The 4-Poster device for the topical treatment of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) against ticks using the acaricide amitraz was evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic community in Connecticut. As part of a 5-year project from 1997 to 2002, 21–24 of the 4-Posters were distribut...
Plötz, Cornelia; Rehbein, Steffen; Bamler, Helmut; Reindl, Hubert; Pfister, Kurt; Scheuerle, Miriam C
After initial observations of suspicious cases in 2009, the occurrence of Fascioloides (F.) magna in deer of a deer farm located in northeastern Bavaria, Germany, at the border to the Czech Republic was confirmed in autumn 2011. In March 2012, the deer were treated for fascioloidosis with triclabendazole. To monitor the epizootiology of fascioloidosis in the farm, 80-100 faecal samples were examined for Fascioloides eggs at monthly intervals from June 2012 to June 2013 inclusive. In addition, livers of 27 red deer and one sika deer collected during winter 2012/2013 were examined for gross lesions suspicious for F. magna infection and 21 of the 28 livers were dissected for F. magna recovery. Fascioloides eggs were recorded in 63 (4.9%) of 1280 faecal samples (range 0.4 to 355 eggs per gram). Both, number of Fascioloides-egg positive samples and egg counts were low during the first eight months of the study but increased notably since February 2013. While Fascioloides egg-positive faecal samples were obtained from red deer (46/948,4.9%) and fallow deer (17/166, 10.2%), no Fascioloides eggs were demonstrated in the 166 samples obtained from sika deer. Livers of five red deer and the sika deer showed gross lesions characteristic for fascioloidosis, and F. magna were recovered from three of the five affected red deer livers (range, five to seven flukes). Results of this study confirm that F. magna is endemic in the deer farm, and measures should be implemented to minimize the transmission of the parasite. PMID:26054221
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo discusses plans for the sambar deer hunt on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge in 1987. Consideration is given as to whether or not the whitetailed deer...
Sharman, G A
Deer farming in the British Isles is in its infancy but the industry is growing. Deer farmers retail their own venison from the farm having shot individual deer at close range as they graze. Although the method of killing is effective, humane and does not alarm the other deer, it is primitive. It is essential that as the industry expands, the normal retail channels used by the producers of other livestock be opened to deer farmers by means of appropriate legislation. Research into the special needs in slaughterhouses for deer is being undertaken, particularly in the lairage and devising a safe humane means of delivery to the point of slaughter. At the slaughter unit on Glensaugh experimental deer farm, a captive bolt pistol is used in a specially designed stunning pen. The carcases are prepared for sale in skin to the game trade, but environmental conditions are unsuitable for preparation of red meat for sale. However in-skin carcases have been transferred later to the red meat trade and prepared as boned out convenience packs. PMID:6879960
Dr. Brett Petersen, a medical officer at CDC, discusses rabies in captive deer. Created: 4/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 4/30/2012.
Cosse, Mariana; González, Susana
The most endangered subspecies of pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus uruguayensis is an endemic cervidae of the Uruguayan temperate grasslands. The aim of our study was to assess the demographic trends, grouping structure and dynamic of this small and isolated population. We surveyed the population during seven years and detected an average of 117 (+ 72.7 SD) individuals (44 censuses). The average population structure observed was 55% adult females, 34% adult males, 10% juveniles, and 1% fawn...
The Savannah River Plant (SRP) site is an ideal habitat for white-tailed deer. The large deer population of more than 6000 animals has resulted in collisions between deer and automobiles. To control this population and thus reduce accidents, deer hunts were begun in 1965. These hunts are organized and supervised by U.S. Forestry Service Personnel. The deer have access to all of the plant site except the fenced operating areas. Access to radioactive liquid effluents and contamination vegetation can result in radioactive body burdens in deer. Prior to 1970, samples of about 20% of the deer shot during the deer hunts were radioassayed. Based on these results and plant effluent information, 137Cs was the radionuclide of interest. A portable instrument was developed to measure 137Cs in deer and, beginning in 1970, all deer have been monitored for their 137Cs concentration before being released to the hunters. All slain deer were released to the hunters immediately after monitoring; no deer were above acceptable safe limits for food
Mollema, E.; Rijsewijk, F. A. M.; Nodelijk, H.A.; de Jong, M. C. M.
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) is endemically present in a cattle population that lives in a nature reserve in the Netherlands. Red deer (Cervus elaphus), living in the same nature reserve, can come into contact with the BHV1-infected cattle and could then become infected with BHV1. For the eradication of BHV1 in cattle, it is, therefore, important to know whether red deer alone can play a role in the transmission of BHV1. For that reason, we quantified the transmission of BHV1 among farmed red ...
Raizman, E A; Holland, J D; Shukle, J T
We assessed the potential of white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus) to be a sentinel for human cases of Lyme disease (LD) in Indiana using location data from a 3-year survey of approximately 3400 hunted deer with associated tick Ixodes scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) data. Data on human LD cases at the county level were obtained from the Indiana Department of Health. All data were assigned to county centroids to match the resolution of the LD data before creating optimized trend surfaces for LD incidence, hunted deer count, Ixodes scapularis and Bb prevalence. To determine whether LD was spatially associated with the areas of high densities of deer, deer with Ixodes scapularis and deer with ticks infected with Bb, we used spatial analysis with distance indices (SADIE). The SADIE analysis found significant spatial association between LD and the distribution of three organismal predictor variables, that is, WTD, Ixodes ticks and Bb. Lyme disease incident rate varied between 0.08 cases per 10,000 habitants (Johnson county) and 5.9 cases per 10,000 habitants (Warren county). In conclusion, WTD can be used as an accurate and cost-effective sentinel for human LD. This method will permit public health workers to identify potentially endemic areas independently of human case reports. PMID:22776734
Full Text Available Wildlife inventories are very new in Turkey. Thus, there is no enough data about red deer and roe deer population. However, these studies have gained momentum in recent years. In this study, it is aimed to determine and to monitor status of red deer and roe deer population densities. In the study, it was used a kind of drive count which was combined with point count. The study was conducted between 2003 and 2010 in October, once a year. Red deer and roe deer densities were determined between 0.45 and 1.19 red deer/km2; 1.48 and 2.05 roe deer/km2. Also, average of annual growth rates were estimated for red deer (0.135 and roe deer (-0.0059. The study showed that whilst the red deer population has been increasing, roe deer population has been decreasing in long term period.
Melissa M. Turner
Full Text Available Background: Understanding the distribution of disease in wildlife is key to predicting the impact of emerging zoonotic one health concerns, especially for wildlife species with extensive human and livestock interfaces. The widespread distribution and complex interactions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus with humans suggest deer population health and management may have implications beyond stewardship of the animals. The intracranial abscessation suppurative meningitis (IASM disease complex in deer has been linked to Arcanobacterium pyogenes, an under-diagnosed and often misdiagnosed organism considered commensal in domestic livestock but associated with serious disease in numerous species, including humans. Methods: Our study used standard bacterial culture techniques to assess A. pyogenes prevalence among male deer sampled across six physiogeographic regions in Maryland and male and female deer in the Upper Eastern Shore under Traditional Deer Management (TDM and Quality Deer Management (QDM, a management protocol that alters population demographics in favor of older male deer. Samples were collected from antler pedicles for males, the top of the head where pedicles would be if present for females, or the whole dorsal frontal area of the head for neonates. We collected nasal samples from all animals by swabbing the nasopharyngeal membranes. A gram stain and catalase test were conducted, and aerobic bacteria were identified to genus and species when possible. We evaluated the effect of region on whether deer carried A. pyogenes using Pearson's chi-square test with Yates’ continuity correction. For the white-tailed deer management study, we tested whether site, age class and sex predisposed animals to carrying A. pyogenes using binary logistic regression. Results: A. pyogenes was detected on deer in three of the 6 regions studied, and was common in only one region, the Upper Eastern Shore. In the Upper Eastern Shore, 45% and 66% of antler and nasal swabs from deer were positive for A. pyogenes, respectively. On the Upper Eastern Shore, prevalence of A. pyogenes cultured from deer did not differ between management areas, and was abundant among both sexes and across all age classes. No A. pyogenes was cultured from a small sample of neonates. Conclusion: Our study indicates A. pyogenes may be carried widely among white-tailed deer regardless of sex or age class, but we found no evidence the pathogen is acquired in utero. The distribution of A. pyogenes across regions and concentration in a region with low livestock levels suggests the potential for localized endemicity of the organism and the possibility that deer may serve as a maintenance reservoir for an emerging one health concern.
Maudlin, Ian; Eisler, Mark Charles; Welburn, Susan Christina
Endemic zoonoses are found throughout the developing world, wherever people live in close proximity to their animals, affecting not only the health of poor people but often also their livelihoods through the health of their livestock. Unlike newly emerging zoonoses that attract the attention of the developed world, these endemic zoonoses are by comparison neglected. This is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in underestimation of their global burden, which in turn artificia...
González-Barrio, David; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G.; Ortiz, José Antonio; Queirós, Joăo; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco
Several aspects of the dynamics of Coxiella burnetii that are relevant for the implementation of control strategies in ruminant herds with endemic Q fever are unknown. We designed a longitudinal study to monitor the dynamics of exposure to C. burnetii in a red deer herd with endemic infection in order to allow the design of Q fever-specific control approaches. Other relevant aspects of the dynamics of C. burnetii?–?the effect of herd immune status, age, season, and early infection on exposure, the average half-life of antibodies, the presence and duration of maternal humoral immunity, and the age of first exposure?–?were analyzed. The dynamics of C. burnetii in deer herds seems to be modulated by host herd and host individual factors and by particular host life-history traits. Red deer females become exposed to C. burnetii at the beginning of their second year since maternal antibodies protect them after birth and during the main pathogen shedding season?–?at the end of spring-early summer. Infection pressure varies between years, probably associated with herd immunity effects, determining inter-annual variation in the risk of exposure. These results suggest that any strategy applied to control C. burnetii in deer herds should be designed to induce immunity in their first year of life immediately after losing maternal antibodies. The short average life of C. burnetii antibodies suggests that any protection based on humoral immunity would require re-vaccination every 6?months. PMID:26697437
This paper will start with briefly outlining the recent domestication history of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama), followed by a description of the present status of modern deer farming. It will then review the main welfare issues of deer farming. The following aspects will be considered: accommodation and housing, management and handling, nutrition (feed and water provision), transport and slaughter, plus a short mention of velvet harvest. As a summary, the following pra...
Robert F. Massung; Courtney, Joshua W.; Hiratzka, Shannon L.; Pitzer, Virginia E.; Smith, Gary; Dryden, Richard L.
We examined the reservoir potential of white-tailed deer for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Results suggest that white-tailed deer harbor a variant strain not associated with human infection, but contrary to published reports, white-tailed deer are not a reservoir for strains that cause human disease. These results will affect surveillance studies of vector and reservoir populations.
The 4-Poster device for the topical treatment of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), against ticks using the acaricide amitraz, was evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic community in Connecticut. As part of a 5-year project from 1997 to 2002, 21–24 of the 4-Posters were distrib...
Homolka, Miloslav; Heroldová, Marta; Bartoš, L.
Ro?. 57, ?. 3 (2008), s. 283-293. ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/97/0172 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : diet analysis * fallow deer * red deer * roe deer Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/57/3/283_293.pdf
Rosen, M E; Hamer, S A; Gerhardt, R R; Jones, C J; Muller, L I; Scott, M C; Hickling, G J
Lyme disease (LD), caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted in the eastern United States by blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, is classified as nonendemic in Tennessee and surrounding states in the Southeast. Low incidence of LD in these states has been attributed, in part, to vector ticks being scarce or absent; however, tick survey data for many counties are incomplete or out of date. To improve our knowledge of the distribution, abundance, and Borrelia spp. prevalence of I. scapularis, we collected ticks from 1,018 hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman)) from 71 of 95 Tennessee counties in fall 2007 and 2008. In total, 160 deer (15.7%) from 35 counties were infested with adult I. scapularis; 30 of these counties were new distributional records for this tick. The mean number of I. scapularis collected per infested deer was 5.4 +/- 0.6 SE. Of the 883 I. scapularis we removed from deer, none were positive for B. burgdorferi and one tested positive for B. miyamotoi. Deer are not reservoir hosts for B. burgdorferi; nevertheless, past surveys in northern LD-endemic states have readily detected B. burgdoreferi in ticks collected from deer. We conclude that I. scapularis is far more widespread in Tennessee than previously reported. The absence of detectable B. burgdorferi infection among these ticks suggests that the LD risk posed by I. scapularis in the surveyed areas of Tennessee is much lower than in LD-endemic areas of the Northeast and upper Midwest. PMID:23270178
Kaneene, John B.; Fitzgerald, Scott D.; Schooley, Angie M.; Berry, Dale E.
Michigan has had an ongoing outbreak of endemic Mycobacterium bovis which has been recognized within and sustained by its free-ranging white-tailed deer population since 1994. Worldwide, organisms within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex have exhibited the ability to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents, resulting in both the multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of human tuberculosis. Michigan's Bovine Tuberculosis Working Group has conducted activ...
Nelson, M.E.; Sargeant, G.A.
We examined the spatial interactions of nine female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in two deeryards (winter aggregations) in northeastern Minnesota during February-April 1999. Global positioning system (GPS) collars yielded seven pair-wise comparisons of deer that were located at the same time (???1 minute apart) and mat used overlapping areas. Deer traveled separately and did not associate with one another. Within overlapping areas, comparisons of distances between deer and distances between random locations indicated deer moved without regard to each other. Similarly, comparisons of observed and expected probabilities of deer using areas overlapping those of other deer also evinced that deer moved independently.
Full Text Available This paper will start with briefly outlining the recent domestication history of red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama, followed by a description of the present status of modern deer farming. It will then review the main welfare issues of deer farming. The following aspects will be considered: accommodation and housing, management and handling, nutrition (feed and water provision, transport and slaughter, plus a short mention of velvet harvest. As a summary, the following practices can be recommended to ensure animal welfare in modern deer farming: the adoption of suitable housing systems and of adequate management techniques (e.g. specific handling pens and drop-floor cradles or crushes and the respect of specific needs (e.g. provision of protection and shelter from predators as well as from climatic extremes, such as cold winds or direct solar radiation. Handling and yarding operations will be easier when they occur in dim light. Special attention must be paid to the manipulation of the newborns. At the slaughterhouse, facilities must be designed specifically for deer. The presence of well trained stockpersons, with a sound knowledge of deer physiology and behaviour, is also a key-factor for improving welfare levels in deer farms. To achieve these aims, training of the managers and stockpersons and the adoption of specific codes of conducts are highly recommendable.
Kawahara, Makoto; TAJIMA, Tomoko; Torii, Harumi; Yabutani, Mitsutaka; Ishii, Joji; HARASAWA, MAKIKO; ISOGAI, EMIKO; Rikihisa, Yasuko
To determine whether Ehrlichia chaffeensis exists in Japan, we used PCR to examine blood from sika deer in Nara, Japan. Of 117 deer, 36 (31%) were infected with E. chaffeensis. The E. chaffeensis 16S rRNA base and GroEL amino acid sequences from Japan were most closely related to those of E. chaffeensis Arkansas.
Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.
Seven of 35 yearling female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a migratory herd in northeastern Minnesota dispersed 18-168 km from natal ranges during late May through June. Dispersal as a proximate event appears voluntary and independent of deer density.
Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis, caused by the bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, is an emerging vector-borne infectious disease in Canada. According to the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC, by the year 2020, 80% of Canadians will live in Lyme endemic areas. An understanding of the association of Ixodes scapularis, the main vector of Lyme disease, with it hosts is a fundamental component in assessing changes in the spatial distribution of human risk for Lyme disease. Through the application of Geographic Information System (GIS mapping methods and spatial analysis techniques, this study examines the population dynamics of the black-legged Lyme tick and its primary host, the white-tailed deer, in eastern Ontario, Canada. By developing a habitat suitability model through a GIS-based multi-criteria decision making (MCDM analysis, the relationship of the deer habitat suitability map was generated and the results were compared with deer harvest data. Tick submission data collected from two public health units between 2006 and 2012 were used to explore the relationship between endemic ticks and deer habitat suitability in eastern Ontario. The positive correlation demonstrated between the deer habitat suitability model and deer harvest data allows us to further analyze the association between deer habitat and black-legged ticks in our study area. Our results revealed that the high tick submission number corresponds with the high suitability. These results are useful for developing management strategies that aim to prevent Lyme from becoming a threat to public health in Canada. Further studies are required to investigate how tick survival, behaviour and seasonal activity may change with projected climate change.
Marie-Pierre Ryser-Degiorgis; Monika Engels; Raymond Miserez; Heinz Sager; Nadia Robert; Martina Schybli; Veronika Sieber
To investigate diseases and causes of mortality in Swiss farmed deer, deer found dead or shot due to diseased condition between March 2003 and December 2004 were requested for a complete postmortem examination. One hundred and sixty-two animals were submitted. Perinatal mortality, necrobacillosis in 3 week to 6 month old deer, and endoparasitosis in 6 month to 2 year old deer were identified as the most important causes of loss, followed by ruminal acidosis, which was diagnosed in 22% of deer...
Asmundsson, Ingrid M; Mortenson, Jack A; Hoberg, Eric P
Parelaphostrongylus andersoni is considered a characteristic nematode infecting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Host and geographic distribution for this parasite, however, remain poorly defined in the region of western North America. Fecal samples collected from Columbia white-tailed deer (O. v. leucurus) in a restricted range endemic to Oregon and Washington, USA, were examined for dorsal-spined larvae characteristic of many protostrongylid nematodes. Multilocus DNA sequence data (internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) established the identity and a new record for P. andersoni in a subspecies of white-tailed deer previously unrecognized as hosts. Populations of P. andersoni are now recognized along the basin of the lower Columbia River in Oregon and Washington and from south-central Oregon on the North Umpqua River. Current data indicate a potentially broad zone of sympatry for P. andersoni and Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei in the western region of North America, although these elaphostrongylines seem to be segregated, respectively, in white-tailed deer or in black-tailed and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) at temperate latitudes. The geographic range for P. andersoni in white-tailed deer is extended substantially to the west of the currently defined limit in North America, and we confirm an apparently extensive range for this elpahostrongyline. These observations are explored in the broader context of host and geographic associations for P. andersoni and related elaphostrongylines in North American cervids. PMID:18263818
The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something or quite a lot about the plants, no intelligent steps can be taken towards protecting them. 520 of the c. 750 endemics are listed on the Red Data "endangered list" by the Council of Europe in 1986 but few k...
1. In childhood the first line treatment of endemic goitre is Kl (100-150 ?g/day). Once the goitre volume has shrinked during L-thyroxine treatment in older patients, this effect is to be maintained by Kl (?200 ?g/day). The same holds true after surgery in cases with normal TSH responsiveness to TRH. 2. TSH suppressive L-thyroxine therapy is indicated in goitre patients older than 40 years. However, the effectiveness will be limited by the nodularity of the thyroid. So prevention of further growth prevails over true tissue reduction. 3. Obviously thyroid surgery yields the best cosmetic results with an acceptably low complication rate. When euthyroidism is established, a lifelong iodine prophylaxy (200 ?g/day) of recurrent goitre is mandatory. In cases with latent or overt hypothyroidism an appropriate therapy with thyroid hormone should be given. 4. By radiodine it is possible to realize a short term volume loss of 30-40% which may increase further on up to 60%. Relief of symptoms is usually even more impressive than actual volume loss. (orig./MG)
Anacker, Brian L
Serpentine soils are a model system for the study of plant adaptation, speciation, and species interactions. Serpentine soil is an edaphically stressful, low productivity soil type that hosts stunted vegetation and a spectacular level of plant endemism. One of the first papers on serpentine plant endemism was by Arthur Kruckeberg, titled "Intraspecific variability in the response of certain native plant species to serpentine soil." Published in the American Journal of Botany in 1951, it has been cited over 100 times. Here, I review the context and content of the paper, as well as its impact. On the basis of the results of reciprocal transplant experiments in the greenhouse, Kruckeberg made three important conclusions on the nature of serpentine plant endemism: (1) Plants are locally adapted to serpentine soils, forming distinct soil ecotypes; (2) soil ecotypes are the first stage in the evolutionary progression toward serpentine endemism; and (3) serpentine endemics are restricted from more fertile nonserpentine soils by competition. Kruckeberg's paper inspired a substantial amount of research, especially in the three areas reviewed here: local adaptation and plant traits, speciation, and the interaction of climate and soil in plant endemism. In documenting soil ecotypes, Kruckeberg identified serpentine soils as a potent selective factor in plant evolution and helped establish serpentine soils as a model system in evolution and ecology. PMID:24509800
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Sambar deer on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge are very popular amongst hunters in the Apalachicola, FL area; however, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...
Kanungo, S.; Das, A.(University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA); M Das Gupta; Shakif-ul-Azam
The investigation was undertaken to study the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthiasis in captive deer. About 76.2% deer were affected with gastrointestinal helminthiasis. Paramphistomum spp. and Haemonchus spp. were mostly prevalent in deer. It is revealed that Para or Hog deer (90.91%) was mostly susceptible to gastrointestinal helminthiasis followed by Barking deer (78.79%), Spotted deer (75%) and Samber deer (70%). Mixed infection was noted in majority of the deer. Paramphistomum spp....
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Whitetailed Deer Hunting Plan for Ottawa NWR provides an introduction to the Refuge, summarizes Refuge objectives, assesses the whitetailed deer population on...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report contains findings of deer herd health collection on Dahomey NWR in 1997. Deer appear to be in good health with no excess indication of parasite loading.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The white tailed deer herd on St. Vincent Island represents an important part of the islands biotic community. To maintain the integrity of the islands deer...
Morales-Pińeyrúa Jéssica T; Ungerfeld Rodolfo
Abstract Background Pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus 1758), is a South American grazing deer categorized as "near threatened". However, knowledge about pampas deer behavior including courtship and mating is scarce and incomplete. The aim of this study was to characterize the courtship and mating behavior of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), an endangered species from South America. Methods We performed focal observations of 5 males allocated at the Estación de Cría de Fau...
Druml, Barbara; Grandits, Stephanie; Mayer, Walter; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit
This contribution presents a single real-time PCR assay allowing the determination of the deer content (the sum of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon)) in meat products to detect food adulteration. The PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with 20 animal species and 43 botanical species potentially contained in game meat products. The limit of quantification is 0.5% for fallow deer and red deer and 0.1% for sika deer. The deer content in meat products is determined by relating the concentration obtained with the deer PCR assay to that obtained with a reference system which amplifies mammals and poultry DNA. The analysis of binary meat mixtures with pork, a meat mixture containing equal amounts of fallow deer, red deer and sika deer in pork and a model game sausage showed that the quantification approach is very accurate (systematic error generally <25%). PMID:25306377
Griffin, J F; Mackintosh, C G
Since the emergence of deer farming as an alternative farming enterprise over the past 30 years, there has been an increasing awareness of the potential threat posed by tuberculosis (TB) to domesticated deer. TB, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, has been found in deer in every country involved with deer farming. Different types of TB control policies, which vary from whole-herd depopulation to selective testing and slaughter of reactor animals, have been implemented. Extensive research has been carried out, incorporating modern microbiological and immunological concepts and advanced molecular methodologies, to find new solutions for the eradication of TB from domesticated deer. This work has resulted in valuable new insights into the aetiology, transmission, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention and heritability of resistance to M. bovis infection in ruminants. This knowledge has complemented the existing literature database on bovine and human TB and will provide new strategies for improved diagnosis, vaccination and selective breeding to control TB, which should be relevant for human, domestic livestock and wildlife populations. PMID:11061957
Two groups of four deer each, 2 to 4 weeks in age, were exposed to one of two bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains: type 1b or type 2a, originally isolated from two different whitetail deer in southeast South Dakota in the fall of 2003. Two control age-matched deer were also used. Flow cytomet...
Abubakar, Sazaly; Sam, I-Ching; Wong, Pooi-Fong; Hooi, Poh-Sim; Roslan, Nuruliza
Chikungunya virus infection recently reemerged in Malaysia after 7 years of nondetection. Genomic sequences of recovered isolates were highly similar to those of Malaysian isolates from the 1998 outbreak. The reemergence of the infection is not part of the epidemics in other Indian Ocean countries but raises the possibility that chikungunya virus is endemic in Malaysia.
Full Text Available Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, fallow deer (Dama dama and mouflon (Ovis musimon are among the most common wild ungulates in Italy and frequently their home ranges overlap. Despite the fact that roe deer is classified as concentrate selector (Hofmann, 1989 and fallow deer and mouflons as intermediate and grass eater, respectively, the composition of the diet can be affected by other factors such as geographical area and plant communities distribution and availability
Full Text Available Endemic plant species are the biogeographic elements why use the delimitation of biogeographical regions. Their presence explains, in the context of identifying phyto-historical factors, distribution of species and certain distribution patterns. Endemic areas, with pronounced as the basic unit of biogeography, indicates those particular geographic region, both in the growth areas and the evolutionary biological processes of speciation.In this study we proposed the following objectives: knowing the list Carpathian endemic species and endemic centers present in Arge?, also, areas of endemism in the Carpathians Mountains of the Arge? County.
Fryxell Rebecca T
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Eastern and Upper Midwestern regions of North America, Ixodes scapularis (L. is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans and the primary vector of B. burgdorferi, whereas in the southeastern region Amblyomma americanum (Say is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans but cannot transmit B. burgdorferi. Surveys of Borreliae in ticks have been conducted in the southeastern United States and often these surveys identify B. lonestari as the primary Borrelia species, surveys have not included Arkansas ticks, canines, or white-tailed deer and B. lonestari is not considered pathogenic. The objective of this study was to identify Borrelia species within Arkansas by screening ticks (n?=?2123, canines (n?=?173, and white-tailed deer (n?=?228 to determine the identity and locations of Borreliae endemic to Arkansas using PCR amplification of the flagellin (flaB gene. Methods Field collected ticks from canines and from hunter-killed white-tailed were identified to species and life stage. After which, ticks and their hosts were screened for the presence of Borrelia using PCR to amplify the flaB gene. A subset of the positive samples was confirmed with bidirectional sequencing. Results In total 53 (21.2% white-tailed deer, ten (6% canines, and 583 (27.5% Ixodid ticks (252 Ixodes scapularis, 161 A. americanum, 88 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 50 Amblyomma maculatum, 19 Dermacentor variabilis, and 13 unidentified Amblyomma species produced a Borrelia flaB amplicon. Of the positive ticks, 324 (22.7% were collected from canines (151 A. americanum, 78 R. sanguineus, 43 I. scapularis, 26 A. maculatum, 18 D. variabilis, and 8 Amblyomma species and 259 (37.2% were collected from white-tailed deer (209 I. scapularis, 24 A. maculatum, 10 A. americanum, 10 R. sanguineus, 1 D. variabilis, and 5 Amblyomma species. None of the larvae were PCR positive. A majority of the flaB amplicons were homologous with B. lonestari sequences: 281 of the 296 sequenced ticks, 3 canines, and 27 deer. Only 22 deer, 7 canines, and 15 tick flaB amplicons (12 I. scapularis, 2 A. maculatum, and 1 Amblyomma species were homologous with B. burgdorferi sequences. Conclusions Data from this study identified multiple Borreliae genotypes in Arkansas ticks, canines and deer including B. burgdorferi and B. lonestari; however, B. lonestari was significantly more prevalent in the tick population than B. burgdorferi. Results from this study suggest that the majority of tick-borne diseases in Arkansas are not B. burgdorferi.
Foreyt, W J
Six mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and one white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), approximately 5-mo-old, each were inoculated orally with 500 metacercariae of Fascioloides magna. All mule deer died from liver fluke infection between 69 and 134 days (mean = 114, SE = 9.9) after inoculation. Between 38 and 326 immature F. magna (mean = 102, SE = 45.5) were recovered from each deer at necropsy. Flukes were present in livers, lungs, and free in pleural and peritoneal spaces. Infection was characterized by necrotizing hepatitis, fibrosing peritonitis and pleuritis, and hematin pigment accumulation in liver, lung, and many other internal organs. Eggs of F. magna first were detected in feces of the white-tailed deer 28 wk after inoculation, and weekly thereafter until the healthy deer was euthanized at 31 wk. At necropsy, 205 F. magna, including 12 encapsulated mature and 193 nonencapsulated immature flukes were recovered from liver, lungs, and free in abdominal and thoracic spaces of the white-tailed deer. Based on these results, F. magna may be fatal to mule deer within 5 mo of infection. Like domestic sheep and goats, mule deer may be highly susceptible to infection, and it is unlikely mule deer can survive infection with large numbers of F. magna. PMID:1602568
Blanchong, Julie A.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Scribner, Kim T.; Libants, Scot V.; Johnson, Chad; Aiken, Judd M.; Langenberg, Julia A.; Samuel, Michael D.
The genetic basis of susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids is of great interest. Association studies of disease susceptibility in free-ranging populations, however, face considerable challenges including: the need for large sample sizes when disease is rare, animals of unknown pedigree create a risk of spurious results due to population admixture, and the inability to control disease exposure or dose. We used an innovative matched case–control design and conditional logistic regression to evaluate associations between polymorphisms of complement C1q and prion protein (Prnp) genes and CWD infection in white-tailed deer from the CWD endemic area in south-central Wisconsin. To reduce problems due to admixture or disease-risk confounding, we used neutral genetic (microsatellite) data to identify closely related CWD-positive (n = 68) and CWD-negative (n = 91) female deer to serve as matched cases and controls. Cases and controls were also matched on factors (sex, location, age) previously demonstrated to affect CWD infection risk. For Prnp, deer with at least one Serine (S) at amino acid 96 were significantly less likely to be CWD-positive relative to deer homozygous for Glycine (G). This is the first characterization of genes associated with the complement system in white-tailed deer. No tests for association between any C1q polymorphism and CWD infection were significant at p deer with at least one Glycine (G) at amino acid 56 of the C1qC gene. While we documented numerous amino acid polymorphisms in C1q genes none appear to be strongly associated with CWD susceptibility.
Mutebi, John-Paul; Godsey, Marvin; Smith, Robert P; Renell, Melanie R; Smith, Leticia; Robinson, Sara; Sears, Stephen; Lubelczyk, Charles
During the fall of 2010, 332 deer serum samples were collected from 15 of the 16 (93.8%) Maine counties and screened for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) antibodies using plaque reduction neutralizing tests (PRNTs). The aim was to detect and map EEEV activity in the state of Maine. Forty-seven of the 332 (14.2%) sera were positive for EEEV antibodies, showing a much wider distribution of EEEV activity in Maine than previously known. The percentage of EEEV antibody-positive deer sera was ?10% in six counties-Piscataquis (100%), Somerset (28.6%), Waldo (22.2%), Penobscot (21.7%), Kennebec (13.7%), and Sagadahoc (10%). Positive sera were detected in all the six counties (Somerset, Waldo, Penobscot, Kennebec, Cumberland, and York) that were positive in 2009, suggesting endemic EEEV activity in these counties. EEEV antibodies were not detected in sera collected in five counties-Franklin, Knox, Lincoln, Oxford, and Washington-which was either due to low sample size or lack of EEEV activity in these counties. Our data suggest higher EEEV activity in central Maine compared to southern Maine, whereas EEEV activity in Maine has historically been associated with the southern counties of York and Cumberland. PMID:25793477
...Antietam, Monocacy, Manassas White-tailed Deer Management Plan AGENCY: National...Statement (DEIS) for the White-tailed Deer Management Plan (Plan...Battlefield Park, Virginia. The white-tailed deer populations and Chronic...
...Environmental Impact Statement for a Deer and Vegetation Management Plan...Impact Statement (EIS) for a Deer and Vegetation Management Plan...associated with the abundance and distribution of white-tailed deer at Fire Island National...
1. Many studies have dealt with home range and migratory patterns of Cervid species, but there are few explicit analyses quantifying migratory patterns and home range size as a result of habitat. Red deer is known to perform migrations between seasonal home ranges, but there is little quantitative information specifically on the Norwegian red deer, Cervus elaphus atlanticus. Using position data from VHF-collared and GPS-collared red deer females, this study aimed to address patterns of migrat...
Alm Bergvall, Ulrika
In this thesis, I experimentally investigate feeding selectivity in fallow deer (Dama dama), with respect to plant secondary compounds, especially tannins, which can decrease the quality of foods. I found that fallow deer avoided foods with higher amounts of tannic acid and Quebracho tannin, even though the deer ate some high-tannin food. The food choice was strongly dependent on the context in which the food was presented, so that the food choice in relation to tannin content was relative ra...
AÇICI, Mustafa; BÖLÜKBA?*, Cenk Soner; BEYHAN, Yunus Emre; PEKMEZC?, Gökmen Zafer; GÜRLER, Ali Tümay; UMUR, ?inasi
The aim of this study was to identify ectoparasites of wild roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) living in natural areas of Samsun Province that were wounded by car accidents or hunters between 2007 and 2010. A total of 90 ticks, 60 lice, and 5 deer keds were collected from 17 animals. Five tick species (Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Haemaphysalis punctata, and Haemaphysalis concinna), 1 louse species (Cervicola meyeri), and 1 deer ked species (Lipoptena cervi) were ...
To protect public health, all deer and feral hogs harvested at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during controlled hunts are monitored for Cs-137. A new monitoring program has been developed by the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS). To provide increased confidence in dose data and compliance with regulations, many changes have been made to the deer and hog monitoring program. Using field count information, a computerized database determines Cs-137 concentration and calculates the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) resulting from consumption of the animal. The database then updates each hunter's cumulative CEDE in real time. Also, enhancements to the instrument calibration and quality control portions of the monitoring program were implemented. These include improved monitor calibration, intercomparison of field results from the same animal using different detectors, and regular use of check sources to verify equipment performance. With these program changes, EMS can produce more accurate and verifiable dose data
Prokešová, Jarmila; Baran?eková, Miroslava; Homolka, Miloslav
Praha : Research Institue of Animal Production, 2006 - (Bartoš, L.; Dušek, A.; Kotrba, R.; Bartošová-Víchová, J.). s. 50 ISBN 80-86454-73-8. [International Deer Biology Congress /6./. 07.08.2006-11.08.2006, Praha] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IBS6093003; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : diet quality * herbivores Subject RIV: EG - Zoology
Smits, Saskia L.; van Leeuwen, Marije; Kuiken, Thijs; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Simon, James H.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.
The threat of emerging infectious viruses in humans requires a more effective approach regarding virus surveillance. A thorough understanding of virus diversity in wildlife provides epidemiological baseline information about pathogens and may lead to the identification of newly emerging pathogens in the future. In this study, diarrhoea samples from an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness in a Danish population of European roe deer were gathered for which no aetiological agent could be identified...
Coulson, TN; Pemberton, JM; Albon, SD; Beaumont, M; Marshall, TC; Slate, J.; Guinness, FE; Clutton-Brock, TH
The fitness consequences of inbreeding and outbreeding are poorly understood in natural populations. We explore two microsatellite-based variables, individual heterozygosity (likely to correlate with recent inbreeding) and a new individual-specific internal distance measure, mean d2 (focusing on events deeper in the pedigree), in relation to two measures of fitness expressed early in life, birth weight and neonatal survival, in 670 red deer calves (Cervus elaphus) born on the Isle of Rum betw...
Blanchong, Julie A; Scribner, Kim T; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Winterstein, Scott R
Identifying mechanisms of pathogen transmission is critical to controlling disease. Social organization should influence contacts among individuals and thus the distribution and spread of disease within a population. Molecular genetic markers can be used to elucidate mechanisms of disease transmission in wildlife populations without undertaking detailed observational studies to determine probable contact rates. Estimates of genealogical relationships within a bovine tuberculosis-infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population indicated that infected deer were significantly more closely related than non-infected deer suggesting that contact within family groups was a significant mechanism of disease transmission. Results demonstrate that epidemiological models should incorporate aspects of host ecology likely to affect the probability of disease transmission. PMID:17443977
Carr, S.M.; Ballinger, S W; Derr, J N; Blankenship, L.H.; Bickham, J W
Sympatric populations of white-tailed deer and mule deer (Odocoileus virginianus and Odocoileus hemionus, respectively) on a west Texas ranch share a common mitochondrial DNA restriction map genotype. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this genotype is more characteristic of O. virginianus than of O. hemionus. The genotype of west Texas deer differs from that of O. virginianus from South Carolina by five mutational events (1.3% sequence divergence), whereas it differs from that of O. hemion...
Thomas James Straka; David C. Guynn, Jr; Scott P. Wills
Discounted cash flow analysis is a standard financial tool that considers the time value of money and calculates the present value of a future sum of money. A model was developed using the same concept to estimate discounted deer quality value of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herd based on the value and survival rate(s) by sex, age. These values are discounted, using market interest rate as the discount rate and as the measure of the time value. The model was used to determine ...
Kilgo, J., C.; Ray, H., Scott; Ruth, Charles; Miller, Karl, V.
ABSTRACT The coyote (Canis latrans) is a recent addition to the fauna of eastern North America, and in many areas coyote populations have been established for only a decade or two. Although coyotes are known predators of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in their historic range, effects this new predator may have on eastern deer populations have received little attention. We speculated that in the southeastern United States, coyotes may be affecting deer recruitment, and we present 5 lines of evidence that suggest this possibility. First, the statewide deer population in South Carolina has declined coincident with the establishment and increase in the coyote population. Second, data sets from the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina indicate a new mortality source affecting the deer population concurrent with the increase in coyotes. Third, an index of deer recruitment at SRS declined during the period of increase in coyotes. Fourth, food habits data from SRS indicate that fawns are an important food item for coyotes during summer. Finally, recent research from Alabama documented significant coyote predation on fawns there. Although this evidence does not establish cause and effect between coyotes and observed declines in deer recruitment, we argue that additional research should proactively address this topic in the region. We identified several important questions on the nature of the deer–coyote relationship in the East.
Al-Dissi, Ahmad N.; Blakley, Barry R.; Woodbury, Murray R.
Chronic selenium (Se) toxicosis was found in a herd of white-tailed deer showing signs of anorexia, weight loss, and lameness. Concentration of Se in the liver ranged from 2.7 to 8.97 mg/kg wet weight. Myocardial necrosis, mineralization, and fibroplasia were seen histologically. This is the first report of this toxicosis in white-tailed deer.
Placke, M E; Roscoe, D E; Wyand, D S; Nielsen, S W
A white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), shot during the 1978-79 New Jersey hunting season, was presented with an enlarged, multinodular liver and numerous skin growths. The skin lesions were found to be fibromas and the liver tumor was identified as a hepatocellular adenocarcinoma, a rare neoplasm, not only in deer but all wild animals.
Baumann, C D; Davidson, W R; Roscoe, D E; Beheler-Amass, K
From January 1996 through April 1997, the geographic distribution, etiology, demographics, seasonality, and prevalence of an intracranial abscessation/suppurative meningoencephalitits syndrome in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were evaluated by surveying wildlife disease diagnostic laboratories and by examining both natural mortality and hunter-harvested deer skulls from North America. Intracranial abscesses were diagnosed as the cause of death or illness in 97 of nearly 4,500 (2.2%) white-tailed deer examined from 12 states and four Canadian provinces by the diagnostic laboratories. The bacterium Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from 61% of cases; 18 other genera of bacteria also were isolated. The disease was strongly gender-biased (P or = 1 yr) with few cases among male fawns. Among antlered males, cases were seasonal, primarily occurring from September through April. Four hundred eighteen skulls from deer found dead in the field were examined from southeastern USA, and of the 119 used for further evaluation, 9% had characteristic lesions. Skulls from hunter-harvested males in the southeastern USA had a lesion prevalence of 1.4%. The similarity of disease prevalence among male deer found dead in the field (9.0%) and deer examined as southeastern diagnostic laboratory cases (8.4%) suggests that this disease accounts for slightly white-tailed deer in the southeastern region. The strong bias for occurrence among males suggests this disease may affect quality deer management strategies. PMID:11763729
...include a new natural gas-fired combustion turbine...maintain the Deer Creek Station Energy Facility, a 300...combined-cycle natural gas generation facility...resources, the acoustic environment, recreation, cultural...construction of the Deer Creek Station Energy Facility)...
...include a new natural gas-fired combustion turbine...maintain the Deer Creek Station Energy Facility, a 300...combined-cycle natural gas generation facility...EIS for the Deer Creek Station. The EIS focused on...resources, the acoustic environment, recreation,...
Yabsley, Michael J; Varela, Andrea S; Tate, Cynthia M; Dugan, Vivien G; Stallknecht, David E; Little, Susan E; Davidson, William R
Two closely related zoonotic ehrlichiae, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. ewingii, are transmitted by Amblyomma americanum, the lone star tick. Because white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are critical hosts for all mobile stages of A. americanum and are important vertebrate reservoirs of E. chaffeensis, we investigated whether deer may be infected with E. ewingii, a cause of granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis in humans and dogs. To test for E. ewingii infection, we used polymerase chain reaction and inoculation of fawns with whole blood from wild deer. Of 110 deer tested from 20 locations in 8 U.S. states, 6 (5.5%) were positive for E. ewingii. In addition, natural E. ewingii infection was confirmed through infection of captive fawns. These findings expand the geographic distribution of E. ewingii, along with risk for human infection, to include areas of Kentucky, Georgia, and South Carolina. These data suggest that white-tailed deer may be an important reservoir for E. ewingii. PMID:12095432
Qureshi, T; Craig, T M; Drawe, D L; Davis, D S
The efficacy of triclabendazole was evaluated in the treatment of naturally acquired Fascioloides magna infections in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Twenty white-tailed deer were captured on the Welder Wildlife Refuge (Sinton, San Patricio County, Texas, USA) and maintained in a 64 x 64 m deer enclosure. Ten deer were given a 5% suspension of triclabendazole orally at a dosage of 10 mg/kg body weight and 10 deer were given a placebo. Three wk later the deer were euthanized and examined for parasites. At necropsy 19 deer were infected. All specimens of F. magna from the tissues of the triclabendazole treated deer were dead or severely affected by the drug as indicated by changes in their size, color, movement and texture relative to those from control deer. The drug was considered 100% effective against this parasite. Adverse reactions of the deer to the drug were not observed. PMID:2761011
AYS Arobaya; DA Iyai; T. Sraun; F Pattiselanno
Traditionally, back yard deer husbandry is well developed in some parts in Papua, though information on deer husbandry has not been provided yet. Therefore, this study was aimed at highlighting the diet provided to the deer in back yard husbandry model in Manokwari. Survey method was approached by visiting eight deer back yard farmer respondents. Direct observation to the feeding site and semi-structured interview were carried out to learn about the deer management system, and identify the f...
Scherson, Rosa A; Albornoz, Abraham A.; Moreira-Muńoz, Andrés S; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael
This study uses phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential (phylogenetic diversity and community structure) to evaluate the evolutionary value of vascular plant genera endemic to Chile. Endemicity is regarded as a very important consideration for conservation purposes. Taxa that are endemic to a single country are valuable conservation targets, as their protection depends upon a single government policy. This is especially relevant in developing countries in which conservation is not ...
We applied mark-resight and area-conversion methods to estimate deer abundance at a 2,862-ha area in and surrounding the Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site during 1987-1991. One observer in each of 11 compartments counted marked and unmarked deer during 65-75 minutes at dusk during 3 counts in each of April and November. Use of radio-collars and vinyl collars provided a complete inventory of marked deer in the population prior to the counts. We sighted 54% of the marked deer during April 1987 and 1988, and 43% of the marked deer during November 1987 and 1988. Mean number of deer counted increased from 427 in April 1987 to 582 in April 1991, and increased from 467 in November 1987 to 662 in November 1990. Herd size during April, based on the mark-resight method, increased from approximately 700-1,400 from 1987-1991, whereas the estimates for November indicated an increase from 983 for 1987 to 1,592 for 1990. Given the large proportion of open area and the extensive road system throughout the study area, we concluded that the sighting probability for marked and unmarked deer was fairly similar. We believe that the mark-resight method was better suited to our study than the area-conversion method because deer were not evenly distributed between areas suitable and unsuitable for sighting within open and forested areas. The assumption of equal distribution is required by the area-conversion method. Deer marked for the mark-resight method also helped reduce double counting during the dusk surveys.
Tamgüney, Gültekin; Giles, Kurt; Bouzamondo-Bernstein, Essia; Bosque, Patrick J.; Miller, Michael W; Safar, Jiri; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B.
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal prion disease in deer and elk. Unique among the prion diseases, it is transmitted among captive and free-ranging animals. To facilitate studies of the biology of CWD prions, we generated five lines of transgenic (Tg) mice expressing prion protein (PrP) from Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), denoted Tg(ElkPrP), and two lines of Tg mice expressing PrP common to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), den...
Hamir, Amir N.; Justin J. Greenlee; Nicholson, Eric M; Kunkle, Robert A; Richt, Juergen A; Miller, Janice M.; Hall, Mark
Final observations on experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to fallow deer (Dama dama) are reported herein. During the 5-year study, 13 fawns were inoculated intracerebrally with CWD-infected brain material from white-tailed deer (n = 7; Group A) or elk (n = 6; Group B), and 3 other fawns were kept as uninoculated controls (Group C). As described previously, 3 CWD-inoculated deer were euthani...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — February 2015 Progress report for Targeted Chronic Wasting Disease Project in Montana Hunting District 600. From February 56th, 25 mule deer were captured in...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo summarizes the 1984 deer harvest for Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge. Tables summarize numerical findings, including bucks, does, and points.
Full Text Available Macrolide Endectocides (ME are antiparasitic agents that are daily applied in pharmacotherapy of food-producing animals. Worldwide numbers of pharmacokinetics studies performed on various matrixes of domestic animals with diverse detection methods for ME determination were developed. However only few studies on deer matrixes were published although ME are licensed and in use for treatment of red deer, fallow deer and reindeer in some countries of European Union, America and Australia. The purpose of this study was to follow some pharmacokinetic parameters of abamectin in fallow deer plasma 48 h after subcutaneous application of therapeutic dose. Biochemical and haematological parameters were also followed for 120 h after application of antiparasitic agent.
Larsen, R Scott; Carpenter, James W; Kennedy, George A; Morales, N
In 1996, lymphosarcoma was observed in a captive adult female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from northeastern Kansas (USA). A subcutaneous mass on the deer's left cheek was surgically removed and lymphosarcoma was diagnosed. The mass recurred within 3 wk. A second surgical removal was attempted but the tumor had grown much larger, had become intimately involved with the buccal mucosa, and was beginning to interfere with mastication. For these reasons, the deer was euthanized. At postmortem examination the only abnormal findings were the primary tumor and enlarged ipsilateral parotid and mandibular lymph nodes. Histologically these tissues demonstrated changes characteristic of lymphosarcoma but no other organs had evidence of neoplastic disease. A diagnosis of focal lymphosarcoma with local metastasis was made. The organ distribution of lymphosarcoma in this deer differs from previously described cases of lymphosarcoma in cervids. PMID:12238381
Smits, Saskia L.; van Leeuwen, Marije
The threat of emerging infectious viruses in humans requires a more effective approach regarding virus surveillance. A thorough understanding of virus diversity in wildlife provides epidemiological baseline information about pathogens and may lead to the identification of newly emerging pathogens in the future. In this study, diarrhoea samples from an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness in a Danish population of European roe deer were gathered for which no aetiological agent could be identified. Large-scale molecular RNA virus screening, based on host nucleic acid depletion, sequence-independent amplification and sequencing of partially purified viral RNA, revealed the presence of novel astroviruses, CcAstV-1 and CcAstV-2, in two of ten diarrhoea samples. Whether these viruses were responsible for causing diarrhoea remains to be determined. Phylogenetic analyses on amplified sequences showed that these viruses were most closely related to each other, were a novel species in the genus Mamastrovirus and may represent two different serotypes.
A model was developed to estimate the strontium-90 levels in male mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) from known 90Sr intake rates. The model was formulated on results from a study on the effects of age and season on Sr kinetics in mule deer. Captive deer of various ages, at selected times throughout the year, were given acute oral doses of 85SrCl2 and whole body counted to determine the retention function. A two-component exponential equation was used to mathematically describe the retention of 85Sr. The average for the slopes of the short component (1.09 day-1) corresponded very closely with the mean retention time for insoluble material in the gastrointestinal tract. For male deer, the value of the fractional intercept of the long component generally increased with age. The fractional intercepts also varied with the time of year the deer was administered the 85Sr, ranging from an average of 0.0539 during antler dormancy to 0.154 during periods of antler growth. The average of the observed values for the slope of the long component was 0.00365 day-1 for all deer. For the bucks, the slope of the long component was observed to decrease with age at time of spiking and to vary from a minimum for those spiked during antler dormancy to a maximum for those spiked during the antler growth period. There were no apparent effects of age and season on the kinetics of Sr in female deer. The model was developed to describe the uptake and retention of chronically ingested Sr. Due to the variations in the fractional intercept and slope of the long component, both associated with skeletal bone remodeling, the model utilized varying parameters. The predicted values were compared with those observed in a wild deer population and the close agreement added credibility to the coefficients of the total body retention equations utilized in the model
Yabsley, Michael J; Varela, Andrea S.; Tate, Cynthia M.; Dugan, Vivien G; Stallknecht, David E; Little, Susan E.; Davidson, William R
Two closely related zoonotic ehrlichiae, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. ewingii, are transmitted by Amblyomma americanum, the lone star tick. Because white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are critical hosts for all mobile stages of A. americanum and are important vertebrate reservoirs of E. chaffeensis, we investigated whether deer may be infected with E. ewingii, a cause of granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis in humans and dogs. To test for E. ewingii infection, we used polymerase chain reacti...
Tinsley-Marshall, Paul James
In Scotland, the well documented increase in the red deer population is widely regarded as a cause for concern, due to potentially detrimental impacts of grazing. This has lead to conflicting objectives between conservation and deer managers, despite the extent of the increase and the resulting impact both being hotly debated issues. Upland heather moorland is of international conservation importance while woodland habitats are some of the most stable ecosystems in anthropogeni...
Hjelle Brian; Coons Teresa A; Hamor Robyn; Willis Derall; Aduddell-Swope Bethany; Oko Lauren; Schountz Tony
Abstract Background Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the most common mammals in North America and are reservoirs for several zoonotic agents, including Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the principal etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in North America. Unlike human HCPS patients, SNV-infected deer mice show no overt pathological symptoms, despite the presence of virus in the lungs. A neutralizing IgG antibody response occurs, but the virus establishes a persistent infec...
...of Availability of a Draft White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Environmental...the availability of the Draft White-tailed Deer Management Plan/Environmental...alternatives for the management of white-tailed deer at the Park. Under...
...Environmental Impact Statement for the White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Rock Creek...Statement (FEIS) for the White-tailed Deer Management Plan (Plan...four alternatives for managing white- tailed deer in the park. The...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study assessing the effects of changes in deer density on physical parameters of deer in northwest Florida flatwoods. Biological data from whitetailed deer...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes changes in the population of deer in Alaska. The objectives of deer management in Alaska are to promote maximum utilization of our deer herds...
González-Barrio, D; Almería, S; Caro, M R; Salinas, J; Ortiz, J A; Gortázar, C; Ruiz-Fons, F
Wildlife and notably deer species--due to the increasing relevance of deer farming worldwide--may contribute to the maintenance of Coxiella burnetii, the causal agent of Q fever. Currently, there are no precedents linking exposure to deer species with human Q fever cases. However, a human case of Q fever was recently diagnosed in a red deer (Cervus elaphus) farm, which led us to investigate whether deer could be a source for environmental contamination with C. burnetii and ascertain the implication of C. burnetii in reproductive failure in the farm. Blood serum and vaginal swabs were collected from hinds either experiencing or not reproductive failure and tested to detect the presence of antibodies and DNA, respectively, of C. burnetii, Chlamydia abortus, Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii. Serology and PCR results suggest C. burnetii was the primary cause of the reproductive failure. We identified vaginal shedding of C. burnetii in hinds, confirming red deer as a source of Q fever zoonotic infection. PMID:24127840
Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd's unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd's overall health and reproductive status
A rapidly increasing number of deer/vehicle collisions on the Oak Ridge Reservation and contiguous lands resulted in the need for an aggressive method of reducing the deer population. Managed hunts on the reservation was the method chosen for this reduction, and the Oak Ridge Wildlife Management Area was established in November 1984. Because of possible radiological contamination of the deer herd from the three major nuclear installations on the reservation, a rigorous radiological survey of all harvested deer was deemed necessary to ensure that successful hunters or their families would not be exposed to excess radiation dose from the consumption of venison from the managed hunts. Data collected from previous vehicle-killed deer showed the possibility of contamination from 137Cs, 90Sr, 60Co, and 75Se. Methodology for 90Sr screening at a 0.25-mSv commitment required special considerations for field analysis since 90Sr decays by beta emission. A versatile data-base program was established with a personal computer system to handle the copious data related to both radiological and biological parameters collected during the harvest. The field screen values were verified by subsequent laboratory analyses utilizing Cerenkov counting. These verification analyses proved the utility of the field methodology for 90Sr detection in deer bones at the 1 Bq/g screening level
Tiller, B.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Poston, T.M. [and others
Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd`s unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd`s overall health and reproductive status.
Cerebral cysticercosis is the main cause of late-onset epilepsy in most developing countries. Data on the neuroepidemiology of cysticercosis in endemic populations is scarce. In an endemic village on the northern coast of Peru, 49 individuals with neurological symptomatology (41 epileptic and 8 non-epileptic) were screened for antibodies to Taenia solium, using a serum electroimmuno transfer blot assay. Fifteen subjects were seropositive, 14 (34%) of those with epilepsy but only one (13%) of those who were non-epileptic. A history of passing proglottides was associated with positive serology. Thirteen of the 15 seropositive individuals underwent cerebral computed tomography; only 7 (54%) were abnormal. A randomly selected sample of 20 pigs from the village was also tested, and 6 (30%) were seropositive. This study demonstrated the importance of cysticercosis in the aetiology of epilepsy in endemic villages and the close relationship between porcine and human infection
... add lethal deer management actions (sharpshooting with firearms or capture and euthanasia of... include the reduction of the deer herd through sharpshooting with firearms or capture and euthanasia...
Rogers, Donna L; McClure, Gloria B; Ruiz, Julio C; Abee, Christian R; Vanchiere, John A
Nonhuman primates are the experimental animals of choice for the study of many human diseases. As such, it is important to understand that endemic viruses of primates can potentially affect the design, methods, and results of biomedical studies designed to model human disease. Here we review the viruses known to be endemic in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.). The pathogenic potential of these viruses in squirrel monkeys that undergo experimental manipulation remains largely unexplored but may have implications regarding the use of squirrel monkeys in biomedical research. PMID:26141448
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These harvest data are from Mathews Brake during the 2011 deer season. They measure weight, antler size, prevalence of milk, and number of deer harvested.
Demma, D.J.; Mech, L.D.
We tested whether Wolf (Canis lupus) visits to individual female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) summer ranges during 2003 and 2004 in northeastern Minnesota were in accord with optimal-foraging theory. Using GPS collars with 10- to 30-minute location attempts on four Wolves and five female deer, plus eleven VHF-collared female deer in the Wolves' territory, provided new insights into the frequency of Wolf visits to summer ranges of female deer. Wolves made a mean 0.055 visits/day to summer ranges of deer three years and older, significantly more than their 0.032 mean visits/day to ranges of two-year-old deer, which generally produce fewer fawns, and most Wolf visits to ranges of older deer were much longer than those to ranges of younger deer. Because fawns comprise the major part of the Wolf's summer diet, this Wolf behavior accords with optimal-foraging theory.
Full Text Available It is important to evaluate venison characteristics as a new high quality red meat in the meat marketing system. This information is vital to ensure their commercial success and dietary benefits. The aim of this study is to determine the venison quality from farmed deer according to cuts or muscles based on fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content and to do comparative study on venison quality between species of farmed deer (rusa, sambar, fallow and imported red deer and feeding regimens, i.e., grass-fed vs concentrate-fed venison. The samples of venison were derived from javan rusa (Cervus timorensis russa, moluccan rusa (Cervus timorensis moluccensis, sambar (Cervus unicolor brookei, fallow (Dama dama and imported red deer (Cervus elaphus. Moluccan rusa and red deer were grass-fed deer. Javan rusa, sambar and fallow deer were concentrate-fed deer. Cholesterol content in Longissimus Dorsi (LD muscles of sambar, fallow and rusa deer were 75.36, 76.61 and 77.58 mg/100g of fresh venison, respectively. Cholesterol content in Biceps Femoris (BF muscles of moluccan rusa, sambar, fallow and red deer were 56.61, 59.26, 86.37 and 98.44 mg/100g of fresh venison, respectively. Concentrate-fed deer LD and Psoas Major (PM muscles show higher C18:2 (n-6 than grass-fed deer. Grass-fed rusa deer shows the highest C18:3 (n- 3 percentages in PM muscle. Grass-fed rusa and red deer gave an ideal n-6:n-3 ratio of less than 5. Species of deer did not influence n-6:n-3 ratio and fatty acid composition in venison. Feeding regimens (grass-fed vs concentrate-fed significantly (p< 0.05 influence n-6:n-3 ratio, fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content in the venison of farmed deer in this study.
Jong, C.B., de; Wieren, S.E., van; Gill, R.M.A.; MUNRO, R
The winter diets of roe deer culled from Kielder Forest, in north-east England, where the incidence of liver carcinomas in roe deer is high, and Galloway Forest, in south-west Scotland, where the incidence of liver carcinomas is low, were compared by microhistological analysis of faeces. Both areas are planted with spruce forests but the diets of the deer from Kielder Forest were less varied and contained more spruce and heather than the diets of the deer from Galloway Forest.
Li, Hong; Dyer, Neil; Keller, Janice; Crawford, Timothy B.
Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was diagnosed by clinical signs and lesions in five out of six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a North American zoo. The clinical signs and histopathological lesions in these deer were typical of MCF. Antibody to an epitope conserved among the MCF viruses was detected in the sera collected from the deer. PCR failed to amplify viral sequences from DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and/or spleens of the deer with primers specific ...
Dubay, Shelli; Jacques, Christopher; Golden, Nigel; Kern, Bryant; Mahoney, Kathleen; Norton, Andrew; Patnayak, Devi; Van Deelen, Timothy
White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are commonly exposed to disease agents that affect livestock but environmental factors that predispose deer to exposure are unknown for many pathogens. We trapped deer during winter months on two study areas (Northern Forest and Eastern Farmland) in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2013. Deer were tested for exposure to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, bratislava, pomona, and hardjo), bovine viral diarrhea v...
The effect was studied of marinading on the reduction of cesium radionuclide activity in red deer meat contaminated by ingestion of feed containing 134Cs+137Cs from radioactive fallout following the Chernobyl accident. Two types of marinade were studied, viz., a vinegar infusion and a vinegar infusion with an addition of vegetables and spices. The meat was chopped to cubes of about 1.5 cm in size and the marinading process took place at temperatures of 5 and 11 degC. The drop of cesium content in the meat was determined by gamma spectrometry at given time intervals. The replacement of the marinade and the duration of the process were found to maximally affect efficiency. If the solution was not replaced, about 80% of cesium radionuclides were removed after seven hours of marinading. With one replacement of the infusion the drop in 134Cs+137Cs radioactivity amounted to up to 90% after seven hours of marinading. No effects were shown of vegetable additions to the vinegar infusion and of the change in temperature from 5 to 11 degC on the efficiency of the process. (author). 3 tabs., 6 refs
Woods, L W; Lehmkuhl, H D; Swift, P K; Chiu, P H; Hanley, R S; Nordhausen, R W; Stillian, M H; Drew, M L
Infection with a newly described endotheliotropic adenovirus was the cause of a 1993 epizootic reminiscent of hemorrhagic disease in California mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus and O. hemionus hemionus). Pulmonary edema and intestinal luminal hemorrhage, or necrotizing stomatitis associated with systemic or localized vasculitis, respectively, were common lesions seen in animals that died during the epizootic. In order to determine if white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) also are susceptible to infection and fatal disease with the deer adenovirus, eight white-tailed deer fawns (4- to 6-mo-old) were inoculated with purified deer adenovirus. Four were inoculated intravenously and four were inoculated through the mucous membranes. Seven days post-inoculation, one of the fawns inoculated intravenously died. Pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy were associated with pulmonary and intestinal vasculitis with systemic multiorgan distribution of endotheliotropic adenovirus as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Adenovirus was reisolated from lung homogenates of the fawn that died of adenovirus hemorrhagic disease. PMID:11272490
Excretion kinetics and tissue distribution of polonium-210 in mule deer and pronghorn were studied. Each animal in a captive herd of 7 mule deer and 2 pronghorn received an intraruminal injection of 4.4 ?Ci of polonium chloride. Feces and urine were collected periodically over a 43-day period and daily excretion rate for each pathway was regressed as a function of time. Assimilation fractions of 0.40 and 0.51 were calculated for mule deer (n=2) and 0.60 for a pronghorn. Body burden retention functions were calculated from integrated excretion rate functions. Polonium burdens in muscle, liver, and kidney were calculated as a fraction of body burden from serially-sacrificed animals. Background tissue burdens in mule deer were comparable to those of other ruminants reported in the literature. Hypothetical cases were assumed which combined feeding rate of mule deer, forage concentrations of polonium, retention function, tissue burden fraction, and human intake to estimate human radiation dose. 26 references
Thomas James Straka
Full Text Available Discounted cash flow analysis is a standard financial tool that considers the time value of money and calculates the present value of a future sum of money. A model was developed using the same concept to estimate discounted deer quality value of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus herd based on the value and survival rate(s by sex, age. These values are discounted, using market interest rate as the discount rate and as the measure of the time value. The model was used to determine the optimum age for harvest of antlered bucks in commercial hunting operations. Based on discount rate, value by age and quality, and survival rates, optimum harvest age varied from 1.5 years to 5.5 years. Survival rate (s was fundamental in determination of optimal harvest ages. The model was also used to examine the feasibility of management practices aimed at increasing or improving herd condition. Assuming a discount rate of 10% and increasing values for bucks ranging from 1.5 to 5.5 years of age, the optimum harvest ages produced ranged from 5.5 years when s ? 80% and 1.5 years when s < 60%.
Carmen Elena Contreras; Marcos De Donato; María Ana Rivas; Hectorina Rodulfo; Robert Mora; María Eulalia Batista; Norka Marcano
In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species) and malaria antigen (Pla...
In 1994, a focus of M. bovis infection in white-tailed deer was identified in Michigan. This represents the first known reservoir of M. bovis in free-ranging wildlife in the United. Current control measures include decreasing deer density and limitations on feeding and baiting of deer. Another possi...
Chang, Kang-Tsung; Verbyla, David L.; Yeo, Jeffrey J.
We used a vector-based geographic information system (GIS) to examine habitat selection by radiocollared Sitka black-tailed deer ( Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) in logged forests of southeast Alaska. Our main objective was to explain deer habitat selection relative to old-growth/clear-cut edges and edge habitats at two different spatial scales. Deer home ranges contained higher percentages of recent clear-cuts (50-69%) than the study area (37%; P<0.01) and had higher old-growth/clear-cut edge densities than expected by chance ( P<0.01). Deer relocation points were closer to old-growth/clear-cut edges (average=135 m) than random points located within each deer's relocation area (average=168 m; P=0.05). Likewise, deer relocations were closer to old-growth/clear-cut edges than points randomly located within old-growth stands or recent clear-cuts ( P<0.01). As the size of clear-cuts increased, both deer relocation density and the proportion of a clear-cut occupied by deer home ranges decreased. Because old growth is important deer habitat and clear-cuts can produce deer forage for only 20-30 years after logging in southeast Alaska, deer management plans such as preserving entire watersheds and maintaining mixes of old growth and recent clear-cut have been proposed. Our data suggest that deer need a diversity of habitats near each other within their home ranges.
Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is an important game animal in Spain. Sera from 278 roe deer sera from eight areas in mainland Spain were assayed for antibodies to T. gondii by modified agglutination test (MAT). Titers of 1:25 or higher were found in 109 (39.2%) of 278 deer. No significant difference...
Mueller-Anneling, L.; Gilchrist, M J; Thorne, P. S.
Surveillance of 2,277 white-tailed deer for antibodies against Ehrlichia chaffeensis in Iowa showed seropositivity rates of 12.5% in 1994 and 13.9% in 1996. From 1994 to 1996, the estimated number of seropositive deer increased to 54,701 (28%). The increasing deer population and expanding tick distribution may increase risk for human monocytic ehrlichiosis.
In 1994, a focus of M. bovis infection in white-tailed deer was identified in Michigan. This represents the first known reservoir of M. bovis in free-ranging wildlife in the United. Current control measures include decreasing deer density and limitations on feeding and baiting of deer. Another possi...
Lavelle, Michael J; Henry, Campa Iii; LeDoux, Kyle; Ryan, Patrick J; Fischer, Justin W; Pepin, Kim M; Blass, Chad R; Glow, Michael P; Hygnstrom, Scott E; VerCauteren, Kurt C
Disease and damage from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) continually threaten the livelihood of agricultural producers and the economy in the United States, as well as challenge state and federal wildlife managers. Threats can be partially addressed by excluding free-ranging deer from livestock-related resources. Throughout the year, use of stored livestock feed by deer in northern Lower Michigan (MI), USA fluctuates, though their presence is relatively consistent. Since 2008, use of livestock areas and resources by deer has been reduced through intensive efforts by livestock producers in cooperation with state and federal agencies. These efforts focused on excluding deer from stored cattle feed in areas where deer were abundant. We monitored deer activity from Jan 2012 to June 2013 on 6 cattle farms in northern MI using GPS collars to evaluate behavioral effects of excluding deer from stored feed. We characterized areas deer occupied before and after installing 2361 m of fences and gates to exclude deer from stored cattle feed. Following fence installation, 9 deer previously accessing stored feed shifted to patterns of habitat use similar to 5 deer that did not use stored feed. However, continued attempts to regain access to stored feed were made at low frequencies, emphasizing the need to maintain the integrity of fences and keep gates closed for damage prevention and biosecurity. PMID:26130505
Charles John Wilson
Full Text Available The impact of deer grazing on agricultural grassland and cereal crops was assessed at two locations with medium to high deer densities in the Exmoor area of southwest England. Red deer impact on early spring grazing was measured at one site by comparing samples of herbage cut from inside and outside deer-proof exclosure cages, just prior to turn out of livestock, on 1 March 1989. Fallow deer impact on first-cut silage grass production was similarly measured using exclosure cages at a second site by cutting samples on 31 May 1990 and on 6 June 1995. In addition, impact of fallow deer on cereal crops was assessed at this site by measuring sample grain yields from areas of the crop used or unused by deer in 1995 (winter wheat, 1996 (winter barley and 1997 (winter wheat. Significant dry matter yield losses were recorded for red deer impact on spring grazing in 1989 (14.5% and for fallow deer impact on first-cut silage (15.9% in 1995 but not in 1990. In 1995 a small but significant yield loss (7.1% was recorded for winter wheat at the fallow deer site but no loss in cereal yield was recorded in 1996 or 1997. These assessments, carried out in response to complaints about deer damage, suggest that the impacts of deer in this area, where they occur at relatively high density, are only moderate. This highlights the need for careful assessment of cost-benefits when considering deer management strategies to reduce perceived agricultural damage.
Full Text Available Species richness, endemism and areas that are rich in both species and endemic species were assessed and mapped for Namibia. High species diversity corresponds with zones where species overlap. These are particularly obvious where there are altitudinal variations and in high-lying areas. The endemic flora of Namibia is rich and diverse. An estimated 16% of the total plant species in Namibia are endemic to the country. Endemics are in a wide variety of families and sixteen genera are endemic. Factors that increase the likelihood of endemism are mountains, hot deserts, diversity of substrates and microclimates. The distribution of plants endemic to Namibia was arranged in three different ways. Firstly, based on a grid count with the phytogeographic value o f the species being equal, overall endemism was mapped. Secondly, range restricted plant species were mapped individually and those with congruent distribution patterns were combined. Thirdly, localities that are important for very range-restricted species were identified. The resulting maps o f endemism and diversity were compared and found to correspond in many localities. When overall endemism is compared with overall diversity, rich localities may consist of endemic species with wide ranges. The other methods identify important localities with their own distinctive complement of species.
A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri) and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa) nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus), beside 9 sub...
Choi, Jung Kyu; He, Xiaoming
In this study, we improved the protocol for isolating cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from the outbred deer mice by using only one hormone (instead of the widely used combination of two hormones) with reduced dose. Moreover, we identified that significantly more metaphase II (MII) oocytes could be obtained by supplementing epidermal growth factor (EGF) and leukemia inhibition factor (LIF) into the previously established medium for in vitro maturation (IVM) of the COCs. Furthermore, we overcame the major challenge of two-cell block during embryonic development of deer mice after either in vitro fertilization (IVF) or parthenogenetic activation (PA) of the MII oocytes, by culturing the two-cell stage embryos on the feeder layer of inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in the medium of mouse embryonic stem cells. Collectively, this work represents a major step forward in using deer mice as an outbred animal model for biomedical research on reproduction and early embryonic development. PMID:26184014
Palmer, M V; Waters, W R; Whipple, D L
Abomasal ulceration was noted in 32 of 200 white-tailed deer. Ulceration was most common in the abomasal pylorus and at the abomasal-duodenal junction. Abomasal ulceration was characterized by focal to multifocal, sharply demarcated areas of coagulation necrosis and haemorrhage extending through the mucosa, with fibrin thrombi in mucosal blood vessels of small diameter. Ulcerated areas were often covered by a mixture of mucus, debris and neutrophils. Visible bacteria were not associated with ulcerative lesions. All deer with abomasal ulceration had intercurrent disease, including bacterial pneumonia, enterocolitis, intussusception, chronic diarrhoea, capture myopathy, or experimentally induced tuberculosis. The anatomical distribution of abomasal ulcers in this population of captive white-tailed deer resembled that seen in veal calves. PMID:11578141
Nettles, Victor F; Quist, Charlotte F; Lopez, Roel R; Wilmers, Tom J; Frank, Phil; Roberts, Wayne; Chitwood, Sharon; Davidson, William R
The population health of endangered Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) was monitored from 10 February 1986 to 28 September 2000 by necropsy of animals that were killed by vehicles, euthanized because of terminal injuries or disease conditions, or found dead. The predominant mortality factor during the period was collision with motor vehicles; however, several infectious diseases were diagnosed, including infections with Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Haemonchus contortus, Salmonella spp., and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. During the period monitored, the only infectious disease that was thought to have affected population dynamics was haemonchosis. Nevertheless, several of the observed diseases have potential to impact viability of the Key deer population under appropriate environmental conditions. PMID:12528433
Fischer, John R.; ZHAO, TONG; Doyle, Michael P; Goldberg, Martin R.; Brown, Cathy A.; Sewell, Christopher T.; Kavanaugh, Darrell M.; Bauman, Christopher D.
Studies were conducted to evaluate fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a small group of inoculated deer, determine the prevalence of the bacterium in free-ranging white-tailed deer, and elucidate relationships between E. coli O157:H7 in wild deer and domestic cattle at the same site. Six young, white-tailed deer were orally administered 108 CFU of E. coli O157:H7. Inoculated deer were shedding E. coli O157:H7 by 1 day postinoculation (DPI) and continued to shed decreasing numbers of...
Full Text Available The ultimate pH value of meat (measured at approx. 24 hours post slaughter gives information about the technological quality, i.e. shelf life, colour, water-holding properties and tenderness and is a direct consequence of muscle glycogen (energy levels at slaughter. It may therefore also indicate whether or not the animal has been exposed to stressful energy depleting events prior to slaughter. In the present study, 141 animals (130 red deer (Cervus elaphus and 11 fallow deer (Dama dama were included to investigate the relationship between ultimate pH and residual glycogen concentration in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus. In addition, the muscle glycogen content and ultimate pH values in three red deer muscles (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus and biceps femoris were studied. M. triceps brachii had higher ultimate pH and lower glycogen content compared with the other two studied muscles. The frequency of intermediate DFD (5.8? pH<6.2 was 5.4% in red deer M. longissimus, compared with 9.1% in fallow deer, while the frequency of DFD (pH? 6.2 was much lower in red deer (3.8% than in fallow deer (54.5%. A curvilinear relationship between ultimate pH and total glucose concentration (glycogen and glucose 30 min post slaughter in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus was found. The relationship between muscle pH and lactic acid concentration however, was indicated to be linear. A significant variation in total glucose concentration at ultimate pH below 5.80 was observed, including values in the range from 18 to 123 mmol/kg wet tissue. It was concluded that further studies are needed to further explore the relationship between muscle glycogen content and technological and sensory quality attributes of meat from different deer species.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:Köttets pH-värde (mätt ca 24 timmar efter slakt har stor betydelse för den teknologiska kvaliteten som t. ex. hĺllbarhet, färg, vattenhĺllande förmĺga och mörhet. Glykogenförrĺdet (energinivĺn i djurens muskulatur vid slakt är helt avgörande för köttets slutliga pH-värde. Därför kan pH-värdet ocksĺ indikera om hanteringen av slaktdjur varit skonsam eller om stora mängder muskelenergi har förbrukats vid stress. I vĺr undersökning ingick 141 hjortar (130 kronhjortar (Cervus elaphus och 11 dovhjortar (Dama dama för att studera sambandet mellan köttets pH-värde och glykogeninnehĺllet i M. longissimus. Glykogeninnehĺll och pH-värden i 3 muskler frĺn kronhjort (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus och biceps femoris undersöktes ocksĺ. M. triceps brachii hade högre pH-värde och lägre glykogeninnehĺll jämfört med de tvĺ andra musklerna. Det var inte sĺ stor skillnad i frekvensen av intermediär DFD (pH-värden mellan 5,8 og 6,2 mellan de tvĺ hjortarterna (5,4% för kronhjort och 9,1% för dovhjort, däremot var frekvensen av DFD (pH-värden över 6,2 mycket lĺg hos kronhjort (3,8% jämfört med dovhjort (54,5%. Det fanns ett kurvlinjärt samband mellan slutligt pH-värde i köttet och total glukoskoncentration (glykogen + glukos mätt i M. longissimus 30 min efter slakt för bĺde kron- och dovhjort. Ett linjärt samband mellan pH-värde och koncentration av mjölksyra i M. longissimus kunde ocksĺ visas. Vi fann en mycket stor varitation i glukoskoncentration (18?123 mmol/kg vĺtvikt när köttets pH-värdet var 5,8 eller lägre. Det behövs fler undersökningar för att vidare klargöra sambanden mellan glykogeninnehĺll i muskulaturen och teknologisk och sensorisk kvalitet i olika typer av hjortkött.
Successful treatment of endemic goitre depends on the correct diagnosis and the comprehension of the pathophysiologic changes as well. Several criteria, e.g. anamnestic data, general clinical condition, local symptoms and signs, certainty of diagnosis, contraindications, rates of success, and side effects, determine the particular form of therapy (suppression with thyroid hormones, surgical resection, radio-iodine). The decision criteria are discussed. Prophylaxis of recurrent goitre with either thyroid hormones or iodine salts is necessary after successful treatment. Some endemic goitres behave like either hyper- or hypothyroidism. Treatment with thyroid hormones of patients with latent hyperthyroidism is senseless and dangerous, whereas other methods of treatment may be applied. An unequivocal indication for treatment exists in patients with latent hypothyroidism accompanied by goitre, but not in all patients without goitre. Hormonal replacement therapy of manifest hypothydroidism is simple, but long term success is not achieved in all patients.
Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Allepuz, Alberto
The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causes an important economic and health burden, mainly in rural or marginalized communities of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin-America. Although improved pig rearing conditions seem to have eliminated the parasite in most Western European countries, little is known about the true endemicity status of T. solium throughout Europe. Three recent reviews indicate that autochthonous human T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis may be possible in Europe, but that current peer-reviewed literature is biased towards Western Europe. Officially reported data on porcine cysticercosis are highly insufficient. Favourable conditions for local T. solium transmission still exist in eastern parts of Europe, although the ongoing integration of the European Union is speeding up modernisation and intensification of the pig sector. Further evidence is urgently needed to fill the gaps on the European T. solium endemicity map. We urge to make human cysticercosis notifiable and to improve the reporting of porcine cysticercosis.
Successful treatment of endemic goitre depends on the correct diagnosis and the comprehension of the pathophysiologic changes as well. Several criteria, e.g. anamnestic data, general clinical condition, local symptoms and signs, certainty of diagnosis, contraindications, rates of success, and side effects, determine the particular form of therapy (suppression with thyroid hormones, surgical resection, radio-iodine). The decision criteria are discussed. Prophylaxis of recurrent goitre with either thyroid hormones or iodine salts is necessary after successful treatment. Some endemic goitres behave like either hyper- or hypothyroidism. Treatment with thyroid hormones of patients with latent hyperthyroidism is senseless and dangerous, whereas other methods of treatment may be applied. An unequivocal indication for treatment exists in patients with laent hypothyroidism accompanied by goitre, but not in all patients without goitre. Hormonal replacement therapy of manifest hypothydroidism is simple, but long term success is not achieved in all patients. (orig.)
Eric Mathieu; Derek Schuurman; Rainer Dolch; Mamy Ravokatra; Lucienne Wilmé; Harald Schuetz; Patrick O. Waeber
A biogeographical model was proposed in 2006 to explain the centers of endemism and the importance of riparian forest of some watersheds as refuges or dispersal corridors during paleoclimatic oscillations. Here, we consider these geographical features highlighting their biological and socio-cultural importance. We explain the etymology or eponymy of the major rivers of the retreat-dispersal watersheds, i.e., the drainage basins of Bemarivo, Antainambalana, Mangoro, Manampatrana, Mananara Sou...
Proctor, E. M.; Muth, H A; Proudfoot, D L; Allen, A. B.; Fisk, R; Isaac-Renton, J.; Black, W A
The incidental finding in 1984 of Strongyloides stercoralis larvae in a resident of a chronic care institution who had a vague clinical illness prompted a review of the other residents. Five other cases were identified after exhaustive laboratory investigations. Fecal-oral spread was considered the most likely manner of the spread of infection. The possibility of endemic strongyloidiasis in institutions should be considered, even in temperate climates, when there is unexplained persistent ill...
Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Allepuz, Alberto; Dermauw, Veronique; Johansen, Maria Vang; Laranjo-Gonzŕlez, Minerva; Smit, Suzanne; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Trevisan, Chiara; Wardrop, Nicola; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah
The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causes an important economic and health burden, mainly in rural or marginalized communities of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin-America. Although improved pig rearing conditions seem to have eliminated the parasite in most Western European countries, little is known about the true endemicity status of T. solium throughout Europe. Three recent reviews indicate that autochthonous human T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis may be possible in Europe, but that curren...
Carslake, David; Grant, Wyn; Green, Laura E; Cave, Jonathan; Greaves, Justin; Keeling, Matt; McEldowney, John; Weldegebriel, Habtu; Medley, Graham F
Cattle are infected by a community of endemic pathogens with different epidemiological properties that invoke different managerial and governmental responses. We present characteristics of pathogens that influence their ability to persist in the UK, and describe a qualitative framework of factors that influence the political response to a livestock disease. We develop simple transmission models for three pathogens (bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine herpesvirus and Mycobacterium avium spp. ...
Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Szczerba-Turek, A; Platt-Samoraj, A; Socha, P; Szweda, W
Free-living animals are an important environmental reservoir of pathogens dangerous for other animal species and humans. One of those is Yersinia (Y.) enterocolitica, the causative agent of yersiniosis--foodborne, enzootic disease, significant for public health. The purpose of the study was to identify bioserotypes and virulence markers of Y enterocolitica strains isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) obtained during the 2010/2011 hunting season in north-eastern Poland. From among 48 rectal swabs obtained from 24 roe deer, two strains of Y enterocolitica from one animal were isolated. Although both belonged to biotype 1A they were identified as different serotypes. The strain obtained from cold culture (PSB) belonged to serotype 0:5, while the strain isolated from warm culture (ITC) was regarded as nonidentified (NI), what may suggest mixed infection in that animal. The presence of ystB gene, coding for YstB enterotoxin, directly related to Y enterocolitica pathogenicity was detected in both strains using triplex PCR. The effect of the examination of 32 swabs obtained from 16 red deer was the isolation of two Y enterocolitica strains from two different animals. Both belonged to biotype 1A with NI serotype, but were originated from different types of culture. They gave positive results in case of products of a size corresponding to the ystB gene. No amplicons corresponding to ail and ystA genes were found. Roe deer and red deer may carry and shed Y. enterocolitica, what seems to be important in aspect of an environmental reservoir of this pathogen. The Y enterocolitica strains isolated from wild ruminants had the amplicons of the ystB gene, what suggest they can be potential source of Y enterocolitica infection for humans. PMID:24988858
Baseer ud Din Qureshi
Full Text Available To study the present and past distribution of Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster Survey in Neelum valley, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir was conducted from April to November 2002, Findings show that Musk deer is distributed throughout the Neelum valley. Poaching, deforestation and trans human grazing resulted in scattering of population of the musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster into separate pockets. Population of the musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster recorded from the area is 120 animals. Investigation indicates Musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster resides at low altitude as compared to other areas reported from Pakistan. Seasonal migration of musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster was also noted as a result of Trans-human grazing in summer in summer. To conserve the dwindling population of musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster from Neelum Valley there must be expansion of Salkhla game reserve up to palri and Gail along with the law enforcement and awareness campaign.
Eva Wiklund; Timothy R. Manley; Roger P. Littlejohn
The ultimate pH value of meat (measured at approx. 24 hours post slaughter) gives information about the technological quality, i.e. shelf life, colour, water-holding properties and tenderness and is a direct consequence of muscle glycogen (energy) levels at slaughter. It may therefore also indicate whether or not the animal has been exposed to stressful energy depleting events prior to slaughter. In the present study, 141 animals (130 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and 11 fallow deer (Dam...
From 1980 through 1982, the movements of 37 radio-collared mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were monitored for periods of 3 to 17 months on the Handord Site in southcentral Washington. The objectives were to compare radionuclide concentrations in deer residing near the 200 Area waste management sites with concentrations in deer occupying areas remote from waste management sites and to document movement patterns of Hanford Site deer with particular emphasis on offsite movements. Cesium-137 in deer muscle and liver and 90Sr concentrations in deer bone were statistically higher in deer living near the 200 Area than in control animals. During this study, the highest concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr in 200 Area deer were in those individuals residing in or immediately adjacent to radiation zones. Cesium-137 and 90Sr concentrations were more variable in deer residing near the 200 Area than in control animals, where only background (fallout) levels were observed. Movement patterns of Hanford site deer were analyzed to determine home range size and usage. The average home range was 0.39 +- 27 km2. In addition, ten (27%) of the monitored deer made offsite movements during the study period. While most of these movements were made in the spring and summer, some fall and winter movements were noted. It was estimated that approximately 8% (95% confidence interval is from 0 to 21%) of the Hanford deer herd is harvested each year. As a result of the low harvest rate, the Hanford deer herd appears to have a disproportionate number of older animals, with 24% of the 17 examined deer older than 10.5 years
Eberhardt, L.E.; Hanson, E.E.; Cadwell, L.L.
From 1980 through 1982, the movements of 37 radio-collared mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were monitored for periods of 3 to 17 months on the Handord Site in southcentral Washington. The objectives were to compare radionuclide concentrations in deer residing near the 200 Area waste management sites with concentrations in deer occupying areas remote from waste management sites and to document movement patterns of Hanford Site deer with particular emphasis on offsite movements. Cesium-137 in deer muscle and liver and /sup 90/Sr concentrations in deer bone were statistically higher in deer living near the 200 Area than in control animals. During this study, the highest concentrations of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr in 200 Area deer were in those individuals residing in or immediately adjacent to radiation zones. Cesium-137 and /sup 90/Sr concentrations were more variable in deer residing near the 200 Area than in control animals, where only background (fallout) levels were observed. Movement patterns of Hanford site deer were analyzed to determine home range size and usage. The average home range was 0.39 +- 27 km/sup 2/. In addition, ten (27%) of the monitored deer made offsite movements during the study period. While most of these movements were made in the spring and summer, some fall and winter movements were noted. It was estimated that approximately 8% (95% confidence interval is from 0 to 21%) of the Hanford deer herd is harvested each year. As a result of the low harvest rate, the Hanford deer herd appears to have a disproportionate number of older animals, with 24% of the 17 examined deer older than 10.5 years.
Fink, Maria; Schleicher, Corina; Gonano, Monika; Prodinger, Wolfgang M.; Pacciarini, Maria; Glawischnig, Walter; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Walzer, Chris; Stalder, Gabrielle L.; Lombardo, Dorotea; Schobesberger, Hermann; Winter, Petra; Büttner, Mathias
To estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in the Alpine region, we studied the epidemiology of Mycobacterium caprae in wildlife during the 2009–2012 hunting seasons. Free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus) were a maintenance host in a hot-spot area, mainly located in Austria.
Santin, Monica; Fayer, Ronald
Despite a white-tailed deer (WTD) population in the United States of approximately 32 million animals extremely little is known of the prevalence and species of the protists that infect these animals. This study was undertaken to determine the presence of potential human protist pathogens in culled WTD in central Maryland. Feces from fawns to adults were examined by molecular methods. The prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia was determined by PCR. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the species and genotype(s). Of specimens from 80 WTD, 26 (32.5%) contained 17 genotypes of E. bieneusi. Four genotypes were previously reported (I, J, WL4, LW1) and 13 novel genotypes were identified and named DeerEb1-DeerEb13. Genotypes I, J, and LW1 are known to infect humans. Ten (12.5%) specimens contained the Cryptosporidium deer genotype, and one (1.25%) contained Giardia duodenalis Assemblage A. The identification zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblage A as well as four E. bieneusi genotypes previously identified in humans suggest that WTD could play a role in the transmission of those parasites to humans. PMID:25066778
...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY... Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric) application for a RUS loan and a Western... proposed Project is to serve increased load demand for electric power in the eastern portion of...
...The Rural Utilities Service (RUS) and the Western Area Power Administration (Western) have issued a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the proposed Deer Creek Station in White, Brookings County, South Dakota. The DEIS was prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the......
... Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY: Rural Utilities... environmental impacts of and alternatives to Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric) application for... for the proposed Project is to serve increased load demand for electric power in the eastern...
Kropatsch, Regina; Dekomien, Gabriele; Akkad, Amer Denis; Gerding, Wanda Maria; Petrasch-Parwez, Elisabeth; Young, Neil D.; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Gasser, Robin B.; Epplen, Jörg T.; He, Bin
A complex network of genes determines sex in mammals. Here, we studied a European roe deer with an intersex phenotype that was consistent with a XY genotype with incomplete male-determination. Whole genome sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed a triple dose of the SOX9 gene, allowing insights into a new genetic defect in a wild animal.
Scherson, Rosa A; Albornoz, Abraham A; Moreira-Muńoz, Andrés S; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael
This study uses phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential (phylogenetic diversity and community structure) to evaluate the evolutionary value of vascular plant genera endemic to Chile. Endemicity is regarded as a very important consideration for conservation purposes. Taxa that are endemic to a single country are valuable conservation targets, as their protection depends upon a single government policy. This is especially relevant in developing countries in which conservation is not always a high resource allocation priority. Phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential such as phylogenetic diversity (PD) have been regarded as meaningful measures of the "value" of taxa and ecosystems, as they are able to account for the attributes that could allow taxa to recover from environmental changes. Chile is an area of remarkable endemism, harboring a flora that shows the highest number of endemic genera in South America. We studied PD and community structure of this flora using a previously available supertree at the genus level, to which we added DNA sequences of 53 genera endemic to Chile. Using discrepancy values and a null model approach, we decoupled PD from taxon richness, in order to compare their geographic distribution over a one-degree grid. An interesting pattern was observed in which areas to the southwest appear to harbor more PD than expected by their generic richness than those areas to the north of the country. In addition, some southern areas showed more PD than expected by chance, as calculated with the null model approach. Geological history as documented by the study of ancient floras as well as glacial refuges in the coastal range of southern Chile during the quaternary seem to be consistent with the observed pattern, highlighting the importance of this area for conservation purposes. PMID:24683462
Gutiérrez, Eliécer E; Maldonado, Jesús E; Radosavljevic, Aleksandar; Molinari, Jesús; Patterson, Bruce D; Martínez-C, Juan M; Rutter, Amy R; Hawkins, Melissa T R; Garcia, Franger J; Helgen, Kristofer M
We studied the taxonomy and biogeography of Mazama bricenii, a brocket deer classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN, drawing on qualitative and quantitative morphology and sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene. We used Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM) to evaluate the hypothesis that M. bricenii of the Venezuelan Cordillera de Mérida (CM) might have become isolated from populations of its putative sister species, Mazama rufina, in the Colombian Cordillera Oriental (CO). This hypothesis assumes that warm, dry climatic conditions in the Táchira Depression were unsuitable for the species. Our analyses did not reveal morphological differences between specimens geographically attributable to M. bricenii and M. rufina, and phylogenetic analyses of molecular data recovered M. bricenii nested within the diversity of M. rufina. These results indicate that M. bricenii should be regarded as a junior synonym of M. rufina. ENM analyses revealed the existence of suitable climatic conditions for M. rufina in the Táchira Depression during the last glacial maximum and even at present, suggesting that gene flow between populations in the CO and CM may have occurred until at least the beginning of the current interglacial period and may continue today. Because this pattern might characterize other mammals currently considered endemic to the CM, we examined which of these species match two criteria that we propose herein to estimate if they can be regarded as endemic to the CM with confidence: (1) that morphological or molecular evidence exists indicating that the putative endemic taxon is distinctive from congeneric populations in the CO; and (2) that the putative endemic taxon is restricted to either cloud forest or páramo, or both. Only Aepeomys reigi, Cryptotis meridensis, and Nasuella meridensis matched both criteria; hence, additional research is necessary to assess the true taxonomic status and distribution of the remaining species thought to be CM endemics. PMID:26121688
Morales-Pińeyrúa Jéssica T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus 1758, is a South American grazing deer categorized as "near threatened". However, knowledge about pampas deer behavior including courtship and mating is scarce and incomplete. The aim of this study was to characterize the courtship and mating behavior of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, an endangered species from South America. Methods We performed focal observations of 5 males allocated at the Estación de Cría de Fauna Autóctona Cerro Pan de Azúcar, Uruguay, 4 times a day from 5 to 20 minutes each time on a daily basis from February to May. During that period we recorded all courtship and mating behaviors, as well as quantified the frequency of the specific behaviors shown. As mating were rarely observed, we recorded that behavior when it was observed in the context of other studies performed in the same population during the following 2 years. Results During the observation period we recorded 928 courtships and 5 mating periods. In addition, we recorded 10 more matings performed during other studies, totaling 15. The duration of each mating calculated from the 15 recordings was 3.9?±?0.4 s, and the total period of female receptivity (from first to last mating acceptance was 8.2?±?1.1 min. Main observed courtship behaviors in males were “chase” and “ostentation”, while the most observed close to mating were “chinning”, “raised head” and “anogenital sniffing”. The most observed behaviors in females during the mating period were “vulva exhibition” and “move away”. Conclusion This is the first detailed report in pampas deer mating behavior. Estrus lasted only 8 min accepting only 3 short copulations per estrus. However, female behavior during courtship can be characterized as highly proceptive.
Grovenburg, T.W.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Deperno, C.S.; Brinkman, T.J.; Swanson, C.C.; Jenks, J.A.
A trade-off exists for migrating animals as to whether to migrate or remain residents. Few studies have documented relationships between landscape variables and deer migration strategies. From 2000 to 2007 we captured 267 adult female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at 7 study sites in Minnesota and South Dakota and monitored 149 individuals through ???3 seasonal migration periods (585 deer-migration seasons). All deer classified as obligate migrators with ???3 migrations (range 3-9 migration seasons) maintained their obligate status for the duration of the study. Multinomial logistic odds ratios from generalized estimating equations indicated that the odds of being a resident increased by 1.4 and 1.3 per 1-unit increase in forest patch density and mean area, respectively, compared to migrating deer. Odds of being an obligate migrator increased by 0.7 and 0.8 per 1-unit decrease in forest patch density and mean area, respectively, compared to resident or conditional migrating deer. Areas inhabited by resident deer were characterized by greater number of forest patches per 100 ha and larger mean forest patch area than conditional and obligate migrant areas. Odds of migrating increased by 1.1 per 1-unit increase in deer winter severity index. Migration behavior of white-tailed deer varied among regions, and land-cover and landscape characteristics provided predictive indicators of migration strategies for deer that could have important implications for conservation, metapopulation dynamics, and species management. ?? American 2011 Society of Mammalogists.
Full Text Available The current paper presents a study upon the scientific knowledge on the conservation status and future perspectives of the endemic species Pietrosia levitomentosa Nyárády ex Sennikov. The scope of the paper is to improve our understanding about this endemic species and to underline its importance. The present study case is being used to highlight the main features of biodiversity conservation in Romania, a country with a high number of endemic species.
Ali, Mohammad; Nelson, Allyson R.; Lopez, Anna Lena; Sack, David A.
The global burden of cholera is largely unknown because the majority of cases are not reported. The low reporting can be attributed to limited capacity of epidemiological surveillance and laboratories, as well as social, political, and economic disincentives for reporting. We previously estimated 2.8 million cases and 91,000 deaths annually due to cholera in 51 endemic countries. A major limitation in our previous estimate was that the endemic and non-endemic countries were defined based on t...
Full Text Available We present an annotated list for all land, aquatic and marine mammals known to occur in Peru and their distribution by ecoregions. We also present species conservation status according to international organizations and the legal conservation status in Peru. At present, we record 508 species, in 13 orders, 50 families, and 218 genera, making Peru the third most diverse country with regards to mammals in the New World, after Brazil and Mexico, and the fifth most diverse country for mammals in the World. This diversity includes 40 didelphimorphs, 2 paucituberculates, 1 manatee, 6 cingulates, 7 pilosa, 39 primates, 162 rodents, 1 rabbit, 2 soricomorphs, 165 bats, 34 carnivores, 2 perissodactyls, and 47 cetartiodactyls. Bats and rodents (327 species represent almost two thirds of total diversity (64% for Peru. Five genera and 65 species (12.8% are endemics to Peru, with the majority of these being rodents (45 species, 69,2%. Most of the endemic species are restricted to the Yungas of the eastern slope of the Andes (39 species, 60% followed by Selva Baja (14 species, 21.5%. The taxonomic status of some species is commented on, when those depart from accepted taxonomy. The marsupial Marmosa phaea; the rodents Melanomys caliginosus, M. robustulus, and Echinoprocta rufescens; the shrew Cryptotis equatoris; the bats Anoura fistulata, Phyllostomus latifolius, Artibeus ravus, Cynomops greenhalli, Eumops maurus, and Rhogeessa velilla; and the carnivore Nasuella olivacea are first records of species occurrence in Peru. Finally, we also include a list of 15 non-native species.
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Malaria infection is still to be considered a major public health problem in those 106 countries where the risk of contracting the infection with one or more of the Plasmodium species exists. According to estimates from the World Health Organization, over 200 million cases and about 655.000 deaths have occurred in 2010. Estimating the real health and social burden of the disease is a difficult task, because many of the malaria endemic countries have limited diagnostic resources, especially in rural settings where conditions with similar clinical picture may coexist in the same geographical areas. Moreover, asymptomatic parasitaemia may occur in high transmission areas after childhood, when anti-malaria semi-immunity occurs. Malaria endemicity and control activities are very complex issues, that are influenced by factors related to the host, to the parasite, to the vector, to the environment and to the health system capacity to fully implement available anti-malaria weapons such as rapid diagnostic tests, artemisinin-based combination treatment, impregnated bed-nets and insecticide residual spraying while waiting for an effective vaccine to be made available.
Field, R W
White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus) tongues were assayed to assess whether or not significant widespread 137Cs contamination occurred in the vicinity of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station as a result of the 1979 accident. White-tailed deer tongues harvested from 10 Pennsylvania counties more than 88 km away from Three Mile Island had significantly higher 137Cs levels than deer tongues harvested from counties surrounding the nuclear plant. The mean deer tongue 137Cs levels found in Pennsylvania white-tailed deer were lower than 137Cs levels found in deer from other parts of the U.S. sampled shortly after culmination of major atmospheric nuclear testing. These findings support the conclusions of previous studies suggesting that only minimal quantities of 137Cs escaped from the damaged Three Mile Island plant after the accident. PMID:8491625
White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus) tongues were assayed to assess whether or not significant widespread 137Cs contamination occurred in the vicinity of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station as a result of the 1979 accident. White-tailed deer tongues harvested from 10 Pennsylvania counties more than 88 km away from Three Mile Island had significantly higher 137Cs levels than deer tongues harvested from counties surrounding the nuclear plant. The mean deer tongue 137Cs levels found in Pennsylvania white-tailed deer were lower than 137Cs levels found in deer from other parts of the US sampled shortly after culmination of major atmospheric nuclear testing. These findings support the conclusions of previous studies suggesting that only minimal quantities of 137Cs escaped from the damaged Three Mile Island plant after the accident
Curtis, P.D.; Richmond, M.E.; Miller, L.A.; Quimby, F.W.
White-tailed deer (n = 14 treated, n = 7 control) were examined postmortem to identify any possible pathophysiology resulting from PZP immunocontraception vaccination. Deer were treated twice in 1997; given a booster in 1998, with six being revaccinated in September 2000. Granulomas were found at injection sites of most deer, even 2 years post-treatment. Eosinophilic oophoritis occurred in 6 of 8 (75%) deer vaccinated in 1998, and 3 of 6 (50%) revaccinated in 2000. The 2000 revaccinates without oophoritis, had significantly fewer normal secondary follicles than control females (P = 0.03), and deer in the1998 treatment group (P = 0.04). PZP immunocontraceptive vaccine elicited ovarian pathologies in deer similar to those observed in other species. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Telford III, Sam R; Goethert, Heidi K; Cunningham, Jenny A.
Human ehrlichiosis is due to infection by tick transmitted bacteria of the genus Ehrlichia. Based on a hypothesis for the biogeography of deer tick transmitted infections, we undertook a focused search for the Eurasian E. muris in North American deer ticks. The search was stimulated by anecdotal reports of E. muris-like infection in human ehrlichiosis patients from Wisconsin. We analyzed archived adult deer ticks collected in northern Wisconsin during the 1990s by specific polymerase chain re...
Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S.; Givens, M Daniel; Brock, Kenny V.; DeYoung, Randy W.; Walz, Paul H
Cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, are an important source of viral transmission to susceptible hosts. Persistent BVDV infections have been identified in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America. As PI deer shed BVDV similarly to PI cattle, maintenance of BVDV within white-tailed deer populations may be possible. To date, intraspecific transmission of BV...
Korzhikenova, N.; Sambetbaev, A.; Iglikov, O.; Parés Casanova, Pere-Miquel
The objective of this study was to investigate asymmetry in antlers of Caspian Red Deer or maral (Cervus elaphus sibiricus) from two different genetic origins and maintained under similar conditions. Eighteen male Caspian Red Deer aged 24 months were studied. Nine animals belonged to the local Kazakh population and nine were directly imported Russian deer. The following data were obtained for right and left antlers: wet weight, stem length and circle and 1st, 2nd and 3rd shoot lengths. To obt...
Matsumoto, Tomomi; Samuel, Michael D; Bollinger, Trent; Pybus, Margo; Coltman, David W.
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. We assessed the feasibility of association mapping CWD genetic risk factors in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using a panel of bovine microsatellite markers from three homologous deer linkage groups predicted to contain candidate genes. These markers had a low cross-species amplification rate (27.9%) and showed weak linkage dis...
Mech, L.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Chapman, R.C.; Kreeger, T.J.
We conducted 31 tests of commercially manufactured capture collars on female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, under temperatures from -37C to 22C. Deer were recaptured in 28 of the 31 tests; in the 3 failures, we remotely released the collars from the deer. Communication with the collars was achieved from up to 3.0 km on the ground and 26.5 km from the air.
Belongia, E A; Reed, K. D.; P. D. Mitchell; Kolbert, C.P.; Persing, D H; Gill, J S; Kazmierczak, J J
Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) is caused by an agent that is nearly indistinguishable from the veterinary pathogens Ehrlichia equi and Ehrlichia phagocytophila. The deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, is a vector of the HGE agent, and the white-tailed deer is the primary host for adult Ixodes ticks. We assessed the distribution of granulocytic Ehrlichia infection among deer living within (Wisconsin) and outside (western and southern Iowa) the geographic range of L. scapularis. Whole-blood sa...
Alberto Meriggi; Francesca Sotti; Paolo Lamberti; Nicola Gilio
Abstract Throughout the last century, deer populations have shown a remarkable increase both in North America and Europe. As a consequence, the estimate of roe deer density has become a matter of interest. We reviewed the available literature on the methods used for monitoring roe deer populations in Europe from 1950 to 2004, with the aim of detecting the trend of papers and distribution of census techniques by years, countries and habitat types. Particular a...
Full Text Available Fibromas present very frequent skin neoplasms in different species of wild game of the family Cervidae. Viral etiology of skin neoplasms was proven in certain species of wild game from this family, with the most frequent diagnoses being: fibromas, ossifying fibromas, fibrosarcomas, multiple neurofibromatosis, fibropapillomas, and papillomas. The diagnozed tumor in the roe deer had the histological characteristics of a polimorphous fibroblast, which is not the case with domestic animals. This finding can be considered as a characteristic of fibromas in animals of the family Cervidae. Solitary fibroma or multiple fibroma (fibromatosis does not present a significant cause of deer deaths, but they cause concern among hunters who are in direct contact with them. Although fibromas do not lead to spoilage of game meat, they are esthetically repellent and people are reluctant to consume meat of such game.
Full Text Available Fecal nitrogen of free ranging and captive herbivores is correlated with dietary nitrogen, as well as other dietary chemical characteristics. Besides, only few experimental studies examined in depth the precision of these relationships. This study investigates the correlation between fecal and dietary nitrogen in fallow deer (Dama dama, using data from 38 feeding trials collected from captive subjects. Significant linear regressions were found for all the dietary and fecal chemical components, but only nitrogen showed a noteworthy result (R2=0.76, very similar to the results obtained by several authors in other deer species (Robbins, 1993. Use of fecal nitrogen however, has been criticised because plant secondary compounds, such as tannin, may artificially inflate levels of fecal nitrogen; moreover, the binding effect of tannin is strongly reduced in mixed diets. After all, fecal nitrogen confirms its usefulness in studies about feeding strategies of free living ruminants.
Ridpath, Julia F; Neill, John D; Chase, Christopher C L
While it has been demonstrated that persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections can be established in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) following in utero exposure in the first trimester of gestation, there is little to no information regarding the outcome of infection in later stages of pregnancy in deer. Our goal was to observe the impact of infection of white-tailed deer in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Five white-tailed deer in the second trimester of pregnancy and four in the third trimester were infected with a BVDV type 2 virus previously isolated from a BVDV-infected deer harvested from the wild. Infection of deer in the second trimester of pregnancy resulted in loss of the pregnancy in three of five deer. Fawns born to the two remaining deer appeared normal and were born BVDV antigen-negative with neutralizing serum antibodies against BVDV. Infection of does in the third trimester of pregnancy did not result in fetal death or persistent infection and all does gave birth to live, healthy fawns that were BVDV antigen-negative and born with antibodies against BVDV. These results, combined with those previously reported regarding BVDV infection in the first trimester of pregnancy, suggest that the impact of BVDV infection of pregnant white-tailed deer is very similar to that observed in pregnant cattle. PMID:22740542
... Plan provides a lethal deer reduction option through the use of sharpshooting with firearms, possible... through the use of sharpshooting with firearms, possible capture, and euthanasia to reduce...
Begley-Miller, Danielle R; Hipp, Andrew L; Brown, Bethany H; Hahn, Marlene; Rooney, Thomas P
Community assembly entails a filtering process, where species found in a local community are those that can pass through environmental (abiotic) and biotic filters and successfully compete. Previous research has demonstrated the ability of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to reduce species diversity and favour browse-tolerant plant communities. In this study, we expand on our previous work by investigating deer as a possible biotic filter altering local plant community assembly. We used replicated 23-year-old deer exclosures to experimentally assess the effects of deer on species diversity (H'), richness (SR), phylogenetic community structure and phylogenetic diversity in paired browsed (control) and unbrowsed (exclosed) plots. Additionally, we developed a deer-browsing susceptibility index (DBSI) to assess the vulnerability of local species to deer. Deer browsing caused a 12 % reduction in H' and 17 % reduction in SR, consistent with previous studies. Furthermore, browsing reduced phylogenetic diversity by 63 %, causing significant phylogenetic clustering. Overall, graminoids were the least vulnerable to deer browsing based on DBSI calculations. These findings demonstrate that deer are a significant driver of plant community assembly due to their role as a selective browser, or more generally, as a biotic filter. This study highlights the importance of knowledge about the plant tree of life in assessing the effects of biotic filters on plant communities. Application of such knowledge has considerable potential to advance our understanding of plant community assembly. PMID:24916059
Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Inoguchi, Noriko; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Moriyama, Hideaki; Storz, Jay F.
Epistatic interactions between mutant sites in the same protein can exert a strong influence on pathways of molecular evolution. We performed protein engineering experiments that revealed pervasive epistasis among segregating amino acid variants that contribute to adaptive functional variation in deer mouse hemoglobin (Hb). Amino acid mutations increased or decreased Hb-O2 affinity depending on the allelic state of other sites. Structural analysis revealed that epistasis for Hb-O2 affinity an...
Bailey, J.V.; Badtram, G.; Farrow, C. S.
Two sequential fractures in the left hind leg of a deer and their treatments are described. The first, a tibial fracture was treated using an intramedullary pin with full cerclage wires supported by a plaster cast. This fracture healed uneventfully. A subsequent second fracture involving the distal metatarsus was stabilized by external fixation. This fracture healed with the formation of a periosteal involucrumlike structure which encased the full length of the metatarsal bone. This involucru...
A. T. Borghare
Full Text Available Out of 60 Samples of deer from Maharajbag Zoo, Nagpur, 30 were positive for eggs and larvae of helminthic parasites. The encountered parasitic species were Haemonchus spp., Dicrocoelium spp., Paramphistomum spp., Oesophagostomum spp. and Bunostomum spp. etc. Direct smear method together with sedimentation technique were used for the purpose. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 337-338
Full Text Available Abstract The biometry, demography and genetics of red deer Cervus elaphus of Mesola Wood (NE Italy, are presented and discussed in relation to the conservation of this population. Modest body size, low stature, oversimplified antlers and a low reproductive performance characterise red deer from Mesola Wood. The mitochondrial genome showed a private haplotype, different from other red deer in Italy and central Europe. The uniqueness of this nucleus and its biogeographic importance make a long-term conservation plan particularly urgent. Management measures such as fallow deer reduction, winter feeding and pasture mowing were tested, giving promising results. The physical condition of the animals improved, calf and adult mortality declined, and a few cases of antlers with bez tine or crown were reported in this study after four decades. Riassunto Il Cervo della Mesola: caratteristiche fisiche, dinamica di popolazione e prospettive di conservazione La biometria, la demografia e la genetica del cervo Cervus elaphus del Gran Bosco della Mesola (Italia nord-orientale, vengono presentate e discusse in relazione alla salvaguardia di questa popolazione. Il cervo della Mesola risulta caratterizzato dalle modeste dimensioni corporee, dalla struttura semplificata dei palchi e da un basso rendimento riproduttivo. L'analisi del genoma mitocondriale ha evidenziato un aplotipo privato, diverso da quello degli altri cervi italiani e centroeuropei. L'unicitŕ di questo nucleo e la sua importanza biogeografica rendono particolarmente urgente un piano di conservazione a lungo termine. Sono stati verificati interventi gestionali quali la riduzione numerica dei daini, il foraggiamento invernale e lo sfalcio delle superfici a pascolo, con risultati promettenti. Le condizioni fisiche degli animali sono migliorate, la mortalitŕ tra i piccoli e gli adulti č diminuita, e sono stati registrati alcuni casi di palchi dotati di ago o corona per la prima volta dopo quattro decenni.
Price, J; Allen, S
Deer antlers are the only mammalian appendages capable of repeated rounds of regeneration; every year they are shed and regrow from a blastema into large branched structures of cartilage and bone that are used for fighting and display. Longitudinal growth is by a process of modified endochondral ossification and in some species this can exceed 2 cm per day, representing the fastest rate of organ growth in the animal kingdom. However, despite their value as a unique model of mammalian regenera...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The roe deer is the most abundant and widespread wild Eurasian cervid. Its populations are expanding and increasingly in contact with livestock. This may affect the distribution of infectious diseases shared with other wild and domestic ungulates. Methods We investigated the antibody seroprevalence against Pestivirus, Herpesvirus, Bluetongue (BT virus, M. avium paratuberculosis (MAP, and Brucella sp. in 519 roe deer from different regions in Spain, south-western Europe. Results No antibodies were detected against BT and Brucella sp. However, antibodies were detected against Pestivirus (1.5%, Herpesvirus (0.2% and MAP (9.2%. MAP antibodies were detected in seven of the eight populations (range 5-16.4%. Conclusions The detection of MAP antibodies in samples from most roe deer populations suggests that contact with MAP is widespread in this wildlife species. The highest prevalence was detected in sites with abundant dairy cattle and frequent use of liquid manure on pastures. Considering the results obtained regarding exposure to different pathogens, we suggest that antibody prevalences in this non-gregarious browser are largely determined by environmental factors, potentially modulating vector populations or pathogen survival in the environment.
Grovenburg, Troy W.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.
Despite their importance for understanding predator–prey interactions, factors that affect predator evasion behaviours of offspring of large ungulates are poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize the influence of selection and availability of escape cover and maternal presence on predator evasion by white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, fawns in the northern Great Plains, U.S.A. We observed 45 coyote, Canis latrans, chases of fawns, and we participated in 83 human chases of fawns during 2007–2009, of which, 19 and 42 chases, respectively, ended with capture of the fawn. Evasive techniques used by fawns were similar for human and coyote chases. Likelihood of a white-tailed deer fawn escaping capture, however, was influenced by deer group size and a number of antipredator behaviours, including aggressive defence by females, initial habitat and selection of escape cover, all of which were modified by the presence of parturient females. At the initiation of a chase, fawns in grasslands were more likely to escape, whereas fawns in forested cover, cultivated land or wheat were more likely to be captured by a coyote or human. Fawns fleeing to wetlands and grasslands also were less likely to be captured compared with those choosing forested cover, wheat and cultivated land. Increased probability of capture was associated with greater distance to wetland and grassland habitats and decreased distance to wheat. Use of wetland habitat as a successful antipredator strategy highlights the need for a greater understanding of the importance of habitat complexity in predator avoidance.
Long, E.S.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, B.D.; Grund, M.D.
Animal dispersal patterns influence gene flow, disease spread, population dynamics, spread of invasive species, and establishment of rare or endangered species. Although differences in dispersal distances among taxa have been reported, few studies have described plasticity of dispersal distance among populations of a single species. In 2002-2003, we radiomarked 308 juvenile (7- to 10-month-old), male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2 study areas in Pennsylvania. By using a meta-analysis approach, we compared dispersal rates and distances from these populations together with published reports of 10 other nonmigratory populations of white-tailed deer. Population density did not influence dispersal rate or dispersal distance, nor did forest cover influence dispersal rate. However, average (r2 = 0.94, P deer were greater in habitats with less forest cover. Hence, dispersal behavior of this habitat generalist varies, and use of landscape data to predict population-specific dispersal distances may aid efforts to model population spread, gene flow, or disease transmission. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.
Drudge-Coates, Lawrence; Turner, Bruce
Schistosomiasis (or bilharzia) is a chronic waterborne disease caused by parasitic worms or schistosoma in the tropics and sub tropics. Five main species exist, and common to all is its transmission to humans as a result of exposure to infested fresh water, into which the cercariae of the parasite are released by freshwater snails. With the rise of tourism and travel, more people are travelling to countries where schistosomiasis is a risk. Schistosoma haematobium is responsible for urogenital schistosomiasis, in which manifestations range from acute hypersensitivity reactions to bladder disease in the detection of which the nurse cystoscopist can have a significant role. Treatment is highly effective, and the diagnosis should be considered in individuals with possible clinical illness who have travelled to or lived in endemic areas. PMID:23752571
Carslake, David; Grant, Wyn; Green, Laura E; Cave, Jonathan; Greaves, Justin; Keeling, Matt; McEldowney, John; Weldegebriel, Habtu; Medley, Graham F
Cattle are infected by a community of endemic pathogens with different epidemiological properties that invoke different managerial and governmental responses. We present characteristics of pathogens that influence their ability to persist in the UK, and describe a qualitative framework of factors that influence the political response to a livestock disease. We develop simple transmission models for three pathogens (bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine herpesvirus and Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis) using observed cattle movements, and compare the outcomes to an extensive dataset. The results demonstrate that the epidemiology of the three pathogens is determined by different aspects of within- and between-farm processes, which has economic, legal and political implications for control. We consider how these pathogens, and Mycobacterium bovis (the agent of bovine tuberculosis), may be classified by the process by which they persist and by their political profile. We further consider the dynamic interaction of these classifications with pathogen prevalence and with the action taken by the government. PMID:21624918
... reduction of the deer herd size through sharpshooting and capture/euthanasia, where appropriate. Alternative.... These actions would include the reduction of the deer herd through sharpshooting, in combination...
Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Bochsler, P.N.; Hall, S.M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.
In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.
Dubay, Shelli; Jacques, Christopher; Golden, Nigel; Kern, Bryant; Mahoney, Kathleen; Norton, Andrew; Patnayak, Devi; Van Deelen, Timothy
White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are commonly exposed to disease agents that affect livestock but environmental factors that predispose deer to exposure are unknown for many pathogens. We trapped deer during winter months on two study areas (Northern Forest and Eastern Farmland) in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2013. Deer were tested for exposure to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, bratislava, pomona, and hardjo), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR), and parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3). We used logistic regression to model potential intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., land type, study site, year, exposure to multiple pathogens) variables we considered biologically meaningful to exposure of deer to livestock pathogens. Deer sampled in 2010-2011 did not demonstrate exposure to BVDV, so we did not test for BVDV in subsequent years. Deer had evidence of exposure to PI3 (24.7%), IBR (7.9%), Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (11.7%), L. i. bratislava (1.0%), L. i. grippotyphosa (2.5%) and L. i. hardjo (0.3%). Deer did not demonstrate exposure to L. interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. For PI3, we found that capture site and year influenced exposure. Fawns (n = 119) were not exposed to L. i. pomona, but land type was an important predictor of exposure to L. i. pomona for older deer. Our results serve as baseline exposure levels of Wisconsin white-tailed deer to livestock pathogens, and helped to identify important factors that explain deer exposure to livestock pathogens. PMID:26030150
Eberhardt, L.E.; McCorquodale, S.M.; Sargeant, G.A.
A study of elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) was conducted in the vicinity of planned site characterization activities for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). Both species are known to be sensitive to disturbance and are considered important species because they are recreationally and/or commercially valuable. The principal objectives of the study were to (1) estimate pre-activity (site characterization) recruitment of deer and elk, (2) characterize deer and elk use of limited habitats critical to their survival (e.g., riparian areas), (3) describe preferential habitat use by deer and elk during critical seasons (i.e., winter and summer), and (4) document pre-activity distributions of seasonal home range centers of deer and elk. Early termination of BWIP prevented some of the objectives from being fully addressed. Fifteen adult elk (11 females and 4 males) and 19 female deer equipped with radio transmitters were studied on the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve from February through December 1987. More than 1800 relocations of the marked elk and deer were made during aerial and ground tracking sessions. Deer confined their activities to within 2 km of water sources. In contrast, elk used 6-12 times the average area used by deer. As with deer, female elk were closely associated with available water sources during the summer and fall, presumably because of the physiological demands of lactation. However, during the winter, female elk showed no preference for areas near water, as did male elk throughout the study. Riparian areas, which are scarce on the arid Hanford Site, are particularly valuable habitat to both elk and deer because they provide drinking water and succulent forage during the dry summer and early fall months.
A Survey of goiter prevalence, among population of five endemic and four non endemic regions of Ethiopia was carried out prior to the distribution of iodate d salt. urine samples were collected from 327 subjects selected by systematic random sampling from endemic and 276 taken as non endemic. The lowest mean urinary iodine excretion (UIE) value was recorded in Bure (22 micro gl/day) and the highest in Alemmaya (148 micro gl/day). The highest goiter rate ( percent TGR) was recorded in Sawla 55.6 %) and the lowest (0.6 %) in Yabello. Iodine content of drinking was in the range of 0.4 - 48.5 micro gl. Iodine content of water source was correlated positively ( r0.8399) with the mean of UIE and TGR, however, indicates that sites considered as non endemic seem to be affected by iodine deficiency. The study results urge the need for intervention in controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders. 3 tab
PAIRAH; YANTO SANTOSA; LILIK BUDI PRASETYO; ABDUL HARIS MUSTARI
Javan deer that exist in Panaitan Island was reintroduced from Peucang Island during 1978-1982. We observed behavior of the reintroduced Javan deer inhabiting Panaitan Island. Javan deer in this island spent most of their diurnal time for feeding. There were no significant differences between all age-sex variation for all activities pattern. The behavior of Javan deer was influenced by age, sex, social group, temperature, and food availability.
Full Text Available Javan deer that exist in Panaitan Island was reintroduced from Peucang Island during 1978-1982. We observed behavior of the reintroduced Javan deer inhabiting Panaitan Island. Javan deer in this island spent most of their diurnal time for feeding. There were no significant differences between all age-sex variation for all activities pattern. The behavior of Javan deer was influenced by age, sex, social group, temperature, and food availability.
Lewis, A.W.; D.A. Neuendorff; S.T. Willard; R. D. Randel
A study was conducted to determine whether axis (Axis axis) and fallow deer (Dama dama) could be hybridized using artificial insemination (AI). The feasibility of hybridization between these two deer species has implications for free-ranging (mixed) populations of deer species and intensive deer farming production systems. An intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (CIDR) was inserted into axis (n=16) and fallow (n=38) does for 14 d to synchronize estrus. Following CIDR removal, axis does ...
Palmer, Mitchell V; Thacker, Tyler C; Waters, W. Ray; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee
Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to other deer and cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer, thus interfering with the intraspecies and interspecies transmission cycles. Thirty-three white-tailed deer were assigned to one of two groups; oral vaccination with 1×108 colony-forming u...
Waters, W. R.; Palmer, M V; Bannantine, J. P.; Whipple, D L; Greenwald, R.; J. Esfandiari; Andersen, P.; McNair, J.; Pollock, J. M.; Lyashchenko, K. P.
White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have emerged as reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis in northern America. For tuberculosis surveillance of deer, antibody-based assays are particularly attractive because deer are handled only once and immediate processing of the sample is not required. Sera collected sequentially from 25 Mycobacterium bovis-infected and 7 noninfected deer were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting, and multiantigen print immunoassay (MA...
The concentrations of heavy metals, lead, mercury and cadmium were tested in liver, kidney and rib samples taken from 43 red deer, 24 deer and 42 chamois between June 1982 and June 1983. Since the free living animals aquire the damaging substances through food, water and air intake, the determined sediments found in the bodies give information on the environmental pollution. The lead content in liver and kidney showed minimal values averraging between 0.001 and 0.014 ppm in all three animal types. Ribs, as well as all bones, due to the effect of time, served as reservoirs for lead with average values of 0.2-0.4ppm. In two chamois livers the maximal values of 3.007 and 1.006 ppm were detected and can be accounted for in a secondary contaminated originating from the lethal projectile. In reference to age and sex, no differences could be seen. A seasonal dependency was determined such that the concentration increased in spring and summer in examined livers and kidneys. The rumen content and grazing habit analysis showed minimal residue amounts as in the indicator organs. This lies in connection with the locality of the hunting grounds compared to the road. The mercury content in liver and kidney was of the maximal value 0.449 ppm. Deer showed the greatest contamination in the kidneys, which were surprisingly high in the fall. After rumen content and grazing analysis, the high value can be accounted for the deer's preference to eat mushrooms in the fall which contained an average 1.029 ppm Hg. Changes in concentrations could not be determined to be sex and age dependet. The cadmium concentration was highest in the kidney cortex in all three animal types. A highly significant dependency should be observed in the cadmium concentration. Deer showed the greatest amounts in each age class, which can be referred back to the grazing habits, to the preferred herbs and mushrooms which have high cadmium contents. Due to the strong influence of the age factor in cadmium storage in the organism, a sex or season dependency of concentration gradient could not be determined. (Author)
...Record of Decision for the Final White-Tailed Deer Management Plan/Environmental...Decision (ROD) for the Final White-tailed Deer Management Plan/Environmental...issued a ROD for the Final White-tailed Deer Management Plan/EIS for...
Full Text Available Endemism, the restriction of a taxon’s distribution to a specified geographical area, is central to the study of biogeography. Understanding endemism not only concerns a number of evolutionary and biogeographical issues, but also plays an important role in maintaining biodiversity and in the selection of priority areas for conservation. In recent years, various measures and analytical methods have been used to investigate patterns of endemism for various taxa from different regions. The emergence of these new measurements has benefited from the construction of phylogenetic trees and the implementation of data from spatial statistics. Some of these measures, such as phylogenetic diversity, phylogenetic endemism, and biogeographically weighted evolutionary distinctiveness deserve much more attention. Here, we review progress in the methodology used to measure the distribution patterns of endemism. These metrics have generally developed from a single time or space perspective to space-time united patterns. Specifically, the metrics include species richness, phylogenetic diversity and evolutionary distinctiveness, plus all there in combination as well as the weight of species range size. Moreover, we propose that studies on the distribution patterns of Chinese endemic taxa should pay attention to species diversity, phylogenetic diversity, species ?-diversity, and phylogenetic ?-diversity. In particular, model simulation analysis should be emphasized and implemented during investigations. These studies will provide fundamental knowledge for comprehensive recognition of scale-induced differences and for the detection of mechanisms underlying the distribution patterns of endemic taxa, and therefore provide theoretical support for biodiversity conservation.
Farrington, Susan J; Muzika, Rose-Marie; Drees, Dan; Knight, Tiffany M
Few demographic models for any species consider the role of multiple, interacting ecological threats. Many forest herbs are heavily browsed by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and a number of these are also harvested for the medicinal, floral, or horticultural trades. Previous studies of the viability of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) have separately examined the effects of harvesting and deer herbivory. We followed individually marked ginseng plants in 6 populations for 8 years and documented deer browse levels, conducted helicopter surveys to estimate the deer herd size, and documented 2 ginseng harvests. We used this long-term data set to develop a stochastic demographic model that quantified the separate and interactive role of these threats to ginseng viability. Although harvesting and deer herbivory negatively affected ginseng population growth, their effects were not additive. Deer herbivory negatively affected population growth in the absence but not in the presence of harvesting. Life table response experiments revealed that in the presence of harvesting, deer herbivory had some positive effects on vital rates because browsed plants were less apparent to harvesters. Ginseng populations that were harvested responsibly (i.e., planting seeds from harvested individuals) had higher growth rates than those that were harvested irresponsibly. We concluded that both deer populations and harvesting must be managed to ensure sustainable populations of American ginseng. Our findings underscore the importance of long-term monitoring to assess threats to viability and the need for a broad ecological understanding of the complexity of ecosystem management. PMID:19183206
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of deer and elk. The disorder is characterized by accumulation of an abnormally folded isoform of the normal cellular prion protein. Disease prevalence in farmed herds of white tailed deer can exceed 80%. Attempts to control ...
Baran?eková, Miroslava; Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Šustr, P.; Heurich, M.
Srní : Šumava National Park , 2011 - (Šustr, P.). s. 10 [European Roe Deer Meeting /11./. 07.06.2011-10.06.2011, Srní] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : roe deer * diet Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://10roedeermeeting.npsumava.cz/RDM2011abstractbook.pdf
Douglass, Richard J; Semmens, William J; Matlock-Cooley, Stephanie Jo; Kuenzi, Amy J
Prevalence of antibody to Sin Nombre virus (SNV) has been found to be nearly twice as high in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) in peridomestic settings as in sylvan settings in two studies in Montana and one in New Mexico. We investigated whether this difference may be related to a difference in deer mouse movements in the two settings. We used radiotelemetry to determine home range size and length of movement for 22 sylvan (1991-1992) and 40 peridomestic deer mice (1995-1999). We also determined the percentage of locations inside versus outside of buildings for peridomestic mice. Though variable, average home range size for female deer mice was significantly smaller for peridomestic deer mice than for sylvan deer mice. The smaller home range in peridomestic settings may concentrate shed SNV, and protection from solar ultraviolet radiation inside buildings may increase environmental persistence of SNV. Both these factors could lead to increased SNV exposure of deer mice within peridomestic populations and result in higher antibody prevalence. Peridomestic deer mice moved between buildings and outside areas, which is evidence that SNV can be transmitted between peridomestic and sylvan populations. PMID:17255448
Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis in domestic livestock. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer in order to interrupt...
Thompson, A.K.; Samuel, M.D.; VanDeelen, T.R.
We conducted experimental feeding using 3 feeding methods (pile, spread, trough) and 2 quantities (rationed, ad libitum) of shelled corn to compare deer activity and behavior with control sites and evaluate potential direct and indirect transmission of infectious disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central Wisconsin, USA. Deer use was higher at 2 of the feeding sites than at natural feeding areas (P ??? 0.02). Deer spent a higher proportion of time (P deer use for rationed than ad libitum feeding quantities and feeding intensity was greatest at rationed piles and lowest at ad libitum spreads. We also observed closer pairwise distances (???0.3 m) among deer when corn was provided in a trough relative to spread (P=0.03). Supplemental feeding poses risks for both direct and indirect disease transmission due to higher deer concentration and more intensive use relative to control areas. Concentrated feeding and contact among deer at feeding sites can also increase risk for disease transmission. Our results indicated that restrictions on feeding quantity would not mitigate the potential for disease transmission None of the feeding strategies we evaluated substantially reduced the potential risk for disease transmission and banning supplemental feeding to reduce transmission is warranted.
Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.
Seven adult female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota lived within 1.8 km of Wolf pack (Canis lupus) homesites without vacating their home ranges. Six of these deer and at least three of their fawns survived through the Wolf homesite period.
... ANIMAL PRODUCTS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN DEER, ELK, AND MOOSE § 81.2 Identification of deer, elk, and... approved for this use by APHIS, and must be an electronic implant, flank tattoo, ear tattoo, tamper-resistant ear tag, or other device approved by APHIS. One of the animal identifications must be an...
...Board [Order No. 1682] Grant of Authority For Subzone Status; Deere & Company (Agricultural Equipment and Component...Waterloo, IA Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act...subzone status with manufacturing authority at the Deere & Company facilities, located in...
A simple, small-scale method for the determination of the presence or absence of permethrin on the hair coat of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), by high performance liquid chromatography was developed. White-tailed deer in South Texas and the northeastern U.S. are routinely tr...
Full Text Available The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster is an endangered species found in the Himalayan region of Nepal. This research was conducted in the Manaslu Conservation Area to explore the deers general population status, distribution, habitat preference and conservation threats. Musk deer are distributed within the altitudinal range of 3128-4039 m spanning 35.43 km2, with the most potential habitat in the Prok VDC (Village Development Committee. Within this area the Musk deer highly preferred altitudes between 3601-3800 m, with a 21-30 slope, 26-50% crown cover and 26-50% ground cover. There are significant differences in the use of different habitat types in terms of altitude, slope, crown cover, ground cover and topography. The preferred tree species were Abies spectabilis, Betula utilis and Rhododendron species. Poaching of deer for their musk is the major conservation threat.
Steven A. Mauro
Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing E. coli carrying the stx1 and/or stx2 genes can cause multi-symptomatic illness in humans. A variety of terrestrial and aquatic environmental reservoirs of stx have been described. Culture based detection of microbes in deer species have found a low percentage of samples that have tested positive for Stx-producing microbes, suggesting that while deer may contain these microbes, their overall abundance in deer is low. In this study, quantitative PCR (qPCR was utilized to test for the presence of stx genes in white-tailed deer fecal matter in western Pennsylvania. In this culture independent screening, nearly half of the samples tested positive for the stx2 gene, with a bias towards samples that were concentrated with stx2. This study, while limited in scope, suggests that deer may be a greater reservoir for stx than was previously thought.
Full Text Available Plant adaptation to serpentine soils is a system ideal for studies in evolutionary ecology. Serpentine soils are characterized by low calcium to magnesium ratios with Ca at significantly lower concentrations relative to surrounding areas. Although some variation occurs between sites which identified three collective traits: poor plant productivity, high rates of endemism and vegetation type distinct from those of neighboring areas. The several morphological feature characteristic of serpentine-tolerant species is possess xeromorphic foliage, including reduced leaf size and sclerophylls, the stature is significantly reduced relative to counterparts on non serpentine soil and root systems of species growing on and off serpentine sites are often more developed on serpentine soils than on neighboring soils. Serpentine soils are ubiquitous, but patchily distributed and thus promote geographic isolation. Adaptation to edaphic conditions may also beget reproductive isolation. Adaptive mutation might be influenced frequently from related species inhabiting surrounding areas. For the future studies involving serpentine systems merge the fields of ecology, evolution, physiology, and genetics required for serpentine adaptation.
Cruz-Ruiz, Griselda; Venegas-Barrera, Crystian S.; Sanchez-Sanchez, Hermilo
The demographic characteristics of an amphibian population fluctuate independently over time, mainly in response to the temporal variation of environmental factors, especially precipitation and temperature. These temporal fluctuations may contribute to the size of an amphibian population and could be used to determine the current conservation status of a species. During a five year (2004–2008) period, we studied the relative abundance, sex ratio, and age-sex structure of a population of metamorphosed individuals of the endemic treefrog Hyla eximia in Central Mexico. We also studied the species’ relationship with climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation. We found an interannual constant abundance during the study period. However, interannual differences were observed in the population structure by age-sex category (males, females, or juveniles), with decreased abundance of males and juveniles during the rainy months (August–November). The annual abundance of H. eximia was positively correlated with rainfall, but negatively with monthly temperature. We found the sex ratio was male-biased (2:1), except for year 2008. Also, differences in snout-vent length (SVL) were found between years, suggesting changes in recruitment of new individuals. We conclude that variations in abundance, and frequencies by age-sex category, of H. eximia are related to seasonal variations in temperature and precipitation characteristics of temperate zones. However, this temporal stability may suggest that anurans have an unusual capacity to persist even in the face of human-induced habitat change. PMID:26421242
The growth of Red Deer as the center of the oil and natural gas service industry in the Alberta oilpatch was discussed. Red Deer is the home base of many of Alberta's major service companies (Haliburton, Schlumberger, Computalog, Nowsco, Canadian Fracmaster, Hughes, Bonus and Challenger), and new companies are regularly looking for industrial properties to establish themselves in the city. Industrial land acquisition currently runs at about triple of the average for the previous ten years. Another significant spin-off of energy wealth around Red Deer comes from the manufacturing of petrochemical building blocks of plastics, at nearby Joffre. With expansion projects that include Union Carbide Canada and Amoco Canada, predictions of population growth to 100,000 from the current 75,000, are commonplace. These expansion projects spell up to 2,500 construction jobs for the next three years, and then 400 new permanent plant positions that will pay $60,000 and up for skilled specialist jobs. There are some concerns about the threat of the Alliance Gas Pipeline project that if it materializes it might export many jobs, along with the natural gas, to the United States. However, these concerns are less serious than the fear that Alliance threatens to raise the price of the raw material by draining away surpluses from the industry, thus removing the major Canadian advantage in competition with U.S. industry. Alliance supporters counter that even at maximum export through the Cochin liquid pipeline, only half of the ethane production that will be potentially available, will be exported
Levi, Taal; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Mangel, Marc; Wilmers, Christopher C.
Lyme disease is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in North America, and both the annual incidence and geographic range are increasing. The emergence of Lyme disease has been attributed to a century-long recovery of deer, an important reproductive host for adult ticks. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that Lyme disease risk may now be more dynamically linked to fluctuations in the abundance of small-mammal hosts that are thought to infect the majority of ticks. The continuing...
A mathematical model for endemic malaria involving variable human and mosquito populations is analysed. A threshold parameter R0 exists and the disease can persist if and only if R0 exceeds 1. R0 is seen to be a generalisation of the basic reproduction ratio associated with the Ross-Macdonald model for malaria transmission. The disease free equilibrium always exist and is globally stable when R0 is below 1. A perturbation analysis is used to approximate the endemic equilibrium in the important case where the disease related death rate is nonzero. A diffusion approximation is used to approximate the quasi-stationary distribution of the associated stochastic model. Numerical simulations show that when R0 is distinctly greater than 1, the endemic deterministic equilibrium is globally stable. Furthermore, in quasi-stationarity, the stochastic process undergoes oscillations about a mean population whose size can be approximated by the stable endemic deterministic equilibrium. (author)
Full Text Available Madeira island presents a unique spider diversity with a high number of endemic species, many of which are still poorly known. A recent biodiversity survey on the terrestrial arthropods of the native forest, Laurisilva, provided a large set of standardized samples from various patches throughout the island. Out of the fifty two species recorded, approximately 33.3% are Madeiran endemics, many of which had not been collected since their original description. Two new species to science are reported – Ceratinopsis n. sp. and Theridion n. sp. – and the first records of Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841 and Tetragnatha intermedia Kulczynski, 1891 are reported for the first time for Madeira island. Considerations on species richness and abundance from different Laurisilva locations are presented, together with distribution maps for endemic species. These results contribute to a better understanding of spider diversity patterns and endemic species distribution in the native forest of Madeira island.
Dhargalkar, V.K.; Abidi, S.A.H.
The paper summarises current level of knowledge on the endemic Antarctic macroalgae. The macroalgal adaptation to low temperature, response to different photoperiod during the season, animal-macroalgal interaction and reproductive strategies...
Kumar Verma, Praveen; Srivastava, S. C.
The status of endemic liverworts in the Western Ghats ‘one of the major Hot spots’ of plant biodiversity have been discussed in the present paper. The study is based on the evaluation of type and authentic specimens available in Lucknow University Hepatic Herbarium (LWU) as well as those in several international herbaria including NICH, NY, JE, FH, G and excicatae of the world and published data. An overall assessment and evaluation revealed the presence of a total of 54 liverworts endemic to...
Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi
India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Wes...
Loarie, Scott R.; Carter, Benjamin E.; Hayhoe, Katharine; McMahon, Sean; Moe, Richard; Knight, Charles A.; David D. Ackerly
The flora of California, a global biodiversity hotspot, includes 2387 endemic plant taxa. With anticipated climate change, we project that up to 66% will experience >80% reductions in range size within a century. These results are comparable with other studies of fewer species or just samples of a region's endemics. Projected reductions depend on the magnitude of future emissions and on the ability of species to disperse from their current locations. California's varied terrain could cause sp...
Houe, Hans; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Sřren Saxmose
"Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle" provides the key elements that should be addressed in the establishment of bovine disease control and eradication programmes. The book aims to reach a broad group of readers, including: students; professionals in veterinary practice, industry and governmental institutions; researchers; and others involved in control and eradication of endemic diseases in livestock. Key elements range from socioeconomic aspects such as motivation;...
Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Waltari, Eric; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Rosauer, Dan; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Damasceno, Roberta; Prates, Ivan; Strangas, Maria; Spanos, Zoe; Rivera, Danielle; Pie, Marcio R; Firkowski, Carina R; Bornschein, Marcos R; Ribeiro, Luiz F; Moritz, Craig
Phylogeographic endemism, the degree to which the history of recently evolved lineages is spatially restricted, reflects fundamental evolutionary processes such as cryptic divergence, adaptation and biological responses to environmental heterogeneity. Attempts to explain the extraordinary diversity of the tropics, which often includes deep phylogeographic structure, frequently invoke interactions of climate variability across space, time and topography. To evaluate historical versus contemporary drivers of phylogeographic endemism in a tropical system, we analyse the effects of current and past climatic variation on the genetic diversity of 25 vertebrates in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. We identify two divergent bioclimatic domains within the forest and high turnover around the Rio Doce. Independent modelling of these domains demonstrates that endemism patterns are subject to different climatic drivers. Past climate dynamics, specifically areas of relative stability, predict phylogeographic endemism in the north. Conversely, contemporary climatic heterogeneity better explains endemism in the south. These results accord with recent speleothem and fossil pollen studies, suggesting that climatic variability through the last 250 kyr impacted the northern and the southern forests differently. Incorporating sub-regional differences in climate dynamics will enhance our ability to understand those processes shaping high phylogeographic and species endemism, in the Neotropics and beyond. PMID:25122231
The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something or quite a lot about the plants, no intelligent steps can be taken towards protecting them. 520 of the c. 750 endemics are listed on the Red Data "endangered list" by the Council of Europe in 1986 but few know the nature or extent of the threat. Work is currently in preparation on an Endemic Flora of Greece. Three volumes are envisaged: the first deals with the Peloponnese; the second will cover Crete and the islands and the third, the rest of mainland Greece. It is planned to have a sound and scientific basis for plant conservation and education. Within the Balkans more than 60% of the endemic taxa have been mapped and it is already possible to recognize the hot-spots of biodiversity as these are linked to the centres of endemism. Determining the centres of diversity is an important and significant contribution to further conservation measures at the global level.
Ollerton, Jeff; Cranmer, Louise; Stelzer, Ralph J.; Sullivan, Steve; Chittka, Lars
The Canary Islands are home to a guild of endemic, threatened bird-pollinated plants. Previous work has suggested that these plants evolved floral traits as adaptations to pollination by flower specialist sunbirds, but subsequently, they appear to have co-opted generalist passerine birds as sub-optimal pollinators. To test this idea, we carried out a quantitative study of the pollination biology of three of the bird-pollinated plants, Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae), Isoplexis canariensis (Veronicaceae) and Lotus berthelotii (Fabaceae), on the island of Tenerife. Using colour vision models, we predicted the detectability of flowers to bird and bee pollinators. We measured pollinator visitation rates, nectar standing crops as well as seed-set and pollen removal and deposition. These data showed that the plants are effectively pollinated by non-flower specialist passerine birds that only occasionally visit flowers. The large nectar standing crops and extended flower longevities (>10 days) of Canarina and Isoplexis suggests that they have evolved a bird pollination system that effectively exploits these low frequency non-specialist pollen vectors and is in no way sub-optimal. Seed set in two of the three species was high and was significantly reduced or zero in flowers where pollinator access was restricted. In L. berthelotii, however, no fruit set was observed, probably because the plants were self-incompatible horticultural clones of a single genet. We also show that, while all three species are easily detectable for birds, the orange Canarina and the red Lotus (but less so the yellow-orange Isoplexis) should be difficult to detect for insect pollinators without specialised red receptors, such as bumblebees. Contrary to expectations if we accept that the flowers are primarily adapted to sunbird pollination, the chiffchaff ( Phylloscopus canariensis) was an effective pollinator of these species.
WENG, XIAOMAN; Xing, Yan; Liu, Jian; Wang, YongHong; Ning, Yong; Li, Ming; Wu, Wenbin; Zhang, Lianhua; Li, Wei; Heiden, Jason Vander; VISSA, VARALAKSHMI
Leprosy continues to be detected at near stable rates in China even with established control programs, necessitating new knowledge and alternative methods to interrupt transmission. A molecular epidemiology investigation of 190 patients was undertaken to define M. leprae strain types and discern genetic relationships and clusters in endemic and non-endemic regions spanning seventeen provinces and two autonomous regions. The findings support multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNT...
Allen, Robert B; Forsyth, David M; Allen, Roy K J; Affeld, Kathrin; MacKenzie, Darryl I
Assemblages of introduced taxa provide an opportunity to understand how abiotic and biotic factors shape habitat use by coexisting species. We tested hypotheses about habitat selection by two deer species recently introduced to New Zealand's temperate rainforests. We hypothesised that, due to different thermoregulatory abilities, rusa deer (Cervus timorensis; a tropical species) would prefer warmer locations in winter than red deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus; a temperate species). Since adult male rusa deer are aggressive in winter (the rut), we also hypothesised that rusa deer and red deer would not use the same winter locations. Finally, we hypothesised that in summer both species would prefer locations with fertile soils that supported more plant species preferred as food. We used a 250 × 250 m grid of 25 remote cameras to collect images in a 100-ha montane study area over two winters and summers. Plant composition, solar radiation, and soil fertility were also determined for each camera location. Multiseason occupancy models revealed that direct solar radiation was the best predictor of occupancy and detection probabilities for rusa deer in winter. Multistate, multiseason occupancy models provided strong evidence that the detection probability of adult male rusa deer was greater in winter and when other rusa deer were present at a location. Red deer mostly vacated the study area in winter. For the one season that had sufficient camera images of both species (summer 2011) to allow two-species occupancy models to be fitted, the detection probability of rusa deer also increased with solar radiation. Detection probability also varied with plant composition for both deer species. We conclude that habitat use by coexisting tropical and temperate deer species in New Zealand likely depends on the interplay between the thermoregulatory and behavioural traits of the deer and the abiotic and biotic features of the habitat. PMID:26061426
Eberhardt, L.E.; Hedlund, J.D.; Rickard, W.H.
From 1969 to 1977, 346 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) fawns were tagged and released on islands and shoreline habitat associated with the Columbia River on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. The purpose was to determine the movement of mule deer along the Columbia River shoreline from the Hanford Site through tag recovery. Twenty-one tagged deer have been killed primarily by hunters near the Hanford Site or on areas of the Hanford Site open to public access. Movements of up to 113 km from Hanford have been documented. Although the Columbia River at Hanford is one of the largest and most swift-flowing rivers in North America it is not an impassable barrier to mule deer. River islands are important and perhaps critical fawining habitat for the local deer herd. The selection of these islands by pregnant female deer is apparently influenced by predation, human access, and recreational use of islands. The number of fawns captured decreased during the latter years of the study (1974 to 1977). This is probably a reflection of an actual decrease in deer productivity, particularly along the upper stretch of the Columbia flowing through the Hanford Site. The reasons for this apparent decrease are unkown.
FlŘjgaard, Camilla; Ejrnćs, Rasmus
Humans have modified most ecosystems on Earth to a degree where even the largest “wild” nature reserves need management to avoid the loss of biodiversity. Native large herbivore grazing has potential as an efficient and natural tool in this management because they create dynamics and keep landscapes open. However, in order to use this tool properly, we need to know more about what the animals eat compared to what is available in different habitats and how access to supplementary fodder influences the grazing effect on the vegetation. Using DNA barcoding of feces, we are investigating the diet preferences of deer (red deer and roe deer) in Klelund Deer Park in Denmark. Over one year, we collect feces samples every month from different habitat types (e.g., heath, marsh, meadow, open forests and coniferous plantation) within the park. DNA barcoding can not only tell us which plants are consumed but also in which proportions. We intend to uncover the variation in deer diet over a year and among different habitatsand how supplementary fodder influences the diet preference. The results will contribute to a better understanding of deer management as well as how deer grazing can be used as a tool in management of open landscapes.
Renter, D G; Sargeant, J M; Hygnstorm, S E; Hoffman, J D; Gillespie, J R
In order to determine the prevalence and distribution of the human pathogen, Escherichia coli O157:H7, in free-ranging deer, hunters were asked to collect and submit fecal samples from deer harvested during a regular firearm season (14-22 November 1998). Prior to the season, 47% of the hunters with permits in the southeastern Nebraska (USA) study area indicated a willingness to participate in the study. Approximately 25% of successful hunters in the area submitted deer fecal samples. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was cultured from four (0.25%) of 1,608 total samples submitted. All of the fecal samples that were properly identified (1,426) and all that were positive for E. coli O157:H7 were from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We were unable to detect a statistically significant geographic distribution pattern of E. coli O157:H7. The presence of E. coli O157:H7 in the feces of free-ranging deer has implications not only for hunters, consumers of venison, and others in contact with deer or deer feces, but also for the development of strategies aimed at reducing and/or controlling this pathogen in water sources and domestic livestock. PMID:11763739
Full Text Available Traditionally, back yard deer husbandry is well developed in some parts in Papua, though information on deer husbandry has not been provided yet. Therefore, this study was aimed at highlighting the diet provided to the deer in back yard husbandry model in Manokwari. Survey method was approached by visiting eight deer back yard farmer respondents. Direct observation to the feeding site and semi-structured interview were carried out to learn about the deer management system, and identify the forage diet species consumed and served to the animals. The results indicated five most common forage species consumed in the study; they were field grass, Imperata (Imperata cylindrica, elephant grass (Penisetum purpureum, king grass (Penisetum purpureopoidhes and Melinis minutiflora depending on the location of farmed deer. Drinking water was offered and feed supplement such as various leafs, food and vegetable left over and banana peel was provided by 62.5% of the respondents. Food supplement was given two times per day (morning, evening and (afternoon, evening. Forage food species consumed in the study sites were relatively more similar to the food in the natural habitat. (Animal Production 12(2: 91-95 (2010Key Words: forage, food, Timor deer, Manokwari
Passler, Thomas; Walz, Paul H; Ditchkoff, Stephen S; Givens, M Daniel; Maxwell, Herris S; Brock, Kenny V
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections cause substantial economic losses to the cattle industries. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the most important reservoir for BVDV. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are the most abundant species of wild ruminants in the United States and contact between cattle and deer is common. If the outcome of fetal infection of white-tailed deer is similar to cattle, PI white-tailed deer may pose a threat to BVDV control programs. The objective of this study was to determine if experimental infection of pregnant white-tailed deer with BVDV would result in the birth of PI offspring. Nine female and one male white-tailed deer were captured and housed at a captive deer isolation facility. After natural mating had occurred, all does were inoculated intranasally at approximately 50 days of pregnancy with 10(6) CCID(50) each of a BVDV 1 (BJ) and BVDV 2 (PA131) strain. Although no clinical signs of BVDV infection were observed or abortions detected, only one pregnancy advanced to term. On day 167 post-inoculation, one doe delivered a live fawn and a mummified fetus. The fawn was translocated to an isolation facility to be hand-raised. The fawn was determined to be PI with BVDV 2 by serial virus isolation from serum and white blood cells, immunohistochemistry on skin biopsy, and RT-PCR. This is the first report of persistent infection of white-tailed deer with BVDV. Further research is needed to assess the impact of PI white-tailed deer on BVDV control programs in cattle. PMID:17353103
Dumont, Bertrand; Renaud, Pierre-Cyril; Morellet, Nicolas; Mallet, Christophe; Anglard, Frederic; Verheyden-Tixier, Hélčne
Red deer play a major role in shaping forest vegetation, and a better understanding of their selectivity is needed in order to provide a basis for deer habitat and population management. In order to measure deer selectivity, information is required on both the use and availability of different food items at the feeding site scale, which has often been proven difficult to achieve with wild animals. In this study, we introduced three hinds for five days in each season into a 1 ha paddock establ...
D' Angelo, Gino, J.; Kilgo, John, C.; Comer, Christopher, E.; Drennan, Cory, D.; Osborn, David, A.; Miller, Karl, V.
D'Angelo, Gino, J., John C. Kilgo, Christopher E. Comer, Cory D. Drennan, David A. Osborn, and Karl V. Miller. 2003. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer. In: Proceedings of the Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies. 57:317-325. This article explores the relationship between controlled dog hunting and the movements of female white tailed deer at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The data suggests that short term, controlled dog hunting has little long-term effect on adult, female white-tailed deer movement on the Savannah River Site.
Full Text Available Four female lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus were used in this study to observe their feed consumption and digestibility given alternative diets in captive. The results showed that 125g/head/day sweet potatoes supplementation in ration increased the consumption and digestibility of dry matter intake, ash, ether extract, and N-free extract. Supplementation of commercial concentrate in lesser mouse deer’s diet decreased the digestion of dry matter, ash, crude protein, and crude fiber. Animal Production 6(1: 17-22 (2004 Key Words: Digestibility, Consumption, Alternative Diets, Tragulus javanicus
Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.; Frame, P.F.
Based on global positioning system (GPS) radiocollars in northeastern Minnesota, deer migrated 23-45 km in spring during 31-356 h, deviating a maximum 1.6-4.0 km perpendicular from a straight line of travel between their seasonal ranges. They migrated a minimum of 2.1-18.6 km/day over 11-56 h during 2-14 periods of travel. Minimum travel during 1-h intervals averaged 1.5 km/h. Deer paused 1-12 times, averaging 24 h/pause. Deer migrated similar distances in autumn with comparable rates and patterns of travel.
Todd K. Shury; Caulkett, Nigel A.; Woodbury, Murray R.
Carfentanil and medetomidine were used to immobilize 8 captive female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using mean dosages [± standard deviation (s)] of 14.2 ± 1.11 ?g/kg carfentanil and 17.8 ± 2.03 ?g/kg of medetomidine. Deer were reversed by intranasally or intramuscularly administered naltrexone and atipamezole. Dosages of carfentanil and medetomidine proved reliable for immobilization of most, but not all deer, with a mean induction time of 13.3 ± 3.13 min. Effective and reliable...
Grovenburg, T.W.; Jenks, J.A.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Swanson, C.C.
Maternal investment plays a critical role in neonate survival, and adults can improve survival of offspring by defending them against predators. However, limited information exists documenting ungulate aggression toward humans in defense of neonates. During captures of neonates in spring 2007 and 2008 in north-central South Dakota, we documented 24 aggressive encounters by adult female and yearling male and female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) defending neonates. Eleven (45.8%) aggressive encounters included yearlings accompanying adult females. Mean ages and weights of neonates that were aggressively defended were greater (P white-tailed deer, and that deer biased maternal investment toward older, male neonates. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.
Mauro, Steven A.; Surafel Mulugeta; Whitney M. Kistler
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli carrying the stx1 and/or stx2 genes can cause multi-symptomatic illness in humans. A variety of terrestrial and aquatic environmental reservoirs of stx have been described. Culture based detection of microbes in deer species have found a low percentage of samples that have tested positive for Stx-producing microbes, suggesting that while deer may contain these microbes, their overall abundance in deer is low. In this study, quantitative PCR (qPCR) was utilized to...
Martín-Hernando, M.P.; Torres, María José; Aznar, J.; Negro, Juan J.; Gandía, A.; Gortázar, Christian
Wild deer have an important role in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis (bTB). The aims of this study were (1) to compare the pattern of lesions present in wild red (Cervus elaphus) and fallow (Dama dama) deer that were naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis, and (2) to use this information to develop a sampling strategy for the isolation of M. bovis from the lymphoid tissues of the head of these animals. Culture of head lymphoid tissues demonstrated that 28 of 95 red deer and 22 of ...
Relaciones espaciales y numéricas entre venados de las pampas (Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer) y chanchos cimarrones (Sus scrofa) en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Bahía Samborombón, Argentina / Spatial and numerical relationships between Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer) and feral pigs (Sus scrofa) in the Bahía Samborombón Wildlife Refuge, Argentina
Lorena C, Pérez Carusi; Mario S, Beade; Fernando, Mińarro; Alejandro R, Vila; Mariano, Giménez-Dixon; David N, Bilenca.
Full Text Available Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer es la subespecie más austral del venado de las pampas; es endémica de la eco-región pampeana y se encuentra seriamente amenazada de extinción. En Buenos Aires, el último núcleo poblacional existente se localiza en la Bahía Samborombón. El objetivo del presente trabajo fu [...] e determinar las variaciones en la distribución y abundancia de venados y chanchos cimarrones en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Bahía Samborombón, y discutir la interacción potencial entre ambas especies. Se realizaron seis muestreos aéreos durante el período 2002-2005, en los que se contabilizaron 747 venados y 2690 chanchos, y se registró una leve disminución del número de venados y un notable incremento del de chanchos. Se halló una correlación negativa entre la densidad de ambas especies (r s=-0.83; P=0.04) y se detectó que su distribución no es independiente entre sí. En las últimas tres décadas se observó un cambio en la distribución de venados, posiblemente asociado al incremento de chanchos. Este trabajo aporta evidencias indirectas de la existencia potencial de interacciones negativas entre las dos especies que se reflejan en relaciones numéricas y espaciales inversas. Abstract in english Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer, the southernmost subspecies of pampas deer and endemic to the Argentine Pampas, is seriously endangered. In Buenos Aires Province, the last Pampas deer population is located in the Bahía Samborombón region. Poaching and the increase in exotic species such as feral dogs [...] and feral pigs have been suggested as the most important causes affecting the recovery of the deer population. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the spatial and temporal variations in distribution and abundance of the Pampas deer and the feral pig in the Bahía Samborombón Wildlife Refuge and to discuss the possible consequences of the interaction between these species. Six aerial surveys were conducted during 2002-2005. A total of 747 deer and 2690 feral pigs were counted, with a slight decrease in the deer sightings and an important increase in pig sightings during the sampling period. Estimated density ranged between 0.63-1.56 individuals/km˛ for deer and from 0.91 to 7.78 individuals/km˛ for pigs. A negative correlation was found between densities of the two species (r s=-0.83; P=0.04), and the distributions are not mutually independent. A progressive change in distribution has been detected in the Pampas deer population during the last three decades. This study provides evidence of the potential existence of negative interactions between Pampas deer and pigs. Due to the critical situation of the Pampas deer population, a control plan for feral pigs should be developed and urgently implemented to prevent the increase and expansion of this population to the south of the Samborombón bay, and consequently, to reduce the potential competition and predation on the existing deer population.
Full Text Available The Micronesia-Polynesia bioregion is recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot. However, until now estimates regarding the number of endemic plant species for the region were not supported by any comprehensive published work for the region. The results of this study indicate that Micronesia has the world’s highest percentage of plant endemism per square kilometer out of all globally recognized insular biodiversity hotspots. A checklist of all endemic plant species for Micronesia is presented here with their corresponding geographical limits within the region. A summary of previous work and estimates is also provided noting the degree of taxonomic progress in the past several decades. A total of 364 vascular plant species are considered endemic to Micronesia, most of them being restricted to the Caroline Islands with a large percentage restricted to Palau. The checklist includes seven new combinations, one new name, and two unverified names that require additional study to verify endemic status. Overviews of each respective botanical family represented in the list are given including additional information on the Micronesian taxa. Recommendations for future work and potential projects are alluded to throughout the text highlighting major data gaps and very poorly known taxa. The following new combinations and names are made: Cyclosorus carolinensis (Hosokawa Lorence, comb. nov. , Cyclosorusgretheri (W. H. Wagner Lorence, comb. nov., Cyclosorusguamensis (Holttum Lorence, comb. nov., Cyclosorus palauensis (Hosokawa Lorence, comb. nov. , Cyclosorus rupiinsularis (Fosberg Lorence, comb. nov., Dalbergia hosokawae (Hosokawa Costion nom. nov., Syzygium trukensis (Hosokawa Costion & E. Lucas comb. nov.
Inoguchi, Noriko; Oshlo, Jake R.; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Storz, Jay F.; Moriyama, Hideaki
The deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, exhibits altitude-associated variation in hemoglobin oxygen affinity. To examine the structural basis of this functional variation, the structure of the hemoglobin has been solved.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An excessively high deer population will conflict with any forest management program conducted at James River National Wildlife Refuge. To accomplish the objective...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at National Key Deer Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial photography, cadastral...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a plan for special deer and turkey hunting opportunities at Crane Meadows NWR. Goals, strategies, messages, and key dates relevant to this plan are outlined.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Maryland darter Etheostoma sellare is one of the rarest fish in the world, existing in one riffle of Deer Creek, Harford County. There have been several...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This article discusses wildlife habitat problems and research needs in the northern Rocky Mountains and is focused primarily on habitats of deer and elk. The...
Bojesen, Anders M.; Larsen, Jesper
Eight atypical Mannheimia isolates were isolated from lesions in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Traditional classification based on morphologic and physiologic traits showed that they belong to a distinct biogroup (taxon) within genus Mannheimia. Extensive phenotypic characterization suggested that the isolates should be classified as M. granulomatis, although the presence of distinct traits justified their classification into a separate biogroup within this species. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA sequences from two roe deer isolates and 41 other Mannheimia strains supported that the roe deer isolates form a monophyletic group within M. granulomatis. The lktA genotype was present in all roe deer isolates based on Southern blot analysis, whereas the corresponding beta-hemolytic phenotype was absent in one of these isolates.
Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows the potential current distribution of mule deer, in the context of current and near-term terrestrial intactness and long-term potential for climate...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document outlines the gatehouse guidelines for Parker River National Wildlife Refuge during the 1993 deer hunt. Key responsibilities include: checking in each...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These Deer Harvest Records show raw data for muzzleloader hunts collected from check in stations at Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge from 19972001
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These Deer Harvest Records show raw data for muzzleloader hunts collected from check in stations at Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge from 19952001 and 2005
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Environmental Action Memorandum for the proposed Ottawa NWR Whitetailed Deer Hunting Plan states that the plan is found not to have significant environmental...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This FONSI for the Ottawa NWR proposed Whitetailed Deer Hunting Plan states that the plan does not pose a significant threat to diminish the areas value for...
van der Plicht, J.; Molodin, V. I.; Kuzmin, Y. V.; Vasiliev, S. K.; Postnov, A. V.; Slavinsky, V. S.
We obtained new data on the existence of giant deer (Megaloceros giganteus Blum.) in Siberia during the Holocene. Bones and antler of giant deer from new localities in western (Baraba forest steppe) and eastern (Angara River basin) Siberia are dated by radiocarbon, ranging 7900-10,300 BP (ca 8800-12,200 cal BP). Based on these data, we can extend the 'Siberian' Early Holocene habitat of giant deer at least 2400 km to the east compared to previous works. The final extinction of giant deer turned out to be more complex than it was previously thought, with perhaps relatively large refugium in Western Siberia at 7900-7000 BP (ca 8800-7900 cal BP) which was reduced to the Trans-Urals region at 7000-6800 BP (ca 7900-7600 cal BP).
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The letter and enclosed report discusses the health evaluation of 5 deer taken randomly from Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge population. Herd health appears...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document describes the Snake River Islands in the Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge which have been studied pursuant to the Wilderness Act of 1964 to...
Foreyt, W J; Drawe, D L
The efficacy of clorsulon and of albendazole against Fascioloides magna were evaluated in 36 naturally infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in southern Texas. A single oral dose of clorsulon suspension (12 to 30 mg/kg of body weight; mean = 24 mg/kg) was given to each deer and killed 153 (92%) of 167 mature flukes and 4 (80%) of 5 immature flukes recovered at necropsy. A single oral dose of albendazole paste (17 to 46 mg/kg; mean = 26 mg/kg) was given to each deer and killed 148 (89%) of 167 mature flukes and 4 (67%) of 6 immature flukes recovered at necropsy. In 82 nontreated control deer, 271 live flukes were recovered; dead flukes were not recovered. PMID:4077630
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Refuge hunting for the 1998 season included whitetailed deer and feral hogs only. The State of Virginias Department of Game Inland Fisheries VDGIF maintains a...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to initiate an annual public hunt for whitetailed deer on Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. It is the purpose of the...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey for National Key Deer Refuge and is part of the USGS Data Series 754. The survey was conducted to...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The report covers the program to monitor the status of deer on Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge since 1985. This program is run by the Fisheries and Wildlife...
Ray, Herman A.; Bennett, C. Michael; Records, Andrew W.
The failure of the Teton Dam caused extreme flooding along the Teton River, Henrys Fork, and Snake River in southeastern Idaho on June 5-8, 1976. No flooding occurred downstream from American Falls Reservoir. The inundated areas and maximum water-surface elevations are shown in a series of 17 hydrologic atlases. The area covered by the atlases extends from Teton Dam downstream to American Falls Reservoir, a distance of 100 miles. The extent of flooding shown on the maps was obtained by field inspections and aerial photographs made during and immediately after the flood. There may be small isolated areas within the boundaries shown that were not flooded, but the identification of these sites was beyond the scope of the study. The elevation data shown are mean-sea-level elevations of high-water marks identified in the field. This particular map (in the 17-map series) shows conditions in the Deer Parks quadrangle. (Woodard-USGS)
Schillhorn van Veen, T W
A survey among 1.12 million cattle slaughtered in 357 packing plants in Michigan during 1977 to 1981 was conducted to determine the prevalence of liver fluke infection. The condemnation rate of liver fluke-infected livers was 0.41, 3.7, and 13.9% in the southern, northern-lower, and upper regions of Michigan, respectively. The same trend in infection rates was observed in white-tailed deer that had been examined in diagnostic laboratories in the state. A serologic survey among 50 randomly selected dairy farms detected Fascioloides antibody-carrying cattle in 3 farms. The data on prevalence in slaughter cattle were slightly biased, because many slaughter cattle originated from other states in which F magna may be less common. PMID:3667410
129I can be released in many forms, most of which can be incorporated into animals, metabolized, concentrated and stored in the small thyroid gland. Atmospheric nuclear weapons tests added ?0.37 TBq of 129I to the ?1.48 TBq naturally present in the earth, oceans, and atmosphere. Previous investigators showed that during 1965--1969, thyroids of most cattle in USA contained less than 0.001 Bq 129I/g (wet weight) of thyroid. From 1984 through 1993 the authors measured 129I in 19 to 143 deer thyroids per year from the 316 square miles Savannah River Site (SRS) in SC. Most of these thyroids have averaged 0.1 to 2.8 Bq 129I/g. The storage and release of 129I at the SRS has been extensively reviewed. That report shows between 1954 and 1989 approximately 0.1. TBq of 129I was released into seepage basins, 0.2 TBq released into the atmosphere and 0.3 TBq retained in waste storage tanks. From 1985--1987 the annual medians of 129I/g deer thyroid from SRS were sustained at 0.03--0.06 Bq g-1 thyroid. In 1988 the median was highest at 0.12 Bq/g thyroid. The medians then decreased and in 1992 and 1993 they were 0.028 and 0.032 Bq 129I/g thyroid. The annual average concentrations showed a similar trend with a maximum in 1989 of 2.3 Bq/g thyroid and in 1992 and 1993 the averages were reduced to 0.12 and 0.34 Bq 129I/g. 129I in thyroid glands may be a minimal biohazard but it is a convenient biological index of contamination by a long-lived fission product
Yaro Ribeiro Gandra
Full Text Available É feita uma revisăo das principais classificaçőes clínicas do bócio endęmico,colocando-se em destaque as divergęncias normativas existentes entre elas. Enfatiza-se a importância do diagnóstico clínico da hipertrofia incipiente da glândula tiróide no acompanhamento da evoluçăo da endemia bociosa através da vigilância epidemiológica. Sugere-se uma adaptaçăo metodológica no exame clínico do bócio endęmico.A review of the principal clinical classifications of endemic goiter was carried out and the existing normative divergences emphasized. The importance of the clinical diagnosis of incipient hypertrophy of the thyroid gland on the epidemiologic surveillance of endemic goiter was considered. A methodologic adaptation for the clinical diagnosis of endemic goiter was suggested.
Asunción, Cano; Isidoro, Sánchez.
Full Text Available La familia Caryophyllaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar 19 géneros y 126 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), principalmente hierbas y subarbustos. En este trabajo reconocemos 44 endemismos en 11 géneros. Estos taxones endémicos se encuentran principalmente en las regiones Altoandina y Mesoa [...] ndina, entre los 2500 y 4950 m de altitud. Se aplicaron las categorías y criterios de la UICN a 43 taxones. Diez taxones endémicos se encuentran representados dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Caryophyllaceae are represented in Peru by 19 genera and 126 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), mainly herbs and subshrubs. Here we recognize 44 endemic taxa in 11 genera. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to 43 taxa. Endemic taxa are found mainly in the High- Andean and Mesoandean regions, [...] between 2500 and 4950 m elevation. Ten endemic species have been registered within Peru´s protected areas system.
The dramatic increase of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) harvest in Norway the recent decades have led to concerns of possible oversized populations, and negative density effects on animal life history traits have been documented. However, few studies have been done on the state of the plant community. Measurements of accumulated browsing on important winter forage were conducted in two municipalities in Sogn and Fjordane, both to get better data on red deer diet and also in order to suggest wh...
Magnarelli, L A; Denicola, A; Stafford, K C; Anderson, J. F.
Ticks and blood samples were collected from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in forests located in an insular, urban area of Bridgeport, Conn., and in rural south central Connecticut during 1992 and 1993. Immature and adult Ixodes scapularis ticks were tested for Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme borreliosis, by indirect fluorescent-antibody staining methods. Deer sera were analyzed for antibodies to this bacterium by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infected ti...
Greenlee Justin J
Full Text Available Abstract Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to the agent of scrapie after intracerebral inoculation and to compare clinical signs and lesions to those reported for chronic wasting disease (CWD. Deer (n = 5 were inoculated with 1 mL of a 10% (wt/vol brain homogenate derived from a sheep clinically affected with scrapie. A non-inoculated deer was maintained as a negative control. Deer were observed daily for clinical signs of disease and euthanized and necropsied when unequivocal signs of scrapie were noted. One animal died 7 months post inoculation (pi due to intercurrent disease. Examinations of brain tissue for the presence of the disease-associated abnormal prion protein (PrPSc by western blot (WB and immunohistochemistry (IHC were negative whereas IHC of lymphoid tissues was positive. Deer necropsied at 15-22 months pi were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Deer necropsied after 20 months pi had clinical signs of depression and progressive weight loss. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain (at levels of cerebrum, hippocampus, colliculus, cerebellum, and brainstem, trigeminal ganglion, neurohypophysis, retina, spinal cord, and various lymphoid tissues including tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and spleen. This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation. To further test the susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie these experiments will be repeated with a more natural route of inoculation.
Ramos, Jaime,; Bugalho, Miguel; Cortez, José Paulo; Iason, Glenn
Antler rubbing is a form of behaviour by which deer may damage and ultimately induce mortality of trees. Understanding factors affecting selection of trees for rubbing may contribute to mitigation of negative effects of such behaviour in plantations or woodlands. We analysed characteristics of trees rubbed by red and roe deer along transects established in plantations of Pinus pinaster (Aiton), Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco, Betula alba L. and Quercus robur L. in Northeast Portugal. T...
Guber, Andrey K; Fry, Jessica; Ives, Rebecca L; Rose, Joan B
White-tailed deer are an important reservoir for pathogens that can contribute a large portion of microbial pollution in fragmented agricultural and forest landscapes. The scarcity of experimental data on survival of microorganisms in and release from deer feces makes prediction of their fate and transport less reliable and development of efficient strategies for environment protection more difficult. The goal of this study was to estimate parameters for modeling Escherichia coli survival in and release from deer (Odocoileus virginianus) feces. Our objectives were as follows: (i) to measure survival of E. coli in deer pellets at different temperatures, (ii) to measure kinetics of E. coli release from deer pellets at different rainfall intensities, and (iii) to estimate parameters of models describing survival and release of microorganisms from deer feces. Laboratory experiments were conducted to study E. coli survival in deer pellets at three temperatures and to estimate parameters of Chick's exponential model with temperature correction based on the Arrhenius equation. Kinetics of E. coli release from deer pellets were measured at two rainfall intensities and used to derive the parameters of Bradford-Schijven model of bacterial release. The results showed that parameters of the survival and release models obtained for E. coli in this study substantially differed from those obtained by using other source materials, e.g., feces of domestic animals and manures. This emphasizes the necessity of comprehensive studies of survival of naturally occurring populations of microorganisms in and release from wildlife animal feces in order to achieve better predictions of microbial fate and transport in fragmented agricultural and forest landscapes. PMID:25480751
Woodbury, Murray R.; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Mihajlovic, Biljana
This study compares the results and suitability of serological testing, microscopic examination, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection, and bacterial culture for detecting Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection in asymptomatic farmed white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus). Deer were classified as infected if culture slants from their feces, lymph nodes, or ileum were positive, or if a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay detected Map DNA in any of its tissues. ...
Stephen L. Webb; Kenneth L. Gee; Bronson K. Strickland; Stephen Demarais; DeYoung, Randy W.
Few studies have documented fine-scale movements of ungulate species, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), despite the advent of global positioning system (GPS) technology incorporated into tracking devices. We collected fine-scale temporal location estimates (i.e., 15 min/relocation attempt) from 17 female and 15 male white-tailed deer over 7 years and 3 seasons in Oklahoma, USA. Our objectives were to document fine-scale movements of females and males and determine effects ...
Greenlee Justin J; Smith Jodi D; Kunkle Robert A
Abstract Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to the agent of scrapie after intracerebral inoculation and to compare clinical signs and lesions to those reported for chronic wasting disease (CWD). Deer (n = 5) were inoculated with 1 mL of a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate derived from a sheep clinically affected with...
Magnarelli, L A; Anderson, J. F.; Cartter, M. L.
Ticks and blood specimens were collected from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Connecticut and analyzed to identify foci for Lyme borreliosis. Males and females of Ixodes scapularis, the chief vector of Borrelia burgdorferi, were collected from deer in five of eight counties during 1989-1991. Analysis by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) staining of midgut tissues showed that prevalence of infection was highest (9.5% of 367 ticks) in south central and southeastern Connecticut. ...
Begley-Miller, Danielle R.; Hipp, Andrew L; Brown, Bethany H.; Hahn, Marlene; Rooney, Thomas P.
Promotional Statement: White-tailed deer browsing has been implicated in the loss of species diversity from forests throughout eastern North America. We build on this previous research by examining how browsing also affects phylogenetic community structure. With this approach, we can better understand the role of deer browsing in the community assembly process. In browsed plots, we found that reductions in phylogenetic diversity were much greater than reductions in species richness or diversi...
Tate, Cynthia M.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Mead, Daniel G; Dugan, Vivien G; Luttrell, M. Page; Sahora, Alexandra I.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.; Davidson, William R; Yabsley, Michael J
Recently, an undescribed Anaplasma sp. (also called Ehrlichia-like sp. or WTD agent) was isolated in ISE6 tick cells from captive white-tailed deer. The goal of the current study was to characterize this organism using a combination of experimental infection, morphologic, serologic, and molecular studies. Each of 6 experimentally inoculated white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) became chronically infected (100+ days) with the Anaplasma sp. by inoculation of either infected whole bl...
Ernest, Holly B; Hoar, Bruce R.; Well, Jay A.; O’Rourke, Katherine I
Molecular genetic data provide powerful tools for genealogy reconstruction to reveal mechanisms underlying disease ecology. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) congregate in matriarchal groups; kin-related close social spacing may be a factor in the spread of infectious diseases. Spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of deer and their cervid relatives, is presumed to be associated with direct contact between individuals and by exposure to shared food and water sourc...
Zimmerman, T.J.; Jenks, J.A.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Neiger, R.D.
Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n=42) and mule deer (n=41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (T1), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P???0.05) between habitats. Because of the nutritional demands of gestation and lactation, we hypothesized that elemental concentrations would vary depending on reproductive status; Cd, Cu, Ca, P, Mn, Mo, Na, and Zn values differed (P???0.05) by reproductive status. We also hypothesized that, due to variation in feeding strategies and morphology between deer species, hepatic elemental concentrations would reflect dietary differences; Ca, Cu, K, Co, Mo, Se, and Zn differed (P???0.05) between species. Further research is needed to determine causes of variation in hepatic mineral levels due to habitat, reproductive status, and species. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.
Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora; Verheyden, Hélčne; Hoste, Hervé; Cargnelutti, Bruno; Lourtet, Bruno; Merlet, Joel; Daufresne, Tanguy; Lavín, Santiago; Hewison, A. J. Mark; Morand, Serge; Serrano, Emmanuel
Abstract The influence of landscape structure and host diet on parasite load of wildlife is still largely unknown. We studied a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population in a fragmented agricultural landscape in southern France to explore the relationship of gastrointestinal nematode load with spleen mass (to index immunocompetence), faecal nitrogen (to index diet quality), landscape structure and age of 33 hunt-harvested roe deer. Gastrointestinal worm counts were negatively relat...
Embury-Hyatt, Carissa K.; Wobeser, Gary; Simko, Elemir; Woodbury, Murray R.
A newly recognized syndrome, characterized by sudden death of farmed deer that are in good to excellent nutritional condition, with lesions of small intestinal mucosal hemorrhage and splenomegaly, is described. Other frequently observed lesions were small intestinal mucosal necrosis, abomasal hemorrhage, random hepatic necrosis, and multifocal hepatic congestion. Clostridium perfringens type A was isolated in high numbers from the intestines of many of the deer affected by the syndrome; howev...
Hansen, Leslie A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Biggs, James [Northern New Mexico College; Bennett, Kathryn D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bare, Carey [Bare and Associates, LLC; Sherwood, Sherri R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
In 2009, approximately 260,000 animal-vehicle collisions were reported in the United States, resulting in 12,000 human injuries and 173 human fatalities. Research has focused on identifying factors associated with high densities of animal-vehicle collisions, including variables such as traffic speed and volume, road design, topographic features, vegetative cover, and local deer or elk (Cervus elaphus) abundance. The purposes of this study were to document how often and where mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) crossed roads in a western United States wildland-urban interface area, and to relate deer road-crossing behavior to deer-vehicle collision locations. Seven adult mule deer (four males [M] and three females [F]) were captured and collared with GPS-enabled collars during December 2001 and January 2002. Five of the seven deployed collars were recovered. None of the roads in the study area appeared to act as a substantial barrier to deer passage. Deer home ranges straddled highways and primary, secondary, and tertiary arterial roads. Deer crossed all types of roads. The average number of times deer crossed road during 24 hours of monitoring ranged from 2.1 to 7.0. Deer in the Los Alamos townsite avoided crossing roads during day and before sunset. Deer-vehicle accidents occurred at 350 percent of the level expected after sunset. All other time periods had fewer accidents than expected. The distribution of accidents across time periods was not similar to the distribution of road crossings across time periods for any deer. Within Los Alamos County there was a clear trend for deer-vehicle collisions to occur on roads with speed limits > 35 mph. Deer in the townsite frequently crossed roads with lower speed limits; therefore, the reason for the paucity of accidents along these roads was evidently the ability of drivers to detect deer (or the ability of deer to detect vehicles) and respond before an accident occurred. There was a significant but not strong correlation between the density of accidents and the density of road crossings. This was probably related to the high number of deer crossings of tertiary arterial roads, where accidents were not likely to occur.
Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Grundel, Ralph
Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been a concern for land managers in eastern North America because of their impacts on native forest ecosystems. Managers have sought native plant species to serve as phytoindicators of deer impacts to supplement deer surveys. We analyzed experimental data about red trillium (Trillium recurvatum), large flowered trillium (T. grandiflorum), nodding trillium (T. cernuum), and declined trillium (T. flexipes) growth in paired exclosure (fenced) plots and control (unfenced) plots from 2002 to 2010 at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The latter two species lacked replication, so statistical analysis was not possible. All red trillium plants were surveyed for height-to-leaf, effects of browsing, and presence of flowers. Data from individuals in 2009 demonstrated a sigmoidal relationship between height-to-leaf and probability of flowering. The relationship on moraine soils was shifted to taller plants compared to those on sand substrates, with respectively 50 percent flowering at 18 and 16 cm and 33 percent flowering at 16 and 14 cm height-to-leaf. On a plot basis, the proportion of plants flowering was influenced by height to leaf, duration of protection, and deviation in rainfall. The proportion of plants flowering increased ninefold in exclosures (28 percent) compared to control plots (3 percent) over the 8 years of protection. The mean height-to-leaf was a function of the interaction between treatment and duration, as well as red trillium density. Changes in height-to-leaf in control plots from year to year were significantly influenced by an interaction between change in deer density and change in snowfall depth. There was a significant negative correlation between change in deer density and snowfall depth. Plants in the exclosures increased in height at a rate of 1.5 cm yr?1 whereas control plants decreased in height by 0.9 cm yr?1. In all, 78 percent of the control plots lacked flowering individuals over the 9 years of study, indicating that red trillium is being negatively affected by deer throughout the East Unit of the park. Of the five deer management zones studied, only one showed pre-impact height-to-leaf and flowering percentages in control plots that then declined after 2005. The results of this study demonstrate that Trillium species growing in the lands of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore are being suppressed reproductively by deer browsing. Specifically, we demonstrate, for the first time, the utility of using red trillium (Trillium recurvatum) height-to-leaf and percentage of flowering as indicators of the impacts of deer browsing. Application of the recommended thresholds demonstrates their utility in adopting red trillium as a phytoindicator of deer impact. Responses of plants to protection from deer suggest that deer culling might be necessary for 6 or more years for red trillium populations and rare trillium species to recover.
Full Text Available Dermatophytosis has been described in wildlife, but the literature reporting dermatophyte prevalence in deer is incomplete. To determine the prevalence of dermatophytes and to evaluate the hypothetical role of asymptomatic carriers hair samples were collected from 30 legally hunted wild red deer (Cervus elaphus in the Stelvio National Park, Italy. All deer were visually examined for dermatologic lesions and the coat was brushed using a modified Mackenzie collection method. A small sample of hair was used for direct microscopical examination and subsequently fungal culture was performed on the hair samples. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations were used to identify dermatophytes, saprophytic fungi and yeasts. None of the deer had visible cutaneous lesions. No dermatophyte spores or hyphae were found on direct microscopical examination and, when hair samples were cultured, dermatophytes were not demonstrated in any sample. Only saprophytic fungi were grown, predominantly Alternaria spp., Mucor spp., Cladosporium spp. These results did not reveal the presence of asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes in the deer sample population of Stelvio National Park and suggest that it is unlikely that, at least in the investigated geographical area, the red deer act a reservoir for transmission of dermatophytes to other wild animals, livestock or people living locally
Héctor Gibrán Ochoa-Álvarez
Full Text Available The sustainable use of white-tailed deer in Mexico can only be performed in Management Units for the Conservation of Wildlife (UMA , for its acronym in Spanish , based on a management plan for legal operation. Among the methods for population estimate harvest rates, highlights fecal count groups, depending on the frequency at which a deer excretes daily, and whose values are estimated from captive specimens and tolerant observer, but considering subspecies and different from the northern Sinaloa conditions. Using these rates of defecation can lead to overharvesting. This research was conducted in the farmed deer of the indigenous ejido (Mayo-Yoreme ethnic group called “Los Capomos”, in the municipality of El Fuerte, Sinaloa, between October 2011 and May 2012, to estimate the rate of defecation counts from fecal groups, obtained from a confined deer population and in apparent equilibrium with its environment through adjustments to the model of Eberhardt and Van Etten. It was found that the lowest rate published defecation (12.7 deer fecal groups per day, the estimated population accounted for half of the known population, which would prevent excessive use of native deer in the wild. However, the pattern of random grouping of excreta in confinement, makes it advisable that it be used in conditions of freedom, since it presupposes the mathematical model used aggregate grouping patterns.
The 137Cs content in deer killed during programmed hunts at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has averaged 9.0 pCi/g. This value, based on measurements of 13,907 deer taken over 14 years (1965 to 1978), similar to the value obtained for 552 deer from other southeastern Coastal Plain locations, indicating the 137Cs content is due to fallout from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons rather than from SRP operations. The computerized SRP data base for each harvested deer includes age, sex, weight, cesium content, kill location, date, and the hunter's name. Analysis of these data enables the estimation of population dose from ingestion of the edible meat. Consumption of all edible meat from deer killed at SRP from 1965 to 1978 gives a whole body population dose of 196 man-rem from 137Cs. Assuming an annual consumption rate of 20 kg gives an average individual whole body dose of 13 mrem, about 10% of local annual background level. The radiation dose from 40K of natural potassium content of deer is comparable to the radiation dose from 137Cs
Fred Van Dyke
Full Text Available Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus are known to shift habitat use in response to environmental modifications, including those associated with energy development. Their specific behavioral responses, however, and capacities to habituate to particular aspects of energy development have not been effectively studied. We examined mule deer response to habitat alteration near natural gas wells in Las Animas County, Colorado, USA in 2008—2010, an area experiencing development for extraction of natural gas. We created 10-1 ha openings in forests adjacent to 10 wells by removing standing trees in 2008, with concomitant establishment of 10 1-ha control sites adjacent to the same wells. On each site, we estimated deer use, indexed by pellet density, before and after tree removal. Concurrently, we measured plant production, cover, nutritional quality, species composition and biomass removed by deer and other large herbivores. Species richness and diversity and graminoid and forb cover and biomass increased on cut sites following tree removal. Use increased following tree removal on cut and control sites, but was greater on cut sites in 2010. Herbivores removed negligible quantities of vegetation on control sites in both years, suggesting that control sites may have been used primarily for concealment. Mule deer demonstrated the behavioral capacity to habituate to habitat modifications and other environmental changes associated with development for the extraction of energy. Managing forage and habitat availability appears to have the potential to affect the type of response and degree of habituation by mule deer to such development.
McDonald, J.E., Jr.; DeStefano, S.; Gaughan, C.; Mayer, M.; Woytek, W.A.; Christensen, S.; Fuller, T.K.
We monitored 142 radiocollared adult (>1.0 yr old) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 3 study areas of Massachusetts, USA, to estimate annual survival and mortality due to legal hunting. We then applied these rates to deer harvest information to estimate deer population trends over time, and compared these to trends derived solely from harvest data estimates. Estimated adult female survival rates were similar (0.82-0.86), and uniformly high, across 3 management zones in Massachusetts that differed in landscape composition, human density, and harvest regulations. Legal hunting accounted for 16-29% of all adult female mortality. Estimated adult male survival rates varied from 0.55 to 0.79, and legal hunting accounted for 40-75% of all mortality. Use of composite hunting mortality rates produced realistic estimates for adult deer populations in 2 zones, but not for the third, where estimation was hindered by regulatory restrictions on antlerless deer harvest. In addition, the population estimates we calculated were generally higher than those derived from population reconstruction, likely due to relatively low harvest pressure. Legal harvest may not be the dominant form of deer mortality in developed landscapes; thus, estimates of populations or trends that rely solely on harvest data will likely be underestimates. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.
Goode, Matthew J; Beaver, Jared T; Muller, Lisa I; Clark, Joseph D.; van Manen, Frank T.; Harper, Craig T; Basinger, P Seth
Traditional methods for estimating white-tailed deer population size and density are affected by behavioral biases, poor detection in densely forested areas, and invalid techniques for estimating effective trapping area. We evaluated a noninvasive method of capture—recapture for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) density estimation using DNA extracted from fecal pellets as an individual marker and for gender determination, coupled with a spatial detection function to estimate density (spatially explicit capture—recapture, SECR). We collected pellet groups from 11 to 22 January 2010 at randomly selected sites within a 1-km2 area located on Arnold Air Force Base in Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee. We searched 703 10-m radius plots and collected 352 pellet-group samples from 197 plots over five two-day sampling intervals. Using only the freshest pellets we recorded 140 captures of 33 different animals (15M:18F). Male and female densities were 1.9 (SE = 0.8) and 3.8 (SE = 1.3) deer km-2, or a total density of 5.8 deer km-2 (14.9 deer mile-2). Population size was 20.8 (SE = 7.6) over a 360-ha area, and sex ratio was 1.0 M: 2.0 F (SE = 0.71). We found DNA sampling from pellet groups improved deer abundance, density and sex ratio estimates in contiguous landscapes which could be used to track responses to harvest or other management actions.
Skeletal fluorosis continues to be endemic in many parts of India. Osteosclerosis and interosseous membrane calcification have long been regarded as hallmarks of this disease. Our study showed in addition a wide variety of radiological patterns: Coarse trabecular pattern, axial osteosclerosis with distal osteopenia and diffuse osteopenia. Subjects with osteopenic changes had a significantly lower dietary intake of calcium than those groups having normal radiological findings, predominant osteosclerosis or coarse trabecular pattern (p<0.001, p<0.01, and p<0.01 respectively). This suggests the role of calcium intake in determining the skeletal changes in endemic fluorosis. (orig.)
Full Text Available A checklist of 864 plant taxa representing 355 genera and 93 families is given for the Karoo National Park. A total of 121 species are endemic to the Nama-Karoo, with Asteraceae the most common with 33 taxa. followed by Mesembryanthemaceae with 26 taxa. Phytochorological affinities indicate that 19.8% of the species are from the Nama- Karoo Biome only, another 19.8% are distributed over two biomes, and 41% of the species have a widespread distribution. The Karoo National Park conserves 30% of the recognized endemics of the Nama-Karoo Biome.
Deem, S L; Noval, R A; Yonow, T; Peter, T F; Mahan, S M; Burridge, M J
Although heartwater (Cowdria ruminantium infection) is one of the most economically important tick-borne diseases of sub-Saharan Africa, its epidemiology he's remained poorly understood until recently. New data, suggesting that heartwater is present in an endemically stable state in much of sub-Saharan Africa and demonstrating vertical transmission of Cowdria ruminantium in the field, have altered previously accepted views on heartwater epidemiology. In this paper, Sharon Deem and colleagues present an overview of the epidemiology of heartwater based on recent studies, discuss the factors that make endemic stability possible, make recommendations for future directions in research, and provide a foundation for the development of epidemiological models. PMID:15275292
Wolverton, Steve; Kennedy, James H.; Cornelius, John D.
Archaeological and paleontological datasets are used in conservation to add time-depth to ecology. In central Texas, several top carnivores including prehistoric Native American hunters have been extirpated or have had their historic ranges restricted, which has resulted in pest-level white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana) populations in some areas. Differences in body size of deer between prehistory and modernity are expected, given that a lack of predation likely has increased intraspecific competition for forage among deer, resulting in smaller body size today. In fact, modern deer from settings without harvest pressure are significantly smaller than those from harvested areas and from prehistoric deer. From a natural history perspective, this research highlights potential evolutionary causes and effects of top-predator removal on deer populations and related components of biological communities in central Texas.
E Hofer; Cernela, N; Stephan, R.
A total of 52 Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains, isolated from fecal samples of six ibex, 12 chamois, 15 roe deer, and 19 red deer were further characterized by subtyping the stx genes, examining strains for the top nine serogroups and testing for the presence of eae and ehxA. Eleven of the 52 strains belonged to one of the top nine STEC O groups (O26, O45, O91, O103, O111, O113, O121, O145, and O157). Eight STEC strains were of serogroup O145, two strains of serogroup O11...
Lone, Aagesen; Maria J., Bena; Soledad, Nomdedeu; Adela, Panizza; Ramiro P., López; Fernando O., Zuloaga.
Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza la distribución de especies de plantas vasculares endémicas de la porción sur de los Andes centrales (sudoeste de Bolivia y noroeste de Argentina). En el análisis se incluyeron 540 especies endémicas de la región estudiada (aproximadamente 720.600 km˛). La mayoría de las especie [...] s endémicas se halla en ambientes semiáridos, entre 1500-3500 m s.m., encontrándose principalmente en valles, laderas y mesetas del topográficamente complejo sur de los Andes centrales. Las áreas de endemismos aquí halladas se presentan consecuentemente en ambientes áridos y no en ambientes húmedos subtropicales de las Yungas tucumano-bolivianas, a pesar de que en esta última región la diversidad de plantas vasculares es mayor. Se identificaron un total de 17 patrones de distribución bien definidos, y parcialmente solapados. El patrón de distribución más amplio define un área general de endemismos para los Andes centrales. Esta área se extiende a lo largo de casi toda la región y está delimitada por especies que se distribuyen en ambientes desérticos a sub-húmedos en laderas, valles o regiones altoandinas. Casi todas las restantes áreas de endemismo se encuentran anidadas dentro del patrón de distribución amplio antes citado, superponiéndose en el sentido norte-sur a lo largo de pendientes y valles de los Andes y de las Sierras Pampeanas. A pesar del sesgo observado en la distribución hacia ambientes áridos, aproximadamente la mitad de las especies endémicas están restringidas a unas pocas áreas de alto endemismo, las que se encuentran en yuxtaposición con las zonas más lluviosas de la región. Estas áreas de alto endemismo incluyen los rangos de hábitat más amplios de la región en términos de altitud y precipitación, siendo las especies endémicas igualmente variables en sus requerimientos de humedad y elevación. Las unidades fitogeográficas previamente definidas por diversos autores no fueron encontradas entre los patrones de distribución hallados; no obstante, la parte norte de la provincia Prepuneńa puede ser definida con dos patrones de distribución parcialmente superpuestos. Abstract in english This paper analyzes the distribution of vascular plants species endemic to the southern central Andes (south-western Bolivia and north-western Argentina). All 540 species endemic to the study regions (approx. 720600 km˛) have been included in the analysis. The main part of the endemic species is fou [...] nd in semiarid habitats between 1500-3500 m asl pointing to the topographically complex plateau, slope, and valley system of the southern central Andes as the main locations for its endemic flora. The distribution of the endemic species within arid sites is in contrast with that of vascular plant diversity in general, as the most diverse habitat of the region is the moist subtropical Tucumano-Bolivian Yungas forest of the eastern Andes slope. A total of 17 well defined and partly overlapping distribution patterns were indentified. The broadest distribution pattern defines a general area of endemism for the southern central Andes. This area extends through nearly the entire region and is defined by species that are widespread within the region in desert to sub-humid environments of the high Andes, slopes, or valleys. Nearly all other areas of endemism are nested within this broad distribution pattern as successively north-south overlapping areas along the slopes and valleys of the Andes and the Pampeanas Range. Despite the distributional bias of endemism towards the arid sites almost half of the endemic species are restricted to a few high endemic areas that lie in juxtaposition to the main rainfall zones. These areas contain the widest habitat ranges in terms of altitude and rainfall within the region with the endemic species being equally variable in altitude and moisture requirements. Previous defined phytogeographic units were not recognized among the distribution patterns. However, the northern part of the Prepuna can be defined as two partly overla
Kay Van Damme
Full Text Available We review the current state of knowledge and patterns of distribution in the endemic Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Southern Africa and describe two species of the Western Cape, of which one is new to science. Frey (1993, Korovchinsky (2006 and Smirnov (2008 previously suggested that South Africa harbours few endemics in the Cladocera. In the current study, we show that so-called low endemism in this region is mainly attributed to our limited state of knowledge of the local cladoceran fauna. Many of the South African taxa are ignored and revisions are lacking, as we briefly discuss for the genus Daphnia. We list known Southern African endemic Cladocera with notes on their status, map the distributions of well-studied taxa, and discuss the importance of temporary freshwater rockpools. We confirm that Southern Africa is a region of endemism for the group. We recognise three categories of endemics: i Montane endemics in the East (e.g. Drakensberg mountains; ii endemics of the Western Cape (lowlands; iii South African endemics, widely distributed in the region, both in the mountains and the lowlands. South African endemics have previously been regarded as relicts (Korovchinsky 2006, yet for the two taxa explored in detail in this study, there are no specific primitive morphological characters in comparison to congeners (within their respective genus/species group and the morphology mainly suggests strong isolation. The two species belong to the Chydoridae and the Eurycercidae, respectively, and are used here as case studies for the investigation of Western Cape endemics. The first, Alona capensis Rühe, 1914 (Anomopoda: Chydoridae: Aloninae, is redescribed based on the type material. We discuss the affinities of this enigmatic species for the first time. Morphology of the habitus and the postabdomen parallel that of members of the Alona affinis-complex. The disconnected head pores and limb characters, on the other hand, place A. capensis in the Alona pulchella-group, a different lineage in the Aloninae subfamily. The specific postabdomen shape of A. capensis and a unique, inflated rostrum, diverge from the main A. pulchella-morphotype and illustrate the significant morphological isolation of A. capensis within its group. The second species, Eurycercus (Eurycercus freyi sp.nov. (Eurycercidae, is described based on material from the collection of the late Prof. Dr. David G. Frey. It is an E. lamellatus-like taxon that is easily differentiated from the two related species (E. lamellatus and E. microdontus by a strong indentation (with depth larger than head pore diameter behind the head pores. E. freyi sp.nov. seems to be the closest relative of E. lamellatus. The small clade of just two species is supported by two synapomorphies: i the rostrum is long; and ii the spine situated on the proximal segment of the exopod of antenna II is longer than the second segment, in contrast to E. microdontus.
Full Text Available Although, high-tensile electric fences (HTEF have gained in popularity as a low-cost alternative to traditional fence designs, little research has focused on the effects of HTEF on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Our objectives were to: determine the efficacy of a HTEF to control deer movements and evaluate its influence on deer spatial dynamics. We conducted our study on the Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation Wildlife Unit located in Oklahoma, USA. An electric 15-strand, 2.5 m high fence was erected around the study area in 1992. We captured and ear-tagged 419 deer from 1993-2005 and fitted 35 of these deer (19 females, 16 males with GPS collars during winter 1998-2004. Eight of 35 radio-collared deer (23% crossed through the fence a total of 15 times and returned 13 times. Most fence crossings were at or near a hole or water gap (75%; n = 21 while 21.4% (n = 6 crossed through the electric strands. Twenty four of 419 (6% ear-tagged deer were reported dead or harvested off of the property over 13 years. We found ?13 deer core areas and ?29 of home ranges bordered the fence. Core area and home range sizes of males and females were larger for deer associated with the fence compared to deer not associated with the fence. The percentage of deer FK core area and home range perimeters in common with the fence was 17 and 28%, respectively. It appears deer were tolerable of the fence and willing to attempt to cross at weak locations (i.e., holes and water gaps. If fully maintained, the 15-strand HTEF would have been a safe and effective alternative to more traditional and expensive fence designs.
Sonia S. Costa; Daniela B. Oliveira; Aniela M. Manco; Giany O. de Melo; Jose Luis P. Cordeiro; Solange Zaniolo; Raquel Negrelle; Luiz F.B. Oliveira
Marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus (Illiger, 1815) and pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758) are two wild endangered species of South America whose foraging habits are still little known. This study focuses on the plant species consumed by both deer living at a Private Natural Heritage Reserve in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland as well as the ethnomedicinal properties of those plants. The diet composition was determined by direct observation of foraging activity of these animals d...
Lockhart, J. M.; Davidson, W R; Stallknecht, D. E.; Dawson, J. E.; Howerth, E. W.
Field and experimental studies have implicated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as probable reservoir hosts for Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, but natural infection in deer has not been confirmed through isolation of E. chaffeensis. Thirty-five white-tailed deer collected from three Amblyomma americanum-infested populations in Georgia were examined for evidence of E. chaffeensis infection by serologic, molecular, cell culture, and xenodia...
Dawson, J. E.; Stallknecht, D. E.; Howerth, E. W.; Warner, C; Biggie, K; Davidson, W R; Lockhart, J. M.; Nettles, V F; Olson, J G; Childs, J. E.
Although more than 320 cases of human ehrlichiosis have been diagnosed in 27 states since 1986, the reservoir host or hosts remain unknown. Since antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the etiologic agent of human ehrlichiosis, have been found in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), we experimentally evaluated the susceptibilities of four white-tailed deer to infection with E. chaffeensis and Ehrlichia canis, a closely related species. A fifth deer served as a negative control. ...
Haigh, Jerry; Berezowski, John; Woodbury, Murray R.
Two questionnaires were designed and administered. The first was to a random sample of 340 farmers of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Canada and the United States. The second was a 10-year retrospective survey of deer submissions to veterinary diagnostic pathology laboratories in Canada and the United States. One-year rates of mortality and common causes of morbidity and mortality for the deer are reported. The primary diagnosis for each record was used to classify diseases into...
... through sharpshooting and capture/euthanasia, where appropriate. Alternative D, the selected alternative... of the deer herd through sharpshooting, in combination with capture/euthanasia and phasing...
Dairy farms are known reservoirs for Salmonella spp. and control of this organism is challenging. Salmonellae have been shown to be endemic in herds in part because they are easily spread between animals and throughout the farm environment. The impact of the infection on the herd is variable and dep...
Full Text Available La familia Crassulaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar cinco géneros y 29 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), mayormente arbustos y hierbas. En este trabajo reconocemos 13 especies y dos variedades como endemismos peruanos en tres géneros. Echeveria es el género con el mayor número de especie [...] s endémicas. Los taxones endémicos ocupan principalmente las regiones Mesoandina y Puna Húmeda y Seca, entre los 1700 y 4500 m de altitud. Se aplicaron las categorías y criterios de la UICN a nueve taxones. Dos Crassulaceae endémicas están representados dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Crassulaceae are represented in Peru by five genera and 29 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), mostly shrubs and herbs. Here we recognize as endemics 13 species and two varieties in three genera. Echeveria is the genus with the largest number of endemic species. Endemic taxa grow in Mesoandean, an [...] d Humid and Dry Puna regions, between 1700 and 4500 m elevation. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to nine taxa. Two endemic Crassulaceae have been found in Peru´s protected areas system.
Blanca, León; Thomas, Lammers.
Full Text Available La familia Campanulaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar 11 géneros y alrededor de 180 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), principalmente arbustos y hierbas. En este trabajo reconocemos 32 especies endémicas en tres géneros, incluidas en su mayoría en los géneros Siph [...] ocampylus y Centropogon. Los taxones endémicos se encuentran principalmente en la región Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, entre los 800 y 3600 m de altitud. Se aplicaron las categorías y criterios de la UICN a 23 especies. Nueve especies endémicas se encuentran representadas dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Campanulaceae are represented in Peru by 11 genera and around 180 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mainly shrubs and herbs. Here we recognize 32 endemic species in three genera. Siphocampylus and Centropogon account for the largest number of endemic species. Endemic Ca [...] mpanulaceae are found mostly in the Very Humid Montane Forests region, between 800 and 3600 m elevation. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to 23 species. Nine endemic species have been recorded within the Peruvian parks system.
L. DRAGOS; Denes PAZMANY; I. Moldovan
This note presents another 35 endemic species accepted by the Romanian specialists (8) consecutive to the IUCN list published earlier (13) as well as 137 rare species, the majority of them threatened. The ecologic, sozologic and phytocenotic indices are presented by IUCN Red Data Book Categories.
Bontemps, Cyril; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Wiechmann, Anja; Mussabekova, Assel; Moody, Sarah; Simon, Marcelo F; Moulin, Lionel; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Lacercat-Didier, Laurence; Dasilva, Cindy; Grether, Rosaura; Camargo-Ricalde, Sara L; Chen, Weimin; Sprent, Janet I; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Young, J Peter W; James, Euan K
The legume genus Mimosa has > 500 species, with two major centres of diversity, Brazil (c. 350 spp.) and Mexico (c. 100 spp.). In Brazil most species are nodulated by Burkholderia. Here we asked whether this is also true of native and endemic Mexican species. We have tested this apparent affinity for betaproteobacteria by examining the symbionts of native and endemic species of Mimosa in Mexico, especially from the central highlands where Mimosa spp. have diversified. Nodules were tested for betaproteobacteria using in situ immunolocalization. Rhizobia isolated from the nodules were genetically characterized and tested for their ability to nodulate Mimosa spp. Immunological analysis of 25 host taxa suggested that most (including all the highland endemics) were not nodulated by betaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA, nodA, nodC and nifH genes from 87 strains isolated from 20 taxa confirmed that the endemic Mexican Mimosa species favoured alphaproteobacteria in the genera Rhizobium and Ensifer: this was confirmed by nodulation tests. Host phylogeny, geographic isolation and coevolution with symbionts derived from very different soils have potentially contributed to the striking difference in the choice of symbiotic partners by Mexican and Brazilian Mimosa species. PMID:26214613
Severo, Baldeón; Mercedes, Flores; José, Roque.
Full Text Available La familia Fabaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar alrededor de 145 géneros y 1000 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mayormente árboles y arbustos. En este trabajo reconocemos 234 especies y 40 variedades como endémicas en 47 géneros. Un género, Weberbauerella, es [...] endémico del Perú. Sin lugar a dudas, el género con mayor número de especies endémicas es Lupinus, siendo al mismo tiempo el que mayor necesidad tiene de estudios taxonómicos detallados y mayor recolección. Las Fabaceae endémicas ocupan la mayoría de regiones, principalmente la Mesoandina, Puna Húmeda y Seca y Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, entre los 1100 y 4800 m de altitud. Se aplicaron las categorías y criterios de la UICN a 203 taxones. Diecisiete taxones endémicos se encuentran representados dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Fabaceae are represented in Peru by 145 genera and 1000 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mainly trees and shrubs. Here we recognize as Peruvian endemics 234 species and 40 varieties in 47 genera. One genus, Weberbauerella, is endemic to Peru. Undoubtedly, Lupinus is th [...] e genus with the largest number of endemic species in the family, and at the same time, the genus that most needs detailed taxonomic studies and more collection. Endemic Fabaceae are found in almost all regions, mainly Mesoandean, Humid and Dry Puna, and Very Humid Montane Forests, between 1100 and 4800 m elevation. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to 203 taxa. Seventeen endemic taxa have been recorded within Peru's protected areas system.
Full Text Available Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN presents an unsolved puzzle despite fifty years of its investigation. Academy of Medical Sciences of the Serbian Medical Society organized a round table discussion on current unsolved problems related to BEN. The present paper summarizes presentations, discussion and conclusions of this meeting. During the last fifty years, the course of BEN prolonged and it shifted towards the older age in all endemic foci. Data on the incidence of BEN have been controversial and frequently based on the data on the number of BEN patients starting haemodialysis treatment. In Serbia, BEN patients present 6.5% of haemodialysis population and this percentage differs among different centres ranging from 5% (Leskovac to 46% (Lazarevac. Maintenance of high prevalence of BEN patients on regular haemodialysis indicates that BEN is not an expiring disease. In addition, recent data have shown more frequent microalbuminuria and low-molecular weight proteinuria in children from endemic than from nonendemic families. Aetiology of BEN is still unknown despite numerous investigations of environmental and genetic factors. Today, there is a very current hypothesis on the aetiological role of aristolochic acid but the role of viruses, geochemical factors and genetic factors must not be neglected. Morphological features of BEN are nonspecific and characterized by acellular interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy and changes on preand postglomerular vessels. New immunohistochemical and molecular biology methods offer a new approach to BEN investigation. Association of BEN with high incidence of upperurothelial tumours is well-known. Recent studies have shown significant changes of demographic characteristics of patients suffering upper-urothelial tumours, their prevalence in different endemic foci and characteristics of tumours. Further studies of BEN should be directed to determination of incidence and prevalence of disease in different endemic foci, investigations of different insufficiently examined aetiological factors as well as pathomorphological features of the disease by the use of modern methods.
?erban Proche?; Perera, Sandun J; Dayani Ratnayake-Perera
The Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (MPA) biodiversity hotspot (~274 316 km2) was primarily recognised based on its high plant endemism. Here we present the results of a qualitative biogeographical study of the endemic vertebrate fauna of south-eastern Africa, in an exercise that (1) refines the delimitation of the MPA hotspot, (2) defines zoogeographical units and (3) identifies areas of vertebrate endemism. Initially we listed 62 vertebrate species endemic and 60 near end...
Grovenburg, T.W.; Swanson, C.C.; Jacques, C.N.; Deperno, C.S.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.
Survival and cause-specific mortality of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been well documented in forested and agricultural landscapes, but limited information has been collected in grassland habitats typical of the Northern Great Plains. Our objectives were to document and compare survival and cause-specific mortality of adult female white-tailed deer in four distinct ecoregions. We captured and radiocollared 190 (159 adult, 31 yearling) female white-tailed deer and monitored (including deer from a previous study) a total of 246 (215 adult, 31 yearling) deer from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2007. We documented 113 mortalities; hunting (including wounding loss) accounted for 69.9% of all mortalities and vehicle collisions accounted for an additional 15.0%. Natural causes (e.g., disease, predation) of mortality were minor compared to human-related causes (e.g., hunting, vehicle collisions). We used known fate modeling in program MARK to estimate survival rates and compare ecoregions and seasons. Model Sseason (winter=summer) had the lowest AICc value suggesting that survival differed only between seasons where winter and summer survival was equal and differed with fall season. Annual and seasonal (summer, fall, winter) survival rates using the top model S season (summer=winter) were 0.76 (95% ci = 0.70-0.80), 0.97 (95% ci = 0.96-0.98), 0.80 (95% ci = 0.76-0.83) and 0.97 (95% ci = 0.96-0.98), respectively. High human-related mortality was likely associated with limited permanent cover, extensive road networks and high hunter density. Deer management in four distinct ecoregions relies on hunter harvest to maintain deer populations within state management goals. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.
The concentration and relations of Cd and Pb as environmental risk factors were studied by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the liver, kidney and muscle of free ranging wild boar (n = 94) and red deer (n = 45) from hunting grounds in four counties of north-east Croatia. In all four counties, the levels of Cd found in the kidney of red deer ranged from 2.28 to 5.91 mg/kg, and in wild boar from 3.47 to 21.10 mg/kg. The mean renal concentration of Cd was significantly higher in wild boar than in red deer from all four study areas. The mean hepatic (0.11 to 0.49 mg/kg, respectively) and muscle (0.01 to 0.04 mg/kg, respectively) Cd concentrations were similar in both species. The mean renal Cd concentration in wild boar and red deer exceeded 1 mg/kg in all four counties, ranging from 67.0% to 91.4% and from 45.5% to 69.2%, respectively. Also, the hepatic Cd/renal Cd ratio was lower than 1 in all animals. In all four counties, renal Pb concentration ranged from 0.058 to 3.77 mg/kg in red deer and from 0.056 to 11.60 mg/kg in wild boar. Hepatic Pb concentration was similar in both species (0.061 to 0.202 mg/kg in wild boar and 0.077 to 0.108 mg/kg in red deer). Because of the high Cd level in the organs of wild boar and red deer, further research is needed to identify the source of contamination in order to preserve the health of animals and humans.
Chiari, Mario; Cortinovis, Cristina; Bertoletti, Marco; Alborali, Loris; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Ferretti, Enrica; Caloni, Francesca
The objectives of the present study were to assess heavy metal cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in tissues of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) from nine hunting areas and to evaluate related risk factors for the host animal. Over a period of 2 years, a total of 1055 and 210 masseters, 424 and 201 livers, 642 and 152 kidneys were collected from wild boar and red deer, respectively, and concentrations of Cd, Pb and organochlorine pesticides were determined. Comparing the two species, Cd concentration in the kidney (3.72 mg/kg), liver (0.67 mg/kg) and muscle (0.02 mg/kg) of wild boar was found to be significantly higher than in the organs of red deer (1.02 mg/kg in the kidneys, 0.07 mg/kg in the liver and 0.006 mg/kg in muscle). Mean Pb concentrations were found to be similar in both animals, with 0.39, 0.52 and 2.60 mg/kg detected in the wild boar kidney, liver and muscle, respectively, and 0.24, 0.21 and 2.04 mg/kg in the respective organs of the red deer. No difference in concentrations were found based on age class, location of tissue sample or contaminant in the case of wild boar. By contrast, a significantly lower Cd concentration was found in the kidney of the young red deer. The search for organochlorine pesticides in both red deer and wild boar produced negative results with values below the limits of detection. Due to the high levels of renal Cd and muscle Pb detected in wild boar and red deer, further research needs to be carried out in an effort to identify the source of contamination and preserve the health of animals and humans. PMID:26365428
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical sign of BVDV to isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer. Results we isolated a suspected BVDV strain from livers of an aborted fetus from sika deer in Changchun (China using MDBK cell lines, named as CCSYD strain, and identified it by cytopathic effect (CPE, indirect immunoperoxidase test (IPX and electron microscopy(EM. The results indicated that this virus was BVDV by a series of identification. The structural proteins E0 gene was cloned and sequenced. The obtained E0 gene sequence has been submitted to GenBank with the accession number: FJ555203. Alignment with other 9 strains of BVDV, 7 strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV and 3 strains of border disease virus(BDV in the world, showed that the homology were 98.6%-84.8%, 76.0%-74.7%, 76.6%-77.0% for nucleotide sequence, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that new isolation and identification CCSYD strain belonged to BVDV1b. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that BVDV was isolated and identified in sika deer. This current research contributes development new BVDV vaccine to prevent and control of BVD in sika deer.
Full Text Available Cytogenetics of Thai brow-antlered deer (Cervus eldi siamensis were studied in comparison with those of Thamin brow-antlered deer (Cervus eldi thamin. Blood samples were taken from the two subspecies kept in Khoa Kheow Open Zoo, Chonburi Province. After the standard whole blood lymphocyte were cultured in presence of colchicine, the metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and air-dried. Conventional Giemsa’s staining were applied to stain chromosome. Thai and Thamin brow-antlered deers exhibited the same karyotype with diploid number of 2n = 58 (NF = 70 for females and 2n = 58 (NF = 71 for males. The types of autosome are 6 large metacentric, 6 large submetacentric, 8 large telocentric, 20 medium telocentric and 16 small telocentric chromosomes. In addition, satellites are clearly observed in terminal position on the short arm of a pair of chromosome 7. The X chromosome is the largest telocentric and the Y chromosome is the smallest metacentric chromosome. The karyotype formula of Thai and Thamin brow-antlered deer is as follows: 2n (58 = Lm6+Lsm6+Lt8+Mt20+St16+sex chromosome
Shalini, Malhotra; Om Prakash, Bobade; Ankit, Chauhan; Nripen, Vishnoi; Charoo, Hans.
Full Text Available Rhinosporiodiosis is a cosmopolitan disease of man and animals, endemic in India and Sri Lanka with main focus of infection in Southern Tamil Nadu. Uttar Pradesh (UP) is not known to be an endemic zone for this disease .We present here the first case of nasal Rhinosporiodiosis from this non-endemic [...] zone.
Full Text Available Rhinosporiodiosis is a cosmopolitan disease of man and animals, endemic in India and Sri Lanka with main focus of infection in Southern Tamil Nadu. Uttar Pradesh (UP is not known to be an endemic zone for this disease .We present here the first case of nasal Rhinosporiodiosis from this non-endemic zone.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Whitetailed deer Odocoileus virginianus tissues were sampled during the December, 1988, public deer hunt at the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge GSNWR to...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Maximizing Sitka blacktailed deer Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis harvestopportunities on Kodiak Island, and minimizing deer impacts on native flora andfauna, are the...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management goals for Sitka blacktailed deer Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis at Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge are to minimize deer impacts to native flora and fauna...
Vargas, J. M.
Full Text Available The geographical patterns of Heteroptera species diversity in the Canary Islands were analysed, and endemic and non–endemic species were studied both together and separately. Causal processes most likely controlling these patterns, as well as the theory of island biogeography, hypotheses about evolutionary time, habitat heterogeneity, climatic stability, intermediate disturbances, energy, environmental favourableness–severity, productivity and human influence were investigated. The combination of habitat heterogeneity and human influence accounted for the total number of species. However, when endemic and non–endemic species were analysed separately, habitat heterogeneity and favourableness–severity explained the richness of endemic species, whereas habitat heterogeneity and human influence explained that of non–endemic species.
Jin, Yinlong; Liang, Chaoke; He, Gongli; Cao, Jingxiang
Drinking water and burning coal endemic arsenism as a severe disease is confirmed by National Ministry of Health in China in 1992. It is not uniform survey of the disease for the whole country from its report in 1980 in xijiang. Therefore National Ministry of Scientific and Technology in China supports to study on distribution of endemic arsenism in 21 provinces in China, so that it can know the basic distribution of endemic arsenism in China, and the data results will be a guide for the disease prevention and control. The project used environmental epidemiology study including retrospective epidemiology, present situation survey of the disease in severe areas and sampling investigation in unknown areas, collecting data of exposure population and arsenism cases. At the same time, the data of arsenic level in environment were collected, and environment samples were analyzed by standard chemical method. The both data were statistical analysis by access database and SAS procedure in computer. Through the study, it achieves the expected aim that grasps spreading distribution of drinking water arsenism and burning coal arsenism, including arsenic level in water, coal, food and air, as well as patient's condition of the disease at macroscopic. Drinking water endemic arsenism distributed in 8 provinces, 40 counties, affecting 2,343,238 peoples, among 522566 peoples expositing to the drinking water arsenic higher than 0.05 mg/L, and 7821 arsenism patients were diagnosed. Burning coal endemic arsenism spreads in 2 provinces, 8 counties, affecting 333905 peoples, 48438 peoples exposing to high arsenic of burning coal pollution, and 2402 peoples causing chronic arsenic poising by coal burning. Drinking water endemic arsenism: Nemeng, Shanxi is a severe drinking water endemic region also. Wusu city in Xinjiang is old arsenism area, which reformed drinking water to decrease arsenic, so chronic arsenic poisoning condition decreasing. Reforming drinking water measures to decreees arsenic were performed in some areas of Neimeng and Shanxi. On other hand, 1 county of Jilin and 1 county of Ningxia as drinking water arsenism areas were affirmed. 11 counties of Shanyi, 1 Banner of Nemeng, 1 city of Jilin, 1 county of Qinhai and 1 counties of Anhui province were discovered for new drinking water arsenism areas in this survey. Shunyi district of Beijing has high arsenic in drinking water. Otherwise, high arsenic content in drinking water in some areas decreased to lower than 0.05 mg/L, which including some villages of Liaoning province, Tongxing city of Zhejiang province, and Tianzhu village of Shunyi district in Beijing. Blackfoot disease related to high arsenic in drinking water in Taiwan province does not include in this study. Burning coal endemic arsenism: Guizhou province has a typical burning coal arsenism areas in China and world. Although to reform stove and decreasing arsenic pollution, but the chronic arsenic poisoning from domestic coal combustion exists, because it located high seal level and poor areas. Some new burning coal arsenism areas in Shanxi province were found, which produced air pollution and food pollution of arsenic from domestic coal combustion for cooking and heating. The paper summarizes the arsenic distribution levels in drinking water and in environment of burning coal. At the same time, preventive and control measures of endemic arsenism were provided. PMID:14963897
Grear, Daniel A.
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500 km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310 kin2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and non-infected deer. Ow results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) kee-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible non-linear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.
Full Text Available Until 2002, the level of protein consumption from red meat origin by the Indonesian people was only 51.5% from the national target. The reasons for this condition were due to limited resources of domesticated animals and low income of many suburb people to buy red mead. One alternative in supplying the gap of protein consumption is by utilizing local prospective wildlife animals, such as deer. This species is widely distributed among the islands in Indonesia. In order to understand more on the quality of tropical rusa venison (Cervus timorensis, a study was conducted in Palu district, Southeast Sulawesi by collecting venison from hunters. The results showed there was no significant difference on cooking lost among the carcass parts (hind leg, front leg and saddle, with the range between 30.3 to 33.0%. There were also no significant differences on the gross energy, protein, ash, fat and phosphor values among the carcass parts. The contents of sodium , ferum and calcium were significantly different at p9.5% DM, compared to other groups (<4.0% DM. In amino acid contents , it showed no interaction between the carcass parts to amino acid groups, however there was a significant difference among the amino acid groups. Glutamic acid had the highest level (15.74%DM, where as others were ranged between 2.7 to 7.6% DM. (Animal Production 7(1: 46-51 (2005
Several issues dominated the 36th Red Deer Seminar of the propane industry, among them changes to the Alberta fuel tax collection system, propane and automobile emissions and industry self-management. With regard to changes to the Alberta fuel tax collection system, details were provided on how the system, coming into effect on January 1, 1997, will impact on producers, distributors and retailers. In terms of automobile emissions, it was said that propane has lagged behind gasoline in technological development, hence propane no longer has advantages in emissions. It was noted, however, that with equivalent technology propane can still meet ultra-low emission standards. Regarding industry self-management, it was stressed that self-management did not mean deregulation since government retains policy, regulation and standard setting. It means a new partnership arrangement in which industry delivers services formerly provided by government. In this spirit of cooperation, it was announced that effective September 1996, administration of the auto propane vehicle conversion program will be transferred to the PGAC under the name of Alberta Propane Vehicle Administration Organization. 3 figs
I examined the development of migratory behavior in northern white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 1975 to 1996 by radio-tracking adult females and their fawns. Of 40 migratory fawns with radio-collared mothers, all returned from winter ranges to their mothers' summer ranges, as did 36 fawns with unknown mothers. Of 1.5- to 3.0-year-old daughters with radio-collared mothers, 67-80% continued migrating with mothers to their traditional summer ranges. Eighty-four percent (16/19) of yearling dispersers continued migratory behavior after replacing their natal summer ranges with their dispersal ranges, and 88% (14/16) of these continued migrating to their natal winter ranges, some through at least 6.5 years of age. Twenty percent (4/20) of nonmigratory fawns dispersed as yearlings, and two became migratory between their dispersal summer ranges and new winter ranges, one through 4.9 years of age and another through 6.5 years. Seven fawns changed their movement behavior from migratory to nonmigratory or vice versa as yearlings or when older, indicating that migratory behavior is not under rigid genetic control. Thus, the adaptiveness of migration must depend upon natural selection operating upon varying capacities and propensities to learn and mimic long-distance movements and not upon migratory behavior directly.
Presidente, P J; McCraw, B M; Lumsden, J H
The pathogenesis of early prepatent Fascioloides magna infection was investigated in seven fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) given 500 metacercariae and examined at one, two, three, five, eight, 12 and 13 weeks postinoculation. Blood samples were taken from eight inoculated deer every two weeks up to 16 weeks postinoculation. Eosinophilia with a mild transitory anemia were the main clincopathological features. Postmortem examination at two weeks postinoculation revealed extensive migration of immature flukes. Subcapsular tracks in the liver, nodules on the blind sacs of the rumen, as well as retroperitoneal granulomas on flanks and necrotic tracks on the diaphragm were found. Evidence of penetration of flukes into the lung was found at two weeks postinoculation and there was early granuloma formation at three weeks postinoculation. Flukes migrating into tissues other than the liver were destroyed in large granulomas, although remnants of degenerating parasites were not found. At eight weeks postinoculation, widespread granuloma formation characterized the infection with this lesion present in nodes along the gastrointestinal tract, in the mesentery, flanks, psoas muscles, diaphragm, between the ribs and in the lungs. By 12 weeks postinoculation subcapsular tracks were observed in the liver. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:7448629
Comer, Christopher E.; Kilgo, John C.; D' Angelo, Gino J.; Glenn, Travis C.; Miller, Karl V.
Abstract: Social behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have important management implications. The formation of matrilineal social groups among female deer has been documented and management strategies have been proposed based on this well-developed social structure. Using radiocollared (n = 17) and hunter or vehicle-killed (n = 21) does, we examined spatial and genetic structure in white-tailed deer on a 7,000-ha portion of the Savannah River Site in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. We used 14 microsatellite DNA loci to calculate pairwise relatedness among individual deer and to assign doe pairs to putative relationship categories. Linear distance and genetic relatedness were weakly correlated (r = –0.08, P = 0.058). Relationship categories differed in mean spatial distance, but only 60% of first-degree-related doe pairs (full sibling or mother–offspring pairs) and 38% of second-degree-related doe pairs (half sibling, grandmother–granddaughter pairs) were members of the same social group based on spatial association. Heavy hunting pressure in this population has created a young age structure among does, where the average age is <2.5 years, and <4% of does are >4.5 years old. This—combined with potentially elevated dispersal among young does—could limit the formation of persistent, cohesive social groups. Our results question the universal applicability of recently proposed models of spatial and genetic structuring in white-tailed deer, particularly in areas with differing harvest histories.
Frey, Roland; Riede, Tobias
Loud and frequent vocalizations play an important role in courtship behavior in Cervus species. European red deer (Cervus elaphus) produce low-pitched calls, whereas North American elk (Cervus canadensis) produce high-pitched calls, which is remarkable for one of the biggest land mammals. Both species engage their vocal organs in elaborate maneuvers but the precise mechanism is unknown. Vocal organs were compared by macroscopic and microscopic dissection. The larynx is sexually dimorphic in red deer but not in elk. The laryngeal lumen is more constricted in elk, and narrows further during ontogeny. Several elements of the hyoid skeleton and two of four vocal tract segments are longer in red deer than in elk allowing greater vocal tract expansion and elongation. We conclude that elk submit the larynx and vocal tract to much higher tension than red deer, whereby, enormously stressed vocal folds of reduced effective length create a high resistance glottal source. The narrow, high impedance laryngeal vestibulum matches glottal and vocal tract impedance allowing maximum power transfer. In red deer longer and relaxed vocal folds create a less resistant glottal source and a wider vestibulum matches the low glottal impedance to the vocal tract, thereby also ensuring maximum power transfer. PMID:23225193
Olivieri, Cristina; Marota, Isolina; Rizzi, Ermanno; Ermini, Luca; Fusco, Letizia; Pietrelli, Alessandro; De Bellis, Gianluca; Rollo, Franco; Luciani, Stefania
In the last years several phylogeographic studies of both extant and extinct red deer populations have been conducted. Three distinct mitochondrial lineages (western, eastern and North-African/Sardinian) have been identified reflecting different glacial refugia and postglacial recolonisation processes. However, little is known about the genetics of the Alpine populations and no mitochondrial DNA sequences from Alpine archaeological specimens are available. Here we provide the first mitochondrial sequences of an Alpine Copper Age Cervus elaphus. DNA was extracted from hair shafts which were part of the remains of the clothes of the glacier mummy known as the Tyrolean Iceman or Ötzi (5,350-5,100 years before present). A 2,297 base pairs long fragment was sequenced using a mixed sequencing procedure based on PCR amplifications and 454 sequencing of pooled amplification products. We analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of the Alpine Copper Age red deer's haplotype with haplotypes of modern and ancient European red deer. The phylogenetic analyses showed that the haplotype of the Alpine Copper Age red deer falls within the western European mitochondrial lineage in contrast with the current populations from the Italian Alps belonging to the eastern lineage. We also discussed the phylogenetic relationships of the Alpine Copper Age red deer with the populations from Mesola Wood (northern Italy) and Sardinia. PMID:24988290
Samples of surface soil, litter, forage, and deer (rumen content, muscle, liver, and thyroid gland) were collected from Bend, Oregon; Centralia, Washington; Wenatchee, Washington; the Wooten Game Range near Dayton, Washington; and on or near the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The concentrations of 129I and 127I were determined using neturon activation techniques. The purpose of the study was to establish the current levels of 129I in the environs of the Hanford Site prior to the proposed restart of fuel reprocessing at the PUREX plant. The results of this study clearly demonstrated the longevity of 129I in the biosphere following gaseous release from a nuclear facility. Analyses of thyroid glands showed that deer living within 160 km (Wooten Game Range) of Hanford had elevated levels of 129I when compared to the more distant Pacific Northwest locations (Centralia, or Bend). Levels of 129I in deer thyroid from Bend, or Centralia, (15 fCi/g wet weight), were about five times higher than values reported for the central United States, while, Hanford samples were about 2,700 times higher. The average concentration of 129I in deer thyroids collected at Hanford in 1978 was similar to samples collected 14 years earlier. The concentrations of 129I in soil, litter, forage, and other deer samples generally decrease in the order: Hanford > Wooten > Wenatchee > Centralia approx. = Bend. This corresponds to an increase in distance from the Hanford Site
Stephen L. Webb
Full Text Available Few studies have documented fine-scale movements of ungulate species, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, despite the advent of global positioning system (GPS technology incorporated into tracking devices. We collected fine-scale temporal location estimates (i.e., 15 min/relocation attempt from 17 female and 15 male white-tailed deer over 7 years and 3 seasons in Oklahoma, USA. Our objectives were to document fine-scale movements of females and males and determine effects of reproductive phase, moon phase, and short-term weather patterns on movements. Female and male movements were primarily crepuscular. Male total daily movements were 20% greater during rut (7,363?m±364 than postrut (6,156?m±260. Female daily movements were greatest during postparturition (3,357?m±91, followed by parturition (2,902?m±107, and preparturition (2,682?m±121. We found moon phase had no effect on daily, nocturnal, and diurnal deer movements and fine-scale temporal weather conditions had an inconsistent influence on deer movement patterns within season. Our data suggest that hourly and daily variation in weather events have minimal impact on movements of white-tailed deer in southern latitudes. Instead, routine crepuscular movements, presumed to maximize thermoregulation and minimize predation risk, appear to be the most important factors influencing movements.
Full Text Available In 2000, Mexico’s National Commission of Protected Areas (CONANP was created to encourage the protection, management and restoration of natural and cultural resources and their conservation. Protected areas were recently increased by more than 3 million hectares, for a current total of more than 25 million hectares, corresponding to 174 protected areas that cover 12.90% of the country’s surface area. The information obtained by research helps us understand both biodiversity and ecological processes, as well as the social and economic phenomena that influence the use of ecosystems. In Mexico there are four species of deer: white-tailed deer, mule deer, red brocket and brown brocket. These ungulates have been an important part of the diet of indigenous people and rural communities, and represent an important resource for sport and trophy hunting. We found the best deer populations in protected areas; these can therefore maintain the gene pool and serve as source populations for other areas. These populations are also useful from a research perspective. People living in some protected areas continue to use natural resources such as deer, and also receive economic inputs to develop ecotourism programs, and support from the government for the environmental services derived from conserving biodiversity.
Porter, W.F.; Underwood, H.B.; Woodard, J.L.
We examined the potential for localized management of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to be successful by measuring movements, testing site fidelity, and modeling the effects of dispersal. Fifty-nine females were radiomarked and tracked during 1997 through 2000 in Irondequoit, New York, USA, a suburb of Rochester. We constructed home ranges for those deer with A greater than or equal to 18 reclocations/season. Fifty percent minimum convex polygons (MCP) averaged 3.9 (SE = 0.53) ha in the summer and 5.3 (SE = 0.80) ha in the winter. Deer showed strong fidelity to both summer and winter home ranges, and 30 of 31 females showed overlap of summer and winter home ranges. Annual survival was 64%; the major cause of mortality was deer-automobile collisions. Average annual dispersal rates were behavior data and modeling results lend support to the use of a localized approach to management of females that emphasizes neighborhood-scale manipulation of deer populations, but our research suggests that dispersal rates in females could be critical to long-term success.
Full Text Available Against a background of poor breeding success in captive alpine musk deer, an understanding of the behavioral differences between captive female alpine musk deer with and without reproduction success in previous year may yield useful information for musk deer farming practice. This study was conducted in the musk deer farm of Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu province of China from June 2004 to January 2005. The focal sampling and all occurrence recording was used to observe the behaviors of 38 female alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus in which 5 were barren in previous year and 33 females were bred in previous year. The durations of 12 behaviors such as environment-sniffing, etc. were recorded and the behavioral patterns were compared to explore the differences. The results showed that compared to females barren in previous year, the females bred in previous year was more active, pugnacious and explorative in mating season and expressed less self-directed behavior during non-mating season. The data from the present study should contribute to a better understanding of behavioral differences between females with different reproduction success.
Few studies have documented fine-scale movements of ungulate species, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), despite the advent of global positioning system (GPS) technology incorporated into tracking devices. We collected fine-scale temporal location estimates (i.e., 15 min/relocation attempt) from 17 female and 15 male white-tailed deer over 7 years and 3 seasons in Oklahoma, USA. Our objectives were to document fine-scale movements of females and males and determine effects of reproductive phase, moon phase, and short-term weather patterns on movements. Female and male movements were primarily crepuscular. Male total daily movements were 20% greater during rut (7,363? 364) than postrut (6,156 m±260). Female daily movements were greatest during post parturition (3,357 91), followed by parturition (2,902 m±107), and pre parturition (2,682 m±121). We found moon phase had no effect on daily, nocturnal, and diurnal deer movements and fine-scale temporal weather conditions had an inconsistent influence on deer movement patterns within season. Our data suggest that hourly and daily variation in weather events have minimal impact on movements of white-tailed deer in southern latitudes. Instead, routine crepuscular movements, presumed to maximize thermoregulation and minimize predation risk, appear to be the most important factors influencing movements.
DelGiudice, G.D.; Kerr, K.D.; Mech, L.D.; Riggs, M.R.; Seal, U.S.
Physiological indicators of muscle catabolism would aid assessment of winter nutritional restriction of ungulates, and urinary 3-methylhistidine has exhibited potential in this regard in several species. We examined the effect of chronic moderate and severe nutritional restriction during winter on urinary 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratios in seven adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and the relationship of these ratios to urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine ratios. Mean base line estimates of urinary 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratio for the control and severely restricted deer (0.043 and 0.086 ??mol:mg, respectively) were similar (P = 0.280) and remained unchanged in the control deer throughout the study. In contrast, mean 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratios increased dramatically as nutritional restriction and cumulative mass loss progressed; the quadratic component of the data for the chronically restricted deer was significant (P deer and urinary 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratios. Further, urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine ratios were strongly related to 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratios (r2 = 0.89). Our study indicates that further investigation of 3-methylhistidine as an indicator of physical condition and muscle protein breakdown is warranted.
Foreyt, W J
In August 1992, six mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) fawns and four elk (Cervus elaphus) calves (n = 2) or yearlings (n = 2) each were inoculated orally with 50, 250, or 2,000 metacercariae of the liver fluke Fascioloides magna to evaluate their potential to serve as definitive hosts. Animals were maintained for up to 403 days. Three mule deer each inoculated with 50 metacercariae survived the infection and shed eggs in feces; thus mule deer can function as definitive hosts for F. magna. The other three mule deer inoculated with 50 (n = 1) or 250 (n = 2) metacercariae died from fluke infection on days 91, 150, and 162 days postinoculation, respectively, and only immature F. magna were recovered. One elk calf inoculated with 2,000 metacercariae died from fluke infection 44 days after inoculation. The remaining three elk, each inoculated with 250 metacercariae, survived infection, and two of the three shed eggs in feces. The third elk contained only one immature F. magna at necropsy. The prepatent period in mule deer and elk was approximately 6 to 7 months. PMID:9359058
Full Text Available Deer (Cervidae recently belongs to the most important species. The aim of presenting study was evaluation of genetic diversity and relationship within and among seven red deer populations from different origins - Czech Republic, Hungary, hybrids Hungary x New Zealand, Lithuania, New Zealand, Poland and Slovak Republic. This study was conducted to determine the levels of genetic variability and relationships among deer populations from a total of 637 animals originating from seven countries Czech Republic (50, Hungary (35, Hungary x New Zealand hybrids (67, Lithuania (26, New Zealand (82, Poland (347 and Slovak Republic (30. We used the hair bulbs as a source of DNA. In total, 213 alleles were observed from the 10 loci surveyed. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 11 (IOBT965 to 35 (T156, RT13. Genetic diversity and relatedness among red deer populations has been performed on a total of 637 animals. A panel of 10 microsatellite markers used in deer were optimized. On the basis of this panel of microsatellites we were investigated genetic variability and relationships by using statistical and graphical programmes. We evaluated how close populations are to each other and their genetic admixture. Molecular genetic data combined with evaluation in statistical programmes could lead to a complex view of populations.
Krogh, P; Hald, B; Plestina, R; Ceovi?, S
Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic fungal metabolite (mycotoxin) occurring in foodstuffs. The compound is causally associated with mycotoxic porcine nephropathy, a disease comparable with a human kidney disease, Balkan endemic nephropathy. A preliminary survey of home-produced foodstuffs in areas of Yugoslavia revealed that contamination with ochratoxin A is more frequent in an area where Balkan endemic nephropathy is prevalent (endemic area) than in area where this disease is absent. This indicates higher exposure to foodborn ochratoxin A in the endemic area. Thus further evidence is provided supporting the hypothesis that ochratoxin A is a disease determinant of Balkan endemic nephropathyk0 PMID:888703
... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement for the White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Rock... the White-tailed Deer Management Plan (Plan), Rock Creek Park, Washington, DC The Plan will support... resources in Rock Creek Park. DATES: The NPS will execute a Record of Decision (ROD) no sooner than 30...
Nelson, Michael E.
A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.
Carstensen, Michelle; Doncarlos, Michael W
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) has been found in 12 cattle operations and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northwestern Minnesota, following the state's most recent outbreak of the disease in 2005 in the northwest part of the state. Both deer and cattle have the same strain of bTB. The Minnesota Board of Animal Health has been leading efforts to eradicate the disease in Minnesota's cattle, which have included the depopulation of all infected herds, a cattle buy-out program, and mandatory fencing of stored feeds. The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources began surveillance efforts in free-ranging white-tailed deer in fall 2005. All bTB-infected deer have been found within a 16?km(2) area in direct association with infected cattle farms. Aggressive efforts to reduce deer densities through liberalized hunting and sharpshooting have resulted in a 55% decline in deer densities. Also, recreational feeding of wild deer has been banned. Disease prevalence in deer has decreased from 1.2% in 2005 to an undetectable level in 2010. PMID:21647335
Claes Rehbinder; Ricardo Feinstein; Regina Diaz; Tapio Nikkilä
Intracytoplasmic epithelial inclusion bodies in the digestive mucosa of fallow deer (Dama dama L.) were found to most probably be the result of an unspecific degenerative or post mortal change. There are reasons to believe that this is true also for the inclusion bodies found in reindeer, roe deer and moose.
Full Text Available Intracytoplasmic epithelial inclusion bodies in the digestive mucosa of fallow deer (Dama dama L. were found to most probably be the result of an unspecific degenerative or post mortal change. There are reasons to believe that this is true also for the inclusion bodies found in reindeer, roe deer and moose.
Ismail, Dahlan; Jiwan, Dawend
The browsing preference and ecological carrying capacity (ECC) of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) in acacia plantations for management and conservation of the ecosystem were investigated at Sabal Forest Reserve in Sarawak, Malaysia. The identification of the species browsed by the sambar deer was based on an observation of the plant parts consumed. ECC estimation was based on body weight (BW) and the physiological stages of animals browsed in six fenced 4-ha paddocks. Sambar deer were found foraging on only 29 out of 42 species of secondary vegetation in the acacia plantation. The remaining species are too high for the deer to reach. Planted species, Shorea macrophylla are not palatable to the deer. This augurs well for the integration of sambar deer into shorea plantations. The most frequently exploited plants were Ficus spp. Sambar deer preferred woody species more than non-woody species and they are browser animals. By producing metabolizable energy of 19,000 to 27,000 MJ/ha, the ECC was five head/ha to 5.25 head/ha. Given its contribution to the conservation of wildlife and its capacity to sustain the ecosystem, the sambar deer integrated farming system offers a promising strategy for the future of tropical forestry management. PMID:25163638
The response to TRH was studied in 32 patients from an endemic goiter area, 20 of them had been previously treated with iodized oil. Blood samples were taken at 0, 20, 40 and 120 minutes after de i.v. administration of 400?g of TRH, and serum levels of TSH, T3 and T4 were measured. The results obtained show that in endemic goiter area there is a modification in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism, with increased reserve of pituitary TSH and changes in T4 and T3 secretion. The injection of TRH gave exaggerated and delayed responses in the secretion of TSH and T3. Iodized oil used as a prophylatic method produced a disminution of pituitary TSH reserve, and of serum levels of TSH and T3, as a result of the return tonormality of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism. (author)
Underwood, Jared G.; Silbernagle, Mike; Nishimoto, Mike; Uyehara, Kim
Hawai'I's coastal plain wetlands are inhabited by five endangered endemic waterbird species. These include the Hawaiian Coot ('alae ke'oke'o), Hawaiian Duck (koloa maoli), Hawaiian Stilt (ae'o), Hawaiian Gallinule (Moorhen) ('alae 'ula), and Hawaiian Goose (n?n?). All five species are categorized as being “conservation reliant.” The current strategy to recover these endangered birds includes land protection and active management of wetlands. To assess the effectiveness of the current manageme...
We carried out a morphological study of Brimeura duvigneaudii (Hyacinthaceae), a narrow endemic species limited to northeastern Mallorca (Balearic Islands). Morphological analyses showed noticeably variability which is correlated with geographic distribution and some ecological factors. These data led us to propose a new subspecies of Brimeura duvigneaudii, which is described from the middle range of Serra de Tramuntana. The new taxon (Brimeura duvigneaudii subsp. occultata) differs from B. d...
Moore et al., from the Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis (CAIDA), proposed in recent years another measurement and monitoring method for networks and the Internet. Network Telescopes are used to detect malicious traffc events generated from Denial of Service attacks, worm infected hosts and misconfiguration. This report is focused on endemic and pandemic incidents (DoS, Worm) and how these incidents observed through different Darknet topologies and sta...
Howard, Jeanette K; Klausmeyer, Kirk R; Fesenmyer, Kurt A; Furnish, Joseph; Gardali, Thomas; Grantham, Ted; Katz, Jacob V E; Kupferberg, Sarah; McIntyre, Patrick; Moyle, Peter B; Ode, Peter R; Peek, Ryan; Quińones, Rebecca M; Rehn, Andrew C; Santos, Nick; Schoenig, Steve; Serpa, Larry; Shedd, Jackson D; Slusark, Joe; Viers, Joshua H; Wright, Amber; Morrison, Scott A
The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe), created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939) are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6%) of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%). The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate protections for freshwater taxa where they are currently lacking. PMID:26147215
MacDonald, Luke H.; Gopal Pathak; Burton Singer; Peter R. Jaffé
This paper presents the grounds for an integrated approach to address endemic fluorosis in Jharkhand, India, an approach that encompasses health monitoring, community-based water systems management, and locally synthesized hydroxyapatite, a sustainable water treatment technology. The results of this study, focusing on kinetics and sorption isotherms, demonstrate that an inexpensive, locally synthesized hydroxyapatite effectively removes fluoride from water and that the Dean Index, a measure o...
Bakthira, Hussein; Nasser A. Awadh Ali; Arnold, Norbert; Teichert, Axel; Wessjohann, Ludger
A total of 30 chloroform and methanol extracts from the following endemic Soqotran plants Acridocarpus socotranus Olive, Boswellia socotranao Balf.fil, Boswellia elongata Balf. fil., Caralluma socotrana N. Br, Cephalocroton socotranus Balf.f, Croton socotranus Balf. fil.., Dendrosicycos socotrana Balf.f., Dorstenia gigas Schweinf. ex Balf. fil., Eureiandra balfourii Cogn. & Balf. fil., Kalanchoe farinaceae Balf.f, Limonium sokotranum (Vierh) Radcl. Sm), Oldenlandia pulvinata, Pulicaria divers...
BAYRAKDAR, Fatma; AYTAÇ, Zeki; SULUDERE, Zekiye; CANDAN, Selami
In the present study, seed surface morphology of species of the genus Ebenus L. in Turkey, all of which are endemic, was studied. E. plumosa var. speciosa has the biggest and E. laguroides var. laguroides has the smallest seeds. The seed shapes are spheroid in E. reesei, orbiculate in E. pisidica, and oblong-spheroid in others. Ornamentation is striate in E. macrophylla, rugose in E. haussknechtii, and reticulate or multi-reticulate in others. Microphylle is subterminal in all Turkish Ebenus ...
Latheef, Shaik Abdul; Prasad, Beerkam; Bavaji, Middi; Subramanyam, Gangapatnam
Medicinal plants play an important role in health care. The use of medicinal plants for treatment is growing in view of cost and non-compliance of modern medicine as in case of non-communicable diseases. Plants such as Boswellia, ovalifoliolata, Cycas beddomei, Pimpinella tirupatiensis, Pterocarpus santalinus, Shorea thumbuggaia, Syzygium alternifolium, Terminalia pallida are endemic to Tirumala hills of seshachalam range falling under the Eastern Ghats of India. ...
[EN] The taxonomy of an Iberian endemic Aristolochia is treated, based on morphological and cytological characters. A brief description of its main diagnostic characters, distribution and habitat is included, as well as a distribution map and a few comments on its possible phylogenetic relationships. A new combination is proposed, raising this taxon from subspecies to a species proper: A. castellana (Nardi) Costa. A revised dichotomous key for the Iberian taxa of the genus is proposed.
YILDIZ, Kemal; GÜCEL, Salih
The chromosome numbers of 16 of the 19 endemic taxa of Northern Cyprus were investigated, 15 of which are new records. Diploid chromosome numbers of the taxa investigated varied between 2n = 12 and 2n = 30. One species, Scutellaria sibthorpii (Benth.) Hal., was both diploid (2n = 14) and tetraploid (2n = 28), and Sideritis cypria Post, 2n = 30, was either diploid or triploid.
Zimmerman Peter A; Bockarie Moses J; Vulule John; Moormann Ann M; Greene Jennifer A; Kazura James W
Abstract Background Toll-like receptors (TLR) and related downstream signaling pathways of innate immunity have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Because of their potential role in malaria pathogenesis, polymorphisms in these genes may be under selective pressure in populations where this infectious disease is endemic. Methods A post-PCR Ligation Detection Reaction-Fluorescent Microsphere Assay (LDR-FMA) was developed to determine the frequencies of TLR2, T...
LÓPEZ?PUJOL, JORDI; BOSCH, MARIA; Simon, Joan; BLANCHÉ, CČSAR
• Background and Aims Thymus loscosii (Lamiaceae) is a tetraploid perennial species endemic to the Ebro river basin (north?eastern Spain), which is included in the National Catalogue of Endangered Species. It is a tetraploid species (2n = 54), presumably an autotetraploid originated by the duplication of a 2n = 28 genome and the subsequent loss of two chromosomes. Allozyme electrophoresis was conducted to survey the levels and distribution of genetic diversity and to test the previous auto...
Figueiredo, Estrela; Smith, G F; Cesar, Joaquim
Angola is the only southern African country for which a plant inventory has not been produced to date. The lack of a country-level floristic checklist has seriously hampered the estimation of levels of diversity and endemism, and other conservation-driven initiatives. This deficiency was addressed in a collaborative initiative recently concluded among over 30 international project participants. This paper presents the results of the project that aimed, among other things, to survey the Angola...
Abstract Biodiversity is disappearing at an exceptional rate, engendering a considerable effort of the scientific community to conserve the rarest and most threatened species. Biodiversity Hotspots were designed for this purpose and Madagascar, showing the highest levels of endemism and imbalance across taxa, rapidly became their flagship. The processes that lead to such exceptional biodiversity patterns on the island remain poorly understood and the lack of efficacy of trad...
Mónica, Arakaki; Carlos, Ostolaza; Fátima, Cáceres; José, Roque.
Full Text Available La familia Cactaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar 43 géneros y alrededor de 250 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mayormente cactus arbustivo-columnares. En este trabajo reconocemos 199 endemismos en 32 géneros. Seis géneros, Calymnanthium, Lasiocereus, Matucana, [...] Mila, Oroya y Pygmaeocereus son endémicos al Perú. Esta familia requiere de esfuerzos metódicos para incrementar su representación en los herbarios nacionales, asociados con una evaluación de las poblaciones y de sus hábitats, así como una evaluación de la taxonomía y sistemática de estos taxones. La mayoría de los taxones endémicos ocupan las regiones Matorral Desértico y Mesoandina, desde el nivel del mar hasta los 4000 m de altitud. Se aplicaron las categorías y criterios de la UICN a 58 taxones. Quince taxones endémicos están representados dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Cactaceae are represented in Peru by 43 genera and nearly 250 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mostly erect-columnar or sprawling cactus. Here we recognize 1999 endemic taxa in 32 genera. Six genera-Calymnanthium, Lasiocereus, Matucana, Mila, Oroya and Pygmaeocereus- a [...] re endemic to Peru. This family requires methodic efforts to increase the number of vouchers in national herbaria, as well as evaluations of the populations, habitats, taxonomy and systematics of these taxa. Most endemic taxa are found in the Desert Shrubland and Mesoandean regions, from sea level to 4000 m elevation. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to 58 taxa. Fifteen endemic taxa have been recorded in the Peruvian parks system.
HASANÇEB?, Semra; ÇAKIR, Neslihan TURGUT KARA Özgür; ARI, ?ule
Efficient micropropagation and root culture protocols were developed for the endemic Astragalus chrysochlorus Boiss. & Kotschy. A high frequency of shoot formation (100%) and maximum multiplication (13 shoots per hypocotyl explant) were achieved on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with 0.5 mg/L trans-Zeatin riboside (ZR). By using single regenerated hypocotyl explants, rooting was achieved at a rate of 93% on MS medium containing 2% sucrose without growth regulators. High frequ...
In vitro cultivation of the endemic and threatened species Andryala levitomentosa represents an unconventional strategy and action plan for the biological diversity conservation. This plant is considered one of the rarest species in the European flora and in Romania it is founded only on „Pietrosul Brostenilor” mountain. The micropropagation of Andryala levitomentosa implies measures which should allow to conserve and perpetuate this species. The plants of Andryala levitomentosa have been reg...
The metabolism of (99Mo) compounds in plasma was followed after intravenous injection of (99Mo) trithiomolybdate and intraruminal infusion of (99Mo) molybdate in one red deer and one sika deer. Clearance of (99Mo) trithiomolybdate was rapid and residual radioactivity was (99Mo) dithiomolybdate. After ruminal infusion of (99Mo) molybdate, the main plasma (99Mo) thiomolybdate detected was also (99Mo) dithiomolybdate. These preliminary studies may provide an explanation of the apparent insensitivity of the deer to high dietary Mo, since dithiomolybdate is less likely to be toxic systemically than trithiomolybdate to tetrathiomolybdate. However, further studies with more animals and over a wider range of conditions would be advisable before definitive conclusions are drawn. (author)
DePerno, Christopher S; Chitwood, M Colter; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Jenks, Jonathan A
We determined the relationship between fructosamine and serum glucose in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvested during two seasonally stressful periods for deer in coastal North Carolina, US: July 2008 represented the postparturition and lactation period, and March 2009 represented the late winter and pre-green-up period. Serum glucose and fructosamine concentrations were similar between time periods but were uncorrelated within each season. However, when serum glucose was separated into high and low categories based on the median blood glucose score within each time period, we detected statistically significant differences between July and March for serum glucose. Fructosamine was more stable than serum glucose for evaluating the white-tailed deer physiologic condition. PMID:26251990
Janicki, Z; Konjevi?, D; Severin, K
The presence of American liver fluke (Fascioloides magna) in Croatian wild ruminant species was detected for the first time in January 2000. At the same time, the problem of adequate parasitological monitoring and treatment appeared in the captive deer population. Quarantine and health screening protocols, as well as migration and transportation influence had to be evaluated in red deer husbandry. Non-invasive methods were introduced to estimate the prevalence of F. magna in the semi-farm rearing system. Coprological analysis has been performed on 264 faecal samples. The most effective antiparasitic treatment was implemented on herd and individual treatment. Treatment was extended to the free-ranging population of deer in the same region. PMID:16244930
Tapia-Escárate, D; Pomroy, W E; Scott, I; Wilson, P R; Lopez-Villalobos, N
To investigate the establishment of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in red deer, five red deer and five sheep aged 5-6 months were challenged with a mixed burden of sheep GIN at a rate of 327L3/kg bodyweight. The LSmean (SE) establishment rates (%) for Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Cooperia curticei, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum+Chabertia spp. were 18.6 (0.03), 35.5 (0.04), 30.7 (0.04), 74.9 (0.05), 19.9 (0.06), respectively in sheep and 10.5 (0.03), 1.0 (0.04), 0.1 (0.04), 1.0 (0.05), 4.8 (0.06) respectively, in deer. Establishment rates were significantly different (pcontortus, T. axei and O. venulosum. PMID:25657087
Full Text Available Deer (Cervidaei belong to the most important species used as farmed animals. We focused on assesing the genetic diversity among five deer populations. Analysis has been performed on a total of 183 animals originating from Czech Republic, Hungary, New Zealand, Poland and Slovak Republic. Genetic variability were investigated using 8 microsatellite markers used in deer. Statistical data of all populations we obtained on the basis of Nei statistics, using by POWERMARKER 3.23 programme. Graphical view of relationships among populations and individuals in the populations was obtained using the Dendroscope software. Molecular genetic data combinated with evaluation in statistical programmes could lead to a complex view of populations and diffrences among them.doi:10.5219/172
Eric, Rodriguez; Maximilian, Weigend.
Full Text Available La familia Loasaceae está representada en el Perú por ocho géneros y alrededor de 112 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), la mayoría herbáceas. En este trabajo se reconoce y categoriza 59 especies y 10 taxones subespecíficos en cinco géneros como endemismos peruanos. El géne [...] ro Nasa es el más rico en especies. Estos taxones endémicos ocupan principalmente las regiones Mesoandina, Puna Húmeda y Seca y Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, desde los 1400 hasta los 4700 m de altitud. Diez de los endemismos reconocidos se encuentran representados dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Loasaceae are represented in Peru by eight genera and around 112 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mainly herbs. Here we recognize 59 species and 10 infra-specific taxa in five genera as Peruvian endemics. Nasa is the genus with the largest number of endemic species. Th [...] ese endemic taxa are found in the Mesoandean, Humid and Dry Puna, and Very Humid Montane Forest regions, between 1400 and 4700 m elevation. Ten of these taxa have been found in the Peruvian protected areas system.
Cyclospora cayetanensis is an intestinal coccidian protozoon that has emerged as an important cause of endemic or epidemic diarrhoeal illness in children and adults worldwide. Humans appear to be the only natural hosts. However, the role of animals as natural reservoirs is uncertain but of increasing concern. Human-to-human spread of the parasite occurs indirectly via the environment through oocysts in contaminated water, food or soil. In endemic areas, risk factors associated with the infection include contaminated water or food, contact with soil or animals, type of sanitation and low socioeconomic status. Infections linked to soil contact provide reasons to believe that this route of spread may be more common than realised in disadvantaged community settings. C. cayetanensis is an important cause of traveller's diarrhoea and numerous large foodborne outbreaks associated with the globalisation of the food supply and importation of fruits and vegetables from developing countries have occurred. Waterborne outbreaks have also been reported. Implementation of measures to prevent or control the spread of Cyclospora oocysts in the environment is critical. In endemic areas, the most important steps to prevent infection are improving environmental sanitation and health education. Significant gaps remain in our understanding of the epidemiology of human cyclosporiasis that highlight the need for continued research in several aspects of C. cayetanensis. PMID:20382099
Silva Hilda Maria Andrade da
Full Text Available Parsimony analysis of endemicity was applied to analyze the distribution of enchodontoid fishes occurring strictly in the Cenomanian. The analysis was carried out using the computer program PAUP* 4.0b10, based on a data matrix built with 17 taxa and 12 areas. The rooting was made on an hypothetical all-zero outgroup. Applying the exact algorithm branch and bound, 47 trees were obtained with 26 steps, a consistency index of 0.73, and a retention index of 0.50. The topology found with a majority rule consensus was: [(Mexico + (United States + (Morocco + Italy + (Lebanon + Israel + (Italy-Slovenia + (Brazil] + (D.R. Congo + (Sweden + (Germany + (England. The procedure delimited two areas of endemism in the Tethys Ocean. They are Morocco and southern Italy and Lebanon and Israel. The area of endemism formed by Morocco + Italy represents the North African region of the Tethys Ocean, and that formed by Lebanon + Israel is in the mid-Tethyan Ocean. Our results are in partial agreement with the patterns of geographical distribution of certain invertebrate biota.
A study on brain CT was made in 20 cases of typical endemic cretinism and 15 cases of normal persons. These patients from severely iodine deficient area were diagnosed as neurological endemic cretinism characterized by severe mental retardation with impairment of hearing, speech, neuromotor, etc. to varying degrees. The brain CT showed that there were many and deep depressions in cerebral cortex, especially in frontal and parietal lobes of some cretins, the lateral ventricle system was dilated, particularly in posterior part of it, and the interhemisphere fissure, lateral fissure and subarachnoid cisterns were also expanded. The CT value of cortex was higher and white matter was lower than that of normal persons. In some severe cases, the two hemispheres of brain were not the same in size. These findings above indicated that these endemic cretins had a severe retardation of brain development including cerebral cortex and white matter. In addition, some abnormal calcification in brain and abnormal structure of middle line of brain were also found. (author)
Parlato, Elizabeth H; Armstrong, Doug P; Innes, John G
Understanding vulnerability of endemic taxa to predation is clearly important for conservation management. In New Zealand, predation by introduced mammals such as rats and mustelids is widely recognized as the primary factor responsible for declines of indigenous fauna. The aim of our study was to evaluate the vulnerability of New Zealand's surviving endemic forest bird species to impacts of introduced mammalian predators, and identify key life history attributes underlying this vulnerability. We measured range contraction following the introduction of exotic mammalian predators for 23 endemic forest bird species using information on both pre-human and current distributions. We used Bayesian modeling techniques to analyze whether variation in range contraction was associated with life history traits potentially influencing species' predation vulnerability, while accounting for phylogenetic relatedness. Our results showed that the extent of range contraction varied greatly among species, with some species remaining in available forest habitat throughout most of their pre-human range, and others having disappeared completely from the main islands. Cavity nesting was the key trait associated with more extensive range decline, suggesting that cavity-nesting species are more vulnerable to predation than species that nest in more open sites. PMID:25969334
Vazquez, F; Miguel, M San
We study the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible model of epidemic spreading on two layers of networks interconnected by adaptive links, which are rewired at random to avoid contacts between infected and susceptible nodes at the interlayer. We find that the rewiring reduces the effective connectivity for the transmission of the disease between layers, and may even totally decouple the networks. Weak endemic states, in which the epidemics spreads only if the two layers are interconnected, show a transition from the endemic to the healthy phase when the rewiring overcomes a threshold value that depends on the infection rate, the strength of the coupling and the mean connectivity of the networks. In the strong endemic scenario, in which the epidemics is able to spread on each separate network, the prevalence in each layer decreases when increasing the rewiring, arriving to single network values only in the limit of infinitely fast rewiring. We also find that finite-size effects are amplified by the rewiring, as the...
Full Text Available La familia Asclepiadaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar 27 géneros y 107 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), mayormente bejucos y hierbas. Esta familia se halla bajo revisión sistemática. Para la flora peruana, estos estudios en desarrollo probablemente concluyan con la necesidad de un reord [...] enamiento de los taxones a nivel de los géneros (S. Liede, com. pers.). Dada la escasez de colecciones herborizadas y la falta de consenso sobre los taxones, aquí se reconocen provisionalmente 43 endemismos. En general, los endemismos en esta familia ocupan las regiones Mesoandina y Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, entre los 900 y 2600 m de altitud. Se aplicaron las categorías y criterios de la UICN a cinco especies. Dos endémicas se encuentran registradas en el Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Asclepiadaceae are represented in Peru by 27 genera and 107species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), mostly vines and lianas. The family is under systematic revision, and these ongoing studies are likely to result in genus-level changes for the Peruvian Asclepiadaceae flora (S. Liede, pers. comm.). Give [...] n the scarcity of collections and the lack of consensus on the taxonomic status of several taxa, we provisionally recognize 43 endemic species. The endemic taxa are found in the Mesoandean and Very Humid Montane Forest regions, between 900 and 2600 m elevation. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to five species. Two endemic species have been found in protected areas.
Merckx, Vincent S F T; Hendriks, Kasper P; Beentjes, Kevin K; Mennes, Constantijn B; Becking, Leontine E; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Afendy, Aqilah; Arumugam, Nivaarani; de Boer, Hugo; Biun, Alim; Buang, Matsain M; Chen, Ping-Ping; Chung, Arthur Y C; Dow, Rory; Feijen, Frida A A; Feijen, Hans; Feijen-van Soest, Cobi; Geml, József; Geurts, René; Gravendeel, Barbara; Hovenkamp, Peter; Imbun, Paul; Ipor, Isa; Janssens, Steven B; Jocqué, Merlijn; Kappes, Heike; Khoo, Eyen; Koomen, Peter; Lens, Frederic; Majapun, Richard J; Morgado, Luis N; Neupane, Suman; Nieser, Nico; Pereira, Joan T; Rahman, Homathevi; Sabran, Suzana; Sawang, Anati; Schwallier, Rachel M; Shim, Phyau-Soon; Smit, Harry; Sol, Nicolien; Spait, Maipul; Stech, Michael; Stokvis, Frank; Sugau, John B; Suleiman, Monica; Sumail, Sukaibin; Thomas, Daniel C; van Tol, Jan; Tuh, Fred Y Y; Yahya, Bakhtiar E; Nais, Jamili; Repin, Rimi; Lakim, Maklarin; Schilthuizen, Menno
Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these communities. Also, it is debated whether mountain endemics mostly originate from local lowland taxa, or from lineages that reach the mountain by long-range dispersal from cool localities elsewhere. Here we investigate the evolutionary routes to endemism by sampling an entire tropical mountain biota on the 4,095-metre-high Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, East Malaysia. We discover that most of its unique biodiversity is younger than the mountain itself (6 million years), and comprises a mix of immigrant pre-adapted lineages and descendants from local lowland ancestors, although substantial shifts from lower to higher vegetation zones in this latter group were rare. These insights could improve forecasts of the likelihood of extinction and 'evolutionary rescue' in montane biodiversity hot spots under climate change scenarios. PMID:26266979
David M. Leslie, Jr.
Full Text Available Carbon (?13C and nitrogen (?15N isotopes in biological samples from large herbivores identify photosynthetic pathways (C3 vs. C4 of plants they consumed and can elucidate potential nutritional characteristics of dietary selection. Because large herbivores consume a diversity of forage types, ?13C and ?15N in their tissue can index ingested and assimilated diets through time. We assessed ?13C and ?15N in metabolically active liver tissue of sympatric mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus to identify dietary disparity resulting from use of burned and unburned areas in a largely forested landscape. Interspecific variation in dietary disparity of deer was documented 2–3 years post-fire in response to lag-time effects of vegetative response to burning and seasonal (i.e., summer, winter differences in forage type. Liver ?13C for mule deer were lower during winter and higher during summer 2 years post-fire on burned habitat compared to unburned habitat suggesting different forages were consumed by mule deer in response to fire. Liver ?15N for both species were higher on burned than unburned habitat during winter and summer suggesting deer consumed more nutritious forage on burned habitat during both seasons 2 and 3 years post-fire. Unlike traditional methods of dietary assessment that do not measure uptake of carbon and nitrogen from dietary components, analyses of stable isotopes in liver or similar tissue elucidated ?13C and ?15N assimilation from seasonal dietary components and resulting differences in the foraging ecology of sympatric species in response to fire.
Cohen, Bradley S; Belser, Emily H; Killmaster, Charlie H; Bowers, John W; Irwin, Brian J; Yabsley, Michael J; Miller, Karl V
Intracranial abscess disease is a cause of natural mortality for mature male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most cases of abscesses are associated with bacterial infection by Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes, but a complete understanding of the epidemiology of this disease is lacking. We quantified the effects of individual characteristics, site-specific herd demographics, land cover, and soil variables in estimating the probability of this disease. We examined 7,545 white-tailed deer from 60 sites throughout Georgia US for signs of cranial abscesses, the predecessor of intracranial abscesses, and recorded the presence or absence of cranial abscesses for each individual examined. We detected no cranial abscesses in 2,562 female deer but 91 abscesses in 4,983 male deer examined (1.8%). A generalized linear mixed model, treating site as a random effect, was used to examine several potential explanatory risk factors including site-level landscape and soil characteristics (soil and forest type), demographic factors (deer density and male to female ratio), and individual host factors (deer sex and age). Model results indicated that the probability of a male having a cranial abscess increased with age and that adult sex ratio (male:female) was positively associated with this disease. Site-specific variables for land cover and soil types were not strongly associated with observations of the disease at the scale measured and a large amount of among-site variability remained. Given the demonstrated effect of age, gender, and local sex ratios but the remaining unexplained spatial variability, additional investigation into spatiotemporal variation of the presumed bacterial causative agent of cranial abscesses appears warranted. PMID:25984774
Turner, M.M.; Rockhill, A.P.; Deperno, C.S.; Jenks, J.A.; Klaver, R.W.; Jarding, A.R.; Grovenburg, T.W.; Pollock, K.H.
Coyotes (Canis latrans) may affect adult and neonate white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) survival and have been implicated as a contributor to the decline of deer populations. Additionally, coyote diet composition is influenced by prey availability, season, and region. Because coyote movement and diet vary by region, local data are important to understand coyote population dynamics and their impact on prey species. In southeast Minnesota, we investigated the effect of coyotes on white-tailed deer populations by documenting movement rates, distances moved, and habitats searched by coyotes during fawning and non-fawning periods. Additionally, we determined survival, cause-specific mortality, and seasonal diet composition of coyotes. From 2001 to 2003, we captured and radiocollared 30 coyotes. Per-hour rate of movement averaged 0.87 km and was greater (P = 0.046) during the fawning (1.07 km) than the nonfawning period (0.80 km); areas searched were similar (P = 0.175) between seasons. Coyote habitat use differed during both seasons; habitats were not used in proportion to their availability (P deer was 9.1%. During the study, 19 coyotes died; annual survival rate range was 0.33-0.41, which was low compared with other studies. Consumption of deer was low and coyotes searched open areas (i.e., cropland) more than fawning areas with dense cover. These factors in addition to high coyote mortality suggested that coyote predation was not likely limiting white-tailed deer populations in southeast Minnesota. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.
Joly, Damien O; Samuel, Michael D; Langenberg, Julia A; Rolley, Robert E; Keane, Delwyn P
Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease affecting North American cervids, has been discovered in at least 12 states and provinces throughout the continent. Since 2002, a number of states and provinces have initiated surveillance programs to detect CWD in native cervid populations. However, many questions remain about the appropriate methods, geographic scope, and number of samples required for an effective CWD surveillance program. We provide an improved statistical method to calculate the probability of detecting CWD in primary sample units (e.g., county or deer management unit) that also considers deer abundance and the nonrandom distribution of CWD and hunter harvests. We used this method to analyze data from a statewide CWD detection program conducted in Wisconsin during the autumns of 2002 and 2003 to determine the distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Deer heads were collected at hunter registration stations, and brainstem (obex) and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were removed for disease testing. Our analysis includes samples from >35,000 deer collected outside the known affected area. The probability of detecting chronic wasting disease at a prevalence of 1% varied from 0.89 to > or =0.99 among the 56 primary sample units. Detection probabilities for 1% CWD prevalence were >0.9 in 55 primary sample units, and >0.99 in 10. Detection probabilities will be higher in areas where CWD prevalence exceeds 1%. CWD-positive deer were detected in eight primary sample units surrounding the known affected area during surveillance activities. Our approach provides a novel statistical technique to accommodate nonrandom sampling in wildlife disease surveillance programs. PMID:19901375
Walter, W. David; Zimmerman, T.J.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Jenks, J.A.
Carbon (??13C) and nitrogen (??15N) isotopes in biological samples from large herbivores identify photosynthetic pathways (C3 vs. C4) of plants they consumed and can elucidate potential nutritional characteristics of dietary selection. Because large herbivores consume a diversity of forage types, ??13C and ??15N in their tissue can index ingested and assimilated diets through time. We assessed ??13C and ??15N in metabolically active liver tissue of sympatric mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) to identify dietary disparity resulting from use of burned and unburned areas in a largely forested landscape. Interspecific variation in dietary disparity of deer was documented 2-3 years post-fire in response to lag-time effects of vegetative response to burning and seasonal (i.e., summer, winter) differences in forage type. Liver ??13C for mule deer were lower during winter and higher during summer 2 years post-fire on burned habitat compared to unburned habitat suggesting different forages were consumed by mule deer in response to fire. Liver ??15N for both species were higher on burned than unburned habitat during winter and summer suggesting deer consumed more nutritious forage on burned habitat during both seasons 2 and 3 years post-fire. Unlike traditional methods of dietary assessment that do not measure uptake of carbon and nitrogen from dietary components, analyses of stable isotopes in liver or similar tissue elucidated ??13C and ??15N assimilation from seasonal dietary components and resulting differences in the foraging ecology of sympatric species in response to fire.
Price, J; Allen, S
Deer antlers are the only mammalian appendages capable of repeated rounds of regeneration; every year they are shed and regrow from a blastema into large branched structures of cartilage and bone that are used for fighting and display. Longitudinal growth is by a process of modified endochondral ossification and in some species this can exceed 2 cm per day, representing the fastest rate of organ growth in the animal kingdom. However, despite their value as a unique model of mammalian regeneration the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We review what is currently known about the local and systemic regulation of antler regeneration and some of the many unsolved questions of antler physiology are discussed. Molecules that we have identified as having potentially important local roles in antlers include parathyroid hormone-related peptide and retinoic acid (RA). Both are present in the blastema and in the rapidly growing antler where they regulate the differentiation of chondrocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro. Recent studies have shown that blockade of RA signalling can alter cellular differentiation in the blastema in vivo. The trigger that regulates the expression of these local signals is likely to be changing levels of sex steroids because the process of antler regeneration is linked to the reproductive cycle. The natural assumption has been that the most important hormone is testosterone, however, at a cellular level oestrogen may be a more significant regulator. Our data suggest that exogenous oestrogen acts as a 'brake', inhibiting the proliferation of progenitor cells in the antler tip while stimulating their differentiation, thus inhibiting continued growth. Deciphering the mechanism(s) by which sex steroids regulate cell-cycle progression and cellular differentiation in antlers may help to address why regeneration is limited in other mammalian tissues. PMID:15293809
A report is given on the course of radiocaesium contamination in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria. In autumn 1987 and winter 1987/88 radiocaesium levels rose to values higher than those recorded in 1986 in these regions. The reason for this increase was the very specific feeding selection of roe deer in these forest areas resulting in the ingestion of an unusual high amount of blueberries, ferns and mushrooms. An explanation for the changes of wild boar's contamination has not been found yet, but possible reasons are discussed. (author)
Pan, Duo; Song, Yan-Ling; Zeng, Zhi-Gao; Bravery, Benjamin D.
An emerging issue in wildlife conservation is the re-establishment of viable populations of endangered species in suitable habitats. Here, we studied habitat selection by a population of Hainan Eld’s deer (Cervus eldi) relocated to a patchy landscape of farmland and forest. Hainan Eld’s deer were pushed to the brink of extinction in the 1970s, but their population expanded rapidly from 26 to more than 1000 individuals by 2003 through effective reserve protection. As part of a wider relocation...
Weckerly, F.W.; Bleich, V.C.; Chetkiewicz, C.-L.B.; Ricca, M.A.
The relationship between body size and rumen-reticulum capacity among conspecific individuals is predicted to be isometric. We examined whether the relationship between body weight and rumen-reticulum capacity was isometric in adult male and female rule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) and in adult female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). We detected no effect of sex on this relationship in elk, and the slope of the regression was 1.0 for one measure of rumen-reticulum capacity and <1.0 for another. Among deer, the slope of the relationship was <1.0 in one measure of rumen-reticulum capacity, and we detected no relationship with the other.
Sileo, Louis; Beyer, W. Nelson
White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann)) shot within 20 km of the zinc smelters in the Palmerton, Pennsylvania area contained extremely high renal concentrations of cadmium (372 ppm dry weight (dw)) and zinc (600 ppm dw). The deer with the highest renal zinc concentration was shot 4 km from the smelters and had joint lesions similar to those seen in zinc-poisoned horses from the same area. The highest concentrations of lead in both hard and soft tissues were relatively low, 10.9 ppm dw in a sample of teeth, 17.4 ppm dw in a metacarpus, and 4.9 ppm dw in a kidney.
Neutron activation analysis facilities at the JMTR reactor was used to determine the levels of trace metals in the livers of nine Japanese sika deer. The samples were cut into pieces, pulverized in liquid nitrogen, freeze-dried, and finally fractionated through a stainless steel sieve of 200 mesh. Then the samples were irradiated for 6 or 24 hours by a neutron flux of 1.0x1014 n·cm-2·sec-1. In the present work, we analysed the concentrations of six elements (Ag, Co, Fe, Rb, Se, and Zn) in the livers of nine deer. (author)
Tobe, Shanan S; Govan, James; Welch, Lindsey A
Poaching is a crime that occurs worldwide and can be extremely difficult to investigate and prosecute due to the nature of the evidence available. If a species is protected by international legislation such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora then simply possessing any part of that species is illegal. Previous studies have focused on the identification of endangered species in cases of potential poaching. Difficulties arise if the poached animal is not endangered. Species such as deer have hunting seasons whereby they can legally be hunted however poaching is the illegal take of deer, irrespective of season. Therefore, identification of deer alone has little probative value as samples could have originated from legal hunting activities in season. After a deer is hunted it is usual to remove the innards, head and lower limbs. The limbs are removed through manual force and represent a potential source of human touch DNA. We investigate the potential to recover and profile human autosomal DNA from poached deer remains. Samples from the legs of ten culled deer were obtained (40 in total) using minitapes. DNA from samples was extracted, quantified and amplified to determine if it would be possible to recover human STR profiles. Low quantification data led to the use of an extended PCR cycling protocol of 34 cycles. Samples from seven deer amplified, however some samples were excluded from further analysis due to 'drop in' alleles or the low level of successfully amplified loci. Samples from five deer could be further analysed and gave match probabilities ranging from 6.37×10(-3) to 9.53×10(-11). This study demonstrates the potential of recovering human touch DNA from poached animal remains. There is the potential for this test to be used in relation to other species of poached remains or other types of wildlife crimes. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that human STR profiling has been successfully applied to touch DNA in regards to simulated wildlife crime. PMID:22137052
Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.
Survival of 203 yearling and adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was monitored for 23,441 deer days from January through April 1975-85 in northeastern Minnesota. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) predation was the primary mortality cause, and from year to year during this period, the mean predation rate ranged from 0.00 to 0.29. The sum of weekly snow depths/month explained 51% of the variation in annual wolf predation rate, with the highest predation during the deepest snow.
The authors examined spring and summer use of browse by white-tailed deer in forest gaps created by group selection timber harvest at the SRS. Total percentage browse was low in both years, averaging 2.5% of the available browse. Six species were rated high use, 4 species as proportional use and 10 species as low use. Ratings were in agreement to others in the Southeast. Preferred species were maple, winged elm, greenbriar and black willow. Deer browse had very little impact on regeneration of most species
Forage intake rates of 87 wild, Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) collected over a 2-year period from the Cache la Poudre Drainage, Colorado, were estimated utilizing available data on fallout cesium-137 concentrations in the deer and their inferred diet. The method employed involved the convolution of an intake function and a retention function. Ingestion rates are reported and analyzed by sex, season, and age class. An overall mean forage intake of 21.9 grams air dry forage/kg carcass weight/day was calculated. Adult animals consumed significantly (less than 0.01) more than adults throughout the year. (U.S.)
Marijan Grubeši?; Branko Uroševi?; Zlatan Mihaljevi?; Kristijan Tomljanovi?
The controlled breeding of wild game has been carried out for many years as part of hunting management programs for commercially important game species. The controlled breeding of red deer in the Šeprešhat polygon is the result of long-term game management in open hunting grounds, scientific research, monitoring the state of game in hunting grounds, and supply and demand.One of the reasons for controlled breeding of red deer in Croatia is certainly the reduction in population abundance of thi...
Nol, Pauline; Rhyan, Jack C.; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; McCollum, Matt P.; Rigg, Tara D.; Saklou, Nadia T.; Salman, Mo D.
White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) experimentally infected with a virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis have been shown to transmit the bacterium to other deer and cattle (Bos taurus) by sharing of pen waste and feed. The risk of transmission of M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine from orally vaccinated white-tailed deer to other deer and cattle, however, is not well understood. In order to evaluate this risk, we orally vaccinated 14 white-tailed deer with 1×109 colony for...
Real, R.; Guerrero, J. C.; Vargas, J. M.
The geographical patterns of Heleroptera species diversity in the Canary Islands were analysed, and endemic and non-endemic species were studied both together and separately. Causal processes most likely controlling these patterns, as well as the theory of island biogeography, hypotheses about evolutionary time, habitat heterogeneity, climatic stability, intermediate disturbances, energy, environmental favourableness-severity, productivity and human influence were investigated. The combinatio...
Zimpel, Cristina Kraemer; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Barros Filho, Ivan Roque de; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia de Sa; Santos, Leonilda Correia Dos; Moraes, Wanderlei de; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; Oliveira, Marcos Jose de; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custódio de Souza Hunold; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Silva, Lília Marcia Paulin; Cunha, Elenice Maria Sequetin; Castro, Vanessa; Biondo, Alexander Welker
A large number of Brazilian zoos keep many endangered species of deer, however, very few disease surveillance studies have been conducted among captive cervids. Blood samples from 32 Brazilian deer (Blastocerus dichotomus, Mazama nana and Mazama americana) kept in captivity at Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary (Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil) were investigated for 10 ruminant pathogens, with the aims of monitoring deer health status and evaluating any potential zoonotic risk. Deer serum samples were tested for Brucella abortus, Leptospira (23 serovars), Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, western equine encephalitis virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Antibodies against T. gondii (15.6%), N. caninum (6.2%) and L. interrogans serogroup Serjoe (3.1%) were detected. The serological results for all other infectious agents were negative. The deer were considered to be clinically healthy and asymptomatic regarding any disease. Compared with studies on free-ranging deer, the prevalences of the same agents tested among the captive deer kept at the Sanctuary were lower, thus indicating good sanitary conditions and high-quality management practices at the zoo. PMID:26689185
Full Text Available Decades of chronic browsing by overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman has strongly influenced forest pattern and process on the Allegheny High Plateau Ecoregion of northwestern Pennsylvania, USA. Previous research has found that riparian forests contain the greatest herbaceous plant species richness of regional plant communities but little is known about the impacts of deer browsing on the structure and composition of the herbaceous layer (all vascular plants < 1 m tall of Allegheny High Plateau riparian forests. We examined browse preference and browsing intensity by white-tailed deer on the herbaceous layer of five riparian forest study sites in the Allegheny National Forest during the summer growing season (July, September. Browsing intensity was low to moderate and differed significantly among sites and sample periods. Deer selectively foraged on a few preferred plant species during certain sampling periods, particularly Aster divaricatus, A. prenanthoides, Chelone glabra, Impatiens capensis, Pilea pumila, Polygonum virginianum and Ranunculus hispidis. We found that plant species richness and composition, and browsing intensity by white-tailed deer, are highly variable across riparian forests of the region. In order to assess or predict deer browsing impacts to regional riparian forests, we suggest that riparian sites be studied individually, perhaps on a watershed basis, as the surrounding landscape and available habitat may influence deer densities and foraging activity in an individualistic manner.
B. J. William
Full Text Available Aim: Vasectomy is performed in deer for population control, maintain pedigreed animals and prevent inbreeding. Conventional procedure of vasectomy required a long-term anesthesia and longer duration of hospitalization, which often result in stress, morbidity and mortality. A study was conducted to capture, neuter and release the deer with minimal hospitalization and stress by adopting three finger palpation technique of vas deferens and performing vasectomy through a key-hole incision. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on three spotted male deer and three sambar male deer, which were immobilized with a mixture of xylazine at the dose of 1.00 mg/kg and ketamine at the dose of 5.00 mg/kg. The vas deferens could be palpated as a piece of cooked spaghetti at the neck of the scrotum on the anterior aspect by three finger palpation technique and was able to fix the vas deferens between the thumb and middle finger. Through a key-hole incision of <5 mm length, the vas deferens was exteriorized and resected using electrocautery and the skin incision was sealed with methyl methacrylate. The deer were released on the same day, and no post-operative complication was noticed. Conclusion: The study revealed that three finger palpation technique of vas deferens provided guidance for easy access to vas deferens for vasectomy in deer with less hospitalization, and the deer could be released on the same day.
Full Text Available The musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster, which is native to Nepal, China, Bhutan, and India, is anendangered species, which suffers a high level of poaching due to the economic demand for its musk pod. TheWorld Heritage Site (WHS, Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest National Park (SNP, provides prime habitat for thisspecies. Our aim in this study was to perform a quantitative assessment of the habitat preferences of musk deerin SNP, and evaluate how preferred habitat might be impacted by anthropogenic activities. Results showed thatthe musk deer population is distributed in 131 km2 of the park area. We recorded 39 musk deer (11 male, 16female and 12 unidentified in Debuche, Tengboche, Phortse Thanga, Dole, and associated areas in SNP. Themusk deer in these areas preferred gentle to steep slopes with the altitudinal range of 3400-3900m and alsodisplayed a preference for dense forest and sparse ground/crown cover. The musk deer preferred the trees-Abies spectabilis, Betula utilis, shrubs- Rhododendron spp., Rosa sericea, and herbs-Usnea spp. and Rui grass,many of which are harvested for construction and firewood. There was, in addition, a significant overlap (35%in the habitat of musk deer and the distribution of livestock within the region. Future planning for theconservation of musk deer must take into the habitat impacts because of anthropogenic activities and livestockgrazing.
Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Boyd, Robert C.
Surveillance programs for Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids often use a standard of being able to detect 1% prevalence when determining minimum sample sizes. However, 1% prevalence may represent >10,000 infected animals in a population of 1 million, and most wildlife managers would prefer to detect the presence of CWD when far fewer infected animals exist. We wanted to detect the presence of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Pennsylvania when the disease was present in only 1 of 21 wildlife management units (WMUs) statewide. We used computer simulation to estimate the probability of detecting CWD based on a sampling design to detect the presence of CWD at 0.1% and 1.0% prevalence (23-76 and 225-762 infected deer, respectively) using tissue samples collected from hunter-killed deer. The probability of detection at 0.1% prevalence was deer, and the probability of detection at 1.0% prevalence was 46-72% with statewide sample sizes of 2,000-6,000 deer. We believe that testing of hunter-killed deer is an essential part of any surveillance program for CWD, but our results demonstrated the importance of a multifaceted surveillance approach for CWD detection rather than sole reliance on testing hunter-killed deer.
Swenson Jennifer J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Andes-Amazon basin of Peru and Bolivia is one of the most data-poor, biologically rich, and rapidly changing areas of the world. Conservation scientists agree that this area hosts extremely high endemism, perhaps the highest in the world, yet we know little about the geographic distributions of these species and ecosystems within country boundaries. To address this need, we have developed conservation data on endemic biodiversity (~800 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, and plants and terrestrial ecological systems (~90; groups of vegetation communities resulting from the action of ecological processes, substrates, and/or environmental gradients with which we conduct a fine scale conservation prioritization across the Amazon watershed of Peru and Bolivia. We modelled the geographic distributions of 435 endemic plants and all 347 endemic vertebrate species, from existing museum and herbaria specimens at a regional conservation practitioner's scale (1:250,000-1:1,000,000, based on the best available tools and geographic data. We mapped ecological systems, endemic species concentrations, and irreplaceable areas with respect to national level protected areas. Results We found that sizes of endemic species distributions ranged widely (2 to > 200,000 km2 across the study area. Bird and mammal endemic species richness was greatest within a narrow 2500-3000 m elevation band along the length of the Andes Mountains. Endemic amphibian richness was highest at 1000-1500 m elevation and concentrated in the southern half of the study area. Geographical distribution of plant endemism was highly taxon-dependent. Irreplaceable areas, defined as locations with the highest number of species with narrow ranges, overlapped slightly with areas of high endemism, yet generally exhibited unique patterns across the study area by species group. We found that many endemic species and ecological systems are lacking national-level protection; a third of endemic species have distributions completely outside of national protected areas. Protected areas cover only 20% of areas of high endemism and 20% of irreplaceable areas. Almost 40% of the 91 ecological systems are in serious need of protection (= Conclusions We identify for the first time, areas of high endemic species concentrations and high irreplaceability that have only been roughly indicated in the past at the continental scale. We conclude that new complementary protected areas are needed to safeguard these endemics and ecosystems. An expansion in protected areas will be challenged by geographically isolated micro-endemics, varied endemic patterns among taxa, increasing deforestation, resource extraction, and changes in climate. Relying on pre-existing collections, publically accessible datasets and tools, this working framework is exportable to other regions plagued by incomplete conservation data.
Baran?eková, Miroslava; Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Voloshina, I. V.; Myslenkov, A. I.; Kawata, Y.; Oshida, T.; Lamka, J.; Koubek, Petr
Paris : Université P. et M. Curie, 2011. s. 106 [European Congress of Mammalogy /7./. 19.07.2011-23.07.2011, Paris] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : sika deer * Czech Republic * origin Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.alphavisa.com/ecm2011/pdf/ECM2011-Abstract_Book.pdf
The population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Scotland has doubled over the last 30 years and there is increasing concern among conservationists about the long-term impact of increased grazing on native woodlands and other sensitive nature conservation sites. Currently, the government relies on a voluntary approach to deer control, but landowners seem unable or unwilling to shoot sufficient numbers to meet cull targets. The aim of this paper is to examine alternatives to the 'voluntary approach' supported by insights from a mail questionnaire of landowners and recreational hunters. In principle, subsidies or taxation is possible but the Deer Commission for Scotland, the government agency responsible, has neither the necessary funding or the legislative power to introduce such a scheme. A tradable culling 'obligations' system on the other hand would build on the voluntary principle by allowing individual landowners to 'trade' culling obligations to neighbouring estates. Compared to traditional regulatory approaches, they are less bureaucratic and inefficient and have the potential to meet environmental targets at least cost as landowners can trade their culling obligation to another estate or hunting club should they wish to do so. Overall, the State's role would be restricted to setting the annual cull and the administration of the permit system for which a small charge could be levied per deer. PMID:15158288
Yan ZENG, Chunwang LI, Linyuan ZHANG, Zhenyu ZHONG, Zhigang JIANG
Full Text Available Considering the severe impacts of genetic bottlenecks and small numbers of founders in populations of reintroduced animals, it is necessary to study inbreeding and its effect on fitness in species of conservation concern. Pčre David’s deer is one of few large mammal species extinct in the wild but safely preserved in captivity. Its specific background gives us the opportunity to study the relationships between heterozygosity and neonatal fitness in relocated populations. We employed five microsatellite loci to explore heterozygosity-fitness correlations in a population of Pčre David’s deer at the Beijing Milu Ecological Research Center. We observed associations between microsatellite-based variables sMLH, IR, MD2 and HL, and two components of fitness expressed early in life (birth weight and the neonatal mortality of 123 Pčre David’s deer calves born over six consecutive years. We found that neonatal mortality was 19.1 ± 7.6%, not higher than the 19% or 18% reported in other ungulates. The heterozygosity of calves was not associated with neonatal mortality, nor birth weight. Our study implies that low genetic variability of microsatellite loci has no overt effect on birth weight and neonatal mortality in reintroduced populations of Pčre David’s deer [Current Zoology 59 (2: 249–256, 2013].
Mingming, Zhang; Zhensheng, Liu; Liwei, Teng.
Full Text Available We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes i [...] n forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833). The use of vegetation types varied seasonally according to food availability and ambient temperature. Red deer used montane coniferous forest and alpine shrub and meadow zones distributed above 2,000 m and 3,000 m in summer, alpine shrub and meadows above 3,000 m in autumn, being restricted to lower elevation habitats in spring and winter. The winter habitat of C. elaphus alxaicus was dominated by Ulmus glaucescens Franch. and Juglans regia Linnaeus, deciduous trees, and differed from the habitats selected by other subspecies of red deer. Cervus elaphus alxaicus preferred habitats with abundant vegetation coverage to open habitats in winter, but the reverse pattern was observed in summer and autumn. Red deer preferred gentle slopes (
Charles Wayne Anderson
Full Text Available White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus are a keystone species throughout their range in North America. The recent presence of diseases such as chronic wasting disease and bovine tuberculosis in Midwestern North America dictates the examination of influences of those diseases on deer populations, and survival and dispersal rates are important parameters when modeling potential disease spread. We quantified survival and dispersal rates of 105 deer in agriculturally-dominated east-central Illinois during 2005-2009. We used Program MARK to estimate rates of annual survival, seasonal survival, and dispersal for fawn, yearling, and adult age-classes. Male and female seasonal (winter/spring [16 Dec–14 May], summer [15 May–30 Sep], and fall/winter [1 Oct–15 Dec] survival ranged from 0.56-0.95 and 0.84-0.96, respectively. Male survival was lower than female survival during the fall/winter season. Dispersal rates for yearling and fawn males and yearling and fawn females were 0.44 ± 0.07 and 0.41 ± 0.07, respectively. The dispersal rate of adult males was 0.46 ± 0.15 and no adult females dispersed. Deer survival appears to be higher than previously reported in the region, with important implications for potential disease spread. Furthermore, the observation of long-distance dispersal (42–96 km combined with greater estimates of survival may impact current chronic wasting disease modeling efforts.
We studied the effects of elevated heavy metal uptake on the sperm quality and the antioxidant mechanisms of sperm and testis of red deer from a Pb mining area in Spain. Testis, liver and bone of red deer from mining (n = 21) and control (n = 20) areas were obtained from hunters and analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, As and Se. Testes were weighed and measured. Motility, acrosome integrity and viability and functionality of membrane were evaluated in epididymal spermatozoa. Lipid peroxidation, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in testis and spermatozoa. Deer from mined areas showed less Cu in testis, a higher testis mass and size and reduced spermatozoa membrane viability and acrosome integrity. Effects on sperm quality were associated to decreased Cu and increased Se in testis, and to decreases in the activity of SOD and GPX in testis and spermatozoa. - A decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in testis correlates with reduced sperm quality in red deer from a Pb mining area.
Reglero, Manuel M.; Taggart, Mark A.; Castellanos, Pilar [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Mateo, Rafael, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)
We studied the effects of elevated heavy metal uptake on the sperm quality and the antioxidant mechanisms of sperm and testis of red deer from a Pb mining area in Spain. Testis, liver and bone of red deer from mining (n = 21) and control (n = 20) areas were obtained from hunters and analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, As and Se. Testes were weighed and measured. Motility, acrosome integrity and viability and functionality of membrane were evaluated in epididymal spermatozoa. Lipid peroxidation, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in testis and spermatozoa. Deer from mined areas showed less Cu in testis, a higher testis mass and size and reduced spermatozoa membrane viability and acrosome integrity. Effects on sperm quality were associated to decreased Cu and increased Se in testis, and to decreases in the activity of SOD and GPX in testis and spermatozoa. - A decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in testis correlates with reduced sperm quality in red deer from a Pb mining area.
Thirteen red deer, culled from the isolated population at the Mongstad Oil Refinery, were investigated for gastrointestinal helminths. These animals, enclosed by the refinery fence, do not have contact with other ruminants and have a high population density considering the available browsing area (1...
A study on age distribution and seasonal dynamics of abomasal helminths in wild red deer was conducted in Central Spain, by monthly samplings of fawns ( 2 yr) animals. Both intensity and prevalence of abomasal parasitism was higher in older animals, particularl...
Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.; Deperno, C.S.; Griffin, S.L.
Delineating populations is critical for understanding population dynamics and managing habitats. Our objective was to delineate subpopulations of migratory female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, USA, on summer and winter ranges. We used fuzzy classification to assign radiocollared deer to subpopulations based on spatial location, characterized subpopulations by trapping sites, and explored relationships among survival of subpopulations and habitat variables. In winter, Kaplan-Meier estimates for subpopulations indicated 2 groups: high (S = 0.991 ?? 0.005 [x- ?? SE]) and low (S = 0.968 ?? 0.007) weekly survivorship. Survivorship increased with basal area per hectare of trees, average diameter at breast height of trees, percent cover of slash, and total point-center quarter distance of trees. Cover of grass and forbs were less for the high survivorship than the lower survivorship group. In summer, deer were spaced apart with mixed associations among subpopulations. Habitat manipulations that promote or maintain large trees (i.e., basal area = 14.8 m2/ha and average dbh of trees = 8.3 cm) would seem to improve adult survival of deer in winter.
Curran, K. L.; Kidd, J. B.; Vassallo, J; Van Meter, V. L.
During the 1998 hunting season in Delaware, 1,480 ticks were collected from 252 white- tailed deer; 98% were Ixodes scapularis, a significant increase from the 85% reported in 1988. Ticks were tested for Borrelia burgdorferi and the causative agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Infection rates remained stable in New Castle and Kent counties, but increased from
Long, E.S.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Wallingford, B.D.; Rosenberry, C.S.
Natural and anthropogenic landscape features, such as rivers, mountain ranges, and roads can alter animal dispersal paths and movement patterns. Consequently landscape, through its effects on dispersal, may influence many ecological processes, including disease transmission, invasion dynamics, and gene flow. To investigate influences of landscape features on dispersal patterns of a large mammal, we captured and radiomarked 363 juvenile male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), including 212 confirmed dispersers, in 2 topographically dissimilar study areas in Pennsylvania, USA. Dispersal azimuths were uniformly distributed in the western study area (WSA), where there was irregular, hilly topography. Mean dispersal azimuths paralleled ridge direction in the eastern study area, where long parallel ridges were aligned northeastsouthwest. Major roads in both areas and a large river in the WSA were semipermeable barriers to dispersal of juvenile males; dispersal paths were less likely to intersect these linear features. Dispersal movements were direct and brief, typically lasting deer that encountered roads near the terminus of their dispersal path were more likely to stop on the near side. Further, for deer that established postdispersal home ranges near major roads, these features influenced range placement such that locations were typically clustered on one side of the road. The influence of roads, rivers, and mountains on dispersal paths and postdispersal locations of white-tailed deer suggest that landscape-specific features should be considered in conservation and management of this and possibly other species of large mammals. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.
Joly, D.O.; Ribic, C.A.; Langenberg, J.A.; Beheler, K.; Batha, C.A.; Dhuey, B.J.; Rolley, R.E.; Bartelt, G.; VanDeelen, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.
Three White-tailed Deer shot within 5 km during the 2001 hunting season in Wisconsin tested positive for chronic wasting disease, a prion disease of cervids. Subsequent sampling within 18 km showed a 3% prevalence (n=476). This discovery represents an important range extension for chronic wasting disease into the eastern United States.
Joly, D.O.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Blanchong, Julie A.; Batha, C.A.; Rolley, R.E.; Keane, D.P.; Ribic, C.A.
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal, emerging disease of cervids associated with transmissible protease-resistant prion proteins. The potential for CWD to cause dramatic declines in deer and elk populations and perceived human health risks associated with consuming CWD-contaminated venison have led wildlife agencies to embark on extensive CWD control programs, typically involving culling to reduce deer populations. We characterized the spatial distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Wisconsin to facilitate CWD management. We found that CWD prevalence declined with distance from a central location, was locally correlated at a scale of 3.6 km, and was correlated with deer habitat abundance. The latter result is consistent with patterns expected for a positive relationship between density and prevalence of CWD. We recommend management activities focused on culling in geographic areas with high prevalence to have the greatest probability of removing infected individuals. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors in envolved in CWD spread and infection rates, especially the role of density-dependent transmission. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2006.
Rispoli, Fred J; Green, Timothy; Fasano, Thomas A; Shah, Vishal
Due to activities involving nuclear energy research during the latter half of the 1900 s, environmental contamination in the form of elevated cesium-137 levels was observed within the Brookhaven National Laboratory, a US Department of Energy facility. Between the years 2000 and 2005, the laboratory carried out a major soil cleanup effort to remove cesium-137 from contaminated sites. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of the cleanup effort by comparing the levels of cesium-137 in the meat of white-tailed deer found within and around the laboratory. Results suggest that the cleanup was effective, with mean concentration of cesium-137 in the meat from within the laboratory decreasing from 2.04 Bq/g prior to 1.22 Bq/g after cleanup. At the current level, the consumption of deer would not pose any human health hazard. Nevertheless, statistically higher levels of cesium-137 were detected in the deer within the laboratory as opposed to levels found in deer 1 mi beyond the laboratory site. PMID:25028321
DelGiudice, G.D.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.
The effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on urinary hydroxyproline of nine captive female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were examined from 23 February to 3 May 1984 in northern Minnesota. In the fasted group, mean hydroxyproline:creatinine (OHP:C) was greater (P less than 0.05) at week 4 compared to baseline at week 0. Between fasted deer and deer fed high protein-high energy (HPHE) and low protein-high energy (LPHE) diets, no difference in OHP:C ratios was detected during the initial 4 wk of the study. Urinary OHP:C ratios were significantly (P less than 0.05) greater in the fasted group during refeeding, concomitant with greater feed consumption and weight gain. There was also a significant (P less than 0.02) time effect in the fasted-refed group; OHP:C ratios increased during these two phases of the study. There was no difference between the HPHE and LPHE fed deer in renal OHP excretion. However, mean OHP:C ratios in yearlings (16.8 +/- 2.2) were greater (P less than 0.001) than in the adults (7.5 +/- 1.2) of those groups, indicating a higher collagen turnover rate. Urinary OHP:C shows potential as an indicator of growth and starvation, and the data presented may serve as reference values.
Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. Previous experiments demonstrated that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep-derived scrapie by intracranial inoculation. The purpose of this study was to determ...
Bluetongue virus (BTV), family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus, contains ten double stranded RNA segments encoding at least ten viral proteins. Bluetongue (BT) is an arthropod-borne disease; transmission to ruminants, including cattle, sheep, goats, and deer species by bites of species of Culicoides. In...
O'Brien, D J; Fitzgerald, S D; Lyon, T J; Butler, K L; Fierke, J S; Clarke, K R; Schmitt, S M; Cooley, T M; Derry, D E
Descriptions of the anatomical distribution of Mycobacterium bovis gross lesions in large samples of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are lacking in the scientific literature. This report describes the distribution of gross lesions in the 58 white-tailed deer that cultured positive for M. bovis among the 19,500 submitted for tuberculosis testing in Michigan (USA) in 1999. For the vast majority (19,348) of those tested, only the head was submitted; for others, only extracranial tissues (33) or both the head and extracranial tissues (119) were available. Among those deer that cultured positive, cranial gross lesions were noted most frequently in the medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes, although solitary, unilateral parotid lymph node lesions also were found. Extracranial lesions occurred most commonly in the thorax. The distribution of lesions largely agreed with the few existing case reports of the M. bovis in white-tailed deer, although gross lesions were also found in sites apparently not previously reported in this species (liver, spleen, rumen, mammary gland). Some practical issues that may assist future surveillance and public education efforts are also discussed. PMID:11504235
Baer-Lehman, Marcie L; Light, Theo; Fuller, Nathan W; Barry-Landis, Katherine D; Kindlin, Craig M; Stewart, Richard L
Competition among ticks, and among ectoparasites generally, has rarely been demonstrated. Ixodes scapularis and Dermacentor albipictus are both hard ticks commonly found feeding on deer harvested at Letterkenny Army Depot, in south central Pennsylvania, USA. The two species have contrasting life histories resulting in D. albipictus spending notably more time on the shared host. We hypothesized that this would give D. albipictus an advantage in locating and occupying optimal attachment sites (highly vascularized areas like the head and ears). Ticks were collected from 224 hunter-killed deer in December 2005 and November 2006 to determine if there is evidence of competition for attachment sites when these two species concurrently infest deer. A timed sample (3 min per region) of representative ticks was collected from the head (ears, face and neck regions) and body (axillae regions). Ixodes scapularis was more abundant and prevalent overall than D. albipictus. Dermacentor albipictus was found almost exclusively on the head, whereas I. scapularis was more evenly distributed, but somewhat more abundant on the body than on the head. The proportion of I. scapularis on the head was reduced at high D. albipictus abundances, but I. scapularis abundance did not alter the distribution of D. albipictus. This study supports the hypothesis of competition for preferred attachment sites between these two species of ticks, and suggests that D. albipictus may be competitively dominant over I. scapularis on the head region of concurrently infested white-tailed deer. PMID:22644381
Joly, Damien O; Samuel, Michael D; Langenberg, Julia A; Blanchong, Julie A; Batha, Carl A; Rolley, Robert E; Keane, Delwyn P; Ribic, Christine A
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal, emerging disease of cervids associated with transmissible protease-resistant prion proteins. The potential for CWD to cause dramatic declines in deer and elk populations and perceived human health risks associated with consuming CWD-contaminated venison have led wildlife agencies to embark on extensive CWD control programs, typically involving culling to reduce deer populations. We characterized the spatial distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Wisconsin to facilitate CWD management. We found that CWD prevalence declined with distance from a central location, was locally correlated at a scale of 3.6 km, and was correlated with deer habitat abundance. The latter result is consistent with patterns expected for a positive relationship between density and prevalence of CWD. We recommend management activities focused on culling in geographic areas with high prevalence to have the greatest probability of removing infected individuals. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors involved in CWD spread and infection rates, especially the role of density-dependent transmission. PMID:17092889
Demma, D.J.; Barber-Meyer, S. M.; Mech, L.D.
We conducted a pilot study to test the usefulness of Global Positioning System (GPS) collars for investigating wolf (Canis lupus) predation on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns. Using GPS collars with short location-attempt intervals on 5 wolves and 5 deer during summers 2002-2004 in northeastern Minnesota, USA, demonstrated how this approach could provide new insights into wolf hunting behavior of fawns. For example, a wolf traveled ???1.5-3.0 km and spent 20-22 hours in the immediate vicinity of known fawn kill sites and ???0.7 km and 8.3 hours at scavenging sites. Wolf travel paths indicated that wolves intentionally traveled into deer summer ranges, traveled ???0.7-4.2 km in such ranges, and spent <1-22 hours per visit. Each pair of 3 GPS-collared wolf pack members were located together for ???6% of potential locations. From GPS collar data, we estimated that each deer summer range in a pack territory containing 5 wolves ???1 year old and hunting individually would be visited by a wolf on average every 3-5 days. This approach holds great potential for investigating summer hunting behavior of wolves in areas where direct observation is impractical or impossible.
Prokešová, Jarmila; Baran?eková, Miroslava; Homolka, Miloslav
Hamburg : DSV-Verlag, 2005 - (Pohlmeyer, K.), s. 447-449 ISBN 3-88412-431-5. [IUGB Congress /27./. Hannover (DE), 28.08.2005-03.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IBS6093003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : deer * winter diet * browsing impact Subject RIV: EG - Zoology
Full Text Available Fascioloidosis is a parasitic disease caused by the giant American liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Bassi, 1875. In Croatia, the first report of this disease was in January 2000, in red deer (Cervus elaphus L. from the Tikveš Forestry in Baranja region (east Croatia. The aim of this survey was to determine the geographical distribution of fascioloidosis and the infection prevalence in deer. The survey was carried out in six state hunting grounds that manage with deer game in Baranja region during 2001 – 2004. Parasitological examinations were carried out by qualitative and quantitative faecal exams. The highest prevalence’s (35 – 60% were found in epizootic focuses of two hunting grounds at flooding – bog land area in east Baranja, Danube forestry. The mean intensity of infection, determined on the basis of the number of eggs per gram (EPG was 30 – 33 EPG (range 1 – 300. High 86% of examined samples was in category to 50 EPG. The highest prevalence and the biggest EPG number too, were determined during the first year of survey. In the Baranja area fascioloidosis represents a potential danger for other game species, mainly roe deer and wild boars, as for domestic animals.
Bufka, L.; ?ervený, Jaroslav; Suk, M.; Šustr, P.; B?lková, M.
Uppsala : Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 2007 - (Sjöberg, K.; Rooke, T.). s. 230 [IUGB Congress /28./. 13.08.2207-18.08.2007, Uppsala] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : roe deer * telemetry * home range * migration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from female white-tailed deer fawns at 48 hours of age and every two weeks there after until the fawns were three months of age. Lymphocytes were phenotyped to examine the expression of specific surface receptors as the fawns aged. Three-color...
Mishler, Brent D; Knerr, Nunzio; González-Orozco, Carlos E; Thornhill, Andrew H; Laffan, Shawn W; Miller, Joseph T
Understanding spatial patterns of biodiversity is critical for conservation planning, particularly given rapid habitat loss and human-induced climatic change. Diversity and endemism are typically assessed by comparing species ranges across regions. However, investigation of patterns of species diversity alone misses out on the full richness of patterns that can be inferred using a phylogenetic approach. Here, using Australian Acacia as an example, we show that the application of phylogenetic methods, particularly two new measures, relative phylogenetic diversity and relative phylogenetic endemism, greatly enhances our knowledge of biodiversity across both space and time. We found that areas of high species richness and species endemism are not necessarily areas of high phylogenetic diversity or phylogenetic endemism. We propose a new method called categorical analysis of neo- and paleo-endemism (CANAPE) that allows, for the first time, a clear, quantitative distinction between centres of neo- and paleo-endemism, useful to the conservation decision-making process. PMID:25034856
Werner T. Flueck
Full Text Available Biogeochemical cycles are cornerstones of biological evolution. Mature terrestrial ecosystems efficiently trap nutrients and certain ones are largely recycled internally. Preserving natural fluxes of nutrients is an important mission of protected areas, but artificially leaky systems remain common. Native red deer (Cervus elaphus in the Swiss National Park (SNP are known to reduce phosphorus (P in preferred feeding sites by removing more P than is returned with feces. At larger scales it becomes apparent that losses are occurring due to seasonal deer movements out of the SNP where most deer end up perishing. Thus, the SNP contributes to producing deer which translocate P to sink areas outside the SNP due to several artificial factors. An adult female dying outside of SNP exports about 1.8 kg of P, whereas a male dying outside of SNP at 8 years of age exports 7.2 kg of P due also to annual shedding of antlers. Averaged over the vegetated part of the SNP, the about 2,000 deer export 0.32 kg/ha/yr of P. Other ungulate species using the SNP and dying principally outside of its borders would result in additional exports of P. Leakiness in this case is induced by: a absence of the predator community and thus a lack of summer mortalities and absence of several relevant non-lethal predator effects, b hunting-accelerated population turnover rate, and c deaths outside of SNP principally from hunting. The estimated export rate for P compares to rates measured in extensive production systems which receive 10-50 kg/ha/yr of P as fertilizer to compensate the losses from biomass exports. Assumptions were made regarding red deer body weight or population turnover rate, yet substituting my estimates with actual values from the SNP would only affect somewhat the magnitude of the effect, but not its direction. The rate of P loss is a proxy for losses of other elements, the most critical ones being those not essential to autotrophs, but essential to heterotrophs. High deer turnover rates combined with accelerated biomass export warrants detailed mass balances of macro and micro nutrients, and studies of biogeochemical cycles in protected areas are essential if preserving natural processes is a mandate.
Anielle de, Pina-Costa; Patrícia, Brasil; Sílvia Maria Di, Santi; Mariana Pereira de, Araujo; Martha Cecilia, Suárez-Mutis; Ana Carolina Faria e Silva, Santelli; Joseli, Oliveira-Ferreira; Ricardo, Lourenço-de-Oliveira; Cláudio Tadeu, Daniel-Ribeiro.
Full Text Available Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts [...] 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013). The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon) or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex). The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites that seem to be (or to be very close to) P. vivax and, in a less extent, by Plasmodium malariae and it is transmitted by the bromeliad mosquito Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii. This paper deals mainly with the two profiles of malaria found outside the Amazon: the imported and ensuing introduced cases and the autochthonous cases. We also provide an update regarding the situation in Brazil and the Brazilian endemic Amazon.
Silva Hilda Maria Andrade da; Gallo Valéria
Parsimony analysis of endemicity was applied to analyze the distribution of enchodontoid fishes occurring strictly in the Cenomanian. The analysis was carried out using the computer program PAUP* 4.0b10, based on a data matrix built with 17 taxa and 12 areas. The rooting was made on an hypothetical all-zero outgroup. Applying the exact algorithm branch and bound, 47 trees were obtained with 26 steps, a consistency index of 0.73, and a retention index of 0.50. The topology found with a majorit...
Full Text Available In vitro cultivation of the endemic and threatened species Andryala levitomentosa represents an unconventional strategy and action plan for the biological diversity conservation. This plant is considered one of the rarest species in the European flora and in Romania it is founded only on „Pietrosul Brostenilor” mountain. The micropropagation of Andryala levitomentosa implies measures which should allow to conserve and perpetuate this species. The plants of Andryala levitomentosa have been regenerated from callus cultures. The callus cultures were established from stem and leaves explants on MS medium, supplemented with indolylacetic acid and benzylaminopurine.
Celina Maria Modena
Full Text Available The analysis of the intergenerational process of disease/health representations constitutes a requisite for the construction of projects and health education interventions. The objective of this work is to describe the meaning attributed to schistosomiasis in the family context. Twenty-one residents of an endemic area were interviewed. The interviews were submitted to content analysis. The results demonstrated different representations of the disease by the children, parents and grandparents. This paper discusses the differences in these representations and its impact in schistosomiasis control programs.
Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann
The present report describes the reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei in a roe deer from Denmark after more than 60 years. The cysticerci were isolated from the thigh muscle of the deer, and the diagnosis was based on histostological analysis, morphology of the rostellar-hooks as well as molecular typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene. The exact definitive host was not revealed in this report, but domestic dogs may play a role of the definitive host in the area. This finding is of concern to hunters and deer meat producers, since the infected meat is usually condemned due to aesthetic reasons.
Haigh, Jerry; Berezowski, John; Woodbury, Murray R.
Data were obtained from a questionnaire administered to a random sample of Canadian and United States white-tailed deer (WTD) farmers. Reproductive indices and survival of fawns from birth until 1 y of age were examined. Major factors in limiting herd increase were a low reproductive rate (88 fawns per 100 does exposed to bucks) and a 30% mortality of fawns from birth until 1 y of age. The latter figure differs from reported mortality rates in fallow deer and red deer/wapiti. The unacceptably...
Guojie, Xu; Caili, Liao; Xiaolei, Ren; Xue, Zhang; Xinyue, Zhang; Siqi, Liu; Xiaorui, Fu; Haozhong, Wu; Luqi, Huang; Chunsheng, Liu; Xueyong, Wang.
Full Text Available Deer antler is a precious animal-sourced traditional Chinese medicine. We aimed to rapidly assess the quality of deer antler slices by electronic nose so that we can ensure medical safety. In this study, response intensity of the electronic nose was favorably optimized, and samples were well assesse [...] d by using an electronic nose based on LDA model. The results obtained herein suggested that electronic nose could be an effective method to rapidly assess the quality of deer antler slices, and could also be an important tool for categorization of complex aroma mixtures for the control of quality of drugs or food.
Beresford, P; Barker, F.K; Ryan, P.G.; T.M. Crowe
The deep divergence between the African endemic passerines Picathartidae (rockfowl Picathartes and rockjumpers Chaetops, four species) and the Passerida (ca. 3500 species) suggests an older history of oscines on the African continent than has previously been assumed. In order to determine whether any additional, unexpectedly deep lineages occur in African endemic songbirds, 29 species—including 10 enigmatic focal taxa endemic to southern Africa—were added to a large nuclear sequence dataset g...
Page, B.D.; Underwood, H.B.
Although nutritional status in response to controlled feeding trials has been extensively studied in captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), there remains a considerable gap in understanding the influence of variable supplemental feeding protocols on free-ranging deer. Consequently, across the northern portion of the white-tailed deer range, numerous property managers are investing substantial resources into winter supplemental-feeding programs without adequate tools to assess the nutritional status of their populations. We studied the influence of a supplemental winter feeding gradient on the protein and energy status of free-ranging white-tailed deer in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. We collected blood and fecal samples from 31 captured fawns across 3 sites that varied considerably in the frequency, quantity, and method of supplemental feed distribution. To facilitate population-wide comparisons, we collected fresh fecal samples off the snow at each of the 3 sites with supplemental feeding and 1 reference site where no feeding occurred. Results indicated that the method of feed distribution, in addition to quantity and frequency, can affect the nutritional status of deer. The least intensively fed population showed considerable overlap in diet quality with the unfed population in a principal components ordination, despite the substantial time and financial resources invested in the feeding program. Data from fecal samples generally denoted a gradient in diet quality and digestibility that corresponded with the availability of supplements. Our results further demonstrated that fecal nitrogen and fecal fiber, indices of dietary protein and digestibility, can be estimated using regressions of fecal pellet mass, enabling a rapid qualitative assessment of diet quality.
Grear, D.A.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Keane, D.
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease-resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500-km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310-km2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and noninfected deer. Our results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) free-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible nonlinear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found, as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.
Allan, S A; Simmons, L A; Burridge, M J
A state-wide survey was conducted in Florida during the 1997-99 hunting seasons to examine white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and feral swine (Sus scrofa) for potential indigenous vectors of the rickettsial agent of heartwater, Cowdria ruminantium. A total of 504 white-tailed deer and 166 feral swine was examined from 30 wildlife management areas across the state. Amblyomma maculatum, an experimental vector of C. ruminantium, was common on both deer and feral swine throughout the state. Of the collection of 3,169 ticks, 34.5% were Ixodes scapularis Say, 34.0% Amblyomma americanum (L.), 25.5% Amblyomma maculatum Koch, 5.8% Dermacentor variabilis (Say), 0.4% Ixodes affinis Neumann, 0.03% Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) and 0.01% Amblyomma auricularium (Conil). The only exotic tick collected was A. auricularium, which is found on armadillos in Central and South America and is not known to be associated with any disease. Overall, the most prevalent species on deer were I. scapularis (51.1%) and A. maculatum (35.8%), with A. americanum less prevalent (16.0%) and D. variabilis (3.0%) and I. affinis (1.9%) rare. On feral swine, the most prevalent species were I. scapularis (69.7%) and D. variabilis (56.9%), with A. maculatum (16.2%) and A. americanum (4.6%) less common. The geographic distribution of ticks differed significantly throughout the state. Both A. maculatum and Dermacentor variabilis were more prevalent on deer from southern Florida compared to northern and central Florida. In contrast, A. americanum were more prevalent in northern and central Florida but rare in southern Florida, and I. scapularis were more common in southern compared to northern Florida. These geographic differences may reflect differences in the risk of tick-borne diseases to domestic animals, wildlife and humans within Florida. PMID:11469190
Smoot Dustin L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Our American College of Surgeons Level 1 Trauma Center serves a rural population. As a result, there is a unique set of accidents that are not present in an urban environment such as deer related motor vehicle crashes (dMVC. We characterized injury patterns between motorcycle/all-terrain vehicles (MCC and automobile (MVC crashes related to dMVC (deer motor vehicle crash with the hypotheses that MCC will present with higher Injury Severity Score (ISS and that it would be related to whether the driver struck the deer or swerved. Methods The records of 157 consecutive patients evaluated at our institution for injury related to dMVC from January 1st, 1997 to December 31st, 2006 were reviewed from our prospectively collected trauma database. Demographic, clinical, and crash specific parameters were abstracted. Injury severity was analyzed by the Abbreviated Injury Scale score for each body region as well as the overall Injury Severity Score (ISS. Results Motorcycle crashes presented with a higher median ISS than MVCs (14 vs 5, p Within the MVC group, there was no difference between swerving and hitting the deer in any AIS group. Forty-seven percent of drivers were not wearing seat belts which resulted in similar median ISS (6 vs 5 and AIS of all body regions. Conclusions Motorcycle operators suffered higher ISS. There were no significant differences in median ISS if a driver involved in a deer-related motor vehicle crash swerved rather than collided, was helmeted, or restrained.
Stefanovic, V.; Toncheva, D.; Atanasova, S.; Polenakovic, M. [Inst. of Nephrology and Hemodialysis, Nish (Serbia Montenegro)
Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a familial chronic tubulointerstitial disease with insidious onset and slow progression to terminal renal failure. Evidence has accumulated that BEN is an environmentally induced disease. There are three actual theories attempting to explain the environmental cause of this disease: (1) the aristolochic acid hypothesis, which considers that the disease is produced by chronic intoxication with Aristolochia, (2) the mycotoxin hypothesis, which considers that BEN is produced by ochratoxin A, and (3) the Pliocene lignite hypothesis, which proposes that the disease is caused by long-term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other toxic organic compounds leaching into the well drinking water from low-rank coals in the vicinity to the endemic settlements. Moreover, it was suggested that BEN risk is influenced by inherited susceptibility. Therefore, it has been expected that molecular biological investigations will discover genetic markers of BEN and associated urothelial cancer, permitting early identification of susceptible individuals who may be at risk of exposure to the environmental agents. Since kidney pathophysiology is complex, gene expression analysis and highly throughput proteomic technology can identify candidate genes, proteins and molecule networks that eventually could play a role in BEN development. Investigation of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions could be the content of further studies determining the precise risk for BEN.
JR, Coura; RS, Amaral.
Full Text Available The present work analyzes the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Brazil, its expansion, the attempts to control the disease, and the overall difficulties. The authors present the distribution of schistosomiasis intermediary hosts in Brazil, the migration routes of the human population, and disease d [...] istribution in highly and lowly endemic areas and isolated foci. They also analyze the controlling programs developed from 1977 to 2002, indicating the prevalence evolution and the reduction of disease morbi-mortality. In addition, the authors also evaluate controlling methods and conclude that: (a) no isolated method is able to control schistosomiasis, and every controlling program should consider the need of a multidisciplinary application of existing methods; (b) in long term, basic sanitation, potable water supply, as well as sanitary education, and community effective participation are important for infection control; (c) in short term, specific treatment at endemic areas, associated with control of intermediary hosts at epidemiologically important foci, are extremely relevant for controlling disease morbidity, although not enough for interrupting infection transmission.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of consanguineous marriages is widespread in countries with endemic malaria. In these regions, consanguinity increases the prevalence of ?+-thalassemia, which is protective against malaria. However, it also causes an excessive mortality amongst the offspring due to an increase in homozygosis of recessive lethal alleles. The aim of this study was to explore the overall effects of inbreeding on the fitness of a population infested with malaria. Methods In a stochastic computer model of population growth, the sizes of inbred and outbred populations were compared. The model has been previously validated producing results for inbred populations that have agreed with analytical predictions. Survival likelihoods for different ?+-thalassemia genotypes were obtained from the odds of severe forms of disease from a field study. Survivals were further estimated for different values of mortality from malaria. Results Inbreeding increases the frequency of ?+-thalassemia allele and the loss of life due to homozygosis of recessive lethal alleles; both are proportional to the coefficient of inbreeding and the frequency of alleles in population. Inbreeding-mediated decrease in mortality from malaria (produced via enhanced ?+-thalassemia frequency mitigates inbreeding-related increases in fatality (produced via increased homozygosity of recessive lethals. When the death rate due to malaria is high, the net effect of inbreeding is a reduction in the overall mortality of the population. Conclusion Consanguineous marriages may increase the overall fitness of populations with endemic malaria.
Vasilakis, Nikos; Durbin, Anna P; da Rosa, Amelia P A Travassos; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge L; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C
Sylvatic dengue viruses (DENVs) are transmitted between non-human primates and arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes in Southeast Asia and west Africa. Recent evidence suggests that the risk for re-emergence of sylvatic DENV into the urban endemic/epidemic cycle may be high, which could limit the potential for eradicating the human transmission cycle with vaccines now under development. We assessed the likelihood of sylvatic DENV re-emergence in the face of immunity to current endemic strains or vaccines by evaluating the neutralization capacity of sera from DENV vaccinees and convalescent patients after primary infection with DENV-2 and DENV-3 serotypes. Our data indicate robust homotypic cross-immunity between human sera and sylvatic DENV strains, but limited heterotypic neutralization. Should a licensed vaccine lead to the eradication of the urban transmission cycle in the future, re-emergence of sylvatic strains into the urban cycle would be limited by homotypic immunity mediated by virus-neutralizing antibodies. PMID:18606776
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The population of Myanmar comprises 8 major indigenous races (Bamar, Kayin, Kachin, Shan, Rakhine, Mon, Chin, and Kayah. The Bamar reside in the 7 central divisions of the country, and the others reside in the 7 peripheral states that border neighboring countries, including China, Laos, and Thailand in the east and India and Bangladesh in the west. Both malaria and HbE are endemic in Myanmar, although the actual prevalence of the latter in the different indigenous races is not yet known. Hemoglobin electrophoresis was performed in 4 malaria-endemic villages, each having a different predominating indigenous race. The overall prevalence of HbE was 11.4% (52/456 villagers, ranging from 2-6% in the Kayin-predominant villages to 13.1-24.4% in the Bamar-predominant villages. Although the overall HbE prevalence in the villages studied was not significantly different from that of the general Myanmar population, this study strongly documented the influence of racial differences on the prevalence of HbE in Myanmar. To prevent and control severe thalassemia syndromes in Myanmar, extensive prevalence studies of the country?s indigenous races are suggested.
Full Text Available A case control study was performed in the Parco Nazionale dei Monti Sibillini, Italy, to find out whether roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and red deer (Cervus elaphus were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in their faeces, compared to Enterococcus spp. Ten areas were selected and samples were collected during a fourmonths (May to August, 2008 sampling period. Samples of water (n=12 and feces (n=59, collected at 10 different sites, were cultured for E. coli and Enterococcus spp. The resulting colonies were screened for tetracycline, ampicillin and kanamycin resistance using the Lederberg Replica Plating method (breakpoint 4 ?g/ml. All resistant isolates were then selected, and subjected to the CLSI antimicrobial plate susceptibility test (7. Among the water specimens contaminated by E. coli, 80% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 80% to tetracycline and 40% to kanamycin. Among the water specimens contaminated by Enterococcus spp., 14.29% were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 14.29% to tetracycline and 71.3% to kanamycin. Among the 39 strains of E. coli isolated from red deer feces, 12 were resistant to ampicillin (30.77%, 5 to tetracycline (12,82% and 3 to kanamycin (7.69%. Among the 19 strains of Enterococcus spp. isolated from red deer feces, 0 were resistant to ampicillin (0%, 1 to tetracycline (5.26% and 19 to kanamycin (100. These are significant findings, indicating that antibiotic resistance can be found in naďve animal populations and that red deer and fallow deer could act as sentinels for antimicrobial resistance. Key words Antibiotic-resistance, red deer, fallow deer, Escherichia
Burridge, M. J.; Simbi, B. H.; Mahan, S.M.
White-tailed deer are susceptible to heartwater (Ehrlichia [Cowdria] ruminantium infection) and are likely to suffer high mortality if the disease spreads to the United States. It is vital, therefore, to validate a highly specific and sensitive detection method for E. ruminantium infection that can be reliably used in testing white-tailed deer, which are reservoirs of antigenically or genetically related agents such as Ehrlichia ...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Lake Lowell is located on Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge Refuge in Southwest Idaho, in Canyon County. Inflows to the reservoir are a combination of diverted...
Arslan, A.; Zima, Jan
Ro?. 79, ?. 2 (2014), s. 181-185. ISSN 0011-4545 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Karyotype * Chromosome banding * Fallow deer * Indigenous population Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.205, year: 2014
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at National Key Deer Refuge and Great White Heron National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated...
To compare clinicopathological findings of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from white-tailed deer (CWD**wtd) with other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies [transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), prion diseases) that have been shown to be experimentally transmissible to cattle [sheep scr...
Full Text Available The controlled breeding of wild game has been carried out for many years as part of hunting management programs for commercially important game species. The controlled breeding of red deer in the Šeprešhat polygon is the result of long-term game management in open hunting grounds, scientific research, monitoring the state of game in hunting grounds, and supply and demand.One of the reasons for controlled breeding of red deer in Croatia is certainly the reduction in population abundance of this species in the majority of hunting grounds after the Homeland War. The second reason was the intended aim of increasing the trophy quality of deer game, due to devastation of the gene fund.Issues such as the appearance of disease and parasites (giant liver fluke demand controlled breeding and production of a healthy population that will replace the loss of the natural population.Research to monitoring growth intervals, body and trophy development, breeding technology and the justification of this type of breeding and protection of red deer was carried out in parallel with the targeted breeding of red deer.The primary objective of management at the Šeprešhat polygon is the breeding of high quality Baranja red deer, with the possibility of distributing high quality breeding stock to other hunting grounds in the Republic of Croatia. The population of red deer in Baranja has very high genetic potential, and for this reason, it was used earlier in relocations to other parts of Croatia, the neighboring countries, and even to New Zealand.Researching the controlled breeding of red deer was carried out in the period 2005–2009 at the Šeprešhat polygon. The Šeprešhat polygon is part of the state-owned Podunavlje-Podravlje hunting ground in Baranja. Breeding of game in this polygon began in 2001, for the purpose of studying and preserving the gene fund of the red deer. The polygon originally had only 53 ha, but was gradually expanded with the addition of two fields. Therefore, in 2002, it was expanded to 58 hectares and to 66 ha in 2003. Today, the breeding grounds cover an area of 88 ha, additional areas of 56 ha, and in the most recent expansion of an area for the maturation of trophy red deer of 237 ha, resulting in a total area of 380 ha.The analysis of results of the five-year study of controlled game breeding in the Šeprešhat polygon proves that the establishment of breeding grounds was made, given the population dynamics, growth intervals and potential for the sale of live game, as well as the commercial hunting of high quality trophy heads.It should be stressed that the breeding of deer game is a long process and that the first results can only be expected after five years, after the breeding stock is formed and stabilized and normal reproduction begins. The population dynamics of the red deer fund from the start of establishment of the breeding stock to the first significant results of the live game is shown in Table 1.During the five year selection of red deer for mating, only three to four of the most promising male deer (stags were given the opportunity to mate each year. Each was placed in a separate polygon with fertile females (hinds including young hinds participating in mating for the first time, in the ratio 1:11 to 1:16, (Table 2. The results indicate that the optimal mating ratio is one stag to ten to twelve hinds. With an increase in the sex ratio, the growth interval coefficient is reduced. This is unfavorable as the goal is to obtain the highest possible calves.One of the main parameters in the selection of young is the weight of the calf at the age of 3 weeks. The minimum level is 10 kg for a female calf and 12 kg for a male calf, as all weights beneath this are unsuitable for further breeding. Measurements also indicated that the highest growth interval of body weight was achieved at the age of 15 to 18 months (Fig. 1.One of the most important segments of maintaining good animal condition, good reproduction and good growth interval is securing sufficient and high quality food throughout
Del Brutto, Oscar H.; Nash, Theodore E.; Garcia, Hector H.
Objective Review of case reports and case series of patients with single cysticercus granulomas in non-endemic countries to determine the characteristics of this form of neurocysticercosis in these regions. Methods MEDLINE and manual search of patients with single cysticercus granulomas diagnosed in non-endemic countries from 1991 to 2011. Abstracted data included: demographic profile, clinical manifestations, form of neurocysticercosis, and whether the disease occurred in immigrants, international travelers, or citizens from non-endemic countries who had never been abroad. Results A total of 77 patients were found. Of these, 61 (79%) were diagnosed since the year 2000. Thirty-four patients (44%) patients were immigrants from endemic countries, 18 (23%) were international travelers returning from disease-endemic areas, and the remaining 25 (33%) were citizens from non-endemic countries who had never been abroad. Most immigrants and international travelers became symptomatic two or more years after returning home. Countries with the most reported patients were Kuwait (n=18), UK (n=11), Australia (n=8), USA (n=7), Japan (n=6), and Israel (n=5). Conclusions A single cerebral cysticercus granuloma in a non-endemic country is not a rare event. As seen in endemic regions, these cases have a good prognosis although more surgical procedures are performed in non-endemic countries, likely reflecting a decrease of diagnostic suspicion for cysticercosis and an increased availability of surgical options. The mean age of the reported cases was 25 years, and immigrants most often developed the disease greater than two years after arrival into a non-endemic area, suggesting a significant delay between infection and symptoms. However, some may have been infected and developed the disease while residing in non-endemic countries. PMID:22658897
Sandun J., Perera; Dayani, Ratnayake-Perera; Serban, Proches.
Full Text Available The Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (MPA) biodiversity hotspot (~274 316 km˛) was primarily recognised based on its high plant endemism. Here we present the results of a qualitative biogeographical study of the endemic vertebrate fauna of south-eastern Africa, in an exercise that (1) refines the delimit [...] ation of the MPA hotspot, (2) defines zoogeographical units and (3) identifies areas of vertebrate endemism. Initially we listed 62 vertebrate species endemic and 60 near endemic to the MPA hotspot, updating previous checklists. Then the distributions of 495 vertebrate taxa endemic to south-eastern Africa were reviewed and 23 endemic vertebrate distributions (EVDs: distribution ranges congruent across several endemic vertebrate taxa) were recognised, amongst which the most frequently encountered were located in the Eastern Escarpment, central KwaZulu-Natal, Drakensberg and Maputaland. The geographical patterns illustrated by the EVDs suggest that an expansion of the hotspot to incorporate sections of the Great Escarpment from the Amatola-Winterberg-Sneeuberg Mountains through the Drakensberg to the Soutpansberg would be justified. This redefinition gives rise to a Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA) region of vertebrate endemism adding 135% more endemics with an increase of only 73% in surface area to the MPA hotspot. The GMPA region has a more natural boundary in terms of EVDs as well as vegetation units. An accurate delimitation of this hotspot, as well as a better understanding of biogeography in the region, would greatly benefit conservation planning and implementation. Towards these aims, we used EVDs to delimit non-overlapping zoogeographical units (including 14 areas of vertebrate endemism), facilitating numerical biogeographical analyses. More importantly, this study opens up possibilities of refining hotspot delimitation and identifying local conservation priorities in regions of the world where data do not allow numerical analyses.
Full Text Available The Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (MPA biodiversity hotspot (~274 316 km2 was primarily recognised based on its high plant endemism. Here we present the results of a qualitative biogeographical study of the endemic vertebrate fauna of south-eastern Africa, in an exercise that (1 refines the delimitation of the MPA hotspot, (2 defines zoogeographical units and (3 identifies areas of vertebrate endemism. Initially we listed 62 vertebrate species endemic and 60 near endemic to the MPA hotspot, updating previous checklists. Then the distributions of 495 vertebrate taxa endemic to south-eastern Africa were reviewed and 23 endemic vertebrate distributions (EVDs: distribution ranges congruent across several endemic vertebrate taxa were recognised, amongst which the most frequently encountered were located in the Eastern Escarpment, central KwaZulu-Natal, Drakensberg and Maputaland. The geographical patterns illustrated by the EVDs suggest that an expansion of the hotspot to incorporate sections of the Great Escarpment from the Amatola-Winterberg-Sneeuberg Mountains through the Drakensberg to the Soutpansberg would be justified. This redefinition gives rise to a Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA region of vertebrate endemism adding 135% more endemics with an increase of only 73% in surface area to the MPA hotspot. The GMPA region has a more natural boundary in terms of EVDs as well as vegetation units. An accurate delimitation of this hotspot, as well as a better understanding of biogeography in the region, would greatly benefit conservation planning and implementation. Towards these aims, we used EVDs to delimit non-overlapping zoogeographical units (including 14 areas of vertebrate endemism, facilitating numerical biogeographical analyses. More importantly, this study opens up possibilities of refining hotspot delimitation and identifying local conservation priorities in regions of the world where data do not allow numerical analyses.
Nelson, Michael E.; Mech, L. David
Wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota cached six radio-collars (four in winter, two in spring-summer) of 202 radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) they killed or consumed from 1975 to 2010. A Wolf bedded on top of one collar cached in snow. We found one collar each at a Wolf den and Wolf rendezvous site, 2.5 km and 0.5 km respectively, from each deer's previous locations.
Rachel A. Loehman; Elias, Joran; Douglass, Richard J.; Amy J. Kuenzi; James N. Mills; Wagoner, Kent
Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the main reservoir host for Sin Nombre virus, the primary etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in North America. Sequential changes in weather and plant productivity (trophic cascades) have been noted as likely catalysts of deer mouse population irruptions, and monitoring and modeling of these phenomena may allow for development of early-warning systems for disease risk. Relationships among weather variables, satellite-derived vegetation prod...
Berl, Erica; Eisen, Rebecca J; MacMillan, Katherine; Swope, Bethany N.; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D.; Graham, Alan C.; Turmel, Jon P.; Mutebi, John-Paul
Serum samples from 489 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were screened for antibodies against the Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) using plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs). EEEV antibodies were detected in 10.2% of serum samples. This is the first evidence that EEEV is present in Vermont. Serum was collected from deer in all 14 counties in the state, and positive EEEV sera were found in 12 (85%) of 14 counties, suggesting statewide EEEV activity in Ver...
Anderson, J. F.; Johnson, R. C; Magnarelli, L A; Hyde, F W; Myers, J.E.
Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti were isolated from 35 of 51 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) captured on two Narragansett Bay, R.I., islands inhabited by deer, the principal host for the adult stages of the vector tick, Ixodes dammini. Immature ticks parasitized mice from both islands. From 105 mice captured on four other islands not inhabited by deer neither pathogen was isolated, nor were I. dammini found.
Todd K. Shury; Doug Bergeson
Surveillance for Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from south-western Manitoba was carried out from 1997 to 2010 to describe the lesions, epidemiology, and geographic distribution of disease. Tissues were cultured from animals killed by hunters, culled for management, blood-tested, or found opportunistically. Period prevalence in elk was approximately six times higher than deer, suggesting a significant reservoir role for e...
Gill, J S; McLean, R G; Shriner, R B; Johnson, R. C
To determine the effectiveness of white-tailed deer as sentinel animals in serologic surveillance programs for Borrelia burgdorferi, we performed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western immunoblotting analyses on 467 deer serum samples. The seropositivity rate in the ELISA was 5% for the 150 samples collected at the three sites in which the tick Ixodes scapularis was absent. The three sites with established I. scapularis populations had a seropositivity rate of 80% for 317 sampl...
Williams, C; E. Mosbacher
Decades of chronic browsing by overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman) has strongly influenced forest pattern and process on the Allegheny High Plateau Ecoregion of northwestern Pennsylvania, USA. Previous research has found that riparian forests contain the greatest herbaceous plant species richness of regional plant communities but little is known about the impacts of deer browsing on the structure and composition of the herbaceous layer (all vascular plants < 1 m ...
Smith, Stephanie Lindsay
Europe’s largest population of wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) resides in the British Isles and has been present since the end of the last ice age, c. 11,000BP. Since the mid-19th century, multiple introductions of Japanese sika (Cervus nippon) and wapiti (Cervus canadensis) have taken place across the British Isles. While wapiti introductions have generally gone extinct, sika have thrived and expanded and now often live in sympatry with red deer. Hybridisation between these spe...
Kilgo, John, C.; Ray, Scott, H.; Vukovich, Mark; Goode, Mathew, J.; Ruth, Charles.
Abstract: Coyotes (Canis latrans) are novel predators throughout the southeastern United States and their depredation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates may explain observed declines in some deer populations in the region, but direct evidence for such a relationship is lacking. Our objective was to quantify neonate survival rates and causes of mortality at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina to directly evaluate degree of predation in this deer population. From 2006 to 2009, we radio-monitored 91 neonates captured with the aid of vaginal implant transmitters in pregnant adult females and opportunistic searches. Overall KaplanĂ?Â˘Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Meier survival rate to 16 weeks of age was 0.230 (95% CI = 0.155-0.328), and it varied little among years. Our best-fitting model estimated survival at 0.220 (95% CI = 0.144-0.320). This model included a quadratic time trend variable (lowest survival rate during the first week of life and increasing to near 1.000 around week 10), and Julian date of birth (survival probability declining as date of birth increased). Predation by coyotes was the most frequent cause of death among the 70 monitored neonates that died, definitively accounting for 37% of all mortalities and potentially accounting for as much as 80% when also including probable coyote predation. Predation by bobcats (Felis rufus) accounted for 7% (definitive) to 9% (including probable bobcat predation) of mortalities. The level of coyote-induced mortality we observed is consistent with the low recruitment rates exhibited in the SRS deer population since establishment of coyotes at the site. If representative of recruitment rates across South Carolina, current harvest levels appear unsustainable. This understanding is consistent with the recent declining trend in the statewide deer population. The effects of coyote predation on recruitment should be considered when setting harvest goals, regardless of whether local deer population size is currently above or below desired levels, because coyotes can substantially reduce fawn recruitment. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Shreekant Kesari; Gouri Sankar Bhunia; Vijay Kumar; Algarswamy Jeyaram; Alok Ranjan; Pradeep Das
In visceral leishmaniasis, phlebotomine vectors are targets for control measures. Understanding the ecosystem of the vectors is a prerequisite for creating these control measures. This study endeavours to delineate the suitable locations of Phlebotomus argentipes with relation to environmental characteristics between endemic and non-endemic districts in India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 25 villages in each district. Environmental data were obtained through remote sensing images...
Grovenburg, T.W.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.
Limited information exists regarding summer resource selection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in grassland regions of the Northern Great Plains. During summers 2005-2006, we analyzed habitat selection of adult female white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota. We collected 1905 summer locations and used 21 and 30 home ranges during 2005 and 2006, respectively, to estimate habitat selection. Results indicated that selection occurred at the population (P Deer selected for Conservation Reserve Program grasslands and corn during both summers and shifted selection temporally within summer. Use of CRP grasslands occurred during early summer; 73.1 and 88.9% of locations in CRP were documented prior to 1 Jul. during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Conversely, selection for corn occurred during late summer; 86.0 and 68.4% of locations in corn were documented after 1 Jul. during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Additionally, deer selected for forested cover and rural development areas containing permanent water sources during extreme drought conditions during 2006. Deer likely selected for fields of CRP grasslands during early summer for cover and natural forages, such as clover (Trifolium sp.), prior to the period when agricultural crops become available. Drought conditions occurring in semiarid prairie grassland regions may reduce food and water availability and contribute to subsequent changes in deer habitat selection across the range of the species.
Shury, Todd K; Bergeson, Doug
Surveillance for Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from south-western Manitoba was carried out from 1997 to 2010 to describe the lesions, epidemiology, and geographic distribution of disease. Tissues were cultured from animals killed by hunters, culled for management, blood-tested, or found opportunistically. Period prevalence in elk was approximately six times higher than deer, suggesting a significant reservoir role for elk, but that infected deer may also be involved. Prevalence was consistently higher in elk compared to deer in a small core area and prevalence declines since 2003 are likely due to a combination of management factors instituted during that time. Older age classes and animals sampled from the core area were at significantly higher risk of being culture positive. Positive elk and deer were more likely to be found through blood testing, opportunistic surveillance, and culling compared to hunting. No non-lesioned, culture-positive elk were detected in this study compared to previous studies in red deer. PMID:21776351
Vanderwaal, Kimberly L; Windels, Steve K; Olson, Bryce T; Vannatta, J Trevor; Moen, Ron
Parasites that primarily infect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), such as liver flukes (Fascioloides magna) and meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis), can cause morbidity and mortality when incidentally infecting moose (Alces alces). Ecological factors are expected to influence spatial variation in infection risk by affecting the survival of free-living life stages outside the host and the abundance of intermediate gastropod hosts. Here, we investigate how ecology influenced the fine-scale distribution of these parasites in deer in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Deer pellet groups (N = 295) were sampled for the presence of P. tenuis larvae and F. magna eggs. We found that deer were significantly more likely to be infected with P. tenuis in habitats with less upland deciduous forest and more upland mixed conifer forest and shrub, a pattern that mirrored microhabitat differences in gastropod abundances. Deer were also more likely to be infected with F. magna in areas with more marshland, specifically rooted-floating aquatic marshes (RFAMs). The environment played a larger role than deer density in determining spatial patterns of infection for both parasites, highlighting the importance of considering ecological factors on all stages of a parasite's life cycle in order to understand its occurrence within the definitive host. PMID:25498206
Qureshi, T; Drawe, D L; Davis, D S; Craig, T M
Triclabendazole-medicated corn bait was given to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Welder Wildlife Refuge, Sinton, Texas (USA), at a dose of 11 mg/kg body weight per deer per day for seven days, for control of Fascioloides magna. Medicated bait was offered for one week each during the winters of 1987, 1988, and 1989. Deer collected from treated areas, from baited control and from unbaited control areas were examined before the start of the study in 1987, and four weeks after the end of the baiting period in each of three years. Prior to the study, prevalence of fluke infection was 68%. After treatment with triclabendazole medicated corn, 13 (56%) of 23 deer collected were infected with flukes of which 15% had live parasites; this was evidence for therapeutic treatment. Of the deer collected in the baited and unbaited control areas, 63% and 80%, respectively, were infected only with live flukes. Prevalence of live flukes in deer was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the treatment pasture than in the baited or unbaited control areas in each of the three years. Efficacy of the baiting system over the three years was 63% when comparing the treatment area and the baited control area. PMID:7933276
Aim The geological and palaeo-climatic forces that produced the unique biodiversity in the Red Sea are a subject of vigorous debate. Here, we review evidence for and against the hypotheses that: (1) Red Sea fauna was extirpated during glacial cycles of the Pleistocene and (2) coral reef fauna found refuge within or just outside the Red Sea during low sea level stands when conditions were inhospitable. Location Red Sea and Western Indian Ocean. Methods We review the literature on palaeontological, geological, biological and genetic evidence that allow us to explore competing hypotheses on the origins and maintenance of shallow-water reef fauna in the Red Sea. Results Palaeontological (microfossil) evidence indicates that some areas of the central Red Sea were devoid of most plankton during low sea level stands due to hypersaline conditions caused by almost complete isolation from the Indian Ocean. However, two areas may have retained conditions adequate for survival: the Gulf of Aqaba and the southern Red Sea. In addition to isolation within the Red Sea, which separated the northern and southern faunas, a strong barrier may also operate in the region: the cold, nutrient-rich water upwelling at the boundary of the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea. Biological data are either inconclusive or support these putative barriers and refugia, but no data set, that we know of rejects them. Genetic evidence suggests that many endemic lineages diverged from their Indian Ocean counterparts long before the most recent glaciations and/or are restricted to narrow areas, especially in the northern Red Sea. Main conclusions High endemism observed in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden appears to have multiple origins. A cold, nutrient-rich water barrier separates the Gulf of Aden from the rest of the Arabian Sea, whereas a narrow strait separates the Red Sea from the Gulf of Aden, each providing potential isolating barriers. Additional barriers may arise from environmental gradients, circulation patterns and the constriction at the mouth of the Gulf of Aqaba. Endemics that evolved within the Red Sea basin had to survive glacial cycles in relatively low salinity refugia. It therefore appears that the unique conditions in the Red Sea, in addition to those characteristics of the Arabian Peninsula region as a whole, drive the divergence of populations via a combination of isolation and selection.
Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Speybroeck, Niko; Cook, Jackie; Contreras-Mancilla, Juan; Soto, Veronica; Gamboa, Dionicia; Pozo, Edwar; Ponce, Oscar J; Pereira, Mayne O; Soares, Irene S; Theisen, Michael; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette
Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI using both molecular and serological tools.
Kesari, Shreekant; Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Kumar, Vijay; Jeyaram, Algarswamy; Ranjan, Alok; Das, Pradeep
In visceral leishmaniasis, phlebotomine vectors are targets for control measures. Understanding the ecosystem of the vectors is a prerequisite for creating these control measures. This study endeavours to delineate the suitable locations of Phlebotomus argentipes with relation to environmental characteristics between endemic and non-endemic districts in India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 25 villages in each district. Environmental data were obtained through remote sensing images and vector density was measured using a CDC light trap. Simple linear regression analysis was used to measure the association between climatic parameters and vector density. Using factor analysis, the relationship between land cover classes and P. argentipes density among the villages in both districts was investigated. The results of the regression analysis indicated that indoor temperature and relative humidity are the best predictors for P. argentipes distribution. Factor analysis confirmed breeding preferences for P. argentipes by landscape element. Minimum Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, marshy land and orchard/settlement produced high loading in an endemic region, whereas water bodies and dense forest were preferred in non-endemic sites. Soil properties between the two districts were studied and indicated that soil pH and moisture content is higher in endemic sites compared to non-endemic sites. The present study should be utilised to make critical decisions for vector surveillance and controlling Kala-azar disease vectors. PMID:21894370
Full Text Available In visceral leishmaniasis, phlebotomine vectors are targets for control measures. Understanding the ecosystem of the vectors is a prerequisite for creating these control measures. This study endeavours to delineate the suitable locations of Phlebotomus argentipes with relation to environmental characteristics between endemic and non-endemic districts in India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 25 villages in each district. Environmental data were obtained through remote sensing images and vector density was measured using a CDC light trap. Simple linear regression analysis was used to measure the association between climatic parameters and vector density. Using factor analysis, the relationship between land cover classes and P. argentipes density among the villages in both districts was investigated. The results of the regression analysis indicated that indoor temperature and relative humidity are the best predictors for P. argentipes distribution. Factor analysis confirmed breeding preferences for P. argentipes by landscape element. Minimum Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, marshy land and orchard/settlement produced high loading in an endemic region, whereas water bodies and dense forest were preferred in non-endemic sites. Soil properties between the two districts were studied and indicated that soil pH and moisture content is higher in endemic sites compared to non-endemic sites. The present study should be utilised to make critical decisions for vector surveillance and controlling Kala-azar disease vectors.
Shreekant, Kesari; Gouri Sankar, Bhunia; Vijay, Kumar; Algarswamy, Jeyaram; Alok, Ranjan; Pradeep, Das.
Full Text Available In visceral leishmaniasis, phlebotomine vectors are targets for control measures. Understanding the ecosystem of the vectors is a prerequisite for creating these control measures. This study endeavours to delineate the suitable locations of Phlebotomus argentipes with relation to environmental chara [...] cteristics between endemic and non-endemic districts in India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 25 villages in each district. Environmental data were obtained through remote sensing images and vector density was measured using a CDC light trap. Simple linear regression analysis was used to measure the association between climatic parameters and vector density. Using factor analysis, the relationship between land cover classes and P. argentipes density among the villages in both districts was investigated. The results of the regression analysis indicated that indoor temperature and relative humidity are the best predictors for P. argentipes distribution. Factor analysis confirmed breeding preferences for P. argentipes by landscape element. Minimum Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, marshy land and orchard/settlement produced high loading in an endemic region, whereas water bodies and dense forest were preferred in non-endemic sites. Soil properties between the two districts were studied and indicated that soil pH and moisture content is higher in endemic sites compared to non-endemic sites. The present study should be utilised to make critical decisions for vector surveillance and controlling Kala-azar disease vectors.
In the present paper, we focus on susceptible-infected-susceptible dynamics on metapopulation networks in which nodes represent subpopulations. Recent studies suggest that heterogeneous network structure between elements plays an important role in determining the threshold of infection rate at the onset of epidemics, one of fundamental quantities governing epidemic dynamics. We consider the general case in which the infection rate at each node depends on its population size, as shown in recent empirical observations. We prove that the sufficient condition for the endemic threshold (i.e., its upper bound), which was previously derived based on a mean-field approximation of network structure, also holds true for arbitrary networks. We also derive an improved condition which implies that networks with the rich-club property (that is, high connectivity between nodes with large number of links) are more favorable to disease spreading. The dependency of infection rate on population size introduces remarkable differ...
Bakthira, Hussein; Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Arnold, Norbert; Teichert, Axel; Wessjohann, Ludger
A total of 30 chloroform and methanol extracts from the following endemic Soqotran plants Acridocarpus socotranus Olive, Boswellia socotranao Balf.fil, Boswellia elongata Balf. fil., Caralluma socotrana N. Br, Cephalocroton socotranus Balf.f, Croton socotranus Balf. fil.., Dendrosicycos socotrana Balf.f., Dorstenia gigas Schweinf. ex Balf. fil., Eureiandra balfourii Cogn. & Balf. fil., Kalanchoe farinaceae Balf.f, Limonium sokotranum (Vierh) Radcl. Sm), Oldenlandia pulvinata, Pulicaria diversifolia (Balf. and Pulicaria stephanocarpa Balf. were screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by using in vitro Ellman method at 50 and 200 µg/ml concentrations. Chloroform extracts of Croton socotranus, Boswellia socotrana, Dorstenia gigas, and Pulicaria stephanocarpa as well as methanol extracts of Eureiandra balfourii exhibited inhibitory activities higher than 50 % at concentration of 200 µg. At a concentrations of 50 µg, the chloroform extract of Croton socotranus exhibited an inhibition of 40.6 %. PMID:22468008
Gousiadou, Chryssoula; Kokubun, Tetsuo
In our continued investigation of plants from the family Oleaceae we have now investigated Picconia azorica endemic to the Azores. Like most species within the family it contains the oleoside-based secoiridoid glucosides ligstroside and oleuropein as the main compounds and in addition verbascoside and echinacoside. As with the previously investigated Picconia excelsa, it also contained the carbocyclic iridoid glucosides involved in the biosynthetic pathway to the oleoside derivatives. However, while P. excelsa contained loganin esterified with some monoterpenoid acids, P. azorica contains similar esters of 7-epi-loganic acid named Picconioside A and B. In addition were found the two 7-O-E/Z-cinnamoyl esters of 7-epi-loganic acid named Picconioside C and D.
Mar?i?, Z; Buj, I; Dupli?, A; Caleta, M; Mustafi?, P; Zanella, D; Zupan?i?, P; Mrakov?i?, M
Populations of endemic Croatian dace were found to belong to two different species, one of which is first described in this study. Telestes karsticus sp. nov. differed morphologically from Telestes polylepis in the total count of lateral line scales, number of gill rakers and the shape of the posterior margin of the anal fin. Morphological differences were corroborated with mtDNA analyses (with p-distance between T. polylepis and T. karsticus sp. nov. ranging between 3·2 and 4·1%; and the number of substitutions between 37 and 47). The newly described species is geographically very localized. It has been recorded from only four localities around Velika Kapela and Mala Kapela mountains in Croatia. PMID:21781100
Marisa, Gaioli; González, Daniel E; Amoedo, Diego
Arsenic (As) is a semimetal that is widely distributed in nature, in water and soil. In Argentine, the contamination of both waterways and groundwater represents the main environmental problem caused by this element. Chronic As poisoning is known as Chronic endemic regional hydroarsenicism (C.E.R.HA.). Long-term exposure to low concentrations of the element from the prenatal period onward results in the well-known symptoms of chronic As poisoning. CERHA develops progressively, compromising different organs and systems, most importantly the skin. One of the most important complications of CERHA is de development of neoplasias, mainly skin tumors. Childhood environmental health is a challenge in the new millennium and health care professionals play a fundamental role in the protection against environmental hazards such as chronic arsenic poisoning. PMID:19809771
Full Text Available In this research, we aimed to establish an effective in vitro propagation protocol for Hypericum heterophyllum Vent., an endemic Turkish species. The seeds were surface sterilised and transferred to Murashige and Skoog basal medium supplemented with BA (benzyladenine, 0.1, 1 mg L-1 and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0.1, 1 mg L-1 under the photoperiod (8/16 h light/dark period, 1200 ?mol m-2s-1. Culturing seeds on MS basal medium supplemented with 1 mg L-1 BA and 0.1 mg L-1 2,4-D resulted in greenish and compact callus induction. MS basal medium supplemented with 4.4 mg L-1 BA was used for shoot induction, while the same basal medium supplemented with 1 mg L-1 IAA (indolacetic acid was employed for the rooting. Regenerated plants were easily acclimatized in greenhouse conditions.
Full Text Available Iran is known as the most complex and varied country in southwest Asia, in terms of geography, vegetation, climate and consequently biological diversity. The rather high number of recorded endemic species of Fulgoromorpha in Iran indicates a high potential for speciation in some areas.In this study, in order to identify the endemic zones for Fulgoromorpha of Iran, three main biogeographic regions of the country were divided into 13 primary zones, mainly according to the distribution of published and unpublished locality records of endemic species. Using Venn diagrams and cluster analyses on the primary zones, 6 final endemic zones were recognized: Caspian zone, southern slopes of Alborz, Zagros Mountains, Kerman Mountains, Khorasan Mountains, and Baluchestan and Persian Gulf coasts. Then a similarity map was produced for endemic zones using a Multidimensional analysis (Alscal and the differences between the positions of the same zones in the similarity and geographic maps were discussed.
Delrieu-Trottin, Erwan; Maynard, Jeffrey; Planes, Serge
Endemic species are frequently assumed to have lower genetic diversity than species with large distributions, even if closely related. This assumption is based on research from the terrestrial environment and theoretical evolutionary modelling. We test this assumption in the marine environment by analysing the mitochondrial genetic diversity of 33 coral reef fish species from five families sampled from Pacific Ocean archipelagos. Surprisingly, haplotype and nucleotide diversity did not differ significantly between endemic and widespread species. The probable explanation is that the effective population size of some widespread fishes locally is similar to that of many of the endemics. Connectivity across parts of the distribution of the widespread species is probably low, so widespread species can operate like endemics at the extreme or isolated parts of their range. Mitochondrial genetic diversity of many endemic reef fish species may not either limit range size or be a source of vulnerability. PMID:25355471
Kawahara, Makoto; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Lin, Quan; ISOGAI, EMIKO; TAHARA, KENJI; Itagaki, Asao; Hiramitsu, Yoshimichi; Tajima, Tomoko
Wild deer are one of the important natural reservoir hosts of several species of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma that cause human ehrlichiosis or anaplasmosis in the United States and Europe. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether and what species of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma naturally infect deer in Japan. Blood samples obtained from wild deer on two major Japanese islands, Hokkaido and Honshu, were tested for the presence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma by PCR assays and sequencing ...
Walls, Jennifer J.; Asanovich, Kristin M.; Bakken, Johan S; Dumler, J. Stephen
White-tailed deer participate in the maintenance of the Ixodes tick life cycle and are reservoirs for some tick-borne infectious agents. Deer may be useful sentinels for tick-transmitted agents, such as ehrlichiae. In order to determine whether white-tailed deer are markers of natural transmission or are reservoirs for the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent, we performed indirect immunofluorescent-antibody (IFA) tests and immunoblotting with the HGE agent and Ehrlichia chaffeensis on...
Cullingham, Catherine I; Merrill, Evelyn H.; Pybus, Margo J; Bollinger, Trent K.; Wilson, Gregory A.; Coltman, David W.
Chronic wasting disease is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, similar to sheep scrapie that has only recently been detected in wild populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) in western Canada. Relatively little is known about local transmission dynamics of the disease or the potential for long-distance spread. We analysed the population genetic structure of over 2000 white-tailed deer sampled from Alberta, British...
Fecal Volatile Organic Ccompound Profiles from White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as Indicators of Mycobacterium bovis Exposure or Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Vaccination.
Stahl, Randal S; Ellis, Christine K; Nol, Pauline; Waters, W Ray; Palmer, Mitchell; VerCauteren, Kurt C
White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) serve as a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and can be a source of infection in cattle. Vaccination with M. bovis Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) is being considered for management of bovine tuberculosis in deer. Presently, no method exists to non-invasively monitor the presence of bovine tuberculosis in deer. In this study, volatile organic compound profiles of BCG-vaccinated and non-vaccinated deer, before and after experimental challenge with M. bovis strain 95-1315, were generated using solid phase microextraction fiber head-space sampling over suspended fecal pellets with analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Chromatograms were processed using XCMS Online to characterize ion variation among treatment groups. The principal component scores resulting from significant (? = 0.05) ion responses were used to build linear discriminant analysis models. The sensitivity and specificity of these models were used to evaluate the feasibility of using this analytical approach to distinguish within group comparisons between pre- and post-M. bovis challenge: non-vaccinated male or female deer, BCG-vaccinated male deer, and the mixed gender non-vaccinated deer data. Seventeen compounds were identified in this analysis. The peak areas for these compounds were used to build a linear discriminant classification model based on principal component analysis scores to evaluate the feasibility of discriminating between fecal samples from M. bovis challenged deer, irrespective of vaccination status. The model best representing the data had a sensitivity of 78.6% and a specificity of 91.4%. The fecal head-space sampling approach presented in this pilot study provides a non-invasive method to discriminate between M. bovis challenged deer and BCG-vaccinated deer. Additionally, the technique may prove invaluable for BCG efficacy studies with free-ranging deer as well as for use as a non-invasive monitoring system for the detection of tuberculosis in captive deer and other livestock. PMID:26060998
Severin, K; Mašek, T; Janicki, Z; Konjevi?, D; Slavica, A; Marinculi?, A; Martinkovi?, F; Vengušt, G; Džaja, P
We investigated the effects of Fascioloides magna infection on the serum biochemistry values of the naturally infected red deer population in eastern Croatia. The investigation was performed on 47 red deer with F. magna infection confirmed patho-anatomically in 27 animals (57.4%). Fibrous capsules and migratory lesions were found in 14 deer while only fibrous capsules without migratory lesions were found in 13 deer. In 13 deer both immature and mature flukes were found, in 5 deer only immature flukes were found and in 9 deer only mature flukes were found. Fascioloides magna infected deer with fibrous capsules and migratory lesions had significantly higher values for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and globulin, and lower values for albumin/globulin ratio and glucose compared to uninfected deer. Fascioloides magna infected deer with fibrous capsules without the presence of migratory lesions had higher values for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and globulin, and lower values for albumin/globulin ratio and glucose, than the uninfected deer. The number of immature flukes was positively correlated with values of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), LDH, GLDH, urea and triglycerides. The number of migratory lesions was positively correlated with GGT, GLDH, globulin and urea values. The creatinine value was positively correlated with the number of mature flukes. The trial showed that F. magna infection causes significant changes in serum biochemistry. Moreover, these changes do not completely resemble changes following F. hepatica infection. Further investigation of changes in liver enzymes and other serum metabolites in controlled, experimentally induced fascioloidosis in red deer is needed to better understand the pathogenesis of F. magna. PMID:21729388
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is much debated whether microbes are easily dispersed globally or whether they, like many macro-organisms, have historical biogeographies. The ubiquitous dispersal hypothesis states that microbes are so numerous and so easily dispersed worldwide that all should be globally distributed and found wherever growing conditions suit them. This has been broadly upheld for protists (microbial eukaryotes by most morphological and some molecular analyses. However, morphology and most previously used evolutionary markers evolve too slowly to test this important hypothesis adequately. Results Here we use a fast-evolving marker (ITS1 rDNA to map global diversity and distribution of three different clades of cercomonad Protozoa (Eocercomonas and Paracercomonas: phylum Cercozoa by sequencing multiple environmental gene libraries constructed from 47–80 globally-dispersed samples per group. Even with this enhanced resolution, identical ITS sequences (ITS-types were retrieved from widely separated sites and on all continents for several genotypes, implying relatively rapid global dispersal. Some identical ITS-types were even recovered from both marine and non-marine samples, habitats that generally harbour significantly different protist communities. Conversely, other ITS-types had either patchy or restricted distributions. Conclusion Our results strongly suggest that geographic dispersal in macro-organisms and microbes is not fundamentally different: some taxa show restricted and/or patchy distributions while others are clearly cosmopolitan. These results are concordant with the 'moderate endemicity model' of microbial biogeography. Rare or continentally endemic microbes may be ecologically significant and potentially of conservational concern. We also demonstrate that strains with identical 18S but different ITS1 rDNA sequences can differ significantly in terms of morphological and important physiological characteristics, providing strong additional support for global protist biodiversity being significantly higher than previously thought.
Houe, Hans; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum
"Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle" provides the key elements that should be addressed in the establishment of bovine disease control and eradication programmes. The book aims to reach a broad group of readers, including: students; professionals in veterinary practice, industry and governmental institutions; researchers; and others involved in control and eradication of endemic diseases in livestock. Key elements range from socioeconomic aspects such as motivation; veterinary science (including assessment of biosecurity and establishment of test-strategies); organisational issues such as resources, administrative and logistic considerations; along with other important aspects such as communication. The book addresses questions such as: Why is it important or relevant to eradicate a specific infection? What should be done to eradicate it? Which knowledge gaps still exist? Who should be involved and informed, and how should the programme be organised? Where should the programme be implemented? What measures should be used to monitor progress? When can we conclude that control and eradication have been achieved? The key elements are illustrated primarily using three examples: bovine virus diarrhoea virus, Salmonella Dublin and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The three authors have been particularly involved in the research and development of control and eradication efforts in the Danish cattle industry for these three diseases. The basic idea is to enable "disease profiling", which is governed by the characteristics of the agent and its interaction with the host and environment. This profile, along with due consideration of the socioeconomic circumstances, can be used to determine how best to address the problem.
Lawson, Christopher E; Strachan, Cameron R; Williams, Dominique D; Koziel, Susan; Hallam, Steven J; Budwill, Karen
Microbially produced methane, a versatile, cleaner-burning alternative energy resource to fossil fuels, is sourced from a variety of natural and engineered ecosystems, including marine sediments, anaerobic digesters, shales, and coalbeds. There is a prevailing interest in developing environmental biotechnologies to enhance methane production. Here, we use small-subunit rRNA gene sequencing and metagenomics to better describe the interplay between coalbed methane (CBM) well conditions and microbial communities in the Alberta Basin. Our results show that CBM microbial community structures display patterns of endemism and habitat selection across the Alberta Basin, consistent with observations from other geographical locations. While some phylum-level taxonomic patterns were observed, relative abundances of specific taxonomic groups were localized to discrete wells, likely shaped by local environmental conditions, such as coal rank and depth-dependent physicochemical conditions. To better resolve functional potential within the CBM milieu, a metagenome from a deep volatile-bituminous coal sample was generated. This sample was dominated by Rhodobacteraceae genotypes, resolving a near-complete population genome bin related to Celeribacter sp. that encoded metabolic pathways for the degradation of a wide range of aromatic compounds and the production of methanogenic substrates via acidogenic fermentation. Genomic comparisons between the Celeribacter sp. population genome and related organisms isolated from different environments reflected habitat-specific selection pressures that included nitrogen availability and the ability to utilize diverse carbon substrates. Taken together, our observations reveal that both endemism and metabolic specialization should be considered in the development of biostimulation strategies for nonproductive wells or for those with declining productivity. PMID:26341214
Thomas R. Soderstrom
Full Text Available Thamnocalamus tessellatus (Nees Soderstrom & Ellis, comb. nov. [= Arundinaria tessellata (Nees Munro] is the only endemic South African bamboo and occurs from the eastern districts of the Cape, through Lesotho and Natal, to the eastern Orange Free State at elevations of about 1 500-2 500 m. The Mountain Bamboo, or‘Bergbamboes’ was first described by Nees in 1841 as a member of the genus Nastus because of the similarity, tohim, of the spikelets between it and N. borbonicus, but was later transferred to the all-encompassing genus of the time, Arundinaria, the type species of which is endemic to the south-eastern United States of America. Based onour present knowledge of bamboo genera, this South African species may be excluded from Nastus because the inflorescence is not a panicle but bracteate racemiform, the vegetative branches do not arise in a verticillate manner but are a series of subequal branches that are borne in a row above the nodal line and T. tessellatus has anandroecium of three stamens and not six as in Nastus. The Bergbamboes, with sympodial rhizomes and branchcomplement of several subequal branches, can also not be maintained in Arundinaria, for monopodial rhizomesand a single branch at the node are typical of this genus. The simple, ebracteate, and exserted inflorescence ofArundinaria is also quite distinct from that of the Bergbamboes. In order to place the South African bamboo more precisely we have made comparative studies of its leaf anatomy and epidermis, gross morphology, and analyses of its inflorescence and spikelets. The results of all thesestudies reveal a striking resemblance to members of the Sino-Himalayan genus, Thamnocalamus, to which we haveaccordingly transferred the species. The results are presented, together with an interpretation of the phylogeneticposition of the Bergbamboes and possible events that led to the disjunction of species in the genus.
Mokodongan, Daniel F; Yamahira, Kazunori
Although the family Adrianichthyidae is broadly distributed throughout East and Southeast Asia, 19 endemic species, over half of the family, are distributed in Sulawesi, which is an island in Wallacea. However, it remains unclear how this Adrianichthyidae biodiversity hotspot was shaped. In this study, we reconstructed molecular phylogenies for the Sulawesi adrianichthyids and estimated the divergence times of major lineages to infer the detailed history of their origin and subsequent intra-island diversification. The mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies revealed that Sulawesi adrianichthyids are monophyletic, which indicates that they diverged from a single common ancestor. Species in the earliest branching lineages are currently distributed in the central and southeastern parts of the island, indicating that the common ancestor colonized Sula Spur, which is a large promontory that projects from the Australian continental margin, from Asia by oversea dispersal c.a. 20Mya. The first diversification event on Sulawesi, the split of the genus Adrianichthys, occurred c.a. 16Mya, and resulted in the nesting of Adrianichthys within Oryzias. Strong geographic structure was evident in the phylogeny; many species in the lineages branching off early are riverine and widely distributed in the southeastern and southwestern arms of Sulawesi, which suggests that oversea dispersal between tectonic subdivisions of this island during the late Miocene (7-5Mya) contributed to the distributions and diversification of the early branching lineages. In contrast, most species in the lineages branched off later are endemic to a single tectonic lake or lake system in the central Sulawesi, suggesting that habitat fragmentation due to the Pliocene collisions (c.a. 4Mya) among the tectonic subdivisions was the primary factor for diversification of the late branching, lacustrine lineages. Adrianichthys and some Oryzias in a certain late branching lineage are sympatric in Lake Poso, which indicates multiple colonizations of these distinct lineages into this tectonic lake. Thus, the diversification of Sulawesi adrianichthyids largely reflects the complex geological history of this island. PMID:26256644
Lun, Zhao-Rong; Wu, Ming-Shui; Chen, Yun-Fu; Wang, Jun-Yun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Liao, Li-Fu; Chen, Jian-Ping; Chow, Larry M C; Chang, Kwang Poo
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania spp. is an important vector-borne and largely zoonotic disease. In China, three epidemiological types of VL have been described: anthroponotic VL (AVL), mountain-type zoonotic VL (MT-ZVL), and desert-type ZVL (DT-ZVL). These are transmitted by four different sand fly species: Phlebotomus chinensis, P. longiductus, P. wui, and P. alexandri. In 1951, a detailed survey of VL showed that it was rampant in the vast rural areas west, northwest, and north of the Yangtze River. Control programs were designed and implemented stringently by the government at all administrative levels, resulting in elimination of the disease from most areas of endemicity, except the western and northwestern regions. The control programs consisted of (i) diagnosis and chemotherapy of patients, (ii) identification, isolation, and disposal of infected dogs, and (iii) residual insecticide indoor spraying for vector control. The success of the control programs is attributable to massive and effective mobilization of the general public and health workers to the cause. Nationally, the annual incidence is now very low, i.e., only 0.03/100,000 according to the available 2011 official record. The overwhelming majority of cases are reported from sites of endemicity in the western and northwestern regions. Here, we describe in some depth and breadth the current status of epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the disease, with particular reference to the control programs. Pertinent information has been assembled from scattered literature of the past decades in different languages that are not readily accessible to the scientific community. The information provided constitutes an integral part of our knowledge on leishmaniasis in the global context and will be of special value to those interested in control programs. PMID:26354822
Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is of great clinical importance in the restricted areas of Bulgaria, Rumania, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina. So far, studies on the etiological factors for BEN have not discovered any single environmental causative agent of this puzzling disease. These data reject the possibility of a purely environmental causation of BEN. The pattern of BEN transmission in the risk families is not typical for single gene disorders. Extensive epidemiological and genetic studies disclose characteristics of multifactorial (polygenic) inheritance of BEN. The evidences of 'familial tendency', variation of the risk for BEN depending on the number of sick parents and the degree of relatedness; the development of BEN in individuals from at-risk families who were born in non-endemic areas; the data that disease is not found in the gypsy population and the expressions of 3q25 cytogenetic marker suggest that the genetic factors play an important role as causative factors in BEN development. The possible impact of environmental triggers on individuals genetically predisposed to BEN could be supposed by the following data: the cytogenetic results of the increased frequency of folate sensitive Fra sites, spontaneous or radiation-induced aberrations in several bands in BEN patients, the data from the detailed analysis of breaks in BEN patients and controls that generate structural chromosome aberrations; the occurrence of BEN in immigrants. Genetical epidemiological approaches to etiology and prevention of BEN are proposed. The predisposing genes for BEN could be genes localized in a region between 3q25-3q26; transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), genetic heterogeneity of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes; defects in the host's immune system. The predisposing genes for BEN patients with urinary tract tumors could be germline mutations in tumor suppressor genes and acquired somatic mutations in oncogenes
The primary objective of this study was to examine the levels of strontium-90 (90Sr) in deer antlers collected from near previously active reactor sites and distant from the reactor sites along that portion of the Columbia River which borders the Hanford Site. A second objective was to analyze the movements and home-ranges of mule deer residing within these areas and determine to what extent this information contributes to the observed 90Sr concentrations. 90Sr is a long-lived radionuclide (29.1 year half life) produced by fission in irradiated fuel in plutonium production reactors on the Hanford Site. It is also a major component of atmospheric fallout from weapons testing. Concentrations of radionuclides found in the developed environment onsite do not pose a health concern to humans or various wildlife routinely monitored. However, elevated levels of radionuclides in found biota may indicate routes of exposure requiring attention
In this work the transfer behavior of long living radionuclides from the Thorium decay series (Ra-228, Th-228, Th-232) as well as of K-40 and Cs-137 is studied. In a small area of middle Europe (southeast Gemany) showing an increased Thorium content of soil the activity concentrations in samples of feed plants, farm animals, farm animal products, roe deer has been determined. The concentration ratios feed-to-animal tissue and to animal products are calculated indicating a significantly enhanced transfer from feed to roe deer tissues. Determinations of the activity concentrations in fish (carp), pig (tissues), egg, milk complete this examinations. Among all studied samples which are important for human nourishing eggs and carp cause the greatest exposure by ingestion. (author). 14 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs
Goyal, S.M.; Mech, L.D.; Nelson, M.E.
Serum samples (n = 204) from 124 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota (USA) were collected from 1984 through 1989 and tested for antibodies to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (bratislava, canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohemorrhagiae, and pomona) using a microtiter agglutination test. Eighty-eight (43%) sera were positive at greater than or equal to 1:100 for antibodies against serovars pomona and/or bratislava; none was positive for any of the other four serovars. None of the 31 sera collected in 1984-85 was positive, whereas all 54 sera collected from 1986 through 1988 had titers of greater than or equal to 1:100. During 1989, only 34 (29%) of 119 sera had titers of greater than or equal to 1:100. Based on these results, we believe there to be wide variability in exposure of Minnesota deer to Leptospira interrogans.
Peters, Martin; Eikelberg, Deborah; Jongmans, Vincent; Pranada, Arthur Boniface; Wohlsein, Peter
An one-year-old male roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) with abnormal behaviour was shot in order to exclude rabies virus infection. The 12.8 kg weighing animal was emaciated and revealed an asymmetric head with protruding left eye and expositional keratitis. There was a grey whitish soft mass within the caudal nasal cavity, which had infiltrated the frontal cerebrum through the cribriform plate and the retrobulbar tissue through the orbita. Histologically, the mass consisted of a chronic granulomatous inflammation with plentiful fungal hyphae. Fungal culture revealed mold fungi of the zygomycotic genus Rhizomucor, which were differentiated as Rhizopus microsporus by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and DNA-sequencing. Rhinoorbitocerebral zygomycosis has to be considered as a differential diagnosis for nasal and orbital tumour-like lesions and as a cause of abnormal behaviour of roe deer. PMID:25080823
Ceacero, Francisco; Pluhá?ek, Jan; Komárková, Martina; Zábranský, Martin
The opening of the preorbital gland in cervids has a visual meaning and is frequently associated with agonistic and/or stress related situations. Apart from in red deer, this behaviour has scarcely been studied and the range of situations when it may occur remains unclear. In this study we report the unusual case of preorbital gland opening in rusa deer, Rusa timorensis, associated to direct aggressive agonistic interaction (biting/kicking) between two adult hinds. This case observed in Tierpark Berlin (Germany) is the first one ever recorded in female-female interactions in cervids. Preorbital gland opening was also studied in 116 social interactions in Plze? Zoo (Czech Republic). Preorbital gland opening by the dominant adult male was twice observed with relation to alert behaviour, which is also rare. In order to contextualise our observations we summarise the current knowledge about the behaviour associated with preorbital gland opening in R. timorensis and in cervids in general. PMID:25481309
Hess, Steven C.; Muise, Jake; Schipper, Jan
In February 2011, a rancher in the rural southern part of Hawaii Island reported a large mammal on her land. Her call mobilized several agencies led by the Big Island Invasive Species Committee (BIISC), a partnership to prevent, detect, and control the establishment and spread of invasive species, to sit up and take notice. Agency biologists installed camera traps to identify the animal, and a few months later verified the diagnostic field marks of a chervid with spots. The animal in questions was a chital, or axis deer (Axis axis)--a species native to tropical and subtropical India. Although the deer are abundant on the islands of Molokai, L?nai, and Maui, officials knew they weren't capable of swimming across the notoriously treacherous ?Alenuih?h? channel, and subsequently suspected human intervention.
Scribner, K.T.; Smith, M.H.; Chesser, R.K.
Techniques are described that define contiguous genetic subpopulations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) based on the spatial dispersion of 4,749 individuals that possessed discrete character values (alleles or genotypes) during each of 6 years (1974-1979). White-tailed deer were not uniformly distributed in space, but exhibited considerable spatial genetic structuring. Significant non-random clusters of individuals were documented during each year based on specific alleles and genotypes at the Sdh locus. Considerable temporal variation was observed in the position and genetic composition of specific clusters, which reflected changes in allele frequency in small geographic areas. The position of clusters did not consistently correspond with traditional management boundaries based on major discontinuities in habitat (swamp versus upland) and hunt compartments that were defined by roads and streams. Spatio-temporal stability of observed genetic contiguous clusters was interpreted relative to method and intensity of harvest, movements, and breeding ecology.
Munk, B A; Garrison, E; Clemons, B; Keel, M Kevin
A 2-year-old male free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was diagnosed with bilateral expansile tumors of antler origin. The deer was found dead by a landowner in High Springs, Florida. Two roughly spherical, multilobular, broad-based, bony, velvet-covered masses originated from each antler pedicle. These masses replaced or displaced many of the bones and soft tissues of the skull and extended through the left cribriform plate and the right petrous temporal bone, compressing portions of the brain. Microscopically, the masses closely resembled normal-growing antler, containing all the elements thereof but with areas of necrosis and hemorrhage suggestive of ischemi or trauma. Tumorlike outgrowths termed antleromas have been described in free-ranging and captive cervids and typically are associated with disruptions in the seasonal rise and fall of circulating testosterone necessary for normal antler growth, casting, and regeneration. PMID:24686388
Thacker, Tyler C; Palmer, Mitchell V; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Stuber, Tod P; Waters, W Ray
Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) causes tuberculosis in white-tailed deer (WTD). Natural infection of WTD with M. bovis is most closely mimicked by instilling inoculum into palatine tonsillar crypts. One hundred fifty days after intratonsillar inoculation, M. bovis was cultured from 30 tissues originating from 14 deer. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on the original inoculum, single colonies subcultured from the original inoculum, and M. bovis isolated from each culture positive tissue. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified by comparing the derived sequences to the reference strain AF2122/97. Results indicate that the majority of the SNPs that were identified were homogeneous between the inoculum and the isolates from the tissues. The majority of individual tissues had different WGS genotypes from each other, suggesting that dissemination of M. bovis beyond the initial site of infection may require few mycobacteria representing a bottleneck. PMID:26243696
Diefenbach, D.R.; Long, E.S.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, B.D.; Smith, D.R.
Dispersal distances and their distribution pattern are important to understanding such phenomena as disease spread and gene flow, but oftentimes dispersal characteristics are modeled as a fixed trait for a given species. We found that dispersal distributions differ for spring and autumn dispersals of yearling male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) but that combined data can be adequately modeled based on a log-normal distribution. We modeled distribution of dispersal distances from 3 distinct populations in Pennsylvania and Maryland, USA, based on the relationship between percent forest cover and mean dispersal distance and the relationship between mean and variance of dispersal distances. Our results suggest distributions of distances for dispersing yearling male white-tailed deer can be modeled by simply measuring a readily obtained landscape metric, percent forest cover, which could be used to create generalized spatially explicit disease or gene.
DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Paul, W.J.; Karns, P.D.
Fawn viability was tested in captive, pregnant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) immobilized with xylazine hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride and reversed by yohimbine hydrochloride or tolazoline hydrochloride. Nine pregnant does were immobilized 10 times each from December 1984 to May 1985. Their mean parturition date was 8 June. The number of fawns produced per pregnant doe was 1.88. Mean weight of newborn fawns was 4.18 kg. Seventy-five percent of the does produced twins or triplets. Three (20%) fawns died postnatally within 48 hr, but the remaining 12 survived for the full 72 hr they were allowed to remain with their dams. These observations compare favorably with those of non-immobilized captive deer on similar diets.
Grovenburg, Troy W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Galster, Dwight H.; Schauer, Ron J.; Morlock, Wilbert W.; Delger, Joshua A.
White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) mortalities (n = 4,433) caused by collisions with automobiles during 2003 were modeled in 35 counties in eastern South Dakota. Seventeen independent variables and 5 independent variable interactions were evaluated to explain deer mortalities. A negative binomial regression model (Ln Y = 1.25 – 0.12 [percentage tree coverage] + 0.0002 [county area] + 5.39 [county hunter success rate] + 0.0023 [vehicle proxy 96–104 km/hr roads], model deviance = 33.43, ?2 = 27.53, df = 27) was chosen using a combination of a priori model selection and AICc. Management options include use of the model to predict road mortalities and to increase the number of hunting licenses, which could result in fewer DVCs.
Seasonal feed choice of a roe deer for a 3-year period has been investigated on the basis of the rumen content analysis. Results of the investigation are given. A list of 125 species of forage plants is presented. Seasonal intensity of their consumption is characterized. Significance of main plant assemblages of the evacuated zone of Chernobyl in the diet of the animal population is elucidated. Special attention is paid to the role of the above-ground parts of Oenotera biennis that comprise 34% of the average annual forage of roe deer and are consumed by the animal during 9-10 months. Recent state of the forage base of the population is estimated. An attempt to predict its dynamics for the nearest 10-15 years is made
Toetdal, B. (Department of Physics, University of Trondheim, The Norwegian Institute of Technology); Hals, E. (Department of Cariology and Endodontics, Faculty of Odontology, University of Bergen, Norway)
A topographical description of the concentration profiles of Ca, P, Mg, Zn, F, S, and K in human and red deer cementum and root dentin is given. The concentrations reported should be regarded as semiquantitative values. A downward slope of the Ca, P, and Mg profiles toward the pulpal cavity seemed largely to correspond with the secondary dentin. Marked elevations of the Zn profiles, modest elevations of the F profiles, and in a few instances of the S profiles, toward root surface and pulpal cavity were registered. In a couple of scans a slight elevation of the K profile toward the root surface was observed. A high degree of concordance in human and red deer teeth was ascertained.
Daniel G. Gavin
Full Text Available Explanations for areas of endemism often involve relative climatic stability, or low climate velocity, over time scales ranging from the Pleistocene to the late Cenozoic. Given that many narrowly endemic taxa in forested landscapes display discrete habitat associations, habitat stability should be similarly important for endemic persistence. Furthermore, while past climate variability is exceedingly difficult to quantify on millennial time scales, past distributions of habitats may be robustly inferred from paleoecological records. The Olympic Peninsula, Washington, supports a biota with several insular features including 29 endemic plant and animal taxa. Here I present the geographic distribution and habitat of the endemic taxa, and then examine the vegetation stability of the past 14,300 years from five pollen records associated with discrete vegetation zones on the peninsula. I show that 11 endemics have distributions centered on dry alpine scree and rock in the northeastern quadrant of the peninsula, and nine occur in shaded riparian forests in the southwest. Vegetation turnover during the post-glacial period was smallest in these areas. However, another long pollen record from the western peninsula reveals existence of shrub tundra and greatly reduced forest cover, indicating southward displacement of shaded riparian habitats by perhaps as much as 100 km. Although this study supports an association of post-glacial vegetation stability with endemism, records spanning the glacial maximum indicate widespread tundra during long periods of the late Pleistocene and therefore suggest southern displacement of forest-associated endemics. While some of the alpine scree-associated endemics may have persisted in situ, many others likely arrived via a variety of dispersal trajectories. These histories include dispersal from southern refugia towards ocean barriers preventing further northward dispersal, contraction from more widespread distributions, and recent divergence from sister taxa. This study shows that paleoecological records can cast strong doubt on the inference that areas of endemism necessarily imply in situ glacial survival.
Moore IV, Victor A.; Varela, Andrea S.; Yabsley, Michael J; Davidson, William R; Little, Susan E.
To determine if white-tailed deer may serve as a reservoir host for Borrelia lonestari, we used a nested PCR for the Borrelia flagellin gene to evaluate blood samples collected from deer from eight southeastern states. Seven of 80 deer (8.7%) from 5 of 17 sites (29.4%) had sequence-confirmed evidence of a B. lonestari flagellin gene by PCR, indicating that deer are infected with B. lonestari or another closely related Borrelia species. Our findings expand the known geographic range of B. lone...
Werner T. Flueck
Biogeochemical cycles are cornerstones of biological evolution. Mature terrestrial ecosystems efficiently trap nutrients and certain ones are largely recycled internally. Preserving natural fluxes of nutrients is an important mission of protected areas, but artificially leaky systems remain common. Native red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Swiss National Park (SNP) are known to reduce phosphorus (P) in preferred feeding sites by removing more P than is returned with feces. At larger scales it b...
Robinson, Mark; O'Brien, Rory; Mackintosh, Colin; Griffin, Frank
Immune responses of red deer (Cervus elaphus) that presented with different levels of paucibacillary pathology were profiled to detail immune changes during the progression of Johne's disease. Immune responses were monitored using an immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a gamma interferon (IFN-?) ELISA, and flow cytometry. Animals in the study were divided into outcome groups postmortem according to disease severity. All animals mounted IgG1 antibody an...
Frey, Roland; Riede, Tobias
Loud and frequent vocalizations play an important role in courtship behavior in Cervus species. European red deer (Cervus elaphus) produce low-pitched calls, whereas North American elk (Cervus canadensis) produce high-pitched calls, which is remarkable for one of the biggest land mammals. Both species engage their vocal organs in elaborate maneuvers but the precise mechanism is unknown. Vocal organs were compared by macroscopic and microscopic dissection. The larynx is sexually dimorphic in r...
McLoughlin, PD; Coulson, T; Clutton-Brock, T
We used long-term data on movements, survival, and reproduction of female red deer (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus) of the Isle of Rum, Scotland (1970-2001), to explain variation in life history (age at maturity) from a hind's access to habitat resources and exposure to local density, and cross-generational (maternal) effects on observed relationships. We described each hind's use of resources relative to availability in the study area from an individual-based resource selection function (RSF); we d...
Li, Y M; Bai, C Y; Niu, W P; Yu, H; Yang, R J; Yan, S Q; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, M J; Zhao, Z H
Microsatellite markers are widely and evenly distributed, and are highly polymorphic. Rapid and convenient detection through automated analysis means that microsatellite markers are widely used in the construction of plant and animal genetic maps, in quantitative trait loci localization, marker-assisted selection, identification of genetic relationships, and genetic diversity and phylogenetic tree construction. However, few microsatellite markers remain to be isolated. We used streptavidin magnetic beads to affinity-capture and construct a (CA)n microsatellite DNA-enriched library from sika deer. We selected sequences containing more than six repeats to design primers. Clear bands were selected, which were amplified using non-specific primers following PCR amplification to screen polymorphisms in a group of 65 unrelated sika deer. The positive clone rate reached 82.9% by constructing the enriched library, and we then selected positive clones for sequencing. There were 395 sequences with CA repeats, and the CA repeat number was 4-105. We selected sequences containing more than six repeats to design primers, of which 297 pairs were designed. We next selected clear bands and used non-specific primers to amplify following PCR amplification. In total, 245 pairs of primers were screened. We then selected 50 pairs of primers to randomly screen for polymorphisms. We detected 47 polymorphic and 3 monomorphic loci in 65 unrelated sika deer. These newly isolated and characterized microsatellite loci can be used to construct genetic maps and for lineage testing in deer. In addition, they can be used for comparative genomics between Cervidae species. PMID:26436393
Kruuk, L E; T.H. CLUTTON-BROCK; Rose, K.E.; Guinness, F. E.
In polygynous, sexually dimorphic species, sexual selection should be stronger in males than in females. Although this prediction extends to the effects of early development on fitness, few studies have documented early determinants of lifetime reproductive success in a natural mammal population. In this paper, we describe factors affecting the reproductive success of male and female red deer (Cervus elaphus) on the island of Rum, Scotland. Birthweight was a significant determinant of total l...
Northrup, Joseph M; Anderson, Charles R; Wittemyer, George
Extraction of oil and natural gas (hydrocarbons) from shale is increasing rapidly in North America, with documented impacts to native species and ecosystems. With shale oil and gas resources on nearly every continent, this development is set to become a major driver of global land-use change. It is increasingly critical to quantify spatial habitat loss driven by this development to implement effective mitigation strategies and develop habitat offsets. Habitat selection is a fundamental ecological process, influencing both individual fitness and population-level distribution on the landscape. Examinations of habitat selection provide a natural means for understanding spatial impacts. We examined the impact of natural gas development on habitat selection patterns of mule deer on their winter range in Colorado. We fit resource selection functions in a Bayesian hierarchical framework, with habitat availability defined using a movement-based modeling approach. Energy development drove considerable alterations to deer habitat selection patterns, with the most substantial impacts manifested as avoidance of well pads with active drilling to a distance of at least 800 m. Deer displayed more nuanced responses to other infrastructure, avoiding pads with active production and roads to a greater degree during the day than night. In aggregate, these responses equate to alteration of behavior by human development in over 50% of the critical winter range in our study area during the day and over 25% at night. Compared to other regions, the topographic and vegetative diversity in the study area appear to provide refugia that allow deer to behaviorally mediate some of the impacts of development. This study, and the methods we employed, provides a template for quantifying spatial take by industrial activities in natural areas and the results offer guidance for policy makers, mangers, and industry when attempting to mitigate habitat loss due to energy development. PMID:26264447