This collection of columns on teaching English as a Second Language in Japan appeared on the English education page of a Japanese English-language newspaper over a period of almost 4 years. Article topics include these: principles of second language learning; differences between language skills; standards of usage; avoiding stereotypes; school politics; trends in Japan; the language of language teaching; motivating students; peer evaluation; judging speech contests; textbook selection; avoiding burnout; teaching as job vs. profession; teacher training and qualifications; attending professional conferences; professional isolation; classroom techniques; classroom communication; the teacher's role and the learner's role; large classes; useful class activities and exercises; memorization; grading; working with assistant teachers; team teaching; cultural issues and culture shock; finding a teaching job; and the need for vacations. Each article is accompanied by a summary in Japanese. Five book reviews are also included. (MSE)
What general principles should inform a socioculturally sensitive pedagogy for teaching English as an International Language and what practices would be consistent with these principles? This text explores the pedagogical implications of the continuing spread of English and its role as an international language, highlighting the importance of socially sensitive pedagogy in contexts outside inner circle English-speaking countries. It provides comprehensive coverage of topics traditionally included in second language methodology courses (such as the teaching of oral skills and grammar), as well
In this study, I used a feminist poststructural perspective to explain how language is a gatekeeper in learning science, in achieving professional honors in teaching science, and in teaching science to English language learners. The various uses of language revealed interesting dynamics related to the culture of power of language and the culture of power of science along race-ethnicity, gender, and class dimensions for teachers. Teachers did not necessarily see language as having distinct purposes and uses. This further maintained the gatekeeping nature of language and discourse in science education. I discuss implications for looking at language in science education for teacher professional development and student learning.
In this study, I used a feminist poststructural perspective to explain how language is a gatekeeper in learning science, in achieving professional honors in teaching science, and in teaching science to English language learners. The various uses of language revealed interesting dynamics related to the culture of power of language and the culture of power of science along race-ethnicity, gender, and class dimensions for teachers. Teachers did not necessarily see language as having distinct purposes and uses. This further maintained the gatekeeping nature of language and discourse in science education. I discuss implications for looking at language in science education for teacher professional development and student learning.
This essay investigates the extent and significance of a gender decisive language in the foreign language classroom. Focus lies on teachers teaching English as a foreign language and their attitudes towards gender neutrality from a pure linguistic point of view. My starting point was previous resear...
Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature of academic teaching and lecturing into account.
This document provides a new perspective on teaching English language arts in a francophone school, a perspective that takes into account the aspirations of the francophone community within the following contexts: the federal and provincial legal provisions governing French first-language education in Alberta, the linguistic reality of Alberta's francophone students and lastly, our current knowledge regarding language learning in a minority milieu. This document is a part of a series entitled Teaching English Language Arts to Francophone Program Students (Grades 3 to 9). Two documents from this series have already been published: A Guide to Transfers and Interference (Alberta Learning, 2001) (ED456639) and Bridging the Francais and English Language Arts Programs of Study (Alberta Learning, 2001) (ED471059) Teaching English Language Arts to Francophone Program Students: Pedagogical Considerations is the third and last document of this series.
English language teachers create contexts to teach grammar so that meaningful learning occurs. In this study, English grammar is contextualized through environmental peace education activities to raise students' awareness of global issues. Two sources provided data to evaluate the success of this instructional process. Fourth-year pre-service English language teachers (n = 50) learned about relevant classroom activities and evaluated their applicability in foreign language classrooms. Secondly, tenth-grade students (n = 46) completed these activities with pre-service teachers and then evaluated the overall learning process. The students were enrolled in the English language course offered in the second year of their four-year secondary school education. Pre-service ELT (English language te...
The seven issues of this New Zealand journal contain brief articles on a variety of immigrant and multicultural education issues. Topics include: the role of English language instruction in creating opportunities; Pacific Islander university students; lecture listening and note-taking techniques; the language of geography examinations; audiotape libraries; supporting native language use in child care centers; implications of world English for English language teaching; teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) in Vietnam; a home tutor conference; bilingual tutors and refugees; ESL funding; special education; meeting ESL students' needs within the school system; teaching English to absolute beginners; problems of recent Chinese immigrants; speech act analysis and its role in first language/cultural maintenance; community language schools; team teaching in the polytechnic institutes; bridging cultural gaps; inservice teacher education; language learning at home; a training program for Pacific Islanders; language content and perspectives of national curriculum programs; Samoan resources for the New Zealand curriculum; developments in Pacific Islands education; answers to questions primary school teachers ask about assisting students from non-English-speaking backgrounds (NESB); a German language weekend school for native German-speakers; successful bilingual teaching techniques; the linguistic and educational background of Lao immigrant students; designing Samoan language programs for New Zealand students; finding instructional materials for NESB students; guidelines for training peer and adult volunteer tutors of NESB students; the cultural and educational background of NESB Asian students; Cook Islands Maori instructional materials; student attitudes about English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) classes; language maintenance in the Korean community; and newly migrated Samoan students. Works of creative writing are included in some issues. (MSE)
In this paper I examine similarities and differences between the required knowledge base of teachers of English as a second language (ESL) and French as a second language (FSL) for teaching in Kindergarten through Grade 12 programs in Canada. Drawing on knowledge base frameworks in language teacher education (Freeman and Johnson, 1998; Richards, 1998) I discuss how a variety of factors impact the knowledge for language teacher education programs. These factors include the linguistic and cultural backgrounds of teacher candidates in ESL and FSL programs, the different student populations, and the variety of language teaching contexts. Teacher candidates' English or French language proficiency, their personal experiences and understanding of language development, as well as their understanding of real life experiences of ESL and FSL students, impact the development of their knowledge base. I discuss the implications of such nuances for policy and practice in language teacher education programs across Canada. (Contains 1 table and 5 footnotes.)
Abstract The concept of academic language (also referred to as academic English) has developed substantially in the 30-years since Cummins introduced the distinction between basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS) and cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP). Cummins- (1979, 1981, 2000a) work explains why English language learners (ELs) may acquire basic conversational fluency in English quickly but require substantially longer to acquire academic language. The BICS/CALP framework has also influenced pedagogy, particularly by promoting highly contextualized teaching of academic content. More recent work drawing on linguistic approaches, including corpus linguistics and Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), provides insights into the specific features of language used in scho...
It is the reality of Korean language education that the development of teaching materials for Korean language for academic purposes are not so brisk, compared to that of the materials for general purpose, as the education of Korean language as a foreign language has just begun to proceed. The focuses of this study are to survey the brief history of teaching Korean as a foreign language and the development of the textbooks to teach KFL, and to compare the textbooks designed to teach English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and Korean as a Foreign Language (KFL) in order to find more desirable ways to develop the academic area of teaching Korean as a foreign language. Therefore, this study aims to suggest a more desirable way for the development of teaching materials for KFL for academic purpose, by comparing the composition of a Korean language textbook for academic purposes with the composition of an EFL textbook that has already achieved excellent outcomes. (Contains 4 tables and 3 footnotes.)
Although the teaching of photosynthesis occurs yearly in elementary classrooms, one thing that makes it challenging is the inclusion of English language learners (ELLs). This article presents several activities for teaching and assessing of photosynthesis in a third grade classroom. The activities incorporate the photosynthesis content, teaching strategies, and assessment techniques appropriate for ELLs, as well as for English-speaking students. (Contains 1 table, 6 figures, and 1 note.)
This paper deals with English teachers who work with deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) students. In France deaf students are required to attend foreign language classes - mostly English classes. The purpose is not to teach them British sign language (BSL) or American sign language (ASL), but written and/or spoken English. Indeed, sign languages are distinct from spoken languages and differ from country to country: there is no universal sign language. English teachers of the deaf are mostly hearing people. They work either in mainstream or special schools. Most of them have no specific qualifications. In this context, they are faced with the tremendous challenge of how to adjust their teaching to their students' impairment and at the same time develop the latter's knowledge and skills in Engl...
A study investigated (1) the role of English as a language of power, and how it has affected multilingualism in Canada and South Africa, (2) the nature and implementation of South Africa's multilingual policy, (3) how South Africa's language education policy and policy implementation compare to those in Canada, (4) how South African language teachers approach English language education, multilingualism, and multiculturalism in education, and (5) ethical issues related to English language teaching in the two countries. Data were gathered through a review of publications and government documents and a visit to South Africa. Focus is on the status of endangered languages and the role played by English language education and policy in endangering them. Background information and documents on South African language policies and education are appended. Contains 56 references. (MSE)
This article discusses the implementation of the "Information and Communication Technologies in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning" course conducted as a component of the pre-service English language teacher training program in the Buketov Karaganda State University, Kazakhstan. The course was introduced in 2003. The central objective of the course is to develop pre-service language teachers' capacity to effectively integrate technology in language teaching and learning in their own classrooms. In this article, the authors briefly discuss the history of computer-assisted language teaching and learning, and describe their course, as well as preliminary results from their evaluation of the implementation of the course over the last three years. Their experience from the course implementation suggests that trainee teachers not only developed some useful skills to use technology with their own students, but also developed an understanding that information technology is a necessary tool in contemporary second-language education.
This paper focuses on the use of video and TV in English lessons, namely in teaching of some subskills. The theoretical part analyzes general aspects concerning video itself and video watching for language teaching purposes. It is also aimed at integration of video into the lesson and the theory of ...
This report on professional teaching standards in the Central Region examines what K-8 general education teachers are expected to know and be able to do in order to teach English language learner students. It reviews the standards for coverage of six topics that the research literature suggests are important for improving student achievement. Key findings include: (1) All seven Central Region states include knowledge and skills for teaching English language learner (ELL) students in their teaching standards, referencing at least two topics: differentiating instruction to accommodate the learning needs of ELL students and communicating with students and families for whom English is not their native language; (2) Five states (Kansas, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming) reference recognizing and supporting diverse language backgrounds; four states (Kansas, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming) reference knowing theories of second language acquisition and related strategies of support; (3) No states reference selecting materials or curricula to accommodate the learning needs of ELL students; and (4) The number of ELL-related topics in each state's standards ranges from two to five. Colorado and Nebraska reference two (differentiating instruction and communicating with students and families). Missouri references one additional topic (recognizing and supporting diverse language backgrounds), while North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming reference two additional topics (recognizing and supporting diverse language backgrounds and knowing theories of second language acquisition and related strategies of support). Finally, Kansas references one additional topic (assessing students' language status and development), for a total of five topics. Appended are: (1) Describing the six English language learner topics; (2) Data and methodology; and (3) State profiles. (Contains 2 boxes, 3 tables and 8 notes.) [For the summary report, "Teaching English Language Learner Students: Professional Standards in Elementary Education in Central Region States. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 122," see ED529763.
Discusses the use of translation when teaching English as a Second Language in a Tamil context. Singles out the fencing episode in Shakespeare's "Hamlet" to illustrate the difficulties of translating cultural aspects. Concludes that successful translations of Shakespeare into Indian languages should involve collaboration between Shakespeare scholars and translators. (SR)
Dec 15, 2010 ... Teachers from Louisiana and Mississippi spent two days at Stennis learning how to .... Using space, teachers can use the activities presented at SEEC to teach science, language ... science vocabulary building for English as Second Language (ESL) students as ... JSC LT and Girlstart Initiate Collaboration ...
This paper focuses on listening materials used in English language teaching in Sweden, especially in respect to the concept of global English. Global English could briefly be described as the linguistic, cultural, politic, and economic influence of English in the world. This influence concerns two ...
This study aims to share English language practitioners' reflections on the adaptation of teaching methods and materials during the pre-validation period of the European Language Portfolio (ELP). In order to achieve this aim, a high school was selected as the scope of research, since it has started to adapt the English language teaching curriculum, syllabuses, instruction methods and assessment in line with the Common European Framework for the teaching of English as a foreign language for the last 4 years. A focus group of eight teachers was selected to collect data via semi-structured interviews. During the data collection procedure, the participants evaluated the process and procedures in terms of the related themes of SWOT analysis. The collected data was analyzed through coding and theme identification.
This report on professional teaching standards in the Central Region examines what K-8 general education teachers are expected to know and be able to do in order to teach English language learner students. It reviews the standards for coverage of six topics that the research literature suggests are important for improving student achievement. Key findings include: (1) All seven Central Region states include knowledge and skills for teaching English language learner (ELL) students in their teaching standards, referencing at least two topics: differentiating instruction to accommodate the learning needs of ELL students and communicating with students and families for whom English is not their native language; (2) Five states (Kansas, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming) reference recognizing and supporting diverse language backgrounds; four states (Kansas, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming) reference knowing theories of second language acquisition and related strategies of support; (3) No states reference selecting materials or curricula to accommodate the learning needs of ELL students; and (4) The number of ELL-related topics in each state's standards ranges from two to five. Colorado and Nebraska reference two (differentiating instruction and communicating with students and families). Missouri references one additional topic (recognizing and supporting diverse language backgrounds), while North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming reference two additional topics (recognizing and supporting diverse language backgrounds and knowing theories of second language acquisition and related strategies of support). Finally, Kansas references one additional topic (assessing students' language status and development), for a total of five topics. [For the full report, "Teaching English Language Learner Students: Professional Standards in Elementary Education in Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 122," see ED529762.
This introspective paper proves Iranian young adults' ego-centricism and its cognitive functioning an encumbrance in English language learning. Thru a brief look at the initiation of language acquisition in children and the generalizibility to language teaching and learning programs, it is realized that the ego of every learner is the main axis of their language articulation. Plus, as nervousness is an indispensable trait in language production, learners, unconsciously and as one's nature decrees, put themselves at ease by giving egoistic and--at the same time--positive language articulation. These two traits are both looked high upon, but in cases they go hand in hand to make prominent the role of a teacher to have power over this by means of various and ever changing techniques of teaching. (Contains 1 table and 2 figures.)
This research study investigated the changes that occurred in six student teachers' conceptions of teaching science to adolescent English language learners over the duration of their participation in a one-year, graduate level, science teacher education program. Cases were created for each of the student teachers based on their concept maps, writing samples, interviews, lesson plans, informal interviews with cooperating teachers, and observation notes collected on biweekly visitations. The cases were divided into three dyads each consisting of two student teachers with similar preprogram and student teaching experiences. Cross case analysis revealed the existence of seven themes related to teaching science to adolescent English language learners. Further analysis suggested that student teachers that worked with experienced cooperating teachers and who had achieved a sense of autonomy over their student teaching demonstrated broad and sophisticated growth across all seven themes. Student teachers who had not achieved a sense of autonomy, demonstrated growth in two to three themes. Student teachers who demonstrated broad and sophisticated growth were able to clearly articulate their conceptions of teaching science to English language learners where as those who demonstrated limited growth were not. This research establishes the use of concept maps as a tool for detecting changes in student teachers' conceptions of teaching science to adolescent English language learners as well as the sensitivity of concept maps to detect the types of changes historically detected by writing samples and interviews. Recommendations based on the implications from are included.
A study examined the relationship of time, language teachers' language use, and the qualities of interaction in the language classroom. An introductory section discusses the interest in these issues and the use and development of polychronometric techniques for behavior analysis. Three studies using these techniques to analyze language teacher behaviors follow. One examined the extent to which the components of the language lesson are significant in enhancing learning. The study compared components of five lesson types presented to 11-year-old students of English as a second language. The second compared the five lesson types in terms of the relative duration and frequency of didactic and language behaviors. The third study looked at the relationship between learner language use, teacher language behavior, error correction, and the level of language learning among third- and ninth-grade students. A concluding chapter discusses the studies' findings as they relate to measuring language teaching efficiency. An epilogue addresses the persistent attitude that teaching a foreign language may really be a waste of time. (MSE)
In South Korea, as in many other parts of the world, children begin learning English when they are very young. Korean parents want their children to learn English as quickly as possible and often make heavy financial and other investments in their children's English language education. English language teachers of school-age learners in Korea often feel pressure and in some cases criticism from parents regarding English language instruction. This article reports the results of a study designed to begin examining the perceptions that Korean parents hold regarding English language instruction. It illustrates how some of their beliefs reflect the latest language teaching research, whereas others are more indicative of traditional Korean belief systems, educational approaches, and methodologies. (Contains 1 table.)
The Teaching of Russian Language and Literature in Europe = L'enseignement de la langue et de la litterature russes en Europe = Prepodavanie russkogo yaeyka i literatury v Europe. Proceedings of the AIMAV Seminar (17th, Brussels, Belgium, 1986).
Papers from the Proceedings of the 17th meeting of the AIMAV (Association internationale pour le developpement de la communication interculturelle) are collected in this volume. Conference papers appear either in English, in French, or in Russian. For purposes of this abstract, all titles below have been translated into English. The English-language papers presented here are: "My Method of Studying Russian," (Maria T. Bella); "The Teaching of Russian in the USSR: World-Wide Window for Soviet Non-Russians," (Goldie Blankoff-Scarr); and "Grammatical Interference of the Native Language in Russian Language Learning," (E. Popoff-Bocker). Papers in French are: "A Tentative Analysis of the State of Russian Language Instruction in France," (Irene Commeau); "The Problem of Teaching Russian Literature in Translation," (Claude De Greve); "Ann Attempt at Teaching Some Elementary Structures of Russian: Phonology and Phonetics, Transcription and Orthography," (Danielle Konopnicki-Miot); and "The Semantic Approach of the Russian Culture," (N. Stange-Zhirovova). Papers in Russian are: "The Advancement of Russian Language Teacher Qualifications with Regard to the Communicative Tasks of Instruction," (T. M. Dorofyeeva); "Some Aspects of My Teaching an Advanced Russian Literature Class in a French College," (O. M. Grabovskaya); "On Minimizing Classroom Materials," (Arto Mustajoki); "An Accounting of the Progress of Comparative Literary Criticism in the Teaching of Russian Literature," (Michai Novikov); "Two Intonation Contours in Contemporary Russian Language," (Cecilia Ode);"Teaching Russian Language in the Non-Russian European Parts of the USSR," (Shegun Odunuga); "Comprehension Tests of Russian Texts," (C. Petri); and "The Status of Russian Language Instruction in West German Schools, 1984," (Kai Sieveking). (LMO)
This book shows prospective teachers how to use the language arts to connect diverse students to the world around them and help them develop their own literate voices. It considers the integrated nature of the primary language arts--reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing, and visually representing. The authors encourage preservice and inservice teachers to take a reflective, balanced approach in preparing to teach language arts. Prospective teachers are encouraged to view not only their students as language users and learners but to develop themselves as literate models. Through their incorporation of the NCTE/IRA Standards for the English Language Arts, the authors explore the integrated nature of the language arts using children's literature, critical thinking, and technology. Through vignettes, views into classrooms, connections to the field, student artifacts, and an ongoing reflection journal this book provides prospective teachers with a wide range of activities that will help them to make connections between theoretical constructs and their manifestation in classroom practice. An accompanying Student Resource CD bound in the text includes video clips, exercises, questions, and additional resources. The Web-based Student Study Site provides a comprehensive Study Guide, links to standards, children's literature, reflection exercises, journal articles, and PRAXIS test preparation material (http://www.sagepub.com/dvtlastudy). An Instructor's Resource CD offers lecture outlines, PowerPoint slides, sample syllabi, video clips with student exercises, test bank, web resources, reflection portfolio guidelines, and more (Instructor's Resource CD: 1-4129-5013-9). Following a preface providing information on the features and organization of the text; the Instructor's Resources CD; the Web-Based Student Study Guide; and the Student Resources CD, this book is divided into three parts. Part I, Understanding Language Arts, presents: (1) Becoming a Reflective Teacher; and (2) What Are the Language Arts? Part II, Frameworks and Approaches to Teaching, Learning, and Assessing in the Language Arts, continues with: (3) Reading and the Language Arts; (4) Writing and the Language Arts; (5) Language, Word Study, and the Tools of Writing; (6) Strategies for Listening, Speaking, Viewing, and Visually Representing; (7) Children's and Young Adult Literature as a Tool for the Language Arts; (8) Language Arts and the Content Areas; and (9) Workshops in the Language Arts Curriculum. Part III, Language Arts Teaching, Learning, and Assessing from Early Childhood to Early Adolescence, concludes with: (10) Early Childhood Language Arts: Kathi Glick's First-Grade Classroom; (11) Middle Childhood Language Arts: Sandy Cabernathy's Third- and Fourth-Grade Classroom; and (12) Early Adolescence Language Arts: Joelle Quimby's Eighth-Grade Language Arts Classroom. An epilogue entitled, Reflecting on Your Future Teaching of the Language Arts; a glossary; and an index are also included.
This is an English communication instruction system designed to teach children basic, easy to remember conversation strategies without the use of a textbook or to serve as a supplement learning system to a textbook. This English communication training method provides learners with concrete language patterns, a broad spectrum of vocabulary and encourages students to use their own creative thinking process to develop real English sentences, questions and answers. This system can also serve as a basic curriculum guide for novice EFL teachers teaching in overseas settings or for experienced EFL teachers who are looking for suggestions to improve their teaching style and classes. (Contains 6 footnotes.)
Following the Dearing Report on the provision and teaching of modern languages in England, there has been a drive to establish the teaching of modern languages in primary schools throughout England. This article looks at how the teaching of modern languages in the primary school (MLPS) in Scotland has developed since 1989--when the first pilot scheme was set up--to the present day, when modern languages are taught in almost all primary schools. We will discuss the issues surrounding the training of primary teachers and delivery of MLPS, which may resonate with experiences that English colleagues are undergoing at present, before moving on to look at the possibilities that the new curricular initiative in Scotland, Curriculum for Excellence (CfE), offers for MLPS. (Contains 2 notes.)
English prepositions cause problems for learners of English. The way prepositions are taught has impact on how students learn. Using corpora in teaching makes it possible for teachers and pupils to explore language together and is a good alternative to filling in missing prepositions on worksheets. ...
Compares two separate classroom ethnographies in higher educational institutions--one on African American students learning academic writing and another on Sri Lankan Tamil students learning English for general purposes. Attempts to overcome the separation of the concerns of bilingual and bidialectal minority students in English-language teaching. (55 references) (Author/CK)
A review of the status of English language instruction in Ethiopia begins with an overview of the role of English in the society in general, and goes on to outline the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (elementary, secondary, higher, and teacher), the characteristics and training of English language instructors, the type and availability of instructional materials, educational administration and planning in relation to English teaching, English outside the educational system, British and other international support, commercial opportunities related to English instruction, creative writing, language research, and other sources of information. It is concluded that despite the revolutionary government's intention to make Amharic the language of instruction in all secondary and postsecondary institutions, the government is convinced of the importance of English instruction in the educational system, and officials have made it clear that they would welcome the return of British-born advisers and teachers to many Ethiopian institutions. (MSE)
This book presents nine case studies from Australia, Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom in which English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students have been successfully integrated into regular classrooms. An introductory section looks at the different contexts for the studies, objectives of language-minority education, the rationale behind mainstreaming, factors facilitating language learning, the mainstream class as a language learning environment, forms of support for language development in the mainstream classroom, and the role of ESL instruction in providing educational equity. Four of the case studies concern elementary education: "Supporting Small ESL Groups in a Mainstream Primary School" (Cressida Jupp); "A Whole-Language Approach to Mainstreaming" (L. Westbrook, Sharon Bergquist-Moody); "A Mainstream Primary Classroom with a Majority of ESL Students: Planning for English Language Learning" (Elina Raso); and "A Whole-School Approach to Mainstreaming: The Rose Avenue ESL/D Project" (Julie Reid, Nancy Kitegawa). Five concern secondary education: "A Sheltered History Course for ESL Students" (Ross McKean); "Environmental Studies for ESL Students: School Skills, Literacy and Language" (Anne Filson); "Content-Based Language Teaching: Geography for ESL Students" (Ruth Evans); "Integrating a Small Group of ESL Students into Mainstream Science: Partnership Teaching" (Manny Vazquez); and "Mainstream Science with a Majority of ESL Learners: Integrating Language and Content" (Hugh Hooper). (MSE)
The first grammatical descriptions of the French language were produced in England, several centuries before the first grammar written in French (but also several centuries after the Norman Conquest). This book describes the status of French in England during the period from the marriage of Emma of Normandy to thelred (1004) to the fixing of a (relatively) standard pedagogical scheme for the teaching of French of English speakers (ca. 1600). During this period French passed from a native language to a second language, became the official language of the legal profession, and ultimately fell ba
Part-time teacher of primary English needed for September 2003 to teach English National Curriculum (KS2) and NLS to mother tongue or good second language English-speakers aged 7-10. 4 hours contact time per week, team planning, marking and meetings. Candidates should be English mother tongue qualified teachers, confident, flexible classroom practitioners and team players. For further details and how to apply see http://enpferney.org/staff_vacancies.htm English National Programme, Lycée International, Ferney-Voltaire (http://enpferney.org/)
This essay explores a midrange teaching and learning issue regarding the teaching of biblical languages and one strategy for addressing the issue. Seminary students do not yield a great enough return in exchange for the investment they are required to make in learning biblical languages. Students invest great time and money, but they do not learn to use the biblical languages to think critically about the Bible. This essay argues that a fruitful strategy for addressing this midrange issue is to require students to write in English about the Hebrew language. This strategy fosters students' ability to think critically about the biblical text. It also fosters their ability to use their budding knowledge of a biblical language to engage questions of meaning and issues of interpretation.
One of the most prominent impacts of neoliberal globalization on language is the rise of the importance of English (Heller 2003; Phillipson 2003). In today's globalized economy, struggles over the resources of English language education tie English to processes of construction and reproduction of social differences and inequality (Heller 2002). Korea's newly launched Teach and Learn in Korea (TaLK) program is one such example. The TaLK program recruits native speakers of English, including overseas ethnic Koreans, as temporary immigrant workers to teach English to rural elementary students. Using the concept of -language management,- this article demonstrates how the Korean government views transnational Koreans- ethnicity as an asset, while treating their linguistic resources as manageabl...
This paper discusses the use of American Sign Language (ASL) in an English-as-a-Second-Language approach to teaching reading and writing skills to deaf students. The paper poses and answers the following theoretical and practical questions: (1) What is the nature of first language reading? (2) What is the nature of second language reading? (3) What is the relationship between reading and writing? (4) Is inner speech (i.e., phonological coding) important for reading comprehension? (5) What role can ASL play in the teaching of literacy skills? (6) Is the use of only ASL sufficient for the development of reading and writing? Three models of the reading process, namely, the text-based, reader-based, and interactive approaches, are described. Interactive social-cognitive theories are then applied to second language reading. The interrelatedness of reading and writing is noted, and evidence of the importance of speech coding for reading comprehension is cited. The paper recommends that ASL be used to teach English literacy skills within the framework of a bilingual minority-language immersion program. ASL's use in teaching cultural components, emerging literacy skills, advanced literacy skills, vocabulary, and comprehension is examined in detail. (48 references) (JDD)
Debate over educational reform in many countries has addressed the question of how to attract and retain teachers. As part of a multiple case study that includes eight beginning English language teachers in Hong Kong, this paper offers an in-depth analysis of the experiences of two participants, Christine and Samuel, during their initial year of full time teaching in Hong Kong schools. The data, collected during an entire academic year, suggests that Christine used her experiences of becoming a teacher to justify and reaffirm her determination to pursue a career within English language teaching. In contrast, Samuel?s preliminary year of full-time teaching culminated in his decision to leave the teaching profession. A contribution of this study is to explore these very different experiences...
Abstract In Australia, the recently published national curriculum for English embraces not only a return to the explicit teaching of grammar with a commitment to teaching it in context but also includes a distinct strand of knowledge about the English language and how it works. This paper begins with a synopsis of the broader understandings of language encoded in this document, illustrating one approach toward providing a more linguistically informed awareness of language. This is followed by a critical assessment of the grammatical framework, showing that while grammar is positively viewed as a way of describing the language we use as a system, the overall framework has some serious deficits. It is argued that academic linguists have a crucial role to play in shaping a linguistically info...
Vietnamese has to face a cross-culture issue with the teaching and learning of English as Vietnamese culture is "villagers' culture" which considers relationships in village as family relations and an emphasis "on hierarchical, social order in their dealings with one another" (Ellis, 1995: 9) with a traditional teaching method which is teacher-centered, book-centered, grammar-translation method and an emphasis on rote memory (Liu & Little Wood, 1997), English which belongs to Western culture, stands on the opposite side. This paper aims at a deep look into Vietnamese culture to find out how this culture influence on learning and teaching foreign language and in this case it is English. Consequently, the differences between cultures can reduce the effectiveness of learning and teaching activity. Therefore, both learners and teachers should be aware of these distinctive features to help themselves overcome cultural barriers in learning and teaching process with the best achievement.
Highly practical and accessible, this indispensable book provides clear-cut strategies for improving K-12 writing instruction. The contributors are leading authorities who demonstrate proven ways to teach different aspects of writing, with chapters on planning, revision, sentence construction, handwriting, spelling, and motivation. The use of the Internet in instruction is addressed, and exemplary approaches to teaching English-language learners and students with special needs are discussed. The book also offers best-practice guidelines for designing an effective writing program. Focusing on e
The materials status report for Amharic, the dominant language of Ethiopia, is one of a series intended to provide the nonspecialist with a picture of the availability and quality of texts for teaching various languages to English speakers. The report consists of: (1) a brief narrative description of Amharic, the areas where it is spoken, its major dialects, its writing system, points of difficulty for the English-speaking learner, usable texts, availability of instructional programs, linguists who have worked on the language, native speakers, and other information of use to the individual planning a course in the language; (2) a bibliography of materials, categorized as basic level teaching materials, advanced level teaching materials, refresher/maintenance materials, reference materials, and dictionaries, according to evaluators' judgment of their best use in classes today rather than according to the author's intentions; and (3) individual materials evaluations each consisting of a general description (including publication information), an overview of the contents, statements about the quality of the language used, and a form on which the general text quality (language and presentation) is evaluated. The evaluations are made by native speakers and linguists recognized for their knowledge of the language. (MSE)
This paper addresses the tensions that exist between policy-makers and practitioners about what learning and teaching should really be about. It adds to the collective reflection on what learning is about and how we should never stop engaging in reflection about it in an active, revolving and changing manner. Similarities between second language learning and generic learning intersperse the reflective account as the author looks through the lenses of her own disciplines of Linguistics, English language and English as a second language. The reflection digs deep into the emotions of a critical pedagogue and is finally channelled into a "pedagogy of hope" for a better future.
In this article I share the results of a seven-year case study of an educator who began his career without formal preservice teacher education, as a participant in Teach for America. Steven (a pseudonym) began teaching mathematics in an urban middle school, later teaching social studies to English language learners, and is currently a principal of an urban charter school. Using a narrative/biographical research method, I have documented how Steven combined his personal resources, the confidence he gained from participating in Teach for America, and, because he began taking professional coursework in his second year of teaching, his emerging understanding of the foundations of teaching and learning (i.e. what he learned at the university) to form the educator he has become. His growth in un...
This interdisciplinary paper is about applying Adult Education methods of learning and teaching to higher education. I argue that higher education students need to be stimulated via interactive methods that improve their motivation and lead them to question the value system/s that exist around them. A Freirean approach as used in the teaching of Adult Literacy and English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) was applied to a group of "elite" students at the University of Birmingham who were taking a language foundation course. As a sociolinguist and ESOL practitioner from a black perspective, I argue that the understanding of concepts of language and racism, imperialism and social class can best be facilitated using such an approach. Taking groups of students through this learning journey is challenging for higher education practitioners and the results add a relatively new dimension to the collective reflection on learning and teaching in higher education today. (Contains 3 notes.)
A much-needed resource for teaching English to all learners The number of English language learners in U.S. schools is projected to grow to twenty-five percent by 2025. Most teachers have English learners in their classrooms, from kindergarten through college. The ESL/ELL Teacher?s Survival Guide offers educators practical strategies for setting up an ESL-friendly classroom, motivating and interacting with students, communicating with parents of English learners, and navigating the challenges inherent in teaching ESL students. Provides research-based instructional techniques which have prove
Two practicing English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL teachers respond to Rod Ellis' January 1993 article in "ELT Journal," which discussed importance of grammar instruction in EFL classrooms. Argues some of Ellis' assumptions about current classroom practices are inaccurate and a number of his "alternative" approaches to teaching grammar, such as grammar consciousness-raising and task motivation, are already embedded in current practice. (MDM)
Shows how the English language, used properly, has power to instruct, move and entertain people, but used incorrectly, can lead to a lack of clarity and confusion. This book informs readers how to use the basics of grammar, punctuation and spelling, and teaches the tips and tricks of style, rhetoric, vocabulary and the use of foreign phrases.
Mar 10, 2010 ... English- language translations of foreign scientific and technical material .... example, there are very large teaching loads in minority serving institutions. .... MSP supports a variety of activities for students, teachers, faculty, and ..... The NAI -MIRS program was initiated in 2002 by Karen Bradford and Dr.
This collection offers a distinctly Asian voice for English language education and addresses some of the unique needs of Asian learners in EFL contexts. Teachers and researchers from nine Asian countries present some of the most current and innovative research in five distinct and fascinating areas of EFL teaching and learning.
The thesis deals with teaching English to preschool children. Firstly, the fundamental theoretical issues connected to the topic are discussed. A particular attention is devoted to the question of optimal age for second language learning and to ELT methodology for the target age group; briefly, the ...
This article provides information on organization of teaching in schools in the visited districts of British Columbia and Ontario. Furthermore the author presents tasks and targets, instruments and working methods in schools like: cooperation with universities, finances, English as a Second Language...
Describes the Bilingual Integrated Curriculum Project (BICOMP), an approach to multicultural science education that uses activities that minority communities are familiar with and feel comfortable with as the basis for teaching English and grade-level concepts as parents share traditional knowledge and primary language skills. Examples illustrate the sheltered constructivist approach of BICOMP. (SLD)
The purpose of this essay is to investigate what different ways there are to teach English grammar at upper secondary level and what guidance experienced teachers have to offer. This is done by studying different theorists’ ideas on language acquisition as well as what researchers’ opinions are on h...
English learners are faced with the dual challenge of acquiring English while learning academic content through the medium of the new language (Lee et al. in J Res Sci Teach 45(6):726?747, 2008; Stoddart et al. in J Res Sci Teach 39(8):664?687, 2002) and therefore need specific accommodations to achieve in both English and the content areas. Teachers require higher quality and new forms of professional development to learn and meet the needs of their students. This study examines the impact of one professional development model that explicitly embedded language learning strategies into science inquiry lessons. It also demonstrates how teachers involved in the PD program improve their self-efficacy about language instruction embedded in content and how they interpret and implement the metho...
English learners are faced with the dual challenge of acquiring English while learning academic content through the medium of the new language (Lee et al. in J Res Sci Teach 45(6):726-747, 2008; Stoddart et al. in J Res Sci Teach 39(8):664-687, 2002) and therefore need specific accommodations to achieve in both English and the content areas. Teachers require higher quality and new forms of professional development to learn and meet the needs of their students. This study examines the impact of one professional development model that explicitly embedded language learning strategies into science inquiry lessons. It also demonstrates how teachers involved in the PD program improve their self-efficacy about language instruction embedded in content and how they interpret and implement the methodology.
Educators, Ferlazzo claims, often perceive English language learners through a lens of deficits. We would serve these learners better, especially as readers, if we viewed them through a lens focused on assets. The author, who was a community organizer for 19 years before becoming an ESL teacher, relates the process of community organizing--helping people recognize their strengths and learn new skills to improve their lives--to helping English language learners find their strengths as readers. He describes how he adapts a five-step "organizing cycle" that good community organizers use to his literacy teaching with high school-level English language learners. Ferlazzo gives classroom examples and describes specific inductive teaching strategies and techniques he uses with his mostly new-immigrant student population to outline these five steps: Build strong relationships with students; access prior knowledge through stories; help students learn by doing; identify and mentor students' leadership potential; and promote the habit of reflection. (Contains 1 figure.)
The purpose of the present study is to investigate how children aged 4-6 perceive and are motivated by foreign language learning in kindergarten. The central part of the paper focuses on the tendencies and guidelines for the teaching and learning of foreign languages at the pre-school level and on children's motivation for foreign language learning. It also introduces the recent practice of foreign language learning in pre-school situations in Slovenia. The data were collected from a non-random sample of children who were learning foreign languages (English and German) within the Network Innovative Project. The research shows that the children were highly motivated by their learning of a foreign language, which was evident in their intrinsic motivation. The children expressed the need for ...
Foreign languages are becoming an essential prerequisite for a successful carrier among all professions including public health professionals in many countries. The expanding role of English as a mode of communication allows for university graduates to project and to seek their career in English-speaking countries. The present study was carried out in the framework of EU Leonardo da Vinci project "Specialist English as a foreign language for European public health." The study aimed to get a deeper insight how the English language is perceived as a foreign language, by Polish and Lithuanian public health students, what is level of their language competence, which level of English proficiency they expect to use in future. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A total of 246 respondents completed the special questionnaires in autumn semester in 2005. A questionnaire form was developed by the international project team. For evaluation of English competences, the Language Passport (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages of Council of Europe) was applied. RESULTS. Current self-rated proficiency of the English language was at the same level for Lithuanian (3.47+/-1.14) and Polish (3.31+/-0.83) respondents (P>0.05). Majority of respondents (88.6% of Lithuanian and 87.8% of Polish) reported using the English language for their current studies. Respondents reported a significant increase in necessity for higher level of English proficiency in future: mean scores provided by respondents changed from B1 level to B2 level. Respondents gave priority to less formal and practice-based interactive English teaching methods (going abroad, contacts with native speakers) in comparison with theory-oriented methods of learning (self-studying, Internet courses). CONCLUSIONS. Similar levels of English language in all five areas of language skills were established in Polish and Lithuanian university students. Respondents gave more priorities to less formal and practice-based interactive English teaching methods (going abroad, contacts with native speakers) in comparison with theory-oriented or classroom-based methods of learning (self-studying, Internet courses). Survey showed a growing interest of students in improving English language in the future in Poland and Lithuania. PMID:20234164
The 4th international conference "Nation and Language: Modern Aspects of Socio-Linguistic Development" continues an eight-year old tradition. The conference is organized by Kaunas University of Technology Panevezys Institute and aims to bring scientists and researchers together for a general scientific discussion on new trends in sociolinguistic, language research, teaching and learning. The general goal of the conference is to present an overview of the most current approaches to language attitudes and motivation, to illuminate the sociolinguistic and educational significance of the topics. It is necessary to understand how teachers and scientists can carry out their charge while respecting the languages and language varieties that students bring to school or universities and using existing language skills to build new ones, how teachers can enable students to achieve the linguistic mastery that would allow them to have more than grammatical competence in order to be able to communicate effectively in a language. Current theory and research have provided clear indications that the relationships between a person's prior linguistic and academic experience, the social context of instruction, and the results of formal language instruction have complex and reciprocal connections with each other. Positive attitudes about language and language learning may be as much the result of the success as the cause. The conference pays special attention to different aspects of languages and cultures, language contact and change, language maintenance, shift and loss, language and social inequalities, language learning and teaching and language planning and policy. The conference covers wide range of topics like: (1) Theoretical and practical aspects of language education; (2) Good practice and innovations in higher education language teaching; (3) Socio-linguistic aspects in language teaching and learning; (4) Applying new technologies in language teaching; (5) Research of language peculiarities and their integration into the teaching process and lexicographical practice; and (6) Problems of terminology and translation; international communication. The following papers are included in the proceedings: (1) Why Standard Spoken Language of Students Gets Poorer? (R. Bartkeviciene and N. Petniuniene); (2) On Foreign Language Teaching and Learning Conditions in Moldovan Higher Education Institutions (M. Fuciji); (3) Identity and Languages - Results of a Local Research (T. Hrivikova); (4) Computer Linguistics and Pragmatics (G. Klimoviene and J. Korsakas); (5) Social and Cultural Contexts in Teaching Foreign Languages of Young People (J. Kida); (6) Responsibility Development in Practical Foreign Language Classes (I. Kildiene and R. Lazauskiene); (7) Terms of Computer Science in Professional Environment, Texts and Dictionaries (I. Klijunaite and K. Karklius); (8) Developing Student Responsibility in the Process of Foreign Language Acquisition (G. Klimoviene, R. Barzdziukiene, and N. Vaitkiene); (9) Foreign Words and Foreign Words Significance in Children's Language Development (V. Kuzina); (10) People and Language - Slovenia (J. Lipnik); (11) The Systemic Approach to Emotional Potential Development and Language Acquisition in the Context of European Linguistic Unity (T. Lobanova-Shunina and Y. Shunin); (12) Teaching of English as a Second Language in ICT-Based Learning Settings (V. Narbutas); (13) Grammatical Variables in the Speeches of Barack Obama and Michelle Obama (A. Nauseda and I. Klijunaite); (14) Understanding the Impact of Culture on Economic Development (I. Nemethova); (15) The Impact of English on the Slovak Language Culture (M. Pauleova); (16) Benefiting from a Text-Oriented EFL/ESP Course (G. Snuviskiene); (17) Shaping Modern Serbian Ethnolinguistic Nation and National State-Building in the First Half of the 19th C (V. B. Sotirovic); (18) Terminology: The Term Variance in the English and Lithuanian Special Language of Economics (V. Stankeviciene and D. Svencioniene); (19) The Grammatical Metaphor as a Sociolinguistic Marker in Horror Stories (S. Susinskiene and E. Jurkoniene); (20) Insights on Problems of Public Speaking and Ways of Overcoming It (D. Susniene, R. Virbickaite, and O. Purvinis); (21) Sociology and Society: Towards Diversity (A. Vosiliute); and (22) Disabled People: The Problems of Identity (A. Vosiliute). An author index is also included. (Individual papers contain tables, figures, references, and footnotes.) [Abstract has been modified to meet ERIC guidelines.
This monograph discusses South Korea's language situation in a language policy and planning context. This monograph consists of four parts. Part 1 presents a genetic, typological and sociolinguistic description of South Korea's national language, and an overview of minority languages, including English as well as other languages, recently transported into the country by migrant workers and foreign brides. Also included is information on the native writing system called "Hankul". Part 2 focuses on language spread and maintenance through the national education system and other means. Part 3 concerns the major issues in South Korea's language planning and policy, including orthographic reforms, lexical purification, the use and teaching of Chinese characters, digitization of Korean, and "linguistic reunification" of North and South Korea. The final part of the monograph explores future prospects of South Korea's language policy, some of the major issues being the "linguistic reunification" of North and South Korea, the status and role of English and Chinese, and emergent multilingualism. The monograph also contains some thoughts on how language planning and policy might need to develop in the future, especially with respect to issues that do not directly concern the national language, e.g. emergent multilingualism. (Contains 34 notes, 2 figures and 12 tables.)
This review covers recent applied linguistic research in Finland and Sweden during the years 2006-2011, with particular emphasis on foreign language learning and teaching. Its primary aim is to inform the international research community on the type of research that is going on in these countries. Special attention is given to topics which have attracted a lot of interest in the area: language immersion schools and CLIL, cross-linguistic influence, corpus linguistics (English as a lingua franca) and language use in multilingual urban settings.
Debate over educational reform in many countries has addressed the question of how to attract and retain teachers. As part of a multiple case study that includes eight beginning English language teachers in Hong Kong, this paper offers an in-depth analysis of the experiences of two participants, Christine and Samuel, during their initial year of full time teaching in Hong Kong schools. The data, collected during an entire academic year, suggests that Christine used her experiences of becoming a teacher to justify and reaffirm her determination to pursue a career within English language teaching. In contrast, Samuel's preliminary year of full-time teaching culminated in his decision to leave the teaching profession. A contribution of this study is to explore these very different experiences and outcomes using a framework of teacher identity construction. From this perspective, findings suggest that the participants' engagement in the practices and activities of teaching, their relations with colleagues, and their positioning within different discourses of teaching and learning by their schools as well as by the wider educational environment, shaped their decisions about whether to continue to pursue a teaching career. Implications for attracting and retaining teachers, as well as for future research, are discussed.
The controversy over the place of translation in the teaching of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) is a thriving field of inquiry. Many older language teaching methodologies such as the Direct Method, the Audio-lingual Method, and Natural and Communicative Approaches, tended to either neglect the role of translation, or prohibit it entirely as a hindrance to second/foreign language learning. Over the flux of the last decennia, English Language Teaching (ELT) seems to have matured enough to have moved from the "either or" debate to an acceptance of a "both and" approach which includes translation. This has led to a reassessment of the role of translation as an invaluable and legitimate pedagogical tool if used judiciously and at appropriate times. However, the use of translation should not be associated with the old-fashioned Grammar-Translation Method. Taking into account the undeniable role of English as a global lingua franca and the issue of linguistic imperialism, we propose a Critical-Functional Approach to translation which harnesses students' general literacy: learners and teacher become aware of inherent language complexity as well as hidden aspects of text. This model draws on postmodernist, poststructuralist, feminist, and critical approaches to literacy and advocates replacing traditional translation, based on mere copy and imitation of an original text, with a more provocative model that engages learners not only in examining the structure, style, and vocabulary, but in interrogating text language, discourse, and subjectivity. By questioning the separation between author, reader, and translator, Critical-Functional Translation places an emphasis on recognising and resisting ideological contradiction, cultural difference, and social conflict. This approach has obvious applications to other second/foreign language teaching and learning contexts. (Contains 1 table.)
A dialogic approach to teaching and learning is not a new phenomenon. However, using technology as a mediated platform (email, Skype and blackboard) to allow pre-service teachers in two culturally and linguistically diverse countries to openly communicate and share ideas about teaching and learning is somewhat unique. The present study reports on a 10-week electronic exchange between students in an undergraduate EFL (English as a foreign language) methods course in China and students in a graduate ESL (English as a second language) methods course in USA. Results indicated that not only did the participants learn a great deal about each other, but also they shared more similarities than differences with regard to what they learned from such a cultural exchange; why they wanted to become teachers; and what they will contribute to the teaching profession.
Vocabulary is an essential element of every second/foreign language teaching and learning program. While the goal of language teaching programs is to focus on explicit vocabulary teaching to promote learning, "materials which provide visual and aural input such as movies may be conducive to incidental vocabulary learning." (Webb and Rodgers, 2009, p. 412) The present study uses corpus-based techniques to investigate the extent to which watching discipline-related movies and TV shows in a second/foreign language may facilitate incidental learning of technical vocabulary. A corpus of 130,000 words was complied from movies/TV shows with legal content to track the frequency and vocabulary distribution of legal technical vocabulary items. The findings show that the majority of technical terms is encountered more than ten times in movies/shows, and that technical terms tend to co-occur together in particular segments of movies and episodes. The results suggest that the potential for incidental vocabulary learning through movies and TV shows with a legal content is high and that these media could also be used for teaching language patterns in an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) classroom with relevant focus. Hence, watching discipline specific TV shows and movies is beneficial for both incidental learning and explicit teaching. (Contains 6 tables.)
To acquire a second language, one must develop an ear and tongue for the correct stress and intonation patterns of that language. In English language teaching, there is an effective method called Jazz Chants for working on the sound system. In this paper, we propose a method for predicting stressed words, which play a crucial role in Jazz Chants. The proposed method is specially designed for stress prediction in Jazz chants. It exploits several sources of information including words, POSs, sentence types, and the constraint on the number of stressed words in a chant text. Experiments show that the proposed method achieves an F-measure of 0.939 and outperforms the other methods implemented for comparison. The proposed method is expected to be useful in supporting non-native teachers of English when they teach chants to students and create chant texts with stress marks from arbitrary texts.
As a teaching resource, interactive whiteboards (IWB) are becoming increasingly popular in schools outside the UK, including Spain. Research carried out so far has tended to examine the effects of IWB use on teaching and learning in monolingual contexts where English is the first language for learners. The present study adds a new dimension to available work by analysing the influence of the IWB on the language use of a primary school teacher and a group of native speaker (NS) and non-native speaker (NNS) children in an English language immersion classroom. The study reveals that while the teacher used the IWB to support the children?s learning by taking advantage of multimedia presentations in Numeracy and Literacy and by creating opportunities for the children to engage in tactile intera...
A survey of the status of language usage in Ethiopia begins with an overview of the distribution of Amharic, the sole official language and medium of elementary instruction, and Tigrinya, Oromo, Wolayto, Somali, Sidamo, Hadiyya, and English, the medium of secondary and higher education instruction. The relationship of language usage patterns to educational reform and political issues is briefly discussed. A matrix follows that rates these languages and vernaculars on: (1) their usage rating using State Department classifications; (2) increase and decrease trends by the year 2000; (3) chief of state use in addressing the populace; (4) use in armed forces, government, court, and diplomatic communications, written and oral; (5) use as a language of instruction or required language in higher education, on the secondary and elementary levels, and in adult education; (6) use in the popular press, radio and television broadcasting, and film; (7) business and professional use, written and oral; (8) use in intellectual circles; (9) the alphabet situation; (10) the status of indigenous literature; (11) use in public signs and notices; and (12) the availability of instructional materials and dictionaries in the native languages for use in English as a second language teaching. Explanatory notes give the number and population percentages using the languages, the type of alphabet used, and specific instructional materials titles. A selected bibliography is also included. (MSE)
This book is intended for foreign language teachers interested in the approaches used in Rudolf Steiner schools, and also classroom teachers who teach foreign languages. Chapters address these issues: what the language lesson is to achieve; how the language lesson differs from other lessons; lesson design; examples of actual lessons; avoiding the use of English; vocabulary development; approaching grammar instruction; using language terminology in the classroom; insisting on a complete sentence; reading instruction; classroom techniques for introducing new materials; blackboard use; homework; integrating new students; ability grouping; the class timetable; and syllabus design. A series of brief plays to be performed by students, in French and German, is also included, as is a teacher's guide to "Utopie." Contains 34 references to instructional materials and other resources. (MSE)
This report offers California college faculty a closer look at contextualized teaching and learning (CTL) as a promising set of strategies and practices that can be expanded through the state's Basic Skills Initiative. The report is relevant to a range of instructional and counseling faculty, including academic and career and technical education (CTE), Mathematics, English and English as a Second Language (ESL) instructors, as well as to basic skills staff and administrators. The report is organized into three main sections: (1) a case statement for contextualized teaching and learning that draws on relevant research and learning theory and situates the practice within workforce development, (2) a review of a range of contextualized teaching and learning practices, told from the faculty/program director perspective, and (3) a set of considerations for community college faculty and leaders as well as funders and policy makers interested in the potential of contextualized teaching and learning to strengthen student success. Faculty Interview Protocol is appended. (Contains 1 footnote.)
Literacy Instruction for English Language Learners turns hundreds of ELL studies into dozens of strategies for regular classroom instruction. Nancy Cloud, Fred Genesee, and Else Hamayan have examined the research evidence to determine what works for ELLs. They recommend best practices for teaching English learners to read and write from emergent literacy to primary school and on through middle school and include helpful features that make the research directly accessible to all teachers.
While numerous studies in mainstream education have drawn on the Theory of Planned Behaviour to investigate curriculum impact, in English Language Teaching contexts such research is scant. This study applies the theory to anticipate the impact of the Japanese national curriculum for English, by exploring the beliefs of senior high school teachers regarding the integration of grammar with communication-oriented teaching. The findings imply that for some teachers, adoption will be hindered, firstly, by misconceptions regarding high-stakes examinations, resulting in unfavourable attitudes and perceptions of social pressure to reject reform; and secondly, by insufficient resources, such as time and training.
Diversity and intercultural awareness initiatives are increasingly common at institutions of higher education in the USA. Although students recognize and appreciate the diversity of their surroundings, studies show that intercultural interactions at the social level are lacking. This study focuses on how English language learners, multilingual students, and monolingual students of English perceive themselves as able to adapt their communication styles to unfamiliar social encounters. Results of a survey on communicative adaptability (N = 1128) reveal both differences and similarities in communication styles among these three groups. Implications for intercultural education as well as language learning and teaching are discussed.
Including and Supporting Learners of English as an Additional Language identifies issues arising in teaching children from a range of linguistic backgrounds, and provides practical, research-grounded suggestions for good practice. Issues are discussed in the context of social inclusion and the Every Child Matters agenda and some differences in policy between England and Wales are identified. Strategies for working with children for whom English is an Additional Language (EAL) are explored and attention is paid to the period of transition between Key Stage 2 (KS2) and Key Stage 3 (KS3). Case st
This paper presents a four-year longitudinal study of student teachers' beliefs about language learning and teaching over the course of an English teacher education (ELT) program. The study attempts to track possible changes in the beliefs and to analyze the impact of an ELT pre-service program by taking the program itself as a dynamic variable. Interviews were conducted with 49 student teachers for four years, and the data were processed through a mixed-method design. The results of the study indicate that different phases of the program resulted in various changes at certain degrees. Student teachers' engagement in the teaching practicum seems to have a higher impact on the development of the beliefs about language learning and teaching. The findings may be influential in developing and designing more effective ELT programs. (Contains 5 tables.)
This article compares the organization and practice of primary English language teaching in Norway and The Netherlands, considering the strengths and weaknesses of the respective systems. It is based on surveys carried out in each country. Several issues considered essential to the success of a primary EFL program are addressed, such as starting age, contact hours, teacher competence, teaching priorities, classroom practice, the use of the target language as the language of instruction, and materials used. Special attention is given to the transition from the primary to secondary level. Although both countries share common challenges and problems, these appear to be far greater in the Netherlands than in Norway, especially with regard to continuity from primary to secondary. Cet article co...
This paper addresses the dilemma of language in education in African countries with particular reference to Burundi. African languages are still marginalised by colonial languages such as French and English. Looking at other African countries in general and at the case of Burundi in detail, an analysis is made of the adopted policies aimed at promoting the use of the mother tongue as a basis for knowledge acquisition and cultural integration. Burundi has gone through a series of educational reforms both before and after gaining independence in 1962, with French and Kirundi competing as curricular teaching languages. After the integration of Burundi into the East African Community in July 2007, English and Kiswahili were added to the curriculum, complicating education policies. This article...
There is an ongoing debate in the area of teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) about what should constitute the knowledge base of language teachers. This article offers an analysis of the major opposing views in the debate and suggests an alternative critical approach to language teacher knowledge. While recognising various types of teacher knowledge, the author focuses on two types: content and cultural knowledge. The author argues that content knowledge should be informed by critical pedagogy and that cultural knowledge needs to include more than mere factual information about ways of life in other countries. Cultural knowledge needs to be informed by a deep sense of commitment on the part of the TESOL teacher to understanding his/her students' social and cultural contexts and how these shape their approach to learning and attitudes to English as a second or foreign language.
Across Arizona and the United States, there is widespread interest in how to successfully educate the growing number of English language learner students in K-12 schools. Research suggests that a school may face challenges in effectively teaching its English language learner students--and closing the achievement gap with native English speakers--when concentrations of English language learner students are high, especially in middle and high schools; when there are many socioeconomically disadvantaged students; and when the school is located in an urban or rural (as opposed to suburban) area. Research also suggests that open enrollment programs may increase the concentrations of English language learner students and socioeconomically disadvantaged students in some schools. This technical brief analyzes 2007/08 student-level data to determine how the number and percentage of English language learner students vary by public school in Arizona and how the percentage of English language learner students varies by school level (primary, middle, and high school), percentage of students eligible to receive free or reduced-price lunch (an indicator of socioeconomic disadvantage), school type (traditional, alternative, and charter), and school location. The study shows that statewide in 2007/08, 168,199 (16 percent) of Arizona public school students were classified as English language learner students. Their distribution throughout the 1,878 Arizona public schools in this study ranged from 0 to 853 students (0-87 percent) in individual schools. Schools and counties faced different levels of accountability and challenge in helping these students reach required levels of academic achievement, based on the number of English language learner students. Forty-one percent of Arizona public schools (those with 19 or fewer English language learner students) were not required to submit disaggregated adequate yearly progress reports for English language learner students or to implement the state English Language Development pull-out program. But 45 percent of schools (those with 40 or more English language learner students) were required to do both. Concentrations of English language learner students varied within and across schools and counties and by school characteristics. Schools with greater than 50 percent English language learner students were more prevalent among primary schools than among middle and high schools, among traditional public schools than among alternative and charter schools, and among schools with more than 75 percent eligibility for free or reduced-price lunch than among schools with smaller percentages of eligible students. Schools with no English language learner students were more prevalent in high schools, charter schools, and schools with less than 75 percent eligibility for free or reduced-price lunch. Differences were also evident by county. Maricopa and Pima Counties, with the largest total student enrollment among counties, had schools with 0 percent English language learner students close to schools with greater than 50 percent English language learner students. Of Arizona's 15 counties, the 6 with low student enrollment (1,000-50,000) had schools with 0 percent English language learner students and no schools with greater than 50 percent English language learner students. (Contains 10 tables, 4 figures, 1 map, 1 box, and 9 notes.)
Karen M. Lauridsen, Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark Teaching and Learning through a Foreign Language – A Challenging Task With a higher percentage of international faculty and students than ever before at many universities, more often than not students learn and teachers teach through the medium of a foreign language, that is, English. While there is obviously a linguistic dimension to it, it turns out that there is also a cultural dimension that should not be underestimated whether we teach in our first or a foreign language. Have you also noticed the challenges of teaching a heterogeneous group of students with different first languages and cultures? At this presentation you will be introduced to the results of recent Danish, Norwegian and Swedish studies of these challenges as seen from the perspective of both teachers and students. And in an interactive format, you will be invited to share your experience within this field and discuss possible solution to the problems identified.
Blog use may offer instructors a helpful tool for teaching writing at the tertiary level in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) classrooms. This article reports on a quasi-experimental study regarding the effect of blog-centered writing instruction on students' writing performance. Fifty intermediate English students at a Turkish university participated in the study. The control group (n = 23) received in-class process-oriented writing instruction and the experimental group (n = 27) integrated blogs into their writing processes by using a blog software. Based on the analyses of students' written work, the findings suggest that blog-integrated writing instruction might have resulted in a greater improvement in students' writing performance than merely in-class writing instruction. The study therefore supports the conclusion that English as a Foreign Language practitioners' use of blog software has potential to promote more effective writing instruction. (Contains 5 tables, 4 figures and 1 note.)
La efectividad de un modelo metodológico mixto para la enseñanza-aprendizaje de español como lengua extranjera/ The effectiveness of a mixed methodological model for the teaching and learning of Spanish as a foreign language
Abstract in spanish El presente artículo propone proveer un modelo metodológico mixto para el desarrollo e implementación de un Módulo de Enseñanza para el español como lengua extranjera en la modalidad presencial. El objetivo principal es evidenciar cómo los principios metodológicos provenientes de los enfoques didácticos (?nfoque por tareas?y ?prendizaje cooperativo? pueden ser aplicados de manera efectiva en el diseño de contextos presenciales. Para ello, se explora evidenci (more) a empírica acerca de la efectividad de la metodología mixta en la enseñanza-aprendizaje de español como lengua extranjera en dichos ambientes, en un estudio basado en un diseño experimental longitudinal con pre-est y post-est, sin grupo control. Los hallazgos les proporcionarán guías de orientación efectiva a investigadores, educadores y profesores de lenguas en función del desarrollo de unidades de trabajo y módulos para el aprendizaje de lenguas extranjeras. Los resultados muestran un incremento en el aprendizaje de determinados conocimientos en español como LE y, por tanto, mejorando la competencia lingüística y comunicativa de los sujetos. Se propone, entonces, que en el diseño de módulos de enseñanza para el aprendizaje de lenguas se integren e implementen modelos metodológicos mixtos por cuanto son los más propicios para el aprendizaje de LE/L2. Abstract in english This preset article seeks to provide a mixed methodological model for the development and implementation of a Teaching Module for Spanish as a Foreign Language in the face to face environment. The primary objective is to portray how methodological principles from different language teaching approaches (such as task based language teaching and cooperative learning) can be combined effectively in designing activities for face to face contexts. In this regard, empirical evid (more) ence is analysed in order to determine the effectiveness of the mixed methodology in the teaching-learning of Spanish as a Foreign Language in the said settings, in a study based on a longitudinal experimental design with pre-test and post-est, but without control group. The findings will help to provide researchers, educators and language teachers with valid guidelines as it relates to the development of Teaching Modules and Units for Foreign Language Learning. The results show an increase in the acquisition of specific knowledge in Spanish as a Foreign Language, thus improving the students? nguistic and communicative competence. It is therefore proposed that mixed methodological models be integrated and implemented when designing Teaching Modules for Language Learning, since they are the most suited for Second and Foreign Language Acquisition.
This article was written for the 25th anniversary of "English Teaching Forum" and published in 1987. In this article, the author describes methodological developments in the field of English language teaching over the past 25 years. The author has found it helpful to think of methodology being depicted as a triangle, with each angle of the triangle representing a basic area of the field. The first angle might be termed language learning/language learner. Questions addressed from this perspective include "what is the nature of the language acquisition/learning process," "who is doing the learning," and "what are the factors that influence the learner?" The second angle has to do with the subject matter language teachers teach. "What is the nature of language/culture" is the question dealt with in this angle. The third angle comprises both language teaching as a process and the role of the language teacher as an agent in the process. It is defined in part by answers to the questions posed in the other two angles. Each of these perspectives is indispensable to viewing methodology as a whole. The author considers each of these angles in turn in reviewing developments during the past 25 years. Teaching is a matter of making informed choices. Teachers' choices are like those of artists who have full palettes of paint from which they can choose a little of this color and some of another. Artists' choices are not random; they are driven by what artists are trying to achieve and they are assessed by the artists every step of the way to assure that the choices being made are congruent with their purpose. Art teachers can help art students become aware of the options they have by, for example, having them study art history to review the choices others have made. They can also help by working with their students to perfect their technique. But it is incumbent upon the artists themselves to create their unique blend that is their own special contribution to others. And so it is with teaching. Only those who are intimately acquainted with the situation, with the students, and with themselves can make the choices they are uniquely suited to make. It is, after all, only the teachers who will be there assess the outcome of the choices they make. It is only the teachers who are there to make sure that they know why they are doing what they are doing.
Part-time teacher of primary English needed for September 2002 to teach English National Curriculum (KS2) and NLS to mother tongue or good second language English-speakers aged 7-10. 4 hours contact time per week, team planning, marking and meetings. Candidates should be English mother tongue qualified teachers, confident, flexible classroom practitioners and team players. For further details and how to apply: firstname.lastname@example.org or 04 50 40 82 66. Apply as soon as possible, and in any case before 8 July. English National Programme, Lycée International, Ferney-Voltaire.
Part-time teacher of primary English needed from 1st December 2002 to teach English National Curriculum (KS2) and NLS to mother tongue or good second language English-speakers aged 7-10. 4 hours contact time per week, team planning, marking and meetings. Candidates should be English mother tongue qualified teachers, confident, flexible classroom practitioners and team players. For further details and how to apply: email@example.com or 04 50 40 82 66. Apply as soon as possible, and in any case before November 20th. English National Programme - Lycée International, Ferney-Voltaire
Since the establishment of a Language Support Service in 1999, all newcomer children with limited English skills arriving in schools in Ireland are entitled to two years of additional English language support. This is provided mainly by designated Language Support Teachers (LSTs). During the peak of the Celtic Tiger, there was a sharp growth in the intake of students with English as an additional language (EAL). In response to this, the LST-pupil ratio dramatically increased in 2007, but this new policy was short-lived due to the emerging economic crisis. The present paper investigates the current status of language support provision for newcomer children in Irish schools and the role of LSTs in this process. This is complemented by the findings of a small-scale study of primary school LSTs. A mixed methods approach was adopted involving a questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews. Key themes identified include the need for focussed pre-service training and continuing professional development for all teachers involved in teaching students with EAL, and the provision of appropriate resources for teaching and assessment of these students. These issues are discussed in the context of national and international research on best practice in the area.
El procesamiento psicolingüistico del dictado y sus implicaciones para la enzeñanza de la lengua escrita/ The psycholinguistic processing of dictation and its involvement with the written language/ Traitement psycholinguistique de la dictée et ses implications pour l?enseignement de la langue écrite
Abstract in spanish El dictado es una de las prácticas más empleadas en el aprendizaje de la lengua escrita, específicamente para la ortografía. Desde el ámbito de la psicolingüística y, dentro del procesamiento de información, se concibe como un proceso intelectual mediante el cual la lengua oral que se recibe como entrada lingüística, se transforma en salida escrita. Es decir, constituye una transformación de lengua oral a lengua escrita. A partir de tales ideas, se plantean com (more) o objetivos: 1) definir y caracterizar el dictado desde la perspectiva psicolingüística y sus implicaciones para la didáctica de la ortografía y, 2) reflexionar sobre las relaciones entre la lengua oral y la escrita desde una dialógica compleja (Morin, 2001). Las conclusiones a las que se arriban resultan importantes tanto para el ámbito de la psicolingüística cognitiva como para la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de la lengua escrita desde la conceptualización del dictado como práctica social compleja a partir de las correspondencias, las complementariedades y antagonismos entre la lengua oral y la escrita. Abstract in english The dictation is one of the most used techniques in the teaching of written language, specifically orthography. From the psycholinguistic point of view and regarding the information processing, dictation is understood as a mental process whereby the oral language that is received as a linguistic entrance is transformed in a written exit. Dictation is a transformation from oral language to written language. In this light, two objectives shall be considered: 1) define and c (more) haracterize the dictation from a psychological perspective and its involvements with the teaching of orthography and, 2) analyzethe relationship between oral language and written language from a complex dialogical point of view (Morin, 2001). As a result, both the cognitive psycholinguistic field and the written language learning and teaching are important considering dictation as a complex social practice due to the correspondence, complementarities and differences between oral and written language.
This book critically examines current ELT practices vis-a-vis the use of English as an international lingua franca. It bridges the gap between theoretical discussion and the practical concerns of teaching English as an international language (EIL), and presents diverse approaches for preparing competent users of English in international contexts. Part 1 examines how the linguistic and functional varieties of English today complicate ELT, and suggests ways to address them effectively in an English language classroom. Part 2 showcases English courses and programs that are specifically based on the EIL perspective, illustrating how the issues addressed in Part 1 are realized in a real context. This section also presents a collection of EIL pedagogical ideas that have been developed and used successfully by English teachers across the world.
O ensino de línguas para crianças no contexto educacional brasileiro: breves reflexões e possíveis provisões/ The teaching of children in the Brazilian educational context: brief reflections and possible provisions
Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste artigo é discutir acerca do ensino de línguas estrangeiras (LE) para crianças. Respaldando-nos em princípios da teoria Sócio-cultural (Vygotsky, 1978) e do Comunicativismo (Almeida Filho, 1993, 2005), voltados para o ensino de línguas (inglês) para crianças (Cameron, 2001; Brewster, Ellis & Girard, 2002; entre outros), teceremos reflexões sobre a importância da aprendizagem de línguas na infância, sobre a relevância motivação e da qualidade (more) das interações para um ensino cujo objetivo principal recai na formação integral do aluno, como também sobre o papel da gramática, da oralidade e da língua materna no processo. Serão também feitas considerações acerca da importância da formação (contínua) do professor atuante nesse contexto e de possíveis procedimentos no ensino em pauta, quando serão apresentadas breves proposições orientadas pela noção bakhtiniana de gêneros. Abstract in english This article aims at discussing about the foreign language teaching to young learners, taking the principles of the Sociocultural Theory (Vygotksy, 1978) and of the Communicative Approach (Almeida Filho, 1993, 2005) related to Primary English teaching (Cameron, 2001; Brewster, Ellis & Girard, 2002) as a theoretical references. Considerations about the importance of language learning in childhood will be made, as well as about the role of the grammar, oral language and mot (more) her tongue in the process. Likewise, the importance of Teacher Education will be briefly approached. This work is ended with the discussion about some possible procedures in the language teaching processes followed by a brief presentation of possible guidelines based on the bakhtinian notion of discourse genres.
"Debates in English Teaching" explores the major issues all English teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It engages with established and contemporary debates, promotes and supports critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to reach informed judgements and argue their point of view with deeper theoretical knowledge and understanding. With its combination of expert opinion and fresh insight, "Debates in English Teaching" is the ideal companion for all student and practising teachers engaged in initial training, continuing professional development and master's level study. Contents of this book include: (1) Debates in English Teaching (John Moss); (2) The Professional Identity of English Teachers (Andy Goodwyn); (3) The Dialogic Classroom (Frank Hardman); (4) A New Theory and Model of Writing Development (Richard Andrews); (5) Living Language, Live Debates: Grammar and Standard English (Debra Myhill); (6) The Politics of Early Literacy (Kathy Goouch); (7) Whatever Happened to the Literacy Hour? (Hazel Bryan and Jo Westbrook); (8) Access, Choice and Time: A Guide to Wider Reading in Schools (Jo Westbrook); (9) From Beowulf to Batman: Connecting English and Media Education (Andrew Burn); (10) The "Real World" of Technologies: What Kinds of Professional Development Are Needed for English Teachers? (Caroline Daly); (11) Creativity in English Teaching and Learning (Sue Dymoke); (12) English and Inclusion (John Yandell); and (13) Literacy and Social Class (Jon Davison).
The first books to present specific guidance for teaching the Common Core State Standards Forty-three states plus the District of Columbia and the U.S. Virgin Islands have signed on to adopt the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). The need for curriculum guides to assist teachers in helping students meet these standards has become imperative. Created by teachers, for teachers, the research-based curriculum maps in this book present a comprehensive, coherent sequence of thematic units for teaching the skills outlined in the CCSS for English language arts in Grades 9-12. Teachers can use the map
This paper aims to investigate the perceptions of prospective EFL teachers in the distance higher education system toward ICT implementation in teaching English as a foreign language. The majority of respondents who expressed negative attitudes to ICT integration found the nature, level and delivery of the training inadequate and accordingly affirmed that they do not feel sufficiently competent to use ICT in their future subject teaching without having sufficient prior knowledge of ICT dissemination. The results of the study imply that training that will enable teachers to become competent in and receptive to ICT is quite critical in distance education realms. (Contains 2 tables.)
This article reports on the South African results of a study to identify and explain relationships between some major factors associated with successful reading at Grade 5. With 11 official languages, educational policy in South Africa advocates an additive bilingualism model, and students in Grades 1 to 3 are taught in their mother tongue. Thereafter, the language of learning and teaching changes to a second language, which in most cases is English. With this complexity of issues, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to determine the effect of a number of explanatory variables at student and school level on reading achievement as outcome variable, while controlling for language using the South African Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 data. Utilizing Creemers' comprehensive model of educational effectiveness (Creemers & Reezigt, 1999) as theoretical point of departure, this article will focus on the results of an overall South African model with student- and school-level variables. (Contains 6 tables and 5 notes.)
The authors explain why integrating the teaching of science and French is not as ridiculous as it may at first sound. They describe how this innovative integrated approach works in a primary school in Oxfordshire. The project involves Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). CLIL is a method whereby a curriculum subject is planned and taught partly or fully through the medium of a foreign language. In an evaluation in Canada it was found that a CLIL approach produced an equal or bigger learning gain in both the science and the foreign language than when science was taught in English. Two key principles of CLIL are not to lower the conceptual level of the science studied and to have clearly focused leaning outcomes for the language and the science. (Contains 3 figures.)
In what ways can outdoor education be used when teaching immigrants the language of their new country? There is aneed to both concretise grammar teaching and diversify teaching methods to bring language acquisition closer to reallife situations. By using action research a collaborative study was mad...
In what ways can outdoor education be used when teaching immigrants the language of their new country? There is a need to both concretise grammar teaching and diversify teaching methods to bring language acquisition closer to real life situations. By using action research a collaborative study was m...
These specially-commissioned studies cover corpus-informed approaches to researching, teaching and learning English for Specific Purposes (ESP). The corpora used range from very large published corpora to small tailor-made collections of written and spoken text, as well as parallel and contrastive corpora, in both the hard and softer sciences. Designed to tackle the problems faced by a variety of first- and second-language ESP users (specialised translators, undergraduates, junior and experienced researchers, and language trainers), the breadth of approaches enables treatment of issues central
This paper is a report on contributions of a critical EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teacher education course to Iranian teachers' professional identity reconstruction. Pre-course and post-course interviews with seven teachers, their reflective journals, class discussions, and the teacher educator's reflective journals were analyzed as guided by grounded theory. Three major shifts were observed in their professional identities: from conformity to and romanticization of dominant ideologies to critical autonomy, from no orientation or an instrumentalist orientation to a critical/transformative orientation of teaching, and from a linguistic and technical view to an educational view of second language education.
Grounded in research and practical expertise, this volume helps K 6 teachers skillfully support all of their English language learners (ELLs) from a single student to an entire classroom. Ideas for teaching ELLs across different grade and proficiency levels include ways to link instruction to students' lived experiences, use a variety of motivating print and electronic texts and materials, engage families, and conduct effective assessments. Chapters are packed with tools and activities for promoting ELLs' development in oral language, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, writing, and g
This comprehensive professional resource and text is based on cutting-edge research. In each chapter, leading scholars provide an overview of a particular aspect of comprehension, offer best-practice instructional guidelines and policy recommendations, present key research questions still to be answered, and conclude with stimulating questions for individual study or discussion. Coverage includes such timely topics as differentiated instruction, technology and reading comprehension, teaching English language learners, and the implications of current neuroscientific findings.
This paper argues in favor of Closed Captioned Video technology for incorporating nanotechnology as part of teaching science to English as a Second Language (ESL) students. Nanotechnology deals with particles with diameters 1-50 nm and provides a macro-context for science instruction. Closed Captioned Videos provide an effective tool for presenting nanotechnology information in a meaningful way to ESL students. Implications for science curriculum and instruction are discussed. (Contains 1 table and 1 endnote.)
This article examines youth assessment of the quality and success of languages provision. The discussion draws on data collected from students and graduates of Victoria's 16 secondary Turkish programs in large-scale surveys (n=858) and follow-up interviews (n=177). Surveys revealed that upper secondary Turkish classrooms serve predominantly Australian-born Turkish students. Nine out of ten respondents rated their English language and literacy skills considerably higher than Turkish despite regular Turkish exposure beyond school, an average of four years of Turkish study, and a positive orientation toward Turkish maintenance in Australia. Thematic interview analyses indicated that informants found classes beneficial in expanding contexts and purposes of Turkish use, improving Turkish fluency and understanding, broadening cultural knowledge, deepening communication with family, creating a sense of belonging to the larger Turkish community, and helping students prepare for the comprehensive language exam. Across all sites, student motivation and learning were adversely affected by increasingly heterogeneous class composition and a lack of a cohesive Turkish-as-a-second-language curriculum. Youth recommendations included redesigning the curriculum to teach Turkish language and literacy skills systematically, emphasizing literacy development throughout the program, parallel teaching of Turkish and English writing styles,enhancing professional development, improving school outreach, and establishing prerequisites to prolong student participation.
The focus of this paper is on US language policy statements that govern the priorities for teaching languages other than English in public schools and the language ideologies implied by specific management moves by the federal government to regulate language education, starting with the Bilingual Education Act (BEA) of 1968. Following introductory comments on language ideology, rhetorical positioning, and claims-making, this paper provides an overview of language diversity in the USA as the context for examining four major policy statements by the federal government up through the present: (1) the "BEA of 1968"; (2) "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB), which replaced the BEA when it became law in 2002; (3) the "National Security Language Initiative of 2006"; and (4) the current proposal from President Barack Obama's administration, titled "A Blueprint for Reform", which--if enacted--will replace "NCLB". The next section provides an overview of European Union (EU) language policy in recent years to highlight the sharp contrast between the EU and US approaches. This paper closes with a comparison of the EU and US approaches, with emphasis on how the EU approach could be instructive for US policy-makers. (Contains 1 table and 3 notes.)
The theory of articulatory setting, originally published in 1964, is outlined and expanded on, drawing on experiences with Polish and English. The theory proposes that each language has a unique configuration of articulators accounting for or establishing the natural sounds of that language that give it phonological unity and differentiate it from other languages. Articulatory setting is the tongue's position relative to the teeth. In applying the theory to Polish articulation, it was discovered that English and Polish have opposite articulatory settings, illustrating four points about the theory: (1) although some parts of the tongue are in constant motion in speech, the tongue anchorage is firm and stable; (2) if it can be observed at all, the anchorage is particularly visible during vowel production; (3) the phoneme descriptions of a language must be expressed in terms of anchorage if they are to be useful; and (4) what results in language learning is a compromise between the settings of the native and target languages, producing a foreign accent. It is suggested that articulatory setting be explained to second language learners and be used as a teaching tool, to help students control articulation and work comfortably within each setting. Use of imitation should follow, not precede, students' understanding of articulatory setting. (MSE)
This guide accompanies the following article(s): Christine Campbell and Greg Duncan From Theory to Practice: General Trends in Foreign Language Teaching Methodology and Their Influence on Language Assessment Language and Linguistics Compass1/6 (2007): 592-611. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-818x.2007.00032.x Author's Introduction This article describes developments in language teaching methodology over the past 30 years that have both informed trends in language assessment and been influenced by them. When language learning theorists in the late 1970s redefined ability in a second or foreign language as the capacity to function effectively in real life, vs. contrived or artificial, contexts, communicative language teaching became the prevailing language teaching methodology. Communicative assessments...
The problem. This research study explores an important issue in the field of TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) and second language acquisition (SLA). Its purpose is to examine the relationship between Vietnamese students' L1 grammar knowledge and their English grammar proficiency. Furthermore, it investigates the extent to which English grammar proficiency and language transfer in Vietnamese speakers of English are influenced by linguistic factors (first and second language grammar proficiency levels) and non-linguistic factors (the effects of age at the onset of learning English and the length of U.S. residence). Method. This study examined the relationship between Vietnamese students' L1 grammar knowledge and their English grammar proficiency and their language transfer. These issues were further analyzed in relation to age at the onset of learning English, length of U.S. residence, and L1 and L2 grammar proficiency levels. Ninety one participants, age range of 18-65, were the Vietnamese-American students from universities and colleges in Southern California. Results. Through the questionnaires of demographic and educational backgrounds and the results of the test scores, participants' Vietnamese and English grammar proficiency and language transfer levels were reported. Their performance in three tests, Vietnamese and English grammar tests, Vietnamese-English translation test, and the questionnaire were analyzed to investigate whether there was the correlation between Vietnamese L1 grammar and English L2 grammar proficiency. Additionally, these results also examined English grammar learning and language transfer in relation to age at the onset of learning English, length of U.S. residence, and L1 and L2 grammar proficiency levels. Regarding the relationship between Vietnamese L1 and English L2 grammar proficiency, the study showed that there was no significant correlation between the Vietnamese students' L1 grammar proficiency test scores and their L2 English grammar proficiency test scores. Furthermore, L2 grammar proficiency and language transfer varied depending on age at the onset of learning English, L1 and L2 proficiency levels, and areas of language and linguistics. In the area of the effect of the length of U.S. residence on L2 grammar proficiency and language transfer, the study indicated the influence of length of U.S. residence only on language transfer and the variance depended on areas of language and linguistics. The quality of L2 input, rather than length of U.S. residence, may affect L2 grammar learning and language transfer as well, which may be an inspiration for future research. Other suggestions for future research are further provided. The results of this research study have several pedagogical implications: The study has an implication for retaining native language(s) as learning several languages simultaneously does not cause serious impediments, but rather fosters language interdependence. Additionally, further pedagogical implications of this study are of great importance because the results can be applied not only to Vietnamese L1 speakers, but also to ESL/EFL learners from various L1 backgrounds. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.
A study investigated the characteristics of 14 second language institutes available to adults in Sana'a (Yemen), an area in which second language instruction has historically been difficult to obtain. Data were gathered through interviews and observation. It was found that seven of the institutions offer English instruction, and five offer Arabic instruction to expatriates. Four external governments (United Kingdom, United States, France, and Germany) and a number of private organizations, some established by former Peace Corps volunteers, offer instruction. Teacher qualifications, program design, evaluation, teacher pay, and tuition vary considerably across programs. Very few of the institutes prepare their own instructional materials; most used commercially published materials. Commonly-used Arabic materials are listed. Results indicate that program directors, teachers, and students concur on several language instruction issues: programs need to hire trained language teachers; in-service workshops on teaching techniques and curriculum development are needed; teachers should be paid for preparation time; and teachers should be able to observe colleagues teaching and to try new teaching techniques without fear for their jobs. All 14 institutes are listed, and addresses are provided for 11 of them. Contains 11 references. (MSE)
Starting from the question "what is a story?" "Storytelling Across the Primary Curriculum" leads the reader through the theory and practise of storytelling as an educational method--a method taught by the author over the last ten years through Primary English teaching programmes. This practical book gives teachers the skills and confidence to use storytelling and the spoken word in new and exciting ways in the classroom. It will also give teachers the confidence to "put down the book" and trust themselves to tell, rather than read, a story. It provides a wealth of examples of cross-curricular teaching opportunities, including a section on the ways in which the teaching of phonics can be embedded in the "real" language of story. "Storytelling Across the Primary Curriculum" is ideal for trainee and practicing primary school teachers who want to develop their classroom practice within the field of storytelling. Students on BA Primary, BEd, and PGCE courses, particularly those specialising in English, will also benefit from this book's stimulating and intuitive approach to teaching English language and literacy.
The General English Proficiency Test (GEPT) is a 5-level, criterion-referenced English as a Foreign Language (EFL) testing system implemented in Taiwan to assess the general English proficiency of EFL learners. In 1999, with the aim of encouraging the general study of English and to result in beneficial washback effects on the teaching and learning of English, the Ministry of Education lent its support to the Language Training and Testing Center in the development of the GEPT. Throughout a decade of efforts, the GEPT has won popular recognition in Taiwan. To date, more than 4.3 million Taiwanese have taken the test. This article first documents the evolution of the GEPT from the perspectives of test development and validation. The article then provides an overview of how GEPT scores are us...
Critical language awareness refers to how conscious people are of the ideologies hidden in the language. A study was carried out to determine whether such a critical perspective towards text could be developed in an English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) context. This paper evaluates the results of the application of methods of critical discourse analysis to a context where the "analysts" are non-native speakers of English, who seem to take for granted the true validity of messages conveyed through discourse in the press. University learners' reflections on the implementation of methodology point to some drawbacks, but also provide evidence of the positive effect the experience had, since most participants evinced a growing level of critical language awareness as well as a different attitude regarding texts from the British press. The results of the study also support the belief that these EFL learners need to be equipped with the necessary tools to take a critical stance toward the ideologies possibly hidden in discourse because of their status as future teachers and translators of English. Their professions demand an objective view of the language and a questioning attitude about what they teach and translate in the foreign language. (Contains 15 references.) (Author/SM)
There is an exponential growth in the number of schools that offer American Sign Language (ASL) for foreign language credit and the different ASL curricula that were published. This study analyzes different curricula in its assumptions regarding language, learning, and teaching of second languages. It is found that curricula vary in their assumptions, and can be classified along the three main theoretical frameworks: behaviorism, linguisticism, and communication. Strengths and weaknesses of each theoretical framework are identified in second language acquisition research. Current second language theories of language, learning, and teaching are described, and suggestions are offered for future curriculum in ASL.
Background.-Many countries rely on immigrants for population growth and to maintain a skilled workforce. However, many such immigrants face literacy-related barriers to success in education and in the labour force. Aims.-This meta-analysis reviews experimental and quasi-experimental studies to examine strategies for teaching English literacy to immigrant students. Method.-Following an exhaustive and systematic search for studies meeting pre-determined inclusion criteria, two researchers independently extracted data from 26 English as a Second Language (ESL) studies involving 3,150 participants. These participants consisted of ESL immigrant students in kindergarten through grade 6 who were exposed to English literacy instructional interventions. Measured outcomes were reading and writing. R...
Ethiopia, a country with 82 distinctly different languages and ethnic groups, has recently emerged from decades of civil war. In the process of restoring civilian rule, alliances have formed between a wide spectrum of local interest groups. Education generally, and language policy more specifically, continues to be one of the most contentious elements of the Ethiopian social and political scene. After enduring centuries of rule by Amharic speaking "Northerners," new regional authorities have elected to purge the Amharic language from the teaching curriculum, in favor of local languages for the primary years and English in the secondary schools. These reforms entail the translation and publication of massive quantities of textbooks, the redeployment of former staff and teaching resources, and the development of new regional and local educational authorities. This paper surveys data from an ongoing field research project, which included an examination of the Ethiopian Teachers' Training Institute. The school was located in Bale, where the Orominya language was adopted into the curriculum. This analysis explores the strength and appropriateness of the curriculum, identifies sources of both failure and innovation, and highlights many of the difficulties inherent in the imposition of major educational reform under severe resource constraints. (Author/LL)
Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo tem como objetivo problematizar a práxis pedagógica de ensino bilíngüe para surdos com base na concepção bakhtiniana de linguagem. Assumir tal perspectiva é pressupor a construção da subjetividade como resultado de um processo no qual o "outro" possui papel ativo e constitutivo. No processo de construção dialética do objeto lingüístico o sujeito entra no fluxo dinâmico de uma cadeia de enunciados já tecidos histórica e socialmente. Minha (more) contribuição nesta apresentação busca resgatar o papel desse "outro" no processo recíproco de ensino e aprendizagem da criança surda, no contexto de seu trabalho com duas línguas: a de sinais e o português. Abstract in english Assuming Bakhtin's conception of language, this paper discusses the educational praxis of language teaching to deaf students. The construction of subjectivity is considered by the author as a product of dialogical and dialectic work in which the "other" has an essential co-author status. During the process of language construction, the subject takes part of a rich network of enunciations which are always historically and socially determined. My goal in this study is to fo (more) cus on the linguistic co-partnership of this "other" in the reciprocal process of teaching and/or learning two different languages, Sign Language and Portuguese, by Deaf students.
The challenges of teaching writing and encouraging students to write are many. However, one of the most difficult issues to deal with is students' reluctance to write in any language, even their home language. Because of this reluctance, being asked to write in English as a foreign or second language can feel like a double burden. Learners of English often are not confident that they have the basic writing skills or the language skills needed to compose a piece of writing in English. This article suggests ways to build students' confidence in their ability to write in English. One way to address the issue is by creating opportunities for students to state what they perceive they are able to do. The statements students produce about their perceived abilities can be referred to as I-can statements, such as "I can write names of foods in English" or "I can write about daily activities in English." This approach is most effective when students are given a target so that even before they begin, they have a sense of what they are expected to accomplish. In this article, the authors present a series of basic writing activities that demonstrate how I-can statements can be used. While the activities are appropriate for young learners, they can benefit students of any age who are in the beginning to lower-intermediate stages of learning English.
This article analyzes research in second/foreign language teaching and learning conducted in Taiwan over the period 2004-2009. Representative articles published in local refereed journals and conference proceedings--not readily accessible outside Taiwan--are reviewed to reflect current trends in English teaching and learning. The main themes discussed include English-in-education policy and curriculum, research on English-skills development, and assessment. The analysis presented here highlights the fact that research in Taiwan not only follows international trends but also satisfies specific needs in local sociolinguistic contexts. Additionally, this paper sheds light on why the international readership of this locally conducted research remains very limited, and concludes by outlining the challenges that researchers face and the gradually shifting status of English in Taiwan in this increasingly globalized world.
There is a growing interest in research on language teacher identity as relevant research suggests that language teacher self-identification has an impact on their language teaching. The present paper explores the self-identification and subsequent effects on their actual teaching vision and practice of 16 Chinese language subject teachers teaching Chinese as a second language to South Asians in Hong Kong. Data collected from classroom observations and interviews with the teachers demonstrate that Chinese language subject teachers negotiate with South Asian learners and construct their teaching in ways that enable them to create an environment where they see themselves as linguistic torchbearers and cultural transmitters while acquiring a strong feeling of success professionally. This research implies that teacher identity is a kind of pedagogy through which language teachers can reproduce or counteract hegemonic discourses and ideologies that oppress South Asians as non-native language minorities. (Contains 1 note.)
This paper proposes to overcome the traditional essentialist and dichotomous ways of conceptualising language and language pedagogies, i.e. to go beyond linguistic purist perspectives. Analysing bilingual teaching practices in a science lesson, the paper proposes that practical bilingual pedagogies ...
This book brings together, under the term "whole learning," ideas from the language-arts-based whole language movement and work in middle schools with multidisciplinary, problem-centered, integrative approaches. The book contains 15 chapters, most written by teachers about their experiences with implementing whole learning curricula. The introductory section contains two chapters: (1) "Origin and Development of the Book" and (2) "Whole Learning and a Holistic Vision of the Middle School: Principles That Guide Practice" (Pace). Chapters in part 1 reflect in some way on teaching as a learning process: (1) On the Joys and Strains of Becoming" (Gillespie); (2) "Making It Your Own: Whole Language in the Middle School" (Burke-Hengen); and (3) "'Tracks in the Snow': Learning from Response Logs in Reading and Writing Workshops" (Christian). Chapters in part 2 demonstrate how teachers can create whole learning environments in different organizational structures and stresses the importance of administrative support: (1) "Hooked on History: A Cooperative Approach to Integrating History and Language Arts at the Middle School Level" (Jellum); (2) "Middle School English Classes: Workshop Revisited" (Russell); (3) "Integrating Curriculum in a Self-Contained Middle School Classroom: Teacher Innovation and the Impact of Administrative Support" (Wells); and (4) "Pushing the Boundaries in a Traditional Middle School Environment: A School-within-a-School" (Moss). Chapters in part 3, coauthored by middle school teachers and college or university teacher educators, demonstrate the importance of collaboration to innovative teaching: (1) "A Learning Journey: Exploring Teaching and Learning in the Middle School Language Arts Classroom" (Cousin and Aragon); (2) "Looking Back, Looking Forward: A Science Teacher Incorporates Whole Language" (Mauney and others); (3) "Above the Tree Line: Collaborative Curriculum Construction" (Bergstrom and others); (4) "Reforming Middle School Mathematics Constructively" (Ault and McEnerny-Ogle); and (5) "Embarking on Adventure: An Invitation to Middle School Science" (Ault and Maine). The concluding chapter explores the motivations of teachers who choose the whole learning approach: "Taking the Leap: An Analysis of the Joys and Strains" (Bergstrom and Pace). (EV)
Background: There has been a lack of research on exploring how beliefs about language learning (BALLs) and out-of-class language-learning activities are related. BALLs and out-of-class language-learning activities play an important role in influencing the learning behaviours of learners and learning outcomes. Findings of this study provide useful pedagogical implications for English teaching in Hong Kong. Aim: The aim of the study is to gather information on the BALLs and out-of-class language-learning activities of young adult ESL learners in Hong Kong. Sample: Convenience sampling is adopted in this study of 324 ESL (English as a Second Language) learners undertaking vocational education in Hong Kong. Methods: Surveys on BALLs and out-of-class language-learning activities. Results: Findings indicate that learners held mostly positive beliefs. Watching films and television, reading, listening to English songs, music and radio channels, formal learning and practising speaking with others were the out-of-class language-learning activities reported by subjects that they carried out most frequently. There is an association between BALLs and the implementation of activities. Learners who regarded out-of-class language-learning activities as useful were found to possess more positive beliefs regarding their English learning in terms of BALLI (Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory) items. Learners who implemented out-of-class language-learning activities were found to have more positive beliefs in terms of two factors, "Perceived value and nature of learning spoken English" and "Self-efficacy and expectation about learning English." Conclusion: The contextual influences of English being a prestigious language in Hong Kong and being attached with tangible rewards and power are suggested to contribute to the prevalence of instrumental motivation among ESL learners in Hong Kong. These influences, together with notion of modesty and the fear of losing face in Confucianism, also contribute to the popularity out-of-class activities related to receptive skills such as reading newspapers and watching TV rather than those involve productive skills such as face-to-face contacts and writing. (Contains 3 tables.)
In the modern era, the prevailing model of public education has been that of "one size fits all", with private schooling being a small but notable exception. Language (of instruction) was generally viewed as a minor variable readily overcome by standard classroom instruction. As researchers have sharpened their focus on the reasons for educational failure, language has begun to emerge as a significant variable in producing gains in educational efficiency. This paper reports the intermediate result of a controlled study in a very rural area of a developing country designed to examine the effect of language of instruction on educational outcomes. In the experimental schools, children are taught to read first in the local language (via the local language) and are taught other key subjects via the local language as well. English is taught as a subject. Teachers in the control or standard schools continue the standard national practice of teaching all subjects in either English or Filipino, neither of which is spoken by children when they begin school. Year-end standardised testing was done in all subjects throughout grades one to three as a means of comparing the two programme methodologies.
In the modern era, the prevailing model of public education has been that of "one size fits all", with private schooling being a small but notable exception. Language (of instruction) was generally viewed as a minor variable readily overcome by standard classroom instruction. As researchers have sharpened their focus on the reasons for educational failure, language has begun to emerge as a significant variable in producing gains in educational efficiency. This paper reports the intermediate result of a controlled study in a very rural area of a developing country designed to examine the effect of language of instruction on educational outcomes. In the experimental schools, children are taught to read first in the local language (via the local language) and are taught other key subjects via the local language as well. English is taught as a subject. Teachers in the control or standard schools continue the standard national practice of teaching all subjects in either English or Filipino, neither of which is spoken by children when they begin school. Year-end standardised testing was done in all subjects throughout grades one to three as a means of comparing the two programme methodologies.
The aim of this study was to investigate how the target language is used in the foreign language classroom and how different teachers combine the target language and the first language in their teaching. The study was conducted in three different Swedish schools at different levels: one at the inter...
Language learning strategy (LLS) use is not only an individual attribute of language users, but also a group behaviour reflecting the learning culture and language pedagogy in a particular social context. This article reports a study on the LLS use of Chinese secondary school students of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Northeast China from the perspective of socio-cultural theory. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are employed in the research. Results show that Chinese secondary school EFL learners use memory and cognitive strategies more than other types of strategies. Information from semi-structured interviews reveals that Chinese EFL learner strategy use is greatly affected by the learning context, classroom practice and assessment method in the schools investigated. The current classroom practice and assessment methods do not help the learners develop communicative competence and autonomous learning, prescribed as the ultimate goal in the present pedagogy reform of EFL teaching and learning in China. It is strongly recommended that classroom teaching be communication-oriented and student-centred in the implementation of the new English curriculum and pedagogy standards in China. (Contains 2 tables.)
New positive attitudes towards language interaction in the realm of bilingualism open new horizons for sign bilingual education. Plaza-Pust and Morales-Lopez have innovatively reconceptualised a new cross-disciplinary approach to sign bilingualism, based on both sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics. According to this framework, cross-modal bilingualism within the deaf community is a natural, dynamic phenomenon, where "code mixing" and "code switching" between languages of different modalities--signed or spoken/written--are often a pragmatic choice of the signer/speaker that serves specific purposes in specific contexts. Following this line of thought, cross-modal contact situations may be viewed as a sign of sophistication, as in any bilingualism, and a fundamental, transitory phase of bilingual language acquisition. Transfer from a sign language to a written second language has been put into question in the sign bilingual education literature. This project intends to address that question through the investigation of cross-modal contact categories found in the written productions of 15 deaf students in a bilingual secondary school in Barcelona. We argue that the "pooling of resources" that makes deaf students use structures from Catalan Sign Language in written English is suggestive of linguistic transfer at a "morphosyntactic" level and that language contact is positive to students' bilingual development in this specific context. The impact of this finding for language teaching policy, practice and research in deaf education will be discussed. This study is part of a larger study to further analyse these contact phenomena according to milestones in second language acquisition of written English, Catalan and Spanish, and seeks to establish parallels between the bilingual acquisition development of these deaf students and that of their hearing counterparts. (Contains 1 table, 2 figures and 4 notes.)
This Toolkit is meant to be a resource for teachers, parents, and administrators involved with two-way immersion (TWI) programs, particularly those at the elementary level. Two-way immersion is a form of dual language instruction that brings together students from two native language groups for language, literacy, and academic content instruction through two languages. In the United States, these two groups are native English language speakers and native speakers of another language, usually Spanish. Because of the integrated nature of the programs and the fact that instruction is provided to all students through both languages, TWI programs allow students to be both language learners and language models for their peers. This Toolkit is composed of three segments that address program design and planning, classroom instruction, and parental involvement, respectively. The classroom instruction segment includes a Question & Answer (Q&A) document on teaching in TWI programs; model lesson plans that show how best practices are implemented in the TWI classroom; a study guide to facilitate the use of the Q&A document and model lessons for professional development; and additional resources on effective instructional practices in TWI programs. The parental involvement segment includes an overview of two-way immersion, a Q&A document that addresses questions and concerns that parents frequently have, a home-school communication template designed to help classroom teachers facilitate strong home-school connections, and additional resources that include suggested readings on parent involvement in two-way immersion programs and links to resources that parents may find useful. All of the parent materials are available in Spanish as well as English. Student Study Team Red Folder Process: Early Intervention for Struggling Students and Identification Process for Students with Learning Differences is appended. A glossary is also included. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)
Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de encontrar solución al problema de cómo enseñar la escritura en inglés con fines médicos, se presenta una propuesta didáctica en función de la formación de los profesionales de la salud, como comunicadores competentes en idioma inglés. Se presentan los fundamentos teóricos sobre el desarrollo de la escritura como sustento de aplicaciones didácticas de esta disciplina como lengua extranjera. Se concluye que para satisfacer eficazmente esta prob (more) lemática se requiere de la utilización del enfoque en el proceso de la escritura, con el fin de lograr en los estudiantes un incremento en el grado de comunicación, organización y corrección lingüística en los textos científicos que escriben y en las acciones que realizan en esta actividad dentro del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Abstract in english To find a solution to the issue of how to teach writing in English with Medical Purposes to contribute to a better development of this skill, a didactic proposal is presented to be used in the formation of professionals of health as English language competent writers. The theoretical basis about the teaching of writing in English as a foreign language is presented. As a conclusion, the process approach to writing is proposed to solve this issue efficiently as well as to i (more) ncrease communication, organization and linguistic correction in the scientific papers they write and in the steps they follow in this activity within the teaching-learning process.
Professor Elana Shohamy was born in New York and moved to Israel at a young age. It was an interesting time for the country and the Hebrew language. In this article, Professor Shohamy shares her keen insights into her experiences growing up in Israel. She obtained her teacher's certificate from David Yelin Teacher's College in Jerusalem, specializing in teaching English as a Second Language. After moving to Minnesota in 1968, she got a B.A. in Economics from Hamline University in Saint Paul and went directly into the Ph.D. program in second language education and measurement & evaluation at the University of Minnesota. Her doctoral dissertation, entitled "Investigation of Concurrent Validity of the Oral Interview Test With the Cloze Procedure for Measuring Language Proficiency," was completed in 1978. After 2 years as a post-doctoral researcher at Stanford University and the coordinator of the Hebrew program at UC Berkeley from 1979 to 1981, Professor Shohamy went to Israel and began her career at Tel Aviv University, where she is currently a professor and Chair of the Language Education Program in the School of Education. Professor Shohamy has authored or coauthored more than 40 refereed journal articles and more than 50 book chapters. She founded the journal "Language Policy" and served as Associate Editor from 2000 to 2006 and is currently Editor; she has been on the editorial boards of "Language Testing," "Language Assessment Quarterly," "Modern Language Journal," and "Applied Linguistics," as well as the "International Journal of Bilingualism and Critical Inquiry in Language Studies." (Contains 18 footnotes.)
Background: Institutional teaching awards have been used widely in higher education since the 1970s. Nevertheless, a comprehensive review of the literature on such awards has not been published since 1997. Aim: We conducted a literature review to learn as much as possible about the design (e.g., formats, selection processes) and utility (e.g., impact on individuals and institutions) of teaching awards in order to provide information for use in designing, implementing, or evaluating award programs. Methods: We searched electronic databases for English-language publications on awards for exemplary teaching. Targeted publications included descriptions and/or investigations of award programs, their impact, and theoretical or conceptual models for awards programs. Screening was conducted by dua...
Visual and plastic arts in contemporary literacy instruction equal null curricula. Studies show that painting and sculpture facilitate teaching reading and writing (literacy), yet such pedagogy has not been formally adopted into USA curriculum. An example of null curriculum can be found in late 19th - early 20th century education the USA government provided for indigenous Navajo Dine people. Weaving, metalwork and associated design skills, as well as language arts, were ignored when educational experts advised teaching them. Contemporary studies as well as these historical events provide teachers with methods and content using visual and plastic arts to teach literacy. Appendixes include: a selection from an 1890 report to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs; six photographs; 1928 findings of the Meriam Report, Eastern Association of Indian Affairs, Inc. "Bulletin" 17; 1946 US Senate sub-committee on Indian Affairs hearing, "Navajo Indian Education"; and "A booklet of Catholic prayers: Navajo-English, Circa 1910."
Despite abundant evidence of malleability in speech production, previous studies of the effects of late second-language learning on first-language production have been limited to advanced learners. This dissertation examines these effects in novice learners, finding that experience in a second language rapidly, and possibly inexorably, affects production of the native language. In a longitudinal study of Korean acquisition, native English-speaking adult learners (n = 19) produced the same English words at weekly intervals over the course of intensive elementary Korean classes. Results of two acoustic case studies indicate that experience with Korean rapidly influences the production of English, and that the effect is one of assimilation to phonetic properties of Korean. In case study 1, experience with Korean stop types is found to influence the production of English stop types in terms of voice onset time (VOT) and/or fundamental frequency (f [subscript 0) onset as early as the second week of Korean classes, resulting in the lengthening of VOT in English voiceless stops (in approximation to the longer VOT of the perceptually similar Korean aspirated stops) and the raising of f[subscript 0] onset following English voiced and voiceless stops (in approximation to the higher f[subscript 0] levels of Korean). Similarly, in case study 2, experience with the Korean vowel space is found to have a significant effect on production of the English vowel space, resulting in a general raising of females' English vowels in approximation to the overall higher Korean vowel space. These rapid effects of second-language experience on first-language production suggest that cross-language linkages are established from the onset of second-language learning, that they occur at multiple levels, and that they are based not on orthographic equivalence, but on phonetic and/or phonological proximity between languages. The findings are discussed with respect to current notions of cross-linguistic similarity, exemplar models of phonology, and language teaching and research practices. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.
Presented is an overview of some specific schemes that have been used successfully by teachers throughout New York State to strengthen basic mathematics skills. Components offer ideas that have been successful with primary, intermediate, and secondary students. The contents of this Italian language edition are identical to the English language and other foreign language editions. In addition to the Foreword, there are sections on: (1) Some Brief Observations About Strengthening Mathematics Skills; (2) The Balanced Mathematics Program; (3) "Par"--Puzzles+Arithmetic=Remediation; (4) Regrouping in Subtraction; (5) Money Games; (6) A Visual Sequence for Teaching Fractions; (7) A Space to Carry in Simple Addition and Multiplication Examples; (8) Grid Paper Computation; (9) The Need for Math Reading Skills; (10) A Structural Approach to Multiplication; (11) The Electronic Calculator in Remedial Mathematics; (12) Nature's Mathematics; and (13) Additional Teacher Designed Ideas. (MP)
Two approaches to English for Academic Purposes (EAP) research and teaching which have arisen in recent years are systemic functional linguistics (SFL) approaches in Australia and elsewhere (e.g. Hood, 2006; Lee, 2010; Woodward-Kron, 2009) and Academic Literacies approaches in the UK and elsewhere (e.g. Lillis & Scott, 2008; Thesen & Pletzen, 2006; Turner, 2004). Although these approaches both draw from ethnographic and sociocultural traditions, they have tended to focus on different aspects of EAP. SFL as a theory of language has employed linguistic analysis to establish the nature of disciplinary discourses and ways of encouraging students to engage in these discourses; research and pedagogy have concentrated on texts, language in use and the language system. Academic Literacies as a res...
This book contributes to the growing field of EFL teacher identity, which is now recognized to influence numerous aspects of classroom teaching and of student learning. It focuses on an under-researched, and yet highly influential group of teachers that shape English language education in Japan: Japanese university English teachers. In three interrelated narrative studies, it examines how four relatively new teachers develop professional identity as they become members of the community of practice of university English teachers; how gender impacts the professional identity of seven female professors ranging in age from their early 30s to their 60s; and how one teacher's teaching practices and beliefs reflect her personal and professional identity.
The restricted time allocated to courses and the immediate need to read literature in English necessitates the teaching of selective reading in many English as a foreign language contexts. This paper reports on one element of an expeditious (quick, effective, efficient and selective) reading course for learners in an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) context. It details how postgraduate students of chemistry in a Tunisian university are taught to read titles of empirical research papers, as this becomes as important as reading abstracts for fast-tracking relevant data. Analysis of the literature in the field of technical writing identifies four types of titles. Based on this classification, the course component aims at raising the learners' awareness of the linguistic exponents that typify titles, and making them appreciate the importance of titles and their classification. The paper details how this single strategy fits into an expeditious approach to the teaching of reading.
Abstract in spanish Los métodos de enseñanza-aprendizaje constituyen una de las facetas más fascinantes en el estudio de una idioma extranjero. Este trabajo presenta un análisis documental donde se demuestra que la enseñanza del inglés como lengua extranjera y como segunda lengua dispone en el presente de un amplio mosaico de métodos que abarcan desde la gramática traducción hasta el enfoque comunicativo que compartimos hoy los docentes en varias latitudes. El análisis permite prof (more) undizar en el conocimiento de las corrientes lingüísticas, psicológicas y filosóficas que han influido en el surgimiento de los distintos métodos hasta llegar a la labor investigativa dentro del aula partiendo del criterio fundamental de que la praxis pedagógica es tan rica como imponderable y la flexibilidad y la creatividad deben constituir el fundamento del trabajo metodológico en el aula Abstract in english The study of methods in the process of teaching and learning a foreign language is one of the most fascinating issues in English language teaching (ELT). This review paper provides a description of methods showing that the history of both English as a foreign language (EFL) and English as a second language (ESL) contains a vast number of methods that date back to the grammar-translation and move up to the communicative approach used by many teachers worldwide. The analysi (more) s made leads to outstand the way in which linguistic, psychological and philosophical beliefs have contributed to the formation and development of these methods and how they have been realized at the level of pedagogical action. Particular emphasis is given to creativity and flexibility in the language lesson as the key to a successful classroom practice
This document is the first in a 3-part collection titled "Teaching English Language Arts (ELA) to Francophone Program Students" to be used primarily by ELA teachers in their efforts to ensure that francophone program students build on their established French language skills when learning English. It is designed to show that a strong correlation exists between learning outcomes outlined in the Francais and ELA programs of study and to indicate which specific learning outcomes (SLOs) in the ELA program of studies have corresponding SLOs in the Francais program of study. Part 1 provides the user with the 1998 Alberta Learning ELA program of studies. Part 2 consists of an English translation/version of all the SLOs included in the 1998 Alberta Learning Francais program by grade level. (AS)
This report draws on US government data sources to develop a statistical portrait of the population of faculty members teaching English and foreign languages in US degree-granting colleges and universities. Major input sources include the National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF) and the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS). Reported information offers comparisons between 1995 and 2005, and includes: (1) Numbers and Percentages of Faculty Members in Different Employment and Tenure Statuses; (2) Number of Full-time Tenured and Tenure-Track, Full-time Non-Tenure-Track and Part-Time Fault Members; (3) Total Student Enrollment and Undergraduate Student Enrollment; (4) Faculty numbers and Percentages by Discipline; (5) Numbers, Percentages, Academic Degree of English and Foreign Language Faculty by Type of Institution; and (6) Average Salary Information. (Contains 18 figures and 3 tables.) [This report was published with the Association of Departments of English.
Abstract in spanish El curso Introduction to the language of research constituye unos de los aportes del quehacer científico pedagógico al diseño de materiales para la enseñanza del ingles con fines médicos, con aplicación tanto para la enseñanza de pregrado como de posgrado. El artículo presenta las tareas que lo conforman y algunos aspectos relacionados con su diseño. El curso contribuye a elevar la calidad en el modo de actuación de los futuros médicos y de los ya en ejercicio, (more) lo que soluciona algunos de los problemas de la comunicación y el manejo de la terminología científica en distintos aspectos de este indicador del encargo científico de los profesionales de la salud. Asimismo, este material didáctico constituye un instrumento útil para el desarrollo de la tutoría de la actividad científica estudiantil, en tanto se devela como material de referencia para el cumplimiento de la labor docente e investigativa en escenarios nacionales y foráneos. Abstract in english The course "Introduction to the language of research" is a practical and useful piece in the set of teaching materials designed for the teaching of English for Medical Purposes, both in undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Its six tasks and some design-related features are herein presented. It contributes to improve the linguistic expertise of future doctors and those already in service and is meant to be an answer to some of the communication problems dealing with rese (more) arch language. It constitutes a reference tool for tutorial purpose sections and for doctors undergoing their training practice for teaching in universities overseas where the target language is English.
Abstract in spanish El aprendizaje del idioma Inglés con fines específicos adquiere características especiales, para las que el Inglés General no es suficiente. Los profesores de inglés han tenido que enfrentar la enseñanza del Inglés con fines específicos a partir de la autopreparación y el aprendizaje de forma autodidacta y empírica, tanto para el pregrado como para el postgrado. El objetivo de este trabajo fue elaborar una estrategia de superación profesional en Inglés Médico (more) para los profesores de Inglés General del departamento de Idiomas de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas "Dr. Ernesto Che Guevara de la Serna" de Pinar del Río. Se utilizaron los métodos como el histórico-lógico, inductivo-deductivo y la observación a un sistema de clases y la encuesta a profesores y cuadros directivos de departamento. El universo está constituido por los 33 profesores de Inglés miembros del departamento de Idiomas de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas Dr. Ernesto Che Guevara de la Serna de Pinar del Río, que laboran en el presente curso escolar 2011-2012. Por su parte, la muestra la constituyen el 100% del universo. Se obtuvo como resultado la existencia mayoritaria de profesores de Inglés General, que no dominan ni los contenidos del idioma Inglés con fines específicos de las ciencias biomédicas, ni poseen la preparación metodológica necesaria para poder asumir la docencia y preparación de los estudiantes del pregrado y postgrado en las Ciencias Médicas. La estrategia presentada cuenta con el criterio de expertos por lo que su implementación es posible en cualquier institución docente de las Ciencias Médicas en nuestro país. Abstract in english Learning English Language for specific purposes acquires special characteristics, for that knowledge of General English is not sufficient. Professors of English Language have had to face English language teaching for specific purposes from the self-preparation, self-learning and empirical point of view, not only in pre-graduate but also in post-graduate education. This research paper was aimed at designing a strategy for professional training at Medical Terminology in Eng (more) lish Language to the General English Language at “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna” Medical School, Pinar del Rio. Using the historical-logical, inductive-deductive methods to carry out this study, together with observations to a system of lectures and surveys to the teaching staff and directives of the department of Languages. The target group was comprised of 33 professors of English Language at the Medical School during the present academic course (2011-2012). The sample gathered 100% of the target group. Results showed that General English Language professors had not mastered the contents of English Language for specific purposes in Medical Sciences, not even they have the necessary methodological grounding to undertake the teaching activities and the preparation of under-graduate and post-graduate students of the Medical Sciences. The strategy designed took into account the criteria of experts, since its implementation can be possible in any of the teaching Medical Science institutions all over the country.
Keeping a Critical Eye on "Lexical Friends": Cognates as Critical Pedagogy in Pre-Service Teacher Education/ Manteniendo una mirada crítica a los "amigos léxicos": los cognados como pedagogía crítica en la formación inicial del profesorado
Abstract in spanish Este proyecto de investigación tiene como propósito buscar métodos productivos, críticos y reflexivos en la enseñanza de cognados y préstamos léxicos. El objetivo principal consiste en crear maestros más conscientes sobre las diferentes maneras de presentar y practicar los cognados y los préstamos. Los participantes en este estudio están cursando la Licenciatura de la Enseñanza de Inglés como Lengua Extranjera en una universidad pública en México. Este estud (more) io argumenta que los cognados son un recurso productivo para el alumno que estudia en cualquier nivel y no solamente una herramienta aleatoria para reconocer palabras. Detallo actividades que ofrecen diferentes maneras para que los alumnos asuman el control del proceso de aprendizaje y que no dependan solamente de los conocimientos dados por maestros y libros de texto. Abstract in english This research project investigates more productive, critical and reflective ways of teaching cognates and loan words. The main objective of the research is aimed at making teacher trainees aware of different ways of presenting and practising cognates and loan words in the second-language classroom. The participants in the investigation were studying in a BA programme in Teaching English as a Foreign Language in a Mexican public university. This study argues that cognates (more) are a productive resource for second-language users at all stages and levels of language learning and are not just a tool for the random recognition of words. Furthermore, I describe activities that offer ways for language learners to take control of language learning and not just rely on given knowledge from teachers and textbooks.
Like many countries building up human and technological resources, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has embarked on the goal of Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) to its citizens. One goal for the KSA Ministry of Education is increasing acceptance rates at teacher colleges for both genders specializing in English, in addition to Arabic, Math, Science and Computer Science (The Executive Summary of the Ministry of Education Ten-Year Plan, 2005). Virtually all government policies come with unexpected results. For example, Native English speaking teachers (NESTs) teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) often interact in ways that can be at odds with their host countries. Concerns involving pedagogy have been expressed in many countries with TEFL programs using NESTs (Degen & Absalom, 1998; Liu & Zhang, 2007; Madrid & Perez, 2004; Putintseva 2003; Xiao & Tiajin, 2006). Relatively little is known about Saudi university students' experiences with NESTs and their preferences for student centered learning. This exploratory study surveyed 310 Saudi female university students enrolled in university TEFL programs. The following research questions were investigated: (a) Do Saudi students prefer student centered learning; and (b) Are there cultural differences with Saudi students' and their NESTs' teaching style? The findings of this study showed that students are open to the student-centered learning approach, with certain activities within the student-centered learning approach being more favorably preferred. Implications from this study clearly display that teacher training programs should seriously examine and implement innovative ways of teaching English for their pre-service teachers. Results of the English version of Saudi University Student Questionnaire are appended.
Abstract in portuguese A partir de uma leitura crítica de trabalhos acadêmicos do contexto brasileiro que versam sobre as possíveis vantagens e desvantagens do uso da tradução no ensino de línguas estrangeiras, discutimos diversos usos do termo tradução nesse âmbito, atualmente. num primeiro momento, concentramos nossa atenção em aspectos predominantemente metodológicos. Propomos uma possível divisão em quatro usos metodológicos da tradução no ensino de línguas estrangeiras. D (more) epois, procuramos argumentar que vários trabalhos que abordam a questão da tradução no contexto de ensino de línguas estrangeiras deixam de fazer uma reflexão teórica aprofundada sobre essa atividade e, consequentemente, fundamentam sua argumentação num conceito de tradução enraizado no senso comum - e questionado há décadas por diversos estudiosos do assunto. Finalmente, sugerimos um diálogo mais intenso entre a área do ensino de línguas estrangeiras e os estudos da tradução. Abstract in english This paper presents an overview of some academic work carried out in the Brazilian context that comments on possible advantages and disadvantages of the use of translation in foreign language teaching. The paper brings up the discussion about different uses of the term translation. At first, we concentrate on methodological aspects and propose a division in four methodological uses of translation in foreign language teaching. secondly, we try to show that some of the work (more) s that discuss the question of translation in foreign language teaching context do not make a serious theoretical reflection on the concept of translation itself. Consequently, their argumentation on this activity relies on a theoretical concept that is based on the common sense - and that has been criticized over decades by many translation studies theorists. Finally, we propose a dialogue between the academic areas of foreign language teaching and translation studies.
The article reviews twelve of 79 articles focusing on language teachers, language(s) teacher education, teaching, and learning published in Teaching and Teacher Education since 1985. The twelve articles, divided into three sections, include narrative inquiry and identity, teacher education topics, and contexts. The articles provide local and contextual expressions that taken together begin to compose a landscape or sphere where various language education researchers share wonderments and puzzlements, queries and inquiries, and insights and understandings. The TATE articles provide puzzle pieces lending evidence to a plausible postdisciplinarity sphere of growing and developing research and studies in language(s) teacher education.
Clearly explaining writing-across-the-curriculum (WAC) pedagogy for English language teachers in university settings, this book offers an accessible guide to integrating writing and speaking tasks across the curriculum and in disciplinary courses. Teachers will find this book useful because its direct, practical advice can be easily incorporated in their classrooms to help their students develop advanced disciplinary English skills in writing, oral presentation, and graphical presentation. Enhancing its usefulness and relevance, each chapter includes coverage of the use of technology for teach
Abstract in spanish El presente artículo revisa los diversos del novedoso término Mentor y las aplicaciones recientes en el ámbito de la enseñanza del inglés. Presenta, además, algunas experiencias exitosas de programas de Mentoría a la luz de las necesidades del sistema de educacional chileno. Abstract in english This article briefly surveys the various uses of the newfangled term Mentor and its recent application(s) in the realm of English language teaching.lt also presents successful experiences of mentoring programmes in the light of the needs of the Chilean education system.
Practical, ready-to-use ELL strategies firmly rooted in the latest research This book provides practical strategies and tools for assessing and teaching even the most hard to reach English language learners across the content areas. Syrja offers educators the latest information on working with ELLs (including using formative assessments) and provides a wealth of classroom-tested models and measures. These tools have proven to be effective with ESL students at all levels, including Long Term English Learners (LTELs). Throughout the book, the author shares powerful research-based strategies and
This selection of papers starts with insights into multi- and plurilingual settings, then proceeds to discussions of aims for practical work with students, and ends with visions of future developments within translation for the mass media and the impact of machine translation. Papers are: "Interpreting at the European Commission"; "Language Status and Translation Studies: A Nigerian Perspective"; "Translation: A Symbiosis of Cultures"; "Translating African Literature from French into English"; " Supra-Lingual Aspects of Literary Translation"; "Cross-Cultural Awareness: Focusing on Otherness"; "Translation as a Process of Linguistic and Cultural Adaptation"; "Translation as a Means for Better Understanding Between Cultures"; "Advertisements in Translation Training"; "Karl Popper in the Translation Class"; "Theory and Professional development: Or Admonishing Translators To Be Good"; "The Process-Oriented Approach in Translation Training"; "Comprehension in the Translation Process: An Analysis of Think-Aloud Protocols"; "Systematic Feedback in Teaching Translation"; "Student-Centered Corrections of Translations"; "Starting from the (Other) End: Integrating Translation and Text Production"; "Translation Assessment: A Case for a Spectral Model"; "Translation and the Two Models of Interpretation"; "Interpreting Studies and the History of the Profession"; "Teaching and Learning Styles"; "Experiments in the Application of Discourse Studies to Interpreter Training"; "On Teaching Note-Taking in Consecutive Interpreting"; "Whose Line Is It Anyway? or Teaching Improvisation in Interpreting"; "Training for Refugee Mental Health Interpreters"; "Intervention as a Pedagogical Problem in Community Interpreting"; "Analyzing Interpreters' Performance: Methods and Problems"; "Quality Assurance in Simultaneous Interpreting"; "Relevance as a Factor in Subtitling Reductions"; "Transcultural Language Transfer: Subtitling from a Minority Language"; "Subtitling: People Translating People"; "Audio-Visual Communication: Typological Detour"; "Teaching Linguists Translation"; "Technical Translation: Putting the Right Terms in the Right Context"; "Computer-Assisted Translation: The State of the Art"; and "Machine Translation Systems in a Translation Curriculum." (MSE)
Although there are many pedagogical approaches to teaching English for Academic Purposes (EAP), most share the objective of preparing second language (L2) learners to engage in academic study. One of these EAP approaches, the Sustained Content-based approach, includes the explicit teaching of critical thinking as part of course design. This study compared definitions of critical thinking across two disciplines, within: (1) a university-level EAP program that used the Sustained Content-based approach; and (2) within the same university's Economics Department. Economics was chosen as a contrast because it promotes thinking like an economist throughout its program of study and many of the EAP students planned to enroll in Economics for their degree program. In order to gain an understanding of how critical thinking is facilitated within each of these disciplines, six case studies were developed from interview and questionnaire data with three Economics professors and three EAP instructors. A mismatch was found between the discipline-specific definitions for critical thinking, calling into question whether critical thinking as operationalized within the Sustained Content-based EAP approach is useful. Results were triangulated with questionnaires from Political Science. Implications for teaching EAP and critical thinking are considered and potential program alternatives are discussed. Appended are: (1) Ethics Certificate; (2) Teaching Goals Inventory; and (3) Questionnaire Data. (Contains 4 figures and 34 tables.) [M. A. Thesis, School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, Carleton University, Ottawa.
Adult language learners have specific learning goals that reflect their lives within a global society, and adults negotiate multiple and changing identities throughout their personal, academic, and professional lives. Chapters in "Authenticity in the Language Classroom and Beyond: Adult Learners" highlight how teachers have the ability to transform language instruction from a mechanical learning experience to a dynamic interaction to assist learners in reaching real-world goals. Rather than focus only on native-speaker norms of language production, English language instruction can provide adult learners with opportunities to create and act on their own texts, engage meaningfully with audiences, and develop interactions that mirror their purpose for learning. The chapters in this volume demonstrate how language teaching practices engage learners in authentic experiences, using and producing texts to meet international and localized communication needs. All the chapters in this volume demonstrate that authenticity is more than just the materials we use. Authenticity also means using language for real purposes. It means engaging students in collaborative learning, involving discussions, negotiations, and decision making. Authenticity is creating real uses for English, not just modeling native-speaker language and culture. With English increasingly being used as a lingua franca to connect second language speakers, authenticity takes on new meanings as we seek to develop learners who can face the challenge of communicating effectively in an increasingly globalized world. This book contains 22 chapters. Chapters include: (1) Introduction: Authenticity, Creativity, and Localization in Language Learning (Sarah Rilling and Maria Dantas-Whitney); (2) Where Can I Get My Shoe Fixed? Authentic Tasks for Students in EFL Settings (Jan Edwards Dormer); (3) Sharing Our Culture With Visitors: English for Tour Guides (Janet M. D. Higgins); (4) Oh, the Places You'll Go: Creating a Class City Guide (Laura Ramm); (5) Magazine as Project-Based Learning (Hoang Thi Ngoc Diem); (6) Language Training a la Carte (Peggy Allen Heidish); (7) Using Authentic Texts to Facilitate Culturally Relevant Extensive Reading Programs in Tajikistan (Lori Fredricks); (8) The English of Math--It's Not Just Numbers! (Kathy Ewing and Bill Huguelet); (9) Readers' Theater: Turbo-Charged Language Acquisition (Gary Carkin, Sarah Dodson-Knight, Alexis Gerard Finger, Silvia Rodriguez Spence, Nigel A. Caplan and Judy Trupin); (10) Inexpensive, Effective ESP Material Development for the EFL Classroom (Marvin D. Hoffland and Oswald Jochum); (11) Exploring the Global Landscape Through Language and Service Learning (Beth Kozbial Ernst and Megan Allen); (12) Creating a Technical Career ESL Program Through Community Partnerships (Gilda Rubio-Festa and Rebeca Fernandez); (13) Climate Change and Other Hot Topics on Campus: Project-Based Learning (Marianne Stipe and Lora Yasen); (14) This Class Is a Disaster: Public Information, Natural Disasters, and the ESL Classroom in the United States (Christopher Miles and Bill Powell); (15) The Times They Are A-Changing: Strategies for Exploiting Authentic Materials in the Language Classroom (Alex Gilmore); (16) Lights, Camera, Action: Scripts for Language Learning (Gregory Strong); (17) Authentic Video as Passport to Cultural Participation and Understanding (Christopher Stillwell); (18) Sharing the Food and Fun Through Restaurant Review Blogs: An Integrated-Skills Project Approach (Timothy R. Healy); (19) Using Wikis for Collaborative Writing and Intercultural Learning (Geoffrey P.J. Lawrence, Terry Compton, Clayton Young, and Hazel Owen); (20) Developing Specialized Discourse Resources for International Teaching Assistants Using a Multimedia Wiki (Barbara Gourlay, David Kanig, Joan Lusk, and Stewart Mader); (21) I Tube . . . Do YouTube? Virtual Portfolios for Reflective Learning and Peer Review (Kathleen Snyder-Parampil and Joel Hensley); and (22) Medical Doctors Using Authentic Webcast Lectures to Learn Lexical Phrases (Susan Olmstead-Wang). References and an index are included.
There has been increasing acknowledgment of the need to pursue studies related to nonnative English-speaking (NNES) professionals. In the last 10 years, a number of studies have discussed the experiences of non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) in different educational settings and situations. However, the experiences of the NNES graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) teaching predominantly monolingual, White, native English-speaking preservice teachers have not been researched. This paper presents the analysis of personal journal entries in the form of weblogs of three NNES GTAs. The study reports on the experiences shared by these NNES GTAs. Findings will consequently contribute to a better understanding of the experiences, mainly challenges, faced by the NNES GTAs and will be used to offer suggestions and recommendations to teacher education programs and Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) educators to evaluate the sources of support the NNES GTAs receive before or during their teaching. The study will also signify the need for the inclusion of the issues related to cultural and linguistic diversity throughout the whole curriculum of preservice teacher education programs and not in just a few courses. (Contains 2 notes and 1 table.)
La lingüística aplicada a la enseñanza de la lengua: una línea de investigación/ Linguistics applied to language teaching: a research line/ La linguistique appliquée à l?enseignement de la langue: une ligne de recherche
Abstract in spanish La enseñanza de la lengua ocupa un lugar preponderante en los estudios e investigaciones actuales por cuanto el lenguaje constituye la herramienta fundamental para aprehender el mundo y relacionarse en diversos contextos y situaciones y porque los resultados sobre la competencia comunicativa de los usuarios de la lengua son preocupantes. Frente a esta realidad, este trabajo pretende proporcionar los parámetros esenciales sobre los que se debe sustentar la línea de inve (more) stigación: "La lingüística aplicada a la enseñanza de la lengua". El primer aspecto aborda la problemática que existe en la enseñanza de la lengua; en segundo lugar, se destaca su relevancia y los objetivos que se pretenden alcanzar; en tercera instancia, se ofrece una visión general de los fundamentos teóricos en los que debe apoyarse la línea; posteriormente, se sugieren algunas de las áreas problemáticas susceptibles de estudio y, finalmente, se proponen ciertas estrategias para que orienten el trabajo. Abstract in english Language Teaching plays an outstanding role in current studies and research work, since, on the one hand, language constitutes a fundamental tool for the human being to grasp the world and to relate to various contexts and situations, and on the other, because research results on the communicative competence of language users are worrying. With this reality before us, this paper provides essential parameters upon which one should support the research line "Linguistics app (more) lied to language teaching". The first aspect approaches the set of problems around language teaching; secondly, its relevance and goals are foregrounded; in the third place a general vision is offered of the theoretical frameworks upon which the line should be supported; then some of the problematic areas which are feasible to be studied are suggested. Last, certain strategies that might lead the work are proposed.
To confront the twenty-first century challenges to our economy and national security, our education system must be strengthened to increase the foreign language skills and cultural awareness of our students. America's continued global leadership will depend on our students' abilities to interact with the world community both inside and outside our borders. This report warns that the U.S. will become less competitive in the global economy because of declining quality foreign language education at the college and high school level. Additionally, the American public's deficiency in foreign languages and cultures is hampering efforts to counter terrorist threats. To have a citizenry that is knowledgeable of world regions, global issues, and foreign cultures, as well as conversant in other languages, we will need to strengthen the curriculum of the K-12 education system as well as that of our colleges, universities, and professional schools. Although there is much that can be done by states, governors, business leaders, and others, leadership by the Federal government will be crucial in jump-starting this effort. This report recommends (1) teaching international content across the curriculum and at all levels of learning to expand American students' knowledge of other countries and cultures; (2) expanding the training pipeline at every level of education to address the paucity of Americans fluent in foreign languages, especially critical, less-commonly taught languages, such as Arabic, Chinese, Hindi, Japanese, Korean, Persian/Farsi, Russian, and Turkish; and (3) national leaders--political leaders as well as the business and philanthropic communities and the media--should educate the public about the importance of improving education in languages other than English and in international studies. Appended are: (1) A Timeline of Important Developments in International Studies and Foreign Language Education; and (2) Major Federal Legislation Pertaining to International Studies and Foreign Language Education. (Contains 167 endnotes.) [This report represents a statement by the Research and Policy Committee of the Committee for Economic Development. For the Executive Summary of this report, see ED502295.
The purpose of this study was to examine the overarching framework of EFL (English as a Foreign Language) reading instructional approach reflected in an EFL secondary school curriculum in Malaysia. Based on such analysis, a comparison was made if Communicative Task-Based Language is the overarching instructional approach for the Malaysian EFL secondary reading curriculum. This study used document reviews as the primary data collection. The coding of data analysis was based on the modifications of the components of Richards and Rodgers' (2001) analysis of language teaching model. The curriculum was examined in terms of theories of SLA, theories of L2 reading as well as learner roles in relation to Communicative Task-Based Language Teaching (CTBLT) characteristics. The findings of the study suggest that the majority of reading tasks in the selected EFL secondary reading curriculum is highly lacking CTBLT characteristics. The results of the study were discussed in relation to the current Malaysian EFL secondary curriculum framework and their implications on the EFL reading at the tertiary level. (Contains 3 tables.)
Language education is important in the rapidly changing world. Every year much effort has spent on preparing teaching materials for language education. Since positive attitudes of learners towards a teaching material enhance the effectiveness of that material, it is important to determine the attitudes of learners towards the material used. Learning objects (LOs) are a new type of material on which many studies have been conducted in recent years. The aim of this study is to determine the attitudes of students towards LOs in web-based language learning. To this end, the study was conducted in English I Course at the Department of Computer Programming in Kirikkale University in 2010-2011 Fall Semester. Seventy LOs appropriate for six-week long lecture program were integrated into the Learning Management System (LMS) of Kirikkale University. The study group consisted of 38 students. After the six weeks long implementation period of the study, an attitude scale was administered to the students. The findings indicated that students in web based language education have positive attitudes towards LOs. (Contains 1 table.)
Sultanate of Oman is one out of many developing countries around the world which have valued English as a very important international language and a tool for achieving multiple purposes. When His Majesty the Sultan came to power in 1970, the government accepted English as the only official foreign language and allocated huge budgets and resources for its implementation through education. However, almost three decades after this, it was found that students exiting the ELT system in Oman suffer from various inadequacies in their English language proficiency, which has had negative implications for Oman's national development. This has driven the government to attempt to revolutionize English language teaching (ELT) through pursuing a reform plan--Basic Education System (BES). This paper attempts to examine the attitudes of 141 freshmen, who have exited the BES and joined Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in September 2009, about their teachers and the curriculum. The results have shown that there have hardly been any significant changes in the BES reform project, as compared to the previously implemented system--General Education System (GES) mainly due to implementation shortcomings.
The idea of a language-specific articulatory setting (AS), an underlying posture of the articulators during speech, has existed for centuries [Laver, Historiogr. Ling. 5 (1978)], but until recently it had eluded direct measurement. In an analysis of x-ray movies of French and English monolingual speakers, Gick et al. [Phonetica (in press)] link AS to inter-speech posture, allowing measurement of AS without interference from segmental targets during speech, and they give quantitative evidence showing AS to be language-specific. In the present study, ultrasound and Optotrak are used to investigate whether bilingual English-French speakers have two ASs, and whether this varies depending on the mode (monolingual or bilingual) these speakers are in. Specifically, for inter-speech posture of the lips, lip aperture and protrusion are measured using Optotrak. For inter-speech posture of the tongue, tongue root retraction, tongue body and tongue tip height are measured using optically-corrected ultrasound. Segmental context is balanced across the two languages ensuring that the sets of sounds before and after an inter-speech posture are consistent across languages. By testing bilingual speakers, vocal tract morphology across languages is controlled for. Results have implications for L2 acquisition, specifically the teaching and acquisition of pronunciation.
Abstract in spanish Se tratan los conceptos psicológicos, pedagógicos y lingüísticos que subyacen en el enfoque de género para la enseñanza-aprendizaje de la habilidad de expresión escrita en idioma inglés. Se presenta un ejemplo sobre cómo puede implementarse dicho enfoque en las clases prácticas de escritura en la Licenciatura en Enfermería en la educación médica superior. Abstract in english The following article offers the basic psychological, pedagogical, and linguistic concepts underlying the genre approach for the teaching-learning process of writing abilities of the English language. At the same time, it supplies a practical example of how genre teaching-learning can be implemented in writing practice lessons for nursing students in higher medical education.
This paper provides an outline of the development and trialling during 2004 of the Literature Study Programme (LSP), a literature programme designed for use in the junior secondary classes of Seychelles. The programme was developed as a teaching and learning component concerned with the study of literature within the English language programme in the Seychelles, which had been hitherto absent in both the enacted and intended English language curriculum of the country. This paper reports on the structure and organisation of the LSP, its design philosophy, the assessment procedures employed, the results of the evaluation, and the implications for teaching literature at the junior secondary level in Seychelles. The results of the evaluation show a high level of support for literature as an area of study by both students and teachers. The programme as an initial design for teaching literature has also received a high level of approval from participants. Recommendations for the programme are also highlighted in this paper. The writer concludes with a word of caution against relegating literature study to the background. (Contains 1 footnote.)
While teaching and learning English as an international language is flourishing throughout the world, it seems that this process has encountered breakdowns in Iran. Despite the fact that there is a strong relationship between age and language learning, this has escaped notice in practice in our country. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate two serious problems facing students at junior and senior high schools: their low degree of learning English and the gradual descent of their learning in the course of time. To do so, we have calculated the means of English scores of 1500 students who participated in national entrance examinations and were admitted to one of the technical institutes in our country in four consecutive years. The result of the study verifies the above hypotheses to a great extent. To dissect the problems, we have analysed some parts of English textbooks, especially vocabulary, grammar and dialogues and accordingly their shortcomings have been elaborated on. Moreover, testing procedures and the amount of time allocated to teach English have been criticized. Based upon the results of the study, some applicable implications will be brought into prominence. (Contains 1 table.)
The present study aims to provide observational evidence on the relationship between teachers' use of motivational strategies and students' motivated behavior in the English as a foreign language (EFL) context of Iran. To this end, 741 male learners of English from 26 secondary school classes taught by 17 teachers participated in the study. The teachers' use of motivational strategies and the students' motivated behavioral codes were measured using a classroom observation instrument originally developed by High school levelJuniorJuniorJuniorSeniorGradeFirstSecondThirdFirstNumber (percent)54 (7.3%)204 (27%)382 (52%)101 (13.7%)Instruments Three instruments were used to provide appropriate responses to our research questions: (a) the Motivational Orientation of Language Teaching classroom obs...
The monolingual fallacy is defined here as the idea that the teaching of a second language, L2, should entirely be through L2. The paper examines students' and teachers' perceptions of the fallacy at a higher education college in Oman. Foundation and first year students in the undergraduate degree programme (N = 370) together with their teachers (N = 25) were questioned over their perceptions of the use of Arabic, L1, in the English language, L2, classroom. Using Phillipson's concept of linguistic imperialism, LI, as the theoretical foundation, the students' perceptions were analysed. Results suggest a widespread belief in the monolingual fallacy, though this is often due more to elements of a colonised consciousness rather than any set agenda by English speaking nations.
One of the difficulties of teaching English is the prosody, including the stress. French learners have difficulties to encode this information about the word because it is irrelevant for them. Therefore, they have difficulty to produce this stress when they speak that language. Studies in this area have concluded that the dual-coding approach (auditory and visual) of a phonetic phenomenon helps a lot to improve its perception and memorization for novice learners. The aim of our work is to provide English teachers with an authoring named SaCoPh for editing multimedia courses that support this approach. This course is based on a template that fits the educational aspects of phonetics, exploiting the features of version 3.0 of the standard SMIL (Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language) for the publication of this course on the web.
As with language teaching and learning, many factors are at work disregarding of which makes teaching absolutely futile. This introspective paper shows that teaching is bound to many other factors not normally regarded within the framework many teachers apply. Practicality of teaching methods is highly dependent on the kind of learners; that is, their being ESL or EFL. Regarding Iranian learners, who are EFL learners, methods to teach ESL learners would be of low achievement and fruitfulness. There will soon be a call for an approach or a method for Iranian language learners.
This paper reports on a small-scale case study which follows an experienced Danish university lecturer during a tailor-made, one-to-one language course to improve her English language skills for lecturing, consisting of a five-week cycle of observed English-medium lectures and subsequent language feedback sessions. The study also includes a structured, in-depth interview with the informant, which yields very specific and rich data about how one lecturer feels about teaching in English, the informant’s own learning focus and the outcomes of a short language course. The aims of the study are fourfold, namely: 1) to describe the informant’s motivation for taking an English course; 2) to compare her affective and perceived linguistic needs with her objective needs; 3) to follow her own language focus areas during the course; and 4) to identify any subjective or objective gains she achieved from the course. The conclusions suggest that while the immediate observable linguistic gains on such a short course are relatively modest, what should not be overlooked are the significant ‘knock-on effect’ benefits relating to the informant’s affective needs. Furthermore, many of the informant’s direct quotes provide a ‘voice’ revealing the underlying feelings and attitudes about lecturing in English which serves to support findings in other broader studies conducted among lecturers at the University of Copenhagen and other universities in Europe. Finally, there is a call for universities to exercise caution in assuming that a shift from mother tongue to English medium lecturing will automatically be an easy and problem-free process.
This paper investigates the possibility of using Japanese advertising language as a teaching tool in the second language classroom. First, it reviews the aims of advertising and the advantages of learning advertising language in the classroom based on previous research. Next, it discusses language strategies used in Japanese advertising, presenting typical examples for each. The strategies are divided into linguistic-oriented strategies and sociocultural strategies. Finally, the paper suggests some teaching plans for Japanese classrooms, where teachers can utilize advertising language as one of the language teaching materials. These plans cover the strategies unique to the Japanese language and the strategies that require some background knowledge of Japanese society and culture. An appendix includes photocopies of cited advertisements. (Contains 43 references.) (SM)
Abstract in portuguese A fim de contribuirmos para um debate significativo sobre o ensino de língua inglesa para crianças, temos como objetivo levantar questões a respeito desse ensino por meio da discussão do papel da língua inglesa na construção identitária de crianças e de proposições relativas à inclusão digital, à formação de professores ao uso de gêneros textuais e de atividade. Para fundamentar nossa proposta, apresentamos alguns conceitos relevantes: linguagem e identid (more) ade; o status da língua inglesa na sociedade brasileira contemporânea e as implicações para o ensino; a formação docente, gêneros de texto e gêneros de atividade. No trabalho, priorizamos a formação de professores de inglês para crianças. Abstract in english This paper aims at contributing to a significant debate about English language teaching for children. Our objective is to raise issues regarding the teaching of English in childhood by discussing the role of English in the construction of children's identities as well as statements related to digital inclusion, teacher education and the use of text and activity genres. To ground our proposal, we present some relevant concepts in order to situate our assumptions: language and identity; teacher education and text and activity genres.
Abstract in spanish Los Sistemas Tutoriales Inteligentes (STI) son aplicaciones computacionales utilizadas para la enseñanza de diversas disciplinas, entre ellas, la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras. Su arquitectura se compone, principalmente de tres partes: un módulo del experto, un módulo del tutor y un módulo del estudiante, cada uno de estos componentes forman parte de un sistema mayor (STI) que, al articularse, permiten la adaptabilidad del sistema al conocimiento del estudiante. P (more) ara lograr una articulación completa del sistema, es necesario junto con diseñar el modelo de cada parte, también establecer los parámetros, variables e información que comparten cada uno ellos y la forma como llevan a cabo su tarea. En este trabajo se presenta la propuesta de un modelo de STI para la Enseñanza del Español como Lengua Extranjera, el diseño de cada módulo y los mecanismos como se articulan para conseguir el objetivo final del sistema, que es la adaptabilidad a las necesidades de cada estudiante en el contexto de la enseñanza del Español como Lengua Extranjera. Abstract in english The Intelligent Tutorial Systems (ITS) are computer applications used for teaching diverse disciplines, among them for the area o foreign language teaching. The systems (ITS) consist of three main parts: an expert module, a tutor module, and a student module. Each of these components is part of a larger system (ITS) which allows the system to adapt to the learner’s skill level. To achieve a complete articulation of the system it is necessary, besides designing the m (more) odel for each component, to establish the parameters, the variables and the information shared by each of the components and the way they carry out the task. This paper presents the proposal of an ITS model for teaching Spanish as a foreign language, the design of each module, and the way the mechanism is articulated to achieve the final goal of the system, which is its adaptability as a tool for teaching Spanish as a foreign language, according to the students’needs.
The purpose of this dissertation was to conduct a sociocultural linguistic study on Ethiopian immigrants in the Denver metropolis. It specifically examined language practice of Ethiopian immigrants at home and in church. The study centered on three Ethiopian Orthodox parish churches, taken as separate communities of practice. The study was informed by theoretical considerations from three interrelated areas of linguistics, namely, language and identity, language socialization, and language contact. Five methods of data collection were employed: participant observation, video recordings of liturgical services, interviews, recordings of naturally occurring conversations, and a survey. The language practice of Ethiopian immigrants is influenced largely by their close-knit network and beliefs about the role language plays in defining their identity. While first-generation Ethiopian immigrants tend to maintain their native languages, their children tend to be monolingual in English. Frequent use of native languages and close-knit network among the first generation hinder their proficiency in English, which in turn influences their socialization into mainstream society. In addition, Ethiopian immigrants use narratives to construct their identity by contrasting a more socialized current self with a less socialized former self. The parish churches play a prominent role in helping the first generation practice their faith, and maintain their native languages and culture. They also teach the second generation Ethiopian history, culture, and language. Language practice in the churches raises the issue of choosing Ge'ez or Amharic for the liturgy. Despite their limited knowledge, the clergy and the majority of the laity favored the continued use of Ge'ez. The parish churches differ in their affiliation to a synod in Ethiopia (Kidane-Mehret and Medhane-Alem) or in exile (Kidist-Mariam). On a tradition-modernity continuum, Kidist Mariam falls on the modernity end, Medhane-Alem on the tradition end, while Kidane-Mehret lies somewhere in between. These emerging differences may have serious implications for the future unity of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. In addition to contributing to the body of scholarship in sociocultural linguistics, this dissertation is a modest contribution to the dearth of research on Ethiopian immigrants in the diaspora. It can also have practical significance for Ethiopian immigrants in the United States. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.
This unique resource provides a comprehensive review of current knowledge about phonological awareness, together with practical guidance for helping preschoolers to adolescents acquire needed skills. Up-to-date findings are synthesized on the development of phonological awareness; its role in literacy learning; and how it can be enhanced in students at risk for reading difficulties and those with reading disorders or speech or language impairments. Of particular value to general and special educators and speech-language professionals, the book's clear recommendations for assessment and intervention show how to translate the research into day-to-day teaching and clinical practice. The book includes 10 chapters as follows: (1) Phonological Awareness Defined; (2) Theoretical Background; (3) Phonological Awareness Development; (4) A Phonological Deficit Hypothesis for Dyslexia; (5) Children with Spoken Language Impairment; (6) Phonological Awareness Assessment; (7) Phonological Awareness Intervention: Guiding Principles; (8) Phonological Awareness Intervention: Instructional Frameworks; (9) Phonological Awareness Development in Children with Physical, Sensory, or Intellectual Impairment (Gail T. Gillon with Sally Clendon, Linda Cupples, Mark Flynn, Teresa Iacono, Traci Schmidtke, David Yoder, and Audrey Young); and (10) Concluding Remarks; ending with the Appendix: English Phonemes. The intended audience for this book are speech-language pathologists, reading specialists, general special education teachers, instructors, students, and researchers. The book will serve as a primary text in advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level seminars in phonological awareness, and as a supplemental text in courses in child language disorders or reading disabilities.
This paper describes the integration of cooperative learning (CL) activities into a graduate teacher education course, Collaborative Teaching in English as a Second Language (ESL). Because teachers and researchers have both identified discipline status and relationship issues as challenges to collaboration, this course focused on relational dynamics such as respect, trust, reciprocity, and approachability as central to the successful implementation of collaborative practice. CL activities were integrated into the program to encourage ESL teachers to explore their own values and expectations for learning as well as their own communication styles which might facilitate or hinder collegiality. The research question asks how CL contributes to teachers' understanding of themselves as communicat...
Although the Internet has become an excellent source of medical education materials, in many specialties, including Emergency Medicine (EM), most of the information is in English. Few international EM practitioners can attend costly specialty conferences, importing foreign experts to teach at these conferences is costly and, even then, these experts are available for a limited time to relatively few people. Countries with minimal health care or medical education budgets find providing even basic materials for professional medical education difficult. An exciting international project now freely distributes Spanish language educational programs to health care professionals on topics relating to EM. The Recursos Educacionales en Español para Medicina de Emergencia (REEME; Educational ...
To examine the ways in which high schools in New York City attend to second language acquisition is to consider everyday actions in schools, government dealings, localized policy responses, and disparate discourses on bilingualism. It is to position the circumstances of learning and teaching English in an American high school within the problems encountered and produced when multiple educational policies collide in local settings, such as individual schools. It is also to consider, and then interrogate, the 'political spectacle' in which educational actors associated with schools - teachers, counselors, parents, students, community members, activists, and administrators - become dramaturgically cast into political-policy roles as they enact federal, state, and district policies with regard...
In the fall of 2005 the principal and teachers at Knickerbacker Middle School (KMS) were worried. KMS was a "School in Good Standing" but had not hit federal or state benchmarks because of low subgroup scores on the English Language Arts (ELA) test--especially scores received by economically disadvantaged students, about half of this urban school's student population. KMS would be identified as a "School in Need of Improvement" in 2006 if the ELA scores did not improve. This article chronicles a successful attempt by the authors and their colleagues to teach writing by making improvements in the assessment of writing in the classroom. (Contains 4 figures.)
Professores de língua inglesa para crianças: interface entre formação inicial e continuada, experiência e fazer pedagógico/ English language teachers for young learners: interface between in-service education, experience and teaching practice
Abstract in portuguese O foco deste estudo é discutir a formação inicial e continuada de docentes que atuam no ensino de Língua Estrangeira, em especial, no ensino de Língua Inglesa para crianças que frequentam anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental, em contexto de escola pública. Os dados, provenientes de um grupo de cinco docentes, foram coletados mediante uso de questionários, entrevistas, sessões reflexivas, logs, acompanhamento do fazer pedagógico e da participação na Formação C (more) ontinuada e em eventos acadêmico-científicos. Os resultados mostram que a Formação Continuada, mediante cursos e participação em eventos, por exemplo, são muito importantes na vida profissional do docente, principalmente, quando proporcionam socialização de experiências do fazer pedagógico. Abstract in english This study focuses on the discussion concerning the second language teachers' education, especially those who teach English for young learners in first years of public elementary schools. The data were collected from a group of five teachers by using questionnaires, interviews, reflective sections and logs. The teachers were followed in their teaching practice in the schools where they work, and also in their participation in continued education and academic and scientifi (more) c events. The results show that continuing teaching education through courses and participation in events, for instance, are very important in teachers' professional life, mainly when they allow them to share their teaching experiences.
Many diversity courses that prepare pre-service teachers do not address the significance or the impact of language barriers on linguistically diverse learners. Often time, new and veteran teachers construct their bilingual and/or bidialectical students as others and are unaware of how to use their students' social, cultural, and political linguistic communities to facilitate the academic growth and development of these learners. The end result is that teachers silence their students' cultural perspectives and approach them as little broken bodies needing to be fixed. Each of the contributors to this article is a teacher educator who currently has or has had in the recent past the responsibility of teaching "the diversity" course within their respective teacher education programs. Based on their distinct yet similar experiences, they believe that it is critical to find ways to effectively address language--within these courses--not simply as a technical skill and not simply by stressing the need to learn standard English, but more importantly by seeing language as a fundamental expression of cultural identity which is shaped by the interplay between family/community values and beliefs and educational policy and practice. In their efforts to bring this perspective into their classrooms, they often use their own linguistic experiences as a way to critically examine how profoundly they shape the ways in which they come to understand language and engage it with their students. In this article, they each share a critical linguistic moment, which they frame as critical race counterstories, to make visible the ways in which their own diverse linguistic experiences have shaped their concerns, and efforts as teacher educators. "Linguistic Moments #1: Facing the Power of Language," recounts the experience of a mother/teacher/educator who faces the power of language as her child's teachers attempt to silence and replace her daughter's native tongue with Standard English. "Linguistic Moments #2: "Tu hija tiene mucho poopoo!"," forefronts the efforts of a novice teacher to teach her Spanish-speaking students as they faced down the tyranny of California Proposition 187. Emphasizing both personal and political dynamics of language diversity, a teacher's experience is fore grounded in theoretical frames that support the inextricable links between language and identity. In "Linguistic Moments #3: A Bilingual/Dialectical Dilemma in Teacher Education," the author relives her experience as a woman of color fighting against "stereotypical oppression" while attempting to advocate for a bilingual/bidialectical pre-service teacher in the ivory tower and the schoolhouse.
Based on a proven instructional model distilled over years of research, this book focuses on five essential pedagogy standards for guiding teaching practice in classrooms with diverse students, including English learners. Providing key indicators for each standard along with the theoretical rationale and "best practice" strategies, the book offers teachers invaluable guidance for enhancing language, literacy, thinking, and content learning across the curricula. It also provides advice on creating classroom groupings for differentiating lessons and activities and includes extensive examples of practices from real-life classrooms. Following a preface and a section about the author, this book is divided into two parts. Part I, Understanding the Standards, presents: (1) Effective Teaching and Pedagogy; and (2) Evidence: Scientific Support for Five Standards. Part II, Implementing the Standards, concludes with: (3) Teacher and Students Producing Together (Standard I); (4) Developing Language and Literacy (Standard II); (5) Connecting Learning to Students' Worlds (Standard III); (6) Challenging Students' Thinking (Standard IV); (7) Using Instructional Conversation (Standard V); and (8) The Five Standards Integrated: How to Teach Effectively. Appended are: (1) Five Standards of Pedagogy with Classroom Indicators; (2) Timing Instructional Frames; (3) Guidelines for Organizing Classroom Activity Settings; (4) Classroom Graphic; (5) Directed Thinking Activity Cycles; (6) Web Sites; (7) Stock Market Math Activity; (8) Stock Market Instructional Frame; (9) Footprint Puzzle; (10) Activity Settings Worksheet; (11)Scheduling and Routing Form; and (12) Instructional Frame: Student Contract and Choice Model. References, name index, and subject index are also included.
Taking a close look at multimodal composing as an essential new literacy in schools, this volume draws from contextualized case studies across educational contexts to provide detailed portraits of teachers and students at work in classrooms. Authors elaborate key issues in transforming classrooms with student multimodal composing, including changes in teachers, teaching, and learning. Six action principles for teaching for embodied learning through multimodal composing are presented and explained. The rich illustrations of practice encourage both discussion of practical challenges and dilemmas and conceptualization beyond the specific cases. Historically, issues in New Literacy Studies, multimodality, new literacies, and multiliteracies have primarily been addressed theoretically, promoting a shift in educators' thinking about what constitutes literacy teaching and learning in a world no longer bounded by print text only. Such theory is necessary (and beneficial for re-thinking practices). What "Multimodal Composing in Classrooms" contributes to this scholarship are the voices of teachers and students talking about changing practices in real classrooms. Contents include: (1) Multimodal Composing: The Essential 21st Century Literacy, (Suzanne M. Miller and Mary B. McVee); (2) The (Artful) Deception of Technology Integration and the Move Toward a New Literacies Mindset (Mary B. McVee, Nancy M. Bailey & Lynn E. Shanahan); (3) Learning Video Grammar: A Multimodal Approach to Reading and Writing Video Texts (David L. Bruce); (4) The Importance of a New Literacies Stance in Teaching English Language Arts (Nancy M. Bailey); (5) "Being Great for Something": Composing Music Videos in a High School English Class (James Cercone); (6) Engaging Literature through Digital Video Composing: A Teacher's Journey to "Meaning that Matters" (Monica Blondell & Suzanne M. Miller); (7) Lessons in Multimodal Composition from a Fifth Grade Classroom (Lynn E. Shanahan); (8) A Literacy Pedagogy for Multimodal Composing: Transforming Learning and Teaching, (Suzanne M. Miller, Mary K. Thompson, Ann Marie Lauricella & Fenice B. Boyd, with Mary McVee); and (9) Changing the Game: Teaching for Embodied Learning through Multimodal Composing (Suzanne M. Miller and Mary B. McVee).
After explaining why consideration of the use of technology in second language (L2) teaching in the primary and secondary sectors is necessary, this systematic review presents a keyword map of 117 studies of technology in L2 learning since 1990. It reveals that research effort in these educational sectors has increased in line with technological developments and there have been important differences between the primary and secondary sectors in the adoption of applications. There then follows an in-depth review of 47 post-2000 studies investigating the efficacy of technology in the teaching of L2 English. It asks what technology has been used and why, what evidence there is that technology facilitates language learning, and what other insights can be drawn from the research in this field. The evidence that technology has a direct beneficial impact on linguistic outcomes is slight and inconclusive, but it may impact indirectly and positively on learner attitudes and behaviours and may promote collaboration. On the whole, the research reviewed lacked the quality that would reassure practitioners and policy-makers that technological investment is warranted. We argue that future research needs to provide a tighter link between technological applications, Second Language Acquisition (SLA) theory, and learning outcomes.
Abstract in spanish En el contexto de las comunidades indígenas venezolanas, el aprender español es una necesidad de primer orden para comunicarse e interactuar adecuadamente con personas de otras culturas. Tomando como referencia este panorama, se ha desarrollado alguna investigación en el país, donde se ha estudiado el español como segunda lengua, pero poco se ha investigado sobre la enseñanza de las lenguas indígenas como lengua materna. El objetivo central del presente artículo c (more) onsiste en proponer fundamentos teóricos y metodológicos para la enseñanza de la lengua materna y segundas lenguas en comunidades indígenas, sustentados por planteamientos lingüísticos, comunicativos, cognitivos y didácticos contemplados en el modelo comunicativo-lingüístico (Bruzual, 2002). Abstract in english To learn Spanish is an urgent need of the Venezuelan Indian communities in order to communicate and interact adequately with people of other cultures. Taking this view as reference, some research has been done on Spanish as a second language in Venezuela, but little has been done on the teaching of the Indians native languages. The main objective of this article is the proposal of theoretical and methodological foundations for the teaching of native and second languages i (more) n the Indian communities. The support of this proposal comes from the linguistic, communicative, cognitive and didactic dimensions contained in the communicative-linguistic model (Bruzual 2002).
This article uncovers some problems involved in culling and translating non-western texts--written in other languages, at particular times, for specific audiences, and rooted in particular local milieus--before assembling them into academic arguments in English in the west. Based on my longterm, evolving endeavour regarding English- and vernacular-language teaching in Gujarat, India, I argue that the seamless ways in which academic knowledge--which draws on translated texts--gets presented belie the murkiness, selectivity, and complexities underlying various stages of the translating and knowledge-building process. Drawing on eight years of extensive translating of Gujarati and Hindi documents and interviews in a variety of educational and community contexts, and on my own roles and experiences as postcolonial researcher who has had to translate herself divergently in across different geographical spaces and in different languages, I argue that uncovering the messinesses involved in selecting and translating particular texts which then get re-inscribed into another language, culture, and disciplinary space--offers interesting insight into the artificial assemblage that constitutes our general disciplinary knowledges. Occasionally dis-assembling aspects of our profession's practices--especially those that we assume as "givens" might prod us into thinking about all texts and knowledges--not just translated ones--as artificial constructions that can be restrung in alternate ways. (Contains 3 figures and 9 notes.)
Research on immersion teaching has consistently shown that immersion teachers tend to focus on subject matter content at the expense of language teaching. The response to that research has often entailed suggestions for teachers on how better to integrate language and content in their instruction. However, missing from the discussion are rich descriptions of the actual experiences that immersion teachers have as they attempt to balance language and content in their teaching. This phenomenological study aims to address this gap by exploring teachers- lived experience with content and language integration. In this article, authors report on findings suggesting that immersion teachers- experience with balancing language and content is a multifaceted struggle involving issues related to teache...
Arabic and Chinese are 2 of 13 languages designated as "critical" by the U.S. Department of State. There is an urgent need to expand the teaching force in these languages. Understanding how best to prepare critical language teachers from abroad is imperative. This study examined the perceptions of 16 pre- and in-service teachers (6 Arabic and 10 Chinese) who attended four interactive professional development workshops and a weeklong online learning community that focused on learner-centered approaches to language teaching as highly effective tools for teaching "critical" languages. Results indicated that teachers clearly acknowledged and were aware of the differences between their own schooling and how they were expected to teach in the United States. (Contains 2 notes, 2 tables, and 1 figure.)
Abstract in portuguese O artigo analisa a utilização da noção de gênero na escola fundamental, detendo-se sobre o ensino dos gêneros orais. Apresenta postulados teóricos de Bakhtin e incorpora a contribuição da semiótica discursiva e as sugestões metodológicas da pedagogia de ensino de línguas desenvolvida na Universidade de Genebra. Em seguida, propõe exemplo prático de aplicação do conceito ao desenvolvimento da expressão oral em sala de aula. Abstract in english The article analyzes the use of the concept of genre in elementary school, focusing on oral genres teaching. It presents the basic Bakhtin's postulates and incorporates the contribution of Semiotics and the suggestions of the pedagogy of language teaching developed at the University of Geneva. It also offers an example of oral genre to be worked in the classroom.
This study explored the impact of explicit teaching of reading strategies on English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students? reading performance in Iran. The study employed a questionnaire adapted from Chamot and O?Malley?s (1994) cognitive and metacognitive strategies framework. To test the effects of explicit teaching of cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies on reading performance and strategy transfer, the study has a quasi-experimental design involving a contrast group and a treatment group, with whom an intervention program was implemented. The treatment group achieved significantly better results than the contrast group after four months of strategy-based instruction. Results of paired-sample t-tests and independent t-tests and effect size showed that reading comprehension and...
Over the past few decades co-teaching has attracted due attention for enhancing learning process in educational systems. Drawing on the concept of "parallel model", the present study attempted to examine the extent to which this approach can affect general language proficiency of EFL learners. To this end, through a quasi-experimental study, a group of 32 second-grade students studying English in junior high school were assigned into a Control Group (CG) and an Experimental Group (EG) according to their pre-test performance. Parallel teaching by co-instructors was implanted in EG context, while for the CG the instruction was delivered by a single teacher. The results of the post-test administration revealed that difference in instruction approaches did not result in a significant difference in the subjects' performance. Further investigation made it clear that before any attempt in its implementation, learners need to be educated and culturally prepared to benefit from such an approach. (Contains 6 tables.)
This study seeks to explain prevalent gender differences in academic achievement of 84 third-year students enrolled in a pre-service ELT (English Language Teaching) teacher training department. The study collected both qualitative and quantitative data through semi-structured interviews from a sample of 38 students. A content analysis of the data indicated that male and female trainee teachers had differentiating perceptions of social roles and, as an artefact of these roles, they differed in the quality and quantity of time and effort allocated for their academic studies. Girls reported both longer periods of time and more efficient metacognitive disposition than their male peers. Another important factor for the observed differences appeared to be the perception of teaching as a professi...
The Boston Teacher Residency is an innovative practice-based preparation program in which candidates work alongside a mentor teacher for a year before becoming a teacher of record in Boston Public Schools. We find that BTR graduates are more racially diverse than other BPS novices, more likely to teach math and science, and more likely to remain teaching in the district through year five. Initially, BTR graduates for whom value-added performance data are available are no more effective at raising student test scores than other novice teachers in English language arts and less effective in math. The effectiveness of BTR graduates in math improves rapidly over time, however, such that by their fourth and fifth years they out-perform veteran teachers. Simulations of the program's overall impact through retention and effectiveness suggest that it is likely to improve student achievement in the district only modestly over the long run.
This site, a highlight of the Dermatology Internet Service (DermIS), provided by the Dermatology Department of the Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nurnberg (Germany) School of Medicine, is a compendium of hundreds of browsable and searchable photographs of skin conditions from Abrikossoff's Tumor to Zoster Varicellosus. Image groups may be accompanied by synonyms for the condition, Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) terms, and a definition. Each image includes an assessment of its quality for teaching, and may be accompanied by brief descriptive information. The quality, number and breadth of images, though sometimes difficult for a general audience to stomach, is what makes the Atlas an excellent teaching tool. Note that the site is available in English and German, and that a knowledge of dermatological disease terminology is assumed.
Abstract in spanish Este trabajo representa una visión personal del autor sobre el lugar de la gramática, problematizando la enseñanza de esta en la adquisición de una segunda lengua. A través de preguntas y respuestas, el autor aborda temas controversiales, como la pertinencia de la gramática en las aulas escolares y el canon de lo que se entiende por un alto nivel de dominio de la gramática en la lengua inglesa. Finalmente, haciendo una retrospectiva hacia la educación inicial de l (more) a lengua inglesa y los orígenes de muchas tergiversaciones conceptuales, el autor delinea una definición de la gramática, clarificando su utilidad y su vigencia en la enseñanza moderna del idioma inglés Abstract in english This research paper presents the author's personal viewpoint about the place of grammar, questioning its teaching when dealing with language acquisition. By means of questions and answers, the author reviews controversial issues, such as the utility of grammar in the classroom and what we understand by `a high level of proficiency in English Grammar. Finally, by looking back into earlier language education and the origins of many misunderstandings and misconceptions, the author sketches a definition of grammar, pointing out its utility and current state in modern English teaching
Exploring Elementary Students' Power and Solidarity Relations in an EFL Classroom/ Exploración de las relaciones de poder y solidaridad entre estudiantes de primaria en la clase de inglés como lengua extranjera
Abstract in spanish Este artículo se deriva de un estudio de análisis crítico del discurso que reporta las características de las relaciones de poder y solidaridad presentes en una clase de inglés como lengua extranjera, en un colegio de primaria. Para este estudio, que se realizó durante nuestra práctica pedagógica en inglés, empleamos la metodología de análisis crítico del discurso y las teorías de poder y de solidaridad. Los resultados reflejan que hay diferentes formas de ej (more) ercer poder y solidaridad en el salón de clase. El poder puede ser resistido, retado o ejercido con reproches hacia los demás, en tanto que la solidaridad puede caracterizase por tomar partido para proteger a los amigos. Estos resultados nos permiten ser conscientes de las complejidades que se presentan en la clase de lengua inglesa. Abstract in english This article derives from a critical discourse analysis study that reports the characteristics of elementary school students' power and solidarity relations in English as a foreign language classroom in Bogotá, Colombia, while we were doing our teaching English as a foreign language practicum. The study was based on theories of power and solidarity. The findings suggest that there are different forms of exercising power and solidarity in the classroom. Power can be resis (more) ted, challenged, or exercised by means of reproaches. Solidarity can take the form of taking sides to protect friends. These findings allow us to be aware of the complexities of the English language class.
In this article, a prototype Greek text to Greek Sign Language (GSL) conversion system is presented. The system is integrated into an educational platform that addresses the needs of teaching GSL grammar and was developed within the SYNENNOESE project (Efthimiou "et al." 2004a. Developing an e-learning platform for the Greek sign language. "In": K. Miesenberger, J. Klaus, and W. Zagler, eds. "Computer helping people with special needs", "Lecture Notes in Computer Science", Springer-Verlag, vol. 3118, 1107-1113). The detailed implementation of the language-processing component of a Greek text to GSL conversion system is provided, focusing upon the inherent problems of knowledge elicitation of sign language (SL) grammar and its implementation within a parser framework. It is based on an SL dictionary (Efthimiou "et al." 2004a) database of coded GSL knowledge. The proposed system has been designed and implemented after considering most state-of-the-art SL machine translation or Conversion systems, such as Vsigns (Papadogiorgaki "et al." 2004. VSigns--a virtual sign synthesis web tool. "In: Proceedings of Sixth COST 276 Workshop on Information and Knowledge Management for Integrated Media Communication, May 2004, Thessaloniki, Greece"), ZARDOZ (Veale "et al." 1998. The challenges of cross-modal translation: English to sign language translation in the ZARDOZ system. "Machine Translation", 13, 81-106) and SignSynth (Angus 2001. SignSynth: a sign language synthesis application using Web3D and Perl. "In: Gesture and Sign Language in Human-Computer Interaction". London, UK: International Gesture Workshop), and taking into account their advantages and disadvantages. The overall architecture is innovative since other existing systems either do not consider the GSL or they cannot be effectively applied on sentences but just on single words. The system is demonstrable on any conventional PC. (Contains 1 note, 2 tables, and 10 figures.)
The primary aim of this paper is to explore a common dichotomy that characterizes debate about what has come to be termed "appropriate methodology". It is that between "traditional" and "communicative" approaches to language teaching, a distinction that persists despite arguments by some that the term "communicative" should be superseded or even abandoned altogether. We are particularly interested in how the dichotomy relates to language classrooms in the so-called "Confucian heritage cultures" (CHCs). Using evidence from the literature and from a small exploratory study we carried out with teachers of English in South Korea, we will attempt to demonstrate, firstly, that the dichotomy is dubious, and, secondly, that the distinction needs recasting if it is not to inhibit methodological development in CHCs and, possibly, wider ELT contexts.
Abstract in portuguese O artigo analisa inicialmente as formas diversas de conflito e integração nas áreas de forte presença de brasileiros na sociedade paraguaia. O texto centraliza na discussão relacionada às línguas nacionais nessa região de fronteiras. Reflete ainda sobre as formas de resistências dos paraguaios ao avanço dos imigrantes e da cultura brasileira, particularmente por meio da escola e do ensino das duas línguas nacionais: o espanhol e o guarani. Abstract in english This paper at first examines the various forms of conflict and integration in areas of strong Brazilian presence in Paraguayan society. The text centers on discussions related to national languages in this borders region. It also reflects on the forms of resistance by Paraguayan to the advancement of Brazilian culture and immigrants, particularly through school and the teaching of the two national languages: Spanish and Guarani.
Abstract in spanish En este artículo se discute el papel pedagógico de los enfoques sistemáticos del lenguaje y se propone, con base en una investigación, la necesidad de repensar la naturaleza y funciones del lenguaje con el fin de fundamentar la formación educativa basada en cuatro procesos pedagógicos: pensamiento, interacción, lectura y escritura. En concreto, se centra en la importancia que las competencias de pensamiento tienen en el desarrollo de la escritura. Abstract in english This paper discusses the pedagogic function of the systematic approaches to language teaching and didactics it takes into account the results of some research to rethink the nature and the functions of language, in order to support the pedagogical development based on four processes: thought, interaction, reading, and writing. It focuses on the importance of thought competences in the development of the skill of writing.
Issues of assessment design and implementation in Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have attracted some attention over recent years, but teachers' philosophies about assessment remain underexplored. This article reports the findings of a qualitative study into the assessment roles and philosophies of a group of teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) in the UAE and Kuwait. Based on an open-ended questionnaire, the study showed that teachers' views on the nature of assessment were informed by their knowledge of the field of language learning and teaching and by the contextual milieu and sociopolitical factors that govern their employment conditions. The study also showed that teachers did not play a major role in assessment because of top-down managerial approaches to education and a concern for validity and quality assurance in large programmes.
Learning to read and write is a challenge for most deaf children due to their limited experiences with, and access to, spoken language. In the case of deaf students who have difficulty processing visual print, literacy becomes an even greater challenge. The study piloted an intervention procedure that incorporated the principles of automaticity, repetition, functional vocabulary, and a positive teacher-student relationship as recommended in programs for struggling readers and adapted them to the needs of two deaf high school students with dyslexia in an American Sign Language-English bilingual program. The findings reveal gains in reading ability on the formal measures, though not more than would be expected over a 6-month period simply due to development. The real improvements were noted in the students' attitudes toward literacy, improved social interaction, and increased self-confidence. The following are appended: (1) Deaf Students With Dyslexia:Ten-Day Teaching Process; and (2) Word Lists and Reading Passages. (Contains 1 table.)
The benefits and advantages of classroom practices incorporating unity-in-diversity and diversity-in-unity are what "Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms" is all about. Multilevel classrooms--also known as mixed-ability or heterogeneous classrooms--are a fact of life in ESOL programs around the world. These classrooms are often not only multilevel but also large, multilingual, and multicultural. This volume adds to the growing knowledge base in language education of classroom practices in a variety of settings. Chapters in the volume approach multilevelness from a holistic and humanistic perspective by considering diversity not only in language skills and proficiencies, but also in learning styles, purposes, and contexts. The volume presents practices of teachers who thrive in multilevel classrooms and draw strength from unity. This volume is divided into 4 sections, and contains 16 chapters. The first section, Series Editors' Preface contains (1) The Multifaceted Classroom (Bradley Baurain and Phan Le Ha). The second section, Standing Before a Sea of Faces, contains: (2) Responding to the Challenge of Large Mixed-Ability Classes in China (Alan Seaman); (3) Large Classes and Group Projects: A Curriculum Unit on Tourism in the Philippines (Doris H. Christopher and Roland A. Niez); (4) Speaking in Crowds: Oral Activities for Large Classes With Few Resources (Susan Donnelly Renaud, Elizabeth Tannenbaum, and Michael Jerald); and (5) Every Student Wins: Using "Team English" With Large Multilevel Classes in Thailand (Marguerite G. MacDonald and Ian L. Smith). Spurring Creativity and Imagination contains: (6) Go to Commercial: Using Television Commercials in Multilevel EFL Classrooms (Frank Tuzi, Ann Junko Young, and Keiko Mori); (7) Photography as a Cultural Text for Language Learning (Walter Gene Pleisch and Joel See); (8) iDeas for iPods in the Multilevel Language Classroom (Troy Cox, Robb Mark McCollum, and Benjamin L. McMurry); (9) Teaching Smart, Using Art: Creativity at Work in Mixed-Ability Classes (Linda M. Holden); and (10) Online Comics: Writing, Reading, and Telling Stories in English (Bill Zimmerman). Expanding the Boundaries contains: (11) Culturally Responsive Teaching in a Colorful Classroom (Roby Marlina); (12) Unity and Diversity in a Theology Class: Learning English for Academic Reading and Writing (Iris Devadason); (13) Teaching With Students: Effective Instruction in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Classrooms (Karla Garjaka); (14) Minds Working Together: Scaffolding Academic Writing in a Mixed-Ability EFL Class (Le Van Canh and Nguyen Thi Thuy Minh); (15) Self-Access Language Learning: Accommodating Diversity (Garold Murray); and (16) Building a Community of Mixed-Ability Learners: Connect, Network, Empower (Jo Bertrand). References and an index are included.
There are a few unique English teaching and learning styles among some Chinese teachers and learners, which affect their work efficiency or are toxic to their work and study. Some suggestions on getting rid of toxic teaching and learning styles are necessary to the improvement of teaching and learning efficiency. Cultivating healthy styles for English teaching and learning is the key to success.
The teaching of culture has become gradually more significant for all teachers involved in language education; it has been referred as the "hidden curriculum" of foreign language teaching. Because of limited time available in the classroom and curriculum constraints, the inclusion of cultural lessons often comes second to the teaching of the language at all levels of education. This paper will discuss the inclusion of foreign films to develop culture-based contexts for language in the classroom. While the description of the course focuses on Italian-language students who have achieved intermediate-mid or intermediate-high oral proficiency, according to the ACTFL oral proficiency guidelines, the article describes how the principles illustrated can be adapted for use with other languages and at other levels of instruction.
There has been much debate in recent years about the future of primary language teaching in England, Scotland and Wales but relatively little discussion about the situation in Northern Ireland. This paper seeks to set the policy context in Northern Ireland where the provision for primary languages lags behind other regions of the United Kingdom and where the recently revised Northern Ireland curriculum has failed to make modern foreign language learning a statutory entitlement for pupils in primary schools. A number of positive but largely uncoordinated developments in primary language teaching in the province are examined but the conclusion is reached that, given the striking absence of languages as a statutory entitlement in the revised primary curriculum, the long-term future of language teaching in Northern Ireland remains regrettably insecure. A number of key proposals are outlined to remedy the situation. (Contains 1 note.)
Research on immersion teaching has consistently shown that immersion teachers tend to focus on subject matter content at the expense of language teaching. The response to that research has often entailed suggestions for teachers on how better to integrate language and content in their instruction. However, missing from the discussion are rich descriptions of the actual experiences that immersion teachers have as they attempt to balance language and content in their teaching. This phenomenological study aims to address this gap by exploring teachers' lived experience with content and language integration. In this article, authors report on findings suggesting that immersion teachers' experience with balancing language and content is a multifaceted struggle involving issues related to teacher identity, stakeholder expectations, and understandings regarding the relationship between language and content. Implications for school-based support for immersion programs as well as calls for reform in immersion teacher preparation and professional development are shared. (Contains 10 notes.)
The volume consists of twelve classroom studies concerned with the implementation of learner autonomy in English classes. The individual studies range from primary school level to university level. They include studies on multi-media dictionary work, reading logs, peer correction, communication strategies, vocabulary learning strategies, oral proficiency, as well as work with literary texts and authentic news texts. Two studies focus specifically on the teaching of other subjects in English (Content and Language Integrated Learning). The authors describe their own empirical studies, record their classroom observations and make practical suggestions for teachers to take up in their own classrooms. All the studies are firmly grounded in second language acquisition theory and established didactic principles. They are prefaced by an introduction and a background chapter on the theory and practice of learner autonomy in language teaching. Contents of this book include: (1) The story of learner autonomy: from self-access to social learning (Paul Lennon); (2) Some possibilities for implementing and increasing learner autonomy in the English lesson (Piri Leeck); (3) Multimedia dictionaries in the primary school (Tanja Freudenau); (4) Suggestions for the effective use of reading logs in the ninth grade (Kathrin Kaupmann); (5) Peer correction in the English Language writing classroom: an empirical study in the ninth grade of a "Realschule" (Matthias Barenfanger); (6) Lexical compensatory strategies among learners of different age levels: implications for teachers (Kathrin Kaupmann); (7) Which vocabulary learning strategies do students actually use? A survey in the tenth grade of a "Gymnasium" (Anna Niehaus); (8) "Raise your voice!" An autonomous learning concept to improve oral proficiency in the EFL classroom (Diana Schmitt-Egner); (9) Authentic texts as a basis for autonomous learning (Till Meister); (10) Promoting learner autonomy by training students to generate their own reading comprehension questions (Joanna Kucza); (11) A different point of you: a corpus-based study of peer editing in a university-level EFL writing seminar (Patricia Nell Skorge); (12) Content and Language Integrated Learning in physical education: evidence for language and content scaffolding during peer interaction (Nathan Devos); and (13) Strategic support in bilingual history classes at different age and proficiency levels (Marcel Suchier).
Long before children learn language, they communicate with gestures, vocalizations, facial expressions, and body language. This is known as prelinguistic (prior to language) communication. Most children learn this type of communication without formal teaching, but children who are deaf-blind may need guidance to learn it. This publication describes the findings of a study on the use of adapted prelinguistic milieu teaching (PMT) for children who are deaf-blind. In adapted PMT, an instructor, working one-on-one with a child, uses a variety of strategies to teach and encourage children to use gestures and vocalizations to communicate intentionally.
This book remains a comprehensive, myth-debunking examination of how L1 features (orthographic system, phonology, morphology) can influence English L2 reading at the "bottom" of the reading process. It provides a thorough but very accessible linguistic/psycholinguistic examination of the lowest levels of the reading process. It is both theoretical and practical. The goal is to balance or supplement (not replace) top-down approaches and methodologies with effective low-level options for teaching English reading. Core linguistic and psycholinguistic concepts are presented within the context of their application to teaching. The text clearly explains the strategies that readers of other languages develop in response to their own writing systems (Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, Hebrew, other alphabets, or transparent Roman alphabetic systems), contrasted with an explanation of the strategies that English readers develop in response to the opaque orthography of English, and explicates how other low-level processing strategies for L1 morphology and word formation may aid or hinder processing in English L2 reading acquisition. A complete, balanced reading ideology should be big enough to embrace all reading theories and practices. In particular, it should be able to accommodate those researchers and teachers who find that attention to the details of language can also help students learn to read better. Many ESL/EFL teachers are interested in supplementing their successful whole-language methods with bottom-up reading strategies, but are not sure how to do it. This book fills that gap. Intended for ESL/EFL reading researchers, teacher trainers and teachers, and as a text for MATESOL students, most chapters contain practical suggestions that teachers can incorporate into whole language methods to teach beginning or intermediate ESL/EFL reading (letters, pronunciation, "smart" phonics, morphemes, and vocabulary acquisition) in a more balanced way. Pre-reading discussion and study questions are provided to stimulate interest and enhance comprehension. End-of-chapter exercises help readers apply the concepts. Changes in the Second Edition are: (1) updated content in each chapter and clearer organization for the student to make the text more reader friendly; (2) expansion in Chapter 2 on alphabets, writing systems, and a brief history of written English and spelling; (3) extended discussion in Chapter 3 of the cognition of written language and reading transfer; (4) addition of phonemic, vocal, subvocal, and articulatory development and L2 reading processing in Chapter 4, as well as instructional activities and strategies for teaching these skills to L2 readers; (5) elaboration of graphs and graphemes in Chapter 5, including discussion of developing graphemic knowledge, processing strategies, and their instructional application, and new sections on reading speed, pattern recognition, and word recognition; (6) development of the probabilistic section in Chapter 6, particularly the probabilities in context of L2 reading; (7) updated information the topic of brain activation studies; and (8) new treatment. Following a preface, this book is divided into 10 chapters: (1) The Expert Decision-Maker; (2) Writing Systems; (3) Low-Level Transfer of Reading Strategies; (4) Listening Skills in Reading; (5) Processing Letters; (6) The English Spelling System; (7) Approaches to Phonics; (8) English Morphophonemic Writing; (9) Vocabulary Acquisition; and (10) Getting to the Bottom of English L2 Reading Fluency. Appended are: (1) English Graphemes; and (2) English Phonemes and Their Principle Spellings.
Background: There is currently ongoing debate in Hong Kong between the teachers' union and the Government on the reduction of large class size (typically more than 40 students) in secondary schools and whether smaller class sizes might facilitate improvements in teaching and learning. In fact, many Hong Kong secondary schools have already started to experiment with class size reduction. This study seeks to investigate from the students' perspective how class size reduction might alleviate one key psychological aspect of learning in Hong Kong and Asia, namely language learning anxiety. Research has shown that language learning anxiety can have a debilitating effect on students' classroom behaviour, and this study seeks to examine whether exposure to learning in a smaller class informs such findings. Purpose: This small-scale exploratory study aims to examine whether, and how, class size reduction might help to alleviate language learning anxiety, which has long been seen as an obstacle to second language acquisition. Method: This study employed multiple case studies in four Hong Kong secondary schools. Each case constituted one teacher teaching English language to first language Chinese students in a reduced-size class (where class size was between 21 and 25 students) and a large class (where class size was between 38 and 41 students) of the same year grade, and of similar academic ability. Multiple interviews were conducted with the four teachers, and data stemmed from group and individual interviews with 231 students. Student interview questions focused on their perspectives and experiences of studying in large and reduced-size classes. A total of 78 lessons were also observed across the four case studies. The data were analysed to identify any emergent patterns and themes. Findings: The research findings indicate that students reflect on their experiences of studying in reduced-size classes in a mature and confident way. Students reported that smaller classes promoted a strong sense of security within their classroom community and seemed to weaken students' fears of negative evaluation from their peers and teachers. Students also reported that they felt more confident about participating in English lessons and these perspectives were supported by evidence from classroom observations. Conclusions: This small-scale exploratory research study suggests that the student voice can provide insights into language learning classrooms. Data from the case studies reveal that students' sense of anxiety can be reduced in smaller classes and that class size reduction may assist in breaking down cultural barriers. (Contains 1 table.)
Teachers' sense of efficacy has been shown to influence teachers' actions and student outcomes. This study explored self-efficacy beliefs among English as a Foreign Language teachers in selected schools in Venezuela. Data were collected through a survey administered to 100 teachers. The Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 2001) was used to assess efficacy for management, engagement, and instructional strategies. Interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample. Results showed that teachers' perceived efficacy was correlated with self-reported English proficiency. Results also indicated that teachers' efficacy for instructional strategies was higher than efficacy for management and engagement. kely such a belief. Teachers' perceived capabilities to teach seem to have a direct impact on teaching practices. Teachers' perceived efficacy influence not only the kind of environment they create for their students but also their judgments about the different tasks they perform to bring about student learning. (Educ. Psychol. 28 (2) (1993) 117; Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control, W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, 1997). The present study focused on teacher self-efficacy beliefs in the context of EFL classrooms, taking into account that both teaching tasks and teachers' assessment of their capabilities form part of efficacy beliefs (Rev. Educ. Res. 68(2) (1998) 202). In this study, teachers' sense of efficacy refers to English teachers' judgments on their capabilities to bring about student change even in those difficult or unmotivated students (J. Educ. Psychol. 76 (1984) 569; Am. Educ. Res. J. 31 (1994) 627).
Abstract in spanish La formación de valores es un constante propósito de la acción pedagógica. Cada día resulta menos necesario insistir entre los educadores en la necesidad de educar en determinados valores, lo que no resulta igualmente claro es cómo lograrlo y qué métodos o estrategias didácticas deben ser empleadas en la llamada educación en valores. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la elaboración de un sistema de tareas para la formación del valor responsabilidad a través de (more) la asignatura de idioma Inglés con propósitos específicos en los estudiantes de cuarto año de Medicina de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río. Para abordar el objeto de estudio se usaron métodos teóricos como el histórico-lógico, análisis-síntesis e inducción-deducción. Como método empírico se usó la encuesta para constatar el impacto social del sistema de tareas propuesto en este trabajo. Se encuestó a 25 docentes y 8 directivos vinculados al proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje del idioma Inglés los cuales expresaron que el sistema de tareas desarrollado para la formación del valor responsabilidad en los alumnos es funcional, novedoso, muy apropiado y práctico para conducir el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Abstract in english The formation of moral values is a permanent aim of the pedagogical action. Nowadays it is less necessary insisting among the educators on the need of teaching certain moral values, which is not yet clear, is the fact of how to accomplish it, and the didactic methods or strategies that must be used in the so called "moral values-based education". This research paper was aimed at building a system of teaching tasks to develop the sense of responsibility as a moral value th (more) rough the subject of English language for specific purposes in fourth academic year of medical studies at the Medical Science University in Pinar del Rio. To deal with the object of study, theoretical methods such as: historical-logical, analysis-synthesis and induction-deduction were applied. The survey was used as an empirical method to establish the social impact of the system of teaching tasks subjected on this research paper. Twenty five (25) professors and 8 directors within the teaching-learning process of the English language expressed that, the system of teaching tasks to the formation of the moral value of responsibility in medical students is efficient, original, appropriate and convenient to accomplish teaching-learning process.
The use of songs as audio materials in teaching Turkish as foreign language is an important part of language culture and has an important place in culture. Thus, the transfer of cultural aspects accelerates language learning process. In the light of this view, it becomes necessary to transfer cultural aspects into classroom environment in teaching Turkish as a foreign language. Songs are one of the instruments which provide students with the information related to target culture. In foreign language teaching, activities which are created by using songs contribute to the development of a lot of language skills from grammar to pronunciation. Therefore, these activities can be carried out in all classes ranging from very basic levels to advanced ones. Additionally, as widely known, music and melody have a positive impact in terms of reducing stress and anxiety. Considering the current literature, the use of activities involving songs in foreign language teaching has positive effects on students within their language learning process and further help them to be encouraged toward foreign language and culture. In this study, the place and the importance of songs as one of the tools to transfer culture and used in Turkish as a foreign language courses will be questioned, and sample activities will also be presented.
There is a sea change occurring in education across the country in the systematic way that everyone considers "what" students should be learning and "how" teachers should be evaluated. Amidst the sweeping changes in the enterprise of teaching and learning, English language learners, or ELLs, are one subgroup of students that require special attention, particularly because of their growing numbers and low-performance relative to their non-ELL peers. To date, there has been relatively little attention paid to the essential standards, knowledge, and skills that general education teachers ought to possess in order to provide effective instruction to ELLs placed in their classroom. Drawing from the literature on what English as a second language and bilingual teachers should know, the authors extrapolated foundational knowledge about ELLs that might serve general education teachers that have these students in their classrooms. These include the importance of attending to oral language development, supporting academic language, and encouraging teachers' cultural sensitivity to the backgrounds of their students. They argue that these areas of knowledge be purposefully and explicitly integrated into the preparation, certification, evaluation, and development of all teachers in the interest of improving outcomes for English language learners. In this report the authors summarize key findings drawn from the literature on promising practices that all teachers can employ when working with ELLs. The authors also consider the degree to which that research is integrated into the preparation, certification, and evaluation of teachers as a means for improving educational outcomes for ELLs. Through a review of professional and state level standards for teacher-education programs, state teacher-certification examinations, and teacher-observation evaluation rubrics, the authors examine gaps in policy and practice pertaining to general education teachers of ELLs. They argue that system-level changes must be made to establish evidence-based practices among general education teachers of ELLs. (Contains 2 figures, 3 tables and 41 endnotes.)
The symbolic location of EUROCALL's 2004 conference in Vienna offered to both new members from Eastern Europe and established members from the West an opportunity to review the relationship between computer assisted language learning (CALL) and language teaching in general. CALL is defined as an "academic field that explores the role of information and communication technologies in language learning and teaching" (EUROCALL 1999; for a discussion of CALL as an interdisciplinary research domain, see Levy, 1997). CALL practitioners and researchers have long been aware of the importance of recognition within the broader discipline of language learning and teaching, as the joint EUROCALL/CALICO/IALL Research Policy Statement (EUROCALL 1999) explicitly noted. Yet CALL in fact remains marginalised in several ways which this article will explore. In seeking to promote more effective dissemination of good teaching practices and especially of research in CALL, the article will evoke the UK's predominant role in introducing Quality Assurance (QA) to higher education teaching and research--a trend which the Bologna Process will surely intensify throughout Europe. The author will draw on his current role as language research coordinator at the UK's Open University, and on substantial experience as a QA insider in both teaching and research, to analyse successes and failures in dissemination of both research and good teaching/learning practices. He will propose strategies for moving CALL from the margins towards the centre of language learning. In so doing, he will also provide an incidental overview of some key journals and conferences in the domain.
This study investigates the use of language learning strategies (LLSs) by Saudi EFL (English as a Foreign Language) students inside the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study determines if gender and academic major have any effect on that use and reveals the potential benefits for Saudi students in the area of strategy instruction. Data was collected during the academic year 2007-2008 from three sample universities in Saudi Arabia using Rebecca Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL), a self-report questionnaire, as the instrument. Participants in the study (N = 165) were all enrolled in similar Freshman English composition courses and totaled 71 male students and 94 female students. The results of ANOVA (analysis of variance) tests showed that female students used slightly more LLSs than male students, and Computer Science students used slightly more LLSs than Management Information Systems students. In response to these findings, a program for direct strategy instruction was piloted with an English writing class at one of the sample universities. Encouraging results from this trial program suggest new avenues for approaching the teaching of writing inside the Kingdom. (Contains 6 figures and 8 tables.)
In Canadian public primary schools, newcomer West African refugees like other ethnic immigrant students are a visible minority group, often referred as Linguistic and Culturally Different (LCD) students. In the province of British Columbia, newcomer immigrant students are subjected to a battery of tests, as soon as they enroll in the primary public school system. These tests are the provincial Standardized Assessment Tests (SAT) and classroom Teacher Assessment of Learning (TAL) that aim at obtaining data for diagnostic purposes of students' learning and teaching purposes. Specific to LCD refugee and immigrant students, they are also assessed on English Language Communication Proficiency (oral and written), Social Skills amongst others, regardless of the degree of proficiency in English language as members of the Anglo-phone Commonwealth countries whose curriculum and medium of instruction is British related. More often, the African immigrants and refugee students of the Anglo-phone African countries are most times diagnosed with English Language Communication Disorders (ELCDs), which has been questioned by some Canadian researchers of Learning Disabilities (LDs) and Multicultural Education (ME), especially with regards to the cultural compatibility of the assessment process/diagnostic tools, and criteria used to assess these LCD refugee and immigrant students. The article discusses the above discourse, with the support of findings of a qualitative ethnographic research findings and related literature.
Learning mathematics can be seen as learning a foreign language or learning a particular mathematical discourse. Nolte (2004) calls mathematics the students' first second language. The use of language in mathematics teaching, hence the way we talk and the way we write, differ from the way the same words and concepts are used in everyday language or in teaching and learning other subjects. Looking through material for mathematics teaching shows that the students are expected to have a certain level of mathematical ability (ex. being able to count to ten) and a certain level of language ability (ex. understanding the meaning of the words "in front of") when they enter first grade in primary school (Nyborg and Nyborg, 1990). Students who lack these abilities either with regard to mathematics or language are from the beginning of schooling limited in their mathematical performance and in a "risk zone" of developing learning difficulties in mathematics. Teaching the teachers a consciousness for the use of language in mathematics teaching as well as educating them to have a special focus on developing the vocabulary of the students can render the mathematics teaching more inclusive. Furthermore, it may help students with different ethnical background to succeed in mathematics (Johansen; 2007).
Sponsored by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), this project creates a cultural and educational exchange program between communities in South and North America, linking San Pedro de Atacama in Chile and Magdalena, New Mexico in the United States. Both communities have similar demographics, are in relatively undeveloped regions of high-elevation desert, and are located near major international radio astronomy research facilities. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is just 40 km east of San Pedro; the Very Large Array (VLA) is just 40 km west of Magdalena. In February 2007, the Mayor of San Pedro and two teachers visited Magdalena for two weeks; in July 2007 three teachers from Magdalena will visit San Pedro. These visits enable the communities to lay the foundation for a permanent, unique partnership. The teachers are sharing expertise and teaching methodologies for physics and astronomy. In addition to creating science education opportunities, this project offers students linguistic and cultural connections. The town of San Pedro, Chile, hosts nearly 100,000 tourists per year, and English language skills are highly valued by local students. Through exchanges enabled by email and distance conferencing, San Pedro and Magdalena students will improve English and Spanish language skills while teaching each other about science and their respective cultures. This poster describes the AUI/NRAO Sister Cities program, including the challenges of cross-cultural communication and the rewards of interpersonal exchanges between continents and cultures.
Silenced Fighters: Identity, Language and Thought of the Nasa People in Bilingual Contexts of Colombia/ Voces silenciadas: identidad, lengua y pensamiento de la comunidad nasa en contextos bilingües colombianos
Abstract in spanish Este artículo es el resultado de una investigación teórica y una reflexión cimentada en una revisión literaria y en entrevistas aplicadas a dos personas de la comunidad nasa: Adonias y Sindy Perdomo, padre e hija, pertenecientes a la población ubicada en Tierradentro, Cauca, en el suroccidente colombiano. El artículo trata tres aspectos principales. Primero, describe procesos identitarios construidos y constituidos por medio del lenguaje. Segundo, explora la distri (more) bución de poder tal como es percibida por dos personas de la comunidad nasa, uno de los grupos minoritarios de Colombia. En último lugar, traza las correlaciones entre la literatura, los testimonios de Adonias y Syndi Perdomo, y las prácticas y creencias existentes y predominantes en el área de la enseñanza del inglés en Colombia. Abstract in english This article is the result of a theoretical investigation and a reflection guided by a revision of literature and a set of interviews conducted of two members of the Nasa community: Adonias and Sindy Perdomo, father and daughter who belong to a Nasa sub-community located in Tierradentro, Cauca, southwestern Colombia. The article addresses three major factors. Firstly, it depicts identity processes that are constructed and constituted through language. Secondly, it explore (more) s the power structures perceived by two Nasa people, one of Colombia's minority groups. Finally, it identifies and connects correlating dots between the literature, the testimonies of Adonias and Sindy Perdomo and the teaching practices, approaches and beliefs in the area of ELT (English Language Teaching) in Colombia.
This case study aims to reveal how conceptualization of native speakership was constructed and reinforced in a South Korean university classroom of English as a foreign language (EFL). In addition, it examines how this conceptualization positions native speakers, a non-native EFL teacher, and learners, and what learning opportunities were provided in this classroom. The participants of the study were one instructor and his students. The data include classroom observations, interviews with the teacher and students, and student surveys. The findings indicate that the students had been exposed to American English more frequently than any other English variety. Also, they wanted to learn American English in and outside of the classroom. Furthermore, this study shows that American English norms were revealed in the teacher's beliefs and reinforced in his classroom through his instructional materials, classroom practices, and evaluation of the students. Thus, as a mediator between native speakers and learners, the teacher positioned native speakers as authoritative possessors of correct pronunciation and expressions for his students to imitate. Consequently, the students learned about pronunciation and informal expressions as modeled by American native speakers rather than learning to use the L2 communicatively as recommended by the institutional policy. This study has important implications for English language teaching in South Korea, specifically in terms of the concepts of native speakership, student learning, and teacher education.
Abstract in english Distance education has emerged to minimize the anxiety of many professionals who need to update their knowledge, but do not have the time and opportunity to travel to educational centers. Objectives: To describe the development of a CD-ROM to provide distance continuing education to basic school teachers that addresses issues related to written language. Material and Methods: Previously, a script was developed with themes related to the acquisition and development of writ (more) ten language. Subsequently, a technical team transformed the texts in multimedia language. Results: The titles of each content area addressed are available on buttons and links. The files can be viewed in a linear sequence, allowing the teacher to start learning at the desired moment and go straight to the file that he or she wants to access. Videos that show practical applications of the concepts available in text are included. Conclusions: Brazil is a developing country. The use of technologies for education reduces cultural isolation among education professionals. It is necessary to focus on making teaching materials for distance education. In order to provide an effective learning environment, the learners reality should be considered. A multidisciplinary team should prepare the materials. The development of educational material for distance education on the acquisition and development of written language seems not only appropriate, but also warranted to provide professional growth opportunity for teachers who need time flexibility and/or live far away from academic centers.
Comparative research in multilingual urban primary schools indicates that the pedagogical and political goals of schooling may operate at cross-purposes. Classroom observations and teacher interview-discussions were conducted in classes for immigrant children in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where the language of instruction is French, and in classes in Pretoria, Gauteng Province, South Africa, where children from many different language backgrounds are taught in English. Two main themes emerged: (1) pedagogically, effective teacher-learner communication can break down when teachers are unaware of the roles that language and culture play in second language classrooms; (2) politically, efforts to assimilate learners into new socio-cultural/political contexts sometimes take precedence over sound pedagogical practice, such as drawing on the linguistic and cultural repertoire that learners bring to the classroom. This ongoing qualitative research underlines the importance of preparing pre-service and in-service teachers for the linguistic and cultural diversity they are bound to encounter in their classrooms, and of deepening their understanding of the influence of such diversity on the teaching-learning process. (Contains 8 notes.)
Abstract in portuguese As Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais (DCN) para os cursos da saúde recomendam o ensino da promoção da saúde no sentido de adequar os currículos ao Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar o ensino da promoção da saúde em cursos de fonoaudiologia da cidade de São Paulo, identificando sua inserção curricular, estratégias educativas e mudanças propiciadas pelas DCN. A coleta de dados compreendeu análise documental dos planos de e (more) nsino e entrevistas com coordenadoras de cursos de fonoaudiologia. Os dados obtidos a partir dos planos de ensino foram sistematizados, considerando: denominação, inserção curricular, carga horária, objetivos, conteúdos e estratégias didáticas. Os núcleos que orientaram a análise temática das entrevistas foram concepções e mudanças curriculares. A promoção da saúde é abordada nas disciplinas em que predominam práticas tradicionais e, durante o estágio, em diferentes cenários de atuação. Na visão das coordenadoras, o ensino da promoção da saúde é relevante para a atuação do fonoaudiólogo no SUS, embora seja necessário incrementar o número de professores com experiência na área de saúde pública. Abstract in english The National Curriculum Guidelines (NCG) for the courses on health recommend the teaching of health promotion in order to adapt curricula to the National Health System (NHS). The aim of this study was to characterize the teaching of health promotion in courses on speech-language therapy in the city of São Paulo, identifying its curricular insertion, educational strategies and changes offered by the NCG. Data collection consisted of documental review of teaching plans and (more) interviews with coordinators of speech-language therapy courses. Data obtained from the teaching plans were systematized considering the name, curricular integration, teaching time, goals, content and teaching strategies. The nuclei that guided the thematic analysis of the interviews were conceptions and curriculum changes. Health promotion is taught in subjects with traditional practices and during internship, in different performance settings. In the coordinators' point of view, health promotion teaching is relevant for the insertion of a speech therapist in the NHS, although it is necessary to increase the number of experienced teachers in the public health area.
This article presents an examination of the language demands of cognitively demanding tasks and proposes an initial framework for the language demands of higher-order mathematics thinking practices. We articulate four categories for this framework: "language of generalisation," "language of comparison," "language of proportional reasoning," and "language of analysing impact." These categories were developed out of our collaborative work to design and implement higher-order thinking tasks with a group of Grade 9 (14- and 15-year-olds) teachers teaching in a linguistically diverse setting; analyses of student work samples on these tasks; and our knowledge of the literature. We describe each type of language demand and then analyse student work in each category to reveal linguistic challenges facing students as they engage these mathematical tasks. Implications for teaching and professional development are discussed.
This article presents an examination of the language demands of cognitively demanding tasks and proposes an initial framework for the language demands of higher-order mathematics thinking practices. We articulate four categories for this framework: language of generalisation, language of comparison, language of proportional reasoning, and language of analysing impact. These categories were developed out of our collaborative work to design and implement higher-order thinking tasks with a group of Grade 9 (14- and 15-year-olds) teachers teaching in a linguistically diverse setting; analyses of student work samples on these tasks; and our knowledge of the literature. We describe each type of language demand and then analyse student work in each category to reveal linguistic challenges facing students as they engage these mathematical tasks. Implications for teaching and professional development are discussed.
This book takes the view that ELT global coursebooks, in addition to being curriculum artefacts, are also highly wrought cultural artefacts which seek to make English mean in highly selective ways and it argues that the textual construction (and imaging) of English parallels the processes of commodity promotion more generally. This book contains the following: (1) Acknowledgements; (2) Introduction; (3) Culture and English Language Teaching; (4) Describing and Analysing ELT Coursebooks; (5) Representational Repertoires 1: Streamline Connections and Building Strategies; (6) Representational Repertoires 2: The New Cambridge Course 2 and The New Edition; (7) Production and Regulation of Content; (8) Consumption of Content; (9) Future Directions; (10) Conclusion; (11) Notes; (12) Appendices; (13) Bibliography; and (14) Index. (Contains 34 tables and 3 figures.)
This article is an analysis of the educational implications of the Supreme Court (USSC) decision in "Horne v. Flores" (2009). The USSC remanded the Arizona case to the lower court, requiring a rehearing of petitioners' request for relief from the court's oversight of AZ's "structured English immersion" (SEI) program mandated under HB2064. The article discusses flaws in the SEI program's theoretical and research base. The author refutes claims that SEI will be effective in teaching English language or in supporting ELLs' academic achievement to reach "parity of participation" with grade-level English proficient peers as required under federal court precedents. The article argues that ballot initiative P-203, which established the one-year SEI program model, is a violation of the Equal Educational Opportunities Act. Findings of the Commission on Civil Rights (1975) supported the effectiveness of bilingual bicultural education and cautioned against ESL pullout programs such as Arizona's SEI program.
Ensino de ciências no fundamental 1: perfil de um grupo de professores em formação continuada num contexto de alfabetização científica/ Elementary science education: profile of a group of teachers experiencing continuous formation in a scientific literacy context
Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, apresentamos parte do perfil de 24 professores de 1º ao 5º ano envolvidos num projeto de formação continuada, que tinha o objetivo de promover a alfabetização científica. Por meio da análise de respostas a um questionário e de entrevistas, verificamos objetivos conferidos à Ciência escolar, além de atribuição de importância e grau de confiança para ensinar esta em relação a outras disciplinas escolares. Constatamos que esses docentes conf (more) erem grande destaque à disciplina de Língua Portuguesa, indicam predominantemente que o ensino de Ciências deve objetivar a educação ambiental e o ensino-aprendizagem de conceitos, bem como parecem estar relativamente seguros quanto às suas práticas. Nossa conclusão é que, em seu atual estágio de desenvolvimento profissional, esses docentes não explicitam o que a ideia de alfabetização científica possa implicar para os seus objetivos na educação em ciências, nem como conciliar essa ideia com o alto peso que é dado ao ensino de Língua Portuguesa. Abstract in english Here we present a partial profile of 24 science teachers enrolled in a project that explicit aimed at promoting science literacy. The teachers' answers to a questionnaire, complemented with interviews, enabled us to verify some elements related to teachers' objectives and importance attributed to school science and also the level of confidence these teachers declare to have to teach science in relation to other school topics. We verified that teachers rank the teaching of (more) the mother language as more important than the teaching of science and indicate, as objectives for school science, the environmental education and the learning of concepts. Our most important remark is that, in their stage of professional development, these teachers can neither clearly explicit the implications the idea of science literacy can have to their school science objectives, nor conciliate this with the high value that it is attributed to the teaching of the mother language.
We describe how substantial domain-independent language-processing systems for French and Spanish were quickly developed by manually adapting an existing English-language system, the SRI Core Language Engine. We explain the adaptation process in detail, and argue that it provides a fairly general recipe for converting a grammar-based system for English into a corresponding one for a Romance language.
This article discusses the relationship between autism and teaching a foreign language (TFL) and explores how specific teaching styles may strengthen learners' motivation. Autism is simply considered to be a social disorder of development. Autistic people are often seen as having difficulty in learning a language other than their first language. This assumption has prevented autistic people as well as those who have difficulties with mental and physical development from accessing opportunities to learn a foreign language. Therefore, this article focuses on teaching Japanese to an autistic American university student in the United States. The purpose of the article is to examine how autistic learners are motivated in reaction to specific teaching styles. Based on my tutoring experiences with an autistic American university student and an interview with the student's mother, this study explores an effective method of TFL to autistic learners.
Abstract in portuguese Analisa-se a construção da linguagem gráfica em uma sequência de aulas sobre calor e temperatura, inserida em um laboratório investigativo. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida a partir de filmagens em uma turma do segundo ano do Ensino Médio de escola pública da rede estadual de ensino de São Paulo. Destaca-se o papel do professor na medida em que ele articula as linguagens à sua disposição (oral, escrita, representações visuais entre outras), pelos processos de coop (more) eração e especialização, com o objetivo de traduzir a linguagem coloquial e fenomenológica em linguagem científica, ressaltando as características tipológicas e topológicas de cada linguagem, tornando o fenômeno visível ou transparente no gráfico e vice-versa aos olhos dos estudantes. Com isso, contorna-se o mecanicismo matemático das aulas tradicionais de física, em que a linguagem matemática torna-se um obstáculo à aprendizagem dos conceitos físicos, no lugar de ser uma forma de estruturar e interpretar os fenômenos naturais. Abstract in english We have analyzed the construction of graphic language in a sequence of classes concerning the phenomena of Heat and Temperature within laboratory inquiry. The research was developed at a High School in a public school of São Paulo State, using the class videos. We pointed out that the teachers' responsibility is to articulate the language of his teaching (oral, written and visual representations among others), by a process of cooperation and specialization, with the obje (more) ctive of translating the colloquial and phenomenological language into scientific language, showing the typological and topological characteristics of each language and how it clarifies students understanding. Therefore, it is possible to define the mathematical difficulty of the traditional physics classes, where the mathematical language becomes itself an obstacle to the learning of the physical concepts, instead of being a way to structure and interpret natural phenomena.
Abstract in spanish El uso de la lengua materna es una ocurrencia común en los contextos de la enseñanza de la lengua extranjera, a pesar de que a veces reciba críticas por su interferencia en la adquisición de la Lengua meta. Mientras que los docentes deben maximizar el uso de la Lengua meta, sin duda, hay espacios para que el profesor utilice la lengua materna de los estudiantes en su pedagogía. En este trabajo se presenta un argumento basado en las perspectivas teóricas y la investi (more) gación empírica dentro de la literatura existente, apoyando el uso apropiado de la Lengua materna en el salón de inglés como lengua extranjera. El argumento se centra en tres cuestiones fundamentales-racionales para el uso de la lengua materna: Los efectos positivos que la lengua materna tiene tanto en el aprendizaje y la instrucción de una lengua extranjera, como en las formas en las que la lengua materna ayuda a los docentes de idiomas extranjeros. Abstract in english L1 use is a common occurrence in foreign language teaching contexts despite the fact that it often receives criticism for its interference with target language (TL) acquisition. While foreign language teachers should maximize their use of the TL, there is indeed a place for the teacher to use the students' L1 in their pedagogy. In this paper, an argument derived from theoretical perspectives and empirical research within existing literature supporting the appropriate use (more) of L1 in foreign language classrooms is presented. The argument addresses three key issues-rationales for L1 use, positive effects L1 has on both foreign language learning and instruction, and ways that L1 assists instructors on foreign languages.
Abstract in portuguese Mundurukú, uma língua Tupí do Brasil, apresenta dois cenários opostos. Em um extremo, há o Mundurukú do Pará, a língua de comunicação diária na Terra Indígena Mundurukú, com falantes fluentes de todas as idades e adquirida pelas crianças como língua materna. No outro extremo encontra-se o Mundurukú do Amazonas, Terra Indígena Kwatá-Laranjal, que foi substituída pelo Português. Um grupo de estudantes Mundurukú do Amazonas decidiu iniciar um processo de (more) revitalização de sua língua, como uma forma de fortalecer a identidade étnica e cultural da comunidade. Este trabalho relata os estágios iniciais do planejamento linguístico, incluindo as ações futuras para promover o uso da língua em casa e na comunidade, avaliação da proficiência na língua e definição de programas educacionais para ensinar Mundurukú nas escolas locais. Abstract in english Mundurukú, a Tupian language of Brazil, exhibits two opposite scenarios. On one extreme, there is Mundurukú do Pará, the language of daily communication in the Mundurukú Indigenous Land, with fluent speakers found across all generations and still acquired by children as a mother tongue. On the other extreme, there is Mundurukú do Amazonas, formerly spoken in the Kwatá-Laranjal Indigenous Land, but whose inhabitants have shifted to Portuguese. A group of Mundurukú s (more) tudents from Amazonas decided to initiate a process of language revitalisation as a way to strengthen the community's ethnic and cultural identity. This paper reports the initial stages of language planning, and includes future actions to promote language use in the homes and communities, assessement of language proficiency, and definition of educational programs to teach Mundurukú in local schools.
Abstract in portuguese Examinamos os modos como o aluno faz uma tomada reflexiva da sua experiência com a tradução no seu aprendizado da língua estrangeira: concepções de tradução, como se dá o processo tradutório, em que situações de aprendizagem a tradução é utilizada, com que objetivo, quais as implicações desses usos na aprendizagem da língua-alvo, como se estabelecem as relações língua estrangeira/língua materna nesse processo, entre outros. Para alcançar o objetivo (more) proposto, analisamos as respostas de 47 estudantes, do Ensino Fundamental e Médio, de duas escolas da rede particular de ensino, a um questionário especialmente elaborado para os fins deste estudo. A opção pelas referidas escolas prende-se ao fato de ser a tradução praticada, regularmente, com tais alunos, como uma atividade pedagógica, no ensino-aprendizagem de língua estrangeira, no caso, o Inglês. Segundo os registros analisados, o aluno percebe a tradução como uma atividade benéfica ao seu aprendizado da língua-alvo e a ela recorre como uma estratégia de compreensão e apreensão dessa língua. Abstract in english This paper reports some exemplary data related to a research project on the role of translation in foreign language teaching-learning. The data were collected through a questionnaire administered to 47 Brazilian ESL learners. Specifically, the points of the analysis are: how the translation process is conceived by the students; why and when the translation is used by the learners in classroom situations; mother tongue/foreign language relationships in this specific contex (more) t, among other aspects. The findings reveal that translation, when used a mediating resource for foreign language teaching-learning, can promote target language management.
This collection is a resource book for those working with language disordered clients in a range of languages. It collects together versions of the well-known Language Assessment Remediation Screening Procedure (LARSP) prepared for different languages. Starting with the original version for English, the book then presents versions in more than a dozen other languages. Some of these are likely to be encountered as home languages of clients by speech-language therapists and pathologists working in the UK, Ireland, the US and Australia and New Zealand. Others are included because they are major languages found where speech-language pathology services are provided, but where no grammatical profile already exists.
"Reading in Asian Languages" is rich with information about how literacy works in the non-alphabetic writing systems (Chinese, Japanese, Korean) used by hundreds of millions of people and refutes the common Western belief that such systems are hard to learn or to use. The contributors share a comprehensive view of reading as construction of meaning which they show is fully applicable to character-based reading. The book explains how and why non-alphabetic writing works well for its users; provides explanations for why it is no more difficult for children to learn than are alphabetic writing systems where they are used; and demonstrates in a number of ways that there is a single process of making sense of written language regardless of the orthography. Unique in its perspective and offering practical theory-based methodology for the teaching of literacy in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean to first and second language learners, it is a useful resource for teachers of increasingly popular courses in these languages in North America as well as for teachers and researchers in Asia. It will stimulate innovation in both research and instruction. This book is divided into three parts. Part I, Writing Systems in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, contains the following: (1) The Process of Reading in Non-alphabetic Languages: An Introduction (Ken Goodman); (2) How a Morphosyllabic Writing System Works in Chinese (Yueh-Nu Hung); (3) Similarities and Dissimilarities in Reading Chinese and English: Goodman's Reading Model Perspective (Yueh-Nu Hung); (4) Chinese Writing Reform: A Social-cultural Perspective (Shaomei Wang); (5) Ideography and Borrowing in Chinese (Ning Yu); (6) Chinese Unconventional Characters:Characteristics, Controversial Arguments, and Pedagogical Implications (Junlin Pan); (7) A Successful Mixture of Alphabetic and Non-alphabetic Writing: Chinese Characters in Korean (Rodney E. Tyson); and (8) Orthography: Human Creativity and Adaptability (Mieko Shimizu Iventch). Part II, Studies of Reading in Chinese and Japanese, contains the following: (9) Making Sense in Reading Chinese: An Error Detection Study (Jingguo Xu); (10) Miscues and Eye Movements of Japanese Beginning Readers (Daniel Ferguson, Yasuhiko Kato, and Mariko Nagahiro); (11) How Readers Process Japanese Orthography with Two Different Texts (Koomi Kim); and (12) The Taxonomy of Chinese Reading Miscues (Shaomei Wang). Part III, Implications and Applications for Instruction, contains the following: (13) Understanding and Facilitating Literacy Development among Chinese Speaking Young Children (Lianju Lee); (14) Teachers' Reflections on Chinese Miscue Analysis: A Graduate Course in Reading (Wen-Yun Lin); (15) Experiencing Korean Culture and Language Through Korean Children's Literature (Yoo Kyung Sung); (16) Teaching Japanese Written Language (Mieko Shimizu Iventosch); and (17) Kamishibai (Junko Sakoi). An index is included. [Foreword by Jun Liu.
It is not an easy task for teachers to teach Chinese as a foreign language to the students who have completed the foundation levels of Chinese language and are embarking on more specialized work. The level of these students can be roughly characterized as 'advanced'. One of the most challenging tasks is how to improve the pragmatic competence in Chinese language for the 'advanced' students. The solution to the task is to develop language skills in the course of focusing on thinking about Chinese and cultures. This paper takes teaching practice and teaching examples as starting points, elucidating the instructional framework in how to design warm-up activities for students, the theoretical basis of teaching, as well as design focus from the perspective of cognitive science. Aiming at the students at advanced level, the design of warm-up activities should not only emphasize language points and vocabulary in order to assist students to consolidate their language skills, but also be structured around the building language skills and developing cultural understanding of Chinese, their society, and their recent history. Thus, it is hoped that the well-designed warm-up activities together with classroom activities can help students improve the development of language use, particularly, in language complexity, i.e. the capacity to use more advanced Chinese, with a greater willingness to use Chinese effectively.
The report presents findings from a study into the causes for modern language enrollment decline in Scotland's high schools. Data were drawn from teacher, students, and administrator interviews in 12 school studies and a survey of modern language teachers and a sample of students from 100 schools taking standardized modern language exams. Results indicate a major increase, over 20 years, in language enrollments at S4 level, but a major decline in enrollments at High Grade level, both in absolute terms and relative to other subjects. Two factors unique to Scotland are identified: limited exposure to foreign languages outside school, and lack of shared motivation within Scottish society. Perceptions of public policy on modern language education was found to have little effect on enrollment. Students are more critical of the language curriculum than of teaching methods, resources, class size, or ability grouping. Learners did not find second language learning intrinsically motivating, needed more support for their interest in other languages and cultures, saw few short-term benefits in language learning, and lacked clear expectations of language study. Recommendations are made for changes in the structure of the modern language program, in course content, teaching methods, resources, recruitment, and in promotion of lifelong language learning. (MSE)
Essays on research and teaching of academic writing in English as a second language include:"When Practice Doesn't Make Perfect: The Case of a Graduate ESL Student" (Melanie Schneider, Naomi K. Fujishima); "Good Writing: I Know It When I See It" (Ilona Leki); "Redefining the Task: An Ethnographic Examination of Writing and Response in Graduate Seminars" (Paul Prior); "Local Interactions: Constructing Contexts for Composing in a Graduate Sociology Program" (Christine Pearson Casanave); "Writing in the Natural Sciences and Engineering" (George Braine); "Writing Critically Across the Curriculum" (Diane Belcher); "Writing from Sources: Case Studies of Graduate Students in Business Management" (Ulla M. Connor, Melinda G. Kramer); "Consciousness Raising and Article Pedagogy" (Peter Master); "Holistic Scoring in ESL Writing Assessment: What Does an Analysis of Rhetorical Features Reveal?" (Diane J. Tedick, Maureen A. Mathison); "A Comparison of the Use of Citations in Chinese and English Academic Discourse" (Joel Bloch, Lan Chi); "Teaching Classroom and Authentic Genres: Initiating Students into Academic Cultures and Discourses" (Ann M. Johns); "Common-Core and Specific Approaches to the Teaching of Academic Writing" (Tony Dudley-Evans); "The ESL Technical Expert: Writing Processes and Classroom Practices" (Philippa Benson, Peggy Heidish); "Negotiating the Syllabus: A Learning-Centered, Interactive Approach to ESL Graduate Writing Course Design" (Jan Frodesen); "A Genre-Based Developmental Writing Course for Undergraduate ESL Science Majors" (Sally Jacoby, David Leech, Christine Holten); and "Fostering Writing Expertise in ESL Composition Instruction: Modeling and Evaluation" (Alister Cumming). The book concludes with an author index and a subject index. (MSE)
As the student population in schools becomes increasingly diverse, many teachers need professional development to build cultural competencies--the skills and awareness related to issues such as culture, language, race, and ethnicity. This book draws together in one place the research and practical knowledge about cultural competencies that teachers need in order to work with students from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. For those with expertise in designing professional development, this resource provides information that they can adapt to their setting and, importantly, a guiding vision for culturally competent teaching in today's schools. This resource is designed for higher education, state- and district-level educators and professional developers who are preparing teachers to work with students from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. It outlines three sets of teacher cultural competencies in the areas of culture, language, and race and ethnicity, along with supporting research and resources. Part I, the Introduction, provides an overview of this resource and how to use it, including an introduction to the topic of cultural competence, definitions of key terms, the current and historical context, and the supporting research. Part II, Culture, presents four competencies related to culture that transcend all aspects of diversity and inform curriculum and instruction, interactions with parents and families, and equitable assessment practices. Part III, Language, outlines three competencies in the area of language that build the oral and literacy skills of both native English speakers and English language learners. Part IV, Race & Ethnicity, describes five competencies for addressing issues of race and ethnicity in the classroom and school, including maintaining high expectations for all students.
Educational Reforms in Peru indicate a shift toward a more tolerant view of language diversity. For instance, the Education Law #28044 (Ministry of Education, 2005) establishes the teaching of respect for indigenous languages and language diversity as a main goal in the area of language. This law is important, but it does not imply a real acceptance of language diversity. This article examines language ideologies toward language variation and regional varieties of Spanish in Peru's official first-year language high school textbook, "Talento." Using Critical Discourse Analysis, it examines the text's content, and the rhetorical devices utilized to express it (i.e., word, verbal and mood selections). Additionally, it briefly reviews Peruvian educational policies and curriculum. As will be shown here, "Talento" does not really endorse language diversity. More so, the textbook evidences a hidden curriculum which advances prescriptivism and the superiority of standard Spanish over regional varieties of Spanish.
Three common assumptions concerning bilingual children's language proficiency are: (1) their proficiency in two languages is usually unbalanced; (2) low socioeconomic status (SES) indicates low proficiency in both languages; and (3) encouraging parents to speak some societal language at home will promote its development. Examining the vocabulary scores of 282 bilingual Singaporean kindergartners (167 Chinese, 70 Malay, and 45 Tamil), the current study found that these young children were evenly divided among four language profiles: strong in ethnic language (Chinese, Malay or Tamil) or English, strong in both languages, or weak in both. Children with high proficiency in both languages were proportionally represented in the low, middle and high SES groups, demonstrating the achievability of strong vocabulary in two languages for children of different SES. However, low SES children were most at risk for low proficiency in both languages, although many achieved high proficiency in ethnic language or both. Middle and high SES children were most likely to demonstrate low ethnic language with high English proficiency. Children mostly exposed to one language from different sources generally showed strength in that language. Children exposed to both languages at home were most likely to show low proficiency in both languages, although plenty of children exposed to both languages developed high proficiency in English or both. These results affirm previous findings that SES and home language exposure influence bilingual children's proficiency. Implications include the importance of teachers assessing bilingual children's proficiency in both languages and collaborating with parents to develop bilingual children's vocabulary.
The General English Proficiency Test (GEPT) is a 5-level, criterion-referenced English as a Foreign Language (EFL) testing system implemented in Taiwan to assess the general English proficiency of EFL learners. In 1999, with the aim of encouraging the general study of English and to result in beneficial washback effects on the teaching and learning of English, the Ministry of Education lent its support to the Language Training and Testing Center in the development of the GEPT. Throughout a decade of efforts, the GEPT has won popular recognition in Taiwan. To date, more than 4.3 million Taiwanese have taken the test. This article first documents the evolution of the GEPT from the perspectives of test development and validation. The article then provides an overview of how GEPT scores are used in both educational and professional domains and discusses several key issues and problems that have emerged due to the new context introduced by the GEPT. Finally, the article outlines how the GEPT will address the challenges it faces in the years to come. (Contains 3 tables.)
The English as a Foreign Language / Lingua Franca Debate: Sensitising Teachers of English as a Foreign Language Towards Teaching English as a Lingua Franca/ El debate del inglés como lengua extranjera o como lengua franca: sensibilización de docentes de inglés como lengua extranjera hacia la enseñanza del inglés como lengua franca
Abstract in spanish Debido a los procesos de globalización, la función del inglés como herramienta internacional o como lengua franca para la comunicación exige un replanteamiento de la enseñanza del inglés como idioma extranjero. En este artículo se presenta un estudio empírico llevado a cabo en un contexto universitario italiano que pretende mostrar cómo los docentes deberían desempeñar actividades para facilitar el reconocimiento de otras variedades del inglés que, al no ser u (more) tilizadas como modelos de evaluación y certificación lingüística, exigen en cambio una mayor atención en el escenario global. En la práctica, esto puede realizarse analizando un corpus específico de textos periodísticos en inglés chino y llevando a cabo actividades sencillas de concordancias. Abstract in english The function of English as a lingua franca for communication needs rethinking in the teaching of English as a foreign language classroom as a consequence of globalisation. The present contribution is an empirical study carried out in an Italian university environment which aims to show how teachers should take on board awareness raising activities in the recognition of other varieties of English which, albeit not exploited as benchmarks for language testing and certificat (more) ion, must nevertheless boast a relevant place in the global scenario. This can be achieved in practical terms by interrogating an expressly made corpus of Chinese English news texts and carrying out simple concordance activities.
This article examines the language proficiency and achievement outcomes of Latino students enrolled in a dual language programme who varied by language proficiency (Native English speakers, Current English Language Learners--ELLs, Fluent English Proficient/Previous ELLs). Most previous research has not disaggregated Latino students, especially ELLs. The purpose of this research is to examine the achievement and language proficiency of 732 Grade 4 to Grade 8 Latino students enrolled in a dual language programme who differed by language proficiency. Results show that these Latino student groups achieve at higher levels than their peers in English mainstream. Findings also indicated that the three groups vary in parent education, language proficiency in Spanish, and achievement as measured in Spanish and English. Further, Fluent English Proficient/Previous ELLs are the most Spanish proficient and bilingual, achieve at higher levels in English and Spanish, and close the achievement gap with native English speakers in English mainstream programmes. (Contains 7 tables.)
Abstract in spanish Sobre la base de los postulados de la lingüística sistémica-funcional de Halliday y la teoría de los géneros, se realizó un estudio lingüístico-comunicativo de 63 modelos de planes de cuidado en enfermería en los cuales se analizó el modo, el campo y el papel del discurso, así como tres metafunciones del lenguaje: la ideítica, la interpersonal y la textual. Se identificaron tres estadios fundamentales de desarrollo y las regularidades fundamentales en la estru (more) ctura de la lengua a nivel de la cláusula en este tipo de texto. Esto constituye un paso de avance en el conocimiento del lenguaje científico en las ciencias médicas y presenta una influencia positiva en el desarrollo de la enseñanza del idioma inglés en la educación médica superior. Abstract in english Based on Halliday's Systemic-Functional Linguistics and Genre Theory, a linguistic and communicative study of sixty-three models of nursing care plans was carried out. The study included the analysis of the mode, the field, and the tenor of discourse as well as the three metafunctions of language: the ideational, the interpersonal, and the textual. Three fundamental stages of text development were found ad well as the principal regularities at clause level for this type o (more) f text. The findings constitute a step forward in the scientific knowledge of language in the medical sciences regardless of a positive influence in the teaching of English as a foreign language in higher medical education.
Composition theorists concerned with students' academic writing ability have long questioned the application of voice as a standard for writing competence, and second language compositionists have suggested that English language learners may be disadvantaged by the practice of emphasizing voice in the evaluation of student writing. Despite these criticisms, however, voice continues to frequently appear as a goal in guidelines for teaching writing and on high-stakes writing assessment rubrics in the United States. Given the apparent lack of alignment between theory and practice regarding its use, more empirical research is needed to understand how teachers apply voice as a criterion in the evaluation of student writing. Researchers have used sociocultural and functionalist frameworks to analyze voice-related discursive patterns, yet we do not know how readers evaluate written texts for voice. To address this gap in research the present study asked: 1) What language features do secondary English teachers associate with voice in secondary students' writing and how do they explain their associations? 2) How do such identified features vary across genres as well as among readers? Nineteen teachers were interviewed using a think-aloud protocol designed to illuminate their perceptions of voice in narrative and expository samples of secondary students' writing. Results from an inductive analysis of interview transcripts suggest that participating teachers associated voice with appraisal features, such as amplified expressions of affect and judgment, that are characteristic of literary genres. (Contains 4 tables and 6 notes.)
These proceedings address the appropriate uses of technology in education, including papers and summaries of presentations on the following topics: community partnerships; desktop publishing; English as a Second Language/English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESL/ESOL); cognitive issues in multimedia; higher education applications; social studies K-12; distance learning-media centers; business and vocational education; hypermedia and multimedia in education; restructured schools; technology-supported writing; media tools for special needs students; Texas Center for Educational Technology; science/mathematics K-12; telecommunications; tools for special students in regular classrooms; planning and curriculum; computer literacy/science; tools for teachers; classroom activities for students with special needs; at-risk students; restructuring ideas; developing cognitive skills; special needs; international perspectives; teaching with interactive video; technology for students with learning disabilities; language arts; distance learning; art and music; supercomputing; networking environments; gender equity issues; approaches in problem solving; technology training for special educators; keyboarding-writing in the elementary school; Logo applications; hypermedia; science and multimedia; technology in teacher education; telecommunications in the elementary classroom; staff development; and multi/hypermedia: K-12. In addition, the conference proceedings contain sections on NECC '92 conference committees; society descriptions; poster sessions; and session presiders. (ALF)
EL ENFOQUE DEL MARCO COMÚN EUROPEO DE REFERENCIA PARA LAS LENGUAS: UNAS REFLEXIONES SOBRE SU PUESTA EN PRÁCTICA EN LAS FACULTADES DE TRADUCCIÓN E INTERPRETACIÓN EN ESPAÑA/ THE APPROACH OF THE COMMON EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK OF REFERENCE FOR LANGUAGES: SOME CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING ITS PUTTING INTO PRACTICE IN TRANSLATION AND INTERPRETING FACULTIES IN SPAIN
Abstract in spanish Este artículo pretende hacer una revisión del enfoque del Marco común europeo de referencia para las lenguas dentro del contexto universitario español en general y, en particular, en la enseñanza/aprendizaje del inglés como lengua extranjera en las facultades de Traducción e Interpretación. En la actualidad, bajo los criterios de las acciones de la División de Políticas Lingüísticas del Consejo de Europa, los centros universitarios de traducción e interpretac (more) ión son un lugar privilegiado a la hora de afrontar el reto de la Convergencia europea y tienen cada vez más peso en el marco del desarrollo de las habilidades y competencias profesionales de nuestros estudiantes. Abstract in english This article aims to review the focus of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages in the context of Spanish universities, and more precisely in the teaching/ learning of English as a foreign language in Translation and Interpreting Faculties in Spain. Nowadays, following the guidelines of the Language Policy Division of the Council of Europe, such Faculties have become privileged places to face the challenge of European Convergence. They also have a key role to play in the development of the competences and professional skills of their students.
Career and Academic Resources in Bilingual Education (Project CARIBE) was a federally funded program that served 70 limited-English-speaking, native Spanish-speaking students, largely immigrants, in two Brooklyn (New York) high schools. Participating students received instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), native language arts (NLA), mathematics, science, and social studies. Multicultural education, development opportunities for teaching staff, and parent involvement were also program components. The project met its objectives for increasing student familiarity with American culture and citizenship, career advisement, dropout prevention, staff development, and parent involvement. It failed to meet it objectives in ESL, NLA, and attendance. It partially met objectives in the content areas. Objectives for growth of cultural pride, attitudes toward school, and awareness of pupil needs and problems could not be assessed. Recommendations for program improvement include: assessment of reasons for lack of ESL skill growth; exploration of additional techniques for improving NLA achievement; administration of a standardized Spanish language exam to all NLA students; greater focus on teacher inservice preparation for mathematics instruction to this population; and better information gathering to assess attainment of objectives. (MSE)
This 25th volume of "English Leadership Quarterly" contains articles on topics of interest to those in positions of leadership in departments (elementary, secondary, or college) where English is taught. Each issue focuses on a different theme. Articles in Volume 25 Number 1 focus on leadership and literacy and are: "Research Summary of a Best Practice Model of Online Teaching and Learning" (Linda Wojnar); and "Applying AP Language Analysis Skills to a Standard Level Curriculum" (David P. Noskin). Articles in Volume 25 Number 2 focus on integrating technology and are: "A New Educational Paradigm" (Ronald T. Sion); "Preparing Teachers to Use Technology in the Classroom: A Formula for SUCCESS" (Lawrence A. Tomei); and "Why PowerPoint?" (Jim Walker). Articles in Volume 25 Number 3 focus on leadership and professional development and are: "Personal and Professional Development: Lessons from Life" (Carol Smith); "A Critical Opportunity: An English Department Takes Charge of Professional Development" (Susan Alves; Jacquelyn Brooks; Susan Frisbee; Cheryl Lee Lamphear; Ann-Marie Luster); "The First Principle of Professional Development: Leadership of the Self" (Patricia F. Cade); "Planning for Personal and Professional Development" (Mark A. Evans); "Talk about Teaching: A Professional Development Outreach Project" (Nancy Traubitz); "From Both Sides Now" (Ronald T. Sion); and "A Community of Learners Can Spark a Classroom!" (JoAnn LaMuth). Articles in Volume 25 Number 4 focus on stories of teaching and learning and are: "Multigenre Teaching as Student Empowerment" (Sarah Edwards); "It's Not about the Book" (Dagny D. Bloland); "Out of Africa" (Vicki Mueller); and "Let Me Tell You a Story" (Jolene Borgese). (NKA)
The book is an anthology of articles investigating – from within four different theoretical and methodological perspectives – the kinds of linguistic and sociocultural contacts brought about by internationalization and transnational migrations in the contemporary world. It includes topics such as the following, related to this general interdisciplinary objective: • Language use in social networks, with special reference to language contact in interpersonal relations and interactions, including codeswitching and other manifestations of the construction of sociocultural identities in face-to-face interaction • Language contact in society and in the world, and social hierarchies between languages: consequences of (mobility driven) language spread, and the ensuing processes of redefining linguistic differences and identities: language competition, language promotion and language discrimination • The complex relationship between language and culture: how can we envisage mobility and language spread across cultural areas without conceptualizing language as culturally neutral? (cp. the frequent conceptualization of English as culturally neutral) • Language contact in the individual: multiple language competencies and the idea of plurilingualism - in Europe and in the world • The concept of linguaculture/languaculture, and studies related to this concept. • Language and sociocultural identity: how can we address this issue thinking both of first languages and of languages functioning as second and foreign languages? • The concepts of first language (mother tongue), second language, foreign language, and lingua franca: how can we develop and refine these analytical concepts taking into consideration the complexities of language contacts and plurilingual competencies?
While schools have been using computers within their classrooms for years now, there has been a purposeful ignoring of the growing power of social networks such as Facebook and Twitter. Many schools ban students from accessing and using sites such as Facebook at school and many English and literacy teachers ignore or deny their value as a teaching tool. With the growth of technology we have seen shifts in educational pedagogy in relation to computers, but as educators we may still see value only in literary texts rather than seeing the importance of this everyday language to the younger generation. Social networking sites such as Facebook have changed our perceptions of the purpose of written language; it has crossed the boundaries between public and private and created a new public arena for informal written conversation. This article examines the literature surrounding this new media and how these new forms of communication can be used in the teaching of critical literacy. The case study was undertaken with a year 12 English Pathways class as a way of demonstrating knowledge of language conventions and how these can be utilised, changed, adapted and perverted in order to create new meaning. The findings from this study indicate that students were able to interpret, analyse and evaluate this social communication in a way that allowed them to reach their own conclusions. This article was not a study on the specific value of Facebook, but more on how social networks are gaining popularity and how social communication has value to us as a way of representing the voice of the younger generation. The findings from the study indicate the level of power that social networks have and the necessity for educators to use pedagogy that is socially aware and technology inclusive.
Most of the students at Milpera State High School are in Australia because of wars, famine, or economic devastation in their homelands. Many have suffered the additional loss of parents and other family members. Some have low (or nonexistent) literacy in their native languages, and many have had few opportunities for formal education. Such students enter high school well behind the grade level that their ages would indicate, and when they learn to read and write in English, they are learning to read and write for the first time. The very nature and culture of school can be foreign to them. Providing a quality education to such students presents a special challenge for schools and teachers. At Milpera, a newcomer program in Brisbane, Australia, this challenge is being met through a combination of social, cultural, and academic support grounded in critical pedagogy. Critical pedagogy offers educators a road they can walk with refugee and immigrant students as they find their way in a strange new land. It is "a pedagogy of engagement: an approach to teaching English as a second language that sees such issues as gender, race, class, sexuality, and post colonialism as so fundamental to identity and language that they need to form the basis of curricular organization and pedagogy." A critical, narrative research project conducted at Milpera in the waning months of 2003 describes how this school is able to reach refugee and immigrant newcomers through such pedagogy of engagement. This narrative portrait highlights ways in which critical leadership, critical teaching, and a focus on multiple intelligences and literacy serve to assist newcomers as they overcome trauma and develop their identities in Australia. Finally, the critical work being done at Milpera offers implications to all schools serving refugees and immigrants.
This article summarizes currently available brain research concerning relationships between singing and language development. Although this is a new field of investigation, there are findings that are applicable to general music teaching classroom. These findings are presented along with suggestions about how to apply them to teaching music.
In this study, 57 fifth-grade native Hebrew speakers performed orthographic-phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and oral word reading tasks in both Hebrew (first language [L1]) and English (second language [L2]). The results of the language-specific task scores in the two languages reflect, with certain qualifications, participants' L1 proficiency and the language proximity of particular language features. The more similar the language feature (linear morphology), the more positive the cross-language influence; conversely, the less similar the language feature (phonology), the less positive the influence. Hebrew (L1) language-specific task scores related to English (L2) word reading. In addition, Hebrew (L1) and English (L2) word reading scores were only related when Hebrew orthographic-phonological and/or morphological awareness was low. In contrast, when the (L1) Hebrew orthographic-phonological and morphological awareness scores were high, there was no correlation between Hebrew and English word reading.
Abstract in spanish Este proyecto de investigación se realizó con un grupo de tres profesores que laboran en el Departamento de Lenguas de una universidad privada de Colombia. El objetivo fue develar y caracterizar el conocimiento narrativo de los participantes en relación con la enseñanza y aprendizaje de la lengua extranjera y el papel de dicho conocimiento en la construcción y evaluación del currículo. Se recolectaron datos mediante mapas conceptuales, encuestas, entrevistas narrat (more) ivas y observación de clases, en el marco de una metodología de la investigación de tipo narrativo. Los resultados muestran la necesidad de valorar y explorar el conocimiento de los docentes, desde una perspectiva narrativa, y con el fin de comprender mejor la complejidad del contexto en donde laboran. Abstract in english This study was carried out with a group of three teachers who work for the foreign languages department of a private university in Colombia. It was aimed at unveiling and characterizing the narrative knowledge these teachers hold about language teaching and learning processes as well as the role this knowledge plays in the constant construction and evaluation of curriculum. Data were collected through concept maps, biodata surveys, narrative interviews, and participant ob (more) servation within a narrative inquiry approach to research. Findings show the crucial need to value and explore teachers' knowledge from a narrative perspective in order to better understand the complexity of the teaching context in which they work.
CLIL, or ‘Content and Language Integrated Learning’, is a term used to describe the practice of teaching content through a foreign language. It represents an educational approach, which can embody a range of different methodologies and has, in recent years, been receiving increased attention in Euro...
This guidebook for teachers documents the "Harry Potter in Translation" project undertaken at the Language Research Centre at the University of Calgary. The guide also offers 5 sample lesson plans for teachers of grades three to twelve for teaching world languages using the Harry Potter books in translation to engage students. (Contains a bibliography and list of resources.)
Web site developing is much more than the knowledge of programming in XHTML, PHP etc. These languages are only the "words" of a "language" that web programmers have to speak. We have to teach students how to design and develop a web site. This work has some important focuses: determining the aims an...
This paper discusses how multimodal resources can be used to teach oral communication strategies, as exemplified in a course taught at the University of Padua, Italy. The course focused on lexicon and language structures in use, pronunciation and intonation, body language and cultural awareness. A v...
Responds to an earlier article that illustrated how metaphorically applying chaos and complexity theory to language teaching, second language acquisition, and the observed lesson can alter perspectives about how these things are viewed. Suggests that chaos and complexity theory could also help see the following areas in a new light: syllabus design, focus on forms, and the zone of proximal development. (Author/VWL)
Following a preliminary experience in a low-tech environment for distance language learning and teaching, two challenges were identified in the design of university language courses: the necessity to build sufficient flexibility into materials to cater to learners' styles, interests, and skill levels, and a need to design materials that would present the necessary requisites of authenticity and interactivity. (Author/VWL)
This article presents an autoethnographical account of my foray into Spanish immersion education in Costa Rica as a professor of multilingual education at a university in Canada. This language-learning journey was inspired by curiosity about the growing trend for Internet marketing of second-language learning as a form of tourism, which I label edu-tourism. I map the course of my edu-tourism experience, contemplating second-language learning in a local context, describing professionalism in private language teaching institutes, comparing pedagogical practice across various Spanish-as-a-second-language teachers, and documenting my experiential sociopragmatic acquisition of textbook Spanish. (Contains 1 figure.)
This is a book on the F# programming language. On the surface of things, that is an intuitively obvious statement, given the title of this book. However, despite the apparent redundancy in saying it aloud, the sentence above elegantly describes what this book is about: The authors are not attempting to teach developers how to accomplish tasks from other languages in this one, nor are they attempting to evangelize the language or its feature set or its use "over" other languages. They assume that you are considering this book because you have an interest in learning the F# language: its syntax,
Videoconferencing offers new opportunities for language testers to assess speaking ability in low-stakes diagnostic tests. To be considered a trusted testing tool in language testing, a test should be examined employing appropriate validation processes (Chapelle, C.A., Jamieson, J., & Hegelheimer, V. (2003). Validation of a web-based ESL test. Language Testing, 20, 409-439.). While developing a speaking test, language testers need to gather evidence to build a validity argument with theoretical rationales. These rationales should be based on test purpose and validation considerations that affect decision making on test design and validation (Chapelle, C. (2001). Computer applications in second language acquisition: Foundations for teaching, testing, and research. Cambridge: Cambridge ...
The Bologna process is to improve the quality of education, mobility, diversity and the competitiveness and involves three fundamental changes: transform of the structure of titles, changing in methods of teaching and implementation of the systems of quality assurance. Once that the new degrees have been implemented with this structure, and began at E.T.S. of Agriculture Engineering (ETSIA) at Madrid from 2010-2011 course, the main aim of this work is to deeply study the changes in teaching methodology as well as progressively implementation of the educational planning of the three new degrees: Engineering and Agronomic Graduate, Food Industry Engineering Graduate and Agro-environmental Graduate. Each one of them presents 240 ECTS with a common first course and will have access to an official Master in Agronomic Engineering. As part as an educational innovation project awarded by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) to improve educational quality, the second course has been designed with the main objective to continue the educative model implemented last course. This model identifies several teaching activities and represents a proper teaching style at ETSIA-UPM. At the same time, a monitoring and development coordination plans have been established. On the other hand, a procedure to extinguish the earlier plans of Agriculture Engineering was also defined. Other activities related to this Project were the information improvement of the grades, in particular at High Schools centers, improving the processes of reception, counseling and tutoring and mentoring. Likewise, cooperative working workshops and programs to support the teaching of English language were implemented. Satisfaction surveys and opinion polls were done to professors and students involved in first course in order to test several aspects of this project. The students surveys were analyzed taking in account the academic results and their participation in mentoring activities giving a highly satisfactory level. In general, the professors gave the same result although they pointed out certain discontent respect to some circumstances giving some solutions to correct these problems.
ACCESSIBLE SUMMARY: •? This review looks at the involvement of people who have experienced mental health difficulties in teaching mental health students communication skills. •? A systematic review of the English language publications from 1990-2010 was carried out using a wide range of sources including online databases such as the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO and MEDLINE (Ovid). •? The overall goal was to assess the quality of existing evidence in this area and synthesis of findings on the effect of teaching involving people who have experienced mental health problems on students' ability to communicate. The conclusions of the review were: 1 Overall this type of teaching was acceptable to students and of value. 2 When service users teach about communication there is a move in student's practice towards improved attitudes towards people with mental health difficulties. 3 Some students were concerned that the people teaching them were not sufficiently representative of most people with mental health difficulties. 4 This type of teaching made professionals reflect more deeply on the way they communicate. Recommendations were also made to improve future research: 1 Researchers should use a clear definition of what constitutes good communication. 2 If skill in communication is being measured tried and tested measures should be used to do this and an experimental approach should be adopted. 3 A mixture of methods that both measure changes in skills and behaviour and elicit peoples actual experience of this type of teaching seems to be the best way of researching this area. ABSTRACT: Service user involvement has become a common feature of education programmes for mental health students. However, little is known about the effects of this type of education on the interpersonal skills of students taking part. This paper reports findings from a systematic review that formed part of a wider investigation into service user involvement in teaching interpersonal skills. The review aimed to locate and assess the quality of the published evidence relating to the effects of service user involvement on mental health students interpersonal skills and to synthesize results, using a definition of interpersonal skill that includes attitudes, empathy and skills as its key components. Results from this study indicate that the quality of evidence in this area is poor. However, sufficient synthesis of the evidence base was possible to allow conclusions and recommendations for both research and practice. Conclusions were that the involvement of service users in this area is both acceptable and valuable for students and had specific impacts on attitudes, empathy and skills. Some difficulties and reservations about the style of involvement are discussed. Recommendations for the conduct of future research are also made. PMID:22845684
This work is one in a series that focuses on nine languages representing the bulk of the second language learning effort in Australian education (Arabic, Modern Standard Chinese, French, German, Modern Greek, Indonesian/Malay, Italian, Japanese, and Spanish). These languages were categorized as the Languages of Wider Teaching. Overviews of Arabic education in primary and secondary schools, in tertiary institutions, in ethnic schools, and in adult education are provided. Diplomatic language training, curriculum approaches, and qualitative trends in Arabic education are profiled. Other topics addressed include teacher education and teaching materials; language courses for native and non-native speakers; parent, student, and community attitudes; policy considerations; Arabic in Australian society, and the Arabic-speaking community worldwide. Appendices contain a list of the individuals, ethnic schools, and ethnic community organizations consulted in preparation of the document; data concerning student numbers; references; and an attitudinal survey form and results. (Contains 56 references.) (JP)
Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo es un prod ucto de la Tesis degrado de Maestría en Lingüística Anglosajona del Profesor Rene Díaz Hormazábal, y presenta, en primer lugar, una visión histórica en relación con la enseñanza de la escritura en inglés como lengua extranjera. Finalmente, el autor entrega lo fundamental del marco teórico respecto a los postulados del Modelo Argumentativo de Toulmin (1958) en el contexto de la tipología textual. Abstract in english This article is a product of the Master's thesis in Anglo-Saxon Linguistics by Professor Rene Díaz Hormazábal that describes, firstly, a historic overview as to the teaching of writing in English as a foreign language. Finally, the author provides the essential component from his theoretical framework concerning the postulates by Toulmin's Argument Model Structure (1958) in text typology.
This paper reports on the results of a study exploring learners' beliefs on the learning and teaching of English grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary at tertiary level. While the importance of learners' beliefs on the acquisition process is generally recognized, few studies have focused on and compared learners' views on different components of the language system. A questionnaire containing semantic scale and Likert scale items probing learners' views on grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary was designed and completed by 117 native speakers of Dutch in Flanders, who were studying English at university. The analysis of the responses revealed that (i) vocabulary was considered to be different from grammar and pronunciation, both in the extent to which an incorrect use could lead to commu...
The Content-based Reading Approaches (COBRA) framework, constructed by Heerman (2002), was made up of the instructional goals designed for reading-learning integrations in subject matter classrooms. ELL and LD students often fail to have sufficient reading skills to succeed within their different academic subjects, consequently it is important for both sets of teachers to promote such content-based reading skills, to help improve academic success within these two types of student groups. The main function of this model is that it will help English language learners (ELLs) and students with learning disabilities (LD) to have good reading skills in content-based reading in order to get into the mainstream classrooms. According to Lee's (2007) research, she provides many useful reading strategies for teaching comprehensive reading skills for both sets of students. By drawing parallels between students with learning disabilities (LD) and those from non-English backgrounds, the author hopes to equip teachers from both fields with a more diverse classroom environment.
This article reports on a qualitative study that examined the identity construction experiences of six international English-language teaching assistants (IELTAs) in a large English medium of instruction university in Hong Kong. The study explored the contribution of the IELTAs to the internationalization goals of the university using a framework of teacher identity construction. The study illustrates that the IELTAs faced significant challenges in constructing their identities as teachers, and that identity conflicts that arose with students at the host university could threaten the IELTAs' contributions to the internationalization goals of the university. The article draws upon aspects of critical discourse analysis to explore the reactions of the IELTAs to these conflicts and reveals how, through the exercise of agency and the emergence of an evolving community of practice, the IELTAs constructed their preferred teacher identities. Implications for the design of IELTA programs in analogous educational settings and future research are also considered. (Contains 1 table.)
Dez anos de PCNs de língua estrangeira sem avaliação dos livros didáticos pelo PNLD/ Ten years of foreign language PCNs without the evaluation of textbooks by the PNLD/ Dix ans de PCNs en langue étrangère sans évaluation des livres didactiques par le PNLD/ Diez años de PCNs de lengua extranjera sin evaluación de los libros didácticos por el PNLD
Abstract in portuguese Passados dez anos do lançamento dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais de línguas estrangeiras (BRASIL, 1998), a língua inglesa permanece fora do Programa Nacional do Livro Didático (PNLD). Como os documentos fazem um deslocamento de ensino sobre a língua para um ensino visando ao engajamento discursivo do aluno, i.e., língua como prática social, partimos da hipótese de que os livros didáticos, mesmo sem avaliação pelo PNLD, têm tentado se adequar aos princíp (more) ios postulados pelo documento oficial. O objetivo deste artigo é, portanto, comparar a proposta dos PCNs de LE com a de duas séries didáticas - Great! e English In Formation. O corpus se restringe a dois textos e respectivas atividades, cuja análise evidencia a concepção de língua como código e texto como pretexto para ensino de vocabulário e gramática, a descaracterização de gêneros textuais, e a inclusão de atividades de leitura e linguagem que vão de encontro ao documento. Abstract in spanish Pasados diez años del lanzamiento de los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales de lenguas extranjeras (BRASIL, 1998), la lengua inglesa permanece fuera del Programa Nacional del Libro Didáctico (PNLD). Como los documentos hacen un desplazamiento del enseño sobre la lengua para un enseño visando al ajuste discursivo del alumno, i.e., lengua como práctica social, partimos de la hipótesis de que los libros didácticos, inclusive sin evaluación por el PNLD, ha intentado (more) adecuarse a los principios postulados por el documento oficial. El objetivo de este artículo es, por lo tanto, comparar la propuesta de los PCNs de LE con la de dos series didácticas - Great! y English In Formation. El corpus se restringe a dos textos y respectivas actividades, cuyo análisis evidencia la concepción de lengua como código y texto como pretexto para enseño de vocabulario y gramática, la descaracterización de géneros textuales, y la inclusión de actividades de lectura y lenguaje que van de encuentro al documento. Abstract in english Ten years after the release of the National Curriculum Parameters (PCNs, 1998) to the teaching of foreign languages, English textbooks are still not assessed by the National Textbook Program. With the shift from the teaching about language to the teaching focused on promoting discursive practices, i.e., language as a social practice, it was hypothesized that, regardless of such an assessment, textbooks have been trying to adjust to the principles presented in the National (more) Curriculum Parameters. The aim of this paper is to compare the official proposal with the proposal set forth by two textbook series - Great! and English In Formation. The corpus is limited to two texts and their respective tasks. The analysis reveals the notion of language as a code and of text as an excuse for teaching vocabulary and grammar, the de-characterization of genres, and, finally, and the inclusion of reading and language activities that clash with the National Curriculum Parameters.
This article explores how we can better understand the language ideologies of teachers working with second language learners through narrative analysis. This analysis draws on ethnographic data collected in an urban high school with a predominant Latina/o population and nearly a quarter designated as English learners. This analysis illustrates how emergent narratives and language ideologies provide a valuable framework and method for better understanding teacher beliefs in situ about language learners and learning.-[narrative, language ideologies, English learners, teacher beliefs
This paper reports the findings of a study which forms part of a larger-scale research project investigating the use of English in the documents of the European Union (EU). The documents of the EU show various features of texts written for legal, business and other specific purposes. Moreover, the translation services of the EU institutions often produce texts that exhibit features which in terms of textual organization neither link them to the source language nor to the target language of texts. The aim of the present corpus-based study is to describe one type of cohesion: the use of conjunctions in EU documents in order to uncover some of the textual organization patterns they show. Therefore, an EU English Corpus of approximately 200,000 running words was built using texts which represent the diverse fields of activities of the EU. The analysis compares the use of conjunctions in EU-related and general English texts using the database of the British National Corpus (BNC). The paper also illustrates some data-driven instructional activities that may be used in EFL/ESL classrooms when teaching English for EU purposes. (Contains 5 tables and 5 figures.)
The Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) field continues to experience increased valuing of experiential practitioner knowledge. A welcome result of this evolution has been the broadening of research perspectives. The 16 practitioner narratives in "Insights on Teaching Speaking in TESOL" are written by teacher-researchers who describe explorations into aspects of their own classroom practices. The findings shared by these practitioners shed light on contemporary ESOL classroom practice in teaching speaking and highlight some of the currents that flow through classroom practice at this time. The volume is divided into three sections: materials development & implementation, public speaking, and feedback & assessment. All of the chapters detail practical applications for implementing new ways of teaching speaking such as: (1) encouraging critical thinking in ESOL speaking courses; (2) using learning technologies in the ESOL classroom; (3) staging public speaking events like presentations, speeches, and discussions; and (4) arranging student group configurations to encourage greater student time on-task. What emerges from the chapters in this book is a clear sense of the reciprocal link between classroom interaction and teacher development. ESOL practitioners will find the descriptions of teaching practices in this book a useful guide for their own professional development. Chapters of this book include: (1) Introduction: The Practice of Teaching Speaking in the 21st Century (Tim Stewart); (2) Exploring Values in English Through a Dilemma-Based Story (William Perry); (3) Authentic iBT Speaking Practice Using Open-Source Voice-Recording Software (Dana Saito-Stehberger and Jee-Eun Oh); (4) Reinforcing Grammar and Vocabulary Learning With High-Volume Speaking Activities (Kevin McCaughey); (5) Young Learners' Use of English: Imitation or Production? (Barbel Diehr); (6) Reframing and Reconstructing Situational Dialogues: Scaffolding Speaking Tasks for English for Occupational Purposes (Yoshihito Sugita); (7) An Experimental Application of the Problem-Posing Approach for English Language Teaching in Vietnam (Hoa Thi Mai Nguyen); (8) From Podcasting to YouTube: How to Make Use of Internet 2.0 for Speaking Practice (Robert Chartrand); (9) (Re)Cycling Speaking Tasks on the Road to Pedagogical Renewal: Drama in the ESOL Classroom (Tim Stewart); (10) Data and Donuts: Preparing Graduate Students in Language Education to Speak at Conferences (Jessie Carduner and Sarah Rilling); (11) A Holistic, Humanistic Approach to Developing Public Speaking Skills Through Speech Mentoring (Amanda Bradley); (12) PowerPoint or Posters for EAP Students' Presentation Skills Development? (Caroline Brandt); (13) The Speaking Log: A Tool for Posttask Feedback (Tony Lynch); (14) Demystifying Presentation Grading Through Student-Created Scoring Rubrics (Jeff Popko); (15) Practical Strategies for Assessing Students' Oral Speeches Through Vlogs (Aiden Yeh); (16) Promoting Oral Proficiency Through In-Class Speaking Tests (Stephen Soresi); and (17) Taking Pronunciation Further With Oral Journals (Joann Chernen). References and an index are included.
Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1 table.)
This paper illustrates how a freely available online corpus has been exploited in a module on teaching business letters covering the following four speech acts (functions) commonly found in business letters: invitations, requests, complaints and refusals. It is proposed that different strategies are required for teaching potentially non-face-threatening (invitations, requests) and face-threatening (complaints, refusals) speech acts. The hands-on pedagogic activities follow the "guided inductive approach" advocated by Johansson (2009) and draw on practices and strategies covered in the literature on using corpora in language learning and teaching, viz. the need for "pedagogic mediation", and the "noticing" hypothesis from second language acquisition studies.
Educational Reforms in Peru indicate a shift toward a more tolerant view of language diversity. For instance, the Education Law # 28044 (Ministry of Education, 2005) establishes the teaching of respect for indigenous languages and language diversity as a main goal in the area of language. This law is important, but it does not imply a real acceptance of language diversity. This article examines language ideologies toward language variation and regional varieties of Spanish in Perus official first-year language high school textbook, Talento. Using Critical Discourse Analysis, it examines the texts content, and the rhetorical devices utilized to express it (i.e., word, verbal and mood selections). Additionally, it briefly reviews Peruvian educational policies and curriculum. As will be shown...
Ezhil is a Tamil language based interpreted procedural programming language. Tamil keywords and grammar are chosen to make the native Tamil speaker write programs in the Ezhil system. Ezhil allows easy representation of computer program closer to the Tamil language logical constructs equivalent to the conditional, branch and loop statements in modern English based programming languages. Ezhil is a compact programming language aimed towards Tamil speaking novice computer users. Grammar for Ezhil and a few example programs are reported here, from the initial proof-of-concept implementation using the Python programming language1. To the best of our knowledge, Ezhil language is the first freely available Tamil programming language.
Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo centra-se na análise dos discursos da aula de língua estrangeira em uma situação particular: o ensino da língua francesa como língua profissional. Nosso objetivo consistirá em depreender marcas enunciativas por intermédio das quais se inscreve a natureza do trabalho realizado em sala de aula, tendo em vista a construção coletiva de um texto cuja autoria é responsabilidade dos atores da cena didática, professor e alunos. Para tal, interrogamos (more) esses discursos da sala de aula sob uma tríplice ótica: em primeiro lugar, a oposição que se verifica entre trabalho coletivo e trabalho individual; a seguir, a dupla função exercida pela linguagem no referido contexto, a saber, a linguagem enquanto trabalho e a linguagem sobre o trabalho; finalmente, a distância que se verifica entre o trabalho prescrito e o trabalho real da sala de aula. Abstract in english This paper focuses the analysis of speech in foreign language classroom in a particular situation: the teaching of French as a professional language. Our purpose will be to explore enunciative marks that contribute to determine the nature of the work carried out in classroom throughout the collective construction of a text which is built by the actors of the didactic scene, the teacher and the students. In order to achieve our goal, we will interrogate these discourses fr (more) om a triple point of view: first of all, the opposition between collective work and individual work in classroom; afterwards, the double function of language - language as work and language about work - in such a context; finally, the distance verified between prescribed work and real work in classroom.
A feminist action research team, which consisted of a science educator, an English-language learner (ELL) educator, a first-year science teacher, and a graduate assistant, set a goal to work together to explore the process a beginning teacher goes through to establish a classroom conducive to the needs of middle-level ELL learners. The guiding questions of the study were answered by gathering a wealth of data over the course of 5 months and taken from the classroom, planning sessions, and researchers and students. These data were collected by observations, semistructured interviews, and written document reviews. The progressive analysis ultimately revealed that: (a) successful strategies a beginning teacher must utilize for teaching middle-level ELL children in a mainstream classroom involve complex structural considerations that are not part of the teacher's preparation; (b) learning increases for all children, but there are differences in learning achievement between ELL and non-ELL children; and (c) student and peer feedback proved to be an effective means of enhancing the growth of a beginning teacher seeking to increase her skills in teaching ELL learners. The experiences and findings from this project have implications for teacher preparation programs committed to preparing educators to teach science to all children.
A feminist action research team, which consisted of a science educator, an English-language learner (ELL) educator, a first-year science teacher, and a graduate assistant, set a goal to work together to explore the process a beginning teacher goes through to establish a classroom conducive to the needs of middle-level ELL learners. The guiding questions of the study were answered by gathering a wealth of data over the course of 5 months and taken from the classroom, planning sessions, and researchers and students. These data were collected by observations, semistructured interviews, and written document reviews. The progressive analysis ultimately revealed that: (a) successful strategies a beginning teacher must utilize for teaching middle-level ELL children in a mainstream classroom involve complex structural considerations that are not part of the teacher's preparation; (b) learning increases for all children, but there are differences in learning achievement between ELL and non-ELL children; and (c) student and peer feedback proved to be an effective means of enhancing the growth of a beginning teacher seeking to increase her skills in teaching ELL learners. The experiences and findings from this project have implications for teacher preparation programs committed to preparing educators to teach science to all children.
In Saskatchewan, a growing number of schools contain split-grade or multi-grade classrooms. This resource is designed to help teachers develop a vision of how successful teaching and learning can occur in multi-level classrooms. It provides teachers with practical applications that support an environment that is learner-centered. The first four sections define multi-level classrooms; discuss the keys to teaching success; address opportunities and challenges; and look at the classroom as a community of learners. The last sections focus on curriculum and instruction, timetabling, and assessment. The section on curriculum and instruction discusses curriculum mapping, thematic teaching, independent study, peer tutoring, experiential learning, and other topics. It also examines effective ways to ensure that students achieve objectives in required areas of study. Goals for English language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, arts education, physical education, and health are presented. Continuous, ongoing assessment is essential in any classroom. Techniques that are representative ways to conduct effective evaluation and assessment in a multi-level classroom are summarized. Approaches to authentic assessment are also discussed, including the use of rubrics. Practical examples are included in each section. Multi-level resources available from the Stewart Resources Centre in Saskatoon are listed. (Contains 32 references.) (CDS)
Abstract in portuguese Este texto trata de um problema existente na escola brasileira que afeta diretamente o trabalho de ensino e aprendizagem de história: as condições de seus alunos no que se refere ao domínio da leitura e da escrita. Sendo a história, inclusive a escolar, pautada na escrita, as expectativas dos professores acerca de seu domínio pelos alunos definem diretamente suas escolhas didáticas e a história que lhes apresentam nas aulas. O texto apresenta uma análise pautada (more) nos Estudos da Linguagem e na história da escrita, visando contribuir para a visibilidade do problema além dos muros da escola e para sua discussão em outras bases. Com base nisso, considerando o quadro apresentado, sinaliza algumas alternativas para o ensino de história no Ensino Básico. Abstract in english This paper deals with an underlying problem in the Brazilian school system which affects the teaching and learning of history - students' illiteracy. As this subject is based on written texts, history teachers' expectations of their students' literacy levels will directly impact on their choice of texts and the history they teach in the classroom. The paper presents an analysis based on language studies and written history in an effort to raise the problem of illiteracy i (more) n Brazil and to contribute to its discussion in other areas. Finally, some alternatives for the teaching of history in primary schools are presented.
Cultura acústica e letramento em Moçambique: em busca de fundamentos para uma educação intercultural/ Acoustic culture and literacy in Mozambique: searching for the basis for an intercultural education
Abstract in portuguese O autor parte da caracterização de uma cultura acústica, como a moçambicana, para, em seguida, fazer uma análise da importância das línguas maternas, um dos atributos culturais mais significativos de um povo. Para melhor contextualizar a temática que se propõe desenvolver, o autor apresenta, em traços bastante gerais, alguns dados históricos, políticos e sociais de Moçambique. Em seguida, indaga em que medida o poder político saído da independência levou e (more) m consideração os traços fortes da oralidade presentes nesta cultura, e de que modo tal política influenciou, ou não, o processo de letramento. A adoção da língua portuguesa como língua de ensino e a conseqüente rejeição, por parte do poder político, do estudo, sistematização e introdução das línguas moçambicanas nas primeiras séries, têm contribuído para o agravamento das taxas de analfabetismo e para perdas, quem sabe, irreversíveis das tradições orais, ao mesmo tempo que constitui uma desvalorização das várias culturas étnicas. A solução preconizada estará na introdução de um bilingüismo. Isto implica a transformação da língua de oralidade em língua escrita e a conservação de uma língua estrangeira como segunda língua. Esta segunda língua, sendo língua oficial, terá um papel importante em muitas áreas sociais, como a comunicação oficial do Estado, os contatos internacionais etc. Abstract in english The author starts from a characterization of an acoustic culture, such as the Mozambican, to then analyze the importance of mother tongues as one of the most significant cultural attributes of a people. To put the theme to be developed in its context, the author presents in broad lines some social, political and historical information about Mozambique. Next, he discusses in what measure the political power after Mozambique?s independence took into account the strong unwr (more) itten features that are present in that culture and in what way such policies have or have not influenced the literacy process. The adoption of the Portuguese as the teaching language, and the refusal by the political authorities to research, systematize and introduce the Mozambican languages on the initial grades have contributed to raise illiteracy rates, and to perhaps irreversible losses of oral traditions. At the same time, it constitutes a devaluation of the various ethnic cultures present in Mozambique. The author argues that a solution will be found in the adoption of bilingualism. That implies transforming the oral languages in written languages, and the preservation of a foreign language as the second language. That second language, being the official language, would have an important role in various social areas such as in official communications of the State, in international affairs etc.
This editorial highlights the problem of language barrier in scientific communication in spite of the recent success of Open Access Movement. Four options for English-language journals to overcome the language barrier are suggested: 1) abstracts in alternative languages provided by authors, 2) Wiki ...
This series captures the dynamics of the contemporary ESOL classroom. It showcases state-of-the-art curricula, materials, tasks, and activities reflecting emerging trends in language education and seeks to build localized language teaching and learning theories based on teachers' and students' unique experiences in and beyond the classroom. Each volume in the series focuses on a particular communicative competency or learning environment. Classroom Management offers a variety of frameworks for creating effective learning environments by fostering a multicultural awareness of different student frames of reference. It moves away from the business connotation of the word management and explains the teacher's job as facilitator and conductor of an orchestra rather than a micromanager of a classroom. This volume acknowledges the wonderful range of diversity that language teachers now face in their classes and suggests ways that they can facilitate language learning and development rather than just manage it. Moreover, it welcomes diversity as a challenging yet rewarding feature of ESOL education. This volume offers language teachers many ideas for preparing, organizing, and conducting their lessons and for supporting student learning. Classroom Management offers ESOL students, teachers, administrators, and specialists practical strategies for enhancing their leadership performance, and those working in other disciplines may find in it many management techniques that also are applicable in their contexts. This book contains 15 chapters: (1) Shaping the Learning Environment (Thomas S. C. Farrell); (2) Supporting Culturally Responsive Classroom Management (Sheryl V. Taylor and Donna Sobel); (3) Building Strategies for Classroom Communities of Elementary Native- and Nonnative-English-Speaking Learners (Sally Brown and Nancy Sharkey); (4) Character Education for ESOL Classroom Management (Robert J. Meszaros); (5) Monitoring or Observing? Managing Classroom Peerwork (Rita Elaine Silver); (6) Group Formation With Cards: Using Set Theory for Classroom Management (Paul Bournhonesque); (7) English Discussion Groups in a University Class in Vietnam: Classroom Management and Its Outcomes (Le Pham Hoai Huong); (8) Help Me, Help You! Using Role Assignment in Small Groups to Increase Student Participation in China (Michelle Stabler-Havener); (9) Three Effective Classroom Managers: A Look Inside South Korean EFL Classrooms (Marie J. Guilloteaux); (10) Language, Cameras, Reaction: Raising Awareness of First and Second Language Choices Through Documentary Filmmaking (Christopher Stillwell and Hamish Gillies); (11) Classroom Management Techniques for "Shy" Japanese Learners (Stephen Soresi); (12) Putting Names and Faces Together: Using Digital Photo Sheets to Manage Large Classes (Thomas Delaney); (13) International Plaza: Fostering Intercultural Communication in an Academic Writing Classroom (Mark Wilkinson and Mary Ellis); (14) Two-Way Tutoring to Foster a Positive Classroom Environment (Sharon L. Springer); and (15) Creating Cohesiveness Among Learners Through a Focus on Classroom Group Dynamics in a Japanese Classroom (Katsuko Matsubara and Sanae Kurauchi).
Towards a Discourse for Criticism in Language Teaching: Analysis of Sociocultural Representations in Mass Media/ Hacia un discurso para la crítica en la enseñanza de la lengua: análisis de representaciones socioculturales en medios de comunicación
Abstract in spanish El artículo plantea que, con el propósito de ejercer su ciudadanía, los maestros de lenguas deben popularizar un discurso para la crítica en el cual los estudiantes y los profesores trasciendan el conocimiento tácito y el sentido común mediante la argumentación y la metacognición, y alcancen conocimiento y procedimientos sistemáticos planteados por expertos en las diferentes disciplinas. Como se ilustra en el texto, la fuente y objeto de análisis mediante el cua (more) l se contextualiza este discurso en la enseñanza de la lengua es el lenguaje de los medios de comunicación y las prácticas socioculturales y de significación que este provoca. Concluimos que a través del análisis de los medios es posible educar a los estudiantes con conocimientos y habilidades básicas necesarias para interactuar en el mundo. Abstract in english This article states that in order to exercise citizenship with responsibility, language teachers need to popularize a discourse for criticism in which students and teachers transcend tacit knowledge and common sense due to meta-cognition and argumentation and reach systematic knowledge and procedures posed by experts in the different disciplines. As illustrated inside, the source and objective of analysis by means of which this discourse can be contextualized in language (more) teaching is the language of mass media and all the sociocultural and signifying practices that it invokes. We conclude that through the analysis of mass media it is possible to educate students with the basic knowledge and skills necessary to interact critically in the world.
The purpose of this study is to begin work toward a grammatical assessment measure that could bridge the gap between theoretical work on grammatical development, on the one hand, and tools such as the Michigan Test (which uses multiple-choice questions on vocabulary and grammar) or the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages scale (which uses holistic descriptions of grammar use), on the other hand. Such a measure would need to be practical to administer with large groups. Two proposals of grammatical development (processability theory, Pienemann, 1998, 2005; and organic grammar, Vainikka & Young-Scholten, 2006) were applied to short samples of spontaneous production data from 48 adult second-language learners of English from mixed first-language backgrounds. The rapid profile scale successfully accounted for the learners' development but is of somewhat limited use with short samples of data. The organic grammar placement scale may need to be further refined, but it includes important indicators of grammatical development. A preliminary proposal for using a combined measure with a rubric is presented.
Research has shown that the effect of marginal glosses on reading comprehension and vocabulary retention is a controversial issue. The purpose of this study was to investigate this issue among Iranian university EFL students. Three types of glosses were applied in this study: single gloss in participants' first language (SL1G), single gloss in participants' second language (SL2G), and multiple-choice gloss (MCG) in participants' second language. One hundred and twenty undergraduate students majoring in English Teaching at Azad University of Najafabad, Iran, read the texts under three conditions: SL1G, SL2G, and MCG. Afterwards, participants answered two vocabulary tests, one administered immediately after the reading test and another three weeks later. One-way repeated measures ANOVA and follow-up post hoc tests (p less than 0.05) showed that MCG facilitated participants' vocabulary learning while reading the text more than SLGs. The results of One-way ANOVA also revealed that SL2G was the most facilitative gloss type for the participants' reading comprehension. The study illustrates how different types of textual glosses can affect both reading comprehension and vocabulary retention. Limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed. Reading Text with Single L2 Gloss is appended. (Contains 10 tables.)
Minimally verbal children with autism commonly demonstrate language dysfunction, including immature syntax acquisition. We hypothesised that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) should facilitate language acquisition in a cohort (n = 10) of children with immature syntax. We modified the English version of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) to test only basic canonical subject-verb-object sentences. We tested syntactic accuracy after teaching then testing all vocabulary from the subsequent syntax test to ensure validity of syntactic scoring. We used scaffolding sentences for syntax training. All procedures were performed both before and after tDCS. Results demonstrated a large effect size of the difference between pre-/post-tDCS groups (p less than 0.0005, d = 2.78), indicating syntax acquisition. Combining a modified BAT with tDCS constitutes effective modalities for assessment and treatment of immature syntax in children with autism. Future studies should explore the BAT for patients with an inability to use or understand language, in particular bilingual children with autism. (Contains 2 figures and 3 tables.)
International development education in the English classroom might consist of the critical analysis of print-media coverage of events in the Third World and the reading of fiction written by Third World authors. An integration of both activities requires a theoretical framework that would affirm the usefulness of the discipline's pursuits in language study and in the reading of literature and that would also offer interrelated theories of both the mass media and of artistic, imaginative fiction. Such a theoretical structure is provided in two works by Herbert Marcuse: "One-Dimensional Man" and "The Aesthetic Dimension." These two books offer a convincing explanation of the complacent, consumerist attitudes of so many students and also a rationale for the potential that the study of language and literature has to change those attitudes. Two analytical methodologies in particular are available for teaching students the skills needed for critiquing the language of news coverage: general semantics and sign theory. A sign theory diagram offers a model for how graphics and the overall import of news are interpreted. Using Marcuse for direction, a teacher can help students to read Third World novels such as "One Hundred Years of Solitude" and "Things Fall Apart." Students' participation in such fiction can contribute to their global awareness. (HOD)
This annotated bibliography is the sixth annual compilation of the abstracts of 228 documents added to the ERIC database during the year 1991 in the area of computer applications in elementary and secondary schools. The types of materials included are administrator guides, bibliographies, conference papers, evaluative reports, literature reviews, program descriptions, research reports, and teaching guides. The material is presented in four major sections: (1) Computer Assisted Instruction: Overview Documents--24 documents of general discussions on the topic; (2) Special Applications--78 documents divided into 14 categories: Artificial Intelligence/Expert Systems, Cognitive Processing/Thinking Skills, Computer Literacy, Computer Networks, Computer Equity, Counseling and Guidance, Courseware and Software, Ethics, Interactive Video, Keyboarding, Logo, Management/Administration, Conference Proceedings, Research, Simulation, and Testing; (3) Subject Areas--85 documents concerned with computer applications in the areas of business, English as a Second Language and foreign languages, language arts, mathematics, music, reading, science, social studies, vocational education, and writing; (4) Special Populations--37 documents on computer applications for adult education, disabled learners, disadvantaged learners, gifted students, and early childhood education. Individual documents are presented alphabetically by author, or title when no personal author is available, within each section. Each entry includes the title and author of the document, information on price, and availability, the publication type, major ERIC descriptors, and an abstract. An alphabetical title of authors and information on ordering ERIC documents are included. (ALF)
This paper argues that all research should be based on humanistic pedagogies with educational functions. While conducting research associated with issues of teaching English as a foreign language (EFL), researchers should pay attention to whether the samples have also been well educated. This study emphasizes that when focusing on significances of doing research and collecting data, educators and researchers in an experiment project should not ignore the study's functions of real education and language learning. Based on ethic and humanistic views, teachers or researchers of a research project should maintain their educational responsibilities, instead of just collecting data for journal publishing. Researchers should focus on helping students learn appropriately in a realistic environment, not merely on reporting the experiment results. This study has compared 2 EFL experiments conducted in France's and Israel's language learning programs. The Israeli study, with both functions of doing research and educating students, has been described to be a more humanistic study. The student samples of the study learned something and the method of data collection was appropriate. In contrast, the study conducted in France showed a possible bias model of EFL experimentation, disregarding significant functions of education. This study argues that while conducting research plans, researchers should ask themselves a critical question: Have we educated our children, or, have we just paid attention to doing research, collecting data and publishing papers? (Contains 1 table.)
The 1986/87 issue of the journal on second language teaching and learning contains seven articles in French and four in English, including: "Learning How To Learn English"; "Socrate est-il un chat? Pratiquer le syllogisme pour apprendre a argumenter (Is Socrates a Cat? Practicing Syllogisms To Learn To Argue)"; "La production orale en francais des enfants de migrants: Analyse d'un corpus et premieres constatations (Oral Production in French of Migrant Children: Analysis of a Corpus and Preliminary Findings)"; "Le discours ecrit incoherent: Des enseignements pour une pedagogie de l'expression? (Incoherent Written Discourse: Lessons for Teaching Expression?)"; "A propos d'Ecoute...Ecoute (About the Course Ecoute...Ecoute)"; "Autonomy as Metacognitive Awareness: Suggestions for Training Self-Monitoring of Listening Comprehension"; "Evolution de l'autonomie de l'apprenant: Le cas de l'apprenant D (Evolution of Learner Autonomy: The Case of Learner D)"; "The Computer as an Aid to Learning To Learn English: A Project and One Feasibility Study"; "L'apprentissage auto-dirige dans les grands groupes: Quelques experiences (Self-Directed Learning in Large Groups: Some Experiences)"; "Vos sermons sont vachement plus longs! Cross-Cultural Perceptions of French Communicative Behavior"; and "De L'inculturation (On Acculturation)." (MSE)
AIM: This is a report of a study which evaluated simulation-based learning as a teaching strategy for improving participants' ENP reading proficiency in the senior college program of students whose first language is Chinese, not English. BACKGROUND: Simulation-based learning is known to be one of most effective teaching strategies in the healthcare professional curricula, which brings a clinical setting into the classroom. However, developing English reading skills for English written nursing journals through simulation-based learning in the nursing curricula, is largely unknown. METHOD: We used a quasi-experimental approach with nonequivalent control group design to collect the causal connections between intervention and outcomes. 101 students were enrolled in this study (response rate 92.6%) of these 48 students volunteered for the intervention group, and 53 students for the control group. RESULTS: The findings indicated that the intervention group had significantly higher mean scores in ENP reading proficiency with unknown words in the article (p=.004), vocabulary (pnursing journals among nursing students. However, the benefits to the students of this study is still to be determined, and further exploration is needed with well designed research and a universal method of outcome measurement. PMID:22819629
Abstract in spanish En la materia de Historia Universal II -semestre verano 2007- de la Universidad de Quintana Roo, se les pidió a los estudiantes de la Licenciatura en Humanidades la lectura de la novela histórica de Umberto Eco, El nombre de la rosa, con una finalidad didáctica: que conocieran una parte de la Edad Media y los aspectos socioculturales que llegaron a la Nueva España en el siglo XVI -como la filosofía escolástica, el castellano, el latín, la religión católica, entre (more) otros-, ya que algunos alumnos, que provienen de medios urbanos y rurales, son hablantes del maya -así como sus abuelos-, y este conocimiento para ellos es nuevo, dado que no se los enseñaron en los otros niveles educativos en esta región del sur de Quintana Roo. Abstract in english In the course of Universal History II at the University of Quintana Roo in the 7th semester of the bachelors program of Humanities during the summer of 2007 students were given to read the historical novel from Umberto Eco In the name of the rose. This was done with didactic purposes in order to introduce the students to the Middle Ages and to teach them which specific part of this era and culture arrived in the New Spain in the XVI century; i.e. scholastic philosophy, th (more) e Castilian language, the Latin language, and the Catholic religion among other cultural aspects. It is important to consider that many of our students come not only from urban areas but from rural ones as well and in many cases they have a Mayan background and many of them even speak the Mayan language. This is one of the most important aspects to be considered while teaching courses of this nature; for many students this will be their first time encountering with this sort of knowledge new to them since it is not taught in any previous educational levels in the State of Quintana Roo, Mexico.
Abstract in spanish La cultura científica de quien investiga opera como determinante en la relación pensamiento/lenguaje; es decir, la posición adoptada respecto del conocer, en las ciencias humanas/sociales orientará la búsqueda metodológica. De la investigación que realizara acerca de la naturaleza de las consignas de trabajo en la enseñanza de la lengua, surgen algunas relaciones entre las representaciones sociales de los enseñantes y su accionar en el lenguaje frente a la tarea (more) docente. El enfoque interaccionista socio-discursivo concibe la acción como unidad de análisis materializada en textos, cuyo constituyente morfogenético es el signo lingüístico. De los análisis de entrevistas a los enseñantes y las acciones concretas de enseñanza registradas, se observa cómo las representaciones sociales prefiguran las prácticas, anticipando la realización de unas acciones y excluyendo otras. El análisis de las consignas como acciones intramentales, exteriorizadas en los productos textuales escritos de los alumnos, señala el proceso intermental o interpsicológico entre docente y alumnos como proceso epistemológico de la didáctica de la lengua. En la medida en que los cruces de las disciplinas en sus bordes nos permiten enfocar nuevos objetos de conocimiento, aparecen nuevas metodologías que necesitan validarse, este sería el camino abierto para la semiótica y la semiología. Abstract in english The scientific culture of the researcher (his readings, his time and social scene conditions) operates determining the relation thought/language, which means that the position adopted in face of knowledge in social sciences will guide his methodological search. As a result of the research actions I undertook on the nature of task instructions in language teaching, there come forth several relations between social representations of teachers and their acting out in languag (more) e considering the teaching task. The socio-discursive interactionist approach understands that action is the analytic unity which is materialized in texts, whose morpho-genetic component is the linguistic sign. By taking the analysis of teachers? interviews and the registred concrete teaching actions it can be noticed how social representations prefigure the practical actions, anticipating the effective carrying out of some of them and excluding others. The analysis of task instructions as intra-mental-actions which arise as text-productions done by pupils, shows the intermental or interpsychological process, held between the teacher and his students, as an epistemological process of Language Didactics. So far border crossings of disciplines will enable us to focus on new knowledge objects, there will arise new methodologies to be validated; this would be an open way for semiotics and semiology.
This study explored the efficacy of visual input enhancement, specifically essay enhancement, for facilitating deaf college students' improvement in English grammatical knowledge. Results documented students' significant improvement immediately after a 10-week instructional intervention, a replication of recent research. Additionally, the results of delayed assessment documented students' significant retention of that improvement five and a half months beyond the instructional intervention period. Essay enhancement served to highlight, via a coding procedure, students' successful and unsuccessful production of discourse-required target grammatical structures. The procedure converted students' written communicative output into enhanced input for inducing noticing of grammatical form and, through essay revision, establishing form-meaning connections leading to acquisition. With its optimal design characteristics supported by theoretical and empirical research, essay enhancement is a highly effective methodology that can be easily implemented as primary or supplementary English instruction for deaf students. The results of this study hold great promise for facilitating deaf students' English language and literacy development and have broad implications for second-language research, teaching, and learning. PMID:18757492
This study explored the efficacy of visual input enhancement, specifically "essay enhancement", for facilitating deaf college students' improvement in English grammatical knowledge. Results documented students' significant improvement immediately after a 10-week instructional intervention, a replication of recent research. Additionally, the results of delayed assessment documented students' significant retention of that improvement five and a half months beyond the instructional intervention period. Essay enhancement served to highlight, via a coding procedure, students' successful and unsuccessful production of discourse-required target grammatical structures. The procedure converted students' written communicative output into enhanced input for inducing noticing of grammatical form and, through essay revision, establishing form-meaning connections leading to acquisition. With its optimal design characteristics supported by theoretical and empirical research, essay enhancement is a highly effective methodology that can be easily implemented as primary or supplementary English instruction for deaf students. The results of this study hold great promise for facilitating deaf students' English language and literacy development and have broad implications for second-language research, teaching, and learning.
In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals performed the Simon task and the Attentional Networks Task (ANT). Language proficiencies and socioeconomic status were controlled. We found that the Simon effect advantage, reported in earlier research for bilingual children and adults over monolinguals, differed across groups, with bilinguals and trilinguals showing enhanced conflict resolution over monolinguals and marginally so over second-language learners. In the ANT, bilinguals and t...
The connection between language and reading is well established across many languages studied to date. Little is known, however, about the role of language in reading in Arabic?a Semitic language characterized by diglossia?in which the oral and written varieties differ across language components. This study examined the relationship among multiple components of language, namely, phonology, morphology, and vocabulary and reading outcomes in 83 bilingual English-Arabic children. Results revealed associations between phonological awareness skills across English and Arabic. These associations did not hold for morphological awareness skills. Results also revealed that for Arabic and English, phonological awareness predicted word and pseudoword reading accuracy and vocabulary predicted reading c...
With each issue focusing on different themes, volume 18 of "Inside English" looks at he revitalizing literature, teaching as a subversive activity, writing at all levels, and the English classroom of the 1990's. In addition to regular columns on the English Council of California Two-Year Colleges (ECCTYC) and legislative concerns, the following feature articles are included: (1) "The 1990 ECCTYC Literature Conference: On Humpty Dumpty, James Joyce, and Transforming Teaching" (Karin B. Costello); (2) "From Movies to the Page: Using Film to Teach Literature" (Patrick Kennedy); (3) "Teaching and Acting "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead': Roles and Responsibilities and Life on the Margins" (Judith Ackley); (4) "At the ECCTYC Lit Conference: Focusing on the Wrong Side of the Issues" (Michelle Pagni); (5) "In Defense of Theory: An Exploration of Fear and Defensiveness" (Bernard Goldberg); (6) "A Curriculum for the Nineties: Developing a Social Conscience through Literature" (Kathleen Murphy); (7) "Risk-Taking and Writing: Disputatious Classrooms" (H. W. Seng); (8) "Striking Fire in Our Students and Ourselves: Our Work in Story and Song" (John Lovas); (9) "Talking and Listening: Let's Hear It for Oral Reading" (Joseph Collignon); (10) "The Illusion of Progress: Where Are We Going? Where Have We Been?" (Mike Guista); (11) "Deconstruction and Demograhics: 'The Center Cannot Hold'--Or Can It?" (Phyllis Mael); (12) "Literacy and the Classroom: What an English Teacher Should Teach" (Sandra Christenson); (13) "College Survival English: Building Communication Skills AND Self-Esteem" (Ulrica Bell-Perkins and Diane R. Holt); (14) "Ideology, Pedagogy, and Politics: Writing As Confusion OR What and Why We Teach" (Gordon Taylor); (15) "Writing the Research Paper: Using Questions to Direct Research" (Diane Jefferson); (16) "Paraphrasing Right and Left" (Joseph Collignon); (17) "How to Teach English 1A: Nine Easy Steps" (Jack Jackson); (18) "Writers and Their Readers: Wrestling with the Audience" (Anne Huber Stark); (19) "Using Grants for the English Department: Bridging the Barriers between Full- and Part-Time Faculty" (Peter Sotiriou); (20) "The Amateur in the Classroom: Democracy and the Humanities" (Leo Braudy); (21) "A Double Con Game in the Classroom? A Kinder, Gentler English Teacher" (Carol Wershoven); (22) "Computres in the Classroom: The Wave of the Future" (James R. Musgrave); (23) "Collaboration and Computers: Choreographing the Computer Classroom" (Marjorie Ford); (24) "Dream Houses: Reality and Expectations in the 250 Classroom" (Janet Goldberg); (25) "The Developmental Writing Classroom: Sweathogs" (Dolores LaGuardia); (26) "The English as a Second Language Classroom: The Story, the Students, and their Sentences" (Mike Riherd); (27) "The Blessing and the Plague of Spell-Check: The New Technopropisms" (Helen Heightsman Gordon); (28) "Asking for Artifacts: The Beneits of In-Class Essay Writing and Holistic Scoring" (Lenny Bailey); (29) "Wild Word Soccer: Child's Play for Serious Learning" (Madeleine Lowew Puccioni); (30) "Mutual Benefits: Advanced Comp Students Connect with High School Writers" (Sister J. Adele Edwards). (JMC)
This article provides some context for the unquestionable influence of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR) on language learning, teaching, and assessment ten years after its publication. If a survey about the most relevant and controversial document in the field in the twenty-first century were to be carried out, the CEFR would most surely be the top one. The document itself has been translated into all European languages, and its scales are now available in more than 40 languages, including sign language. The CEFR levels and its scales have become currency in Europe and beyond, and its recommendations—having seduced governments and institutions—are slowly finding their way into everyday practice. The CEFR, however, ...
With speakers of over one hundred languages, the Lao PDR is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse nations in Southeast Asia. However, its education policy stipulates that Lao is the language of education at all levels of schooling. Non-ethnic Lao students are thus required to learn literacy in a language which they do not speak. Within this context, teachers must find ways to balance policy constraints with the needs of their students and with their own beliefs and values around language use. This paper examines talk around reading texts in three ethnic minority primary school classrooms in Laos. It demonstrates that the Lao language-in-education policy results in a multiplicity of literacy teaching responses ranging from almost exclusive use of Lao, through combined use of Lao and the mother tongue, to--surprisingly--almost exclusive use of the mother tongue to teach officially prescribed Lao texts. (Contains 11 notes.)
This paper begins with a discussion of Stanley Cavellâ??????s philosophy of language learning. Young people learn more than the meaning of words when acquiring language: they learn about (the quality of) our form of life. If weâ??????as early childhood educatorsâ??????see language teaching as something like handing some inert thing to a child, then we unduly limit the possibilities of education for that child. Cavell argues that we must become poets if we are to be the type of representatives of language that education calls for. In the final section of the paper I discuss the work of Lucy Sprague Mitchell, someone who developed an approach to language teaching that overlaps in interesting ways with Cavellâ??????s approach in The Claim of Reason.
This final research monograph describes intervention research to improve thinking skills in high ability, high school students attending an urban magnet school for primarily low-income ethnic minority students who come from families that have historically experienced social inequality and various forms of discrimination in the United States. The intervention approach used is based on the Sternberg triarchic theory of intelligence. The triarchic approach to giftedness or high ability suggests that intelligence has three components: (a) an analytical ability, (b) creative ability, and (c) practical ability. Following the description of the Teaching Thinking intervention to improve these triarchic abilities, three related studies are also described. These studies focus on language background, language use and writing abilities of these students; students' perceptions of giftedness; parental perceptions of giftedness and how to offer support for their high ability students; and the thinking styles of college and high school students. Chapter 1 introduces the study and its main focus on a teaching thinking intervention. It provides a rationale for the approach and the methods used in the primary intervention research. This chapter demonstrates the feasibility of offering a thinking skills intervention to high school students that is based on a college campus. We discuss some of the details of offering such an intervention and provide some evidence that it is possible to identify and involve highly capable under-represented ethnic minority high school students in such an effort, based on Sternberg's model of giftedness and a triarchic view of intelligence. Chapter 1 also presents evidence that the overall intervention had some differential effects on the participants and that peer tutoring and mentoring components of the intervention, also had differential effects on thinking ability at posttest and on academic performance as measured by writing skill, during the intervention. Chapter 1 also describes the assessment of triarchic ability skills for 57 participants in the intervention and 69 non-participants all of whom were pretested using the Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test and the impact of the Teaching Thinking intervention on triarchic components. Chapter 2 describes an embedded study of intervention participants that examined the relationship between language background and language use in this special population of English-speaking youth. In Chapter 3, we describe a survey of parents focused on their aspirations for their children and how they support achievement in these high ability adolescents. Chapter 4 describes the assessment of thinking styles in thinking skills intervention participants and in diverse sample of ethnic minority college students. In Chapter 5, we present a qualitative and survey approach to understanding how high school and college students understand the nature of giftedness and what it takes to be academic successful, respectively. Five appendixes are included: (1) Rating Scales Materials Developed for the Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test; (2) Teaching Thinking Project Language Survey; (3) Language Usage Phone Interview; (4) Parental Aspirations and Support for Academic Achievement Survey and Recruiting Materials; and (5) Essays Written by College Students on Academic Success. (Contains 28 tables, 10 figures and 11 footnotes.)
Modelado del estudiante para el STI ELE-TUTOR: diseño de un componente adaptativo para apoyar la competencia lingüística del español como lengua extranjera/ STUDENT MODELLING FOR THE ELE-TUTOR ITS: DESIGNING AN ADAPTIVE COMPONENT TO SUPPORT LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE IN SPANISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE
Abstract in spanish Los Sistemas Tutoriales Inteligentes (STI) para la enseñanza de lenguas son aplicaciones computacionales capaces de procesar un enunciado en lenguaje natural ingresado por un estudiante de lengua, para luego entregarle un feedback personalizado y adecuado a su competencia lingüística. Sin embargo, para que el STI logre adaptar su comportamiento a las necesidades del alumno es fundamental contar con un módulo del estudiante, el cual recopila y procesa información sobr (more) e cada uno de los estudiantes que interactúan con el sistema. El presente trabajo da cuenta del diseño de un módulo de estudiante para un sistema tutorial inteligente destinado a la enseñanza del español como lengua extranjera para nivel B2 del MCER, tomando en consideración las variables de nivel de proficiencia, estilo de aprendizaje y tipo de error cometido correspondiente a cada usuario del sistema. Además, debido a que la variable nivel de proficiencia cambia a medida que el estudiante avanza en los ejercicios, se contempla un sistema de diagnóstico y actualización de los datos mediante una red bayesiana. La salida del módulo de estudiante corresponde entonces a un vector con valores específicos para cada variable, el cual es posteriormente procesado por el módulo tutor para que éste decida las estrategias de feedback correctivo pertinentes. Abstract in english Intelligent Tutorial Systems (ITS) for language teaching are computational applications that are capable to process natural language input provided by a language student, in order to give feedback strategies according to their linguistic competence. However, in order to achieve this adaptability, it is important to develop a student module, which stores and processes information about each one of the students that interact with the system. The present work is a design of (more) a student module for an intelligent tutorial system (ITS) to teach Spanish as a foreign language considering the B2 level of the Common European Framework which takes as variables the student's level of proficiency, their learning style and the type of language error made by them during the interaction with the ITS. Due to the fact that the proficiency level variable changes as the student works on the exercises, the student module also contains a diagnosis and update system for the data that uses a Bayesian belief network. The output of the student module is a vector with specific values for each variable, which is delivered to a tutor module that will decide which feedback strategies should be used.
Abstract in spanish En este artículo se presenta una breve descripción de la Enseñanza de Inglés Basada en Contenidos (CBI), como un proceso en el cual el alumno adquiere dominio de la lengua (conocimiento procedimental), así como dominio de la asignatura estudiada (conocimiento declarativo), mediante un proceso de enseñanza que integra lengua y contenido. El autor describe sus experiencias en la planeación y enseñanza de un curso de análisis financiero utilizando las técnicas de C (more) BI y de aprendizaje centrado en el estudiante, además de las herramientas y procedimientos más tradi cionales. También se analizan las experiencias de otras universidades que imparten CBI, a la luz de nuestra propia experiencia. Se presenta y discute el resultado de una encuesta sobre la percepción del curso por parte de una mues tra representativa de estudiantes. Finalmente, se presenta el análisis de una encuesta, que sugiere la importancia del enfoque CBI en la enseñanza de finanzas en inglés Abstract in english This paper presents a brief description of English Content Based Instruction (CBI) as a process in which the student gains mastery of the language (procedural knowledge) and mastery of the subject learned (declarative knowledge) along with the characteristics of the integration of the teaching process. Also, the author describes his experiences in planning and teaching a course in Financial Analysis using the techniques of CBI and student-centered learning in addition to (more) the tools and procedures used in performing this task. Furthermore the experiences of other universities in giving CBI courses are analyzed in the light of this experience. The result of a survey about the perception of the course among a representative sample of the students is presented and discussed. Finally the paper presents an analysis of a survey which suggests the importance of the CBI approach in teaching finance in English
Signed languages continue to be a key element of deaf education programs that incorporate a bilingual approach to teaching and learning. In order to monitor the success of bilingual deaf education programs, and in particular to monitor the progress of children acquiring signed language, it is essential to develop an assessment tool of signed language skills. Although researchers have developed some checklists and experimental tests related to American Sign Language (ASL) assessment, at this time a standardized measure of ASL does not exist. There have been tests developed in other signed languages, for example, British Sign Language, that can serve as models in this area. The purpose of this study was to adapt the Assessing British Sign Language Development: Receptive Skills Test for use i...
This article presents an examination of the language demands of cognitively demanding tasks and proposes an initial framework for the language demands of higher-order mathematics thinking practices. We articulate four categories for this framework: language of generalisation, language of comparison, language of proportional reasoning, and language of analysing impact. These categories were developed out of our collaborative work to design and implement higher-order thinking tasks with a group of Grade 9 (14- and 15-year-olds) teachers teaching in a linguistically diverse setting; analyses of student work samples on these tasks; and our knowledge of the literature. We describe each type of language demand and then analyse student work in each category to reveal linguistic challenges facing ...
Vietnamese, like other immigrant languages, experiences decline in various forms from the time that its speakers first arrive in the US, a process that gathers pace in the second generation, and often leads to a near-complete loss of the language in the third generation. The article deals with the ways in which Vietnamese-Americans have attempted to keep their language alive using Vietnamese language schools and a variety of community initiatives. The benefits of such efforts to maintain the heritage language and its culture are discussed, mostly from the point of view of the Vietnamese community but also in a national perspective in which heritage languages are considered as a linguistic and cultural resource. New pedagogical approaches to the teaching of Vietnamese and also the growing movement to have the language taught in universities are discussed.
Deaf learners whose first language is American Sign Language face particular challenges and constraints in developing literacy in English as a second language. These constraints are interrogated and discussed in terms of their relationship to issues of language proficiency in both L1 and L2, and to models of second language literacy education. Suggestions are proposed as to ways in which these constraints might be addressed in designing future bilingual programs for deaf learners.
This dissertation examines depiction in American Sign Language (ASL) presentations. The impetus for this study came from my work as an instructor in an interpreter education program. The majority of ASL/English interpreters are second language learners of ASL, and many of them find some features of ASL challenging to learn. These features are inextricably tied to what has been referred to as role shifting, constructed dialogue or constructed action, classifiers, and the referential use of space. Following Dudis (2007), I refer to these features as depiction. This dissertation takes a first step in the analysis of depiction, focusing on the identifying information that occurs just prior to and at the onset of instances of depiction. Using a text analysis approach in conjunction with ELAN transcription software (a transcription program where annotations are linked to the video source), I analyzed four presentations from the American Sign Language Teachers' Association's (ASLTA) About Teaching ASL series. I identified changes in the signers' head position, eye gaze, facial expression, and body position just prior to and at the onset of instances of depiction. I report on the occurrence and co-occurrence of these nonmanual changes that aid in identifying depiction. I also report on information in ASL discourse that aids addressees in distinguishing between switches in depiction and recurring depiction. Throughout this dissertation I apply my findings as I propose a method of text analysis, using ELAN, as a means of drawing students' attention to the linguistic features of depiction. With an enhanced understanding of depiction, second language learners may be better able to comprehend ASL and to incorporate depiction in their own language use. The proposed approach of using ELAN for text analysis provides a strategy to guide second language learners as they practice identifying depiction. This study provides a starting point for working with second language learners to help them recognize, understand, and produce depiction in discourse. This study also provides interpreter educators and teachers of ASL a better understanding of depiction and offers an important framework for training interpreters to analyze and understand ASL texts. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.
Abstract in portuguese Fundamentada na noção bakhtiniana de gêneros como formas relativamente estáveis de enunciados desenvolvidas por cada esfera de uso da linguagem (BAKHTIN, 1953 ) e na proposição de Bazerman (2005) de gêneros como formas tipificadas de usos discursivos que orientam as ações humanas, proponho-me neste artigo a defender o argumento de que jogos de linguagem tipicamente utilizados nos processos de ensino-aprendizagem de LE podem ser entendidos como gêneros disc (more) ursivos típicos dessa esfera escolar. Após delinear as concepções de jogos, jogos de linguagem, formato (BRUNER, 1975, ELKONIN, (1978 ), VYGOTSKY, 1930, WITTGENSTEIN, 1953) e gêneros que têm orientado minha reflexão acerca da utilização de jogos como instrumentos para construção de componentes lingüístico-discursivos específicos na LE (SZUNDY, 2001, 2005), o artigo focará na análise de excertos de interação decorrentes de jogos de linguagem utilizados em um curso de línguas para crianças com faixa etária de 7 a 9 anos. Esta análise constitui uma revisita ao corpus da minha dissertação de mestrado (SZUNDY, 2001) com o intuito central de mostrar que os jogos de linguagem (componentes lingüístico-discursivo) que ocorrem no interior de determinados jogos (atividades) possuem relativa estabilidade de conteúdo, forma e estilo e criam formats de ação padronizadas que orientam o processo de construção de conhecimento da LE, podendo, portanto, ser compreendidos como gêneros discursivos. Abstract in english Framed on the bakhtinian notion of speech genres as relatively stable type of utterances developed by each sphere in which language is used (BAKHTIN, 1953 ) and on Bazerman's proposition that genres are typified formats of discursive uses that orient human actions (Bazerman, 2005), my main purpose in this paper is to advocate the argument that language games typically used in EFL teaching-learning processes can be comprehended as typical speech genres from this educ (more) ational sphere. After an outline of the concepts of games, language games, format (BRUNER, 1975, ELKONIN, (1978 ), VYGOTSKY, 1930, WITTGENSTEIN, 1953) and genres that have oriented my reflection on the usage of games as instruments to construct specific linguistic-discursive components in a foreign language (SZUNDY, 2001, 2005), the paper focuses on the analysis of interaction excerpts from language games used in an EFL course to young learners aged 7-9. This analysis revisits the corpus of my master degree research (SZUNDY, 2001) with the main purpose of showing that language games (linguistic-discursive components) that takes place in the interior of determined games (activities) own a relative stability of content, format and style and create formats of standardized actions that guide the EFL knowledge construction process. Thus, these language games can be understood as speech genres.
Examined language choice for three bilingual families in the context of Singapore's bilingual policy for preschool children. Found that Chinese families prefer English for all activities; Malay families prefer the Malayan language for worship and interaction with family; and Tamil families choose the Tamil language for worship but prefer English for other family activities. (LBT)
My D-essay has the working title “Alternative Identities and Foreign Language Learning”. I have chosen this area because I have noticed a certain reluctance among Swedish students to use the foreign language English in English classes. They often seem embarrassed to express themselves in a language ...
To become a successful participant in the community of their academic discipline, students must learn this community's communicative currency: the norms, standards, procedures, and linguistic forms that constitute academic discourse. However, it is rare for a discipline's expectations and requirements to be overtly discussed or taught, despite the fact that research has demonstrated that there is a persistent gap between staff and student expectations and standards in this domain. In this article, we focus on academic writing, one component of academic discourse. Specifically, we consider the effects of an efficacy-focused teaching approach (actively targeting students' knowledge, skills, and related affect) on S/FL English language and literature students' (self-reported) knowledge of wha...
This essay addresses six pedagogical issues that English language arts teachers should consider in preparing to use Holocaust literature to address "intolerance and bigotry" in their teaching. Teachers should ask themselves: (1) Does the literature unit emphasize anti-Semitism as a cause of the Holocaust?; (2) Does the unit provide all relevant historical information?; (3) Does the unit make appropriate historical and structural distinctions, i.e. does it indicate what is unique about the Holocaust?; (4) Does the unit draw on appropriate comparisons to bring about these distinctions?; (5) Does the unit address contemporary anti-Semitism, here and elsewhere, as the first lesson of Holocaust study?; and (6) What other literary works are included to show the Jews as a living cultural group and to help students understand the basis for their identity as a people? The paper advocates an interdisciplinary approach to Holocaust studies with inclusion of appropriate readings from the Hebrew Bible and other appropriate moral education materials. (EH)
Research on incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition through reading has claimed that repeated encounters with unfamiliar words and the relative elaboration of processing these words facilitate word learning. However, so far both variables have been investigated in isolation. To help close this research gap, the current study investigates the differential effects of the variables "word exposure frequency" and "elaboration of word processing" on the initial word learning and subsequent word retention of advanced learners of L2 English. Whereas results showed equal effects for both variables on initial word learning, subsequent word retention was more contingent on elaborate processing of form-meaning relationships than on word frequency. These results, together with those of the studies reviewed, suggest that processing words again after reading (input-output cycles) is superior to reading-only tasks. The findings have significant implications for adaptation and development of teaching materials that enhance L2 vocabulary learning. (Contains 4 tables, 7 figures, and 5 notes.)
In order to promote the next generation of atmospheric scientists, the task Training and Education (T&E) in ACCENT, the European Network of Excellence in Atmospheric Composition Change (www.accent-network.org) has developed and implemented an Integrated Learning Environment (ILE). For school teachers and their students, the Internet-based "Global Change Magazine" provides up-to-date and freely accessible scientific material in English and five other languages. Additionally, T&E has produced online teaching material for early-career scientists. These e-learning modules are now being used in University Masters courses across Europe. T&E also organised training events for early-career scientists, combining scientific content with development in transferable skills, to focus on interdisciplina...
An example of cross-cultural education is provided by the Aurora Alive curriculum. Aurora Alive communicates science to Alaska Native students through cross-cultural educational products used in Alaska schools for more than a decade, including (1) a CDROM that provides digital graphics, bilingual (English and Athabascan language) narration-over-text and interactive elements that help students visualize scientific concepts, and (2) Teacher's Manuals containing more than 150 hands-on activities aligned to national science standards, and to Alaska Standards for Culturally Responsive Schools. Created by Native Elders and teachers working together with University Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute scientists, Aurora Alive blends Native "ways of knowing" with current "western" research to teach the physics and math of the aurora.
Recent trends in classroom evaluation seek innovative formative assessment intended to benefit learning, called assessment for learning (AFL), largely unresearched in the second language (L2) classroom (Rea-Dickins, 2004). This paper calls for taking L2 testing research to the next level, investigating the "usefulness" (Bachman & Palmer, 1996; Bachman, 2005) of formative assessment and AFL. We present data and preliminary results of a study of assessment practices in pre-university English for Academic Purposes (EAP) classes; participants include 9 teachers and 42 students. We describe five types of feedback from speaking tasks, and the assessment bridge, the area of classroom practice linking "assessment," teaching and learning. A mixed-methods approach was used, including curriculum document analysis, questionnaires, interviews and classroom observations.
This paper seeks to evaluate a specific implementation of a reflective approach to teacher education in a pre-service course in teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) in a UK university. This implementation is the use of delayed debriefing (supervisory conference) after lesson observation, providing the student teacher with support for reflection in the form of a time delay and completion of a structured journal. Six delayed debriefing events are compared with six immediate debriefing events from another institution providing a course leading to the same award. Three analyses of student teacher talk in the debriefing events are presented: topic initiation, modal verb use, and types of 'reasoning' talk. The analyses offer some evidence of a higher level of reflective analysis by the student teacher in delayed debriefings.
Based on two studies that we conducted in the Chicago metropolitan area in 2009 and 2010, we found that teachers do, in fact, use research, although they tend to seek it out under very specific conditions and circumstances. Namely, teachers tend to look for research in response to an immediate, pressing concern, such as how to best teach fractions to English language learners (ELLs). Teachers also turn to research to address a specific content need, such as gathering information for an upcoming lesson. In terms of broader reviews of research, teachers sometimes review research they have used in the past, such as best practices for a particular topic or method. Finally, teachers may consult educational research when they participate in groups that use research findings to more broadly support their instructional practices (e.g., study groups, committees, or courses on using research in the classroom). (Contains 1 table.)
This paper reports a case of online classes from the English Language Teaching Programme at Anadolu University, Turkey. The study used an explanatory case oriented research design that assisted to examine relations between students' learning styles and factors influencing students' participation in asynchronous interactions in online courses. The study was carried out during the 2006-2007 academic year with a sample of 139 junior and senior students. The converger learners were more involved in discussion boards compared to other learning style groups. The most popular support service was found to be pedagogical and social guidance for all types of learning styles while the least preferred support services were the administrative and technical. Unterstutzungsdienste und Lernstiele zur Beei...
We will discuss the connectivity of educational systems in the College of Arts and Sciences and the Faculty of Engineering in the University of Tokyo. Students entering the University of Tokyo are enrolled for the first two years in the College of Arts and Sciences, since specialized instruction should be erected on top of broad knowledge and understanding. The University is offering several new types of lecture such as Global Focus on Knowledge (Lecture series where leading scholars in several fields overview sciences mainly for freshmen) in order to lead freshmen into the broad and systematic “structuring of knowledge” . The Faculty of Engineering also tries several new series of (teaching) courses, for example, Knowledge Structuring, Engineering Minimum Lecture Series, MONOZUKURI Experiment, English Language Lessons etc., together with Electrical Syllabi System with MIMASearch.
After the fall of the communist regimes in Eastern Europe, technology started penetrating new markets like Romania. Technology was viewed as a tool to improve Romania's political and social standing in the world, and multilingual literacy became very important in the country's effort to join the European Union. This article analyzes how political goals impact the adoption of modern technology and the teaching of English in Romania and discusses how politics eventually aided the promotion of digital literacy and foreign language policies in Romanian schools. Other factors impacting IT and EFL literacy in this process were poverty, people's mentality, and the country's lack of infrastructure. This culminated in an emerging divide between some segments of the population as a result of the une...
A língua inglesa no ensino fundamentl I público: diálogos com Bakhtin por uma formação plurilíngue/ The english language at the public primary education: dialogue with Bakhtin for a pluralistic pedagogy
Abstract in portuguese Este artigo tem como objetivo principal a discussão sobre as contribuições das teorias do círculo bakhtiniano à área de ensino-aprendizagem de línguas estrangeiras (HALL et al., 2005), no que diz respeito aos primeiros anos da educação formal no Brasil, mais precisamente, ao Ensino Fundamental I. Até o presente momento as línguas estrangeiras, inclusive a língua inglesa, foco deste trabalho, não fazem parte da Matriz Curricular desse âmbito educacional. Fren (more) te à importância do inglês em uma sociedade globalizada e à despeito dos controversos impactos de sua influência nos mais variados campos, temos presenciado, de um modo geral, a crescente expansão da implantação dessa língua nas séries iniciais do ensino público, o que vem ocorrendo de forma irregular e sem apoio de parâmetros oficiais (ROCHA, 2006). Diante do exposto, a relevância deste estudo recai na apresentação de algumas diretrizes para o contexto focalizado, que visam a sustentar um ensino-aprendizagem supostamente mais efetivo, situado e significativo. Assim sendo, com base em uma abordagem plurilinguística e pluricultural frente à educação de línguas, tomam-se aqui os gêneros discursivos como organizadores do processo. Entendemos que, em um ensino de caráter dialógico e trans/intercultural (MAHER, 2007), voltado ao desenvolvimento de multiletramentos (COPE e KALANTZIS, 2000) críticos (COMBER, 2006), possa certamente ocorrer a hibridação de gêneros e de culturas. Nesse contexto, torna-se possível a criação de terceiros espaços (KOSTOGRIZ, 2005; KUMARAVADIVELU, 2008) que, por sua vez, propiciam a realização de uma aprendizagem transformadora. Nessa perspectiva, o inglês é visto como um objeto fronteiriço (STAR e GRIESEMER, 1989), no e pelo qual o plurilinguismo, a diversidade e a polifonia naturalmente se fazem presentes. Abstract in english This article aims at discussing the contributions of the Bakhtinian Circle theories to foreign language teaching and learning (HALL et al., 2005), as far as the first years of formal education in Brazil are concerned. Up to the present moment, foreign languages, including English, are not officially part of the National Curriculum of the first five schooling years. Due to the importance of English in a globalized world and despite all the controversial socio-educational i (more) mpacts of such an influence, there has been an increase in the interest in this discipline at the beginning years of Brazilian public education (ROCHA, 2006), which has been happening at an irregular pace and without official parameters. Therefore, the relevance of this work lies on the possible guidelines it may offer to support a more effective, situated and meaningful teaching-learning process in that context. Standing for a pluralistic approach to language education, we take the bakhtinian speech genres as organizers of the educational process. We strongly believe that through a dialogic, pluralistic and trans/intercultural teaching (MAHER, 2007), whose main objective is the development of multi (COPE e KALANTZIS, 2000) and critical (COMBER, 2006) literacies, the hybridization of genres and cultures, as well as the creation of third spaces (KOSTOGRIZ, 2005; KUMARAVADIVELU, 2008) can happen. From this perspective, foreign language teaching and learning play a transformative role in society and English is seen as a boundary object (STAR e GRIESEMER, 1989), in and by which diversity, pluralism and polyphony can naturally find their way.
Abstract in portuguese Partindo de experiências no ensino da prática e teoria da antropologia visual, o processo individual de aprendizagem de técnicas cinematográficas é contraposto ao desenvolvimento da antropologia visual como uma disciplina acadêmica. O experimentar do jovem antropólogo-cineasta com a linguagem fílmica revela-se como um processo relativamente independente de conhecimento teórico prévio, parece seguir de forma intuitiva os caminhos traçados pelos precursores de uma ?ciência das imagens?. Abstract in english Based on teaching experience of Visual Anthropology theory and practice, the individual learning process of film technique is compared with the development of Visual Anthropology as an academic discipline. The experimentation of the up-and-coming anthropologist-filmmaker with cinematographic language turns out to be a process fairly independent of prior theoretical knowledge and seems to follow intuitively the pathways pursued by the discipline?s founding fathers.
This article synthesizes 15 years of research in middle school classrooms that have started to integrate new literacies into their daily teaching and learning. Trends of the data suggest there are certain salient characteristics of middle school teachers and students in these grade levels that make such innovations more successful with them than with other grade levels. The author suggests that the organizational plan of many middle schools may be one of the keys to allowing the integration of new literacies. A workshop template is offered that would allow innovation to continue even as most schools transition to the new Common Core English Language Arts standards. This template includes time for conducting mini-lessons; responding to teacher-selected texts and student-selected texts (both page-based and screen-based texts); writing and creating teacher-directed texts and student-directed texts (both page-based and screen-based texts); and time for exhibiting and archiving student work. (Contains 1 figure.)
The case presentation is the core section of a medical case report. Issues in the teaching of case report writing have recently been the subject of great interest in medical education, especially in the era of globalization. Given that Taiwanese medical students, residents and junior physicians are requested to write case reports in English and they may experience difficulty in language use, there is a need to investigate models. The purpose of this study is to identify the rhetorical structure of case presentations and to find the differences in the linguistic features of case presentations between international and Taiwanese medical journals. We conducted a hand-tagged move analysis of a corpus of 40 case presentations. The findings revealed that the rhetorical structure of case presenta...
This guide contains fine arts activities that foreign language teachers can use in their classrooms, along with annotated bibliographies of instructional materials, children's books, and teaching guides. After an introduction that defines global education, the guide is divided into four sections, covering the visual arts, music, dance, and drama/theater. Each section provides outlines of activities in English, French, German, and Spanish. The dance section contains bibliographies of childrens books, basic books in puppetry, resources for teachers, and multicultural art. The music section contains bibliographies of books, songbooks of music from various nations, textbooks, and articles, as well as separate lists for French, German, and Spanish music. The dance section contains bibliographies of dance books and other resources on dances from around the world, including a list of contact organizations. The drama/theater section contains bibliographies of essential resources, textbooks, supplementary resources, videotapes and film, curriculum guides, publishers, professional organizations, and journals. (MDM)
The "Sound of the Day" is a color stimulation method of teaching reading in English, Chinese (both the characters and the orthographical pin-yin), and other languages. The method involves reviewing previously learned sounds, introducing a new sound each day, learning four new words which begin with the same sound, and then drawing and coloring pictures to illustrate the words. As each exercise is carried out, the student is learning not only the basic sound, but how that sound is integrated into words, as well as the meanings of the four words in the exercise. In addition, the combination of writing, drawing, and coloring reinforces learning and offers a channel for expressing feelings. The method is particularly helpful with learning-disabled and emotionally disturbed students who become easily frustrated when faced with difficult academic tasks such as learning to read. (JDD)
This is a design study meant to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating three rather different theoretical perspectives for future efforts in multimedia instructional design. A multimedia instructional grammar program contextualized within the teaching of English as a Second Language (ESL) was developed and evaluated. The program design was grounded in Mayerâ??????s multimedia learning theory (2001), Swellerâ??????s cognitive load theory (CLT, 2005), and cognitive training theory using an inductive reasoning paradigm (Klauer and Phye, Rev Educ Res 78(1):85â??????124, 2008). A successful integration of cognitive training theory into program design is expected to facilitate the transition of studentâ??????s declarative knowledge of a grammar concept of passive voice to procedural know...
Abstract in spanish Este trabajo establece algunos ejes problemáticos del tratamiento de los textos de la oralidad cultural en el área de lengua materna en la educación en Colombia. Hace una mirada crítica a la situación actual de dicho tratamiento y presenta criterios para establecer corpus textuales de la oralidad cultural en Colombia según el cumplimiento de unos rasgos de canonicidad. Abstract in english This article deals with some problematic issues associated to the textual orality for teaching Spanish as first language in Colombia . It is given a critical look of the current situation. In these terms, it is proposed a wide range of criteria for establishing textual corpus of the cultural orality, according to some canonical features.
The scientometric study of scientific output through publications in specialized journals cannot be undertaken exclusively with the databases available today. For this reason, the objective of this article is to introduce the "Base de Datos de Investigacion en Orientacion Vocacional" [Vocational Guidance Research Database], based on the use of scientometric indicators. The use of dynamic tables in the technical design of this database results in real-time updates. Moreover, the option of exporting data to other software programs enables researchers to expand their field of study. This is complemented by a topic-based vocational guidance classification, allowing us to identify the fields that are most researched, and a vocational guidance glossary containing 245 terms in three languages (Spanish, English and French). Furthermore, we can use this database for teaching purposes, as an introduction to scientometric research. The flexibility of this database also makes possible an expansion to other areas and fields of psychology. (Contains 7 figures.)
This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, addresses the different roles of women in the United States. Topics covered include the following: identifying problematic lifestyle differences; defining solutions to such problems; role-playing effective and ineffective ways to address problems; acknowledging role changes necessary for success; identifying conflicting pressures; questioning and weighing traditional and contemporary values; and communicating uncertainties or perspectives on problems. Basic skills addressed include communication skills, thinking skills, personal qualities, using resources, interpersonal skills, using information, and working with systems. The module contains the following: teaching points for the instructor; sample learning activities; a list of 12 resources; a sample lesson plan consisting of objectives, learners and context, room setup, materials needed, tasks to do ahead, media used, and steps for conducting the lesson; role-play materials; and pre- and postassessments. (KC)