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1

Radiocarbon and U-series dating of the endemic deer Praemegaceros cazioti (Deperet) from 'Grotta Juntu', Sardinia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiocarbon and U-series methods (230Th/U and 231Pa/235U) for absolute age determination have been applied to some fossil samples from Grotta Juntu, in North Eastern Sardinia (Italy). The remains belong to the endemic deer species Praemegaceros cazioti, which is here represented by an almost complete skeleton. The three dating methods lead to concordant ages of about 7500 years BP, indicating that the skeleton was maintained as closed system after burial. Taking into consideration these results, Praemegaceros cazioti from Grotta Juntu is now the youngest representative of this species in Sardinia. (authors)

2007-01-01

2

SARDINIAN DEER: DERIVATIONS, FOSSIL DISCOVERIES AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of my work is to describe and to apply the current method of census of roaring of Sardinian deer, and to deepen the aspect of his derivations and the fossil discoveries concerning the presence of cervids in Sardinia in the Quaternary. I focused this work on the fossil endemic species Praemegaceros cazioti and on the actual endemic species Cervus elaphus corsicanus, because I wanted to obtain the most complete view about their morphological and evolutive characteristics

Stefano Melis

2010-10-01

3

Roe deer as sentinels for endemicity of tick-borne encephalitis virus.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The suitability of serological surveys of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in determining the spread of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) was tested in a south German area with a low risk of TBEV infection to humans. Sera obtained from 192 hunted roe were screened by an haemagglutination-inhibition test (HAI) and in an ELISA developed in our laboratory. Those found positive were tested in a neutralization test (NT). Fifty (26.0%) sera reacted positive by ELISA and 43 (86.0%) of these were co...

Gerth, H. J.; Grimshandl, D.; Stage, B.; Do?ller, G.; Kunz, C.

1995-01-01

4

Potential role of deer tick virus in Powassan encephalitis cases in Lyme disease-endemic areas of New York, U.S.A.  

Science.gov (United States)

Powassan virus, a member of the tick-borne encephalitis group of flaviviruses, encompasses 2 lineages with separate enzootic cycles. The prototype lineage of Powassan virus (POWV) is principally maintained between Ixodes cookei ticks and the groundhog (Marmota momax) or striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), whereas the deer tick virus (DTV) lineage is believed to be maintained between Ixodes scapularis ticks and the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). We report 14 cases of Powassan encephalitis from New York during 2004-2012. Ten (72%) of the patients were residents of the Lower Hudson Valley, a Lyme disease-endemic area in which I. scapularis ticks account for most human tick bites. This finding suggests that many of these cases were caused by DTV rather than POWV. In 2 patients, DTV infection was confirmed by genetic sequencing. As molecular testing becomes increasingly available, more cases of Powassan encephalitis may be determined to be attributable to the DTV lineage. PMID:24274334

El Khoury, Marc Y; Camargo, Jose F; White, Jennifer L; Backenson, Bryon P; Dupuis, Alan P; Escuyer, Kay L; Kramer, Laura; St George, Kirsten; Chatterjee, Debarati; Prusinski, Melissa; Wormser, Gary P; Wong, Susan J

2013-12-01

5

Deer Sedge (Trichophorum cespitosum)  

...ProgrammePrioritised Action FrameworkDeer Sedge (Trichophorum cespitosum)Last updated: 31 December...endures grazing and trampling by sheep, cattle and deer as well as fire damage. It is widespread...

6

Oh Deer! Project Wild Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

The representation is an activity/game in which students portray deer and habitat components. As students play the game they observe deer competing for limited resources. After the game is finished they discuss the results (numbers of deer and resources present after each round.) These results represent the fluctuations in the deer population that result from competition for limited resources.

7

Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in populations of Siberian and European roe deer (Capreolus pygargus and C. capreolus).  

Science.gov (United States)

We have amplified and sequenced 679 nucleotides of the mitochondrial DNA control-region in 45 Siberian (Capreolus pygargus) and European (C. capreolus) roe deer from two localities in Russia and seven in Italy. Average interspecific sequence divergence was 4.9%. Six different haplotypes were found in Siberian roe deer, and 14 haplotypes in Alpine European roe deer. A population of the endemic Italian subspecies C. c. italicus was monomorphic bearing a single haplotype with one unique nucleotide deletion and a fixed transversion. Phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes indicated that the two species were separated with 100% bootstrap support, and there were two distinct population clusters within each species. These clusters correspond to different geographical locations of the samples: Siberian roe deer were subdivided into west Siberia (Kurgan region) and east Siberia (Amur region), and European roe deer were subdivided into an eastern and a western Alpine group. Average sequence divergence among conspecific populations was 1.2%. Calibrations of evolutionary rates of the different domains of the control-region suggest that Siberian and European roe deer speciated about 2-3 million years ago, and haplotype diversity within species was generated during the last 150,000-370,000 years. Geographical structuring of sequence variability in roe deer allows us to identify historical and recent intraspecific population differences, including the effects of human disturbance. The genetic peculiarities of the endemic Italian subspecies C. c. italicus call for careful conservation of its surviving populations. PMID:9618912

Randi, E; Pierpaoli, M; Danilkin, A

1998-04-01

8

SRP deer hunt data base  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Savannah River Plant (SRP) site is an ideal habitat for white-tailed deer. The large deer population of more than 6000 animals has resulted in collisions between deer and automobiles. To control this population and thus reduce accidents, deer hunts were begun in 1965. These hunts are organized and supervised by U.S. Forestry Service Personnel. The deer have access to all of the plant site except the fenced operating areas. Access to radioactive liquid effluents and contamination vegetation can result in radioactive body burdens in deer. Prior to 1970, samples of about 20% of the deer shot during the deer hunts were radioassayed. Based on these results and plant effluent information, 137Cs was the radionuclide of interest. A portable instrument was developed to measure 137Cs in deer and, beginning in 1970, all deer have been monitored for their 137Cs concentration before being released to the hunters. All slain deer were released to the hunters immediately after monitoring; no deer were above acceptable safe limits for food

1978-10-01

9

Deer Tracks in the City?  

Science.gov (United States)

"Why would a deer print be in the city?" wondered a student. She had noticed the track near a grocery store that morning with her mother. She was familiar with deer and had noticed their prints on a trip to a local museum; however, she had never seen a deer in the city before this experience. As she retold the story to her classmates, her question…

Quigley, Cassie Fay; Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole; Riggs, Morgan; Rodriguez, Antonia; Buck, Gayle

2009-01-01

10

Population Study Game: Oh, Deer!  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners model a population of deer and see how the number of deer changes over time. Learners investigate population change and graph the population over time to learn about how habitat availability affects populations. This activity works best outside.

Commission, South C.

2006-01-01

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Monitoring Red Deer and Roe Deer Population Density in Yedigoller-Yesiloz Wildlife Reserves in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wildlife inventories are very new in Turkey. Thus, there is no enough data about red deer and roe deer population. However, these studies have gained momentum in recent years. In this study, it is aimed to determine and to monitor status of red deer and roe deer population densities. In the study, it was used a kind of drive count which was combined with point count. The study was conducted between 2003 and 2010 in October, once a year. Red deer and roe deer densities were determined between 0.45 and 1.19 red deer/km2; 1.48 and 2.05 roe deer/km2. Also, average of annual growth rates were estimated for red deer (0.135 and roe deer (-0.0059. The study showed that whilst the red deer population has been increasing, roe deer population has been decreasing in long term period.

Vedat Beskardes

2012-01-01

12

Habitat, wildlife, and one health: Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Maryland and Upper Eastern Shore white-tailed deer populations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Understanding the distribution of disease in wildlife is key to predicting the impact of emerging zoonotic one health concerns, especially for wildlife species with extensive human and livestock interfaces. The widespread distribution and complex interactions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus with humans suggest deer population health and management may have implications beyond stewardship of the animals. The intracranial abscessation suppurative meningitis (IASM disease complex in deer has been linked to Arcanobacterium pyogenes, an under-diagnosed and often misdiagnosed organism considered commensal in domestic livestock but associated with serious disease in numerous species, including humans. Methods: Our study used standard bacterial culture techniques to assess A. pyogenes prevalence among male deer sampled across six physiogeographic regions in Maryland and male and female deer in the Upper Eastern Shore under Traditional Deer Management (TDM and Quality Deer Management (QDM, a management protocol that alters population demographics in favor of older male deer. Samples were collected from antler pedicles for males, the top of the head where pedicles would be if present for females, or the whole dorsal frontal area of the head for neonates. We collected nasal samples from all animals by swabbing the nasopharyngeal membranes. A gram stain and catalase test were conducted, and aerobic bacteria were identified to genus and species when possible. We evaluated the effect of region on whether deer carried A. pyogenes using Pearson's chi-square test with Yates’ continuity correction. For the white-tailed deer management study, we tested whether site, age class and sex predisposed animals to carrying A. pyogenes using binary logistic regression. Results: A. pyogenes was detected on deer in three of the 6 regions studied, and was common in only one region, the Upper Eastern Shore. In the Upper Eastern Shore, 45% and 66% of antler and nasal swabs from deer were positive for A. pyogenes, respectively. On the Upper Eastern Shore, prevalence of A. pyogenes cultured from deer did not differ between management areas, and was abundant among both sexes and across all age classes. No A. pyogenes was cultured from a small sample of neonates. Conclusion: Our study indicates A. pyogenes may be carried widely among white-tailed deer regardless of sex or age class, but we found no evidence the pathogen is acquired in utero. The distribution of A. pyogenes across regions and concentration in a region with low livestock levels suggests the potential for localized endemicity of the organism and the possibility that deer may serve as a maintenance reservoir for an emerging one health concern.

Melissa M. Turner

2013-08-01

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Rabies in Captive Deer, Pennsylvania, USA, 2007–2010  

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Since January 2007, a total of 11 rabid deer from 4 deer farms have been identified in 2 neighboring Pennsylvania counties. Vaccination of deer against rabies, decreasing wildlife animal contact with deer, and education of deer farmers may prevent further cases of rabies in captive deer and exposures to humans.

2012-01-01

14

Effect of deer reduction on abundance of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To evaluate the role of deer in regulating the abundance of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini) we attempted to treat with acaricide, but eventually removed, about 70 percent of deer from Great Island, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Deer were captured in box traps, a corral, an entanglement net, and with rifle-fired tranquilizer. Failure of these attempts, combined with ineffective acaricides, led us to deer destruction begun in fall 1982. Larval tick abundance on mice was monitored before and after dee...

1984-01-01

15

Welfare issues of modern deer farming  

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This paper will start with briefly outlining the recent domestication history of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama), followed by a description of the present status of modern deer farming. It will then review the main welfare issues of deer farming. The following aspects will be considered: accommodation and housing, management and handling, nutrition (feed and water provision), transport and slaughter, plus a short mention of velvet harvest. As a summary, the following pra...

2010-01-01

16

Anaplasma phagocytophilum in White-tailed Deer  

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We examined the reservoir potential of white-tailed deer for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Results suggest that white-tailed deer harbor a variant strain not associated with human infection, but contrary to published reports, white-tailed deer are not a reservoir for strains that cause human disease. These results will affect surveillance studies of vector and reservoir populations.

Massung, Robert F.; Courtney, Joshua W.; Hiratzka, Shannon L.; Pitzer, Virginia E.; Smith, Gary; Dryden, Richard L.

2005-01-01

17

Hybridisation between red deer (Cervus elaphus) and Japanese sika (C. nippon) on the Kintyre Peninsula, Scotland  

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Hybridisation between introduced and endemic species causes conservation concerns, but also provides us with an opportunity to study the dynamics of gene flow between two species as they first meet. Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon) were introduced to the British Isles at a number of locations at the beginning of the 20th century. In the intervening time, sika have spread and their range now extends across approximately 40% of Scotland, where they overlap with that of native red ...

Senn, Helen V.

2009-01-01

18

Spatial analysis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population in Michigan, USA, has endemic Mycobacterium bovis. We determined whether there were spatial clusters of retrospective TB cases in white-tailed deer in northeastern Michigan and identified specific factors associated with the spatial clusters. Data from hunter-harvested deer (age, gender, TB status, and geographic section) were collected by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) during TB surveillance from 1995 to 2002. Land cover (vegetation, land-use) and land type (soil types and drainage characteristics, landforms) described potential deer habitats. Specific locations of large-scale supplemental feeding sites were collected from the MDNR aerial surveillance program from 1997 to 2002. Analyses were conducted using principal components derived from environmental data (and other risk factors) on spatial clusters of disease (identified by the spatial scan statistic). Spatial effects were incorporated into the multivariable analyses by using a neighborhood approach. A total of 420 deer with M. bovis infection were identified from 1995 to 2002, out of 39,451 harvested deer from 3216 TRS units, and spatial clusters of cases were identified. A total of seven principal components of environmental data were generated. Clusters were associated with the presence of large expanses of deciduous forests on moraine ridges separated by low areas of forested wetlands, and the presence of many small lakes. Factors that promoted congregation of deer for extended periods of time (natural cover, access to water, and less human contact) appeared to be associated with increased odds of TB positivity. This suggests that there are specific areas where interventions can be implemented to reduce congregation of animals and disrupt the cycle of infection transmission. PMID:17597240

Miller, RoseAnn; Kaneene, John B; Schmitt, Stephen M; Lusch, David P; Fitzgerald, Scott D

2007-11-15

19

Monitoring Red Deer and Roe Deer Population Density in Yedigoller-Yesiloz Wildlife Reserves in Turkey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wildlife inventories are very new in Turkey. Thus, there is no enough data about red deer and roe deer population. However, these studies have gained momentum in recent years. In this study, it is aimed to determine and to monitor status of red deer and roe deer population densities. In the study, it was used a kind of drive count which was combined with point count. The study was conducted between 2003 and 2010 in October, once a year. Red deer and roe deer densities were determined between ...

2012-01-01

20

Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) as hosts for Borrelia spp. in northern California.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of infection of Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) with Borrelia spp. was evaluated in an area of northwestern California (USA) where Lyme disease is endemic and the relapsing-fever group spirochete Borrelia coriaceae is enzootic, and in a far-removed comparison area having a disparate climate and lower density of vector ticks. Blood samples collected from both deer herds in 1987, 1988, and from 2000-02 were assayed for borrelial infection with microscopic and molecular methods. Serum specimens from two (5%) of 39 deer from the Dye Creek Preserve in Tehama County versus 13 (20%) of 64 animals from the Hopland Research and Extension Center (HREC) in Mendocino County, California were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test positive for B. burgdorferi sensu lato. DNA sequencing analyses revealed that eight animals were infected with B. bissettii, six with three unclassified genotypes, and one with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. One serum sample (2%) from HREC was positive for a relapsing-fever group spirochete that had a 16S rRNA sequence homology of 99% with the C053 type strain of B. coriaceae. Spirochetes undetermined to geno-species were detected in thick-blood drops prepared from three (8%) of 36 deer from the HREC by direct immunofluorescence. Adults of the hippoboscid flies Lipoptena depressa (n=73) and Neolipoptena ferrisi (n=24), the Pacific Coast tick (Dermacentor occidentalis) (n=22), and the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus) (n=1) that had been removed from deer from both study areas in 2002 were PCR test negative for borreliae. The occurrence of diverse borreliae in deer from northern California confounds and, consequently, reduces the utility of borrelial serosurveys for detecting specific genospecies, unless they are complemented by more specific assays (e.g., immunoblotting, PCR/sequencing analysis). PMID:15827217

Lane, Robert S; Mun, Jeomhee; Parker, John M; White, Marshall

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Ecological Impacts of High Deer Densities  

Science.gov (United States)

This Figure Set explores the complexity of forest ecosystems with particular emphasis on the effects of expanding white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations on trees, birds, and people. Once at the brink of extinction throughout their range, deer populations in the eastern and midwestern United States have grown rapidly over the last several decades. This has created unwelcome consequences for farmers, orchardists, homeowners, and motorists, including crop damage and more vehicle accidents. Of concern to conservation biologists is the possibility that high deer densities might have detrimental effects on the abundance and diversity of forest vegetation and wildlife. This issue addresses the questions: 1) How do deer impact the composition of forest vegetation? 2) How do deer influence habitat for other wildlife? and 3) What challenges exist in the management of white-tailed deer populations? The issue draws upon three primary papers, which examine: 1) deer browse and other factors influencing hemlock regeneration, 2) effects of manipulating deer populations on the abundance and diversity of breeding birds, and 3) decision-making processes for resolving deer management controversies.

Schusler, Tania

2010-02-16

22

DEER Distance Measurements on Proteins  

Science.gov (United States)

Distance distributions between paramagnetic centers in the range of 1.8 to 6 nm in membrane proteins and up to 10 nm in deuterated soluble proteins can be measured by the DEER technique. The number of paramagnetic centers and their relative orientation can be characterized. DEER does not require crystallization and is not limited with respect to the size of the protein or protein complex. Diamagnetic proteins are accessible by site-directed spin labeling. To characterize structure or structural changes, experimental protocols were optimized and techniques for artifact suppression were introduced. Data analysis programs were developed, and it was realized that interpretation of the distance distributions must take into account the conformational distribution of spin labels. First methods have appeared for deriving structural models from a small number of distance constraints. The present scope and limitations of the technique are illustrated.

Jeschke, Gunnar

2012-05-01

23

Borrelia burgdorferi not detected in widespread Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from white-tailed deer in Tennessee.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lyme disease (LD), caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted in the eastern United States by blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, is classified as nonendemic in Tennessee and surrounding states in the Southeast. Low incidence of LD in these states has been attributed, in part, to vector ticks being scarce or absent; however, tick survey data for many counties are incomplete or out of date. To improve our knowledge of the distribution, abundance, and Borrelia spp. prevalence of I. scapularis, we collected ticks from 1,018 hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman)) from 71 of 95 Tennessee counties in fall 2007 and 2008. In total, 160 deer (15.7%) from 35 counties were infested with adult I. scapularis; 30 of these counties were new distributional records for this tick. The mean number of I. scapularis collected per infested deer was 5.4 +/- 0.6 SE. Of the 883 I. scapularis we removed from deer, none were positive for B. burgdorferi and one tested positive for B. miyamotoi. Deer are not reservoir hosts for B. burgdorferi; nevertheless, past surveys in northern LD-endemic states have readily detected B. burgdoreferi in ticks collected from deer. We conclude that I. scapularis is far more widespread in Tennessee than previously reported. The absence of detectable B. burgdorferi infection among these ticks suggests that the LD risk posed by I. scapularis in the surveyed areas of Tennessee is much lower than in LD-endemic areas of the Northeast and upper Midwest. PMID:23270178

Rosen, M E; Hamer, S A; Gerhardt, R R; Jones, C J; Muller, L I; Scott, M C; Hickling, G J

2012-11-01

24

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium bovis Isolates from Michigan White-Tailed Deer during the 2009 Hunting Season  

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Michigan has had an ongoing outbreak of endemic Mycobacterium bovis which has been recognized within and sustained by its free-ranging white-tailed deer population since 1994. Worldwide, organisms within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex have exhibited the ability to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents, resulting in both the multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of human tuberculosis. Michigan's Bovine Tuberculosis Working Group has conducted activ...

Fitzgerald, Scott D.; Schooley, Angie M.; Berry, Dale E.; Kaneene, John B.

2010-01-01

25

Evaluation of vaginal implants for mule deer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is difficult to obtain information on the biology of the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) during the first several months of life because of the seclusive nature of fawns. Radio-transmitter implants were placed in the vaginas of mule deer to facilitate determining the time and location of parturition and to evaluate the effects on dams in the Piceance Basin, northwest Colorado.

Garrott, R.A.; Bartmann, R.M.

1984-01-01

26

Welfare issues of modern deer farming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper will start with briefly outlining the recent domestication history of red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama, followed by a description of the present status of modern deer farming. It will then review the main welfare issues of deer farming. The following aspects will be considered: accommodation and housing, management and handling, nutrition (feed and water provision, transport and slaughter, plus a short mention of velvet harvest. As a summary, the following practices can be recommended to ensure animal welfare in modern deer farming: the adoption of suitable housing systems and of adequate management techniques (e.g. specific handling pens and drop-floor cradles or crushes and the respect of specific needs (e.g. provision of protection and shelter from predators as well as from climatic extremes, such as cold winds or direct solar radiation. Handling and yarding operations will be easier when they occur in dim light. Special attention must be paid to the manipulation of the newborns. At the slaughterhouse, facilities must be designed specifically for deer. The presence of well trained stockpersons, with a sound knowledge of deer physiology and behaviour, is also a key-factor for improving welfare levels in deer farms. To achieve these aims, training of the managers and stockpersons and the adoption of specific codes of conducts are highly recommendable.

Silvana Mattiello

2010-01-01

27

On farm - Codes of recommendations: Deer  

Sep 3, 2009 ... It must be borne in mind that it can take several minutes after impact of the dart ... \\solid sides with no projections so as to minimise the risk of injury to the deer. ... \\Deer, not being well insulated, are particularly sensitive to weather .... (10 to 20m)\\, a frontal head shot by an expert marksman is wholly effective.

28

Observations of captive Rocky Mountain mule deer behavior  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Observations were made near Fort Collins, Colorado on the behavior of a captive herd of Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus). Comparisons in general behavior patterns were made between captive and wild deer. Similar behavior was exhibited by captive and wild deer. Captive deer (as well as other species) may be useful for study of certain behavioral aspects of their wild counterparts.

Halford, D.K.; Arthur, W.J. III; Alldredge, A.W.

1987-01-31

29

Tick burden on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In our study we assessed the tick burden on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in relation to age, physical condition, sex, deer density and season. The main objective was to find predictive parameters for tick burden. In September 2007, May, July, and September 2008, and in May and July 2009 we collected ticks on 142 culled roe deer from nine forest departments in Southern Hesse, Germany. To correlate tick burden and deer density we estimated deer density using line transect sampling that acc...

Vor, Torsten; Kiffner, Christian; Hagedorn, Peter; Niedrig, Matthias; Ru?he, Ferdinand

2010-01-01

30

Causes of Mortality and Diseases in Farmed Deer in Switzerland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To investigate diseases and causes of mortality in Swiss farmed deer, deer found dead or shot due to diseased condition between March 2003 and December 2004 were requested for a complete postmortem examination. One hundred and sixty-two animals were submitted. Perinatal mortality, necrobacillosis in 3 week to 6 month old deer, and endoparasitosis in 6 month to 2 year old deer were identified as the most important causes of loss, followed by ruminal acidosis, which was diagnosed in 22% of deer...

2010-01-01

31

Plutonium content in deer in the southeastern United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective was to determine the distribution of plutonium in tissues of deer foraging on natural vegetation in the southeastern United States. The deer were obtained from North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in South Carolina. Nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and global fallout are the primary sources of plutonium at SRP. Plutonium analyses of deer indicate that the plutonium content of onsite deer muscle is similar to values in offsite deer

1977-05-01

32

Fatal case of deer tick virus encephalitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deer tick virus is related to Powassan virus, a tickborne encephalitis virus. A 62-year-old man presented with a meningoencephalitis syndrome and eventually died. Analyses of tissue samples obtained during surgery and at autopsy revealed a widespread necrotizing meningoencephalitis. Nucleic acid was extracted from formalin-fixed tissue, and the presence of deer tick virus was verified on a flavivirus-specific polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay, followed by sequence confirmation. Immunohistochemical analysis with antisera specific for deer tick virus identified numerous immunoreactive neurons, with prominent involvement of large neurons in the brain stem, cerebellum, basal ganglia, thalamus, and spinal cord. This case demonstrates that deer tick virus can be a cause of fatal encephalitis. PMID:19439744

Tavakoli, Norma P; Wang, Heng; Dupuis, Michelle; Hull, Rene; Ebel, Gregory D; Gilmore, Emily J; Faust, Phyllis L

2009-05-14

33

The global analysis of DEER data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Double Electron–Electron Resonance (DEER) has emerged as a powerful technique for measuring long range distances and distance distributions between paramagnetic centers in biomolecules. This information can then be used to characterize functionally relevant structural and dynamic properties of biological molecules and their macromolecular assemblies. Approaches have been developed for analyzing experimental data from standard four-pulse DEER experiments to extract distance distributions. Ho...

2012-01-01

34

Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in feces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Infectious prion diseases 1 – scrapie of sheep 2 and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer family 3,4 – are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals 5–8, the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prion...

Tamgu?ney, Gu?ltekin; Miller, Michael W.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Sirochman, Tracey M.; Glidden, David V.; Palmer, Christina; Lemus, Azucena; Dearmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

2009-01-01

35

Fatal Case of Deer Tick Virus Encephalitis  

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Deer tick virus is related to Powassan virus, a tickborne encephalitis virus. A 62-year-old man presented with a meningoencephalitis syndrome and eventually died. Analyses of tissue samples obtained during surgery and at autopsy revealed a widespread necrotizing meningoencephalitis. Nucleic acid was extracted from formalin-fixed tissue, and the presence of deer tick virus was verified on a flavivirus-specific polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay, followed by sequence confirmation. Immunohist...

Tavakoli, Norma P.; Wang, Heng; Dupuis, Michelle; Hull, Rene; Ebel, Gregory D.; Gilmore, Emily J.; Faust, Phyllis L.

2009-01-01

36

Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

1994-12-31

37

Causes of mortality and diseases in farmed deer in Switzerland.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate diseases and causes of mortality in Swiss farmed deer, deer found dead or shot due to diseased condition between March 2003 and December 2004 were requested for a complete postmortem examination. One hundred and sixty-two animals were submitted. Perinatal mortality, necrobacillosis in 3 week to 6 month old deer, and endoparasitosis in 6 month to 2 year old deer were identified as the most important causes of loss, followed by ruminal acidosis, which was diagnosed in 22% of deer older than 1 year. Congenital malformations were observed in 15% of deer less than 6 months old. Reportable infectious diseases known as major problems in deer farming in other countries were rare (yersiniosis, malignant catarrhal fever) or not observed (tuberculosis, chronic wasting disease). Overall, the results indicate that the Swiss deer population does not present major health problems of concern for domestic animals. PMID:20706668

Sieber, Veronika; Robert, Nadia; Schybli, Martina; Sager, Heinz; Miserez, Raymond; Engels, Monika; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

2010-01-01

38

Feeding and Management of Spotted Deer at Dhaka Zoo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this experiment the feeds and feeding, production and reproduction profile and herd management of spotted deer were studied in captive condition at Dhaka zoo. Data collected from forty deers, ten deers of each group consisting of adult male, adult female, juvenile and infant were studied January 15th to April 15th 2004 for a period of three months. Available feeds supplied to the spotted deer were maize fodder, para and bucksha grass, poi shak, cabbages, carrot, papaya, wheat bran...

Azad, M. A. K.; Hossain, M. M.; Bhuiyan, A. K. F. H.

2005-01-01

39

Roe and fallow deer: are they compatible neighbours?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The analysis of the relationships between population density and habitat features is important to evaluate the ecological needs of a species, its potential impact on ecosystems and its interspecific interactions. We analysed the spatial variation of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and fallow deer Dama dama densities in a Mediterranean area in summer 2007 and winter 2007/2008. Previous research has shown that fallow deer can actively displace and exclude roe deer from natural ...

2011-01-01

40

Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-transmitted, economically important disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Although only five of the 26 reported bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes are considered endemic to the USA, 10 exotic serotypes have been isolated primarily in the southeastern region of the country since 1999. For an exotic BTV serotype to become endemic there must be susceptible animal species and competent vectors. In the USA, sheep and white-tailed deer (WTD) are the primary sentinel livestock and wildlife species, respectively. In 2006, BTV-8 was introduced into Northern Europe and subsequently overwintered, causing unprecedented livestock disease and mortality during the 2006-2007 vector seasons. To assess the risk of the European strain of BTV-8 to North American WTD, and understand the role they could play after a similar introduction, eight bluetongue-seronegative WTD were inoculated with BTV-8. Body temperatures and clinical signs were recorded daily. Blood samples were analyzed for BTV RNA with quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), serum analyzed for BTV antibodies by cELISA, and tissues taken for histopathology and qRT-PCR. All eight deer became infected and developed moderate to severe clinical disease from days 8 to 15. Peak viremia was from day 7 to 10 with detectable titers through the end of the study (28 days) in most deer. Serum antibody was detected by day 6, peaked by day 10 and continued through day 28. We conclude that North American WTD are highly susceptible to BTV-8 and would act as clinical disease sentinels and amplifying hosts during an outbreak. PMID:23876932

Drolet, Barbara S; Reister, Lindsey M; Rigg, Tara D; Nol, Pauline; Podell, Brendan K; Mecham, James O; VerCauteren, Kurt C; van Rijn, Piet A; Wilson, William C; Bowen, Richard A

2013-10-25

 
 
 
 
41

Bluetongue Virus Serotypes 1 and 4 in Red Deer, Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We studied the potential of red deer as bluetongue maintenance hosts and sentinels. Deer maintained detectable bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 4 RNA for 1 year after the virus was cleared from livestock. However, the virus was not transmitted to yearlings. BTV serotype 1 RNA was detected in red deer immediately after its first detection in cattle.

Rodri?guez-sa?nchez, Bele?n; Gorta?zar, Christian; Ruiz-fons, Francisco; Sa?nchez-vizcai?no, Jose? M.

2010-01-01

42

Bluetongue virus serotypes 1 and 4 in red deer, Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the potential of red deer as bluetongue maintenance hosts and sentinels. Deer maintained detectable bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 4 RNA for 1 year after the virus was cleared from livestock. However, the virus was not transmitted to yearlings. BTV serotype 1 RNA was detected in red deer immediately after its first detection in cattle. PMID:20202435

Rodriguez-Sanchez, Belen; Gortazar, Christian; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Sanchez-Vizcaino, Jose M

2010-03-01

43

Dietary preferences and ruminal protozoal populations in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and mouflon (Ovis musimon)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and mouflon (Ovis musimon) are among the most common wild ungulates in Italy and frequently their home ranges overlap. Despite the fact that roe deer is classified as concentrate selector (Hofmann, 1989) and fallow deer and mouflons as intermediate and grass eater, respectively, the composition of the diet can be affected by other factors such as geographical area and plant communities distribution and availability

Trabalza Marinucci, M.; Capecci, A.; Riganelli, N.; Acuti, G.; Antonini, C.; Olivieri, O.

2010-01-01

44

Dietary preferences and ruminal protozoal populations in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, fallow deer (Dama dama and mouflon (Ovis musimon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, fallow deer (Dama dama and mouflon (Ovis musimon are among the most common wild ungulates in Italy and frequently their home ranges overlap. Despite the fact that roe deer is classified as concentrate selector (Hofmann, 1989 and fallow deer and mouflons as intermediate and grass eater, respectively, the composition of the diet can be affected by other factors such as geographical area and plant communities distribution and availability

O. Olivieri

2010-01-01

45

Seasonal variation in the behavior of captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus, in Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm, of China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Musk deer farming has the potential to be an effective conservation tool for the protection of musk deer as well as the production of valuable musk. To be successful, this requires a thorough understanding of the behavior of captive musk deer in order to improve their reproductive success and management. Between August 2005 to January 2006, the behavior sampling of 19 male and 13 female captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus Büchner, 1891, was used to examine the durations of twelve beh...

Luan Xiaofeng; Zhao Changjie; Hui Cenyi; Meng Xiuxiang

2010-01-01

46

Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in endangered Florida Key deer and Key deer habitat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was first reported in the endangered Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) in 1996 on Big Pine Key, Florida, USA. By 2008, eight additional MAP-positive Key deer had been identified on Big Pine Key and the nearby Newfound Harbor Keys. This study was conducted to determine if MAP was still present in Key deer and whether natural or man-made freshwater sources were contaminated with MAP. Between November 2009 and September 2012, MAP was isolated from 36/369 (10%) fecal samples collected from the ground throughout the Key deer range on Big Pine Key and the Newfound Harbor Keys, but all 36 positive samples were from Little Palm Island (36/142 [25%]). Only 1/729 (0.1%) environmental samples was positive; this was from the garden fountain on Little Palm Island (1/81 [1%]). In addition, MAP was detected in 3/43 (7%) necropsied Key deer, all from Little Palm Island (3/3 [100%]). Of these three Key deer, pooled samples from the ileum, cecum, and ileocecal lymph node from two were MAP-culture positive and feces from one of these were culture-positive. The third deer was only PCR-positive. Evidence of MAP was only detected on Little Palm Island during this sampling period and environmental contamination was limited. PMID:24506424

Murray, Heidi L; Yabsley, Michael J; Keel, M Kevin; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Wilmers, Thomas J; Corn, Joseph L

2014-04-01

47

Endemic syphilis in Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonvenereal syphilis (endemic syphilis) has existed in Europe since the 16th century. Main characteristics of the disease are its presence for a longer time in a specific territory and its transmission regardless of age and sex, mainly extragenitally in unsanitary living conditions. Nonvenereal syphilis was described under different names in almost all regions of Europe. The primary genital chancre was absent, and lesions were most frequently found in the mouth and affected mostly children. The disease spread in rural areas with poor economic and hygienic conditions. The disease was eradicated in Europe in the 20th century, but it is still present in some rural regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Southwest Asia, and North Africa. PMID:24559557

Lipozen?i?, Jasna; Marinovi?, Branka; Gruber, Franjo

2014-01-01

48

Potential Wildlife Reservoir for Parachlamydia in Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) and Roe Deer (Capreolus c. capreolus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wildlife populations represent an important reservoir for emerging pathogens and transboundary livestock diseases. However, exact knowledge on common domestic pathogens such as Chlamydiales in these populations is lacking. During the hunting season of 2008, 863 samples, including blood, eye swabs, organs and fecal samples, from 99 red deer and 64 roe deer were collected in the eastern Swiss Alps, and samples were tested by ELISA, PCR and immunohistochemistry for Chlamydiaceae and Parachlam...

Regenscheit, Nadine

2012-01-01

49

Dermatomycosis (Ringworm) in Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Six mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with dermatomycosis are described. Trichophyton verrucosum was isolated from four. All infections were mild and were not debilitating. The lesions involved the legs in five animals and the face in two. This is the second report of ringworm in a wild ungulate in North America.

Wobeser, G.; Mitcham, S. A.; Saunders, J. R.; Hunt, H. M.

1983-01-01

50

The global analysis of DEER data  

Science.gov (United States)

Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER) has emerged as a powerful technique for measuring long range distances and distance distributions between paramagnetic centers in biomolecules. This information can then be used to characterize functionally relevant structural and dynamic properties of biological molecules and their macromolecular assemblies. Approaches have been developed for analyzing experimental data from standard four-pulse DEER experiments to extract distance distributions. However, these methods typically use an a priori baseline correction to account for background signals. In the current work an approach is described for direct fitting of the DEER signal using a model for the distance distribution which permits a rigorous error analysis of the fitting parameters. Moreover, this approach does not require a priori background correction of the experimental data and can take into account excluded volume effects on the background signal when necessary. The global analysis of multiple DEER data sets is also demonstrated. Global analysis has the potential to provide new capabilities for extracting distance distributions and additional structural parameters in a wide range of studies.

Brandon, Suzanne; Beth, Albert H.; Hustedt, Eric J.

2012-05-01

51

Deer Me: A Predator/Prey Simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners will simulate the interactions between a predator population of gray wolves and a prey population of deer in a forest. After collecting the data, the learners plot the data and then extend the graph to predict the populations for several more generations.

Zoo, Minnesota; Eduweb

2012-01-01

52

Survey of Borreliae in ticks, canines, and white-tailed deer from Arkansas, U.S.A.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Eastern and Upper Midwestern regions of North America, Ixodes scapularis (L. is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans and the primary vector of B. burgdorferi, whereas in the southeastern region Amblyomma americanum (Say is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans but cannot transmit B. burgdorferi. Surveys of Borreliae in ticks have been conducted in the southeastern United States and often these surveys identify B. lonestari as the primary Borrelia species, surveys have not included Arkansas ticks, canines, or white-tailed deer and B. lonestari is not considered pathogenic. The objective of this study was to identify Borrelia species within Arkansas by screening ticks (n?=?2123, canines (n?=?173, and white-tailed deer (n?=?228 to determine the identity and locations of Borreliae endemic to Arkansas using PCR amplification of the flagellin (flaB gene. Methods Field collected ticks from canines and from hunter-killed white-tailed were identified to species and life stage. After which, ticks and their hosts were screened for the presence of Borrelia using PCR to amplify the flaB gene. A subset of the positive samples was confirmed with bidirectional sequencing. Results In total 53 (21.2% white-tailed deer, ten (6% canines, and 583 (27.5% Ixodid ticks (252 Ixodes scapularis, 161 A. americanum, 88 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 50 Amblyomma maculatum, 19 Dermacentor variabilis, and 13 unidentified Amblyomma species produced a Borrelia flaB amplicon. Of the positive ticks, 324 (22.7% were collected from canines (151 A. americanum, 78 R. sanguineus, 43 I. scapularis, 26 A. maculatum, 18 D. variabilis, and 8 Amblyomma species and 259 (37.2% were collected from white-tailed deer (209 I. scapularis, 24 A. maculatum, 10 A. americanum, 10 R. sanguineus, 1 D. variabilis, and 5 Amblyomma species. None of the larvae were PCR positive. A majority of the flaB amplicons were homologous with B. lonestari sequences: 281 of the 296 sequenced ticks, 3 canines, and 27 deer. Only 22 deer, 7 canines, and 15 tick flaB amplicons (12 I. scapularis, 2 A. maculatum, and 1 Amblyomma species were homologous with B. burgdorferi sequences. Conclusions Data from this study identified multiple Borreliae genotypes in Arkansas ticks, canines and deer including B. burgdorferi and B. lonestari; however, B. lonestari was significantly more prevalent in the tick population than B. burgdorferi. Results from this study suggest that the majority of tick-borne diseases in Arkansas are not B. burgdorferi.

Fryxell Rebecca T

2012-07-01

53

Somatic Chromosomes of the Bornean Sambar Deer and Rusa Deer Interspecific Hybrids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Hybridization has potential benefits to the Malaysian farmed deer industries in terms of increased growth rate and increased proportion of muscle and an improved alignment of feed supply and annual energy requirement. Species or subspecies of different chromosome constitution could mate to produce healthy hybrid offspring in a normal ratio of males and females. If any of the hybrid offspring were sterile, the sterile offspring would be the heterogametic offspring. The study investigated the use of chromosome banding method to detect chromosomal variation and to define the chromosome homology and the possibility of the Bornean Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei and Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis hybrids to reproduce. Approach: Samples were collected from the Livestock Breeding Station, Sabrang, Keningau, Sabah, East Malaysia. The animals studied consisted of two deer subspecies namely the Bornean Sambar deer, Rusa deer and their hybrids. The karyotypes of the Bornean Sambar deer, Rusa deer and their F1 hybrids have been investigated by solid giemsa staining, G-banding and Ag-NOR banding techniques. Results: Rusa and Bornean Sambar have different chromosome number; 60 and 62 respectively, but share the same fundamental number of chromosome arm, 70. The hybrids have 2n = 61, consisting of 9 metacentric to submetacentric autosomes and 24 pairs of acrocentric autosomes with two acrocentrics and one submetacentric chromosome being unpaired. The morphology of the sex chromosomes in the F1 hybrids was similar to that of the parental species. The Ag-NOR pattern and the conventional Giemsa staining of chromosomes were effective as markers in the characterization of the karyotypes of the parental lines and hybrids because of the presence of active NORs on different chromosomes of different species. G-band, in contrast, showed complete homology in the presence of euchromatic bands and heterochromatin blocks respectively on each chromosome, suggesting that the two species have few genetic differences. Conclusion: In the present study, natural mating between Bornean Sambar deer and Rusa deer were conducted and the number and chromosomal location of the nucleolar organizer regions in their offsprings were analyzed by the silver staining method. Apart from that, the interspecific dissimilarities with regards to chromosome number and morphology are less extensive and the production of chromosomally balanced gametes could be expected.

Ismail Idris

2009-01-01

54

75 FR 71106 - Deer Creek Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13862-000] Deer Creek Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...Applications November 12, 2010. On October 14, 2010, Deer Creek Hydro, LLC (Deer Creek Hydro) filed an application for a...

2010-11-22

55

76 FR 41516 - Vegetation and Deer Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Morristown National...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Service [2031-A153-422] Vegetation and Deer Management Plan/Environmental Impact...Environmental Impact Statement for a Vegetation and Deer Management Plan, Morristown National Historical...Statement (EIS) for a Vegetation and Deer Management Plan at Morristown...

2011-07-14

56

75 FR 41774 - Proposed Establishment and Modification of Class E Airspace; Deer Park, WA  

Science.gov (United States)

...Establishment and Modification of Class E Airspace; Deer Park, WA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...surface airspace and modify existing Class E airspace at Deer Park Airport, Deer Park, WA, to accommodate aircraft using the...

2010-07-19

57

Addendum: Nutrient loading from Ramsay Point and Deer Lake Peat Licences  

Subject: Addendum: Nutrient loading from Ramsay Point and Deer Lake Peat Licences ... Title: Addendum: Nutrient loading from Ramsay Point and Deer Lake Peat Licences ...Addendum: Nutrient loading from Ramsay Point and Deer Lake Peat Licences

58

Comparison of plutonium concentrations in deer from the southeastern United States and in deer from an integrated nuclear fuel cycle facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data are presented of plutonium concentrations and concentration ratios measured in different organs and tissues of deer resident on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) compared with those of deer in neighboring locations. The dose-to-man is calculated from ingestion of the deer meat from approximately 1000 deer harvested each year on SRP during organised hunts. (U.K.)

1979-01-01

59

Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings.

Reddy D

2009-01-01

60

Prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminthiasis in captive deer of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The investigation was undertaken to study the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthiasis in captive deer. About 76.2% deer were affected with gastrointestinal helminthiasis. Paramphistomum spp. and Haemonchus spp. were mostly prevalent in deer. It is revealed that Para or Hog deer (90.91% was mostly susceptible to gastrointestinal helminthiasis followed by Barking deer (78.79%, Spotted deer (75% and Samber deer (70%. Mixed infection was noted in majority of the deer. Paramphistomum spp., Haemonchus spp. and Strongyloides spp. were common in three different captive location but Fasciola spp. was detected only in Dhaka zoo and Dulahazara Safari Park.

S. Kanungo

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
61

The Deer Lake Basin: constraints on structure from seismic data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seismic surveys were performed in order to re-evaluate petroleum potential of the Deer Lake Basin in Newfoundland. Basin stratigraphy had been previously studied, but the interpretation of the depth structure was limited by the lack of seismic data. The survey intended to: (1) determine the appropriate acquisition parameters for high resolution seismics in the region, (2) determine the thickness and structure of the Deer Lake Group, and (3) determine the nature of the basement underlying the Deer Lake Group. Thermal maturation indicators and paleo-geotherm models indicated that both the lower Deer Lake Group and the underlying Wigwam Brook were in the oil window. 4 refs., 1 fig.

Wright, J.; Hoffe, B.; Barnes, P.; Hurich, C.; Hall, J.; Zhu, J.; Quinlan, G. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, NF (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences

1995-12-31

62

Seedling barrier protection from deer and elk browse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discusses the methods of detecting and assessing deer and elk browse problems, and describes possible methods of protecting seedlings from browse damage using physical protection devices. The publication is intended for use by foresters and forest technicians concerned with minimising deer and elk browse damage to commercial trees. It includes information on the types of trees preferred by deer and elk in British Columbia, tree shelters, fencing, site characteristics affecting the selection of protection methods, and cost comparisons of various methods of seedling protection. Concludes with descriptions of selected deer and elk browse protection project sites in British Columbia. The appendix includes a directory of manufacturers and distributors of seedling protection products.

Booth, I.A.; Henigman, J.F.

1996-09-01

63

Intranasal inoculation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with lyophilized chronic wasting disease prion particulate complexed to montmorillonite clay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte), lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure. PMID:23671598

Nichols, Tracy A; Spraker, Terry R; Rigg, Tara D; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Hoover, Clare; Michel, Brady; Bian, Jifeng; Hoover, Edward; Gidlewski, Thomas; Balachandran, Aru; O'Rourke, Katherine; Telling, Glenn C; Bowen, Richard; Zabel, Mark D; VerCauteren, Kurt C

2013-01-01

64

Mitochondrial DNA analysis of hybridization between sympatric white-tailed deer and mule deer in west Texas.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sympatric populations of white-tailed deer and mule deer (Odocoileus virginianus and Odocoileus hemionus, respectively) on a west Texas ranch share a common mitochondrial DNA restriction map genotype. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this genotype is more characteristic of O. virginianus than of O. hemionus. The genotype of west Texas deer differs from that of O. virginianus from South Carolina by five mutational events (1.3% sequence divergence), whereas it differs from that of O. hemion...

1986-01-01

65

Deer monitoring at the Savannah River Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To protect public health, all deer and feral hogs harvested at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during controlled hunts are monitored for Cs-137. A new monitoring program has been developed by the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS). To provide increased confidence in dose data and compliance with regulations, many changes have been made to the deer and hog monitoring program. Using field count information, a computerized database determines Cs-137 concentration and calculates the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) resulting from consumption of the animal. The database then updates each hunter's cumulative CEDE in real time. Also, enhancements to the instrument calibration and quality control portions of the monitoring program were implemented. These include improved monitor calibration, intercomparison of field results from the same animal using different detectors, and regular use of check sources to verify equipment performance. With these program changes, EMS can produce more accurate and verifiable dose data.

Fledderman, P.D.

1992-01-01

66

Deer monitoring at the Savannah River Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To protect public health, all deer and feral hogs harvested at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during controlled hunts are monitored for Cs-137. A new monitoring program has been developed by the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS). To provide increased confidence in dose data and compliance with regulations, many changes have been made to the deer and hog monitoring program. Using field count information, a computerized database determines Cs-137 concentration and calculates the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) resulting from consumption of the animal. The database then updates each hunter`s cumulative CEDE in real time. Also, enhancements to the instrument calibration and quality control portions of the monitoring program were implemented. These include improved monitor calibration, intercomparison of field results from the same animal using different detectors, and regular use of check sources to verify equipment performance. With these program changes, EMS can produce more accurate and verifiable dose data.

Fledderman, P.D.

1992-10-01

67

Deer monitoring at the Savannah River Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To protect public health, all deer and feral hogs harvested at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during controlled hunts are monitored for Cs-137. A new monitoring program has been developed by the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS). To provide increased confidence in dose data and compliance with regulations, many changes have been made to the deer and hog monitoring program. Using field count information, a computerized database determines Cs-137 concentration and calculates the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) resulting from consumption of the animal. The database then updates each hunter's cumulative CEDE in real time. Also, enhancements to the instrument calibration and quality control portions of the monitoring program were implemented. These include improved monitor calibration, intercomparison of field results from the same animal using different detectors, and regular use of check sources to verify equipment performance. With these program changes, EMS can produce more accurate and verifiable dose data

1993-01-24

68

Iodine-129 in man, cow and deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations of 129I and values of the 129I/127I ratio have been measured in over forty individual thyroids of human, cow and deer from Missouri. Deer thyroids show an average value of 129I/127I = 1.8 x 10-8 and 129I concentrations of 3 x 10-3 pCi per g of thyroid (wet weight). Thyroids of cow and human show successively lower values of the 129I/127I ratio and for the 129I content due to dilution of 129I from the natural geochemical cycle with mineral iodine in their diets. Analyses on a few thyroids from other areas are also reported. (author)

1978-01-01

69

Seminar Papers: 2000 Red Deer, Alberta Seminar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A one-day seminar was held in Red Deer, Alberta, to discuss primarily economic issues of propane gas. Individual papers discussed issues such as the effects of North American supply and demand on prices in Alberta, the general economic outlook in Alberta, deregulation of the electricity industry and its effects on demand for propane, labour forecast for the propane industry and training options for propane professionals. The emphasis was on informal discussions, accordingly only speaking notes have been made available

2000-09-08

70

Injury and Illness Among Deer Hunters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

General practice and out-patient emergency records for a five-year period were reviewed for injuries and illnesses that occurred during the week of deer rifle hunting on Manitoulin Island. Of 65 hunters who were identified, most had lacerations secondary to knife injuries. There were two deaths (one shooting and one in a motor vehicle accident), and 19 persons required hospitalization. More than half of these serious accidents occurred on the weekends immediately preceding or following the hu...

Mcrae, Shelagh M.

1989-01-01

71

Do Père David's deer lose memories of their ancestral predators?  

Science.gov (United States)

Whether prey retains antipredator behavior after a long period of predator relaxation is an important question in predator-prey evolution. Père David's deer have been raised in enclosures for more than 1200 years and this isolation provides an opportunity to study whether Père David's deer still respond to the cues of their ancestral predators or to novel predators. We played back the sounds of crows (familiar sound) and domestic dogs (familiar non-predators), of tigers and wolves (ancestral predators), and of lions (potential naïve predator) to Père David's deer in paddocks, and blank sounds to the control group, and videoed the behavior of the deer during the experiment. We also showed life-size photo models of dog, leopard, bear, tiger, wolf, and lion to the deer and video taped their responses after seeing these models. Père David's deer stared at and approached the hidden loudspeaker when they heard the roars of tiger or lion. The deer listened to tiger roars longer, approached to tiger roars more and spent more time staring at the tiger model. The stags were also found to forage less in the trials of tiger roars than that of other sound playbacks. Additionally, it took longer for the deer to restore their normal behavior after they heard tiger roars, which was longer than that after the trial of other sound playbacks. Moreover, the deer were only found to walk away after hearing the sounds of tiger and wolf. Therefore, the tiger was probably the main predator for Père David's deer in ancient time. Our study implies that Père David's deer still retain the memories of the acoustic and visual cues of their ancestral predators in spite of the long term isolation from natural habitat. PMID:21887286

Li, Chunwang; Yang, Xiaobo; Ding, Yuhua; Zhang, Linyuan; Fang, Hongxia; Tang, Songhua; Jiang, Zhigang

2011-01-01

72

Selenium toxicosis in a white-tailed deer herd  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chronic selenium (Se) toxicosis was found in a herd of white-tailed deer showing signs of anorexia, weight loss, and lameness. Concentration of Se in the liver ranged from 2.7 to 8.97 mg/kg wet weight. Myocardial necrosis, mineralization, and fibroplasia were seen histologically. This is the first report of this toxicosis in white-tailed deer.

Al-dissi, Ahmad N.; Blakley, Barry R.; Woodbury, Murray R.

2011-01-01

73

Polonium Assimilation and Retention in Mule Deer and Pronghorn Antelope.  

Science.gov (United States)

Excretion kinetics and tissue distribution of polonium-210 in mule deer and pronghorn were studied. Each animal in a captive herd of 7 mule deer and 2 pronghorn received an intraruminal injection of 4.4 mu Ci of polonium chloride. Feces and urine were col...

K. J. Sejkora

1982-01-01

74

Serosurvey for selected pathogens in Iberian roe deer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The roe deer is the most abundant and widespread wild Eurasian cervid. Its populations are expanding and increasingly in contact with livestock. This may affect the distribution of infectious diseases shared with other wild and domestic ungulates. Methods We investigated the antibody seroprevalence against Pestivirus, Herpesvirus, Bluetongue (BT) virus, M. avium paratuberculosis (MAP), and Brucella sp. in 519 roe deer from d...

Boadella Mariana; Carta Tania; Oleaga Álvaro; Pajares Gerardo; Muñoz Marta; Gortázar Christian

2010-01-01

75

Schmallenberg virus infection among red deer, France, 2010-2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schmallenberg virus infection is emerging in European domestic and wild ruminants. We investigated the serologic status of 9 red deer populations to describe virus spread from September 2010 through March 2012 among wildlife in France. Deer in 7 populations exhibited seropositivity, with an average seroprevalence of 20%. PMID:24377838

Laloy, Eve; Bréard, Emmanuel; Sailleau, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Desprat, Alexandra; Zientara, Stéphan; Klein, François; Hars, Jean; Rossi, Sophie

2014-01-01

76

Red Deer College Fact Book, 1999/2000.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report is a compilation of 1999-2000 student data at Red Deer College (Canada). It also includes data from 1997/98 through 1999/2000 for the purpose of three-year comparisons. Programs offered at Red Deer College include university transfer, career certificates, diploma, high school equivalency (academic upgrading), job readiness training,…

Red Deer Coll. (Alberta).

77

Can coyotes affect deer populations in Southeastern North America?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ABSTRACT The coyote (Canis latrans) is a recent addition to the fauna of eastern North America, and in many areas coyote populations have been established for only a decade or two. Although coyotes are known predators of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in their historic range, effects this new predator may have on eastern deer populations have received little attention. We speculated that in the southeastern United States, coyotes may be affecting deer recruitment, and we present 5 lines of evidence that suggest this possibility. First, the statewide deer population in South Carolina has declined coincident with the establishment and increase in the coyote population. Second, data sets from the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina indicate a new mortality source affecting the deer population concurrent with the increase in coyotes. Third, an index of deer recruitment at SRS declined during the period of increase in coyotes. Fourth, food habits data from SRS indicate that fawns are an important food item for coyotes during summer. Finally, recent research from Alabama documented significant coyote predation on fawns there. Although this evidence does not establish cause and effect between coyotes and observed declines in deer recruitment, we argue that additional research should proactively address this topic in the region. We identified several important questions on the nature of the deer–coyote relationship in the East.

Kilgo, J., C.; Ray, H., Scott; Ruth, Charles; Miller, Karl, V.

2010-07-01

78

Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) courtship and mating behavior  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus 1758), is a South American grazing deer categorized as "near threatened". However, knowledge about pampas deer behavior including courtship and mating is scarce and incomplete. The aim of this study was to characterize the courtship and mating behavior of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), an endangered species from South America. Methods We performed focal observa...

Morales-Piñeyrúa Jéssica T; Ungerfeld Rodolfo

2012-01-01

79

Effect of pelvic suspension on the instrumental meat quality characteristics of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) venison.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of pelvic and Achilles tendon suspension of red and fallow deer carcasses on meat quality parameters were compared. Venison was evaluated from red deer stags (n=14), bucks (n=14) and fallow deer does (n=10) between 12 and 36months old. Immediately after slaughter, carcasses were split down the dorsal midline and assigned to one of the two hanging methods and pH and core body temperature measured. Twenty-four hours post-slaughter muscles were excised. Venison from fallow deer and red deer stags pelvic-suspended had significantly lower (Psuspension should be adopted by the deer industry to increase tenderness of venison. PMID:24922603

Hutchison, C L; Mulley, R C; Wiklund, E; Flesch, J S; Sims, K

2014-10-01

80

Reemergence of Endemic Chikungunya, Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chikungunya virus infection recently reemerged in Malaysia after 7 years of nondetection. Genomic sequences of recovered isolates were highly similar to those of Malaysian isolates from the 1998 outbreak. The reemergence of the infection is not part of the epidemics in other Indian Ocean countries but raises the possibility that chikungunya virus is endemic in Malaysia.

Abubakar, Sazaly; Sam, I-ching; Wong, Pooi-fong; Hooi, Poh-sim; Roslan, Nuruliza

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Molecular Detection of Bartonella schoenbuchensis from Ectoparasites of Deer in Massachusetts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Deer keds (Lipoptena cervi) are thought to have been introduced into New England from Europe during the 1800s. We sought to determine whether L. cervi from Massachusetts deer contained evidence of infection by Bartonella schoenbuchensis, which appears to be maintained by L. cervi in Europe. Five of 6 keds were found to contain B. schoenbuchensis DNA, and 2 deer ticks cofeeding on deer with such keds did as well. The detection of Bartonella DNA in deer ticks probably represents contamination b...

2008-01-01

82

Morphological Examination of the Siberian Roe Deer Capreolus pygargus in South Korea  

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This study compare the external morphological characteristics of Korean roe deer inhabit the inland and Jeju island areas and to clarify the morphological differences by the two groups. Also, total of 40 roe deer bodies were collected from road-kill, poaching and injured survey from December 2004 to June 2009. The result showed that there were significant differences between Inland and Jeju roe deer. Jeju roe deer was relatively smaller than Inland roe deer in body mass. Thus, it appeared to ...

2011-01-01

83

Systemic adenovirus infection associated with high mortality in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seventeen counties in northern California experienced epizootics of high mortality in the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) population during the latter half of 1993. Thirteen deer submitted to the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System as part of this natural die-off had systemic adenovirus infection. Pulmonary edema was present in all 13 deer. Erosions, ulceration, and abscessation of the upper alimentary tract occurred in 7/13 deer. Four of 13 deer had hemorrhagic enteritis. All ...

1996-01-01

84

Seroprevalence Against Sin Nombre Virus in Resident and Dispersing Deer Mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Through dispersal, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) enter peridomestic settings (e.g., outbuildings, barns, cabins) and expose humans and other deer mouse populations to Sin Nombre virus (SNV). In June 2004, research on deer mouse dispersal was initiated at 2 locations in Montana. During the course of the study, over 6000 deer mouse movements were recorded, and more than 1000 of these movements were classified as dispersal movements. More than 1700 individual deer mice were captured and tes...

Lonner, Brent N.; Douglass, Richard J.; Kuenzi, Amy J.; Hughes, Kevin

2008-01-01

85

THE AXIS DEER (AXIS AXIS IN BRIJUNI NATIONAL PARK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The axis deer (Axis axis was imported from Germany and introduced into Brijuni in 1911. Brijuni are a group of islands in the Adriatic Sea along the western coast of the southern peak of the Istrian Peninsula in the Republic of Croatia. In 1983 the area was declared a National Park. The objective of this paper was to research the adaptation of the axis deer to living conditions on the islands. Observation has shown that on the Brijuni islands the axis deer lives in herds comprising 10 to 30 individuals. The youngest male deer seeking access to does was four years old, while at the age of fi ve they started roaring. Deer fi ghts are not frequent during roaring period. The natural grazing rhythm is disturbed by the vast number of tourists. The calving periods of the axis deer during the year indicate three well-pronounced ruts, namely January to February, July-August and October-November. They also show that oestrus occurs soon after calving in most of the females. Gestation period of does is 7 to 7.8 months. 85% of the does on the Brijuni Islands produce their offspring in the warmer part of the year, between 1 March and 31 September. The population of the axis deer in the area of the Brijuni National Park is stable, rather numerous (about 100 individuals and well acclimatized, and as such it presents reproductive material suitable to populate enclosed hunting grounds and big game farms.

Nikica Šprem

2008-11-01

86

Profiling helper T cell subset gene expression in deer mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus are the most common mammals in North America and are reservoirs for several zoonotic agents, including Sin Nombre virus (SNV, the principal etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in North America. Unlike human HCPS patients, SNV-infected deer mice show no overt pathological symptoms, despite the presence of virus in the lungs. A neutralizing IgG antibody response occurs, but the virus establishes a persistent infection. Limitations of detailed analysis of deer mouse immune responses to SNV are the lack of reagents and methods for evaluating such responses. Results We developed real-time PCR-based detection assays for several immune-related transcription factor and cytokine genes from deer mice that permit the profiling of CD4+ helper T cells, including markers of Th1 cells (T-bet, STAT4, IFN?, TNF, LT, Th2 cells (GATA-3, STAT6, IL-4, IL-5 and regulatory T cells (Fox-p3, IL-10, TGF?1. These assays compare the expression of in vitro antigen-stimulated and unstimulated T cells from individual deer mice. Conclusion We developed molecular methods for profiling immune gene expression in deer mice, including a multiplexed real-time PCR assay for assessing expression of several cytokine and transcription factor genes. These assays should be useful for characterizing the immune responses of experimentally- and naturally-infected deer mice.

Hjelle Brian

2006-08-01

87

"Osmetrichia" in the grey brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira).  

Science.gov (United States)

Osmetrichia have been defined as hairs specialized in the storage of secretions used in olfactory communication between conspecifics (Müller-Schwarze, et al. 1977). These authors found highly specialized osmetrichia in the tarsal gland tufts of black-tailed but not white-tailed deer. Chemical communication appears to be well developed in grey brocket deer: the bucks scent mark by rubbing their foreheads on bushes, and all deer urinate and defecate almost exclusively on dung heaps. Brocket deer also possess tarsal tufts. The purpose of this study was to examine hairs from several glandular areas in this species. Osmetrichia, similar to those found in black tailed deer, were found in tarsal tufts and in interdigital gland hairs; these hairs possessed open scales with deep pockets suitable for holding secretions, in comparison to the flat scales seen on control hairs. Hairs with different morphological characteristics (slightly open scales) were found over the frontal gland. Specialized hairs were not found in the tarsal tufts of one specimen of a related species, the red brocket deer (Mazama americana). The similarities in the hairs of grey brocket and black-tailed deer are remarkable in light of the ecological and behavioral differences between these two species. PMID:10904542

Ajmat, M T; Chamut, S; Black-Decima, P

1999-12-01

88

Impacts of White-Tailed Deer on Red Trillium ('Trillium recurvatum'): Defining a Threshold for Deer Browsing Pressure at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore.  

Science.gov (United States)

Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been a concern for land managers in eastern North America because of their impacts on native forest ecosystems. Managers have sought native plant species to serve as phytoindicators of deer impa...

N. B. Pavlovic R. Grundel S. A. Leicht-Young

2014-01-01

89

Transmission of Elk and Deer Prions to Transgenic Mice†  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal prion disease in deer and elk. Unique among the prion diseases, it is transmitted among captive and free-ranging animals. To facilitate studies of the biology of CWD prions, we generated five lines of transgenic (Tg) mice expressing prion protein (PrP) from Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), denoted Tg(ElkPrP), and two lines of Tg mice expressing PrP common to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), den...

Tamgu?ney, Gu?ltekin; Giles, Kurt; Bouzamondo-bernstein, Essia; Bosque, Patrick J.; Miller, Michael W.; Safar, Jiri; Dearmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

2006-01-01

90

The surprising evolutionary history of South American deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

To clarify the systematic relationships and evolutionary history of South American deer, we conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis using representative species of all of the genera of Neotropical deer. Our results revealed high levels of molecular and cytogenetic divergence between groups of morphologically similar species of brockets (Mazama), and suggest a polyphyletic origin. At least eight ancestral forms of deer invaded South America during the late Pliocene (2.5-3 MYA), and members of the red brockets had an independent early explosive diversification soon after their ancestor arrived there, giving rise to a number of morphologically cryptic species. PMID:18675919

Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti; González, Susana; Maldonado, Jesus E

2008-10-01

91

Evaluating immunocontraception for managing suburban white-tailed deer in Irondequoit, New York  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunocontraception is frequently proposed as an alternative to lethal removal of females for deer management. However, little information is available for evaluating the potential of applying immunocontraceptives to free-ranging populations. Our objectives were to estimate effort required to apply porcine zona pellucida (PZP) to individual deer and assess the utility of using immunocontraception to control growth of deer populations. The study was conducted in a 43-km2 suburban community with about 400 deer. Effort per deer was measured as time required to capture and mark deer, and then to apply booster immunocontraceptive treatments by remote injection. Estimates of numbers of females to treat to control population growth were based on the generalized sustained-yield (SY) model adapted for contraception of females. The SY curve was calibrated using data on deer abundance acquired from aerial population surveys and nutritional condition of females removed by a concurrent culling program. Effort was influenced by 4 factors: deer population density, approachability of individual deer, access to private and public land, and efficacy of the contraceptive treatment. Effort and deer density were inversely related. Cumulative effort for treatment increased exponentially because some deer were more difficult to approach than others. Potential of using immunocontraception at low deer population densities (Immunocontraception has the best potential for holding suburban deer populations between 30 and 70% of ecological carrying capacity, but is likely to be useful only in localized populations when the number of females to be treated is small (e.g., <200 deer).

Rudolph, B.A.; Porter, W.F.; Underwood, H.B.

2000-01-01

92

Somatic Chromosomes of the Bornean Sambar Deer and Rusa Deer Interspecific Hybrids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Hybridization has potential benefits to the Malaysian farmed deer industries in terms of increased growth rate and increased proportion of muscle and an improved alignment of feed supply and annual energy requirement. Species or subspecies of different chromosome constitution could mate to produce healthy hybrid offspring in a normal ratio of males and females. If any of the hybrid offspring were sterile, the sterile offspring would be the heterogametic offspring. Th...

Ismail Idris; Saidi Moin

2009-01-01

93

Constructing STR Multiplexes for Individual Identification of Hungarian Red Deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Red deer is the most valuable game of the fauna in Hungary, and there is a strong need for genetic identification of individuals. For this purpose, 10 tetranucleotide STR markers were developed and amplified in two 5-plex systems. The study presented here includes the flanking region sequence analysis and the allele nomenclature of the 10 loci as well as the PCR optimization of the DeerPlex I and II. LD pairwise tests and cross-species similarity analyses showed the 10 loci to be independently inherited. Considerable levels of genetic differences between two subpopulations were recorded, and FST was 0.034 using AMOVA. The average probability of identity (PIave ) was at the value of 2.6736 × 10(-15) . This low value for PIave nearly eliminates false identification. An illegal hunting case solved by DeerPlex is described herein. The calculated likelihood ratio (LR) illustrates the potential of the 10 red deer microsatellite markers for forensic investigations. PMID:24512288

Szabolcsi, Zoltan; Egyed, Balazs; Zenke, Petra; Padar, Zsolt; Borsy, Adrienn; Steger, Viktor; Pasztor, Erzsebet; Csanyi, Sandor; Buzas, Zsuzsanna; Orosz, Laszlo

2014-07-01

94

Culling Deer Herd Curbs Lyme Disease, Study Says  

Science.gov (United States)

... page, please enable JavaScript. Culling Deer Herd Curbs Lyme Disease, Study Says Hunting program in Connecticut led ... Preidt Friday, July 11, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Lyme Disease FRIDAY, July 11, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Reducing ...

95

Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer (Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission. PMID:18004533

Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji

2008-03-01

96

A method for testing handgun bullets in deer  

CERN Document Server

Using service handguns to test bullets in deer is problematic because of velocity loss with range and accuracy giving sub-optimal shot placement. An alternate method is presented using a scoped muzzleloader shooting saboted handgun bullets to allow precise (within 2" in many cases) shot placement for studying terminal ballistics in a living target. Deer are baited to a known range and path obstructions are used to place the deer broadside to the shooter. Muzzleloading powder charges provide a combination of muzzle velocity and velocity loss due to air resistance for a given ballistic coefficient that produce impact velocities corresponding to typical pistol velocities. With readily available sabots, this approach allows for testing of terminal ballistics of .355, .357, .40, .429, .45, and .458 caliber bullets with two muzzleloaders (.45 and .50 caliber). Examples are described demonstrating the usefulness of testing handgun bullets in deer for acoustic shooting event reconstruction, understanding tissue damag...

Courtney, M; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael

2007-01-01

97

Experimental Treatment of Fallow Deer (Dama dama with Abamectin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Macrolide Endectocides (ME are antiparasitic agents that are daily applied in pharmacotherapy of food-producing animals. Worldwide numbers of pharmacokinetics studies performed on various matrixes of domestic animals with diverse detection methods for ME determination were developed. However only few studies on deer matrixes were published although ME are licensed and in use for treatment of red deer, fallow deer and reindeer in some countries of European Union, America and Australia. The purpose of this study was to follow some pharmacokinetic parameters of abamectin in fallow deer plasma 48 h after subcutaneous application of therapeutic dose. Biochemical and haematological parameters were also followed for 120 h after application of antiparasitic agent.

A. Vengust

2007-01-01

98

Selenium toxicosis in a white-tailed deer herd.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic selenium (Se) toxicosis was found in a herd of white-tailed deer showing signs of anorexia, weight loss, and lameness. Concentration of Se in the liver ranged from 2.7 to 8.97 mg/kg wet weight. Myocardial necrosis, mineralization, and fibroplasia were seen histologically. This is the first report of this toxicosis in white-tailed deer. PMID:21461211

Al-Dissi, Ahmad N; Blakley, Barry R; Woodbury, Murray R

2011-01-01

99

Red deer culls, Scots pine and the stalking client  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. This study examines the prospects for changes in deer management which meet the needs of both the stalking fraternity and conservationists. 2. We approach the problem from a less familiar angle, namely that of the needs of people who pay for stalking and of deer managers. 3. The study applied an economic method called choice experimentation to establish the weight and the monetary value that stalkers attach to attributes of their stalking trip. Attributes include such factors as ?...

Bullock, Craig

2001-01-01

100

Model for predicting 90Sr levels in mule deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model was developed to estimate the strontium-90 levels in male mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) from known 90Sr intake rates. The model was formulated on results from a study on the effects of age and season on Sr kinetics in mule deer. Captive deer of various ages, at selected times throughout the year, were given acute oral doses of 85SrCl2 and whole body counted to determine the retention function. A two-component exponential equation was used to mathematically describe the retention of 85Sr. The average for the slopes of the short component (1.09 day-1) corresponded very closely with the mean retention time for insoluble material in the gastrointestinal tract. For male deer, the value of the fractional intercept of the long component generally increased with age. The fractional intercepts also varied with the time of year the deer was administered the 85Sr, ranging from an average of 0.0539 during antler dormancy to 0.154 during periods of antler growth. The average of the observed values for the slope of the long component was 0.00365 day-1 for all deer. For the bucks, the slope of the long component was observed to decrease with age at time of spiking and to vary from a minimum for those spiked during antler dormancy to a maximum for those spiked during the antler growth period. There were no apparent effects of age and season on the kinetics of Sr in female deer. The model was developed to describe the uptake and retention of chronically ingested Sr. Due to the variations in the fractional intercept and slope of the long component, both associated with skeletal bone remodeling, the model utilized varying parameters. The predicted values were compared with those observed in a wild deer population and the close agreement added credibility to the coefficients of the total body retention equations utilized in the model

1975-05-12

 
 
 
 
101

Model for predicting strontium-90 levels in mule deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A predictive model was developed which effectively estimated the strontium-90 levels in male mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) from known 90Sr intake rates. The model was formulated on results from a study on the effects of age and season on the kinetics of Sr in mule deer. Captive deer of various ages, at selected times throughout the year, were given acute oral doses of 85SrCl2 and whole body counted to determine the retention function. A two-component exponential equation provided the best mathematical description of the retention of 85Sr. The average for the slopes of the short component (1.09/day) corresponded very closely with the mean retention time for insoluble material in the gastrointestinal tract. For male deer the value of the fractional intercept of the long component generally increased with age. The fractional intercepts also varied with the time of year the deer was administered the 85Sr, ranging from an average of 0.0539 during antler dormancy to 0.154 during periods of antler growth. The average of the observed values for the slope of the long component was 0.00365/day for all deer. For the bucks, the slope of the long component was observed to decrease with age at time of spiking and to vary from a minimum for those spiked during antler dormancy to a maximum for those spiked during the antler growth period. There were no apparent effects of age and season on the kinetics of Sr in female deer. The variations in the fractional intercept and the slope of the long component, both associated with skeletal bone remodeling, necessitated construction of a model which utilized varying parameters to describe the uptake and retention of chronically ingested Sr. The predicted values were compared with those observed in a wild deer population and the close agreement added credibility to the coefficients of the total body retention equations which were utilized in the model. (U.S.)

1975-05-12

102

Do Père David's Deer Lose Memories of Their Ancestral Predators?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Whether prey retains antipredator behavior after a long period of predator relaxation is an important question in predator-prey evolution. Père David's deer have been raised in enclosures for more than 1200 years and this isolation provides an opportunity to study whether Père David's deer still respond to the cues of their ancestral predators or to novel predators. We played back the sounds of crows (familiar sound) and domestic dogs (familiar non-predators), of tigers and wolves (ancestra...

Li, Chunwang; Yang, Xiaobo; Ding, Yuhua; Zhang, Linyuan; Fang, Hongxia; Tang, Songhua; Jiang, Zhigang

2011-01-01

103

Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd's unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd's overall health and reproductive status

1997-01-01

104

Radiological surveys of deer harvests on the Oak Ridge Reservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rapidly increasing number of deer/vehicle collisions on the Oak Ridge Reservation and contiguous lands resulted in the need for an aggressive method of reducing the deer population. Managed hunts on the reservation was the method chosen for this reduction, and the Oak Ridge Wildlife Management Area was established in November 1984. Because of possible radiological contamination of the deer herd from the three major nuclear installations on the reservation, a rigorous radiological survey of all harvested deer was deemed necessary to ensure that successful hunters or their families would not be exposed to excess radiation dose from the consumption of venison from the managed hunts. Data collected from previous vehicle-killed deer showed the possibility of contamination from 137Cs, 90Sr, 60Co, and 75Se. Methodology for 90Sr screening at a 0.25-mSv commitment required special considerations for field analysis since 90Sr decays by beta emission. A versatile data-base program was established with a personal computer system to handle the copious data related to both radiological and biological parameters collected during the harvest. The field screen values were verified by subsequent laboratory analyses utilizing Cerenkov counting. These verification analyses proved the utility of the field methodology for 90Sr detection in deer bones at the 1 Bq/g screening level

1990-06-01

105

Factors Affecting the Winter-Feeding Ecology of Red Deer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Characteristics of browsing the forest regenerations and the consumption of supplementary given food of red deer were investigated. On a 10,000 ha territory managed by a forest management unit all the regenerations were fenced in due to the high browsing pressure. In the course of the experiment three plots of 0.5 ha-s each regenerated by oak (Querqus robur were left unfenced. On the side of one plot a feeding station was built in which sugar beet slices were given supplementary. On the side of another plot maize fodder was offered, while the third one served as a control. All three plots were surrounded by sandy bands, to be able to count how many deer stepped in weekly the respective plot. During the freeze days deer used significantly less the regeneration plots, and consequently browsed less. The same was found during the snow cover. Although snow was as shallow as 5 cm in average, it caused a change in feeding strategy of deer. Regenerations covered by snow did not offer enough forage anymore, because the hiding of the forbs and grasses. On weeks with snow cover red deer consumed significantly more sugar beet slices, than on weeks without snow. On the days without snow cover the later the week during the winter was, the more sugar beet was consumed. Browsing pressure caused in average by one deer in the neighbouring of the feeding stations was significantly increased by giving supplementary maize or sugar beet slices.

Náhlik, A.

2005-06-01

106

Identification and characterization of deer astroviruses  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The threat of emerging infectious viruses in humans requires a more effective approach regarding virus surveillance. A thorough understanding of virus diversity in wildlife provides epidemiological baseline information about pathogens and may lead to the identification of newly emerging pathogens in the future. In this study, diarrhoea samples from an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness in a Danish population of European roe deer were gathered for which no aetiological agent could be identified. Large-scale molecular RNA virus screening, based on host nucleic acid depletion, sequence-independent amplification and sequencing of partially purified viral RNA, revealed the presence of novel astroviruses, CcAstV-1 and CcAstV-2, in two of ten diarrhoea samples. Whether these viruses were responsible for causing diarrhoea remains to be determined. Phylogenetic analyses on amplified sequences showed that these viruses were most closely related to each other, were a novel species in the genus Mamastrovirus and may represent two different serotypes.

Smits, Saskia L.; van Leeuwen, Marije

2010-01-01

107

First seropositive cases of Coxiella burnetii in red deer populations in the southwest Iberian peninsula.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in different red deer populations and to investigate role of red deer densities, livestock, and habitat on seroprevalence. The serosurvey revealed 5 positive cases out of 137 sera (3.64%) that occurred in two of the three study areas. This study documents the first cases of Coxiella burnetii in red deer in the southwest Iberian peninsula. A relationship between deer density and Coxiella seroprevalence was not found. Results revealed that indirect transmission through ticks between livestock and red deer might be associated with higher prevalence. The timing of shelter area usage may influence the contact between ticks and red deer by favoring transmission. Coxiella burnetii in red deer may be associated with infertility or early abortions with reabsorption. Further research is needed to evaluate its epidemiology and effect on the disease dynamics of red deer in the southwest Iberian peninsula. PMID:20945645

Castillo, Leticia; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Carranza Almansa, Juan; Bermejo, Félix; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

2010-09-01

108

75 FR 30776 - Grant of Authority For Subzone Status; Deere & Company (Agricultural Equipment and Component...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Agricultural Equipment and Component Parts); Waterloo, IA Pursuant to its authority under...Deere & Company facilities, located in Waterloo, Iowa (FTZ Docket 50-2009, filed...facilities of Deere & Company, located in Waterloo, Iowa (Subzone 175A), as...

2010-06-02

109

Wolf, Canis lupus, visits towhite-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, summer ranges: Optimal foraging?  

Science.gov (United States)

We tested whether Wolf (Canis lupus) visits to individual female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) summer ranges during 2003 and 2004 in northeastern Minnesota were in accord with optimal-foraging theory. Using GPS collars with 10- to 30-minute location attempts on four Wolves and five female deer, plus eleven VHF-collared female deer in the Wolves' territory, provided new insights into the frequency of Wolf visits to summer ranges of female deer. Wolves made a mean 0.055 visits/day to summer ranges of deer three years and older, significantly more than their 0.032 mean visits/day to ranges of two-year-old deer, which generally produce fewer fawns, and most Wolf visits to ranges of older deer were much longer than those to ranges of younger deer. Because fawns comprise the major part of the Wolf's summer diet, this Wolf behavior accords with optimal-foraging theory.

Demma, D. J.; Mech, L. D.

2009-01-01

110

78 FR 44148 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Antietam, Monocacy, Manassas White-tailed Deer...  

Science.gov (United States)

...use of sharpshooting with firearms, possible capture and euthanasia to reduce deer populations to the target density and maintain...use of sharpshooting with firearms, possible capture, and euthanasia to reduce deer populations to a desirable level and...

2013-07-23

111

Behavioral Differences Between Captive Female Alpine Musk Deer with Different Reproduction Success in Previous Year  

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Against a background of poor breeding success in captive alpine musk deer, an understanding of the behavioral differences between captive female alpine musk deer with and without reproduction success in previous year may yield useful information for musk deer farming practice. This study was conducted in the musk deer farm of Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu province of China from June 2004 to January 2005. The focal sampling and all occurrence recording was used to observe the beh...

Luan Xiaofeng; Zhao Changjie; Meng Xiuxiang

2011-01-01

112

Can we reconstruct deer browsing history and how? Lessons from Gaultheria shallon Pursh  

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We identified and analysed browsing signatures left by Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) on Salal (Gaultheria shallon) to reconstruct deer browsing history. Radial growth analyses showed negative abrupt growth changes on islands with deer probably linked to defoliation. Deer browsing pressure was best assessed by the incidence of morphological changes caused by browsing in section form, lobes, pith form, pith position or the presence of decaying wood and by changes in st...

Vila, Bruno; Guibal, Fre?de?ric; Torre, Franck; Martin, Jean-louis

2005-01-01

113

Reproductive biology of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus): a review  

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Abstract The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) is a South American grazing deer which is in extreme danger of extinction. Very little is known about the biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, most information has not been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, and is only available in local publications, theses, etc. Therefore, our aim was to update and summarize the available information regarding the reproductive biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, in most se...

Ungerfeld Rodolfo; González-Pensado Solana; Bielli Alejandro; Villagrán Matías; Olazabal Daniel; Pérez William

2008-01-01

114

Fatty Acid Profiles and Cholesterol Composition of Venison from Farmed Deer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is important to evaluate venison characteristics as a new high quality red meat in the meat marketing system. This information is vital to ensure their commercial success and dietary benefits. The aim of this study is to determine the venison quality from farmed deer according to cuts or muscles based on fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content and to do comparative study on venison quality between species of farmed deer (rusa, sambar, fallow and imported red deer and feeding regimens, i.e., grass-fed vs concentrate-fed venison. The samples of venison were derived from javan rusa (Cervus timorensis russa, moluccan rusa (Cervus timorensis moluccensis, sambar (Cervus unicolor brookei, fallow (Dama dama and imported red deer (Cervus elaphus. Moluccan rusa and red deer were grass-fed deer. Javan rusa, sambar and fallow deer were concentrate-fed deer. Cholesterol content in Longissimus Dorsi (LD muscles of sambar, fallow and rusa deer were 75.36, 76.61 and 77.58 mg/100g of fresh venison, respectively. Cholesterol content in Biceps Femoris (BF muscles of moluccan rusa, sambar, fallow and red deer were 56.61, 59.26, 86.37 and 98.44 mg/100g of fresh venison, respectively. Concentrate-fed deer LD and Psoas Major (PM muscles show higher C18:2 (n-6 than grass-fed deer. Grass-fed rusa deer shows the highest C18:3 (n- 3 percentages in PM muscle. Grass-fed rusa and red deer gave an ideal n-6:n-3 ratio of less than 5. Species of deer did not influence n-6:n-3 ratio and fatty acid composition in venison. Feeding regimens (grass-fed vs concentrate-fed significantly (p< 0.05 influence n-6:n-3 ratio, fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content in the venison of farmed deer in this study.

N.A. Norfarizan-Hanoon

2007-01-01

115

Impacts of endangered Key deer hervivory on imperiled pine rocklands: a conservation dilemma  

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Full Text Available In the lower Florida Keys, endangered Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium herbivory, along with fire, can affect pine rocklands, an endangered plant community. We compared pineland vegetation from three studies over approximately 50 years on four islands with either high or low deer density (historical analysis. We also compared extant vegetation samples between two islands with high or low deer density, which contained pinelands burned 10 years and 14 years prior to sampling and control areas (unburned for > 50yr. In addition, experimental deer exclosures and control plots established in pineland were prescribe burned and analyzed for deer effects on an island with high density of Key deer. The historical analysis suggests that, over time, deer-preferred plant species declined while less-preferred species increased, regardless of fire history on islands. The extant vegetation analysis suggests that fire and Key deer herbivory both reduce hardwood plant density and growth. Densities of deer-preferred woody species were higher on an island with low deer density than on an island with high deer density in burn treatments, but relatively similar in control areas. On the high deer density island, a fire effect was evident in that the control area had higher densities of woody species than burned areas, and herbaceous species richness was higher in the control area, indicating a possible refuge from deer herbivory. In deer exclosures, preferred woody species and herbaceous species tended to increase after fire, but decrease in adjacent open plots. Results suggest that Key deer herbivory, along with fire, shapes pine rockland plant communities, and that overbrowsing might have substantial impacts on preferred herbaceous and woody species in pinelands. Therefore, efforts could be confounded in managing both the endangered Key deer and the endangered pine rocklands that they affect.

P. Stiling

2006-01-01

116

Observations on coyote-mule deer interactions at Rocky Flats, Colorado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Observations of interactions between coyotes (Canis latrans) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in N-central Colorado indicated that, upon discovering a coyote close to a herd, mule deer would become alert, bunch together and either flee or pursue the coyote. Two observations of coyotes attacking deer indicated that the rump was the probable point of attack and in one case the deer began a defense using its front hooves.

Alldredge, A.W.; Arthur, W.J. III

1980-01-01

117

Ehrlichia chaffeensis antibodies in white-tailed deer, Iowa, 1994 and 1996.  

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Surveillance of 2,277 white-tailed deer for antibodies against Ehrlichia chaffeensis in Iowa showed seropositivity rates of 12.5% in 1994 and 13.9% in 1996. From 1994 to 1996, the estimated number of seropositive deer increased to 54,701 (28%). The increasing deer population and expanding tick distribution may increase risk for human monocytic ehrlichiosis.

Mueller-anneling, L.; Gilchrist, M. J.; Thorne, P. S.

2000-01-01

118

Isolation of Bartonella schoenbuchensis from Lipoptena cervi, a Blood-Sucking Arthropod Causing Deer Ked Dermatitis  

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Bartonella schoenbuchensis, which commonly causes bacteremia in ruminants, was isolated from the deer ked Lipoptena cervi and was shown to localize to the midgut of this blood-sucking arthropod, causing deer ked dermatitis in humans. The role of B. schoenbuchensis in the etiology of deer ked dermatitis should be further investigated.

Dehio, Christoph; Sauder, Ursula; Hiestand, Rosemarie

2004-01-01

119

76 FR 35467 - Deer and Vegetation Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Fire Island National Seashore...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Park Service [2031-A154-422] Deer and Vegetation Management Plan/Environmental...an Environmental Impact Statement for a Deer and Vegetation Management Plan, Fire Island...Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a Deer and Vegetation Management Plan at...

2011-06-17

120

75 FR 61609 - Establishment and Modification of Class E Airspace; Deer Park, WA  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Modification of Class E Airspace; Deer Park, WA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...and amend existing Class E airspace at Deer Park, WA, to accommodate aircraft using...Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Deer Park, WA. This will improve the...

2010-10-06

 
 
 
 
121

An Assessment of Agricultural Damage Caused by Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L.and Fallow Deer (Dama dama L. in Southwest England  

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Full Text Available The impact of deer grazing on agricultural grassland and cereal crops was assessed at two locations with medium to high deer densities in the Exmoor area of southwest England. Red deer impact on early spring grazing was measured at one site by comparing samples of herbage cut from inside and outside deer-proof exclosure cages, just prior to turn out of livestock, on 1 March 1989. Fallow deer impact on first-cut silage grass production was similarly measured using exclosure cages at a second site by cutting samples on 31 May 1990 and on 6 June 1995. In addition, impact of fallow deer on cereal crops was assessed at this site by measuring sample grain yields from areas of the crop used or unused by deer in 1995 (winter wheat, 1996 (winter barley and 1997 (winter wheat. Significant dry matter yield losses were recorded for red deer impact on spring grazing in 1989 (14.5% and for fallow deer impact on first-cut silage (15.9% in 1995 but not in 1990. In 1995 a small but significant yield loss (7.1% was recorded for winter wheat at the fallow deer site but no loss in cereal yield was recorded in 1996 or 1997. These assessments, carried out in response to complaints about deer damage, suggest that the impacts of deer in this area, where they occur at relatively high density, are only moderate. This highlights the need for careful assessment of cost-benefits when considering deer management strategies to reduce perceived agricultural damage.

Charles John Wilson

2009-12-01

122

Polonium assimilation and retention in mule deer and pronghorn antelope  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Excretion kinetics and tissue distribution of polonium-210 in mule deer and pronghorn were studied. Each animal in a captive herd of 7 mule deer and 2 pronghorn received an intraruminal injection of 4.4 ..mu..Ci of polonium chloride. Feces and urine were collected periodically over a 43-day period and daily excretion rate for each pathway was regressed as a function of time. Assimilation fractions of 0.40 and 0.51 were calculated for mule deer (n=2) and 0.60 for a pronghorn. Body burden retention functions were calculated from integrated excretion rate functions. Polonium burdens in muscle, liver, and kidney were calculated as a fraction of body burden from serially-sacrificed animals. Background tissue burdens in mule deer were comparable to those of other ruminants reported in the literature. Hypothetical cases were assumed which combined feeding rate of mule deer, forage concentrations of polonium, retention function, tissue burden fraction, and human intake to estimate human radiation dose. 26 references.

Sejkora, K.J.

123

Polonium assimilation and retention in mule deer and pronghorn antelope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Excretion kinetics and tissue distribution of polonium-210 in mule deer and pronghorn were studied. Each animal in a captive herd of 7 mule deer and 2 pronghorn received an intraruminal injection of 4.4 ?Ci of polonium chloride. Feces and urine were collected periodically over a 43-day period and daily excretion rate for each pathway was regressed as a function of time. Assimilation fractions of 0.40 and 0.51 were calculated for mule deer (n=2) and 0.60 for a pronghorn. Body burden retention functions were calculated from integrated excretion rate functions. Polonium burdens in muscle, liver, and kidney were calculated as a fraction of body burden from serially-sacrificed animals. Background tissue burdens in mule deer were comparable to those of other ruminants reported in the literature. Hypothetical cases were assumed which combined feeding rate of mule deer, forage concentrations of polonium, retention function, tissue burden fraction, and human intake to estimate human radiation dose. 26 references

1982-01-01

124

Favus In A Non-endemic Area  

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Favus, although endemic in the Kashmir valley, is rarely reported form other parts of India. We report two cases of favus from rural Udaipur, Rajasthan, because of its rarity in a non- endemic zone. Both the patients had scutula and cicatricial alopecia, characteristic of scales. Culture on Sabouraud�s dextrose agar grew Trichophyton schoenleinii in both the cases.

Gupata L K; Bansal N K; Kuldeep C. M; Surana S S; Mehta P; Jasuja K; Sharma A.

2002-01-01

125

Favus In A Non-endemic Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Favus, although endemic in the Kashmir valley, is rarely reported form other parts of India. We report two cases of favus from rural Udaipur, Rajasthan, because of its rarity in a non- endemic zone. Both the patients had scutula and cicatricial alopecia, characteristic of scales. Culture on Sabouraud�s dextrose agar grew Trichophyton schoenleinii in both the cases.

Gupata L K

2002-01-01

126

Removal of cesium from red deer meat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect was studied of marinading on the reduction of cesium radionuclide activity in red deer meat contaminated by ingestion of feed containing 134Cs+137Cs from radioactive fallout following the Chernobyl accident. Two types of marinade were studied, viz., a vinegar infusion and a vinegar infusion with an addition of vegetables and spices. The meat was chopped to cubes of about 1.5 cm in size and the marinading process took place at temperatures of 5 and 11 degC. The drop of cesium content in the meat was determined by gamma spectrometry at given time intervals. The replacement of the marinade and the duration of the process were found to maximally affect efficiency. If the solution was not replaced, about 80% of cesium radionuclides were removed after seven hours of marinading. With one replacement of the infusion the drop in 134Cs+137Cs radioactivity amounted to up to 90% after seven hours of marinading. No effects were shown of vegetable additions to the vinegar infusion and of the change in temperature from 5 to 11 degC on the efficiency of the process. (author). 3 tabs., 6 refs

1989-08-01

127

A new gene mapping resource: Interspecies hybrids between Pere David`s deer (Elaphurus davidianus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three male F{sub 1} hybrids between Pere David`s deer and red deer were mated to red deer to produce 143 backcross calves. The pedigrees are a rare example of a fertile hybrid between evolutionarily divergent species. We examined the use of these families for genetic mapping of evolutionarily conserved (Type I) loci by testing for genetic linkage between five species-specific protein variants and 12 conserved DNA probes. Two probes were homologous, and the remainder syntenic, to the protein coding loci in cattle or humans. Using six restriction enzymes, each DNA probe detected one or more restriction fragments specific to Pere David`s deer. Linkage analyses among the species-specific variants placed the loci into four linkage groups within which linkage between adjacent loci and gene order was supported by a LOD > 3. Southern and protein analysis of LDHA and ALB provided identical segregation data. These linkage groups were consistent with the cattle gene map and provide new information for comparing the gene maps of ruminants, humans and mice. The deer hybrids are an important new resource that can contribute to the comparative analysis of the mammalian genome. 68 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Tate, M.L.; Mathias, H.C.; Penty, J.M.; Hill, D.F. [Univ. of Otago (New Zealand); Fennessy, P.F.; Dodds, K.G. [Invermay Agricultural Centre, Mosgiel (New Zealand)

1995-03-01

128

THE YIELD OF DNA IN THERMAL TERATED DEER MEAT  

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Full Text Available Residuals of DNA are one of the most important factors for detection, traceability and reverse authentication of deer meat. In this project we isolated DNA from deer processed meat and analysed by electrophoresis. Goal of the study was compute ratio between raw meat and several heat processed deer meat. Samples were prepared by five heat treatment techniques (pan roasted with temperature 180-240°C, fried with 156°C, braised with temperature 100-150°C, boiled in 100.2°C water and autoclaved in different time intervals. The highest amount of residual DNA 1927ng was obtained with two hours boiled sample. The lowest value 89.89ng was obtained with one hour braised sample. In technological adjustments highest amount of DNA and 1927ng, so the total yield of 192.7ng.-l was observed in the sample we cooked for two hours at boiling temperature.   doi:10.5219/153 

Jozef Golian

2011-07-01

129

Mule deer passage beneath an overland coal conveyor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presently, information pertaining to migration and daily movement patterns of big game in relation to overland conveyors or large diameter pipelines is sparse. A literature review showed that moose, caribou, reindeer, and dall sheep will pass beneath or over large diameter pipeline systems. But no information was found relative to big game crossing coal conveyor systems. Mule deer passage beneath an overland coal conveyor in Carbon County, Utah, was studied during spring 1981. Deer avoided crossing at underpass opportunities where the clearance was less than 50 cm. Clearances between 50 and 90 cm were selected for crossing. Deer passed beneath the conveyor during day and nighttime conditions and while the conveyor was either operating or idle. Recommendations are discussed for designing conveyors and pipelines to facilitate big game passage. 13 references, 2 tables.

Greenwood, C.L.; Dalton, L.B.

1984-07-31

130

Experimental and Field Studies of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in White-Tailed Deer  

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Studies were conducted to evaluate fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a small group of inoculated deer, determine the prevalence of the bacterium in free-ranging white-tailed deer, and elucidate relationships between E. coli O157:H7 in wild deer and domestic cattle at the same site. Six young, white-tailed deer were orally administered 108 CFU of E. coli O157:H7. Inoculated deer were shedding E. coli O157:H7 by 1 day postinoculation (DPI) and continued to shed decreasing numbers of...

2001-01-01

131

Habitat distribution and diversity of forest plant as feed resources of mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus and barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak in Nature Preserve of west and east Nusakambangan  

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Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to study on habitat distribution and the diversity of forest plants as feed resources of mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus and barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak was conducted in Nature Preserve of Nusakambangan. Preferred Habitat of mouse deer is the dense of bushes with many fallen dry leaves which seemingly they use for their mattress cover as well as the places with bush dense of zalacca palm and generally not far from the river. While the barking deer prefers the dense of bushes on the edges of forest with coarse grass grow there. Forest plants as feed resources for mouse deer and barking deer found in this research consist of 34 species grouped in 21 families.

GOZALI SUMAATMADJA

2003-07-01

132

Female red deer prefer the roars of larger males  

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Surprisingly little is known about the role of acoustic cues in mammal female mate choice. Here, we examine the response of female red deer (Cervus elaphus) to male roars in which an acoustic cue to body size, the formants, has been re-scaled to simulate different size callers. Our results show that oestrous red deer hinds prefer roars simulating larger callers and constitute the first evidence that female mammals use an acoustic cue to body size in a mate choice context. We go on to suggest ...

Charlton, Benjamin D.; Reby, David; Mccomb, Karen

2007-01-01

133

Reindeer warble fly larvae found in red deer  

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Full Text Available Seven third instar larvae of the reindeer warble fly (Hypoderma (=Oedemagena tarandi were found in a 2-3 year old male red deer {Cervus elaphus shot on 14 November 1985 at Todalen, western Norway. This it, the first report of H. tarandi from red deer. In reindeer third instar larvae are found from February to June, and the unusual date of this record indicates a delayed development of the larvae due to abnormal host reactions. Warble fly larvae, probably H. tarandi, are also reported from moose {Alces alces in northern Norway.

A. C. Nilssen

1988-06-01

134

The Association of BDNF Gene Variants with Behaviour Traits in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon  

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Full Text Available It is widely accepted that Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF is involved in modulating behaviour performance induced by environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to study polymorphisms of the BDNF gene and their relationship with animal behaviour in sika deer (Cervus nippon. About 48 sika deer reared under Ping-Shan-Tang Farm (25 deers and Zhu-Yu-Wan Park (23 deers, Yangzhou City, Jiangsu province, China were observed and blood samples taken to identify BDNF genotypes. Data were subjected to ANOVA analysis to evaluate the link between genotype and animal behaviour traits. After PCR and electrophoresis, polymorphisms were found in two pairs of primers. At primer P-4, AA genotype (26 deer rested significantly less than BB genotype (16 deers (p<0.05. The AA genotype deer also performed significantly more locomotion behaviour (p = 0.001. At the primer P-5, deer of genotypes CC/DD/CD differed significantly in their watching behaviour. Deer of genotype CC performed significantly less resting and self-grooming behaviour than deer of genotypes CD or DD (both p<0.05. The findings suggest that polymorphisms in BDNF may be involved in some aspects of animal behaviour traits especially in the high sensitive sika deer reared for several years in China park.

Wei Wan-Hong

2011-01-01

135

White-tailed deer movement and distribution about surface coal mines in West Virginia, USA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deer movements around surface coal mines were investigated in Preston County, West Virginia, USA. Seventy-two deer crossings were counted on 29 surface mines with only 8% found on highwalls with more than 20% rock or stone. Thus, although slope was important, the percentage of dirt on the highwall determined use as a crossing location for deer. The average distance between all deer crossing was 209.7 m but the distance between the end of the highwall and the nearest highwall crossing was 248.7 m indicating reluctance of deer to cross mines when they could walk around them. Winter snow track counts showed fewer deer within 90 m of the top edge of the highwall. Four land bridges traversed the highwall and were heavily utilized by deer, especially in March, April, May, October and November. The surface mine bench was used as a fawn bedding area, but little feeding occurred on this portion of the mine.

Knotts, R.

1982-03-01

136

Distribution of Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster in Neelum Valley, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir  

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Full Text Available To study the present and past distribution of Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster Survey in Neelum valley, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir was conducted from April to November 2002, Findings show that Musk deer is distributed throughout the Neelum valley. Poaching, deforestation and trans human grazing resulted in scattering of population of the musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster into separate pockets. Population of the musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster recorded from the area is 120 animals. Investigation indicates Musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster resides at low altitude as compared to other areas reported from Pakistan. Seasonal migration of musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster was also noted as a result of Trans-human grazing in summer in summer. To conserve the dwindling population of musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster from Neelum Valley there must be expansion of Salkhla game reserve up to palri and Gail along with the law enforcement and awareness campaign.

Baseer ud Din Qureshi

2004-01-01

137

Glycolytic potential and ultimate muscle pH values in red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama  

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Full Text Available

The ultimate pH value of meat (measured at approx. 24 hours post slaughter gives information about the technological quality, i.e. shelf life, colour, water-holding properties and tenderness and is a direct consequence of muscle glycogen (energy levels at slaughter. It may therefore also indicate whether or not the animal has been exposed to stressful energy depleting events prior to slaughter. In the present study, 141 animals (130 red deer (Cervus elaphus and 11 fallow deer (Dama dama were included to investigate the relationship between ultimate pH and residual glycogen concentration in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus. In addition, the muscle glycogen content and ultimate pH values in three red deer muscles (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus and biceps femoris were studied. M. triceps brachii had higher ultimate pH and lower glycogen content compared with the other two studied muscles. The frequency of intermediate DFD (5.8? pH<6.2 was 5.4% in red deer M. longissimus, compared with 9.1% in fallow deer, while the frequency of DFD (pH? 6.2 was much lower in red deer (3.8% than in fallow deer (54.5%. A curvilinear relationship between ultimate pH and total glucose concentration (glycogen and glucose 30 min post slaughter in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus was found. The relationship between muscle pH and lactic acid concentration however, was indicated to be linear. A significant variation in total glucose concentration at ultimate pH below 5.80 was observed, including values in the range from 18 to 123 mmol/kg wet tissue. It was concluded that further studies are needed to further explore the relationship between muscle glycogen content and technological and sensory quality attributes of meat from different deer species.

Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:

Köttets pH-värde (mätt ca 24 timmar efter slakt har stor betydelse för den teknologiska kvaliteten som t. ex. hållbarhet, färg, vattenhållande förmåga och mörhet. Glykogenförrådet (energinivån i djurens muskulatur vid slakt är helt avgörande för köttets slutliga pH-värde. Därför kan pH-värdet också indikera om hanteringen av slaktdjur varit skonsam eller om stora mängder muskelenergi har förbrukats vid stress. I vår undersökning ingick 141 hjortar (130 kronhjortar (Cervus elaphus och 11 dovhjortar (Dama dama för att studera sambandet mellan köttets pH-värde och glykogeninnehållet i M. longissimus. Glykogeninnehåll och pH-värden i 3 muskler från kronhjort (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus och biceps femoris undersöktes också. M. triceps brachii hade högre pH-värde och lägre glykogeninnehåll jämfört med de två andra musklerna. Det var inte så stor skillnad i frekvensen av intermediär DFD (pH-värden mellan 5,8 og 6,2 mellan de två hjortarterna (5,4% för kronhjort och 9,1% för dovhjort, däremot var frekvensen av DFD (pH-värden över 6,2 mycket låg hos kronhjort (3,8% jämfört med dovhjort (54,5%. Det fanns ett kurvlinjärt samband mellan slutligt pH-värde i köttet och total glukoskoncentration (glykogen + glukos mätt i M. longissimus 30 min efter slakt för både kron- och dovhjort. Ett linjärt samband mellan pH-värde och koncentration av mjölksyra i M. longissimus kunde också visas. Vi fann en mycket stor varitation i glukoskoncentration (18?123 mmol/kg våtvikt när köttets pH-värdet var 5,8 eller lägre. Det behövs fler undersökningar för att vidare klargöra sambanden mellan glykogeninnehåll i muskulaturen och teknologisk och sensorisk kvalitet i olika typer av hjortkött.

Roger P. Littlejohn

2004-04-01

138

Taxonomic Status of Endemic Plants in Korea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Disagreement among the various publications providing lists of Korean endemic plants makes confusion inevitable. We summarized the six previous reports providing comprehensive lists of endemic plants in Korea: 407 taxa in Lee (1982, 570 taxa in Paik (1994, 759 taxa in Kim (2004, 328 taxa in Korea National Arboretum (2005, 515 taxa in the Ministry of Environment (2005 and 289 taxa in Flora of Korea Editorial Committee (2007. The total number of endemic plants described in the previous reports was 970 taxa, including 89 families, 302 genera, 496 species, 3 subspecies, 218 varieties, and 253 formae. Endemic plants listed four times or more were collected to compare the data in terms of scientific names and synonyms (339 taxa in 59 families and 155 genera. If the varieties and formae were excluded, the resulting number of endemic plants was 252 taxa for the 339 purported taxa analyzed. Seven of the 155 genera analyzed were Korean endemic genera. Among the 339 taxa, the same scientific names were used in the original publications for 256 taxa (76%, while different scientific names were used for 83 taxa (24%. The four largest families were Compositae (42 taxa, 12.4%, Ranunculaceae (19 taxa, 5.6%, Rosaceae (19 taxa, 5.6%, and Scrophulariaceae (19 taxa, 5.6%. Saussurea (Compositae had the highest number of taxa within one genus (17 taxa; 5% of total endemic taxa.

Kun Ok Kim

2009-11-01

139

Health status and relative exposure of mule deer and white-tailed deer to soil contaminants at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer [13 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and 5 white-tailed deer (O. virginianus)] from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, near Denver, Colorado, USA, a Superfund site contaminated with a variety of materials, including organochlorine pesticides, metals and nerve gas production by-products. Radio-collared deer were tracked for 1 to 3 years (1989--1992) to identify relative exposure to contaminants based on telemetry locations plotted on grid maps depicting known soil contaminant concentrations. At the end of the study, all animals were in fair or good body condition at the time of necropsy. Mean ages of mule deer and white-tailed deer were 7.4 and 10.6 years, respectively. At necropsy, tissues were collected from the deer for serology, histopathology, and analysis for eight chlorinated hydrocarbons and two metals. Detectable residues of mercury were found in the kidneys of 10 deer, dieldrin was found in fat, liver, and brain, and DDE was found in the muscle of one animal. Relative exposure estimates derived from telemetry and soil contamination data were correlated with tissue levels of dieldrin and mercury. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. The prevalence of antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85%.

Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C. [Geological Survey, Madison, WI (United States). National Wildlife Health Center; Whittaker, D.G. [Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR (United States); Roy, R.R. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Commerce City, CO (United States). Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge]|[Fish and Wildlife Service, Moses Lake, WA (United States). Moses Lake Field Office; Baker, D.L. [Colorado Div. of Wildlife, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1999-02-01

140

Analysis of radionuclide concentrations and movement patterns of Hanford-site mule deer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From 1980 through 1982, the movements of 37 radio-collared mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were monitored for periods of 3 to 17 months on the Handord Site in southcentral Washington. The objectives were to compare radionuclide concentrations in deer residing near the 200 Area waste management sites with concentrations in deer occupying areas remote from waste management sites and to document movement patterns of Hanford Site deer with particular emphasis on offsite movements. Cesium-137 in deer muscle and liver and /sup 90/Sr concentrations in deer bone were statistically higher in deer living near the 200 Area than in control animals. During this study, the highest concentrations of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr in 200 Area deer were in those individuals residing in or immediately adjacent to radiation zones. Cesium-137 and /sup 90/Sr concentrations were more variable in deer residing near the 200 Area than in control animals, where only background (fallout) levels were observed. Movement patterns of Hanford site deer were analyzed to determine home range size and usage. The average home range was 0.39 +- 27 km/sup 2/. In addition, ten (27%) of the monitored deer made offsite movements during the study period. While most of these movements were made in the spring and summer, some fall and winter movements were noted. It was estimated that approximately 8% (95% confidence interval is from 0 to 21%) of the Hanford deer herd is harvested each year. As a result of the low harvest rate, the Hanford deer herd appears to have a disproportionate number of older animals, with 24% of the 17 examined deer older than 10.5 years.

Eberhardt, L.E.; Hanson, E.E.; Cadwell, L.L.

1982-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

Peromyscus (deer mice) as developmental models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deer mice (Peromyscus) are the most common native North American mammals, and exhibit great natural genetic variation. Wild-derived stocks from a number of populations are available from the Peromyscus Genetic Stock Center (PGSC). The PGSC also houses a number of natural variants and mutants (many of which appear to differ from Mus). These include metabolic, coat-color/pattern, neurological, and other morphological variants/mutants. Nearly all these mutants are on a common genetic background, the Peromyscus maniculatus BW stock. Peromyscus are also superior behavior models in areas such as repetitive behavior and pair-bonding effects, as multiple species are monogamous. While Peromyscus development generally resembles that of Mus and Rattus, prenatal stages have not been as thoroughly studied, and there appear to be intriguing differences (e.g., longer time spent at the two-cell stage). Development is greatly perturbed in crosses between P. maniculatus (BW) and Peromyscus polionotus (PO). BW females crossed to PO males produce growth-restricted, but otherwise healthy, fertile offspring which allows for genetic analyses of the many traits that differ between these two species. PO females crossed to BW males produce overgrown but severely dysmorphic conceptuses that rarely survive to late gestation. There are likely many more uses for these animals as developmental models than we have described here. Peromyscus models can now be more fully exploited due to the emerging genetic (full linkage map), genomic (genomes of four stocks have been sequenced) and reproductive resources. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. PMID:24896658

Vrana, Paul B; Shorter, Kimberly R; Szalai, Gabor; Felder, Michael R; Crossland, Janet P; Veres, Monika; Allen, Jasmine E; Wiley, Christopher D; Duselis, Amanda R; Dewey, Michael J; Dawson, Wallace D

2014-05-01

142

Inbreeding depression in red deer calves  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the fitness consequences of inbreeding is of major importance for evolutionary and conservation biology. However, there are few studies using pedigree-based estimates of inbreeding or investigating the influence of environment and age variation on inbreeding depression in natural populations. Here we investigated the consequences of variation in inbreeding coefficient for three juvenile traits, birth date, birth weight and first year survival, in a wild population of red deer, considering both calf and mother's inbreeding coefficient. We also tested whether inbreeding depression varied with environmental conditions and maternal age. Results We detected non-zero inbreeding coefficients for 22% of individuals with both parents and at least one grandparent known (increasing to 42% if the dataset was restricted to those with four known grandparents. Inbreeding depression was evident for birth weight and first year survival but not for birth date: the first year survival of offspring with an inbreeding coefficient of 0.25 was reduced by 77% compared to offspring with an inbreeding coefficient of zero. However, it was independent of measures of environmental variation and maternal age. The effect of inbreeding on birth weight appeared to be driven by highly inbred individuals (F = 0.25. On the other hand first year survival showed strong inbreeding depression that was not solely driven by individuals with the highest inbreeding coefficients, corresponding to an estimate of 4.35 lethal equivalents. Conclusions These results represent a rare demonstration of inbreeding depression using pedigree-based estimates in a wild mammal population and highlight the potential strength of effects on key components of fitness.

Walling Craig A

2011-10-01

143

Lead content in soft tissues of white-tailed deer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The white-tailed deer is one of the North America`s most abundant game animals and can be used to monitor the quality of the environment. During the 1994 and 1995 hunting seasons, twenty-nine white-tailed deer were harvested with the permission of the Game Biologist of the Alabama Cooperative Deer Management Assistance Program and their liver and kidney samples were analyzed for lead levels. The lead levels in the livers and kidneys, were 0.35 and 0.37 ppm, respectively. The lead levels in the livers and kidneys did not show any significant difference. The lead levels in the livers of males and females were 0.49 and 0.28 ppm and in the kidneys of males and females were 0.36 and 0.38 ppm, respectively. The lead levels in the livers and kidneys of males and females also did not show any significant difference. Likewise, the lead level neither in the livers nor in the kidneys of young and old deer showed any significant difference.

Khan, A.T. [Tuskegee Univ., AL (United States). School of Veterinary Medicine

1995-12-31

144

Ovarian mucinous cystadenoma in a gray brocket deer (Mazama gouazoupira).  

Science.gov (United States)

An ovarian mucinous cystadenoma is described in a gray brocket deer (Mazama gouazoupira). The tumor was histologically characterized by the presence of cysts and proliferation of papillae, both lined by single- or multi-layered pleomorphic epithelial cells that contained alcian blue-positive mucins. PMID:21908297

Monteiro, Lidianne N; Salgado, Breno S; Grandi, Fabrizio; Fernandes, Thaís R; Miranda, Bruna S; Teixeira, Carlos R; Rocha, Rafael M; Rocha, Noeme S

2011-05-01

145

REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN MALE DEER MICE EXPOSED TO AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR  

Science.gov (United States)

Male deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) were reared in a long photoperiod and housed individually from 3 weeks of age until they were killed 2, 4, or 6 weeks later. Males that were exposed to aggressive females for 2 min, three times per week, were of normal body weight a...

146

Seasonal variation in the behavior of captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus, in Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm, of China  

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Full Text Available Musk deer farming has the potential to be an effective conservation tool for the protection of musk deer as well as the production of valuable musk. To be successful, this requires a thorough understanding of the behavior of captive musk deer in order to improve their reproductive success and management. Between August 2005 to January 2006, the behavior sampling of 19 male and 13 female captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus Büchner, 1891, was used to examine the durations of twelve behavioral characteristics during the pre-rut (August to October and rut seasons (November to January. Both males and females exhibited some seasonal variation in behavior. Males rested and fed more during the pre-rut than the rut and spent more time walking, fighting, and standing alert during the rut. Females spent more time feeding, ruminating, and interacting non-aggressively with other individuals during the pre-rut and more time in agonistic interactions during the rut. The significance of these behavioral changes and their association with husbandry practices and farm management are discussed.

Luan Xiaofeng

2010-01-01

147

Seasonal variation in the behavior of captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus, in Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm, of China  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Musk deer farming has the potential to be an effective conservation tool for the protection of musk deer as well as the production of valuable musk. To be successful, this requires a thorough understanding of the behavior of captive musk deer in order to improve their reproductive success and manage [...] ment. Between August 2005 to January 2006, the behavior sampling of 19 male and 13 female captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus Büchner, 1891, was used to examine the durations of twelve behavioral characteristics during the pre-rut (August to October) and rut seasons (November to January). Both males and females exhibited some seasonal variation in behavior. Males rested and fed more during the pre-rut than the rut and spent more time walking, fighting, and standing alert during the rut. Females spent more time feeding, ruminating, and interacting non-aggressively with other individuals during the pre-rut and more time in agonistic interactions during the rut. The significance of these behavioral changes and their association with husbandry practices and farm management are discussed.

Luan, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Changjie; Hui, Cenyi; Meng, Xiuxiang.

148

Industry-wide study report of an in-depth survey at Shell Oil Company Deer Park Manufacturing Complex, Deer Park, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An in-depth survey was made of a 1,3-butadiene monomer-producing plant, Shell Oil Company's Deer Park Manufacturing Complex, Deer Park, Texas because recent toxicological studies indicated 1,3-butadiene as an animal and potential human carcinogen. Workers performing maintenance on process equipment had the highest potential mean exposure.

Ungers, L.J.; Fajen, J.M.; Roberts, D.R.; McCann, J.

1986-05-01

149

Pathophysiology of white-tailed deer vaccinated with porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptive  

Science.gov (United States)

White-tailed deer (n = 14 treated, n = 7 control) were examined postmortem to identify any possible pathophysiology resulting from PZP immunocontraception vaccination. Deer were treated twice in 1997; given a booster in 1998, with six being revaccinated in September 2000. Granulomas were found at injection sites of most deer, even 2 years post-treatment. Eosinophilic oophoritis occurred in 6 of 8 (75%) deer vaccinated in 1998, and 3 of 6 (50%) revaccinated in 2000. The 2000 revaccinates without oophoritis, had significantly fewer normal secondary follicles than control females (P = 0.03), and deer in the1998 treatment group (P = 0.04). PZP immunocontraceptive vaccine elicited ovarian pathologies in deer similar to those observed in other species. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Curtis, P. D.; Richmond, M. E.; Miller, L. A.; Quimby, F. W.

2007-01-01

150

[sup 137]Cs levels in deer following the Three Mile Island accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus) tongues were assayed to assess whether or not significant widespread [sup 137]Cs contamination occurred in the vicinity of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station as a result of the 1979 accident. White-tailed deer tongues harvested from 10 Pennsylvania counties more than 88 km away from Three Mile Island had significantly higher [sup 137]Cs levels than deer tongues harvested from counties surrounding the nuclear plant. The mean deer tongue [sup 137]Cs levels found in Pennsylvania white-tailed deer were lower than [sup 137]Cs levels found in deer from other parts of the US sampled shortly after culmination of major atmospheric nuclear testing. These findings support the conclusions of previous studies suggesting that only minimal quantities of [sup 137]Cs escaped from the damaged Three Mile Island plant after the accident.

Field, R.W. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States))

1993-06-01

151

137Cs levels in deer following the Three Mile Island accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus) tongues were assayed to assess whether or not significant widespread 137Cs contamination occurred in the vicinity of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station as a result of the 1979 accident. White-tailed deer tongues harvested from 10 Pennsylvania counties more than 88 km away from Three Mile Island had significantly higher 137Cs levels than deer tongues harvested from counties surrounding the nuclear plant. The mean deer tongue 137Cs levels found in Pennsylvania white-tailed deer were lower than 137Cs levels found in deer from other parts of the US sampled shortly after culmination of major atmospheric nuclear testing. These findings support the conclusions of previous studies suggesting that only minimal quantities of 137Cs escaped from the damaged Three Mile Island plant after the accident

1993-06-01

152

Pathophysiology of white-tailed deer vaccinated with porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptive.  

Science.gov (United States)

White-tailed deer (n=14 treated, n=7 control) were examined postmortem to identify any possible pathophysiology resulting from PZP immunocontraception vaccination. Deer were treated twice in 1997; given a booster in 1998, with six being revaccinated in September 2000. Granulomas were found at injection sites of most deer, even 2 years post-treatment. Eosinophilic oophoritis occurred in 6 of 8 (75%) deer vaccinated in 1998, and 3 of 6 (50%) revaccinated in 2000. The 2000 revaccinates without oophoritis, had significantly fewer normal secondary follicles than control females (P=0.03), and deer in the 1998 treatment group (P=0.04). PZP immunocontraceptive vaccine elicited ovarian pathologies in deer similar to those observed in other species. PMID:17475371

Curtis, Paul D; Richmond, Milo E; Miller, Lowell A; Quimby, Fred W

2007-06-01

153

Large-Scale Model-Based Assessment of Deer-Vehicle Collision Risk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ungulates, in particular the Central European roe deer Capreolus capreolus and the North American white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, are economically and ecologically important. The two species are risk factors for deer–vehicle collisions and as browsers of palatable trees have implications for forest regeneration. However, no large-scale management systems for ungulates have been implemented, mainly because of the high efforts and costs associated with attempts to estimate populatio...

Hothorn, Torsten; Brandl, Roland; Mu?ller, Jo?rg

2012-01-01

154

Prevalence of Ehrlichia muris in Wisconsin Deer Ticks Collected During the Mid 1990s  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human ehrlichiosis is due to infection by tick transmitted bacteria of the genus Ehrlichia. Based on a hypothesis for the biogeography of deer tick transmitted infections, we undertook a focused search for the Eurasian E. muris in North American deer ticks. The search was stimulated by anecdotal reports of E. muris-like infection in human ehrlichiosis patients from Wisconsin. We analyzed archived adult deer ticks collected in northern Wisconsin during the 1990s by specific polymerase chain re...

Telford Iii, Sam R.; Goethert, Heidi K.; Cunningham, Jenny A.

2011-01-01

155

The Effect of Rearing Experience on the Behavior Patterns of Captive Male Alpine Musk Deer  

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The effects of maternal and peer separation during infancy were studied on adult male alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF) in Gansu province, China. The aim was to determine the effect of early experience on the behavior in adult deer. Doe Reared (DR) males remained with their mothers for a minimum of 3 months, prior to weaning which occurred annually in early October. Hand Reared (HR) males were removed from their parents before 3 weeks of age and...

Xiangwei Wang; Meng Tong; Xiuxiang Meng

2011-01-01

156

Impacts of Gender and Age on Behavioral Frequencies of Captive Musk Deer During Lactation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Behavioral patterns of captive alpine musk deer were studied at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF) in northwest China. Throughout the lactation season (August-October 2003), 13 behaviors categories were recorded for 30 female and 24 male alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) to explore effects of gender and age-classes. Females had a higher frequency of resting, feeding, ruminating and affinitive behaviors than males, potentially due to the increased energy demands and influences of new...

Guang Ma; Baocao Gong; Xiuxiang Meng

2011-01-01

157

Lead in mule deer forage in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) forage collected from roadsides in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, contained lead (Pb) concentrations ranging from 0.8 to >50 ..mu..g/g. Concentrations were inversely correlated with distance from the roadway. Equations developed to estimate deer absorption of Pb from contaminated roadside vegetation indicate that deer in some age-classes need only to consume 1.4% of their daily intake of forage from roadsides before consuming excessive amounts of Pb.

Harrison, P.D.; Dyer, M.I.

1984-01-01

158

EXAMINATION OF NASAL BOTFLY (CEPHENEMYIA STIMULATOR,CLARK, 1815) OF ROE DEER  

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Abstract- Parameters of nasal botfly infestation of roe deer in plain locations I am investigating the occurrence of one of the diseases caused by parasites in plain roe deer populations, namely a botfly larvae, Cephenemyia stimulator, (CLARK, 1815) ranged among the Oestridae family. Nasal botfly larvae are common roe deer parasites and aregenerally spread nationwide. The subject of the present survey is the processing of the data gained about ...

Szilárd Pinnyey

2013-01-01

159

Large-scale model-based assessment of deer-vehicle collision risk.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ungulates, in particular the Central European roe deer Capreolus capreolus and the North American white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, are economically and ecologically important. The two species are risk factors for deer-vehicle collisions and as browsers of palatable trees have implications for forest regeneration. However, no large-scale management systems for ungulates have been implemented, mainly because of the high efforts and costs associated with attempts to estimate population ...

2012-01-01

160

Fatty Acid Profiles and Cholesterol Composition of Venison from Farmed Deer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is important to evaluate venison characteristics as a new high quality red meat in the meat marketing system. This information is vital to ensure their commercial success and dietary benefits. The aim of this study is to determine the venison quality from farmed deer according to cuts or muscles based on fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content and to do comparative study on venison quality between species of farmed deer (rusa, sambar, fallow and imported red deer) and feeding regimens,...

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Experimental Treatment of Fallow Deer (Dama dama) with Abamectin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Macrolide Endectocides (ME) are antiparasitic agents that are daily applied in pharmacotherapy of food-producing animals. Worldwide numbers of pharmacokinetics studies performed on various matrixes of domestic animals with diverse detection methods for ME determination were developed. However only few studies on deer matrixes were published although ME are licensed and in use for treatment of red deer, fallow deer and reindeer in some countries of European Union, America and Australia. The pu...

Diana Zele; Gabrijela Tavcar-Kalcher; Vengust, G.; Arko, M.; Vengust, A.; Bidovec, A.; Silvestra Kobal

2007-01-01

162

Innovation and trade liberalisation: A case study of the New Zealand deer industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the development of the deer industry as a case study of innovation in a deregulated agricultural environment. The story of deer in New Zealand is remarkable, from an animal released to be hunted for sport, then a pest marked for eradication, to its role as a domesticated farm animal that has contributed significantly to New Zealand economic activity, all within the space of 150 years. We will demonstrate the connection between innovation and commercial success in the deer ...

Nixon, Chris

2004-01-01

163

White-tailed deer are a biotic filter during community assembly, reducing species and phylogenetic diversity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community assembly entails a filtering process, where species found in a local community are those that can pass through environmental (abiotic) and biotic filters and successfully compete. Previous research has demonstrated the ability of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to reduce species diversity and favour browse-tolerant plant communities. In this study, we expand on our previous work by investigating deer as a possible biotic filter altering local plant community assembly. We used replicated 23-year-old deer exclosures to experimentally assess the effects of deer on species diversity (H'), richness (SR), phylogenetic community structure and phylogenetic diversity in paired browsed (control) and unbrowsed (exclosed) plots. Additionally, we developed a deer-browsing susceptibility index (DBSI) to assess the vulnerability of local species to deer. Deer browsing caused a 12 % reduction in H' and 17 % reduction in SR, consistent with previous studies. Furthermore, browsing reduced phylogenetic diversity by 63 %, causing significant phylogenetic clustering. Overall, graminoids were the least vulnerable to deer browsing based on DBSI calculations. These findings demonstrate that deer are a significant driver of plant community assembly due to their role as a selective browser, or more generally, as a biotic filter. This study highlights the importance of knowledge about the plant tree of life in assessing the effects of biotic filters on plant communities. Application of such knowledge has considerable potential to advance our understanding of plant community assembly. PMID:24916059

Begley-Miller, Danielle R; Hipp, Andrew L; Brown, Bethany H; Hahn, Marlene; Rooney, Thomas P

2014-01-01

164

Capture myopathy in red deer and wild goat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This syndrome is a shock-like hyper metabolic myopathy triggered in susceptible animals by stress. Capture myopathy (C.M. is a commonly occurring condition in mammals following trapping and ransportation. In this case 12 to 24 hours after transportation of red deer (Cevus elaphus and wild goats (Capra ibex clinical signs such as: muscular tremor, ataxia, recumbency, hyperthermia, tachycardia, hyperventilation and red brown urine observed. According to symptoms Capture myoparthy was diagnosed Treatment was ineffective on one red deer and one wild goat. Necropsy findings of dead animals were included: hyperemia, petechial hemorrhage in pericardium and heart muscle, pale foci of leg and heart muscles and red brown urine in bladder. This case report represents the attention to Capture myopathy in wild animals and particular caution that should be exercised in capturing and handling of these animals.

Mirian, J.

2011-12-01

165

Red deer synchronise their activity with close neighbours  

Science.gov (United States)

Models of collective animal behaviour frequently make assumptions about the effects of neighbours on the behaviour of focal individuals, but these assumptions are rarely tested. One such set of assumptions is that the switch between active and inactive behaviour seen in herding animals is influenced by the activity of close neighbours, where neighbouring animals show a higher degree of behavioural synchrony than would be expected by chance. We tested this assumption by observing the simultaneous behaviour of paired individuals within a herd of red deer Cervus elaphus. Focal individuals were more synchronised with their two closest neighbours than with the third closest or randomly selected individuals from the herd. Our results suggest that the behaviour of individual deer is influenced by immediate neighbours. Even if we assume that there are no social relationships between individuals, this suggests that the assumptions made in models about the influence of neighbours may be appropriate.

2014-01-01

166

Phylogeography and conservation genetics of Eld's deer (Cervus eldi).  

Science.gov (United States)

Eld's deer (Cervus eldi) is a highly endangered cervid, distributed historically throughout much of South Asia and Indochina. We analysed variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region for representatives of all three Eld's deer subspecies to gain a better understanding of the genetic population structure and evolutionary history of this species. A phylogeny of mtDNA haplotypes indicates that the critically endangered and ecologically divergent C. eldi eldi is related more closely to C. e. thamin than to C. e. siamensis, a result that is consistent with biogeographic considerations. The results also suggest a strong degree of phylogeographic structure both between subspecies and among populations within subspecies, suggesting that dispersal of individuals between populations has been very limited historically. Haplotype diversity was relatively high for two of the three subspecies (thamin and siamensis), indicating that recent population declines have not yet substantially eroded genetic diversity. In contrast, we found no haplotype variation within C. eldi eldi or the Hainan Island population of C. eldi siamensis, two populations which are known to have suffered severe population bottlenecks. We also compared levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity in an unmanaged captive population, a managed captive population and a relatively healthy wild population. Diversity indices were higher in the latter two, suggesting the efficacy of well-designed breeding programmes for maintaining genetic diversity in captivity. Based on significant genetic differentiation among Eld's deer subspecies, we recommend the continued management of this species in three distinct evolutionarily significant units (ESUs). Where possible, it may be advisable to translocate individuals between isolated populations within a subspecies to maintain levels of genetic variation in remaining Eld's deer populations. PMID:12492873

Balakrishnan, Christopher N; Monfort, Steven L; Gaur, Ajay; Singh, Lalji; Sorenson, Michael D

2003-01-01

167

Incidence of gasrointestinal helminthiasis in captive deers at Nagpur  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Out of 60 Samples of deer from Maharajbag Zoo, Nagpur, 30 were positive for eggs and larvae of helminthic parasites. The encountered parasitic species were Haemonchus spp., Dicrocoelium spp., Paramphistomum spp., Oesophagostomum spp. and Bunostomum spp. etc. Direct smear method together with sedimentation technique were used for the purpose. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 337-338

A. T. Borghare

168

What does testosterone do for red deer males?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Testosterone has been proposed to have a dual effect, enhancing sexual traits while depressing parasite resistance in males. Here, we test this hypothesis in red deer, examining males from captive populations during the whole annual cycle and males from natural populations during the breeding season. We first explored the effects of body size, age and sampling date on testosterone to avoid confounding effects. Our results show that in captive populations seasonal changes in testosterone level...

Malo, A. F.; Roldan, E. R. S.; Garde, J. J.; Soler, A. J.; Vicente, J.; Gortazar, C.; Gomendio, M.

2009-01-01

169

Global climate change and phenotypic variation among red deer cohorts.  

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The variability of two fitness-related phenotypic traits (body weight and a mandibular skeletal ratio) was analysed among cohorts and age-classes of red deer in Norway. Phenotypic variation among cohorts was pronounced for calves, yearlings and reproductively mature adults. Fluctuations in cohort-specific mean body weights and skeletal ratios of adults correlated with global climatic variation in winter conditions influenced by the North Atlantic Oscillation while cohorts were in utero. Red d...

Post, E.; Stenseth, N. C.; Langvatn, R.; Fromentin, J. M.

1997-01-01

170

Density-related changes in sexual selection in red deer.  

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In sexually dimorphic mammals, high population density is commonly associated with increased mortality of males relative to females and with female-biased adult sex ratios. This paper investigates the consequences of these changes on the distribution of male breeding success, the intensity of competition for females and the opportunity for sexual selection. After the red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) population of the North Block of Rum (Inner Hebrides) was released from culling, female numbers ro...

Clutton-brock, T. H.; Rose, K. E.; Guinness, F. E.

1997-01-01

171

78 FR 46603 - Notice of Availability of a Draft White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Environmental Impact...  

Science.gov (United States)

...management actions (sharpshooting with firearms or capture and euthanasia of individual deer) to reduce the herd size. Alternative...deer herd through sharpshooting with firearms or capture and euthanasia and nonsurgical reproductive control of does with an...

2013-08-01

172

77 FR 1720 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Rock Creek Park  

Science.gov (United States)

...herd by either sharpshooting or capture and euthanasia of individual deer. Capture and euthanasia of individual deer would be an approach...include both sharpshooting and capture/euthanasia and would be taken initially to...

2012-01-11

173

Elk and deer studies related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) was conducted in the vicinity of planned site characterization activities for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). Both species are known to be sensitive to disturbance and are considered important species because they are recreationally and/or commercially valuable. The principal objectives of the study were to (1) estimate pre-activity (site characterization) recruitment of deer and elk, (2) characterize deer and elk use of limited habitats critical to their survival (e.g., riparian areas), (3) describe preferential habitat use by deer and elk during critical seasons (i.e., winter and summer), and (4) document pre-activity distributions of seasonal home range centers of deer and elk. Early termination of BWIP prevented some of the objectives from being fully addressed. Fifteen adult elk (11 females and 4 males) and 19 female deer equipped with radio transmitters were studied on the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve from February through December 1987. More than 1800 relocations of the marked elk and deer were made during aerial and ground tracking sessions. Deer confined their activities to within 2 km of water sources. In contrast, elk used 6-12 times the average area used by deer. As with deer, female elk were closely associated with available water sources during the summer and fall, presumably because of the physiological demands of lactation. However, during the winter, female elk showed no preference for areas near water, as did male elk throughout the study. Riparian areas, which are scarce on the arid Hanford Site, are particularly valuable habitat to both elk and deer because they provide drinking water and succulent forage during the dry summer and early fall months

1989-01-01

174

Do P?re David's Deer Lose Memories of Their Ancestral Predators?  

Science.gov (United States)

Whether prey retains antipredator behavior after a long period of predator relaxation is an important question in predator-prey evolution. Père David's deer have been raised in enclosures for more than 1200 years and this isolation provides an opportunity to study whether Père David's deer still respond to the cues of their ancestral predators or to novel predators. We played back the sounds of crows (familiar sound) and domestic dogs (familiar non-predators), of tigers and wolves (ancestral predators), and of lions (potential naïve predator) to Père David's deer in paddocks, and blank sounds to the control group, and videoed the behavior of the deer during the experiment. We also showed life-size photo models of dog, leopard, bear, tiger, wolf, and lion to the deer and video taped their responses after seeing these models. Père David's deer stared at and approached the hidden loudspeaker when they heard the roars of tiger or lion. The deer listened to tiger roars longer, approached to tiger roars more and spent more time staring at the tiger model. The stags were also found to forage less in the trials of tiger roars than that of other sound playbacks. Additionally, it took longer for the deer to restore their normal behavior after they heard tiger roars, which was longer than that after the trial of other sound playbacks. Moreover, the deer were only found to walk away after hearing the sounds of tiger and wolf. Therefore, the tiger was probably the main predator for Père David's deer in ancient time. Our study implies that Père David's deer still retain the memories of the acoustic and visual cues of their ancestral predators in spite of the long term isolation from natural habitat.

Ding, Yuhua; Zhang, Linyuan; Fang, Hongxia; Tang, Songhua; Jiang, Zhigang

2011-01-01

175

Elk and deer studies related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) was conducted in the vicinity of planned site characterization activities for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). Both species are known to be sensitive to disturbance and are considered important species because they are recreationally and/or commercially valuable. The principal objectives of the study were to (1) estimate pre-activity (site characterization) recruitment of deer and elk, (2) characterize deer and elk use of limited habitats critical to their survival (e.g., riparian areas), (3) describe preferential habitat use by deer and elk during critical seasons (i.e., winter and summer), and (4) document pre-activity distributions of seasonal home range centers of deer and elk. Early termination of BWIP prevented some of the objectives from being fully addressed. Fifteen adult elk (11 females and 4 males) and 19 female deer equipped with radio transmitters were studied on the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve from February through December 1987. More than 1800 relocations of the marked elk and deer were made during aerial and ground tracking sessions. Deer confined their activities to within 2 km of water sources. In contrast, elk used 6-12 times the average area used by deer. As with deer, female elk were closely associated with available water sources during the summer and fall, presumably because of the physiological demands of lactation. However, during the winter, female elk showed no preference for areas near water, as did male elk throughout the study. Riparian areas, which are scarce on the arid Hanford Site, are particularly valuable habitat to both elk and deer because they provide drinking water and succulent forage during the dry summer and early fall months.

Eberhardt, L.E.; McCorquodale, S.M.; Sargeant, G.A.

1989-03-01

176

An Attempt at Hybridization of Farmed Axis (Axis Axis) and Fallow Deer (Dama Dama) by Intrauterine Laparoscopic Artificial Insemination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study was conducted to determine whether axis (Axis axis) and fallow deer (Dama dama) could be hybridized using artificial insemination (AI). The feasibility of hybridization between these two deer species has implications for free-ranging (mixed) populations of deer species and intensive deer farming production systems. An intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (CIDR) was inserted into axis (n=16) and fallow (n=38) does for 14 d to synchronize estrus. Following CIDR removal, axis does ...

Willard, S. T.; Neuendorff, D. A.; Lewis, A. W.; Randel, R. D.

2005-01-01

177

Distribution of Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster) in Neelum Valley, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To study the present and past distribution of Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) Survey in Neelum valley, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir was conducted from April to November 2002, Findings show that Musk deer is distributed throughout the Neelum valley. Poaching, deforestation and trans human grazing resulted in scattering of population of the musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) into separate pockets. Population of the musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) ...

Baseer ud Din Qureshi; Muhammad Siddique Awan; Aleem Ahmed Khan; Naheem Iftikhar Dar; Muhammad Ejaz-ul-Islam Dar

2004-01-01

178

Favus in a non-endemic area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A typical case of favus of scalp in a 60-year-old female, resident of a village in district Udaipur (Rajasthan is being reported for its rarity and occurrence in non-endemic zone. Some of the nails were also involved. Fungal hyphae were demonstrated in KOH examination from scalp and nails. Culture on Sabourauds agar medium grew Trichophyton violaceum.

Gupta L

1997-01-01

179

Favus in a non-endemic area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A typical case of favus of scalp in a 60-year-old female, resident of a village in district Udaipur (Rajasthan) is being reported for its rarity and occurrence in non-endemic zone. Some of the nails were also involved. Fungal hyphae were demonstrated in KOH examination from scalp and nails. Culture on Sabourauds agar medium grew Trichophyton violaceum.

Gupta L; Masuria B; Mittal A; Sharma M; Bansal N

1997-01-01

180

Coccidioidomycosis and other endemic mycoses in Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

The endemic mycoses traditionally include coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, blastomycosis and paracoccidioidomycosis. Although sporotrichosis and chromomycosis are technically not included among the endemic mycoses, they are frequently diagnosed in Mexico. Most systemic endemic mycoses are a consequence of inhaling the fungi, while subcutaneous mycoses are acquired through the inoculation of vegetable matter or soil containing the organism. Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides spp., a dimorphic pathogenic fungus. Approximately 60% of exposures result in asymptomatic infection; in the rest there are protean manifestations that range from a benign syndrome also known as "Valley Fever" to progressive pulmonary or extrapulmonary disease. Histoplasmosis, caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, is endemic to the Americas. Pulmonary histoplasmosis manifestations are protean, ranging from a brief period of malaise to a severe, prolonged illness. The spectrum of illness in disseminated histoplasmosis ranges from a chronic, intermittent course to an acute and rapidly fatal infection. Paracoccidioidomycosis is a chronic, granulomatous systemic disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis that characteristically produces a primary pulmonary infection, often asymptomatic, and then disseminates to form ulcerative granulomata of the oral, nasal and occasionally the gastrointestinal mucosa. Sporotrichosis, caused by Sporothrix schenckii, has diverse clinical manifestations; the most frequent is the lymphocutaneous form. Generally, infection results from inoculation of the fungus through thorns, splinters, scratches and small traumas. Chromomycosis (Chromoblastomycosis) is a slowly progressive cutaneous and subcutaneous mycosis attributed to various saprophyte Hypomycetes fungi. The primary lesion is also thought to develop as a result of percutaneous traumatic inoculation. PMID:18095755

Laniado-Laborín, Rafael

2007-12-31

 
 
 
 
181

Estimation of survival rates from band recoveries of mule deer in Colorado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An attempt has been made to determine the survival rate of mule deer in the White River drainage basin in northwestern Colorado. During five winters, 1972-76, 1923 mule deer were trapped and marked. Survival rates were determined at yearly intervals. A FORTRAN program was used to perform the analysis.

White, G.C.; Bartmann, R.M.

1983-01-01

182

"Atypical" Chronic Wasting Disease in PRNP Genotype 225FF Mule Deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract We compared mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) of two different PRNP genotypes (225SS, 225FF) for susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in the face of environmental exposure to infectivity. All three 225SS deer had immunohistochemistry (IHC)-positive tonsil biopsies by 710 days postexposure (dpe), developed classic clinical signs by 723-1,200 dpe, and showed gross and microscopic pathology, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results, and IHC staining typical of prion disease in mule deer. In contrast, although all three 225FF deer also became infected, the two individuals surviving >720 dpe had consistently negative biopsies, developed more-subtle clinical signs of CWD, and died 924 or 1,783 dpe. The 225FF deer were "suspect" by ELISA postmortem but showed negative or equivocal IHC staining of lymphoid tissues; both clinically affected 225FF deer had spongiform encephalopathy in the absence of IHC staining in the brain tissue. The experimental cases resembled three cases encountered among five additional captive 225FF deer that were not part of our experiment but also died from CWD. Aside from differences in clinical disease presentation and detection, 225FF mule deer also showed other, more-subtle, atypical traits that may help to explain the rarity of this genotype in natural populations, even in the presence of enzootic CWD. PMID:24807352

Wolfe, Lisa L; Fox, Karen A; Miller, Michael W

2014-07-01

183

Morphological Examination of the Siberian Roe Deer Capreolus pygargus in South Korea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study compare the external morphological characteristics of Korean roe deer inhabit the inland and Jeju island areas and to clarify the morphological differences by the two groups. Also, total of 40 roe deer bodies were collected from road-kill, poaching and injured survey from December 2004 to June 2009. The result showed that there were significant differences between Inland and Jeju roe deer. Jeju roe deer was relatively smaller than Inland roe deer in body mass. Thus, it appeared to be a unique native species inhabited only in Jeju island in Korea. Because Jeju roe deer that inhabit the island region could be classified as a subspecies level when at least have geographically isolated for a long time and have represented significant external morphology. Therefore, Siberian roe deer in Jeju give a scientific name to Capreolus pygargus jejuensis. Also, body mass, hind foot length, ear length and width in morphometric analysis were identified as efficient characteristics for differentiating Inland from Jeju roe deer.

Jong-Taek Kim

2011-01-01

184

Lack of caching of direct-seeded Douglas fir seeds by deer mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seed caching by deer mice was investigated by radiotagging seeds in forest and clear-cut areas in coastal British Columbia. Deer mice tend to cache very few Douglas fir seeds in the fall when the seed is uniformly distributed and is at densities comparable with those used in direct-seeding programs. (author)

1978-05-01

185

Investigation of the lead-, mercury- and cadmium concentration found in red deer, deer and chamois in an tyrolian preserve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentrations of heavy metals, lead, mercury and cadmium were tested in liver, kidney and rib samples taken from 43 red deer, 24 deer and 42 chamois between June 1982 and June 1983. Since the free living animals aquire the damaging substances through food, water and air intake, the determined sediments found in the bodies give information on the environmental pollution. The lead content in liver and kidney showed minimal values averraging between 0.001 and 0.014 ppm in all three animal types. Ribs, as well as all bones, due to the effect of time, served as reservoirs for lead with average values of 0.2-0.4ppm. In two chamois livers the maximal values of 3.007 and 1.006 ppm were detected and can be accounted for in a secondary contaminated originating from the lethal projectile. In reference to age and sex, no differences could be seen. A seasonal dependency was determined such that the concentration increased in spring and summer in examined livers and kidneys. The rumen content and grazing habit analysis showed minimal residue amounts as in the indicator organs. This lies in connection with the locality of the hunting grounds compared to the road. The mercury content in liver and kidney was of the maximal value 0.449 ppm. Deer showed the greatest contamination in the kidneys, which were surprisingly high in the fall. After rumen content and grazing analysis, the high value can be accounted for the deer's preference to eat mushrooms in the fall which contained an average 1.029 ppm Hg. Changes in concentrations could not be determined to be sex and age dependet. The cadmium concentration was highest in the kidney cortex in all three animal types. A highly significant dependency should be observed in the cadmium concentration. Deer showed the greatest amounts in each age class, which can be referred back to the grazing habits, to the preferred herbs and mushrooms which have high cadmium contents. Due to the strong influence of the age factor in cadmium storage in the organism, a sex or season dependency of concentration gradient could not be determined. (Author)

1984-01-01

186

Deer hunting on Pennsylvania's public and private lands: A two-tiered system of hunters?  

Science.gov (United States)

Recreational hunting is crucial for controlling white-tailed deer populations. Public land is increasingly important as access to private lands declines. However, differences between public and private land hunters remain unknown. Our study of Pennsylvania hunters revealed differences between private and public land hunters that may pose problems for management. Hunters who only hunted public land had lower harvest rates, especially of antlerless deer, spent less time hunting, were less committed to hunting, were more likely to hunt alone, less likely to belong to a hunting camp, and more likely to live in urban areas. They were less likely to believe that high deer populations could damage forest ecosystems, and less willing to harvest antlerless deer. The implications of these findings, in the context of already-declining hunter capacity to keep deer populations in check, and concomitant declining access to private land, are discussed. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Stedman, R. C.; Bhandari, P.; Luloff, A. E.; Diefenbach, D. R.; Finley, J. C.

2008-01-01

187

Mule deer antlers as biomonitors of strontium-90 on the Hanford Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study evaluated deer antlers as indicators of animal uptake of localized {sup 90}Sr contamination on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. Levels of {sup 90}Sr were examined in 38 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) antler samples collected near and distant from previously active nuclear reactor facilities and from a reference site in central Oregon. Results showed that {sup 90}Sr concentrations in antlers collected near reactor facilities were significantly higher (P<0.001) than other Hanford samples. Reference samples contained nearly 5 times the levels of {sup 90}Sr compared with Hanford. Strontium-90 concentrations in deer antlers collected at the reference locations were higher than Hanford site deer, presumably because the deer inhabited mountain regions during the summer months that received more atmospheric fallout from historic weapons testing.

Tiller, Brett L.; Poston, Ted M

1999-01-01

188

Mule deer antlers as biomonitors of strontium-90 on the Hanford Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study evaluated deer antlers as indicators of animal uptake of localized 90Sr contamination on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. Levels of 90Sr were examined in 38 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) antler samples collected near and distant from previously active nuclear reactor facilities and from a reference site in central Oregon. Results showed that 90Sr concentrations in antlers collected near reactor facilities were significantly higher (P90Sr compared with Hanford. Strontium-90 concentrations in deer antlers collected at the reference locations were higher than Hanford site deer, presumably because the deer inhabited mountain regions during the summer months that received more atmospheric fallout from historic weapons testing

1999-01-01

189

Habitat Ecology of Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster in Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster is an endangered species found in the Himalayan region of Nepal. This research was conducted in the Manaslu Conservation Area to explore the deers general population status, distribution, habitat preference and conservation threats. Musk deer are distributed within the altitudinal range of 3128-4039 m spanning 35.43 km2, with the most potential habitat in the Prok VDC (Village Development Committee. Within this area the Musk deer highly preferred altitudes between 3601-3800 m, with a 21-30 slope, 26-50% crown cover and 26-50% ground cover. There are significant differences in the use of different habitat types in terms of altitude, slope, crown cover, ground cover and topography. The preferred tree species were Abies spectabilis, Betula utilis and Rhododendron species. Poaching of deer for their musk is the major conservation threat.

Xiuxiang Meng

2012-01-01

190

Pathogens in water deer (hydropotes inermis) in South Korea, 2010-12.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Water deer (Hydropotes inermis) are among the most common wildlife to approach farmhouses and livestock barns in Korea. We collected 305 water deer from Gangwon (n?=?168), South Chungcheong (n?=?89), and Gyeongsang (n?=?48) provinces in 2010-12 and used PCR and serologic tests to screen the deer for pathogens. In 2010, tests for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), rotavirus, and Brucella abortus were positive in 8% (5/60), 2% (1/60), and 59% (33/56) of the animals, respectively. In 2010, the water deer were negative for foot-and-mouth disease virus, coronaviruses, and Mycobacterium bovis. All samples collected in 2011 and 2012 were negative for all pathogens analyzed. These results suggest that at least two of the investigated pathogens, BVDV and B. abortus, circulate among water deer in South Korea. PMID:24779466

Kim, Seol-Hee; Choi, Heelack; Yoon, Junheon; Woo, Chanjin; Chung, Hyen-Mi; Kim, Jong-Taek; Shin, Jeong-Hwa

2014-07-01

191

Detection of stx1 and stx2 Genes in Pennsylvanian White-Tailed Deer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing E. coli carrying the stx1 and/or stx2 genes can cause multi-symptomatic illness in humans. A variety of terrestrial and aquatic environmental reservoirs of stx have been described. Culture based detection of microbes in deer species have found a low percentage of samples that have tested positive for Stx-producing microbes, suggesting that while deer may contain these microbes, their overall abundance in deer is low. In this study, quantitative PCR (qPCR was utilized to test for the presence of stx genes in white-tailed deer fecal matter in western Pennsylvania. In this culture independent screening, nearly half of the samples tested positive for the stx2 gene, with a bias towards samples that were concentrated with stx2. This study, while limited in scope, suggests that deer may be a greater reservoir for stx than was previously thought.

Steven A. Mauro

2011-06-01

192

Intraspecific host selection of Père David's deer by cattle egrets in Dafeng, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have focused on foraging ecology of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) and their selection of ungulate host species. However, few studies have been conducted at intraspecific levels, such as the sex/age class of a specific ungulate. In this study, the foraging behavior and intraspecific host selection of cattle egrets associated with Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) were investigated at the Dafeng National Nature Reserve, China in summer 2011 and 2012. Egret-deer pairing status was analyzed and intraspecific host selection index was calculated. Cattle egrets preferred to feed with female deer compared with male deer and fawns. In contrast to solitary birds, cattle egrets following a deer benefited from a relatively low vigilance output, high foraging success, low energy expenditure, and high total foraging yields. These egrets also maximized benefits when they followed female deer compared with male deer and fawns. Our results further indicated that egrets likely preferred females because of the appropriate moving speed that allowed these egrets to follow and forage sufficiently and effectively. The males of Père David's deer were possibly more aggressive than the females during the rutting season, causing egrets to experience difficulty in accompaniment and feeding. Fawns were not preferred because they were usually motionless and insufficiently large to stir more insects. We did not find any behavioral differences in vigilance and feeding between juveniles and adults. Our results suggested that cattle egrets could obtain significant benefits from their association with Père David's deer, and these benefits were maximized when they followed female deer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. PMID:24607393

Fernandez, Eve V; Li, Zhongqiu; Zheng, Wei; Ding, Yuhua; Sun, Daming; Che, Ye

2014-06-01

193

Babesia capreoli infections in alpine chamois (rupicapra R. Rupicapra), roe deer (capreolus C. Capreolus) and red deer (cervus elaphus) from Switzerland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five cases of fatal babesiosis in free-ranging chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra) attributed to infections with Babesia capreoli were recently recorded in two regions of the Swiss Alps. To investigate the ecologic factors that possibly lead to those fatal B. capreoli infections in chamois, blood, ticks, and demographic data of 46 roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus), 48 chamois, and nine red deer (Cervus elaphus) were collected in 2006 and 2007 in both affected regions. Whereas no parasitic inclus...

Hoby, S.; Mathis, A.; Doherr, M.; Robert, N.; Ryser-degiorgis, M.

2009-01-01

194

The physical condition of roe and red deer killed by wolves in a region of the western Alps, Italy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The leg bone marrow fat of 11 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) killed by wolves (Canis lupus) was examined and compared with that of 15 roe deer killed in traffic accidents. Moreover, a sample of 14 red deer (Cervus elaphus) kills was examined. High levels of femur marrow fat (75-100 %) were detected in 45% of the roe deer killed by wolves. The amount of leg bone marrow fat showed a decrease through the winter season, roe deer killed by wolves did not show a significantly lower marrow fat level...

Ferroglio, Ezio

2007-01-01

195

Action Central: Red Deer steps forward as oilfield operations capital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growth of Red Deer as the center of the oil and natural gas service industry in the Alberta oilpatch was discussed. Red Deer is the home base of many of Alberta's major service companies (Haliburton, Schlumberger, Computalog, Nowsco, Canadian Fracmaster, Hughes, Bonus and Challenger), and new companies are regularly looking for industrial properties to establish themselves in the city. Industrial land acquisition currently runs at about triple of the average for the previous ten years. Another significant spin-off of energy wealth around Red Deer comes from the manufacturing of petrochemical building blocks of plastics, at nearby Joffre. With expansion projects that include Union Carbide Canada and Amoco Canada, predictions of population growth to 100,000 from the current 75,000, are commonplace. These expansion projects spell up to 2,500 construction jobs for the next three years, and then 400 new permanent plant positions that will pay $60,000 and up for skilled specialist jobs. There are some concerns about the threat of the Alliance Gas Pipeline project that if it materializes it might export many jobs, along with the natural gas, to the United States. However, these concerns are less serious than the fear that Alliance threatens to raise the price of the raw material by draining away surpluses from the industry, thus removing the major Canadian advantage in competition with U.S. industry. Alliance supporters counter that even at maximum export through the Cochin liquid pipeline, only half of the ethane production that will be potentially available, will be exported

1997-12-01

196

Sex-related macrostructural organization of the deer's brachial plexus.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the morphological organization of the deer brachial plexus in order to supply data to veterinary neuroclinics and anaesthesiology. The deer (Mazama gouazoubira) brachial plexus is composed of four roots: three cervical (C6, C7 and C8) and one thoracic (T1). Within each sex group, no variations are observed between the left and the right brachial plexus, though sex-related differences are seen especially in its origin. The origin of axillary and radial nerves was: C6, C7, C8 and T1 in males and C8-T1 (radial nerve) and C7, C8 and T1 (axillary nerve) in females; musculocutaneous nerve was: C6-C7 (males) and C8-T1 (females); median and ulnar nerves was: C8-T1 (males) and T1 (females); long thoracic nerve was: C7 (males) and T1 (females); lateral thoracic nerve was: C6, C7, C8 and T1 (males) and T1 (females); thoracodorsal nerve was: C6, C7, C8 and T1 (males) and C8-T1 (females); suprascapular nerve was: C6-C7 (males) and C6 (females) and subscapular nerve was: C6-C7 (males) and C7 (females). This study suggests that in male deer the origin of the brachial plexus is more cranial than in females and the origin of the brachial plexus is slightly more complex in males, i.e. there is an additional number of roots (from one to three). This sexual dimorphism may be related to specific biomechanical functions of the thoracic limb and electrophysiological studies may be needed to shed light on this morphological feature. PMID:17617108

Melo, S R; Gonçalves, A F N; de Castro Sasahara, T H; Fioretto, E T; Gerbasi, S H; Machado, M R F; Guimarães, G C; Ribeiro, A A C M

2007-08-01

197

Therapy of endemic goiter and hypothyroidism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Successful treatment of endemic goitre depends on the correct diagnosis and the comprehension of the pathophysiologic changes as well. Several criteria, e.g. anamnestic data, general clinical condition, local symptoms and signs, certainty of diagnosis, contraindications, rates of success, and side effects, determine the particular form of therapy (suppression with thyroid hormones, surgical resection, radio-iodine). The decision criteria are discussed. Prophylaxis of recurrent goitre with either thyroid hormones or iodine salts is necessary after successful treatment. Some endemic goitres behave like either hyper- or hypothyroidism. Treatment with thyroid hormones of patients with latent hyperthyroidism is senseless and dangerous, whereas other methods of treatment may be applied. An unequivocal indication for treatment exists in patients with laent hypothyroidism accompanied by goitre, but not in all patients without goitre. Hormonal replacement therapy of manifest hypothydroidism is simple, but long term success is not achieved in all patients. (orig.)

1983-09-12

198

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA IN ENDEMIC AREAS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malaria infection is still to be considered a major public health problem in those 106 countries where the risk of contracting the infection with one or more of the Plasmodium species exists. According to estimates from the World Health Organization, over 200 million cases and about 655.000 deaths have occurred in 2010. Estimating the real health and social burden of the disease is a difficult task, because many of the malaria endemic countries have limited diagnostic resources, espe...

Beatrice Autino; Alice Noris; Rosario Russo; Francesco Castelli

2012-01-01

199

Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diver...

Wanger, Thomas C.; Wielgoss, Arno C.; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W.; Sodhi, Navjot S.; Tscharntke, Teja

2011-01-01

200

Ophthalmic patterns of captive brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira).  

Science.gov (United States)

Captive brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) were manually restrained to assess tear production by the Schirmer tear test I to measure intraocular pressure by applanation tonometry, to examine ocular conjunctival epithelial cells via cytologic and histologic samples, and to survey ocular conjunctival microflora by microbiologic culture. The mean value for the Schirmer tear test I was 8.9 +/- 1.8 mm/min, and the mean intraocular pressure was 15.3 +/- 3.1 mm Hg. Conjunctival epithelium contained stratified pavimentous layers of cells, and the microflora consisted of predominantly gram-positive bacteria. PMID:18229857

Martins, Bianca C; Oriá, Arianne P; Souza, Ana L G; Campos, Carla F; Almeida, Denise E; Duarte, Roberta A; Soares, Christiane P; Zuanon, José A S; Neto, Carlos B; Duarte, José M B; Schocken-Iturrino, Rubén P; Laus, José L

2007-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Compensatory mortality in mule deer populations. Technical progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hypothesis of compensatory mortality is critical to understanding population dynamics of wildlife species. This is vital regardless of whether populations are managed for recreational hunting or habitats are altered via energy development projects. The purpose of research summarized herein is to test for compensatory mortality during winter in the juvenile (fawn) portion of a mule deer population. In the fall of 1985, sixty fawns were radio collared on both the control and treatment sites of the Little Hills study area. Thirty-three adult females also were telemetered, bringing the total instrumented population to 167 at the onset of winter. 10 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

White, G.C.

1986-03-15

202

Detection and genetic characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) derived from ticks removed from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and isolated from spleen samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Croatia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a growing public health concern in central and northern European countries. Even though TBE is a notifiable disease in Croatia, there is a significant lack of information in regard to vector tick identification, distribution as well as TBE virus prevalence in ticks or animals. The aim of our study was to identify and to investigate the viral prevalence of TBE virus in ticks removed from red fox (Vulpes vulpes) carcasses hunted in endemic areas in northern Croatia and to gain a better insight in the role of wild ungulates, especially red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the maintenance of the TBE virus in the natural cycle. We identified 5 tick species (Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes hexagonus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor reticulatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus) removed from 40 red foxes. However, TBE virus was isolated only from adult I. ricinus and I. hexagonus ticks showing a viral prevalence (1.6%) similar to or higher than reported in endemic areas of other European countries. Furthermore, 2 positive spleen samples from 182 red deer (1.1%) were found. Croatian TBE virus isolates were genetically analyzed, and they were shown to be closely related, all belonging to the European TBE virus subgroup. However, on the basis of nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis, 2 clusters were identified. Our results show that further investigation is needed to understand the clustering of isolates and to identify the most common TBE virus reservoir hosts in Croatia. Sentinel surveys based on wild animal species would give a better insight in defining TBE virus-endemic and possible risk areas in Croatia. PMID:24035586

Jemerši?, Lorena; Dež?ek, Danko; Brni?, Dragan; Prpi?, Jelena; Janicki, Zdravko; Keros, Tomislav; Roi?, Besi; Slavica, Alen; Terzi?, Svjetlana; Konjevi?, Dean; Beck, Relja

2014-02-01

203

Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in ?-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml(-1) ± 0.13 µg ml(-1)) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms. PMID:24552838

Chintoan-Uta, C; Morgan, E R; Skuce, P J; Coles, G C

2014-04-01

204

Forage Food of Timor Deer (Cervus timorensis in Manokwari, West Papua  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditionally, back yard deer husbandry is well developed in some parts in Papua, though information on deer husbandry has not been provided yet. Therefore, this study was aimed at highlighting the diet provided to the deer in back yard husbandry model in Manokwari. Survey method was approached by visiting eight deer back yard farmer respondents. Direct observation to the feeding site and semi-structured interview were carried out to learn about the deer management system, and identify the forage diet species consumed and served to the animals. The results indicated five most common forage species consumed in the study; they were field grass, Imperata (Imperata cylindrica, elephant grass (Penisetum purpureum, king grass (Penisetum purpureopoidhes and Melinis minutiflora depending on the location of farmed deer. Drinking water was offered and feed supplement such as various leafs, food and vegetable left over and banana peel was provided by 62.5% of the respondents. Food supplement was given two times per day (morning, evening and (afternoon, evening. Forage food species consumed in the study sites were relatively more similar to the food in the natural habitat. (Animal Production 12(2: 91-95 (2010Key Words: forage, food, Timor deer, Manokwari

AYS Arobaya

2010-05-01

205

Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus in the Helan Mountains, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes in forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833. The use of vegetation types varied seasonally according to food availability and ambient temperature. Red deer used montane coniferous forest and alpine shrub and meadow zones distributed above 2,000 m and 3,000 m in summer, alpine shrub and meadows above 3,000 m in autumn, being restricted to lower elevation habitats in spring and winter. The winter habitat of C. elaphus alxaicus was dominated by Ulmus glaucescens Franch. and Juglans regia Linnaeus, deciduous trees, and differed from the habitats selected by other subspecies of red deer. Cervus elaphus alxaicus preferred habitats with abundant vegetation coverage to open habitats in winter, but the reverse pattern was observed in summer and autumn. Red deer preferred gentle slopes (<10° but the use of slope gradient categories varied seasonally. Red deer avoidance of human disturbance in the Helan Mountains varied significantly by season. Information on red deer habitat selection can help understand the factors affecting seasonal movements and also support decision making in the management and conservation of red deer and their habitats.

Mingming Zhang

2013-02-01

206

Acute impacts of the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) infestation on reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) behaviour.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood-sucking ectoparasites have often a strong impact on the behaviour of their hosts. The annual insect harassment of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) has increased in the southern part of the Finnish reindeer herding area because of the recent invasion of a blood-feeding ectoparasitic louse-fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi). We studied the impact of the deer ked on the behaviour of reindeer. Twelve reindeer were infested with a total of 300 keds/reindeer on six occasions in a 5-week period during the deer ked flight season in autumn, while six non-infested reindeer were used as controls. Behavioural patterns indicating potential stress were monitored by visual observation from August to December. The infested reindeer displayed more incidences of restless behaviour than the controls. Shaking and scratching were the most common forms of restless behaviour after infestation of deer keds. Increased grooming was also observed after the transplantation and also later, 1 month after the infestation. Based on the results, the deer ked infestation can cause acute behavioural disturbance in reindeer and, thus, could pose a potential threat to reindeer welfare. Antiparasitic treatment with, e.g. ivermectin, may increase the welfare of parasitized reindeer by reducing deer keds. If the deer ked infestation intensity on the reindeer herding area increases and restless behaviour of reindeer becomes more common, the present results can help in further evaluation of the duration and magnitude of behavioural changes. PMID:24562815

Kynkäänniemi, Sanna-Mari; Kettu, Maria; Kortet, Raine; Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja; Paakkonen, Tommi; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri; Härkönen, Sauli; Ylönen, Hannu; Laaksonen, Sauli

2014-04-01

207

What do they eat? Using DNA barcoding to assess diet preferences of deer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Humans have modified most ecosystems on Earth to a degree where even the largest â??wildâ? nature reserves need management to avoid the loss of biodiversity. Native large herbivore grazing has potential as an efficient and natural tool in this management because they create dynamics and keep landscapes open. However, in order to use this tool properly, we need to know more about what the animals eat compared to what is available in different habitats and how access to supplementary fodder influences the grazing effect on the vegetation. Using DNA barcoding of feces, we are investigating the diet preferences of deer (red deer and roe deer) in Klelund Deer Park in Denmark. Over one year, we collect feces samples every month from different habitat types (e.g., heath, marsh, meadow, open forests and coniferous plantation) within the park. DNA barcoding can not only tell us which plants are consumed but also in which proportions. We intend to uncover the variation in deer diet over a year and among different habitatsand how supplementary fodder influences the diet preference. The results will contribute to a better understanding of deer management as well as how deer grazing can be used as a tool in management of open landscapes.

Fløjgaard, Camilla; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

208

A deer study at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Project planning, data assimilation, and risk assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For more than 75 years, Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) has been in the business of research, development, and testing of munitions and military vehicles for the US Army. Currently, APG is on the National Priorities List and an installation wide human health risk assessment is underway. Like many Department of the Army facilities, APG has an active hunting program. Hunters harvest approximately 800 whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginanus) from APG annually. To assure public safety, the authors completed a study during the 1993 hunting season to identify any potential human health hazards associated with consumption of venison from APG. This paper will discuss the unique strategy behind the experimental design, the actual assimilation of the data, and the results of the human health risk assessment to establish an appropriate contaminant levels in APG deer. Also, based on information in the literature, the authors considered gender, age, and season in the study design. The list of chemicals for residue analysis included explosives, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, and metals (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg). Of the 150 deer sampled, metals were the only chemicals detected. The authors compared these data to metal levels in deer collected from an off post background site. Metal levels did not differ significantly between APG deer and off post deer. Finally, the authors completed a health risk assessment of eating deer harvested from both APG and off post. From a survey distributed to the hunters, they incorporated actual consumption data into the exposure assessment. Their findings concluded that the risk of eating APG deer was no higher than eating off post deer; however, total arsenic levels in muscle did appear to elevate the risk.

Whaley, J.; Leach, G.; Lee, R. [Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1995-12-31

209

Factors affecting deer ked (Lipoptena cervi prevalence and infestation intensity in moose (Alces alces in Norway  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi, a hematophagous ectoparasite of Cervids, is currently spreading in Scandinavia. In Norway, keds are now invading the south-eastern part of the country and the abundant and widely distributed moose (Alces alces is the definitive host. However, key factors for ked abundance are poorly elucidated. The objectives of our study were to (i determine deer ked infestation prevalence and intensity on moose and (ii evaluate if habitat characteristics and moose population density are determinants of deer ked abundance on moose. Methods In order to identify key factors for deer ked abundance, a total of 350 skin samples from the neck of hunted moose were examined and deer keds counted. Infestation intensity was analyzed in relation to moose age and sex, moose population density and landscape characteristics surrounding the killing site. Results Deer ked infestation prevalence was 100%, but infestation intensity varied from 0.001 to 1.405 keds/cm2. Ked intensity was highest in male yearlings (~1.5 years and positively associated with longitude and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris dominated habitat and negatively associated with bogs and latitude. Moose population density during autumn showed a tendency to be positively associated, while altitude tended to be negatively associated with ked intensity. Conclusions Deer keds exploit the whole moose population within our study area, but are most prevalent in areas dominated by Scots pine. This is probably a reflection of Scots pine being the preferred winter browse for moose in areas with highest moose densities in winter. Ked intensity decreases towards the northwest and partly with increasing altitude, probably explained by the direction of dispersal and reduced temperature, respectively. Abundant deer ked harm humans and domestic animals. Moose management authorities should therefore be aware of the close relationship between moose, deer ked and habitat, using the knowledge as a management tool for locally regulating the ked burden.

Madslien Knut

2012-11-01

210

Coalbed methane development in Red Deer County : position paper  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, there has been a substantial increase in Coalbed Methane (CBM) prospecting in Canada as a result of market conditions and technological advances in North America. Red Deer County residents are interested in obtaining information about the short and long-term impacts of CBM production as the county has been significantly impacted by a recent wave of CBM activity. The purpose of this position paper is to outline what is occurring within the County in the field of CBM development and ascertain what role, if any may be played by Red Deer County on behalf of its residents. It discusses conventional natural gas versus unconventional coalbed methane, issues and concerns expressed by County staff and County residents with regard to CBM development, as well as recommendations. These include: adopting a position as host of educational sessions to help provide landowners with information and useful resources regarding oil and gas exploration within the County; engage in communication processes with oil and gas producers and related stakeholders; investigate how other municipalities are dealing with the increased CBM activity; communicate with industry stakeholders to explore more efficient means of processing the various and changing CBM exploration and development activities within our municipalities; implement a protocol or a set of standards that would be provided to all companies conducting oil and gas related business within the County borders. 2 figs.

Weber, C.

2005-03-10

211

Statistical analysis of deer and elk pellet-group data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several authors have demonstrated empirically the fit of observed pellet-group data from mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk to the negative binomial distribution. This distribution is described by 2 parameters: the mean, m, and the positive exponent, k. The parameter k is a measure of contagion. As over-dispersion increases, k ..-->.. 0; conversely, as the pellet groups approach a random distribution, k ..-->.. infinity. Past application of the negative binomial distribution to pellet-group data required a common value for the parameter k in order to test for differences in mean number of pellet groups for different populations. We developed a method of testing for differences in the means of pellet-group data for 2 or more populations that does not require a common k value. Interval and point estimators of k and m were obtained by the method of maximum likelihood for a series of models where either m or k can be assumed constant for all populations. A set of FORTRAN subroutines is available to analyze negative binomial data.

White, G.C.; Eberhardt, L.E.

1980-01-01

212

Viral, parasitic and prion diseases of farmed deer and bison.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most important viral disease of farmed deer and bison is malignant catarrhal fever. The other herpesviruses which have been isolated from these species are briefly described. Other viral agents that are recognised in these animals, including adenovirus, parapox, foot and mouth disease, bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, bovine virus diarrhoea, rotavirus and coronavirus, are also discussed. Ectoparasites of importance in this group in various parts of the world include a variety of ticks, as well as lice, keds, Oestridae, mange mites and fire ants. Helminth parasites include liver flukes (Fascioloides and Fasciola), gastrointestinal nematodes of the family Trichostrongylidae, pulmonary lungworms of the genus Dictyocaulus and extra-pulmonary lungworms of the family Protostrongylidae. Chronic wasting disease is principally important in North America, where the disease occurs in wild cervids in a limited area and has been reported in farmed deer in a small number of states in the United States of America and one province in Canada. These diseases are summarised in terms of their classification, epidemiology, clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and control. PMID:11974612

Haigh, J C; Mackintosh, C; Griffin, F

2002-08-01

213

Compensatory mortality in mule deer populations. Technical progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the fall of 1984 sixty fawns were radio collared on both the C-b Tract and Little Hills study areas, bringing the total instrumented population in Piceance Basin to 160 at the onset of winter. Deer show strong fidelity to both their individual summer and winter ranges and appear to use the same migratory route to travel between the two. Adult doe winter survival was 85% for the instrumented C-b Tract population and 100% for Little Hills animals. Fawn survival was 9% for the C-b Tract animals and 31% for Little Hills animals. The high fawn mortality for C-b Tract animals is attributed to an increase in predation rates from an average of 44% of the instrumented population during winters 1980 to 1981 through 1983 to 1984 to 77% this past winter. Both coyotes and bobcats were responsible for the increased predation. For the third consecutive year at least 40 to 50% of the instrumented fawns in the Little Hills area succumbed to starvation. These relatively high losses even during ''normal'' winters (1982 to 1983 and 1984 to 1985) suggest that adequate forage may not be available for the number of deer wintering on the Little Hills range. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

White, G.C.

1985-08-31

214

Sry-negative XX true hermaphroditism in a roe deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

A two-year-old roe deer was brought down in the course of a hunt in the north of Spain (Asturias). On physical examination the individual presented well-developed bared antlers, but surprisingly a female external genitalia. Several anatomical, histological and genetic analyses were performed in order to explain the observed phenotype. Necropsy evidenced ovary-like structures with follicles on the surface; histological analyses of testes evidenced positive immunolabel against testosterone in Leydig cells; genetic analyses showed that the sex of the individual was consistent with a female individual. PCR analysis failed to detect SRY sequences; no PIS deletion, which is responsible for XX sex-reversal in goats, was detected. On the basis of its presumptive normal female sexual karyotype (XX) and the presence of two functional abdominal bilateral testes and ovaries, the roe deer was finally diagnosed as possessing an XX hermaphroditism syndrome. However, as in many other cases, the specific reason for the occurrence of this case of hermaphroditism could not be determined. PMID:18524504

Pajares, G; Balseiro, A; Pérez-Pardal, L; Gamarra, J A; Monteagudo, L V; Goyache, F; Royo, L J

2009-05-01

215

Unexpected population genetic structure of European roe deer in Poland: an invasion of the mtDNA genome from Siberian roe deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introgressive hybridization is a widespread evolutionary phenomenon which may lead to increased allelic variation at selective neutral loci and to transfer of fitness-related traits to introgressed lineages. We inferred the population genetic structure of the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Poland from mitochondrial (CR and cyt b) and sex-linked markers (ZFX, SRY, DBY4 and DBY8). Analyses of CR mtDNA sequences from 452 individuals indicated widespread introgression of Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus) mtDNA in the European roe deer genome, 2000 km from the current distribution range of C. pygargus. Introgressed individuals constituted 16.6% of the deer studied. Nearly 75% of them possessed haplotypes belonging to the group which arose 23 kyr ago and have not been detected within the natural range of Siberian roe deer, indicating that majority of present introgression has ancient origin. Unlike the mtDNA results, sex-specific markers did not show signs of introgression. Species distribution modelling analyses suggested that C. pygargus could have extended its range as far west as Central Europe after last glacial maximum. The main hybridization event was probably associated with range expansion of the most abundant European roe deer lineage from western refugia and took place in Central Europe after the Younger Dryas (10.8-10.0 ka BP). Initially, introgressed mtDNA variants could have spread out on the wave of expansion through the mechanism of gene surfing, reaching high frequencies in European roe deer populations and leading to observed asymmetrical gene flow. Human-mediated introductions of C. pygargus had minimal effect on the extent of mtDNA introgression. PMID:24697866

Matosiuk, Maciej; Borkowska, Anetta; ?wis?ocka, Magdalena; Mirski, Pawe?; Borowski, Zbigniew; Krysiuk, Kamil; Danilkin, Aleksey A; Zvychaynaya, Elena Y; Saveljev, Alexander P; Ratkiewicz, Miros?aw

2014-05-01

216

Digestibily of Some Kind of Alternative Diets on Lesser Mouse Deer (Tragulus javanicus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four female lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus were used in this study to observe their feed consumption and digestibility given alternative diets in captive. The results showed that 125g/head/day sweet potatoes supplementation in ration increased the consumption and digestibility of dry matter intake, ash, ether extract, and N-free extract. Supplementation of commercial concentrate in lesser mouse deer’s diet decreased the digestion of dry matter, ash, crude protein, and crude fiber. Animal Production 6(1: 17-22 (2004 Key Words: Digestibility, Consumption, Alternative Diets, Tragulus javanicus

WR Farida

2004-01-01

217

Therapeutic Efficacy of Selected Anthelmintics against Gastrointestinal Nematodiasis in Captive Deer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The investigation was undertaken to study the hematological changes and efficacy selected anthelmintics in gastrointestinal nematodiasis affected spotted deer. The hematological picture gave the evidence of anemia in spotted deer affected with gastrointestinal nematodiasis, characterized by a significant reduction (p<0.01 in total erythrocyte counts (TEC, haemoglobin (Hb and alteration in values of MCV, MCH and MCHC. A significant leukocytosis (P<0.05 was evident in gastrointestinal nematodiasis affected spotted deer. Albendazole and levamisole were found to be effective in reducing fecal eggs count but the efficacy of albendazole was higher in contrast to levamisole

S. Kanungo

2011-05-01

218

Gross anatomy of the stomach of the pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The macroscopic anatomy of the stomach of the adult pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758, a cervid species considered to ingest high quantities of grass in its natural diet, was described. Fourteen deceased adult pampas deer of both sexes from a captive breeding station were used for this study. There were no differences in the absolute or relative size from the different compartments of the stomach in relation to gender. Compared to measurements in other ruminants, pampas deer appeared anatomically capable of feeding on a variety of diets as an 'intermediate feeder'.

William Perez

2012-08-01

219

Distribution of Lesions in Red and Fallow Deer Naturally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wild deer have an important role in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis (bTB). The aims of this study were (1) to compare the pattern of lesions present in wild red (Cervus elaphus) and fallow (Dama dama) deer that were naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis, and (2) to use this information to develop a sampling strategy for the isolation of M. bovis from the lymphoid tissues of the head of these animals. Culture of head lymphoid tissues demonstrated that 28 of 95 red deer and 22 of ...

2010-01-01

220

Communal pellet deposition sites of himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) and associated vegetation composition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster), found in the sub-alpine and alpine vegetation of the Himalayan region, is one of the endangered deer species of Nepal. This study conducted in the Langtang National Park, Nepal analyzed how the musk deer select their communal pellet deposition sites, compared vegetation at the pellet deposition sites with adjacent sites (5-10m from a pellet site) and control sites (30 m from pellet site without pellet groups) and explored the potential role of m...

Shrestha, Bhakta Bahadur

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Detection of stx1 and stx2 Genes in Pennsylvanian White-Tailed Deer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Shiga toxin-producing E. coli carrying the stx1 and/or stx2 genes can cause multi-symptomatic illness in humans. A variety of terrestrial and aquatic environmental reservoirs of stx have been described. Culture based detection of microbes in deer species have found a low percentage of samples that have tested positive for Stx-producing microbes, suggesting that while deer may contain these microbes, their overall abundance in deer is low. In this study, quantitative PCR (qPCR) was utilized to...

Kistler, Whitney M.; Surafel Mulugeta; Mauro, Steven A.

2011-01-01

222

Gross anatomy of the stomach of the pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The macroscopic anatomy of the stomach of the adult pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758), a cervid species considered to ingest high quantities of grass in its natural diet, was described. Fourteen deceased adult pampas deer of both sexes from a captive breeding station were used for [...] this study. There were no differences in the absolute or relative size from the different compartments of the stomach in relation to gender. Compared to measurements in other ruminants, pampas deer appeared anatomically capable of feeding on a variety of diets as an 'intermediate feeder'.

Perez, William; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo.

223

Seasonal variations of Red Deer selectivity on a mixed forest edge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Red deer play a major role in shaping forest vegetation, and a better understanding of their selectivity is needed in order to provide a basis for deer habitat and population management. In order to measure deer selectivity, information is required on both the use and availability of different food items at the feeding site scale, which has often been proven difficult to achieve with wild animals. In this study, we introduced three hinds for five days in each season into a 1 ha paddock establ...

2005-01-01

224

Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

D'Angelo, Gino, J., John C. Kilgo, Christopher E. Comer, Cory D. Drennan, David A. Osborn, and Karl V. Miller. 2003. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer. In: Proceedings of the Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies. 57:317-325. This article explores the relationship between controlled dog hunting and the movements of female white tailed deer at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The data suggests that short term, controlled dog hunting has little long-term effect on adult, female white-tailed deer movement on the Savannah River Site.

D' Angelo, Gino, J.; Kilgo, John, C.; Comer, Christopher, E.; Drennan, Cory, D.; Osborn, David, A.; Miller, Karl, V.

2003-12-31

225

Endemicity and evolutionary value: a study of Chilean endemic vascular plant genera  

Science.gov (United States)

This study uses phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential (phylogenetic diversity and community structure) to evaluate the evolutionary value of vascular plant genera endemic to Chile. Endemicity is regarded as a very important consideration for conservation purposes. Taxa that are endemic to a single country are valuable conservation targets, as their protection depends upon a single government policy. This is especially relevant in developing countries in which conservation is not always a high resource allocation priority. Phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential such as phylogenetic diversity (PD) have been regarded as meaningful measures of the “value” of taxa and ecosystems, as they are able to account for the attributes that could allow taxa to recover from environmental changes. Chile is an area of remarkable endemism, harboring a flora that shows the highest number of endemic genera in South America. We studied PD and community structure of this flora using a previously available supertree at the genus level, to which we added DNA sequences of 53 genera endemic to Chile. Using discrepancy values and a null model approach, we decoupled PD from taxon richness, in order to compare their geographic distribution over a one-degree grid. An interesting pattern was observed in which areas to the southwest appear to harbor more PD than expected by their generic richness than those areas to the north of the country. In addition, some southern areas showed more PD than expected by chance, as calculated with the null model approach. Geological history as documented by the study of ancient floras as well as glacial refuges in the coastal range of southern Chile during the quaternary seem to be consistent with the observed pattern, highlighting the importance of this area for conservation purposes.

Scherson, Rosa A; Albornoz, Abraham A; Moreira-Munoz, Andres S; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael

2014-01-01

226

Relaciones espaciales y numéricas entre venados de las pampas (Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer) y chanchos cimarrones (Sus scrofa) en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Bahía Samborombón, Argentina / Spatial and numerical relationships between Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer) and feral pigs (Sus scrofa) in the Bahía Samborombón Wildlife Refuge, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer es la subespecie más austral del venado de las pampas; es endémica de la eco-región pampeana y se encuentra seriamente amenazada de extinción. En Buenos Aires, el último núcleo poblacional existente se localiza en la Bahía Samborombón. El objetivo del presente trabajo fu [...] e determinar las variaciones en la distribución y abundancia de venados y chanchos cimarrones en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Bahía Samborombón, y discutir la interacción potencial entre ambas especies. Se realizaron seis muestreos aéreos durante el período 2002-2005, en los que se contabilizaron 747 venados y 2690 chanchos, y se registró una leve disminución del número de venados y un notable incremento del de chanchos. Se halló una correlación negativa entre la densidad de ambas especies (r s=-0.83; P=0.04) y se detectó que su distribución no es independiente entre sí. En las últimas tres décadas se observó un cambio en la distribución de venados, posiblemente asociado al incremento de chanchos. Este trabajo aporta evidencias indirectas de la existencia potencial de interacciones negativas entre las dos especies que se reflejan en relaciones numéricas y espaciales inversas. Abstract in english Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer, the southernmost subspecies of pampas deer and endemic to the Argentine Pampas, is seriously endangered. In Buenos Aires Province, the last Pampas deer population is located in the Bahía Samborombón region. Poaching and the increase in exotic species such as feral dogs [...] and feral pigs have been suggested as the most important causes affecting the recovery of the deer population. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the spatial and temporal variations in distribution and abundance of the Pampas deer and the feral pig in the Bahía Samborombón Wildlife Refuge and to discuss the possible consequences of the interaction between these species. Six aerial surveys were conducted during 2002-2005. A total of 747 deer and 2690 feral pigs were counted, with a slight decrease in the deer sightings and an important increase in pig sightings during the sampling period. Estimated density ranged between 0.63-1.56 individuals/km² for deer and from 0.91 to 7.78 individuals/km² for pigs. A negative correlation was found between densities of the two species (r s=-0.83; P=0.04), and the distributions are not mutually independent. A progressive change in distribution has been detected in the Pampas deer population during the last three decades. This study provides evidence of the potential existence of negative interactions between Pampas deer and pigs. Due to the critical situation of the Pampas deer population, a control plan for feral pigs should be developed and urgently implemented to prevent the increase and expansion of this population to the south of the Samborombón bay, and consequently, to reduce the potential competition and predation on the existing deer population.

Pérez Carusi, Lorena C; Beade, Mario S; Miñarro, Fernando; Vila, Alejandro R; Giménez-Dixon, Mariano; Bilenca, David N.

227

Glycolytic potential and ultimate muscle pH values in red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ultimate pH value of meat (measured at approx. 24 hours post slaughter gives information about the technological quality, i.e. shelf life, colour, water-holding properties and tenderness and is a direct consequence of muscle glycogen (energy levels at slaughter. It may therefore also indicate whether or not the animal has been exposed to stressful energy depleting events prior to slaughter. In the present study, 141 animals (130 red deer (Cervus elaphus and 11 fallow deer (Dama dama were included to investigate the relationship between ultimate pH and residual glycogen concentration in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus. In addition, the muscle glycogen content and ultimate pH values in three red deer muscles (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus and biceps femoris were studied. M. triceps brachii had higher ultimate pH and lower glycogen content compared with the other two studied muscles. The frequency of intermediate DFD (5.8? pHAbstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:Köttets pH-värde (mätt ca 24 timmar efter slakt har stor betydelse för den teknologiska kvaliteten som t. ex. hållbarhet, färg, vattenhållande förmåga och mörhet. Glykogenförrådet (energinivån i djurens muskulatur vid slakt är helt avgörande för köttets slutliga pH-värde. Därför kan pH-värdet också indikera om hanteringen av slaktdjur varit skonsam eller om stora mängder muskelenergi har förbrukats vid stress. I vår undersökning ingick 141 hjortar (130 kronhjortar (Cervus elaphus och 11 dovhjortar (Dama dama för att studera sambandet mellan köttets pH-värde och glykogeninnehållet i M. longissimus. Glykogeninnehåll och pH-värden i 3 muskler från kronhjort (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus och biceps femoris undersöktes också. M. triceps brachii hade högre pH-värde och lägre glykogeninnehåll jämfört med de två andra musklerna. Det var inte så stor skillnad i frekvensen av intermediär DFD (pH-värden mellan 5,8 og 6,2 mellan de två hjortarterna (5,4% för kronhjort och 9,1% för dovhjort, däremot var frekvensen av DFD (pH-värden över 6,2 mycket låg hos kronhjort (3,8% jämfört med dovhjort (54,5%. Det fanns ett kurvlinjärt samband mellan slutligt pH-värde i köttet och total glukoskoncentration (glykogen + glukos mätt i M. longissimus 30 min efter slakt för både kron- och dovhjort. Ett linjärt samband mellan pH-värde och koncentration av mjölksyra i M. longissimus kunde också visas. Vi fann en mycket stor varitation i glukoskoncentration (18?123 mmol/kg våtvikt när köttets pH-värdet var 5,8 eller lägre. Det behövs fler undersökningar för att vidare klargöra sambanden mellan glykogeninnehåll i muskulaturen och teknologisk och sensorisk kvalitet i olika typer av hjortkött.

Eva Wiklund

2004-04-01

228

Incidence of skeletal deformities in endemic fluorosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation was undertaken in three endemic fluorotic areas of Punjab State, India, to assess the prevalence of skeletal deformities. The concentration of fluoride in drinking water varies from 2.3 to 22.5 mg/L. The patients affected with skeletal fluorosis revealed joint pain in both upper and lower limbs, numbing and tingling of the extremities, back pains and knock-knees. Prevalence of skeletal fluorosis was found to be 29% of grade-I, 51% of grade-II and 20% of grade-III and was higher in males (63%) compared with females (37%). PMID:18820194

A, Shashi; M, Kumar; M, Bhardwaj

2008-10-01

229

MRI of the spine in endemic fluorosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate role of MRI in the diagnosis of the spinal lesions in endemic fluorosis. Methods: MRI of the spine in 81 patients with endemic fluorosis, including the cervical spine in 57 patients, thoracic spine in 10, and lumbar spine in 14, were analyzed and compared with X-ray plain films. Results: Fat-containing marrow in the vertebral bodies with endemic fluorosis was decreased and unevenly distributed. Signal intensity of the vertebral bodies was homogeneously or inhomogeneously decreased on T1- and T2- weighted images. The mean values of signal intensity of the cervical vertebral bodies from 3rd to 7th were lower in 32 patients with fluorosis than those in 100 patients of the control group on T1-weighted image (P1-weighted images, the signal intensity similar to yellow bone marrow within OPLL in 63 patients and within OYL in 36 patients was observed in 32 patients (50%) and in 31 patients (86%), respectively. Of the 81 patients, herniation of the intervertebral disk was found in 68 patients (84%), degeneration of the intervertebral disk was observed in 57 patients (70%), and spinal canal narrowing was found in 75 patients (93%), in which compression of the spinal cord was showed in 63 patients (78%) and pathologic changes within the cord were noted in 28 patients (35%). In 57 patients with fluorosis, MR showed compression of the cervical spinal cord in 48 patients (84.21%), the anterioposterior diameter of the cervical spinal canal on X-ray plain film was either 9 mm or less at any level of the vertebra (indicating the compression of the cervical spinal cord) in 41(71.92%) patients (P=0.115). In 57 patients with fluorosis and 100 patients of control group, intervertebral herniation was observed in 51 patients (89.47%) and 62 patients (62%), respectively (P<0.001), and intervertebral degeneration was noted in 37 patients (64.91%) and 37 patients (37%), respectively (P=0.001). Conclusion: The spine of endemic fluorosis with MR examination may interpret homogeneous or inhomogeneous low signal from the increasing activity of osteoblasts, content and distribution of the calcium fluoride and fat-containing bone marrow within the vertebral body. MR is superior to X-ray plain film in showing the compression and pathologic changes of the spine cord, intervertebral herniation, and intervertebral degeneration. (authors)

2004-10-01

230

Influence of Livestock Grazing on the Regrowth of Crested Wheatgrass for Winter Use by Mule Deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted on a typical foothill deer winter range in northern Utah, partially seeded to crested wheatgrass. This study examined the influence of heavy livestock grazing during the growing season on the regrowth of crested wheatgrass for winter...

L. C. Fierro

1977-01-01

231

Blood mineral concentrations in the endangered huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus) from Chilean Patagonia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, and selenium were measured in plasma from 11 huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus) from Chilean Patagonia. Except for zinc and copper, concentrations of these minerals were similar to those of other deer species. PMID:24171561

Chihuailaf, Ricardo H; Stevenson, Valentina B; Saucedo, Cristián; Corti, Paulo

2014-01-01

232

Efficacy of clorsulon and albendazole against Fascioloides magna in naturally infected white-tailed deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of clorsulon and of albendazole against Fascioloides magna were evaluated in 36 naturally infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in southern Texas. A single oral dose of clorsulon suspension (12 to 30 mg/kg of body weight; mean = 24 mg/kg) was given to each deer and killed 153 (92%) of 167 mature flukes and 4 (80%) of 5 immature flukes recovered at necropsy. A single oral dose of albendazole paste (17 to 46 mg/kg; mean = 26 mg/kg) was given to each deer and killed 148 (89%) of 167 mature flukes and 4 (67%) of 6 immature flukes recovered at necropsy. In 82 nontreated control deer, 271 live flukes were recovered; dead flukes were not recovered. PMID:4077630

Foreyt, W J; Drawe, D L

1985-12-01

233

Different responses to doxorubicin-induced chromosome aberrations in Brazilian deer species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tendency toward chromosome fragility is one of the theories that may explain chromosome variation in brocket deer species (genus Mazama). We tested doxorubicin as an inducer of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of three brocket deer species, Mazama gouazoubira, M. americana and M. nana, compared to the marsh deer, Blastocerus dichotomus. Doxorubicin, at a concentration of 0.25 microg/mL, induced chromosome aberrations and fragile sites in all four species; the highest frequencies were seen in M. gouazoubira; they were lowest in B. dichotomus and intermediate in M. americana and M. nana. These results were expected based on previous karyotypic studies, but they failed to explain the higher sensitivity seen in M. gouazoubira. This may be because not all the aberrations and fragile sites are related to chromosome evolution in brocket deer; other factors, such as environmental influences, may be involved in chromosome fragility. PMID:20714996

Vargas-Munar, D S F; Sarria-Perea, J A; Duarte, J M B

2010-01-01

234

Identification of a novel Mannheimia granulomatis lineage from pathological lesions in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Eight atypical Mannheimia isolates were isolated from lesions in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Traditional classification based on morphologic and physiologic traits showed that they belong to a distinct biogroup (taxon) within genus Mannheimia. Extensive phenotypic characterization suggested that the isolates should be classified as M. granulomatis, although the presence of distinct traits justified their classification into a separate biogroup within this species. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA sequences from two roe deer isolates and 41 other Mannheimia strains supported that the roe deer isolates form a monophyletic group within M. granulomatis. The lktA genotype was present in all roe deer isolates based on Southern blot analysis, whereas the corresponding beta-hemolytic phenotype was absent in one of these isolates.

Bojesen, Anders M.; Larsen, Jesper

2007-01-01

235

Life in the Fast Lane: Road Crossing Behavior of Mule Deer in a Wildland-Urban Interface  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2009, approximately 260,000 animal-vehicle collisions were reported in the United States, resulting in 12,000 human injuries and 173 human fatalities. Research has focused on identifying factors associated with high densities of animal-vehicle collisions, including variables such as traffic speed and volume, road design, topographic features, vegetative cover, and local deer or elk (Cervus elaphus) abundance. The purposes of this study were to document how often and where mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) crossed roads in a western United States wildland-urban interface area, and to relate deer road-crossing behavior to deer-vehicle collision locations. Seven adult mule deer (four males [M] and three females [F]) were captured and collared with GPS-enabled collars during December 2001 and January 2002. Five of the seven deployed collars were recovered. None of the roads in the study area appeared to act as a substantial barrier to deer passage. Deer home ranges straddled highways and primary, secondary, and tertiary arterial roads. Deer crossed all types of roads. The average number of times deer crossed road during 24 hours of monitoring ranged from 2.1 to 7.0. Deer in the Los Alamos townsite avoided crossing roads during day and before sunset. Deer-vehicle accidents occurred at 350 percent of the level expected after sunset. All other time periods had fewer accidents than expected. The distribution of accidents across time periods was not similar to the distribution of road crossings across time periods for any deer. Within Los Alamos County there was a clear trend for deer-vehicle collisions to occur on roads with speed limits > 35 mph. Deer in the townsite frequently crossed roads with lower speed limits; therefore, the reason for the paucity of accidents along these roads was evidently the ability of drivers to detect deer (or the ability of deer to detect vehicles) and respond before an accident occurred. There was a significant but not strong correlation between the density of accidents and the density of road crossings. This was probably related to the high number of deer crossings of tertiary arterial roads, where accidents were not likely to occur.

Hansen, Leslie A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Biggs, James [Northern New Mexico College; Bennett, Kathryn D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bare, Carey [Bare and Associates, LLC; Sherwood, Sherri R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-04-04

236

Living on the Edge: Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) Density in the Margins of Its Geographical Range  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decades roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) populations have increased in number and distribution throughout Europe. Such increases have profound impacts on ecosystems, both positive and negative. Therefore monitoring roe deer populations is essential for the appropriate management of this species, in order to achieve a balance between conservation and mitigation of the negative impacts. Despite being required for an effective management plan, the study of roe deer ecology in Portugal is at an early stage, and hence there is still a complete lack of knowledge of roe deer density within its known range. Distance sampling of pellet groups coupled with production and decay rates for pellet groups provided density estimates for roe deer in northeastern Portugal (Lombada National Hunting Area - LNHA, Serra de Montesinho – SM and Serra da Nogueira – SN; LNHA and SM located in Montesinho Natural Park). The estimated roe deer density using a stratified detection function was 1.23/100 ha for LNHA, 4.87/100 ha for SM and 4.25/100 ha in SN, with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 0.68 to 2.21, 3.08 to 7.71 and 2.25 to 8.03, respectively. For the entire area, the estimated density was about 3.51/100 ha (95% CI - 2.26–5.45). This method can provide estimates of roe deer density, which will ultimately support management decisions. However, effective monitoring should be based on long-term studies that are able to detect population fluctuations. This study represents the initial phase of roe deer monitoring at the edge of its European range and intends to fill the gap in this species ecology, as the gathering of similar data over a number of years will provide the basis for stronger inferences. Monitoring should be continued, although the study area should be increased to evaluate the accuracy of estimates and assess the impact of management actions.

Valente, Ana M.; Fonseca, Carlos; Marques, Tiago A.; Santos, Joao P.; Rodrigues, Rogerio; Torres, Rita Tinoco

2014-01-01

237

Serosurveillance for Livestock Pathogens in Free-Ranging Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Routine disease surveillance has been conducted for decades in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California for pathogens shared between wildlife and domestic ruminants that may have implications for the animal production industry and wildlife health. Deer sampled from 1990 to 2007 (n?=?2,619) were tested for exposure to six pathogens: bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Leptospira spp., Anaplasma spp. and Brucella spp. ...

Roug, Annette; Swift, Pamela; Torres, Steven; Jones, Karen; Johnson, Christine K.

2012-01-01

238

Barking in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus): seasonal trends and possibile functions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We studied barking behaviour of roe deer, Capreolus capreolus, in an area when wolves actively prey on this species, to determine the possible functions of this signal. Our data showed that males barked more frequently than females and that males barked more often during the territorial period than outside it. Undisturbed deer that barked spontaneously, before the arrival of the observer, were significantly more likely to be male than female, while both males and females showed the sam...

Rossi, Iva; Mauri, Lorenza; Laficara, Simona; Apollonio, Marco

2002-01-01

239

Compensatory mortality in mule deer populations: Final technical report, January 1, 1985--December 31, 1988  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hypothesis of compensatory mortality is critical to understanding population dynamics of wildlife species. This knowledge is vital regardless of whether populations are managed for recreational hunting or habitats are altered via energy development projects. This research tested for compensatory mortality in the juvenile (fawn) portion of a mule deer population. Two experimental manipulations were used employing radio-collared deer. In this study, /approximately/20% of the population was moved from a treatment area and fawn survival rates compared to those on the control area. In the pasture study, deer were stocked in pastures at 3 densities of 44, 89, and 139 deer/km/sup 2/. Lowering of density in the field portion of the study did not appear to affect fawn survival. This is attributed to not removing enough animals for existing range conditions that have been imparted by high deer densities during the last 3 decades. Also, the effect of removal was tempered by an increase in yearling males brought about by antler-point restrictions during the harvest. Deer removed from the treatment area were used to stock 3 large pastures at low, medium, and high densities of 44, 89, and 139 deer/km/sup 2/, respectively. Fawn survival was significantly different between densities (P < 0.001), with the low density pasture showing the highest survival and the high density pasture showing the lowest survival. The main cause of death was starvation suggesting that food supplies were limiting. A strong compensatory mortality process is operating in this mule deer population as evidenced by the pasture data. We did not detect this process in the field portion of the study because the removal of /approximately/20% of the population was insufficient to allow an immediate improvement in fawn nutrition. The density-dependent survival response in the controlled pasture study demonstrated that compensatory mortality is operating in this population. 57 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

White, G.C.

1989-03-01

240

Is there adaptation of the exocrine pancreas in wild animal? The case of the Roe Deer.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Physiology of the exocrine pancreas has been well studied in domestic and in laboratory animals as well as in humans. However, it remains quite unknown in wildlife mammals. Roe deer and cattle (including calf) belong to different families but have a common ancestor. This work aimed to evaluate in the Roe deer, the adaptation to diet of the exocrine pancreatic functions and regulations related to animal evolution and domestication. Results For...

Guilloteau Paul; Vitari Francesca; Meuth Valérie; Le Normand Laurence; Romé Véronique; Savary Gérard; Delaby Luc; Domeneghini Cinzia; Morisset Jean

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

White-tailed deer are susceptible to the agent of sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to the agent of scrapie after intracerebral inoculation and to compare clinical signs and lesions to those reported for chronic wasting disease (CWD. Deer (n = 5 were inoculated with 1 mL of a 10% (wt/vol brain homogenate derived from a sheep clinically affected with scrapie. A non-inoculated deer was maintained as a negative control. Deer were observed daily for clinical signs of disease and euthanized and necropsied when unequivocal signs of scrapie were noted. One animal died 7 months post inoculation (pi due to intercurrent disease. Examinations of brain tissue for the presence of the disease-associated abnormal prion protein (PrPSc by western blot (WB and immunohistochemistry (IHC were negative whereas IHC of lymphoid tissues was positive. Deer necropsied at 15-22 months pi were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Deer necropsied after 20 months pi had clinical signs of depression and progressive weight loss. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain (at levels of cerebrum, hippocampus, colliculus, cerebellum, and brainstem, trigeminal ganglion, neurohypophysis, retina, spinal cord, and various lymphoid tissues including tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and spleen. This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation. To further test the susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie these experiments will be repeated with a more natural route of inoculation.

Greenlee Justin J

2011-10-01

242

A case of central serous chorioretinopathy associated with use of deer antler spray supplement.  

Science.gov (United States)

This case report describes central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) in a healthy man associated with the use of deer antler spray, an athletic supplement purported to contain insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). The CSC resolved after cessation of the supplement. Currently, there are no reports in the literature linking IGF-1 and CSC. We conclude that agents containing IGF-1, such as deer antler supplements, may be correlated with the development of CSC. PMID:24840532

Wong, Sophia S; Morrison-Reyes, Joshua A; Smithen, Lindsay M

2014-01-01

243

Selection of trees for rubbing by red and roe deer in forest plantations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antler rubbing is a form of behaviour by which deer may damage and ultimately induce mortality of trees. Understanding factors affecting selection of trees for rubbing may contribute to mitigation of negative effects of such behaviour in plantations or woodlands. We analysed characteristics of trees rubbed by red and roe deer along transects established in plantations of Pinus pinaster (Aiton), Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco, Betula alba L. and Quercus robur L. in Northeast Portugal. T...

2006-01-01

244

ESR dating. Pt. 3: a study of fossils of deer and ox tooth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ages of fossils of deer and ox tooth, from Maanshan Tongzi in Guizhou and Zhaocun Qianan in Hebei respectively have been determined by using ESR dating. The age of the deer tooth is (1.5 ± 0.2) x 104 a and that of the ox tooth is (3.7 ± 0.5) x 104 a. The property of trapped center, as the source of ESR signal, has been preliminarily established with positron annihilation technique

1990-01-01

245

Radionuclide export by deer mice at a solid radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations of 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, and 241Am in deer mice tissues collected from a radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho were significantly (p less than 0.05) higher than those from a control area. The highest concentrations of Pu and Am occurred in pelts of deer mice inhabiting an area which had elevated surface and subsurface soil concentrations of these nuclides as compared to other Subsurface Disposal Area locations. Therefore, transuranic contamination in tissues likely originated from both soil depths. However, 137Cs and 90Sr in tissues likely originated from subsurface areas, since surface soils were below background concentrations for these nuclides. Based on a minimum of 6160 deer mice inhabiting the 36-ha waste disposal area over a 1-yr period, a total minimum inventory of 22.8 mu Ci radioactivity was contained in deer mice tissues. Of this estimate, 22.7 mu Ci activity was due to the radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs. An estimated total of 8.4 mu Ci was transported from the disposal area in mice dispersing from the area. A calculated annual radionuclide inventory of 28.8 mu Ci in deer mice feces was deposited in and around the radioactive waste disposal area. Deer mice inhabiting the SDA are a mode of radionuclide uptake and transport; however, the environmental consequences of this transport mechanism are likely minimal. The results for deer mice, which make up 69% of the small mammal biomass, are discussed in relation to other small mammals within the disposal area. Other modes of transport associated with the deer mice, such as radionuclides in excavated soils associated with burrowing activities and predation, are also discussed

1987-01-01

246

Carotid artery exteriorization in brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) for an experimental study of anesthesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report evaluates the carotid artery exteriorization technique to allow repeated percutaneous artery catheterization in six brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira). Repeated percutaneous catheterization of the carotid artery was possible for periods of 3 mo to obtain arterial blood and monitor arterial blood pressure of deer without risk of arterial rupture. The artery pulse was easily palpable for periods up to 15 mo. Postoperative complication and/or arterial damage was not observed. PMID:19746862

Munerato, Marina Salles; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti; Marques, José Antônio

2009-09-01

247

Chromosome polymorphism in the Brazilian dwarf brocket deer, Mazama nana (Mammalia, Cervidae)  

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The Brazilian dwarf brocket deer (Mazama nana) is the smallest deer species in Brazil and is considered threatened due to the reduction and alteration of its habitat, the Atlantic Rainforest. Moreover, previous work suggested the presence of intraspecific chromosome polymorphisms which may contribute to further population instability because of the reduced fertility arising from the deleterious effects of chromosome rearrangements during meiosis. We used G- and C-banding, and nucleolus organi...

2008-01-01

248

Gene expression of axon growth promoting factors in the deer antler  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The annual regeneration cycle of deer (Cervidae, Artiodactyla) antlers represents a unique model of epimorphic regeneration and rapid growth in adult mammals. Regenerating antlers are innervated by trigeminal sensory axons growing through the velvet, the modified form of skin that envelopes the antler, at elongation velocities that reach one centimetre per day in the common deer (Cervus elaphus). Several axon growth promoters like NT-3, NGF or IGF-1 have been described in the antler. To incre...

Pita-thomas, W.; Fernandez-martos, C.; Yunta, M.; Maza, R. M.; Navarro-ruiz, R.; Lopez-rodri?guez, M. J.; Reigada, D.; Nieto-sampedro, Manuel; Nieto-diaz, Manuel

2010-01-01

249

Spatial pattern of grazing pressure of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Norway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The dramatic increase of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) harvest in Norway the recent decades have led to concerns of possible oversized populations, and negative density effects on animal life history traits have been documented. However, few studies have been done on the state of the plant community. Measurements of accumulated browsing on important winter forage were conducted in two municipalities in Sogn and Fjordane, both to get better data on red deer diet and also in order to suggest wh...

2008-01-01

250

Prion protein polymorphisms in white-tailed deer influence susceptibility to chronic wasting disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary sequence of the prion protein affects susceptibility to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, in mice, sheep and humans. The Prnp gene sequence of free-ranging, Wisconsin white-tailed deer was determined and the Prnp genotypes of chronic wasting disease (CWD)-positive and CWD-negative deer were compared. Six amino acid changes were identified, two of which were located in pseudogenes. Two alleles, a Q-->K polymorphism at codon 226 and a single octapeptide repeat insertion into the pseudogene, have not been reported previously. The predominant alleles--wild-type (Q95, G96 and Q226) and a G96S polymorphism--comprised almost 98% of the Prnp alleles in the Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Comparison of the allelic frequencies in the CWD-positive and CWD-negative deer suggested that G96S and a Q95H polymorphism were linked to a reduced susceptibility to CWD. The G96S allele did not, however, provide complete resistance, as a CWD-positive G96S/G96S deer was identified. The G96S allele was also linked to slower progression of the disease in CWD-positive deer based on the deposition of PrP(CWD) in the obex region of the medulla oblongata. Although the reduced susceptibility of deer with at least one copy of the Q95H or G96S allele is insufficient to serve as a genetic barrier, the presence of these alleles may modulate the impact of CWD on white-tailed deer populations. PMID:16760415

Johnson, Chad; Johnson, Jody; Vanderloo, Joshua P; Keane, Delwyn; Aiken, Judd M; McKenzie, Debbie

2006-07-01

251

Is there adaptation of the exocrine pancreas in wild animal? The case of the Roe Deer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Physiology of the exocrine pancreas has been well studied in domestic and in laboratory animals as well as in humans. However, it remains quite unknown in wildlife mammals. Roe deer and cattle (including calf) belong to different families but have a common ancestor. This work aimed to evaluate in the Roe deer, the adaptation to diet of the exocrine pancreatic functions and regulations related to animal evolution and domestication. Results For...

2012-01-01

252

Performance of immunochromatographic and ELISA tests for detecting fallow deer infected with Mycobacterium bovis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fallow deer (Dama dama) are widely distributed as natural or naturalised populations, as well as in game parks and deer farms. We used 157 fallow deer sampled in populations considered to be Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) free and 73 Mycobacterium bovis-infected fallow deer confirmed postmortem by culture to evaluate the diagnostic performance of two tests for the detection of anti-mycobacterial antibodies: the dual path platform (DPP) VetTB assay and the bovine purified protein derivative (bPPD) ELISA. We also compared their sensitivity with that of the skin test, analyzed the effect of haemolysis degree on the antibody detection and described the relationship between the test readings and presence/absence of gross tuberculosis (TB) compatible lesions. Sensitivity of bPPD ELISA was 51% at a specificity of 96%. Depending on the cut-off value selected, the sensitivity of DPP VetTB ranged from 62 to 71%, while its specificity was 88-95%. In the subgroup of M. bovis-infected deer for which the skin test data were available (33 of 73); this method detected 76% of culture-positive animals, although the specificity of the intradermal test was not determined in this study. When the DPP VetTB and skin test data were combined, the resulting sensitivity obtained in this sub-group of M. bovis-infected deer increased to 97%. Gross pathology identified TB compatible lesions (TBL) in 89% culture-confirmed fallow deer. The infected animals with visible lesions had significantly higher readings in the DPP VetTB, but not in the bPPD ELISA. Only high levels of haemolysis decreased antibody test sensitivity and this effect was more evident for the bPPD ELISA. The results allowed inferring a number of management recommendations for rapid detection of MTC infection in live fallow deer and in surveys on hunter-harvested cervids. PMID:22071126

Boadella, M; Barasona, J A; Diaz-Sanchez, S; Lyashchenko, K P; Greenwald, R; Esfandiari, J; Gortazar, C

2012-04-01

253

Unexpected high responses to tuberculin skin-test in farmed red deer: Implications for tuberculosis control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tuberculosis (TB) in deer is a serious zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution. Detection of infected animals is usually performed using single or comparative skin-testing (SST/CST), although false responses due to sensitization to other mycobacteria may occur, hampering diagnostic specificity. We describe the evolution of the responses to the SST, CST and to an in-house serological assay in a red deer farm subjected to regular TB testing in southern Spain in an attempt to understand the d...

Queiros, J.; Alvarez, J.; Carta, T.; Mateos, A.; Ortiz, J. A.; Fernandez-de-mera, I. G.; Martin-hernando, M. P.; Gortazar, C.

2012-01-01

254

Borrelia burgdorferi in an urban environment: white-tailed deer with infected ticks and antibodies.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ticks and blood samples were collected from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in forests located in an insular, urban area of Bridgeport, Conn., and in rural south central Connecticut during 1992 and 1993. Immature and adult Ixodes scapularis ticks were tested for Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme borreliosis, by indirect fluorescent-antibody staining methods. Deer sera were analyzed for antibodies to this bacterium by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infected ti...

Magnarelli, L. A.; Denicola, A.; Stafford, K. C.; Anderson, J. F.

1995-01-01

255

Existing theories do not explain sex ratio variation at birth in monomorphic roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The phenomenon of skewed sex ratios at birth has been reported in many ungulate species. So far, no consistent trend has emerged for roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), because male-biased, female-biased and equal sex ratios at birth have all been found. Nevertheless, both the Trivers-Willard hypothesis and the theory of local resource competition have gained support. Despite the great number of studies carried out regarding the ecology of roe deer, too many aspects remain unclear, and contradict...

Vreugdenhil, S. J.; Breukelen, L.; Wieren, S. E.

2007-01-01

256

Impacts of white-tailed deer on red trillium (Trillium recurvatum): defining a threshold for deer browsing pressure at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore  

Science.gov (United States)

Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been a concern for land managers in eastern North America because of their impacts on native forest ecosystems. Managers have sought native plant species to serve as phytoindicators of deer impacts to supplement deer surveys. We analyzed experimental data about red trillium (Trillium recurvatum), large flowered trillium (T. grandiflorum), nodding trillium (T. cernuum), and declined trillium (T. flexipes) growth in paired exclosure (fenced) plots and control (unfenced) plots from 2002 to 2010 at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The latter two species lacked replication, so statistical analysis was not possible. All red trillium plants were surveyed for height-to-leaf, effects of browsing, and presence of flowers. Data from individuals in 2009 demonstrated a sigmoidal relationship between height-to-leaf and probability of flowering. The relationship on moraine soils was shifted to taller plants compared to those on sand substrates, with respectively 50 percent flowering at 18 and 16 cm and 33 percent flowering at 16 and 14 cm height-to-leaf. On a plot basis, the proportion of plants flowering was influenced by height to leaf, duration of protection, and deviation in rainfall. The proportion of plants flowering increased ninefold in exclosures (28 percent) compared to control plots (3 percent) over the 8 years of protection. The mean height-to-leaf was a function of the interaction between treatment and duration, as well as red trillium density. Changes in height-to-leaf in control plots from year to year were significantly influenced by an interaction between change in deer density and change in snowfall depth. There was a significant negative correlation between change in deer density and snowfall depth. Plants in the exclosures increased in height at a rate of 1.5 cm yr?1 whereas control plants decreased in height by 0.9 cm yr?1. In all, 78 percent of the control plots lacked flowering individuals over the 9 years of study, indicating that red trillium is being negatively affected by deer throughout the East Unit of the park. Of the five deer management zones studied, only one showed pre-impact height-to-leaf and flowering percentages in control plots that then declined after 2005. The results of this study demonstrate that Trillium species growing in the lands of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore are being suppressed reproductively by deer browsing. Specifically, we demonstrate, for the first time, the utility of using red trillium (Trillium recurvatum) height-to-leaf and percentage of flowering as indicators of the impacts of deer browsing. Application of the recommended thresholds demonstrates their utility in adopting red trillium as a phytoindicator of deer impact. Responses of plants to protection from deer suggest that deer culling might be necessary for 6 or more years for red trillium populations and rare trillium species to recover.

Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Grundel, Ralph

2014-01-01

257

Coyotes, deer, and wildflowers: diverse evidence points to a trophic cascade  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial gradients in human activity, coyote activity, deer activity, and deer herbivory provide an unusual type of evidence for a trophic cascade. Activity of coyotes, which eat young mule deer (fawns), decreased with proximity to a remote biological field station, indicating that these predators avoided an area of high human activity. In contrast, activity of adult female deer (does) and intensity of herbivory on palatable plant species both increased with proximity to the station and were positively correlated with each other. The gradient in deer activity was not explained by availabilities of preferred habitats or plant species because these did not vary with distance from the station. Does spent less time feeding when they encountered coyote urine next to a feed block, indicating that increased vigilance may contribute, along with avoidance of areas with coyotes, to lower herbivory away from the station. Judging from two palatable wildflower species whose seed crop and seedling recruitment were greatly reduced near the field station, the coyote-deer-wildflower trophic cascade has the potential to influence plant community composition. Our study illustrates the value of a case-history approach, in which different forms of ecological data about a single system are used to develop conceptual models of complex ecological phenomena. Such an iterative model-building process is a common, but underappreciated, way of understanding how ecological systems work.

Waser, Nickolas M.; Price, Mary V.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Arózqueta, S. Reneé; Escobar, Betsabé D. Castro; Pickens, Richard; Pistoia, Alessandra

2014-05-01

258

Decreasing prevalence of brucellosis in red deer through efforts to control disease in livestock  

Science.gov (United States)

When a pathogen infects a number of different hosts, the process of determining the relative importance of each host species to the persistence of the pathogen is often complex. Removal of a host species is a potential but rarely possible way of discovering the importance of that species to the dynamics of the disease. This study presents the results of a 12-year programme aimed at controlling brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats and the cascading impacts on brucellosis in a sympatric population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Boumort National Game Reserve (BNGR; NE Spain). From February 1998 to December 2009, local veterinary agencies tested over 36 180 individual blood samples from cattle, 296 482 from sheep and goats and 1047 from red deer in the study area. All seropositive livestock were removed annually. From 2006 to 2009 brucellosis was not detected in cattle and in 2009 only one of 97 red deer tested was found to be positive. The surveillance and removal of positive domestic animals coincided with a significant decrease in the prevalence of brucellosis in red deer. Our results suggest that red deer may not be able to maintain brucellosis in this region independently of cattle, sheep or goats, and that continued efforts to control disease in livestock may lead to the eventual eradication of brucellosis in red deer in the area.

Serrano, E.; Cross, P. C.; Beneria, M.; Ficapal, A.; Curia, J.; Marco, X.; Lavin, S.; Marco, I.

2011-01-01

259

The Effect of Rearing Experience on the Behavior Patterns of Captive Male Alpine Musk Deer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of maternal and peer separation during infancy were studied on adult male alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF in Gansu province, China. The aim was to determine the effect of early experience on the behavior in adult deer. Doe Reared (DR males remained with their mothers for a minimum of 3 months, prior to weaning which occurred annually in early October. Hand Reared (HR males were removed from their parents before 3 weeks of age and reared in isolation, prior to weaning. Focal sampling was conducted on twenty two adult males (13 HR; 9 DR to record the frequencies of 12 behavioral categories; resting, standing-alert, locomotion, ruminating, tail-pasting, urinating/defecating, environmental sniffing, self-directed behavior, ano-genital sniffing, affinitive interaction and agonistic interaction. The results showed that HR male musk deer demonstrate significantly more agonistic and less affinitive behavior when compared to DR males. This may be owing to the separation of HR deer from their peers and mother, in addition to proportionally greater contact with human caretakers. The results of this study have implication for musk deer farming.

Xiuxiang Meng

2011-01-01

260

Coyotes, deer, and wildflowers: diverse evidence points to a trophic cascade.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial gradients in human activity, coyote activity, deer activity, and deer herbivory provide an unusual type of evidence for a trophic cascade. Activity of coyotes, which eat young mule deer (fawns), decreased with proximity to a remote biological field station, indicating that these predators avoided an area of high human activity. In contrast, activity of adult female deer (does) and intensity of herbivory on palatable plant species both increased with proximity to the station and were positively correlated with each other. The gradient in deer activity was not explained by availabilities of preferred habitats or plant species because these did not vary with distance from the station. Does spent less time feeding when they encountered coyote urine next to a feed block, indicating that increased vigilance may contribute, along with avoidance of areas with coyotes, to lower herbivory away from the station. Judging from two palatable wildflower species whose seed crop and seedling recruitment were greatly reduced near the field station, the coyote-deer-wildflower trophic cascade has the potential to influence plant community composition. Our study illustrates the value of a case-history approach, in which different forms of ecological data about a single system are used to develop conceptual models of complex ecological phenomena. Such an iterative model-building process is a common, but underappreciated, way of understanding how ecological systems work. PMID:24728614

Waser, Nickolas M; Price, Mary V; Blumstein, Daniel T; Arózqueta, S Reneé; Escobar, Betsabé D Castro; Pickens, Richard; Pistoia, Alessandra

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

Cesium-137 in deer: Savannah River Plant vs. southeastern coastal plain herds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 137Cs content in deer killed during programmed hunts at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has averaged 9.0 pCi/g. This value, based on measurements of 13,907 deer taken over 14 years (1965 to 1978), similar to the value obtained for 552 deer from other southeastern Coastal Plain locations, indicating the 137Cs content is due to fallout from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons rather than from SRP operations. The computerized SRP data base for each harvested deer includes age, sex, weight, cesium content, kill location, date, and the hunter's name. Analysis of these data enables the estimation of population dose from ingestion of the edible meat. Consumption of all edible meat from deer killed at SRP from 1965 to 1978 gives a whole body population dose of 196 man-rem from 137Cs. Assuming an annual consumption rate of 20 kg gives an average individual whole body dose of 13 mrem, about 10% of local annual background level. The radiation dose from 40K of natural potassium content of deer is comparable to the radiation dose from 137Cs

1980-07-26

262

Disease survey of free-ranging grey brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) in the Gran Chaco, Bolivia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples from 17 free-ranging hunter-killed grey brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) in the Gran Chaco, Bolivia, were collected during June-August 1999. All 17 deer appeared to be in good condition at the time of death. Gross necropsies were performed, serum was collected for serologic evaluation of selected infectious disease agents, and feces and ectoparasites were collected for evaluation of internal and external parasites. Serologic tests were positive for antibodies against bovine respiratory syncytial virus and four Leptospira interrogans serovars, with questionable results for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotypes 1 and 2. No antibodies were detected to Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis, Babesia odocoilei, bluetongue virus (serotypes 2, 10, 11, 13, and 17), bovine viral diarrhea virus, Brucella abortus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and parainfluenza-3 virus. Sixty-four percent (7/11) of the deer had endoparasites. Amblyomma spp. ticks were found on seven deer, flies of the family Hippoboscidae on six deer, and lice on six deer. PMID:15137493

Deem, Sharon L; Noss, Andrew J; Villarroel, Richard; Uhart, Marcela M; Karesh, William B

2004-01-01

263

Radionuclide concentrations in mule deer with reference to waste-management ponds on the Hanford Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparison was made between the amount of time 17 radio-collared mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) spent near low-level waste-management ponds on the Hanford site and the levels of radionuclides found in samples of their muscle, liver, bone and rumen contents. All deer had low, but detectable, amounts of /sup 137/Cs in their muscle, liver and remen contents and /sup 90/Sr in their bone. There was a positive, significant correlation between the amount of time deer spent near the waste-management ponds and the levels of /sup 137/Cs in their muscle and liver and /sup 90/Sr in their bone. The concentrations of /sup 137/Cs in rumen samples did not appear to be related to the amount of time deer spent near waste-management ponds. The variability of /sup 137/Cs in muscle was higher in those deer living near the waste-management ponds than in the individuals residing in areas remote from the ponds. In general, the levels of radionuclides in Hanford Site deer appear to be reduced from that observed in the 1960s.

Eberhardt, L.E.; Cadwell, L.L.; Hanson, E.E.

1984-11-01

264

A bivalent scale for measuring crowding among deer hunters  

Science.gov (United States)

One factor that may influence satisfaction in outdoor recreation is crowding, which historically has been defined as a negative evaluation of the density of other participants. While this definition is suitable for most scenarios, there are circumstances where encounters with others in the area are evaluated positively and thus contribute to the satisfaction of the participant. To adequately describe this phenomenon we suggest a more inclusive measurement of crowding that allows for both positive and negative evaluations of participant density to more accurately explore the relationship between crowding and satisfaction. We identified a sub-group of deer hunters who negatively evaluated the low density of other hunters, which reduced their satisfaction with their overall hunting experience. The methodology for measuring crowding in recreation research may have an important effect in identifying the relationship crowding has with other relevant variables as well as management implications.

Gigliotti, Larry M.; Chase, Loren

2014-01-01

265

Branching pattern of aortic arch in the Korean water deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the branching pattern of the aortic arch and its major branches in Korean water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus, Heude, 1884). Silicone casts were taken from the vessels of 23 carcasses (male 14, female 9) with body weights ranging from 1.3-16.0 kg through a retrograde injection into the abdominal aorta. The findings were compared with those from other domestic ruminants. Only the brachiocephalic trunk (Bct) branched from the aortic arch in all carcasses. In 19 of the 23 cases, the Bct branched into the left subclavian artery (LSb), the left common carotid artery (LCc), and then trifurcated into the right common carotid artery (RCc), right costocervical trunk (RCct) and right subclavian artery (RSb). The subclavian artery (Sb) branched into the costocervical trunk (in left), internal thoracic artery (It), and superficial cervical artery (Sc) in that order, and continued as the axillary artery. Instead of separated carotid arteries, the bicarotid trunk from the Bct was observed in only three males and one female. Two of these males had different branching orders of the It and Sc from the Sb in one or both sides. The other male had a RCct from the RSb. The left costocervical trunk (LCct) arose from the LSb in all cases, and branched into the highest intercostal artery, the dorsal scapular artery, and the deep cervical arteries in that order, and continued as the vertebral artery. In 22 cases, the RCct branched directly from the Bct at the same point in which the RCc (or bicarotid trunk) and RSb separated. The artery branching pattern from the RCct was similar to that of the LCct. These results suggest that the Korean water deer has a Bct with different branching patterns from those of domestic ruminants. PMID:18981660

Ahn, Dong-Choon; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Kang, Hyung-Sub; Kim, Nam-Soo; Park, Sang-Youel; Kim, In-Shik

2008-10-01

266

Maternal investment and reproductive success in Chinese water deer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among cervids, maternal investment, estimated as the amount of resources and care allocated to the offspring, was expected to be related to species body size. Therefore, maternal investment in a herd of captive Chinese water deer Hydropotes inermis, a relatively small species of cervid, was investigated over 3 years. Except during the lactation period, reproductive females spent about 2-fold more time resting than feeding. During lactation, the amount of time spent feeding increased highly (25.3 min/h during lactation vs 17.3 min/hr during the gestation period. Females spent less than 30% of time in communal behaviours with offspring. They did not reject alien fawns during this care period. Frequency and duration of suckling events decreased exponentially from the second week onwards. More than 10 % of suckling bouts were non-filial. Prenatal investment leads to a mean litter mass (about 12% of maternal mass higher than in most cervid species. Postnatal investment in fawns represents a daily mass gain of ca. 85 g/d during the first 2 weeks, without any sexual difference. Female production, timing and synchrony of births and survival of fawns characterized reproductive success. Seventy percent of mature females gave birth, with a mean of 1.9 offspring per female. The sex ratio was even. Births were synchronous, 80% of births occurring in 25 days. In this herd, 0.74 fawn per female was successfully weaned and 0.56 fawn per female survived through their first year. Based on these results we conclude that reproductive strategy of Chinese water deer was efficient and characterized by mother-offspring relationships typical of hiders and high levels of pre- and postnatal investments. This strategy seems typical of small species of cervids without marked sexual dimorphism.

Christiane MAUGET

2009-04-01

267

Plants Composing the Diet of Marsh and Pampas Deer in the Brazilian Pantanal Wetland and Their Ethnomedicinal Properties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus (Illiger, 1815) and pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758) are two wild endangered species of South America whose foraging habits are still little known. This study focuses on the plant species consumed by both deer living at a Private Natural Heritage Reserve in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland as well as the ethnomedicinal properties of those plants. The diet composition was determined by direct observation of foraging activity of t...

2006-01-01

268

Annual changes in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) diet in the Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic/Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The composition of roe deer diet in the Bohemian Forest was analysed with the aim to assess its role in forest habitat altered by bark beetle outbreaks and wind calamities. The annual diet of roe deer was studied at both, Czech and German, sides of the Bohemian Forest using microscopic analyses of faeces. On average, the largest part of the roe deer diet consisted of forbs (32%), followed by three other components—grasses (17%), coniferous trees (13%) and broadleaved tre...

2009-01-01

269

Habitat Ecology of Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster) in Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) is an endangered species found in the Himalayan region of Nepal. This research was conducted in the Manaslu Conservation Area to explore the deers general population status, distribution, habitat preference and conservation threats. Musk deer are distributed within the altitudinal range of 3128-4039 m spanning 35.43 km2, with the most potential habitat in the Prok VDC (Village Development Committee). Within this area the Musk de...

Ashok Subedi; Achyut Aryal; Raj Kumar Koirala; Yajna Prasad Timilsina; Xiuxiang Meng; Fiona McKenzie

2012-01-01

270

Getting the biggest birch for the bang: restoring and expanding upland birchwoods in the Scottish Highlands by managing red deer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High deer populations threaten the conservation value of woodlands and grasslands, but predicting the success of deer culling, in terms of allowing vegetation to recover, is difficult. Numerical simulation modeling is one approach to gain insight into the outcomes of management scenarios. We develop a spatially explicit model to predict the responses of Betula spp. to red deer (Cervus elaphus) and land management in the Scottish Highlands. Our model integrates a Bayesian stochastic stage-base...

2013-01-01

271

Shiga toxin subtypes associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from red deer, roe deer, chamois and ibex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 52 Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains, isolated from fecal samples of six ibex, 12 chamois, 15 roe deer, and 19 red deer were further characterized by subtyping the stx genes, examining strains for the top nine serogroups and testing for the presence of eae and ehxA. Eleven of the 52 strains belonged to one of the top nine STEC O groups (O26, O45, O91, O103, O111, O113, O121, O145, and O157). Eight STEC strains were of serogroup O145, two strains of serogroup O...

Hofer, E.; Cernela, N.; Stephan, R.

2012-01-01

272

Reconstruction of the putative cervidae ancestral karyotype by chromosome painting of Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) with dromedary probes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) is one of a few deer species presumably preserving the ancestral cervid karyotype. The comparative genomic data of the Siberian roe deer are critical for our understanding of the karyotypic relationships within artiodactyls. We have established chromosomal homologies between the Siberian roe deer and the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) by cross-species chromosome painting with dromedary chromosome-specific painting probes. Dromedary chromosome paints detected 53 autosomal homologies in the genome of the Siberian roe deer. The identification of chromosomal homologies between the Siberian roe deer and cattle resulted from previously detected cattle-dromedary homologies. We have found 8 chromosomal rearrangements (6 fissions in the Siberian roe deer, 1 fission in the cattle and 1 inversion on the CPY11) that have separated the karyotypes of the cattle and the Siberian roe deer. The inversion on CPY11 might be an apomorphic trait of cervids, since we detected its presence in the gray brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira). Thus our data further prove the scenario of chromosomal rearrangements that was previously proposed and add some new data. PMID:20413959

Dementyeva, P V; Trifonov, V A; Kulemzina, A I; Graphodatsky, A S

2010-06-01

273

Endemicity response timelines for Plasmodium falciparum elimination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The scaling up of malaria control and renewed calls for malaria eradication have raised interest in defining timelines for changes in malaria endemicity. Methods The epidemiological theory for the decline in the Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR, the prevalence of infection following intervention was critically reviewed and where necessary extended to consider superinfection, heterogeneous biting, and aging infections. Timelines for malaria control and elimination under different levels of intervention were then established using a wide range of candidate mathematical models. Analysis focused on the timelines from baseline to 1% and from 1% through the final stages of elimination. Results The Ross-Macdonald model, which ignores superinfection, was used for planning during the Global Malaria Eradication Programme (GMEP. In models that consider superinfection, PfPR takes two to three years longer to reach 1% starting from a hyperendemic baseline, consistent with one of the few large-scale malaria control trials conducted in an African population with hyperendemic malaria. The time to elimination depends fundamentally upon the extent to which malaria transmission is interrupted and the size of the human population modelled. When the PfPR drops below 1%, almost all models predict similar and proportional declines in PfPR in consecutive years from 1% through to elimination and that the waiting time to reduce PfPR from 10% to 1% and from 1% to 0.1% are approximately equal, but the decay rate can increase over time if infections senesce. Conclusion The theory described herein provides simple "rules of thumb" and likely time horizons for the impact of interventions for control and elimination. Starting from a hyperendemic baseline, the GMEP planning timelines, which were based on the Ross-Macdonald model with completely interrupted transmission, were inappropriate for setting endemicity timelines and they represent the most optimistic scenario for places with lower endemicity. Basic timelines from PfPR of 1% through elimination depend on population size and low-level transmission. These models provide a theoretical basis that can be further tailored to specific control and elimination scenarios.

Hay Simon I

2009-04-01

274

Strontium 90 content in bone samples of deer and domestic animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative radioecological determination of 90Sr content in leg bone samples of wild deer from Bulgaria (Veliko Tyrnovo), rain deer from Finland (Lapland) and domestic cows and pigs from Bulgaria have been carried out. The study includes four Finish rain deer, three of them 1-5 Y old, shut in 1991, and one - 13.5 Y old, shut in 1974, two Bulgarian deer, 5-6 Y old, shut in 1991, two cows and a pig killed in 1991. The samples have been prepared by a standard procedure. The fumic nitric acid method has been used for chemical separation of 90Sr, and a low background beta plastic scintillation device - for counting, The results show that the contamination effect is better expressed in the wild animals due to their specific open air manner of life. The 90Sr activities vary from 41,5 to 136.9 Bq/kg bone in the Bulgarian deer, from 219.5 to 386.1 Bq/kg bone in the three younger Finish deer, and from 1921.0 to 1967.9 Bq/kg bone in the oldest rain deer. The higher 90Sr values in the samples of the Finish deer can be connected with the specific trophic chain of these animals and the important role in it of lichen. The quantity of 90Sr in the investigated pig is 10-20 times lower than its content in the deer (2.1 - 4.4 Bq/kg bone). It is explained with the pig's age (10 months old) and the diet based on food grown about 5 years after Chernobyl. There is no significant difference in 90Sr content of the cows' and deer's samples. This is due to their very similar zoological systems of eating and similar trophic chains (open pasture). The data obtained show a good reproducibility proved by the similar values of the radiochemical yields achieved (60-70%) in each of the analysis made. 1 tab., 1 refs

1993-07-01

275

Endemic human fasciolosis in the Bolivian Altiplano.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fasciolosis, caused by trematodes of the genus Fasciola, is an emerging disease of humans. One of the highest levels of human fasciolosis hepatica is found amongst the indigenous Aymaran people of the Northern Bolivian Altiplano. A meta-analysis of epidemiological surveys from 38 communities in the region demonstrates that fasciolosis has been endemic in the region since at least 1984 and is a zoonosis of rural communities. Human and bovine fasciolosis is associated with the communities lying in the plain from Lake Titicaca to La Paz, predominantly in the Los Andes province. In Los Andes incidences of up to 67% of population cohorts were found, and prevalence is age-related with the highest infection rate in children aged 8-11 years. PMID:17064455

Parkinson, M; O'Neill, S M; Dalton, J P

2007-05-01

276

A World Malaria Map: Plasmodium falciparum Endemicity in 2007  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. this paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007.

Hay, Simon I.; Guerra, Carlos A.; Gething, Peter W.; Patil, Anand P.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Kabaria, Caroline W.; Manh, Bui H.; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Brooker, Simon; Smith, David L.; Moyeed, Rana A.; Snow, Robert W.

2009-01-01

277

List of rare, endemic and threatened plants in Romania (I  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The IUCN list of rare, endemic and threatened plant species of Romania are presented with the indication of corresponding IUCN Red Data Book Categories, habitat codes and threat codes. In this first report 47 endemic and 101 other threatened plant species were included.

Ch LEON

1984-08-01

278

Um albino parcial de veado campeiro (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus no Parque Nacional das Emas, Goiás Partial albinism in the pampas deer and a critical analysis about albino Mammals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A case of partial albinism in the pampas deer, recorded at the Emas National Park, Goiás, Brazil is described. The coat color and behaviour of the albino are compared with normal pampas deer.

Flávio H.G. Rodrigues

1999-01-01

279

[Endemic goiter in Nepal. Comparisons with endemic goiter in the Piedmont].  

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Comparison of certain features of endemic goitre in the Khumbu district of Nepal and Piedmont is reported. Cases in the younger generations were observed in both areas. In Khumbu, the incidence of goitre in schoolchildren was 75% and cases were even noted in children who had been receiving iodine prophylactic management (injections of iodised oil: 500-1000 mg/yr) for at least three years. The iodine content of drinking water and the most commonly eaten foods was determined. Values were very low and a daily intake of not more than 30 mug was calculated. The findings are in line with metabolic studies carried out by other workers in Upper Khumbu. While it is clear that ambiental iodine deficiency is much higher in Khumbu than in those areas of Piedmont where goitre is most markedly endemic, the inadequacy of preventive iodine administration measures, and environmental features common to both areas, suggest that iodine deficiency is a concomitant factor and not the prime cause of endemic goitre. PMID:1033493

Mortara, M; Cenderelli, G; Reposi, G; Migiardi, M; Costa, A

1976-11-10

280

Wild red deer (Cervus elaphus L. grazing may seriously reduce forage production in mountain meadows  

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Full Text Available This study aimed at estimating the impact of red deer grazing on the productivity of meadows located in Pian Cansiglio, north-eastern Italian Pre-Alps. These meadows (383 ha; average elevation 1000 m asl are managed for hay/silage production (1-2 cuts per season and are included in a protected area that hosts a high density of deer (around 30 heads/100 ha. In 2008 and 2010, dry matter (DM production and loss due to deer grazing were estimated with exclusion cages (1 m2; 48 exclusion cages in 2008 and 52 in 2010. Night counts with spotlights were conducted to index deer use of meadows plots. DM production inside the cages was fairly good for the area (first and second cut: 5079 - 2193 Kg DM/ha in 2008, and 4200 - 2615 Kg DM/ha in 2010. DM production outside the cages was significantly lower (first and second cut in 2008: 4314-1389 Kg DM/ha, and in 2010: 3376-2052 Kg DM/ha. Therefore, the magnitude of losses was of 15-20% in the first and 25-40% in the second cut. DM losses in the different meadow plots were positively correlated with index of deer use, which in some plots was as high as 7-8 heads/ha. Deer grazing reduced also crude protein (CP content of forage (15.6±4.4% DM inside exclusion cages and 13.8±3.5% DM outside, with losses being greater where CP content was higher. This study demonstrates that high densities of grazing deer may seriously impact on forage production and quality.

Maurizio Ramanzin

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Lead and cadmium in red deer and wild boar from different hunting grounds in Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration and relations of Cd and Pb as environmental risk factors were studied by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the liver, kidney and muscle of free ranging wild boar (n = 94) and red deer (n = 45) from hunting grounds in four counties of north-east Croatia. In all four counties, the levels of Cd found in the kidney of red deer ranged from 2.28 to 5.91 mg/kg, and in wild boar from 3.47 to 21.10 mg/kg. The mean renal concentration of Cd was significantly higher in wild boar than in red deer from all four study areas. The mean hepatic (0.11 to 0.49 mg/kg, respectively) and muscle (0.01 to 0.04 mg/kg, respectively) Cd concentrations were similar in both species. The mean renal Cd concentration in wild boar and red deer exceeded 1 mg/kg in all four counties, ranging from 67.0% to 91.4% and from 45.5% to 69.2%, respectively. Also, the hepatic Cd/renal Cd ratio was lower than 1 in all animals. In all four counties, renal Pb concentration ranged from 0.058 to 3.77 mg/kg in red deer and from 0.056 to 11.60 mg/kg in wild boar. Hepatic Pb concentration was similar in both species (0.061 to 0.202 mg/kg in wild boar and 0.077 to 0.108 mg/kg in red deer). Because of the high Cd level in the organs of wild boar and red deer, further research is needed to identify the source of contamination in order to preserve the health of animals and humans.

2009-07-01

282

Generation of competent bone marrow-derived antigen presenting cells from the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Human infections with Sin Nombre virus (SNV and related New World hantaviruses often lead to hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS, a sometimes fatal illness. Lungs of patients who die from HCPS exhibit cytokine-producing mononuclear infiltrates and pronounced pulmonary inflammation. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus are the principal natural hosts of SNV, in which the virus establishes life-long persistence without conspicuous pathology. Little is known about the mechanisms SNV employs to evade the immune response of deer mice, and experimental examination of this question has been difficult because of a lack of methodologies for examining such responses during infection. One such deficiency is our inability to characterize T cell responses because susceptible syngeneic deer mice are not available. Results To solve this problem, we have developed an in vitro method of expanding and generating competent antigen presenting cells (APC from deer mouse bone marrow using commercially-available house mouse (Mus musculus granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. These cells are capable of processing and presenting soluble protein to antigen-specific autologous helper T cells in vitro. Inclusion of antigen-specific deer mouse antibody augments T cell stimulation, presumably through Fc receptor-mediated endocytosis. Conclusions The use of these APC has allowed us to dramatically expand deer mouse helper T cells in culture and should permit extensive characterization of T cell epitopes. Considering the evolutionary divergence between deer mice and house mice, it is probable that this method will be useful to other investigators using unconventional models of rodent-borne diseases.

Farrell Regina M

2004-09-01

283

Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical sign of BVDV to isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer. Results we isolated a suspected BVDV strain from livers of an aborted fetus from sika deer in Changchun (China using MDBK cell lines, named as CCSYD strain, and identified it by cytopathic effect (CPE, indirect immunoperoxidase test (IPX and electron microscopy(EM. The results indicated that this virus was BVDV by a series of identification. The structural proteins E0 gene was cloned and sequenced. The obtained E0 gene sequence has been submitted to GenBank with the accession number: FJ555203. Alignment with other 9 strains of BVDV, 7 strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV and 3 strains of border disease virus(BDV in the world, showed that the homology were 98.6%-84.8%, 76.0%-74.7%, 76.6%-77.0% for nucleotide sequence, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that new isolation and identification CCSYD strain belonged to BVDV1b. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that BVDV was isolated and identified in sika deer. This current research contributes development new BVDV vaccine to prevent and control of BVD in sika deer.

Wang Nan

2011-02-01

284

Female white-tailed deer survival across ecoregions in minnesota and south dakota  

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Survival and cause-specific mortality of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been well documented in forested and agricultural landscapes, but limited information has been collected in grassland habitats typical of the Northern Great Plains. Our objectives were to document and compare survival and cause-specific mortality of adult female white-tailed deer in four distinct ecoregions. We captured and radiocollared 190 (159 adult, 31 yearling) female white-tailed deer and monitored (including deer from a previous study) a total of 246 (215 adult, 31 yearling) deer from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2007. We documented 113 mortalities; hunting (including wounding loss) accounted for 69.9% of all mortalities and vehicle collisions accounted for an additional 15.0%. Natural causes (e.g., disease, predation) of mortality were minor compared to human-related causes (e.g., hunting, vehicle collisions). We used known fate modeling in program MARK to estimate survival rates and compare ecoregions and seasons. Model Sseason (winter=summer) had the lowest AICc value suggesting that survival differed only between seasons where winter and summer survival was equal and differed with fall season. Annual and seasonal (summer, fall, winter) survival rates using the top model S season (summer=winter) were 0.76 (95% ci = 0.70-0.80), 0.97 (95% ci = 0.96-0.98), 0.80 (95% ci = 0.76-0.83) and 0.97 (95% ci = 0.96-0.98), respectively. High human-related mortality was likely associated with limited permanent cover, extensive road networks and high hunter density. Deer management in four distinct ecoregions relies on hunter harvest to maintain deer populations within state management goals. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.

Grovenburg, T. W.; Swanson, C. C.; Jacques, C. N.; Deperno, C. S.; Klaver, R. W.; Jenks, J. A.

2011-01-01

285

Geography, deer, and host biodiversity shape the pattern of Lyme disease emergence in the Thousand Islands Archipelago of Ontario, Canada.  

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In the Thousand Islands region of eastern Ontario, Canada, Lyme disease is emerging as a serious health risk. The factors that influence Lyme disease risk, as measured by the number of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) vectors infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, are complex and vary across eastern North America. Despite study sites in the Thousand Islands being in close geographic proximity, host communities differed and both the abundance of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in them varied among sites. Using this archipelago in a natural experiment, we examined the relative importance of various biotic and abiotic factors, including air temperature, vegetation, and host communities on Lyme disease risk in this zone of recent invasion. Deer abundance and temperature at ground level were positively associated with tick abundance, whereas the number of ticks in the environment, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection, and the number of infected nymphs all decreased with increasing distance from the United States, the presumed source of this new endemic population of ticks. Higher species richness was associated with a lower number of infected nymphs. However, the relative abundance of Peromyscus leucopus was an important factor in modulating the effects of species richness such that high biodiversity did not always reduce the number of nymphs or the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection. Our study is one of the first to consider the interaction between the relative abundance of small mammal hosts and species richness in the analysis of the effects of biodiversity on disease risk, providing validation for theoretical models showing both dilution and amplification effects. Insights into the B. burgdorferi transmission cycle in this zone of recent invasion will also help in devising management strategies as this important vector-borne disease expands its range in North America. PMID:24416435

Werden, Lisa; Barker, Ian K; Bowman, Jeff; Gonzales, Emily K; Leighton, Patrick A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Jardine, Claire M

2014-01-01

286

Geography, Deer, and Host Biodiversity Shape the Pattern of Lyme Disease Emergence in the Thousand Islands Archipelago of Ontario, Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Thousand Islands region of eastern Ontario, Canada, Lyme disease is emerging as a serious health risk. The factors that influence Lyme disease risk, as measured by the number of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) vectors infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, are complex and vary across eastern North America. Despite study sites in the Thousand Islands being in close geographic proximity, host communities differed and both the abundance of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in them varied among sites. Using this archipelago in a natural experiment, we examined the relative importance of various biotic and abiotic factors, including air temperature, vegetation, and host communities on Lyme disease risk in this zone of recent invasion. Deer abundance and temperature at ground level were positively associated with tick abundance, whereas the number of ticks in the environment, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection, and the number of infected nymphs all decreased with increasing distance from the United States, the presumed source of this new endemic population of ticks. Higher species richness was associated with a lower number of infected nymphs. However, the relative abundance of Peromyscus leucopus was an important factor in modulating the effects of species richness such that high biodiversity did not always reduce the number of nymphs or the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection. Our study is one of the first to consider the interaction between the relative abundance of small mammal hosts and species richness in the analysis of the effects of biodiversity on disease risk, providing validation for theoretical models showing both dilution and amplification effects. Insights into the B. burgdorferi transmission cycle in this zone of recent invasion will also help in devising management strategies as this important vector-borne disease expands its range in North America.

Werden, Lisa; Barker, Ian K.; Bowman, Jeff; Gonzales, Emily K.; Leighton, Patrick A.; Lindsay, L. Robbin; Jardine, Claire M.

2014-01-01

287

The Association of BDNF Gene Variants with Behaviour Traits in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon)  

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It is widely accepted that Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is involved in modulating behaviour performance induced by environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to study polymorphisms of the BDNF gene and their relationship with animal behaviour in sika deer (Cervus nippon). About 48 sika deer reared under Ping-Shan-Tang Farm (25 deers) and Zhu-Yu-Wan Park (23 deers), Yangzhou City, Jiangsu province, China were observed and blood samples taken to identify BDNF ...

2011-01-01

288

Characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of wild boars (Sus scrofa), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhodococcus equi is a soil saprophyte and an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in animals, and rarely in humans. The presence of R. equi in tissues and faeces of some wild animal species was demonstrated previously. In this study we characterized R. equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of free-living wild boars (n=23), red deer (n=2) and roe deer (n=2). This is the first description of R. equi strains isolated from tissues of the Cervidae. All isolates were initially recognized as R. equi based on the phenotypic properties. Their identification was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, detection of the choE gene and by sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. The presence of three plasmidic genes (traA, vapA and vapB) associated with R. equi virulence was investigated by PCR. In 16 wild boar isolates the traA and vapB genes were detected and they were located on virulence plasmids type 5, 7 or 11. The isolates from cervids and the remaining wild boar isolates were classified as avirulent based on a genotype traA(-)/vapA(-)B(-). In summary, these results confirm that wild boars can be a source of intermediately virulent R. equi strains, and indicate that red deer and roe deer can be a reservoir of avirulent R. equi strains. PMID:24878324

Rzewuska, Magdalena; Witkowski, Lucjan; Cisek, Agata A; Stefa?ska, Ilona; Chrobak, Dorota; Stefaniuk, El?bieta; Kizerwetter-?wida, Magdalena; Takai, Shinji

2014-08-01

289

Cytogenetic study on Thai brow-antlered deer, Cervus eldi siamensis and Thamin brow-antlered deer, Cervus eldi thamin (Artiodactyla, Cervidae by conventional staining method  

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Full Text Available Cytogenetics of Thai brow-antlered deer (Cervus eldi siamensis were studied in comparison with those of Thamin brow-antlered deer (Cervus eldi thamin. Blood samples were taken from the two subspecies kept in Khoa Kheow Open Zoo, Chonburi Province. After the standard whole blood lymphocyte were cultured in presence of colchicine, the metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and air-dried. Conventional Giemsa’s staining were applied to stain chromosome. Thai and Thamin brow-antlered deers exhibited the same karyotype with diploid number of 2n = 58 (NF = 70 for females and 2n = 58 (NF = 71 for males. The types of autosome are 6 large metacentric, 6 large submetacentric, 8 large telocentric, 20 medium telocentric and 16 small telocentric chromosomes. In addition, satellites are clearly observed in terminal position on the short arm of a pair of chromosome 7. The X chromosome is the largest telocentric and the Y chromosome is the smallest metacentric chromosome. The karyotype formula of Thai and Thamin brow-antlered deer is as follows: 2n (58 = Lm6+Lsm6+Lt8+Mt20+St16+sex chromosome

Monthira Monthatong1

2008-03-01

290

Chronic wasting disease infection patterns in female white-tailed deer related to demographics, genetic relationships, and spatial proximity of infected deer in southern Wisconsin  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500 km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310 kin2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and non-infected deer. Ow results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) kee-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible non-linear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

Grear, Daniel A.

2006-01-01

291

Reduced efficacy of moxidectin and abamectin in young red deer (Cervus elaphus) after 20 years of moxidectin pour-on use on a New Zealand deer farm.  

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A study was undertaken on weaned 4-5 month old farmed red deer to test the efficacy of moxidectin and abamectin anthelmintics, given by three different routes of administration, compared with an untreated control. Faecal samples were collected on days 0, 7 and 14 for a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), blood samples were collected on days 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 for pharmacokinetics, and the deer were killed on days 14 or 15 for total nematode count. The control group averaged 1264 adult Ostertagia-type nematode parasite species and treatment efficacy was 77.4% for moxidectin injection, 26% for oral moxidectin and 27.6% for pour-on moxidectin, while the treatment efficacy was 72.4% for abamectin injection, 70.1% for oral abamectin (Hi-Mineral) and 34.1% for pour-on abamectin. Both moxidectin and abamectin injections were significantly more efficacious than their equivalent pour-ons. There was a significant difference in efficacy between oral abamectin (Hi-Mineral) and oral moxidectin (Pmoxidectin injection, oral and pour-on were 71.8, 8.3 and 0.4, respectively, and for abamectin injection, oral and pour-on were 62.1, 30.3 and 10.0, respectively. Area under the curve (AUC) estimates for moxidectin injection, oral and pour-on were 106.6, 12.9 and 6.1, respectively, and for abamectin injection, oral and pour-on were 162.7, 57.5 and 74.3, respectively. The results demonstrate that significant anthelmintic resistance to moxidectin and abamectin is present on this deer farm. However, the injection was the most effective route of administration in young deer for both anthelmintics, although <80% efficacious. We conclude that the FECRT is unreliable in deer when anthelmintic resistance is present. PMID:24144515

Mackintosh, C G; Cowie, C; Fraser, K; Johnstone, P; Mason, P C

2014-01-17

292

An analysis of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus traffic collisions in the Belluno province, eastern Italian Alps  

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Full Text Available Data of roe deer traffic collisions from 1989 to 2004 in the Belluno province were analyzed to describe patterns of road kills by zone, season and sex and to compare resulting annual trends and sex ratios with those estimated for roe deer population. The province was divided in 2 districts on the base of differences in climate, landscape and roe deer population status. Pearson’s simple correlation was used to investigate the associations, in the two districts, among road kills data, year, population density, traffic index, and snow depth. Bonferroni’s confidential intervals to 95% of significance were used to compare the monthly distributions of collisions between sexes and between districts. In conclusion, the analysis of car accidents may not reflect population trends and sex ratios when traffic rates change and when different ecological factors, others from deer density, influence the probability of deer to incur in a car accident. In addition, differences of accident probability between sexes and months can be found in areas with different landscapes, climates and population structures. These factors should be evaluated in order to manage accident risk and to understand the potential of car accidents records as a tool for monitoring population status.

E. Sturaro

2010-04-01

293

Fine-scale genetic structure and social organization in female white-tailed deer.  

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Abstract: Social behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have important management implications. The formation of matrilineal social groups among female deer has been documented and management strategies have been proposed based on this well-developed social structure. Using radiocollared (n = 17) and hunter or vehicle-killed (n = 21) does, we examined spatial and genetic structure in white-tailed deer on a 7,000-ha portion of the Savannah River Site in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. We used 14 microsatellite DNA loci to calculate pairwise relatedness among individual deer and to assign doe pairs to putative relationship categories. Linear distance and genetic relatedness were weakly correlated (r = –0.08, P = 0.058). Relationship categories differed in mean spatial distance, but only 60% of first-degree-related doe pairs (full sibling or mother–offspring pairs) and 38% of second-degree-related doe pairs (half sibling, grandmother–granddaughter pairs) were members of the same social group based on spatial association. Heavy hunting pressure in this population has created a young age structure among does, where the average age is <2.5 years, and <4% of does are >4.5 years old. This—combined with potentially elevated dispersal among young does—could limit the formation of persistent, cohesive social groups. Our results question the universal applicability of recently proposed models of spatial and genetic structuring in white-tailed deer, particularly in areas with differing harvest histories.

Comer, Christopher E.; Kilgo, John C.; D' Angelo, Gino J.; Glenn, Travis C.; Miller, Karl V.

2005-07-01

294

Behavioral Differences Between Captive Female Alpine Musk Deer with Different Reproduction Success in Previous Year  

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Full Text Available Against a background of poor breeding success in captive alpine musk deer, an understanding of the behavioral differences between captive female alpine musk deer with and without reproduction success in previous year may yield useful information for musk deer farming practice. This study was conducted in the musk deer farm of Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu province of China from June 2004 to January 2005. The focal sampling and all occurrence recording was used to observe the behaviors of 38 female alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus in which 5 were barren in previous year and 33 females were bred in previous year. The durations of 12 behaviors such as environment-sniffing, etc. were recorded and the behavioral patterns were compared to explore the differences. The results showed that compared to females barren in previous year, the females bred in previous year was more active, pugnacious and explorative in mating season and expressed less self-directed behavior during non-mating season. The data from the present study should contribute to a better understanding of behavioral differences between females with different reproduction success.

Meng Xiuxiang

2011-01-01

295

Genetic diversity and relatedness among seven red deer (Cervus elaphus populations  

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Full Text Available Deer (Cervidae recently belongs to the most important species. The aim of presenting study was evaluation of genetic diversity and relationship within and among seven red deer populations from different origins - Czech Republic, Hungary, hybrids Hungary x New Zealand, Lithuania, New Zealand, Poland and Slovak Republic. This study was conducted to determine the levels of genetic variability and relationships among deer populations from a total of 637 animals originating from seven countries Czech Republic (50, Hungary (35, Hungary x New Zealand hybrids (67, Lithuania (26, New Zealand (82, Poland (347 and Slovak Republic (30.  We used the hair bulbs as a source of DNA.  In total, 213 alleles were observed from the 10 loci surveyed. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 11 (IOBT965 to 35 (T156, RT13. Genetic diversity and relatedness among red deer populations has been performed on a total of 637 animals. A panel of 10 microsatellite markers used in deer were optimized. On the basis of this panel of microsatellites we were investigated genetic variability and relationships by using statistical and graphical programmes. We evaluated how close populations are to each other and their genetic admixture. Molecular genetic data combined with evaluation in statistical programmes could lead to a complex view of populations. 

Lenka Maršálková

2014-02-01

296

Positioning the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) Hunted by the Tyrolean Iceman into a Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeny.  

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In the last years several phylogeographic studies of both extant and extinct red deer populations have been conducted. Three distinct mitochondrial lineages (western, eastern and North-African/Sardinian) have been identified reflecting different glacial refugia and postglacial recolonisation processes. However, little is known about the genetics of the Alpine populations and no mitochondrial DNA sequences from Alpine archaeological specimens are available. Here we provide the first mitochondrial sequences of an Alpine Copper Age Cervus elaphus. DNA was extracted from hair shafts which were part of the remains of the clothes of the glacier mummy known as the Tyrolean Iceman or Ötzi (5,350-5,100 years before present). A 2,297 base pairs long fragment was sequenced using a mixed sequencing procedure based on PCR amplifications and 454 sequencing of pooled amplification products. We analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of the Alpine Copper Age red deer's haplotype with haplotypes of modern and ancient European red deer. The phylogenetic analyses showed that the haplotype of the Alpine Copper Age red deer falls within the western European mitochondrial lineage in contrast with the current populations from the Italian Alps belonging to the eastern lineage. We also discussed the phylogenetic relationships of the Alpine Copper Age red deer with the populations from Mesola Wood (northern Italy) and Sardinia. PMID:24988290

Olivieri, Cristina; Marota, Isolina; Rizzi, Ermanno; Ermini, Luca; Fusco, Letizia; Pietrelli, Alessandro; De Bellis, Gianluca; Rollo, Franco; Luciani, Stefania

2014-01-01

297

Measuring Fine-Scale White-Tailed Deer Movements and Environmental Influences Using GPS Collars  

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Full Text Available Few studies have documented fine-scale movements of ungulate species, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, despite the advent of global positioning system (GPS technology incorporated into tracking devices. We collected fine-scale temporal location estimates (i.e., 15 min/relocation attempt from 17 female and 15 male white-tailed deer over 7 years and 3 seasons in Oklahoma, USA. Our objectives were to document fine-scale movements of females and males and determine effects of reproductive phase, moon phase, and short-term weather patterns on movements. Female and male movements were primarily crepuscular. Male total daily movements were 20% greater during rut (7,363?m±364 than postrut (6,156?m±260. Female daily movements were greatest during postparturition (3,357?m±91, followed by parturition (2,902?m±107, and preparturition (2,682?m±121. We found moon phase had no effect on daily, nocturnal, and diurnal deer movements and fine-scale temporal weather conditions had an inconsistent influence on deer movement patterns within season. Our data suggest that hourly and daily variation in weather events have minimal impact on movements of white-tailed deer in southern latitudes. Instead, routine crepuscular movements, presumed to maximize thermoregulation and minimize predation risk, appear to be the most important factors influencing movements.

Stephen L. Webb

2010-01-01

298

Measuring Fine-Scale White-Tailed Deer Movements and Environmental Influences Using GPS Collars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Few studies have documented fine-scale movements of ungulate species, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), despite the advent of global positioning system (GPS) technology incorporated into tracking devices. We collected fine-scale temporal location estimates (i.e., 15 min/relocation attempt) from 17 female and 15 male white-tailed deer over 7 years and 3 seasons in Oklahoma, USA. Our objectives were to document fine-scale movements of females and males and determine effects of reproductive phase, moon phase, and short-term weather patterns on movements. Female and male movements were primarily crepuscular. Male total daily movements were 20% greater during rut (7,363? 364) than postrut (6,156 m±260). Female daily movements were greatest during post parturition (3,357 91), followed by parturition (2,902 m±107), and pre parturition (2,682 m±121). We found moon phase had no effect on daily, nocturnal, and diurnal deer movements and fine-scale temporal weather conditions had an inconsistent influence on deer movement patterns within season. Our data suggest that hourly and daily variation in weather events have minimal impact on movements of white-tailed deer in southern latitudes. Instead, routine crepuscular movements, presumed to maximize thermoregulation and minimize predation risk, appear to be the most important factors influencing movements.

2010-01-01

299

Iodine-129 in forage and deer on the Hanford site and other Pacific Northwest locations  

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Samples of surface soil, litter, forage, and deer (rumen content, muscle, liver, and thyroid gland) were collected from Bend, Oregon; Centralia, Washington; Wenatchee, Washington; the Wooten Game Range near Dayton, Washington; and on or near the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The concentrations of /sup 129/I and /sup 127/I were determined using neturon activation techniques. The purpose of the study was to establish the current levels of /sup 129/I in the environs of the Hanford Site prior to the proposed restart of fuel reprocessing at the PUREX plant. The results of this study clearly demonstrated the longevity of /sup 129/I in the biosphere following gaseous release from a nuclear facility. Analyses of thyroid glands showed that deer living within 160 km (Wooten Game Range) of Hanford had elevated levels of /sup 129/I when compared to the more distant Pacific Northwest locations (Centralia, or Bend). Levels of /sup 129/I in deer thyroid from Bend, or Centralia, (15 fCi/g wet weight), were about five times higher than values reported for the central United States, while, Hanford samples were about 2,700 times higher. The average concentration of /sup 129/I in deer thyroids collected at Hanford in 1978 was similar to samples collected 14 years earlier. The concentrations of /sup 129/I in soil, litter, forage, and other deer samples generally decrease in the order: Hanford > Wooten > Wenatchee > Centralia approx. = Bend. This corresponds to an increase in distance from the Hanford Site.

Price, K.R.; Cadwell, L.L.; Schreckhise, R.G.; Brauer, F.P.

1981-02-01

300

Use of pellet-group plots to measure trends in deer and elk populations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Distribution and abundance of mule deer and elk were studied from 1976 to 1981 near Los Alamos, New Mexico, using pellet-group counts. Pellet-group data were shown to fit the negative binomial distribution. Counts for mule deer varied among years in all vegetation types; the population trend was generally downward. Pellet-group counts for elk (winter only) increased in ponderosa pine, but remained unchanged in other areas. Deer pellet groups were distributed similarly from year to year and were nonrandom (i.e., clumped). Elk pellet groups also were clumped, but were clumped less in mixed conifer during the latter part of the study. In ponderosa pine, where deer were most abundant, pellet groups were clumped less than in other habitats. Similarly, in mixed conifer, where elk numbers were highest, pellet groups were clumped least. Neither weather nor fire appeared to affect greatly counts of deer or elk pellet groups, although fire may have influenced distribution of elk. 37 references, 5 tables.

Rowland, M.M.; White, G.C.; Karlen, E.M.

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

The Quality of Hunted Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolor Venison from East Kalimantan  

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Full Text Available Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor is the heaviest in its body weight and widest in its distribution of tropical deer. A Report by East Kalimantan governor indicated that no less than 5,000 wild sambar deer were slaughtered annually. In 1990 a pilot project of sambar deer farm was established and still under its development. Up to the present there is no data available on the nutritional values of sambar venison. The objective of the study was to determine the nutritional quality of wild sambar venison. Samples were collected from three traditional markets. Whitin 10 hours after being hunted, meat was sampled in three sites, front leg, back leg and saddle. The result showed that pH values of hunted sambar venison ranged from 6.18-6.46, but there were no differences in cutting sites. The moisture content was over 74%. Crude Protein, ash, fat and cholesterol (%DM were 88.84-90.24, 3.86-4.14, 2.9-3.8, 0.24-0.27, respectively. Amino acids, fatty acids and minerals values were within the average of domesticated animals meat values, thought some values in sambar show a better performance. (Animal Production 5(1: 35-41 (2003 Key words: Sambar , Deer, Cervus unicolor, Venison, Meat

G Semiadi

2003-01-01

302

Is Sustainablity Possible in Protected Areas in Mexico? Deer as an Example of a Renewable Resource  

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Full Text Available In 2000, Mexico’s National Commission of Protected Areas (CONANP was created to encourage the protection, management and restoration of natural and cultural resources and their conservation. Protected areas were recently increased by more than 3 million hectares, for a current total of more than 25 million hectares, corresponding to 174 protected areas that cover 12.90% of the country’s surface area. The information obtained by research helps us understand both biodiversity and ecological processes, as well as the social and economic phenomena that influence the use of ecosystems. In Mexico there are four species of deer: white-tailed deer, mule deer, red brocket and brown brocket. These ungulates have been an important part of the diet of indigenous people and rural communities, and represent an important resource for sport and trophy hunting. We found the best deer populations in protected areas; these can therefore maintain the gene pool and serve as source populations for other areas. These populations are also useful from a research perspective. People living in some protected areas continue to use natural resources such as deer, and also receive economic inputs to develop ecotourism programs, and support from the government for the environmental services derived from conserving biodiversity.

Sonia Gallina

2012-09-01

303

Determinants of vigilance in a reintroduced population of Père David's deer  

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Full Text Available After being kept in captivity and isolated from natural predators for more than 1,200 years, Père David’s deer has been reintroduced in China and now occurs in a reserve where human activity is the only potential threat. Antipredator vigilance is an important component of survival for many prey animals in their natural habitat. Do deer still adjust vigilance as a function of risk after such a long period of relaxed predation pressure? Here, we examined vigilance levels in Père David’s deer groups as a function of group size, sex and level of human disturbance. The results showed that individual vigilance significantly decreased with group size in all-female groups but not in all-males or mixed-sex groups. In rutting season, males compete with one another and harass females, and we argue that vigilance is partly aimed at threatening males and that such vigilance increases with group size. This explains why overall vigilance did not vary with group size for males in general and for females in mixed-sex groups. Vigilance increased in more disturbed areas but in in male deer only. The results indicate that despite relaxed predation pressure over centuries, Père David’s deer can still adjust antipredator responses as a function of perceived risk. Such information may become useful in the rewilding programme now under way for this species in China [Current Zoology 59 (2: 265–270, 2013].

Wei ZHENG, Guy BEAUCHAMP, Xuelei JIANG, Zhongqiu LI, Qinglong YANG

2013-04-01

304

EXAMINATION OF NASAL BOTFLY (CEPHENEMYIA STIMULATOR,CLARK, 1815 OF ROE DEER  

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Full Text Available Abstract- Parameters of nasal botfly infestation of roe deer in plain locations I am investigating the occurrence of one of the diseases caused by parasites in plain roe deer populations, namely a botfly larvae, Cephenemyia stimulator, (CLARK, 1815 ranged among the Oestridae family. Nasal botfly larvae are common roe deer parasites and aregenerally spread nationwide. The subject of the present survey is the processing of the data gained about roe deer bucks of the year 2009 and their infestation indices. I investigated botfly larvae in 75 bucks’ nasal andpharyngeal cavity. We have found botfly larva in 17,3% of the examined bucks (prevalence, this means 13 infected specimen. I collected 199 pieces of larvae from the samples, with a 15,3 pieces mean intensity. In our  investigations prevalence was lower than in previous Hungarian researches. This was manifested both in our overall data, and in our examinations by the different age groups. The rate of infestation was demonstrably higher in the old age group. This can be explained by the territorial behaviour of the roe deer, which can also be manifested by the older bucks’ displacement to weaker habitats.

Szilárd Pinnyey

2013-05-01

305

Calving pattern on captive sambar deer (Cervus unicolor in East Kalimantan  

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Full Text Available Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor is the biggest of tropical deer with its distribution in Indonesia limited to Kalimantan and Sumatera islands and neighboring islands near Sumatera. Several countries such as Malaysia and Thailand have been developing their tropical deer farming, whereas in Indonesia they are still in its infancy, as captive breeding. The knowledge on the biology of reproduction from tropical deer is still limited, particularly those under their natural habitat. An evaluation on the reproduction profiles of captive sambar deer were conducted by analyzing log book of the captive breeding in East Kalimantan. The results indicated that conception rates was very low, only 48,8% (SD=16.24; n=10 years with peak calving time between June and July and mean calving date was on 4 July (SD=10.4 days; n=109 fawns. Calving interval was 388,2 days (SD=82.45; n=33 fawns, with natural nursing lasted for 148 days. Young hind gave birth for the first time at the age of 693.8 days (SD=89.40; n=4 hinds, giving a time estimate of first mating at the age of 453 days.

ANDI TRASODIHARTO

2005-01-01

306

Iodine-129 in forage and deer on the Hanford site and other Pacific Northwest locations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samples of surface soil, litter, forage, and deer (rumen content, muscle, liver, and thyroid gland) were collected from Bend, Oregon; Centralia, Washington; Wenatchee, Washington; the Wooten Game Range near Dayton, Washington; and on or near the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The concentrations of 129I and 127I were determined using neturon activation techniques. The purpose of the study was to establish the current levels of 129I in the environs of the Hanford Site prior to the proposed restart of fuel reprocessing at the PUREX plant. The results of this study clearly demonstrated the longevity of 129I in the biosphere following gaseous release from a nuclear facility. Analyses of thyroid glands showed that deer living within 160 km (Wooten Game Range) of Hanford had elevated levels of 129I when compared to the more distant Pacific Northwest locations (Centralia, or Bend). Levels of 129I in deer thyroid from Bend, or Centralia, (15 fCi/g wet weight), were about five times higher than values reported for the central United States, while, Hanford samples were about 2,700 times higher. The average concentration of 129I in deer thyroids collected at Hanford in 1978 was similar to samples collected 14 years earlier. The concentrations of 129I in soil, litter, forage, and other deer samples generally decrease in the order: Hanford > Wooten > Wenatchee > Centralia approx. = Bend. This corresponds to an increase in distance from the Hanford Site

1981-01-01

307

Physiological assessment of deer populations by analysis of urine in snow  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared the nutritional status of free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 3 natural yards and 1 yard where deer were supplementally fed from 1 January to 31 March 1985 in northeastern Minnesota. We monitored deer nutritonal status by sequential collection and chemical analysis of urine in snow (snow-urine) for urea nitrogen (U), sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P). Dilution of urine by snow was corrected by comparing these data as ratios to creatinine (C). All deer remained in an early phase of undernutrition; however, declining trends of U:C, Na:C, and K:C in 2 natural yards indicated increasingly inadequate nutrition as winter progressed. Unaltered values of these ratios and P.C in snow-urine collected from the third natural yard reflected stable levels of nutrient availability. Significant (P analysis provided an improved understanding of the relationship between snow cover and the nutritional well-being of these deer.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

1989-01-01

308

Positioning the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) Hunted by the Tyrolean Iceman into a Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeny  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last years several phylogeographic studies of both extant and extinct red deer populations have been conducted. Three distinct mitochondrial lineages (western, eastern and North-African/Sardinian) have been identified reflecting different glacial refugia and postglacial recolonisation processes. However, little is known about the genetics of the Alpine populations and no mitochondrial DNA sequences from Alpine archaeological specimens are available. Here we provide the first mitochondrial sequences of an Alpine Copper Age Cervus elaphus. DNA was extracted from hair shafts which were part of the remains of the clothes of the glacier mummy known as the Tyrolean Iceman or Ötzi (5,350–5,100 years before present). A 2,297 base pairs long fragment was sequenced using a mixed sequencing procedure based on PCR amplifications and 454 sequencing of pooled amplification products. We analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of the Alpine Copper Age red deer's haplotype with haplotypes of modern and ancient European red deer. The phylogenetic analyses showed that the haplotype of the Alpine Copper Age red deer falls within the western European mitochondrial lineage in contrast with the current populations from the Italian Alps belonging to the eastern lineage. We also discussed the phylogenetic relationships of the Alpine Copper Age red deer with the populations from Mesola Wood (northern Italy) and Sardinia.

Olivieri, Cristina; Marota, Isolina; Rizzi, Ermanno; Ermini, Luca; Fusco, Letizia; Pietrelli, Alessandro; De Bellis, Gianluca; Rollo, Franco; Luciani, Stefania

2014-01-01

309

Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies associated with vesicular ulcerative and necrotizing lesions of the digestive mucosa in fallow deer (Dama dama L.)  

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Intracytoplasmic epithelial inclusion bodies in the digestive mucosa of fallow deer (Dama dama L.) were found to most probably be the result of an unspecific degenerative or post mortal change. There are reasons to believe that this is true also for the inclusion bodies found in reindeer, roe deer and moose.

Regina Diaz; Claes Rehbinder; Ricardo Feinstein; Tapio Nikkilä

1990-01-01

310

Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies associated with vesicular ulcerative and necrotizing lesions of the digestive mucosa in fallow deer (Dama dama L.  

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Full Text Available Intracytoplasmic epithelial inclusion bodies in the digestive mucosa of fallow deer (Dama dama L. were found to most probably be the result of an unspecific degenerative or post mortal change. There are reasons to believe that this is true also for the inclusion bodies found in reindeer, roe deer and moose.

Claes Rehbinder

1990-09-01

311

Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus  

Science.gov (United States)

A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

Nelson, Michael E.

2011-01-01

312

Radiocaesium activity in soil, plants and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Glenveagh National Park, Co. Donegal, Ireland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was based in Glenveagh National Park, north-west County Donegal where the vegetation is grazed by Red Deer (Cervus elaphus). The work presented investigates the effects of topography on deposition of fallout, the uptake of radiocaesium from soils by plants and its subsequent assimilation by Red Deer. (author)

1991-01-01

313

The John Deere E diesel Test & Research Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three non-road Tier II emissions compliant diesel engines manufactured by John Deere were placed on a durability test plan of 2000 hours each at full load, rated speed (FLRS). The fuel was a blend of 10% fuel ethanol and 90% low sulfur #2 diesel fuel. Seven operational failures involving twenty seven fuel system components occurred prior to completion of the intended test plan. Regulated emissions measured prior to component failure indicated compliance to Tier II certification goals for the observed test experience. The program plan included operating three non-road Tier II diesel engines for 2000 hours each monitoring the regulated emissions at 500 hour intervals for changes/deterioration. The program was stopped prematurely due to number and frequency of injection system failures. The failures and weaknesses observed involved injector seat and valve wear, control solenoid material incompatibility, injector valve deposits and injector high pressure seal cavitation erosion. Future work should target an E diesel fuel standard that emphasizes minimum water content, stability, lubricity, cetane neutrality and oxidation resistance. Standards for fuel ethanol need to require water content no greater than the base diesel fuel standard. Lubricity bench test standards may need new development for E diesel.

Fields, Nathan; Mitchell, William E.

2008-09-23

314

The 36. Red Deer Seminar - still going strong  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several issues dominated the 36th Red Deer Seminar of the propane industry, among them changes to the Alberta fuel tax collection system, propane and automobile emissions and industry self-management. With regard to changes to the Alberta fuel tax collection system, details were provided on how the system, coming into effect on January 1, 1997, will impact on producers, distributors and retailers. In terms of automobile emissions, it was said that propane has lagged behind gasoline in technological development, hence propane no longer has advantages in emissions. It was noted, however, that with equivalent technology propane can still meet ultra-low emission standards. Regarding industry self-management, it was stressed that self-management did not mean deregulation since government retains policy, regulation and standard setting. It means a new partnership arrangement in which industry delivers services formerly provided by government. In this spirit of cooperation, it was announced that effective September 1996, administration of the auto propane vehicle conversion program will be transferred to the PGAC under the name of Alberta Propane Vehicle Administration Organization. 3 figs

1996-01-01

315

What does testosterone do for red deer males?  

Science.gov (United States)

Testosterone has been proposed to have a dual effect, enhancing sexual traits while depressing parasite resistance in males. Here, we test this hypothesis in red deer, examining males from captive populations during the whole annual cycle and males from natural populations during the breeding season. We first explored the effects of body size, age and sampling date on testosterone to avoid confounding effects. Our results show that in captive populations seasonal changes in testosterone levels were mirrored by changes in testes size, and that during the rut there was a strong correlation between both. In natural populations, males with higher testosterone levels had larger testes, improved sperm quality, smaller burr diameter, stronger antlers, higher haematocrit levels, and increased nematode parasite load. By contrast, no significant relationship was found between testosterone and spleen size or tick parasite load. We conclude that testosterone (i) improves males' reproductive investment and physical stamina, (ii) improves antler strength but reduces burr diameter, and (iii) imposes a cost in terms of depressed parasite resistance.

Malo, A.F.; Roldan, E.R.S.; Garde, J.J.; Soler, A.J.; Vicente, J.; Gortazar, C.; Gomendio, M.

2008-01-01

316

Behavioural Study of Timor Deer (Cervus timorensis in PT Kuala Tembaga, Aertembaga Village, Bitung-North Sulawesi  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to observe the daily behavior of Timor deer (Cervus timorensis. The study was conducted in Aertembaga village, Bitung-North Sulawesi for 30 days. Deer were kept out in the conventional coconut plantations under extensive care system. Seven Timor deers were used in this study. The daily behavior were observed for their activities; as grazing, ruminating, lying, urinating, defecating, vocalizing, working and other activities. A time sampling method was used to record the behavior activities and observations were repeated in five time. The respective percentage of daily activities of Timor deer for grazing, ruminating, lying, working, standing, defecating, urinating, approaching and other activities were 31.17; 14.63; 13.54; 6.23; 7.55; 8.51; 3.96; 7.915 and 6.48%. (Animal Production 7(2: 121-126 (2005 Key Words: Care, Behavior, Timor deer, Extensive

Wirdateti

2005-05-01

317

The occurrence of Demodex kutzeri Bukva, 1987 (Acari, Demodecidae) in red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) in Poland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of Demodex kutzeri Bukva, 1987 was examined and compared in red deer coming from different populations--25 red deer from northern Poland (Masurian Lake District) and 25 from southern Poland (Lower Silesia). The total prevalence of infestation in red deer by D. kutzeri was 52% with the mean intensity of 38 individuals and the intensity range of 1-135. Parameters of infestation for red deer from northern Poland were much higher (68%, 49), while for other red deer--lower (36%, 16). Demodectic mites D. kutzeri are associated with common hair follicles, therefore they can be found in different parts of the body, however most of the specimens were found in the head skin. Regardless of the location and the infestation rate (including density of mites in the skin), infestations were not accompanied by symptoms of demodecosis. PMID:24171302

Izdebska, Joanna N; Kozina, Paulina; Fryderyk, S?awomira

2013-01-01

318

Population characteristics and viability of the introduced hog deer (Axis porcinus Zimmermann, 1780 in Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand  

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Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to study population characteristics of hog deer released into the wild, namely: density,age structure, sex ratio, recruitment rate, threats to hog deer, carrying capacity and inter-specific relationships, as well as toassess the population viability over time. In this study, direct observation was used to study the hog deer population characteristics,and population density was estimated from the pellet-group count method. Vortex program was used to analyze thepopulation viability. Results showed that the population density of hog deer at Thung Ka Mung (TKM in Phu Khieo WildlifeSanctuary (PKWS was 2.03-2.04 individuals/hectare (SD = 1.25. The population structure showed that the average herd sizewas 9.57 individuals. Hog deer in TKM preferred to stay with a group (91.5%, rather than being solitary (8.5%. The sex ratiofor males to females was 54.64:100, and for females to fawns was 100:26.18. The annual recruitment rate was 16.98 %. Theirpredators were Asian wild dogs, Burmese pythons, Asiatic jackals, leopard cats and clouded leopards. The mortality rate ofthe existing hog deer in TKM during the study period was 18.1%. The habitat sharing by camera traps revealed 4 ungulatespecies. They were sambar deer, barking deer, wild boar, and elephant, and their relative abundance were 28.41%, 7.38%,4.70%, and 2.01% respectively. Fifty-year simulation modeling using population viability analysis indicated the sustainabilityof this population. Hog deer population in the simulations did not exhibit sensitivity to an increase or decrease in carryingcapacity. Habitat management should be carried out continuously in TKM area, which is the main habitat for hog deer inPKWS.

Worawidh Wajjwalku

2012-07-01

319

Prevalence and molecular characterization of Mycoplasma ovis in selected free-ranging Brazilian deer populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycoplasma ovis is a hemoplasma that may cause anemia and mortality in small ruminants. Our aim was to determine whether M. ovis infects populations of free-ranging deer in Brazil. Buffy coat samples from 64 Blastocerus dichotomus from Porto Primavera, 18 Ozotocerus bezoarticus from Pantanal, and 21 O. bezoarticus from Emas National Park were tested. Using a M. ovis PCR protocol to amplify extracted DNA, 46/64 (72%) of deer from Porto Primavera, 10/18 (56%) from Pantanal, and 4/21 (19%) from Emas National Park were positive, giving an overall positive rate of 58% for hemoplasma in these wild deer. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed 3 genetically distinct hemoplasmas including M. ovis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma erythrocervae', and a hemoplasma most closely related to M. ovis. Phylogenetic analysis of the 23S rRNA gene from selected sequences confirmed these relationships. PMID:22102675

Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Santos, Andrea Pires; Guimarães, Ana Marcia Sa; Mohamed, Ahmed; Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Messick, Joanne Belle

2011-10-01

320

Some preliminary studies of the metabolism of "9"9Mo-labelled compounds in deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The metabolism of ("9"9Mo) compounds in plasma was followed after intravenous injection of ("9"9Mo) trithiomolybdate and intraruminal infusion of ("9"9Mo) molybdate in one red deer and one sika deer. Clearance of ("9"9Mo) trithiomolybdate was rapid and residual radioactivity was ("9"9Mo) dithiomolybdate. After ruminal infusion of ("9"9Mo) molybdate, the main plasma ("9"9Mo) thiomolybdate detected was also ("9"9Mo) dithiomolybdate. These preliminary studies may provide an explanation of the apparent insensitivity of the deer to high dietary Mo, since dithiomolybdate is less likely to be toxic systemically than trithiomolybdate to tetrathiomolybdate. However, further studies with more animals and over a wider range of conditions would be advisable before definitive conclusions are drawn. (author)

1984-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

Seroprevalence of Powassan virus in New England deer, 1979-2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

Powassan virus and its subtype, deer tick virus, are closely related tick-borne flaviviruses that circulate in North America. The incidence of human infection by these agents appears to have increased in recent years. To define exposure patterns among white-tailed deer, potentially useful sentinels that are frequently parasitized by ticks, we screened serum samples collected during 1979-2010 in Connecticut, Maine, and Vermont for neutralizing antibody by using a novel recombinant deer tick virus-West Nile virus chimeric virus. Evidence of exposure was detected in all three states. Overall our results demonstrate that seroprevalence is variable in time and space, suggesting that risk of exposure to Powassan virus is similarly variable. PMID:23568288

Nofchissey, Robert A; Deardorff, Eleanor R; Blevins, Tia M; Anishchenko, Michael; Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Berl, Erica; Lubelczyk, Charles; Mutebi, John-Paul; Brault, Aaron C; Ebel, Gregory D; Magnarelli, Louis A

2013-06-01

322

Impacts of Gender and Age on Behavioral Frequencies of Captive Musk Deer During Lactation  

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Full Text Available Behavioral patterns of captive alpine musk deer were studied at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF in northwest China. Throughout the lactation season (August-October 2003, 13 behaviors categories were recorded for 30 female and 24 male alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus to explore effects of gender and age-classes. Females had a higher frequency of resting, feeding, ruminating and affinitive behaviors than males, potentially due to the increased energy demands and influences of newborn fawns during lactation. Among females there was no effect of age-class on the behavioral patterns whereas, adult males displayed more frequent tail-pasting behavior and agonistic interaction than sub-adult males. The potential causative mechanisms for the behavioral differences were discussed.

Xiuxiang Meng

2011-01-01

323

MONITORING OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN FARMED DEER POPULATIONS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS  

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Full Text Available Deer (Cervidaei belong to the most important species used as farmed animals. We focused on assesing the genetic diversity among five deer populations. Analysis has been performed on a total of 183 animals originating from Czech Republic, Hungary, New Zealand, Poland and Slovak Republic. Genetic variability were investigated using 8 microsatellite markers used in deer. Statistical data of all populations we obtained on the basis of Nei statistics, using by POWERMARKER 3.23 programme. Graphical view of relationships among populations and individuals in the populations was obtained using the Dendroscope software. Molecular genetic data combinated with evaluation in statistical programmes could lead to a complex view of populations and diffrences among them.doi:10.5219/172

Pavol Bajzík

2011-12-01

324

Elucidating the evolution of the red brocket deer Mazama americana complex (Artiodactyla; Cervidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The red brocket deer Mazama americana is a neotropical species that exhibits extensive karyotype variation under an unvarying morphotype. In order to deduce red brocket deer genetic units for conservation, gene flow between populations, and genetic variation, we initiated a cytogenetic and molecular genetic study based on representative samples from throughout their Brazilian geographic range. These data represent the first cytotaxonomical and molecular systematics, and although sample sizes are limited, our results clearly suggest that red brocket deer populations are significantly differentiated with respect to karyotypes and the mitochondrial sequences analyzed. We clearly recognized 2 independent species, and we will be focusing further research in analyzing the meiotic dynamic to determine the existence of other evolutionarily significant units under the red brocket complex. PMID:20407221

Abril, V V; Carnelossi, E A G; González, S; Duarte, J M B

2010-01-01

325

Compensatory mortality in mule deer populations: Technical progress report. [Odocoileus hemionus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hypothesis of compensatory mortality is critical to understanding population dynamics of wildlife species. This research tested for compensatory mortality in the juvenile (fawn) portion of a mule deer population. In the fall of 1986, 60 fawns were telemetered on both the control and treatment sites of the Little Hills study area. Thirteen adult females also were telemetered which, together with 31 telemetered adults already present, brought the total instrumented population to 164 at the onset of winter. Experimental manipulation to test for compensation in the population was successful, with 18% of the population on the treatment area (328 animals) removed. Line transect estimates of deer groups/ha were 0.12 +- 0.030 (D +- SE) for the control area and 0.14 +- 0.028 for the treatment area, giving 1727 individuals on the control area and 1490 on the treatment area. Thus the number of deer was measurably decreased on the treatment area by the removal operation.

White, G.C.

1987-07-15

326

Molybdenum and copper levels in white-tailed deer near uranium mines in Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

Molybdenum toxicity, molybdenosis, in ruminant animals has been identified in at least 15 states and in Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. In most western states, molybdenosis has been associated with strip-mine spoil deposits. Molybdenum toxicity has been diagnosed in cattle pastured near uranium strip-mine spoils in several Texas counties. Recent reports from hunters and the authors' observations indicated that white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) that fed near uranium-mine spoil deposits may also have been exposed to high levels of molybdenum. The objectives of this study were to determine if white-tailed deer from a South Texas uranium mining district were accumulating harmful levels of molybdenum and to compare molybdenum and copper levels with antler development in deer from the mined area vs. an unmined control area.

King, K.A.; LeLeux, J.; Mulhern, B.M.

1984-01-01

327

The Potential for Transmission of BCG from Orally Vaccinated White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Cattle (Bos taurus) through a Contaminated Environment: Experimental Findings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) experimentally infected with a virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis have been shown to transmit the bacterium to other deer and cattle (Bos taurus) by sharing of pen waste and feed. The risk of transmission of M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine from orally vaccinated white-tailed deer to other deer and cattle, however, is not well understood. In order to evaluate this risk, we orally vaccinated 14 white-tailed deer with 1×109 colony fo...

2013-01-01

328

Deer carcass decomposition and potential scavenger exposure to chronic wasting disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy afflicting the Cervidae family in North America, causing neurodegeneration and ultimately death. Although there are no reports of natural cross-species transmission of CWD to noncervids, infected deer carcasses pose a potential risk of CWD exposure for other animals. We placed 40 disease-free white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses and 10 gut piles in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin (USA) from September to April in 2003 through 2005. We used photos from remotely operated cameras to characterize scavenger visitation and relative activity. To evaluate factors driving the rate of carcass removal (decomposition), we used KaplanMeier survival analysis and a generalized linear mixed model. We recorded 14 species of scavenging mammals (6 visiting species) and 14 species of scavenging birds (8 visiting species). Prominent scavengers included American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). We found no evidence that deer consumed conspecific remains, although they visited gut piles more often than carcasses relative to temporal availability in the environment. Domestic dogs, cats, and cows either scavenged or visited carcass sites, which could lead to human exposure to CWD. Deer carcasses persisted for 18 days to 101 days depending on the season and year, whereas gut piles lasted for 3 days. Habitat did not influence carcass decomposition, but mammalian and avian scavenger activity and higher temperatures were positively associated with faster removal. Infected deer carcasses or gut piles can serve as potential sources of CWD prions to a variety of scavengers. In areas where surveillance for CWD exposure is practical, management agencies should consider strategies for testing primary scavengers of deer carcass material.

Jennelle, C. S.; Samuel, M. D.; Nolden, C. A.; Berkley, E. A.

2009-01-01

329

Serosurveillance for Livestock Pathogens in Free-Ranging Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus)  

Science.gov (United States)

Routine disease surveillance has been conducted for decades in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California for pathogens shared between wildlife and domestic ruminants that may have implications for the animal production industry and wildlife health. Deer sampled from 1990 to 2007 (n?=?2,619) were tested for exposure to six pathogens: bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Leptospira spp., Anaplasma spp. and Brucella spp. We evaluated the relationship between exposure to these pathogens and demographic risk factors to identify broad patterns in seroprevalence across a large temporal and spatial scale. The overall seroprevalence for the entire study period was 13.4% for BTV, 16.8% for EHDV, 17.1% for BVDV, 6.5% for Leptospira spp., 0.2% for Brucella spp., and 17% for Anaplasma spp. Antibodies against BTV and EHDV were most prevalent in the deer populations of southern California. Antibodies against Leptospira spp. and Anaplasma spp. were most prevalent in coastal and central northern California whereas antibodies against BVDV were most prevalent in central-eastern and northeastern California. The overall seroprevalence for Anaplasma spp. was slightly lower than detected in previous studies. North and central eastern California contains large tracts of federal land grazed by livestock; therefore, possible contact between deer and livestock could explain the high BVDV seroprevalence found in these areas. Findings from this study will help to establish baseline values for future comparisons of pathogen exposure in deer, inform on long-term trends in deer population health and provide relevant information on the distribution of diseases that are shared between wildlife and livestock.

Roug, Annette; Swift, Pamela; Torres, Steven; Jones, Karen; Johnson, Christine K.

2012-01-01

330

Serosurveillance for livestock pathogens in free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Routine disease surveillance has been conducted for decades in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California for pathogens shared between wildlife and domestic ruminants that may have implications for the animal production industry and wildlife health. Deer sampled from 1990 to 2007 (n?=?2,619) were tested for exposure to six pathogens: bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Leptospira spp., Anaplasma spp. and Brucella spp. We evaluated the relationship between exposure to these pathogens and demographic risk factors to identify broad patterns in seroprevalence across a large temporal and spatial scale. The overall seroprevalence for the entire study period was 13.4% for BTV, 16.8% for EHDV, 17.1% for BVDV, 6.5% for Leptospira spp., 0.2% for Brucella spp., and 17% for Anaplasma spp. Antibodies against BTV and EHDV were most prevalent in the deer populations of southern California. Antibodies against Leptospira spp. and Anaplasma spp. were most prevalent in coastal and central northern California whereas antibodies against BVDV were most prevalent in central-eastern and northeastern California. The overall seroprevalence for Anaplasma spp. was slightly lower than detected in previous studies. North and central eastern California contains large tracts of federal land grazed by livestock; therefore, possible contact between deer and livestock could explain the high BVDV seroprevalence found in these areas. Findings from this study will help to establish baseline values for future comparisons of pathogen exposure in deer, inform on long-term trends in deer population health and provide relevant information on the distribution of diseases that are shared between wildlife and livestock. PMID:23209790

Roug, Annette; Swift, Pamela; Torres, Steven; Jones, Karen; Johnson, Christine K

2012-01-01

331

Estimating chronic wasting disease effects on mule deer recruitment and population growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), accelerates mortality and in so doing has the potential to influence population dynamics. Although effects on mule deer survival are clear, how CWD affects recruitment is less certain. We studied how prion infection influenced the number of offspring raised to weaning per adult (?2 yr old) female mule deer and subsequently the estimated growth rate (?) of an infected deer herd. Infected and presumably uninfected radio-collared female deer were observed with their fawns in late summer (August-September) during three consecutive years (2006-2008) in the Table Mesa area of Boulder, Colorado, USA. We counted the number of fawns accompanying each female, then used a fully Bayesian model to estimate recruitment by infected and uninfected females and the effect of the disease on ?. On average, infected females weaned 0.95 fawns (95% credible interval=0.56-1.43) whereas uninfected females weaned 1.34 fawns (95% credible interval=1.09-1.61); the probability that uninfected females weaned more fawns than infected females was 0.93). We used estimates of prevalence to weight recruitment and survival parameters in the transition matrix of a three-age, single-sex matrix model and then used the matrix to calculate effects of CWD on ?. When effects of CWD on both survival and recruitment were included, the modeled ? was 0.97 (95% credible interval = 0.82-1.09). Effects of disease on ? were mediated almost entirely by elevated mortality of infected animals. We conclude that although CWD may affect mule deer recruitment, these effects seem to be sufficiently small that they can be omitted in estimating the influences of CWD on population growth rate. PMID:20966260

Dulberger, Jessie; Hobbs, N Thompson; Swanson, Heather M; Bishop, Chad J; Miller, Michael W

2010-10-01

332

The dynamics of endemic malaria in populations of varying size  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mathematical model for endemic malaria involving variable human and mosquito populations is analysed. A threshold parameter R_0 exists and the disease can persist if and only if R_0 exceeds 1. R_0 is seen to be a generalisation of the basic reproduction ratio associated with the Ross-Macdonald model for malaria transmission. The disease free equilibrium always exist and is globally stable when R_0 is below 1. A perturbation analysis is used to approximate the endemic equilibrium in the important case where the disease related death rate is nonzero. A diffusion approximation is used to approximate the quasi-stationary distribution of the associated stochastic model. Numerical simulations show that when R_0 is distinctly greater than 1, the endemic deterministic equilibrium is globally stable. Furthermore, in quasi-stationarity, the stochastic process undergoes oscillations about a mean population whose size can be approximated by the stable endemic deterministic equilibrium. (author)

2001-01-01

333

Evaluation of the influence of supplemental feeding of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in the Michigan wild deer population.  

Science.gov (United States)

A retrospective study was conducted to test the hypothesis that supplemental feeding of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 1995 to 1997 was associated with the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in free-ranging deer in northeastern Michigan. Bovine TB prevalence data were obtained from an ongoing surveillance program, while data relating to supplemental feeding and other risk factors were collected via in-person interviews. A multivariable Poisson regression modeling approach was used to test the stated hypothesis while controlling for other risk factors. Of the 389 potential participants, 59% agreed to participate in the study. Results showed that supplemental feeding of deer was associated with bovine TB in white-tailed deer. Specific risk factors associated with increasing risk for bovine TB were locating feed sites in areas with high levels of hardwood forests (O.R. = 1.8, 95% C.I. = 1.3-2.4), other large-scale feeding sites in the area (O.R. = 1.1, 95% C.I. = 1.0-1.2), the number of deer fed per year (O.R. = 3.9, 95% C.I. = 1.4-11.4), the numbers of feed sites spreading grain (O.R. = 14.7, 95% C.I. = 2.2-98.9), the quantity of grains provided at the site (O.R. = 1.4, 95% C.I. = 1.1-1.7), and the quantity of fruits and vegetables provided (O.R. = 1.4, 95% C.I. = 1.2-1.7). Conversely, factors associated with decreasing risk of bovine TB were locating feed sites in areas with high levels of hardwood forests (O.R. = 0.1, 95% C.I. = 0.02-0.4), locating feed sites in forests (O.R. = 0.05, 95% C.I. = 0.01-0.4), and the level of sites providing grain (O.R. = 0.1, 95% C.I. = 0.01-0.3). The results of this study suggest that banning the practice of supplemental feeding is a valid policy for control of bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging white-tailed deer. PMID:12685071

Miller, RoseAnn; Kaneene, John B; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Schmitt, Steven M

2003-01-01

334

Spatial distribution of Madeira Island Laurisilva endemic spiders (Arachnida: Araneae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Madeira island presents a unique spider diversity with a high number of endemic species, many of which are still poorly known. A recent biodiversity survey on the terrestrial arthropods of the native forest, Laurisilva, provided a large set of standardized samples from various patches throughout the island. Out of the fifty two species recorded, approximately 33.3% are Madeiran endemics, many of which had not been collected since their original description. Two new species to science are repo...

2014-01-01

335

Measuring malaria endemicity from intense to interrupted transmission  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The quantification of malaria transmission for the classification of malaria risk has long been a concern for epidemiologists. During the era of the Global Malaria Eradication Programme, measurements of malaria endemicity were institutionalised by their incorporation into rules outlining defined action points for malaria control programmes. We review the historical development of these indices and their contemporary relevance. This is at a time when many malaria-endemic countries are scaling-...

Hay, Simon I.; Smith, David L.; Snow, Robert W.

2008-01-01

336

Heavy metals in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) living near a zinc smelter in Pennsylvania  

Science.gov (United States)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) shot within 20 km of the zinc smelters in the Palmerton, Pennsylvania area contained extremely high renal concentrations of cadmium (372 ppm dry weight (dw)) and zinc (600 ppm dw). The deer with the highest renal zinc concentration was shot 4 km from the smelters and had joint lesions similar to those seen in zinc-poisoned horses from the same area. The highest concentrations of lead in both hard and soft tissues were relatively low, 10.9 ppm dw in a sample of teeth, 17.4 ppm dw in a metacarpus, and 4.9 ppm dw in a kidney.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W. N.

1985-01-01

337

Heavy metals in white-tailed deer living near a zinc smelter in Pennsylvania  

Science.gov (United States)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann)) shot within 20 km of the zinc smelters in the Palmerton, Pennsylvania area contained extremely high renal concentrations of cadmium (372 ppm dry weight (dw)) and zinc (600 ppm dw). The deer with the highest renal zinc concentration was shot 4 km from the smelters and had joint lesions similar to those seen in zinc-poisoned horses from the same area. The highest concentrations of lead in both hard and soft tissues were relatively low, 10.9 ppm dw in a sample of teeth, 17.4 ppm dw in a metacarpus, and 4.9 ppm dw in a kidney.

Sileo, L; Beyer, W.N.

1985-01-01

338

Radiocaesium levels in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report is given on the course of radiocaesium contamination in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria. In autumn 1987 and winter 1987/88 radiocaesium levels rose to values higher than those recorded in 1986 in these regions. The reason for this increase was the very specific feeding selection of roe deer in these forest areas resulting in the ingestion of an unusual high amount of blueberries, ferns and mushrooms. An explanation for the changes of wild boar's contamination has not been found yet, but possible reasons are discussed. (author)

1996-04-22

339

Abundance estimation of Ixodes ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite the importance of roe deer as a host for Ixodes ticks in central Europe, estimates of total tick burden on roe deer are not available to date. We aimed at providing (1) estimates of life stage and sex specific (larvae, nymphs, males and females, hereafter referred to as tick life stages) total Ixodes burden and (2) equations which can be used to predict the total life stage burden by counting the life stage on a selected body area. Within a period of 1½ years, we conducted whole bod...

2010-01-01

340

First report of a Brucella suis infection in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present case report the detection of Brucella (B.) suis biovar 2 in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is described for the first time. The roe deer fawn was found emaciated and moribund in a hunting ground in the district Hohenlohe in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, in February 2013. A post-mortem examination revealed particularly a high-grade fibrinous pleurisy caused by the pathogen which could be multiplied in a dense growth on sheep blood agar and confirmed and differentiated subsequently by PCR. PMID:24693656

Sting, Reinhard; Schwabe, Ingo; Oehme, Rainer; Elschner, Mandy Carolina; Melzer, Falk

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

A new tick-borne encephalitis-like virus infecting New England deer ticks, Ixodes dammini.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine if eastern North American Ixodes dammini, like related ticks in Eurasia, maintain tick-borne encephalitis group viruses, we analyzed ticks collected from sites where the agent of Lyme disease is zoonotic. Two viral isolates were obtained by inoculating mice with homogenates from tick salivary glands. The virus, which was described by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of the amplification products, was similar to, but distinct from, Powassan virus and is provisionally named "deer tick virus." Enzootic tick-borne encephalitis group viruses accompany the agents of Lyme disease, babesiosis, and granulocytic ehrlichiosis in a Holarctic assemblage of emergent deer tick pathogens. PMID:9204297

Telford, S R; Armstrong, P M; Katavolos, P; Foppa, I; Garcia, A S; Wilson, M L; Spielman, A

1997-01-01

342

White-Tailed Deer Browse Preferences in a Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forest  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors examined spring and summer use of browse by white-tailed deer in forest gaps created by group selection timber harvest at the SRS. Total percentage browse was low in both years, averaging 2.5% of the available browse. Six species were rated high use, 4 species as proportional use and 10 species as low use. Ratings were in agreement to others in the Southeast. Preferred species were maple, winged elm, greenbriar and black willow. Deer browse had very little impact on regeneration of most species.

Castleberry, S.B.; Ford, W.M.; Miller, K.V.; Smith, W.P.

1997-09-04

343

Genetic analysis reveals Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus population structure in North-Eastern Italian Alps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This preliminary study described the genetic variability and analysed the population structure of 119 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus sampled over the provinces of Belluno and Trento, in the north-eastern Italian Alps, using 11 microsatellite markers. The panel of microsatellites was highly informative, and the whole population was subdivided into 2 distinct sub populations. The observed ecological population sub-units did not coincide with the administrative subdivision (the provinces borders that are now in use for management. The results of this work confirm that molecular genetic approaches may provide useful indication for roe deer management in that area.

Maurizio Ramanzin

2010-01-01

344

Forage intake rates of mule deer estimated with fallout cesium-137  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forage intake rates of 87 wild, Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) collected over a 2-year period from the Cache la Poudre Drainage, Colorado, were estimated utilizing available data on fallout cesium-137 concentrations in the deer and their inferred diet. The method employed involved the convolution of an intake function and a retention function. Ingestion rates are reported and analyzed by sex, season, and age class. An overall mean forage intake of 21.9 grams air dry forage/kg carcass weight/day was calculated. Adult animals consumed significantly (less than 0.01) more than adults throughout the year. (U.S.)

1974-01-01

345

Neutron activation analysis of trace metals in the livers of Japanese sika deer (cervus Nippon)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron activation analysis facilities at the JMTR reactor was used to determine the levels of trace metals in the livers of nine Japanese sika deer. The samples were cut into pieces, pulverized in liquid nitrogen, freeze-dried, and finally fractionated through a stainless steel sieve of 200 mesh. Then the samples were irradiated for 6 or 24 hours by a neutron flux of 1.0x1014 n·cm-2·sec-1. In the present work, we analysed the concentrations of six elements (Ag, Co, Fe, Rb, Se, and Zn) in the livers of nine deer. (author)

1997-03-01

346

White-Tailed Deer Browse Preferences in a Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forest  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors examined spring and summer use of browse by white-tailed deer in forest gaps created by group selection timber harvest at the SRS. Total percentage browse was low in both years, averaging 2.5% of the available browse. Six species were rated high use, 4 species as proportional use and 10 species as low use. Ratings were in agreement to others in the Southeast. Preferred species were maple, winged elm, greenbriar and black willow. Deer browse had very little impact on regeneration of most species

1997-09-04

347

Assessing cumulative impacts to elk and mule deer in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we illustrate the method, using the potential for cumulative impacts to elk and mule deer from multiple hydroelectric development in the Salmon River Basin of Idaho. We attempted to incorporate knowledge of elk and mule deer habitat needs into a paradigm to assess cumulative impacts and aid in the regulatory decision making process. Undoubtedly, other methods could be developed based on different needs or constraints, but we offer this technique as a means to further refine cumulative impact assessment. Our approach is divided into three phases: analysis, evaluation, and documentation. 36 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

O' Neil, T.A.; Witmer, G.W.

1988-01-01

348

Mushroom spores and 137Cs in faeces of the roe deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Levels of 137Cs in meat, faeces and feed of Danish roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) were studied. Faecal samples were studied in the microscope for the occurrence of fungal spores. The 137Cs levels in collections of meat and faeces indicated that the food selection of the roe deer changes in the autumn towards a more caesium rich menu. The 137Cs levels in some of the faecal samples were so high that they could only be explained by the ingestion of a very caesium rich feed, like mushrooms. (Author)

1994-01-01

349

Recovery of human DNA profiles from poached deer remains: a feasibility study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poaching is a crime that occurs worldwide and can be extremely difficult to investigate and prosecute due to the nature of the evidence available. If a species is protected by international legislation such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora then simply possessing any part of that species is illegal. Previous studies have focused on the identification of endangered species in cases of potential poaching. Difficulties arise if the poached animal is not endangered. Species such as deer have hunting seasons whereby they can legally be hunted however poaching is the illegal take of deer, irrespective of season. Therefore, identification of deer alone has little probative value as samples could have originated from legal hunting activities in season. After a deer is hunted it is usual to remove the innards, head and lower limbs. The limbs are removed through manual force and represent a potential source of human touch DNA. We investigate the potential to recover and profile human autosomal DNA from poached deer remains. Samples from the legs of ten culled deer were obtained (40 in total) using minitapes. DNA from samples was extracted, quantified and amplified to determine if it would be possible to recover human STR profiles. Low quantification data led to the use of an extended PCR cycling protocol of 34 cycles. Samples from seven deer amplified, however some samples were excluded from further analysis due to 'drop in' alleles or the low level of successfully amplified loci. Samples from five deer could be further analysed and gave match probabilities ranging from 6.37×10(-3) to 9.53×10(-11). This study demonstrates the potential of recovering human touch DNA from poached animal remains. There is the potential for this test to be used in relation to other species of poached remains or other types of wildlife crimes. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that human STR profiling has been successfully applied to touch DNA in regards to simulated wildlife crime. PMID:22137052

Tobe, Shanan S; Govan, James; Welch, Lindsey A

2011-12-01

350

Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Canary Islands are home to a guild of endemic, threatened bird-pollinated plants. Previous work has suggested that these plants evolved floral traits as adaptations to pollination by flower specialist sunbirds, but subsequently, they appear to have co-opted generalist passerine birds as sub-optimal pollinators. To test this idea, we carried out a quantitative study of the pollination biology of three of the bird-pollinated plants, Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae), Isoplexis canariensis (Veronicaceae) and Lotus berthelotii (Fabaceae), on the island of Tenerife. Using colour vision models, we predicted the detectability of flowers to bird and bee pollinators. We measured pollinator visitation rates, nectar standing crops as well as seed-set and pollen removal and deposition. These data showed that the plants are effectively pollinated by non-flower specialist passerine birds that only occasionally visit flowers. The large nectar standing crops and extended flower longevities (>10 days) of Canarina and Isoplexis suggests that they have evolved a bird pollination system that effectively exploits these low frequency non-specialist pollen vectors and is in no way sub-optimal. Seed set in two of the three species was high and was significantly reduced or zero in flowers where pollinator access was restricted. In L. berthelotii, however, no fruit set was observed, probably because the plants were self-incompatible horticultural clones of a single genet. We also show that, while all three species are easily detectable for birds, the orange Canarina and the red Lotus (but less so the yellow-orange Isoplexis) should be difficult to detect for insect pollinators without specialised red receptors, such as bumblebees. Contrary to expectations if we accept that the flowers are primarily adapted to sunbird pollination, the chiffchaff (Phylloscopus canariensis) was an effective pollinator of these species. PMID:18931830

Ollerton, Jeff; Cranmer, Louise; Stelzer, Ralph J; Sullivan, Steve; Chittka, Lars

2009-02-01

351

Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The Canary Islands are home to a guild of endemic, threatened bird-pollinated plants. Previous work has suggested that these plants evolved floral traits as adaptations to pollination by flower specialist sunbirds, but subsequently, they appear to have co-opted generalist passerine birds as sub-optimal pollinators. To test this idea, we carried out a quantitative study of the pollination biology of three of the bird-pollinated plants, Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae), Isoplexis canariensis (Veronicaceae) and Lotus berthelotii (Fabaceae), on the island of Tenerife. Using colour vision models, we predicted the detectability of flowers to bird and bee pollinators. We measured pollinator visitation rates, nectar standing crops as well as seed-set and pollen removal and deposition. These data showed that the plants are effectively pollinated by non-flower specialist passerine birds that only occasionally visit flowers. The large nectar standing crops and extended flower longevities (>10 days) of Canarina and Isoplexis suggests that they have evolved a bird pollination system that effectively exploits these low frequency non-specialist pollen vectors and is in no way sub-optimal. Seed set in two of the three species was high and was significantly reduced or zero in flowers where pollinator access was restricted. In L. berthelotii, however, no fruit set was observed, probably because the plants were self-incompatible horticultural clones of a single genet. We also show that, while all three species are easily detectable for birds, the orange Canarina and the red Lotus (but less so the yellow-orange Isoplexis) should be difficult to detect for insect pollinators without specialised red receptors, such as bumblebees. Contrary to expectations if we accept that the flowers are primarily adapted to sunbird pollination, the chiffchaff ( Phylloscopus canariensis) was an effective pollinator of these species.

Ollerton, Jeff; Cranmer, Louise; Stelzer, Ralph J.; Sullivan, Steve; Chittka, Lars

2009-02-01

352

Browse Preference and Browsing Intensity of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus in Allegheny High Plateau Riparian Forests, USA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Decades of chronic browsing by overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman has strongly influenced forest pattern and process on the Allegheny High Plateau Ecoregion of northwestern Pennsylvania, USA. Previous research has found that riparian forests contain the greatest herbaceous plant species richness of regional plant communities but little is known about the impacts of deer browsing on the structure and composition of the herbaceous layer (all vascular plants < 1 m tall of Allegheny High Plateau riparian forests. We examined browse preference and browsing intensity by white-tailed deer on the herbaceous layer of five riparian forest study sites in the Allegheny National Forest during the summer growing season (July, September. Browsing intensity was low to moderate and differed significantly among sites and sample periods. Deer selectively foraged on a few preferred plant species during certain sampling periods, particularly Aster divaricatus, A. prenanthoides, Chelone glabra, Impatiens capensis, Pilea pumila, Polygonum virginianum and Ranunculus hispidis. We found that plant species richness and composition, and browsing intensity by white-tailed deer, are highly variable across riparian forests of the region. In order to assess or predict deer browsing impacts to regional riparian forests, we suggest that riparian sites be studied individually, perhaps on a watershed basis, as the surrounding landscape and available habitat may influence deer densities and foraging activity in an individualistic manner.

C. Williams

2009-06-01

353

Therapy of endemic goitre; Therapie der Jodmangelstruma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1. In childhood the first line treatment of endemic goitre is Kl (100-150 {mu}g/day). Once the goitre volume has shrinked during L-thyroxine treatment in older patients, this effect is to be maintained by Kl ({proportional_to}200 {mu}g/day). The same holds true after surgery in cases with normal TSH responsiveness to TRH. 2. TSH suppressive L-thyroxine therapy is indicated in goitre patients older than 40 years. However, the effectiveness will be limited by the nodularity of the thyroid. So prevention of further growth prevails over true tissue reduction. 3. Obviously thyroid surgery yields the best cosmetic results with an acceptably low complication rate. When euthyroidism is established, a lifelong iodine prophylaxy (200 {mu}g/day) of recurrent goitre is mandatory. In cases with latent or overt hypothyroidism an appropriate therapy with thyroid hormone should be given. 4. By radiodine it is possible to realize a short term volume loss of 30-40% which may increase further on up to 60%. Relief of symptoms is usually even more impressive than actual volume loss. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] 1. Kaliumjodid ist heute das Mittel der Wahl zur Behandlung der Jodmangelstruma von Kindern (100 {mu}g) und Jugendlichen (150 {mu}g). Lebenslange Einnahme von Jodid (200 {mu}g) dient der Erhaltung einer Organverkleinerung, die durch L-Thyroxin bei aelteren Patienten erreicht wurde, und postoperativ bei gesicherter Euthyreose (TSH). In der Schwangerschaft ist eine Jodid-Medikation fuer Mutter und Kind erforderlich. 2. L-Thyroxin in TSH-suppressiver Dosierung sollte eingesetzt werden, wenn mit Jodid kein Verkleinerungseffekt erreichbar ist. Primaer ist es indiziert bei Patienten ueber 40 Jahren. Postoperativ muss L-Thyroxin dann verordnet werden, wenn eine latente oder manifeste Hypothyreose gesichert ist. Damit behandelt es sich aber nicht um eine Rezidiv-Prophylaxe im engeren Sinn. 3. Eine wirkliche Substanzverminderung des Kropfes gelingt durch die operative Resektion. Eine konsequente, wahrscheinlich lebenslange Rezidivprophylaxe (Jodid 200 {mu}g) hat ihr unbedingt zu folgen. 4. Auch die Radiojodtherapie erzielt eine Reduktion der Strumamasse durch Verminderung der Follikelzahl kurzfristig in der Groessenordnung von 30-40% und langfristig bis zu 60%. Die Besserung der Beschwerden ist noch eindrucksvoller als der sonographisch objektivierte Volumenrueckgang. (orig./MG)

Leisner, B. [Allg. Krankenhaus St. Georg, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

1995-12-01

354

Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle farm prevalence is documented. PMID:24595231

Walter, W David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C

2014-01-01

355

Molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens of the family Anaplasmataceae in Brazilian brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira, Fischer, 1814) and marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus, Illiger, 1815).  

Science.gov (United States)

Deer are important natural reservoir hosts of Anaplasmataceae. The present study used nested PCR and nucleotide sequencing to evaluate the occurrence of Anaplasmataceae species in 23 free-living and six captive specimens of the cervids Mazama gouazoubira and Blastocerus dichotomus in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Blood samples were tested for the presence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp. using nPCR assays and sequencing of the msp4, msp1 and 16S rRNA genes. The identity of each sequence was confirmed by comparison with sequences available from GenBank using BLAST software. Of the animals investigated, 93.1% (27/29) were infected with haemoparasites including Anaplasma marginale (79.3%), Ehrlichia chaffeensis (3.4%), Anaplasma bovis (3.4%) and Anaplasma spp. (assigned to A. platys and A. phagocytophilum) (17.2%). Co-infection occurred in 20% (6/29) of the deer examined. Four (13.8%) were infected with A. marginale and Anaplasma sp., one (3.4%) was infected with A. marginale and E. chaffeensis, and one (3.4%) was infected with A. marginale and A. bovis. The results of the present study suggest that cross-protection does not occur in these deer. Immunological cross-reaction occurs when sera are tested diagnostically because these bacteria are closely related taxonomically, reinforcing the importance of molecular diagnosis followed by nucleotide sequencing. PMID:22136597

Silveira, J A G; Rabelo, E M L; Ribeiro, M F B

2012-08-01

356

Virulence determinants and biofilm production among Trueperella pyogenes recovered from abscesses of captive forest musk deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trueperella pyogenes (formerly Arcanobacterium) is commonly isolated from domesticated or wild ruminants as an opportunistic pathogen. To investigate the role of virulence determinants (VDs) and biofilm production in T. pyogenes isolates, a total of 36 T. pyogenes were collected from abscesses of forest musk deer in Miyaluo Farm (Sichuan Province, China). The prevalence of VDs and associations with clonal types, antibiotic resistance and biofilm production were analyzed by PCR and bioassay. Finally, T. pyogenes isolates were separated into three clonal types based on the DNA fingerprinting of BOX-PCR. Isolates with less VDs obtained from sick forest musk deer were mainly belonged to Type 1, and the isolates with robust VD repertoire obtained from dead forest musk deer were included in Type 3. Accordingly, resistant isolates exhibited significant lower virulence than susceptible ones. Majority of T. pyogenes isolates of this study were capable of producing a biofilm. However, no VDs presence and antibiotic resistance were statistically associated with biofilm production. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that T. pyogenes was probably the primary pathogen of abscesses in the forest musk deer. Moreover, as an animal origin pathogen, the increasing resistance of T. pyogenes isolates could also associate with a decreased virulence. PMID:23354327

Zhao, Kelei; Tian, Yongqiang; Yue, Bisong; Wang, Hongning; Zhang, Xiuyue

2013-03-01

357

Identifying novel genes involved in both deer physiological and human pathological osteoporosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoporosis attacks 10% of the population worldwide. Humans or even the model animals of the disease cannot recover from porous bone. Regeneration in skeletal elements is the unique feature of our newly investigated osteoporosis model, the red deer (Cervus elaphus) stag. Cyclic physiological osteoporosis is a consequence of the annual antler cycle. This phenomenon raises the possibility to identify genes involved in the regulation of bone mineral density on the basis of comparative genomics between deer and human. We compare gene expression activity of osteoporotic and regenerating rib bone samples versus autumn dwell control in red deer by microarray hybridization. Identified genes were tested on human femoral bone tissue from non-osteoporotic controls and patients affected with age-related osteoporosis. Expression data were evaluated by Principal Components Analysis and Canonical Variates Analysis. Separation of patients into a normal and an affected group based on ten formerly known osteoporosis reference genes was significantly improved by expanding the data with newly identified genes. These genes include IGSF4, FABP3, FABP4, FKBP2, TIMP2, TMSB4X, TRIB, and members of the Wnt signaling. This study supports that extensive comparative genomic analyses, here deer and human, provide a novel approach to identify new targets for human diagnostics and therapy. PMID:19107525

Borsy, Adrienn; Podani, János; Stéger, Viktor; Balla, Bernadett; Horváth, Arnold; Kósa, János P; Gyurján, István; Molnár, Andrea; Szabolcsi, Zoltán; Szabó, László; Jakó, Eéna; Zomborszky, Zoltán; Nagy, János; Semsey, Szabolcs; Vellai, Tibor; Lakatos, Péter; Orosz, László

2009-03-01

358

Population Dynamics of Banteng, Buffalo and Deer in Bekol Savannah, Baluran National Park  

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Full Text Available Baluran National Park give contribution at regional development to draw tourist and fascination provided is savannah in area. Savannah circumstance, forest, landscape, climate, vegetation and wild animal is represent experienced attraction. Research method use population dynamics perception of banteng, buffalo and deer in savannah of Bekol year 2004 and year 2005 as primary data, while secondary data year population dynamics 2003, 2004, and year 2005 outside savannah of Bekol, year population dynamics 2003 in savannah of Bekol. Secondary data obtained from daily report of Controller ecosystem Forest Worker animal discovery Baluran National Park from Section Bekol. Research location of outside savannah Bekol were Balanan, Perengan, Bitakol, Karangtekok, Pandean, Pondok jaran, Bama, Curah uling, Gunung Montor, Lempuyang, Bilik, Batangan, Labuhan Merak, Kramat, Semiang, Sirokoh, Lemah bang, Gunung Krasak, and Glengseran. The populations of banteng and buffalo in the savannah is unstable compared to the populations of them outside Bekol savannah. The populations of banteng and buffalo in Bekol savannah decrease, whereas the populations of them outside the Bekol savannah increase. The population of deer in Bekol savannah in 2004 is better than population of 2003, 2005, and 2006, whereas the population of deer outside Bekol savannah in 2006 increase significantly. The populations of banteng, buffalo, and deer decrease from year to year, in which the reductions of banteng and buffalo populations are obviously significant.

SUHADI

2009-07-01

359

Temporal and spatial trends of perfluoroalkyl substances in liver of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For more than 50 years perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have found worldwide industrial and household uses. Some PFASs are presumed to be persistent and bioaccumulative. Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) are thought to be a suitable bioindicator for the accumulation of organic xenobiotics. Due to the ubiquitous nature of PFASs in the environment a retrospective study on temporal trends was carried out. A total of 110 deer liver pools collected from 1989 to 2010 in Germany were analyzed for their levels of PFASs. The highest concentrations were measured for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (median 6.3 ?g/kg). Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were detected with median concentrations of 0.5 ?g/kg, 1.2 ?g/kg and 0.3 ?g/kg, respectively, while concentrations of the other PFASs were below the limit of quantification. PFOS concentrations decreased significantly (rs = ?0.741; p = <0.0001) from 9.2 ?g/kg in 2000 to 1.8 ?g/kg in 2010. - Highlights: ? First study on temporal trends of PFASs in terrestrial herbivore mammals. ? PFASs analyzed at different time points retrospectively over 22 years. ? Occurrence, temporal and spatial trends of PFASs in roe deer liver in Germany. ? Effects of the phase-out of PFOS production by 3M in the year 2000. ? Statistically significant decline of PFOS levels in roe deer liver since 2000. - This is the first study to investigate temporal and spatial trends of PFASs in a terrestrial herbivore mammal.

2012-12-01

360

OCCURRENCE OF FASCIOLOIDOSIS IN RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS IN BARANJA REGION IN EASTERN CROATIA  

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Full Text Available Fascioloidosis is a parasitic disease caused by the giant American liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Bassi, 1875. In Croatia, the first report of this disease was in January 2000, in red deer (Cervus elaphus L. from the Tikveš Forestry in Baranja region (east Croatia. The aim of this survey was to determine the geographical distribution of fascioloidosis and the infection prevalence in deer. The survey was carried out in six state hunting grounds that manage with deer game in Baranja region during 2001 – 2004. Parasitological examinations were carried out by qualitative and quantitative faecal exams. The highest prevalence’s (35 – 60% were found in epizootic focuses of two hunting grounds at flooding – bog land area in east Baranja, Danube forestry. The mean intensity of infection, determined on the basis of the number of eggs per gram (EPG was 30 – 33 EPG (range 1 – 300. High 86% of examined samples was in category to 50 EPG. The highest prevalence and the biggest EPG number too, were determined during the first year of survey. In the Baranja area fascioloidosis represents a potential danger for other game species, mainly roe deer and wild boars, as for domestic animals.

Tihomir Florijan?i?

2007-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

Persistence of Escherichia coli introduced into streambed sediments with goose, deer and bovine animal waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims:  The focus of this work was to compare the survival of Escherichia coli introduced into streambed sediments from goose, deer and bovine faeces vs indigenous E. coli. Methods and Results:  The survival experiments were conducted in flow-through chambers for 32?days using two sediments (mineral and organic) obtained from a first-order creek in Maryland. Bovine, goose and deer faeces were collected fresh and diluted or enriched so that added E. coli and indigenous populations were equivalent. Escherichia coli and total coliforms were enumerated using the Colilert-18 Quanti-Tray system. Patterns of E. coli survival and inactivation rates were virtually identical for indigenous strains in both mineral and organic sediments. The addition of E. coli strains from bovine, goose or deer faeces had relatively little impact on final E. coli concentrations, with the exception of deer-borne E. coli populations in the organic sediment. Conclusion:  These results indicate that indigenous sediment-borne E. coli strains are generally, or more, persistent than those deposited into sediments, including wildlife. Significance and Impact of the Study:  This is the first study on the survival of E. coli originating from wildlife faeces, in sediments, as opposed to bovine faeces or laboratory-cultured strains. As wildlife are likely to be the primary source of E. coli in most non agricultural watersheds, an understanding of the persistence of these strains is important to understanding microbial water quality. PMID:22897753

Kiefer, L A; Shelton, D R; Pachepsky, Y; Blaustein, R; Santin-Duran, M

2012-08-16

362

Infection of Red Deer, Cattle, and Humans with Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae in Western Austria  

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Twelve cases of Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae infection have occurred in four humans, three cattle, and five red deer in western Austria since 1994. DNA-fingerprinting of the isolates suggested transmission in and between these species over several years. Contact with cattle, but not with goats, was found to be associated with three of four human cases.

Prodinger, Wolfgang M.; Eigentler, Angelika; Allerberger, Franz; Scho?nbauer, Michael; Glawischnig, Walter

2002-01-01

363

Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus) in the Helan Mountains, China  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes i [...] n forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833). The use of vegetation types varied seasonally according to food availability and ambient temperature. Red deer used montane coniferous forest and alpine shrub and meadow zones distributed above 2,000 m and 3,000 m in summer, alpine shrub and meadows above 3,000 m in autumn, being restricted to lower elevation habitats in spring and winter. The winter habitat of C. elaphus alxaicus was dominated by Ulmus glaucescens Franch. and Juglans regia Linnaeus, deciduous trees, and differed from the habitats selected by other subspecies of red deer. Cervus elaphus alxaicus preferred habitats with abundant vegetation coverage to open habitats in winter, but the reverse pattern was observed in summer and autumn. Red deer preferred gentle slopes (

Mingming, Zhang; Zhensheng, Liu; Liwei, Teng.

364

75 FR 39926 - Deer Creek Station Energy Facility Project (DOE/EIS-0415)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) received a request from Basin Electric Power Cooperative (Basin Electric) to interconnect its proposed Deer Creek Station Energy Facility Project (Project) to Western's transmission system. Basin Electric's Project includes the construction of a new 300-megawatt (MW) natural gas-fired combined-cycle generation facility in Brookings County, South......

2010-07-13

365

Seasonal variations in red deer (Cervus elaphus) hematology related to antler growth and biometrics measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to relate seasonal hematology changes with the rest of physiological variations suffered by red deer, such as antler and biometrics cycle, and to assess the relationship between hematology and the effort performed in antler development. Blood samples were taken from 21 male red deer every 4 weeks during 18 months. Samples were analyzed for the main hematological parameters. Simultaneously, biometrics measurements were taken, such as antler length, body weight, body condition score, testicular diameter (TD), and thoracic and neck girth. All the blood cell types (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets) showed seasonal variations, increasing as antler cleaning approached, as did hematocrit and hemoglobin. The final size of antlers was negatively related to leukocyte count, nonlymphoid leukocyte count, red cell distribution width, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean platelet volume, and TD, whereas it was positively related to body condition during antler growth. Huge seasonal variations in some hematological values have been found to be related to changes in antler and biometrics measurements. Since these variations are even greater than the caused by deer handling, they should be taken into account when evaluating hematology in deer populations. PMID:21351240

Gaspar-López, Enrique; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Estevez, Jose Antonio; Ceacero, Francisco; Gallego, Laureano; García, Andrés Jose

2011-04-01

366

Testing global positioning system telemetry to study wolf predation on deer fawns  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted a pilot study to test the usefulness of Global Positioning System (GPS) collars for investigating wolf (Canis lupus) predation on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns. Using GPS collars with short location-attempt intervals on 5 wolves and 5 deer during summers 2002-2004 in northeastern Minnesota, USA, demonstrated how this approach could provide new insights into wolf hunting behavior of fawns. For example, a wolf traveled ???1.5-3.0 km and spent 20-22 hours in the immediate vicinity of known fawn kill sites and ???0.7 km and 8.3 hours at scavenging sites. Wolf travel paths indicated that wolves intentionally traveled into deer summer ranges, traveled ???0.7-4.2 km in such ranges, and spent <1-22 hours per visit. Each pair of 3 GPS-collared wolf pack members were located together for ???6% of potential locations. From GPS collar data, we estimated that each deer summer range in a pack territory containing 5 wolves ???1 year old and hunting individually would be visited by a wolf on average every 3-5 days. This approach holds great potential for investigating summer hunting behavior of wolves in areas where direct observation is impractical or impossible.

Demma, D. J.; Barber-Meyer, S. M.; Mech, L. D.

2007-01-01

367

Evaluation of ethanol vortex ELISA for detection of bovine tuberculosis in cattle and deer  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The use of serological assays for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (TB) has been intensively studied and use of specific antigens have aided in improving the diagnostic accuracy of the assays. In the present study, we report an in-house enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), developed by using ethanol extract of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). The assay, named (ethanol vortex ELISA [EVELISA]), was evaluated for detection of anti- M. bovis antibodies in the sera of cattle and white-tailed deer. Methods By using the EVELISA, we tested sera obtained from two species of animals; cattle (n?=?62 [uninfected, n?=?40; naturally infected, n?=?22]) and white-tailed deer (n?=?41 [uninfected, n?=?25; naturally infected, n?=?7; experimentally infected, n?=?9]). To detect species specific molecules, components in the ethanol extract were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and western blotting. Results Among the tested animals, 77.2% of infected cattle and 87.5% of infected deer tested positive for anti- M. bovis antibody. There were only minor false positive reactions (7.5% in cattle and 0% in deer) in uninfected animals. M. bovis -specific lipids and protein (MPB83) in the ethanol extract were detected by thin layer chromatography and western blotting, respectively. Conclusion The results warrant further evaluation and validation of EVELISA for bovine TB diagnosis of traditional and alternative livestock as well as for free-ranging animal species.

2014-01-01

368

White-tailed deer vigilance: the influence of social and environmental factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vigilance behavior may directly affect fitness of prey animals, and understanding factors influencing vigilance may provide important insight into predator-prey interactions. We used 40,540 pictures taken withcamera traps in August 2011 and 2012to evaluate factors influencing individual vigilance behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) while foraging at baited sites. We used binary logistic regression to determine if individual vigilance was affected by age, sex, and group size. Additionally, we evaluated whether the time of the day,moon phase,and presence of other non-predatorwildlife species impacted individual vigilance. Juveniles were 11% less vigilant at baited sites than adults. Females were 46% more vigilant when fawns were present. Males and females spent more time feeding as group size increased, but with each addition of 1 individual to a group, males increased feeding time by nearly double that of females. Individual vigilance fluctuated with time of day andwith moon phase but generally was least during diurnal and moonlit nocturnal hours, indicating deer have the ability to adjust vigilance behavior to changing predation risk associated with varyinglight intensity.White-tailed deer increased individual vigilance when other non-predator wildlife were present. Our data indicate that differential effects of environmental and social constraints on vigilance behavior between sexes may encourage sexual segregation in white-tailed deer. PMID:24599090

Lashley, Marcus A; Chitwood, M Colter; Biggerstaff, Michael T; Morina, Daniel L; Moorman, Christopher E; DePerno, Christopher S

2014-01-01

369

Isolation of Mycobacterium caprae (Lechtal genotype) from red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

During tuberculosis (TB) surveillance, 53 hunted red deer (Cervus elaphus) were collected to determine whether TB was present in free-ranging animals from an Italian alpine area. Samples (lungs, liver, intestine, and lymph nodes) were cultured and analyzed by real-time PCR assay carried out directly on tissue. Mycobacterium caprae was isolated from small granulomatous, tuberculosis-like lesions in the liver of a 12-yr-old female. Identification of suspect colonies was done by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the gyrb gene, and genotyping was performed by spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit variable number tandem repeat analysis. The isolated strain was genetically identical to strains isolated in the study area in 2001 from dairy cows imported from Austria and in 2010 from an indigenous cow. The genotype, called "Lechtal," is the most frequently detected in the TB outbreaks in Austria and Germany. The possibility that red deer act as a maintenance host of M. caprae between TB outbreaks could be not excluded. Despite the high red deer population density, the detection of only one infected red deer could suggest that the wildlife management measures applied in the study area (prohibition of artificial feeding and secure removal of offal from hunted animals) may reduce the risk of TB spreading. PMID:24499334

Chiari, Mario; Zanoni, M; Alborali, L G; Zanardi, G; Avisani, D; Tagliabue, S; Gaffuri, A; Pacciarini, M L; Boniotti, M B

2014-04-01

370

Influence of Holocene environmental change and anthropogenic impact on the diversity and distribution of roe deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extant patterns of population structure and levels of diversity are a consequence of factors that vary in both space and time. Our objective in this study is to investigate a species that has responded to both natural and anthropogenic changes in ways that have shaped modern populations and provide insight into the key processes. The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is one of the two species of deer native to Britain. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), the British habitat was largely under ice and there was a land bridge to mainland Europe. As the Earth warmed during the early Holocene, the land bridge was lost. Subsequent hunting on the British mainland left the southern region extirpated of roe deer, whereas a refugial population remained in the north. Later reintroductions from Europe led to population expansion, especially in southern United Kingdom. Here, we combine data from ancient and modern DNA to track population dynamics and patterns of connectivity, and test hypotheses about the influence of natural and anthropogenic environmental change. We find that past expansion and divergence events coincided with a warming environment and the subsequent closure of the land bridge between Europe and the United Kingdom. We also find turnover in British roe deer haplotypes between the late-Holocene and modern day that have likely resulted from recent human disturbance activities such as habitat perturbation, overhunting and restocking. PMID:24448563

Baker, K H; Hoelzel, A R

2014-06-01

371

THE FEED PREFERENCE OF ROE DEER (CAPREOLUS CAPREOLUS ON AGRICULTURAL HABITATS  

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Full Text Available  In Hungary the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus is the most widespread big game, estimated population in 2012 exceeded three hundred and fifty thousand (National Game Management Database (OVA, 2012. The aim of this research is to find out what kind of differences and resemblances can be found in feeding strategies on the examined agricultural plain habitats. The feed selection habit of one of the most important big game in our homeland has not been researched yet in detail in the counties Csongrád and Békés, where the roe deer population is numerous and excellent. The detailed knowledge of the related specific feeding strategies contributes not only to the better cognition of this kind but also provides a developed opportunity for the game managers to reach better game husbandry results. Beyond the practical significance of the theme there are some other peculiarities to be cleared up in connection with the nourishment of roe deer: what kind of feeding strategies would be typical for the roe deer living on the plain at different food supply?  

Tamás Barta

2013-05-01

372

Recognition of seasonal effect on captive Sumatran Sambar deer reproductive cyclicity and sexual behaviors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Putranto HD, Soetrisno E, Nurmeiliasari, Zueni A, Gibson B (2010 Recognition of seasonal effect on captive Sumatran Sambar deer reproductive cyclicity and sexual behaviors. Biodiversitas 11: 200-203. The objective of this study was to identify seasonal effect on reproductive cyclicity of a captive female Sumatran sambar deer by monitoring its visual estrus manifestations and visual sexual behaviors in buck during female natural estrus in ex situ habitat. A pair of six years of age Sumatran sambar deer was used in this study. Daily observation of visual estrus manifestations of doe and visual sexual behaviors of buck was conducted using focal-animal sampling by two animal keepers during 0800 to 1700 h from June-July 2009 (dry season to August-September 2009 (rainy season. Doe visual estrus manifestations include apparent reddening and swelling of the external genitalia, loss of appetite and a natural tendency of the doe to approach the buck. There was no significant effect of season on doe visual estrus manifestations and buck sexual behaviors (p > 0.05, except for loss of appetite and fighting behavior, respectively. Estrus was observed monthly and result of the cycle was 25.00 ± 5.22 days. It is possible to assess non-invasively estrous cycle of Sumatran sambar deer by the observation of visual estrus manifestations and there was less of seasonal effect on doe-buck sexual behaviors during female natural estrus in ex situ habitat.

AHMAD ZUENI

2010-10-01

373

Orientation selective DEER measurements on vinculin tail at X-band frequencies reveal spin label orientations  

Science.gov (United States)

Double electron electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy has been established as a valuable method to determine distances between spin labels bound to protein molecules. Caused by selective excitation of molecular orientations DEER primary data also depend on the mutual orientation of the spin labels. For a doubly spin labeled variant of the cytoskeletal protein vinculin tail strong orientation selection can be observed already at X-band frequencies, which allows us to reduce the problem to the relative orientation of two molecular axes and the spin-spin axis parameterized by three angles. A full grid search of parameter space reveals that the DEER experiment introduces parameter-space symmetry higher than the symmetry of the spin Hamiltonian. Thus, the number of equivalent parameter sets is twice as large as expected and the relative orientation of the two spin labels is ambiguous. Except for this inherent ambiguity the most probable relative orientation of the two spin labels can be determined with good confidence and moderate uncertainty by global fitting of a set of five DEER experiments at different offsets between pump and observer frequency. The experiment provides restraints on the angles between the z axis of the nitroxide molecular frame and the spin-spin vector and on the dihedral between the two z axes. When using the same type of label at both sites, assignment of the angle restraints is ambiguous and the sign of the dihedral restraint is also ambiguous.

Abé, Christoph; Klose, Daniel; Dietrich, Franziska; Ziegler, Wolfgang H.; Polyhach, Yevhen; Jeschke, Gunnar; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

2012-03-01

374

Invasion rate of deer ked depends on spatiotemporal variation in host density.  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasive parasites are of great global concern. Understanding the factors influencing the spread of invading pest species is a first step in developing effective countermeasures. Growing empirical evidence suggests that spread rates are essentially influenced by spatiotemporal dynamics of host-parasite interactions, yet approaches modelling spread rate have typically assumed static environmental conditions. We analysed invasion history of the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) in Finland with a diffusion-reaction model, which assumed either the movement rate, the population growth rate, or both rates may depend on spatial and temporal distribution of moose (Alces alces), the main host of deer ked. We fitted the model to the data in a Bayesian framework, and used the Bayesian information criterion to show that accounting for the variation in local moose density improved the model's ability to describe the pattern of the invasion. The highest ranked model predicted higher movement rate and growth rate of deer ked with increasing moose density. Our results suggest that the historic increase in host density has facilitated the spread of the deer ked. Our approach illustrates how information about the ecology of an invasive species can be extracted from the spatial pattern of spread even with rather limited data. PMID:24521661

Meier, C M; Bonte, D; Kaitala, A; Ovaskainen, O

2014-06-01

375

Reduced sperm quality in relation to oxidative stress in red deer from a lead mining area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We studied the effects of elevated heavy metal uptake on the sperm quality and the antioxidant mechanisms of sperm and testis of red deer from a Pb mining area in Spain. Testis, liver and bone of red deer from mining (n = 21) and control (n = 20) areas were obtained from hunters and analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, As and Se. Testes were weighed and measured. Motility, acrosome integrity and viability and functionality of membrane were evaluated in epididymal spermatozoa. Lipid peroxidation, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in testis and spermatozoa. Deer from mined areas showed less Cu in testis, a higher testis mass and size and reduced spermatozoa membrane viability and acrosome integrity. Effects on sperm quality were associated to decreased Cu and increased Se in testis, and to decreases in the activity of SOD and GPX in testis and spermatozoa. - A decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in testis correlates with reduced sperm quality in red deer from a Pb mining area.

2009-01-01

376

Effectiveness of rodenticides for managing invasive roof rats and native deer mice in orchards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Roof rats (Rattus rattus) and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are occasional pests of nut and tree fruit orchards throughout California and in many other parts of the USA and beyond. In general, the most practical and cost-effective control method for rodents in many agricultural environments is the use of rodenticides (toxic baits), but little or no information exists on the efficacy of current rodenticides in controlling roof rats and deer mice in orchards. Therefore, our goals were to develop an index of rodent activity to monitor efficacy of rodenticides and to subsequently test the efficacy of three California Department of Food and Agriculture rodenticide baits (0.005 % chlorophacinone treated oats, 0.005 % diphacinone treated oats, and 0.005 % diphacinone wax block) to determine their utility for controlling roof rats and deer mice in agricultural orchards. We determined that a general index using the number of roof rat photos taken at a minimum of a 5-min interval was strongly correlated to the minimum number known estimate of roof rats; this approach was used to monitor roof rat and deer mouse populations pre- and post-treatment. Of the baits tested, the 0.005 % diphacinone treated oats was most effective for both species; 0.005 % chlorophacinone grain was completely ineffective against roof rats. Our use of elevated bait stations proved effective at providing bait to target species and should substantially limit access to rodenticides by many non-target species. PMID:24443051

Baldwin, Roger A; Quinn, Niamh; Davis, David H; Engeman, Richard M

2014-05-01

377

GPS/GSM collars monitoring of red deer in the Tosco-Emiliano Apennine Mountains  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nine red deer hinds were captured in the Nature Reserve of Acquerino-Cantagallo in the Apennine mountains and fitted with GPS/GSM collars to monitor spatial movement and habitat use. Preliminary results of interfix distances in the first 48 hours after capture showed highly variable distances immediately after release and a decreasing during the following day. Possible effects of capture were evaluated.

Maria Paola Ponzetta; Francesco Sacconi; Chiara Crocetti; Francesco Cervasio; Isabelle Minder

2010-01-01

378

Cortico-striatal oxidative status, dopamine turnover and relation with stereotypy in the deer mouse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The deer mouse presents with spontaneous stereotypic movements that resemble the repetitive behaviours of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and demonstrates a selective response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors. OCD has been linked to altered redox status and since increased dopamine signalling can promote stereotypies as well as oxidative stress, we investigated whether the severity of deer mouse stereotypy may be associated with altered dopamine turnover and cortico-striatal redox status. Deer mice were separated into high (HSB), low (LSB) and non-stereotypy (NS) groups. Frontal cortical and striatal dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced (GSH) and oxidised (GSSG) glutathione and glutathione redox index, were analysed as markers for regional dopamine turnover and oxidative stress, respectively. Dopamine and its metabolites and SOD activity did not differ across the stereotypy groups. Significantly reduced GSH and GSSG and increased glutathione redox index were only observed in the frontal cortex of HSB animals. Frontal cortical GSH and GSSG were inversely correlated while glutathione redox index was positively correlated with stereotypy. Deer mouse stereotypy is thus characterised by a deficient glutathione system in the frontal cortex but not striatum, and provides a therapeutic rationale for using glutathione-active antioxidants in OCD. The evidence for a primary frontal lesion has importance for future OCD research. PMID:21397620

Güldenpfennig, Marianne; Wolmarans, De Wet; du Preez, Jan L; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

2011-06-01

379

Global reach: Red Deer oilfield expertise, not least in taming disasters, lures international clientele  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rise to international prominence of two Red Deer, Alberta, firms --Safety Boss and Red Flame -- by performing heroic feats in Kuwait's flaming oil fields, are chronicled. These two firms, along with several others in Red Deer, provide expertise in fire fighting that is sought after by petroleum companies in the farthest corners of the world. Red Deer companies can be found training Kazakhs, Russians, Kuwaitis, Iranians, and Turkmen in fighting oil well fires. Red Flame, for example developed a method called 'hot-tapping' while fighting blazing oil well fires in Kuwait, which they have since extended by developing hot-tapping equipment that would work on the highest pressure wells in the world. Last summer Red Flame personnel trained a Schlumberger crew in Kazakhstan working on custom-designed equipment that could perform at pressures of 5,000 psi. Red Flame also designed 'extended reach' hot-tapping in response to a request from Petro-Canada. Meanwhile, Safety Boss, the oldest and best known oil well fire fighting company in Canada, boasts of having extinguished 180 wells in their 1991 stint in Kuwait, while their closest competitor, Texas-based Wild Well, doused only 117. With improved safety policies and procedures the number of oil well blow-outs diminished dramatically in recent years, but there are always opportunities for the Red Deer expertise somewhere around the world.

Lorenz, A.

2002-10-07

380

No correlation between neonatal fitness and heterozygosity in a reintroduced population of Père David's deer  

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Full Text Available Considering the severe impacts of genetic bottlenecks and small numbers of founders in populations of reintroduced animals, it is necessary to study inbreeding and its effect on fitness in species of conservation concern. Père David’s deer is one of few large mammal species extinct in the wild but safely preserved in captivity. Its specific background gives us the opportunity to study the relationships between heterozygosity and neonatal fitness in relocated populations. We employed five microsatellite loci to explore heterozygosity-fitness correlations in a population of Père David’s deer at the Beijing Milu Ecological Research Center. We observed associations between microsatellite-based variables sMLH, IR, MD2 and HL, and two components of fitness expressed early in life (birth weight and the neonatal mortality of 123 Père David’s deer calves born over six consecutive years. We found that neonatal mortality was 19.1 ± 7.6%, not higher than the 19% or 18% reported in other ungulates. The heterozygosity of calves was not associated with neonatal mortality, nor birth weight. Our study implies that low genetic variability of microsatellite loci has no overt effect on birth weight and neonatal mortality in reintroduced populations of Père David’s deer [Current Zoology 59 (2: 249–256, 2013].

Yan ZENG, Chunwang LI, Linyuan ZHANG, Zhenyu ZHONG, Zhigang JIANG

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
381

Sin nombre virus in deer mice captured inside homes, southwestern Montana.  

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From 1996 through 1999, 35 deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were captured in 25 urban and suburban homes in southwestern Montana. Mice were captured throughout the year except for January; seven mice (20%) from seven (28%) of the homes were seropositive for Sin Nombre virus. The infected mice were mostly adult males captured in the spring and fall.

Kuenzi, A. J.; Douglass, R. J.; Bond, C. W.

2000-01-01

382

Reduced sperm quality in relation to oxidative stress in red deer from a lead mining area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We studied the effects of elevated heavy metal uptake on the sperm quality and the antioxidant mechanisms of sperm and testis of red deer from a Pb mining area in Spain. Testis, liver and bone of red deer from mining (n = 21) and control (n = 20) areas were obtained from hunters and analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, As and Se. Testes were weighed and measured. Motility, acrosome integrity and viability and functionality of membrane were evaluated in epididymal spermatozoa. Lipid peroxidation, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in testis and spermatozoa. Deer from mined areas showed less Cu in testis, a higher testis mass and size and reduced spermatozoa membrane viability and acrosome integrity. Effects on sperm quality were associated to decreased Cu and increased Se in testis, and to decreases in the activity of SOD and GPX in testis and spermatozoa. - A decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in testis correlates with reduced sperm quality in red deer from a Pb mining area.

Reglero, Manuel M.; Taggart, Mark A.; Castellanos, Pilar [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Mateo, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.mateo@uclm.e [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

2009-08-15

383

A cross-sectional study of reproductive indices and fawn mortality in farmed white-tailed deer  

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Data were obtained from a questionnaire administered to a random sample of Canadian and United States white-tailed deer (WTD) farmers. Reproductive indices and survival of fawns from birth until 1 y of age were examined. Major factors in limiting herd increase were a low reproductive rate (88 fawns per 100 does exposed to bucks) and a 30% mortality of fawns from birth until 1 y of age. The latter figure differs from reported mortality rates in fallow deer and red deer/wapiti. The unacceptably...

Haigh, Jerry; Berezowski, John; Woodbury, Murray R.

2005-01-01

384

Biotic Translocation of Phosphorus: The Role of Deer in Protected Areas  

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Full Text Available Biogeochemical cycles are cornerstones of biological evolution. Mature terrestrial ecosystems efficiently trap nutrients and certain ones are largely recycled internally. Preserving natural fluxes of nutrients is an important mission of protected areas, but artificially leaky systems remain common. Native red deer (Cervus elaphus in the Swiss National Park (SNP are known to reduce phosphorus (P in preferred feeding sites by removing more P than is returned with feces. At larger scales it becomes apparent that losses are occurring due to seasonal deer movements out of the SNP where most deer end up perishing. Thus, the SNP contributes to producing deer which translocate P to sink areas outside the SNP due to several artificial factors. An adult female dying outside of SNP exports about 1.8 kg of P, whereas a male dying outside of SNP at 8 years of age exports 7.2 kg of P due also to annual shedding of antlers. Averaged over the vegetated part of the SNP, the about 2,000 deer export 0.32 kg/ha/yr of P. Other ungulate species using the SNP and dying principally outside of its borders would result in additional exports of P. Leakiness in this case is induced by: a absence of the predator community and thus a lack of summer mortalities and absence of several relevant non-lethal predator effects, b hunting-accelerated population turnover rate, and c deaths outside of SNP principally from hunting. The estimated export rate for P compares to rates measured in extensive production systems which receive 10-50 kg/ha/yr of P as fertilizer to compensate the losses from biomass exports. Assumptions were made regarding red deer body weight or population turnover rate, yet substituting my estimates with actual values from the SNP would only affect somewhat the magnitude of the effect, but not its direction. The rate of P loss is a proxy for losses of other elements, the most critical ones being those not essential to autotrophs, but essential to heterotrophs. High deer turnover rates combined with accelerated biomass export warrants detailed mass balances of macro and micro nutrients, and studies of biogeochemical cycles in protected areas are essential if preserving natural processes is a mandate.

Werner T. Flueck

2009-04-01

385

Sequence Characterization of Mitochondrial 12S rRNA Gene in Mouse Deer (Moschiola indica) for PCR-RFLP Based Species Identification  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitochondrial 12S rRNA has proven to be a useful molecular marker for better conservation and management of the endangered species. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene has proven to be a reliable and efficient tool for the identification of different Indian deer species of family cervidae. In the present study, mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequence of mouse deer (Moschiola indica) belonging to the family Tragulidae was characterized and analysed in silico for its use in species identification. Genomic DNA was isolated from the hair follicles and mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was amplified using universal primers. PCR product was cloned and sequenced for the first time. The sequence of mouse deer showed 90.04, 90.08, 90.04, 91.2, 90.04, and 90.08% identities with sika deer, sambar, hog deer, musk deer, chital, and barking deer, respectively. Restriction mapping in Lasergene (DNAstar Inc., Madison, WI, USA) revealed that mouse deer mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequence can be differentiated from the other deer species in PCR-RFLP using RsaI, DdeI, BsrI, and BstSFI. With the help of predicted pattern, mouse deer can be identified using genomic DNA from a variety of biomaterials, thereby providing molecular aid in wildlife forensics and conservation of the species.

Siddappa, Chandra Mohan; Saini, Mohini; Das, Asit; Sharma, Anil K.; Gupta, Praveen K.

2013-01-01

386

Comparing protein and energy status of winter-fed white-tailed deer  

Science.gov (United States)

Although nutritional status in response to controlled feeding trials has been extensively studied in captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), there remains a considerable gap in understanding the influence of variable supplemental feeding protocols on free-ranging deer. Consequently, across the northern portion of the white-tailed deer range, numerous property managers are investing substantial resources into winter supplemental-feeding programs without adequate tools to assess the nutritional status of their populations. We studied the influence of a supplemental winter feeding gradient on the protein and energy status of free-ranging white-tailed deer in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. We collected blood and fecal samples from 31 captured fawns across 3 sites that varied considerably in the frequency, quantity, and method of supplemental feed distribution. To facilitate population-wide comparisons, we collected fresh fecal samples off the snow at each of the 3 sites with supplemental feeding and 1 reference site where no feeding occurred. Results indicated that the method of feed distribution, in addition to quantity and frequency, can affect the nutritional status of deer. The least intensively fed population showed considerable overlap in diet quality with the unfed population in a principal components ordination, despite the substantial time and financial resources invested in the feeding program. Data from fecal samples generally denoted a gradient in diet quality and digestibility that corresponded with the availability of supplements. Our results further demonstrated that fecal nitrogen and fecal fiber, indices of dietary protein and digestibility, can be estimated using regressions of fecal pellet mass, enabling a rapid qualitative assessment of diet quality.

Page, B.D.; Underwood, H.B.

2006-01-01

387

Sustainable monitoring of roe deer in public hunting areas in the Spanish Pyrenes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim of study: Monitoring trends in animal populations is essential for the development of appropriate wildlife management strategies. Area of study: The area is situated in the southern Pyrenees (Aragon), Spain. Material and methods: To measure the abundance, population trends, sex ratio, and mortality of roe deer populations, we analyzed data from i) driven hunts for wild boar (hunting seasons 1995/96-2009/10, n = 1,417, ii) itineraries, which were used to calculate the KAI and density using DS (2003-2010, n = 310 itineraries), iii) roe deer carcass recoveries (2006-2010, n = 100), and iv) data from the deer hunting quota fulfillment (2006-2010, n = 325 hunted animals. Main results: Based on DS, in 2010, the average density of roe deer populations was 2.3 km–2 (CV 17%). Based on the KAI and the battues, the estimated average annual rate of increase was 5.8% and 4.3%, respectively. Based on the KAI and the carcass recoveries, the estimates of the population sex ratio were 0.75 (n = 641) and 0.9 (n = 100) males per female, respectively. Carcass recoveries indicated that mortality was highest in late winter and early spring. The average body masses and sizes of males and females were within the ranges reported for other Iberian and European populations. Research highlights: Monitoring should be continued in the Aragon population of roe deer, although larger sample sizes are required to increase the accuracy of estimates and assessments of the impact of management actions. (Author)

Herrero, J.; Torres, R. T.; Prada, C.; Garcia-Serrano, A.; Gimenez-Anaya, A.; Fernandez, O.

2013-07-01

388

Prevalence and molecular characterization of Anaplasmataceae agents in free-ranging Brazilian marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaplasmataceae organisms comprise a group of obligate intracellular gram-negative, tick-borne bacteria that can infect both animals and humans. In the present work we investigate the presence of Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Neorickettsia species in blood samples from Brazilian marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus), using both molecular and serologic techniques. Blood was collected from 143 deer captured along floodplains of the Paraná River, near the Porto Primavera hydroelectric power plant. Before and after flooding, marsh deer were captured for a wide range research program under the financial support of São Paulo State Energy Company (CESP), between 1998 and 2001. Samples were divided into four groups according to time and location of capture and named MS01 (n=99), MS02 (n=18) (Mato Grosso do Sul, before and after flooding, respectively), PX (n=9; Peixe River, after flooding), and AGUA (n=17; Aguapeí River, after flooding). The seroprevalences for Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were 76.76% and 20.2% in MS01, 88.88% and 5.55% in MS02, 88.88% and 22.22% in PX, and 94.12% and 5.88% in AGUA, respectively. Sixty-one animals (42.65% of the total population) were PCR-positive for E. chaffeensis PCR (100.0% identity based on 16S rRNA, dsb, and groESL genes). Seventy deer (48.95% of the total population) were PCR-positive for Anaplasma spp. (99.0% of identity with A. platys, and in the same clade as A. phagocytophilum, A. bovis, and A. platys based on 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis). Our results demonstrate that Brazilian marsh deer are exposed to E. chaffeensis and Anaplasma spp. and may act as reservoirs for these rickettsial agents, playing a role in disease transmission to humans and other animals. PMID:22381686

Sacchi, A B V; Duarte, J M B; André, M R; Machado, R Z

2012-07-01

389

Patterns in deer-related traffic injuries over a decade: the Mayo clinic experience  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Our American College of Surgeons Level 1 Trauma Center serves a rural population. As a result, there is a unique set of accidents that are not present in an urban environment such as deer related motor vehicle crashes (dMVC. We characterized injury patterns between motorcycle/all-terrain vehicles (MCC and automobile (MVC crashes related to dMVC (deer motor vehicle crash with the hypotheses that MCC will present with higher Injury Severity Score (ISS and that it would be related to whether the driver struck the deer or swerved. Methods The records of 157 consecutive patients evaluated at our institution for injury related to dMVC from January 1st, 1997 to December 31st, 2006 were reviewed from our prospectively collected trauma database. Demographic, clinical, and crash specific parameters were abstracted. Injury severity was analyzed by the Abbreviated Injury Scale score for each body region as well as the overall Injury Severity Score (ISS. Results Motorcycle crashes presented with a higher median ISS than MVCs (14 vs 5, p Within the MVC group, there was no difference between swerving and hitting the deer in any AIS group. Forty-seven percent of drivers were not wearing seat belts which resulted in similar median ISS (6 vs 5 and AIS of all body regions. Conclusions Motorcycle operators suffered higher ISS. There were no significant differences in median ISS if a driver involved in a deer-related motor vehicle crash swerved rather than collided, was helmeted, or restrained.

Smoot Dustin L

2010-08-01

390

Prevalence Of Goitre In A Non Endemic Area Of Gujarat  

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Full Text Available A cross-sectional, prevalence-based study comprising a community (22.486 and school survey (19.589 in rural Mehsana, North Gujarat (population: 20,37,367 revealed the goiter prevalence as 3.5% and 7.3% respectively. Grading of goiter by Stanbury�s classification showed 90% -93% of swelling as mid (ob. Application of Stanbury�s criteria over the findings of this study proved the area non-endemic. Prevalence was higher in the school than the age at which prevalence increased in the study area, was delayed to 10 years. Similar to endemic areas, prevalence was higher in females than males in all age groups (except pre-school and the sex difference was most marked in 15-44 years. A marker (ratio of grade I to ob goiter grade has also been suggested for long term, intervention-oriented monitoring of non- endemic areas.

Kumar P

1993-01-01

391

Geraniaceae endémicas del Perú / Geraniaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Geraniaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar cinco géneros y 59 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mayormente hierbas y subarbustos. En este trabajo reconocemos 18 especies endémicas, todas en el género Geranium. Estos endemismos ocupan principalmente las r [...] egiones Puna Húmeda y Seca y Mesoandina, entre los 2000 y 4800 m de altitud. Dos Geraniaceae endémicas se encuentran representadas dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Geraniaceae are represented in Peru by five genera and 59 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mainly herbs and subshrubs. Here we recognize 18 endemic species, all in the genus Geranium. These endemic taxa are found in the Very Humid and Dry Puna, and the Mesoandean regio [...] ns, between 2000 and 4800 m elevation. Two endemic Geraniaceae species have been recorded to date within Peru's protected areas.

Monsalve, Christhian; León, Blanca.

392

The pCS20 PCR assay for Ehrlichia ruminantium does not cross-react with the novel deer ehrlichial agent found in white-tailed deer in the United States of America  

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White-tailed deer are susceptible to heartwater (Ehrlichia [Cowdria] ruminantium infection) and are likely to suffer high mortality if the disease spreads to the United States. It is vital, therefore, to validate a highly specific and sensitive detection method for E. ruminantium infection that can be reliably used in testing white-tailed deer, which are reservoirs of antigenically or genetically related agents such as Ehrlichia ...

Mahan, S. M.; Simbi, B. H.; Burridge, M. J.

2010-01-01

393

PREVALENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT STRAINS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND ENTEROCOCCUS SPP. IN ROE DEER (CAPREOLUS CAPREOLUS AND RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS AT THE PARCO NAZIONALE DEI MONTI SIBILLINI, ITALY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A case control study was performed in the Parco Nazionale dei Monti Sibillini, Italy, to find out whether roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and red deer (Cervus elaphus were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in their faeces, compared to Enterococcus spp. Ten areas were selected and samples were collected during a fourmonths (May to August, 2008 sampling period. Samples of water (n=12 and feces (n=59, collected at 10 different sites, were cultured for E. coli and Enterococcus spp. The resulting colonies were screened for tetracycline, ampicillin and kanamycin resistance using the Lederberg Replica Plating method (breakpoint 4 ?g/ml. All resistant isolates were then selected, and subjected to the CLSI antimicrobial plate susceptibility test (7. Among the water specimens contaminated by E. coli, 80% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 80% to tetracycline and 40% to kanamycin. Among the water specimens contaminated by Enterococcus spp., 14.29% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 14.29% to tetracycline and 71.3% to kanamycin. Among the 39 strains of E. coli isolated from red deer feces, 12 were resistant to ampicillin (30.77%, 5 to tetracycline (12,82% and 3 to kanamycin (7.69%. Among the 19 strains of Enterococcus spp. isolated from red deer feces, 0 were resistant to ampicillin (0%, 1 to tetracycline (5.26% and 19 to kanamycin (100. These are significant findings, indicating that antibiotic resistance can be found in naïve animal populations and that red deer and fallow deer could act as sentinels for antimicrobial resistance. Key words Antibiotic-resistance, red deer, fallow deer, Escherichia

I. Pisano

2009-09-01

394

PREVALENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT STRAINS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND ENTEROCOCCUS SPP. IN ROE DEER (CAPREOLUS CAPREOLUS) AND RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS) AT THE PARCO NAZIONALE DEI MONTI SIBILLINI, ITALY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A case control study was performed in the Parco Nazionale dei Monti Sibillini, Italy, to find out whether roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in their faeces, compared to Enterococcus spp. Ten areas were selected and samples were collected during a fourmonths (May to August, 2008) sampling period. Samples of water (n=12) and feces (n=59), collected at 10 different sites, were cultured for E. coli and En...

Cenci Goga, B.; Vizzani, A.; Monticelli, C.; Nicchiarelli, I.; Sechi, P.; Pisano, I.

2013-01-01

395

PREVALENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT STRAINS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND ENTEROCOCCUS SPP. IN ROE DEER (CAPREOLUS CAPREOLUS) AND RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS) AT THE PARCO NAZIONALE DEI MONTI SIBILLINI, ITALY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A case control study was performed in the Parco Nazionale dei Monti Sibillini, Italy, to find out whether roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in their faeces, compared to Enterococcus spp. Ten areas were selected and samples were collected during a fourmonths (May to August, 2008) sampling period. Samples of water (n=12) and feces (n=59), collected at 10 different sites, were cultured for E. coli and En...

Cenci Goga, B.; Vizzani, A.; Monticelli, C.; Nicchiarelli, I.; Sechi, P.; Pisano, I.

2009-01-01

396

Biosolids, Crop, and Groundwater Data for a Biosolids-Application Area Near Deer Trail, Colorado, 2009 and 2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

During 2009 and 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey monitored the chemical composition of biosolids, crops, and groundwater related to biosolids applications near Deer Trail, Colorado, in cooperation with the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District. This monit...

D. B. Smith J. G. Crock T. J. B. Yager

2012-01-01

397

Biosolids, Crop, and Ground-Water Data for a Biosolids-Application Area Near Deer Trail, Colorado, 2004 Through 2006.  

Science.gov (United States)

From 2004 through 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey monitored the chemical composition of biosolids, crops, dust, and ground water related to biosolids applications near Deer Trail, Colorado, in cooperation with the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District. T...

D. D. Smith J. G. Crock T. J. B. Yager

2009-01-01

398

Biosolids, Crop, and Groundwater Data for a Biosolids-Application Area Near Deer Trail, Colorado, 2007 and 2008.  

Science.gov (United States)

During 2007 and 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey monitored the chemical composition of biosolids, crops, and groundwater related to biosolids applications near Deer Trail, Colorado, in cooperation with the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District. This monit...

D. B. Smith J. G. Crock T. J. B. Yager

2008-01-01

399

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge reservation: 1981 status report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One hundred fifteen white-tailed deer were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1981, an increase of seventeen over 1980. Spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those reported previously. October and November were the months when the highest numbers of deer were killed. The sex ratio of road kills was 0.8:1 (males to females) from January through September but shifted to 3:1 during October, November, and December, presumably reflecting the effects of rutting season on bucks' movement. Reproductive data collected indicated a breeding season spanning the September through February period. Postmortem examination of deer revealed that the animals were in good condition with only a few abnormalities observed. Abomasal parasite counts reflected an optimum density situation between the deer population and its habitat, although browse surveys made during the winter of 1981-1982 indicated a tendency toward an overpopulated condition.

Story, J.D.; Kitchings, J.T.

1982-11-01

400

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1982 status report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One hundred nine white-tailed deer were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1982, a decrease of six from the vehicle kills in 1981. Spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those reported previously. The highest number of deer killed was recorded during November. The sex ratio of road-kills was 0.6:1 (males to females) from January through September, but it shifted to 3.6:1 for the October through December period, presumably reflecting the effects of rutting season on bucks' movements. Reproductive data collected indicated a breeding season from early October through late March. Postmortem examination of deer revealed that animals were in good condition (only a few abnormalities were observed), and endoparasite burdens continue to reflect no overcrowding in the deer population. 5 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

Story, J.D.; Kitchings, J.T.

1985-06-01

 
 
 
 
401

The use of deer vehicle accidents as a proxy for measuring the degree of interaction between human and deer populations and its correlation with the incidence rate of Lyme disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study described in this article examined the relationship between the incidence rate of deer vehicle accidents (DVAs), a proxy for measuring the interaction between populations of humans and deer, and human Lyme disease incidence rate. The authors also examined the relationship between deer population density and human Lyme incidence rate. They analyzed data from Connecticut's Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Public Health from 1999 through 2008 by deer management zone (DMZ) and town. For DVA incidence rate versus Lyme incidence rate for both DMZs and towns, most of the correlation coefficients computed yearly were moderate to strong and all of the p-values were significant. A weak correlation was observed between deer population density and Lyme disease incidence rate by DMZ. The authors propose DVAs as a proxy for measuring the interaction between coexisting populations of humans and deer. The authors' study suggests that additional investigations of DVAs and their relationship to Lyme disease to further assess the utility of public health interventions are warranted. PMID:23621054

Wiznia, Daniel H; Christos, Paul J; LaBonte, Andrew M

2013-04-01

402

Measuring malaria endemicity from intense to interrupted transmission.  

Science.gov (United States)

The quantification of malaria transmission for the classification of malaria risk has long been a concern for epidemiologists. During the era of the Global Malaria Eradication Programme, measurements of malaria endemicity were institutionalised by their incorporation into rules outlining defined action points for malaria control programmes. We review the historical development of these indices and their contemporary relevance. This is at a time when many malaria-endemic countries are scaling-up their malaria control activities and reconsidering their prospects for elimination. These considerations are also important to an international community that has recently been challenged to revaluate the prospects for malaria eradication. PMID:18387849

Hay, Simon I; Smith, David L; Snow, Robert W

2008-06-01

403

Single-treatment porcine zona pellucida immunocontraception associated with reduction of a population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous reports have demonstrated gradual reductions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations through immunocontraception, with stabilization occurring after 2-4 yr of treatment, and subsequent reductions of 6-10% annually. These studies employed porcine zona pellucida (PZP) vaccines that required two initial treatments and annual retreatments. From 2005 to 2010, 258 adult and yearling female deer on Fripp Island, South Carolina, were treated with one of several PZP preparations designed to produce 2+ yr of effective contraception with a single treatment. These included several preparations of SpayVac and of native PZP-adjuvant emulsion plus PZP and QA-21 in timed-release pellets. Deer were chemically immobilized, ear-tagged, and administered initial treatments by hand in February-March. Some treated deer were boosted remotely with PZP-adjuvant emulsion 1.5 - 4.5 yr after initial treatments. Ground-based distance sampling was used to estimate deer population density at Fripp Island, a resort community, and at a relatively undeveloped neighboring control site, Hunting Island. Most vaccine preparations tested reduced fawning rates by 75% to 95% for at least 1 yr. From 2005 to 2011, deer density on Fripp Island declined by 50%, from 72 deer/km(2) to 36 deer/km(2), an average annual reduction of 11%. In contrast, population density on the Hunting Island control site fluctuated between 2005 and 2011, averaging 23 deer/km(2) (range, 19-28 deer/km(2)). Population declines on Fripp Island were associated with an increase in the proportion of treated females and with a progressive decrease in winter fawn:doe ratios, from 1.21 fawns/doe in 2005 to 0.19 fawns/doe in 2010. Winter fawn:doe ratios averaged 1.36 fawns/doe (range, 0.84 - 1.62 fawns/doe) at the Hunting Island control site. Annual survivorship averaged approximately 79% among ear-tagged females. The rate at which deer populations diminished in association with PZP treatments on Fripp Island was higher than that seen at other study sites, although the reasons for the more rapid decline on Fripp Island are not well understood. PMID:24437087

Rutberg, Allen T; Naugle, Ricky E; Verret, Frank

2013-12-01

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Chemical composition of the rumen contents in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) as potential quality indicator of their feeding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the experiment the chemical composition of rumen contents in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was investigated in the Sarajevska Reka hunting area. The investigations were done on 20 deer shot from May 2005 to January 2006. Experiment was done as random plan, with four treatments (seasons) and uneven distribution of subjects within treatments. The results of chemical analysis confirmed significant influence of season on the amount of total nitrogen and crude protein, ether extract, crude fib...

2006-01-01