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1

Radiocarbon and U-series dating of the endemic deer Praemegaceros cazioti (Deperet) from 'Grotta Juntu', Sardinia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Radiocarbon and U-series methods (230Th/U and 231Pa/235U) for absolute age determination have been applied to some fossil samples from Grotta Juntu, in North Eastern Sardinia (Italy). The remains belong to the endemic deer species Praemegaceros cazioti, which is here represented by an almost complete skeleton. The three dating methods lead to concordant ages of about 7500 years BP, indicating that the skeleton was maintained as closed system after burial. Taking into consideration these results, Praemegaceros cazioti from Grotta Juntu is now the youngest representative of this species in Sardinia. (authors)

2007-01-01

2

Radiocarbon and U-series dating of the endemic deer Praemegaceros cazioti (Deperet) from 'Grotta Juntu', Sardinia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiocarbon and U-series methods ({sup 230}Th/U and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U) for absolute age determination have been applied to some fossil samples from Grotta Juntu, in North Eastern Sardinia (Italy). The remains belong to the endemic deer species Praemegaceros cazioti, which is here represented by an almost complete skeleton. The three dating methods lead to concordant ages of about 7500 years BP, indicating that the skeleton was maintained as closed system after burial. Taking into consideration these results, Praemegaceros cazioti from Grotta Juntu is now the youngest representative of this species in Sardinia. (authors)

Benzi, V. [Univ Bologna, Lab Ing Nucl, I-40136 Bologna, (Italy); Abbazzi, L. [Univ Florence, Dipartimento Sci Terra and Museo Storia Nat, I-50121 Florence, (Italy); Bartolomei, P.; Giampieri, R. [ENEA, I-40136 Bologna, (Italy); Esposito, M. [U Series Srl, I-40127 Bologna, (Italy); Fasso, C. [Azienda Foreste Demaniali Reg Sarda, I-09123 Cagliari, (Italy); Fonzo, O. [Via Lai 2, I-09123 Cagliari, (Italy); Murgia, F. [Grp Grotte Nuorese, I-08100 Nuoro, (Italy); Reyss, J.L. [Lab mixte CEA Saclay-CNRS, Lab Sci Climat and Environm, F-91198 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

2007-07-01

3

Acaricidal treatment of white-tailed deer to control Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a New York Lyme disease-endemic community.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The efficacy of topically treating white-tailed deer with an acaricide was evaluated in a Lyme disease-endemic community of southern New York State. Twenty-four 4-Poster feeders were placed in a 5.2 km(2) treatment area in Bedford, NY, while a site in Lewisboro, NY, 4.8 km distant, served as control. Treatment periods ran from 15 September to 15 December each fall from 1997 to 2001, and from 15 March to 15 May each spring from 1998 to 2002. Corn consumption averaged 15,779 kg in fall sessions and 9054 kg in spring sessions, and a mean of 89.6% of deer in the study area showed evidence of using the feeders. Deer densities, estimated by aerial snow counts, averaged 22 and 28 deer per km(2) in Bedford and Lewisboro, respectively, over a 3-year period. Significant reductions in tick numbers on deer captured in the treatment area were noted in fall 1999 compared to deer captured at the control site. Drag sampling for nymphal host-seeking ticks indicated 63.6% control in 2001, which dropped to 54.8% the following year, but reached 80% in 2003. Higher-than-normal acorn production in 2001 that likely caused a drop in deer visitation to the feeders may have reduced efficacy against larval ticks in 2002. The 4-Poster effectively reduced the density of Ixodes scapularis, though the level of control is dependent on environmental factors that affect feeding behavior of white-tailed deer.

Daniels TJ; Falco RC; McHugh EE; Vellozzi J; Boccia T; Denicola AJ; Pound JM; Miller JA; George JE; Fish D

2009-08-01

4

A Plague of Deer  

Science.gov (United States)

This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience journal is on the issue of deer overpopulation. Unchecked deer populations are causing a decline in forest diversity. Overbrowsing by deer leaves only the few plant species deer can't digest as survivors. Managing deer populations through revised hunting practices, however, meets strong resistance.

SHARON LEVY (;)

2006-09-01

5

Correlation of TBE incidence with red deer and roe deer abundance in Slovenia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a virus infection which sometimes causes human disease. The TBE virus is found in ticks and certain vertebrate tick hosts in restricted endemic localities termed TBE foci. The formation of natural foci is a combination of several factors: the vectors, a suitable and numerous enough number of hosts and in a habitat with suitable vegetation and climate. The present study investigated the influence of deer on the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. We were able to obtain data from deer culls. Using this data, the abundance of deer was estimated and temporal and spatial analysis was performed. The abundance of deer has increased in the past decades, as well as the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. Temporal analysis confirmed a correlation between red deer abundance and tick-borne encephalitis occurrence. Additionally, spatial analysis established, that in areas with high incidence of tick-borne encephalitis red deer density is higher, compared to areas with no or few human cases of tick-borne encephalitis. However, such correlation could not be confirmed between roe deer density and the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. This is presumably due to roe deer density being above a certain threshold so that availability of tick reproduction hosts has no apparent effect on ticks' host finding and consequently may not be possible to correlate with incidence of human TBE.

Knap N; Avši?-Županc T

2013-01-01

6

A frightening device for deterring deer use of cattle feeders  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The presence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in cattle can negatively impact a state's economy and cattle industry. In Michigan, USA, wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are a reservoir for reinfecting cattle herds. Although direct TB transmission between deer and cattle is rare, infected deer may contaminate cattle feed. To mitigate this risk, we designed and evaluated a deer-resistant cattle feeder (DRCF) device for deterring deer from feeders. The device delivered negative stimuli to condition deer to avoid cattle feeders. We tested the device by conducting a comparative change experiment at a high-density captive white-tailed deer operation in northeastern lower Michigan using pretreatment and treatment periods and random allocation of DRCF protection to 3 of 6 feeders during the treatment period. We used animal-activated cameras to collect data on deer use of feeders. Deer use was similar at protected and unprotected feeders during the pretreatment period but was lower at protected feeders during the treatment period. Deer-resistant cattle feeders were 100% effective during the first 2 treatment weeks, 94% during the first 5 weeks, but effectiveness then dropped to 61% during the final week. Excluding problems associated with low battery power and infrared sensors, DRCFs were 99% effective at deterring deer. Our results suggest that DRCFs can effectively limit deer use of cattle feed, potentially with minimal impact on feeding behavior of cattle, thus reducing potential transmission of bovine TB through contaminated feed. By employing DRCFs in bovine TB endemic areas, especially at times that deer are food stressed, agencies and producers can practically and economically reduce the potential for bovine TB to be transmitted from deer to cattle.

Seward NW; Phillips GE; Duquette JF; Vercauteren KC

2007-02-01

7

Musk deer farming in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Five musk deer species (genus Moschus) are distributed in China, and the present estimated numbers in the wild are between 220 000 and 320 000. Population size of musk deer has dropped significantly due to historical over-hunting and loss or degradation of their habitat. Musk deer farming, therefore, has become one of the most appropriate ways to protect and utilize musk deer resources. In China, musk deer farming and extracting musk from the captive musk deer have been reasonably successful since the early 1950s. At present three species of musk deer, namely forest (Moschus Berezovskii), alpine (M. sifanicus) and Siberian (M. moschiferus) musk deer are farmed in China and, of these, the forest musk deer is the main captive population. The present patterns of musk deer farming in China, however, need to be improved and developed into more economic and scientific modes in order to improve the rate of survival and reproduction, and to increase the production of musk.

Meng X; Zhou C; Hu J; Li C; Meng Z; Feng J; Zhou Y; Zhu Y

2006-02-01

8

Rabies in Captive Deer  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Dr. Brett Petersen, a medical officer at CDC, discusses rabies in captive deer.  Created: 4/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/30/2012.

2012-04-30

9

Demographic characterization and social patterns of the Neotropical pampas deer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The most endangered subspecies of pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus uruguayensis is an endemic cervidae of the Uruguayan temperate grasslands. The aim of our study was to assess the demographic trends, grouping structure and dynamic of this small and isolated population. We surveyed the population during seven years and detected an average of 117 (+ 72.7 SD) individuals (44 censuses). The average population structure observed was 55% adult females, 34% adult males, 10% juveniles, and 1% fawns, with a low recruitment rate of 0.11. The pampas deer is a gregarious cervidae with 62% of individuals being observed within groups of at least three animals. Nevertheless we observed substantial differences on group size and composition based on sex, reproductive status, season and trophic resources availability. The population dynamics showed significant changes around the year in the sexual aggregation-segregation pattern, corresponding with reproductive and physiological status. The mean density on this population (11 deer/ km(2)) is the highest reported for the species. Comparable data, from other populations, showed a significant correlation between density and sex ratio, with a reduction in the proportion of males with higher deer densities. An action plan for this endangered population should include initiatives involving private landowners, and guidelines to improve the deer habitat.

Cosse M; González S

2013-12-01

10

Deer Tracks in the City?  

Science.gov (United States)

"Why would a deer print be in the city?" wondered a student. She had noticed the track near a grocery store that morning with her mother. She was familiar with deer and had noticed their prints on a trip to a local museum; however, she had never seen a deer in the city before this experience. As she retold the story to her classmates, her question…

Quigley, Cassie Fay; Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole; Riggs, Morgan; Rodriguez, Antonia; Buck, Gayle

2009-01-01

11

Dinitrotoluene in deer tissues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP), Baraboo, Wisconsin, has within a security-fenced area, a herd of whitetail deer. The US Army and the State of Wisconsin, Department of Health and Social Services have determined that approximately 20 of the deer be harvested and tissue samples thus collected be analyzed for 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,4- and 2,6-DNT) by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to a sensitivity of 0.1 part per million (ppm). The HPLC analyses will be done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) following protocol used previously for similar work for other government sites. ORNL shall instruct Olin relative to the quantity and type of tissue required, storage and shipment requirements, and other information to ensure that all protocol and chain of custody requirements are clear. A final report will be made to Olin Corporation upon completion of the HPLC analyses.

Shugart, L.R.

1991-09-30

12

Diagnosis of acute deer tick virus encephalitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Deer tick virus (DTV) is a tick-borne flavivirus that has only recently been appreciated as a cause of viral encephalitis. We describe the clinical presentation of a patient who had DTV encephalitis diagnosed before death and survived for 8 months despite severe neurologic dysfunction. METHODS: Diagnosis was made from a cerebrospinal fluid specimen, using a flavivirus-specific polymerase chain-reaction assay followed by sequence confirmation, and the phylogeny was analyzed. Serologic testing, including plaque reduction neutralization testing, was also performed. RESULTS: Molecular analysis indicated that the virus was closely related to 2 strains of DTV that had been detected in Ixodes scapularis ticks from Massachusetts in 1996 and in the brain of a patient from New York in 2007. CONCLUSIONS: DTV encephalitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of encephalitis in geographic areas that are endemic for Lyme disease.

El Khoury MY; Hull RC; Bryant PW; Escuyer KL; St George K; Wong SJ; Nagaraja A; Kramer L; Dupuis AP; Purohit T; Shah T; Wormser GP

2013-02-01

13

Population Study Game: Oh, Deer!  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners model a population of deer and see how the number of deer changes over time. Learners investigate population change and graph the population over time to learn about how habitat availability affects populations. This activity works best outside.

Commission, South C.

2006-01-01

14

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as a potential sentinel for human Lyme disease in Indiana.  

Science.gov (United States)

We assessed the potential of white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus) to be a sentinel for human cases of Lyme disease (LD) in Indiana using location data from a 3-year survey of approximately 3400 hunted deer with associated tick Ixodes scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) data. Data on human LD cases at the county level were obtained from the Indiana Department of Health. All data were assigned to county centroids to match the resolution of the LD data before creating optimized trend surfaces for LD incidence, hunted deer count, Ixodes scapularis and Bb prevalence. To determine whether LD was spatially associated with the areas of high densities of deer, deer with Ixodes scapularis and deer with ticks infected with Bb, we used spatial analysis with distance indices (SADIE). The SADIE analysis found significant spatial association between LD and the distribution of three organismal predictor variables, that is, WTD, Ixodes ticks and Bb. Lyme disease incident rate varied between 0.08 cases per 10,000 habitants (Johnson county) and 5.9 cases per 10,000 habitants (Warren county). In conclusion, WTD can be used as an accurate and cost-effective sentinel for human LD. This method will permit public health workers to identify potentially endemic areas independently of human case reports. PMID:22776734

Raizman, E A; Holland, J D; Shukle, J T

2012-07-09

15

Habitat, wildlife, and one health: Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Maryland and Upper Eastern Shore white-tailed deer populations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Understanding the distribution of disease in wildlife is key to predicting the impact of emerging zoonotic one health concerns, especially for wildlife species with extensive human and livestock interfaces. The widespread distribution and complex interactions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with humans suggest deer population health and management may have implications beyond stewardship of the animals. The intracranial abscessation suppurative meningitis (IASM) disease complex in deer has been linked to Arcanobacterium pyogenes, an under-diagnosed and often misdiagnosed organism considered commensal in domestic livestock but associated with serious disease in numerous species, including humans. Methods: Our study used standard bacterial culture techniques to assess A. pyogenes prevalence among male deer sampled across six physiogeographic regions in Maryland and male and female deer in the Upper Eastern Shore under Traditional Deer Management (TDM) and Quality Deer Management (QDM), a management protocol that alters population demographics in favor of older male deer. Samples were collected from antler pedicles for males, the top of the head where pedicles would be if present for females, or the whole dorsal frontal area of the head for neonates. We collected nasal samples from all animals by swabbing the nasopharyngeal membranes. A gram stain and catalase test were conducted, and aerobic bacteria were identified to genus and species when possible. We evaluated the effect of region on whether deer carried A. pyogenes using Pearson's chi-square test with Yates’ continuity correction. For the white-tailed deer management study, we tested whether site, age class and sex predisposed animals to carrying A. pyogenes using binary logistic regression. Results: A. pyogenes was detected on deer in three of the 6 regions studied, and was common in only one region, the Upper Eastern Shore. In the Upper Eastern Shore, 45% and 66% of antler and nasal swabs from deer were positive for A. pyogenes, respectively. On the Upper Eastern Shore, prevalence of A. pyogenes cultured from deer did not differ between management areas, and was abundant among both sexes and across all age classes. No A. pyogenes was cultured from a small sample of neonates. Conclusion: Our study indicates A. pyogenes may be carried widely among white-tailed deer regardless of sex or age class, but we found no evidence the pathogen is acquired in utero. The distribution of A. pyogenes across regions and concentration in a region with low livestock levels suggests the potential for localized endemicity of the organism and the possibility that deer may serve as a maintenance reservoir for an emerging one health concern.

Melissa M. Turner; Christopher S. Deperno; Mark C. Conner; T. Brian Eyler; Richard A. Lancia; Robert W. Klaver; Michael K. Stoskopf

2013-01-01

16

Habitat, wildlife, and one health: Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Maryland and Upper Eastern Shore white-tailed deer populations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Understanding the distribution of disease in wildlife is key to predicting the impact of emerging zoonotic one health concerns, especially for wildlife species with extensive human and livestock interfaces. The widespread distribution and complex interactions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with humans suggest deer population health and management may have implications beyond stewardship of the animals. The intracranial abscessation suppurative meningitis (IASM) disease complex in deer has been linked to Arcanobacterium pyogenes, an under-diagnosed and often misdiagnosed organism considered commensal in domestic livestock but associated with serious disease in numerous species, including humans. METHODS: Our study used standard bacterial culture techniques to assess A. pyogenes prevalence among male deer sampled across six physiogeographic regions in Maryland and male and female deer in the Upper Eastern Shore under Traditional Deer Management (TDM) and Quality Deer Management (QDM), a management protocol that alters population demographics in favor of older male deer. Samples were collected from antler pedicles for males, the top of the head where pedicles would be if present for females, or the whole dorsal frontal area of the head for neonates. We collected nasal samples from all animals by swabbing the nasopharyngeal membranes. A gram stain and catalase test were conducted, and aerobic bacteria were identified to genus and species when possible. We evaluated the effect of region on whether deer carried A. pyogenes using Pearson's chi-square test with Yates' continuity correction. For the white-tailed deer management study, we tested whether site, age class and sex predisposed animals to carrying A. pyogenes using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: A. pyogenes was detected on deer in three of the six regions studied, and was common in only one region, the Upper Eastern Shore. In the Upper Eastern Shore, 45% and 66% of antler and nasal swabs from deer were positive for A. pyogenes, respectively. On the Upper Eastern Shore, prevalence of A. pyogenes cultured from deer did not differ between management areas, and was abundant among both sexes and across all age classes. No A. pyogenes was cultured from a small sample of neonates. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates A. pyogenes may be carried widely among white-tailed deer regardless of sex or age class, but we found no evidence the pathogen is acquired in utero. The distribution of A. pyogenes across regions and concentration in a region with low livestock levels suggests the potential for localized endemicity of the organism and the possibility that deer may serve as a maintenance reservoir for an emerging one health concern.

Turner MM; Deperno CS; Conner MC; Eyler TB; Lancia RA; Klaver RW; Stoskopf MK

2013-01-01

17

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Alpine musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster).  

Science.gov (United States)

Though extensive efforts have been made to investigate the phylogeny of the Cetartiodactyla, the relationships within the Cetartiodactyla, especially the position of the family Moschidae among Ruminantia families, still remain controversial. To further clarify these relationships, we sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the Alpine musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster), which is an endemic endangered species from China. Then, we conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses of the Alpine musk deer and 49 other species on the basis of Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods. The results show that the Moschidae is the sister group of the Bovidae, both of which form a clade that clusters with the Cervidae. The cetaceans are nested within the Artiodactyla as the sister group of the Hippopotamidae. Among the musk deer, M. chrysogaster and M. berezovskii are more closely related to each other than to M. moschiferus. PMID:23577614

Yang, Chengzhong; Xiang, Changkui; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong

2013-04-11

18

Endemic syphilis and yaws  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Endemic syphilis and similar conditions are compared in this paper with yaws. Both are non-venereal and endemic, and they have very similar epidemiological characteristics. There is also considerable similarity in the clinical manifestations at the various stages of yaws and endemic syphilis, the di...

Grin, E. I.

19

Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) as hosts for Borrelia spp. in northern California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of infection of Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) with Borrelia spp. was evaluated in an area of northwestern California (USA) where Lyme disease is endemic and the relapsing-fever group spirochete Borrelia coriaceae is enzootic, and in a far-removed comparison area having a disparate climate and lower density of vector ticks. Blood samples collected from both deer herds in 1987, 1988, and from 2000-02 were assayed for borrelial infection with microscopic and molecular methods. Serum specimens from two (5%) of 39 deer from the Dye Creek Preserve in Tehama County versus 13 (20%) of 64 animals from the Hopland Research and Extension Center (HREC) in Mendocino County, California were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test positive for B. burgdorferi sensu lato. DNA sequencing analyses revealed that eight animals were infected with B. bissettii, six with three unclassified genotypes, and one with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. One serum sample (2%) from HREC was positive for a relapsing-fever group spirochete that had a 16S rRNA sequence homology of 99% with the C053 type strain of B. coriaceae. Spirochetes undetermined to geno-species were detected in thick-blood drops prepared from three (8%) of 36 deer from the HREC by direct immunofluorescence. Adults of the hippoboscid flies Lipoptena depressa (n=73) and Neolipoptena ferrisi (n=24), the Pacific Coast tick (Dermacentor occidentalis) (n=22), and the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus) (n=1) that had been removed from deer from both study areas in 2002 were PCR test negative for borreliae. The occurrence of diverse borreliae in deer from northern California confounds and, consequently, reduces the utility of borrelial serosurveys for detecting specific genospecies, unless they are complemented by more specific assays (e.g., immunoblotting, PCR/sequencing analysis).

Lane RS; Mun J; Parker JM; White M

2005-01-01

20

Mitochondrial genome of the Anhui musk deer (Moschus anhuiensis).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Anhui musk deer (Moschus anhuiensis) is an endangered species which is endemic to a narrow region in two National Nature Reserves in Dabie Mountains, Anhui Province, China. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of M. anhuiensis. The results showed that the total length of the mitogenome was 16,351 bp as a circular DNA and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region. Overall base composition of the complete mitochondrial DNA was 34.0% A, 28.1% T, 25.0% C, and 12.9% G. The M. anhuiensis mitochondrial genome had 21 tRNA genes folded in the typical cloverleaf structure, with a unique exception of tRNA(Ser). The mitochondrial genes from M. anhuiensis were overlapped in a total of 72 bp at seven locations, as well as interleaved with a total of 62 bp intergenic spacers.

Zhu X; Shi W; Pan T; Wang H; Zhou L; Zhang B

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
21

Welfare issues of modern deer farming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper will start with briefly outlining the recent domestication history of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama), followed by a description of the present status of modern deer farming. It will then review the main welfare issues of deer farming. The following aspects will be considered: accommodation and housing, management and handling, nutrition (feed and water provision), transport and slaughter, plus a short mention of velvet harvest. As a summary, the following practices can be recommended to ensure animal welfare in modern deer farming: the adoption of suitable housing systems and of adequate management techniques (e.g. specific handling pens and drop-floor cradles or crushes) and the respect of specific needs (e.g. provision of protection and shelter from predators as well as from climatic extremes, such as cold winds or direct solar radiation). Handling and yarding operations will be easier when they occur in dim light. Special attention must be paid to the manipulation of the newborns. At the slaughterhouse, facilities must be designed specifically for deer. The presence of well trained stockpersons, with a sound knowledge of deer physiology and behaviour, is also a key-factor for improving welfare levels in deer farms. To achieve these aims, training of the managers and stockpersons and the adoption of specific codes of conducts are highly recommendable.

Silvana Mattiello

2010-01-01

22

Ehrlichia chaffeensis Infection of Sika Deer, Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To determine whether Ehrlichia chaffeensis exists in Japan, we used PCR to examine blood from sika deer in Nara, Japan. Of 117 deer, 36 (31%) were infected with E. chaffeensis. The E. chaffeensis 16S rRNA base and GroEL amino acid sequences from Japan were most closely related to those of E. chaffee...

Kawahara, Makoto; Tajima, Tomoko; Torii, Harumi; Yabutani, Mitsutaka; Ishii, Joji; Harasawa, Makiko; Isogai, Emiko

23

Observations of captive Rocky Mountain mule deer behavior  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Observations were made near Fort Collins, Colorado on the behavior of a captive herd of Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus). Comparisons in general behavior patterns were made between captive and wild deer. Similar behavior was exhibited by captive and wild deer. Captive deer (as well as other species) may be useful for study of certain behavioral aspects of their wild counterparts.

Halford, D.K.; Arthur, W.J. III; Alldredge, A.W.

1987-01-31

24

Exacerbation of latent erythrocytic infections in deer following splenectomy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eight adult deer and 4 fawns, from wild populations, were splenectomized and observed for evidence of hemo-parasitic relapses. The animals were maintained indoors under tick-free conditions and in the absence of known arthropod vectors. Following splenectomy 2 adult deer and 2 fawns developed acute Eperythrozoon infections, 3 adult deer developed acute Theileria infections, 2 adult deer developed a demonstrable Anaplasma marginale parasitemia, and 1 adult deer exhibited a low level parasitemia of a plasmodial-like intraerythrocytic parasite. The remaining deer failed to develop a parasitemia following splenectomy. In the absence of a specific parasitemia no drop occurred in packed cell volume following splenectomy.

Kuttler KL; Robinson RM; Rogers WP

1967-12-01

25

Endemic skeletal fluorosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Endemic skeletal fluorosis is described in 6 children aged 11 or over. Four cases were crippled with severe deformities in the spine, hips, and knees. All showed positive phosphorus, magnesium, and nitrogen balances and excessively positive calcium balances. The skeletal x-rays, histology, and chemi...

Teotia, M.; Teotia, S. P. S.; Kunwar, K. B.

26

Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

1994-12-31

27

Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic area...

Reddy D

28

[Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in Hungary: endemic, food-borne zoonosis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of a common cause of acute, fecally transmitted hepatitis in developing countries. Identification of HEV in indigenous human infection and in domestic pig raises the possibility that HEV infection is also a zoonosis. AIM/METHODS: Molecular detection and epidemiology of HEV in humans with acute hepatitis and in domestic (pig, cattle) and wild (boar and roe-deer) animals by ELISA and RT-PCR in Hungary. RESULTS: Between 2001 and 2006, a total of 116 (9.6%) human sera were positive by HEV IgM ELISA and 13 (24.5%) of 53 samples were also confirmed by RT-PCR and sequencing. Forty-two, 11 and 9 samples were RT-PCR-positive from swine (feces: 22.7%; liver: 30.8%), roe-deer (liver: 34.4%) and wild boar (liver: 12.2%), respectively. Except for an imported infection caused by genotype 1, 19 sequences (human: 12, swine: 4, roe-deer: 1, wild boar: 2) belong to genotype 3 HEV. Genetically identical strains were detected in human and roe-deer and in 2 other human clusters. CONCLUSIONS: HEV is an endemic agent in Hungary. Consumption of raw or undercooked meat-products is one of the possible sources of the indigenous HEV infections. Cross-species infection with genotype 3 HEV involves a food-borne transmission route in Hungary.

Reuter G; Fodor D; Forgách P; Kátai A; Szucs G

2009-03-01

29

Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-transmitted, economically important disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Although only five of the 26 reported bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes are considered endemic to the USA, 10 exotic serotypes have been isolated primarily in the southeastern region of the country since 1999. For an exotic BTV serotype to become endemic there must be susceptible animal species and competent vectors. In the USA, sheep and white-tailed deer (WTD) are the primary sentinel livestock and wildlife species, respectively. In 2006, BTV-8 was introduced into Northern Europe and subsequently overwintered, causing unprecedented livestock disease and mortality during the 2006-2007 vector seasons. To assess the risk of the European strain of BTV-8 to North American WTD, and understand the role they could play after a similar introduction, eight bluetongue-seronegative WTD were inoculated with BTV-8. Body temperatures and clinical signs were recorded daily. Blood samples were analyzed for BTV RNA with quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), serum analyzed for BTV antibodies by cELISA, and tissues taken for histopathology and qRT-PCR. All eight deer became infected and developed moderate to severe clinical disease from days 8 to 15. Peak viremia was from day 7 to 10 with detectable titers through the end of the study (28 days) in most deer. Serum antibody was detected by day 6, peaked by day 10 and continued through day 28. We conclude that North American WTD are highly susceptible to BTV-8 and would act as clinical disease sentinels and amplifying hosts during an outbreak. PMID:23876932

Drolet, Barbara S; Reister, Lindsey M; Rigg, Tara D; Nol, Pauline; Podell, Brendan K; Mecham, James O; Vercauteren, Kurt C; van Rijn, Piet A; Wilson, William C; Bowen, Richard A

2013-06-19

30

Dermatomycosis (Ringworm) in Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Six mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with dermatomycosis are described. Trichophyton verrucosum was isolated from four. All infections were mild and were not debilitating. The lesions involved the legs in five animals and the face in two. This is the second report of ringworm in a wild ungulate in North America. PMID:17422319

Wobeser, G; Mitcham, S A; Saunders, J R; Hunt, H M

1983-10-01

31

Dermatomycosis (Ringworm) in Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Six mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with dermatomycosis are described. Trichophyton verrucosum was isolated from four. All infections were mild and were not debilitating. The lesions involved the legs in five animals and the face in two. This is the second report of ringworm in a wild ungulate in No...

Wobeser, G.; Mitcham, S. A.; Saunders, J. R.; Hunt, H. M.

32

Hepatocellular tumours in roe deer in Britain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Between January 1992 and March 1994 the geographical distribution and prevalence of hepatocellular tumours in roe deer in Britain was studied. The highest prevalence was found in north east England and in the east of Scotland. An as yet unidentified dietary factor is thought to have been involved in the development of these tumours. The histological features of 37 hepatocellular neoplasms are summarised.

Munro R; Youngson RW

1996-06-01

33

METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING FEED FOR A DEER  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Deer feed using probiotics is provided to enable deer to improve immunity by delivering effects of the probiotics, thereby producing high quality Cervi Parvum Cornu. A production method for deer feed comprises the 35-45 parts of corn kernel, the 10-20 parts of perilla meal, the 78-80 parts of bean-curd dregs, the 10-20 parts of milo bran, the 10-20 parts of Sorghum, the 15-25 parts of ginseng dregs, the 25-35 parts of wormwood, the 8-12 parts of probiotics and the 2.5-3.5 parts of salt on a basis of the 30 parts of barley bran by weight. All the ingredients are aged at a temperature of 20~30 DEG C for 20-40 days. The 11-13 kg of aged feed is supplied to deer a day. The probiotics contains Lactobacillus casei, Aspergillus Oryzae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bacillus Subtilis and Streptomyces griseus.

KIM BEOM HO; LEE SEONG BOK

34

Survey of Borreliae in ticks, canines, and white-tailed deer from Arkansas, U.S.A.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In the Eastern and Upper Midwestern regions of North America, Ixodes scapularis (L.) is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans and the primary vector of B. burgdorferi, whereas in the southeastern region Amblyomma americanum (Say) is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans but cannot transmit B. burgdorferi. Surveys of Borreliae in ticks have been conducted in the southeastern United States and often these surveys identify B. lonestari as the primary Borrelia species, surveys have not included Arkansas ticks, canines, or white-tailed deer and B. lonestari is not considered pathogenic. The objective of this study was to identify Borrelia species within Arkansas by screening ticks (n=2123), canines (n=173), and white-tailed deer (n=228) to determine the identity and locations of Borreliae endemic to Arkansas using PCR amplification of the flagellin (flaB) gene. METHODS: Field collected ticks from canines and from hunter-killed white-tailed were identified to species and life stage. After which, ticks and their hosts were screened for the presence of Borrelia using PCR to amplify the flaB gene. A subset of the positive samples was confirmed with bidirectional sequencing. RESULTS: In total 53 (21.2%) white-tailed deer, ten (6%) canines, and 583 (27.5%) Ixodid ticks (252 Ixodes scapularis, 161 A. americanum, 88 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 50 Amblyomma maculatum, 19 Dermacentor variabilis, and 13 unidentified Amblyomma species) produced a Borrelia flaB amplicon. Of the positive ticks, 324 (22.7%) were collected from canines (151 A. americanum, 78 R. sanguineus, 43 I. scapularis, 26 A. maculatum, 18 D. variabilis, and 8 Amblyomma species) and 259 (37.2%) were collected from white-tailed deer (209 I. scapularis, 24 A. maculatum, 10 A. americanum, 10 R. sanguineus, 1 D. variabilis, and 5 Amblyomma species). None of the larvae were PCR positive. A majority of the flaB amplicons were homologous with B. lonestari sequences: 281 of the 296 sequenced ticks, 3 canines, and 27 deer. Only 22 deer, 7 canines, and 15 tick flaB amplicons (12 I. scapularis, 2 A. maculatum, and 1 Amblyomma species) were homologous with B. burgdorferi sequences. CONCLUSIONS: Data from this study identified multiple Borreliae genotypes in Arkansas ticks, canines and deer including B. burgdorferi and B. lonestari; however, B. lonestari was significantly more prevalent in the tick population than B. burgdorferi. Results from this study suggest that the majority of tick-borne diseases in Arkansas are not B. burgdorferi.

Fryxell RT; Steelman CD; Szalanski AL; Kvamme KL; Billingsley PM; Williamson PC

2012-01-01

35

Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis isolates from red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from Poland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 181 faecal samples were collected from wild cervids in two regions of Poland. Giardia cysts were detected in one faecal specimen from red deer and in two samples from roe deer. Fragments of the beta-giardin (bg) triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes were successfully amplified from the Giardia isolate obtained from red deer, whereas only amplicons of bg and gdh were obtained from Giardia isolates derived from two roe deer. The result of genotyping and phylogenetic analysis showed that the G. duodenalis isolate from red deer belonged to sub-assemblage AIII, which has never been identified in humans, whereas isolates from roe deer clustered within zoonotic sub-assemblage AI. Further studies are necessary to explain which Giardia assemblages and/or sub-assemblages occur in wild cervids in various regions of the world. Moreover, the impact of Giardia infection on the health of wild cervids should also be elucidated.

Solarczyk P; Majewska AC; Moskwa B; Cabaj W; Dabert M; Nowosad P

2012-09-01

36

Babesias of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Ireland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Blood samples were obtained from 38 wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) at two sites in Ireland and subjected to PCR analysis of the 18S rRNA gene followed by sequencing. Two fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were generated by two different PCR protocols and subsequent sequencing suggested that at least six of the deer were infected by a babesia that, in those loci, is indistinguishable from Babesia divergens, an important tick-borne pathogen of cattle and of zoonotic significance. Additionally, a B. odocoilei-like parasite was detected in three samples and a babesia that did not match any sequences in the GenBank database was found in five samples. Neither B. capreoli nor B. venatorum (EU1) were found. There have been several reports of B. divergens occurring in deer species, including red deer, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). However, in view of recent re-sequencing of bovine-origin samples deposited previously in GenBank, it is unlikely that any of these sequences from deer are B. divergens. The present study describes the only deer piroplasm detected so far that shows complete identity with B. divergens, in just over half of the 18S rRNA gene. The entire gene of this deer parasite should be analysed and transmission experiments undertaken before the infectivity of B. divergens for red deer can be confirmed.

Zintl Annetta; Finnerty Eugene J; Murphy Thomas M; de Waal Theo; Gray Jeremy S

2011-01-01

37

Babesias of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Ireland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT: Blood samples were obtained from 38 wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) at two sites in Ireland and subjected to PCR analysis of the 18S rRNA gene followed by sequencing. Two fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were generated by two different PCR protocols and subsequent sequencing suggested that at least six of the deer were infected by a babesia that, in those loci, is indistinguishable from Babesia divergens, an important tick-borne pathogen of cattle and of zoonotic significance. Additionally, a B. odocoilei-like parasite was detected in three samples and a babesia that did not match any sequences in the GenBank database was found in five samples. Neither B. capreoli nor B. venatorum (EU1) were found. There have been several reports of B. divergens occurring in deer species, including red deer, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). However, in view of recent re-sequencing of bovine-origin samples deposited previously in GenBank, it is unlikely that any of these sequences from deer are B. divergens. The present study describes the only deer piroplasm detected so far that shows complete identity with B. divergens, in just over half of the 18S rRNA gene. The entire gene of this deer parasite should be analysed and transmission experiments undertaken before the infectivity of B. divergens for red deer can be confirmed.

Zintl A; Finnerty EJ; Murphy TM; de Waal T; Gray JS

2011-01-01

38

Characterization and zoonotic potential of endemic hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains in humans and animals in Hungary.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute, fecally transmitted hepatitis in developing countries. Identification of HEV in indigenous human infection and in domestic pig raising the possibility that HEV infection is also a zoonosis. OBJECTIVES/STUDY DESIGN: Molecular detection and epidemiology of HEV in humans (South-East Hungary) with acute hepatitis and in domestic (pig, cattle) and wild (boar and roe-deer) animals (countrywide) by ELISA and RT-PCR. RESULTS: Between 2001 and 2006, a total of 116 (9.6%) of 1203 human sera were positive by HEV IgM ELISA and 13 (24.5%) of 53 samples were also confirmed by RT-PCR and sequencing. Forty-two (27.3%) of 154, 11 (34.4%) of 32 and 9 (12.2%) of 74 samples were RT-PCR-positive from swine (feces: 22.7%; liver: 30.8%), roe-deer (liver) and wild boar (liver), respectively. Except for an imported infection caused by genotype 1, 19 sequences (human: 12, swine: 4, roe-deer: 1, wild boar: 2) belong to genotype 3 HEV. Genetically identical strains were detected in human and roe-deer and in 2 other human clusters. CONCLUSIONS: HEV is an endemic agent in Hungary. Consumption of raw or undercooked meat-products is one of the possible sources of the indigenous HEV infections. Cross-species infection with genotype 3 HEV potentially involves a food-borne transmission route in Hungary.

Reuter G; Fodor D; Forgách P; Kátai A; Szucs G

2009-04-01

39

Dinitrotoluene in deer tissues. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP), Baraboo, Wisconsin, has within a security-fenced area, a herd of whitetail deer. The US Army and the State of Wisconsin, Department of Health and Social Services have determined that approximately 20 of the deer be harvested and tissue samples thus collected be analyzed for 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,4- and 2,6-DNT) by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to a sensitivity of 0.1 part per million (ppm). The HPLC analyses will be done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) following protocol used previously for similar work for other government sites. ORNL shall instruct Olin relative to the quantity and type of tissue required, storage and shipment requirements, and other information to ensure that all protocol and chain of custody requirements are clear. A final report will be made to Olin Corporation upon completion of the HPLC analyses.

Shugart, L.R.

1991-09-30

40

Deer monitoring at the Savannah River Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To protect public health, all deer and feral hogs harvested at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during controlled hunts are monitored for Cs-137. A new monitoring program has been developed by the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS). To provide increased confidence in dose data and compliance with regulations, many changes have been made to the deer and hog monitoring program. Using field count information, a computerized database determines Cs-137 concentration and calculates the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) resulting from consumption of the animal. The database then updates each hunter's cumulative CEDE in real time. Also, enhancements to the instrument calibration and quality control portions of the monitoring program were implemented. These include improved monitor calibration, intercomparison of field results from the same animal using different detectors, and regular use of check sources to verify equipment performance. With these program changes, EMS can produce more accurate and verifiable dose data.

Fledderman, P.D.

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Deer monitoring at the Savannah River Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To protect public health, all deer and feral hogs harvested at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during controlled hunts are monitored for Cs-137. A new monitoring program has been developed by the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS). To provide increased confidence in dose data and compliance with regulations, many changes have been made to the deer and hog monitoring program. Using field count information, a computerized database determines Cs-137 concentration and calculates the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) resulting from consumption of the animal. The database then updates each hunter`s cumulative CEDE in real time. Also, enhancements to the instrument calibration and quality control portions of the monitoring program were implemented. These include improved monitor calibration, intercomparison of field results from the same animal using different detectors, and regular use of check sources to verify equipment performance. With these program changes, EMS can produce more accurate and verifiable dose data.

Fledderman, P.D.

1992-10-01

42

Iodine-129 in man, cow and deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations of 129I and values of the 129I/127I ratio have been measured in over forty individual thyroids of human, cow and deer from Missouri. Deer thyroids show an average value of 129I/127I = 1.8 x 10-8 and 129I concentrations of 3 x 10-3 pCi per g of thyroid (wet weight). Thyroids of cow and human show successively lower values of the 129I/127I ratio and for the 129I content due to dilution of 129I from the natural geochemical cycle with mineral iodine in their diets. Analyses on a few thyroids from other areas are also reported. (author)

1978-01-01

43

Oestrosis in red deer from Spain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey of naso-pharyngeal myiasis affecting red deer (Cervus elaphus) in southern Spain was conducted. The parasites involved were the larvae of Pharyngomyia picta and Cephenemyia auribarbis (Diptera:Oestridae), which coexist sympatrically within this host. Males and older animals had higher prevalences and intensities of fly larvae. Differences in behaviour and habitat use by male and female deer, and the increase of head size in older males are possibly responsible for this. There were low densities of C. auribarbis while P. picta was the species most frequently observed, although both oestrids were located in the same host cavities. The earlier larviposition by C. auribarbis, and its faster larval development may reflect asynchronous life-cycles of both oestrids; this may decrease inter-specific competition between these sympatric species.

Bueno-de la Fuente ML; Moreno V; Peréz JM; Ruiz-Martinez I; Soriguer RC

1998-10-01

44

Oestrosis in red deer from Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of naso-pharyngeal myiasis affecting red deer (Cervus elaphus) in southern Spain was conducted. The parasites involved were the larvae of Pharyngomyia picta and Cephenemyia auribarbis (Diptera:Oestridae), which coexist sympatrically within this host. Males and older animals had higher prevalences and intensities of fly larvae. Differences in behaviour and habitat use by male and female deer, and the increase of head size in older males are possibly responsible for this. There were low densities of C. auribarbis while P. picta was the species most frequently observed, although both oestrids were located in the same host cavities. The earlier larviposition by C. auribarbis, and its faster larval development may reflect asynchronous life-cycles of both oestrids; this may decrease inter-specific competition between these sympatric species. PMID:9813856

Bueno-de la Fuente, M L; Moreno, V; Peréz, J M; Ruiz-Martinez, I; Soriguer, R C

1998-10-01

45

Seminar Papers: 2000 Red Deer, Alberta Seminar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A one-day seminar was held in Red Deer, Alberta, to discuss primarily economic issues of propane gas. Individual papers discussed issues such as the effects of North American supply and demand on prices in Alberta, the general economic outlook in Alberta, deregulation of the electricity industry and its effects on demand for propane, labour forecast for the propane industry and training options for propane professionals. The emphasis was on informal discussions, accordingly only speaking notes have been made available.

NONE

2000-07-01

46

Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings.

Reddy D

2009-01-01

47

Can coyotes affect deer populations in Southeastern North America?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ABSTRACT The coyote (Canis latrans) is a recent addition to the fauna of eastern North America, and in many areas coyote populations have been established for only a decade or two. Although coyotes are known predators of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in their historic range, effects this new predator may have on eastern deer populations have received little attention. We speculated that in the southeastern United States, coyotes may be affecting deer recruitment, and we present 5 lines of evidence that suggest this possibility. First, the statewide deer population in South Carolina has declined coincident with the establishment and increase in the coyote population. Second, data sets from the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina indicate a new mortality source affecting the deer population concurrent with the increase in coyotes. Third, an index of deer recruitment at SRS declined during the period of increase in coyotes. Fourth, food habits data from SRS indicate that fawns are an important food item for coyotes during summer. Finally, recent research from Alabama documented significant coyote predation on fawns there. Although this evidence does not establish cause and effect between coyotes and observed declines in deer recruitment, we argue that additional research should proactively address this topic in the region. We identified several important questions on the nature of the deer–coyote relationship in the East.

Kilgo, J., C.; Ray, H., Scott; Ruth, Charles; Miller, Karl, V.

2010-07-01

48

Causes of Mortality and Diseases in Farmed Deer in Switzerland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To investigate diseases and causes of mortality in Swiss farmed deer, deer found dead or shot due to diseased condition between March 2003 and December 2004 were requested for a complete postmortem examination. One hundred and sixty-two animals were submitted. Perinatal mortality, necrobacillosis in...

Sieber, V; Robert, N; Schybli, M; Sager, H; Miserez, R; Engels, M; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P

49

Merogonic stages of Theileria cervi in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus).  

Science.gov (United States)

In February 2012, 12 farmed mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were moved from a facility in southwestern Oklahoma to a facility in southeastern Oklahoma that housed 100 farmed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Between the third and fifth weeks, 9 of the 12 mule deer had died, 4 of which were submitted for necropsy. The deer were heavily infested with Amblyomma americanum (lone star ticks). Hematologic data from 1 deer revealed severe anemia, leukocytosis, and intraerythrocytic hemoparasites consistent with Theileria spp. Microscopically, the liver, lymph nodes, and spleen contained multifocally distributed, enlarged monocytic cells whose cytoplasm was replaced by developing meronts in various stages of merogony. It appears that, upon arrival, the Theileria cervi-naďve mule deer became infested with large numbers of Theileria-infected lone star ticks leading to massive exposure of the mule deer to sporozoites of the protozoan, resulting in an acute hemolytic crisis and fatalities. The merogonic stages of T. cervi are also described. The lack of earlier reports of merogony may be due to the fact that only a single, short-lived, merogonic cycle follows exposure to sporozoites and thus merogonic stages are demonstrable for only a short period. Polymerase chain reaction testing of paraffin-embedded tissue yielded a 507-bp amplicon sequence that was 100% identical with the sequence of T. cervi previously reported from white-tailed deer in Oklahoma and from elk in Wisconsin and Indiana. PMID:24029405

Wood, Jason; Johnson, Eileen M; Allen, Kelly E; Campbell, Gregory A; Rezabek, Grant; Bradway, Daniel S; Pittman, Louis L; Little, Susan E; Panciera, Roger J

2013-09-01

50

Merogonic stages of Theileria cervi in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In February 2012, 12 farmed mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were moved from a facility in southwestern Oklahoma to a facility in southeastern Oklahoma that housed 100 farmed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Between the third and fifth weeks, 9 of the 12 mule deer had died, 4 of which were submitted for necropsy. The deer were heavily infested with Amblyomma americanum (lone star ticks). Hematologic data from 1 deer revealed severe anemia, leukocytosis, and intraerythrocytic hemoparasites consistent with Theileria spp. Microscopically, the liver, lymph nodes, and spleen contained multifocally distributed, enlarged monocytic cells whose cytoplasm was replaced by developing meronts in various stages of merogony. It appears that, upon arrival, the Theileria cervi-naďve mule deer became infested with large numbers of Theileria-infected lone star ticks leading to massive exposure of the mule deer to sporozoites of the protozoan, resulting in an acute hemolytic crisis and fatalities. The merogonic stages of T. cervi are also described. The lack of earlier reports of merogony may be due to the fact that only a single, short-lived, merogonic cycle follows exposure to sporozoites and thus merogonic stages are demonstrable for only a short period. Polymerase chain reaction testing of paraffin-embedded tissue yielded a 507-bp amplicon sequence that was 100% identical with the sequence of T. cervi previously reported from white-tailed deer in Oklahoma and from elk in Wisconsin and Indiana.

Wood J; Johnson EM; Allen KE; Campbell GA; Rezabek G; Bradway DS; Pittman LL; Little SE; Panciera RJ

2013-09-01

51

Tolazoline-induced apnea in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eighteen mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and six Columbia black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) were held in pens and repeatedly anesthetized from April 2004 through June 2005 as part of an external parasite study. Deer were anesthetized using a combination of Telazol and xylazine hydrochloride (HCL) administered intramuscularly. Tolazoline HCL was slowly administered at 4 mg/kg intravenously to reverse the effects of xylazine with good results. For 17 of the 19 mule deer anesthesias in the fall of 2004, a mean dose of 7.3 mg/kg of intravenous tolazoline (range 6.1-8.4 mg/kg) was given by mistake. This paper describes clinical signs of apnea, muscle tensing, and fasciculations immediately following intravenous administration of tolazoline HCL in mule deer (O. hemionus) at 1.5-3 times the recommended dose. Mean dose for black-tailed deer during this time was 8.1 mg/kg (range 5.5-12.4 mg/kg) with no clinical signs as seen in the mule deer. Based on these findings, intravenous tolazoline use in mule deer is recommended at < or = 4 mg/kg.

Mortenson JA; Robison JA

2011-03-01

52

Magnetic alignment in grazing and resting cattle and deer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We demonstrate by means of simple, noninvasive methods (analysis of satellite images, field observations, and measuring “deer beds” in snow) that domestic cattle (n = 8,510 in 308 pastures) across the globe, and grazing and resting red and roe deer (n = 2,974 at 241 localities), align their body axe...

Begall, Sabine; ?ervený, Jaroslav; Neef, Julia; Vojt?ch, Old?ich; Burda, Hynek

53

Method for preparing deer fetus dry powder by ultrasonic degradation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a health food and a reparation method thereof, in particular to a method for preparing deer fetus dry powder by ultrasonic degradation, comprising the following steps of: cleaning deer fetus obtaining deer fetus slurry of over 200-230 meshes by a colloid mill forming a suspending liquid by mixing the deer fetus slurry milled by the colloid mill and active water crushing deer fetus tissues in a cell level by utilizing an ultrasonic cavitation principle and ultrasonic waves transmitted under a certain condition cracking a cell film sufficiently releasing active substances in cells through an ultrasonic continuous-flow cell crusher, wherein the crushing rate reaches over 95 percent directly subliming an objective dried product in a freezing state to remove moisture by using a freezing and drying technology and avoiding active substance inactivation of the deer fetus for heating and drying. The method for preparing deer fetus dry powder by ultrasonic degradation has complete nutrition, high activity and short extraction time, reduces the active substance loss and improves the deer fetus utilization rate.

LIJUAN LI; BIN ZHENG

54

Therapy of endemic goitre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] 1. In childhood the first line treatment of endemic goitre is Kl (100-150 ?g/day). Once the goitre volume has shrinked during L-thyroxine treatment in older patients, this effect is to be maintained by Kl (?200 ?g/day). The same holds true after surgery in cases with normal TSH responsiveness to TRH. 2. TSH suppressive L-thyroxine therapy is indicated in goitre patients older than 40 years. However, the effectiveness will be limited by the nodularity of the thyroid. So prevention of further growth prevails over true tissue reduction. 3. Obviously thyroid surgery yields the best cosmetic results with an acceptably low complication rate. When euthyroidism is established, a lifelong iodine prophylaxy (200 ?g/day) of recurrent goitre is mandatory. In cases with latent or overt hypothyroidism an appropriate therapy with thyroid hormone should be given. 4. By radiodine it is possible to realize a short term volume loss of 30-40% which may increase further on up to 60%. Relief of symptoms is usually even more impressive than actual volume loss. (orig./MG)[de] 1. Kaliumjodid ist heute das Mittel der Wahl zur Behandlung der Jodmangelstruma von Kindern (100 ?g) und Jugendlichen (150 ?g). Lebenslange Einnahme von Jodid (200 ?g) dient der Erhaltung einer Organverkleinerung, die durch L-Thyroxin bei aelteren Patienten erreicht wurde, und postoperativ bei gesicherter Euthyreose (TSH). In der Schwangerschaft ist eine Jodid-Medikation fuer Mutter und Kind erforderlich. 2. L-Thyroxin in TSH-suppressiver Dosierung sollte eingesetzt werden, wenn mit Jodid kein Verkleinerungseffekt erreichbar ist. Primaer ist es indiziert bei Patienten ueber 40 Jahren. Postoperativ muss L-Thyroxin dann verordnet werden, wenn eine latente oder manifeste Hypothyreose gesichert ist. Damit behandelt es sich aber nicht um eine Rezidiv-Prophylaxe im engeren Sinn. 3. Eine wirkliche Substanzverminderung des Kropfes gelingt durch die operative Resektion. Eine konsequente, wahrscheinlich lebenslange Rezidivprophylaxe (Jodid 200 ?g) hat ihr unbedingt zu folgen. 4. Auch die Radiojodtherapie erzielt eine Reduktion der Strumamasse durch Verminderung der Follikelzahl kurzfristig in der Groessenordnung von 30-40% und langfristig bis zu 60%. Die Besserung der Beschwerden ist noch eindrucksvoller als der sonographisch objektivierte Volumenrueckgang. (orig./MG)

1995-01-01

55

Cutaneous manifestations of endemic mycoses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

All of the endemic mycoses have cutaneous and mucocutaneous manifestations that are most commonly seen when patients have disseminated infection. Biopsy of skin lesions is simple and safe and can assist in making a timely diagnosis of disseminated infection. Primary cutaneous inoculation infection has been reported with all of the endemic mycoses, but is rare. In this situation, a nodule or ulcer occurs at the inoculation site, is often accompanied by lymphangitis and regional lymphadenopathy, and systemic symptoms and signs as almost always absent. Mucosal lesions are common with disseminated histoplasmosis, but also have been described in patients who have disseminated blastomycosis and coccidioidomycosis. Biopsy is essential to rule out cancer and allows a rapid diagnosis of the endemic fungal infection.

Smith JA; Riddell J 4th; Kauffman CA

2013-10-01

56

Cutaneous manifestations of endemic mycoses.  

Science.gov (United States)

All of the endemic mycoses have cutaneous and mucocutaneous manifestations that are most commonly seen when patients have disseminated infection. Biopsy of skin lesions is simple and safe and can assist in making a timely diagnosis of disseminated infection. Primary cutaneous inoculation infection has been reported with all of the endemic mycoses, but is rare. In this situation, a nodule or ulcer occurs at the inoculation site, is often accompanied by lymphangitis and regional lymphadenopathy, and systemic symptoms and signs as almost always absent. Mucosal lesions are common with disseminated histoplasmosis, but also have been described in patients who have disseminated blastomycosis and coccidioidomycosis. Biopsy is essential to rule out cancer and allows a rapid diagnosis of the endemic fungal infection. PMID:23917880

Smith, Jeannina A; Riddell, James; Kauffman, Carol A

2013-10-01

57

Exotic deer in southern Latin America: what do we know about impacts on native deer and on ecosystems  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A recent review on exotic cervids concluded that deer introduced to Patagonia impacted habitat and native huemul deer Hippocamelus bisulcus. I evaluate these assertions and amend information about this South American case study. Categorizing deer along narrow characteristics may be too restrictive to allow accurate predictions about interactions. More effective is considering the magnitude of plasticity (behavioral, phenotypic, genetic). The dichotomy of native versus exotic deer masks situations where prevailing ecological conditions are far from 'native', such as absence of predators, and such results from artificial settings have limitations. Studies used to contrast effects on vegetation from exotic red deer (Cervus elaphus) versus native huemul did not analyze native deer and provided no data to support conclusions in the review. Huemul were concluded to have high trophic overlap with red deer whose diet, however, was determined in another habitat where the food item of supposed major overlap was absent, and suggesting that red deer might cause exploitation competition was not supported by cited data. There was no mention that huemul are foremost exposed to livestock rather than exotic deer. Concluding that exotic prey including red deer increase predator density resulting in increased predation of huemul (apparent competition), was not supported by cited studies. To the contrary, high-density puma (Puma concolor) could not prevent guanaco (Lama guanicoe) from increasing >13-fold, nor that huemul expanded into these sites. Not only were those studies opposite to conclusions in the review, but none had studied huemul nor predator population trends. Data from little known species like huemul should be used with reservations when aiming at generalizations.

Flueck WernerT

2010-07-01

58

An Interdisciplinary Deer and Human Population Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity helps the learner answer the question: "What environmental problems arise due to animal and human overpopulation and what might need to be done to combat these problems?" Learners play a game that simulates population sampling in an imaginary state park. After the game is completed, each park must decide if they are at the carrying capacity for their park or out of equilibrium. Learners write a proposal detailing how they plan to correct their deer population problem and present it to the group (the Department of Natural Resources). This lesson is described as an interdisciplinary unit and includes literature and math curriculum connections.

Webb, William J.

2009-01-01

59

Deer browse resistant exotic-invasive understory: an indicator of elevated human risk of exposure to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in southern coastal Maine woodlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the relationships between forest understory structure and the abundance of questing adult and nymphal blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), in three Maine towns endemic for Lyme disease, 2001-2003. In fragmented New England woodlands, over-abundant white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman, overbrowse palatable species, allowing browse-resistant exotic-invasive species to replace native forest understory structures. We predicted there would be more ticks in plots dominated by exotic-invasive shrubs (such as Japanese barberry, Berberis thunbergii DC) than in plots dominated by native shrubs, ferns, or open understory. We assessed canopy composition and closure, tree basal area, litter composition, percentage of coverage and stem density of understory species, litter depth, soil moisture, and abundance of small mammals and white-tailed deer pellet groups. We used generalized linear mixed model analysis of covariance to determine the effect of understory structure on tick counts, controlling for continuous habitat and host covariates and adjusting for random spatial effects. There were twice as many adults and nearly twice as many nymphs in plots dominated by exotic-invasives than in plots dominated by native shrubs. Both adult and nymphal counts were lowest in open understory with coniferous litter. Adults were positively associated with increasing litter depth, medium soil moisture, and increasing abundance of white-footed deer mice, Peromyscus leucopus Rafinesque, and deer pellet group counts. Nymphs were positively associated with increasing litter depth, moderately wet soil, and mice. We concluded that deer browse-resistant exotic-invasive understory vegetation presented an elevated risk of human exposure to the vector tick of Lyme disease. PMID:17162946

Elias, Susan P; Lubelczyk, Charles B; Rand, Peter W; Lacombe, Eleanor H; Holman, Mary S; Smith, Robert P

2006-11-01

60

Deer browse resistant exotic-invasive understory: an indicator of elevated human risk of exposure to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in southern coastal Maine woodlands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We evaluated the relationships between forest understory structure and the abundance of questing adult and nymphal blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), in three Maine towns endemic for Lyme disease, 2001-2003. In fragmented New England woodlands, over-abundant white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman, overbrowse palatable species, allowing browse-resistant exotic-invasive species to replace native forest understory structures. We predicted there would be more ticks in plots dominated by exotic-invasive shrubs (such as Japanese barberry, Berberis thunbergii DC) than in plots dominated by native shrubs, ferns, or open understory. We assessed canopy composition and closure, tree basal area, litter composition, percentage of coverage and stem density of understory species, litter depth, soil moisture, and abundance of small mammals and white-tailed deer pellet groups. We used generalized linear mixed model analysis of covariance to determine the effect of understory structure on tick counts, controlling for continuous habitat and host covariates and adjusting for random spatial effects. There were twice as many adults and nearly twice as many nymphs in plots dominated by exotic-invasives than in plots dominated by native shrubs. Both adult and nymphal counts were lowest in open understory with coniferous litter. Adults were positively associated with increasing litter depth, medium soil moisture, and increasing abundance of white-footed deer mice, Peromyscus leucopus Rafinesque, and deer pellet group counts. Nymphs were positively associated with increasing litter depth, moderately wet soil, and mice. We concluded that deer browse-resistant exotic-invasive understory vegetation presented an elevated risk of human exposure to the vector tick of Lyme disease.

Elias SP; Lubelczyk CB; Rand PW; Lacombe EH; Holman MS; Smith RP Jr

2006-11-01

 
 
 
 
61

Attachment site selection of ticks on roe deer, Capreolus capreolus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The spatio-temporal attachment site patterns of ticks feeding on their hosts can be of significance if co-feeding transmission (i.e. from tick to tick without a systemic infection of the host) of pathogens affects the persistence of a given disease. Using tick infestation data on roe deer, we analysed preferred attachment sites and niche width of Ixodes ticks (larvae, nymphs, males, females) and investigated the degree of inter- and intrastadial aggregation. The different development stages showed rather consistent attachment site patterns and relative narrow feeding site niches. Larvae were mostly found on the head and on the front legs of roe deer, nymphs reached highest densities on the head and highest adult densities were found on the neck of roe deer. The tick stages feeding (larvae, nymphs, females) on roe deer showed high degrees of intrastadial spatial aggregation, whereas males did not. Male ticks showed large feeding site overlap with female ticks. Feeding site overlap between larval-female and larval-nymphal ticks did occur especially during the months May-August on the head and front legs of roe deer and might allow pathogen transmission via co-feeding. Tick density, niche width and niche overlap on roe deer are mainly affected by seasonality, reflecting seasonal activity and abundance patterns of ticks. Since different tick development stages occur spatially and temporally clustered on roe deer, transmission experiments of tick-borne pathogens are urgently needed.

Kiffner C; Lödige C; Alings M; Vor T; Rühe F

2011-01-01

62

Mountain lions prey selectively on prion-infected mule deer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The possibility that predators choose prey selectively based on age or condition has been suggested but rarely tested. We examined whether mountain lions (Puma concolor) selectively prey upon mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) infected with chronic wasting disease, a prion disease. We located kill sites of mountain lions in the northern Front Range of Colorado, USA, and compared disease prevalence among lion-killed adult (> or =2 years old) deer with prevalence among sympatric deer taken by hunters in the vicinity of kill sites. Hunter-killed female deer were less likely to be infected than males (odds ratios (OR) = 0.2, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.1-0.6; p = 0.015). However, both female (OR = 8.5, 95% CI = 2.3-30.9) and male deer (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1-10) killed by a mountain lion were more likely to be infected than same-sex deer killed in the vicinity by a hunter (p < 0.001), suggesting that mountain lions in this area actively selected prion-infected individuals when targeting adult mule deer as prey items.

Krumm CE; Conner MM; Hobbs NT; Hunter DO; Miller MW

2010-04-01

63

Mountain lions prey selectively on prion-infected mule deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibility that predators choose prey selectively based on age or condition has been suggested but rarely tested. We examined whether mountain lions (Puma concolor) selectively prey upon mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) infected with chronic wasting disease, a prion disease. We located kill sites of mountain lions in the northern Front Range of Colorado, USA, and compared disease prevalence among lion-killed adult (> or =2 years old) deer with prevalence among sympatric deer taken by hunters in the vicinity of kill sites. Hunter-killed female deer were less likely to be infected than males (odds ratios (OR) = 0.2, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.1-0.6; p = 0.015). However, both female (OR = 8.5, 95% CI = 2.3-30.9) and male deer (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1-10) killed by a mountain lion were more likely to be infected than same-sex deer killed in the vicinity by a hunter (p < 0.001), suggesting that mountain lions in this area actively selected prion-infected individuals when targeting adult mule deer as prey items. PMID:19864271

Krumm, Caroline E; Conner, Mary M; Hobbs, N Thompson; Hunter, Don O; Miller, Michael W

2009-10-28

64

Hypodermosis in the red deer Cervus elaphus in Cordoba, Spain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of red deer hypodermosis and the life cycle of Hypodermia diana Brauer 1858 in three provinces of the south of Spain, Córdoba, Jaen and Ciudad Real, were studied by inspecting 254, thirty-eight and thirty-five deer from each province respectively. The prevalence of infestations was: Córdoba, 87.75%; Jaen, 92.10%, Ciudad Real, 91.42%. From this we deduced an overall prevalence of 88.67%, comprising 88.23% in male deer and 89.96% in female deer. The intensity of the parasitism in 213 of the 245 animals from Córdoba varied between one warble per animal to more than 100 in 28 of the inspected animals. The chronology of the life cycle during the hunting period (October to the end of February) was investigated.

Martínez-Gómez F; Hernández-Rodriguez S; Ruiz-Sanchez P; Molina-Rodero R; Martínez-Moreno A

1990-07-01

65

A method for testing handgun bullets in deer  

CERN Multimedia

Using service handguns to test bullets in deer is problematic because of velocity loss with range and accuracy giving sub-optimal shot placement. An alternate method is presented using a scoped muzzleloader shooting saboted handgun bullets to allow precise (within 2" in many cases) shot placement for studying terminal ballistics in a living target. Deer are baited to a known range and path obstructions are used to place the deer broadside to the shooter. Muzzleloading powder charges provide a combination of muzzle velocity and velocity loss due to air resistance for a given ballistic coefficient that produce impact velocities corresponding to typical pistol velocities. With readily available sabots, this approach allows for testing of terminal ballistics of .355, .357, .40, .429, .45, and .458 caliber bullets with two muzzleloaders (.45 and .50 caliber). Examples are described demonstrating the usefulness of testing handgun bullets in deer for acoustic shooting event reconstruction, understanding tissue damag...

Courtney, M; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael

2007-01-01

66

Modelling the cost of roe deer browsing damage to forestry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Models concerning economic impacts of mammals in forestry have hitherto been restricted to identifying predictive variables for the intensity and distribution of damage (in Europe and North America) or maximising the financial returns from hunting (in North America). This paper aims to quantify the financial costs and benefits of roe deer browsing damage in British forestry.When considering deer management in multiple-use forests, one of a forester’s aims may be to minimise the costs of deer damage. This paper provides a means to estimate these costs.The cost of roe deer browsing damage was calculated from the change in timber products associated with multiple-stemming of trees, increased establishment period, with associated costs, and rotation extension. The results suggest that browsing-induced reduction in timber quality (measured as the proportion of trees with multiple-stems at harvest) is not as economically important as some authors have suggested and can be tolerated at high levels (?55%) if culling is the only method of deer control. Using a discount rate of 3%, the net present value (NPV) of 1 ha of yield class 14 Sitka spruce, including deer control but in the absence of deer damage, was estimated as GBŁ 523 and dropped to GBŁ 97 with all trees multiple-stemmed at harvest. The NPV did not begin to decline until 55% of the crop was multiple-stemmed at harvest. Extra years of establishment (with associated maintenance costs) caused by a loss of annual increment resulted in a more important economic effect of deer browsing. Establishment extension by 1 year resulted in a drop in NPV to GBŁ 116 ha-1. Establishment extension by 2 years resulted in an NPV of GBŁ ?287 ha?1.

Ward AI; White PCL; Smith A; Critchley CH

2004-04-01

67

Factors Affecting the Winter-Feeding Ecology of Red Deer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Characteristics of browsing the forest regenerations and the consumption of supplementary given food of red deer were investigated. On a 10,000 ha territory managed by a forest management unit all the regenerations were fenced in due to the high browsing pressure. In the course of the experiment three plots of 0.5 ha-s each regenerated by oak (Querqus robur) were left unfenced. On the side of one plot a feeding station was built in which sugar beet slices were given supplementary. On the side of another plot maize fodder was offered, while the third one served as a control. All three plots were surrounded by sandy bands, to be able to count how many deer stepped in weekly the respective plot. During the freeze days deer used significantly less the regeneration plots, and consequently browsed less. The same was found during the snow cover. Although snow was as shallow as 5 cm in average, it caused a change in feeding strategy of deer. Regenerations covered by snow did not offer enough forage anymore, because the hiding of the forbs and grasses. On weeks with snow cover red deer consumed significantly more sugar beet slices, than on weeks without snow. On the days without snow cover the later the week during the winter was, the more sugar beet was consumed. Browsing pressure caused in average by one deer in the neighbouring of the feeding stations was significantly increased by giving supplementary maize or sugar beet slices.

Náhlik, A.; Borkowski, J.; Király, G.

2005-01-01

68

Radiological surveys of deer harvests on the Oak Ridge Reservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rapidly increasing number of deer/vehicle collisions on the Oak Ridge Reservation and contiguous lands resulted in the need for an aggressive method of reducing the deer population. Managed hunts on the reservation was the method chosen for this reduction, and the Oak Ridge Wildlife Management Area was established in November 1984. Because of possible radiological contamination of the deer herd from the three major nuclear installations on the reservation, a rigorous radiological survey of all harvested deer was deemed necessary to ensure that successful hunters or their families would not be exposed to excess radiation dose from the consumption of venison from the managed hunts. Data collected from previous vehicle-killed deer showed the possibility of contamination from 137Cs, 90Sr, 60Co, and 75Se. Methodology for 90Sr screening at a 0.25-mSv commitment required special considerations for field analysis since 90Sr decays by beta emission. A versatile data-base program was established with a personal computer system to handle the copious data related to both radiological and biological parameters collected during the harvest. The field screen values were verified by subsequent laboratory analyses utilizing Cerenkov counting. These verification analyses proved the utility of the field methodology for 90Sr detection in deer bones at the 1 Bq/g screening level

1990-01-01

69

Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd`s unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd`s overall health and reproductive status.

Tiller, B.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Poston, T.M. [and others

1997-03-01

70

Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd's unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd's overall health and reproductive status.

1997-01-01

71

Identification and characterization of deer astroviruses  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The threat of emerging infectious viruses in humans requires a more effective approach regarding virus surveillance. A thorough understanding of virus diversity in wildlife provides epidemiological baseline information about pathogens and may lead to the identification of newly emerging pathogens in the future. In this study, diarrhoea samples from an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness in a Danish population of European roe deer were gathered for which no aetiological agent could be identified. Large-scale molecular RNA virus screening, based on host nucleic acid depletion, sequence-independent amplification and sequencing of partially purified viral RNA, revealed the presence of novel astroviruses, CcAstV-1 and CcAstV-2, in two of ten diarrhoea samples. Whether these viruses were responsible for causing diarrhoea remains to be determined. Phylogenetic analyses on amplified sequences showed that these viruses were most closely related to each other, were a novel species in the genus Mamastrovirus and may represent two different serotypes.

Smits, Saskia L.; van Leeuwen, Marije

2010-01-01

72

INVESTIGATION OF BALCAN ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY IN MEMBERS OF ENDEMIC FAMILIES IN THE ENDEMIC VILLAGE MORAVAC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The village Moravac, situated on the left bank of the River South Morava, has been known as endemic area for fifty years. The highest prevalence of Balcan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) was noted during the seventh and eight decade in the last century, and after that period, permanent decreasing has been shown. The present study involved fifty members of endemic families. In all investigated subjects, clinical observations included anamnesis, physical examinations and urinalysis. In twelve (24%) subjects, urinary abnormalities were proven (proteinuria, microhaematuria, leucocyturia). These subjects further underwent the additional functional and morphological examinations at the Clinic of Nephrology, Clinical Center Nis. In 11 (22%) subjects, clinical examinations showed different forms of renal diseases, but BEN was proven in four (one of them suffered from BEN since 2004 and he was treated by haemodialyses, while the others were diagnosed during the investigation). Other renal diseases in the examined patients were: cystic kidney disease (6%), nephrolithiasis (4%), diabetic nephropathy (2%), obstructive nephropathy (4%) and tumores of kidney (2%). In our opinion, based on this investigation, BEN showed the rising tendency. Our retrograde study on the incidence of the upper urinary tract urothelial cancer in the endemic village Moravac showed the highest frequency, like BEN, in the seventh and eight decade in the last century. Despite encouraging results, further detailed and larger investigations are needed along the River South Morava, because a number of studies suggested lower progression and middle clinical course of disease, and also a rare appearance of the upper urinary tract cancer, which is why the patients seldom visit the health institutions, mostly in advanced stage of renal insufficiency. The aim of further investigations is to detect such subjects in the initial, early phase of disease, when prevention of progressive course and therapy are more successful.

Sveto Suša; Radomir Rai?evi?; Jovanka Zagorac; Branka Miti?; Jelena Cvetkovi?

2009-01-01

73

78 FR 44148 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Antietam, Monocacy, Manassas White-tailed Deer...  

Science.gov (United States)

...use of sharpshooting with firearms, possible capture and euthanasia to reduce deer populations to the target density and maintain...use of sharpshooting with firearms, possible capture, and euthanasia to reduce deer populations to a desirable level and...

2013-07-23

74

Wolf, Canis lupus, visits towhite-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, summer ranges: Optimal foraging?  

Science.gov (United States)

We tested whether Wolf (Canis lupus) visits to individual female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) summer ranges during 2003 and 2004 in northeastern Minnesota were in accord with optimal-foraging theory. Using GPS collars with 10- to 30-minute location attempts on four Wolves and five female deer, plus eleven VHF-collared female deer in the Wolves' territory, provided new insights into the frequency of Wolf visits to summer ranges of female deer. Wolves made a mean 0.055 visits/day to summer ranges of deer three years and older, significantly more than their 0.032 mean visits/day to ranges of two-year-old deer, which generally produce fewer fawns, and most Wolf visits to ranges of older deer were much longer than those to ranges of younger deer. Because fawns comprise the major part of the Wolf's summer diet, this Wolf behavior accords with optimal-foraging theory.

Demma, D. J.; Mech, L. D.

2009-01-01

75

Deer-Vehicle Crash Countermeasure Toolbox: A Decision and Choice Resource.  

Science.gov (United States)

In July 2001 the Deer-Vehicle Crash Information Clearinghouse (DVCIC) was created by the Wisconsin Department of Transportation. During the last two years an extensive review of deer-vehicle crash (DVC) countermeasure documentation has been completed. Thi...

C. Rathman E. Hudson K. K. Knapp T. Oakasa W. Thimm X. Yi

2004-01-01

76

First occurrence of Paramphistomum microbothrium (Fischoeder 1901) in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Serbia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Paramphistomum parasites identified by histology as Paramphistomum microbothrium were found in 18 of 34 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) intestines from central Serbia, examined between 1998 and 2004. This represents the first record of P. microbothrium in roe deer in Serbia.

Pavlovi? I; Savi? B; Ivanovi? S; ?irovi? D

2012-04-01

77

Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic rea...

Gao Yugang; Wang Shijie; Du Rui; Wang Quankai; Sun Changjiang; Wang Nan; Zhang Pengju; Zhang Lianxue

78

Fatty Acid Profiles and Cholesterol Composition of Venison from Farmed Deer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is important to evaluate venison characteristics as a new high quality red meat in the meat marketing system. This information is vital to ensure their commercial success and dietary benefits. The aim of this study is to determine the venison quality from farmed deer according to cuts or muscles based on fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content and to do comparative study on venison quality between species of farmed deer (rusa, sambar, fallow and imported red deer) and feeding regimens, i.e., grass-fed vs concentrate-fed venison. The samples of venison were derived from javan rusa (Cervus timorensis russa), moluccan rusa (Cervus timorensis moluccensis), sambar (Cervus unicolor brookei), fallow (Dama dama) and imported red deer (Cervus elaphus). Moluccan rusa and red deer were grass-fed deer. Javan rusa, sambar and fallow deer were concentrate-fed deer. Cholesterol content in Longissimus Dorsi (LD) muscles of sambar, fallow and rusa deer were 75.36, 76.61 and 77.58 mg/100g of fresh venison, respectively. Cholesterol content in Biceps Femoris (BF) muscles of moluccan rusa, sambar, fallow and red deer were 56.61, 59.26, 86.37 and 98.44 mg/100g of fresh venison, respectively. Concentrate-fed deer LD and Psoas Major (PM) muscles show higher C18:2 (n-6) than grass-fed deer. Grass-fed rusa deer shows the highest C18:3 (n- 3) percentages in PM muscle. Grass-fed rusa and red deer gave an ideal n-6:n-3 ratio of less than 5. Species of deer did not influence n-6:n-3 ratio and fatty acid composition in venison. Feeding regimens (grass-fed vs concentrate-fed) significantly (p< 0.05) influence n-6:n-3 ratio, fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content in the venison of farmed deer in this study.

I. Dahlan; N.A. Norfarizan-Hanoon

2007-01-01

79

Relationship between diet and liver carcinomas in roe deer in Kielder Forest and Galloway Forest.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The winter diets of roe deer culled from Kielder Forest, in north-east England, where the incidence of liver carcinomas in roe deer is high, and Galloway Forest, in south-west Scotland, where the incidence of liver carcinomas is low, were compared by microhistological analysis of faeces. Both areas are planted with spruce forests but the diets of the deer from Kielder Forest were less varied and contained more spruce and heather than the diets of the deer from Galloway Forest.

de Jong CB; van Wieren SE; Gill RM; Munro R

2004-08-01

80

Fur bearing traffic hazards, or, will you catch a deer in your headlights this year  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The protected habitat of the Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee has resulted in an alarming proliferation of deer populations. Along with such population increases are increases in deer mortality from vehicles. Deers are tagged and monitored to determine the effectiveness of natural and artificial population control mechanisms. It is hoped that herd management policies and public information programs will minimize these hazards.

Lyon, B.

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

[Warble flies (Hypodermatidae, Oestridae) of marals and axis deer of the Gorno-Altai  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paper considers diseases of marals and axis deer caused by warble flies as one of the factors affecting the deer-breeding productivity. Data on the infection rate of marals with larvae of Hypoderma diana and Pharynomyia picta and axis deer with H. diana are given.

Solopov NV; Zharkov GI

1988-05-01

82

[Warble flies (Hypodermatidae, Oestridae) of marals and axis deer of the Gorno-Altai].  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper considers diseases of marals and axis deer caused by warble flies as one of the factors affecting the deer-breeding productivity. Data on the infection rate of marals with larvae of Hypoderma diana and Pharynomyia picta and axis deer with H. diana are given. PMID:3174179

Solopov, N V; Zharkov, G I

83

Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in roe deer from Spain  

Science.gov (United States)

Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is an important game animal in Spain. Sera from 278 roe deer sera from eight areas in mainland Spain were assayed for antibodies to T. gondii by modified agglutination test (MAT). Titers of 1:25 or higher were found in 109 (39.2%) of 278 deer. No significant difference...

84

An Assessment of Agricultural Damage Caused by Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L.)and Fallow Deer (Dama dama L.) in Southwest England  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impact of deer grazing on agricultural grassland and cereal crops was assessed at two locations with medium to high deer densities in the Exmoor area of southwest England. Red deer impact on early spring grazing was measured at one site by comparing samples of herbage cut from inside and outside deer-proof exclosure cages, just prior to turn out of livestock, on 1 March 1989. Fallow deer impact on first-cut silage grass production was similarly measured using exclosure cages at a second site by cutting samples on 31 May 1990 and on 6 June 1995. In addition, impact of fallow deer on cereal crops was assessed at this site by measuring sample grain yields from areas of the crop used or unused by deer in 1995 (winter wheat), 1996 (winter barley) and 1997 (winter wheat). Significant dry matter yield losses were recorded for red deer impact on spring grazing in 1989 (14.5%) and for fallow deer impact on first-cut silage (15.9%) in 1995 but not in 1990. In 1995 a small but significant yield loss (7.1%) was recorded for winter wheat at the fallow deer site but no loss in cereal yield was recorded in 1996 or 1997. These assessments, carried out in response to complaints about deer damage, suggest that the impacts of deer in this area, where they occur at relatively high density, are only moderate. This highlights the need for careful assessment of cost-benefits when considering deer management strategies to reduce perceived agricultural damage.

Charles John Wilson; Alan Britton; Roger Symes

2009-01-01

85

Removal of cesium from red deer meat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect was studied of marinading on the reduction of cesium radionuclide activity in red deer meat contaminated by ingestion of feed containing 134Cs+137Cs from radioactive fallout following the Chernobyl accident. Two types of marinade were studied, viz., a vinegar infusion and a vinegar infusion with an addition of vegetables and spices. The meat was chopped to cubes of about 1.5 cm in size and the marinading process took place at temperatures of 5 and 11 degC. The drop of cesium content in the meat was determined by gamma spectrometry at given time intervals. The replacement of the marinade and the duration of the process were found to maximally affect efficiency. If the solution was not replaced, about 80% of cesium radionuclides were removed after seven hours of marinading. With one replacement of the infusion the drop in 134Cs+137Cs radioactivity amounted to up to 90% after seven hours of marinading. No effects were shown of vegetable additions to the vinegar infusion and of the change in temperature from 5 to 11 degC on the efficiency of the process. (author). 3 tabs., 6 refs.

1989-01-01

86

Large-scale model-based assessment of deer-vehicle collision risk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ungulates, in particular the Central European roe deer Capreolus capreolus and the North American white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, are economically and ecologically important. The two species are risk factors for deer-vehicle collisions and as browsers of palatable trees have implications for forest regeneration. However, no large-scale management systems for ungulates have been implemented, mainly because of the high efforts and costs associated with attempts to estimate population sizes of free-living ungulates living in a complex landscape. Attempts to directly estimate population sizes of deer are problematic owing to poor data quality and lack of spatial representation on larger scales. We used data on >74,000 deer-vehicle collisions observed in 2006 and 2009 in Bavaria, Germany, to model the local risk of deer-vehicle collisions and to investigate the relationship between deer-vehicle collisions and both environmental conditions and browsing intensities. An innovative modelling approach for the number of deer-vehicle collisions, which allows nonlinear environment-deer relationships and assessment of spatial heterogeneity, was the basis for estimating the local risk of collisions for specific road types on the scale of Bavarian municipalities. Based on this risk model, we propose a new "deer-vehicle collision index" for deer management. We show that the risk of deer-vehicle collisions is positively correlated to browsing intensity and to harvest numbers. Overall, our results demonstrate that the number of deer-vehicle collisions can be predicted with high precision on the scale of municipalities. In the densely populated and intensively used landscapes of Central Europe and North America, a model-based risk assessment for deer-vehicle collisions provides a cost-efficient instrument for deer management on the landscape scale. The measures derived from our model provide valuable information for planning road protection and defining hunting quota. Open-source software implementing the model can be used to transfer our modelling approach to wildlife-vehicle collisions elsewhere.

Hothorn T; Brandl R; Müller J

2012-01-01

87

THE YIELD OF DNA IN THERMAL TERATED DEER MEAT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Residuals of DNA are one of the most important factors for detection, traceability and reverse authentication of deer meat. In this project we isolated DNA from deer processed meat and analysed by electrophoresis. Goal of the study was compute ratio between raw meat and several heat processed deer meat. Samples were prepared by five heat treatment techniques (pan roasted with temperature 180-240°C, fried with 156°C, braised with temperature 100-150°C, boiled in 100.2°C water and autoclaved in different time intervals). The highest amount of residual DNA 1927ng was obtained with two hours boiled sample. The lowest value 89.89ng was obtained with one hour braised sample. In technological adjustments highest amount of DNA and 1927ng, so the total yield of 192.7ng.-l was observed in the sample we cooked for two hours at boiling temperature.  

?ubomir Belej; Miroslava Barnová; Lenka Maršálková; Jozef Golian

2011-01-01

88

Red deer in Italy: recent changes in range and numbers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The following paper illustrates changes in distribution range and population size of the red deer Cervus elaphus in Italy in the last three decades. It mentions the main events of reintroduction and restocking together with hunting statistics. The mean yearly increase from 1970 to 1998 was 6% in range and 8% in population size: in 28 years the range had a five fold and the numbers a tenfold incrase. In 1998 the total red deer population in Italy was estimated at 32,000 head, of which 75% are in the central and eastern Alps. In the central and eastern Alps the current population derives mainly from spontaneous recolonisation from neighbouring countries. In the western Alps the contribution of reintroduction prevails. In the northern and central Apennines the present occurrence of red deer is exclusively due to reintroduction. In Sardinia C. e. corsicanus is recovering gradually. The autochthonous nucleus from Mesola Wood needs a long term conservation plan.

Stefano Mattioli; Pier Giuseppe Meneguz; Alessandro Brugnoli; Sandro Nicoloso

2001-01-01

89

Mule deer passage beneath an overland coal conveyor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presently, information pertaining to migration and daily movement patterns of big game in relation to overland conveyors or large diameter pipelines is sparse. A literature review showed that moose, caribou, reindeer, and dall sheep will pass beneath or over large diameter pipeline systems. But no information was found relative to big game crossing coal conveyor systems. Mule deer passage beneath an overland coal conveyor in Carbon County, Utah, was studied during spring 1981. Deer avoided crossing at underpass opportunities where the clearance was less than 50 cm. Clearances between 50 and 90 cm were selected for crossing. Deer passed beneath the conveyor during day and nighttime conditions and while the conveyor was either operating or idle. Recommendations are discussed for designing conveyors and pipelines to facilitate big game passage. 13 references, 2 tables.

Greenwood, C.L.; Dalton, L.B.

1984-07-31

90

Deer embryo ginseng anti-aging health care medicinal granules  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses deer embryo ginseng anti-aging health care medicinal granules, belonging to the field of health care food and mainly being prepared from the raw materials of deer embryo, ginseng, Chinese date, yam, Salvia miltiorrhiza, tuckahoe, ginger and rose hip tea. The production process comprises the following steps: taking fresh deer embryo, drying and crushing drying and crushing ginseng performing water extraction on other raw materials and concentrating into extractum and adding the above intermediate products, drying and pelletizing. The medicinal granules can effectively defer senility of human body, has good health care effect and no toxic or side effect, and is suitable for middle-aged and old to take.

FENGQING AN; FAQIANG CHEN; JINGXIN MIAO; DESHENG WANG; KAIDONG ZHANG; XIDONG ZHAO

91

A 3-decade dearth of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a wolf (Canis lupus)-dominated ecosystem  

Science.gov (United States)

Some 30 years after wolves (Canis lupus) were implicated in decimating wintering white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a 3000-km2 area of northeastern Minnesota, winter deer still have not recolonized the area. Although habitat in the study area generally remains poor, some regeneration has taken place, and deer have increased adjacent to the area. However, wolf numbers have persisted by preying on moose (Alces alces). We could detect no reason other than wolf predation and deer migration traditions for why wintering deer have not recolonized the area.

Nelson, M. E.; Mech, L. D.

2006-01-01

92

[Sacrocystis hjorti lesions in hunted red deer in Switzerland].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In meat samples from 2 hunted red deer (Cervus elaphus) of different origins (region Ilanz, region Filisur) large-scale greenish tissue discolorations with a gelatinous change of fascia were observed and diagnosed as eosinophilic fasciitis. Sarcocystis hjorti, a recently described Sarcocystis species in red deer and moose in Norway, was found as the causing agent. Foxes are regarded as final hosts in the development cycle of this parasite. Factors leading to such cases of eosinophilic fasciitis due to sarcosporidiosis, which is widespread in farm and wild ruminants and is normally inapparent are largely unknown. According to meat inspection directives carcasses with such discolorations have to be declared unfit for human consumption.

Stephan R; Loretz M; Eggenberger E; Grest P; Basso W; Grimm F

2012-12-01

93

Favus In A Non-endemic Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Favus, although endemic in the Kashmir valley, is rarely reported form other parts of India. We report two cases of favus from rural Udaipur, Rajasthan, because of its rarity in a non- endemic zone. Both the patients had scutula and cicatricial alopecia, characteristic of scales. Culture on Sabouraud�s dextrose agar grew Trichophyton schoenleinii in both the cases.

Gupata L K; Bansal N K; Kuldeep C M; Surana S S; Mehta P; Jasuja K; Sharma A

2002-01-01

94

[Marginal notes on the paper on tuberculosis among Japanese deer in a deer-park in Goes (author's transl)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A few marginal notes and a review of the literature on tuberculosis among Cervidae with reference to the outbreak of tuberculosis among Japanese deer in a deer-park recently established in Goes, which was detected by the Animal Health Service in the Province of Zealand in 1971. Particular attention is paid to recent enzootics of bovine as well as of avian tuberculosis. This shows that restrictions on commercial and barter transactions, to be imposed by the authorities, are required. The fact is also stressed that methods of prevention and treatment adopted in ruminants in zoological gardens are contra-indicated. If the breeding of particular species of deer should expand because of the growing demand for venison, some supervision by or in behalf of the authorities would appear to be essential. As the method adopted in the treatment of ruminants is not sure to be definitely successful, this procedure, like vaccination, should be dispensed with.

van der Schaaf A

1977-05-01

95

Glycolytic potential and ultimate muscle pH values in red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ultimate pH value of meat (measured at approx. 24 hours post slaughter) gives information about the technological quality, i.e. shelf life, colour, water-holding properties and tenderness and is a direct consequence of muscle glycogen (energy) levels at slaughter. It may therefore also indicate whether or not the animal has been exposed to stressful energy depleting events prior to slaughter. In the present study, 141 animals (130 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and 11 fallow deer (Dama dama) were included to investigate the relationship between ultimate pH and residual glycogen concentration in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus. In addition, the muscle glycogen content and ultimate pH values in three red deer muscles (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus and biceps femoris) were studied. M. triceps brachii had higher ultimate pH and lower glycogen content compared with the other two studied muscles. The frequency of intermediate DFD (5.8? pH<6.2) was 5.4% in red deer M. longissimus, compared with 9.1% in fallow deer, while the frequency of DFD (pH? 6.2) was much lower in red deer (3.8%) than in fallow deer (54.5%). A curvilinear relationship between ultimate pH and total glucose concentration (glycogen and glucose) 30 min post slaughter in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus was found. The relationship between muscle pH and lactic acid concentration however, was indicated to be linear. A significant variation in total glucose concentration at ultimate pH below 5.80 was observed, including values in the range from 18 to 123 mmol/kg wet tissue. It was concluded that further studies are needed to further explore the relationship between muscle glycogen content and technological and sensory quality attributes of meat from different deer species.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:Köttets pH-värde (mätt ca 24 timmar efter slakt) har stor betydelse för den teknologiska kvaliteten som t. ex. hĺllbarhet, färg, vattenhĺllande förmĺga och mörhet. Glykogenförrĺdet (energinivĺn) i djurens muskulatur vid slakt är helt avgörande för köttets slutliga pH-värde. Därför kan pH-värdet ocksĺ indikera om hanteringen av slaktdjur varit skonsam eller om stora mängder muskelenergi har förbrukats vid stress. I vĺr undersökning ingick 141 hjortar (130 kronhjortar (Cervus elaphus) och 11 dovhjortar (Dama dama) för att studera sambandet mellan köttets pH-värde och glykogeninnehĺllet i M. longissimus. Glykogeninnehĺll och pH-värden i 3 muskler frĺn kronhjort (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus och biceps femoris) undersöktes ocksĺ. M. triceps brachii hade högre pH-värde och lägre glykogeninnehĺll jämfört med de tvĺ andra musklerna. Det var inte sĺ stor skillnad i frekvensen av intermediär DFD (pH-värden mellan 5,8 og 6,2) mellan de tvĺ hjortarterna (5,4% för kronhjort och 9,1% för dovhjort), däremot var frekvensen av DFD (pH-värden över 6,2) mycket lĺg hos kronhjort (3,8%) jämfört med dovhjort (54,5%). Det fanns ett kurvlinjärt samband mellan slutligt pH-värde i köttet och total glukoskoncentration (glykogen + glukos) mätt i M. longissimus 30 min efter slakt för bĺde kron- och dovhjort. Ett linjärt samband mellan pH-värde och koncentration av mjölksyra i M. longissimus kunde ocksĺ visas. Vi fann en mycket stor varitation i glukoskoncentration (18?123 mmol/kg vĺtvikt) när köttets pH-värdet var 5,8 eller lägre. Det behövs fler undersökningar för att vidare klargöra sambanden mellan glykogeninnehĺll i muskulaturen och teknologisk och sensorisk kvalitet i olika typer av hjortkött.

Eva Wiklund; Timothy R. Manley; Roger P. Littlejohn

2004-01-01

96

BALKAN ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY AND MALIGNANT UROTHELIAL TUMORS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the features of Balcan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is higher frequency of urothelium malignant tumors, primarily of pyelon (Mtp) and urether (Mtu). Jablanica region is known for the presence of endemic, hypoendemic and non-endemic areas with BEN. The aim of our research was to analyze the appearance of MTUi n endemic settlements of Jablanica region with BEN and to see what the relation of tumor frequency between endemic and non-endemic settlements is. The appearance of MTU was analyzed on the basis of operative protocol data of Urology department, The Health Center in Leskovac and Urology Clinic of The Clinical Center in Nis for the period from 1978 to 2002. We collected data about our patiens regarding their sex, age, the place of living and the place of birth. In order to make classification of settlements we used data of the Institute for Nephrology and hemodialysis (INH) in Nis. Data on total number of population living in these settlements were obtained from the official registration data published in 1981 and 1991. The incidence rate was calculated in the sample of 100,000 people.The average annual incidence rate (AAIR) of MTU in endemic settlements for the considered period is 37.82 (tumors of urether and pyelon - 17.56; malignant tumors of urinary bladder (MTUB 20.26); in hypoendemic settlements the rate is 13.28 (MTp and Mtu - 5.06; MTUB - 8.22); and in non-endemic urban settlements it is 7.35 (Mtu and MTp - 1.04, MTUB - 6.31).AAIR of MTU in endemic areas is 2.85 times higher when compared to hypoendemic areas; it is 6.75 times higher than in non-endemic urban areas, and 5.15 times higher than the rate of non-endemic rural areas. Mtu and MTp are 18.68 times more frequent in endemic settlements than in non-endemic urban areas and 3.47 times more frequent when compared to hypoendemic settlements. The linear trend of the diseased from MTp and MTu in endemic areas of Jablanica region for 25-year period was slowly decreasing according to statistics (y= -0.0054x + 0.59; r2=0.0031.High frequency of Mtu, primarily of Mtu and MTp in areas with BEN, probably points to the common nephropathogenic and cancerogenic etiologic factor, confirming thus the existence of positive correlation between BEN and malignant tumors of upper urothelium (MTUU).

Stevan Glogovac; Vidojko Djordjevic; Jasmina Tomin; Jelena Zivanov-Curlis; Svetislav Kostic; Nebojsa Prokopovic; Dragoslav Basic

2005-01-01

97

Evaluation of knowledge, attitudes, and practices of deer owners following identification of a cluster of captive deer with rabies in Pennsylvania in July 2010.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices of deer owners following identification of a cluster of captive deer with rabies as an aid for the development of rabies prevention educational materials. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. POPULATION: Captive-deer owners who were members of the pennsylvania deer farmers association. PROCEDURES: Information was obtained via a mailed, self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The questionnaire response rate was 59% (249/425). One hundred three of 206 (50%) respondents had incomplete knowledge of rabies virus vectors, transmission, severity, and prevention measures. Birds or snakes were incorrectly identified as rabies vectors by 96 of 213 (45%) respondents, and most (? 94%) respondents identified rabies virus reservoirs as vectors. Ninety of 231 (39%) respondents identified death as an outcome of rabies, and 184 of 235 (78%) respondents would seek emergency treatment if they suspected exposure. Only 62 of 235 (26%) respondents would wash a wound immediately. The majority of respondents (173/239 [72%]) did not know the clinical signs of rabies in deer. Nine respondents indicated that they vaccinated their deer against rabies, and the majority of respondents (158/214 [74%]) would be willing to vaccinate. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings suggested that deer owners in Pennsylvania have a basic knowledge of rabies; however, knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding prevention of rabies transmission could be improved considerably. Rabies educational materials for deer owners should focus on postexposure procedures, disease severity, recognition of rabies in deer, and changes in management practices such as vaccination to prevent rabies.

Tack DM; Blanton JD; Holman RC; Longenberger AH; Petersen BW; Rupprecht CE

2013-05-01

98

Analysis of radionuclide concentrations and movement patterns of Hanford-site mule deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 1980 through 1982, the movements of 37 radio-collared mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were monitored for periods of 3 to 17 months on the Handord Site in southcentral Washington. The objectives were to compare radionuclide concentrations in deer residing near the 200 Area waste management sites with concentrations in deer occupying areas remote from waste management sites and to document movement patterns of Hanford Site deer with particular emphasis on offsite movements. Cesium-137 in deer muscle and liver and 90Sr concentrations in deer bone were statistically higher in deer living near the 200 Area than in control animals. During this study, the highest concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr in 200 Area deer were in those individuals residing in or immediately adjacent to radiation zones. Cesium-137 and 90Sr concentrations were more variable in deer residing near the 200 Area than in control animals, where only background (fallout) levels were observed. Movement patterns of Hanford site deer were analyzed to determine home range size and usage. The average home range was 0.39 +- 27 km2. In addition, ten (27%) of the monitored deer made offsite movements during the study period. While most of these movements were made in the spring and summer, some fall and winter movements were noted. It was estimated that approximately 8% (95% confidence interval is from 0 to 21%) of the Hanford deer herd is harvested each year. As a result of the low harvest rate, the Hanford deer herd appears to have a disproportionate number of older animals, with 24% of the 17 examined deer older than 10.5 years

1982-01-01

99

Too Many Deer! A Case Study in Managing Urban Deer Herds  

Science.gov (United States)

A town meeting is the setting for this case study in which students explore the topics of overpopulation, bioethics, and management of urban wildlife. The case makes use of role playing, small group discussion, interrupted case techniques, and critical analytical reflective papers to enable students to examine a common urban forest management problem. Hidden within the examination of making decisions about deer herds is a set of questions that brings out the scientific method and its application. Although developed for a non-majors biology course, by restructuring some of the activities and asking different questions the case could be successfully used in an introductory biology course for majors, an ecology course, a conservation biology seminar, or a course on bioethics.

Ribbens, Eric

2002-01-01

100

SOX9 Duplication Linked to Intersex in Deer  

Science.gov (United States)

A complex network of genes determines sex in mammals. Here, we studied a European roe deer with an intersex phenotype that was consistent with a XY genotype with incomplete male-determination. Whole genome sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed a triple dose of the SOX9 gene, allowing insights into a new genetic defect in a wild animal.

Kropatsch, Regina; Dekomien, Gabriele; Akkad, Denis A.; Gerding, Wanda M.; Petrasch-Parwez, Elisabeth; Young, Neil D.; Altmuller, Janine; Nurnberg, Peter; Gasser, Robin B.; Epplen, Jorg T.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

SOX9 Duplication Linked to Intersex in Deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

A complex network of genes determines sex in mammals. Here, we studied a European roe deer with an intersex phenotype that was consistent with a XY genotype with incomplete male-determination. Whole genome sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed a triple dose of the SOX9 gene, allowing insights into a new genetic defect in a wild animal. PMID:24040047

Kropatsch, Regina; Dekomien, Gabriele; Akkad, Denis A; Gerding, Wanda M; Petrasch-Parwez, Elisabeth; Young, Neil D; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Gasser, Robin B; Epplen, Jörg T

2013-09-06

102

SOX9 Duplication Linked to Intersex in Deer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A complex network of genes determines sex in mammals. Here, we studied a European roe deer with an intersex phenotype that was consistent with a XY genotype with incomplete male-determination. Whole genome sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed a triple dose of the SOX9 gene, allowing insights into a new genetic defect in a wild animal.

Kropatsch R; Dekomien G; Akkad DA; Gerding WM; Petrasch-Parwez E; Young ND; Altmüller J; Nürnberg P; Gasser RB; Epplen JT

2013-01-01

103

Taxonomic Status of Endemic Plants in Korea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Disagreement among the various publications providing lists of Korean endemic plants makes confusion inevitable. We summarized the six previous reports providing comprehensive lists of endemic plants in Korea: 407 taxa in Lee (1982), 570 taxa in Paik (1994), 759 taxa in Kim (2004), 328 taxa in Korea National Arboretum (2005), 515 taxa in the Ministry of Environment (2005) and 289 taxa in Flora of Korea Editorial Committee (2007). The total number of endemic plants described in the previous reports was 970 taxa, including 89 families, 302 genera, 496 species, 3 subspecies, 218 varieties, and 253 formae. Endemic plants listed four times or more were collected to compare the data in terms of scientific names and synonyms (339 taxa in 59 families and 155 genera). If the varieties and formae were excluded, the resulting number of endemic plants was 252 taxa for the 339 purported taxa analyzed. Seven of the 155 genera analyzed were Korean endemic genera. Among the 339 taxa, the same scientific names were used in the original publications for 256 taxa (76%), while different scientific names were used for 83 taxa (24%). The four largest families were Compositae (42 taxa, 12.4%), Ranunculaceae (19 taxa, 5.6%), Rosaceae (19 taxa, 5.6%), and Scrophulariaceae (19 taxa, 5.6%). Saussurea (Compositae) had the highest number of taxa within one genus (17 taxa; 5% of total endemic taxa).

Kun Ok Kim; Sun Hee Hong; Yong Ho Lee; Chae Sun Na; Byeung Hoa Kang; Yowhan Son

2009-01-01

104

[Schistosomiasis endemic in Burkina Faso].  

Science.gov (United States)

Burkina Faso, through the works of many teams of the OCCGE based in Bobo-Dioulasso, has signi-ficant data on several tropical endemics of which schistosomiasis. With the complementary works, it appears to be possible to establish a distribution of the schistosomiasis which reveals its importance. It will be the first stage of the planned national control program. The parasitologic data-gathering which covers the period of 1951 to 2000, used all the standard techniques. It is about Kato-Kartz and MIF for the intestinal schistosomiasis, centrifugation, filtration, serology reagent strips, macroscopy of urines and echography of the urinary system for the urinary schistosomiasis. All the eleven medical areas of the country have many sites submitted to parasitologic investigation. As regard the distribution of the two parasites involved with man (Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni), the data of prevalence (1% to 100%) and their distribution confirm their endemicity and the focal transmission. S. mansoni is located in eight medical areas particularly in the South and the West. S. haematobium is present in all the eleven medical areas of the country. In hydraulic planning as Sourou where the prevalences went from 23% to 70% for S. haematobium and from 0% to 69% for S. mansoni between 1987 and 1998. The situation requires a continuous monitoring. The spatial distribution of the six species of intermediate hosts shows that Bulinus truncatus and B. senegalensis Soudano-Sahelian species are present in all the ecological zones. B. globosus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi meet preferentially in the southern half of the country which reinforces the observation according to which the 14th northern parallel is often considered as the limit of septentrional extension of these two species. The other species Bulinus forskalii and B umbilicatus could have preference areas. All the species show a certain affinity with a type of biotope. The rarity and temporary aquatic systems lead to a concentration of the domestic and especially entertaining children activities around these biotopes very often contaminated. The phenomenon is amplified by the increase of contacts man-water, whose frequency and intensity are themselves dependent on activities related to hydro-agricultural planning. The analysis of the data shows, that in terms of colonization of the biotopes by molluscs and the relations between parasites and intermediate and final hosts, hydraulic planning turns out to be an amplifying factor of the species proliferation and parasitic flux host-parasite. PMID:15104159

Poda, J N; Traoré, A; Sondo, B K

2004-02-01

105

Seasonal variation in the behavior of captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus, in Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm, of China  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Musk deer farming has the potential to be an effective conservation tool for the protection of musk deer as well as the production of valuable musk. To be successful, this requires a thorough understanding of the behavior of captive musk deer in order to improve their reproductive success and management. Between August 2005 to January 2006, the behavior sampling of 19 male and 13 female captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus Büchner, 1891, was used to examine the du (more) rations of twelve behavioral characteristics during the pre-rut (August to October) and rut seasons (November to January). Both males and females exhibited some seasonal variation in behavior. Males rested and fed more during the pre-rut than the rut and spent more time walking, fighting, and standing alert during the rut. Females spent more time feeding, ruminating, and interacting non-aggressively with other individuals during the pre-rut and more time in agonistic interactions during the rut. The significance of these behavioral changes and their association with husbandry practices and farm management are discussed.

Xiaofeng, Luan; Changjie, Zhao; Cenyi, Hui; Xiuxiang, Meng

2010-01-01

106

Industry-wide study report of an in-depth survey at Shell Oil Company Deer Park Manufacturing Complex, Deer Park, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An in-depth survey was made of a 1,3-butadiene monomer-producing plant, Shell Oil Company's Deer Park Manufacturing Complex, Deer Park, Texas because recent toxicological studies indicated 1,3-butadiene as an animal and potential human carcinogen. Workers performing maintenance on process equipment had the highest potential mean exposure.

Ungers, L.J.; Fajen, J.M.; Roberts, D.R.; McCann, J.

1986-05-01

107

Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) infestation on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Trentino, Italian Alps.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The most important tick-deer system potentially supporting the epidemiology of Lyme disease in the Italian Alps is that regarding Ixodes ricinus (L.) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.). In this study, the pattern of tick infestation on 562 male roe deer harvested in September 1994 in 56 game districts of Trentino, Northern Italy, was assessed. The prevalence and density of infestation by I. ricinus were analyzed by a model based on classification and regression trees (CART), using both discrete and continuous variables concerning environmental and host parameters. The model discriminated attitude and host density as the 2 variables having the greatest effect on the prevalence and density of infestation of deer; the levels of infestation were higher at an altitude below 1125 m or at roe deer densities over 8.5 head per 100 ha. The density of tick infestation tended to be higher in older roe deer.

Chemini C; Rizzoli A; Merler S; Furlanello C; Genchi C

1997-03-01

108

Detection of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), in questing ticks (Ixodes ricinus), and in ticks infesting roe deer in southern Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is the most common tick in Central Europe and plays an important role as a vector of several pathogens. In the complex life cycles of these pathogens, the role of wild animals as natural reservoirs has been discussed. The aims of this study were to investigate the role of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) as a potential reservoir host for Babesia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. Therefore, we explored the differences in the infection rates of roe deer and engorged and questing ticks with these pathogens from a single forest site with special attention to coinfection. Blood, spleen, and skin samples of a total of 95 roe deer individuals were screened by molecular methods for these pathogens from September 2010 to January 2012 in the 'Angelberger Forst' (Bavaria, Germany). Moreover, 331 engorged ticks from 44 roe deer individuals and 199 host-seeking ticks from the same area were screened. Altogether, the following prevalence rates and a high diversity of species were detected for the respective pathogens in individual animals and ticks: (i) Babesia spp.: roe deer, 89.5%; engorged ticks, 7.3%; questing ticks: adults, 2.5%, nymphs, 3.3%. Sequencing revealed B. venatorum, B. capreoli, and B. microti. (ii) A. phagocytophilum: roe deer 98.9%; engorged ticks, 86.1%; questing ticks: adults, 8.9%, nymphs, 0.8%. (iii) Rickettsia spp.: roe deer, 0%; engorged ticks, 16.6%; questing ticks: adults, 13.9%, nymphs, 17.5%. Sequencing revealed R. helvetica. Furthermore, several coinfections were detected in both roe deer and ticks. The high prevalence rates of B. capreoli and A. phagocytophilum in roe deer support their role as reservoir hosts for these pathogens, but no evidence for a role of roe deer in the life cycle of R. helvetica could be provided.

Overzier E; Pfister K; Herb I; Mahling M; Böck G Jr; Silaghi C

2013-06-01

109

A case of chronic wasting disease in a captive red deer (Cervus elaphus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 22-month-old, female red deer (Cervus elaphus) was submitted to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for necropsy and chronic wasting disease (CWD) testing. The deer was found positive for the abnormal prion protein in the obex and the retropharyngeal lymph node by immunohistochemical staining. Microscopic lesions of spongiform encephalopathy and immunohistochemical staining patterns and intensity were similar to those in CWD-positive elk and experimentally infected red deer.

Schwabenlander MD; Culhane MR; Hall SM; Goyal SM; Anderson PL; Carstensen M; Wells SJ; Slade WB; Armién AG

2013-08-01

110

Experiments on the ectoparasitic deer ked that often attacks humans; preferences for body parts, colour and temperature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) can fail in its host search. Host search fails when an individual deer ked irreversibly accepts a host unsuitable for its reproduction (e.g. a human) and drops its wings. In northern Europe, the main host of the deer ked is the moose (Alces alces). The deer ked is increasingly causing serious problems for humans (for example, causing deer ked dermatitis) and is considered a threat for the recreational use of forests. The adult deer ked flies in early and mid-autumn to search for a host. Our aims were: (i) to study whether there are ways to avoid deer ked attacks by wearing particular clothing, and (ii) to evaluate deer ked host choice. Using human targets, we explored the cues the deer ked uses for host selection. We studied which part of the host body deer keds target and if body colour and temperature affect their choice. In our experiments, deer keds landed more on dark and red clothing than on white clothing. Moreover, deer keds mostly attacked the upper body parts and preferred the back side of the body over the front side. Finally, deer keds preferred the warmest areas of the host.

Kortet R; Härkönen L; Hokkanen P; Härkönen S; Kaitala A; Kaunisto S; Laaksonen S; Kekäläinen J; Ylönen H

2010-06-01

111

Upper urothelium carcinomas in Croatian endemic area.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endemic nephropathy (EN) is a chronic tubulointerstitial disease. Strong association between EN and urothelial carcinoma was noted as early as 40-50 ago. The aim of the study was to determine and compare specific mortality and morbidity of renal pelvis and ureter (upper urothelium) carcinoma (UUC) among Croatia as a whole, Brod-Posavina County, and Croatian endemic area. METHODS: Data on UUC mortality and morbidity were analyzed. Indirect standardization was employed on data comparison by calculating standardized mortality ratio and morbidity ratio. RESULTS: Our study results showed the specific mortality rate in the endemic area to be 26.3-fold and 7.3-fold the rate recorded in Croatia and Brod-Posavina County, respectively. The mean standardized mortality ratio obtained by indirect standardization yielded an 8-fold and 32-fold risk of death from UUC in the endemic area vs. Brod-Posavina County and Croatia as a whole, respectively. These data revealed the specific morbidity in the Croatian endemic area and Brod-Posavina County to be 13.95-fold and 3.78-fold the morbidity recorded at the national level, respectively. The standardized morbidity ratio also showed the risk of developing UUC in the Croatian endemic area to be 3.75-fold the risk in Brod-Posavina County and 16.4-fold the risk in Croatia. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that specific mortality and morbidity as well as standardized morbidity ratio and standardized mortality ratio were higher in Croatian endemic area than in Brod-Posavina County and Croatia.

Cvitkovi? A; Ivi?-Hofman I; Juri? D

2013-08-01

112

Polycystic kidney disease in a European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A severe case of polycystic nephropathy was seen in an adult European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), culled in a German hunting district. The doe had bilaterally drastically enlarged kidneys, completely riddled with variably sized, fluid-filled cysts of up to 4 cm in diameter. Histopathologic and ultrastructural examination revealed disseminated formation of cysts with flattened epithelial cell linings in the entire renal parenchyma, as well as severe dilations of renal tubules, marked interstitial fibrosis, nephron atrophy, and chronic interstitial lymphoplasmacytic infiltrations in the intercystic kidney tissue. These morphologic findings most likely resemble the hallmarks of autosomal dominant polycystic disease in humans, and present the first detailed description of a case of polycystic kidney disease in a roe deer.

Blutke A; März K; Matenaers C; Oswald K; Hermanns W; Wanke R

2013-06-01

113

Capture myopathy in red deer and wild goat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This syndrome is a shock-like hyper metabolic myopathy triggered in susceptible animals by stress. Capture myopathy (C.M.) is a commonly occurring condition in mammals following trapping and ransportation. In this case 12 to 24 hours after transportation of red deer (Cevus elaphus) and wild goats (Capra ibex) clinical signs such as: muscular tremor, ataxia, recumbency, hyperthermia, tachycardia, hyperventilation and red brown urine observed. According to symptoms Capture myoparthy was diagnosed Treatment was ineffective on one red deer and one wild goat. Necropsy findings of dead animals were included: hyperemia, petechial hemorrhage in pericardium and heart muscle, pale foci of leg and heart muscles and red brown urine in bladder. This case report represents the attention to Capture myopathy in wild animals and particular caution that should be exercised in capturing and handling of these animals.

Hamidieh, H.; Alhami, A.; Mirian, J.

2011-01-01

114

Invasibility and species richness of island endemic arthropods: a general model of endemic vs. exotic species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper has two objectives. First, we examine how a variety of biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic factors influence the endemic and introduced arthropod richness on an oceanic island. Second, we look at the relationship between the endemic and introduced arthropod richness, to ask whether areas wi...

Borges, Paulo A. V.; Lobo, Jorge M.; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; Gaspar, Clara; Melo, Catarina; Nunes, Luis V.

115

Tests with three antigens in leprosy-endemic and non-endemic areas*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study comparing the 48-h and 30-day reactions produced by three antigens was made in areas of low and high leprosy endemicity in Venezuela and in areas of Chile, a non-endemic country. The antigens used for the intradermal tests were standard Mitsuda antigen, supernatant from standard Mitsuda anti...

Convit, J.; Pinardi, M. E.; Rojas, F. Arias; Gonzáles, I.; Corey, G.; Arvelo, J. J.; Monzón, H.

116

Mesola red deer: physical characteristics, population dynamics and conservation perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The biometry, demography and genetics of red deer Cervus elaphus of Mesola Wood (NE Italy), are presented and discussed in relation to the conservation of this population. Modest body size, low stature, oversimplified antlers and a low reproductive performance characterise red deer from Mesola Wood. The mitochondrial genome showed a private haplotype, different from other red deer in Italy and central Europe. The uniqueness of this nucleus and its biogeographic importance make a long-term conservation plan particularly urgent. Management measures such as fallow deer reduction, winter feeding and pasture mowing were tested, giving promising results. The physical condition of the animals improved, calf and adult mortality declined, and a few cases of antlers with bez tine or crown were reported in this study after four decades. Riassunto Il Cervo della Mesola: caratteristiche fisiche, dinamica di popolazione e prospettive di conservazione La biometria, la demografia e la genetica del cervo Cervus elaphus del Gran Bosco della Mesola (Italia nord-orientale), vengono presentate e discusse in relazione alla salvaguardia di questa popolazione. Il cervo della Mesola risulta caratterizzato dalle modeste dimensioni corporee, dalla struttura semplificata dei palchi e da un basso rendimento riproduttivo. L'analisi del genoma mitocondriale ha evidenziato un aplotipo privato, diverso da quello degli altri cervi italiani e centroeuropei. L'unicitŕ di questo nucleo e la sua importanza biogeografica rendono particolarmente urgente un piano di conservazione a lungo termine. Sono stati verificati interventi gestionali quali la riduzione numerica dei daini, il foraggiamento invernale e lo sfalcio delle superfici a pascolo, con risultati promettenti. Le condizioni fisiche degli animali sono migliorate, la mortalitŕ tra i piccoli e gli adulti č diminuita, e sono stati registrati alcuni casi di palchi dotati di ago o corona per la prima volta dopo quattro decenni.

Stefano Mattioli; Rosario Fico; Rita Lorenzini; Giovanni Nobili

2003-01-01

117

Deer, predators, and the emergence of Lyme disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Lyme disease is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in North America, and both the annual incidence and geographic range are increasing. The emergence of Lyme disease has been attributed to a century-long recovery of deer, an important reproductive host for adult ticks. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that Lyme disease risk may now be more dynamically linked to fluctuations in the abundance of small-mammal hosts that are thought to infect the majority of ticks. The continuing and rapid increase in Lyme disease over the past two decades, long after the recolonization of deer, suggests that other factors, including changes in the ecology of small-mammal hosts may be responsible for the continuing emergence of Lyme disease. We present a theoretical model that illustrates how reductions in small-mammal predators can sharply increase Lyme disease risk. We then show that increases in Lyme disease in the northeastern and midwestern United States over the past three decades are frequently uncorrelated with deer abundance and instead coincide with a range-wide decline of a key small-mammal predator, the red fox, likely due to expansion of coyote populations. Further, across four states we find poor spatial correlation between deer abundance and Lyme disease incidence, but coyote abundance and fox rarity effectively predict the spatial distribution of Lyme disease in New York. These results suggest that changes in predator communities may have cascading impacts that facilitate the emergence of zoonotic diseases, the vast majority of which rely on hosts that occupy low trophic levels.

Levi, Taal; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Mangel, Marc; Wilmers, Christopher C.

2012-01-01

118

Incidence of gasrointestinal helminthiasis in captive deers at Nagpur  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Out of 60 Samples of deer from Maharajbag Zoo, Nagpur, 30 were positive for eggs and larvae of helminthic parasites. The encountered parasitic species were Haemonchus spp., Dicrocoelium spp., Paramphistomum spp., Oesophagostomum spp. and Bunostomum spp. etc. Direct smear method together with sedimentation technique were used for the purpose. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000): 337-338

A. T. Borghare; V. P. Bagde; A. D. Jaulkar; D. D. Katre; P. D. Jumde; D. K. Maske; G. N. Bhangale

2009-01-01

119

Climatic factors and body weight of yearling sika deer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was to determine climatological factors that affect body weight of sika deer in Maryland. Significant correlations were found between stag body weight and total snowfall in December and mean high temperature in February. There was a negative correlation between stag body weight and total precipitation in July. Body weight of stags appears to be more strongly affected directly or indirectly by climatological factors than body weight of hinds.

Feldhamer, G.A.

1985-01-01

120

78 FR 46603 - Notice of Availability of a Draft White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Environmental Impact...  

Science.gov (United States)

...management actions (sharpshooting with firearms or capture and euthanasia of individual deer) to reduce the herd size. Alternative...deer herd through sharpshooting with firearms or capture and euthanasia and nonsurgical reproductive control of does with an...

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
121

Detection of Lyme disease spirochetes in the skin of naturally infected wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) by PCR.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We demonstrated the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in the skin tissues of naturally infected wild sika deer, using PCR. The risk of transmission of B. burgdorferi sensu lato is recognized in sika deer.

Kimura, K; Isogai, E; Isogai, H; Kamewaka, Y; Nishikawa, T; Ishii, N; Fujii, N

122

FOUR DECADES OF ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY IN MEZGRAJA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mezgraja village, situated on the right bank of the river South Morava, has presented the focus of endemic nephropathy for the last four decades. The eight and ninth decade of the last century, distinguish the high prevalence of endemic nephropathy, but the last decade is characterized by the degradation in prevalence of this disease in Mezgraja.The present section research includes 67% of the population in Mezgraja. They have implied through anamneses, physical check and the examination of the first morning urine. In 27% of testees, a different urine abnormality was recorded (proteinuria, glicosuria, microhematuria, leucocituria). The persons with urine abnormality were subjected to the additional clinical investigation in the Department of nephrology and haemodialisis.In the course of section research as well as the additional aspire clinical research, different kidney diseases were discovered in 4,18% of the testees, such as: endemic nephropathy (0,52%), cystic disease of kidney (0,52%), renal calculosa (1,04%), and diabetic nephropathy (2,08%). The prevalence of endemic nephropathy is therefore on the level of the previous one, dating from the year of 1966.All the attained data represent the base for the further prospective analysis of the clinical-epidemiological characteristic of endemic nephropathy. The descending rate of this disease in the last decade rejoice, but it should not baffle and discourage the researchers as it can mean only one "lull before storm".

Rade ?ukuranovi?; Ljiljana Vasovi?; Snežana Pavlovi?; Slobodan Vlajkovi?; Marija Dakovi?-Bjelakovi?; Ivan Jovanovi?; Vesna Stojanovi?; Sla?ana Ugrenovi?; Dejan Zdravkovi?

2003-01-01

123

Biochemical variables in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) after chemical immobilization in clover traps or via ground-darting.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this prospective observational cohort study in free-ranging female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was to compare the physiologic effects of two methods of anesthetic drug administration: hand-injection in Clover traps and remote injection by dart after ground-stalking. Six trapped and 14 darted female deer were injected with a median (minimum, maximum) of 590 microg/kg butorphanol (401, 1070 microg/kg), plus 235 microg/kg medetomidine (160, 429 microg/kg) intramuscularly. In the trap, the deer struggled when approached and were restrained for injection. Darted deer sprinted away after injection. Once immobilized, deer were transported to a veterinary hospital where blood was collected and vital signs were measured on admission. Admission data from a subset of deer in which measurements were taken within 40 min of trapping (n = 6) or darting (n = 5) were analyzed. After salpingectomy under isoflurane and while still anesthetized, another blood sample was collected from all 20 deer. Body weight and immobilization drug doses were not different between groups. On admission, most deer from both groups were hypoxemic, although the darted deer were significantly more hypoxemic. The median rectal temperature in trapped deer was higher than in darted deer, and temperatures higher than 39 degrees C only occurred in trapped deer. The median heart rate in trapped deer was more than twice that in darted deer. Trapped deer had lower median pH and base excess; in trapped deer, the median plasma lactate concentration was more than fivefold higher than in darted deer. After surgery, the median serum creatine kinase concentration was nearly 10-fold higher in trapped deer, and the median cardiac troponin I concentration was higher in trapped deer but undetectable in 10 of 14 darted deer. The white-tailed deer immobilized by hand-injection in Clover traps experienced more severe physiologic perturbations than deer remotely injected by dart after ground-stalking. These perturbations might be sufficient to cause myocardial damage.

Boesch JM; Boulanger JR; Curtis PD; Erb HN; Ludders JW; Kraus MS; Gleed RD

2011-03-01

124

Large-scale model-based assessment of deer-vehicle collision risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ungulates, in particular the Central European roe deer Capreolus capreolus and the North American white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, are economically and ecologically important. The two species are risk factors for deer-vehicle collisions and as browsers of palatable trees have implications for forest regeneration. However, no large-scale management systems for ungulates have been implemented, mainly because of the high efforts and costs associated with attempts to estimate population sizes of free-living ungulates living in a complex landscape. Attempts to directly estimate population sizes of deer are problematic owing to poor data quality and lack of spatial representation on larger scales. We used data on >74,000 deer-vehicle collisions observed in 2006 and 2009 in Bavaria, Germany, to model the local risk of deer-vehicle collisions and to investigate the relationship between deer-vehicle collisions and both environmental conditions and browsing intensities. An innovative modelling approach for the number of deer-vehicle collisions, which allows nonlinear environment-deer relationships and assessment of spatial heterogeneity, was the basis for estimating the local risk of collisions for specific road types on the scale of Bavarian municipalities. Based on this risk model, we propose a new "deer-vehicle collision index" for deer management. We show that the risk of deer-vehicle collisions is positively correlated to browsing intensity and to harvest numbers. Overall, our results demonstrate that the number of deer-vehicle collisions can be predicted with high precision on the scale of municipalities. In the densely populated and intensively used landscapes of Central Europe and North America, a model-based risk assessment for deer-vehicle collisions provides a cost-efficient instrument for deer management on the landscape scale. The measures derived from our model provide valuable information for planning road protection and defining hunting quota. Open-source software implementing the model can be used to transfer our modelling approach to wildlife-vehicle collisions elsewhere. PMID:22359535

Hothorn, Torsten; Brandl, Roland; Müller, Jörg

2012-02-16

125

Elk and deer studies related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) was conducted in the vicinity of planned site characterization activities for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). Both species are known to be sensitive to disturbance and are considered important species because they are recreationally and/or commercially valuable. The principal objectives of the study were to (1) estimate pre-activity (site characterization) recruitment of deer and elk, (2) characterize deer and elk use of limited habitats critical to their survival (e.g., riparian areas), (3) describe preferential habitat use by deer and elk during critical seasons (i.e., winter and summer), and (4) document pre-activity distributions of seasonal home range centers of deer and elk. Early termination of BWIP prevented some of the objectives from being fully addressed. Fifteen adult elk (11 females and 4 males) and 19 female deer equipped with radio transmitters were studied on the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve from February through December 1987. More than 1800 relocations of the marked elk and deer were made during aerial and ground tracking sessions. Deer confined their activities to within 2 km of water sources. In contrast, elk used 6-12 times the average area used by deer. As with deer, female elk were closely associated with available water sources during the summer and fall, presumably because of the physiological demands of lactation. However, during the winter, female elk showed no preference for areas near water, as did male elk throughout the study. Riparian areas, which are scarce on the arid Hanford Site, are particularly valuable habitat to both elk and deer because they provide drinking water and succulent forage during the dry summer and early fall months.

Eberhardt, L.E.; McCorquodale, S.M.; Sargeant, G.A.

1989-03-01

126

Elk and deer studies related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) was conducted in the vicinity of planned site characterization activities for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). Both species are known to be sensitive to disturbance and are considered important species because they are recreationally and/or commercially valuable. The principal objectives of the study were to (1) estimate pre-activity (site characterization) recruitment of deer and elk, (2) characterize deer and elk use of limited habitats critical to their survival (e.g., riparian areas), (3) describe preferential habitat use by deer and elk during critical seasons (i.e., winter and summer), and (4) document pre-activity distributions of seasonal home range centers of deer and elk. Early termination of BWIP prevented some of the objectives from being fully addressed. Fifteen adult elk (11 females and 4 males) and 19 female deer equipped with radio transmitters were studied on the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve from February through December 1987. More than 1800 relocations of the marked elk and deer were made during aerial and ground tracking sessions. Deer confined their activities to within 2 km of water sources. In contrast, elk used 6-12 times the average area used by deer. As with deer, female elk were closely associated with available water sources during the summer and fall, presumably because of the physiological demands of lactation. However, during the winter, female elk showed no preference for areas near water, as did male elk throughout the study. Riparian areas, which are scarce on the arid Hanford Site, are particularly valuable habitat to both elk and deer because they provide drinking water and succulent forage during the dry summer and early fall months.

1989-01-01

127

[Epidemiology of endemic goiter in Italy  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Epidemiological surveys on goiter endemia carried out in Italy in the two last decades were recently reviewed. Iodine deficiency and endemic goiter were documented in the entire country. In recent studies, urinary iodine excretion was higher and prevalence of goiter was lower than that documented in the past, in absence of a national program of prophylaxis. Nevertheless, in a recent study carried out in Basilicata, in schoolchildren a goiter prevalence of 16% was documented. In conclusion, iodine deficiency and endemic goiter are still present in Italy; despite the beneficial effects of "silent prophylaxis", a iodine prophylaxis program is mandatory.

Aghini-Lombardi F; Antonangeli L; Vitti P

1998-01-01

128

CHARACTERISTICS AND MIGRATION PATTERNS OF MULE DEER ON THE NEVADA TEST SITE  

Science.gov (United States)

When NTS deer migrate, the majority of the animals stay within the confines of the NTS or the Nellis Bombing Range, and present little potential for radiation transport off the NTS. Also, the few deer that leave the NTS area do so during the winter when they cannot legally be hun...

129

Morphological Examination of the Siberian Roe Deer Capreolus pygargus in South Korea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study compare the external morphological characteristics of Korean roe deer inhabit the inland and Jeju island areas and to clarify the morphological differences by the two groups. Also, total of 40 roe deer bodies were collected from road-kill, poaching and injured survey from December 2004 to June 2009. The result showed that there were significant differences between Inland and Jeju roe deer. Jeju roe deer was relatively smaller than Inland roe deer in body mass. Thus, it appeared to be a unique native species inhabited only in Jeju island in Korea. Because Jeju roe deer that inhabit the island region could be classified as a subspecies level when at least have geographically isolated for a long time and have represented significant external morphology. Therefore, Siberian roe deer in Jeju give a scientific name to Capreolus pygargus jejuensis. Also, body mass, hind foot length, ear length and width in morphometric analysis were identified as efficient characteristics for differentiating Inland from Jeju roe deer.

Yong-Su Park; Woo-Shin Lee; Jong-Taek Kim; Hong-Shik Oh

2011-01-01

130

The effect of deer management on the abundance of Ixodes ricinus in Scotland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The management of wildlife hosts for controlling parasites and disease has a history of mixed success. Deer can be important hosts for ticks, such as Ixodes ricinus, which is the primary vector of disease-causing zoonotic pathogens in Europe. Deer are generally managed by culling and fencing for forestry protection, habitat conservation, and commercial hunting, and in this study we test whether these deer management methods can be useful for controlling ticks, with implications for tick-borne pathogens. At different spatial scales and habitats we tested the hypotheses that tick abundance is reduced by (1) culling deer and (2) deer exclusion using fencing. We compared abundance indices of hosts and questing I. ricinus nymphs using a combination of small-scale fencing experiments on moorland, a large-scale natural experiment of fenced and unfenced pairs of forests, and cross-sectional surveys of forest and moorland areas with varying deer densities. As predicted, areas with fewer deer had fewer ticks, and fenced exclosures had dramatically fewer ticks in both large-scale forest and small-scale moorland plots. Fencing and reducing deer density were also associated with higher ground vegetation. The implications of these results on other hosts, pathogen prevalence, and disease risk are discussed. This study provides evidence of how traditional management methods of a keystone species can reduce a generalist parasite, with implications for disease risk mitigation.

Gilbert L; Maffey GL; Ramsay SL; Hester AJ

2012-03-01

131

Lack of caching of direct-seeded Douglas fir seeds by deer mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seed caching by deer mice was investigated by radiotagging seeds in forest and clear-cut areas in coastal British Columbia. Deer mice tend to cache very few Douglas fir seeds in the fall when the seed is uniformly distributed and is at densities comparable with those used in direct-seeding programs. (author).

1978-01-01

132

Control of Mycobacterium bovis infection in two sika deer herds in Ireland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a number of countries, tuberculosis (due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis) is a significant health problem of captive deer. This paper describes outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis in sika deer (Cervus nippon) on two farms in Ireland and the methods used to control the disease. On Farm A, infec...

Partridge, Tom; Toolan, Dónal; Egan, John; More, Simon

133

Morphometric Comparison of the Lumbar Cancellous Bone of Sheep, Deer, and Humans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To investigate the feasibility of using deer and sheep as animal models for the human spine, we compared the microarchitectural dimensions of the deer and sheep spines and with human data. To this end, we adopted the traditional bone tissue morphometric method, using figure analysis software for qua...

Wang, Yang; Liu, Guomin; Li, Ting; Xiao, Yanlong; Han, Qing; Xu, Randong; Li, Youqiong

134

Relationship between diet and liver carcinomas in roe deer in Kielder Forest and Galloway Forest  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The winter diets of roe deer culled from Kielder Forest, in north-east England, where the incidence of liver carcinomas in roe deer is high, and Galloway Forest, in south-west Scotland, where the incidence of liver carcinomas is low, were compared by microhistological analysis of faeces. Both areas ...

Jong, C.B., de; Wieren, S.E., van; Gill, R.M.A.; Munro, R.

135

Habitat Ecology of Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster) in Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) is an endangered species found in the Himalayan region of Nepal. This research was conducted in the Manaslu Conservation Area to explore the deers general population status, distribution, habitat preference and conservation threats. Musk deer are distributed within the altitudinal range of 3128-4039 m spanning 35.43 km2, with the most potential habitat in the Prok VDC (Village Development Committee). Within this area the Musk deer highly preferred altitudes between 3601-3800 m, with a 21-30 slope, 26-50% crown cover and 26-50% ground cover. There are significant differences in the use of different habitat types in terms of altitude, slope, crown cover, ground cover and topography. The preferred tree species were Abies spectabilis, Betula utilis and Rhododendron species. Poaching of deer for their musk is the major conservation threat.

Ashok Subedi; Achyut Aryal; Raj Kumar Koirala; Yajna Prasad Timilsina; Xiuxiang Meng; Fiona McKenzie

2012-01-01

136

Detection of stx1 and stx2 Genes in Pennsylvanian White-Tailed Deer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing E. coli carrying the stx1 and/or stx2 genes can cause multi-symptomatic illness in humans. A variety of terrestrial and aquatic environmental reservoirs of stx have been described. Culture based detection of microbes in deer species have found a low percentage of samples that have tested positive for Stx-producing microbes, suggesting that while deer may contain these microbes, their overall abundance in deer is low. In this study, quantitative PCR (qPCR) was utilized to test for the presence of stx genes in white-tailed deer fecal matter in western Pennsylvania. In this culture independent screening, nearly half of the samples tested positive for the stx2 gene, with a bias towards samples that were concentrated with stx2. This study, while limited in scope, suggests that deer may be a greater reservoir for stx than was previously thought.

Whitney M. Kistler; Surafel Mulugeta; Steven A. Mauro

2011-01-01

137

Favus in a non-endemic area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A typical case of favus of scalp in a 60-year-old female, resident of a village in district Udaipur (Rajasthan) is being reported for its rarity and occurrence in non-endemic zone. Some of the nails were also involved. Fungal hyphae were demonstrated in KOH examination from scalp and nails. Culture on Sabourauds agar medium grew Trichophyton violaceum.

Gupta L; Masuria B; Mittal A; Sharma M; Bansal N

1997-01-01

138

Favus in a non-endemic area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A typical case of favus of scalp in a 60-year-old female, resident of a village in district Udaipur (Rajasthan) is being reported for its rarity and occurrence in non-endemic zone. Some of the nails were also involved. Fungal hyphae were demonstrated in KOH examination from scalp and nails. Culture ...

Gupta L; Masuria B; Mittal A; Sharma M; Bansal N

139

ENDEMIC WATERBORNE DISEASE: BENNETT-TYPE  

Science.gov (United States)

Bennett et al. attempted to estimate national waterborne disease (endemic and epidemic) in 1985 by using both actual data and estimates by CDC experts. These investigators reported that 940,000 cases of waterborne disease and 900 associated deaths could have occurred in the U.S. ...

140

Geography of Endemic Fluorosis on the Earth.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of biogeochemical endemias, that is, of those endemic diseases of animals and man that arise when there is a deficiency or excess of certain trace elements in the geographic enviornment, is directly connected with the development of the doctri...

A. A. Zhavoronkov

1969-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Action Central: Red Deer steps forward as oilfield operations capital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growth of Red Deer as the center of the oil and natural gas service industry in the Alberta oilpatch was discussed. Red Deer is the home base of many of Alberta's major service companies (Haliburton, Schlumberger, Computalog, Nowsco, Canadian Fracmaster, Hughes, Bonus and Challenger), and new companies are regularly looking for industrial properties to establish themselves in the city. Industrial land acquisition currently runs at about triple of the average for the previous ten years. Another significant spin-off of energy wealth around Red Deer comes from the manufacturing of petrochemical building blocks of plastics, at nearby Joffre. With expansion projects that include Union Carbide Canada and Amoco Canada, predictions of population growth to 100,000 from the current 75,000, are commonplace. These expansion projects spell up to 2,500 construction jobs for the next three years, and then 400 new permanent plant positions that will pay $60,000 and up for skilled specialist jobs. There are some concerns about the threat of the Alliance Gas Pipeline project that if it materializes it might export many jobs, along with the natural gas, to the United States. However, these concerns are less serious than the fear that Alliance threatens to raise the price of the raw material by draining away surpluses from the industry, thus removing the major Canadian advantage in competition with U.S. industry. Alliance supporters counter that even at maximum export through the Cochin liquid pipeline, only half of the ethane production that will be potentially available, will be exported.

1997-01-01

142

Linking Hunter Knowledge with Forest Change to Understand Changing Deer Harvest Opportunities in Intensively Logged Landscapes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of landscape changes caused by intensive logging on the availability of wild game are important when the harvest of wild game is a critical cultural practice, food source, and recreational activity. We assessed the influence of extensive industrial logging on the availability of wild game by drawing on local knowledge and ecological science to evaluate the relationship between forest change and opportunities to harvest Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. We used data collected through interviews with local deer hunters and GIS analysis of land cover to determine relationships among landscape change, hunter access, and habitat for deer hunting over the last 50 yr. We then used these relationships to predict how harvest opportunities may change in the future. Intensive logging from 1950 into the 1990s provided better access to deer and habitat that facilitated deer hunting. However, successional changes in intensively logged forests in combination with a decline in current logging activity have reduced access to deer and increased undesirable habitat for deer hunting. In this new landscape, harvest opportunities in previously logged landscapes have declined, and hunters identify second-growth forest as one of the least popular habitats for hunting. Given the current state of the logging industry in Alaska, it is unlikely that the logging of the remaining old-growth forests or intensive management of second-growth forests will cause hunter opportunities to rebound to historic levels. Instead, hunter opportunities may continue to decline for at least another human generation, even if the long-term impacts of logging activity and deer harvest on deer numbers are minimal. Adapting hunting strategies to focus on naturally open habitats such as alpine and muskeg that are less influenced by external market forces may require considerably more hunting effort but provide the best option for sustaining deer hunting as a local tradition over the long run. We speculate that managing deer habitat in accessible areas may be more important than managing the overall health of deer populations on a regional scale. We further suggest that the level of access to preferred hunting habitat may be just as important as deer densities in determining hunter efficiency.

Todd J. Brinkman; Terry Chapin; Gary Kofinas; David K. Person

2009-01-01

143

Density-related effects of deer browsing on the regeneration dynamics of boreal forests  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. The density of large herbivores is a major driver of forest ecosystem structure and function in conjunction with episodic disturbances, especially in forests with a regeneration strategy based on shade-tolerant seedlings capable of re-establishing canopy dominance (advance regeneration). Yet, uncertainty about the relationships between forest regeneration, herbivore density and other disturbances makes it difficult to set population goals. Using an innovative controlled browsing experiment, we investigated the relationships between the regeneration dynamics of balsam fir Abies balsamea, the density of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus and timber harvesting. 2. We hypothesize that advance tree regeneration either: (i) recovers approximately linearly as deer density is reduced; (ii) recovers exponentially; or (iii) does not recover because factors other than browsing control advance regeneration. We tested these alternatives through manipulation of deer densities (0, 7·5, 15 deer km?˛ and in situ local densities) and forest cover (clearcut and uncut forest). 3. Balsam fir seedling mortality decreased exponentially with decreasing deer density in clearcut and approximately linearly in uncut forest. Independently of deer density, the recruitment of seedlings in clearcut dropped from 56 ± 5% to 7 ± 1% within 3 years. 4. Seedling growth increased exponentially with decreasing deer density in clearcut whereas no height growth was observed in uncut forest. 5. Overall, the abundance of fir saplings recovered exponentially in clearcut but remained low and independent of deer density in uncut forest. The abundance of spruce Picea spp. saplings was unrelated to deer density and increased with time. 6. Synthesis and applications. Forest disturbance from selective browsing at high deer densities over an extended period of time leads to recruitment failure following a canopy disturbance such as a clearcut. Indirect competitive advantage given to species resistant to browsing can shift forest composition. Nonlinear relationships between fir regeneration and deer densities imply that the level of culling required to reach herbivore densities compatible with natural regeneration of native forest is larger than expected if tree regeneration was proportional to deer density. In the boreal forest of Anticosti Island, local densities < 15 deer km?˛ achieved within 3 years following clearcut are compatible with the maintenance of native forest.

TREMBLAY JEAN-PIERRE; HUOT JEAN; POTVIN FRANC?OIS

2007-06-01

144

Epistasis among adaptive mutations in deer mouse hemoglobin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epistatic interactions between mutant sites in the same protein can exert a strong influence on pathways of molecular evolution. We performed protein engineering experiments that revealed pervasive epistasis among segregating amino acid variants that contribute to adaptive functional variation in deer mouse hemoglobin (Hb). Amino acid mutations increased or decreased Hb-O2 affinity depending on the allelic state of other sites. Structural analysis revealed that epistasis for Hb-O2 affinity and allosteric regulatory control is attributable to indirect interactions between structurally remote sites. The prevalence of sign epistasis for fitness-related biochemical phenotypes has important implications for the evolutionary dynamics of protein polymorphism in natural populations. PMID:23766324

Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Inoguchi, Noriko; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Moriyama, Hideaki; Storz, Jay F

2013-06-14

145

Ophthalmic patterns of captive brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira).  

Science.gov (United States)

Captive brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) were manually restrained to assess tear production by the Schirmer tear test I to measure intraocular pressure by applanation tonometry, to examine ocular conjunctival epithelial cells via cytologic and histologic samples, and to survey ocular conjunctival microflora by microbiologic culture. The mean value for the Schirmer tear test I was 8.9 +/- 1.8 mm/min, and the mean intraocular pressure was 15.3 +/- 3.1 mm Hg. Conjunctival epithelium contained stratified pavimentous layers of cells, and the microflora consisted of predominantly gram-positive bacteria. PMID:18229857

Martins, Bianca C; Oriá, Arianne P; Souza, Ana L G; Campos, Carla F; Almeida, Denise E; Duarte, Roberta A; Soares, Christiane P; Zuanon, José A S; Neto, Carlos B; Duarte, José M B; Schocken-Iturrino, Rubén P; Laus, José L

2007-12-01

146

Anatomical description of arterial segments of the spleen of deer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: With 2 figures SUMMARY: The anatomosurgical segmentation of the arteries of the spleen was studied in 31 deer of the species Mazama gouazoubira and Blastocerus dichotomus by means of vascular injection with latex and vinyl acetate and radiographic examination. The arteria lienalis penetrated through the hilus lienis in 87% of the cases, whereas an extrahilar artery was present in the other cases. An extraparenchymal division of the lineal artery into two, three or four segmental arteries was observed in 74% of the cases. Anastomoses between intraparenchymal arterial branches were rare and of a reduced calibre.

Peres Ferraz de Melo A; de Souza WM; Rodrigues RF; Alves FR; Rici RE; Guerra RR; Favaron PO; Miglino MA; Di Dio LJ

2011-08-01

147

Detection and genetic characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) derived from ticks removed from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and isolated from spleen samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Croatia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a growing public health concern in central and northern European countries. Even though TBE is a notifiable disease in Croatia, there is a significant lack of information in regard to vector tick identification, distribution as well as TBE virus prevalence in ticks or animals. The aim of our study was to identify and to investigate the viral prevalence of TBE virus in ticks removed from red fox (Vulpes vulpes) carcasses hunted in endemic areas in northern Croatia and to gain a better insight in the role of wild ungulates, especially red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the maintenance of the TBE virus in the natural cycle. We identified 5 tick species (Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes hexagonus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor reticulatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus) removed from 40 red foxes. However, TBE virus was isolated only from adult I. ricinus and I. hexagonus ticks showing a viral prevalence (1.6%) similar to or higher than reported in endemic areas of other European countries. Furthermore, 2 positive spleen samples from 182 red deer (1.1%) were found. Croatian TBE virus isolates were genetically analyzed, and they were shown to be closely related, all belonging to the European TBE virus subgroup. However, on the basis of nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis, 2 clusters were identified. Our results show that further investigation is needed to understand the clustering of isolates and to identify the most common TBE virus reservoir hosts in Croatia. Sentinel surveys based on wild animal species would give a better insight in defining TBE virus-endemic and possible risk areas in Croatia.

Jemerši? L; Dež?ek D; Brni? D; Prpi? J; Janicki Z; Keros T; Roi? B; Slavica A; Terzi? S; Konjevi? D; Beck R

2013-09-01

148

Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus) in the Helan Mountains, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes in forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833). The use of vegetation types varied seasonally according to food availability and ambient temperature. Red deer used montane coniferous forest and alpine shrub and meadow zones distributed above 2,000 m and 3,000 m in summer, alpine shrub and meadows above 3,000 m in autumn, being restricted to lower elevation habitats in spring and winter. The winter habitat of C. elaphus alxaicus was dominated by Ulmus glaucescens Franch. and Juglans regia Linnaeus, deciduous trees, and differed from the habitats selected by other subspecies of red deer. Cervus elaphus alxaicus preferred habitats with abundant vegetation coverage to open habitats in winter, but the reverse pattern was observed in summer and autumn. Red deer preferred gentle slopes (<10°) but the use of slope gradient categories varied seasonally. Red deer avoidance of human disturbance in the Helan Mountains varied significantly by season. Information on red deer habitat selection can help understand the factors affecting seasonal movements and also support decision making in the management and conservation of red deer and their habitats.

Mingming Zhang; Zhensheng Liu; Liwei Teng

2013-01-01

149

What do they eat? Using DNA barcoding to assess diet preferences of deer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Humans have modified most ecosystems on Earth to a degree where even the largest “wild” nature reserves need management to avoid the loss of biodiversity. Native large herbivore grazing has potential as an efficient and natural tool in this management because they create dynamics and keep landscapes open. However, in order to use this tool properly, we need to know more about what the animals eat compared to what is available in different habitats and how access to supplementary fodder influences the grazing effect on the vegetation. Using DNA barcoding of feces, we are investigating the diet preferences of deer (red deer and roe deer) in Klelund Deer Park in Denmark. Over one year, we collect feces samples every month from different habitat types (e.g., heath, marsh, meadow, open forests and coniferous plantation) within the park. DNA barcoding can not only tell us which plants are consumed but also in which proportions. We intend to uncover the variation in deer diet over a year and among different habitatsand how supplementary fodder influences the diet preference. The results will contribute to a better understanding of deer management as well as how deer grazing can be used as a tool in management of open landscapes.

FlŘjgaard, Camilla; Ejrnćs, Rasmus

150

Expression profiling of lymph node cells from deer mice infected with Andes virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the principal reservoir hosts of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the cause of the great majority of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) cases in North America. SNV, like all hantaviruses with their reservoirs, causes persistent infection without pathology in deer mice and appear to elicit a regulatory T cell response. Deer mice are also susceptible to Andes virus (ANDV), which causes the great majority of HCPS cases in South America, but they clear infection by 56 days post infection without signs of disease. RESULTS: We examined lymph node cell responses of deer mice infected with ANDV to determine expression profiles upon in vitro recall challenge with viral antigen. Because the deer mouse genome is currently unannotated, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to use known lab mouse (Mus musculus) cDNAs to predict genes within the deer mouse genome and design primers for quantitative PCR (http://dna.publichealth.uga.edu/BlastPrimer/BlastPrimer.php). Of 94 genes examined, 20 were elevated, the plurality of which were Th2-specific, whereas 12 were downregulated. Other expressed genes represented Th1, regulatory T cells and follicular helper T cells, and B cells, but not Th17 cells, indicating that many cellular phenotypes participate in the host response to Andes virus. CONCLUSIONS: The ability to examine expression levels of nearly any gene from deer mice should allow direct comparison of infection with SNV or ANDV to determine the immunological pathways used for clearance of hantavirus infection in a reservoir host species.

Schountz T; Shaw TI; Glenn TC; Feldmann H; Prescott J

2013-04-01

151

Expression profiling of lymph node cells from deer mice infected with Andes virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the principal reservoir hosts of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the cause of the great majority of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) cases in North America. SNV, like all hantaviruses with their reservoirs, causes persistent infection without pathology in deer mice and appear to elicit a regulatory T cell response. Deer mice are also susceptible to Andes virus (ANDV), which causes the great majority of HCPS cases in South America, but they clear infection by 56 days post infection without signs of disease. RESULTS: We examined lymph node cell responses of deer mice infected with ANDV to determine expression profiles upon in vitro recall challenge with viral antigen. Because the deer mouse genome is currently unannotated, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to use known lab mouse (Mus musculus) cDNAs to predict genes within the deer mouse genome and design primers for quantitative PCR (http://dna.publichealth.uga.edu/BlastPrimer/BlastPrimer.php). Of 94 genes examined, 20 were elevated, the plurality of which were Th2-specific, whereas 12 were downregulated. Other expressed genes represented Th1, regulatory T cells and follicular helper T cells, and B cells, but not Th17 cells, indicating that many cellular phenotypes participate in the host response to Andes virus. CONCLUSIONS: The ability to examine expression levels of nearly any gene from deer mice should allow direct comparison of infection with SNV or ANDV to determine the immunological pathways used for clearance of hantavirus infection in a reservoir host species. PMID:23570545

Schountz, Tony; Shaw, Timothy I; Glenn, Travis C; Feldmann, Heinz; Prescott, Joseph

2013-04-01

152

Forage Food of Timor Deer (Cervus timorensis) in Manokwari, West Papua  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditionally, back yard deer husbandry is well developed in some parts in Papua, though information on deer husbandry has not been provided yet. Therefore, this study was aimed at highlighting the diet provided to the deer in back yard husbandry model in Manokwari. Survey method was approached by visiting eight deer back yard farmer respondents. Direct observation to the feeding site and semi-structured interview were carried out to learn about the deer management system, and identify the forage diet species consumed and served to the animals. The results indicated five most common forage species consumed in the study; they were field grass, Imperata (Imperata cylindrica), elephant grass (Penisetum purpureum), king grass (Penisetum purpureopoidhes) and Melinis minutiflora depending on the location of farmed deer. Drinking water was offered and feed supplement such as various leafs, food and vegetable left over and banana peel was provided by 62.5% of the respondents. Food supplement was given two times per day (morning, evening) and (afternoon, evening). Forage food species consumed in the study sites were relatively more similar to the food in the natural habitat. (Animal Production 12(2): 91-95 (2010)Key Words: forage, food, Timor deer, Manokwari

AYS Arobaya; DA Iyai; T Sraun; F Pattiselanno

2010-01-01

153

Analysis of the distribution of endemic and rare arthropods in high endemism areas of Algarve-South Portugal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study of several arthropod groups in high endemism areas (HEA) of Algarve, the Southernmost province of Portugal, has revealed endemic species and species not yet recorded for the Portuguese fauna. The list includes 3 species of Isopoda endemic to Algarve, to Portugal or to the Iberian Peninsula...

Gama, Maria Manuela da; Sousa, José Paulo; Ferreira, Cristina Seabra; Barrocas, Helena Maria

154

Factors affecting deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) prevalence and infestation intensity in moose (Alces alces) in Norway.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi), a hematophagous ectoparasite of Cervids, is currently spreading in Scandinavia. In Norway, keds are now invading the south-eastern part of the country and the abundant and widely distributed moose (Alces alces) is the definitive host. However, key factors for ked abundance are poorly elucidated. The objectives of our study were to (i) determine deer ked infestation prevalence and intensity on moose and (ii) evaluate if habitat characteristics and moose population density are determinants of deer ked abundance on moose. METHODS: In order to identify key factors for deer ked abundance, a total of 350 skin samples from the neck of hunted moose were examined and deer keds counted. Infestation intensity was analyzed in relation to moose age and sex, moose population density and landscape characteristics surrounding the killing site. RESULTS: Deer ked infestation prevalence was 100%, but infestation intensity varied from 0.001 to 1.405 keds/cm˛. Ked intensity was highest in male yearlings (~1.5 years) and positively associated with longitude and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) dominated habitat and negatively associated with bogs and latitude. Moose population density during autumn showed a tendency to be positively associated, while altitude tended to be negatively associated with ked intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Deer keds exploit the whole moose population within our study area, but are most prevalent in areas dominated by Scots pine. This is probably a reflection of Scots pine being the preferred winter browse for moose in areas with highest moose densities in winter. Ked intensity decreases towards the northwest and partly with increasing altitude, probably explained by the direction of dispersal and reduced temperature, respectively. Abundant deer ked harm humans and domestic animals. Moose management authorities should therefore be aware of the close relationship between moose, deer ked and habitat, using the knowledge as a management tool for locally regulating the ked burden.

Madslien K; Ytrehus B; Viljugrein H; Solberg EJ; Brĺten KR; Mysterud A

2012-01-01

155

Factors affecting deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) prevalence and infestation intensity in moose (Alces alces) in Norway  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi), a hematophagous ectoparasite of Cervids, is currently spreading in Scandinavia. In Norway, keds are now invading the south-eastern part of the country and the abundant and widely distributed moose (Alces alces) is the definitive host. However, key factors for ked abundance are poorly elucidated. The objectives of our study were to (i) determine deer ked infestation prevalence and intensity on moose and (ii) evaluate if habitat characteristics and moose population density are determinants of deer ked abundance on moose. Methods In order to identify key factors for deer ked abundance, a total of 350 skin samples from the neck of hunted moose were examined and deer keds counted. Infestation intensity was analyzed in relation to moose age and sex, moose population density and landscape characteristics surrounding the killing site. Results Deer ked infestation prevalence was 100%, but infestation intensity varied from 0.001 to 1.405 keds/cm2. Ked intensity was highest in male yearlings (~1.5 years) and positively associated with longitude and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) dominated habitat and negatively associated with bogs and latitude. Moose population density during autumn showed a tendency to be positively associated, while altitude tended to be negatively associated with ked intensity. Conclusions Deer keds exploit the whole moose population within our study area, but are most prevalent in areas dominated by Scots pine. This is probably a reflection of Scots pine being the preferred winter browse for moose in areas with highest moose densities in winter. Ked intensity decreases towards the northwest and partly with increasing altitude, probably explained by the direction of dispersal and reduced temperature, respectively. Abundant deer ked harm humans and domestic animals. Moose management authorities should therefore be aware of the close relationship between moose, deer ked and habitat, using the knowledge as a management tool for locally regulating the ked burden.

Madslien Knut; Ytrehus Bjřrnar; Viljugrein Hildegunn; Solberg Erling J; Brĺten Kent; Mysterud Atle

2012-01-01

156

Sarcoidosis in tuberculosis-endemic regions: India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology affecting multiple organs. Earlier reports suggested that sarcoidosis was a disease of the developed world. However, recent reports suggest that the disease is found in the developing countries as well. Clinical, radiological, and histopathological similarities with tuberculosis pose a great challenge in countries endemic for tuberculosis. Mantoux test, high resolution computed tomography, and transbronchial lymph node and lung biopsies are diagnostic modalities, which play an important role in the diagnosis of sarcoid. In this review, we look at the epidemiology of sarcoid in tuberculosis-endemic regions, the sarcoidosis-tuberculosis link, clinical profile, diagnostic modalities, dilemma in the diagnosis, and the treatment of this disease.

Babu K

2013-01-01

157

[Epidemiologic evaluation of malaria in endemic areas  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For decades malarial control has been implemented to control the impact of the disease on the health of populations living in endemic zones. The use of artemisinine combination therapy, intermittent preventive treatment for children and pregnant women, vector-control methods such as long-lasting insecticide-impregnated mosquito nets and indoor remanent insecticide spraying has proven to be effective. These practices have lead to such an extensive reduction of the malaria burden in some endemic areas that the objective of eradication that was unimaginable a few years ago is now back to the forefront. Regardless of the method chosen, careful evaluation and surveillance of its effectiveness in man is necessary. Achieving epidemiologic impact is the main goal of malaria control methods. The main measures for evaluation involve parasitological and clinical aspects of human malaria. The purpose of this article is to review methods used for epidemiologic evaluation of malaria burden.

Rogier C; Henry MC; Trape JF

2009-04-01

158

Therapy of endemic goiter and hypothyroidism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Successful treatment of endemic goitre depends on the correct diagnosis and the comprehension of the pathophysiologic changes as well. Several criteria, e.g. anamnestic data, general clinical condition, local symptoms and signs, certainty of diagnosis, contraindications, rates of success, and side effects, determine the particular form of therapy (suppression with thyroid hormones, surgical resection, radio-iodine). The decision criteria are discussed. Prophylaxis of recurrent goitre with either thyroid hormones or iodine salts is necessary after successful treatment. Some endemic goitres behave like either hyper- or hypothyroidism. Treatment with thyroid hormones of patients with latent hyperthyroidism is senseless and dangerous, whereas other methods of treatment may be applied. An unequivocal indication for treatment exists in patients with laent hypothyroidism accompanied by goitre, but not in all patients without goitre. Hormonal replacement therapy of manifest hypothydroidism is simple, but long term success is not achieved in all patients. (orig.)

1983-09-12

159

Sarcoidosis in tuberculosis-endemic regions: India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology affecting multiple organs. Earlier reports suggested that sarcoidosis was a disease of the developed world. However, recent reports suggest that the disease is found in the developing countries as well. Clinical, radiological, and histopathological similarities with tuberculosis pose a great challenge in countries endemic for tuberculosis. Mantoux test, high resolution computed tomography, and transbronchial lymph node and lung biopsies are diagnostic modalities, which play an important role in the diagnosis of sarcoid. In this review, we look at the epidemiology of sarcoid in tuberculosis-endemic regions, the sarcoidosis-tuberculosis link, clinical profile, diagnostic modalities, dilemma in the diagnosis, and the treatment of this disease. PMID:23803558

Babu, Kalpana

2013-06-27

160

Therapy of endemic goiter and hypothyroidism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Successful treatment of endemic goitre depends on the correct diagnosis and the comprehension of the pathophysiologic changes as well. Several criteria, e.g. anamnestic data, general clinical condition, local symptoms and signs, certainty of diagnosis, contraindications, rates of success, and side effects, determine the particular form of therapy (suppression with thyroid hormones, surgical resection, radio-iodine). The decision criteria are discussed. Prophylaxis of recurrent goitre with either thyroid hormones or iodine salts is necessary after successful treatment. Some endemic goitres behave like either hyper- or hypothyroidism. Treatment with thyroid hormones of patients with latent hyperthyroidism is senseless and dangerous, whereas other methods of treatment may be applied. An unequivocal indication for treatment exists in patients with latent hypothyroidism accompanied by goitre, but not in all patients without goitre. Hormonal replacement therapy of manifest hypothydroidism is simple, but long term success is not achieved in all patients.

Luft, D.

1983-09-12

 
 
 
 
161

Balancing income and cost in red deer management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents a bioeconomic analysis of a red deer population within a Norwegian institutional context. This population is managed by a well-defined manager, typically consisting of many landowners operating in a cooperative manner, with the goal of maximizing the present-value hunting related income while taking browsing and grazing damages into account. The red deer population is structured in five categories of animals (calves, female and male yearlings, adult females and adult males). It is shown that differences in the per-animal meat values and survival rates ('biological discounted' values) are instrumental in determining the optimal harvest composition. Fertility plays no direct role. It is argued that this is a general result working in stage-structured models with harvest values. In the numerical illustration it is shown that the optimal harvest pattern stays quite stable under various parameter changes. It is revealed which parameters and harvest restrictions that is most important. We also show that the current harvest pattern involves too much yearling harvest compared with the economically efficient level.

Skonhoft A; Veiberg V; Gauteplass A; Olaussen JO; Meisingset EL; Mysterud A

2013-01-01

162

Water Extract of Deer Bones Activates Macrophages and Alleviates Neutropenia  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts from deer bones, called nok-gol in Korean, have long been used to invigorate Qi. While neutropenia is not well detected in normal physiological condition, it could be a cause of severe problems to develop diseases such as infectious and cancerous diseases. Thus, a prevention of neutropenia in normal physiology and pathophysiological states is important for maintaining Qi and preventing disease progress. In cell biological aspects, activated macrophages are known to prevent neutropenia. In this study, we demonstrate that water extract of deer bone (herein, NG) prevents neutropenia by activating macrophages. In mouse neutropenia model system in vivo where ICR mice were treated with cyclophosphamide to immunosuppress, an oral administration of NG altered the number of blood cells including lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils. This in vivo effect of NG was relevant to that of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) that was known to improve neutropenia. Our in vitro studies further showed that NG treatment increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and promoted macrophagic differentiation of mouse monocytic Raw264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, NG enhanced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and secretions of cytokines including IL-6 and TNF-?. Consistently, NG treatment induced phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, IKK, I?B?, and NF-?B in Raw264.7 cells. Thus, our data suggest that NG is helpful for alleviating neutropenia.

Choi, Han-Seok; Kim, Soon Re; Hong, Se Hyang; Ku, Jin Mo; Kim, Min Kyoung; Seo, Hye Sook; Cho, Sung-Gook; Shin, Sangtae; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

2013-01-01

163

Sry-negative XX true hermaphroditism in a roe deer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A two-year-old roe deer was brought down in the course of a hunt in the north of Spain (Asturias). On physical examination the individual presented well-developed bared antlers, but surprisingly a female external genitalia. Several anatomical, histological and genetic analyses were performed in order to explain the observed phenotype. Necropsy evidenced ovary-like structures with follicles on the surface; histological analyses of testes evidenced positive immunolabel against testosterone in Leydig cells; genetic analyses showed that the sex of the individual was consistent with a female individual. PCR analysis failed to detect SRY sequences; no PIS deletion, which is responsible for XX sex-reversal in goats, was detected. On the basis of its presumptive normal female sexual karyotype (XX) and the presence of two functional abdominal bilateral testes and ovaries, the roe deer was finally diagnosed as possessing an XX hermaphroditism syndrome. However, as in many other cases, the specific reason for the occurrence of this case of hermaphroditism could not be determined.

Pajares G; Balseiro A; Pérez-Pardal L; Gamarra JA; Monteagudo LV; Goyache F; Royo LJ

2009-05-01

164

Activity of buparvaquone against Theileria cervi in white-tailed deer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Buparvaquone, a naphthoquinone with known efficacy against Theileria parva parva in cattle, was tested for activity against Theileria cervi piroplasms in both an in vitro culture system and in vivo in experimentally infected white-tailed deer. The in vitro data showed a significant decrease in the incorporation of 3H-hypoxanthine by infected red blood cells treated with buparvaquone when compared to that seen with imidocarb and chloroquine treatment. In both intact and splenectomized deer treated with buparvaquone (2.5 mg kg-1) a gradual decrease in piroplasm parasitaemia was observed following treatment. However, in the splenectomized deer, parasitaemia levels returned to near pretreatment values after approximately 2 weeks.

Mitema ES; Kocan AA; Mukolwe SW; Sangiah S; Sherban D

1991-01-01

165

Therapeutic Efficacy of Selected Anthelmintics against Gastrointestinal Nematodiasis in Captive Deer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The investigation was undertaken to study the hematological changes and efficacy selected anthelmintics in gastrointestinal nematodiasis affected spotted deer. The hematological picture gave the evidence of anemia in spotted deer affected with gastrointestinal nematodiasis, characterized by a significant reduction (p<0.01) in total erythrocyte counts (TEC), haemoglobin (Hb) and alteration in values of MCV, MCH and MCHC. A significant leukocytosis (P<0.05) was evident in gastrointestinal nematodiasis affected spotted deer. Albendazole and levamisole were found to be effective in reducing fecal eggs count but the efficacy of albendazole was higher in contrast to levamisole

S. Kanungo; A. Das; M. Das Gupta; A.K.M. Fazlul Huque

2011-01-01

166

Improved technique for induction and monitoring of audiogenic seizure in deer mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epilepsy is a debilitating disease characterized by recurring seizures. Epilepsy can be studied using animal models, such as rodents prone to audiogenic seizure (AGS), which experience generalized seizures (loss of consciousness accompanied by rhythmic muscle spasms and rigid muscle stiffness) after intense sound stimulation. In 1933, a spontaneous mutation resulting in sensitivity to AGS was observed among laboratory stocks of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus artemisiae) at the University of Michigan. Since then, AGS-sensitive deer mice have been maintained as a separate stock, currently housed at the Peromyscus Genetic Stock Center. To further characterize AGS, the authors designed reliable and consistent equipment for inducing and monitoring AGS in deer mice. PMID:23604158

Veres, Monika; Payne, Susan; Fernandes, Pearl; Crossland, Janet P; Szalai, Gabor

2013-05-01

167

A novel bipolar electric fence for excluding white-tailed deer from stored livestock feed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Where cattle (Bos taurus) and free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) coexist, they frequently share space and resources, potentially resulting in damage to stores of livestock feed and risk of interspecies disease transmission. Preventing use of stored feed by deer can be an important objective in farm management, depending on amount of damage experienced and perceived risk of disease transmission. Woven wire fences (2.4 to 3.0 m high) are generally considered to be the most effective means for excluding deer. However, rapidly deployable temporary means of excluding deer could be useful, especially during late winter when deer are most physiologically stressed and motivated to consume feed meant for cattle. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate a novel 1.2-m-tall electric fence consisting of 4 strands of bipolar tape (not requiring separate ground wires or animal contact with ground) for excluding deer from artificially established feed piles during late winter 2008 in northwestern Minnesota. To induce deer to pause, investigate the fence, and receive negative stimuli before attempting to jump the fence, the bipolar tape was baited with a viscous fluid attractive to deer. The fence was estimated to be >80% effective at reducing deer presence at feed piles (10 treatment sites and 11 control sites) given the late winter to early spring conditions. Despite the efficacy, using the fence as a primary means of protecting stored feed from deer in areas with known disease transmission risk (e.g., presence of bovine tuberculosis) is not recommended because risk could remain unacceptably high if even low numbers of deer access stored feed. Yet, the fence could be effective as immediate protection of stored feed in winter before a more permanent and effective deterrence strategy, such as woven-wire fencing, could be installed during the subsequent summer. The fence would also be effective for reducing deer depredation of stored feed, as well as gardens, small orchards, or other localized or seasonal resources.

Phillips GE; Lavelle MJ; Fischer JW; White JJ; Wells SJ; Vercauteren KC

2012-11-01

168

Digestibily of Some Kind of Alternative Diets on Lesser Mouse Deer (Tragulus javanicus)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four female lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) were used in this study to observe their feed consumption and digestibility given alternative diets in captive. The results showed that 125g/head/day sweet potatoes supplementation in ration increased the consumption and digestibility of dry matter intake, ash, ether extract, and N-free extract. Supplementation of commercial concentrate in lesser mouse deer’s diet decreased the digestion of dry matter, ash, crude protein, and crude fiber. Animal Production 6(1): 17-22 (2004) Key Words: Digestibility, Consumption, Alternative Diets, Tragulus javanicus

WR Farida; G Semiadi; H Dahruddin

2004-01-01

169

Bluetongue virus: (1) in pregnant white-tailed deer (2) a plaque reduction neutralization test.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were infected with bluetongue virus (BTs, vaccinal strain) approximately one-third of the way through their gestation period. One deer died of bluetongue 21 days after inoculation. Of the five surviving the infection, one had two mummified fetuses, and the others no fetuses upon euthanasia two weeks after term. Fetuses were present in two control deer and in the one which died of bluetongue. A plaque reduction neutralization test for bluetongue virus was developed and described for the first time and its sensitivity illustrated by high post inoculation titers which ranged from 1:3200 to greater than 1:16000.

Thomas FC; Trainer DO

1970-10-01

170

Relaciones espaciales y numéricas entre venados de las pampas (Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer) y chanchos cimarrones (Sus scrofa) en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Bahía Samborombón, Argentina/ Spatial and numerical relationships between Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer) and feral pigs (Sus scrofa) in the Bahía Samborombón Wildlife Refuge, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer es la subespecie más austral del venado de las pampas; es endémica de la eco-región pampeana y se encuentra seriamente amenazada de extinción. En Buenos Aires, el último núcleo poblacional existente se localiza en la Bahía Samborombón. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar las variaciones en la distribución y abundancia de venados y chanchos cimarrones en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Bahía Samborombón, y discutir la intera (more) cción potencial entre ambas especies. Se realizaron seis muestreos aéreos durante el período 2002-2005, en los que se contabilizaron 747 venados y 2690 chanchos, y se registró una leve disminución del número de venados y un notable incremento del de chanchos. Se halló una correlación negativa entre la densidad de ambas especies (r s=-0.83; P=0.04) y se detectó que su distribución no es independiente entre sí. En las últimas tres décadas se observó un cambio en la distribución de venados, posiblemente asociado al incremento de chanchos. Este trabajo aporta evidencias indirectas de la existencia potencial de interacciones negativas entre las dos especies que se reflejan en relaciones numéricas y espaciales inversas. Abstract in english Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer, the southernmost subspecies of pampas deer and endemic to the Argentine Pampas, is seriously endangered. In Buenos Aires Province, the last Pampas deer population is located in the Bahía Samborombón region. Poaching and the increase in exotic species such as feral dogs and feral pigs have been suggested as the most important causes affecting the recovery of the deer population. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the spatial and temp (more) oral variations in distribution and abundance of the Pampas deer and the feral pig in the Bahía Samborombón Wildlife Refuge and to discuss the possible consequences of the interaction between these species. Six aerial surveys were conducted during 2002-2005. A total of 747 deer and 2690 feral pigs were counted, with a slight decrease in the deer sightings and an important increase in pig sightings during the sampling period. Estimated density ranged between 0.63-1.56 individuals/km˛ for deer and from 0.91 to 7.78 individuals/km˛ for pigs. A negative correlation was found between densities of the two species (r s=-0.83; P=0.04), and the distributions are not mutually independent. A progressive change in distribution has been detected in the Pampas deer population during the last three decades. This study provides evidence of the potential existence of negative interactions between Pampas deer and pigs. Due to the critical situation of the Pampas deer population, a control plan for feral pigs should be developed and urgently implemented to prevent the increase and expansion of this population to the south of the Samborombón bay, and consequently, to reduce the potential competition and predation on the existing deer population.

Pérez Carusi, Lorena C; Beade, Mario S; Mińarro, Fernando; Vila, Alejandro R; Giménez-Dixon, Mariano; Bilenca, David N

2009-04-01

171

Miao medicine 103 deer-blood element medicine for resisting multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis and preparation method of 103 deer-blood element  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a miao medicine 103 deer sanguinin multi-drug resistance tuberculosis drug. Fresh deer blood or dry deer blood is added with powdery 103 deer sanguinin biodegraded by 103 protease of scolopendra subspinipes multilans or 103 protease of other animals, plants, bacteria and fungi and the mixture is added with rhizoma bletillae, water, notoginseng and auxiliary materials to form the tuberculosis drug. The invention also discloses a method for preparing 103 deer sanguinin. The drug can rapidly improve human immune function and physical quality and achieve functions of autologous antibiosis and sterilization, thereby rapidly curing tuberculosis and multi-drug resistance tuberculosis and the drug has little dosage, short treatment course and extremely low recurrence rate. A product is matched with a few western antitubercular drugs for combined treatment, can remarkably reduce toxicity and side effect of western drugs, has better effect on multi-drug resistance tuberculosis and achieves huge social effect and economic benefit for improving the status of Chinese medicine for resisting tuberculosis disease.

GUANGYU CHEN

172

Space-time Bayesian survival modeling of chronic wasting disease in deer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The primary objectives of this study are to describe the spatial and temporal variation in disease prevalence of chronic wasting disease (CWD), to assess the effect of demographic factors such as age and sex on disease prevalence and to model the disease clustering effects over space and time. We propose a Bayesian hierarchical survival model where latent parameters capture temporal and spatial trends in disease incidence, incorporating several individual covariates and random effects. The model is applied to a data set which consists of 65085 harvested deer in Wisconsin from 2002 to 2006. We found significant sex effects, spatial effects, temporal effects and spatio-temporal interacted effects in CWD infection in deer in Wisconsin. The risk of infection for male deer was significantly higher than that of female deer, and CWD has been significantly different over space, time, and space and time based on the harvest samples.

Song HR; Lawson A

2009-09-01

173

Potential use of quadrivalent selenium as a systemic deer-browsing repellent: A cautionary note  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study evaluates the potential usefulness and toxicity of applying quadrivalent selenium (selenite ion) to the soil to discourage white-tailed deer from browsing conifer seedlings. After adsorption by the root system and internal transport, organoselenium compounds are volatilized by the foliage, and the characteristic garlic odor is hypothesized to protect coniferous tree seedlings from browsing damage. Results indicate that either 5, 17, or 24 months after treatment, selenized white spruce seedlings did not show significantly different deer-browsing damage from control seedlings when deer numbers were high. Five and seventeen months after treatment, selenium had not leached but had accumulated in the top soil. Large-scale application of selenium may represent a potential environmental risk, hence the authors do not recommend use of selenite ion to prevent damage from deer-browsing of white spruce seedlings.

Jobidon, R.; Prevost, M. (Resources Naturelles du Quebec, Sainte-Foy (Canada). Direction de la recherche)

1994-06-01

174

Evaluating new protein sources for development of a deer repellent product  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several protein sources were tested as deer repellents with captive deer. Black-tailed deer were offered Western redcedar seedlings treated with corn gluten meal, feather meal, poultry blood, hydrolyzed casein, or a control (latex sticker used for treatment proteins). After 37 days, feather meal and hydrolyzed casein provided equivalent protection against browse damage (only 23% of seedlings significantly browsed). Poultry blood provided less browse protection (44% browsed), while browse damage to seedlings treated with corn gluten meal (73% browsed) was not statistically different than the control (100% browsed). Based on the efficacy of feather meal and its low material cost, this protein hydrolysate should be investigated for use in commercial deer repellent formulations.

Kimball BruceA; Perry KellyR

2009-04-01

175

Effects of season and area on ectoparasites of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Mississippi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nine species of ectoparasites (4 Acari, 2 Mallophaga, 1 Anoplura, 1 Diptera, and 1 Siphonaptera) were recovered from 126 white-tailed deer collected in northern, central, and southern Mississippi. Intensity and prevalence of adults of Ixodes scapularis and larvae, nymphs, and adults of Amblyomma americanum varied significantly over collection periods, but not between host sexes. Lipoptena mazamae occurred on deer from only one study area. Although individual deer were heavily parasitized by Tricholipeurus parallelus and T. lipeuroides, their prevalence was limited. Hoplopsyllus sp., Solenopotes sp., Amblyomma maculatum, and Dermacentor albipictus had prevalences of less than 10% and were not tested for area, host sex, and seasonal effects. The potential pathogenicity of these ectoparasite species are related to white-tailed deer in Mississippi.

Demarais S; Jacobson HA; Guynn DC

1987-04-01

176

Ectoparasites (Acari, Mallophaga, Anoplura, Diptera) of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, from southern Florida.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During a 7-yr period (1984-1990), 300 white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), from 7 localities in Collier, Dade, and Monroe counties in southern Florida were examined for ectoparasites. Eight species were identified: 4 ticks [Ixodes scapularis Say, I. affinis Neumann, Amblyomma maculatum (Koch), and Dermacentor variabilis (Say)], 1 chigger mite [Eutrombicula splendens (Ewing)], 1 ked (Lipoptena mazamae Rondani), 1 chewing louse [Tricholipeurus lipeuroides (Megnin)], and 1 sucking louse [Solenopotes binipilosus (Fahrenholz)]. The most widely distributed and prevalent species were the deer ked L. mazamae and the blacklegged tick I. scapularis, both of which occurred in all 7 localities, in all years, and in all age classes of deer. Their overall prevalences were 82 and 22%, respectively. The prevalence of L. mazamae varied significantly by month. L. mazamae should be considered a core ectoparasite species of white-tailed deer in southern Florida because of its specificity, distribution, and high prevalence.

Forrester DJ; McLaughlin GS; Telford SR Jr; Foster GW; McCown JW

1996-01-01

177

Deer mouse hemoglobin exhibits a lowered oxygen affinity owing to mobility of the E helix.  

Science.gov (United States)

The deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, exhibits altitude-associated variation in hemoglobin oxygen affinity. To examine the structural basis of this functional variation, the structure of the hemoglobin was solved. Recombinant hemoglobin was expressed in Escherichia coli and was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Recombinant hemoglobin was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol as a precipitant. The obtained orthorhombic crystal contained two subunits in the asymmetric unit. The refined structure was interpreted as the aquo-met form. Structural comparisons were performed among hemoglobins from deer mouse, house mouse and human. In contrast to human hemoglobin, deer mouse hemoglobin lacks the hydrogen bond between ?1Trp14 in the A helix and ?1Thr67 in the E helix owing to the Thr67Ala substitution. In addition, deer mouse hemoglobin has a unique hydrogen bond at the ?1?1 interface between residues ?1Cys34 and ?1Ser128. PMID:23545644

Inoguchi, Noriko; Oshlo, Jake R; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Storz, Jay F; Moriyama, Hideaki

2013-03-28

178

Seasonality of 137Cs in roe deer from Austria and Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Empirical data on the 137Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) roaming in 3 spruce forest areas and one peat bog area are presented and compared. They cover time series of nearly 20 years after a spike contamination in 1986 originating from Chernobyl. A model is presented which considers three soil compartments to describe the change of the availability of 137Cs with time. The time-dependency of the 137Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer is a combination of two components: (1) an exponential decay and (2) a peak in the second half of each year during the mushroom season. The exponential decay over the years can be described by a sum of two exponential functions. The additional transfer of 137Cs into roe deer during the mushroom season depends on precipitation. On the peat bog the 137Cs activity concentration in roe deer is higher and more persistent than in spruce forest.

2009-01-01

179

Accumulation of polonium 210Po in tissues and organs of deer carvidae from Northern Poland.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to provide information on accumulation of polonium in tissues and organs of deer carvidae in order to assess the potential transport of this element via food-chain to game meat consumers. Livers, kidneys and muscles of large herbivorous animals belonging to three species: roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama), collected in Northern Poland, were the subject of the present investigation. Activities of (210)Po were determined by means of alpha spectrometry along with relevant radiochemical procedures. The concentration of (210)Po in analyzed animals decreased in the order kidney > liver > muscle tissue. The average activity concentrations of (210)Po ranged between 0.02 +/- 0.01 Bq. kg(- 1) w.w. in muscles and 7.15 +/- 0.12 Bq. kg(- 1) w.w. in kidneys. Levels of polonium were not influenced by sampling location, sex, age and species of animals. PMID:17454388

Skwarzec, Bogdan; Prucnal, Malgorzata

180

Deer mouse hemoglobin exhibits a lowered oxygen affinity owing to mobility of the E helix.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, exhibits altitude-associated variation in hemoglobin oxygen affinity. To examine the structural basis of this functional variation, the structure of the hemoglobin was solved. Recombinant hemoglobin was expressed in Escherichia coli and was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Recombinant hemoglobin was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol as a precipitant. The obtained orthorhombic crystal contained two subunits in the asymmetric unit. The refined structure was interpreted as the aquo-met form. Structural comparisons were performed among hemoglobins from deer mouse, house mouse and human. In contrast to human hemoglobin, deer mouse hemoglobin lacks the hydrogen bond between ?1Trp14 in the A helix and ?1Thr67 in the E helix owing to the Thr67Ala substitution. In addition, deer mouse hemoglobin has a unique hydrogen bond at the ?1?1 interface between residues ?1Cys34 and ?1Ser128.

Inoguchi N; Oshlo JR; Natarajan C; Weber RE; Fago A; Storz JF; Moriyama H

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

A Post-Mortem Disease Survey of White-Tailed Deer on Edgewood Arsenal, Maryland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-seven white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) killed by hunters on Edgewood Arsenal, Maryland were examined for spontaneous diseases. Gross necropsy and histologic examinations revealed cysticercosis, gongylonemiasis, setariasis, sarcosporidiosi...

P. F. Ward J. F. Ferrell D. F. Ford R. D. Chadwick

1968-01-01

182

Life in the Fast Lane: Road Crossing Behavior of Mule Deer in a Wildland-Urban Interface  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2009, approximately 260,000 animal-vehicle collisions were reported in the United States, resulting in 12,000 human injuries and 173 human fatalities. Research has focused on identifying factors associated with high densities of animal-vehicle collisions, including variables such as traffic speed and volume, road design, topographic features, vegetative cover, and local deer or elk (Cervus elaphus) abundance. The purposes of this study were to document how often and where mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) crossed roads in a western United States wildland-urban interface area, and to relate deer road-crossing behavior to deer-vehicle collision locations. Seven adult mule deer (four males [M] and three females [F]) were captured and collared with GPS-enabled collars during December 2001 and January 2002. Five of the seven deployed collars were recovered. None of the roads in the study area appeared to act as a substantial barrier to deer passage. Deer home ranges straddled highways and primary, secondary, and tertiary arterial roads. Deer crossed all types of roads. The average number of times deer crossed road during 24 hours of monitoring ranged from 2.1 to 7.0. Deer in the Los Alamos townsite avoided crossing roads during day and before sunset. Deer-vehicle accidents occurred at 350 percent of the level expected after sunset. All other time periods had fewer accidents than expected. The distribution of accidents across time periods was not similar to the distribution of road crossings across time periods for any deer. Within Los Alamos County there was a clear trend for deer-vehicle collisions to occur on roads with speed limits > 35 mph. Deer in the townsite frequently crossed roads with lower speed limits; therefore, the reason for the paucity of accidents along these roads was evidently the ability of drivers to detect deer (or the ability of deer to detect vehicles) and respond before an accident occurred. There was a significant but not strong correlation between the density of accidents and the density of road crossings. This was probably related to the high number of deer crossings of tertiary arterial roads, where accidents were not likely to occur.

Hansen, Leslie A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Biggs, James [Northern New Mexico College; Bennett, Kathryn D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bare, Carey [Bare and Associates, LLC; Sherwood, Sherri R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-04-04

183

Climate alters response of an endemic island plant to removal of invasive herbivores  

Science.gov (United States)

Islands experience higher rates of species extinction than mainland ecosystems, with biological invasions among the leading causes; they also serve as important model systems for testing ideas in basic and applied ecology. Invasive removal programs on islands are conservation efforts that can also be viewed as powerful manipulative experiments, but few data are available to evaluate their effects. We collected demographic and herbivore damage data for Castilleja mollis Pennell, an endangered plant endemic to Santa Rosa Island, California, over a 12-year period before, during, and after the implementation of control for introduced cattle, deer, and elk. We used these long-term data to explore mechanisms underlying herbivore effects, assess the results of herbivore reduction at the scales of both individual plants and populations, and determine how temporal variability in herbivory and plant demography influenced responses to herbivore removals. For individual plants, herbivore effects mediated by disturbance were greater than those of grazing. Deer and elk scraping of the ground substantially increased plant mortality and dormancy and reduced flowering and growth. Stem damage from browsing did not affect survivorship but significantly reduced plant growth and flower production. Herbivore control successfully lowered damage rates, which declined steeply between 1997 and 2000 and have remained relatively low. Castilleja mollis abundances rose sharply after 1997, suggesting a positive effect of herbivore control, but then began to decline steadily again after 2003. The recent decline appears to be driven by higher mean growing season temperatures; interestingly, not only reductions in scraping damage but a period of cooler conditions were significant in explaining increases in C. mollis populations between 1997 and 2002. Our results demonstrate strong effects of introduced herbivores on both plant demography and population dynamics and show that climate-driven variation may counteract and mask positive responses to herbivore removal. Regional mean temperatures already have risen significantly over the last 50 years, suggesting that climate change could increasingly swamp the effects of management targeted at other environmental problems. Similar interactions between climate and invasive species will play an even greater role in future management, with long-term data sets like this critical to quantifying such effects. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

Kathryn, Mceachern, A.; Thomson, D. M.; Chess, K. A.

2009-01-01

184

Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n = 42) and mule deer (n = 41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (Tl), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P deer species, hepatic elemental concentrations would reflect dietary differences; Ca, Cu, K, Co, Mo, Se, and Zn differed (P

Zimmerman TJ; Jenks JA; Leslie DM Jr; Neiger RD

2008-04-01

185

Radionuclide Concentrations in Deer and Elk from Los Alamos National Laboratory: 1991-1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) forage in many areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that may contain radioactivity above natural and/or worldwide fallout levels. This paper summarizes radionuclide concentrations 3H, 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, and total uranium in muscle and bone tissue of deer and elk collected from LANL lands from 1991 through 1998. Also, the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) and the risk of excess cancer fatalities (RECF) to people who ingest muscle and bone from deer and elk collected from LANL lands were estimated. Most radionuclide concentrations in muscle and bone from individual deer and elk collected from LANL lands were either at less than detectable quantities (where the analytical result was smaller than two counting uncertainties) and/or within upper (95%) level background (BG) concentrations. As a group, most radionuclides in muscle and bone of deer and elk from LANL lands were not significantly higher (p<0.10) than in similar tissues from deer and elk collected from BG locations. Also, elk that had been radio collared and tracked for two years and spent an average time of 50% on LANL lands were not significantly different in most radionuclides from road kill elk that have been collected as part of the environmental surveillance program. Overall, the upper (95%) level net CEDES (the CEDE plus two sigma for each radioisotope minus background) at the most conservative ingestion rate (51 lbs of muscle and 13 lbs of bone) were as follows: deer muscle = 0.220, deer bone = 3.762, elk muscle = 0.117, and elk bone = 1.67 mrendy. AU CEDES were far below the International Commission on Radiological Protection guideline of 100 mrem/y, and the highest muscle plus bone CEDE (4.0 mrendy) corresponded to a RECF of 2E-06 which is far below the Environmental Protection Agency upper level guideline of 1E04.

D. H. Kraig; J. K. Ferenbaugh; J. R. Biggs; K. D. Bennett; M. A. Mullen; P. R. Fresquez

1998-12-01

186

ESR dating. Pt. 3: a study of fossils of deer and ox tooth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ages of fossils of deer and ox tooth, from Maanshan Tongzi in Guizhou and Zhaocun Qianan in Hebei respectively have been determined by using ESR dating. The age of the deer tooth is (1.5 ± 0.2) x 104 a and that of the ox tooth is (3.7 ± 0.5) x 104 a. The property of trapped center, as the source of ESR signal, has been preliminarily established with positron annihilation technique.

1990-01-01

187

Fungi ingestion as an important factor influencing heavy metal intake in roe deer: evidence from faeces.  

Science.gov (United States)

In nature, animals have to cope with the fluctuating bioavailable metal pool in their habitat, which results in a seasonal variability of heavy metal levels in the animal body. Indeed, a pronounced summer-autumnal peak of heavy metals in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) kidney was recently found in Slovenia. Considering the well-known hyperaccumulative ability of fungi, their ingestion was hypothesised to be one of the main reasons for the peak. Although fungi as a group are known to be a seasonally important food source for roe deer, data on their composition in the nutrition of the species have been lacking. To ascertain the importance of fungi ingestion on heavy metal intake in roe deer, we simultaneously studied fungal spores (by microscopic determination) and heavy metal levels (by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry) in roe deer faeces, collected in the period July-November 2001 at Veliki Vrh, the Salek Valley, Slovenia. Irrespective of species, fungal spores were present in 89% of faeces; the following genera were found to be consumed by roe deer: Lycoperdon, Calvatia, Hypholoma, Coprinus, Russula, Elaphomyces, Xerocomus, Enteloma, Amanita, Cortinarius, Agaricus, Inocybe, Boletus, Macrolepiota, Suillus and Pluteus. While the importance of fungi ingestion on the seasonal variability of other metals is less clear, it doubtless influences Hg intake in roe deer, which is confirmed by: (a) the high frequency of fungi in roe deer nutrition; (b) their hyperaccumulative ability; (c) the temporal distribution of Hg in roe deer faeces; (d) differences among three classes of faeces established on the basis of the frequency of spores present; (e) the correlation between the number of fungal genera present and Hg levels in faeces. Therefore, the influence of fungi ingestion has to be taken into consideration in assessing the hazard due to the accumulation of mercury along the food-chain. PMID:15081708

Pokorny, Bostjan; Al Sayegh-Petkovsek, Samar; Ribaric-Lasnik, Cvetka; Vrtacnik, Jaroslav; Doganoc, Darinka Z; Adamic, Miha

2004-05-25

188

Fungi ingestion as an important factor influencing heavy metal intake in roe deer: evidence from faeces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In nature, animals have to cope with the fluctuating bioavailable metal pool in their habitat, which results in a seasonal variability of heavy metal levels in the animal body. Indeed, a pronounced summer-autumnal peak of heavy metals in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) kidney was recently found in Slovenia. Considering the well-known hyperaccumulative ability of fungi, their ingestion was hypothesised to be one of the main reasons for the peak. Although fungi as a group are known to be a seasonally important food source for roe deer, data on their composition in the nutrition of the species have been lacking. To ascertain the importance of fungi ingestion on heavy metal intake in roe deer, we simultaneously studied fungal spores (by microscopic determination) and heavy metal levels (by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry) in roe deer faeces, collected in the period July-November 2001 at Veliki Vrh, the Salek Valley, Slovenia. Irrespective of species, fungal spores were present in 89% of faeces; the following genera were found to be consumed by roe deer: Lycoperdon, Calvatia, Hypholoma, Coprinus, Russula, Elaphomyces, Xerocomus, Enteloma, Amanita, Cortinarius, Agaricus, Inocybe, Boletus, Macrolepiota, Suillus and Pluteus. While the importance of fungi ingestion on the seasonal variability of other metals is less clear, it doubtless influences Hg intake in roe deer, which is confirmed by: (a) the high frequency of fungi in roe deer nutrition; (b) their hyperaccumulative ability; (c) the temporal distribution of Hg in roe deer faeces; (d) differences among three classes of faeces established on the basis of the frequency of spores present; (e) the correlation between the number of fungal genera present and Hg levels in faeces. Therefore, the influence of fungi ingestion has to be taken into consideration in assessing the hazard due to the accumulation of mercury along the food-chain.

Pokorny B; Al Sayegh-Petkovsek S; Ribaric-Lasnik C; Vrtacnik J; Doganoc DZ; Adamic M

2004-05-01

189

Of elephants and blind men: Deer management in the U.S. National Parks  

Science.gov (United States)

Overabundant populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are becoming common in the eastern United States. Faced with burgeoning deer populations in eastern parks, the National Park Service (NPS) formulated policy based on its long experience with ungulate management in western parks. That the NPS failed to find a management solution acceptable to its many constituencies was inevitable. Like blind men touching different parts of an elephant and disagreeing about its form, those engaged in the debate about deer management in parks are viewing different parts of the ecological system. None has seen the entire system, and consequently, there is neither common agreement on the nature of the problem nor on the solutions. We explore the quandary of deer management in eastern parks by addressing three questions: (1) Can the National Park Service reconcile its management goals with those of its neighbors? (2) Can thresholds be identified for determining when to intervene in natural processes? (3) Is there a scientific foundation for proceeding with effective management of deer? We argue that reconciling the NPS management with that of state conservation agencies is not possible because management policy guides these agencies in opposite directions: the NPS is charged with limiting human impact on ecological processes, and state agencies are charged with exerting human control over population abundance. Questions about thresholds and a scientific basis for management arise from concern that irrupting deer populations are a manifestation of disrupted natural processes. Several population growth paradigms are at the heart of this ecological question. The science provides no consensus about which of these paradigms are appropriate to deer in eastern ecosystems. Thus, it is premature to expect science to identify if or when natural processes have been disrupted. While the NPS cannot effectively achieve its goals without better science, neither can it wait for science to fully understand the dynamics of plant-herbivore interactions. The best hope for resolving both the biological and political dilemmas surrounding deer management is through an adaptive management approach.

Porter, W.F.; Underwood, H.B.

1999-01-01

190

CONSERVATION DEVELOPMENT OF TIMOR DEER (Cervus timorensis) AS COMMERCIAL PURPOSE(WITH OPTIMISTIC RATE ESTIMATION)  

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Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the profit obtained from breeding of Timor deer commercially. This research was done in East Java. Survey method was used to answer the objective. The study location were selected by purposive sampling. Usually deer was develop in conservation area, but because the area was decrease so the number of deer also decrease. Model of deer raising development should be improved not only for conservation but also for commercial purpose. The optimum deer raising were considered and monitored with a purpose to maximize commercial Timor deer by using Multiple Objective Goal Programming (MOGP) to find the Optimistic Rate Estimation. The result of this study showed to get the optimum benefit, it had to be applied together with conservation and commercial effort at the same time. Results of study showed that profit was taken from selling velvet was 164.46%. Profits taken from selling antler was 350.56%, from selling alive deer was 394.28%, from selling recreation tickets was 259.08%, from selling venison1 was 135.98%, and from selling deer leather was 141.24%. Operational cost spent were 168.46% for feeding cost, 213.23% for maintenance cost, and 232.04% for labors’ salaries. The amount of operational cost required in MOGP model, with lower expenses and commercial priority were 185.54% for feeding cost, 253.13% for maintenance cost, and 246.95% for paying labors’ salaries. The MOGP model result with commercial priority reached 335.21%, while in MOGP model with lower costs and commercial priority gave profit for breeders up to 381.26%.

S.I. Santoso; Z. Fanani; B. A. Nugroho; N. Hanani

2012-01-01

191

Response of mule deer to habitat modification near natural gas development  

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Full Text Available Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) are known to shift habitat use in response to environmental modifications, including those associated with energy development. Their specific behavioral responses, however, and capacities to habituate to particular aspects of energy development have not been effectively studied. We examined mule deer response to habitat alteration near natural gas wells in Las Animas County, Colorado, USA in 2008—2010, an area experiencing development for extraction of natural gas. We created 10-1 ha openings in forests adjacent to 10 wells by removing standing trees in 2008, with concomitant establishment of 10 1-ha control sites adjacent to the same wells. On each site, we estimated deer use, indexed by pellet density, before and after tree removal. Concurrently, we measured plant production, cover, nutritional quality, species composition and biomass removed by deer and other large herbivores. Species richness and diversity and graminoid and forb cover and biomass increased on cut sites following tree removal. Use increased following tree removal on cut and control sites, but was greater on cut sites in 2010. Herbivores removed negligible quantities of vegetation on control sites in both years, suggesting that control sites may have been used primarily for concealment. Mule deer demonstrated the behavioral capacity to habituate to habitat modifications and other environmental changes associated with development for the extraction of energy. Managing forage and habitat availability appears to have the potential to affect the type of response and degree of habituation by mule deer to such development.

Fred Van Dyke; Autumn Fox; Seth M. Harju; Matthew R. Dzialak; Larry D. Hayden-Wing; Jeffrey B. Winstead

2012-01-01

192

Evaluation of roe deer effects upon forest structure in Nogueira Mountain (NE of Portugal)  

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Full Text Available Analytical methodologies that describe ecological functionalities in the landscape are decisive to quantify the effects of their apparent modifications. When dealing with game resource management it is necessary to understand how landscape variables respond to changes in the abundance of particular species.The main goal of the present work is to evaluate how a forest ecosystem reacts to an increment of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) abundance in a reproduction enclosure.This experience has been developed in the Nogueira Mountains (Trás-os-Montes, NE of Portugal), where a relict nucleus of roe deer persists. In order to promote a roe deer increment, a 15 ha enclosure was installed eight years ago in a natural forest of Quercus pyrenaica.The methodology presently proposed is based on a phytostructural approach, where structural basic matrices of vegetation diversity, abundance and cover, obtained from 10 x 10 m sampling areas along two transepts (inside and outside the enclosure) are resumed in a contingency structural matrix. This contingency matrix is characterised according to a set of multivariate statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis, Discriminant Canonical Analysis, ANOVAs) and results are correlated with roe deer food preferences (previously typified in four classes according to selectivity). The present results emphasised the roe deer’s capacity to transform the structural organization of the vegetation and therefore, the methodology used is a functional tool to describe landscape changes processes promoted by ungulates.

António L. Crespí; Aurora Monzon; Sónia Pinto; Adriano Castro; Claúdia P. Fernandes; Rogério Rodrigues; Alberto Costa; Sónia Bernardos

2007-01-01

193

Late-glacial recolonization and phylogeography of European red deer (Cervus elaphus L.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Pleistocene was an epoch of extreme climatic and environmental changes. How individual species responded to the repeated cycles of warm and cold stages is a major topic of debate. For the European fauna and flora, an expansion-contraction model has been suggested, whereby temperate species were restricted to southern refugia during glacial times and expanded northwards during interglacials, including the present interglacial (Holocene). Here, we test this model on the red deer (Cervus elaphus) a large and highly mobile herbivore, using both modern and ancient mitochondrial DNA from the entire European range of the species over the last c. 40 000 years. Our results indicate that this species was sensitive to the effects of climate change. Prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) haplogroups restricted today to South-East Europe and Western Asia reached as far west as the UK. During the LGM, red deer was mainly restricted to southern refugia, in Iberia, the Balkans and possibly in Italy and South-Western Asia. At the end of the LGM, red deer expanded from the Iberian refugium, to Central and Northern Europe, including the UK, Belgium, Scandinavia, Germany, Poland and Belarus. Ancient DNA data cannot rule out refugial survival of red deer in North-West Europe through the LGM. Had such deer survived, though, they were replaced by deer migrating from Iberia at the end of the glacial. The Balkans served as a separate LGM refugium and were probably connected to Western Asia with genetic exchange between the two areas.

Meiri M; Lister AM; Higham TF; Stewart JR; Straus LG; Obermaier H; González Morales MR; Marín-Arroyo AB; Barnes I

2013-09-01

194

The Effect of Rearing Experience on the Behavior Patterns of Captive Male Alpine Musk Deer  

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Full Text Available The effects of maternal and peer separation during infancy were studied on adult male alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF) in Gansu province, China. The aim was to determine the effect of early experience on the behavior in adult deer. Doe Reared (DR) males remained with their mothers for a minimum of 3 months, prior to weaning which occurred annually in early October. Hand Reared (HR) males were removed from their parents before 3 weeks of age and reared in isolation, prior to weaning. Focal sampling was conducted on twenty two adult males (13 HR; 9 DR) to record the frequencies of 12 behavioral categories; resting, standing-alert, locomotion, ruminating, tail-pasting, urinating/defecating, environmental sniffing, self-directed behavior, ano-genital sniffing, affinitive interaction and agonistic interaction. The results showed that HR male musk deer demonstrate significantly more agonistic and less affinitive behavior when compared to DR males. This may be owing to the separation of HR deer from their peers and mother, in addition to proportionally greater contact with human caretakers. The results of this study have implication for musk deer farming.

Xiangwei Wang; Meng Tong; Xiuxiang Meng

2011-01-01

195

Hair-loss epizootic in moose (Alces alces) associated with massive deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) infestation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Deer keds (Lipoptena cervi) are blood-sucking flies in the family Hippoboscidae; moose (Alces alces) are their main host in Scandinavia. There are no detailed reports of the negative impacts of deer keds on moose. In 2006 and 2007, hunters in southeastern Norway and midwestern Sweden found several moose cadavers with severe alopecia; numerous moose had extensive hair loss. Between February 2006 and June 2007, materials from 23 moose were submitted for laboratory examination and large numbers of deer keds were found in the coat of most animals. The body condition of the moose varied but was poor in animals with severe alopecia. The findings of enormous numbers of deer keds in the coat of the majority of the affected animals and a consistent histologic image (acute to chronic, multifocal to coalescing, eosinophilic to lymphocytic dermatitis), concurrent with the absence of any other lesions, trace element deficiencies, or dermal infections which are known to cause alopecia, suggest that the hair-loss epizootic was linked to massive infestations with deer keds. The emergence of this hair-loss syndrome implies that the dynamics between parasite and host have been disrupted by a currently unknown environmental or ecological factor. A high moose density, combined with extraordinarily mild weather June 2006-June 2007 and a particularly long period with the absence of night-frost in autumn of 2006, may have been ideal for deer ked development, survival, and optimal host acquisition.

Madslien K; Ytrehus B; Vikřren T; Malmsten J; Isaksen K; Hygen HO; Solberg EJ

2011-10-01

196

Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from northwestern Spain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, the seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in roe deer in relation to different parameters in northwestern Spain was investigated. A total of 154 roe deer hunted between April 2007 and October 2008 from different localities of Galicia (northwest Spain) were examined. From each animal, a blood sample and all attached ticks found were collected. All the specimens for tick stages (larva, nymph, and adult) were speciated based on reference keys. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi were detected by indirect immunofluorescence (titer > or = 1:64). The percentage of roe deer seropositive for B. burgdorferi was 68.8% (106/ 154), of which 88.7% (94/106) were parasitized by ticks. Ixodes ricinus was the only species identified and was detected in 83.1% of roe deer with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) intensity of 46 +/- 47 ticks. Individual host characteristics such as age or sex did not have any effect on the prevalence of B. burgdorferi, but significant seasonal variation was observed, with higher prevalences in April-July than in August-October. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi were related to the presence of ticks. When analyzing all the factors together, the total number of ticks parasitizing roe deer was found as the most influential factor on B. burgdorferi prevalence. The results of this study have shown that roe deer in the northwest of Spain are highly exposed to B. burgdorferi and that exposure is related to the presence of I. ricinus.

Pato FJ; Panadero R; Vázquez L; López CM; Díaz P; Vázquez E; Díez-Bańos P; Morrondo P; Fernández G

2013-09-01

197

Enemy release or invasional meltdown? Deer preference for exotic and native trees on Isla Victoria, Argentina  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

How interactions between exotic species affect invasion impact is a fundamental issue on both theoretical and applied grounds. Exotics can facilitate establishment and invasion of other exotics (invasional meltdown) or they can restrict them by re-establishing natural population control (as predicted by the enemy-release hypothesis). We studied forest invasion on an Argentinean island where 43 species of Pinaceae, including 60% of the world's recorded invasive Pinaceae, were introduced c. 1920 but where few species are colonizing pristine areas. In this area two species of Palearctic deer, natural enemies of most Pinaceae, were introduced 80 years ago. Expecting deer to help to control the exotics, we conducted a cafeteria experiment to assess deer preferences among the two dominant native species (a conifer, Austrocedrus chilensis, and a broadleaf, Nothofagus dombeyi) and two widely introduced exotic tree species (Pseudotsuga menziesii and Pinus ponderosa). Deer browsed much more intensively on native species than on exotic conifers, in terms of number of individuals attacked and degree of browsing. Deer preference for natives could potentially facilitate invasion by exotic pines. However, we hypothesize that the low rates of invasion currently observed can result at least partly from high densities of exotic deer, which, despite their preference for natives, can prevent establishment of both native and exotic trees. Other factors, not mutually exclusive, could produce the observed pattern. Our results underscore the difficulty of predicting how one introduced species will effect impact of another one.

NUŃEZ MARTINA; RELVA MARIAA; SIMBERLOFF DANIEL

2008-05-01

198

MRI of the spine in endemic fluorosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate role of MRI in the diagnosis of the spinal lesions in endemic fluorosis. Methods: MRI of the spine in 81 patients with endemic fluorosis, including the cervical spine in 57 patients, thoracic spine in 10, and lumbar spine in 14, were analyzed and compared with X-ray plain films. Results: Fat-containing marrow in the vertebral bodies with endemic fluorosis was decreased and unevenly distributed. Signal intensity of the vertebral bodies was homogeneously or inhomogeneously decreased on T1- and T2- weighted images. The mean values of signal intensity of the cervical vertebral bodies from 3rd to 7th were lower in 32 patients with fluorosis than those in 100 patients of the control group on T1-weighted image (P1-weighted images, the signal intensity similar to yellow bone marrow within OPLL in 63 patients and within OYL in 36 patients was observed in 32 patients (50%) and in 31 patients (86%), respectively. Of the 81 patients, herniation of the intervertebral disk was found in 68 patients (84%), degeneration of the intervertebral disk was observed in 57 patients (70%), and spinal canal narrowing was found in 75 patients (93%), in which compression of the spinal cord was showed in 63 patients (78%) and pathologic changes within the cord were noted in 28 patients (35%). In 57 patients with fluorosis, MR showed compression of the cervical spinal cord in 48 patients (84.21%), the anterioposterior diameter of the cervical spinal canal on X-ray plain film was either 9 mm or less at any level of the vertebra (indicating the compression of the cervical spinal cord) in 41(71.92%) patients (P=0.115). In 57 patients with fluorosis and 100 patients of control group, intervertebral herniation was observed in 51 patients (89.47%) and 62 patients (62%), respectively (P

2004-01-01

199

[Corynebacterium ulcerans infection in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This is the first report of a Corynebacterium (C) ulcerans-infection in European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). The bacterium was isolated from a grapefruit sized abscess of an animal that had been shot. In addition to biochemical tests, the isolate was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and partial sequencing of the rpoB gene. The isolated bacteria showed phospholipase D activity that could be demonstrated by reverse CAMP-test. A tox-gene could be detected by PCR but the Elek-test specific for diphtheria toxin failed.The isolate was compared to two C. ulcerans-strains isolated from wild boar (Sus scrofa) from the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg described recently.

Rau J; Blazey B; Contzen M; Sting R

2012-03-01

200

Toponyms for centers of endemism in Madagascar  

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Full Text Available A biogeographical model was proposed in 2006 to explain the centers of endemism and the importance of riparian for­est of some watersheds as refuges or dispersal corridors during paleoclimatic oscillations. Here, we consider these geographical features highlighting their biological and socio-cultural importance. We explain the etymology or eponymy of the major rivers of the retreat-dispersal watersheds, i.e., the drainage basins of Bemarivo, Antainambalana, Mangoro, Manampatrana, Mananara South, Mandrare, Onilahy, Mangoky, Tsiribihina, Betsiboka, Maevarano, Sambirano, and Mahavavy North. We propose a toponymy for each of the 15 centers of endemism and highlight their peculiarities. We named the cent­ers of endemism of Vohimarina, Masoala, Analanjirofo, Tanala, Manombo, Anosy, Ranopiso, Karimbola, Mikea, Menabe, Melaky, Sofia, Ampasindava, Ankify, and Ankarana. We illustrate each center of endemism with a flagship spe­cies and report on its natural and cultural histories, and conservation. RÉSUMÉUn modčle biogéographique a été proposé en 2006 pour expliquer les centres d’endémisme de la biodiversité et l’importance des ripisylves de certains bassins versants en tant que refuges ou couloirs de dispersion au cours des oscillations paléoclimatiques. Ici, nous considérons ces dispositifs géographiques en soulignant leur importance biologique et socioculturelle. Dans un premier temps, nous expliquons la toponymie ou l’éponymie des grands fleuves des bassins refuges et de dispersion, ŕ savoir les bassins de la Bemarivo, de l’Antainambalana, du Mangoro, de la Manampatrana, de la Mananara du Sud, du Mandrare, de l’Onilahy, du Mangoky, de la Tsiribihina, de la Betsiboka, de la Maevarano, du Sambirano et de la Mahavavy du Nord. Puis nous proposons une toponymie pour chacun des 17 centres et sous-centres d’endémisme en justifiant leurs particularités. Nous retenons ainsi les centres d’endémisme de Vohimarina, de l’Atsinanana (dont Masoala et Analanjirofo), Tanala, de Manombo, de l’Anosy, d’Ala maika (dont Ranopiso, Karimbola et Mikea), du Menabe, du Melaky, de la Sofia, d’Ampasindava, d’Ankify et de l’Ankarana. Nous illustrons chacun des centres d’endémisme avec une espčce symbolique et rapportons des aspects de son histoire naturelle et culturelle ainsi que de sa conservation.

Lucienne Wilmé; Mamy Ravokatra; Rainer Dolch; Derek Schuurman; Eric Mathieu; Harald Schuetz; Patrick O. Waeber

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Branching pattern of aortic arch in the Korean water deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the branching pattern of the aortic arch and its major branches in Korean water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus, Heude, 1884). Silicone casts were taken from the vessels of 23 carcasses (male 14, female 9) with body weights ranging from 1.3-16.0 kg through a retrograde injection into the abdominal aorta. The findings were compared with those from other domestic ruminants. Only the brachiocephalic trunk (Bct) branched from the aortic arch in all carcasses. In 19 of the 23 cases, the Bct branched into the left subclavian artery (LSb), the left common carotid artery (LCc), and then trifurcated into the right common carotid artery (RCc), right costocervical trunk (RCct) and right subclavian artery (RSb). The subclavian artery (Sb) branched into the costocervical trunk (in left), internal thoracic artery (It), and superficial cervical artery (Sc) in that order, and continued as the axillary artery. Instead of separated carotid arteries, the bicarotid trunk from the Bct was observed in only three males and one female. Two of these males had different branching orders of the It and Sc from the Sb in one or both sides. The other male had a RCct from the RSb. The left costocervical trunk (LCct) arose from the LSb in all cases, and branched into the highest intercostal artery, the dorsal scapular artery, and the deep cervical arteries in that order, and continued as the vertebral artery. In 22 cases, the RCct branched directly from the Bct at the same point in which the RCc (or bicarotid trunk) and RSb separated. The artery branching pattern from the RCct was similar to that of the LCct. These results suggest that the Korean water deer has a Bct with different branching patterns from those of domestic ruminants. PMID:18981660

Ahn, Dong-Choon; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Kang, Hyung-Sub; Kim, Nam-Soo; Park, Sang-Youel; Kim, In-Shik

2008-10-01

202

Maternal investment and reproductive success in Chinese water deer  

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Full Text Available Among cervids, maternal investment, estimated as the amount of resources and care allocated to the offspring, was expected to be related to species body size. Therefore, maternal investment in a herd of captive Chinese water deer Hydropotes inermis, a relatively small species of cervid, was investigated over 3 years. Except during the lactation period, reproductive females spent about 2-fold more time resting than feeding. During lactation, the amount of time spent feeding increased highly (25.3 min/h during lactation vs 17.3 min/hr during the gestation period). Females spent less than 30% of time in communal behaviours with offspring. They did not reject alien fawns during this care period. Frequency and duration of suckling events decreased exponentially from the second week onwards. More than 10 % of suckling bouts were non-filial. Prenatal investment leads to a mean litter mass (about 12% of maternal mass) higher than in most cervid species. Postnatal investment in fawns represents a daily mass gain of ca. 85 g/d during the first 2 weeks, without any sexual difference. Female production, timing and synchrony of births and survival of fawns characterized reproductive success. Seventy percent of mature females gave birth, with a mean of 1.9 offspring per female. The sex ratio was even. Births were synchronous, 80% of births occurring in 25 days. In this herd, 0.74 fawn per female was successfully weaned and 0.56 fawn per female survived through their first year. Based on these results we conclude that reproductive strategy of Chinese water deer was efficient and characterized by mother-offspring relationships typical of hiders and high levels of pre- and postnatal investments. This strategy seems typical of small species of cervids without marked sexual dimorphism.

Christiane MAUGET; Robert MAUGET

2009-01-01

203

129I in deer thyroids from the Savannah River Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

129I can be released in many forms, most of which can be incorporated into animals, metabolized, concentrated and stored in the small thyroid gland. Atmospheric nuclear weapons tests added ?0.37 TBq of 129I to the ?1.48 TBq naturally present in the earth, oceans, and atmosphere. Previous investigators showed that during 1965--1969, thyroids of most cattle in USA contained less than 0.001 Bq 129I/g (wet weight) of thyroid. From 1984 through 1993 the authors measured 129I in 19 to 143 deer thyroids per year from the 316 square miles Savannah River Site (SRS) in SC. Most of these thyroids have averaged 0.1 to 2.8 Bq 129I/g. The storage and release of 129I at the SRS has been extensively reviewed. That report shows between 1954 and 1989 approximately 0.1. TBq of 129I was released into seepage basins, 0.2 TBq released into the atmosphere and 0.3 TBq retained in waste storage tanks. From 1985--1987 the annual medians of 129I/g deer thyroid from SRS were sustained at 0.03--0.06 Bq g-1 thyroid. In 1988 the median was highest at 0.12 Bq/g thyroid. The medians then decreased and in 1992 and 1993 they were 0.028 and 0.032 Bq 129I/g thyroid. The annual average concentrations showed a similar trend with a maximum in 1989 of 2.3 Bq/g thyroid and in 1992 and 1993 the averages were reduced to 0.12 and 0.34 Bq 129I/g. 129I in thyroid glands may be a minimal biohazard but it is a convenient biological index of contamination by a long-lived fission product

204

Seasonal spermatogenesis and testosterone production in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Quantitative changes in testes of roe deer were studied during the annual cycle. Testicular spermatozoa were counted and proportions of different cell types were estimated using DNA flow cytometry. A proliferation-specific antigen of somatic cells was evaluated by an immunoradiometric assay. Apoptosis was examined by cell death detection ELISA, and testosterone concentrations were measured with an enzymeimmunoassay. The testis mass of adults reached a maximum during the rut from mid-July to mid-August. Gonadal size corresponded to numbers of testicular spermatozoa g-1 testis. In the rutting period, epididymal spermatozoa were of the highest morphological and functional competence. The proportions of haploid (1c), diploid (2c) and tetraploid (4c) cells changed over time with the maximum of 1c cells during the breeding period. Meiotic division (1c:4c ratio) increased sharply immediately before rut, while mitosis (% cells in G2-M phase) was already high during spring. Proliferation and apoptosis revealed an opposite pattern during the annual cycle; the most intensive apoptosis occurred during the time of testis involution. Testosterone production showed a biphasic pattern. It dropped rapidly from the highest value in August to very low concentrations thereafter. Yearlings were characterized by smaller peaks of testicular growth and sperm production. Fawns started testicular growth and meiosis in winter. In conclusion, the production of spermatozoa in roe deer is intensified by enlargement of gonads as well as enhanced efficiency of spermatogenesis during the rut. Interrupted proliferation and stimulated apoptosis promote testis involution after the rut, and testosterone seems to play a role in the regulation of both processes.

Blottner S; Hingst O; Meyer HH

1996-11-01

205

Endemic asian chytrid strain infection in threatened and endemic anurans of the northern Western ghats, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Western Ghats of India harbors a rich diversity of amphibians with more than 77% species endemic to this region. At least 42% of the endemic species are threatened due to several anthropogenic stressors. However, information on amphibian diseases and their impacts on amphibian populations in this region are scarce. We report the occurrence of Batrachochytridium dendrobatidis (Bd), an epidermal aquatic fungal pathogen that causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, from the Western Ghats. In the current study we detected the occurrence of a native Asian Bd strain from three endemic and threatened species of anurans, Bombay Night Frog Nyctibatrachus humayuni, Leith's Leaping Frog Indirana leithii and Bombay Bubble Nest Frog Raorchestes bombayensis, for the first time from the northern Western Ghats of India based on diagnostic nested PCR, quantitative PCR, DNA sequencing and histopathology. While, the Bd infected I. leithii and R. bombayensis did not show any external symptoms, N. humayuni showed lesions on the skin, browning of skin and sloughing. Sequencing of Bd 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and the ITS1 and ITS2 regions, revealed that the current Bd strain is related to a haplotype endemic to Asia. Our findings confirm the presence of Bd in northern Western Ghats and the affected amphibians may or may not show detectable clinical symptoms. We suggest that the significance of diseases as potential threat to amphibian populations of the Western Ghats needs to be highlighted from the conservation point of view. PMID:24147018

Dahanukar, Neelesh; Krutha, Keerthi; Paingankar, Mandar S; Padhye, Anand D; Modak, Nikhil; Molur, Sanjay

2013-10-11

206

Endemic Asian Chytrid Strain Infection in Threatened and Endemic Anurans of the Northern Western Ghats, India  

Science.gov (United States)

The Western Ghats of India harbors a rich diversity of amphibians with more than 77% species endemic to this region. At least 42% of the endemic species are threatened due to several anthropogenic stressors. However, information on amphibian diseases and their impacts on amphibian populations in this region are scarce. We report the occurrence of Batrachochytridium dendrobatidis (Bd), an epidermal aquatic fungal pathogen that causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, from the Western Ghats. In the current study we detected the occurrence of a native Asian Bd strain from three endemic and threatened species of anurans, Bombay Night Frog Nyctibatrachus humayuni, Leith's Leaping Frog Indirana leithii and Bombay Bubble Nest Frog Raorchestes bombayensis, for the first time from the northern Western Ghats of India based on diagnostic nested PCR, quantitative PCR, DNA sequencing and histopathology. While, the Bd infected I. leithii and R. bombayensis did not show any external symptoms, N. humayuni showed lesions on the skin, browning of skin and sloughing. Sequencing of Bd 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and the ITS1 and ITS2 regions, revealed that the current Bd strain is related to a haplotype endemic to Asia. Our findings confirm the presence of Bd in northern Western Ghats and the affected amphibians may or may not show detectable clinical symptoms. We suggest that the significance of diseases as potential threat to amphibian populations of the Western Ghats needs to be highlighted from the conservation point of view.

Dahanukar, Neelesh; Krutha, Keerthi; Paingankar, Mandar S.; Padhye, Anand D.; Modak, Nikhil; Molur, Sanjay

2013-01-01

207

The endemic plant species Pietrosia levitomentosa, a real conservation challenge  

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Full Text Available The current paper presents a study upon the scientific knowledge on the conservation status and future perspectives of the endemic species Pietrosia levitomentosa Nyárády ex Sennikov. The scope of the paper is to improve our understanding about this endemic species and to underline its importance. The present study case is being used to highlight the main features of biodiversity conservation in Romania, a country with a high number of endemic species.

Bogdan-Mihai Negrea; Emilian Pricop

2009-01-01

208

Endemic taxa of vascular plants in the Polish Carpathians  

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Full Text Available The Carpathians, particularly their highest massif, the Tatra Mountains, exhibit the greatest richness of endemics in Poland. The present paper is a critical recapitulation of existing knowledge of endemism among the vascular plants of the Polish part of the Carpathians. It comprises a list of all 110 taxa (49 species, 26 microspecies of the genus Alchemilla and 35 conspicuous subspecies) that can be considered Carpathian endemics or subendemics. Their distribution, vertical ranges and habitats are characterized.

Halina Pi?ko?-Mirkowa; Zbigniew Mirek

2003-01-01

209

Incubation of European yew (Taxus baccata) with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) rumen fluid reduces taxine A concentrations.  

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Yew ( Taxus baccata) foliage was co-incubated with rumen fluid (RF) taken from fistulated cattle (Bos taurus), anesthetized white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and O. virginianus killed by bow hunters. The first trial with live deer resulted in statistically significant 59% reduction of taxine A by deer RF and no reduction by cattle RF. The second intubation trial, in which half the samples were stopped after 12 h, resulted in slightly less taxine A reduction by deer (46%) and 12% reduction by cattle RF. RF obtained by hunters eQuipped with thermos bottles and trained to collect RF immediatey upon field dressing their deer caused the most (88-96%) taxine A destruction: cattle RF reduced 68-88% the toxin. Obtaining RF from freshly killed deer was less expensive and more consistently successful than taking RF by intubation of anesthetized deer. The greater ability of white-tailed deer RF to detoxify yew taxines may not entirely explain the advantage white-tailed deer have over cattle to surviveyew ingestions without toxic effects. PMID:15587242

Weaver, J D; Brown, D L

2004-12-01

210

Behavioural characterization of four endemic Stachys taxa.  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed a basic behavioral characterization of methanol extracts of four Balkan endemic Stachys taxa: S. anisochila (SA), S. beckeana (SB), S. plumosa (SP) and S. alpina subsp. dinarica (SAD). The behavioral activity of extracts dosed intraperitoneally in the range 100-400 mg/kg was examined in adult male Wistar rats, in the elevated plus maze, spontaneous locomotor activity, and grip strength tests, mainly predictive of anxiolytic, sedative and myorelaxant actions, respectively. All investigated Stachys extracts lacked anxiolytic or myorelaxant activities, while SB at 400 mg/kg exerted an anxiogenic-like effect. The study with the selective antagonist beta-CCt showed that the sedative effect of SAD was only partially mediated by GABAA receptors containing the alpha1-subunit. While discernible, the behavioral effects of SA and SP were not distinct. In all extracts, chlorogenic acid and verbascoside were identified. In SA, SB, and SAD the flavonoid fraction was constituted of isoscutellarein and hypolaetine glycosides, while in SP chrysoeriol and apigenin glycosides were present. The results reveal the psychotropic potential of four endemic Stachys taxa, of which SAD appeared most promising as a natural sedative. PMID:20127664

Savi?, Miroslav M; Kuki?, Jelena M; Grayer, Renée J; Milinkovi?, Marija M; Marin, Petar D; Divljakovi?, Jovana; Van Linn, Michael; Cook, James M; Petrovi?, Silvana D

2010-09-01

211

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA IN ENDEMIC AREAS  

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Full Text Available Malaria infection is still to be considered a major public health problem in those 106 countries where the risk of contracting the infection with one or more of the Plasmodium species exists. According to estimates from the World Health Organization, over 200 million cases and about 655.000 deaths have occurred in 2010. Estimating the real health and social burden of the disease is a difficult task, because many of the malaria endemic countries have limited diagnostic resources, especially in rural settings where conditions with similar clinical picture may coexist in the same geographical areas. Moreover, asymptomatic parasitaemia may occur in high transmission areas after childhood, when anti-malaria semi-immunity occurs. Malaria endemicity and control activities are very complex issues, that are influenced by factors related to the host, to the parasite, to the vector, to the environment and to the health system capacity to fully implement available anti-malaria weapons such as rapid diagnostic tests, artemisinin-based combination treatment, impregnated bed-nets and insecticide residual spraying while waiting for an effective vaccine to be made available.

Beatrice Autino; Alice Noris; Rosario Russo; Francesco Castelli

2012-01-01

212

Generation of competent bone marrow-derived antigen presenting cells from the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus)  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Human infections with Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and related New World hantaviruses often lead to hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), a sometimes fatal illness. Lungs of patients who die from HCPS exhibit cytokine-producing mononuclear infiltrates and pronounced pulmonary inflammation. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the principal natural hosts of SNV, in which the virus establishes life-long persistence without conspicuous pathology. Little is known about the mechanisms SNV employs to evade the immune response of deer mice, and experimental examination of this question has been difficult because of a lack of methodologies for examining such responses during infection. One such deficiency is our inability to characterize T cell responses because susceptible syngeneic deer mice are not available. Results To solve this problem, we have developed an in vitro method of expanding and generating competent antigen presenting cells (APC) from deer mouse bone marrow using commercially-available house mouse (Mus musculus) granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. These cells are capable of processing and presenting soluble protein to antigen-specific autologous helper T cells in vitro. Inclusion of antigen-specific deer mouse antibody augments T cell stimulation, presumably through Fc receptor-mediated endocytosis. Conclusions The use of these APC has allowed us to dramatically expand deer mouse helper T cells in culture and should permit extensive characterization of T cell epitopes. Considering the evolutionary divergence between deer mice and house mice, it is probable that this method will be useful to other investigators using unconventional models of rodent-borne diseases.

Davenport Bennett J; Willis Derall G; Prescott Joseph; Farrell Regina M; Coons Teresa A; Schountz Tony

2004-01-01

213

Wild red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) grazing may seriously reduce forage production in mountain meadows  

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Full Text Available This study aimed at estimating the impact of red deer grazing on the productivity of meadows located in Pian Cansiglio, north-eastern Italian Pre-Alps. These meadows (383 ha; average elevation 1000 m asl are managed for hay/silage production (1-2 cuts per season) and are included in a protected area that hosts a high density of deer (around 30 heads/100 ha). In 2008 and 2010, dry matter (DM) production and loss due to deer grazing were estimated with exclusion cages (1 m2; 48 exclusion cages in 2008 and 52 in 2010). Night counts with spotlights were conducted to index deer use of meadows plots. DM production inside the cages was fairly good for the area (first and second cut: 5079 - 2193 Kg DM/ha in 2008, and 4200 - 2615 Kg DM/ha in 2010). DM production outside the cages was significantly lower (first and second cut in 2008: 4314-1389 Kg DM/ha, and in 2010: 3376-2052 Kg DM/ha). Therefore, the magnitude of losses was of 15-20% in the first and 25-40% in the second cut. DM losses in the different meadow plots were positively correlated with index of deer use, which in some plots was as high as 7-8 heads/ha. Deer grazing reduced also crude protein (CP) content of forage (15.6±4.4% DM inside exclusion cages and 13.8±3.5% DM outside), with losses being greater where CP content was higher. This study demonstrates that high densities of grazing deer may seriously impact on forage production and quality.

Elisa Marchiori; Enrico Sturaro; Maurizio Ramanzin

2012-01-01

214

Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical sign of BVDV to isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer. Results we isolated a suspected BVDV strain from livers of an aborted fetus from sika deer in Changchun (China) using MDBK cell lines, named as CCSYD strain, and identified it by cytopathic effect (CPE), indirect immunoperoxidase test (IPX) and electron microscopy(EM). The results indicated that this virus was BVDV by a series of identification. The structural proteins E0 gene was cloned and sequenced. The obtained E0 gene sequence has been submitted to GenBank with the accession number: FJ555203. Alignment with other 9 strains of BVDV, 7 strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and 3 strains of border disease virus(BDV) in the world, showed that the homology were 98.6%-84.8%, 76.0%-74.7%, 76.6%-77.0% for nucleotide sequence, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that new isolation and identification CCSYD strain belonged to BVDV1b. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that BVDV was isolated and identified in sika deer. This current research contributes development new BVDV vaccine to prevent and control of BVD in sika deer.

Gao Yugang; Wang Shijie; Du Rui; Wang Quankai; Sun Changjiang; Wang Nan; Zhang Pengju; Zhang Lianxue

2011-01-01

215

Schistosomiasis-an endemic parasitic waterborne disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Schistosomiasis (or bilharzia) is a chronic waterborne disease caused by parasitic worms or schistosoma in the tropics and sub tropics. Five main species exist, and common to all is its transmission to humans as a result of exposure to infested fresh water, into which the cercariae of the parasite are released by freshwater snails. With the rise of tourism and travel, more people are travelling to countries where schistosomiasis is a risk. Schistosoma haematobium is responsible for urogenital schistosomiasis, in which manifestations range from acute hypersensitivity reactions to bladder disease in the detection of which the nurse cystoscopist can have a significant role. Treatment is highly effective, and the diagnosis should be considered in individuals with possible clinical illness who have travelled to or lived in endemic areas.

Drudge-Coates L; Turner B

2013-05-01

216

ANTIGENAEMIA AS AN INDICATOR OF FILARIAL ENDEMICITY  

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Full Text Available This is a report of 1 -year evaluation of chemotherapeutic intervention in an area of Indonesia endemic for lymphatic filariasis. Control measures were initiated in 1977 by parasite control, informal health educa­tion, and community participation at the village level, well in accord with the WHO-concept of health for all. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) was mass distributed in 1977 and 1988, and selectively distributed in 1978, 1979, 1981, and 1982 to those who were micro-filaraemic prior to DEC treatments, those with a history of adenoly mphangitis over the previous one year period, and to all new comers. In addition, each villager with acute symptoms of adenolymphangitis was immediately treated with a single course of 300 mg DEC for 10 days. No intervention measures were taken between 1982 to 1988, and no attempt was taken to control the vector or to restrict movement between controlled and uncontrolled areas during the whole studies. With these measures, the microfilaria (mf) rate decreased from 30% to 0%, the adenolymphangitis rate from 46% to 11%, and the elephantiasis rate from 35% to 3%. The abatement of acute and chronic filarial symptoms over the study period and the disappearance of microfilaremia in the community are pointing towards the possibility of eradicating the partasite from the community. To test this hypothesis, serum samples were tested for circulating filarial antigen by a two-site antigen capture assay employing anti-phosphorylcholine monoclonal antibodies. There was a sharp fall in circulating antigenaemia, demonstrating that infection has either been eliminated from nearly all villagers, or that intensity of infection is now undetectably low. We feel that antigenaemia can be used as an indicator of filarial endemicity.

F. Partono; R. Maizels; Purnomo Purnomo; E. Sartono

2012-01-01

217

An analysis of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) traffic collisions in the Belluno province, eastern Italian Alps  

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Full Text Available Data of roe deer traffic collisions from 1989 to 2004 in the Belluno province were analyzed to describe patterns of road kills by zone, season and sex and to compare resulting annual trends and sex ratios with those estimated for roe deer population. The province was divided in 2 districts on the base of differences in climate, landscape and roe deer population status. Pearson’s simple correlation was used to investigate the associations, in the two districts, among road kills data, year, population density, traffic index, and snow depth. Bonferroni’s confidential intervals to 95% of significance were used to compare the monthly distributions of collisions between sexes and between districts. In conclusion, the analysis of car accidents may not reflect population trends and sex ratios when traffic rates change and when different ecological factors, others from deer density, influence the probability of deer to incur in a car accident. In addition, differences of accident probability between sexes and months can be found in areas with different landscapes, climates and population structures. These factors should be evaluated in order to manage accident risk and to understand the potential of car accidents records as a tool for monitoring population status.

L. Dal Compare; E. Sturaro; G. Cocca; M. Ramanzin

2010-01-01

218

Actinides in deer tissues at the rocky flats environmental technology site.  

Science.gov (United States)

Limited hunting of deer at the future Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge has been proposed in U.S. Fish and Wildlife planning documents as a compatible wildlife-dependent public use. Historically, Rocky Flats site activities resulted in the contamination of surface environmental media with actinides, including isotopes of americium, plutonium, and uranium. In this study, measurements of actinides [Americium-241 (241Am); Plutonium-238 (238Pu); Plutonium-239,240 (239,240Pu); uranium-233,244 (233,234U); uranium-235,236 (235,236U); and uranium-238 (238U)] were completed on select liver, muscle, lung, bone, and kidney tissue samples harvested from resident Rocky Flats deer (N = 26) and control deer (N = 1). In total, only 17 of the more than 450 individual isotopic analyses conducted on Rocky Flats deer tissue samples measured actinide concentrations above method detection limits. Of these 17 detects, only 2 analyses, with analytical uncertainty values added, exceeded threshold values calculated around a 1 x 10(-6) risk level (isotopic americium, 0.01 pCi/g; isotopic plutonium, 0.02 pCi/g; isotopic uranium, 0.2 pCi/g). Subsequent, conservative risk calculations suggest minimal human risk associated with ingestion of these edible deer tissues. The maximum calculated risk level in this study (4.73 x 10(-6)) is at the low end of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's acceptable risk range. PMID:16639905

Todd, Andrew S; Sattelberg, R Mark

2005-11-01

219

Determinants of vigilance in a reintroduced population of Pčre David's deer  

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Full Text Available After being kept in captivity and isolated from natural predators for more than 1,200 years, Pčre David’s deer has been reintroduced in China and now occurs in a reserve where human activity is the only potential threat. Antipredator vigilance is an important component of survival for many prey animals in their natural habitat. Do deer still adjust vigilance as a function of risk after such a long period of relaxed predation pressure? Here, we examined vigilance levels in Pčre David’s deer groups as a function of group size, sex and level of human disturbance. The results showed that individual vigilance significantly decreased with group size in all-female groups but not in all-males or mixed-sex groups. In rutting season, males compete with one another and harass females, and we argue that vigilance is partly aimed at threatening males and that such vigilance increases with group size. This explains why overall vigilance did not vary with group size for males in general and for females in mixed-sex groups. Vigilance increased in more disturbed areas but in in male deer only. The results indicate that despite relaxed predation pressure over centuries, Pčre David’s deer can still adjust antipredator responses as a function of perceived risk. Such information may become useful in the rewilding programme now under way for this species in China [Current Zoology 59 (2): 265–270, 2013].

Wei ZHENG, Guy BEAUCHAMP, Xuelei JIANG, Zhongqiu LI, Qinglong YANG

2013-01-01

220

Measuring Fine-Scale White-Tailed Deer Movements and Environmental Influences Using GPS Collars  

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Full Text Available Few studies have documented fine-scale movements of ungulate species, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), despite the advent of global positioning system (GPS) technology incorporated into tracking devices. We collected fine-scale temporal location estimates (i.e., 15 min/relocation attempt) from 17 female and 15 male white-tailed deer over 7 years and 3 seasons in Oklahoma, USA. Our objectives were to document fine-scale movements of females and males and determine effects of reproductive phase, moon phase, and short-term weather patterns on movements. Female and male movements were primarily crepuscular. Male total daily movements were 20% greater during rut (7,363?m±364) than postrut (6,156?m±260). Female daily movements were greatest during postparturition (3,357?m±91), followed by parturition (2,902?m±107), and preparturition (2,682?m±121). We found moon phase had no effect on daily, nocturnal, and diurnal deer movements and fine-scale temporal weather conditions had an inconsistent influence on deer movement patterns within season. Our data suggest that hourly and daily variation in weather events have minimal impact on movements of white-tailed deer in southern latitudes. Instead, routine crepuscular movements, presumed to maximize thermoregulation and minimize predation risk, appear to be the most important factors influencing movements.

Stephen L. Webb; Kenneth L. Gee; Bronson K. Strickland; Stephen Demarais; Randy W. DeYoung

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Iodine-129 in forage and deer on the Hanford site and other Pacific Northwest locations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Samples of surface soil, litter, forage, and deer (rumen content, muscle, liver, and thyroid gland) were collected from Bend, Oregon; Centralia, Washington; Wenatchee, Washington; the Wooten Game Range near Dayton, Washington; and on or near the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The concentrations of /sup 129/I and /sup 127/I were determined using neturon activation techniques. The purpose of the study was to establish the current levels of /sup 129/I in the environs of the Hanford Site prior to the proposed restart of fuel reprocessing at the PUREX plant. The results of this study clearly demonstrated the longevity of /sup 129/I in the biosphere following gaseous release from a nuclear facility. Analyses of thyroid glands showed that deer living within 160 km (Wooten Game Range) of Hanford had elevated levels of /sup 129/I when compared to the more distant Pacific Northwest locations (Centralia, or Bend). Levels of /sup 129/I in deer thyroid from Bend, or Centralia, (15 fCi/g wet weight), were about five times higher than values reported for the central United States, while, Hanford samples were about 2,700 times higher. The average concentration of /sup 129/I in deer thyroids collected at Hanford in 1978 was similar to samples collected 14 years earlier. The concentrations of /sup 129/I in soil, litter, forage, and other deer samples generally decrease in the order: Hanford > Wooten > Wenatchee > Centralia approx. = Bend. This corresponds to an increase in distance from the Hanford Site.

Price, K.R.; Cadwell, L.L.; Schreckhise, R.G.; Brauer, F.P.

1981-02-01

222

Regulatory changes contribute to the adaptive enhancement of thermogenic capacity in high-altitude deer mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In response to hypoxic stress, many animals compensate for a reduced cellular O(2) supply by suppressing total metabolism, thereby reducing O(2) demand. For small endotherms that are native to high-altitude environments, this is not always a viable strategy, as the capacity for sustained aerobic thermogenesis is critical for survival during periods of prolonged cold stress. For example, survivorship studies of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) have demonstrated that thermogenic capacity is under strong directional selection at high altitude. Here, we integrate measures of whole-organism thermogenic performance with measures of metabolic enzyme activities and genomic transcriptional profiles to examine the mechanistic underpinnings of adaptive variation in this complex trait in deer mice that are native to different elevations. We demonstrate that highland deer mice have an enhanced thermogenic capacity under hypoxia compared with lowland conspecifics and a closely related lowland species, Peromyscus leucopus. Our findings suggest that the enhanced thermogenic performance of highland deer mice is largely attributable to an increased capacity to oxidize lipids as a primary metabolic fuel source. This enhanced capacity for aerobic thermogenesis is associated with elevated activities of muscle metabolic enzymes that influence flux through fatty-acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation pathways in high-altitude deer mice and by concomitant changes in the expression of genes in these same pathways. Contrary to predictions derived from studies of humans at high altitude, our results suggest that selection to sustain prolonged thermogenesis under hypoxia promotes a shift in metabolic fuel use in favor of lipids over carbohydrates.

Cheviron ZA; Bachman GC; Connaty AD; McClelland GB; Storz JF

2012-05-01

223

Fine-scale genetic structure and social organization in female white-tailed deer.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abstract: Social behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have important management implications. The formation of matrilineal social groups among female deer has been documented and management strategies have been proposed based on this well-developed social structure. Using radiocollared (n = 17) and hunter or vehicle-killed (n = 21) does, we examined spatial and genetic structure in white-tailed deer on a 7,000-ha portion of the Savannah River Site in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. We used 14 microsatellite DNA loci to calculate pairwise relatedness among individual deer and to assign doe pairs to putative relationship categories. Linear distance and genetic relatedness were weakly correlated (r = –0.08, P = 0.058). Relationship categories differed in mean spatial distance, but only 60% of first-degree-related doe pairs (full sibling or mother–offspring pairs) and 38% of second-degree-related doe pairs (half sibling, grandmother–granddaughter pairs) were members of the same social group based on spatial association. Heavy hunting pressure in this population has created a young age structure among does, where the average age is <2.5 years, and <4% of does are >4.5 years old. This—combined with potentially elevated dispersal among young does—could limit the formation of persistent, cohesive social groups. Our results question the universal applicability of recently proposed models of spatial and genetic structuring in white-tailed deer, particularly in areas with differing harvest histories.

Comer, Christopher E.; Kilgo, John C.; D' Angelo, Gino J.; Glenn, Travis C.; Miller, Karl V.

2005-07-01

224

The anatomy of vocal divergence in North American Elk and European red deer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Loud and frequent vocalizations play an important role in courtship behavior in Cervus species. European red deer (Cervus elaphus) produce low-pitched calls, whereas North American elk (Cervus canadensis) produce high-pitched calls, which is remarkable for one of the biggest land mammals. Both species engage their vocal organs in elaborate maneuvers but the precise mechanism is unknown. Vocal organs were compared by macroscopic and microscopic dissection. The larynx is sexually dimorphic in red deer but not in elk. The laryngeal lumen is more constricted in elk, and narrows further during ontogeny. Several elements of the hyoid skeleton and two of four vocal tract segments are longer in red deer than in elk allowing greater vocal tract expansion and elongation. We conclude that elk submit the larynx and vocal tract to much higher tension than red deer, whereby, enormously stressed vocal folds of reduced effective length create a high resistance glottal source. The narrow, high impedance laryngeal vestibulum matches glottal and vocal tract impedance allowing maximum power transfer. In red deer longer and relaxed vocal folds create a less resistant glottal source and a wider vestibulum matches the low glottal impedance to the vocal tract, thereby also ensuring maximum power transfer.

Frey R; Riede T

2013-03-01

225

La Crosse viremias in white-tailed deer and chipmunks exposed by injection or mosquito bite.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To further understand the role of wild mammals in the maintenance of La Crosse virus (LACV) in nature, we investigated the effects of inoculation method and virus source on the duration and amplitude of LACV viremia in vertebrate hosts. Earlier work suggested that deer are not sufficiently susceptible to LACV to play an important role in its maintenance. We re-evaluated the susceptibility of deer since subsequent studies showed that they constitute 65% of Aedes triseriatus blood meals, and thus would be exposed frequently to the virus. In our study, deer developed higher and longer viremia following exposure to LACV by infected Ae. triseriatus than those previously reported by inoculation with needle and syringe. However, susceptible Ae. triseriatus that fed on these viremic animals did not become infected. Because a large number of uninfected mosquitoes can feed upon a viremic deer in nature, we believe that deer should not be disregarded completely as a possible amplifier in the LACV transmission cycle. We also infected chipmunks to determine if there were significant differences in viremia response from mosquito delivery of virus to the chipmunk host, compared with artificial exposure by injection. Chipmunks exposed to infected mosquitoes had higher and longer viremias than the ones produced by intramuscular injection of an LACV suspension. These findings show the importance of using LACV infected mosquitoes for transmission experiments in mammals.

Osorio JE; Godsey MS; Defoliart GR; Yuill TM

1996-04-01

226

EXAMINATION OF NASAL BOTFLY (CEPHENEMYIA STIMULATOR,CLARK, 1815) OF ROE DEER  

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Full Text Available Abstract- Parameters of nasal botfly infestation of roe deer in plain locations I am investigating the occurrence of one of the diseases caused by parasites in plain roe deer populations, namely a botfly larvae, Cephenemyia stimulator, (CLARK, 1815) ranged among the Oestridae family. Nasal botfly larvae are common roe deer parasites and aregenerally spread nationwide. The subject of the present survey is the processing of the data gained about roe deer bucks of the year 2009 and their infestation indices. I investigated botfly larvae in 75 bucks’ nasal andpharyngeal cavity. We have found botfly larva in 17,3% of the examined bucks (prevalence), this means 13 infected specimen. I collected 199 pieces of larvae from the samples, with a 15,3 pieces mean intensity. In our  investigations prevalence was lower than in previous Hungarian researches. This was manifested both in our overall data, and in our examinations by the different age groups. The rate of infestation was demonstrably higher in the old age group. This can be explained by the territorial behaviour of the roe deer, which can also be manifested by the older bucks’ displacement to weaker habitats.

Szilárd Pinnyey

2013-01-01

227

Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus  

Science.gov (United States)

A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

Nelson, Michael E.

2011-01-01

228

Radiocaesium activity in soil, plants and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Glenveagh National Park, Co. Donegal, Ireland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was based in Glenveagh National Park, north-west County Donegal where the vegetation is grazed by Red Deer (Cervus elaphus). The work presented investigates the effects of topography on deposition of fallout, the uptake of radiocaesium from soils by plants and its subsequent assimilation by Red Deer. (author).

1991-01-01

229

The effects of an abundant ectoparasite, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi), on the health of moose (Alces alces) in Finland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi, Diptera, Hippoboscidae) is a haematophagous parasitic fly of the moose (Alces alces) and other cervids, and it is very common in southern and central parts of Finland. The aim of this study was to determine how the intensive parasitism caused by the deer ked affects the health and welfare of the moose. Moose blood samples (n = 78) were collected from deer ked-infested and ked-free regions at 62-68° N and analysed for haematology and clinical chemistry. In addition, tissue samples of moose (n = 23) were collected from a deer ked-infested region at 62° N to determine how the parasite load correlates to several physiological variables of the host. The differences in the blood and plasma values between the deer ked-free and ked-infested animals were minor. In the infested regions, the moose had higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentrations unlikely to have been caused by the parasitism. The intensities of deer keds had no consistent correlations with the values of plasma clinical chemistry, endocrinology, amino acids, tissue enzyme activities or body energy stores. However, the hepatic percentages of several individual n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the n-3 PUFA sum correlated inversely with the intensity and density of deer keds. Although a wide array of physiological variables was determined, only minor effects caused by the heavy deer ked parasitism could be detected, suggesting that the moose might tolerate this parasite relatively well. PMID:22645032

Paakkonen, Tommi; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Käkelä, Reijo; Laaksonen, Sauli; Solismaa, Milla; Aho, Jari; Puukka, Katri; Nieminen, Petteri

2012-05-29

230

The effects of an abundant ectoparasite, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi), on the health of moose (Alces alces) in Finland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi, Diptera, Hippoboscidae) is a haematophagous parasitic fly of the moose (Alces alces) and other cervids, and it is very common in southern and central parts of Finland. The aim of this study was to determine how the intensive parasitism caused by the deer ked affects the health and welfare of the moose. Moose blood samples (n = 78) were collected from deer ked-infested and ked-free regions at 62-68° N and analysed for haematology and clinical chemistry. In addition, tissue samples of moose (n = 23) were collected from a deer ked-infested region at 62° N to determine how the parasite load correlates to several physiological variables of the host. The differences in the blood and plasma values between the deer ked-free and ked-infested animals were minor. In the infested regions, the moose had higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentrations unlikely to have been caused by the parasitism. The intensities of deer keds had no consistent correlations with the values of plasma clinical chemistry, endocrinology, amino acids, tissue enzyme activities or body energy stores. However, the hepatic percentages of several individual n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the n-3 PUFA sum correlated inversely with the intensity and density of deer keds. Although a wide array of physiological variables was determined, only minor effects caused by the heavy deer ked parasitism could be detected, suggesting that the moose might tolerate this parasite relatively well.

Paakkonen T; Mustonen AM; Käkelä R; Laaksonen S; Solismaa M; Aho J; Puukka K; Nieminen P

2012-09-01

231

The impact of past introductions on an iconic and economically important species, the red deer of Scotland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The red deer (Cervus elaphus) is an iconic species in Scotland and, due to its value as a game species, an important element of the Scottish rural economy. The native status of this species is sometimes questioned because of many recorded introductions of nonnative deer in the past that were an attempt to improve trophy size. In this study, we assessed the impact of past introductions on the genetic makeup of Scottish red deer by genotyping at 15 microsatellite loci a large number of samples (n = 1152), including mainland and island Scottish red deer and individuals from several putative external source populations used in introductions to improve trophy size. Population structure and introgression assessment analyses revealed that the impact of introductions was weak in Highland red deer populations but more prominent on the islands, especially on those where current red deer populations are mostly or entirely derived from introductions (Harris & Lewis, Arran, and Rum). Frequent imports of Central-Eastern European red deer into English deer parks were reflected in the higher genetic introgression values found in some of the individuals collected in parks.

Pérez-Espona S; Hall RJ; Pérez-Barbería FJ; Glass BC; Ward JF; Pemberton JM

2013-01-01

232

Isolation of cervid herpesvirus 1 from the genital tract of a farmed red deer in Northern France.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In autumn 2008, several captive red deer in the North of France were found to be serologically positive for a ruminant alphaherpesvirus. A viral isolate obtained from the genital mucosa of a female red deer was characterised by sequencing and restriction endonuclease analyses as a cervid herpesvirus 1 closely related to Scottish Banffshire 82 strain.

Thiry J; Dams L; Muylkens B; Thiry E

2011-02-01

233

Urinary iodine excretion in relation to goiter prevalence in households of goiter endemic and non endemic regions of Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Survey of goiter prevalence, among population of five endemic and four non endemic regions of Ethiopia was carried out prior to the distribution of iodate d salt. urine samples were collected from 327 subjects selected by systematic random sampling from endemic and 276 taken as non endemic. The lowest mean urinary iodine excretion (UIE) value was recorded in Bure (22 micro gl/day) and the highest in Alemmaya (148 micro gl/day). The highest goiter rate ( percent TGR) was recorded in Sawla 55.6 %) and the lowest (0.6 %) in Yabello. Iodine content of drinking was in the range of 0.4 - 48.5 micro gl. Iodine content of water source was correlated positively ( r0.8399) with the mean of UIE and TGR, however, indicates that sites considered as non endemic seem to be affected by iodine deficiency. The study results urge the need for intervention in controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders. 3 tab.

1995-01-01

234

Behavioural Study of Timor Deer (Cervus timorensis) in PT Kuala Tembaga, Aertembaga Village, Bitung-North Sulawesi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to observe the daily behavior of Timor deer (Cervus timorensis). The study was conducted in Aertembaga village, Bitung-North Sulawesi for 30 days. Deer were kept out in the conventional coconut plantations under extensive care system. Seven Timor deers were used in this study. The daily behavior were observed for their activities; as grazing, ruminating, lying, urinating, defecating, vocalizing, working and other activities. A time sampling method was used to record the behavior activities and observations were repeated in five time. The respective percentage of daily activities of Timor deer for grazing, ruminating, lying, working, standing, defecating, urinating, approaching and other activities were 31.17; 14.63; 13.54; 6.23; 7.55; 8.51; 3.96; 7.915 and 6.48%. (Animal Production 7(2): 121-126 (2005) Key Words: Care, Behavior, Timor deer, Extensive

Wirdateti; M Mansur; A Kundarmasno

2005-01-01

235

The John Deere E diesel Test & Research Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three non-road Tier II emissions compliant diesel engines manufactured by John Deere were placed on a durability test plan of 2000 hours each at full load, rated speed (FLRS). The fuel was a blend of 10% fuel ethanol and 90% low sulfur #2 diesel fuel. Seven operational failures involving twenty seven fuel system components occurred prior to completion of the intended test plan. Regulated emissions measured prior to component failure indicated compliance to Tier II certification goals for the observed test experience. The program plan included operating three non-road Tier II diesel engines for 2000 hours each monitoring the regulated emissions at 500 hour intervals for changes/deterioration. The program was stopped prematurely due to number and frequency of injection system failures. The failures and weaknesses observed involved injector seat and valve wear, control solenoid material incompatibility, injector valve deposits and injector high pressure seal cavitation erosion. Future work should target an E diesel fuel standard that emphasizes minimum water content, stability, lubricity, cetane neutrality and oxidation resistance. Standards for fuel ethanol need to require water content no greater than the base diesel fuel standard. Lubricity bench test standards may need new development for E diesel.

Fields, Nathan; Mitchell, William E.

2008-09-23

236

The 36. Red Deer Seminar - still going strong  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Several issues dominated the 36th Red Deer Seminar of the propane industry, among them changes to the Alberta fuel tax collection system, propane and automobile emissions and industry self-management. With regard to changes to the Alberta fuel tax collection system, details were provided on how the system, coming into effect on January 1, 1997, will impact on producers, distributors and retailers. In terms of automobile emissions, it was said that propane has lagged behind gasoline in technological development, hence propane no longer has advantages in emissions. It was noted, however, that with equivalent technology propane can still meet ultra-low emission standards. Regarding industry self-management, it was stressed that self-management did not mean deregulation since government retains policy, regulation and standard setting. It means a new partnership arrangement in which industry delivers services formerly provided by government. In this spirit of cooperation, it was announced that effective September 1996, administration of the auto propane vehicle conversion program will be transferred to the PGAC under the name of Alberta Propane Vehicle Administration Organization. 3 figs

1996-01-01

237

The 36. Red Deer Seminar - still going strong  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several issues dominated the 36th Red Deer Seminar of the propane industry, among them changes to the Alberta fuel tax collection system, propane and automobile emissions and industry self-management. With regard to changes to the Alberta fuel tax collection system, details were provided on how the system, coming into effect on January 1, 1997, will impact on producers, distributors and retailers. In terms of automobile emissions, it was said that propane has lagged behind gasoline in technological development, hence propane no longer has advantages in emissions. It was noted, however, that with equivalent technology propane can still meet ultra-low emission standards. Regarding industry self-management, it was stressed that self-management did not mean deregulation since government retains policy, regulation and standard setting. It means a new partnership arrangement in which industry delivers services formerly provided by government. In this spirit of cooperation, it was announced that effective September 1996, administration of the auto propane vehicle conversion program will be transferred to the PGAC under the name of Alberta Propane Vehicle Administration Organization. 3 figs.

Anon.

1996-09-01

238

Nutritional values of wild rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) venison  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Until 2002, the level of protein consumption from red meat origin by the Indonesian people was only 51.5% from the national target. The reasons for this condition were due to limited resources of domesticated animals and low income of many suburb people to buy red mead. One alternative in supplying the gap of protein consumption is by utilizing local prospective wildlife animals, such as deer. This species is widely distributed among the islands in Indonesia. In order to understand more on the quality of tropical rusa venison (Cervus timorensis), a study was conducted in Palu district, Southeast Sulawesi by collecting venison from hunters. The results showed there was no significant difference on cooking lost among the carcass parts (hind leg, front leg and saddle), with the range between 30.3 to 33.0%. There were also no significant differences on the gross energy, protein, ash, fat and phosphor values among the carcass parts. The contents of sodium , ferum and calcium were significantly different at p9.5% DM), compared to other groups (<4.0% DM). In amino acid contents , it showed no interaction between the carcass parts to amino acid groups, however there was a significant difference among the amino acid groups. Glutamic acid had the highest level (15.74%DM), where as others were ranged between 2.7 to 7.6% DM. (Animal Production 7(1): 46-51 (2005)

Y Jamal; G Semiadi; M Hamsun

2005-01-01

239

VERSATILE DEVICE FOR PERFORMING ZOOVETERINARY ACTIVITIES WITH ANTLER DEER  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: agriculture. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular to antler deer breeding. Device includes set up yard in form of circular enclosure, enclosure before pre-machine corridor, is made of two walls, one of which is a part of circular enclosure, the other, latticed, is located inside it along the first one, pre-machine corridor is divided into two sections with movable cage-platform in the second section in the same direction as animal moves, and antler-cutting machine. Internal wall of enclosure before pre-machine corridor is located parallel to circular enclosure wall at the distance equal to animal pelvis with clearance. Enclosure before pre-machine corridor is equipped with a number of sliding doors separating it into unequal sections. Wall-trap of semi-circle form is fixed to the butt end of inner wall of enclosure on the entrance of animals. ^ EFFECT: increased labour productivity, improved quality of processing and exterior measurements, reduced stress and traumatism of animals. ^ 5 cl, 3 dwg

NEPRIJATEL ALEKSEJ ANATOL EVICH; LUNITSYN VASILIJ GERASIMOVICH; TISHKOV MAKSIM JUR EVICH; ASHENBRENNER ALEKSANDR IVANOVICH

240

Genotype-4 hepatitis E in a human after ingesting roe deer meat in South Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent increase in the number of cases of indigenous hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection highlights the importance of identifying the transmission routes for the prevention of such infections. Presented herein is the first case of acute HEV infection after ingesting wild roe deer meat in South Korea. A 43-year-old male presented with abdominal discomfort and jaundice. He had not recently traveled abroad, but had eaten raw roe-deer meat 6-8 weeks before the presentation. On the 7th day of hospitalization the patient was diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis E. Phylogenetic analysis of his serum revealed genotype-4 HEV. This case supports the possibility of zoonotic transmission of HEV because the patient appears to have been infected with genotype-4 HEV after ingesting raw deer meat.

Choi, Ja Yoon; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Jo, Yun Won; Kim, Hyun Jin; Jung, Woon Tae; Lee, Ok Jae; Yun, Haesun; Yoon, Yeong-Sil

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Congenital transmission of Neospora caninum in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neosporosis is an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Many aspects of transmission of Neospora caninum in nature are unknown. The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoirs of N. caninum in the USA. During the hunting seasons of 2008, 2009, and 2010, brains of 155 white-tailed deer fetuses were bioassayed in mice for protozoal isolation. Viable N. caninum (NcWTDMn1, NcWTDMn2) was isolated from the brains of two fetuses by bioassays in mice, and subsequent propagation in cell culture. Dams of these two infected fetuses had antibodies to N. caninum by Neospora agglutination test at 1:100 serum dilution. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates with Nc5 PCR confirmed diagnosis. Results prove congenital transmission of N. caninum in the white tailed deer for the first time.

Dubey JP; Jenkins MC; Kwok OC; Ferreira LR; Choudhary S; Verma SK; Villena I; Butler E; Carstensen M

2013-09-01

242

Seroprevalence of Powassan virus in New England deer, 1979-2010.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Powassan virus and its subtype, deer tick virus, are closely related tick-borne flaviviruses that circulate in North America. The incidence of human infection by these agents appears to have increased in recent years. To define exposure patterns among white-tailed deer, potentially useful sentinels that are frequently parasitized by ticks, we screened serum samples collected during 1979-2010 in Connecticut, Maine, and Vermont for neutralizing antibody by using a novel recombinant deer tick virus-West Nile virus chimeric virus. Evidence of exposure was detected in all three states. Overall our results demonstrate that seroprevalence is variable in time and space, suggesting that risk of exposure to Powassan virus is similarly variable.

Nofchissey RA; Deardorff ER; Blevins TM; Anishchenko M; Bosco-Lauth A; Berl E; Lubelczyk C; Mutebi JP; Brault AC; Ebel GD; Magnarelli LA

2013-06-01

243

Congenital transmission of Neospora caninum in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Neosporosis is an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Many aspects of transmission of Neospora caninum in nature are unknown. The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoirs of N. caninum in the USA. During the hunting seasons of 2008, 2009, and 2010, brains of 155 white-tailed deer fetuses were bioassayed in mice for protozoal isolation. Viable N. caninum (NcWTDMn1, NcWTDMn2) was isolated from the brains of two fetuses by bioassays in mice, and subsequent propagation in cell culture. Dams of these two infected fetuses had antibodies to N. caninum by Neospora agglutination test at 1:100 serum dilution. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates with Nc5 PCR confirmed diagnosis. Results prove congenital transmission of N. caninum in the white tailed deer for the first time. PMID:23566408

Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Kwok, O C H; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Villena, I; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

2013-03-14

244

Intraocular pressure and tear production in captive eland and fallow deer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Applanation tonometry was used to estimate intraocular pressure (IOP) and Schirmer tear test (STT) I was used to estimate tear production in both eyes of 12 juvenile elands (Taurotragus oryx) and one eye each of 15 Asian fallow deer (Dama mesopotamica). Mean (+/- standard deviation) IOP was 14.6 +/- 4.0 mm Hg in the eland and 11.9 +/- 3.3 mm Hg in the deer. Mean tear production was 18.7 +/- 5.9 mm/min in the eland and 10.5 +/- 6.5 mm/min in the deer. The large variation in IOP between two members of the family Bovidae, the elands reported here and the Thomson gazelle (Gazella thomsoni) for which we previously reported a mean pressure of 7.6 mm Hg, illustrates the need to establish reference values for each species. Tear production may be influenced by the species' natural habitat.

Ofri R; Horowitz H; Levison M; Kass PH

2001-04-01

245

Prevalence and molecular characterization of Mycoplasma ovis in selected free-ranging Brazilian deer populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycoplasma ovis is a hemoplasma that may cause anemia and mortality in small ruminants. Our aim was to determine whether M. ovis infects populations of free-ranging deer in Brazil. Buffy coat samples from 64 Blastocerus dichotomus from Porto Primavera, 18 Ozotocerus bezoarticus from Pantanal, and 21 O. bezoarticus from Emas National Park were tested. Using a M. ovis PCR protocol to amplify extracted DNA, 46/64 (72%) of deer from Porto Primavera, 10/18 (56%) from Pantanal, and 4/21 (19%) from Emas National Park were positive, giving an overall positive rate of 58% for hemoplasma in these wild deer. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed 3 genetically distinct hemoplasmas including M. ovis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma erythrocervae', and a hemoplasma most closely related to M. ovis. Phylogenetic analysis of the 23S rRNA gene from selected sequences confirmed these relationships. PMID:22102675

Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Santos, Andrea Pires; Guimarăes, Ana Marcia Sa; Mohamed, Ahmed; Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Messick, Joanne Belle

2011-10-01

246

Prevalence and molecular characterization of Mycoplasma ovis in selected free-ranging Brazilian deer populations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mycoplasma ovis is a hemoplasma that may cause anemia and mortality in small ruminants. Our aim was to determine whether M. ovis infects populations of free-ranging deer in Brazil. Buffy coat samples from 64 Blastocerus dichotomus from Porto Primavera, 18 Ozotocerus bezoarticus from Pantanal, and 21 O. bezoarticus from Emas National Park were tested. Using a M. ovis PCR protocol to amplify extracted DNA, 46/64 (72%) of deer from Porto Primavera, 10/18 (56%) from Pantanal, and 4/21 (19%) from Emas National Park were positive, giving an overall positive rate of 58% for hemoplasma in these wild deer. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed 3 genetically distinct hemoplasmas including M. ovis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma erythrocervae', and a hemoplasma most closely related to M. ovis. Phylogenetic analysis of the 23S rRNA gene from selected sequences confirmed these relationships.

Grazziotin AL; Duarte JM; Szabó MP; Santos AP; Guimarăes AM; Mohamed A; Vieira RF; de Barros Filho IR; Biondo AW; Messick JB

2011-10-01

247

Novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Globally, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. are emerging or re-emerging zoonotic pathogens that affect livestock, wildlife, companion animals, and humans, potentially causing serious and economically important disease problems. Little is known about hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. prevalence, host-specificity, or route of transmission in most species, including wildlife. DNA amplification by PCR targeting the 16SrRNA and the RNaseP genes was used to establish the presence and prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in a white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) population in eastern North Carolina. Sixty-five deer (89%) tested positive for hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. where sequence analysis of the 16SsRNA and the RNaseP genes indicated the presence of at least three distinct species. This study represents the first detection of three distinct hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer and the first report of two novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species.

Maggi RG; Chitwood MC; Kennedy-Stoskopf S; Deperno CS

2013-08-01

248

Some preliminary studies of the metabolism of 99Mo-labelled compounds in deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The metabolism of (99Mo) compounds in plasma was followed after intravenous injection of (99Mo) trithiomolybdate and intraruminal infusion of (99Mo) molybdate in one red deer and one sika deer. Clearance of (99Mo) trithiomolybdate was rapid and residual radioactivity was (99Mo) dithiomolybdate. After ruminal infusion of (99Mo) molybdate, the main plasma (99Mo) thiomolybdate detected was also (99Mo) dithiomolybdate. These preliminary studies may provide an explanation of the apparent insensitivity of the deer to high dietary Mo, since dithiomolybdate is less likely to be toxic systemically than trithiomolybdate to tetrathiomolybdate. However, further studies with more animals and over a wider range of conditions would be advisable before definitive conclusions are drawn. (author)

1984-01-01

249

Experimental malignant catarrhal fever (African form) in white-tailed deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were experimentally infected with the African form of malignant catarrhal fever (AMCF) virus by inoculation of whole blood from experimentally infected cattle, from whole blood obtained from a greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and from virus isolated in cell culture. The incubation period from AMCF in experimentally infected deer ranged from 13 to 18 days. Clinical disease was characterized by lacrimation, an elevated body temperature, conjunctivitis and swelling of the external lymph nodes. Histologic lesions were primarily characterized by widespread vasculitis and lymphadenopathy. The organs most severely affected were liver, lymphoid tissue, brain and lungs. Successful recovery and identification of AMCF virus was accomplished from one experimentally infected deer. PMID:7310953

Whitenack, D L; Castro, A E; Kocan, A A

1981-07-01

250

Experimental malignant catarrhal fever (African form) in white-tailed deer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were experimentally infected with the African form of malignant catarrhal fever (AMCF) virus by inoculation of whole blood from experimentally infected cattle, from whole blood obtained from a greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and from virus isolated in cell culture. The incubation period from AMCF in experimentally infected deer ranged from 13 to 18 days. Clinical disease was characterized by lacrimation, an elevated body temperature, conjunctivitis and swelling of the external lymph nodes. Histologic lesions were primarily characterized by widespread vasculitis and lymphadenopathy. The organs most severely affected were liver, lymphoid tissue, brain and lungs. Successful recovery and identification of AMCF virus was accomplished from one experimentally infected deer.

Whitenack DL; Castro AE; Kocan AA

1981-07-01

251

Long-term effects of PZP immunization on reproduction in white-tailed deer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 6-year study was conducted to determine the long-term effects of porcine zona pellucida (PZP) vaccine on the immune and hormonal responses, and reproduction of the white-tailed deer. The first 2 years of active immunization resulted in an 89% reduction in fawning. Vaccination with PZP produced reversible infertility lasting 1-4 years. Infertility was directly related to immune titers to PZP. Doe fertility was restored when the antibody titer dropped to minimal levels, but following re-immunization, infertility was reestablished. Reduction in fawning throughout the 6-year study was 76%. It was also observed that immune responses among deer were variable, especially in the first year of treatment. Variability was also observed among deer for the duration of infertility following the initial vaccination.

Miller LA; Johns BE; Killian GJ

1999-10-01

252

[Horse infestation with the larva of the deer warble fly, Hypoderma diana Brauer, 1985 (Diptera, Hypodermatidae)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In South Bohemia a case was discovered of a yearling colt attacked by the larva of the IIIrd instar of the deer warble fly Hypoderma diana Brauer. The dead, almost mature larva of the fly was squeezed out of a subcutaneous lump above the shoulder in the first decade of April, 1985. The case is evaluated from the point of view of the possibility of the transition of specific parasites--warble flies--to another host. The attacking of a non-specific kind can occasionally occur only when there is a large number of the parasites and both kinds of host. At present the degree of attacking of deer by subcutaneous warble flies is high and therefore under favourable circumstances even domestic animals can be attacked by this type of warble fly. The above case is the first to be ascertained of a horse being attacked by a deer warble fly.

Minár J

1987-03-01

253

[Horse infestation with the larva of the deer warble fly, Hypoderma diana Brauer, 1985 (Diptera, Hypodermatidae)].  

Science.gov (United States)

In South Bohemia a case was discovered of a yearling colt attacked by the larva of the IIIrd instar of the deer warble fly Hypoderma diana Brauer. The dead, almost mature larva of the fly was squeezed out of a subcutaneous lump above the shoulder in the first decade of April, 1985. The case is evaluated from the point of view of the possibility of the transition of specific parasites--warble flies--to another host. The attacking of a non-specific kind can occasionally occur only when there is a large number of the parasites and both kinds of host. At present the degree of attacking of deer by subcutaneous warble flies is high and therefore under favourable circumstances even domestic animals can be attacked by this type of warble fly. The above case is the first to be ascertained of a horse being attacked by a deer warble fly. PMID:3107199

Minár, J

1987-03-01

254

Advances in methods for measuring patterns of endemic plant diversity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endemism, the restriction of a taxon’s distribution to a specified geographical area, is central to the study of biogeography. Understanding endemism not only concerns a number of evolutionary and biogeographical issues, but also plays an important role in maintaining biodiversity and in the selection of priority areas for conservation. In recent years, various measures and analytical methods have been used to investigate patterns of endemism for various taxa from different regions. The emergence of these new measurements has benefited from the construction of phylogenetic trees and the implementation of data from spatial statistics. Some of these measures, such as phylogenetic diversity, phylogenetic endemism, and biogeographically weighted evolutionary distinctiveness deserve much more attention. Here, we review progress in the methodology used to measure the distribution patterns of endemism. These metrics have generally developed from a single time or space perspective to space-time united patterns. Specifically, the metrics include species richness, phylogenetic diversity and evolutionary distinctiveness, plus all there in combination as well as the weight of species range size. Moreover, we propose that studies on the distribution patterns of Chinese endemic taxa should pay attention to species diversity, phylogenetic diversity, species ?-diversity, and phylogenetic ?-diversity. In particular, model simulation analysis should be emphasized and implemented during investigations. These studies will provide fundamental knowledge for comprehensive recognition of scale-induced differences and for the detection of mechanisms underlying the distribution patterns of endemic taxa, and therefore provide theoretical support for biodiversity conservation.

Jihong Huang; Jinlong Zhang; Yong Yang; Keping Ma

2013-01-01

255

Deer carcass decomposition and potential scavenger exposure to chronic wasting disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy afflicting the Cervidae family in North America, causing neurodegeneration and ultimately death. Although there are no reports of natural cross-species transmission of CWD to noncervids, infected deer carcasses pose a potential risk of CWD exposure for other animals. We placed 40 disease-free white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses and 10 gut piles in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin (USA) from September to April in 2003 through 2005. We used photos from remotely operated cameras to characterize scavenger visitation and relative activity. To evaluate factors driving the rate of carcass removal (decomposition), we used KaplanMeier survival analysis and a generalized linear mixed model. We recorded 14 species of scavenging mammals (6 visiting species) and 14 species of scavenging birds (8 visiting species). Prominent scavengers included American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). We found no evidence that deer consumed conspecific remains, although they visited gut piles more often than carcasses relative to temporal availability in the environment. Domestic dogs, cats, and cows either scavenged or visited carcass sites, which could lead to human exposure to CWD. Deer carcasses persisted for 18 days to 101 days depending on the season and year, whereas gut piles lasted for 3 days. Habitat did not influence carcass decomposition, but mammalian and avian scavenger activity and higher temperatures were positively associated with faster removal. Infected deer carcasses or gut piles can serve as potential sources of CWD prions to a variety of scavengers. In areas where surveillance for CWD exposure is practical, management agencies should consider strategies for testing primary scavengers of deer carcass material.

Jennelle, C. S.; Samuel, M. D.; Nolden, C. A.; Berkley, E. A.

2009-01-01

256

Late-glacial recolonization and phylogeography of European red deer (Cervus elaphus L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pleistocene was an epoch of extreme climatic and environmental changes. How individual species responded to the repeated cycles of warm and cold stages is a major topic of debate. For the European fauna and flora, an expansion-contraction model has been suggested, whereby temperate species were restricted to southern refugia during glacial times and expanded northwards during interglacials, including the present interglacial (Holocene). Here, we test this model on the red deer (Cervus elaphus) a large and highly mobile herbivore, using both modern and ancient mitochondrial DNA from the entire European range of the species over the last c. 40 000 years. Our results indicate that this species was sensitive to the effects of climate change. Prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) haplogroups restricted today to South-East Europe and Western Asia reached as far west as the UK. During the LGM, red deer was mainly restricted to southern refugia, in Iberia, the Balkans and possibly in Italy and South-Western Asia. At the end of the LGM, red deer expanded from the Iberian refugium, to Central and Northern Europe, including the UK, Belgium, Scandinavia, Germany, Poland and Belarus. Ancient DNA data cannot rule out refugial survival of red deer in North-West Europe through the LGM. Had such deer survived, though, they were replaced by deer migrating from Iberia at the end of the glacial. The Balkans served as a separate LGM refugium and were probably connected to Western Asia with genetic exchange between the two areas. PMID:23927498

Meiri, Meirav; Lister, Adrian M; Higham, Thomas F G; Stewart, John R; Straus, Lawrence G; Obermaier, Henriette; González Morales, Manuel R; Marín-Arroyo, Ana B; Barnes, Ian

2013-08-09

257

Modelling changes in roe deer habitat in response to forest management  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We evaluated the change of roe deer habitat in response to three forest management scenarios: no harvest, clear-cut and single tree selection. For this purpose we simulated forest and understory vegetation in response to management for a 50-year period in an alpine forest region using the individual tree growth model PROGNAUS with an extension for understory vegetation. We also represented the spatial distribution of forest stands in a geographic information system. Habitat suitability and the forest's predisposition to browsing were then evaluated using models developed by Reimoser and Zandl [Reimoser, F., Zandl, J., 1993. Methodisches Grundkonzept für ein Expertensystem “Wildökologie und Waldverjüngung”, Anwendungsbeispiel FIW II-Fallstudie 1 (Schöneben/Oberösterreich). FIW Forschungsberichte 1993/4, Österreichische Gesellschaft für Waldökosystemforschung und experimentelle Baumforschung, 104 pp.]. These models aggregate eight habitat variables (canopy cover, canopy cover of evergreen trees, stand structural class, eight types of understory vegetation, density of forest margins, aspect, elevation and meso-relief) to four life requisites for roe deer: forage, cover from predators, shelter from adverse weather and daytime loafing area. These variables are then weighted and combined to form an overall habitat suitability and browsing predisposition score. Results of the simulation showed that for roe deer: quantity and quality of food supply were similar for all three scenarios. No harvest produced the best thermal cover. “Clear-cut management” resulted in the best hiding cover and high values for the living area index. For single tree selection thermal cover for roe deer was lowest. Clear-cutting was best for overall habitat quality. The ratio between forage and food independent settling stimulus was however disadvantageous in this management system. Clear-cut management therefore is attractive for roe deer, but facilitates over abundant roe deer populations which consequently cause damage to forests.

Vospernik Sonja; Reimoser Susanne

2008-03-01

258

[Effectiveness of oral administration of ivermectin on warble fly larvae (Hypoderma diana B.) in roe deer  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hypodermosis and cephenemyiosis are largely widespread diseases in roe deer in the conditions of the Czech Republic. Both kinds of parasitosis cause great losses of game. The aim of this study was to test peroral administration of ivermectin with respect to the control of larval stages of hypodermosis (Hypoderma diana B.) in roe deer. Studies were performed on three localities within one three-year study and two 18-month studies. Ivermectin was administered for two days at a daily dose of 0.30 mg/kg body weight during winter game feeding. The shot deer were checked for the presence of larvae throughout the year. Prevalence and intensity of infection were determined. A total of 147 animals were checked in 1992-1994 (Tab.I); prevalence and intensity of infection were very low in comparison with the situation before treatment and with the control group (1994). Similar results were obtained in both shorter studies (Tab. II) performed on 27 animals in total. The results suggest (on the base of detail discussion) that the low values of prevalence and intensity of infection should be taken as partly distorted due to the methodical conditions of checks. The efficacy of ivermectin treatment was complemented by observation of several cases and their results employing direct checks of shot deer (Tab. III), including a six-year observation of a group of 6 to 10 individuals of tame deer treated year by. These results explicitly document the high efficacy of mass peroral ivermectin administration in the control of warble fly larvae. Ivermectin is the first drug suitable for the treatment of roe deer hypodermosis.

Lamka J; Suchý J; Staud F

1996-08-01

259

[Effectiveness of oral administration of ivermectin on warble fly larvae (Hypoderma diana B.) in roe deer].  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypodermosis and cephenemyiosis are largely widespread diseases in roe deer in the conditions of the Czech Republic. Both kinds of parasitosis cause great losses of game. The aim of this study was to test peroral administration of ivermectin with respect to the control of larval stages of hypodermosis (Hypoderma diana B.) in roe deer. Studies were performed on three localities within one three-year study and two 18-month studies. Ivermectin was administered for two days at a daily dose of 0.30 mg/kg body weight during winter game feeding. The shot deer were checked for the presence of larvae throughout the year. Prevalence and intensity of infection were determined. A total of 147 animals were checked in 1992-1994 (Tab.I); prevalence and intensity of infection were very low in comparison with the situation before treatment and with the control group (1994). Similar results were obtained in both shorter studies (Tab. II) performed on 27 animals in total. The results suggest (on the base of detail discussion) that the low values of prevalence and intensity of infection should be taken as partly distorted due to the methodical conditions of checks. The efficacy of ivermectin treatment was complemented by observation of several cases and their results employing direct checks of shot deer (Tab. III), including a six-year observation of a group of 6 to 10 individuals of tame deer treated year by. These results explicitly document the high efficacy of mass peroral ivermectin administration in the control of warble fly larvae. Ivermectin is the first drug suitable for the treatment of roe deer hypodermosis. PMID:8966963

Lamka, J; Suchý, J; Staud, F

1996-08-01

260

Genetic analysis reveals Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population structure in North-Eastern Italian Alps  

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Full Text Available This preliminary study described the genetic variability and analysed the population structure of 119 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) sampled over the provinces of Belluno and Trento, in the north-eastern Italian Alps, using 11 microsatellite markers. The panel of microsatellites was highly informative, and the whole population was subdivided into 2 distinct sub populations. The observed ecological population sub-units did not coincide with the administrative subdivision (the provinces borders) that are now in use for management. The results of this work confirm that molecular genetic approaches may provide useful indication for roe deer management in that area.

Giuseppe Valvo; Enrico Sturaro; Fabio Maretto; Maurizio Ramanzin

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Fatal West Nile virus infection in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 3-yr-old male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with a history of ataxia and tremors was submitted to the Tifton Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory (The University of Georgia, Tifton, Georgia, USA) for necropsy. Gross findings were unremarkable. Histologically, the brain had multifocal lymphoplasmacytic perivascular inflammation, scattered gliosis, and rare satellitosis. Mild hemorrhage and congestion in the retropharyngeal lymph nodes and mild lymphoid depletion in the tonsil were present. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test performed on brain yielded a positive result for West Nile virus. This represents the first report of fatal West Nile virus infection in a white-tailed deer.

Miller DL; Radi ZA; Baldwin C; Ingram D

2005-01-01

262

Trombidiosis-induced dermatitis in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During a routine blood collection at a wildlife management checkpoint, several white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Lake Russell Wildlife Management Area, Habersham County, Georgia, were observed to have accumulations of orange granular material around the eyes and mouth accompanied by serous exudate, crusting, and alopecia. Microscopic examination of the granular material disclosed numerous larval mites of the family Trombiculidae. Histologic examination revealed severe chronic diffuse plasmacytic dermatitis with intralesional larval trombiculid mites. Several stylostomes were also identified in the tissue sections. This paper describes the gross and histologic changes associated with severe trombiculid infestation in a white-tailed deer and suggests potential causes for this unusual finding.

Little SE; Carmichael KP; Rakich PM

1997-07-01

263

Is there adaptation of the exocrine pancreas in wild animal? The case of the Roe Deer  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiology of the exocrine pancreas has been well studied in domestic and in laboratory animals as well as in humans. However, it remains quite unknown in wildlife mammals. Roe deer and cattle (including calf) belong to different families but have a common ancestor. This work aimed to evaluate in the Roe deer, the adaptation to diet of the exocrine pancreatic functions and regulations related to animal evolution and domestication. Results Forty bovine were distributed into 2 groups of animals either fed exclusively with a milk formula (monogastric) or fed a dry feed which allowed for rumen function to develop, they were slaughtered at 150?days of age. The 35 Roe deer were wild animals living in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, shot during the hunting season and classified in two groups adult and young. Immediately after death, the pancreas was removed for tissue sample collection and then analyzed. When expressed in relation to body weight, pancreas, pancreatic protein weights and enzyme activities measured were higher in Roe deer than in calf. The 1st original feature is that in Roe deer, the very high content in pancreatic enzymes seems to be related to specific digestive products observed (proline-rich proteins largely secreted in saliva) which bind tannins, reducing their deleterious effects on protein digestion. The high chymotrypsin and elastase II quantities could allow recycling of proline-rich proteins. In contrast, domestication and rearing cattle resulted in simplified diet with well digestible components. The 2nd feature is that in wild animal, both receptor subtypes of the CCK/gastrin family peptides were present in the pancreas as in calf, although CCK-2 receptor subtype was previously identified in higher mammals. Conclusions Bovine species could have lost some digestive capabilities (no ingestion of great amounts of tannin-rich plants, capabilities to secrete high amounts of proline-rich proteins) compared with Roe deer species. CCK and gastrin could play an important role in the regulation of pancreatic secretion in Roe deer as in calf. This work, to the best of our knowledge is the first study which compared the Roe deer adaptation to diet with a domesticated animal largely studied.

Guilloteau Paul; Vitari Francesca; Meuth Valérie; Le Normand Laurence; Romé Véronique; Savary Gérard; Delaby Luc; Domeneghini Cinzia; Morisset Jean

2012-01-01

264

Neutron activation analysis of trace metals in the livers of Japanese sika deer (cervus Nippon)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neutron activation analysis facilities at the JMTR reactor was used to determine the levels of trace metals in the livers of nine Japanese sika deer. The samples were cut into pieces, pulverized in liquid nitrogen, freeze-dried, and finally fractionated through a stainless steel sieve of 200 mesh. Then the samples were irradiated for 6 or 24 hours by a neutron flux of 1.0x10{sup 14} n{center_dot}cm{sup -2}{center_dot}sec{sup -1}. In the present work, we analysed the concentrations of six elements (Ag, Co, Fe, Rb, Se, and Zn) in the livers of nine deer. (author)

Fukushima, Michiko; Tamate, Hidetoshi; Sasaki, Yoshiro [Ishinomaki Senshu Univ., Ishinomaki, Miyagi (Japan); Mitsugasira, Satoaki; Masumoto, Kazuyoshi

1997-03-01

265

Neutron activation analysis of trace metals in the livers of Japanese sika deer (cervus Nippon)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron activation analysis facilities at the JMTR reactor was used to determine the levels of trace metals in the livers of nine Japanese sika deer. The samples were cut into pieces, pulverized in liquid nitrogen, freeze-dried, and finally fractionated through a stainless steel sieve of 200 mesh. Then the samples were irradiated for 6 or 24 hours by a neutron flux of 1.0x1014 n?cm-2?sec-1. In the present work, we analysed the concentrations of six elements (Ag, Co, Fe, Rb, Se, and Zn) in the livers of nine deer. (author).

1997-01-01

266

Recovery of human DNA profiles from poached deer remains: a feasibility study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Poaching is a crime that occurs worldwide and can be extremely difficult to investigate and prosecute due to the nature of the evidence available. If a species is protected by international legislation such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora then simply possessing any part of that species is illegal. Previous studies have focused on the identification of endangered species in cases of potential poaching. Difficulties arise if the poached animal is not endangered. Species such as deer have hunting seasons whereby they can legally be hunted however poaching is the illegal take of deer, irrespective of season. Therefore, identification of deer alone has little probative value as samples could have originated from legal hunting activities in season. After a deer is hunted it is usual to remove the innards, head and lower limbs. The limbs are removed through manual force and represent a potential source of human touch DNA. We investigate the potential to recover and profile human autosomal DNA from poached deer remains. Samples from the legs of ten culled deer were obtained (40 in total) using minitapes. DNA from samples was extracted, quantified and amplified to determine if it would be possible to recover human STR profiles. Low quantification data led to the use of an extended PCR cycling protocol of 34 cycles. Samples from seven deer amplified, however some samples were excluded from further analysis due to 'drop in' alleles or the low level of successfully amplified loci. Samples from five deer could be further analysed and gave match probabilities ranging from 6.37×10(-3) to 9.53×10(-11). This study demonstrates the potential of recovering human touch DNA from poached animal remains. There is the potential for this test to be used in relation to other species of poached remains or other types of wildlife crimes. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that human STR profiling has been successfully applied to touch DNA in regards to simulated wildlife crime.

Tobe SS; Govan J; Welch LA

2011-12-01

267

Radiocaesium levels in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report is given on the course of radiocaesium contamination in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria. In autumn 1987 and winter 1987/88 radiocaesium levels rose to values higher than those recorded in 1986 in these regions. The reason for this increase was the very specific feeding selection of roe deer in these forest areas resulting in the ingestion of an unusual high amount of blueberries, ferns and mushrooms. An explanation for the changes of wild boar's contamination has not been found yet, but possible reasons are discussed. (author).

1996-01-01

268

Endemic fluorosis in the Ethiopian Rift Valley.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 1977 and 1985, the fluoride content of drinking water and the incidence of endemic fluorosis were assessed and correlated in 16 large farms, villages and towns in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. The fluoride level of drinking-water collected from wells there ranged from 1.2 mg/litre to 36.0 mg/l (mean 10.0 mg/l). Dental fluorosis was observed in more than 80% of sampled children resident in the Rift Valley since birth, with maximum prevalence in the age-group 10-14 years; 32% of the children showed severe dental mottling. Males were affected more than females. Three areas, Wonji-Shoa, Alemtena and Samiberta, were identified as having cases of skeletal fluorosis. The highest incidence was at Wonji-Shoa sugar estates, where a linear relationship was observed between the development of crippling fluorosis, fluoride concentration of drinking-water, and period of exposure to it. The first cases of skeletal fluorosis there appeared among workers (98% males) who had been consuming water with fluoride content of more than 8ppm for over 10 years. Among 30 workers with crippling skeletal fluorosis, cervical radiculo-myelopathy was found to be the commonest incapacitating neurologic complication. As a preventive measure, low-fluoride surface water should be supplied for drinking wherever feasible; if this is not possible, the development of partial defluoridation should be considered. PMID:3433336

Haimanot, R T; Fekadu, A; Bushra, B

1987-07-01

269

Endemic fluorosis in the Ethiopian Rift Valley.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Between 1977 and 1985, the fluoride content of drinking water and the incidence of endemic fluorosis were assessed and correlated in 16 large farms, villages and towns in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. The fluoride level of drinking-water collected from wells there ranged from 1.2 mg/litre to 36.0 mg/l (mean 10.0 mg/l). Dental fluorosis was observed in more than 80% of sampled children resident in the Rift Valley since birth, with maximum prevalence in the age-group 10-14 years; 32% of the children showed severe dental mottling. Males were affected more than females. Three areas, Wonji-Shoa, Alemtena and Samiberta, were identified as having cases of skeletal fluorosis. The highest incidence was at Wonji-Shoa sugar estates, where a linear relationship was observed between the development of crippling fluorosis, fluoride concentration of drinking-water, and period of exposure to it. The first cases of skeletal fluorosis there appeared among workers (98% males) who had been consuming water with fluoride content of more than 8ppm for over 10 years. Among 30 workers with crippling skeletal fluorosis, cervical radiculo-myelopathy was found to be the commonest incapacitating neurologic complication. As a preventive measure, low-fluoride surface water should be supplied for drinking wherever feasible; if this is not possible, the development of partial defluoridation should be considered.

Haimanot RT; Fekadu A; Bushra B

1987-07-01

270

Endemic pemphigus foliaceus in the Peruvian Amazon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) is an organ-specific blistering disease of the epidermis characterized by the presence of IgG autoantibodies, specifically desmoglein (Dsg)1. This condition has been reported particularly in Brazil, Colombia, Tunisia and Peru. AIM: To characterize the humoral response against Dsg1 and Dsg3 autoantibodies of patients with EPF from the Peruvian Amazon region. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 16 patients with a clinical diagnosis of EPF, and tested using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), immunoprecipitation and ELISA (for IgG and its subclasses against Dsg1 and IgG against Dsg3). RESULTS: Autoantibodies against the intercellular spaces were detected by IIF in 82.5% and 87.5% of patients, using normal human skin and monkey oesophagus, respectively. Sera from all patients immunoprecipitated recombinant Dsg1, and three serum samples immunoprecipitated recombinant Dsg3 (6.25%). Using ELISA, anti-Dsg1 antibodies were detected in 13 patients (81.25%), and both IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies against Dsg1 in 12 patients (75%). All patients were positive for IgG4 autoantibodies, and only one patient was positive for IgG3 autoantibodies (6.25%). Anti-Dsg3 antibodies were detected in five patients (31.25%). CONCLUSIONS: EPF from Peru shares epidemiological, clinical and immunological characteristics with other forms of EPF that have been described in South America.

Ortega-Loayza AG; Ramos W; Gutierrez EL; Jimenez G; Rojas I; Galarza C

2013-08-01

271

Endemic Infrared Divergences in QED3 at Finite Temperature  

CERN Document Server

We demonstrate that massless QED in three dimensions contains endemic infrared divergences. It is argued that these divergences do not affect observables; furthermore, it is possible to choose a gauge that renders the theory finite.

Lo, P M

2010-01-01

272

ESTIMATES OF ENDEMIC WATERBORNE ILLNESS FROM COMMUNITY INTERVENTION STUDIES  

Science.gov (United States)

The nature and magnitude of endemic waterborne disease are not well characterized in the United States. Epidemiologic studies of various designs can provide an estimate of the waterborne attributable risk along with other types of information. Community drinking wat...

273

Endemic infrared divergences in QED3 at finite temperature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We demonstrate that massless QED in three dimensions contains endemic infrared divergences. It is argued that these divergences do not affect observables; furthermore, it is possible to choose a gauge that renders the theory finite.

Lo, Pok Man [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Swanson, Eric S., E-mail: swansone@pitt.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

2011-02-28

274

Endemic infrared divergences in QED3 at finite temperature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We demonstrate that massless QED in three dimensions contains endemic infrared divergences. It is argued that these divergences do not affect observables; furthermore, it is possible to choose a gauge that renders the theory finite.

2011-02-28

275

The dynamics of endemic malaria in populations of varying size  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mathematical model for endemic malaria involving variable human and mosquito populations is analysed. A threshold parameter R0 exists and the disease can persist if and only if R0 exceeds 1. R0 is seen to be a generalisation of the basic reproduction ratio associated with the Ross-Macdonald model for malaria transmission. The disease free equilibrium always exist and is globally stable when R0 is below 1. A perturbation analysis is used to approximate the endemic equilibrium in the important case where the disease related death rate is nonzero. A diffusion approximation is used to approximate the quasi-stationary distribution of the associated stochastic model. Numerical simulations show that when R0 is distinctly greater than 1, the endemic deterministic equilibrium is globally stable. Furthermore, in quasi-stationarity, the stochastic process undergoes oscillations about a mean population whose size can be approximated by the stable endemic deterministic equilibrium. (author)

2001-01-01

276

[Endemic goiter in Latium: environmental and genetic factors  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most studies on the pathogenesis of endemic goiter focus above all on iodine deficiency. In some endemic goiter areas (i.e. Nigeria) there is no evidence of iodine deficiency; therefore, we suggest the taking into account of various factors, both environmental and non-environmental. We report the results of two studies carried out in three different areas in Latium: one of them (Cerveteri, RM) could be classified as high prevalence of goiter area, while the two others (Roccasecca dei Volsci, LT and Castel San Pietro Romano, RM) are true endemic goiter areas. The role of environmental factors, radioactivity and electromagnetism, foodstuff, the hydrogeological and chemical composition of natural water and the importance of genetics are here discussed, assuming that the endemic goiter could have a multifactorial pathogenesis.

Paggi A

1998-01-01

277

Geographic patterns of endemic seed plant genera diversity in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endemism describes the phenomenon that the distribution of individual species/taxa is critically restricted to a specific region. Seed plant genera endemic to China (endemic genera) are those with their main geographic distribution range within the borders of China. The geographic patterns of endemic genera can not only guide conservation planning, but these organisms are also important biological resources. We gath-ered data of 173 localities on environmental and spatial factors, and regional seed plant genera richness (GRN), endemic genera richness (EGRN) and endemic genera ratio (EGR), which was calculated by dividing EGRN by GRN. Multiple regression and variance partitioning were used to examine how environmental and spatial variables affect GRN, EGRN, and EGR. Our results showed that: (1) EGRN and EGR had stronger spatial variability than GRN, with highest values (richness and ratio) in central China and lower near national borders and continental edges. GRN exhibited an evident latitudinal gradient. (2) EGRN and EGR were mainly determined by habitat heterogeneity and spatial factors. Regional theoretical EGR was constrained by its geographical location, and was further adjusted by habitat heterogeneity (topographical complexity) and climatic factors. Geographical patterns of GRN, on the other hand, were mainly determined by climatic con-ditions and habitat heterogeneity rather than spatial factors. (3) Seed plant genera endemic to China could be rather difficult to define, and probably reflected inadequate information on phylogenetic evolution of local flora. Further studies are needed to examine the variance explained by spatial factors through a phylogenetic lense. Finally, flaws in the definition and classification of seed plant genera endemic to China were dis-cussed. Theoretically, genera endemic to China should not be defined according to the political borders. But, in practice, nearly all the lists of seed plant genera endemic to China proposed by several authors were based on the relationship between the geographic distribution of specific genus and national borders. Thus, we recommend that, the concept of seed plant genera endemic to China should be used carefully in both theo-retical research and biodiversity conservation practices.

Shengbin Chen; Zhiyun Ouyang; Yu Fang; Zhenji Li

2011-01-01

278

Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in laboratory-reared Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) fed on experimentally inoculated white-tailed deer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Larvae and nymphs of Ixodes dammini Spielman, Piesman, Clifford & Corwin from a laboratory colony were fed on two white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) inoculated with either the SH2-82 or JD-1 strains of Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner. Ticks were exposed to one deer 43 and 69 d after inoculation of the spirochete and to a second deer 35 and 61 d after inoculation. Polymerase chain reaction assays amplified the 158 bp OspA DNA target sequence in 11.1% (n = 9) of fed larvae and 3.3% (n = 30) of nymphs from the deer inoculated with the SH2-82 strain, and 22.7% (n = 22) of larvae and 0% (n = 21) of nymphs from a second deer inoculated with the JD-1 strain of B. burgdorferi. One of three females derived from nymphs fed on one of the inoculated deer showed presence of B. burgdorferi DNA, but none of four males was positive. Experimentally inoculated deer can serve as a source of at least two geographic strains of B. burgdorferi to I. dammini larvae and nymphs for at least several weeks.

Oliver JH Jr; Stallknecht D; Chandler FW; James AM; McGuire BS; Howerth E

1992-11-01

279

Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in laboratory-reared Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) fed on experimentally inoculated white-tailed deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Larvae and nymphs of Ixodes dammini Spielman, Piesman, Clifford & Corwin from a laboratory colony were fed on two white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) inoculated with either the SH2-82 or JD-1 strains of Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner. Ticks were exposed to one deer 43 and 69 d after inoculation of the spirochete and to a second deer 35 and 61 d after inoculation. Polymerase chain reaction assays amplified the 158 bp OspA DNA target sequence in 11.1% (n = 9) of fed larvae and 3.3% (n = 30) of nymphs from the deer inoculated with the SH2-82 strain, and 22.7% (n = 22) of larvae and 0% (n = 21) of nymphs from a second deer inoculated with the JD-1 strain of B. burgdorferi. One of three females derived from nymphs fed on one of the inoculated deer showed presence of B. burgdorferi DNA, but none of four males was positive. Experimentally inoculated deer can serve as a source of at least two geographic strains of B. burgdorferi to I. dammini larvae and nymphs for at least several weeks. PMID:1460639

Oliver, J H; Stallknecht, D; Chandler, F W; James, A M; McGuire, B S; Howerth, E

1992-11-01

280

Browse Preference and Browsing Intensity of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Allegheny High Plateau Riparian Forests, USA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Decades of chronic browsing by overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman) has strongly influenced forest pattern and process on the Allegheny High Plateau Ecoregion of northwestern Pennsylvania, USA. Previous research has found that riparian forests contain the greatest herbaceous plant species richness of regional plant communities but little is known about the impacts of deer browsing on the structure and composition of the herbaceous layer (all vascular plants < 1 m tall) of Allegheny High Plateau riparian forests. We examined browse preference and browsing intensity by white-tailed deer on the herbaceous layer of five riparian forest study sites in the Allegheny National Forest during the summer growing season (July, September). Browsing intensity was low to moderate and differed significantly among sites and sample periods. Deer selectively foraged on a few preferred plant species during certain sampling periods, particularly Aster divaricatus, A. prenanthoides, Chelone glabra, Impatiens capensis, Pilea pumila, Polygonum virginianum and Ranunculus hispidis. We found that plant species richness and composition, and browsing intensity by white-tailed deer, are highly variable across riparian forests of the region. In order to assess or predict deer browsing impacts to regional riparian forests, we suggest that riparian sites be studied individually, perhaps on a watershed basis, as the surrounding landscape and available habitat may influence deer densities and foraging activity in an individualistic manner.

E. Mosbacher; C. Williams

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

[Serum levels of lithium in patients with endemic goiter  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the lithium concentration in the blood sera of 85 patients with endemic goiter was evaluated. The results were compared with those obtained in 114 normal subjects. The lithium concentration in the blood sera of the patients with endemic goiter was 74.00 +/- 2.88 micrograms/dl compared with 39.00 +/- 0.19 micrograms/dl detected in normal subjects. Based on these findings, a possible explanation to the values obtained is given.

Alarcón DM; Burguera JL; Burguera M; Franquiz Y; González JC

1984-09-01

282

Endemic pemphigus over a century: Part II  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) is an autoimmune disease, classically occurring in a restricted geographic area. Foci of EPF have been described in several Central and South American countries, often affecting young people and Amerindians, with some female predilection. Although most American EPF cases have been documented in Brazil, cases have been reported in Peru, Paraguay, El Salvador and Venezuela. An additional variant of EPF has been described in El Bagre, Colombia, (El Bagre-EPF) affecting older men and a few post-menopausal females. Finally, one additional type of EPF has been described in nomadic tribes affecting females of child bearing age in Tunisia, Africa. Aims: The main aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about autoantigens, and immunologic and genetic studies in EPF. Material and Methods: We utilized a retrospective review of the literature, aiming to compile and compare the multiple geographic foci of EPF. Results: The primary autoantigens in EPF are still considered to be desmogleins in the case of the Tunisian and all American cases, in contradistinction to plakins and desmogleins in El Bagre-EPF. Although several autoantigens are been suggested, their biochemical nature needs further elucidation. Current knowledge still supports the concept that an antibody mediated immune response represents the principal pathophysiology in all variants of EPF. Conclusion: A strong genetic susceptibility appears to contribute to disease development in several people affected by these diseases; however, no specific genes have been confirmed at present. We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these disorders immunologically and genetically.

Ana María Abréu-Vélez; Ana Maria Roselino; Michael S. Howard; Iara J. de Messias Reason

2010-01-01

283

Seroepidemiology of Coxiella burnetii in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York, United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Coxiella burnetii is an environmentally resistant bacterium that has been reported in wildlife populations. Frequent contact on pasture between white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cattle has been reported by farmers in the Northeast U.S., and transmission of C. burnetii is thought to occur between wild deer and domestic livestock such as cows, sheep, and goats. Blood samples were collected from white-tailed deer throughout New York State in 2009 and 2010 and examined for anti-C. burnetii phase II antibodies via indirect microimmunofluorescence assays. Exploratory spatial cluster analysis revealed a lack of significant clustering of C. burnetii-seropositive deer. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between the C. burnetii serostatus of deer and sex, percent agriculture, shrub, and forest cover, and townships with more than 10 bovine herds. A lack of significant association was revealed between the serostatus of deer and the year of sampling, soil type, percent wetland and open water cover, total annual precipitation, and townships with more than two sheep or goat herds. Because four different land cover types were associated with a higher probability of C. burnetii seropositivity, it is likely that land cover is not a discriminating factor in C. burnetii exposure. This is probably because C. burnetii environmental contamination is widespread and not localized to certain cover types. The social behavior of male deer may contribute to the lack of spatial clustering. Bucks typically travel over greater distances, which leads to a greater variety of encountered environments and a greater chance for exposure to C. burnetii. Because increasing agricultural land cover and townships with greater than 10 bovine herds are associated with an increased probability of diagnosing a seropositive deer, it appears likely that transmission of C. burnetii between domestic livestock and white-tailed deer may occur.

Kirchgessner MS; Dubovi EJ; Whipps CM

2012-11-01

284

Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species) and (more) malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only) in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762). All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8%) than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%). Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.

Contreras, Carmen Elena; Donato, Marcos de; Rivas, María Ana; Rodulfo, Hectorina; Mora, Robert; Batista, María Eulalia; Marcano, Norka

2011-03-01

285

Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species) and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only) in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762). All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8%) than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%). Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.

Contreras CE; Donato Md; Rivas MA; Rodulfo H; Mora R; Batista ME; Marcano N

2011-03-01

286

Biological model of diversification and the biogeography of endemism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Endemic taxa have restricted geographical distributions in some relative sense. This may arise via vicariant range fragmentation affecting entire biotas, or by dispersal and ecological specialization affecting individual species. Endemics arising because of vicariance will tend to show concordant, overlapping distributions, while endemics arising because of dispersal will be largely independently distributed. As a result, the extent to which a biota has experienced vicariant events should be manifest by geographical concentrations of endemic taxa. The evidence adduced in favor of this hypothesis is that the geographical distributions of endemic taxa are unusually concordant. The authors present a test of this hypothesis using the biogeographies of species and subspecies of birds distributed across the lowlands of northern South America. Their results indicate that the distributions of extant endemics is consistent with a major role for vicariant speciation within the Amazon basin. This approach to assessing the role of vicariance in speciation and biogeography is more robust than cladistic analyses because it is insensitive to variation in rates of evolution.

Connor, E.F.; McKenney, M.S.

1985-01-01

287

The endemic flora of Greece : Understanding and documenting plant diversity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something or quite a lot about the plants, no intelligent steps can be taken towards protecting them. 520 of the c. 750 endemics are listed on the Red Data "endangered list" by the Council of Europe in 1986 but few know the nature or extent of the threat. Work is currently in preparation on an Endemic Flora of Greece. Three volumes are envisaged: the first deals with the Peloponnese; the second will cover Crete and the islands and the third, the rest of mainland Greece. It is planned to have a sound and scientific basis for plant conservation and education. Within the Balkans more than 60% of the endemic taxa have been mapped and it is already possible to recognize the hot-spots of biodiversity as these are linked to the centres of endemism. Determining the centres of diversity is an important and significant contribution to further conservation measures at the global level.

Tan, Kit

2007-01-01

288

Cortico-striatal oxidative status, dopamine turnover and relation with stereotypy in the deer mouse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The deer mouse presents with spontaneous stereotypic movements that resemble the repetitive behaviours of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and demonstrates a selective response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors. OCD has been linked to altered redox status and since increased dopamine signalling can promote stereotypies as well as oxidative stress, we investigated whether the severity of deer mouse stereotypy may be associated with altered dopamine turnover and cortico-striatal redox status. Deer mice were separated into high (HSB), low (LSB) and non-stereotypy (NS) groups. Frontal cortical and striatal dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced (GSH) and oxidised (GSSG) glutathione and glutathione redox index, were analysed as markers for regional dopamine turnover and oxidative stress, respectively. Dopamine and its metabolites and SOD activity did not differ across the stereotypy groups. Significantly reduced GSH and GSSG and increased glutathione redox index were only observed in the frontal cortex of HSB animals. Frontal cortical GSH and GSSG were inversely correlated while glutathione redox index was positively correlated with stereotypy. Deer mouse stereotypy is thus characterised by a deficient glutathione system in the frontal cortex but not striatum, and provides a therapeutic rationale for using glutathione-active antioxidants in OCD. The evidence for a primary frontal lesion has importance for future OCD research.

Güldenpfennig M; Wolmarans de W; du Preez JL; Stein DJ; Harvey BH

2011-06-01

289

Cortico-striatal oxidative status, dopamine turnover and relation with stereotypy in the deer mouse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The deer mouse presents with spontaneous stereotypic movements that resemble the repetitive behaviours of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and demonstrates a selective response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors. OCD has been linked to altered redox status and since increased dopamine signalling can promote stereotypies as well as oxidative stress, we investigated whether the severity of deer mouse stereotypy may be associated with altered dopamine turnover and cortico-striatal redox status. Deer mice were separated into high (HSB), low (LSB) and non-stereotypy (NS) groups. Frontal cortical and striatal dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced (GSH) and oxidised (GSSG) glutathione and glutathione redox index, were analysed as markers for regional dopamine turnover and oxidative stress, respectively. Dopamine and its metabolites and SOD activity did not differ across the stereotypy groups. Significantly reduced GSH and GSSG and increased glutathione redox index were only observed in the frontal cortex of HSB animals. Frontal cortical GSH and GSSG were inversely correlated while glutathione redox index was positively correlated with stereotypy. Deer mouse stereotypy is thus characterised by a deficient glutathione system in the frontal cortex but not striatum, and provides a therapeutic rationale for using glutathione-active antioxidants in OCD. The evidence for a primary frontal lesion has importance for future OCD research. PMID:21397620

Güldenpfennig, Marianne; Wolmarans, De Wet; du Preez, Jan L; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

2011-03-21

290

Radiocaesium transfer to man from moose and roe deer in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies of radiocaesium in the forest ecosystems in Sweden resulted in aggregated transfer factors quantified for the transfer of 137Cs from soil to moose and roe deer. These aggregated transfer factors were 0.02 m2 kg-1 for moose and 0.05 m2 kg-1 for roe deer. There seems to be no decrease in the 137Cs activity concentrations in moose harvested in our research area and therefore we suggest the use of the physical half-life of 137Cs (30 years) as the effective ecological half-life. The time-integrated transfer of 137Cs from the Chernobyl fall-out to man by moose in Sweden was calculated and found to be 115 GBq, corresponding to 1500 man Sv for moose. The time-integrated transfer by roe deer to man was estimated to be between 25-48 GBq, corresponding to 327-620 man Sv for roe deer. The annual transfer of 137Cs to man by moose has varied between 2.0-2.7 GBq, corresponding to 27-34 man Sv. Depending on the group studied, the mean annual transfer of 137Cs can be calculated to be from about 250 to 43'000 Bq. For example, the mean annual transfer of 137Cs by moose to hunters and their families in Gaevle commune, the most affected commune in Sweden, was estimated to be about 26'000 Bq, corresponding to 0.34 mSv.

1994-01-01

291

Reduced sperm quality in relation to oxidative stress in red deer from a lead mining area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We studied the effects of elevated heavy metal uptake on the sperm quality and the antioxidant mechanisms of sperm and testis of red deer from a Pb mining area in Spain. Testis, liver and bone of red deer from mining (n = 21) and control (n = 20) areas were obtained from hunters and analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, As and Se. Testes were weighed and measured. Motility, acrosome integrity and viability and functionality of membrane were evaluated in epididymal spermatozoa. Lipid peroxidation, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in testis and spermatozoa. Deer from mined areas showed less Cu in testis, a higher testis mass and size and reduced spermatozoa membrane viability and acrosome integrity. Effects on sperm quality were associated to decreased Cu and increased Se in testis, and to decreases in the activity of SOD and GPX in testis and spermatozoa. - A decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in testis correlates with reduced sperm quality in red deer from a Pb mining area.

Reglero, Manuel M.; Taggart, Mark A.; Castellanos, Pilar [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Mateo, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.mateo@uclm.e [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

2009-08-15

292

Reduced sperm quality in relation to oxidative stress in red deer from a lead mining area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We studied the effects of elevated heavy metal uptake on the sperm quality and the antioxidant mechanisms of sperm and testis of red deer from a Pb mining area in Spain. Testis, liver and bone of red deer from mining (n = 21) and control (n = 20) areas were obtained from hunters and analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, As and Se. Testes were weighed and measured. Motility, acrosome integrity and viability and functionality of membrane were evaluated in epididymal spermatozoa. Lipid peroxidation, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in testis and spermatozoa. Deer from mined areas showed less Cu in testis, a higher testis mass and size and reduced spermatozoa membrane viability and acrosome integrity. Effects on sperm quality were associated to decreased Cu and increased Se in testis, and to decreases in the activity of SOD and GPX in testis and spermatozoa. - A decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in testis correlates with reduced sperm quality in red deer from a Pb mining area.

2009-01-01

293

A postmortem experience of Indian rock python (Python molurus molurus) that swallowed a whole barking deer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The object of this study was to report a post mortem findings of a female Indian Rock Python with a length of 406 cm (13.32 feet) and approximate weight of 60 kg (including a whole deer that was swallowed by the python), that was brought to the Teaching Veterinary Hospital, Chittagong Veterinary and...

Bhajan Chandra Das; Dibyendu Biswas; Mohammed Forhad Hossain; Shubhagata Das; Amam Zonaed Siddiki; Abdul Mannan

294

Recognition of seasonal effect on captive Sumatran Sambar deer reproductive cyclicity and sexual behaviors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Putranto HD, Soetrisno E, Nurmeiliasari, Zueni A, Gibson B (2010) Recognition of seasonal effect on captive Sumatran Sambar deer reproductive cyclicity and sexual behaviors. Biodiversitas 11: 200-203. The objective of this study was to identify seasonal effect on reproductive cyclicity of a captive female Sumatran sambar deer by monitoring its visual estrus manifestations and visual sexual behaviors in buck during female natural estrus in ex situ habitat. A pair of six years of age Sumatran sambar deer was used in this study. Daily observation of visual estrus manifestations of doe and visual sexual behaviors of buck was conducted using focal-animal sampling by two animal keepers during 0800 to 1700 h from June-July 2009 (dry season) to August-September 2009 (rainy season). Doe visual estrus manifestations include apparent reddening and swelling of the external genitalia, loss of appetite and a natural tendency of the doe to approach the buck. There was no significant effect of season on doe visual estrus manifestations and buck sexual behaviors (p > 0.05), except for loss of appetite and fighting behavior, respectively. Estrus was observed monthly and result of the cycle was 25.00 ± 5.22 days. It is possible to assess non-invasively estrous cycle of Sumatran sambar deer by the observation of visual estrus manifestations and there was less of seasonal effect on doe-buck sexual behaviors during female natural estrus in ex situ habitat.

HERI DWI PUTRANTO; EDI SOETRISNO; NURMEILIASARI; AHMAD ZUENI; BERRY GIBSON

2010-01-01

295

Proximity of White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, Ranges to Wolf, Canis lupus, Pack Homesites  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is among the recent postings at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) Website. Michael E. Nelson and L. David Mech authored the article, which focuses on White-tailed Deer in northeastern Minnesota living close to Wolf pack homesites. The article was first published in the Canadian Field-Naturalist [114(3):503-504].

Mech, L. D.; Nelson, Michael E.

296

Differential opiate influences on food hoarding and intake in the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The feeding behavior of the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, includes food hoarding as well as ingestion. In this animal the mu opiate agonist, morphine, and the kappa opiate agonist, U-50, 488H, selectively stimulate food hoarding and ingestion, respectively. This suggests that mu and kappa opiate systems may differentially mediate primary components of natural feeding behavior.

Kavaliers M; Hirst M

1985-12-01

297

Spatial epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in Wisconsin white-tailed deer  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal, emerging disease of cervids associated with transmissible protease-resistant prion proteins. The potential for CWD to cause dramatic declines in deer and elk populations and perceived human health risks associated with consuming CWD-contaminated venison have led wildlife agencies to embark on extensive CWD control programs, typically involving culling to reduce deer populations. We characterized the spatial distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Wisconsin to facilitate CWD management. We found that CWD prevalence declined with distance from a central location, was locally correlated at a scale of 3.6 km, and was correlated with deer habitat abundance. The latter result is consistent with patterns expected for a positive relationship between density and prevalence of CWD. We recommend management activities focused on culling in geographic areas with high prevalence to have the greatest probability of removing infected individuals. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors in envolved in CWD spread and infection rates, especially the role of density-dependent transmission. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2006.

Joly, D. O.; Samuel, M. D.; Langenberg, J. A.; Blanchong, J. A.; Batha, C. A.; Rolley, R. E.; Keane, D. P.; Ribic, C. A.

2006-01-01

298

OCCURRENCE OF FASCIOLOIDOSIS IN RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS) IN BARANJA REGION IN EASTERN CROATIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fascioloidosis is a parasitic disease caused by the giant American liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Bassi, 1875). In Croatia, the first report of this disease was in January 2000, in red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) from the Tikveš Forestry in Baranja region (east Croatia). The aim of this survey was to determine the geographical distribution of fascioloidosis and the infection prevalence in deer. The survey was carried out in six state hunting grounds that manage with deer game in Baranja region during 2001 – 2004. Parasitological examinations were carried out by qualitative and quantitative faecal exams. The highest prevalence’s (35 – 60%) were found in epizootic focuses of two hunting grounds at flooding – bog land area in east Baranja, Danube forestry. The mean intensity of infection, determined on the basis of the number of eggs per gram (EPG) was 30 – 33 EPG (range 1 – 300). High 86% of examined samples was in category to 50 EPG. The highest prevalence and the biggest EPG number too, were determined during the first year of survey. In the Baranja area fascioloidosis represents a potential danger for other game species, mainly roe deer and wild boars, as for domestic animals.

Tihomir Florijan?i?; An?elko Opa?ak; Albert Marinculi?; Zdravko Janicki; Zlatko Puškadija; Ivica Boškovi?; Boris Antunovi?

2007-01-01

299

Persistence of Escherichia coli introduced into streambed sediments with goose, deer and bovine animal waste.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aims:  The focus of this work was to compare the survival of Escherichia coli introduced into streambed sediments from goose, deer and bovine faeces vs indigenous E. coli. Methods and Results:  The survival experiments were conducted in flow-through chambers for 32?days using two sediments (mineral and organic) obtained from a first-order creek in Maryland. Bovine, goose and deer faeces were collected fresh and diluted or enriched so that added E. coli and indigenous populations were equivalent. Escherichia coli and total coliforms were enumerated using the Colilert-18 Quanti-Tray system. Patterns of E. coli survival and inactivation rates were virtually identical for indigenous strains in both mineral and organic sediments. The addition of E. coli strains from bovine, goose or deer faeces had relatively little impact on final E. coli concentrations, with the exception of deer-borne E. coli populations in the organic sediment. Conclusion:  These results indicate that indigenous sediment-borne E. coli strains are generally, or more, persistent than those deposited into sediments, including wildlife. Significance and Impact of the Study:  This is the first study on the survival of E. coli originating from wildlife faeces, in sediments, as opposed to bovine faeces or laboratory-cultured strains. As wildlife are likely to be the primary source of E. coli in most non agricultural watersheds, an understanding of the persistence of these strains is important to understanding microbial water quality.

Kiefer LA; Shelton DR; Pachepsky Y; Blaustein R; Santin-Duran M

2012-08-01

300

Experimental bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus infection in California black-tailed deer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four adult black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemioneus columbianus) and five fawns were inoculated with bluetongue virus (BTV) and one adult deer was inoculated with epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus to produce clinical signs and lesions of hemorrhagic disease. Serologic response was monitored using the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test and the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA). Embryonating chicken eggs and vero cells were used to detect viremia. No animal exhibited clinical or pathologic signs of hemorrhagic disease. Bluetongue viremia was detected as early as 2 days post-inoculation (DPI-2) and in some animals, persisted until at least DPI-12. The earliest detection of BTV antibodies using the AGID was DPI-8. Two adult deer remained seropositive for BTV antibodies for > 9 mo and 1 yr, respectively, using both the AGID and C-ELISA tests. We observed cross reactions between BT and EHD antibodies using the AGID tests. Also, the AGID test did not consistently detect exposure to BTV. Viremia was not detected in the deer inoculated with EHD although this animal was AGID positive between DPI-6 and DPI-49.

Work TM; Jessup DA; Sawyer MM

1992-10-01

 
 
 
 
301

Wild red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) grazing may seriously reduce forage production in mountain meadows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed at estimating the impact of red deer grazing on the productivity of meadows located in Pian Cansiglio, north-eastern Italian Pre-Alps. These meadows (383 ha; average elevation 1000 m asl are managed for hay/silage production (1-2 cuts per season) and are included in a protected area...

Elisa Marchiori; Enrico Sturaro; Maurizio Ramanzin

302

Evidence for competition between Ixodes scapularis and Dermacentor albipictus feeding concurrently on white-tailed deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Competition among ticks, and among ectoparasites generally, has rarely been demonstrated. Ixodes scapularis and Dermacentor albipictus are both hard ticks commonly found feeding on deer harvested at Letterkenny Army Depot, in south central Pennsylvania, USA. The two species have contrasting life histories resulting in D. albipictus spending notably more time on the shared host. We hypothesized that this would give D. albipictus an advantage in locating and occupying optimal attachment sites (highly vascularized areas like the head and ears). Ticks were collected from 224 hunter-killed deer in December 2005 and November 2006 to determine if there is evidence of competition for attachment sites when these two species concurrently infest deer. A timed sample (3 min per region) of representative ticks was collected from the head (ears, face and neck regions) and body (axillae regions). Ixodes scapularis was more abundant and prevalent overall than D. albipictus. Dermacentor albipictus was found almost exclusively on the head, whereas I. scapularis was more evenly distributed, but somewhat more abundant on the body than on the head. The proportion of I. scapularis on the head was reduced at high D. albipictus abundances, but I. scapularis abundance did not alter the distribution of D. albipictus. This study supports the hypothesis of competition for preferred attachment sites between these two species of ticks, and suggests that D. albipictus may be competitively dominant over I. scapularis on the head region of concurrently infested white-tailed deer. PMID:22644381

Baer-Lehman, Marcie L; Light, Theo; Fuller, Nathan W; Barry-Landis, Katherine D; Kindlin, Craig M; Stewart, Richard L

2012-05-30

303

Evidence for competition between Ixodes scapularis and Dermacentor albipictus feeding concurrently on white-tailed deer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Competition among ticks, and among ectoparasites generally, has rarely been demonstrated. Ixodes scapularis and Dermacentor albipictus are both hard ticks commonly found feeding on deer harvested at Letterkenny Army Depot, in south central Pennsylvania, USA. The two species have contrasting life histories resulting in D. albipictus spending notably more time on the shared host. We hypothesized that this would give D. albipictus an advantage in locating and occupying optimal attachment sites (highly vascularized areas like the head and ears). Ticks were collected from 224 hunter-killed deer in December 2005 and November 2006 to determine if there is evidence of competition for attachment sites when these two species concurrently infest deer. A timed sample (3 min per region) of representative ticks was collected from the head (ears, face and neck regions) and body (axillae regions). Ixodes scapularis was more abundant and prevalent overall than D. albipictus. Dermacentor albipictus was found almost exclusively on the head, whereas I. scapularis was more evenly distributed, but somewhat more abundant on the body than on the head. The proportion of I. scapularis on the head was reduced at high D. albipictus abundances, but I. scapularis abundance did not alter the distribution of D. albipictus. This study supports the hypothesis of competition for preferred attachment sites between these two species of ticks, and suggests that D. albipictus may be competitively dominant over I. scapularis on the head region of concurrently infested white-tailed deer.

Baer-Lehman ML; Light T; Fuller NW; Barry-Landis KD; Kindlin CM; Stewart RL Jr

2012-11-01

304

Antagonism of xylazine in white-tailed deer with intramuscular injection of yohimbine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighteen free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were captured near Chestertown, Maryland (USA) from 15 February to 21 March, and 7 October to 13 November 1986. Deer were immobilized by intramuscular injection of 1.1 to 2.2 mg/kg xylazine hydrochloride and 1.8 to 4.4 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride. Four captive deer from The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania (USA), were immobilized on 16 September 1986 with 1.5 to 2.0 mg/kg xylazine hydrochloride. Intramuscular injection of yohimbine hydrochloride (0.4 mg/kg) was used to antagonize the immobilizations. Free-ranging adult ( > or = 17 months) males could stand after a mean (+/-SE) time of 7.3 +/- 2.4 min, adult females after 8.6 +/- 1.7 min, male fawns after 5.7 +/- 3.3 min, and female fawns after 8.9 +/- 1.9 min. Captive adult males could stand after 20.2 +/- 3.4 min. Intramuscular injections of yohimbine hydrochloride effectively and safely antagonized the xylazine hydrochloride in immobilized deer and were easier to administer than intravenous injections. PMID:8722289

Wallingford, B D; Lancia, R A; Soutiere, E C

1996-04-01

305

Antagonism of xylazine in white-tailed deer with intramuscular injection of yohimbine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eighteen free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were captured near Chestertown, Maryland (USA) from 15 February to 21 March, and 7 October to 13 November 1986. Deer were immobilized by intramuscular injection of 1.1 to 2.2 mg/kg xylazine hydrochloride and 1.8 to 4.4 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride. Four captive deer from The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania (USA), were immobilized on 16 September 1986 with 1.5 to 2.0 mg/kg xylazine hydrochloride. Intramuscular injection of yohimbine hydrochloride (0.4 mg/kg) was used to antagonize the immobilizations. Free-ranging adult ( > or = 17 months) males could stand after a mean (+/-SE) time of 7.3 +/- 2.4 min, adult females after 8.6 +/- 1.7 min, male fawns after 5.7 +/- 3.3 min, and female fawns after 8.9 +/- 1.9 min. Captive adult males could stand after 20.2 +/- 3.4 min. Intramuscular injections of yohimbine hydrochloride effectively and safely antagonized the xylazine hydrochloride in immobilized deer and were easier to administer than intravenous injections.

Wallingford BD; Lancia RA; Soutiere EC

1996-04-01

306

71 FR 47513 - Final Environmental Impact Statement/Non-Native Deer Management Plan Point Reyes National...  

Science.gov (United States)

...by a Combination of Agency Removal and Fertility Control), all axis and fallow deer...contraceptive used was effective in blocking fertility for at least 4 years, eradication...Pre-Determined Levels by Agency Removal and Fertility Control. As in Alternative B,...

2006-08-17

307

Assessment of Swamp Deer Habitat in and Around Jhilmil Jheel Conservation Reserve, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Swamp deer (Rucervus duvaucelii duvaucelii) or Barasingha is categorized as vulnerable on the IUCN Red list. With a global population of less than 5,000 the species has a very limited distribution spanning over 2,000 km2 in India and Nepal. A small population of swamp deer was recently rediscovered in Uttarakhand state at Jhilmil Jheel. This population warranted a conservation initiative because the habitat around this Conservation Reserve is heavily fragmented due to expansion of agriculture, habitation and various other land use practices. The reserve provides an area of only 0.009 km2 per animal, which is insufficient in maintaining a viable population of swamp deer. It is therefore important to identify further potential habitat and to begin linkages between existing and potential habitats. A habitat conservation evaluation can play a key role in influencing conservation strategies by conducting detailed research including identification of potential habitat blocks and suggesting linkages between existing and adjacent potential habitat blocks. In this way the initiative can help to increase the number of swamp deer and to maintain a viable population of the species.

Rachna TEWARI; Gopal Singh RAWAT

2013-01-01

308

Mother to offspring transmission of chronic wasting disease in reeves' muntjac deer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The horizontal transmission of prion diseases has been well characterized in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk and scrapie of sheep, and has been regarded as the primary mode of transmission. Few studies have monitored the possibility of vertical transmission occurring within an infected mother during pregnancy. To study the potential for and pathway of vertical transmission of CWD in the native cervid species, we used a small cervid model-the polyestrous breeding, indoor maintainable, Reeves' muntjac deer-and determined that the susceptibility and pathogenesis of CWD in these deer reproduce that in native mule and white-tailed deer. Moreover, we demonstrate here that CWD prions are transmitted from doe to fawn. Maternal CWD infection also appears to result in lower percentage of live birth offspring. In addition, evolving evidence from protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) assays on fetal tissues suggest that covert prion infection occurs in utero. Overall, our findings demonstrate that transmission of prions from mother to offspring can occur, and may be underestimated for all prion diseases.

Nalls AV; McNulty E; Powers J; Seelig DM; Hoover C; Haley NJ; Hayes-Klug J; Anderson K; Stewart P; Goldmann W; Hoover EA; Mathiason CK

2013-01-01

309

Seasonality of {sup 137}Cs in roe deer from Austria and Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Empirical data on the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) roaming in 3 spruce forest areas and one peat bog area are presented and compared. They cover time series of nearly 20 years after a spike contamination in 1986 originating from Chernobyl. A model is presented which considers three soil compartments to describe the change of the availability of {sup 137}Cs with time. The time-dependency of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer is a combination of two components: (1) an exponential decay and (2) a peak in the second half of each year during the mushroom season. The exponential decay over the years can be described by a sum of two exponential functions. The additional transfer of {sup 137}Cs into roe deer during the mushroom season depends on precipitation. On the peat bog the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in roe deer is higher and more persistent than in spruce forest.

Fielitz, U. [Environmental Studies, Thomasberg 33, D-37115 Duderstadt (Germany)], E-mail: mail@environmental-studies.de; Klemt, E. [Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, University of Applied Sciences, Doggenried Str., D-88250 Weingarten (Germany)], E-mail: klemt@hs-weingarten.de; Strebl, F. [Div. Radiation Safety and Applications, Austrian Research Centers GmbH - ARC, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: friederike.strebl@arcs.ac.at; Tataruch, F. [Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Savoyenstr. 1, A-1160 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: frieda.tataruch@vu-wien.ac.at; Zibold, G. [Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, University of Applied Sciences, Doggenried Str., D-88250 Weingarten (Germany)], E-mail: zibold@hs-weingarten.de

2009-03-15

310

GPS/GSM collars monitoring of red deer in the Tosco-Emiliano Apennine Mountains  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nine red deer hinds were captured in the Nature Reserve of Acquerino-Cantagallo in the Apennine mountains and fitted with GPS/GSM collars to monitor spatial movement and habitat use. Preliminary results of interfix distances in the first 48 hours after capture showed highly variable distances immedi...

Maria Paola Ponzetta; Francesco Sacconi; Chiara Crocetti; Francesco Cervasio; Isabelle Minder

311

The Association of BDNF Gene Variants with Behaviour Traits in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is widely accepted that Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is involved in modulating behaviour performance induced by environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to study polymorphisms of the BDNF gene and their relationship with animal behaviour in sika deer (Cervus nippo...

Lv Shen-Jin; Yang Yan; Guo Jun; Wei Wan-Hong

312

Gastrin-Releasing Peptide (GRP) in the Uteroplacenta of the Sika Deer (Cervus nippon)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The localization of GRP in the uterus and/or placenta of non-pregnant or pregnant Sika deer was studied immunohistochemically. The strong immunoreactions were identified in the supra-nuclear region of the epithelial cells of the uterine glands of the placenta, however, no reaction was observed in th...

JoonHyuk Sohn; Junpei Kimura

313

Analysis of parotid and mixed saliva in Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In ruminants, different functions have been ascribed to the different salivary glands according to the feeding type. In this context, possible adaptations of salivary functions were investigated regarding the secretion of various proteins by different types of salivary glands. To yield uncontaminated parotid saliva in large quantities, a non-surgical method has been developed. Parotid gland secretions were collected via endoscopic placement of guide wires into each parotid duct, which were subsequently used for placement of collection catheters. Salivary flow was stimulated by intra-glandular administration of the parasympathomimetic compound pilocarpine-hydrochloride into the parotid gland. Mixed saliva (excluding parotid saliva) was collected into sterile tubes by normal outflow during the sampling of parotid saliva. The total flow volume, flow rate and the content of proteins as well as of several ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, inorganic phosphate) of both types of saliva were measured in sheep, fallow deer and roe deer. Roe deer secreted the highest amount of total salivary proteins relative to body mass [mg/kg body mass] and the highest relative volume [ml/10 min/kg body mass], both in parotid and mixed saliva, of all ruminant species examined. Additionally, the protein profile and the tannin-binding properties of parotid and mixed saliva in roe deer were investigated. Parotid saliva bound almost twice as much tannin as mixed saliva, underlining the importance of yielding uncontaminated parotid saliva for tannin-binding studies.

Fickel J; Göritz F; Joest BA; Hildebrandt T; Hofmann RR; Breves G

1998-05-01

314

Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus) in the Helan Mountains, China  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes in forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833). The use of vegeta (more) tion types varied seasonally according to food availability and ambient temperature. Red deer used montane coniferous forest and alpine shrub and meadow zones distributed above 2,000 m and 3,000 m in summer, alpine shrub and meadows above 3,000 m in autumn, being restricted to lower elevation habitats in spring and winter. The winter habitat of C. elaphus alxaicus was dominated by Ulmus glaucescens Franch. and Juglans regia Linnaeus, deciduous trees, and differed from the habitats selected by other subspecies of red deer. Cervus elaphus alxaicus preferred habitats with abundant vegetation coverage to open habitats in winter, but the reverse pattern was observed in summer and autumn. Red deer preferred gentle slopes (

Zhang, Mingming; Liu, Zhensheng; Teng, Liwei

2013-02-01

315

Efficacy of ivermectin against Parelaphostrongylus andersoni (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ivermectin was injected subcutaneously at 200 and 400 micrograms/kg of body weight into seven white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in an attempt to control the muscle nematode Parelaphostrongylus andersoni. Counts of first-stage larvae in feces dropped to zero at 17 to 18 days posttreatment. Larvae reappeared in feces 1.5 to 6 wk later in six deer. Four deer were treated again approximately 9 wk after the first treatment; larval counts dropped to zero in 12 to 18 days. Larvae reappeared in low numbers 45 to 55 days after the second treatment. Because deer were held indoors on cement and the prepatent period of these worms is approximately 2 mo, the reappearance of larvae was not due to reinfection by accidental ingestion of gastropod intermediate hosts. Results suggest that ivermectin at dosages of 200 or 400 micrograms/kg of body weight suppressed larval production by adult female nematodes for several weeks or destroyed first-stage larvae in the lungs.

Samuel WM; Gray JB

1988-07-01

316

Immunocontraception of white-tailed deer with GnRH vaccine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PROBLEM: Reduction of excess numbers of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is an example of a potential use for immunocontraception as a means of wildlife population management. METHOD OF STUDY: A 4 year multifaceted study was conducted to determine the long term effects of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) contraceptive vaccine on the fertility and behavior of female and male white-tailed deer. Deer were monitored for breeding behavior, hormone levels, pregnancy, fawning and GnRH specific antibody levels. RESULTS: Treatment lead to reduced fawning rates, altered estrus behavior, reduced concentrations of progesterone, contraception and failure to maintain pregnancy following conception. GnRH immunized does bred to untreated bucks had an 88% reduction in fawning caused by either immunocontraception or immunocontragestion. The vaccine effect is reversible, directly related to the antibody titer. Infertility lasted up to two years without boosting. GnRH immunized bucks demonstrated no interest in sexual activity when paired with control females. Depending on the immunization schedule, antlers either dropped early or remained in velvet. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that GnRH vaccine is effective in inducing a reversible infertility in white-tailed deer, the infertility lasting up to two years without boosting.

Miller LA; Johns BE; Killian GJ

2000-11-01

317

Simulation vs. reality: a comparison of in silico distance predictions with DEER and FRET measurements.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Site specific incorporation of molecular probes such as fluorescent- and nitroxide spin-labels into biomolecules, and subsequent analysis by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and double electron-electron resonance (DEER) can elucidate the distance and distance-changes between the probes. Howe...

Klose, D; Klare, JP; Grohmann, D; Kay, CW; Werner, F; Steinhoff, HJ

318

Simulation vs. Reality: A Comparison of In Silico Distance Predictions with DEER and FRET Measurements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Site specific incorporation of molecular probes such as fluorescent- and nitroxide spin-labels into biomolecules, and subsequent analysis by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and double electron-electron resonance (DEER) can elucidate the distance and distance-changes between the probes. Howe...

Klose, Daniel; Klare, Johann P.; Grohmann, Dina; Kay, Christopher W. M.; Werner, Finn; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

319

Testing global positioning system telemetry to study wolf predation on deer fawns  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted a pilot study to test the usefulness of Global Positioning System (GPS) collars for investigating wolf (Canis lupus) predation on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns. Using GPS collars with short location-attempt intervals on 5 wolves and 5 deer during summers 2002-2004 in northeastern Minnesota, USA, demonstrated how this approach could provide new insights into wolf hunting behavior of fawns. For example, a wolf traveled ???1.5-3.0 km and spent 20-22 hours in the immediate vicinity of known fawn kill sites and ???0.7 km and 8.3 hours at scavenging sites. Wolf travel paths indicated that wolves intentionally traveled into deer summer ranges, traveled ???0.7-4.2 km in such ranges, and spent <1-22 hours per visit. Each pair of 3 GPS-collared wolf pack members were located together for ???6% of potential locations. From GPS collar data, we estimated that each deer summer range in a pack territory containing 5 wolves ???1 year old and hunting individually would be visited by a wolf on average every 3-5 days. This approach holds great potential for investigating summer hunting behavior of wolves in areas where direct observation is impractical or impossible.

Demma, D. J.; Barber-Meyer, S. M.; Mech, L. D.

2007-01-01

320

Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present report describes the reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei in a roe deer from Denmark after more than 60 years. The cysticerci were isolated from the thigh muscle of the deer, and the diagnosis was based on histostological analysis, morphology of the rostellar-hooks as well as molecular typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene. The exact definitive host was not revealed in this report, but domestic dogs may play a role of the definitive host in the area. This finding is of concern to hunters and deer meat producers, since the infected meat is usually condemned due to esthetic reasons. PMID:23298567

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Holm, Elisabeth; Jensen, Tim Kĺre; Stĺhl, Marie; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

2012-12-22

 
 
 
 
321

Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present report describes the reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei in a roe deer from Denmark after more than 60 years. The cysticerci were isolated from the thigh muscle of the deer, and the diagnosis was based on histostological analysis, morphology of the rostellar-hooks as well as molecular typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene. The exact definitive host was not revealed in this report, but domestic dogs may play a role of the definitive host in the area. This finding is of concern to hunters and deer meat producers, since the infected meat is usually condemned due to esthetic reasons.

Al-Sabi MN; Chriél M; Holm E; Jensen TK; Stĺhl M; Enemark HL

2013-09-01

322

Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present report describes the reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei in a roe deer from Denmark after more than 60 years. The cysticerci were isolated from the thigh muscle of the deer, and the diagnosis was based on histostological analysis, morphology of the rostellar-hooks as well as molecular typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene. The exact definitive host was not revealed in this report, but domestic dogs may play a role of the definitive host in the area. This finding is of concern to hunters and deer meat producers, since the infected meat is usually condemned due to aesthetic reasons.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann

2013-01-01

323

Biotic Translocation of Phosphorus: The Role of Deer in Protected Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biogeochemical cycles are cornerstones of biological evolution. Mature terrestrial ecosystems efficiently trap nutrients and certain ones are largely recycled internally. Preserving natural fluxes of nutrients is an important mission of protected areas, but artificially leaky systems remain common. Native red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Swiss National Park (SNP) are known to reduce phosphorus (P) in preferred feeding sites by removing more P than is returned with feces. At larger scales it becomes apparent that losses are occurring due to seasonal deer movements out of the SNP where most deer end up perishing. Thus, the SNP contributes to producing deer which translocate P to sink areas outside the SNP due to several artificial factors. An adult female dying outside of SNP exports about 1.8 kg of P, whereas a male dying outside of SNP at 8 years of age exports 7.2 kg of P due also to annual shedding of antlers. Averaged over the vegetated part of the SNP, the about 2,000 deer export 0.32 kg/ha/yr of P. Other ungulate species using the SNP and dying principally outside of its borders would result in additional exports of P. Leakiness in this case is induced by: a) absence of the predator community and thus a lack of summer mortalities and absence of several relevant non-lethal predator effects, b) hunting-accelerated population turnover rate, and c) deaths outside of SNP principally from hunting. The estimated export rate for P compares to rates measured in extensive production systems which receive 10-50 kg/ha/yr of P as fertilizer to compensate the losses from biomass exports. Assumptions were made regarding red deer body weight or population turnover rate, yet substituting my estimates with actual values from the SNP would only affect somewhat the magnitude of the effect, but not its direction. The rate of P loss is a proxy for losses of other elements, the most critical ones being those not essential to autotrophs, but essential to heterotrophs. High deer turnover rates combined with accelerated biomass export warrants detailed mass balances of macro and micro nutrients, and studies of biogeochemical cycles in protected areas are essential if preserving natural processes is a mandate.

Werner T. Flueck

2009-01-01

324

Spatial variation in springtime food resources influences the winter body mass of roe deer fawns.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well established that the dynamics of mammalian populations vary in time, in relation to density and weather, and often in interaction with phenotypic differences (sex, age and social status). Habitat quality has recently been identified as another significant source of individual variability in vital rates of deer, including roe deer where spatial variations in fawn body mass were found to be only about a tenth of temporal variations. The approach used was to classify the habitat into blocks a priori, and to analyse variation in animal performance among the predefined areas. In a fine-grained approach, here we use data collected over 24 years on 1,235 roe deer fawns captured at known locations and the plant species composition sampled in 2001 at 578 sites in the Chizé forest to determine the spatial structure at a fine scale of both vegetation and winter body mass of fawns, and then to determine links between the two. Space and time played a nearly equal role in determining fawn body masses of both sexes, each accounting for about 20% of variance and without any interaction between them. The spatial distribution of fawn body mass was perennial over the 24 years considered and predicted values showed a 2 kg range according to location in the reserve, which is much greater than suggested in previous work and is enough to have strong effects on fawn survival. The spatial distribution and the range of predicted body masses were closely similar in males and females. The result of this study is therefore consistent with the view that the life history traits of roe deer are only weakly influenced by sexual selection. The occurrence of three plant species that are known to be important food items in spring/summer roe deer diets, hornbeam ( Carpinus betulus), bluebell ( Hyacinthoides sp.) and Star of Bethlehem ( Ornithogalum sp.) was positively related to winter fawn body mass. The occurrence of species known to be avoided in spring/summer roe deer diets [e.g. butcher's broom ( Ruscus aculeatus) and beech ( Fagus sylvatica)], was negatively related to fawn body mass. We conclude that the spatial variation in the body mass of fawns in winter in this forest is as important as the temporal variation, and that the distribution of plant species that are actively selected during spring and summer is an important determinant of spatial variation in winter fawn body mass. The availability of these plants is therefore likely to be a key factor in the dynamics of roe deer populations. PMID:12920639

Pettorelli, Nathalie; Dray, Stephane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Chessel, Daniel; Duncan, Patrick; Illius, Andrew; Guillon, Nadine; Klein, Francois; Van Laere, Guy

2003-08-15

325

Spatial variation in springtime food resources influences the winter body mass of roe deer fawns.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is well established that the dynamics of mammalian populations vary in time, in relation to density and weather, and often in interaction with phenotypic differences (sex, age and social status). Habitat quality has recently been identified as another significant source of individual variability in vital rates of deer, including roe deer where spatial variations in fawn body mass were found to be only about a tenth of temporal variations. The approach used was to classify the habitat into blocks a priori, and to analyse variation in animal performance among the predefined areas. In a fine-grained approach, here we use data collected over 24 years on 1,235 roe deer fawns captured at known locations and the plant species composition sampled in 2001 at 578 sites in the Chizé forest to determine the spatial structure at a fine scale of both vegetation and winter body mass of fawns, and then to determine links between the two. Space and time played a nearly equal role in determining fawn body masses of both sexes, each accounting for about 20% of variance and without any interaction between them. The spatial distribution of fawn body mass was perennial over the 24 years considered and predicted values showed a 2 kg range according to location in the reserve, which is much greater than suggested in previous work and is enough to have strong effects on fawn survival. The spatial distribution and the range of predicted body masses were closely similar in males and females. The result of this study is therefore consistent with the view that the life history traits of roe deer are only weakly influenced by sexual selection. The occurrence of three plant species that are known to be important food items in spring/summer roe deer diets, hornbeam ( Carpinus betulus), bluebell ( Hyacinthoides sp.) and Star of Bethlehem ( Ornithogalum sp.) was positively related to winter fawn body mass. The occurrence of species known to be avoided in spring/summer roe deer diets [e.g. butcher's broom ( Ruscus aculeatus) and beech ( Fagus sylvatica)], was negatively related to fawn body mass. We conclude that the spatial variation in the body mass of fawns in winter in this forest is as important as the temporal variation, and that the distribution of plant species that are actively selected during spring and summer is an important determinant of spatial variation in winter fawn body mass. The availability of these plants is therefore likely to be a key factor in the dynamics of roe deer populations.

Pettorelli N; Dray S; Gaillard JM; Chessel D; Duncan P; Illius A; Guillon N; Klein F; Van Laere G

2003-11-01

326

Short-term effects of reduced white-tailed deer density on insect communities in a strongly overbrowsed boreal forest ecosystem  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Browsing by overabundant deer modifies plant communities and alters forest regeneration, which can indirectly impact associated insect fauna. We tested the hypothesis that the response of insect communities to changes in deer abundance should depend on the strength of their association with plants, which we considered as a key functional trait. Seven years after a deer density control experiment was established in partly harvested forests on Anticosti Island (Quebec, Canada), we evaluated the effects of reducing white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) density from >20 down to 15, 7.5 and 0 deer km?˛, on four insect taxa representing different levels of dependence on plants. As predicted by our hypothesis, the sensitivity of insect taxa to deer density decreased along a gradient representing their degree of association with plants. Carabidae remained unaffected, while Apoidea and Syrphidae communities differed between uncontrolled and reduced deer densities, but not as clearly as for Lepidoptera. As expected, insect communities responded faster in harvested than in forested areas because vegetation changes more rapidly in open habitats. For most insect taxa, dominant species were the most strongly affected by deer density reduction, but it was clearly stronger for predator taxa (Syrphidae and Carabidae). A fast recovery of rare species was observed for macro Lepidoptera. Reducing deer density down to 15 deer km?˛ is sufficient to restore insect diversity on Anticosti Island, but it is unlikely to be efficient in all situations, particularly when competing tree regeneration is firmly established.

Brousseau PM; Hébert C; Cloutier C; Côté SD

2013-01-01

327

Prevalence and molecular characterization of Anaplasmataceae agents in free-ranging Brazilian marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anaplasmataceae organisms comprise a group of obligate intracellular gram-negative, tick-borne bacteria that can infect both animals and humans. In the present work we investigate the presence of Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Neorickettsia species in blood samples from Brazilian marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus), using both molecular and serologic techniques. Blood was collected from 143 deer captured along floodplains of the Paraná River, near the Porto Primavera hydroelectric power plant. Before and after flooding, marsh deer were captured for a wide range research program under the financial support of Săo Paulo State Energy Company (CESP), between 1998 and 2001. Samples were divided into four groups according to time and location of capture and named MS01 (n=99), MS02 (n=18) (Mato Grosso do Sul, before and after flooding, respectively), PX (n=9; Peixe River, after flooding), and AGUA (n=17; Aguapeí River, after flooding). The seroprevalences for Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were 76.76% and 20.2% in MS01, 88.88% and 5.55% in MS02, 88.88% and 22.22% in PX, and 94.12% and 5.88% in AGUA, respectively. Sixty-one animals (42.65% of the total population) were PCR-positive for E. chaffeensis PCR (100.0% identity based on 16S rRNA, dsb, and groESL genes). Seventy deer (48.95% of the total population) were PCR-positive for Anaplasma spp. (99.0% of identity with A. platys, and in the same clade as A. phagocytophilum, A. bovis, and A. platys based on 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis). Our results demonstrate that Brazilian marsh deer are exposed to E. chaffeensis and Anaplasma spp. and may act as reservoirs for these rickettsial agents, playing a role in disease transmission to humans and other animals.

Sacchi AB; Duarte JM; André MR; Machado RZ

2012-07-01

328

Detection of human insulin-like growth factor-1 in deer antler velvet supplements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

RATIONALE: Reported incidents of the use of nutritional supplements containing deer antler velvet by athletes has increased significantly in recent years. The supplements have been reported to contain insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which is a banned substance included on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prohibited list. The presence of deer and human IGF-1 was tested in six commercially available supplements. METHODS: IGF-1 was extracted from the six deer antler velvet supplements using chloroform and acetonitrile precipitation methods. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) methods were developed to measure intact IGF-1 protein and IGF-1 trypsin peptides using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Five deer-specific and five human-specific multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions for intact IGF-1were measured as well as six deer-specific and seven human-specific MRM transitions for an IGF-1 trypsin peptide. RESULTS: The peak area from each MRM transition was used to calculate the product ion ratios relative to the most abundant transition. Product ion ratios measured in the supplements were matched to ratios measured in purified protein standards. A match to human IGF-1 was identified for all the MRM transitions measured in four of the supplements tested. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of a pharmaceutical protein, human IGF-1, was confirmed in four commercially available products sold as all natural, nutritional supplements. These methods can be used to screen additional products to further prevent the illegal sale of adulterated supplements.

Cox HD; Eichner D

2013-10-01

329

Landscape level variation in tick abundance relative to seasonal migration in red deer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Partial migration is common among northern ungulates, typically involving an altitudinal movement for seasonally migratory individuals. The main driving force behind migration is the benefit of an extended period of access to newly emerged, high quality forage along the green up gradient with increasing altitude; termed the forage maturation hypothesis. Any other limiting factor spatially correlated with this gradient may provide extra benefits or costs to migration, without necessarily being the cause of it. A common ectoparasite on cervids in Europe is the sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus), but it has not been tested whether migration may lead to the spatial separation from these parasites and thus potentially provide an additional benefit to migration. Further, if there is questing of ticks in winter ranges in May before spring migration, deer migration may also play a role for the distribution of ticks. We quantified the abundance of questing sheep tick within winter and summer home ranges of migratory (n?=?42) and resident red deer (Cervus elaphus) individuals (n?=?32) in two populations in May and August 2009-2012. Consistent with predictions, there was markedly lower abundance of questing ticks in the summer areas of migrating red deer (0.6/20 m(2)), both when compared to the annual home range of resident deer (4.9/20 m(2)) and the winter home ranges of migrants (5.8/20 m(2)). The reduced abundances within summer home ranges of migrants were explained by lower abundance of ticks with increasing altitude and distance from the coast. The lower abundance of ticks in summer home ranges of migratory deer does not imply that ticks are the main driver of migration (being most likely the benefits expected from forage maturation), but it suggests that ticks may add to the value of migration in some ecosystems and that it may act to spread ticks long distances in the landscape.

Qviller L; Risnes-Olsen N; Bćrum KM; Meisingset EL; Loe LE; Ytrehus B; Viljugrein H; Mysterud A

2013-01-01

330

Shedding and intracage transmission of Sin Nombre hantavirus in the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mechanism(s) by which Sin Nombre (SN) hantavirus is maintained in deer mouse populations is unclear. Field studies indicate that transmission occurs primarily if not exclusively via a horizontal mechanism. Using an experimental deer mouse infection model in an outdoor laboratory, we tested whether infected rodents shed SN virus in urine, feces, and saliva, whether infected mice transmit infection to naďve cage mates, and whether infected dams are able to vertically transmit virus or antibody to offspring. Using pooled samples of urine, feces, and saliva collected from mice infected 8 to 120 days postinoculation (p.i.), we found that a subset of saliva samples, collected between 15 and 90 days p.i., contained viral RNA. Parallel studies conducted on wild-caught, naturally infected deer mice showed a similar pattern of intermittent positivity, also only in saliva samples. Attempts to isolate virus through inoculation of cells or naďve deer mice with the secreta or excreta of infected mice were uniformly negative. Of 54 attempts to transmit infection by cohousing infected deer mice with seronegative cage mates, we observed only a single case of transmission, which occurred between 29 and 42 days p.i. Dams passively transferred antibodies to neonatal pups via milk, and those antibodies persisted for at least 2 months after weaning, but none transmitted infection to their pups. Compared to other hantavirus models, SN virus is shed less efficiently and transmits inefficiently among cage mates. Transmission of SN virus among reservoir rodents may require factors that are not required for other hantaviruses.

Botten J; Mirowsky K; Ye C; Gottlieb K; Saavedra M; Ponce L; Hjelle B

2002-08-01

331

Shedding and intracage transmission of Sin Nombre hantavirus in the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) model.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanism(s) by which Sin Nombre (SN) hantavirus is maintained in deer mouse populations is unclear. Field studies indicate that transmission occurs primarily if not exclusively via a horizontal mechanism. Using an experimental deer mouse infection model in an outdoor laboratory, we tested whether infected rodents shed SN virus in urine, feces, and saliva, whether infected mice transmit infection to naďve cage mates, and whether infected dams are able to vertically transmit virus or antibody to offspring. Using pooled samples of urine, feces, and saliva collected from mice infected 8 to 120 days postinoculation (p.i.), we found that a subset of saliva samples, collected between 15 and 90 days p.i., contained viral RNA. Parallel studies conducted on wild-caught, naturally infected deer mice showed a similar pattern of intermittent positivity, also only in saliva samples. Attempts to isolate virus through inoculation of cells or naďve deer mice with the secreta or excreta of infected mice were uniformly negative. Of 54 attempts to transmit infection by cohousing infected deer mice with seronegative cage mates, we observed only a single case of transmission, which occurred between 29 and 42 days p.i. Dams passively transferred antibodies to neonatal pups via milk, and those antibodies persisted for at least 2 months after weaning, but none transmitted infection to their pups. Compared to other hantavirus models, SN virus is shed less efficiently and transmits inefficiently among cage mates. Transmission of SN virus among reservoir rodents may require factors that are not required for other hantaviruses. PMID:12097572

Botten, Jason; Mirowsky, Katy; Ye, Chunyan; Gottlieb, Keith; Saavedra, Melissa; Ponce, Liana; Hjelle, Brian

2002-08-01

332

Chronic wasting disease of deer and elk in transgenic mice: oral transmission and pathobiology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To study the pathogenesis of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk, transgenic (tg) mice were generated that expressed the prion protein (PrP) of deer containing a glycine at amino acid (aa) 96 and a serine at aa 225 under transcriptional control of the murine PrP promoter. This construct was introduced into murine PrP-deficient mice. As anticipated, neither non-tg mice nor PrP ko mice were susceptible when inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) or orally with CWD brain material (scrapie pool from six mule deer) and followed for 600+ days (dpi). Deer PrP tg mice were not susceptible to i.c. inoculation with murine scrapie. In contrast, a fatal neurologic disease occurred accompanied by conversion of deer PrPsen to PrPres by western blot and immunohistochemistry after either i.c. inoculation with CWD brain into two lines of tg mice studied (312+32 dpi [mean+2 standard errors] for the heterozygous tg line 33, 275+46 dpi for the heterozygous tg line 39 and 210 dpi for the homozygous tg line 33) or after oral inoculation (381+55 dpi for the homozygous tg line 33 and 370+26 dpi for the homozygous tg line 39). Kinetically, following oral inoculation of CWD brain, PrPres was observed by day 200 when mice were clinically healthy in the posterior surface of the dorsum of the tongue primarily in serous and mucous glands, in the intestines, in large cells at the splenic marginal zone that anatomically resembled follicular dendritic cells and macrophages and in the olfactory bulb and brain stem but did not occur in the cerebellum, cerebral cortex or hippocampus or in hearts, lungs and livers of infected mice. After 350 days when mice become clinically ill the cerebellum, cerebral cortex and hippocampus became positive for PrPres and displayed massive spongiosis, neuronal drop out, gliosis and florid plaques.

Trifilo MJ; Ying G; Teng C; Oldstone MB

2007-08-01

333

Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of febantel and ivermectin in red deer (Cervus elaphus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A trial was conducted to determine the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of fehantel and ivermectin in six month-old red deer calves (C. eluphus). Five calves received febantel by mouth at 7.5 mg/kg, five received a subcutaneous injection of ivermectin at 200 microg/kg and five were controls. All calves were killed seven days later and total lung and gastrointestinal worm counts carried out. Febantel was 85 and 99.8% efficient in removing immature and mature Dictyocaulus viviparus, respectively, and ivermectin was 100% efficient in both cases. There was no gastro-intestinal nematodes in any of the treated calves, compared to an average of 619 in the control calves. The metabolism of febantel resulted in plasma levels of fenbendazole, oxfendazole and sulphone for which the common curves fitted by compartmental model peaked at values (standard errors)-of 0.46 (0.03), 0.41 (0.02) and 1.73 (0.07) mg/l after approximately five, nine, and thirteen hours and were undetectable at 30,72 and 120 hours respectively. There was considerable variation among animals in response to ivermectin. The fitted common curve had a peak plasma level of 15.8 (0.08) microg/l at 20 hours after injection, which had dropped to 7.9 (1.1) microg/l seven days after injection. It was estimated that after 15 days plasma levels of ivermectin would not be detectable. It is concluded that the injectable form of ivermectin tested is a highly efficient anthelmintic in deer, and that plasma levels persist for over a week after subcutaneous injection. Fehantel is very efficient against mature D. viviparus in deer, but its reduced efficiency against immature D. viviparus may relate to the deer;s ability to metabolise and excrete benzimidazoles more quickly than sheep and cattle.

Mackintosh CG; Mason PC; Manley T; Baker K; Littlejohn R

1985-08-01

334

Habitat and roe deer fawn vulnerability to red fox predation.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Notwithstanding the growing amount of literature emphasizing the link between habitat, life-history traits and behaviour, few empirical studies investigated the combined effect of these parameters on individual predation risk. We investigated direct and indirect consequences of habitat composition at multiple spatial scales on predation risk by red foxes on 151 radio-monitored roe deer fawns. We hypothesized that the higher resource availability in fragmented agricultural areas increased predation risk because of: (i) shorter prey movements, which may increase predictability; (ii) larger litter size and faster growth rates, which may increase detectability in species adopting a hiding neonatal anti-predator strategy. The sharing of risky habitat among littermates was expected to promote whole-litter losses as a result of predation. 2. The landscape-scale availability of agricultural areas negatively affected pre-weaning movements, but did not influence growth rates or litter size. Predation risk was best described by the interplay between movements and fine-scale habitat fragmentation: a higher mobility increased the encounter rate and predation risk in highly fragmented home ranges, while it reduced predation risk in forest-dominated areas with clumped resources because of decreased predictability. This is one of the first demonstrations that movement patterns can be an efficient anti-predator strategy when adjusted to local conditions. 3. In accordance with previous studies documenting the existence of family effects (i.e. non-independence among siblings) in survival, littermates survived or died together more often than expected by chance. In addition, our study specifically demonstrated the occurrence of behaviourally mediated family effects in predation risk: after a fox killed one fawn the probability of a sibling being killed within a few days rose from 20% to 47%, likely because of the win-stay strategy (i.e. return to a previously rewarding site) adopted by the predator. Hence, the predator's hunting strategy has the potential to raise fawn mortality disproportionately to predator abundance. 4. There is increasing evidence that fawns inhabiting highly productive predator-free habitats are granted lifetime fitness benefits; these potential advantages, however, can be cancelled out when predation risk increases in the very same high-productivity areas, which might thus turn into attractive sinks. PMID:19563469

Panzacchi, M; Linnell, J D C; Odden, M; Odden, J; Andersen, R

2009-06-26

335

Habitat and roe deer fawn vulnerability to red fox predation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. Notwithstanding the growing amount of literature emphasizing the link between habitat, life-history traits and behaviour, few empirical studies investigated the combined effect of these parameters on individual predation risk. We investigated direct and indirect consequences of habitat composition at multiple spatial scales on predation risk by red foxes on 151 radio-monitored roe deer fawns. We hypothesized that the higher resource availability in fragmented agricultural areas increased predation risk because of: (i) shorter prey movements, which may increase predictability; (ii) larger litter size and faster growth rates, which may increase detectability in species adopting a hiding neonatal anti-predator strategy. The sharing of risky habitat among littermates was expected to promote whole-litter losses as a result of predation. 2. The landscape-scale availability of agricultural areas negatively affected pre-weaning movements, but did not influence growth rates or litter size. Predation risk was best described by the interplay between movements and fine-scale habitat fragmentation: a higher mobility increased the encounter rate and predation risk in highly fragmented home ranges, while it reduced predation risk in forest-dominated areas with clumped resources because of decreased predictability. This is one of the first demonstrations that movement patterns can be an efficient anti-predator strategy when adjusted to local conditions. 3. In accordance with previous studies documenting the existence of family effects (i.e. non-independence among siblings) in survival, littermates survived or died together more often than expected by chance. In addition, our study specifically demonstrated the occurrence of behaviourally mediated family effects in predation risk: after a fox killed one fawn the probability of a sibling being killed within a few days rose from 20% to 47%, likely because of the win-stay strategy (i.e. return to a previously rewarding site) adopted by the predator. Hence, the predator's hunting strategy has the potential to raise fawn mortality disproportionately to predator abundance. 4. There is increasing evidence that fawns inhabiting highly productive predator-free habitats are granted lifetime fitness benefits; these potential advantages, however, can be cancelled out when predation risk increases in the very same high-productivity areas, which might thus turn into attractive sinks.

Panzacchi M; Linnell JD; Odden M; Odden J; Andersen R

2009-11-01

336

Testament's ability in Balkan endemic nephropathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Testament is a solemn, authentic instrument in writing, by which a person declares his or her will as to disposal of his or her estate, and it has a psychopathological, lawful and ethical importance to a person, family and society. The aim of the study was to assess if the ability to make a testament was more damaged in patients with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) than in patients with other diseases that resulted in Chronic Renal Failure in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period from the 1st January 2001 to 31st December 2006. Material and methods The 753 respondents were divided into two groups in the study: BEN group (n=150) and control group made of patients with other diseases resulting in CRF (n=150). In a multicentric longitudinal study we used: adapted questionnaire from the Renal Register of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Mini-Mental State Examination. Descriptive analysis, discriminative function and regression model have been done statistically. Results In BEN group, heirs are mostly mentioned - 84.0% (t=14.391; P=0.001), and in control group: heirs - 66.6%, relatives - 43.3% (t=7.751; P=0.003), carers - 44.0% (t= 6.678 P=0.032), and institutions 10.0% (t=5.147, P=0.061). The discriminative function shows differences between BEN and control group: canonical correlation (rc) =0.827, Wilkinson lambda (lnj) =0.871, Chi-square test =141.575 and significance (P=0.001). The regression course of the analysis can be used for prediction of the ability to make testament for the patients on dialysis: [y=-0.95x + 15.715, and OR = 0.785, (95%) for CI = -0.997 - -0.375); Can Fanc r2=0.861; Significance is P=0.002]. Conclusion The ability to make a testament is more damaged in patients from the nephropathy group than in the patients from the control group who are on dialysis in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This has been confirmed by socio-demographic and psychological parameters, and it is very important for preservation of the ethic norms of the patients on dialysis, responsibility of the expert teams and persons who are benefitiaries of the testament.

Novakovi? Milan

2009-01-01

337

PREVALENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT STRAINS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND ENTEROCOCCUS SPP. IN ROE DEER (CAPREOLUS CAPREOLUS) AND RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS) AT THE PARCO NAZIONALE DEI MONTI SIBILLINI, ITALY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A case control study was performed in the Parco Nazionale dei Monti Sibillini, Italy, to find out whether roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in their faeces, compared to Enterococcus spp. Ten areas were selected and samples were collected during a fourmonths (May to August, 2008) sampling period. Samples of water (n=12) and feces (n=59), collected at 10 different sites, were cultured for E. coli and Enterococcus spp. The resulting colonies were screened for tetracycline, ampicillin and kanamycin resistance using the Lederberg Replica Plating method (breakpoint 4 ?g/ml). All resistant isolates were then selected, and subjected to the CLSI antimicrobial plate susceptibility test (7). Among the water specimens contaminated by E. coli, 80% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 80% to tetracycline and 40% to kanamycin. Among the water specimens contaminated by Enterococcus spp., 14.29% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 14.29% to tetracycline and 71.3% to kanamycin. Among the 39 strains of E. coli isolated from red deer feces, 12 were resistant to ampicillin (30.77%), 5 to tetracycline (12,82%) and 3 to kanamycin (7.69%). Among the 19 strains of Enterococcus spp. isolated from red deer feces, 0 were resistant to ampicillin (0%), 1 to tetracycline (5.26%) and 19 to kanamycin (100). These are significant findings, indicating that antibiotic resistance can be found in naďve animal populations and that red deer and fallow deer could act as sentinels for antimicrobial resistance. Key words Antibiotic-resistance, red deer, fallow deer, Escherichia

B. Cenci Goga; A. Vizzani; C. Monticelli; I. Nicchiarelli; P. Sechi; I. Pisano

2013-01-01

338

PREVALENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT STRAINS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND ENTEROCOCCUS SPP. IN ROE DEER (CAPREOLUS CAPREOLUS) AND RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS) AT THE PARCO NAZIONALE DEI MONTI SIBILLINI, ITALY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A case control study was performed in the Parco Nazionale dei Monti Sibillini, Italy, to find out whether roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in their faeces, compared to Enterococcus spp. Ten areas were selected and samples were collected during a fourmonths (May to August, 2008) sampling period. Samples of water (n=12) and feces (n=59), collected at 10 different sites, were cultured for E. coli and Enterococcus spp. The resulting colonies were screened for tetracycline, ampicillin and kanamycin resistance using the Lederberg Replica Plating method (breakpoint 4 ?g/ml). All resistant isolates were then selected, and subjected to the CLSI antimicrobial plate susceptibility test (7). Among the water specimens contaminated by E. coli, 80% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 80% to tetracycline and 40% to kanamycin. Among the water specimens contaminated by Enterococcus spp., 14.29% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 14.29% to tetracycline and 71.3% to kanamycin. Among the 39 strains of E. coli isolated from red deer feces, 12 were resistant to ampicillin (30.77%), 5 to tetracycline (12,82%) and 3 to kanamycin (7.69%). Among the 19 strains of Enterococcus spp. isolated from red deer feces, 0 were resistant to ampicillin (0%), 1 to tetracycline (5.26%) and 19 to kanamycin (100). These are significant findings, indicating that antibiotic resistance can be found in naďve animal populations and that red deer and fallow deer could act as sentinels for antimicrobial resistance. Key words Antibiotic-resistance, red deer, fallow deer, Escherichia

B. Cenci Goga; A. Vizzani; C. Monticelli; I. Nicchiarelli; P. Sechi; I. Pisano

2009-01-01

339

77 FR 74204 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Final White-Tailed Deer Management Plan...  

Science.gov (United States)

...of the deer herd size through sharpshooting and capture/euthanasia, where appropriate. Alternative D, the selected alternative...herd through sharpshooting, in combination with capture/euthanasia and phasing in reproductive control of does (as...

2012-12-13

340

Effects of Forest Disturbance and Soil Depth on Digestible Energy for Moose and White-Tailed Deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spruce budworm defoliation, clearcutting for salvage, and prescribed burning of clearcut areas on deep and shallow soils influenced deer and moose foraging in eastern Maine spruce-fir forests from 1980 to 1984. Plant standing crop biomass, seasonal plant ...

H. S. Crawford R. A. Lautenschlager M. R. Stokes T. L. Stone

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Effects of Building a Highway and Wildlife Crossings in a Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) Habitat in Hungary  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We examined how the movement of red deer (Cervus elaphus) was modified in an areathat had a new fenced off highway built across it. The first step was the collection of data from thetrack marked for construction. We continued collecting data on wildlife crossings after theconstruction of the highway and the completion of the fences. After the completion of the highway, itwas observed that only 5.9% of the original deer track counts remained, spread across the crossings.After the construction was finished, the wider crossing structures were used more often by deer forcrossing to the other side of the highway than the smaller ones. During construction of the highway, anumber of animals chose to walk tens of kilometres to get around the construction site instead of usingthe crossings. An existing highway, or a highway under construction not only changes the frequencyof deer crossings, but affects their distribution as well.

BALLÓK, Zsuzsa; NÁHLIK, András; TARI, Tamás

2010-01-01

342

Occurrence and overlapping of pharyngeal bot flies Pharyngomyia picta and Cephenemyia auribarbis (Oestridae) in red deer of southern Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

From 1985 to 1990, 372 red deer (Cervus elaphus) from southern Spain were examined for larvae of pharyngeal bot flies Pharyngomyia picta and Cephenemyia auribarbis. The infestation was related to age, sex and intensity of infection. Fawns and adult deer (more than 5 years old) had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence and intensity of infection than younger deer. Conversely, no significant difference has been noted between sexes. Ninety percent of deer were found to be infested. A simultaneous occurrence of both species was found in 23% of cases, with noticeable differences between prevalence and intensity of infection (measured in number of bots per head for each species). Quantitative overlapping between P. picta and C. auribarbis seems relative and their biological cycles did not overlap completely. PMID:8493758

Ruíz Martínez, I; Palomares, F

1993-03-01

343

Occurrence and overlapping of pharyngeal bot flies Pharyngomyia picta and Cephenemyia auribarbis (Oestridae) in red deer of southern Spain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

From 1985 to 1990, 372 red deer (Cervus elaphus) from southern Spain were examined for larvae of pharyngeal bot flies Pharyngomyia picta and Cephenemyia auribarbis. The infestation was related to age, sex and intensity of infection. Fawns and adult deer (more than 5 years old) had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence and intensity of infection than younger deer. Conversely, no significant difference has been noted between sexes. Ninety percent of deer were found to be infested. A simultaneous occurrence of both species was found in 23% of cases, with noticeable differences between prevalence and intensity of infection (measured in number of bots per head for each species). Quantitative overlapping between P. picta and C. auribarbis seems relative and their biological cycles did not overlap completely.

Ruíz Martínez I; Palomares F

1993-03-01

344

The use of deer vehicle accidents as a proxy for measuring the degree of interaction between human and deer populations and its correlation with the incidence rate of Lyme disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study described in this article examined the relationship between the incidence rate of deer vehicle accidents (DVAs), a proxy for measuring the interaction between populations of humans and deer, and human Lyme disease incidence rate. The authors also examined the relationship between deer population density and human Lyme incidence rate. They analyzed data from Connecticut's Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Public Health from 1999 through 2008 by deer management zone (DMZ) and town. For DVA incidence rate versus Lyme incidence rate for both DMZs and towns, most of the correlation coefficients computed yearly were moderate to strong and all of the p-values were significant. A weak correlation was observed between deer population density and Lyme disease incidence rate by DMZ. The authors propose DVAs as a proxy for measuring the interaction between coexisting populations of humans and deer. The authors' study suggests that additional investigations of DVAs and their relationship to Lyme disease to further assess the utility of public health interventions are warranted. PMID:23621054

Wiznia, Daniel H; Christos, Paul J; LaBonte, Andrew M

2013-04-01

345

Hepatic lipid profiling of deer mice fed ethanol using ąH and łąP NMR spectroscopy: a dose-dependent subchronic study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic alcohol abuse is a 2nd major cause of liver disease resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by a wide spectrum of pathologies starting from fat accumulation (steatosis) in early reversible stage to inflammation with or without fibrosis and cirrhosis in later irreversible stages. Previously, we reported significant steatosis in the livers of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH?) vs. hepatic ADH-normal (ADH?) deer mice fed 4% ethanol daily for 2 months [Bhopale et al., 2006, Alcohol 39, 179-188]. However, ADH? deer mice fed 4% ethanol also showed a significant mortality. Therefore, a dose-dependent study was conducted to understand the mechanism and identify lipid(s) involved in the development of ethanol-induced fatty liver. ADH? and ADH? deer mice fed 1, 2 or 3.5% ethanol daily for 2 months and fatty infiltration in the livers were evaluated by histology and by measuring dry weights of extracted lipids. Lipid metabolomic changes in extracted lipids were determined by proton (ąH) and łąphosphorus (łąP) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The NMR data was analyzed by hierarchical clustering (HC) and principle component analysis (PCA) for pattern recognition. Extensive vacuolization by histology and significantly increased dry weights of total lipids found only in the livers of ADH? deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol vs. pair-fed controls suggest a dose-dependent formation of fatty liver in ADH? deer mouse model. Analysis of NMR data of ADH? deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol vs. pair-fed controls shows increases for total cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), triacylglycerides and unsaturation, and decreases for free cholesterol, phospholipids and allylic and diallylic protons. Certain classes of neutral lipids (cholesterol esters, fatty acyl chain (-COCH?-) and FAMEs) were also mildly increased in ADH? deer mice fed 1 or 2% ethanol. Only small increases were observed for allylic and diallylic protons, FAMEs and unsaturations in ADH? deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol vs. pair-fed controls. PCA of NMR data showed increased clustering by gradual separation of ethanol-fed ADH? deer mice groups from their respective pair-fed control groups and corresponding ethanol-fed ADH? deer mice groups. Our data indicate that dose of ethanol and hepatic ADH deficiency are two key factors involved in initiation and progression of alcoholic fatty liver disease. Further studies on characterization of individual lipid entities and associated metabolic pathways altered in our deer mouse model after different durations of ethanol feeding could be important to delineate mechanism(s) and identify potential biomarker candidate(s) of early stage ALD. PMID:22884994

Fernando, Harshica; Bhopale, Kamlesh K; Boor, Paul J; Ansari, G A Shakeel; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S

2012-08-03

346

Extraordinary micro-endemism in Australian desert spring amphipods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increasing pressure for water in the Australian arid zone is placing enormous stress on the diverse endemic communities inhabiting desert springs. Detailed information about the evolutionary processes occurring within and between individual endemic species will help to develop effective and biologically relevant management strategies this fragile ecosystem. To help determine conservation priorities, we documented the genetic structure of the endemic freshwater amphipod populations in springs fed by the Great Artesian Basin in central Australia. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic history and genetic diversity measures were examined using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from approximately 500 chiltoniid amphipods across an entire group of springs. Pronounced genetic diversity was identified, demonstrating that levels of endemism have been grossly underestimated in these amphipods. Using the GMYC model, 13 genetically divergent lineages were recognized as Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs), all of which could be considered as separate species. The results show that due to the highly fragmented ecosystem, these taxa have highly restricted distributions. Many of the identified ESUs are endemic to a very small number of already degraded springs, with the rarest existing in single springs. Despite their extraordinarily small ranges, most ESUs showed relative demographic stability and high levels of genetic diversity, and genetic diversity was not directly linked to habitat extent. The relatively robust genetic health of ESUs does not preclude them from endangerment, as their limited distributions ensure they will be highly vulnerable to future water extraction.

Murphy NP; Adams M; Guzik MT; Austin AD

2013-03-01

347

Environmental renal disease: Lead, cadmium and Balkan endemic nephropathy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The similarity of lead and cadmium nephropathy to Balkan endemic nephropathy warrants careful reevaluation of the possibility that these nephrotoxic metals contribute to the production of the endemic renal disease. Low-level environmental exposure may result in a relationship between the concentration of the metals in tissue storage sites and biological fluids that differs from that encountered after occupational exposure. Urine and blood concentrations may therefore be inadequate measures of exposure. Lead is accumulated in the skeleton and cadmium in the liver and kidneys with biological half lives approximating a decade. Non-invasive in vivo x-ray fluorescence or neutron activation analysis can therefore be used to measure cumulative tissue stores. Multiple regression analysis of epidemiologic data could reveal the relative contribution of causal factors, including lead and cadmium, and help to distinguish Balkan endemic nephropathy from other renal diseases using rigorous diagnostic criteria. As long as Balkan endemic nephropathy remains a diagnosis of exclusion, the accuracy of the diagnosis of other renal disease determines the reliability of identification of the endemic disease.31 references.

Wedeen, R.P. (VA Medical Center, East Orange, NJ (United States))

1991-11-01

348

The endemic plants of Micronesia: a geographical checklist and commentary  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Micronesia-Polynesia bioregion is recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot. However, until now estimates regarding the number of endemic plant species for the region were not supported by any comprehensive published work for the region. The results of this study indicate that Micronesia has the world’s highest percentage of plant endemism per square kilometer out of all globally recognized insular biodiversity hotspots. A checklist of all endemic plant species for Micronesia is presented here with their corresponding geographical limits within the region. A summary of previous work and estimates is also provided noting the degree of taxonomic progress in the past several decades. A total of 364 vascular plant species are considered endemic to Micronesia, most of them being restricted to the Caroline Islands with a large percentage restricted to Palau. The checklist includes seven new combinations, one new name, and two unverified names that require additional study to verify endemic status. Overviews of each respective botanical family represented in the list are given including additional information on the Micronesian taxa. Recommendations for future work and potential projects are alluded to throughout the text highlighting major data gaps and very poorly known taxa. The following new combinations and names are made: Cyclosorus carolinensis (Hosokawa) Lorence, comb. nov. , Cyclosorusgretheri (W. H. Wagner) Lorence, comb. nov., Cyclosorusguamensis (Holttum) Lorence, comb. nov., Cyclosorus palauensis (Hosokawa) Lorence, comb. nov. , Cyclosorus rupiinsularis (Fosberg) Lorence, comb. nov., Dalbergia hosokawae (Hosokawa) Costion nom. nov., Syzygium trukensis (Hosokawa) Costion & E. Lucas comb. nov.

Costion, C.M.; Lorence, D.H.

2012-01-01

349

Origin and evolution of endemic Galapagos Varronia species (Cordiaceae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four endemic Varronia species (Cordiaceae) occupy the Galápagos archipelago. Three comprise the V. leucophlyctis complex (V. anderssonii, V. leucophlyctis, V. scouleri), whose species' limits are not well defined but that is morphologically distinct from the fourth endemic species, V. revoluta. Sequence data from the nuclear rDNA ITS region and the cpDNA ndhF gene were gathered from 49 accessions of Varronia from five Galápagos islands in order to test the evolutionary relationships of endemic Varronia species, determine the number of immigration events to the islands and estimate their age of origin. All endemic species nest within the clade of species belonging to Varronia, which is an entirely American genus. We find little evidence of phylogenetic structuring of the V. leucophlyctis complex but divergent phylogenetic signals from nuclear and chloroplast genomes regarding its relationship to V. revoluta. Results are consistent with a hybridization event involving ancestral Galapagean lineages, with chloroplast and nuclear data suggesting one or two dispersal events from the Americas to the Galápagos, respectively. Fossil-based divergence time estimates indicate endemic species diverged from American continental species as early as 4.5 Myr ago and radiated 1.12 Myr, which coincides with ages of exposed and subsided Galápagos islands.

Weeks A; Baird KE; McMullen CK

2010-11-01

350

Serum parathyroid hormone levels in chronic endemic fluorosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Endemic waterborne fluorosis is a public health problem in Isparta, a city located in southern Turkey. Fluoride is a cumulative element that increases metabolic turnover of the bone and also affects the homeostasis of bone mineral metabolism. There are number of similarities between the effects of excess parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fluorosis on bone. So fluoride might show its effect via PTH. We aimed to determine PTH levels in patients with endemic fluorosis to estimate the possible toxic effects of chronic fluoride intake. Fifty-six patients with endemic fluorosis and 28 age-, sex-, and body-mass-index-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Endemic fluorosis was diagnosed according to the clinical diagnosis criteria of Wang. The urine fluoride levels of fluorosis patients were significantly higher than those of control subjects as expected (1.9 ± 0.1 vs. 0.4 ± 0.1 mg/L, respectively; P < 0.001). PTH levels in fluorosis group were significantly higher than control group (65.09 ± 32.91 versus 47.40 ± 20.37, respectively; P = 0.01). The results of our study demonstrate that serum PTH levels are increased in patients with endemic fluorosis. Fluoride, by interfering calcium balance, may be the cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism.

Koroglu BK; Ersoy IH; Koroglu M; Balkarli A; Ersoy S; Varol S; Tamer MN

2011-10-01

351

Wolves, Canis lupus, carry and cache the collars of radio-collared White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, they killed  

Science.gov (United States)

Wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota cached six radio-collars (four in winter, two in spring-summer) of 202 radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) they killed or consumed from 1975 to 2010. A Wolf bedded on top of one collar cached in snow. We found one collar each at a Wolf den and Wolf rendezvous site, 2.5 km and 0.5 km respectively, from each deer's previous locations.

Nelson, Michael E.; Mech, L. David

2011-01-01

352

Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in moose (Alces alces) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Sweden.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are two coccidian parasites with a worldwide distribution. T. gondii is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses in the world and in young children and immunocompromised persons, infection can lead to severe disease and death. N. caninum is an important cause of abortions in cattle. Wildlife have been identified as reservoirs and transmitters for both parasites. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalences of T. gondii, and N. caninum in moose (Alces alces), and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Sweden. Blood samples were collected from 417 moose during 2000-2005 and from 199 roe deer during 1990-2007. The samples were investigated for presence of antibodies by a T. gondii direct agglutination test and a N. caninum iscom ELISA. Because the iscom ELISA has not been validated for moose or roe deer, sera that gave a positive result were further investigated by immunoblot analysis to verify presence of antibodies. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 85 (20%) and 68 (34%) moose and roe deer sera, respectively. In moose the seroprevalence was higher in south and central Sweden than in the north, whereas there was no difference between the regions for roe deer. Adult moose and roe deer had higher odds of being seropositive than young animals but there were no difference in seroprevalence between males and females. One roe deer was positive by immunoblotting and was regarded as N. caninum positive, whereas all moose sera were negative. The results show that T. gondii infection is widely spread in the Swedish moose and roe deer populations. Precautions should therefore be taken when handling internal organs and carcasses of harvested cervids. Proper handling and cooking of game meat also is important to prevent toxoplasmosis in humans.

Malmsten J; Jakubek EB; Björkman C

2011-05-01

353

Evidence for BTV-4 circulation in free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Cabańeros National Park, Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bluetongue (BT) is an infectious disease of wild and domestic ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV). BTV-4 spread through southern Spain from 2004 to 2006, whereas a BTV-1 outbreak that started in southern Spain in 2007 is still ongoing. Vaccination and movement restriction regulations are applied to domestic ruminants to control BT, but the potential reservoir role of wild European ungulates has not been clarified so far. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of BTV in the wild free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus) population of Cabańeros National Park (CNP) in central Spain during the BTV-4 and BTV-1 epizootics, assessing the potential role of this deer population as a BTV reservoir. Blood samples from 2885 (2542 adults, 208 calves and 135 undetermined) wild red deer were collected from 2005 to 2010 in CNP and surrounding hunting estates. All sera were tested for antibodies against the BTV VP7 protein by ELISA. Ninety-four of the ELISA-positive samples were analysed by serum neutralization to detect BTV-4 and BTV-1 specific antibodies, and 142 blood samples were analysed by RT-PCR for BTV RNA. A total of 371 (12.9%) out of the 2,885 deer (35/208 calves, 307/2,542 adults, and 29/135 undetermined) were positive for antibodies against BTV. Prevalence increased in adult deer from 2005-2006 to 2008-2009, declining thereafter. No positive samples for BTV-1 were found by serum neutralization, whereas 43 deer (38 adults, four calves and one undetermined) were positive for BTV-4 specific antibodies. No BTV RNA positive deer were found by RT-PCR. Antibody detection throughout the study period suggests a maintained circulation of BTV in red deer. However, the lack of BTV RNA detection suggests a minor transmission risk to livestock. PMID:22525011

Falconi, Caterina; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón; Boadella, Mariana; Camarena, Javier; Rosell, Rosa; Alcaide, Vicente; Vicente, Joaquín; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Pujols, Joan; Gortázar, Christian

2012-04-04

354

Breeding of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L.) in Fenced Controlled Condition of Šeprešhat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The controlled breeding of wild game has been carried out for many years as part of hunting management programs for commercially important game species. The controlled breeding of red deer in the Šeprešhat polygon is the result of long-term game management in open hunting grounds, scientific research, monitoring the state of game in hunting grounds, and supply and demand.One of the reasons for controlled breeding of red deer in Croatia is certainly the reduction in population abundance of this species in the majority of hunting grounds after the Homeland War. The second reason was the intended aim of increasing the trophy quality of deer game, due to devastation of the gene fund.Issues such as the appearance of disease and parasites (giant liver fluke) demand controlled breeding and production of a healthy population that will replace the loss of the natural population.Research to monitoring growth intervals, body and trophy development, breeding technology and the justification of this type of breeding and protection of red deer was carried out in parallel with the targeted breeding of red deer.The primary objective of management at the Šeprešhat polygon is the breeding of high quality Baranja red deer, with the possibility of distributing high quality breeding stock to other hunting grounds in the Republic of Croatia. The population of red deer in Baranja has very high genetic potential, and for this reason, it was used earlier in relocations to other parts of Croatia, the neighboring countries, and even to New Zealand.Researching the controlled breeding of red deer was carried out in the period 2005–2009 at the Šeprešhat polygon. The Šeprešhat polygon is part of the state-owned Podunavlje-Podravlje hunting ground in Baranja. Breeding of game in this polygon began in 2001, for the purpose of studying and preserving the gene fund of the red deer. The polygon originally had only 53 ha, but was gradually expanded with the addition of two fields. Therefore, in 2002, it was expanded to 58 hectares and to 66 ha in 2003. Today, the breeding grounds cover an area of 88 ha, additional areas of 56 ha, and in the most recent expansion of an area for the maturation of trophy red deer of 237 ha, resulting in a total area of 380 ha.The analysis of results of the five-year study of controlled game breeding in the Šeprešhat polygon proves that the establishment of breeding grounds was made, given the population dynamics, growth intervals and potential for the sale of live game, as well as the commercial hunting of high quality trophy heads.It should be stressed that the breeding of deer game is a long process and that the first results can only be expected after five years, after the breeding stock is formed and stabilized and normal reproduction begins. The population dynamics of the red deer fund from the start of establishment of the breeding stock to the first significant results of the live game is shown in Table 1.During the five year selection of red deer for mating, only three to four of the most promising male deer (stags) were given the opportunity to mate each year. Each was placed in a separate polygon with fertile females (hinds) including young hinds participating in mating for the first time, in the ratio 1:11 to 1:16, (Table 2). The results indicate that the optimal mating ratio is one stag to ten to twelve hinds. With an increase in the sex ratio, the growth interval coefficient is reduced. This is unfavorable as the goal is to obtain the highest possible calves.One of the main parameters in the selection of young is the weight of the calf at the age of 3 weeks. The minimum level is 10 kg for a female calf and 12 kg for a male calf, as all weights beneath this are unsuitable for further breeding. Measurements also indicated that the highest growth interval of body weight was achieved at the age of 15 to 18 months (Fig. 1).One of the most important segments of maintaining good animal condition, good reproduction and good growth interval is securing sufficient and high quality food throug

Marijan Grubeši?; Branko Uroševi?; Zlatan Mihaljevi?; Kristijan Tomljanovi?

2011-01-01

355

[Food habits of the white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Nanchititla Natural Park, Mexico].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

White-tailed deer is a species with a large behavioral plasticity and adaptation to different habitats, including their food habits. This study was conducted with the aim to determine the food habits of this species in the cloud (BMM) and pine-oak (BPE) forests. Deer scats and plant samples were obtained following standard methods, from Sierra Nanchititla Park in the State of Mexico, from June 1990 to May 1992. A total of 104 deer pellet-groups were collected, and histological analysis for herbivores was used and compared with stock samples of plant tissues collected from the study area. We applied the Spearman correlation and Morisita index to determine alimentary preference. The results showed that the deer consumes 79.44% of plant species from BMM and 20.56% of the BPE. There is a selectivity tendency for 12 of the 14 plant species located in the BMM, while for BPE no tendency was observed. Key species that are part of the elemental diet of the deer in these areas were: Acalypha setosa, Smilax pringlei, Psidium sartorianum and Dendropanax arborea. The consumption of plants did not differ significantly between the dry and rainy seasons in terms of biological form, however, during the dry season there is a tendency to consume trees, and by the end of the rainy season to consume herbs. The data indicate that the deer can be selective with BMM plants, while for the BPE tends to be opportunistic.

Aguilera-Reyes U; Sánchez-Cordero V; Ramírez-Pulido J; Monroy-Vilchis O; López GI; Janczur M

2013-03-01

356

[Food habits of the white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Nanchititla Natural Park, Mexico].  

Science.gov (United States)

White-tailed deer is a species with a large behavioral plasticity and adaptation to different habitats, including their food habits. This study was conducted with the aim to determine the food habits of this species in the cloud (BMM) and pine-oak (BPE) forests. Deer scats and plant samples were obtained following standard methods, from Sierra Nanchititla Park in the State of Mexico, from June 1990 to May 1992. A total of 104 deer pellet-groups were collected, and histological analysis for herbivores was used and compared with stock samples of plant tissues collected from the study area. We applied the Spearman correlation and Morisita index to determine alimentary preference. The results showed that the deer consumes 79.44% of plant species from BMM and 20.56% of the BPE. There is a selectivity tendency for 12 of the 14 plant species located in the BMM, while for BPE no tendency was observed. Key species that are part of the elemental diet of the deer in these areas were: Acalypha setosa, Smilax pringlei, Psidium sartorianum and Dendropanax arborea. The consumption of plants did not differ significantly between the dry and rainy seasons in terms of biological form, however, during the dry season there is a tendency to consume trees, and by the end of the rainy season to consume herbs. The data indicate that the deer can be selective with BMM plants, while for the BPE tends to be opportunistic. PMID:23894977

Aguilera-Reyes, Ulises; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Ramírez-Pulido, José; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; López, Georgina Isabel García; Janczur, Mariusz

2013-03-01

357

Cadmium accumulation in deer tongue grass (Panicum clandestinum L.) and potential for trophic transfer to microtine rodents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Site 36 at the Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge includes a Cd-contaminated soil dominated by deer tongue grass (Panicum clandestinum L.). Analysis of deer tongue grass from this site indicated that biomass and leaf surface area were reduced and that there was a linear relationship between both plant bioavailable soil Cd and total soil Zn and tissue Cd concentration. The Cd concentrations in stems and leaves were also used to estimate the dietary Cd exposures that might be experienced by prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) and pine voles (M. pinetorum) consuming deer tongue grass. Renal and hepatic Cd burdens predicted from exclusive consumption of deer tongue grass would be comparable to those that have resulted in chronic toxicity in rodents. The results suggest that for the contaminated soil at Site 36, conditions could allow for the accumulation of Cd in deer tongue grass to concentrations that may pose an ecological risk. - Deer tongue grass growing on a Cd-contaminated site accumulated Cd to concentrations that would be potentially toxic to microtine rodents using this plant as an exclusive food source

2007-01-01

358

Cadmium accumulation in deer tongue grass (Panicum clandestinum L.) and potential for trophic transfer to microtine rodents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Site 36 at the Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge includes a Cd-contaminated soil dominated by deer tongue grass (Panicum clandestinum L.). Analysis of deer tongue grass from this site indicated that biomass and leaf surface area were reduced and that there was a linear relationship between both plant bioavailable soil Cd and total soil Zn and tissue Cd concentration. The Cd concentrations in stems and leaves were also used to estimate the dietary Cd exposures that might be experienced by prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) and pine voles (M. pinetorum) consuming deer tongue grass. Renal and hepatic Cd burdens predicted from exclusive consumption of deer tongue grass would be comparable to those that have resulted in chronic toxicity in rodents. The results suggest that for the contaminated soil at Site 36, conditions could allow for the accumulation of Cd in deer tongue grass to concentrations that may pose an ecological risk. - Deer tongue grass growing on a Cd-contaminated site accumulated Cd to concentrations that would be potentially toxic to microtine rodents using this plant as an exclusive food source.

Sankaran, Renuka P. [Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, 1125 Lincoln Drive, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Ebbs, Stephen D. [Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, 1125 Lincoln Drive, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)]. E-mail: sebbs@plant.siu.edu

2007-07-15

359

Anatomic and craniometric factors in differentiating roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hircus) skulls  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the bony structures relevant to skull of roe deer, sheep and goat. The skull of five sheep weighing 45-50 kg, three goat weighing 50-60 kg and five roe deer weighing 20-25 kg were used in this study. Macerations of the cranium were performed by the boiling method. The skull of the roe deer was notably similar to that of sheep with the presence of external lacrimal fossa, and to the goat with due to the presence of two points (lateral and medial) on the septal process and a significant fissure formed between the nasal, lacrimal, frontal and maxillary bones. In addition to these similarities, the formations which were specific to the roe deer were structures such as the number and position of the lacrimal foramen and presence of an uncertain muscular tubercle in the basilar portion of the occipital bone. In addition, the craniometric parameters specific to the roe deer’s skull were determined as the zygomatic, interorbital, neurocranium and nasal lengths.

Onuk Burcu; Kabak Murat; Atalar Kerem

2013-01-01

360

New insights into the karyotypic relationships of Chinese muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi), forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) and gayal (Bos frontalis).  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the karyotypic relationships between Chinese muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi), forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) and gayal (Bos frontalis), a complete set of Chinese muntjac chromosome-specific painting probes has been assigned to G-banded chromosomes of these three species. Sixteen autosomal probes (i.e. 6-10, 12-22) of the Chinese muntjac each delineated one pair of conserved segments in the forest musk deer and gayal, respectively. The remaining six autosomal probes (1-5, and 11) each delineated two to five pairs of conserved segments. In total, the 22 autosomal painting probes of Chinese muntjac delineated 33 and 34 conserved chromosomal segments in the genomes of forest musk deer and gayal, respectively. The combined analysis of comparative chromosome painting and G-band comparison reveals that most interspecific homologous segments show a high degree of conservation in G-banding patterns. Eleven chromosome fissions and five chromosome fusions differentiate the karyotypes of Chinese muntjac and forest musk deer; twelve chromosome fissions and six fusions are required to convert the Chinese muntjac karyotype to that of gayal; one chromosome fission and one fusion separate the forest musk deer and gayal. The musk deer has retained a highly conserved karyotype that closely resembles the proposed ancestral pecoran karyotype but shares none of the rearrangements characteristic for the Cervidae and Bovidae. Our results substantiate that chromosomes 1-5 and 11 of Chinese muntjac originated through exclusive centromere-to-telomere fusions of ancestral acrocentric chromosomes. PMID:15627750

Chi, J; Fu, B; Nie, W; Wang, J; Graphodatsky, A S; Yang, F

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

New insights into the karyotypic relationships of Chinese muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi), forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) and gayal (Bos frontalis).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To investigate the karyotypic relationships between Chinese muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi), forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) and gayal (Bos frontalis), a complete set of Chinese muntjac chromosome-specific painting probes has been assigned to G-banded chromosomes of these three species. Sixteen autosomal probes (i.e. 6-10, 12-22) of the Chinese muntjac each delineated one pair of conserved segments in the forest musk deer and gayal, respectively. The remaining six autosomal probes (1-5, and 11) each delineated two to five pairs of conserved segments. In total, the 22 autosomal painting probes of Chinese muntjac delineated 33 and 34 conserved chromosomal segments in the genomes of forest musk deer and gayal, respectively. The combined analysis of comparative chromosome painting and G-band comparison reveals that most interspecific homologous segments show a high degree of conservation in G-banding patterns. Eleven chromosome fissions and five chromosome fusions differentiate the karyotypes of Chinese muntjac and forest musk deer; twelve chromosome fissions and six fusions are required to convert the Chinese muntjac karyotype to that of gayal; one chromosome fission and one fusion separate the forest musk deer and gayal. The musk deer has retained a highly conserved karyotype that closely resembles the proposed ancestral pecoran karyotype but shares none of the rearrangements characteristic for the Cervidae and Bovidae. Our results substantiate that chromosomes 1-5 and 11 of Chinese muntjac originated through exclusive centromere-to-telomere fusions of ancestral acrocentric chromosomes.

Chi J; Fu B; Nie W; Wang J; Graphodatsky AS; Yang F

2005-01-01

362

Predation by coyotes on White-Tailed Deer neonates in South Carolina.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abstract: Coyotes (Canis latrans) are novel predators throughout the southeastern United States and their depredation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates may explain observed declines in some deer populations in the region, but direct evidence for such a relationship is lacking. Our objective was to quantify neonate survival rates and causes of mortality at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina to directly evaluate degree of predation in this deer population. From 2006 to 2009, we radio-monitored 91 neonates captured with the aid of vaginal implant transmitters in pregnant adult females and opportunistic searches. Overall Kaplan�¢����Meier survival rate to 16 weeks of age was 0.230 (95% CI = 0.155-0.328), and it varied little among years. Our best-fitting model estimated survival at 0.220 (95% CI = 0.144-0.320). This model included a quadratic time trend variable (lowest survival rate during the first week of life and increasing to near 1.000 around week 10), and Julian date of birth (survival probability declining as date of birth increased). Predation by coyotes was the most frequent cause of death among the 70 monitored neonates that died, definitively accounting for 37% of all mortalities and potentially accounting for as much as 80% when also including probable coyote predation. Predation by bobcats (Felis rufus) accounted for 7% (definitive) to 9% (including probable bobcat predation) of mortalities. The level of coyote-induced mortality we observed is consistent with the low recruitment rates exhibited in the SRS deer population since establishment of coyotes at the site. If representative of recruitment rates across South Carolina, current harvest levels appear unsustainable. This understanding is consistent with the recent declining trend in the statewide deer population. The effects of coyote predation on recruitment should be considered when setting harvest goals, regardless of whether local deer population size is currently above or below desired levels, because coyotes can substantially reduce fawn recruitment. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Kilgo, John, C.; Ray, Scott, H.; Vukovich, Mark; Goode, Mathew, J.; Ruth, Charles.

2012-05-07

363

Prevalence Of Goitre In A Non Endemic Area Of Gujarat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A cross-sectional, prevalence-based study comprising a community (22.486) and school survey (19.589) in rural Mehsana, North Gujarat (population: 20,37,367) revealed the goiter prevalence as 3.5% and 7.3% respectively. Grading of goiter by Stanbury�s classification showed 90% -93% of swelling as mid (ob). Application of Stanbury�s criteria over the findings of this study proved the area non-endemic. Prevalence was higher in the school than the age at which prevalence increased in the study area, was delayed to 10 years. Similar to endemic areas, prevalence was higher in females than males in all age groups (except pre-school) and the sex difference was most marked in 15-44 years. A marker (ratio of grade I to ob goiter grade) has also been suggested for long term, intervention-oriented monitoring of non- endemic areas.

Kumar P

1993-01-01

364

Avaliaçăo do bócio endęmico Clinic evaluation of endemic goiter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available É feita uma revisăo das principais classificaçőes clínicas do bócio endęmico,colocando-se em destaque as divergęncias normativas existentes entre elas. Enfatiza-se a importância do diagnóstico clínico da hipertrofia incipiente da glândula tiróide no acompanhamento da evoluçăo da endemia bociosa através da vigilância epidemiológica. Sugere-se uma adaptaçăo metodológica no exame clínico do bócio endęmico.A review of the principal clinical classifications of endemic goiter was carried out and the existing normative divergences emphasized. The importance of the clinical diagnosis of incipient hypertrophy of the thyroid gland on the epidemiologic surveillance of endemic goiter was considered. A methodologic adaptation for the clinical diagnosis of endemic goiter was suggested.

Yaro Ribeiro Gandra

1984-01-01

365

Microsatellite primers for the narrowly endemic shrub Eriogonum giganteum (Polygonaceae)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were designed for Eriogonum giganteum var. formosum, an endemic shrub of San Clemente Island, to investigate population structure, genetic diversity, and demographic history. • METHODS: and Results: Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated from the California Channel Island endemic Eriogonum and were screened for variability. The primers amplified one to eight alleles in the target taxon. Many primers also amplified in conspecific and congeneric (E. arborescens, E. fasciculatum, E. grande, E. latifolium, and E. parvifolium) taxa and in the closely related Chorizanthe valida. The total number of alleles per locus for all taxa screened ranged from three to 24. • CONCLUSIONS: These primers will be useful for conservation genetic and evolutionary studies within the California Channel Island endemic ERIOGONUM:

Riley L; McGlaughlin ME; Helenurm K

2011-12-01

366

Microsatellite primers for the narrowly endemic shrub Eriogonum giganteum (Polygonaceae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Microsatellite primers were designed for Eriogonum giganteum var. formosum, an endemic shrub of San Clemente Island, to investigate population structure, genetic diversity, and demographic history. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated from the California Channel Island endemic Eriogonum and were screened for variability. The primers amplified one to eight alleles in the target taxon. Many primers also amplified in conspecific and congeneric (E. arborescens, E. fasciculatum, E. grande, E. latifolium, and E. parvifolium) taxa and in the closely related Chorizanthe valida. The total number of alleles per locus for all taxa screened ranged from three to 24. CONCLUSIONS: These primers will be useful for conservation genetic and evolutionary studies within the California Channel Island endemic Eriogonum.

Riley L; McGlaughlin ME; Helenurm K

2011-12-01

367

The potential for transmission of BCG from orally vaccinated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to cattle (Bos taurus) through a contaminated environment: experimental findings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) experimentally infected with a virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis have been shown to transmit the bacterium to other deer and cattle (Bos taurus) by sharing of pen waste and feed. The risk of transmission of M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine from orally vaccinated white-tailed deer to other deer and cattle, however, is not well understood. In order to evaluate this risk, we orally vaccinated 14 white-tailed deer with 1×10(9) colony forming units BCG in lipid-formulated baits and housed them with nine non-vaccinated deer. Each day we exposed the same seven naďve cattle to pen space utilized by the deer to look for transmission between the two species. Before vaccination and every 60 days until the end of the study, we performed tuberculin skin testing on deer and cattle, as well as interferon-gamma testing in cattle, to detect cellular immune response to BCG exposure. At approximately 27 weeks all cattle and deer were euthanized and necropsied. None of the cattle converted on either caudal fold, comparative cervical tests, or interferon-gamma assay. None of the cattle were culture positive for BCG. Although there was immunological evidence that BCG transmission occurred from deer to deer, we were unable to detect immunological or microbiological evidence of transmission to cattle. This study suggests that the risk is likely to be low that BCG-vaccinated white-tailed deer would cause domestic cattle to react to the tuberculin skin test or interferon-gamma test through exposure to a BCG-contaminated environment.

Nol P; Rhyan JC; Robbe-Austerman S; McCollum MP; Rigg TD; Saklou NT; Salman MD

2013-01-01

368

Delayed density-dependent prevalence of Sin Nombre virus antibody in Montana deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and implications for human disease risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

American hantaviruses cause a severe respiratory disease known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). In the United States, Sin Nombre virus (SNV), carried by the deer mouse ( Peromyscus maniculatus), is the etiologic agent in the majority of HPS cases. The relationship between deer mouse population density and SNV infection prevalence in deer mice is poorly understood. Our purpose was to clarify this relationship by demonstrating the existence of delayed-density-dependent prevalence of SNV infection in populations of wild deer mice. We also explored the relationship between SNV infection in deer mouse populations and the incidence of human HPS. The study population was 3,616 deer mice captured on 10 mark-recapture grids in Montana during May and September, 1994-2004. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found a strong association between deer mouse population density in fall (September) and SNV antibody prevalence in deer mice the following spring (May). Other characteristics associated with SNV infection in deer mice in spring were: (1) presence of at least one infected deer mouse in the population the previous fall, (2) male gender, (3) adult age class, (4) presence of scars, (5) grassland and logged habitats, and (6) elevations below 1,300 m. There was a strong association between concurrently measured SNV antibody prevalence in deer mice and probable exposure of human HPS cases during the same time period. Human cases were more likely to occur during seasons when SNV antibody prevalence was at least 10% in deer mouse populations. These findings suggest that fall rodent population parameters could be used to help guide prevention efforts the following spring. PMID:17767405

Madhav, Nita K; Wagoner, Kent D; Douglass, Richard J; Mills, James N

2007-01-01

369

Pronounced reduction of fluoride exposure in free-ranging deer in North Bohemia (Czech Republic) as indicated by the biomarkers skeletal fluoride content and dental fluorosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wild deer have been recommended as bioindicators of fluoride pollution. We compared bone fluoride concentrations and prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in free-ranging European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) from five counties in the northwestern part of the Czech Republic that had been collected by hunters and whose mandibles were presented at trophy exhibitions in the years 1996/1997 ("early period") and 2009 ("late period"). Data on atmospheric fluoride deposition suggested that the deer from the early period had been exposed to markedly higher fluoride levels than those from the late period. We therefore predicted a decline in skeletal fluoride levels and prevalence of dental fluorosis for both species from the early to the late period. Fluoride concentrations were determined in the coronoid process of the mandible, and assessment of dental fluorosis was performed on the permanent cheek teeth. A pronounced drop in fluoride concentrations from the early period (roe deer (n = 157), median: 3147 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone; red deer (n = 127), median: 1263 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone) to the late period (roe deer (n = 117), median: 350 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone; red deer (n = 72), median: 288 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone) was recorded. Prevalence of dental fluorosis also markedly declined from the early to the late period (roe deer: from 93% to 12%, red deer: from 87% to 28%). The reduction of fluoride deposition in the study area and, in consequence, fluoride exposure of the resident deer populations, is attributed largely to the implementation of emission control devices in the brown coal-fired power plants located in North Bohemia from the mid 1990s onwards. The findings of the present study demonstrate that wild deer are well suited for monitoring temporal changes in fluoride pollution of their habitats.

Kierdorf U; Bahelková P; Sedlá?ek F; Kierdorf H

2012-01-01

370

Endemic pemphigus foliaceus in Venezuela: report of two children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two native Yanomami children from the Venezuelan Amazonia with erythroderma were hospitalized on our service. Clinical, histologic, and immunofluorescence studies diagnosed endemic pemphigus foliaceous. Human leukocyte antigen class II showed DRB1*04 subtype *0411, which has not been previously associated with this disease. However, it shares a common epitope with all the human leukocyte antigen DRB1 alleles that have been involved in this disease among Brazilian populations. Although this condition is endemic in Brazil, our patients are the first two reported in Venezuela.

González F; Sáenz AM; Cirocco A; Tacaronte IM; Fajardo JE; Calebotta A

2006-03-01

371

Endemic pemphigus foliaceus in Venezuela: report of two children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two native Yanomami children from the Venezuelan Amazonia with erythroderma were hospitalized on our service. Clinical, histologic, and immunofluorescence studies diagnosed endemic pemphigus foliaceous. Human leukocyte antigen class II showed DRB1*04 subtype *0411, which has not been previously associated with this disease. However, it shares a common epitope with all the human leukocyte antigen DRB1 alleles that have been involved in this disease among Brazilian populations. Although this condition is endemic in Brazil, our patients are the first two reported in Venezuela. PMID:16650220

González, Francisco; Sáenz, Ana Maria; Cirocco, Antonietta; Tacaronte, Inés Maria; Fajardo, Javier Enrique; Calebotta, Adriana

372

Radiological spectrum of endemic fluorosis: relationship with calcium intake  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Skeletal fluorosis continues to be endemic in many parts of India. Osteosclerosis and interosseous membrane calcification have long been regarded as hallmarks of this disease. Our study showed in addition a wide variety of radiological patterns: Coarse trabecular pattern, axial osteosclerosis with distal osteopenia and diffuse osteopenia. Subjects with osteopenic changes had a significantly lower dietary intake of calcium than those groups having normal radiological findings, predominant osteosclerosis or coarse trabecular pattern (p<0.001, p<0.01, and p<0.01 respectively). This suggests the role of calcium intake in determining the skeletal changes in endemic fluorosis. (orig.)

Mithal, A. (Dept. of Medical Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)); Trivedi, N. (Dept. of Medical Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)); Gupta, S.K. (Dept. of Medical Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)); Kumar, S. (Dept. of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)); Gupta, R.K. (Dept. of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India))

1993-05-01

373

Organochlorine Compound Residues in Muscle of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa L.) and Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L.): Effects of Age and Sex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twenty-six organochlorine pesticides and 7 polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in muscle of wild boar and red deer from the Czech Republic. The concentration of DDT and its metabolites was higher (p < 0.01) in wild boar than in red deer, while PCBs and HCH were higher (p < 0.01) in red deer than in wild boar. The concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers were higher (p < 0.05) in juvenile wild boar than in adults. PCB 153 and p,p'-DDE were the most prominent pollutants in both red deer and wild boar.

Maršálek P; Zelní?ková L; Mikuláštíková J; Svobodová Z; Huta?ová Z

2013-10-01

374

Endemism in the Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of Southern Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We review the current state of knowledge and patterns of distribution in the endemic Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of Southern Africa and describe two species of the Western Cape, of which one is new to science. Frey (1993), Korovchinsky (2006) and Smirnov (2008) previously suggested that South Africa harbours few endemics in the Cladocera. In the current study, we show that so-called low endemism in this region is mainly attributed to our limited state of knowledge of the local cladoceran fauna. Many of the South African taxa are ignored and revisions are lacking, as we briefly discuss for the genus Daphnia. We list known Southern African endemic Cladocera with notes on their status, map the distributions of well-studied taxa, and discuss the importance of temporary freshwater rockpools. We confirm that Southern Africa is a region of endemism for the group. We recognise three categories of endemics: i) Montane endemics in the East (e.g. Drakensberg mountains); ii) endemics of the Western Cape (lowlands); iii) South African endemics, widely distributed in the region, both in the mountains and the lowlands. South African endemics have previously been regarded as relicts (Korovchinsky 2006), yet for the two taxa explored in detail in this study, there are no specific primitive morphological characters in comparison to congeners (within their respective genus/species group) and the morphology mainly suggests strong isolation. The two species belong to the Chydoridae and the Eurycercidae, respectively, and are used here as case studies for the investigation of Western Cape endemics. The first, Alona capensis Rühe, 1914 (Anomopoda: Chydoridae: Aloninae), is redescribed based on the type material. We discuss the affinities of this enigmatic species for the first time. Morphology of the habitus and the postabdomen parallel that of members of the Alona affinis-complex. The disconnected head pores and limb characters, on the other hand, place A. capensis in the Alona pulchella-group, a different lineage in the Aloninae subfamily. The specific postabdomen shape of A. capensis and a unique, inflated rostrum, diverge from the main A. pulchella-morphotype and illustrate the significant morphological isolation of A. capensis within its group. The second species, Eurycercus (Eurycercus) freyi sp.nov. (Eurycercidae), is described based on material from the collection of the late Prof. Dr. David G. Frey. It is an E. lamellatus-like taxon that is easily differentiated from the two related species (E. lamellatus and E. microdontus) by a strong indentation (with depth larger than head pore diameter) behind the head pores. E. freyi sp.nov. seems to be the closest relative of E. lamellatus. The small clade of just two species is supported by two synapomorphies: i) the rostrum is long; and ii) the spine situated on the proximal segment of the exopod of antenna II is longer than the second segment, in contrast to E. microdontus. 

Kay Van Damme; Eugeniya I. Bekker; Alexey A. Kotov

2013-01-01

375

Deer antler base as a traditional Chinese medicine: a review of its traditional uses, chemistry and pharmacology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Deer antler base (Cervus, Lu Jiao Pan) has been recorded in the Chinese medical classics Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing 2000 years ago and is believed to nourish the Yin, tonify the kidney, invigorate the spleen, strengthen bones and muscles, and promote blood flow. In China, deer antler base has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat a variety of diseases including mammary hyperplasia, mastitis, uterine fibroids, malignant sores and children's mumps. AIM OF THE REVIEW: We provide an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of the traditional uses, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and clinical trials of deer antler base in order to explore its therapeutic potentials and future research needs. BACKGROUND AND METHODS: The pharmacological value of deer antler base was ignored for many years while researchers concentrated on the pharmacological value of velvet antler. However, more recently, scientists have carried out a great number of chemical, pharmacological and clinical studies on deer antler base. The present review covers the literature available from 1980 to 2012. All relevant information on deer antler base was collected from ancient Chinese herbal classics, pharmacopoeias, formularies, scientific journals, books, theses and reports via a library and electronic search by using PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, and CNKI (in Chinese). KEY FINDINGS: Both in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies have demonstrated that deer antler base possess immunomodulatory, anti-cancer, anti-fatigue, anti-osteoporosis, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-stress, anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, hematopoietic modulatory activities and the therapeutic effect on mammary hyperplasia. Although the mechanism of actions is still not clear, the pharmacological activities could be mainly attributed to the major bioactive compounds amino acids, polypeptides and proteins. Based on animal studies and clinical trials, deer antler base causes no severe side effects. CONCLUSIONS: Deer antler base has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine. However, further investigations are needed to explore individual bioactive compounds responsible for these in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects and its mechanism of actions. Further safety assessments and clinical trials in humans need to be performed before it can be integrated into medicinal practices. The present review has provided preliminary information for further studies and commercial exploitations of deer antler base.

Wu F; Li H; Jin L; Li X; Ma Y; You J; Li S; Xu Y

2013-01-01

376

Location analysis and strontium-90 concentrations in deer antlers on the Hanford Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The primary objective of this study was to examine the levels of strontium-90 (90Sr) in deer antlers collected from near previously active reactor sites and distant from the reactor sites along that portion of the Columbia River which borders the Hanford Site. A second objective was to analyze the movements and home-ranges of mule deer residing within these areas and determine to what extent this information contributes to the observed 90Sr concentrations. 90Sr is a long-lived radionuclide (29.1 year half life) produced by fission in irradiated fuel in plutonium production reactors on the Hanford Site. It is also a major component of atmospheric fallout from weapons testing. Concentrations of radionuclides found in the developed environment onsite do not pose a health concern to humans or various wildlife routinely monitored. However, elevated levels of radionuclides in found biota may indicate routes of exposure requiring attention

1995-01-01

377

Feeding of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seasonal feed choice of a roe deer for a 3-year period has been investigated on the basis of the rumen content analysis. Results of the investigation are given. A list of 125 species of forage plants is presented. Seasonal intensity of their consumption is characterized. Significance of main plant assemblages of the evacuated zone of Chernobyl in the diet of the animal population is elucidated. Special attention is paid to the role of the above-ground parts of Oenotera biennis that comprise 34% of the average annual forage of roe deer and are consumed by the animal during 9-10 months. Recent state of the forage base of the population is estimated. An attempt to predict its dynamics for the nearest 10-15 years is made.

1996-01-01

378

Identification and morphological characteristics of dental neonatal line in sika deer (Cervus nippon).  

Science.gov (United States)

The dental neonatal line of the sika deer (Cervus nippon) was identified experimentally using chronological labeling methods. In the enamel, prominent dark lines were observed under transmitted light, and the number of increments between the dark line and labeling line was almost consistent with the day-age at the time of labeling injection. Therefore, we identified the dark line as the enamel neonatal line. In the dentin, the bright line was observed under polarized light. Since the bright line corresponded to the enamel neonatal line, we recognized the bright line as the dentin neonatal line. Neonatal lines intersected with the enamel-dentin junction at approximately one-third cervical in the first molar. Using these features, it would make possible to distinguish the neonatal line in wild sika deer. PMID:15070041

Iinuma, Yasuko M; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Matsuura, Yukiko; Asano, Makoto; Onuma, Manabu; Ohtaishi, Noriyuki

2004-02-01

379

Identification and morphological characteristics of dental neonatal line in sika deer (Cervus nippon).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The dental neonatal line of the sika deer (Cervus nippon) was identified experimentally using chronological labeling methods. In the enamel, prominent dark lines were observed under transmitted light, and the number of increments between the dark line and labeling line was almost consistent with the day-age at the time of labeling injection. Therefore, we identified the dark line as the enamel neonatal line. In the dentin, the bright line was observed under polarized light. Since the bright line corresponded to the enamel neonatal line, we recognized the bright line as the dentin neonatal line. Neonatal lines intersected with the enamel-dentin junction at approximately one-third cervical in the first molar. Using these features, it would make possible to distinguish the neonatal line in wild sika deer.

Iinuma YM; Suzuki M; Matsuura Y; Asano M; Onuma M; Ohtaishi N

2004-02-01

380

Transfer of natural and man made radionuclides from plants to roe deer and farm animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work the transfer behavior of long living radionuclides from the Thorium decay series (Ra-228, Th-228, Th-232) as well as of K-40 and Cs-137 is studied. In a small area of middle Europe (southeast Gemany) showing an increased Thorium content of soil the activity concentrations in samples of feed plants, farm animals, farm animal products, roe deer has been determined. The concentration ratios feed-to-animal tissue and to animal products are calculated indicating a significantly enhanced transfer from feed to roe deer tissues. Determinations of the activity concentrations in fish (carp), pig (tissues), egg, milk complete this examinations. Among all studied samples which are important for human nourishing eggs and carp cause the greatest exposure by ingestion. (author). 14 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

First description of nodular onchocercosis (Onchocerca jakutensis) in free-ranging Italian red deer (Cervus elaphus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Onchocercosis is a vector-transmitted parasitic disease involving wild and domestic ungulates, humans, and dogs. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) host numerous Onchocerca spp. which have precise anatomic sites in the host and two species, Onchocerca flexuosa Wedl, 1856 and Onchocerca jakutensis Guba-now, 1964, are found inside subcutaneous nodules. Between September and November 2007, subcutaneous nodules were observed on both thighs in shot red deer of a Tuscany population. We observed cystic structures, surrounded by a fibrous capsule, containing nematodes. Filamentous worms were male and female; microfilariae were also described. Although morphologically we could not distinguish between O. flexuosa and O. jakutensis, genetic studies implicated O. jakutensis. This is the first report of this parasite in Italy.

Morandi F; Krueger A; Panarese S; Sarli G; Verin R; Nicoloso S; Benazzi C; Galuppi R

2011-10-01

382

Effects on fawn survival of multiple immobilizations of captive pregnant white-tailed deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fawn viability was tested in captive, pregnant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) immobilized with xylazine hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride and reversed by yohimbine hydrochloride or tolazoline hydrochloride. Nine pregnant does were immobilized 10 times each from December 1984 to May 1985. Their mean parturition date was 8 June. The number of fawns produced per pregnant doe was 1.88. Mean weight of newborn fawns was 4.18 kg. Seventy-five percent of the does produced twins or triplets. Three (20%) fawns died postnatally within 48 hr, but the remaining 12 survived for the full 72 hr they were allowed to remain with their dams. These observations compare favorably with those of non-immobilized captive deer on similar diets. PMID:3712648

DelGiudice, G D; Mech, L D; Paul, W J; Karns, P D