragujevac in the period 2000-2010. It is stated that the largest number of cases referred to determined diseases or fetus anomalies while only a negligible number (11.29% to the illness of the mother. There were no requests for abortions due to legal reasons (pregnancies from criminal offences. A significant number (40.28% of requests submitted to the Ethics Committee related to pregnancies under the 24th week of pregnancy. Since a pregnancy of 24 weeks represents a boundary line between a miscarriage and preterm birth, the paper proposes a shift in the boundary line of pregnancies which must be terminated according to the Ethics committee, from 20 weeks of gestation to 24 weeks of gestation. At the same time, the requirement for narrowing legal conditions for abortion in later phases of pregnancies is pointed out as well as abolition of legal indications.
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A aplicação de novas tecnologias em pesquisas epidemiológicas sobre hepatites virais (HV exige discussões éticas sobre inquéritos domiciliares de soroprevalência (IDS, estudos sentinelas (ES e de registros de bancos de sangue (ERBS e amostras de sorotecas (EAS. MÉTODOS: Discutem-se fatores de força (FF e fragilidade (FR destas abordagens, argumentos/justificativas para sua utilização e alternativas, segundo os princípios éticos da Resolução CNS nº 196/96. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: As pesquisas sobre HV justificam-se por sua magnitude, gravidade, vulnerabilidade e necessidade de subsidiar protocolos diagnósticos/terapêuticos e estratégias de prevenção/controle. Em relação aos IDS, discutimos quanto a FF: autonomia do sujeito; representatividade amostral adequada; e FR: custo maior que benefícios; possibilidade de obter a informação por outros meios. Para os ES, FF: monitoramento das HV com custo operacional inferior ao dos IDS; ausência de danos adicionais ao sujeito; e FR: limitação relativa de representatividade. Para os ERBS, FF: monitoramento do VHB/VHC em doadores de sangue com baixo custo, sem risco adicional; e FR: limitação de representatividade. Quanto aos EAS, FF: preponderância de benefícios sobre riscos/custos; possibilidade de desvendar agravos desconhecidos e de oferecer diagnóstico precoce e tratamento; FR: material biológico e dados de uma pesquisa podem ser utilizados em outras. CONCLUSÃO: Estas discussões contribuem para embasar processos éticos, orientar a escolha do tipo de estudo epidemiológico e construir novos conceitos sobre estes temas.BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies on viral hepatitis (VH using new technologies raise ethical issues especially concerning community-based studies on seroprevalence (CSS, sentinel surveillance-based studies (SBS the use of blood-bank registers (BBR and serum stocks (SS. METHODS: Positive (PA and negative (NA aspects of these different designs are discussed, pointing to alternatives, according to Resolution CNS nº 196/96. RESULTS: Priority for research is justified by VH magnitude, severity, and vulnerability, and need for development of diagnosis/therapy protocols and prevention/control strategies. With respect to CSS, PA was identified as: subject autonomy; adequate samples and as NA: costs override benefits, and availability of information from other sources. In relation to SBS, PA are: VH monitoring has lower operational costs than CSS; absence of additional injuries to subject; while NA is: relative restriction of representativeness. For BBR, PA is: the low cost of monitoring of HBV/HCV in blood donors and with no additional risk. PA has limited representativeness. SS studies present as PA: benefits higher than risks/costs; possibility of identification of new morbidity and offering of adequate diagnosis and treatment. NA is: biological material and research data can be used for other researches. CONCLUSION: The choice of study designs must take into account arguments for ethical investigation and consensus on the use of new technology.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A aplicação de novas tecnologias em pesquisas epidemiológicas sobre hepatites virais (HV) exige discussões éticas sobre inquéritos domiciliares de soroprevalência (IDS), estudos sentinelas (ES) e de registros de bancos de sangue (ERBS) e amostras de sorotecas (EAS). MÉTODOS: Discutem-se [...] fatores de força (FF) e fragilidade (FR) destas abordagens, argumentos/justificativas para sua utilização e alternativas, segundo os princípios éticos da Resolução CNS nº 196/96. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: As pesquisas sobre HV justificam-se por sua magnitude, gravidade, vulnerabilidade e necessidade de subsidiar protocolos diagnósticos/terapêuticos e estratégias de prevenção/controle. Em relação aos IDS, discutimos quanto a FF: autonomia do sujeito; representatividade amostral adequada; e FR: custo maior que benefícios; possibilidade de obter a informação por outros meios. Para os ES, FF: monitoramento das HV com custo operacional inferior ao dos IDS; ausência de danos adicionais ao sujeito; e FR: limitação relativa de representatividade. Para os ERBS, FF: monitoramento do VHB/VHC em doadores de sangue com baixo custo, sem risco adicional; e FR: limitação de representatividade. Quanto aos EAS, FF: preponderância de benefícios sobre riscos/custos; possibilidade de desvendar agravos desconhecidos e de oferecer diagnóstico precoce e tratamento; FR: material biológico e dados de uma pesquisa podem ser utilizados em outras. CONCLUSÃO: Estas discussões contribuem para embasar processos éticos, orientar a escolha do tipo de estudo epidemiológico e construir novos conceitos sobre estes temas. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies on viral hepatitis (VH) using new technologies raise ethical issues especially concerning community-based studies on seroprevalence (CSS), sentinel surveillance-based studies (SBS) the use of blood-bank registers (BBR) and serum stocks (SS). METHODS: Positive (PA) [...] and negative (NA) aspects of these different designs are discussed, pointing to alternatives, according to Resolution CNS nº 196/96. RESULTS: Priority for research is justified by VH magnitude, severity, and vulnerability, and need for development of diagnosis/therapy protocols and prevention/control strategies. With respect to CSS, PA was identified as: subject autonomy; adequate samples and as NA: costs override benefits, and availability of information from other sources. In relation to SBS, PA are: VH monitoring has lower operational costs than CSS; absence of additional injuries to subject; while NA is: relative restriction of representativeness. For BBR, PA is: the low cost of monitoring of HBV/HCV in blood donors and with no additional risk. PA has limited representativeness. SS studies present as PA: benefits higher than risks/costs; possibility of identification of new morbidity and offering of adequate diagnosis and treatment. NA is: biological material and research data can be used for other researches. CONCLUSION: The choice of study designs must take into account arguments for ethical investigation and consensus on the use of new technology.
Rosangela, Gaze; Diana Maul de, Carvalho; Clara Fumiko Tachibana, Yoshida; Luiz Fernando Rangel, Tura.
Modern medical practice is becoming increasingly pluralistic and diverse. Hence, cultural competency and awareness are given more focus in physician training seminars and within medical school curricula. A renewed interest in describing the varied ethical constructs of specific populations has taken place within medical literature. This paper aims to provide an overview of Islamic Medical Ethics. Beginning with a definition of Islamic Medical Ethics, the reader will be introduced to the scope of Islamic Medical Ethics literature, from that aimed at developing moral character to writings grounded in Islamic law. In the latter form, there is an attempt to derive an Islamic perspective on bioethical issues such as abortion, gender relations within the patient-doctor relationship, end-of-life care and euthanasia. It is hoped that the insights gained will aid both clinicians and ethicists to better understand the Islamic paradigm of medical ethics and thereby positively affect patient care. PMID:17845488
Padela, Aasim I
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english One of the earliest records of metal recovery by solution leaching is described by Agricola as 'juice of rock' in the 1550s. In these early years of hydrometallurgy and civil engineering, few controls and systems were employed to enhance recovery and protect the environment. Since that time, leachin [...] g (dump or heap) operations have made significant strides in increasing metal and solution recovery while protecting the environment, all goals of a sustainable operation. It is now recognized that the design and operation of modern heap leach facilities requires contributions from many fields of study, including hydrometallurgy, civil engineering, geotechnical engineering, unsaturated-flow hydrology, mine planning, geosynthetics engineering, geochemistry, process engineering, mechanical engineering, and electrical engineering. While advancements in these fields have resulted in more sustainable heap leach operations, challenges in the industry still exist. A number of heap leach operations exhibit poor or lower-than-predicted metal recovery, loss of solution flow and control within the ore heap, loss of ore heap stability under leach, failure of liner and/or solution recovery systems, and overtopping of process water ponds. A number of these issues may be the result of several compounding conditions. For example, poor metal recovery may be due to an inadequate scale-up assumption (scaling laboratory tests to field-size heaps), lack of control of the in-heap geochemical environment, changes in ore mineralogy from the original design, changes in mechanical and hydraulic properties of the ore from the original design, ore handling and pre-treatment, inadequate solution management system, and inadequate solution application. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss issues that may affect the sustainability of a heap leach operation. Since sustainability encompasses a broad range of topics and issues, the focus of this paper will be on issues affecting metal and solution recovery, solution flow and containment, and stability of the ore heap.
This report presents the technical basis for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) resolution of Generic Safety Issue 79, ''Unanalyzed Reactor Vessel (PWR) Thermal Stress During Natural Convection Cooldown.'' Included are discussions of pertinent technical background information, the historical development of the issue, the approach of the NRC staff and its contractor to the resolution, and the NRC staff technical conclusions with their supporting bases. The B ampersand W Owners Group (BWOG) prepared a detailed analysis of its 177-fuel-assembly reactor vessel under natural convection cooldown conditions. This report was reviewed by the NRC staff and its contractor, and conservative independent confirmatory stress analyses were performed by the NRC contractor in selected areas. To complete the review, an independent fracture mechanics evaluation was performed by the NRC staff. This report presents the NRC's review and evaluation of the BWOG report and the NRC's conclusion that the BWOG document, supported by the additional conservative independent analyses discussed above, provides an adequate basis for the resolution of the issue. 8 refs., 3 figs
The technique of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is commonly explained as a way of checking the genes of embryos produced by IVF for serious genetic diseases. However, complex accounts of this technique emerged during ethics discussion groups held for PGD staff. These form part of a study exploring the social processes, meanings and institutions that frame and produce 'ethical problems' for practitioners, scientists and others working in the specialty of PGD in the UK. Two 'grey areas' raised by staff are discussed in terms of how far staff are, or in the future may be, able to support autonomous choices of women/couples: accepting 'carrier' embryos within the goal of creating a 'healthy' child; and sex selection of embryos for social reasons. These grey areas challenged the staff's resolve to offer individual informed choice, in the face of their awareness of possible collective social effects that might ensue from individual choices. We therefore argue that these new forms of choice pose a challenge to conventional models of individual autonomy used in UK genetic and reproductive counselling, and that 'relational autonomy' may be a more suitable ethical model to describe the ethical principles being drawn on by staff working in this area. PMID:18092985
Ehrich, Kathryn; Williams, Clare; Farsides, Bobbie; Sandall, Jane; Scott, Rosamund
Outlines this issue of "Social Work," which addresses ethical issues relevant to the profession, including how to prepare students for the complex task of ethical decision-making; attitudes about sexual contact with clients; legal concerns regarding sexual harassment and confidentiality; the nature of ethics violations; approaches to new and…
Witkin, Stanley L.
Scientists and policy makers issuing predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster are faced with two major challenges, that is, failure to warn and issuing a false alarm. The consequences of failure to warn can be serious for society overall, for example, significant economic losses, heavy infrastructure and environmental damage, large number of human casualties, and social disruption. Failure to warn can also have serious for specific individuals, for example, legal proceedings against disaster research scientists, as in the L'Aquila earthquake affair. The consequences of false alarms may be less serious. Nevertheless, false alarms may violate the principle of nonmaleficence (do no harm), affect individual autonomy (eg, mandatory evacuations), and may result in the "cry wolf" effect. Other ethical issues associated with natural disasters include the promotion of global justice through international predisaster technical assistance and postdisaster aid. Social justice within a particular country is promoted through greater postdisaster aid allocation to the less privileged. PMID:24481888
Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, J W
Potential professional, legal, and ethical liabilities are addressed concerning the overall process for unescorted access at nuclear power plants. The authors suggest means by which action can be taken to reduce liability on behalf of utilities, contractors, and behavioral evaluators. Three main points are discussed based on the authors' experience in conducting behavioral evaluations and defending those evaluations. The authors hope that the process of evaluation screening can become more professional and will be considered with the same quality controls as the selection of materials and the building of a nuclear power plant
Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)
Full Text Available Philosophers who show interest in authenticity tend to narrowly focus on its capacity to help people evade conformity and affirm individuality, a simplistic reduction that neglects authenticity’s moral potential and gives credence to the many critics who dismiss it as a euphemism for excessive individualism. Yet when conceived relationally, authenticity can also allow for worthy human flourishing without falling prey to conformity’s opposite extreme—egoism. This essay proposes a sketch for a relational conception of authenticity that can help prevent the often-destructive excess of egoism while also offsetting the undesirable deficiency of heteronomy, concertedly moving agents towards socially responsible living.
With public attention increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, there is enormous potential for the commercial use of biomass to accelerate. Renewable feedstocks such as biomass can provide more environmentally balanced sources of energy and other non-food products than fossil fuels. Biomass utilization is in a precarious position, however, with public attention increasingly focused on both its potential and the strength of the challenges it faces. The paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 through 4 catalogue the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups; wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier; gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 is devoted to a conclusion and summary
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to study specific conditions (e.g. autism, asthma or may have a broad aim to research a range of factors that influence the health and development of children. Studies are increasingly intended to serve as research platforms by providing access to data and biological samples to researchers over many years. This study examines how six birth cohort studies in North America and Europe that involve genetic research handle key ethical, legal and social (ELS issues: recruitment, especially parental authority to include a child in research; initial parental consent and subsequent assent and/or consent from the maturing child; withdrawal; confidentiality and sample/data protection; handling sensitive information; and disclosure of results. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out in 2008/09 with investigators involved in six birth cohort studies in Canada, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands and the United States. Interviewees self-identified as being knowledgeable about ELS aspects of the study. Interviews were conducted in English. Results The studies vary in breadth of initial consent, but none adopt a blanket consent for future use of samples/data. Ethics review of new studies is a common requirement. Studies that follow children past early childhood recognise a need to seek assent/consent as the child matures. All studies limit access to identifiable data and advise participants of the right to withdraw. The clearest differences among studies concern handling of sensitive information and return of results. In all studies, signs of child abuse require reports to authorities, but this disclosure duty is not always stated in consent materials. Studies vary in whether they will return to participants results of routine tests/measures, but none inform participants about findings with unknown clinical significance. Conclusions Analysis of how cohort studies in various jurisdictions handle key ELS issues provides informative data for comparison and contrast. Consideration of these and other examples and further scholarly exploration of ELS issues provides insight on how best to address these aspects in ways that respect the well-being of participants, especially children who become research subjects at the start of their lives.
Research involving children with mood disorders should generally offer a reasonable prospect of benefit to those involved, unless the risks are minimal. While federal regulations require a prospect of direct benefit, from an ethical perspective indirect benefits, such as the advantages of being in a clinical trial, are relevant. Standard care should not be presumed to be preferable to treatment in the context of a clinical trial, particularly if it has not been evaluated in well designed studies involving groups comparable to the patient. Similarly, active treatments in a controlled trial should not be presumed to be preferable to placebos, particularly in studies involving mood disorders where the placebo effect is more likely to be substantial. Innovative therapy-using approved drugs for unapproved purposes-may be more problematic than research, on theoretical and empirical grounds. Studies with no prospect of direct benefit and more than minimal risk are problematic when the patient is incompetent to provide meaningful consent. Whether or not a controlled trial involving children with mood disorders can be ethically justified depends on several factors, including the validity of standard treatment, the seriousness of the disorder, the likelihood of adverse consequences if treatment is delayed, the burden of the proposed intervention, and value judgments by parents, working collaboratively with a caring physician. PMID:11430843
To ensure ethical employee behavior, companies often utilize several forms of mostly one-way communication such as codes of conduct. The extent to which these efforts, in addition to informing about the company stance on ethics, are able to positively influence behavior is disputed. In contrast, research on business ethics communication and behavior indicates a relatively clear, positive link between open workplace dialogue about ethical issues and ethical conduct. In this paper, I therefore address the question: What influences employee attitudes to talking openly about ethical issues? Answers are proposed on the basis of focus group interviews with staff at the Denmark and Brazil affiliates of the global healthcare company Novo Nordisk. It was found that interest in discussing ethical issues was influenced by two main factors: employee conceptualizations of business ethics, and the level of inter-collegial trust, credibility, and confidence. In this paper, by examining these phenomena, I am at providinginsight that can both inform scholars in these fields as well as help managers in their attempts to promote open workplace dialogue about ethical issues.
Full Text Available Analisamos a questão da ética relacional no âmbito dos estudos fenomenológicos/existenciais relativos à problemática da doação. A distinção entre "dom com retorno de dom" e "dom sem retorno" é articulada a uma ética encarnada e situada que dá lugar de direito à singularidade pessoal e irredutível do outro. Investigamos esta ética da medida no contexto da experiência clínica do serviço francês Equipe Rápida de Intervenção na Crise. Conclui-se que tal ética baseia-se em: 1 restaurar a dimensão do sujeito pessoal no paciente, contra sua objetivação reificante; 2 praticar époché dinâmica em ressonância imanente com uma pluralidade personalizada de sujeitos; 3 experimentar o dom como capacidade simples de aceitar receber o dom do outro, é trazer à tona o ethos autêntico de Eros como experiência da disponibilidade ao cotidiano; 4 ao tomar a palavra, acionar o funcionamento antinômico do psiquismo humano para reabrir potencialidades infinitas da relação com o outro.We analyze relational ethics within the scope of phenomenological/existential studies related to the problem of donation. The distinction between "donation with return" and "donation without return" is discussed in connection with an incarnated and specified ethics, which grants the right to personal singularity and irreducibility to the other. We investigate this ethics of measurement in the context of the clinical experience of the Team of Rapid Intervention in Crisis. Such ethics is based on: 1 the restoration of the dimension of the personal subject in the patient, as opposed to his reifying objectivation; 2 the practice of the dynamic epoché in immanent resonance with a personalized plurality of subjects; 3 the experience donation as the simple capacity to accept receiving the donation of the other, and bring out the authentic ethos of Eros as the experience of availability to the every day life; 4 the activation of the antinomic functioning of the psyche in order to re-open the infinite potentialities of relating to the other.
The traditional approach towards end-of-life decision-making in Italy has changed. Whilst article 32 of the Italian Constitution recognizes the 'right to health' that grants patients to withhold or withdraw medical treatment, the Italian Medical Ethics Code neglects any kind of assistance during death or euthanasia. Although norms seem clear, ethicists and lawyers continue to discuss if withdrawing treatment from an incompetent patient should be classified as immoral and/or illegal. This is the result of acceptance of concepts such as patient's autonomy and the "right to die". On one hand, ethicist and lawyers, valuing the patient's autonomy, believe that letting die cannot be punished. On the other hand, however, some conservative ethicists and lawyers argue that the right to life is absolute and imperative and therefore a physician must do everything possible to protect one's life. PMID:24552117
Research involving those with dementia is critical to informing best practices and improving the quality of their lives. Pain research in people with dementia is of particular interest because the prevalence of both dementia and painful conditions increases with age. Considerable evidence exists documenting inadequate assessment and treatment of pain in this vulnerable population. Unfortunately, research that supports best practices for assessing and treating pain in the cognitively impaired is limited with obstacles to conducting research. Obstacles to research in older adults, including those with cognitive impairment, have been highlighted along with an urgent call for increased research to promote quality pain care for all older adults. The aims of this paper are to provide an overview of major ethical challenges that can occur in pain research in cognitively impaired populations and to present potential solutions when preparing study protocols. PMID:23245707
Monroe, Todd B; Herr, Keela A; Mion, Lorraine C; Cowan, Ronald L
While many studies ask participants to disclose sensitive information or to participate in emotionally arousing tasks, little is known about participants' subjective experiences of discomfort and benefit. Ethics review committees, therefore, have little information about participant experiences to guide their informed decision-making. We asked undergraduate females about their experiences in a study that included an experimental session, interviews, and self-report measures on sensitive topics. We examined results overall, and compared the responses of individuals with and without childhood abuse experiences. Participants who had experienced child abuse were more likely to report distress due to remembering the past, but also more likely to report that participation was helpful. Implications for future research, and recommendations for review boards, are discussed. PMID:21931238
Decker, Suzanne E; Naugle, Amy E; Carter-Visscher, Robin; Bell, Kathryn; Seifert, Abby
The purpose of this paper is to review current nursing literature and practice in cancer-related fatigue and to provide a suggested plan of treatment. Cancer-related fatigue is one of the most common and challenging symptom-management problems. The successful treatment of fatigue depends on the clinician's understanding of the symptom's continuum within the cancer experience, its etiologies, assessment strategies, and research-based interventions. Clinical outcomes are measured by the patient's ability to balance energy expenditure and restoration. By applying this knowledge to clinical practice, oncology nurses can have a profound impact on the patient's quality of life. PMID:9616558
Clark, P M; Lacasse, C
Full Text Available Action-based legal theory is a discrete branch of praxeology and the basis of an emerging school of jurisprudence related to, but distinct from, natural law. Legal theory and economic theory share content that is part of praxeology itself: the action axiom, the a priori of argumentation, universalizable property theory, and counterfactual-deductive methodology. Praxeological property-norm justification is separate from the strictly ethical “ought” question of selecting ends in an action context. Examples of action-based jurisprudence are found in existing “Austro-libertarian” literature. Legal theory and legal practice must remain distinct and work closely together if justice is to be found in real cases. Legal theorizing was shaped in religious ethical contexts, which contributed to confused field boundaries between law and ethics. The carrot and stick influence of rulers on theorists has distorted conventional economics and jurisprudence in particular directions over the course of centuries. An action-based approach is relatively immune to such sources of distortion in its methods and conclusions, but has tended historically to be marginalized from conventional institutions for this same reason.
Some level of solder flux residue is inevitably found on electronics no matter whether the Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) manufacturing is carried out by hand, wave or reflow soldering process. The current use of no-clean flux systems should in principle only leave benign surface contaminants during the wave and re-flow soldering process; however variation in temperature on the PCBA surface during soldering can result in considerable amounts of active residues being left locally. Typical no-clean flux systems used today consist of weak organic acids (WOA) and active residues left on a PCBA are a potential climatic reliability risk for electronic devices. Reflow soldering is the process employed for PCBAs with surface mount components. No-clean flux is applied in a solder paste via a stencil followed by placing of components and PCBA passage through a soldering oven. Although a reflow soldering process leaves lower amounts of flux residue than a wave solder process, the morphology of the flux residue from re-flow is also different. Re-flow flux residue on the PCBAs is concealed initially due to the presence of a binder and resin part of the flux, therefore WOAs are not immediately released. Nevertheless, upon exposure to high humidity for prolonged intervals our results show that an opening of the flux residues will release WOAs and thus promote leakage current issues and corrosion processes on the PCBA surface. This paper summarizes our investigations of the release of WOAs from reflow solder paste (malic, adipic, succinic, and glutaric acid) and its effects on leakage current and corrosion of Sn and Cu. Leakage current due to flux residue was investigated using a localized cleanliness test system C3 (Foresite Inc., USA). The system extracts residue contaminants to a vial using steam purging to a localized area. Leakage current through the extracted solution is measured using a standard dual copper electrode pattern. Corrosion behavior of Sn and Cu are investigated using polarization experiments using a novel localized cell with solutions of malic, adipic, succinic or glutaric acid. Local release of WOAs on the PCBA from the flux residue was analyzed using a gel method with pH indicator. Extracted solution from re-flow solder flux residue can be chemically analyzed using ion chromatography (IC). Morphology of solder paste after exposure to humidity was analyzed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results revealed significant effect of flux residues and WOA on the corrosion at concentration levels usually found on PCBA surface.
Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Dutta, Mondira
There are currently high profile debates about legal and ethical aspects of end of life care and treatment in the U.K. and Brazil. Unlike some other jurisdictions, neither country has legalised assisted dying or euthanasia. We argue that it is timely to consider the issues from the perspectives of an evolving concept in bioethics, that of solidarity. PMID:24552109
Ventura, Carla A Arena; Gallagher, Ann; Jago, Robert; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa
The relation is considered between ethical choices, morals and deontology in plastic surgery of the male external genitals. Ethics dictates the behavioural model applied by an individual or group in their actions. Professional ethics--deontology--is the collection of duties governing the exercise of a certain profession. Morals are the set of rules governing an individual's life in society. Ethics, deontology and morals do not always convey the same message, since environmental, racial and religious situations, custom, and even fashion can influence a patient's demands, reflecting his desire to improve his quality of life, even only from the purely hedonistic viewpoint, and the specialist's attitude. Surgeons are increasingly tending to bend to these demands or--much worse--even encourage and foster them, with a view to financial considerations. The attitude and ethical choices available are examined in relation to surgery to lengthen or enlarge the penis. PMID:9882901
Della Morte, E; Cappellano, F; Catanzaro, F
Full Text Available Abstract This commentary examines the incursion on the neutrality of medical personnel now taking place as part of the human rights crises in Bahrain and Syria, and the ethical dilemmas which these incursions place not only in front of physicians practicing in those nations, but in front of the international community as a whole. In Bahrain, physicians have recently received harsh prison terms, apparently for treating demonstrators who clashed with government forces. In Syria, physicians are under the same political pressure to avoid treating political demonstrators or to act as informants against their own patients, turning them in to government authorities. This pressure has been severe, to the point that some physicians have become complicit in the abuse of patients who were also political demonstrators. This paper posits that physicians in certain countries in the Middle East during the “Arab Spring,” specifically Syria and Bahrain, are being used as both political pawns and political weapons in clear violation of Geneva Convention and World Medical Association guidelines, and that this puts them into the most extreme sort of “dual loyalty” dilemma. They are being forced to choose between their own safety and well-being and that of their patients – a negative sum scenario wherein there is no optimal choice. As such, an international call for a United Nations inquiry must be made in order to protect the neutrality of medical care and personnel during times of armed conflict.
Children, like all humans, are exposed to compounds in the environment and sometimes to drugs. The effect of this exposure cannot simply be deducted from studies in adults or animals. Effects might be different and even more dramatic than in adults due to the stage of growth and development of the infant. Around 80% of drugs used in young individuals are not licensed for use in this age group. Almost three new chemical compounds enter the environment each day. Toxicological studies in infants and children therefore are needed and ethically acceptable. However, appropriate safeguards must be taken into account. According to the Good Clinical Practice Directive of the European Parliament (2001/20) not only therapeutic, but also non-therapeutic research in infants and children is allowed, provided the study can only be conducted in children, and the results of the study in children will be of benefit to the group represented and no more than minimal harm and risk is inflicted to the children. Many more toxicological studies are needed in children and infants. Not conducting these studies is detrimental for this age group
Approximately 34 medical specialty and subspecialty fellowship programs in the United States have formalized the application process through the National Resident Matching Program. This approach sets standards for the application process, offers a formalized match similar to that for residency programs, functions within a specific timeline, and establishes binding rules of behavior for both applicants and programs. For fellowship programs that operate outside the National Resident Matching Program, such as those in pathology, no published guidelines exist to help programs and applicants address the many questions and problems that can arise. As a result, programs are free to set their own timelines for interviews, application requirements, contract negotiations and finalizations, and other details. Consequently, applicants often feel pressured to apply earlier and earlier in their residency for competitive fellowship programs, are often required to fill out multiple unique applications, may feel no "loyalty" toward honoring an acceptance without a contract, and often feel disenfranchised by the whole process. This article addresses professional and ethical aspects of the current application process and offers possible solutions for improving it. PMID:18342659
Domen, Ronald E; Wehler, Amanda Brehm
Full Text Available Abstract While a growing body of research is uncovering the aetiology and effective treatments for allergy, research that assess the broader ethical implications of this disease is lacking significantly. This article will demonstrate both the paucity of academic research concerning ethical implications in allergy and explain why ethical analysis is integral to formulating effective health strategies for allergic disease. An exhaustive literature search of publications in French and English identified less than 35 academic articles focussed on the topic of ethics and allergy; this is a miniscule number when compared to the amount of articles published on ethical issues related to other chronic illnesses, such as obesity. It is important to demonstrate to allergy specialists the need for, and utility of, further incorporating ethical analyses in allergology; the current success of Ethical, Legal, Social Implications (ELSI research programmes in human genetics and nanotechnology will serve as notable examples. Indeed, future research and innovation in allergy will undoubtedly encounter ethical dilemmas and the allergology community should play a significant role in helping to address these issues. However, incorporating ethical analyses in allergology does not imply that the allergology community must acquire extensive knowledge in bioethics; instead, interdisciplinary research that incorporates expertise from allergology and bioethics would enable allergy specialists to advance critical knowledge development in this largely overlooked domain of study.
Issues of social justice are accorded scant space in the professional scope of most teachers. The purview of ideologues and do-gooders, social justice would seem to have little to do with practical, everyday teaching of subject matter content. This marginalization of social justice is supported by a traditionally individualist psychology that…
Full Text Available The paper “Navigating the process of ethical approval” (Carey, 2010 raises many issues about the influence Institutional Ethics Committees have on research methodology and what can or cannot take place in research. Carey draws attention to the ethical challenges classic grounded theory researchers face when an ethical proposal that follows the principles of the methodology is presented to an Ethics Committee, whose main responsibility is the protection of participants. Ethics committees not only guide researchers on acceptable ethical practice, but are charged with monitoring ethical standards and ensuring researchers act in accordance with professional expectations for researchers within the jurisdiction. These committees aim to ensure consistency of ethical practice in research. While there is generally some flexibility in the review process researchers often find ethical requirements constraining, as guidelines are primarily prescriptive and are designed to ensure consistency in the application of universal ethical principles in research. In New Zealand, consistency includes paying attention to broader socio-cultural responsibilities to society that includes promoting awareness of the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumer Rights 1996, the Health Information Privacy Code 1994, and promoting ethical practices which involve Maori (the local indigenous people in research proposals as much as possible (Ministry of Health, 2006. So while researchers in training assume that their prime interest concerns the management of a research topic and methodology, they quickly find out that ethical guidelines influence research design. Even though there is an international code of ethics (Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 2005 that defines ethical standards for researchers around the world, each country has its own specific requirements depending on the context. In this paper, ethical drivers in the New Zealand context are outlined and considered in relation to Irish issues. This is followed by a consideration of methodological rules and managing the practical realities that emerge when working with a specialist methodology such as grounded theory.
Antoinette McCallin Ph.D.
Prenatal diagnostic testing raises a number of important ethical issues, some related to diagnostic testing in general and others related to the special circumstances of pregnancy. These issues are most effectively addressed in the context of a broader understanding of the goals of prenatal diagnosis. Our dual obligations--to the pregnant woman and to the fetus--have an important influence on the goals of testing. Testing seldom leads to treatment beneficial to the fetus, but more often can b...
Objective The inclusion of the Community Health Index in the recording of National Health Service (NHS) contacts in Scotland facilitates national linkage of data such as prescribing and healthcare utilisation. This linkage could be the basis for identification of adverse drug reactions. The aim of this article is to report the views of healthcare professionals on data sharing, ownership and the legal and other applicable frameworks relevant to linkage of routinely collected paediatric healthcare data. Design Qualitative study using semistructured face-to-face interviews addressing the study aims. Participants Purposive sample of professional stakeholders (n=25) including experts on ethics, data protection, pharmacovigilance, data linkage, legal issues and prescribing. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed using a framework approach. Results Participants identified existing data sharing systems in the UK. Access to healthcare data should be approved by the data owners. The definition of data ownership and associated legal responsibilities for linked healthcare data were seen as important factors to ensure accountability for the use of linked data. Yet data owners were seen as facilitators of the proposed data linkage. Twelve frameworks (legal, regulatory and governance) applicable to the linkage of healthcare data were identified. Conclusions A large number of potentially relevant legal and regulatory frameworks were identified. Ownership of the linked data was seen as an extension of responsibility for, or guardianship of, the source datasets. The consensus emerging from the present study was that clarity is required on the definition of data sharing, data ownership and responsibilities of data owners.
Hopf, Yvonne Marina; Bond, Christine B; Francis, Jill J; Haughney, John; Helms, Peter J
Overcharging by health practitioners is a difficult issue with few guidelines available for practitioners or patients. For the most part it has not been the subject of disciplinary censure and has been dealt with by conciliation processes. However, during 2013 the Singapore High Court twice addressed the commerciality of the health-practitioner-patient relationship, acknowledging that this is a fundamental attribute of the contemporary dynamic between providers and recipients of health services. In Lim Mey Lee Susan v Singapore Medical Council  SGHC 122, it concluded that the obligation to refrain from overcharging is an inherent ethical responsibility of practitioners and affirmed the suspension for three years of a surgeon with Australian training and tertiary connections for what it classified as grossly excessive charging. In Pang Ah San v Singapore Medical Council  SGHC 266, it observed that medical practitioners have a legitimate right to appropriate levels of remuneration but that the right balance has to be struck between professional virtues and business considerations. The Singapore High Court's decisions raise the question of whether professional associations and practitioner regulators have a responsibility to provide guidelines and, potentially, processes by which practical assistance can be provided to medical and other health care practitioners so that they can avoid unacceptable charging practices. PMID:24804522
This paper discusses the impact of four key issues on ethics education in MBA programs: (1) the geographic location of business schools, (2) a schoolâ??s ranking in the Financial Times list, (3) the length of the MBA program, and (4) a schoolâ??s participation in the Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME). Our discussion is based on detailed coursework data underlying the 2009 Beyond Grey Pinstripes survey of full-time, in-person MBA programs. We find that the four discussed issues influence whether ethics education is delivered through core or elective courses. Further, we find that the four issues also impact whether schools teach ethics through standalone courses or integrate relevant content into other disciplines. However, our results also indicate that the four issues do not significantly influence in which disciplines ethics-related content is infused.
Rasche, Andreas; Ulrich Gilbert, Dirk
Full Text Available Cet article propose d’explorer comment les produits locaux et localisés jouent un rôle dans la créations de relations « équitables » entre producteurs et consommateurs, dans le système alimentaire globalisé actuel. Dans un premier temps nous discuterons les termes de « local » et de « produits locaux ». Dans un second temps nous présenterons trois exemples de stratégies fondées sur les produits locaux et l’équitabilité : le commerce équitable, Slow Food et les associations pour le maintien de l’agriculture paysanne (AMAP. A partir des ces exemples nous discuterons de l’impact d’un système alimentaire globalisé sur le développement d’un système alimentaire localisé, soulignant le fait que considérer le « local dans le global » offre à la fois une perspective de transformation, de mouvement et de résistance.In this paper we explore how “local” food plays a role in creating ethical relations between producers and consumers in today’s globalized food system. First, understandings of local and local food will be discussed. Second, we will present and reflect on three examples of local food strategies for creating ethical links between producers and consumers: Fair trade, Slow Food and Community Supported Agriculture (CSA. We argue that the process of globalisation of the food system creates space for various local food initiatives, indicating that the local in the global offers both a potential for transformation, movement and site of resistance.
Electronic tracking through GPS (global positioning system) is being used to monitor and locate people with dementia who are vulnerable to becoming lost. Through a review of the literature and an original study, this article examined ethical issues associated with use in a domestic setting. The qualitative study consisted of in-depth interviews with 10 carers who were using electronic tracking. The study explored the values, beliefs and contextual factors that motivated carers to use electronic tracking. It examined the extent of involvement of the person with dementia in decision-making and it explored the various ethical dilemmas encountered by carers when introducing the tracking system. As an issue that emerged from the interviews, specific attention was paid to exploring covert usage. From the study findings, recommendations have been made for research and practice about the use of electronic tracking in dementia care. PMID:24599815
White, Eleanor Bantry; Montgomery, Paul
A draft code of ethics for college and university institutional researchers and related activities, prepared by the Committee on Standards and Ethics of the Association for Institutional Research, is presented. It addresses issues of individual training and competence, responsibility, confidentiality, relationships within institution and…
New Directions for Institutional Research, 1992
Therapeutic cloning is a new technology with great medical potential, particularly in the area of transplantation medicine. It involves the transfer of the nucleus of a patient's cell into an enucleated donor oocyte for the purpose of generating an embryo. This embryo is allowed to grow until the blastocyst stage, at which time stem cells can be obtained and differentiated into the tissue needed. Stem cells can also be obtained from adult tissues, as they seem to have sufficient plasticity to use for the stated purpose. A literature review was performed, and it is clear that the main controversy regarding the use of stem cells is the origin. Few people would object to their use if obtained from adult tissues; however, many oppose harvesting them from embryos in the blastocyst stage regardless of whether 1) they are obtained from surplus embryos donated by couples after assisted reproductive techniques, or 2) they are specially manufactured for research purposes. The central reason is the consideration that embryos should be treated as full humans from the moment of fertilization. This argument is also at the bottom of an older discussion regarding the validity of abortion. There is no consensus at the present time in this regard, and it is unlikely one will be forthcoming in the future. Arguments on both sides of the issue are presented, but emphasis is made on the need for using this technology for research purposes because of its potential value as a therapeutic tool. PMID:14734101
In the past 3 years, five scientific stories captivated the media and public attention: a sheep, Dolly, was cloned in Scotland; two scientific teams in the United States reported that they had isolated human stem cells; Jesse Gelsinger, an 18-year-old patient, died in a gene transfer experiment at the University of Pennsylvania; Vanderbilt University reported that it is providing fetal surgery for meningomyelocele; and researchers announced that a herd of previously cloned cows appears to be genetically younger than had been expected. These reports illustrate important issues in the ongoing discussion about research on children; indeed some of them challenge the breadth of the definition of research on children. This article, originally presented at an International Symposium sponsored by UNESCO on Bioethics and the Rights of the Child, describes how the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC) addressed two of these subjects-cloning and stem cell research-and identifies five challenges that science and society must address in the face of such emerging research technologies. PMID:11074949
Meslin, E M
Full Text Available India is becoming one of the hubs of clinical research. Commensurate with these advances, the government funding for biomedical research in thrust areas is also increasing. The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, Department of Biotechnology (DBT, Department of Science and Technology (DST are some of the government organizations which provide financial support for various research projects. The results of the funded research projects are published in various international journals. Most of these journals have an access to paid subscribers only. Hence it is unethical to use the research grants from government (people?s money and not allow the scientific community free access to the results of the study. To tackle such issues, these agencies should sign the Berlin declaration and create open access repositories. A public access policy should be formulated and listed in JULIET. The funding bodies in India should also join Pubmed Central (PMC to form PMC India so that every investigator who has received grants would submit the full text of the paper published from his study and these can be made freely accessible to everyone. Universities and research institutions should also develop institutional open access repositories. The public access policy has definitive advantages and should be implemented.
Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.
Guidotti, Ronald Armand
The aim of this thesis is to explore the social and ethical issues surrounding the use of neurotechnologies to control sleep and enhance cognition in British society. Empirically, the project is based on a case study of the wake-promoting drug modafinil. Data analysis involved the study of a corpus of 77 UK news articles and 40 semi-structured interviews with three stakeholder groups: scientists and clinicians, shift workers and students. The analytical framework used was informed by previous...
Coveney, Catherine M.
In the last decade, research has begun to investigate the efficacy of carbohydrate supplementation for improving aspects of physical capacity and skill performance during sport-specific exercise in adolescent team games players. This research remains in its infancy, and further study would be beneficial considering the large youth population actively involved in team games. Literature on the influence of carbohydrate supplementation on skill performance is scarce, limited to shooting accuracy in adolescent basketball players and conflicting in its findings. Between-study differences in the exercise protocol, volume of fluid and carbohydrate consumed, use of prior fatiguing exercise and timing of skill tests may contribute to the different findings. Conversely, initial data supports carbohydrate supplementation in solution and gel form for improving intermittent endurance running capacity following soccer-specific shuttle running. These studies produced reliable data, but were subject to limitations including lack of quantification of the metabolic response of participants, limited generalization of data due to narrow participant age and maturation ranges, use of males and females within the same sample and non-standardized pre-exercise nutritional status between participants. There is a lack of consensus regarding the influence of frequently consuming carbohydrate-containing products on tooth enamel erosion and the development of obesity or being overweight in adolescent athletes and non-athletes. These discrepancies mean that the initiation or exacerbation of health issues due to frequent consumption of carbohydrate-containing products by adolescents cannot be conclusively refuted. Coupled with the knowledge that consuming a natural, high-carbohydrate diet -3-8 hours before exercise can significantly alter substrate use and improve exercise performance in adults, a moral and ethical concern is raised regarding the direction of future research in order to further knowledge while safeguarding the health and well-being of young participants. It could be deemed unethical to continue study into carbohydrate supplementation while ignoring the potential health concerns and the possibility of generating similar performance enhancements using natural dietary interventions. Therefore, future work should investigate the influence of pre-exercise dietary intake on the prolonged intermittent, high-intensity exercise performance of adolescents. This would enable quantification of whether pre-exercise nutrition can modulate exercise performance and, if so, the optimum dietary composition to achieve this. Research could then combine this knowledge with ingestion of carbohydrate-containing products during exercise to facilitate ethical and healthy nutritional guidelines for enhancing the exercise performance of adolescents. This article addresses the available evidence regarding carbohydrate supplementation and prolonged intermittent, high-intensity exercise in adolescent team games players. It discusses the potential health concerns associated with the frequent use of carbohydrate-containing products by adolescents and how this affects the research ethics of the field, and considers directions for future work. PMID:22901040
Phillips, Shaun M
Development in the context of climate change requires attention to at least three factors: Clear communication strategies of scientific findings designed to engage populations in action, attention to environmental justice in relation to international governance, and a shift in focus from development for economic growth to development for human security.
Moreno Mun?oz, Miguel; Heyd, Thomas
This essay offers a consideration of English-language feminist memorial discourse as this has been sedimenting in Canada since the 1989 murder of 14 women at Ecole Polytechnique. The author suggests that remembrance now, almost a decade after the murders, exceeds the terms offered by a politic in which the living and the dead are connected through feminist alignment ["it could have been me"]. In its place, the author argues that there is a binding relation to the dead that is forged through understanding the murders as an event of historical trauma and rupture. She then contemplates and explores the implications of this rethinking of an ethics of relation through a situated analysis of annual memorial vigils. PMID:10538152
The term "performance-related health disorders" has been defined by Bergmann (1992) as catabolic phenomena and pathological processes that are related to or caused by high productivity levels. In the past few years, a cause and effect relationship has been determined between numerous health disorders found in farm animals and their increased productivity. In contrast to the classic hereditary diseases, the performance-related health disorders are anthropogenic diseases. The severity of these disorders is, as a rule, determined by anthropogenic environmental factors. Breeding and keeping animals in such a way that they suffer from performance-related health disorders therefore is an ethical problem. Furthermore, it has also been a legal problem since the implementation of Section 11b of the German Protection of Animals Act (TierSchG) in 1986. However, this ban has not been enforced; the federal ministry responsible argues that this is because there is still a "very controversial discussion" on the question of when the "line that separates breeding from 'problem' or 'agony breeding' (Qualzucht)" has been reached or overstepped. The following article takes a close look at the almost 20-year-old debate on the lack of enforcement. There is a large amount of circumstantial evidence that indicates that the problems that arise in determining whether specific animals fall under Section 11b TierSchG do not arise from a veterinary dispute but rather from the difficulty of identifying responsibilities. The traditional ethical model used to appeal to the feelings of responsibility in a layperson is the so-called Golden Rule ("do unto others as you would have them do unto you") which so far has not been applied to the area of animal breeding. The following article presents a model on how to create an awareness for ethical malpractice. The model makes it possible to use the change of perspective demanded by the Golden Rule and apply it to the area of animal breeding. This provides what could potentially be a useful aid in understanding ones own responsibility. While looking at possible solutions, two aspects are differentiated: the chronic non-enforcement of Section 11b TierSchG and the complete abolition of the problem. Possible solutions are presented for both areas and put up for discussion. PMID:17007464
Healthcare in emergency units: organization and ethical implications Atención en una unidad de emergencia: organización e implicancias éticas Atendimento em unidade de emergência: organização e implicações éticas
This text aims to present a reflection about organizational issues, as well as possible ethical implications permeating the practice of the healthcare team at an urgency/emergency unit, providing care to victims of trauma from accidents or violence. Initially, we focused on care for external causes and its relation with work organization and ethics in the hospital environment, followed by an analysis of the ethical dimension of urgency/emergency services. The organizational and ethical issues...
Márcia Adriana Poll; Valéria Lerch Lunardi; Wilson Danilo Lunardi Filho
Ethical Issues in Human Stem Cell Research. Executive Summary, Volume 1: Report and Recommendations of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission, Volume 2: Commissioned Papers, and Volume 3: Religious Perspectives.
In November 1998, President Clinton charged the National Bioethics Advisory Commission with the task of conducting a thorough review of the issues associated with human stem cell research, balancing all ethical and medical considerations. The President's ...
The autonomy of research participants is crucial in research ethics without which it will be difficult to carry out research. Central to the concept of autonomy is the debate on whether the cultural norms of individuals (particularly women) should be given priority in settings where these norms require that researchers should go through male heads such as husbands and traditional leaders. This paper examines issues relating to the autonomy of women in research ethics. It highlights the far-re...
This paper suggests that understanding questions such as those related to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) requires economic theorizing to include in its explanatory models the very fact that (economic) agents have their own distinctive conception of how reality ought to be (which implies making judgments of value). Under standard economic theorizing, the relationship between social or ethical values and economics is one of mere juxtaposition. Ethical and economic issues are being put to...
This article critically appraises the current legal scope of the principal applications of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). This relatively new technique, which is available to some parents undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment, aims to ensure that a child is not born with a seemingly undesirable genetic condition. The question addressed here is whether there should be serious reasons to test for genetic conditions in embryos in order to be able to select between them. The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority and the Human Genetics Commission have decided that there should be such reasons by broadly aligning the criteria for PGD with those for selective abortion. This stance is critically explored, as are its implications for the possible use of PGD to select either against or for marginal features or for significant traits. The government is currently reviewing the legal scope and regulation of PGD. PMID:17340769
Occupational health practitioners deal with the questions of confidentiality, relation between the right to work and the right to health, between individual freedom and the risks other can run. An audit of pre-employment health assessment of health care workers, in the United Kingdom and in France, discussed the efficiency of pre-employment screening. Screening tests and medical examinations should not be used as a pretext to avoid implementing effective preventive measures. The pre-employment examination has mostly to be used for education of the future employees and for collection of baseline data. Appropriate procedures such as developing preventive policies, health promotion, and control of hazards in the work environment are efficient for the promotion of equal employment rights for women, older workers, or people with disabilities. PMID:11543703
A large number of residential and commercial properties have been identified as having radioactive contamination resulting from disposal of radioactive residues from ore extraction operations, usually radium, thorium or uranium. The US Department of Energy has addressed many of the sites associated with the Manhattan Project through its FUSRAP program. But now, the US Environmental Protection Agency is faced with removal of residues from other operations under its Superfund program. High removal and disposal costs are often difficult to balance against the comparatively low value of properties affected. Soil screening techniques must be rapid and present a relatively high level of assurance that criteria are not exceeded. Yet, private lives are affected. Considerations in making cost-benefit decisions are discussed here
This document is a summary of the important issues involved in managing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) owned by the Department of Energy (DOE). Issues related to civilian SNF activities are not discussed. DOE-owned SNF is stored primarily at the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and West Valley Demonstration Project. Smaller quantities of SNF are stored at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There is a wide variety of fuel types, including both low and high enrichment fuels from weapons production, DOE reactors, research and development programs, naval programs, and universities. Most fuel is stored in pools associated with reactor or reprocessing facilities. Smaller quantities are in dry storage. Physical conditions of the fuel range from excellent to poor or severely damaged. An issue is defined as an important question that must be answered or decision that must be made on a topic or subject relevant to achieving the complimentary objectives of (a) storing SNF in compliance with applicable regulations and orders until it can be disposed, and (b) safely disposing of DOE`s SNF. The purpose of this document is to define the issues; no recommendations are made on resolutions. As DOE`s national SNF management program is implemented, a system of issues identification, documentation, tracking, and resolution will be implemented. This document is an initial effort at issues identification. The first section of this document is an overview of issues that are common to several or all DOE facilities that manage SNF. The common issues are organized according to specific aspects of spent fuel management. This is followed by discussions of management issues that apply specifically to individual DOE facilities. The last section provides literature references.
Abbott, D.G. [EG& G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Abashian, M.S.; Chakraborti, S.; Roberson, K.; Meloin, J.M. [IT Corp. (United States)
This document is a summary of the important issues involved in managing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) owned by the Department of Energy (DOE). Issues related to civilian SNF activities are not discussed. DOE-owned SNF is stored primarily at the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and West Valley Demonstration Project. Smaller quantities of SNF are stored at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There is a wide variety of fuel types, including both low and high enrichment fuels from weapons production, DOE reactors, research and development programs, naval programs, and universities. Most fuel is stored in pools associated with reactor or reprocessing facilities. Smaller quantities are in dry storage. Physical conditions of the fuel range from excellent to poor or severely damaged. An issue is defined as an important question that must be answered or decision that must be made on a topic or subject relevant to achieving the complimentary objectives of (a) storing SNF in compliance with applicable regulations and orders until it can be disposed, and (b) safely disposing of DOE's SNF. The purpose of this document is to define the issues; no recommendations are made on resolutions. As DOE's national SNF management program is implemented, a system of issues identification, documentation, tracking, and resolution will be implemented. This document is an initial effort at issues identification. The first section of this document is an overview of issues that are common to several or all DOE facilities that manage SNF. The common issues are organized according to specific aspects of spent fuel management. This is followed by discussions of management issues that apply specifically to individual DOE facilities. The last section provides literature references
Group psychotherapists in their everyday practice confront a series of ethical problems, some of which rise to the level of ethical dilemmas. This two-part special series will address how the group psychotherapist can address these problems and dilemmas in a way that leads to an ethical course of conduct. This article introduces the series by examining ethical principles and decision-making processes that are relevant to the wide range of issues that confront the group psychotherapist. The article also considers the person of the group psychotherapist him or herself and notes that certain personal qualities might create a foundation for ethical thinking and behavior. PMID:17040180
The linear no-threshold (LNT) model of ionizing-radiation-induced cancer is based on the assumption that every radiation dose increment constitutes increased cancer risk for humans. The risk is hypothesized to increase linearly as the total dose increases. While this model is the basis for radiation safety regulations, its scientific validity has been questioned and debated for many decades. The recent memorandum of the International Commission on Radiological Protection admits that the LNT-model predictions at low doses are “speculative, unproven, undetectable and ‘phantom’.” Moreover, numerous experimental, ecological, and epidemiological studies show that low doses of sparsely-ionizing or sparsely-ionizing plus highly-ionizing radiation may be beneficial to human health (hormesis/adaptive response). The present LNT-model-based regulations impose excessive costs on the society. For example, the median-cost medical program is 5000 times more cost-efficient in saving lives than controlling radiation emissions. There are also lives lost: e.g., following Fukushima accident, more than 1000 disaster-related yet non-radiogenic premature deaths were officially registered among the population evacuated due to radiation concerns. Additional negative impacts of LNT-model-inspired radiophobia include: refusal of some patients to undergo potentially life-saving medical imaging; discouragement of the study of low-dose radiation therapies; motivation for radiological terrorism and promotion of nuclear proliferation.
Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Doss, Mohan; Feinendegen, Ludwig E.; Janiak, Marek K.; Miller, Mark L.; Sanders, Charles L.; Scott, Bobby R.; Ulsh, Brant; Vaiserman, Alexander
Full Text Available Ethics contain a set of principles of personal and professional conduct .The concept of Business ethics relates itself to the norms and the ideals businessman and business groups adopt in course of their activities in business .Business ethics is an assertion of “be good” and “do good” in business. Ethical business practices has been a blessing to the enterprises as it ensures faith in society ,government trust ,business partners trust .on the other hand unethical business practices /behavior are may be the feel good factor in the short run for earning secret profit but prove as a monster in the long run as it leave a big spot on the enterprise image by indulging in activities like Black Marketing ,False Advertisement, Tax evasion etc .Thus it is the foremost duty of each enterprise to run its business on ethical grounds so that they can attain customers retention as well as employees retention in the long run and should not have a greed for becoming prey of unethical business practices thereby ditching the society as a whole .The principles laid down by IBE (Institute of Business Ethics ,London should be followed with sincerity by all enterprise leading to a trustworthy environment all around .
This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues in U.S.-Jordanian relations. It provides a brief overview of Jordan's government and economy and of its cooperation in promoting Arab-Israeli peace and other U.S. policy objectives ...
A. B. Prados J. M. Sharp
A multi-year project was initiated to examine production equipment issues related to implementation of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). The purposes of the research project were to determine foodservice directors' opinions regarding use and appropriateness of equipment in school foodservice, to identify the number and variety of menu…
Nettles, Mary Frances
After giving a short review on the impact picture approach for the elastic scattering amplitude, we will discuss the importance of some issues related to its real and imaginary parts. This will be illustrated in the context of recent data from RHIC, Tevatron and LHC.
Defines ethical research and associated terms: codes of ethics, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and data treatment. Addresses issues in the dissemination of research results, such as plagiarism and authorship. (SK)
This study investigated the process and the products of negotiation in the ethical conflicts of teaching, focusing on the ethical conflicts experienced by early education teachers. Participants included urban kindergarten and elementary school teachers from several Finnish public day care centers and schools. The study examined various categories…
Residual inventories of special nuclear materials (SNM) remaining in processing facilities (holdup) are recognized as an insidious problem for both safety and safeguards. This paper identifies some of the issues that are of concern to the safeguards community at-large that are related to holdup of SNM in large-scale process equipment. These issues range from basic technologies of SNM production to changing regulatory requirements to meet the needs of safeguarding nuclear materials. Although there are no magic formulas to resolve these issues, there are several initiatives that could be taken in areas of facility design, plant operation, personnel training, SNM monitoring, and regulatory guidelines to minimize the problems of holdup and thereby improve both safety and safeguards at nuclear material processing plants. 8 refs
The paper discusses the legal issues related to the Ontario FIT contract, which includes the FIT waiver agreement, WTO challenge, FIT extension, political risk assessment and issues related to unforeseen events beyond human control (force majeure). The risk of termination of the FIT waiver is omitted for convenience by OPA but timing implications relating to the FIT waiver are included. The binding agreement for supply of generating equipment is also presented and the term sheet for turbine equipment and bill of purchase being understood as binding agreements is questioned. Political risks relate to existing contracts, lawsuit risks and changes to the REA process. Change in government and the implications of minority government can be added to the political risks. A successful WTO challenge has been assumed and the possible implications are discussed. Some of them include risk to FIT contracts already issued; changes in DC requirements and in FIT contract pricing and re-pricing of construction and turbine equipment supply contracts if DC requirements are relaxed.
Resource allocation is a central part of the decision-making process in any health care system. Resources have always been finite, thus the ethical issues raised are not new. The debate is now more open, and there is greater public awareness of the issues. It is increasingly recognised that it is the technology which determines resources. The ethical issues involved are often conflicting and relate to issues of individual rights and community benefits. One central feature of resource allocati...
Results of geotechnical studies for the Westside Subway were disclosed in a public hearing on Oct. 19, 2011, showing new "active faults" of the Santa Monica fault and the West Beverly Hills Lineament (WBHL), identified as a northern extension of the Newport-Inglewood fault. Presentations made spoke of the danger posed by these faults, the possibility of killing people, and how it was good news that these faults had been discovered now instead of later. The presentations were live and are now memorialized as YouTube videos, (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Omx2BTIpzAk and others). No faults had been physically exposed or observed by the study; the faults were all interpreted from cone penetrometer probes, supplemented by core borings and geophysical transects. Several of the WBHL faults traversed buildings of the Beverly Hills High School (BHHS), triggering the school district to geologically map and characterize these faults for future planning efforts, and to quantify risk to the students in the 1920's high school building. 5 exploratory trenches were excavated within the high school property, 12 cone penetrometers were pushed, and 26-cored borings were drilled. Geologic logging of the trenches and borings and interpretation of the CPT data failed to confirm the presence of the mapped WBHL faults, instead showing an unfaulted, 3° NE dipping sequence of mid-Pleistocene alluvial fan deposits conformably overlying an ~1 Ma marine sand. Using 14C, OSL, and soil pedology for stratigraphic dating, the BHHS site was cleared from fault rupture hazards and the WBHL was shown to be an erosional margin of Benedict Canyon, partially buttressed by 40-200 ka alluvial deposits from Benedict Wash. The consequence of the Westside Subway's active fault maps has been the unexpected expenditure of millions of dollars for emergency fault investigations at BHHS and several other private properties within a densely developed urban highrise environment. None of these studies have found any active faults where they had been interpreted, mapped, and published by the subway's consultants. Litigation is underway by the affected parties to recoup their geological expenditures and recover costs for lost business revenues. Even had the active fault map been correct, its public release was poorly managed. That the released active fault map has now been found to be badly in error poses more significant ethical issues about hazard communication and likely legal consequences.
Gath, Eldon; Gonzalez, Tania; Roe, Joe; Buchiarelli, Philip; Kenny, Miles
Full Text Available Ethics is concerned with the suffering humans cause one another and the related capacity of humans to recognize and address this suffering through the empathetic virtues of sympathy, compassion, and caring (Roberts, 1996. Much suffering throughout history can be related to the problem of "unacceptable" diversity among individuals or groups. Remembering the cruelties of the Nazi exterminations of Jews, slavery in the United States, and discrimination against homosexuals jolts us to awareness of the suffering of those who are "different." A task of ethics, then, is to include, rather than exclude (Post, 1995. One approach to an ethics of diversity for healthcare professionals is a call for intimate listening to the stories of those who are different, who may be unseen, marginalized, and excluded in our health care systems.
Abstract Purpose: The recent introduction of master's level curricula for Occupational Therapy (OT) and Physiotherapy (PT) training programs in Canada raises both challenges and opportunities to address ethical issues during professional training. This study evaluated the inclusion of ethics content in course descriptions and course calendars in order to develop a preliminary understanding of how rehabilitation ethics is taught in Canadian universities. Method: We reviewed the ethics content in the online curricula of 27 Canadian rehabilitation programs (OT & PT). Courses addressing ethical issues were identified through keyword searches, and were then subjected to both quantitative and textual descriptive analyses. Results: The mean proportion of credits allotted to courses that included ethics terminology was 5.9% (SD?=?1.4) for OT and 6.5% (SD?=?4.8) for PT (p?=?0.69). The most common terms in the course descriptions were "ethics/ethical" followed by "legal", "professionalism", "deontology" and "regulatory". Textual analysis revealed eight course topics, the most frequent being: standards of practice, ethical decision-making, clinical courses and mediation/communication. Conclusion: With the growing recognition and status of OT and PT in the healthcare system, and corresponding shifts in how professionals are being trained, it is crucial to assess and reflect upon the place accorded to and manner of teaching ethics. Implications for Rehabilitation Ethics training in rehabilitation programs With the evolving recognition of OT and PT professions within the healthcare system, and corresponding shifts in how future professionals are trained, it is crucial to assess the place accorded to teaching ethics. In Canadian OT and PT programs, ethics content is most commonly included in broad courses related to standards of practice and not in specific ethics courses. Careful attention is needed to ensure that OT and PT students receive sufficient ethics training that is well aligned with their future practice context to support them to competently address the ethical issues that they will encounter in clinical practice. In addition, OT and PT professionals would benefit from the development of continuing education activities that target ethical issues relevant to their practice. PMID:23865909
Hudon, Anne; Laliberté, Maude; Hunt, Matthew; Sonier, Vickie; Williams-Jones, Bryn; Mazer, Barbara; Badro, Valérie; Ehrmann Feldman, Debbie
Large data processing installations represent target systems for effective applications of artificial intelligence (AI) constructs. The system organization of a large data processing facility at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is presented. The methodology and the issues which are related to AI application to automated operations within a large-scale computing facility are described. Problems to be addressed and initial goals are outlined.
Hornfeck, William A.
Global health ethics is a relatively new term that is used to conceptualize the process of applying moral value to health issues that are typically characterized by a global level effect or require action coordinated at a global level. It is important to acknowledge that this account of global health ethics takes a predominantly geographic approach and may infer that the subject relates primarily to macro-level health phenomena. However, global health ethics could alternatively be thought of as another branch of health ethics. It may then relate to specific topics in themselves, which might also include micro-level health phenomena. In its broadest sense, global health ethics is a normative project that is best characterized by the challenge of developing common values and universal norms for responding to global health threats. Consequently, many subjects fall within its scope. Whilst several accounts of global health ethics have been conceptualized in the literature, a concise demarcation of the paradigm is still needed. Through means of a literature review, this paper presents a two-part introduction to global health ethics. First, the framework of ‘borrowed’ ethics that currently form the core of global health ethics is discussed in relation to two essential ethical considerations: 1) what is the moral significance of health and 2) what is the moral significance of boundaries? Second, a selection of exemplar ethical topics is presented to illustrate the range of topics within global health ethics.
Stapleton, Greg; Schroder-Back, Peter; Laaser, Ulrich; Meershoek, Agnes; Popa, Daniela
Full Text Available The aim of this review was to investigate assessment (evaluation methods of medical information on the Internet. This study reports and compares portals and search engines, as well as criteria of information selection and website set-up. It also describes ethical principles and rules concerning websites of medical interest. Current data reveals that important legal and ethical deficit issues concerning internet services are being resolved worldwide on the basis of scientific and ethical criteria.
M. K. Kalavritinos
Full Text Available Abstract Background The research community has a mandate to discover effective treatments for neurodegenerative disorders. The ethics landscape surrounding this mandate is in a constant state of flux, and ongoing challenges place ever greater demands on investigators to be accountable to the public and to answer questions about the implications of their work for health care, society, and policy. Methods We surveyed US-based investigators involved in neurodegenerative diseases research about how they value ethics-related issues, what motivates them to give consideration to those issues, and the barriers to doing so. Using the NIH CRISP database we identified 1,034 researchers with relevant, active grants and invited them to complete an online questionnaire. We received 193 responses. We used exploratory factor analysis to transform individual survey questions into a smaller set of factors, and linear regression to understand the effect of key variables of interest on the factor scores. Results Ethics-related issues clustered into two groups: research ethics and external influences. Heads of research groups viewed issues of research ethics to be more important than the other respondents. Concern about external influences was related to overall interest in ethics. Motivators clustered into five groups: ensuring public understanding, external forces, requirements, values, and press and public. Heads of research groups were more motivated to ensure public understanding of research than the other respondents. Barriers clustered into four groups: lack of resources, administrative burden, relevance to the research, and lack of interest. Perceived lack of ethics resources was a particular barrier for investigators working in drug discovery. Conclusions The data suggest that senior level neuroscientists working in the field of neurodegeneration (ND, and drug discovery specifically, are motivated to consider ethics issues related to their work, but the perceived lack of ethics resources thwarts their efforts. With bioethics centres at more than 50% of the institutions at which these respondents reside, the neuroscience and bioethics communities appear to be disconnected. Dedicated ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI programs, such as those fully integrated into genetics and regenerative medicine, provide models for achieving meaningful partnerships not yet adequately realized for scholars and trainees interested in drug discovery for ND.
Ivinson Adrian J
The technique of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is commonly explained as a way of checking the genes of embryos produced by IVF for serious genetic diseases. However, complex accounts of this technique emerged during ethics discussion groups held for PGD staff. These form part of a study exploring the social processes, meanings and institutions that frame and produce ‘ethical problems’ for practitioners, scientists and others working in the specialty of PGD in the UK. Two ‘grey...
Ehrich, Kathryn; Williams, Clare; Farsides, Bobbie; Sandall, Jane; Scott, Rosamund
This article explores ethical considerations that school counselors may need to address when providing counseling services to self-injurious students. Ethical issues related to student confidentiality, responsibilities to parents and to the school, and professional competence are discussed in relation to the American School Counselor Association's…
White Kress, Victoria E.; Costin, Amanda; Drouhard, Nicole
When animal ethicists deal with welfare they seem to face a dilemma: On the one hand, they recognize the necessity of welfare concepts for their ethical approaches. On the other hand, many animal ethicists do not want to be considered reformist welfarists. Moreover, animal welfare scientists may feel pressed by moral demands for a fundamental change in our attitude towards animals. The analysis of this conflict from the perspective of animal ethics shows that animal welfare science and animal ethics highly depend on each other. Welfare concepts are indispensable in the whole field of animal ethics. Evidence for this can be found by analyzing the structure of theories of animal ethics and the different ways in which these theories employ welfare concepts. Furthermore, the background of values underneath every welfare theory is essential to pursue animal welfare science. Animal ethics can make important contributions to the clarification of underlying normative assumptions with regard to the value of the animal, with regard to ideas about what is valuable for the animal, and with regard to the actions that should follow from the results of animal welfare science. PMID:21312052
The purpose of the grant was to provide support to enable us to: (1) perform legal and empirical research and critically analyze DNA banking and DNA databanking as those activities are conducted by state forensic laboratories, the military, academic researchers, and commercial enterprises; and (2) develop a broadcast quality educational videotape for viewing by the general public about DNA technology and the privacy and related issues that it raises. The grant thus has both a research and analysis component and a public education component. This report outlines the work completed since the inception of the project and describes the activities still in progress.
Reilly, P.R.; McEwen, J.E.; Small, D.
In this presentation, I will discuss the principles of biomedical and Islamic medical ethics and an interfaith perspective on end-of-life issues. I will also discuss three cases to exemplify some of the conflicts in ethical decision-making.
Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…
Buuck, R. John
New technologies analyzing fetal DNA in maternal blood have led to the wide commercial availability of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). We present here for clinicians the ethical and policy issues related to an emerging practice option. Although NIPT presents opportunities for pregnant women, particularly women who are at increased risk of having a baby with an abnormality or who are otherwise likely to access invasive prenatal testing, NIPT brings significant ethics and policy challenges. The ethical issues include multiple aspects of informed decision-making, such as access to counselling about the possible results of the test in advance of making a decision about participation in NIPT. Policy considerations include issues related to offering and promoting a privately available medical strategy in publicly funded institutions. Ethics and policy considerations merge in NIPT with regard to sex selection and support for persons living with disabilities. PMID:24927192
Vanstone, Meredith; King, Carol; de Vrijer, Barbra; Nisker, Jeff
This paper outlines the development of a National Code of Practice for biomedical waste management in Australia. The 10 key areas addressed by the code are industry mission statement; uniform terms and definitions; community relations - public perceptions and right to know; generation, source separation, and handling; storage requirements; transportation; treatment and disposal; disposal of solid and liquid residues and air emissions; occupational health and safety; staff awareness and education. A comparison with other industry codes in Australia is made. A list of outstanding issues is also provided; these include the development of standard containers, treatment effectiveness, and reusable sharps containers.
Moy, D.; Watt, C. [Griffith Univ. (Australia)
The basis goal of this work was to obtain a basic understanding of mixing of immiscible fluids leading to the determination of flow conditions which result in efficient breakup and dispersion of one mass of fluid in the bulk of another. Related issues were the prediction of the morphological structures and drop size distribution for a given set of operating conditions. The primary motivation for these investigations was to produce basic knowledge leading to increased understanding of industrial processes involving blending, agitation, emulsification, and dissolution
Increasing use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) poses numerous clinical, social, psychological, ethical, legal and policy dilemmas, many of which have received little attention. Patients and providers are now considering and using PGD for a widening array of genetic disorders, and patients may increasingly seek 'designer babies.' In the USA, although governmental oversight policies have been discussed, few specific guidelines exist. Hence, increasingly, patients and providers will face challenging ethical and policy questions of when and for whom to use PGD, and how it should be financed. These issues should be better clarified and addressed through collection of data concerning the current use of PGD in the USA, including factors involved in decision making about PGD use, as well as the education of the various communities that are, and should be, involved in its implementation. Improved understanding of these issues will ultimately enhance the development and implementation of future clinical guidelines and policies. PMID:18644221
Klitzman, Robert; Appelbaum, Paul S; Chung, Wendy; Sauer, Mark
The prediction of susceptibility to heritable breast, ovarian and colon cancer raises important legal and ethical concerns. Health care professionals have a duty to disclose sufficient information to enable patients to make informed decisions. They must also safeguard the confidentiality of patient data. These duties may come into conflict if a positive finding in one patient implies that family members are also at risk. A legal distinction is made between a breach of confidentiality and the ...
Dickens, B. M.; Pei, N.; Taylor, K. M.
Mizani, M. A.; Baykal, N.
Abstract Background Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to st...
Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy. European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.
In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation - ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide an update of selected topics that have evolved since 2005. PMID:24225486
Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan
Abstract Banks have a central role and importance in all commerce and hence in all societies. This thesis investigates the ethical basis of banking practice with the aim of developing an account of the virtues appropriate to bankers and banking. One central issue concerns a conflict between the interests of banks and their customers, and how this conflict plays out in relation to the lending policies and fee structure of banks. Such lending policies can have a significant effect on ban...
Villa, Jesus Simeon Villa
When an ethical issue is still being debated publically, it is inappropriate for schools to advocate a particular position--either explicitly or implicitly. Nevertheless, we can and should prepare students to integrate values and scientific knowledge by he
This paper suggests that design ethics can be enriched by considering ethics beyond the traditional approaches of deontology, teleology, and virtue ethics. Design practice and design ethics literature tend to frame ethics in design according to these approaches. The paper argues that a fundamental and concrete ethical understanding of design ethics can also be found in Sartrean Existentialism, a philosophy centered on the individual and his/her absolute freedom. Through the analysis of four core concepts of Sartrean Existentialism that define a specific ethics, the paper illustrates why such philosophical approach is relevant to design ethics. The paper also shows how Sartrean Existentialism and its ethics apply to critical issues of professional practice in design such as professional engagement and design decision-making. The paper finally argues that Sartre's philosophy and ethics is a perspective that offers the designer in design practice a solid ground to engage his/her ethical dilemma. PMID:19644771
This article, the seventh in the series, presents accounting for liabilities along with some related conceptual and measurement issues. Additional coverage is devoted to potential ethical dilemmas and both theoretical and empirical literature related to this set of accounting elements.
This essay, addressed to medical personnel and counselors, presents a bioethical approach to adolescent abortion. Topics include an overview of abortion in the U.S., related medical issues, data pertinent to adolescent abortions, ethical theory, adolescent moral development, and moral aspects of treatment of adolescents. (Author/DB)
A Social Audit Model for Agro-biotechnology Initiatives in Developing Countries: Accounting for Ethical, Social, Cultural, and Commercialization Issues A Social Audit Model for Agro-biotechnology Initiatives in Developing Countries: Accounting for Ethical, Social, Cultural, and Commercialization Issues A Social Audit Model for Agro-biotechnology Initiatives in Developing Countries: Accounting for Ethical, Social, Cultural, and Commercialization Issues
There is skepticism and resistance to innovations associated with agro-biotechnology projects, leading to the possibility of failure. The source of the skepticism is complex, but partly traceable to how local communities view genetically engineered crops, public perception on the technology’s implications, and views on the role of the private sector in public health and agriculture, especially in the developing world. We posit that a governance and management model in which ethical, social,...
Obidimma Ezezika; Fiona Thomas; Abdallah Daar; Peter Singer
Full Text Available Abstract Assisted reproductive technology has made great progress during the last three decades. After the initial enthusiasm, many ethical, legal and social issues related to the application of these procedures began to evolve. Multifetal pregnancy and fetal reduction, embryo cryopreservation, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, risks of birth defects and other adverse outcome associated with assisted reproductive technology are issues that have to be addressed building future collaborative studies and continuing the debate on related ethical issues.
This paper relates to the development of non-technical education (and to ethics) in engineering curricula in Europe and particularly in France. Two projects being followed at the Centre de recherche en eacutethique de l'ingeacutenieur (CREI) at the Catholic University of Lille (France) are discussed: the first is an engineering ethics course which has been running for 6 years in a state engineering school, where there is a strong emphasis on analysing the ethical issues of the students' first...
Considers ethics issues involved with using online resources like the Internet in elementary and secondary education and suggests that educators initiate and model a standardized role of ethical behavior for Internet users. Topics include hackers; privacy, piracy, and security; screening electronic sites; ethics education; and an ethics model.…
Identifies major issues in international business ethics (such as cultural relativism and ethical imperialism) that should be addressed when incorporating ethics in international business education. Also discusses instructional approaches, including alternative ways of thinking about morality, philosophy versus practice, the ethical agent, and…
Iyer, Gopalkrishnan R.
Full Text Available The level and rate of growth in public relations practice in Nigeria though encouraging, the developmental striveis slow. The later accounts for the retarded growth rate of professionalism status attainment in the practice ofpublic relations in Nigeria. This work therefore considered the role and relevance of standards in the practice ofpublic relations, built on ethics and ethical values; as basic requirements for professionalism. It appraised thepractice of public relations vis-à-vis other practices such as law and medicine and x-rayed the constraints toprofessionalism in public relations. The impact of public relations practitioners’ characters/traits, work habitsand membership enlistments requirements were assessed as factors that influence the quality of members’(service output. Equally evaluated are the influences of non-universality and inconsistency characteristics ofethics and non-culpability of ethical breach on the practice of public relations. The work in addition, consideredthe role of confidentiality, integrity and objectivity in public relations practice and assessed the NIPRdisciplinary management procedure given the institute’s code of practice. Adequate analytical and statisticaltools including Likert ranking scale and the ordinal and interval ranking scales, were employed in internal andexternal factor influence appraisals and solutions among others. In the midst of constraints were recommendedas strive strategies to the attainment of professionalism in the practice of public relations in Nigeria. Inclusive ofthese are unified method of fees determination for practitioners, pre and post accreditation of membership,review of codes of practice for universality, improvement in the method and procedure of dispute managementamong others.
OKO A. E. NDU
Patient demand for esthetics has increased globally, and often for reasons of patient self-esteem. However, important ethical issues encompass treatment for purely esthetic reasons. Also, perceptions of what is esthetic differ among patients and clinicians. Therefore, the aim of this article is to make suggestions regarding some of the issues surrounding the ethical, esthetic treatment of patients, as well as present three cases illustrating the different meanings of esthetic health to different people.
Liebler, Michael; Devigus, Alessandro
Millions of people undergo displacement in the world. Internally displaced people (IDP) are especially vulnerable as they are not protected by special legislation in contrast to other migrants.