WorldWideScience

Sample records for endemic deer praemegaceros

  1. Acaricidal Treatment of White-Tailed Deer to Control Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a New York Lyme Disease-Endemic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 4-Poster device for the topical treatment of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) against ticks using the acaricide amitraz was evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic community in Connecticut. As part of a 5-year project from 1997 to 2002, 21–24 of the 4-Posters were distribut...

  2. A Plague of Deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHARON LEVY (; )

    2006-09-01

    This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience journal is on the issue of deer overpopulation. Unchecked deer populations are causing a decline in forest diversity. Overbrowsing by deer leaves only the few plant species deer can't digest as survivors. Managing deer populations through revised hunting practices, however, meets strong resistance.

  3. Rabies in Captive Deer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-30

    Dr. Brett Petersen, a medical officer at CDC, discusses rabies in captive deer.  Created: 4/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/30/2012.

  4. SRP deer hunt data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) site is an ideal habitat for white-tailed deer. The large deer population of more than 6000 animals has resulted in collisions between deer and automobiles. To control this population and thus reduce accidents, deer hunts were begun in 1965. These hunts are organized and supervised by U.S. Forestry Service Personnel. The deer have access to all of the plant site except the fenced operating areas. Access to radioactive liquid effluents and contamination vegetation can result in radioactive body burdens in deer. Prior to 1970, samples of about 20% of the deer shot during the deer hunts were radioassayed. Based on these results and plant effluent information, 137Cs was the radionuclide of interest. A portable instrument was developed to measure 137Cs in deer and, beginning in 1970, all deer have been monitored for their 137Cs concentration before being released to the hunters. All slain deer were released to the hunters immediately after monitoring; no deer were above acceptable safe limits for food

  5. Monitoring Red Deer and Roe Deer Population Density in Yedigoller-Yesiloz Wildlife Reserves in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Beskardes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife inventories are very new in Turkey. Thus, there is no enough data about red deer and roe deer population. However, these studies have gained momentum in recent years. In this study, it is aimed to determine and to monitor status of red deer and roe deer population densities. In the study, it was used a kind of drive count which was combined with point count. The study was conducted between 2003 and 2010 in October, once a year. Red deer and roe deer densities were determined between 0.45 and 1.19 red deer/km2; 1.48 and 2.05 roe deer/km2. Also, average of annual growth rates were estimated for red deer (0.135 and roe deer (-0.0059. The study showed that whilst the red deer population has been increasing, roe deer population has been decreasing in long term period.

  6. Habitat, wildlife, and one health: Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Maryland and Upper Eastern Shore white-tailed deer populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Turner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the distribution of disease in wildlife is key to predicting the impact of emerging zoonotic one health concerns, especially for wildlife species with extensive human and livestock interfaces. The widespread distribution and complex interactions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus with humans suggest deer population health and management may have implications beyond stewardship of the animals. The intracranial abscessation suppurative meningitis (IASM disease complex in deer has been linked to Arcanobacterium pyogenes, an under-diagnosed and often misdiagnosed organism considered commensal in domestic livestock but associated with serious disease in numerous species, including humans. Methods: Our study used standard bacterial culture techniques to assess A. pyogenes prevalence among male deer sampled across six physiogeographic regions in Maryland and male and female deer in the Upper Eastern Shore under Traditional Deer Management (TDM and Quality Deer Management (QDM, a management protocol that alters population demographics in favor of older male deer. Samples were collected from antler pedicles for males, the top of the head where pedicles would be if present for females, or the whole dorsal frontal area of the head for neonates. We collected nasal samples from all animals by swabbing the nasopharyngeal membranes. A gram stain and catalase test were conducted, and aerobic bacteria were identified to genus and species when possible. We evaluated the effect of region on whether deer carried A. pyogenes using Pearson's chi-square test with Yates’ continuity correction. For the white-tailed deer management study, we tested whether site, age class and sex predisposed animals to carrying A. pyogenes using binary logistic regression. Results: A. pyogenes was detected on deer in three of the 6 regions studied, and was common in only one region, the Upper Eastern Shore. In the Upper Eastern Shore, 45% and 66% of antler and nasal swabs from deer were positive for A. pyogenes, respectively. On the Upper Eastern Shore, prevalence of A. pyogenes cultured from deer did not differ between management areas, and was abundant among both sexes and across all age classes. No A. pyogenes was cultured from a small sample of neonates. Conclusion: Our study indicates A. pyogenes may be carried widely among white-tailed deer regardless of sex or age class, but we found no evidence the pathogen is acquired in utero. The distribution of A. pyogenes across regions and concentration in a region with low livestock levels suggests the potential for localized endemicity of the organism and the possibility that deer may serve as a maintenance reservoir for an emerging one health concern.

  7. [Pathomorphism of endemic goiter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopchuk, V S

    1985-01-01

    Pathomorphism of goiter developing against the background of goiter prevention in the Bukovina endemic area was studied. Subdivision of goiter into endemic and sporadic lost its significance due to the stabilization and levelling of the goiter morbidity. The true (simple or benign) goiter is characterized by an euthyroid course, predominant affection of adult women and domination of the nodular variants. A goiter node is a hyperplastic structural-functional gland unit--the thyron. The leading role in the goiter etiology belongs to endogenous deficiency of thyroid hormones, local factors are significant in the goiter pathogenesis. PMID:3901976

  8. Sambar Deer are Saved - For Now

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This article discusses the Sambar deer on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge. The Sambar deer on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge are very popular amongst...

  9. Tallahatchie NWR Deer Herd Health Check 2001

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report contains a herd heath report for the whitetailed deer population on Tallhatchie NWR Report contains a herd heath report for the whitetailed deer population...

  10. Welfare issues of modern deer farming

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Mattiello

    2009-01-01

    This paper will start with briefly outlining the recent domestication history of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama), followed by a description of the present status of modern deer farming. It will then review the main welfare issues of deer farming. The following aspects will be considered: accommodation and housing, management and handling, nutrition (feed and water provision), transport and slaughter, plus a short mention of velvet harvest. As a summary, the following pra...

  11. Deer browsing in floodplain forest.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baran?eková, Miroslava; Prokešová, Jarmila; Homolka, Miloslav; Koubek, Petr

    Šiauliai : Šiauliai university, 2004 - (Bal?iauskas, L.), s. 59-66 ISBN 9955-608-04-8. [Rational management of cervids in forest habitats. Šiauliai (LT), 28.01.2004-30.01.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IBS6093003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : browsing * deer * floodplain forest Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  12. Deer Herd Health Check dahomey National Wildlife Refuge 1997

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report contains findings of deer herd health collection on Dahomey NWR in 1997 Report contains findings of deer herd health collection on Dahomey NWR in 1997. Deer...

  13. White-tailed deer winter feeding strategy in area shared with other deer species.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolka, Miloslav; Heroldová, Marta; Bartoš, L.

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 57, ?. 3 (2008), s. 283-293. ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/97/0172 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : diet analysis * fallow deer * red deer * roe deer Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/57/3/283_293.pdf

  14. Analyzing the Correlation between Deer Habitat and the Component of the Risk for Lyme Disease in Eastern Ontario, Canada: A GIS-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis, caused by the bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, is an emerging vector-borne infectious disease in Canada. According to the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC, by the year 2020, 80% of Canadians will live in Lyme endemic areas. An understanding of the association of Ixodes scapularis, the main vector of Lyme disease, with it hosts is a fundamental component in assessing changes in the spatial distribution of human risk for Lyme disease. Through the application of Geographic Information System (GIS mapping methods and spatial analysis techniques, this study examines the population dynamics of the black-legged Lyme tick and its primary host, the white-tailed deer, in eastern Ontario, Canada. By developing a habitat suitability model through a GIS-based multi-criteria decision making (MCDM analysis, the relationship of the deer habitat suitability map was generated and the results were compared with deer harvest data. Tick submission data collected from two public health units between 2006 and 2012 were used to explore the relationship between endemic ticks and deer habitat suitability in eastern Ontario. The positive correlation demonstrated between the deer habitat suitability model and deer harvest data allows us to further analyze the association between deer habitat and black-legged ticks in our study area. Our results revealed that the high tick submission number corresponds with the high suitability. These results are useful for developing management strategies that aim to prevent Lyme from becoming a threat to public health in Canada. Further studies are required to investigate how tick survival, behaviour and seasonal activity may change with projected climate change.

  15. Parapoxvirus infections of red deer, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliarini, Alessandra; Vaccari, Francesca; Turrini, Filippo; Bianchi, Alessandro; Cordioli, Paolo; Lavazza, Antonio

    2011-04-01

    To characterize parapoxviruses causing severe disease in wild ruminants in Stelvio Park, Italy, we sequenced and compared the DNA of several isolates. Results demonstrated that the red deer isolates are closely related to the parapox of red deer in New Zealand virus. PMID:21470460

  16. Parapoxvirus Infections of Red Deer, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Scagliarini, Alessandra; Vaccari, Francesca; Turrini, Filippo; Bianchi, Alessandro; Cordioli, Paolo; Lavazza, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    To characterize parapoxviruses causing severe disease in wild ruminants in Stelvio Park, Italy, we sequenced and compared the DNA of several isolates. Results demonstrated that the red deer isolates are closely related to the parapox of red deer in New Zealand virus.

  17. Identity of rumen fluke in deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Ailis; Browne, John A; Hogan, Sean; Bassière, Thomas; DeWaal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; Zintl, Annetta

    2014-11-01

    As evidence is growing that in many temperate areas paramphistome infections are becoming more common and widespread, this study was undertaken to determine the role of deer as reservoirs for rumen fluke infections in livestock. A total of 144 deer faecal samples (88 from fallow deer, 32 from red deer and 24 samples from sika, sika/red deer hybrids) were screened for the presence of fluke eggs. Based on the ITS-2 rDNA locus plus flanking 5.8S and 28S sequences (ITS-2+), fluke eggs were identified to species level. Our results indicate that, of the 3 deer species, fallow deer had the highest fluke infection rates. Two rumen fluke species, Calicophoron daubneyi and Paramphistomum leydeni, with morphologically distinct eggs, were identified. Concurrent infections of the two paramphistome species and liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, were common. Considering the comparatively low egg burdens observed in this study, it is unlikely that deer represent a significant source of infection for Irish livestock. PMID:25127736

  18. Therapy of endemic goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. In childhood the first line treatment of endemic goitre is Kl (100-150 ?g/day). Once the goitre volume has shrinked during L-thyroxine treatment in older patients, this effect is to be maintained by Kl (?200 ?g/day). The same holds true after surgery in cases with normal TSH responsiveness to TRH. 2. TSH suppressive L-thyroxine therapy is indicated in goitre patients older than 40 years. However, the effectiveness will be limited by the nodularity of the thyroid. So prevention of further growth prevails over true tissue reduction. 3. Obviously thyroid surgery yields the best cosmetic results with an acceptably low complication rate. When euthyroidism is established, a lifelong iodine prophylaxy (200 ?g/day) of recurrent goitre is mandatory. In cases with latent or overt hypothyroidism an appropriate therapy with thyroid hormone should be given. 4. By radiodine it is possible to realize a short term volume loss of 30-40% which may increase further on up to 60%. Relief of symptoms is usually even more impressive than actual volume loss. (orig./MG)

  19. The nature of serpentine endemism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Brian L

    2014-02-01

    Serpentine soils are a model system for the study of plant adaptation, speciation, and species interactions. Serpentine soil is an edaphically stressful, low productivity soil type that hosts stunted vegetation and a spectacular level of plant endemism. One of the first papers on serpentine plant endemism was by Arthur Kruckeberg, titled "Intraspecific variability in the response of certain native plant species to serpentine soil." Published in the American Journal of Botany in 1951, it has been cited over 100 times. Here, I review the context and content of the paper, as well as its impact. On the basis of the results of reciprocal transplant experiments in the greenhouse, Kruckeberg made three important conclusions on the nature of serpentine plant endemism: (1) Plants are locally adapted to serpentine soils, forming distinct soil ecotypes; (2) soil ecotypes are the first stage in the evolutionary progression toward serpentine endemism; and (3) serpentine endemics are restricted from more fertile nonserpentine soils by competition. Kruckeberg's paper inspired a substantial amount of research, especially in the three areas reviewed here: local adaptation and plant traits, speciation, and the interaction of climate and soil in plant endemism. In documenting soil ecotypes, Kruckeberg identified serpentine soils as a potent selective factor in plant evolution and helped establish serpentine soils as a model system in evolution and ecology. PMID:24509800

  20. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminthiasis in captive deer of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kanungo, S.; Das, A.; Das Gupta, M.; Shakif-ul-Azam

    2010-01-01

    The investigation was undertaken to study the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthiasis in captive deer. About 76.2% deer were affected with gastrointestinal helminthiasis. Paramphistomum spp. and Haemonchus spp. were mostly prevalent in deer. It is revealed that Para or Hog deer (90.91%) was mostly susceptible to gastrointestinal helminthiasis followed by Barking deer (78.79%), Spotted deer (75%) and Samber deer (70%). Mixed infection was noted in majority of the deer. Paramphistomum spp....

  1. Osteochondrosis associated with copper deficiency in young farmed red deer and wapiti x red deer hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K G; Audigé, L; Arthur, D G; Julian, A F; Orr, M B; McSporran, K D; Wilson, P R

    1994-08-01

    Osteochondrosis is reported in association with copper deficiency in young red deer and wapiti X red deer hybrids on eight deer farms throughout New Zealand. On two farms, more than 30% of fawns were affected. Affected animals were lame, often had one or more swollen joints, and in some cases had an abnormal "bunny-hopping" gait or "cow-hocked" stance. Lesions were most common in the carpal, tarsal, stifle and hip joints, and were usually bilateral. Defects in articular cartilage ranged from loose flaps to complete separation with exposure of subchondral bone and the presence of cartilage fragments within the joint space. In advanced cases, the joints had features of degenerative arthropathy. Bilateral epiphyseolysis of the femoral head was observed in some severely lame deer. All deer with osteochondrosis had low serum and/or liver copper concentrations. PMID:16031764

  2. St. Vincent Island White-Tailed Deer Monitoring Program

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The white tailed deer herd on St. Vincent Island represents an important part of the islands biotic community. To maintain the integrity of the islands deer...

  3. Authenticity control of game meat products--a single method to detect and quantify adulteration of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druml, Barbara; Grandits, Stephanie; Mayer, Walter; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-03-01

    This contribution presents a single real-time PCR assay allowing the determination of the deer content (the sum of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon)) in meat products to detect food adulteration. The PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with 20 animal species and 43 botanical species potentially contained in game meat products. The limit of quantification is 0.5% for fallow deer and red deer and 0.1% for sika deer. The deer content in meat products is determined by relating the concentration obtained with the deer PCR assay to that obtained with a reference system which amplifies mammals and poultry DNA. The analysis of binary meat mixtures with pork, a meat mixture containing equal amounts of fallow deer, red deer and sika deer in pork and a model game sausage showed that the quantification approach is very accurate (systematic error generally <25%). PMID:25306377

  4. 75 FR 8895 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ...the DEIS for the Deer Creek Station. A copy of the DEIS can be...and maintain the Deer Creek Station Energy Facility Project, a...and 2006, Basin Electric's total system peak demand increased...proposed action (Deer Creek station and related facilities)...

  5. Bluetongue Virus Serotypes 1 and 4 in Red Deer, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Rodri?guez-sa?nchez, Bele?n; Gorta?zar, Christian; Ruiz-fons, Francisco; Sa?nchez-vizcai?no, Jose? M.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the potential of red deer as bluetongue maintenance hosts and sentinels. Deer maintained detectable bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 4 RNA for 1 year after the virus was cleared from livestock. However, the virus was not transmitted to yearlings. BTV serotype 1 RNA was detected in red deer immediately after its first detection in cattle.

  6. [Endemic dengue: surveillance strategy challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzochi, Keyla Belizia Feldman

    2004-01-01

    Interaction between clinical infection, vector, and population serotype immunity defines dengue epidemic risk. An endemic-sporadic epidemiological situation is an acceptable control target in metropolitan regions deficient in urban upgrading, sanitation, and health agents' access to residences, besides low residual power of biological insecticides and social mobilization problems. Surveillance requires continued action by government and society (particularly when incidence decreases) and adequate proposals. To establish a sensitive and specific surveillance system for endemic periods, the authors propose the sentinel clinical component as part of emergency care (detecting serious tip-of-the-iceberg cases) and reference services for acute febrile diseases, defining clinical forms and providing diagnostic confirmation. Although complex, sample serotype surveys should be conducted in strategic areas, evaluating: immunity and susceptibility of age groups to circulating serotypes; estimation of sub-clinical cases; and Surveillance and Control System reach. PMID:15361960

  7. Survey of Borreliae in ticks, canines, and white-tailed deer from Arkansas, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryxell Rebecca T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Eastern and Upper Midwestern regions of North America, Ixodes scapularis (L. is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans and the primary vector of B. burgdorferi, whereas in the southeastern region Amblyomma americanum (Say is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans but cannot transmit B. burgdorferi. Surveys of Borreliae in ticks have been conducted in the southeastern United States and often these surveys identify B. lonestari as the primary Borrelia species, surveys have not included Arkansas ticks, canines, or white-tailed deer and B. lonestari is not considered pathogenic. The objective of this study was to identify Borrelia species within Arkansas by screening ticks (n?=?2123, canines (n?=?173, and white-tailed deer (n?=?228 to determine the identity and locations of Borreliae endemic to Arkansas using PCR amplification of the flagellin (flaB gene. Methods Field collected ticks from canines and from hunter-killed white-tailed were identified to species and life stage. After which, ticks and their hosts were screened for the presence of Borrelia using PCR to amplify the flaB gene. A subset of the positive samples was confirmed with bidirectional sequencing. Results In total 53 (21.2% white-tailed deer, ten (6% canines, and 583 (27.5% Ixodid ticks (252 Ixodes scapularis, 161 A. americanum, 88 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 50 Amblyomma maculatum, 19 Dermacentor variabilis, and 13 unidentified Amblyomma species produced a Borrelia flaB amplicon. Of the positive ticks, 324 (22.7% were collected from canines (151 A. americanum, 78 R. sanguineus, 43 I. scapularis, 26 A. maculatum, 18 D. variabilis, and 8 Amblyomma species and 259 (37.2% were collected from white-tailed deer (209 I. scapularis, 24 A. maculatum, 10 A. americanum, 10 R. sanguineus, 1 D. variabilis, and 5 Amblyomma species. None of the larvae were PCR positive. A majority of the flaB amplicons were homologous with B. lonestari sequences: 281 of the 296 sequenced ticks, 3 canines, and 27 deer. Only 22 deer, 7 canines, and 15 tick flaB amplicons (12 I. scapularis, 2 A. maculatum, and 1 Amblyomma species were homologous with B. burgdorferi sequences. Conclusions Data from this study identified multiple Borreliae genotypes in Arkansas ticks, canines and deer including B. burgdorferi and B. lonestari; however, B. lonestari was significantly more prevalent in the tick population than B. burgdorferi. Results from this study suggest that the majority of tick-borne diseases in Arkansas are not B. burgdorferi.

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Lucjan; Czopowicz, Micha?; Nagy, Dan Alexandru; Potarniche, Adrian Valentin; Aoanei, Monica Adriana; Imomov, Nuriddin; Mickiewicz, Marcin; Welz, Miros?aw; Szalu?-Jordanow, Olga; Kaba, Jaros?aw

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa) and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%), 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7%) and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%). To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans. PMID:25993468

  9. INVESTIGATION OF BALCAN ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY IN MEMBERS OF ENDEMIC FAMILIES IN THE ENDEMIC VILLAGE MORAVAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Miti?

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The village Moravac, situated on the left bank of the River South Morava, has been known as endemic area for fifty years. The highest prevalence of Balcan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN was noted during the seventh and eight decade in the last century, and after that period, permanent decreasing has been shown. The present study involved fifty members of endemic families. In all investigated subjects, clinical observations included anamnesis, physical examinations and urinalysis. In twelve (24% subjects, urinary abnormalities were proven (proteinuria, microhaematuria, leucocyturia. These subjects further underwent the additional functional and morphological examinations at the Clinic of Nephrology, Clinical Center Nis. In 11 (22% subjects, clinical examinations showed different forms of renal diseases, but BEN was proven in four (one of them suffered from BEN since 2004 and he was treated by haemodialyses, while the others were diagnosed during the investigation. Other renal diseases in the examined patients were: cystic kidney disease (6%, nephrolithiasis (4%, diabetic nephropathy (2%, obstructive nephropathy (4% and tumores of kidney (2%. In our opinion, based on this investigation, BEN showed the rising tendency. Our retrograde study on the incidence of the upper urinary tract urothelial cancer in the endemic village Moravac showed the highest frequency, like BEN, in the seventh and eight decade in the last century. Despite encouraging results, further detailed and larger investigations are needed along the River South Morava, because a number of studies suggested lower progression and middle clinical course of disease, and also a rare appearance of the upper urinary tract cancer, which is why the patients seldom visit the health institutions, mostly in advanced stage of renal insufficiency. The aim of further investigations is to detect such subjects in the initial, early phase of disease, when prevention of progressive course and therapy are more successful.

  10. Somatic Chromosomes of the Bornean Sambar Deer and Rusa Deer Interspecific Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Idris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Hybridization has potential benefits to the Malaysian farmed deer industries in terms of increased growth rate and increased proportion of muscle and an improved alignment of feed supply and annual energy requirement. Species or subspecies of different chromosome constitution could mate to produce healthy hybrid offspring in a normal ratio of males and females. If any of the hybrid offspring were sterile, the sterile offspring would be the heterogametic offspring. The study investigated the use of chromosome banding method to detect chromosomal variation and to define the chromosome homology and the possibility of the Bornean Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei and Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis hybrids to reproduce. Approach: Samples were collected from the Livestock Breeding Station, Sabrang, Keningau, Sabah, East Malaysia. The animals studied consisted of two deer subspecies namely the Bornean Sambar deer, Rusa deer and their hybrids. The karyotypes of the Bornean Sambar deer, Rusa deer and their F1 hybrids have been investigated by solid giemsa staining, G-banding and Ag-NOR banding techniques. Results: Rusa and Bornean Sambar have different chromosome number; 60 and 62 respectively, but share the same fundamental number of chromosome arm, 70. The hybrids have 2n = 61, consisting of 9 metacentric to submetacentric autosomes and 24 pairs of acrocentric autosomes with two acrocentrics and one submetacentric chromosome being unpaired. The morphology of the sex chromosomes in the F1 hybrids was similar to that of the parental species. The Ag-NOR pattern and the conventional Giemsa staining of chromosomes were effective as markers in the characterization of the karyotypes of the parental lines and hybrids because of the presence of active NORs on different chromosomes of different species. G-band, in contrast, showed complete homology in the presence of euchromatic bands and heterochromatin blocks respectively on each chromosome, suggesting that the two species have few genetic differences. Conclusion: In the present study, natural mating between Bornean Sambar deer and Rusa deer were conducted and the number and chromosomal location of the nucleolar organizer regions in their offsprings were analyzed by the silver staining method. Apart from that, the interspecific dissimilarities with regards to chromosome number and morphology are less extensive and the production of chromosomally balanced gametes could be expected.

  11. Genetic susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in free-ranging white-tailed deer: complement component C1q and Prnp polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A; Heisey, Dennis M; Scribner, Kim T; Libants, Scot V; Johnson, Chad; Aiken, Judd M; Langenberg, Julia A; Samuel, Michael D

    2009-12-01

    The genetic basis of susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids is of great interest. Association studies of disease susceptibility in free-ranging populations, however, face considerable challenges including: the need for large sample sizes when disease is rare, animals of unknown pedigree create a risk of spurious results due to population admixture, and the inability to control disease exposure or dose. We used an innovative matched case-control design and conditional logistic regression to evaluate associations between polymorphisms of complement C1q and prion protein (Prnp) genes and CWD infection in white-tailed deer from the CWD endemic area in south-central Wisconsin. To reduce problems due to admixture or disease-risk confounding, we used neutral genetic (microsatellite) data to identify closely related CWD-positive (n=68) and CWD-negative (n=91) female deer to serve as matched cases and controls. Cases and controls were also matched on factors (sex, location, age) previously demonstrated to affect CWD infection risk. For Prnp, deer with at least one Serine (S) at amino acid 96 were significantly less likely to be CWD-positive relative to deer homozygous for Glycine (G). This is the first characterization of genes associated with the complement system in white-tailed deer. No tests for association between any C1q polymorphism and CWD infection were significant at p<0.05. After controlling for Prnp, we found weak support for an elevated risk of CWD infection in deer with at least one Glycine (G) at amino acid 56 of the C1qC gene. While we documented numerous amino acid polymorphisms in C1q genes none appear to be strongly associated with CWD susceptibility. PMID:19723593

  12. Genetic susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in free-ranging white-tailed deer: complement component C1q and Prnp polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Scribner, Kim T.; Libants, Scot V.; Johnson, Chad; Aiken, Judd M.; Langenberg, Julia A.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic basis of susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids is of great interest. Association studies of disease susceptibility in free-ranging populations, however, face considerable challenges including: the need for large sample sizes when disease is rare, animals of unknown pedigree create a risk of spurious results due to population admixture, and the inability to control disease exposure or dose. We used an innovative matched case–control design and conditional logistic regression to evaluate associations between polymorphisms of complement C1q and prion protein (Prnp) genes and CWD infection in white-tailed deer from the CWD endemic area in south-central Wisconsin. To reduce problems due to admixture or disease-risk confounding, we used neutral genetic (microsatellite) data to identify closely related CWD-positive (n = 68) and CWD-negative (n = 91) female deer to serve as matched cases and controls. Cases and controls were also matched on factors (sex, location, age) previously demonstrated to affect CWD infection risk. For Prnp, deer with at least one Serine (S) at amino acid 96 were significantly less likely to be CWD-positive relative to deer homozygous for Glycine (G). This is the first characterization of genes associated with the complement system in white-tailed deer. No tests for association between any C1q polymorphism and CWD infection were significant at p < 0.05. After controlling for Prnp, we found weak support for an elevated risk of CWD infection in deer with at least one Glycine (G) at amino acid 56 of the C1qC gene. While we documented numerous amino acid polymorphisms in C1q genes none appear to be strongly associated with CWD susceptibility.

  13. DNA barcoding revises a misidentification on musk deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengzhong; Xiao, Zhen; Zou, Yuan; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yang, Bo; Hao, Yinghong; Moermond, Timothy; Yue, Bisong

    2014-02-01

    Abstract As an endangered animal group in China, musk deer (genus Moschus) have attracted the attention of deer biologists and wildlife conservationists. Clarifying the taxonomic status and distribution of musk deer species is important to determine the conservation status for each species and establish appropriate conservation strategies. There remains some uncertainty about the species determination of the musk deer in the Guandi Forest District of Shanxi Province, China. The musk deer in Shanxi would appear to represent an extension of the geographical distribution of either the Forest Musk Deer from the southwest or the Siberian Musk Deer from the northeast, or possibly both. The musk deer population in Shanxi Province provides an interesting and significant case to test the value of applying molecular methods to make a genetic species identification. In order to clarify the species status of the Shanxi musk deer, we sequenced 627?bp of the COI gene and ?723?bp of the D-loop gene in 12 musk deer samples collected from the Guandi Forest District, and the two reference samples collected from Sichuan. Genetic analyses from the data suggest that all of the samples from the Guandi Forest District are M. berezovskii rather than M. moschiferus. It is most likely that the most previous studies had wrong species identification. And it is the first time we use DNA barcoding to prove that Shanxi is a new distribution of M. berezovskii. PMID:24491100

  14. Intranasal inoculation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with lyophilized chronic wasting disease prion particulate complexed to montmorillonite clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Tracy A; Spraker, Terry R; Rigg, Tara D; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Hoover, Clare; Michel, Brady; Bian, Jifeng; Hoover, Edward; Gidlewski, Thomas; Balachandran, Aru; O'Rourke, Katherine; Telling, Glenn C; Bowen, Richard; Zabel, Mark D; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2013-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte), lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure. PMID:23671598

  15. Country, cover or protection: what shapes the distribution of red deer and roe deer in the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heurich, Marco; Brand, Tom T G; Kaandorp, Manon Y; Šustr, Pavel; Müller, Jörg; Reineking, Björn

    2015-01-01

    The Bohemian Forest Ecosystem encompasses various wildlife management systems. Two large, contiguous national parks (one in Germany and one in the Czech Republic) form the centre of the area, are surrounded by private hunting grounds, and hunting regulations in each country differ. Here we aimed at unravelling the influence of management-related and environmental factors on the distribution of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in this ecosystem. We used the standing crop method based on counts of pellet groups, with point counts every 100 m along 218 randomly distributed transects. Our analysis, which accounted for overdispersion as well as zero inflation and spatial autocorrelation, corroborated the view that both human management and the physical and biological environment drive ungulate distribution in mountainous areas in Central Europe. In contrast to our expectations, protection by national parks was the least important variable for red deer and the third important out of four variables for roe deer; protection negatively influenced roe deer distribution in both parks and positively influenced red deer distribution in Germany. Country was the most influential variable for both red and roe deer, with higher counts of pellet groups in the Czech Republic than in Germany. Elevation, which indicates increasing environmental harshness, was the second most important variable for both species. Forest cover was the least important variable for roe deer and the third important variable for red deer; the relationship for roe deer was positive and linear, and optimal forest cover for red deer was about 70% within a 500 m radius. Our results have direct implications for the future conservation management of deer in protected areas in Central Europe and show in particular that large non-intervention zones may not cause agglomerations of deer that could lead to conflicts along the border of protected, mountainous areas. PMID:25781942

  16. Iowa State University: Iowa State's Deer Tick Home Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State's Deer Tick site is an excellent resource for anyone learning to identify deer tick specimens. The site provides links to size comparison images and movies for female, male, and larva deer ticks, as well as nymph images. Most tick images use a dime to provide a reference point, showing how small and easy to miss these creatures are. Movies are available in both MPEG and QuickTime format.

  17. Food choice in fallow deer – experimental studies of selectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Alm Bergvall, Ulrika

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, I experimentally investigate feeding selectivity in fallow deer (Dama dama), with respect to plant secondary compounds, especially tannins, which can decrease the quality of foods. I found that fallow deer avoided foods with higher amounts of tannic acid and Quebracho tannin, even though the deer ate some high-tannin food. The food choice was strongly dependent on the context in which the food was presented, so that the food choice in relation to tannin content was relative ra...

  18. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminthiasis in captive deer of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kanungo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was undertaken to study the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthiasis in captive deer. About 76.2% deer were affected with gastrointestinal helminthiasis. Paramphistomum spp. and Haemonchus spp. were mostly prevalent in deer. It is revealed that Para or Hog deer (90.91% was mostly susceptible to gastrointestinal helminthiasis followed by Barking deer (78.79%, Spotted deer (75% and Samber deer (70%. Mixed infection was noted in majority of the deer. Paramphistomum spp., Haemonchus spp. and Strongyloides spp. were common in three different captive location but Fasciola spp. was detected only in Dhaka zoo and Dulahazara Safari Park.

  19. Deer monitoring at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To protect public health, all deer and feral hogs harvested at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during controlled hunts are monitored for Cs-137. A new monitoring program has been developed by the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS). To provide increased confidence in dose data and compliance with regulations, many changes have been made to the deer and hog monitoring program. Using field count information, a computerized database determines Cs-137 concentration and calculates the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) resulting from consumption of the animal. The database then updates each hunter's cumulative CEDE in real time. Also, enhancements to the instrument calibration and quality control portions of the monitoring program were implemented. These include improved monitor calibration, intercomparison of field results from the same animal using different detectors, and regular use of check sources to verify equipment performance. With these program changes, EMS can produce more accurate and verifiable dose data

  20. Favus In A Non-endemic Area

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta L; Masuria B; Mittal A; Sharma M.; Bansal N

    2002-01-01

    Favus, although endemic in the Kashmir valley, is rarely reported form other parts of India. We report two cases of favus from rural Udaipur, Rajasthan, because of its rarity in a non- endemic zone. Both the patients had scutula and cicatricial alopecia, characteristic of scales. Culture on Sabouraud�s dextrose agar grew Trichophyton schoenleinii in both the cases.

  1. Seasonal acclimation of prairie deer mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R. V.; Belknap, R. W.

    1993-12-01

    Prairie deer mice responded to long nights by reducing their metabolic rates, core temperatures, thermal conductances and incremental metabolic responses to cold stimulus, while increasing their capacities for nonshivering thermogenesis. Some winter animals spontaneously entered daily torpor in the mornings and thereby further reduced their metabolic rates and core temperatures. Provision of exogenous melatonin (by subdermal implants) mimiced short photoperiod effects on metabolic rates and core temperatures of wild-caught, laboratory maintained animals. Provision of supplemental dietary tryptophan to laboratory animals conditioned to natural light cycles mimiced metabolic effects of long nights in summer animals, and further reduced metabolic rates of winter mice, but did not affect their core temperature levels. Newly caught, laboratory maintained deer mice responded to natural seasonal clues of shortphotoperiod and increased dietary tryptophan by reducing their resting energy requirements through both lower metabolic and lower core temperature levels. Short photoperiod and seasonal change also promoted gonadal involution, and resulted in more socially tolerant huddling by mice with reduced core temperature. Reduced 24-hour LH excretion rates were also observed in winter animals which were exposed to seasonal light cycles at warm (25°C) room temperatures. We propose that seasonal acclimatization involves pineal effects on sex hormone-influenced social behaviors and on resting metabolism. These effects serve to conserve resting energy expenditure and promote hypothermic insulation by wild prairie deer mice.

  2. Welfare of farmed deer in New Zealand. 1. Management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, J C; Wilson, P R

    2002-12-01

    This review summarises research of management practices that potentially impact on the welfare of farmed deer. The processes of capture and initial domestication of feral deer caused many welfare problems but are now essentially complete in New Zealand. The health and production status of farmed deer, and readily visible indicators of their welfare are generally good, although preventive medicines and optimum management practices have not been universally adopted. Research into social behaviour, effects of yarding, weaning, mating, calving, shelter, shade and nutrition has identified ways of improving the welfare of farmed deer and has provided recommendations for deer industry quality assurance programmes. Research has identified transport design and practices that minimise the impact of transport on deer welfare and reduce carcass wastage caused by bruising during transport. Time in lairage prior to slaughter should be minimised and electrical stunning is a humane method of slaughter. Ongoing research is needed on management practices and farm environments to further improve the welfare of farmed deer, consistent with the goals of the New Zealand deer industry and its proactive approach to date. PMID:16032276

  3. Can coyotes affect deer populations in Southeastern North America?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilgo, J., C.; Ray, H., Scott; Ruth, Charles; Miller, Karl, V.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The coyote (Canis latrans) is a recent addition to the fauna of eastern North America, and in many areas coyote populations have been established for only a decade or two. Although coyotes are known predators of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in their historic range, effects this new predator may have on eastern deer populations have received little attention. We speculated that in the southeastern United States, coyotes may be affecting deer recruitment, and we present 5 lines of evidence that suggest this possibility. First, the statewide deer population in South Carolina has declined coincident with the establishment and increase in the coyote population. Second, data sets from the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina indicate a new mortality source affecting the deer population concurrent with the increase in coyotes. Third, an index of deer recruitment at SRS declined during the period of increase in coyotes. Fourth, food habits data from SRS indicate that fawns are an important food item for coyotes during summer. Finally, recent research from Alabama documented significant coyote predation on fawns there. Although this evidence does not establish cause and effect between coyotes and observed declines in deer recruitment, we argue that additional research should proactively address this topic in the region. We identified several important questions on the nature of the deer–coyote relationship in the East.

  4. Merogonic stages of Theileria cervi in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jason; Johnson, Eileen M; Allen, Kelly E; Campbell, Gregory A; Rezabek, Grant; Bradway, Daniel S; Pittman, Louis L; Little, Susan E; Panciera, Roger J

    2013-09-01

    In February 2012, 12 farmed mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were moved from a facility in southwestern Oklahoma to a facility in southeastern Oklahoma that housed 100 farmed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Between the third and fifth weeks, 9 of the 12 mule deer had died, 4 of which were submitted for necropsy. The deer were heavily infested with Amblyomma americanum (lone star ticks). Hematologic data from 1 deer revealed severe anemia, leukocytosis, and intraerythrocytic hemoparasites consistent with Theileria spp. Microscopically, the liver, lymph nodes, and spleen contained multifocally distributed, enlarged monocytic cells whose cytoplasm was replaced by developing meronts in various stages of merogony. It appears that, upon arrival, the Theileria cervi-naïve mule deer became infested with large numbers of Theileria-infected lone star ticks leading to massive exposure of the mule deer to sporozoites of the protozoan, resulting in an acute hemolytic crisis and fatalities. The merogonic stages of T. cervi are also described. The lack of earlier reports of merogony may be due to the fact that only a single, short-lived, merogonic cycle follows exposure to sporozoites and thus merogonic stages are demonstrable for only a short period. Polymerase chain reaction testing of paraffin-embedded tissue yielded a 507-bp amplicon sequence that was 100% identical with the sequence of T. cervi previously reported from white-tailed deer in Oklahoma and from elk in Wisconsin and Indiana. PMID:24029405

  5. Hepatocellular adenocarcinoma in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    OpenAIRE

    Placke, M. E.; Roscoe, D. E.; Wyand, D. S.; Nielsen, S. W.

    1982-01-01

    A white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), shot during the 1978-79 New Jersey hunting season, was presented with an enlarged, multinodular liver and numerous skin growths. The skin lesions were found to be fibromas and the liver tumor was identified as a hepatocellular adenocarcinoma, a rare neoplasm, not only in deer but all wild animals.

  6. Environmental Monitoring of Endemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElNemr, W.; Jutla, A. S.; Constantin de Magny, G.; Hasan, N. A.; Islam, M.; Sack, R.; Huq, A.; Hashem, F.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat. Since Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease, is autochthonous to riverine, estuarine, and coastal waters, it is unlikely the bacteria can be eradicated from its natural habitat. Prediction of disease, in conjunction with preventive vaccination can reduce the prevalence rate of a disease. Understanding the influence of environmental parameters on growth and proliferation of bacteria is an essential first step in developing prediction methods for outbreaks. Large scale geophysical variables, such as SST and coastal chlorophyll, are often associated with conditions favoring growth of V. cholerae. However, local environmental factors, meaning biological activity in ponds from where the bulk of populations in endemic regions derive water for daily usage, are either neglected or oversimplified. Using data collected from several sites in two geographically distinct locations in South Asia, we have identified critical local environmental factors associated with cholera outbreak. Of 18 environmental variables monitored for water sources in Mathbaria (a coastal site near the Bay of Bengal) and Bakergonj (an inland site) of Bangladesh, water depth and chlorophyll were found to be important factors associated with initiation of cholera outbreaks. Cholera in coastal regions appears to be related to intrusion. However, monsoonal flooding creates conditions for cholera epidemics in inland regions. This may be one of the first attempts to relate in-situ environmental observations with cholera. We anticipate that it will be useful for further development of prediction models in the resource constrained regions.

  7. An Interdisciplinary Deer and Human Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Webb

    2009-01-01

    This activity helps the learner answer the question: "What environmental problems arise due to animal and human overpopulation and what might need to be done to combat these problems?" Learners play a game that simulates population sampling in an imaginary state park. After the game is completed, each park must decide if they are at the carrying capacity for their park or out of equilibrium. Learners write a proposal detailing how they plan to correct their deer population problem and present it to the group (the Department of Natural Resources). This lesson is described as an interdisciplinary unit and includes literature and math curriculum connections.

  8. THE AXIS DEER (AXIS AXIS IN BRIJUNI NATIONAL PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikica Šprem

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The axis deer (Axis axis was imported from Germany and introduced into Brijuni in 1911. Brijuni are a group of islands in the Adriatic Sea along the western coast of the southern peak of the Istrian Peninsula in the Republic of Croatia. In 1983 the area was declared a National Park. The objective of this paper was to research the adaptation of the axis deer to living conditions on the islands. Observation has shown that on the Brijuni islands the axis deer lives in herds comprising 10 to 30 individuals. The youngest male deer seeking access to does was four years old, while at the age of fi ve they started roaring. Deer fi ghts are not frequent during roaring period. The natural grazing rhythm is disturbed by the vast number of tourists. The calving periods of the axis deer during the year indicate three well-pronounced ruts, namely January to February, July-August and October-November. They also show that oestrus occurs soon after calving in most of the females. Gestation period of does is 7 to 7.8 months. 85% of the does on the Brijuni Islands produce their offspring in the warmer part of the year, between 1 March and 31 September. The population of the axis deer in the area of the Brijuni National Park is stable, rather numerous (about 100 individuals and well acclimatized, and as such it presents reproductive material suitable to populate enclosed hunting grounds and big game farms.

  9. Somatic Chromosomes of the Bornean Sambar Deer and Rusa Deer Interspecific Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Idris; Saidi Moin

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Hybridization has potential benefits to the Malaysian farmed deer industries in terms of increased growth rate and increased proportion of muscle and an improved alignment of feed supply and annual energy requirement. Species or subspecies of different chromosome constitution could mate to produce healthy hybrid offspring in a normal ratio of males and females. If any of the hybrid offspring were sterile, the sterile offspring would be the heterogametic offspring. The study...

  10. Relationship of Herd Density and Physical Parameters of White-tailed Deer in Northwest Florida Pine Flatwoods

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study assessing the effects of changes in deer density on physicalparameters of deer in northwest Florida flatwoods Biological data from whitetailed deer...

  11. Reproductive biology of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olazabal Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus is a South American grazing deer which is in extreme danger of extinction. Very little is known about the biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, most information has not been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, and is only available in local publications, theses, etc. Therefore, our aim was to update and summarize the available information regarding the reproductive biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, in most sections, we have also included new, unpublished information. Detailed descriptions are provided of the anatomy of both the female and the male reproductive tract, puberty onset, the oestrous cycle and gestational length. Birthing and the early postpartum period are described, as are maternal behaviour and early fawn development, seasonal distribution of births, seasonal changes in male reproduction and antler cycle, reproductive behaviour, semen collection, and cryopreservation. Finally, an overview is given and future directions of research are proposed.

  12. Experimental Treatment of Fallow Deer (Dama dama with Abamectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vengust

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrolide Endectocides (ME are antiparasitic agents that are daily applied in pharmacotherapy of food-producing animals. Worldwide numbers of pharmacokinetics studies performed on various matrixes of domestic animals with diverse detection methods for ME determination were developed. However only few studies on deer matrixes were published although ME are licensed and in use for treatment of red deer, fallow deer and reindeer in some countries of European Union, America and Australia. The purpose of this study was to follow some pharmacokinetic parameters of abamectin in fallow deer plasma 48 h after subcutaneous application of therapeutic dose. Biochemical and haematological parameters were also followed for 120 h after application of antiparasitic agent.

  13. Targeted CWD surveillance mule deer HD 600 February 2015

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — February 2015 Progress report for Targeted Chronic Wasting Disease Project in Montana Hunting District 600 From February 56th, 25 mule deer were captured in hunting...

  14. Melatonin Promotes Superovulation in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon)

    OpenAIRE

    Liang; Wang; Zhi-Yong Zhuo; Wen-Qing Shi; Dun-Xian Tan; Chao Gao; Xiu-Zhi Tian; Lu Zhang; Guang-Bin Zhou; Shi-En Zhu; Peng Yun; Guo-Shi Liu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of melatonin (MT) on superovulation and reproductive hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and PRL) were investigated in female sika deer. Different doses (40 or 80 mg/animal) of melatonin were subcutaneously implanted into deer before the breeding season. Exogenous melatonin administration significantly elevated the serum FSH levels at the time of insemination compared with levels in control animals. During superovulation...

  15. Ehrlichia ewingii Infection in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    OpenAIRE

    Yabsley, Michael J.; Varela, Andrea S.; Tate, Cynthia M.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Stallknecht, David E.; Little, Susan E.; Davidson, William R.

    2002-01-01

    Two closely related zoonotic ehrlichiae, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. ewingii, are transmitted by Amblyomma americanum, the lone star tick. Because white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are critical hosts for all mobile stages of A. americanum and are important vertebrate reservoirs of E. chaffeensis, we investigated whether deer may be infected with E. ewingii, a cause of granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis in humans and dogs. To test for E. ewingii infection, we used polymerase chain reacti...

  16. Red deer habitat management in the Highlands: Consequences for invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Tinsley-marshall, Paul James

    2011-01-01

    In Scotland, the well documented increase in the red deer population is widely regarded as a cause for concern, due to potentially detrimental impacts of grazing. This has lead to conflicting objectives between conservation and deer managers, despite the extent of the increase and the resulting impact both being hotly debated issues. Upland heather moorland is of international conservation importance while woodland habitats are some of the most stable ecosystems in anthropogeni...

  17. Identification and characterization of deer astroviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smits, Saskia L.; van Leeuwen, Marije

    2010-01-01

    The threat of emerging infectious viruses in humans requires a more effective approach regarding virus surveillance. A thorough understanding of virus diversity in wildlife provides epidemiological baseline information about pathogens and may lead to the identification of newly emerging pathogens in the future. In this study, diarrhoea samples from an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness in a Danish population of European roe deer were gathered for which no aetiological agent could be identified. Large-scale molecular RNA virus screening, based on host nucleic acid depletion, sequence-independent amplification and sequencing of partially purified viral RNA, revealed the presence of novel astroviruses, CcAstV-1 and CcAstV-2, in two of ten diarrhoea samples. Whether these viruses were responsible for causing diarrhoea remains to be determined. Phylogenetic analyses on amplified sequences showed that these viruses were most closely related to each other, were a novel species in the genus Mamastrovirus and may represent two different serotypes.

  18. Melatonin Promotes Superovulation in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of melatonin (MT on superovulation and reproductive hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and PRL were investigated in female sika deer. Different doses (40 or 80 mg/animal of melatonin were subcutaneously implanted into deer before the breeding season. Exogenous melatonin administration significantly elevated the serum FSH levels at the time of insemination compared with levels in control animals. During superovulation, the serum LH levels in donor sika deer reached their highest values (7.1 ± 2.04 ng/mL at the point of insemination, compared with the baseline levels (4.98 ± 0.07 ng/mL in control animals. This high level of LH was sustained until the day of embryo recovery. In contrast, the serum levels of PRL in the 80 mg of melatonin-treated group were significantly lower than those of control deer. The average number of corpora lutea in melatonin-treated deer was significantly higher than that of the control (p < 0.05. The average number of embryos in the deer treated with 40 mg of melatonin was higher than that of the control; however, this increase did not reach significant difference (p > 0.05, which may be related to the relatively small sample size. In addition, embryonic development in melatonin-treated groups was delayed.

  19. Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd's unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd's overall health and reproductive status

  20. Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, B.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Poston, T.M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd`s unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd`s overall health and reproductive status.

  1. ENDEMISM VS INVASIBILITY IN NICKEL HYPERACCUMULATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several species of nickel hyperaccumulators in the genus Alyssum are found on serpentine (ultramafic) soils throughout southern and eastern Europe and Asia, and some are endemic to serpentine substrates. This study examines the extent to which physiological factors restrict nickel hyperaccumulators ...

  2. Population genetic analysis of the endemic Centaurea spp. in Sardinia

    OpenAIRE

    Mameli, Giulia

    2008-01-01

    Tyrrhenian Islands are one of Mediterranean hotspots. Within the Mediterranean basin the Sardinian-Corsican system shows one of the highest densities of endemic plant species, therefore it is so original in terms of vegetation cover. Limited information is available on the genetic structure of endemic Mediterranean plant species. Several species are known as palaeo-endemics because the island could have played a significant role during the last glacial maximum, and as schizo-endem...

  3. 78 FR 44148 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Antietam, Monocacy, Manassas White-tailed Deer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ...during recent years. Current deer densities of 130-230 deer per...populations to the target density and maintain that level...level. Once the target density has been reached, it...continued actions under any current initial detection...

  4. Wolf, Canis lupus, visits towhite-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, summer ranges: Optimal foraging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demma, D.J.; Mech, L.D.

    2009-01-01

    We tested whether Wolf (Canis lupus) visits to individual female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) summer ranges during 2003 and 2004 in northeastern Minnesota were in accord with optimal-foraging theory. Using GPS collars with 10- to 30-minute location attempts on four Wolves and five female deer, plus eleven VHF-collared female deer in the Wolves' territory, provided new insights into the frequency of Wolf visits to summer ranges of female deer. Wolves made a mean 0.055 visits/day to summer ranges of deer three years and older, significantly more than their 0.032 mean visits/day to ranges of two-year-old deer, which generally produce fewer fawns, and most Wolf visits to ranges of older deer were much longer than those to ranges of younger deer. Because fawns comprise the major part of the Wolf's summer diet, this Wolf behavior accords with optimal-foraging theory.

  5. 76 FR 35467 - Deer and Vegetation Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Fire Island National Seashore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ...resulting from current levels of deer browsing; and adverse impacts on natural and...Seashore documented the impacts of deer browsing on understory vegetation within a decade...birds, and [[Page 35468

  6. Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Elena Contreras; Marcos de Donato; María Ana Rivas; Hectorina Rodulfo; Robert Mora; María Eulalia Batista; Norka Marcano

    2011-01-01

    In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species) and malaria antigen (Pla...

  7. Model for predicting 90Sr levels in mule deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model was developed to estimate the strontium-90 levels in male mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) from known 90Sr intake rates. The model was formulated on results from a study on the effects of age and season on Sr kinetics in mule deer. Captive deer of various ages, at selected times throughout the year, were given acute oral doses of 85SrCl2 and whole body counted to determine the retention function. A two-component exponential equation was used to mathematically describe the retention of 85Sr. The average for the slopes of the short component (1.09 day-1) corresponded very closely with the mean retention time for insoluble material in the gastrointestinal tract. For male deer, the value of the fractional intercept of the long component generally increased with age. The fractional intercepts also varied with the time of year the deer was administered the 85Sr, ranging from an average of 0.0539 during antler dormancy to 0.154 during periods of antler growth. The average of the observed values for the slope of the long component was 0.00365 day-1 for all deer. For the bucks, the slope of the long component was observed to decrease with age at time of spiking and to vary from a minimum for those spiked during antler dormancy to a maximum for those spiked during the antler growth period. There were no apparent effects of age and season on the kinetics of Sr in female deer. The model wkinetics of Sr in female deer. The model was developed to describe the uptake and retention of chronically ingested Sr. Due to the variations in the fractional intercept and slope of the long component, both associated with skeletal bone remodeling, the model utilized varying parameters. The predicted values were compared with those observed in a wild deer population and the close agreement added credibility to the coefficients of the total body retention equations utilized in the model

  8. Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in roe deer from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is an important game animal in Spain. Sera from 278 roe deer sera from eight areas in mainland Spain were assayed for antibodies to T. gondii by modified agglutination test (MAT). Titers of 1:25 or higher were found in 109 (39.2%) of 278 deer. No significant difference...

  9. The Netherlands strain of BTV serotype 8 in white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the susceptibility of U.S. white-tailed deer to the European strain of BTV-8 (EU-BTV-8) isolated in The Netherlands, eight seronegative deer were injected subcutaneously in the neck and intradermally in the inner left leg. Two deer were sham inoculated to serve as uninfected controls an...

  10. Melatonin promotes superovulation in sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Zhuo, Zhi-Yong; Shi, Wen-Qing; Tan, Dun-Xian; Gao, Chao; Tian, Xiu-Zhi; Zhang, Lu; Zhou, Guang-Bin; Zhu, Shi-En; Yun, Peng; Liu, Guo-Shi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of melatonin (MT) on superovulation and reproductive hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and PRL) were investigated in female sika deer. Different doses (40 or 80 mg/animal) of melatonin were subcutaneously implanted into deer before the breeding season. Exogenous melatonin administration significantly elevated the serum FSH levels at the time of insemination compared with levels in control animals. During superovulation, the serum LH levels in donor sika deer reached their highest values (7.1±2.04 ng/mL) at the point of insemination, compared with the baseline levels (4.98±0.07 ng/mL) in control animals. This high level of LH was sustained until the day of embryo recovery. In contrast, the serum levels of PRL in the 80 mg of melatonin-treated group were significantly lower than those of control deer. The average number of corpora lutea in melatonin-treated deer was significantly higher than that of the control (p0.05), which may be related to the relatively small sample size. In addition, embryonic development in melatonin-treated groups was delayed. PMID:25007067

  11. Costs of Illness Due to Endemic Cholera

    OpenAIRE

    Poulos, C.; Riewpaiboon, A.; Stewart, J. F.; Clemens, J.; Guh, S.; Agtini, M.; Sur, D.; Islam, Z.; Lucas, M.; Whittington, D.

    2011-01-01

    Economic analyses of cholera immunization programmes require estimates of the costs of cholera. The Diseases of the Most Impoverished programme measured the public, provider, and patient costs of culture-confirmed cholera in four study sites with endemic cholera using a combination of hospital- and community-based studies. Families with culture-proven cases were surveyed at home 7 and 14 days after confirmation of illness. Public costs were measured at local health facilities using a micro-co...

  12. Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Wanger, Thomas C.; Wielgoss, Arno C.; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W.; Sodhi, Navjot S.; Tscharntke, Teja

    2010-01-01

    Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diver...

  13. Toponyms for centers of endemism in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Mathieu; Derek Schuurman; Rainer Dolch; Mamy Ravokatra; Lucienne Wilmé; Harald Schuetz; Patrick O. Waeber

    2012-01-01

    A biogeographical model was proposed in 2006 to explain the centers of endemism and the importance of riparian for­est of some watersheds as refuges or dispersal corridors during paleoclimatic oscillations. Here, we consider these geographical features highlighting their biological and socio-cultural importance. We explain the etymology or eponymy of the major rivers of the retreat-dispersal watersheds, i.e., the drainage basins of Bemarivo, Antainambalana, Mangoro, Manampatrana, Mananara So...

  14. Sarcoidosis in tuberculosis-endemic regions: India

    OpenAIRE

    Babu, Kalpana

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology affecting multiple organs. Earlier reports suggested that sarcoidosis was a disease of the developed world. However, recent reports suggest that the disease is found in the developing countries as well. Clinical, radiological, and histopathological similarities with tuberculosis pose a great challenge in countries endemic for tuberculosis. Mantoux test, high resolution computed tomography, and transbronchial lymph node and ...

  15. THE YIELD OF DNA IN THERMAL TERATED DEER MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Golian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Residuals of DNA are one of the most important factors for detection, traceability and reverse authentication of deer meat. In this project we isolated DNA from deer processed meat and analysed by electrophoresis. Goal of the study was compute ratio between raw meat and several heat processed deer meat. Samples were prepared by five heat treatment techniques (pan roasted with temperature 180-240°C, fried with 156°C, braised with temperature 100-150°C, boiled in 100.2°C water and autoclaved in different time intervals. The highest amount of residual DNA 1927ng was obtained with two hours boiled sample. The lowest value 89.89ng was obtained with one hour braised sample. In technological adjustments highest amount of DNA and 1927ng, so the total yield of 192.7ng.-l was observed in the sample we cooked for two hours at boiling temperature.   doi:10.5219/153 

  16. Habitat distribution and diversity of forest plant as feed resources of mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus and barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak in Nature Preserve of west and east Nusakambangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOZALI SUMAATMADJA

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to study on habitat distribution and the diversity of forest plants as feed resources of mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus and barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak was conducted in Nature Preserve of Nusakambangan. Preferred Habitat of mouse deer is the dense of bushes with many fallen dry leaves which seemingly they use for their mattress cover as well as the places with bush dense of zalacca palm and generally not far from the river. While the barking deer prefers the dense of bushes on the edges of forest with coarse grass grow there. Forest plants as feed resources for mouse deer and barking deer found in this research consist of 34 species grouped in 21 families.

  17. A 3-decade dearth of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a wolf (Canis lupus)-dominated ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Some 30 years after wolves (Canis lupus) were implicated in decimating wintering white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a 3000-km2 area of northeastern Minnesota, winter deer still have not recolonized the area. Although habitat in the study area generally remains poor, some regeneration has taken place, and deer have increased adjacent to the area. However, wolf numbers have persisted by preying on moose (Alces alces). We could detect no reason other than wolf predation and deer migration traditions for why wintering deer have not recolonized the area.

  18. Model for predicting strontium-90 levels in mule deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A predictive model was developed which effectively estimated the strontium-90 levels in male mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) from known 90Sr intake rates. The model was formulated on results from a study on the effects of age and season on the kinetics of Sr in mule deer. Captive deer of various ages, at selected times throughout the year, were given acute oral doses of 85SrCl2 and whole body counted to determine the retention function. A two-component exponential equation provided the best mathematical description of the retention of 85Sr. The average for the slopes of the short component (1.09/day) corresponded very closely with the mean retention time for insoluble material in the gastrointestinal tract. For male deer the value of the fractional intercept of the long component generally increased with age. The fractional intercepts also varied with the time of year the deer was administered the 85Sr, ranging from an average of 0.0539 during antler dormancy to 0.154 during periods of antler growth. The average of the observed values for the slope of the long component was 0.00365/day for all deer. For the bucks, the slope of the long component was observed to decrease with age at time of spiking and to vary from a minimum for those spiked during antler dormancy to a maximum for those spiked during the antler growth period. There were no apparent effects of age and season on the kinetics of Sr in female nd season on the kinetics of Sr in female deer. The variations in the fractional intercept and the slope of the long component, both associated with skeletal bone remodeling, necessitated construction of a model which utilized varying parameters to describe the uptake and retention of chronically ingested Sr. The predicted values were compared with those observed in a wild deer population and the close agreement added credibility to the coefficients of the total body retention equations which were utilized in the model. (U.S.)

  19. Glycolytic potential and ultimate muscle pH values in red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate pH value of meat (measured at approx. 24 hours post slaughter gives information about the technological quality, i.e. shelf life, colour, water-holding properties and tenderness and is a direct consequence of muscle glycogen (energy levels at slaughter. It may therefore also indicate whether or not the animal has been exposed to stressful energy depleting events prior to slaughter. In the present study, 141 animals (130 red deer (Cervus elaphus and 11 fallow deer (Dama dama were included to investigate the relationship between ultimate pH and residual glycogen concentration in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus. In addition, the muscle glycogen content and ultimate pH values in three red deer muscles (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus and biceps femoris were studied. M. triceps brachii had higher ultimate pH and lower glycogen content compared with the other two studied muscles. The frequency of intermediate DFD (5.8? pH<6.2 was 5.4% in red deer M. longissimus, compared with 9.1% in fallow deer, while the frequency of DFD (pH? 6.2 was much lower in red deer (3.8% than in fallow deer (54.5%. A curvilinear relationship between ultimate pH and total glucose concentration (glycogen and glucose 30 min post slaughter in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus was found. The relationship between muscle pH and lactic acid concentration however, was indicated to be linear. A significant variation in total glucose concentration at ultimate pH below 5.80 was observed, including values in the range from 18 to 123 mmol/kg wet tissue. It was concluded that further studies are needed to further explore the relationship between muscle glycogen content and technological and sensory quality attributes of meat from different deer species.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:Köttets pH-värde (mätt ca 24 timmar efter slakt har stor betydelse för den teknologiska kvaliteten som t. ex. hållbarhet, färg, vattenhållande förmåga och mörhet. Glykogenförrådet (energinivån i djurens muskulatur vid slakt är helt avgörande för köttets slutliga pH-värde. Därför kan pH-värdet också indikera om hanteringen av slaktdjur varit skonsam eller om stora mängder muskelenergi har förbrukats vid stress. I vår undersökning ingick 141 hjortar (130 kronhjortar (Cervus elaphus och 11 dovhjortar (Dama dama för att studera sambandet mellan köttets pH-värde och glykogeninnehållet i M. longissimus. Glykogeninnehåll och pH-värden i 3 muskler från kronhjort (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus och biceps femoris undersöktes också. M. triceps brachii hade högre pH-värde och lägre glykogeninnehåll jämfört med de två andra musklerna. Det var inte så stor skillnad i frekvensen av intermediär DFD (pH-värden mellan 5,8 og 6,2 mellan de två hjortarterna (5,4% för kronhjort och 9,1% för dovhjort, däremot var frekvensen av DFD (pH-värden över 6,2 mycket låg hos kronhjort (3,8% jämfört med dovhjort (54,5%. Det fanns ett kurvlinjärt samband mellan slutligt pH-värde i köttet och total glukoskoncentration (glykogen + glukos mätt i M. longissimus 30 min efter slakt för både kron- och dovhjort. Ett linjärt samband mellan pH-värde och koncentration av mjölksyra i M. longissimus kunde också visas. Vi fann en mycket stor varitation i glukoskoncentration (18?123 mmol/kg våtvikt när köttets pH-värdet var 5,8 eller lägre. Det behövs fler undersökningar för att vidare klargöra sambanden mellan glykogeninnehåll i muskulaturen och teknologisk och sensorisk kvalitet i olika typer av hjortkött.

  20. The Association of BDNF Gene Variants with Behaviour Traits in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wan-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF is involved in modulating behaviour performance induced by environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to study polymorphisms of the BDNF gene and their relationship with animal behaviour in sika deer (Cervus nippon. About 48 sika deer reared under Ping-Shan-Tang Farm (25 deers and Zhu-Yu-Wan Park (23 deers, Yangzhou City, Jiangsu province, China were observed and blood samples taken to identify BDNF genotypes. Data were subjected to ANOVA analysis to evaluate the link between genotype and animal behaviour traits. After PCR and electrophoresis, polymorphisms were found in two pairs of primers. At primer P-4, AA genotype (26 deer rested significantly less than BB genotype (16 deers (p<0.05. The AA genotype deer also performed significantly more locomotion behaviour (p = 0.001. At the primer P-5, deer of genotypes CC/DD/CD differed significantly in their watching behaviour. Deer of genotype CC performed significantly less resting and self-grooming behaviour than deer of genotypes CD or DD (both p<0.05. The findings suggest that polymorphisms in BDNF may be involved in some aspects of animal behaviour traits especially in the high sensitive sika deer reared for several years in China park.

  1. Analysis of radionuclide concentrations and movement patterns of Hanford-site mule deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1980 through 1982, the movements of 37 radio-collared mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were monitored for periods of 3 to 17 months on the Handord Site in southcentral Washington. The objectives were to compare radionuclide concentrations in deer residing near the 200 Area waste management sites with concentrations in deer occupying areas remote from waste management sites and to document movement patterns of Hanford Site deer with particular emphasis on offsite movements. Cesium-137 in deer muscle and liver and 90Sr concentrations in deer bone were statistically higher in deer living near the 200 Area than in control animals. During this study, the highest concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr in 200 Area deer were in those individuals residing in or immediately adjacent to radiation zones. Cesium-137 and 90Sr concentrations were more variable in deer residing near the 200 Area than in control animals, where only background (fallout) levels were observed. Movement patterns of Hanford site deer were analyzed to determine home range size and usage. The average home range was 0.39 +- 27 km2. In addition, ten (27%) of the monitored deer made offsite movements during the study period. While most of these movements were made in the spring and summer, some fall and winter movements were noted. It was estimated that approximately 8% (95% confidence interval is from 0 to 21%) of the Hanford deer herd is harvested each year. As a result of the low harvest rate, the Hanford deer herd appears to have a disproportionate number of older animals, with 24% of the 17 examined deer older than 10.5 years

  2. Too Many Deer! A Case Study in Managing Urban Deer Herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Ribbens

    2002-01-01

    A town meeting is the setting for this case study in which students explore the topics of overpopulation, bioethics, and management of urban wildlife. The case makes use of role playing, small group discussion, interrupted case techniques, and critical analytical reflective papers to enable students to examine a common urban forest management problem. Hidden within the examination of making decisions about deer herds is a set of questions that brings out the scientific method and its application. Although developed for a non-majors biology course, by restructuring some of the activities and asking different questions the case could be successfully used in an introductory biology course for majors, an ecology course, a conservation biology seminar, or a course on bioethics.

  3. Toponyms for centers of endemism in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Mathieu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A biogeographical model was proposed in 2006 to explain the centers of endemism and the importance of riparian for­est of some watersheds as refuges or dispersal corridors during paleoclimatic oscillations. Here, we consider these geographical features highlighting their biological and socio-cultural importance. We explain the etymology or eponymy of the major rivers of the retreat-dispersal watersheds, i.e., the drainage basins of Bemarivo, Antainambalana, Mangoro, Manampatrana, Mananara South, Mandrare, Onilahy, Mangoky, Tsiribihina, Betsiboka, Maevarano, Sambirano, and Mahavavy North. We propose a toponymy for each of the 15 centers of endemism and highlight their peculiarities. We named the cent­ers of endemism of Vohimarina, Masoala, Analanjirofo, Tanala, Manombo, Anosy, Ranopiso, Karimbola, Mikea, Menabe, Melaky, Sofia, Ampasindava, Ankify, and Ankarana. We illustrate each center of endemism with a flagship spe­cies and report on its natural and cultural histories, and conservation. RÉSUMÉUn modèle biogéographique a été proposé en 2006 pour expliquer les centres d’endémisme de la biodiversité et l’importance des ripisylves de certains bassins versants en tant que refuges ou couloirs de dispersion au cours des oscillations paléoclimatiques. Ici, nous considérons ces dispositifs géographiques en soulignant leur importance biologique et socioculturelle. Dans un premier temps, nous expliquons la toponymie ou l’éponymie des grands fleuves des bassins refuges et de dispersion, à savoir les bassins de la Bemarivo, de l’Antainambalana, du Mangoro, de la Manampatrana, de la Mananara du Sud, du Mandrare, de l’Onilahy, du Mangoky, de la Tsiribihina, de la Betsiboka, de la Maevarano, du Sambirano et de la Mahavavy du Nord. Puis nous proposons une toponymie pour chacun des 17 centres et sous-centres d’endémisme en justifiant leurs particularités. Nous retenons ainsi les centres d’endémisme de Vohimarina, de l’Atsinanana (dont Masoala et Analanjirofo, Tanala, de Manombo, de l’Anosy, d’Ala maika (dont Ranopiso, Karimbola et Mikea, du Menabe, du Melaky, de la Sofia, d’Ampasindava, d’Ankify et de l’Ankarana. Nous illustrons chacun des centres d’endémisme avec une espèce symbolique et rapportons des aspects de son histoire naturelle et culturelle ainsi que de sa conservation.

  4. Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus courtship and mating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Piñeyrúa Jéssica T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus 1758, is a South American grazing deer categorized as "near threatened". However, knowledge about pampas deer behavior including courtship and mating is scarce and incomplete. The aim of this study was to characterize the courtship and mating behavior of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, an endangered species from South America. Methods We performed focal observations of 5 males allocated at the Estación de Cría de Fauna Autóctona Cerro Pan de Azúcar, Uruguay, 4 times a day from 5 to 20 minutes each time on a daily basis from February to May. During that period we recorded all courtship and mating behaviors, as well as quantified the frequency of the specific behaviors shown. As mating were rarely observed, we recorded that behavior when it was observed in the context of other studies performed in the same population during the following 2 years. Results During the observation period we recorded 928 courtships and 5 mating periods. In addition, we recorded 10 more matings performed during other studies, totaling 15. The duration of each mating calculated from the 15 recordings was 3.9?±?0.4 s, and the total period of female receptivity (from first to last mating acceptance was 8.2?±?1.1 min. Main observed courtship behaviors in males were “chase” and “ostentation”, while the most observed close to mating were “chinning”, “raised head” and “anogenital sniffing”. The most observed behaviors in females during the mating period were “vulva exhibition” and “move away”. Conclusion This is the first detailed report in pampas deer mating behavior. Estrus lasted only 8 min accepting only 3 short copulations per estrus. However, female behavior during courtship can be characterized as highly proceptive.

  5. Influence of landscape characteristics on migration strategies of white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Deperno, C.S.; Brinkman, T.J.; Swanson, C.C.; Jenks, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    A trade-off exists for migrating animals as to whether to migrate or remain residents. Few studies have documented relationships between landscape variables and deer migration strategies. From 2000 to 2007 we captured 267 adult female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at 7 study sites in Minnesota and South Dakota and monitored 149 individuals through ???3 seasonal migration periods (585 deer-migration seasons). All deer classified as obligate migrators with ???3 migrations (range 3-9 migration seasons) maintained their obligate status for the duration of the study. Multinomial logistic odds ratios from generalized estimating equations indicated that the odds of being a resident increased by 1.4 and 1.3 per 1-unit increase in forest patch density and mean area, respectively, compared to migrating deer. Odds of being an obligate migrator increased by 0.7 and 0.8 per 1-unit decrease in forest patch density and mean area, respectively, compared to resident or conditional migrating deer. Areas inhabited by resident deer were characterized by greater number of forest patches per 100 ha and larger mean forest patch area than conditional and obligate migrant areas. Odds of migrating increased by 1.1 per 1-unit increase in deer winter severity index. Migration behavior of white-tailed deer varied among regions, and land-cover and landscape characteristics provided predictive indicators of migration strategies for deer that could have important implications for conservation, metapopulation dynamics, and species management. ?? American 2011 Society of Mammalogists.

  6. Seasonal variation in the behavior of captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus, in Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm, of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Xiaofeng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Musk deer farming has the potential to be an effective conservation tool for the protection of musk deer as well as the production of valuable musk. To be successful, this requires a thorough understanding of the behavior of captive musk deer in order to improve their reproductive success and management. Between August 2005 to January 2006, the behavior sampling of 19 male and 13 female captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus Büchner, 1891, was used to examine the durations of twelve behavioral characteristics during the pre-rut (August to October and rut seasons (November to January. Both males and females exhibited some seasonal variation in behavior. Males rested and fed more during the pre-rut than the rut and spent more time walking, fighting, and standing alert during the rut. Females spent more time feeding, ruminating, and interacting non-aggressively with other individuals during the pre-rut and more time in agonistic interactions during the rut. The significance of these behavioral changes and their association with husbandry practices and farm management are discussed.

  7. Seasonal variation in the behavior of captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus, in Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm, of China

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luan, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Changjie; Hui, Cenyi; Meng, Xiuxiang.

    Full Text Available Musk deer farming has the potential to be an effective conservation tool for the protection of musk deer as well as the production of valuable musk. To be successful, this requires a thorough understanding of the behavior of captive musk deer in order to improve their reproductive success and manage [...] ment. Between August 2005 to January 2006, the behavior sampling of 19 male and 13 female captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus Büchner, 1891, was used to examine the durations of twelve behavioral characteristics during the pre-rut (August to October) and rut seasons (November to January). Both males and females exhibited some seasonal variation in behavior. Males rested and fed more during the pre-rut than the rut and spent more time walking, fighting, and standing alert during the rut. Females spent more time feeding, ruminating, and interacting non-aggressively with other individuals during the pre-rut and more time in agonistic interactions during the rut. The significance of these behavioral changes and their association with husbandry practices and farm management are discussed.

  8. Hydroclimatological Controls of Endemic and Non-endemic Cholera of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, A. S.; Whitcombe, E.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat for the developing countries. Since the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous to aquatic environment, it is not possible to eradicate the agent of the disease. Hydroclimatology based prediction and prevention strategies can be implemented in disease susceptible regions for reducing incidence rates. However, the precise role of hydrological and climatological processes, which will further aid in development of suitable prediction models, in creating spatial and temporal environmental conditions favorable for disease outbreak has not been adequately quantified. Here, we show distinction between seasonality and occurrence of cholera in epidemic and non-endemic regions. Using historical cholera mortality data, from the late 1800s for 27 locations in the Indian subcontinent, we show that non-endemic regions are generally located close to regional river systems but away from the coasts and are characterized by single sporadic outbreak in a given year. Increase in air temperature during the low river flow season increases evaporation, leading to an optimal salinity and pH required for bacterial growth. Thereafter, monsoonal rainfall, leads to interactions of contaminated river waters via human activity resulting in cholera epidemics. Endemic regions are located close to coasts where cholera outbreak occurs twice (spring and fall) in a year. Spring outbreak is generally associated with intrusion of bacterial seawater to inland whereas the fall peak is correlated with widespread flooding and cross-contamination of water resources via increased precipitation. This may be one of the first studies to hydroclimatologically quantitatively the seasonality of cholera in both endemic and non-endemic regions. Our results prompt the need of region and cause-specific prediction models for cholera, employing appropriate environmental determinants.

  9. Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanger, Thomas C; Wielgoss, Arno C; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W; Sodhi, Navjot S; Tscharntke, Teja

    2011-03-01

    Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diversity. We call this the invasive-naivety effect (an opposite of enemy release), whereby alien species may not harbour anti-predatory defences against a novel native predator. A positive effect of the toads on native ants may facilitate their predation on insect vectors of cacao diseases. Hence, toads may increase crop yield, but further research is needed on this aspect. Ironically, amphibians are globally the most threatened vertebrate class and are strongly impacted by the conversion of rainforest to cacao plantations in Sulawesi. It is, therefore, crucial to manage cacao plantations to maintain these endemic toads, as they may provide critical ecosystem services, such as invasion resistance and preservation of native insect diversity. PMID:20826488

  10. Diversity and endemism of Peruvian mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pacheco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an annotated list for all land, aquatic and marine mammals known to occur in Peru and their distribution by ecoregions. We also present species conservation status according to international organizations and the legal conservation status in Peru. At present, we record 508 species, in 13 orders, 50 families, and 218 genera, making Peru the third most diverse country with regards to mammals in the New World, after Brazil and Mexico, and the fifth most diverse country for mammals in the World. This diversity includes 40 didelphimorphs, 2 paucituberculates, 1 manatee, 6 cingulates, 7 pilosa, 39 primates, 162 rodents, 1 rabbit, 2 soricomorphs, 165 bats, 34 carnivores, 2 perissodactyls, and 47 cetartiodactyls. Bats and rodents (327 species represent almost two thirds of total diversity (64% for Peru. Five genera and 65 species (12.8% are endemics to Peru, with the majority of these being rodents (45 species, 69,2%. Most of the endemic species are restricted to the Yungas of the eastern slope of the Andes (39 species, 60% followed by Selva Baja (14 species, 21.5%. The taxonomic status of some species is commented on, when those depart from accepted taxonomy. The marsupial Marmosa phaea; the rodents Melanomys caliginosus, M. robustulus, and Echinoprocta rufescens; the shrew Cryptotis equatoris; the bats Anoura fistulata, Phyllostomus latifolius, Artibeus ravus, Cynomops greenhalli, Eumops maurus, and Rhogeessa velilla; and the carnivore Nasuella olivacea are first records of species occurrence in Peru. Finally, we also include a list of 15 non-native species.

  11. 137Cs levels in deer following the Three Mile Island accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R W

    1993-06-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus) tongues were assayed to assess whether or not significant widespread 137Cs contamination occurred in the vicinity of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station as a result of the 1979 accident. White-tailed deer tongues harvested from 10 Pennsylvania counties more than 88 km away from Three Mile Island had significantly higher 137Cs levels than deer tongues harvested from counties surrounding the nuclear plant. The mean deer tongue 137Cs levels found in Pennsylvania white-tailed deer were lower than 137Cs levels found in deer from other parts of the U.S. sampled shortly after culmination of major atmospheric nuclear testing. These findings support the conclusions of previous studies suggesting that only minimal quantities of 137Cs escaped from the damaged Three Mile Island plant after the accident. PMID:8491625

  12. Impacts of endangered Key deer hervivory on imperiled pine rocklands: a conservation dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    P. Stiling; A. Barrett

    2006-01-01

    In the lower Florida Keys, endangered Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) herbivory, along with fire, can affect pine rocklands, an endangered plant community. We compared pineland vegetation from three studies over approximately 50 years on four islands with either high or low deer density (historical analysis). We also compared extant vegetation samples between two islands with high or low deer density, which contained pinelands burned 10 years and 14 years prior to sampling and contr...

  13. Climate alters response of an endemic island plant to removal of invasive herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, A Kathryn; Thomson, Diane M; Chess, Katherine A

    2009-09-01

    Islands experience higher rates of species extinction than mainland ecosystems, with biological invasions among the leading causes; they also serve as important model systems for testing ideas in basic and applied ecology. Invasive removal programs on islands are conservation efforts that can also be viewed as powerful manipulative experiments, but few data are available to evaluate their effects. We collected demographic and herbivore damage data for Castilleja mollis Pennell, an endangered plant endemic to Santa Rosa Island, California, over a 12-year period before, during, and after the implementation of control for introduced cattle, deer, and elk. We used these long-term data to explore mechanisms underlying herbivore effects, assess the results of herbivore reduction at the scales of both individual plants and populations, and determine how temporal variability in herbivory and plant demography influenced responses to herbivore removals. For individual plants, herbivore effects mediated by disturbance were greater than those of grazing. Deer and elk scraping of the ground substantially increased plant mortality and dormancy and reduced flowering and growth. Stem damage from browsing did not affect survivorship but significantly reduced plant growth and flower production. Herbivore control successfully lowered damage rates, which declined steeply between 1997 and 2000 and have remained relatively low. Castilleja mollis abundances rose sharply after 1997, suggesting a positive effect of herbivore control, but then began to decline steadily again after 2003. The recent decline appears to be driven by higher mean growing season temperatures; interestingly, not only reductions in scraping damage but a period of cooler conditions were significant in explaining increases in C. mollis populations between 1997 and 2002. Our results demonstrate strong effects of introduced herbivores on both plant demography and population dynamics and show that climate-driven variation may counteract and mask positive responses to herbivore removal. Regional mean temperatures already have risen significantly over the last 50 years, suggesting that climate change could increasingly swamp the effects of management targeted at other environmental problems. Similar interactions between climate and invasive species will play an even greater role in future management, with long-term data sets like this critical to quantifying such effects. PMID:19769104

  14. Habitat selection in red deer (Cervus elaphus) at the within home range scale

    OpenAIRE

    Rivrud,Inger Maren

    2007-01-01

    The red deer (Cervus elaphus) are among the most important game species in Norway, with a tenfold increase in harvest over the last few decades. Despite its importance, information regarding red deer habitat selection is limited. In this study, year-round habitat selection at the within home range scale was investigated using data from female red deer equipped with either VHF- or GPS-collars in the county of Sogn og Fjordane. I predicted that red deer habitat selection would be determined by ...

  15. Transmission of bacterial agents from lone star ticks to white-tailed deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Stokes, Andrea S

    2007-05-01

    Amblyomma americanum (L.), the lone star tick, is an aggressive ixodid tick that has been implicated as a vector for several bacteria. Among these bacteria are the disease agents Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii, and the putative disease agent "Borrelia lonestari." The hypothesis in this study was that wild lone star ticks from northeastern Georgia are capable of transmitting all three agents to white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, a known reservoir host for E. chaffeensis. In this study, transmission of all three agents from wild caught lone star ticks to captive reared white-tailed deer was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), culture, or serology. Two of three deer showed evidence of E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii infection by polymerase chain reaction assay; all three deer showed evidence of B. lonestari by PCR assay. E. chaffeensis was isolated in culture from both PCR-positive deer on multiple days. All three deer seroconverted to E. chaffeensis, whereas one deer seroconverted to B. lonestari. This study supports the role of lone star ticks and white-tailed deer as a vector and reservoir host for E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii and suggests for the first time, transmission of B. lonestari from lone star ticks to white-tailed deer. PMID:17547234

  16. Enhancement of exercise endurance capacity by fermented deer antler in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seongho; Park, Eu Ddeum; Suh, Hyung Joo; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Jin Soo; Park, Yooheon

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the activity of fermented deer antler on exercise endurance capacity, we evaluated endurance capacity in five-week-old male BALB/c mice by administering the fermented deer antler extract (FA) or the non-fermented deer antler extract (NFA) and then subjected the mice to exercise in the form of swimming. The mice administered 500 mg/kg/day of FA showed a significant increase in swimming time compared with mice administered placebo (16.55 min vs. 21.64 min, Pcapacity of the deer antler. PMID:25273137

  17. Studies on the biological half-life of caesium in roe deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using over 100 samples of roe deer venison taken largely from the Rural District of Marburg-Biedenkopf and adjoining areas, a biological half-life of 21.9±2.2 days was established for caesium in roe deer. Since the radioactive contamination of the environment after Chernobyl and, therefore, the intake of radioactivity by the animals lasted for only a very short period of time, no significant contamination levels are expected through the consumption of newly killed roe deer. After 120 days, the radioactivity of caesium in a live roe deer has subsided again to less than 1/40 of its initial value

  18. Capture myopathy in red deer and wild goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian, J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This syndrome is a shock-like hyper metabolic myopathy triggered in susceptible animals by stress. Capture myopathy (C.M. is a commonly occurring condition in mammals following trapping and ransportation. In this case 12 to 24 hours after transportation of red deer (Cevus elaphus and wild goats (Capra ibex clinical signs such as: muscular tremor, ataxia, recumbency, hyperthermia, tachycardia, hyperventilation and red brown urine observed. According to symptoms Capture myoparthy was diagnosed Treatment was ineffective on one red deer and one wild goat. Necropsy findings of dead animals were included: hyperemia, petechial hemorrhage in pericardium and heart muscle, pale foci of leg and heart muscles and red brown urine in bladder. This case report represents the attention to Capture myopathy in wild animals and particular caution that should be exercised in capturing and handling of these animals.

  19. Attachment site selection of ticks on roe deer, Capreolus capreolus

    OpenAIRE

    Kiffner, C.; Lo?dige, C.; Alings, Matthias; Vor, T.; Ru?he, F.

    2011-01-01

    The spatio-temporal attachment site patterns of ticks feeding on their hosts can be of significance if co-feeding transmission (i.e. from tick to tick without a systemic infection of the host) of pathogens affects the persistence of a given disease. Using tick infestation data on roe deer, we analysed preferred attachment sites and niche width of Ixodes ticks (larvae, nymphs, males, females) and investigated the degree of inter- and intrastadial aggregation. The different development stages s...

  20. Mesola red deer: physical characteristics, population dynamics and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mattioli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The biometry, demography and genetics of red deer Cervus elaphus of Mesola Wood (NE Italy, are presented and discussed in relation to the conservation of this population. Modest body size, low stature, oversimplified antlers and a low reproductive performance characterise red deer from Mesola Wood. The mitochondrial genome showed a private haplotype, different from other red deer in Italy and central Europe. The uniqueness of this nucleus and its biogeographic importance make a long-term conservation plan particularly urgent. Management measures such as fallow deer reduction, winter feeding and pasture mowing were tested, giving promising results. The physical condition of the animals improved, calf and adult mortality declined, and a few cases of antlers with bez tine or crown were reported in this study after four decades. Riassunto Il Cervo della Mesola: caratteristiche fisiche, dinamica di popolazione e prospettive di conservazione La biometria, la demografia e la genetica del cervo Cervus elaphus del Gran Bosco della Mesola (Italia nord-orientale, vengono presentate e discusse in relazione alla salvaguardia di questa popolazione. Il cervo della Mesola risulta caratterizzato dalle modeste dimensioni corporee, dalla struttura semplificata dei palchi e da un basso rendimento riproduttivo. L'analisi del genoma mitocondriale ha evidenziato un aplotipo privato, diverso da quello degli altri cervi italiani e centroeuropei. L'unicità di questo nucleo e la sua importanza biogeografica rendono particolarmente urgente un piano di conservazione a lungo termine. Sono stati verificati interventi gestionali quali la riduzione numerica dei daini, il foraggiamento invernale e lo sfalcio delle superfici a pascolo, con risultati promettenti. Le condizioni fisiche degli animali sono migliorate, la mortalità tra i piccoli e gli adulti è diminuita, e sono stati registrati alcuni casi di palchi dotati di ago o corona per la prima volta dopo quattro decenni.

  1. Incidence of gasrointestinal helminthiasis in captive deers at Nagpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Borghare

    Full Text Available Out of 60 Samples of deer from Maharajbag Zoo, Nagpur, 30 were positive for eggs and larvae of helminthic parasites. The encountered parasitic species were Haemonchus spp., Dicrocoelium spp., Paramphistomum spp., Oesophagostomum spp. and Bunostomum spp. etc. Direct smear method together with sedimentation technique were used for the purpose. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 337-338

  2. Urinary iodine excretion in relation to goiter prevalence in households of goiter endemic and non endemic regions of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Survey of goiter prevalence, among population of five endemic and four non endemic regions of Ethiopia was carried out prior to the distribution of iodate d salt. urine samples were collected from 327 subjects selected by systematic random sampling from endemic and 276 taken as non endemic. The lowest mean urinary iodine excretion (UIE) value was recorded in Bure (22 micro gl/day) and the highest in Alemmaya (148 micro gl/day). The highest goiter rate ( percent TGR) was recorded in Sawla 55.6 %) and the lowest (0.6 %) in Yabello. Iodine content of drinking was in the range of 0.4 - 48.5 micro gl. Iodine content of water source was correlated positively ( r0.8399) with the mean of UIE and TGR, however, indicates that sites considered as non endemic seem to be affected by iodine deficiency. The study results urge the need for intervention in controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders. 3 tab

  3. Serosurvey for selected pathogens in Iberian roe deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleaga Álvaro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The roe deer is the most abundant and widespread wild Eurasian cervid. Its populations are expanding and increasingly in contact with livestock. This may affect the distribution of infectious diseases shared with other wild and domestic ungulates. Methods We investigated the antibody seroprevalence against Pestivirus, Herpesvirus, Bluetongue (BT virus, M. avium paratuberculosis (MAP, and Brucella sp. in 519 roe deer from different regions in Spain, south-western Europe. Results No antibodies were detected against BT and Brucella sp. However, antibodies were detected against Pestivirus (1.5%, Herpesvirus (0.2% and MAP (9.2%. MAP antibodies were detected in seven of the eight populations (range 5-16.4%. Conclusions The detection of MAP antibodies in samples from most roe deer populations suggests that contact with MAP is widespread in this wildlife species. The highest prevalence was detected in sites with abundant dairy cattle and frequent use of liquid manure on pastures. Considering the results obtained regarding exposure to different pathogens, we suggest that antibody prevalences in this non-gregarious browser are largely determined by environmental factors, potentially modulating vector populations or pathogen survival in the environment.

  4. The Hitchhiker's guide to island endemism : biodiversity and endemic perennial plant species in roadside and surrounding vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irl, Severin D. H.; Steinbauer, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Roadsides are habitats with very specific environmental conditions, often substantially differing from their natural surroundings. However, roads can have a positive effect on local vascular plant species richness. Endemic species on oceanic islands are considered to be less disturbance-adapted than native non-endemics and thus should be negatively affected by roads. Islands provide optimal conditions for testing this, as they possess a large share of clearly defined endemic species. This study focuses on a comparison of endemic plant species in roadside and surrounding communities and the interacting effects of elevation, vegetation type and trade wind-induced precipitation differences. We applied 96 circular plots with 50 m radius along two elevational gradients on the eastern (humid) and western (dry) slope of La Palma, Canary Islands, ranging from 100 to 2,400 m. Interestingly, we found roads to have a significant positive effect on endemic richness and the percentage of endemics as well as the same tendency for plant species richness after correcting for elevation and precipitation. Endemic species turnover was relatively high. The opening of cliffs during construction and, not to be overlooked, the protection from disturbances such as fire and omnipresent introduced herbivores (mainly rabbits or goats) probably leads to a positive effect of roads on endemics. In addition, many endemics might profit from species-specific dispersal capabilities well suited for roadside conditions. However, we do not argue for the use or even construction of roads for nature conservation but suggest protecting existing endemic populations because natural areas have a higher conservation value.

  5. 77 FR 1720 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Rock Creek Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ...herd by either sharpshooting or capture and euthanasia of individual deer. Capture and euthanasia of individual deer would be an approach...include both sharpshooting and capture/euthanasia and would be taken initially to...

  6. Health status and relative exposure of mule deer and white-tailed deer to soil contaminants at the rocky mountain arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creekmore, T.E.; Whittaker, D.G.; Roy, R.R.; Franson, J.C.; Baker, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer [13 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and 5 white-tailed deer (O. virginianus)] from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, near Denver, Colorado, USA, a Superfund site contaminated with a variety of materials, including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve gas production by-products. Radio-collared deer were tracked for 1 to 3 years (1989-1992) to identify relative exposure to contaminants based on telemetry locations plotted on grid maps depicting known soil contaminant concentrations. At the end of the study, all animals were in fair or good body condition at the time of necropsy. Mean ages of mule deer and white-tailed deer were 7.4 (range 4-12) and 10.6 years (range 5-17), respectively. At necropsy, tissues were collected from the deer for serology, histopathology, and analysis for eight chlorinated hydrocarbons and two metals. Detectable residues of mercury were found in the kidneys of 10 deer (range 0.055-0.096 ??g/g), dieldrin was found in fat (n = 9) (range 0.02-0.72 ??g/g), liver (n = 4) (range 0.017-0.12 ??g/g), and brain (n = 1, 0.018 ??g/g), and DDE was found in the muscle of one animal (0.02 ??g/g). Relative exposure estimates derived from telemetry and soil contamination data were correlated with tissue levels of dieldrin (p < 0.001) and mercury (p = 0.05). Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. The prevalence of antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85%.

  7. Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Delwyn P; Barr, Daniel J; Bochsler, Philip N; Hall, S Mark; Gidlewski, Thomas; O'Rourke, Katherine I; Spraker, Terry R; Samuel, Michael D

    2008-09-01

    In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrP(CWD)) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrP(CWD) in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of recto-anal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection. PMID:18776116

  8. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) develop spirochetemia following experimental infection with Borrelia lonestari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, P L; Varela, A S; Luttrell, M P; Moore, V A; Stallknecht, D E; Little, S E

    2006-06-15

    Borrelia lonestari is considered a putative agent of southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI) and is known to occur naturally only in lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We used a low passage isolate of B. lonestari (LS-1) to inoculate white-tailed deer, C3H mice, Holstein cattle, and beagles. Animals were monitored via examination of Giemsa and acridine orange stained blood smears, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test, and/or culture isolation. Spirochetes were visualized in blood smears of both deer on days post-inoculation (DPI) 6, 8, 12 and one deer on DPI 15. Whole blood collected from deer tested PCR positive starting on DPI 4 and remained positive as long as DPI 28. Both deer developed antibody titers of >64, with a maximum IFA titer of 1024. The organism was reisolated from the blood of both deer on DPI 6 and one deer on DPI 12. All isolation attempts from mice, calves, or dogs were negative, although one of seven mice was transiently PCR positive. Mice and dogs developed an IFA titer > or =64, while calves lacked a detectable antibody response. These preliminary experimental infection trials show that white-tailed deer are susceptible to infection with B. lonestari and develop a spirochetemia following needle-inoculation, while C3H mice, calves, and dogs do not. Results suggest that deer may serve as a vertebrate reservoir host. Tick transmission studies are needed to confirm that this organism can be maintained in a natural cycle involving deer and A. americanum. PMID:16459029

  9. Elk and deer studies related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) was conducted in the vicinity of planned site characterization activities for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). Both species are known to be sensitive to disturbance and are considered important species because they are recreationally and/or commercially valuable. The principal objectives of the study were to (1) estimate pre-activity (site characterization) recruitment of deer and elk, (2) characterize deer and elk use of limited habitats critical to their survival (e.g., riparian areas), (3) describe preferential habitat use by deer and elk during critical seasons (i.e., winter and summer), and (4) document pre-activity distributions of seasonal home range centers of deer and elk. Early termination of BWIP prevented some of the objectives from being fully addressed. Fifteen adult elk (11 females and 4 males) and 19 female deer equipped with radio transmitters were studied on the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve from February through December 1987. More than 1800 relocations of the marked elk and deer were made during aerial and ground tracking sessions. Deer confined their activities to within 2 km of water sources. In contrast, elk used 6-12 times the average area used by deer. As with deer, female elk were closely associated with available water sources during the summer and fall, presumably because of the physiological demands of lactation. However, during the winter, female elk showed no preuring the winter, female elk showed no preference for areas near water, as did male elk throughout the study. Riparian areas, which are scarce on the arid Hanford Site, are particularly valuable habitat to both elk and deer because they provide drinking water and succulent forage during the dry summer and early fall months

  10. Oral Vaccination of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Mitchell V; Thacker, Tyler C.; Waters, W. Ray; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to other deer and cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer, thus interfering with the intraspecies and interspecies transmission cycles. Thirty-three white-tailed deer were assigned to one of two groups; oral vaccination with 1×108 colony-forming ...

  11. Investigation of the lead-, mercury- and cadmium concentration found in red deer, deer and chamois in an tyrolian preserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of heavy metals, lead, mercury and cadmium were tested in liver, kidney and rib samples taken from 43 red deer, 24 deer and 42 chamois between June 1982 and June 1983. Since the free living animals aquire the damaging substances through food, water and air intake, the determined sediments found in the bodies give information on the environmental pollution. The lead content in liver and kidney showed minimal values averraging between 0.001 and 0.014 ppm in all three animal types. Ribs, as well as all bones, due to the effect of time, served as reservoirs for lead with average values of 0.2-0.4ppm. In two chamois livers the maximal values of 3.007 and 1.006 ppm were detected and can be accounted for in a secondary contaminated originating from the lethal projectile. In reference to age and sex, no differences could be seen. A seasonal dependency was determined such that the concentration increased in spring and summer in examined livers and kidneys. The rumen content and grazing habit analysis showed minimal residue amounts as in the indicator organs. This lies in connection with the locality of the hunting grounds compared to the road. The mercury content in liver and kidney was of the maximal value 0.449 ppm. Deer showed the greatest contamination in the kidneys, which were surprisingly high in the fall. After rumen content and grazing analysis, the high value can be accounted for the deer's preference to eat mushrooms in the fall which contained ant mushrooms in the fall which contained an average 1.029 ppm Hg. Changes in concentrations could not be determined to be sex and age dependet. The cadmium concentration was highest in the kidney cortex in all three animal types. A highly significant dependency should be observed in the cadmium concentration. Deer showed the greatest amounts in each age class, which can be referred back to the grazing habits, to the preferred herbs and mushrooms which have high cadmium contents. Due to the strong influence of the age factor in cadmium storage in the organism, a sex or season dependency of concentration gradient could not be determined. (Author)

  12. Alternative feeding strategies and potential disease transmission in Wisconsin white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A.K.; Samuel, M.D.; VanDeelen, T.R.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted experimental feeding using 3 feeding methods (pile, spread, trough) and 2 quantities (rationed, ad libitum) of shelled corn to compare deer activity and behavior with control sites and evaluate potential direct and indirect transmission of infectious disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central Wisconsin, USA. Deer use was higher at 2 of the feeding sites than at natural feeding areas (P ??? 0.02). Deer spent a higher proportion of time (P < 0.01) feeding at pile (49%) and spread (61%) treatments than at natural feeding areas (36%). We found higher deer use for rationed than ad libitum feeding quantities and feeding intensity was greatest at rationed piles and lowest at ad libitum spreads. We also observed closer pairwise distances (???0.3 m) among deer when corn was provided in a trough relative to spread (P=0.03). Supplemental feeding poses risks for both direct and indirect disease transmission due to higher deer concentration and more intensive use relative to control areas. Concentrated feeding and contact among deer at feeding sites can also increase risk for disease transmission. Our results indicated that restrictions on feeding quantity would not mitigate the potential for disease transmission None of the feeding strategies we evaluated substantially reduced the potential risk for disease transmission and banning supplemental feeding to reduce transmission is warranted.

  13. Factors affecting the composition of autumn diet of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Alpine environment.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heroldová, Marta; Homolka, Miloslav; Kamler, Ji?í; Ghezzi, C.; Redaelli, W.; Andreoli, E.; Mattiello, S.

    Praha : Research Institue of Animal Production, 2006 - (Bartoš, L.; Dušek, A.; Kotrba, R.; Bartošová-Víchová, J.). s. 41 ISBN 80-86454-73-8. [International Deer Biology Congress /6./. 07.08.2006-11.08.2006, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : diet * red deer Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  14. Roe deer diet composition based on micro-histological analyses of faeces.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baran?eková, Miroslava; Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Šustr, P.; Heurich, M.

    Srní : Šumava National Park, 2011 - (Šustr, P.). s. 10 [European Roe Deer Meeting /11./. 07.06.2011-10.06.2011, Srní] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : roe deer * diet Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://10roedeermeeting.npsumava.cz/RDM2011abstractbook.pdf

  15. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF SQUIRRELS AS A POSSIBLE RESERVOIR FOR DEER ADENOVIRUS (ORAL PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel adenovirus was the cause of an epizootic that caused high mortality in deer in California in 1993-1994. Retrospective analysis demonstrated adenovirus in tissues from deer that died during a similar epizootic in 1987. It is unknown whether there is a reservoir species that harbors the viru...

  16. Costs of illness due to endemic cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, C; Riewpaiboon, A; Stewart, J F; Clemens, J; Guh, S; Agtini, M; Sur, D; Islam, Z; Lucas, M; Whittington, D

    2012-03-01

    Economic analyses of cholera immunization programmes require estimates of the costs of cholera. The Diseases of the Most Impoverished programme measured the public, provider, and patient costs of culture-confirmed cholera in four study sites with endemic cholera using a combination of hospital- and community-based studies. Families with culture-proven cases were surveyed at home 7 and 14 days after confirmation of illness. Public costs were measured at local health facilities using a micro-costing methodology. Hospital-based studies found that the costs of severe cholera were US$32 and US$47 in Matlab and Beira. Community-based studies in North Jakarta and Kolkata found that cholera cases cost between US$28 and US$206, depending on hospitalization. Patients' cost of illness as a percentage of average monthly income were 21% and 65% for hospitalized cases in Kolkata and North Jakarta, respectively. This burden on families is not captured by studies that adopt a provider perspective. PMID:21554781

  17. REVIEW: Endemic plants of serpentine soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDARMONO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant adaptation to serpentine soils is a system ideal for studies in evolutionary ecology. Serpentine soils are characterized by low calcium to magnesium ratios with Ca at significantly lower concentrations relative to surrounding areas. Although some variation occurs between sites which identified three collective traits: poor plant productivity, high rates of endemism and vegetation type distinct from those of neighboring areas. The several morphological feature characteristic of serpentine-tolerant species is possess xeromorphic foliage, including reduced leaf size and sclerophylls, the stature is significantly reduced relative to counterparts on non serpentine soil and root systems of species growing on and off serpentine sites are often more developed on serpentine soils than on neighboring soils. Serpentine soils are ubiquitous, but patchily distributed and thus promote geographic isolation. Adaptation to edaphic conditions may also beget reproductive isolation. Adaptive mutation might be influenced frequently from related species inhabiting surrounding areas. For the future studies involving serpentine systems merge the fields of ecology, evolution, physiology, and genetics required for serpentine adaptation.

  18. Deer hunting on Pennsylvania's public and private lands: A two-tiered system of hunters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, R.C.; Bhandari, P.; Luloff, A.E.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Finley, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Recreational hunting is crucial for controlling white-tailed deer populations. Public land is increasingly important as access to private lands declines. However, differences between public and private land hunters remain unknown. Our study of Pennsylvania hunters revealed differences between private and public land hunters that may pose problems for management. Hunters who only hunted public land had lower harvest rates, especially of antlerless deer, spent less time hunting, were less committed to hunting, were more likely to hunt alone, less likely to belong to a hunting camp, and more likely to live in urban areas. They were less likely to believe that high deer populations could damage forest ecosystems, and less willing to harvest antlerless deer. The implications of these findings, in the context of already-declining hunter capacity to keep deer populations in check, and concomitant declining access to private land, are discussed. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  19. Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. in deer ked pupae, adult keds and moose blood in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, E M; Pérez Vera, C; Pulliainen, A T; Sironen, T; Aaltonen, K; Kortet, R; Härkönen, L; Härkönen, S; Paakkonen, T; Nieminen, P; Mustonen, A-M; Ylönen, H; Vapalahti, O

    2015-02-01

    The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) is a haematophagous ectoparasite of cervids that harbours haemotrophic Bartonella. A prerequisite for the vector competence of the deer ked is the vertical transmission of the pathogen from the mother to its progeny and transstadial transmission from pupa to winged adult. We screened 1154 pupae and 59 pools of winged adult deer keds from different areas in Finland for Bartonella DNA using PCR. Altogether 13 pupa samples and one winged adult deer ked were positive for the presence of Bartonella DNA. The amplified sequences were closely related to either B. schoenbuchensis or B. bovis. The same lineages were identified in eight blood samples collected from free-ranging moose. This is the first demonstration of Bartonella spp. DNA in a winged adult deer ked and, thus, evidence for potential transstadial transmission of Bartonella spp. in the species. PMID:24901607

  20. The dynamics of endemic malaria in populations of varying size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model for endemic malaria involving variable human and mosquito populations is analysed. A threshold parameter R0 exists and the disease can persist if and only if R0 exceeds 1. R0 is seen to be a generalisation of the basic reproduction ratio associated with the Ross-Macdonald model for malaria transmission. The disease free equilibrium always exist and is globally stable when R0 is below 1. A perturbation analysis is used to approximate the endemic equilibrium in the important case where the disease related death rate is nonzero. A diffusion approximation is used to approximate the quasi-stationary distribution of the associated stochastic model. Numerical simulations show that when R0 is distinctly greater than 1, the endemic deterministic equilibrium is globally stable. Furthermore, in quasi-stationarity, the stochastic process undergoes oscillations about a mean population whose size can be approximated by the stable endemic deterministic equilibrium. (author)

  1. Some observations on endemic macroalgae of the Southern Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Abidi, S.A.H.

    2002-01-01

    The paper summarises current level of knowledge on the endemic Antarctic macroalgae. The macroalgal adaptation to low temperature, response to different photoperiod during the season, animal-macroalgal interaction and reproductive strategies...

  2. Endogenous Quasicycles and Stochastic Coherence in a Closed Endemic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ghose, Somdeb; Adhikari, R.

    2010-01-01

    We study the role of demographic fluctuations in typical endemics as exemplified by the stochastic SIRS model. The birth-death master equation of the model is simulated using exact numerics and analysed within the linear noise approximation. The endemic fixed point is unstable to internal demographic noise, and leads to sustained oscillations. This is ensured when the eigenvalues ($\\lambda$) of the linearised drift matrix are complex, which in turn, is possible only if detai...

  3. Evolutionary Relationships of Endemic/Epidemic and Sylvatic Dengue Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Eryu; Ni, Haolin; Xu, Renling; Barrett, Alan D. T.; Watowich, Stanley J.; Gubler, Duane J.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2000-01-01

    Endemic/epidemic dengue viruses (DEN) that are transmitted among humans by the mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are hypothesized to have evolved from sylvatic DEN strains that are transmitted among nonhuman primates in West Africa and Malaysia by other Aedes mosquitoes. We tested this hypothesis with phylogenetic studies using envelope protein gene sequences of both endemic/epidemic and sylvatic strains. The basal position of sylvatic lineages of DEN-1, -2, and -4 suggested...

  4. The Impact of Sika Deer on Vegetation in Japan: Setting Management Priorities on a National Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Haruka; Yoshikawa, Masato; Oono, Keiichi; Tanaka, Norihisa; Hatase, Yoriko; Murakami, Yuhide

    2014-09-01

    Irreversible shifts in ecosystems caused by large herbivores are becoming widespread around the world. We analyzed data derived from the 2009-2010 Sika Deer Impact Survey, which assessed the geographical distribution of deer impacts on vegetation through a questionnaire, on a scale of 5-km grid-cells. Our aim was to identify areas facing irreversible ecosystem shifts caused by deer overpopulation and in need of management prioritization. Our results demonstrated that the areas with heavy impacts on vegetation were widely distributed across Japan from north to south and from the coastal to the alpine areas. Grid-cells with heavy impacts are especially expanding in the southwestern part of the Pacific side of Japan. The intensity of deer impacts was explained by four factors: (1) the number of 5-km grid-cells with sika deer in neighboring 5 km-grid-cells in 1978 and 2003, (2) the year sika deer were first recorded in a grid-cell, (3) the number of months in which maximum snow depth exceeded 50 cm, and (4) the proportion of urban areas in a particular grid-cell. Based on our model, areas with long-persistent deer populations, short snow periods, and fewer urban areas were predicted to be the most vulnerable to deer impact. Although many areas matching these criteria already have heavy deer impact, there are some areas that remain only slightly impacted. These areas may need to be designated as having high management priority because of the possibility of a rapid intensification of deer impact.

  5. Endemic harvestmen and spiders of Austria (Arachnida: Opiliones, Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komposch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus, beside 9 subendemic harvestman and 38 subendemic spider species have been recorded from Austria. Hot-spots of endemism in the Eastern Alps are the north-eastern (Ennstaler Alps and southern Calcareous Alps (Karawanken, Karnische Alps and the Central Alps (Hohe Tauern, Gurktaler Alps, Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps. Most of the endemic arachnid species occur from the nival down to the montane zone. Important habitats are rocky areas, caves and woodlands. High absolute numbers and percentages of endemics can be found within the harvestman families Cladonychiidae, Ischyropsalididae and Nemastomatidae and in the spider genera Lepthyphantes s. l. and Troglohyphantes. The conservation status of these highly endangered taxa – 85 % of the spider species and 100 % of the harvestman taxa are endangered in Austria – is poor.

  6. The endemic flora of Greece : Understanding and documenting plant diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something or quite a lot about the plants, no intelligent steps can be taken towards protecting them. 520 of the c. 750 endemics are listed on the Red Data "endangered list" by the Council of Europe in 1986 but few know the nature or extent of the threat. Work is currently in preparation on an Endemic Flora of Greece. Three volumes are envisaged: the first deals with the Peloponnese; the second will cover Crete and the islands and the third, the rest of mainland Greece. It is planned to have a sound and scientific basis for plant conservation and education. Within the Balkans more than 60% of the endemic taxa have been mapped and it is already possible to recognize the hot-spots of biodiversity as these are linked to the centres of endemism. Determining the centres of diversity is an important and significant contribution to further conservation measures at the global level.

  7. Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmen Elena, Contreras; Marcos de, Donato; María Ana, Rivas; Hectorina, Rodulfo; Robert, Mora; María Eulalia, Batista; Norka, Marcano.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic are [...] as of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species) and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only) in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762). All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8%) than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%). Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.

  8. Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elena Contreras

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762. All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8% than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%. Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.

  9. Action Central: Red Deer steps forward as oilfield operations capital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of Red Deer as the center of the oil and natural gas service industry in the Alberta oilpatch was discussed. Red Deer is the home base of many of Alberta's major service companies (Haliburton, Schlumberger, Computalog, Nowsco, Canadian Fracmaster, Hughes, Bonus and Challenger), and new companies are regularly looking for industrial properties to establish themselves in the city. Industrial land acquisition currently runs at about triple of the average for the previous ten years. Another significant spin-off of energy wealth around Red Deer comes from the manufacturing of petrochemical building blocks of plastics, at nearby Joffre. With expansion projects that include Union Carbide Canada and Amoco Canada, predictions of population growth to 100,000 from the current 75,000, are commonplace. These expansion projects spell up to 2,500 construction jobs for the next three years, and then 400 new permanent plant positions that will pay $60,000 and up for skilled specialist jobs. There are some concerns about the threat of the Alliance Gas Pipeline project that if it materializes it might export many jobs, along with the natural gas, to the United States. However, these concerns are less serious than the fear that Alliance threatens to raise the price of the raw material by draining away surpluses from the industry, thus removing the major Canadian advantage in competition with U.S. industry. Alliance supporters counter that even at maximum export through the Cochat even at maximum export through the Cochin liquid pipeline, only half of the ethane production that will be potentially available, will be exported

  10. Molecular, ethno-spatial epidemiology of leprosy in China: Novel insights for tracing leprosy in endemic and non endemic provinces

    OpenAIRE

    WENG, XIAOMAN; Xing, Yan; Jian LIU; Wang, YongHong; Ning, Yong; Li, Ming; Wu, Wenbin; Zhang, Lianhua; Li, Wei; Heiden, Jason Vander; Vissa, Varalakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy continues to be detected at near stable rates in China even with established control programs, necessitating new knowledge and alternative methods to interrupt transmission. A molecular epidemiology investigation of 190 patients was undertaken to define M. leprae strain types and discern genetic relationships and clusters in endemic and non-endemic regions spanning seventeen provinces and two autonomous regions. The findings support multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNT...

  11. Solar Radiation Determines Site Occupancy of Coexisting Tropical and Temperate Deer Species Introduced to New Zealand Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert B; Forsyth, David M; Allen, Roy K J; Affeld, Kathrin; MacKenzie, Darryl I

    2015-01-01

    Assemblages of introduced taxa provide an opportunity to understand how abiotic and biotic factors shape habitat use by coexisting species. We tested hypotheses about habitat selection by two deer species recently introduced to New Zealand's temperate rainforests. We hypothesised that, due to different thermoregulatory abilities, rusa deer (Cervus timorensis; a tropical species) would prefer warmer locations in winter than red deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus; a temperate species). Since adult male rusa deer are aggressive in winter (the rut), we also hypothesised that rusa deer and red deer would not use the same winter locations. Finally, we hypothesised that in summer both species would prefer locations with fertile soils that supported more plant species preferred as food. We used a 250 × 250 m grid of 25 remote cameras to collect images in a 100-ha montane study area over two winters and summers. Plant composition, solar radiation, and soil fertility were also determined for each camera location. Multiseason occupancy models revealed that direct solar radiation was the best predictor of occupancy and detection probabilities for rusa deer in winter. Multistate, multiseason occupancy models provided strong evidence that the detection probability of adult male rusa deer was greater in winter and when other rusa deer were present at a location. Red deer mostly vacated the study area in winter. For the one season that had sufficient camera images of both species (summer 2011) to allow two-species occupancy models to be fitted, the detection probability of rusa deer also increased with solar radiation. Detection probability also varied with plant composition for both deer species. We conclude that habitat use by coexisting tropical and temperate deer species in New Zealand likely depends on the interplay between the thermoregulatory and behavioural traits of the deer and the abiotic and biotic features of the habitat. PMID:26061426

  12. Relaciones espaciales y numéricas entre venados de las pampas (Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer) y chanchos cimarrones (Sus scrofa) en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Bahía Samborombón, Argentina / Spatial and numerical relationships between Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer) and feral pigs (Sus scrofa) in the Bahía Samborombón Wildlife Refuge, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lorena C, Pérez Carusi; Mario S, Beade; Fernando, Miñarro; Alejandro R, Vila; Mariano, Giménez-Dixon; David N, Bilenca.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer es la subespecie más austral del venado de las pampas; es endémica de la eco-región pampeana y se encuentra seriamente amenazada de extinción. En Buenos Aires, el último núcleo poblacional existente se localiza en la Bahía Samborombón. El objetivo del presente trabajo fu [...] e determinar las variaciones en la distribución y abundancia de venados y chanchos cimarrones en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Bahía Samborombón, y discutir la interacción potencial entre ambas especies. Se realizaron seis muestreos aéreos durante el período 2002-2005, en los que se contabilizaron 747 venados y 2690 chanchos, y se registró una leve disminución del número de venados y un notable incremento del de chanchos. Se halló una correlación negativa entre la densidad de ambas especies (r s=-0.83; P=0.04) y se detectó que su distribución no es independiente entre sí. En las últimas tres décadas se observó un cambio en la distribución de venados, posiblemente asociado al incremento de chanchos. Este trabajo aporta evidencias indirectas de la existencia potencial de interacciones negativas entre las dos especies que se reflejan en relaciones numéricas y espaciales inversas. Abstract in english Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer, the southernmost subspecies of pampas deer and endemic to the Argentine Pampas, is seriously endangered. In Buenos Aires Province, the last Pampas deer population is located in the Bahía Samborombón region. Poaching and the increase in exotic species such as feral dogs [...] and feral pigs have been suggested as the most important causes affecting the recovery of the deer population. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the spatial and temporal variations in distribution and abundance of the Pampas deer and the feral pig in the Bahía Samborombón Wildlife Refuge and to discuss the possible consequences of the interaction between these species. Six aerial surveys were conducted during 2002-2005. A total of 747 deer and 2690 feral pigs were counted, with a slight decrease in the deer sightings and an important increase in pig sightings during the sampling period. Estimated density ranged between 0.63-1.56 individuals/km² for deer and from 0.91 to 7.78 individuals/km² for pigs. A negative correlation was found between densities of the two species (r s=-0.83; P=0.04), and the distributions are not mutually independent. A progressive change in distribution has been detected in the Pampas deer population during the last three decades. This study provides evidence of the potential existence of negative interactions between Pampas deer and pigs. Due to the critical situation of the Pampas deer population, a control plan for feral pigs should be developed and urgently implemented to prevent the increase and expansion of this population to the south of the Samborombón bay, and consequently, to reduce the potential competition and predation on the existing deer population.

  13. Tagging studies of mule deer fawns on the Hanford Site, 1969 to 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L.E.; Hedlund, J.D.; Rickard, W.H.

    1979-10-01

    From 1969 to 1977, 346 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) fawns were tagged and released on islands and shoreline habitat associated with the Columbia River on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. The purpose was to determine the movement of mule deer along the Columbia River shoreline from the Hanford Site through tag recovery. Twenty-one tagged deer have been killed primarily by hunters near the Hanford Site or on areas of the Hanford Site open to public access. Movements of up to 113 km from Hanford have been documented. Although the Columbia River at Hanford is one of the largest and most swift-flowing rivers in North America it is not an impassable barrier to mule deer. River islands are important and perhaps critical fawining habitat for the local deer herd. The selection of these islands by pregnant female deer is apparently influenced by predation, human access, and recreational use of islands. The number of fawns captured decreased during the latter years of the study (1974 to 1977). This is probably a reflection of an actual decrease in deer productivity, particularly along the upper stretch of the Columbia flowing through the Hanford Site. The reasons for this apparent decrease are unkown.

  14. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in domestic sika deer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qing-Feng; Li, Ying; Yang, Fan; Yao, Gui-Zhi; Qian, Ai-Dong; Wang, Wei-Li; Cong, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), is a chronic infectious granulomatous enteritis of ruminants and other animals, which has a worldwide occurrence, but little is known of MAP infection in domestic sika deer in Jilin Province, China. The objective of the present investigation was to examine seroprevalence and risk factors of MAP infection in Jilin Province. Serum samples collected from 1400 sika deer from 16 sika deer herds were collected in the 4 districts of the province between May 2013 and August 2014 and were tested independently for the presence of antibodies against MAP. A total of 247 (17.64 %) sika deer tested positive for MAP antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay kit. The management level of farm and collecting region of sika deer was the main risk factor associated with MAP infection. The present study revealed the seroprevalence of MAP infection in sika deer in Jilin Province, China, which provided the baseline data for taking comprehensive countermeasures and measures in effectively preventing and controlling MAP infection in sika deer. PMID:25904509

  15. What do they eat? Using DNA barcoding to assess diet preferences of deer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FlØjgaard, Camilla; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    Humans have modified most ecosystems on Earth to a degree where even the largest “wild” nature reserves need management to avoid the loss of biodiversity. Native large herbivore grazing has potential as an efficient and natural tool in this management because they create dynamics and keep landscapes open. However, in order to use this tool properly, we need to know more about what the animals eat compared to what is available in different habitats and how access to supplementary fodder influences the grazing effect on the vegetation. Using DNA barcoding of feces, we are investigating the diet preferences of deer (red deer and roe deer) in Klelund Deer Park in Denmark. Over one year, we collect feces samples every month from different habitat types (e.g., heath, marsh, meadow, open forests and coniferous plantation) within the park. DNA barcoding can not only tell us which plants are consumed but also in which proportions. We intend to uncover the variation in deer diet over a year and among different habitatsand how supplementary fodder influences the diet preference. The results will contribute to a better understanding of deer management as well as how deer grazing can be used as a tool in management of open landscapes.

  16. Viral, parasitic and prion diseases of farmed deer and bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, J C; Mackintosh, C; Griffin, F

    2002-08-01

    The most important viral disease of farmed deer and bison is malignant catarrhal fever. The other herpesviruses which have been isolated from these species are briefly described. Other viral agents that are recognised in these animals, including adenovirus, parapox, foot and mouth disease, bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, bovine virus diarrhoea, rotavirus and coronavirus, are also discussed. Ectoparasites of importance in this group in various parts of the world include a variety of ticks, as well as lice, keds, Oestridae, mange mites and fire ants. Helminth parasites include liver flukes (Fascioloides and Fasciola), gastrointestinal nematodes of the family Trichostrongylidae, pulmonary lungworms of the genus Dictyocaulus and extra-pulmonary lungworms of the family Protostrongylidae. Chronic wasting disease is principally important in North America, where the disease occurs in wild cervids in a limited area and has been reported in farmed deer in a small number of states in the United States of America and one province in Canada. These diseases are summarised in terms of their classification, epidemiology, clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and control. PMID:11974612

  17. Male-biased investment in fallow deer: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgersson; Tillbom; Ekvall

    1998-08-01

    To find the causes of faster growth in males, we studied the growth and behaviour of six male and five female fallow deer, Dama dama, fawns, hand-reared on the same amount and quality of milk, and compared them with naturally reared fawns. The bottle-reared fawns grew more slowly. In particular, the difference in weight gain between bottle- and mother-reared fawns was significantly larger for males during the time when they consumed only milk. Male fawns also sucked harder and were more motivated to obtain milk. These results indicate that male fallow deer fawns receive more milk from their mothers than female fawns under natural conditions and, hence, maternal investment seems male biased in this species. Males grew slightly, but significantly, faster until 10 weeks old, which revealed that sex-differential growth during the period of maternal investment is possible in the absence of differential maternal investment. The results could not reveal whether this small difference in growth is brought about by physiological or behavioural differences between the sexes.Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour PMID:9787020

  18. Gross anatomy of the stomach of the pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    William, Perez; Rodolfo, Ungerfeld.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The macroscopic anatomy of the stomach of the adult pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758), a cervid species considered to ingest high quantities of grass in its natural diet, was described. Fourteen deceased adult pampas deer of both sexes from a captive breeding station were used for [...] this study. There were no differences in the absolute or relative size from the different compartments of the stomach in relation to gender. Compared to measurements in other ruminants, pampas deer appeared anatomically capable of feeding on a variety of diets as an 'intermediate feeder'.

  19. Gross anatomy of the stomach of the pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Perez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The macroscopic anatomy of the stomach of the adult pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758, a cervid species considered to ingest high quantities of grass in its natural diet, was described. Fourteen deceased adult pampas deer of both sexes from a captive breeding station were used for this study. There were no differences in the absolute or relative size from the different compartments of the stomach in relation to gender. Compared to measurements in other ruminants, pampas deer appeared anatomically capable of feeding on a variety of diets as an 'intermediate feeder'.

  20. Digestibily of Some Kind of Alternative Diets on Lesser Mouse Deer (Tragulus javanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WR Farida

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Four female lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus were used in this study to observe their feed consumption and digestibility given alternative diets in captive. The results showed that 125g/head/day sweet potatoes supplementation in ration increased the consumption and digestibility of dry matter intake, ash, ether extract, and N-free extract. Supplementation of commercial concentrate in lesser mouse deer’s diet decreased the digestion of dry matter, ash, crude protein, and crude fiber. Animal Production 6(1: 17-22 (2004 Key Words: Digestibility, Consumption, Alternative Diets, Tragulus javanicus

  1. The endemic plants of Micronesia: a geographical checklist and commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorence, D.H.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Micronesia-Polynesia bioregion is recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot. However, until now estimates regarding the number of endemic plant species for the region were not supported by any comprehensive published work for the region. The results of this study indicate that Micronesia has the world’s highest percentage of plant endemism per square kilometer out of all globally recognized insular biodiversity hotspots. A checklist of all endemic plant species for Micronesia is presented here with their corresponding geographical limits within the region. A summary of previous work and estimates is also provided noting the degree of taxonomic progress in the past several decades. A total of 364 vascular plant species are considered endemic to Micronesia, most of them being restricted to the Caroline Islands with a large percentage restricted to Palau. The checklist includes seven new combinations, one new name, and two unverified names that require additional study to verify endemic status. Overviews of each respective botanical family represented in the list are given including additional information on the Micronesian taxa. Recommendations for future work and potential projects are alluded to throughout the text highlighting major data gaps and very poorly known taxa. The following new combinations and names are made: Cyclosorus carolinensis (Hosokawa Lorence, comb. nov. , Cyclosorusgretheri (W. H. Wagner Lorence, comb. nov., Cyclosorusguamensis (Holttum Lorence, comb. nov., Cyclosorus palauensis (Hosokawa Lorence, comb. nov. , Cyclosorus rupiinsularis (Fosberg Lorence, comb. nov., Dalbergia hosokawae (Hosokawa Costion nom. nov., Syzygium trukensis (Hosokawa Costion & E. Lucas comb. nov.

  2. Extraordinary micro-endemism in Australian desert spring amphipods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, N P; Adams, M; Guzik, M T; Austin, A D

    2013-03-01

    Increasing pressure for water in the Australian arid zone is placing enormous stress on the diverse endemic communities inhabiting desert springs. Detailed information about the evolutionary processes occurring within and between individual endemic species will help to develop effective and biologically relevant management strategies this fragile ecosystem. To help determine conservation priorities, we documented the genetic structure of the endemic freshwater amphipod populations in springs fed by the Great Artesian Basin in central Australia. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic history and genetic diversity measures were examined using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from approximately 500 chiltoniid amphipods across an entire group of springs. Pronounced genetic diversity was identified, demonstrating that levels of endemism have been grossly underestimated in these amphipods. Using the GMYC model, 13 genetically divergent lineages were recognized as Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs), all of which could be considered as separate species. The results show that due to the highly fragmented ecosystem, these taxa have highly restricted distributions. Many of the identified ESUs are endemic to a very small number of already degraded springs, with the rarest existing in single springs. Despite their extraordinarily small ranges, most ESUs showed relative demographic stability and high levels of genetic diversity, and genetic diversity was not directly linked to habitat extent. The relatively robust genetic health of ESUs does not preclude them from endangerment, as their limited distributions ensure they will be highly vulnerable to future water extraction. PMID:23142695

  3. Plantaginaceae endémicas del Perú / Plantaginaceae endemic of Peru

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Blanca, León.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La familia Plantaginaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar dos géneros y 14 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), principalmente hierbas. En este trabajo reconocemos dos especies y una variedad como endémicos, todos del género Plantago. Los taxones endémicos se encuentran en las regiones Desierto [...] Semicálido Tropical, Matorral Desértico, Páramo y Mesoandina, entre los 350 y 4100 m de altitud. Aparentemente, ninguna Plantaginaceae endémica se encuentra representada dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Plantaginaceae are represented in Peru by two genera and 14 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), mainly herbs. Here we recognize three endemic taxa in the genus Plantago. These endemic taxa are found in Subtropical Costal Desert, Desert Shrubland, Paramo and Mesoandean, between 350 and 4100 m eleva [...] tion. Apparently, none endemic Plantaginaceae have been recorded in the Peruvian System of Protected Natural Areas.

  4. Amendment #3 : Hunting and Fishing Plan : Mingo National Wildlife Refuge : Historic Weapons Deer Hunt

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This amendment to the Mingo NWR Hunting and Fishing Plan opens an additional 5,000 acres in the southwest portion of the Refuge to a historic weapons deer hunt.

  5. Deer Population Health Evaluation for Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge from Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The letter and enclosed report discusses the health evaluation of 5 deer taken from the Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge population. The letter and enclosed...

  6. Outreach Plan : Crane Meadows National Wildlife Refuge : Special Deer & Turkey Hunting Opportunities

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a plan for special deer and turkey hunting opportunities at Crane Meadows NWR. Goals, strategies, messages, and key dates relevant to this plan are outlined.

  7. Water quality of Lower Deer Creek, Harford County, MD, home of the federally endangered Maryland darter

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Maryland darter Etheostoma sellare is one of the rarest fish in the world, existing in one riffle of Deer Creek, Harford County. There have been several...

  8. Seasonality of 137Cs in roe deer from Austria and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Empirical data on the 137Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) roaming in 3 spruce forest areas and one peat bog area are presented and compared. They cover time series of nearly 20 years after a spike contamination in 1986 originating from Chernobyl. A model is presented which considers three soil compartments to describe the change of the availability of 137Cs with time. The time-dependency of the 137Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer is a combination of two components: (1) an exponential decay and (2) a peak in the second half of each year during the mushroom season. The exponential decay over the years can be described by a sum of two exponential functions. The additional transfer of 137Cs into roe deer during the mushroom season depends on precipitation. On the peat bog the 137Cs activity concentration in roe deer is higher and more persistent than in spruce forest

  9. Environmental Assessment for Public Deer Hunting at James River National Wildlife Refuge 1991

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An excessively high deer population will conflict with any forest management program conducted at James River National Wildlife Refuge. To accomplish the objective...

  10. Life in the Fast Lane: Road Crossing Behavior of Mule Deer in a Wildland-Urban Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Leslie A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Biggs, James [Northern New Mexico College; Bennett, Kathryn D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bare, Carey [Bare and Associates, LLC; Sherwood, Sherri R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-04

    In 2009, approximately 260,000 animal-vehicle collisions were reported in the United States, resulting in 12,000 human injuries and 173 human fatalities. Research has focused on identifying factors associated with high densities of animal-vehicle collisions, including variables such as traffic speed and volume, road design, topographic features, vegetative cover, and local deer or elk (Cervus elaphus) abundance. The purposes of this study were to document how often and where mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) crossed roads in a western United States wildland-urban interface area, and to relate deer road-crossing behavior to deer-vehicle collision locations. Seven adult mule deer (four males [M] and three females [F]) were captured and collared with GPS-enabled collars during December 2001 and January 2002. Five of the seven deployed collars were recovered. None of the roads in the study area appeared to act as a substantial barrier to deer passage. Deer home ranges straddled highways and primary, secondary, and tertiary arterial roads. Deer crossed all types of roads. The average number of times deer crossed road during 24 hours of monitoring ranged from 2.1 to 7.0. Deer in the Los Alamos townsite avoided crossing roads during day and before sunset. Deer-vehicle accidents occurred at 350 percent of the level expected after sunset. All other time periods had fewer accidents than expected. The distribution of accidents across time periods was not similar to the distribution of road crossings across time periods for any deer. Within Los Alamos County there was a clear trend for deer-vehicle collisions to occur on roads with speed limits > 35 mph. Deer in the townsite frequently crossed roads with lower speed limits; therefore, the reason for the paucity of accidents along these roads was evidently the ability of drivers to detect deer (or the ability of deer to detect vehicles) and respond before an accident occurred. There was a significant but not strong correlation between the density of accidents and the density of road crossings. This was probably related to the high number of deer crossings of tertiary arterial roads, where accidents were not likely to occur.

  11. Deer Frozen Semen Quality in Tris Sucrose and Tris Glucose Extender with Different Glycerol Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Nalley, W. M. M.; Handarini, R.; Arifiantini, R. I.; Yusuf, T. L.; Purwantara, B.; Semiadi, G.

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve Timor deer (Cervus timorensis) frozen semen quality, the influence of sugar and glycerol concentration on semen characteristics of sperm was investigated. The semen was collected from five sexually mature Timor deer using an electroejaculator. The semen was evaluated and divided into six equal tubes and diluted with Tris sucrose glycerol 10% (TSG10); Tris sucrose glycerol 12% (TSG12); Tris sucrose glycerol 14% (TSG14); Tris glucose glycerol 10% (TGG10); Tris glucose glyce...

  12. Assessment of Swamp Deer Habitat in and Around Jhilmil Jheel Conservation Reserve, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India

    OpenAIRE

    Tewari, Rachna; Rawat, Gopal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Swamp deer (Rucervus duvaucelii duvaucelii) or Barasingha is categorized as vulnerable on the IUCN Red list. With a global population of less than 5,000 the species has a very limited distribution spanning over 2,000 km2 in India and Nepal. A small population of swamp deer was recently rediscovered in Uttarakhand state at Jhilmil Jheel. This population warranted a conservation initiative because the habitat around this Conservation Reserve is heavily fragmented due to expansion of agriculture...

  13. Investigation of a syndrome of sudden death, splenomegaly, and small intestinal hemorrhage in farmed deer

    OpenAIRE

    Embury-Hyatt, Carissa K.; Wobeser, Gary; Simko, Elemir; Murray R. Woodbury

    2005-01-01

    A newly recognized syndrome, characterized by sudden death of farmed deer that are in good to excellent nutritional condition, with lesions of small intestinal mucosal hemorrhage and splenomegaly, is described. Other frequently observed lesions were small intestinal mucosal necrosis, abomasal hemorrhage, random hepatic necrosis, and multifocal hepatic congestion. Clostridium perfringens type A was isolated in high numbers from the intestines of many of the deer affected by the syndrome; howev...

  14. CONSERVATION DEVELOPMENT OF TIMOR DEER (Cervus timorensis AS COMMERCIAL PURPOSE(WITH OPTIMISTIC RATE ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hanani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the profit obtained from breeding of Timor deer commercially. This research was done in East Java. Survey method was used to answer the objective. The study location were selected by purposive sampling. Usually deer was develop in conservation area, but because the area was decrease so the number of deer also decrease. Model of deer raising development should be improved not only for conservation but also for commercial purpose. The optimum deer raising were considered and monitored with a purpose to maximize commercial Timor deer by using Multiple Objective Goal Programming (MOGP to find the Optimistic Rate Estimation. The result of this study showed to get the optimum benefit, it had to be applied together with conservation and commercial effort at the same time. Results of study showed that profit was taken from selling velvet was 164.46%. Profits taken from selling antler was 350.56%, from selling alive deer was 394.28%, from selling recreation tickets was 259.08%, from selling venison1 was 135.98%, and from selling deer leather was 141.24%. Operational cost spent were 168.46% for feeding cost, 213.23% for maintenance cost, and 232.04% for labors’ salaries. The amount of operational cost required in MOGP model, with lower expenses and commercial priority were 185.54% for feeding cost, 253.13% for maintenance cost, and 246.95% for paying labors’ salaries. The MOGP model result with commercial priority reached 335.21%, while in MOGP model with lower costs and commercial priority gave profit for breeders up to 381.26%.

  15. Spatial pattern of grazing pressure of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Askilsrud, Harald

    2008-01-01

    The dramatic increase of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) harvest in Norway the recent decades have led to concerns of possible oversized populations, and negative density effects on animal life history traits have been documented. However, few studies have been done on the state of the plant community. Measurements of accumulated browsing on important winter forage were conducted in two municipalities in Sogn and Fjordane, both to get better data on red deer diet and also in order to suggest wh...

  16. White-Tailed Deer Response to Vehicle Approach: Evidence of Unclear and Present Danger

    OpenAIRE

    Blackwell, Bradley F.; Seamans, Thomas W.; Devault, Travis L.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental causes of animal-vehicle collisions are unclear, particularly at the level of animal detection of approaching vehicles and decision-making. Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) are especially costly in terms of animal mortality, property damage, and safety. Over one year, we exposed free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach under low ambient light conditions, from varying start distances, and vehicle speeds from 20 km/h to approximately 90 km/h. We ...

  17. White-tailed deer response to vehicle approach: evidence of unclear and present danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Bradley F; Seamans, Thomas W; DeVault, Travis L

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental causes of animal-vehicle collisions are unclear, particularly at the level of animal detection of approaching vehicles and decision-making. Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) are especially costly in terms of animal mortality, property damage, and safety. Over one year, we exposed free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach under low ambient light conditions, from varying start distances, and vehicle speeds from 20 km/h to approximately 90 km/h. We modeled flight response by deer to an approaching vehicle and tested four hypotheses: 1) flight-initiation distance (FID) would correlate positively with start distance (indicating a spatial margin of safety); 2) deer would react to vehicle speed using a temporal margin of safety; 3) individuals reacting at greater FIDs would be more likely to cross the path of the vehicle; and 4) crossings would correlate positively with start distance, approach speed, and distance to concealing/refuge cover. We examined deer responses by quantiles. Median FID was 40% of start distance, irrespective of start distance or approach speed. Converting FID to time-to-collision (TTC), median TTC was 4.6 s, but uncorrelated with start distance or approach speed. The likelihood of deer crossing in front of the vehicle was not associated with greater FIDs or other explanatory variables. Because deer flight response to vehicle approach was highly variable, DVCs should be more likely with increasing vehicle speeds because of lower TTCs for a given distance. For road sections characterized by frequent DVCs, we recommend estimating TTC relative to vehicle speed and candidate line-of-sight distances adjusted downward by (1-P), where P represents our findings for the proportion of start distance by which >75% of deer had initiated flight. Where road design or conservation goals limit effectiveness of line-of-sight maintenance, we suggest incorporation of roadway obstacles that force drivers to slow vehicles, in addition to posting advisory speed limits. PMID:25333922

  18. Wolf reintroduction to Scotland: public attitudes and consequences for red deer management

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, EB; Milner-Gulland, EJ; Schofield, L.; Mysterud, A.; Stenseth, Nc; Coulson, T.

    2007-01-01

    Reintroductions are important tools for the conservation of individual species, but recently more attention has been paid to the restoration of ecosystem function, and to the importance of carrying out a full risk assessment prior to any reintroduction programme. In much of the Highlands of Scotland, wolves (Canis lupus) were eradicated by 1769, but there are currently proposals for them to be reintroduced. Their main wild prey if reintroduced would be red deer (Cervus elaphus). Red deer are ...

  19. Wolf reintroduction to Scotland: public attitudes and consequences for red deer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Erlend B; Milner-Gulland, E J; Schofield, Lee; Mysterud, Atle; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Coulson, Tim

    2007-04-01

    Reintroductions are important tools for the conservation of individual species, but recently more attention has been paid to the restoration of ecosystem function, and to the importance of carrying out a full risk assessment prior to any reintroduction programme. In much of the Highlands of Scotland, wolves (Canis lupus) were eradicated by 1769, but there are currently proposals for them to be reintroduced. Their main wild prey if reintroduced would be red deer (Cervus elaphus). Red deer are themselves a contentious component of the Scottish landscape. They support a trophy hunting industry but are thought to be close to carrying capacity, and are believed to have a considerable economic and ecological impact. High deer densities hamper attempts to reforest, reduce bird densities and compete with livestock for grazing. Here, we examine the probable consequences for the red deer population of reintroducing wolves into the Scottish Highlands using a structured Markov predator-prey model. Our simulations suggest that reintroducing wolves is likely to generate conservation benefits by lowering deer densities. It would also free deer estates from the financial burden of costly hind culls, which are required in order to achieve the Deer Commission for Scotland's target deer densities. However, a reintroduced wolf population would also carry costs, particularly through increased livestock mortality. We investigated perceptions of the costs and benefits of wolf reintroductions among rural and urban communities in Scotland and found that the public are generally positive to the idea. Farmers hold more negative attitudes, but far less negative than the organizations that represent them. PMID:17264063

  20. Cortico-striatal oxidative status, dopamine turnover and relation with stereotypy in the deer mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Brian Herbert; Gu?ldenpfennig, Marianne; Wolmarans, Petrus Wet; Du Preez, Jan Lourens; Stein, Dan J.

    2011-01-01

    The deer mouse presents with spontaneous stereotypic movements that resemble the repetitive behaviours of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and demonstrates a selective response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors. OCD has been linked to altered redox status and since increased dopamine signalling can promote stereotypies as well as oxidative stress, we investigated whether the severity of deer mouse stereotypy may be associated with altered dopamine turnover and cortico-striatal redox stat...

  1. Facilitative and competitive interactions between sympatric cattle, red deer and wild boar in Dutch woodland pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Kuiters, A. T.; Groot Bruinderink, G. W. T. A.; Lammertsma, D. R.

    2005-01-01

    Use of cattle-grazed and ungrazed woodland pastures by red deer Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758 and wild boar Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 was investigated monthly by measuring dung-deposition rates. Cattle Bos taurus grazed pastures year-round, with peak intensities during the growing season (May¿September). Red deer and wild boar grazed pastures primarily during autumn and winter (October-April) when cattle occupancy was at a minimum. The lower occupancy of cattle in pastures from November to A...

  2. Disbudding of red deer stag calves to prevent antler growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W J; Kyle, D J; Robson, M G

    1993-01-16

    Red deer stag calves aged five to seven months were disbudded with a standard cattle disbudding iron as a means of preventing antler growth and development. Two sizes of iron, one 2.2 cm in diameter and one 1.5 cm in diameter, were compared at disbudding in November or January. Disbudding in November and January with the 2.2 cm iron had success rates of 97 per cent and 92 per cent, respectively. Treatment with the 1.5 cm iron was less effective at both times. There was no significant difference between the liveweights of the treated groups and a non-disbudded control group at turnout in the spring or at slaughter in November when the stags were 16 months of age. PMID:8430483

  3. Impacts of white-tailed deer on red trillium (Trillium recurvatum): defining a threshold for deer browsing pressure at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Grundel, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been a concern for land managers in eastern North America because of their impacts on native forest ecosystems. Managers have sought native plant species to serve as phytoindicators of deer impacts to supplement deer surveys. We analyzed experimental data about red trillium (Trillium recurvatum), large flowered trillium (T. grandiflorum), nodding trillium (T. cernuum), and declined trillium (T. flexipes) growth in paired exclosure (fenced) plots and control (unfenced) plots from 2002 to 2010 at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The latter two species lacked replication, so statistical analysis was not possible. All red trillium plants were surveyed for height-to-leaf, effects of browsing, and presence of flowers. Data from individuals in 2009 demonstrated a sigmoidal relationship between height-to-leaf and probability of flowering. The relationship on moraine soils was shifted to taller plants compared to those on sand substrates, with respectively 50 percent flowering at 18 and 16 cm and 33 percent flowering at 16 and 14 cm height-to-leaf. On a plot basis, the proportion of plants flowering was influenced by height to leaf, duration of protection, and deviation in rainfall. The proportion of plants flowering increased ninefold in exclosures (28 percent) compared to control plots (3 percent) over the 8 years of protection. The mean height-to-leaf was a function of the interaction between treatment and duration, as well as red trillium density. Changes in height-to-leaf in control plots from year to year were significantly influenced by an interaction between change in deer density and change in snowfall depth. There was a significant negative correlation between change in deer density and snowfall depth. Plants in the exclosures increased in height at a rate of 1.5 cm yr?1 whereas control plants decreased in height by 0.9 cm yr?1. In all, 78 percent of the control plots lacked flowering individuals over the 9 years of study, indicating that red trillium is being negatively affected by deer throughout the East Unit of the park. Of the five deer management zones studied, only one showed pre-impact height-to-leaf and flowering percentages in control plots that then declined after 2005. The results of this study demonstrate that Trillium species growing in the lands of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore are being suppressed reproductively by deer browsing. Specifically, we demonstrate, for the first time, the utility of using red trillium (Trillium recurvatum) height-to-leaf and percentage of flowering as indicators of the impacts of deer browsing. Application of the recommended thresholds demonstrates their utility in adopting red trillium as a phytoindicator of deer impact. Responses of plants to protection from deer suggest that deer culling might be necessary for 6 or more years for red trillium populations and rare trillium species to recover.

  4. 129I in deer thyroids from the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    129I can be released in many forms, most of which can be incorporated into animals, metabolized, concentrated and stored in the small thyroid gland. Atmospheric nuclear weapons tests added ?0.37 TBq of 129I to the ?1.48 TBq naturally present in the earth, oceans, and atmosphere. Previous investigators showed that during 1965--1969, thyroids of most cattle in USA contained less than 0.001 Bq 129I/g (wet weight) of thyroid. From 1984 through 1993 the authors measured 129I in 19 to 143 deer thyroids per year from the 316 square miles Savannah River Site (SRS) in SC. Most of these thyroids have averaged 0.1 to 2.8 Bq 129I/g. The storage and release of 129I at the SRS has been extensively reviewed. That report shows between 1954 and 1989 approximately 0.1. TBq of 129I was released into seepage basins, 0.2 TBq released into the atmosphere and 0.3 TBq retained in waste storage tanks. From 1985--1987 the annual medians of 129I/g deer thyroid from SRS were sustained at 0.03--0.06 Bq g-1 thyroid. In 1988 the median was highest at 0.12 Bq/g thyroid. The medians then decreased and in 1992 and 1993 they were 0.028 and 0.032 Bq 129I/g thyroid. The annual average concentrations showed a similar trend with a maximum in 1989 of 2.3 Bq/g thyroid and in 1992 and 1993 the averages were reduced to 0.12 and 0.34 Bq 129I/g. 129I in thyroid glands may be a minimal biohazard but it is a convenient biological index of contamination by a long-lived fission product

  5. DEFECATION RATE IN CAPTIVE DEER IN “LOS CAPOMOS”, MUNICIPALITY OF El FUERTE, SINALOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Gibrán Ochoa-Álvarez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable use of white-tailed deer in Mexico can only be performed in Management Units for the Conservation of Wildlife (UMA , for its acronym in Spanish , based on a management plan for legal operation. Among the methods for population estimate harvest rates, highlights fecal count groups, depending on the frequency at which a deer excretes daily, and whose values are estimated from captive specimens and tolerant observer, but considering subspecies and different from the northern Sinaloa conditions. Using these rates of defecation can lead to overharvesting. This research was conducted in the farmed deer of the indigenous ejido (Mayo-Yoreme ethnic group called “Los Capomos”, in the municipality of El Fuerte, Sinaloa, between October 2011 and May 2012, to estimate the rate of defecation counts from fecal groups, obtained from a confined deer population and in apparent equilibrium with its environment through adjustments to the model of Eberhardt and Van Etten. It was found that the lowest rate published defecation (12.7 deer fecal groups per day, the estimated population accounted for half of the known population, which would prevent excessive use of native deer in the wild. However, the pattern of random grouping of excreta in confinement, makes it advisable that it be used in conditions of freedom, since it presupposes the mathematical model used aggregate grouping patterns.

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure of Scottish Highland red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations: a mitochondrial survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Espona, S; Pérez-Barbería, F J; Goodall-Copestake, W P; Jiggins, C D; Gordon, I J; Pemberton, J M

    2009-02-01

    The largest population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Europe is found in Scotland. However, human impacts through hunting and introduction of foreign deer stock have disturbed the population's genetics to an unknown extent. In this study, we analysed mitochondrial control region sequences of 625 individuals to assess signatures of human and natural historical influence on the genetic diversity and population structure of red deer in the Scottish Highlands. Genetic diversity was high with 74 haplotypes found in our study area (115 x 87 km). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that none of the individuals had introgressed mtDNA from foreign species or subspecies of deer and only suggested a very few localized red deer translocations among British localities. A haplotype network and population analyses indicated significant genetic structure (Phi(ST)=0.3452, F(ST)=0.2478), largely concordant with the geographical location of the populations. Mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests indicated a significant population expansion for one of the main haplogroups found in the study area, approximately dated c. 8200 or 16 400 years ago when applying a fast or slow mutation rate, respectively. Contrary to general belief, our results strongly suggest that native Scottish red deer mtDNA haplotypes have persisted in the Scottish Highlands and that the population retains a largely natural haplotype diversity and structure in our study area. PMID:19002206

  7. Response of mule deer to habitat modification near natural gas development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Van Dyke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus are known to shift habitat use in response to environmental modifications, including those associated with energy development. Their specific behavioral responses, however, and capacities to habituate to particular aspects of energy development have not been effectively studied. We examined mule deer response to habitat alteration near natural gas wells in Las Animas County, Colorado, USA in 2008—2010, an area experiencing development for extraction of natural gas. We created 10-1 ha openings in forests adjacent to 10 wells by removing standing trees in 2008, with concomitant establishment of 10 1-ha control sites adjacent to the same wells. On each site, we estimated deer use, indexed by pellet density, before and after tree removal. Concurrently, we measured plant production, cover, nutritional quality, species composition and biomass removed by deer and other large herbivores. Species richness and diversity and graminoid and forb cover and biomass increased on cut sites following tree removal. Use increased following tree removal on cut and control sites, but was greater on cut sites in 2010. Herbivores removed negligible quantities of vegetation on control sites in both years, suggesting that control sites may have been used primarily for concealment. Mule deer demonstrated the behavioral capacity to habituate to habitat modifications and other environmental changes associated with development for the extraction of energy. Managing forage and habitat availability appears to have the potential to affect the type of response and degree of habituation by mule deer to such development.

  8. Differentiation of antlers from deer on different feeds using an NMR-based metabolomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, He; Jeon, Byongtae; Moon, Sangho; Song, Yonghyun; Kang, Sunmi; Yang, Hye-Ji; Song, Youngmin; Park, Sunghyouk

    2010-08-01

    Deer antler has been widely used as a dietary supplement for hundreds of years in Asian countries. The chemical composition of deer antlers strongly depends on the growth conditions of the deer, especially the feeds, but the effects of different feeds on deer antlers have not been studied. To expand our knowledge of the chemical constituents of deer antler and establish an efficient way of differentiating antlers obtained with different feeds, we applied an NMR-based metabolomics approach and OPLS-DA multivariate analysis. We show that the antlers from one species on two different feeds, made from grass or mulberry trees, can be reliably differentiated by our metabolomics approach. We identified chemical constituents of the deer antlers and the marker compounds that contribute to the difference between the feed groups. We also rigorously validated our differentiation approach by showing that it can correctly classify blind samples into their respective feed groups. Our approach is expected to help design feeds to produce antlers with more defined constituents, especially those with higher bioactivities. PMID:20803126

  9. Cesium-137 in deer: Savannah River Plant vs. southeastern coastal plain herds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 137Cs content in deer killed during programmed hunts at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has averaged 9.0 pCi/g. This value, based on measurements of 13,907 deer taken over 14 years (1965 to 1978), similar to the value obtained for 552 deer from other southeastern Coastal Plain locations, indicating the 137Cs content is due to fallout from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons rather than from SRP operations. The computerized SRP data base for each harvested deer includes age, sex, weight, cesium content, kill location, date, and the hunter's name. Analysis of these data enables the estimation of population dose from ingestion of the edible meat. Consumption of all edible meat from deer killed at SRP from 1965 to 1978 gives a whole body population dose of 196 man-rem from 137Cs. Assuming an annual consumption rate of 20 kg gives an average individual whole body dose of 13 mrem, about 10% of local annual background level. The radiation dose from 40K of natural potassium content of deer is comparable to the radiation dose from 137Cs

  10. Efficacy of a 15-Strand High-Tensile Electric Fence to Control White-tailed Deer Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. DeYoung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Although, high-tensile electric fences (HTEF have gained in popularity as a low-cost alternative to traditional fence designs, little research has focused on the effects of HTEF on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Our objectives were to: determine the efficacy of a HTEF to control deer movements and evaluate its influence on deer spatial dynamics. We conducted our study on the Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation Wildlife Unit located in Oklahoma, USA. An electric 15-strand, 2.5 m high fence was erected around the study area in 1992. We captured and ear-tagged 419 deer from 1993-2005 and fitted 35 of these deer (19 females, 16 males with GPS collars during winter 1998-2004. Eight of 35 radio-collared deer (23% crossed through the fence a total of 15 times and returned 13 times. Most fence crossings were at or near a hole or water gap (75%; n = 21 while 21.4% (n = 6 crossed through the electric strands. Twenty four of 419 (6% ear-tagged deer were reported dead or harvested off of the property over 13 years. We found ?13 deer core areas and ?29 of home ranges bordered the fence. Core area and home range sizes of males and females were larger for deer associated with the fence compared to deer not associated with the fence. The percentage of deer FK core area and home range perimeters in common with the fence was 17 and 28%, respectively. It appears deer were tolerable of the fence and willing to attempt to cross at weak locations (i.e., holes and water gaps. If fully maintained, the 15-strand HTEF would have been a safe and effective alternative to more traditional and expensive fence designs.

  11. Isolation of Ehrlichia chaffeensis from wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) confirms their role as natural reservoir hosts.

    OpenAIRE

    Lockhart, J. M.; Davidson, W. R.; Stallknecht, D. E.; Dawson, J. E.; Howerth, E. W.

    1997-01-01

    Field and experimental studies have implicated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as probable reservoir hosts for Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, but natural infection in deer has not been confirmed through isolation of E. chaffeensis. Thirty-five white-tailed deer collected from three Amblyomma americanum-infested populations in Georgia were examined for evidence of E. chaffeensis infection by serologic, molecular, cell culture, and xenodia...

  12. Crassulaceae endémicas del Perú / Crassulaceae endemic of Peru

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Blanca, León.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La familia Crassulaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar cinco géneros y 29 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), mayormente arbustos y hierbas. En este trabajo reconocemos 13 especies y dos variedades como endemismos peruanos en tres géneros. Echeveria es el género con el mayor número de especie [...] s endémicas. Los taxones endémicos ocupan principalmente las regiones Mesoandina y Puna Húmeda y Seca, entre los 1700 y 4500 m de altitud. Se aplicaron las categorías y criterios de la UICN a nueve taxones. Dos Crassulaceae endémicas están representados dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Crassulaceae are represented in Peru by five genera and 29 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), mostly shrubs and herbs. Here we recognize as endemics 13 species and two varieties in three genera. Echeveria is the genus with the largest number of endemic species. Endemic taxa grow in Mesoandean, an [...] d Humid and Dry Puna regions, between 1700 and 4500 m elevation. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to nine taxa. Two endemic Crassulaceae have been found in Peru´s protected areas system.

  13. RISK FACTORS FOR ENDEMIC GASTROINTESTINAL ILLNESS AMONG A WASHINGTON COHORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    RISK FACTORS FOR ENDEMIC GASTROINTESTINAL ILLNESS AMONG A WASHINGTON COHORT *Christina A. Peterson 1,2,3 and Rebecca L. Calderon 2 1 Department of Epidemiology School of Public Health (SPH) University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), 27516 2 Nat...

  14. Collection of Helianthus exilis, an endemic serpentine sunflower of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Helianthus consists of 51 species (14 annual and 37 perennial), all restricted to North America. Serpentine sunflower, Helianthus exilis A. Gray, is endemic to the serpentine soils of the Coastal Range and Sierra Nevada mountains of California and is a potential source of useful genes for ...

  15. Assessment LOPU-IVF in Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon) and application to Vietnamese sika deer (Cervus nippon pseudaxis) a related subspecies threatened with extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Y; Hendriks, A; Vallet, J-C; Baril, G; Duffard, N; Bon, N; Ortiz, K; Scala, C; Maurel, M-C; Mermillod, P; Legendre, X

    2012-12-01

    In mammals, recovery of oocytes by laparoscopic ovum pick-up (LOPU) coupled with in vitro production (IVP) of embryos represents a promising strategy for both amplification and genetic management of sparse animals from captive endangered wild species. As integrated technique developed mainly for domestic livestock, LOPU-IVP requires several studies to set up protocols for follicular stimulation or optimization of IVP before envisaging successful transposition to wild species. In deer, many endangered subspecies would be potentially concerned by applying such an approach using common subspecies for protocols optimization. The aim of the present study was to assess efficiency of follicle stimulation using ovine FSH (oFSH) for recovery of oocytes by LOPU in common sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon) before transposition of an optimized methodology for IVP of embryos from endangered Vietnamese sika deer hinds (Cervus nippon pseudaxis). In common sika deer, two doses of oFSH (0.25 and 0.5 U) and two frequencies of administration (12 and 24 h) were compared by monitoring of subsequent ovarian response, quality of oocytes recovered by LOPU, and in vitro developmental competence. In a first experiment, the dose of oFSH administered did not significantly affect the total number of follicles aspirated per hind per session (8.6 ± 1.0 vs. 8.2 ± 1.6 with 0.5 vs. 0.25 U oFSH, respectively; not significant). In a second experiment, frequency of 0.25 U oFSH administration did not affect ovarian response. Efficiency of IVP determined on blastocysts rates after in vitro maturation, fertilization, and development in oviduct epithelial cells coculture was increased when FSH was administered at 12-h intervals. Immune response after several follicular stimulations was detected against exogenous oFSH in plasma from the majority of sika deer hinds but was not associated with decreased ovarian response. When 0.25 U oFSH was administered at 12-h intervals to Vietnamese sika deer (N = 4), good quality cumulus oocyte complexes with complete and compact cumulus investments were recovered allowing a high cleavage rate after in vitro maturation and fertilization. Development to the blastocyst stage occurred in a high proportion (30% of oocytes) after coculture with ovine epithelial cells allowing cryobanking of transferable embryos from Vietnamese sika deer. These results confirm that LOPU-IVF after ovarian stimulation with oFSH may be a successful tool for cryobanking transferable embryos from endangered sika deer subspecies. PMID:23043947

  16. Transmission of Ehrlichia chaffeensis from lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Stokes, A S

    2007-07-01

    Amblyomma americanum is an aggressive ixodid tick that has been implicated as a vector for several bacterial agents. Among these is Ehrlichia chaffeensis, which causes human monocytic (or monocytotropic) ehrlichiosis. In this study, experimental tick transmission of E. chaffeensis from infected lone star ticks to deer was revisited, and the question of whether it would be possible to re-isolate the organism from deer was asked, because this had not been done previously. Here, we were able to transmit a wild strain of E. chaffeensis from acquisition-fed lone star ticks to white-tailed deer. Ehrlichia chaffeensis was re-isolated from one white-tailed deer on multiple days during the infection and from another deer on one day during the infection. Peak rickettsemias for E. chaffeensis-infected deer were 17 DPI with acquisition-fed ticks and 14 DPI with needle-inoculated deer. This study supports the role of the lone star tick and white-tailed deer as vector and reservoir host for E. chaffeensis, demonstrating culture re-isolation of E. chaffeensis in deer infected by experimental tick transmission for the first time. PMID:17699076

  17. Investigation of Balkan endemic nephropathy in Serbia: How to proceed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?ukanovi? Ljubica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN presents an unsolved puzzle despite fifty years of its investigation. Academy of Medical Sciences of the Serbian Medical Society organized a round table discussion on current unsolved problems related to BEN. The present paper summarizes presentations, discussion and conclusions of this meeting. During the last fifty years, the course of BEN prolonged and it shifted towards the older age in all endemic foci. Data on the incidence of BEN have been controversial and frequently based on the data on the number of BEN patients starting haemodialysis treatment. In Serbia, BEN patients present 6.5% of haemodialysis population and this percentage differs among different centres ranging from 5% (Leskovac to 46% (Lazarevac. Maintenance of high prevalence of BEN patients on regular haemodialysis indicates that BEN is not an expiring disease. In addition, recent data have shown more frequent microalbuminuria and low-molecular weight proteinuria in children from endemic than from nonendemic families. Aetiology of BEN is still unknown despite numerous investigations of environmental and genetic factors. Today, there is a very current hypothesis on the aetiological role of aristolochic acid but the role of viruses, geochemical factors and genetic factors must not be neglected. Morphological features of BEN are nonspecific and characterized by acellular interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy and changes on preand postglomerular vessels. New immunohistochemical and molecular biology methods offer a new approach to BEN investigation. Association of BEN with high incidence of upperurothelial tumours is well-known. Recent studies have shown significant changes of demographic characteristics of patients suffering upper-urothelial tumours, their prevalence in different endemic foci and characteristics of tumours. Further studies of BEN should be directed to determination of incidence and prevalence of disease in different endemic foci, investigations of different insufficiently examined aetiological factors as well as pathomorphological features of the disease by the use of modern methods.

  18. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi

    2014-01-01

    India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a) regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b) mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single variable based models. PMID:25501852

  19. Clinical importance of solitary solid nodule of the thyroid in endemic goiter region

    OpenAIRE

    Gurleyik Emin; Coskun Ozgur; Aslaner Arif

    2005-01-01

    Context: Endemic area and iodine supplementation may affect the pathogenesis of the nodule which commonly occurs in endemic thyroid enlargement due to iodine deficiency. Aims: To establish pathological changes in solitary solid and larger nodule of the thyroid in endemic area. Setting and Design: Retrospective study in Surgical Department of University Hospital. Methods and Material: We determined 44 surgically treated patients with solitary solid nodule in endemic goiter area in which...

  20. Nasal rhinosporiodiosis from uttar pradesh (India): a non-endemic zone: first case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shalini, Malhotra; Om Prakash, Bobade; Ankit, Chauhan; Nripen, Vishnoi; Charoo, Hans.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhinosporiodiosis is a cosmopolitan disease of man and animals, endemic in India and Sri Lanka with main focus of infection in Southern Tamil Nadu. Uttar Pradesh (UP) is not known to be an endemic zone for this disease .We present here the first case of nasal Rhinosporiodiosis from this non-endemic [...] zone.

  1. Effects of natural phenomena and human activity on the species richness of endemic and non-endemic Heteroptera in the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The geographical patterns of Heteroptera species diversity in the Canary Islands were analysed, and endemic and non–endemic species were studied both together and separately. Causal processes most likely controlling these patterns, as well as the theory of island biogeography, hypotheses about evolutionary time, habitat heterogeneity, climatic stability, intermediate disturbances, energy, environmental favourableness–severity, productivity and human influence were investigated. The combination of habitat heterogeneity and human influence accounted for the total number of species. However, when endemic and non–endemic species were analysed separately, habitat heterogeneity and favourableness–severity explained the richness of endemic species, whereas habitat heterogeneity and human influence explained that of non–endemic species.

  2. Um albino parcial de veado campeiro (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus no Parque Nacional das Emas, Goiás Partial albinism in the pampas deer and a critical analysis about albino Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio H.G. Rodrigues

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of partial albinism in the pampas deer, recorded at the Emas National Park, Goiás, Brazil is described. The coat color and behaviour of the albino are compared with normal pampas deer.

  3. Um albino parcial de veado campeiro (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus) no Parque Nacional das Emas, Goiás / Partial albinism in the pampas deer and a critical analysis about albino Mammals

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávio H.G., Rodrigues; Leandro, Silveira; Anah T., Jácomo; Emygdio L.A., Monteiro-Filho.

    1229-12-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english A case of partial albinism in the pampas deer, recorded at the Emas National Park, Goiás, Brazil is described. The coat color and behaviour of the albino are compared with normal pampas deer. [...

  4. Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Nan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical sign of BVDV to isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer. Results we isolated a suspected BVDV strain from livers of an aborted fetus from sika deer in Changchun (China using MDBK cell lines, named as CCSYD strain, and identified it by cytopathic effect (CPE, indirect immunoperoxidase test (IPX and electron microscopy(EM. The results indicated that this virus was BVDV by a series of identification. The structural proteins E0 gene was cloned and sequenced. The obtained E0 gene sequence has been submitted to GenBank with the accession number: FJ555203. Alignment with other 9 strains of BVDV, 7 strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV and 3 strains of border disease virus(BDV in the world, showed that the homology were 98.6%-84.8%, 76.0%-74.7%, 76.6%-77.0% for nucleotide sequence, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that new isolation and identification CCSYD strain belonged to BVDV1b. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that BVDV was isolated and identified in sika deer. This current research contributes development new BVDV vaccine to prevent and control of BVD in sika deer.

  5. Female white-tailed deer survival across ecoregions in minnesota and south dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Swanson, C.C.; Jacques, C.N.; Deperno, C.S.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Survival and cause-specific mortality of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been well documented in forested and agricultural landscapes, but limited information has been collected in grassland habitats typical of the Northern Great Plains. Our objectives were to document and compare survival and cause-specific mortality of adult female white-tailed deer in four distinct ecoregions. We captured and radiocollared 190 (159 adult, 31 yearling) female white-tailed deer and monitored (including deer from a previous study) a total of 246 (215 adult, 31 yearling) deer from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2007. We documented 113 mortalities; hunting (including wounding loss) accounted for 69.9% of all mortalities and vehicle collisions accounted for an additional 15.0%. Natural causes (e.g., disease, predation) of mortality were minor compared to human-related causes (e.g., hunting, vehicle collisions). We used known fate modeling in program MARK to estimate survival rates and compare ecoregions and seasons. Model Sseason (winter=summer) had the lowest AICc value suggesting that survival differed only between seasons where winter and summer survival was equal and differed with fall season. Annual and seasonal (summer, fall, winter) survival rates using the top model S season (summer=winter) were 0.76 (95% ci = 0.70-0.80), 0.97 (95% ci = 0.96-0.98), 0.80 (95% ci = 0.76-0.83) and 0.97 (95% ci = 0.96-0.98), respectively. High human-related mortality was likely associated with limited permanent cover, extensive road networks and high hunter density. Deer management in four distinct ecoregions relies on hunter harvest to maintain deer populations within state management goals. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.

  6. An assessment of zoonotic and production limiting pathogens in rusa deer (Cervus timorensis rusa) from Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jori, F; Godfroid, J; Michel, A L; Potts, A D; Jaumally, M R; Sauzier, J; Roger, M

    2014-08-01

    A population of approximately 70,000 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) represents the most important mammal species reared for food on the island of Mauritius, being the main source of red meat for the local population. However, very limited information is available on the circulation of pathogens affecting the productivity and health of this species. To produce baseline data on the circulation of infectious pathogens in rusa deer under production, a serological survey and/or direct pathogen detection for six selected infectious diseases was undertaken in 2007 in a sample of 53% of the herds reared in semi-free-ranging conditions in hunting estates. Seropositive results were recorded for Johne's disease with an indirect ELISA test (1.7%, n = 351), heartwater with an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) (95.5%, n = 178) and leptospirosis with a Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) (25.9%, n = 363). Significant associations were found between seroprevalence to some of the leptospiral serogroups detected (Tarassovi, Pomona, Sejroe and Mini) and age of the animals, animal density or location of the estates (being more prevalent in hotter and more humid areas). In addition, Mycobacterium bovis and M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis were confirmed in two deer carcasses by culture and PCR, respectively. No antibodies against Brucella spp. nor Rift Valley Fever virus were detected with the use of respective indirect ELISA's. The results obtained suggest that the population of rusa deer from Mauritius is exposed to a wide range of pathogens which may affect their productivity. In addition, the results highlight the potential public health risks incurred by deer industry workers and consumers. This survey fills an important gap in knowledge regarding the health of tropical deer meat in Mauritius and justifies the need to implement more regular surveys of selected pathogens in the deer population. PMID:24382104

  7. Lead and cadmium in red deer and wild boar from different hunting grounds in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration and relations of Cd and Pb as environmental risk factors were studied by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the liver, kidney and muscle of free ranging wild boar (n = 94) and red deer (n = 45) from hunting grounds in four counties of north-east Croatia. In all four counties, the levels of Cd found in the kidney of red deer ranged from 2.28 to 5.91 mg/kg, and in wild boar from 3.47 to 21.10 mg/kg. The mean renal concentration of Cd was significantly higher in wild boar than in red deer from all four study areas. The mean hepatic (0.11 to 0.49 mg/kg, respectively) and muscle (0.01 to 0.04 mg/kg, respectively) Cd concentrations were similar in both species. The mean renal Cd concentration in wild boar and red deer exceeded 1 mg/kg in all four counties, ranging from 67.0% to 91.4% and from 45.5% to 69.2%, respectively. Also, the hepatic Cd/renal Cd ratio was lower than 1 in all animals. In all four counties, renal Pb concentration ranged from 0.058 to 3.77 mg/kg in red deer and from 0.056 to 11.60 mg/kg in wild boar. Hepatic Pb concentration was similar in both species (0.061 to 0.202 mg/kg in wild boar and 0.077 to 0.108 mg/kg in red deer). Because of the high Cd level in the organs of wild boar and red deer, further research is needed to identify the source of contamination in order to preserve the health of animals and humans.

  8. Generation of competent bone marrow-derived antigen presenting cells from the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrell Regina M

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human infections with Sin Nombre virus (SNV and related New World hantaviruses often lead to hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS, a sometimes fatal illness. Lungs of patients who die from HCPS exhibit cytokine-producing mononuclear infiltrates and pronounced pulmonary inflammation. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus are the principal natural hosts of SNV, in which the virus establishes life-long persistence without conspicuous pathology. Little is known about the mechanisms SNV employs to evade the immune response of deer mice, and experimental examination of this question has been difficult because of a lack of methodologies for examining such responses during infection. One such deficiency is our inability to characterize T cell responses because susceptible syngeneic deer mice are not available. Results To solve this problem, we have developed an in vitro method of expanding and generating competent antigen presenting cells (APC from deer mouse bone marrow using commercially-available house mouse (Mus musculus granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. These cells are capable of processing and presenting soluble protein to antigen-specific autologous helper T cells in vitro. Inclusion of antigen-specific deer mouse antibody augments T cell stimulation, presumably through Fc receptor-mediated endocytosis. Conclusions The use of these APC has allowed us to dramatically expand deer mouse helper T cells in culture and should permit extensive characterization of T cell epitopes. Considering the evolutionary divergence between deer mice and house mice, it is probable that this method will be useful to other investigators using unconventional models of rodent-borne diseases.

  9. Cytogenetic study on Thai brow-antlered deer, Cervus eldi siamensis and Thamin brow-antlered deer, Cervus eldi thamin (Artiodactyla, Cervidae by conventional staining method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monthira Monthatong1

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetics of Thai brow-antlered deer (Cervus eldi siamensis were studied in comparison with those of Thamin brow-antlered deer (Cervus eldi thamin. Blood samples were taken from the two subspecies kept in Khoa Kheow Open Zoo, Chonburi Province. After the standard whole blood lymphocyte were cultured in presence of colchicine, the metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and air-dried. Conventional Giemsa’s staining were applied to stain chromosome. Thai and Thamin brow-antlered deers exhibited the same karyotype with diploid number of 2n = 58 (NF = 70 for females and 2n = 58 (NF = 71 for males. The types of autosome are 6 large metacentric, 6 large submetacentric, 8 large telocentric, 20 medium telocentric and 16 small telocentric chromosomes. In addition, satellites are clearly observed in terminal position on the short arm of a pair of chromosome 7. The X chromosome is the largest telocentric and the Y chromosome is the smallest metacentric chromosome. The karyotype formula of Thai and Thamin brow-antlered deer is as follows: 2n (58 = Lm6+Lsm6+Lt8+Mt20+St16+sex chromosome

  10. Larval supply is a good predictor of recruitment in endemic but not non-endemic fish populations at a high latitude coral reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, A. J.; Swearer, S. E.; Patterson, H. M.

    2010-03-01

    Despite extensive research, factors influencing the importance of pre- and post-settlement processes to recruitment variability remain ambiguous. Using a novel perspective, we investigated the potential influence of endemism on the relationship between larval supply and recruitment in reef fish populations at Lord Howe Island, Australia. Larval supply and recruitment were measured for three regional endemic and four widespread non-endemic species using light traps, artificial collectors, and underwater visual censuses. Recruitment was correlated with larval supply in endemics but not in non-endemics, likely due to a combination of low larval supply and post-settlement survival of non-endemics. Surveys also indicated that endemics were far more abundant and occurred in more locations than closely related non-endemics. These preliminary findings suggest that either local adaptation enhances recruitment in endemics through higher larval replenishment rates or reduced post-settlement mortality, populations of widespread species at the periphery of their range are poorly adapted to local environmental conditions and therefore experience lower and more variable settlement and post-settlement survival rates, or both.

  11. Balkan (endemic) nephropathy and foodborn ochratoxin A: preliminary results of a survey of foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, P; Hald, B; Plestina, R; Ceovi?, S

    1977-06-01

    Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic fungal metabolite (mycotoxin) occurring in foodstuffs. The compound is causally associated with mycotoxic porcine nephropathy, a disease comparable with a human kidney disease, Balkan endemic nephropathy. A preliminary survey of home-produced foodstuffs in areas of Yugoslavia revealed that contamination with ochratoxin A is more frequent in an area where Balkan endemic nephropathy is prevalent (endemic area) than in area where this disease is absent. This indicates higher exposure to foodborn ochratoxin A in the endemic area. Thus further evidence is provided supporting the hypothesis that ochratoxin A is a disease determinant of Balkan endemic nephropathyk0 PMID:888703

  12. Coccidioidomycosis and Blastomycosis: Endemic Mycotic Co-Infections in the HIV Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehangir, Waqas; Tadepalli, Geeta Santoshi; Sen, Shuvendu; Regevik, Nina; Sen, Purnendu

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic fungal infections including aspergillosis species, candida species, and fusarium can be found in HIV-infected patients. Disseminated diseases due to endemic mycoses including histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and blastomycosis are all being reported among HIV patients who reside in the known endemic areas. However, in the non-endemic areas, or due to the rarity of these pathogens, it might be difficult to recognize these unfamiliar disease presentations. We report a patient with HIV who had dual infections with endemic mycotic infections of coccidioidomycosis and blastomycosis, as he had a brief stay in the endemic area. PMID:25584108

  13. Responses to TRH in patients with endemic goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response to TRH was studied in 32 patients from an endemic goiter area, 20 of them had been previously treated with iodized oil. Blood samples were taken at 0, 20, 40 and 120 minutes after de i.v. administration of 400?g of TRH, and serum levels of TSH, T3 and T4 were measured. The results obtained show that in endemic goiter area there is a modification in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism, with increased reserve of pituitary TSH and changes in T4 and T3 secretion. The injection of TRH gave exaggerated and delayed responses in the secretion of TSH and T3. Iodized oil used as a prophylatic method produced a disminution of pituitary TSH reserve, and of serum levels of TSH and T3, as a result of the return tonormality of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism. (author)

  14. Is Sustainablity Possible in Protected Areas in Mexico? Deer as an Example of a Renewable Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gallina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, Mexico’s National Commission of Protected Areas (CONANP was created to encourage the protection, management and restoration of natural and cultural resources and their conservation. Protected areas were recently increased by more than 3 million hectares, for a current total of more than 25 million hectares, corresponding to 174 protected areas that cover 12.90% of the country’s surface area. The information obtained by research helps us understand both biodiversity and ecological processes, as well as the social and economic phenomena that influence the use of ecosystems. In Mexico there are four species of deer: white-tailed deer, mule deer, red brocket and brown brocket. These ungulates have been an important part of the diet of indigenous people and rural communities, and represent an important resource for sport and trophy hunting. We found the best deer populations in protected areas; these can therefore maintain the gene pool and serve as source populations for other areas. These populations are also useful from a research perspective. People living in some protected areas continue to use natural resources such as deer, and also receive economic inputs to develop ecotourism programs, and support from the government for the environmental services derived from conserving biodiversity.

  15. Determinants of vigilance in a reintroduced population of Père David's deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei ZHENG, Guy BEAUCHAMP, Xuelei JIANG, Zhongqiu LI, Qinglong YANG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available After being kept in captivity and isolated from natural predators for more than 1,200 years, Père David’s deer has been reintroduced in China and now occurs in a reserve where human activity is the only potential threat. Antipredator vigilance is an important component of survival for many prey animals in their natural habitat. Do deer still adjust vigilance as a function of risk after such a long period of relaxed predation pressure? Here, we examined vigilance levels in Père David’s deer groups as a function of group size, sex and level of human disturbance. The results showed that individual vigilance significantly decreased with group size in all-female groups but not in all-males or mixed-sex groups. In rutting season, males compete with one another and harass females, and we argue that vigilance is partly aimed at threatening males and that such vigilance increases with group size. This explains why overall vigilance did not vary with group size for males in general and for females in mixed-sex groups. Vigilance increased in more disturbed areas but in in male deer only. The results indicate that despite relaxed predation pressure over centuries, Père David’s deer can still adjust antipredator responses as a function of perceived risk. Such information may become useful in the rewilding programme now under way for this species in China [Current Zoology 59 (2: 265–270, 2013].

  16. Genetic diversity and relatedness among seven red deer (Cervus elaphus populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Maršálková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Deer (Cervidae recently belongs to the most important species. The aim of presenting study was evaluation of genetic diversity and relationship within and among seven red deer populations from different origins - Czech Republic, Hungary, hybrids Hungary x New Zealand, Lithuania, New Zealand, Poland and Slovak Republic. This study was conducted to determine the levels of genetic variability and relationships among deer populations from a total of 637 animals originating from seven countries Czech Republic (50, Hungary (35, Hungary x New Zealand hybrids (67, Lithuania (26, New Zealand (82, Poland (347 and Slovak Republic (30.  We used the hair bulbs as a source of DNA.  In total, 213 alleles were observed from the 10 loci surveyed. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 11 (IOBT965 to 35 (T156, RT13. Genetic diversity and relatedness among red deer populations has been performed on a total of 637 animals. A panel of 10 microsatellite markers used in deer were optimized. On the basis of this panel of microsatellites we were investigated genetic variability and relationships by using statistical and graphical programmes. We evaluated how close populations are to each other and their genetic admixture. Molecular genetic data combined with evaluation in statistical programmes could lead to a complex view of populations. 

  17. Fine-scale genetic structure and social organization in female white-tailed deer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comer, Christopher E.; Kilgo, John C.; D' Angelo, Gino J.; Glenn, Travis C.; Miller, Karl V.

    2005-07-01

    Abstract: Social behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have important management implications. The formation of matrilineal social groups among female deer has been documented and management strategies have been proposed based on this well-developed social structure. Using radiocollared (n = 17) and hunter or vehicle-killed (n = 21) does, we examined spatial and genetic structure in white-tailed deer on a 7,000-ha portion of the Savannah River Site in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. We used 14 microsatellite DNA loci to calculate pairwise relatedness among individual deer and to assign doe pairs to putative relationship categories. Linear distance and genetic relatedness were weakly correlated (r = –0.08, P = 0.058). Relationship categories differed in mean spatial distance, but only 60% of first-degree-related doe pairs (full sibling or mother–offspring pairs) and 38% of second-degree-related doe pairs (half sibling, grandmother–granddaughter pairs) were members of the same social group based on spatial association. Heavy hunting pressure in this population has created a young age structure among does, where the average age is <2.5 years, and <4% of does are >4.5 years old. This—combined with potentially elevated dispersal among young does—could limit the formation of persistent, cohesive social groups. Our results question the universal applicability of recently proposed models of spatial and genetic structuring in white-tailed deer, particularly in areas with differing harvest histories.

  18. Measuring Fine-Scale White-Tailed Deer Movements and Environmental Influences Using GPS Collars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few studies have documented fine-scale movements of ungulate species, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), despite the advent of global positioning system (GPS) technology incorporated into tracking devices. We collected fine-scale temporal location estimates (i.e., 15 min/relocation attempt) from 17 female and 15 male white-tailed deer over 7 years and 3 seasons in Oklahoma, USA. Our objectives were to document fine-scale movements of females and males and determine effects of reproductive phase, moon phase, and short-term weather patterns on movements. Female and male movements were primarily crepuscular. Male total daily movements were 20% greater during rut (7,363? 364) than postrut (6,156 m±260). Female daily movements were greatest during post parturition (3,357 91), followed by parturition (2,902 m±107), and pre parturition (2,682 m±121). We found moon phase had no effect on daily, nocturnal, and diurnal deer movements and fine-scale temporal weather conditions had an inconsistent influence on deer movement patterns within season. Our data suggest that hourly and daily variation in weather events have minimal impact on movements of white-tailed deer in southern latitudes. Instead, routine crepuscular movements, presumed to maximize thermoregulation and minimize predation risk, appear to be the most important factors influencing movements.

  19. Measuring Fine-Scale White-Tailed Deer Movements and Environmental Influences Using GPS Collars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Webb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have documented fine-scale movements of ungulate species, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, despite the advent of global positioning system (GPS technology incorporated into tracking devices. We collected fine-scale temporal location estimates (i.e., 15 min/relocation attempt from 17 female and 15 male white-tailed deer over 7 years and 3 seasons in Oklahoma, USA. Our objectives were to document fine-scale movements of females and males and determine effects of reproductive phase, moon phase, and short-term weather patterns on movements. Female and male movements were primarily crepuscular. Male total daily movements were 20% greater during rut (7,363?m±364 than postrut (6,156?m±260. Female daily movements were greatest during postparturition (3,357?m±91, followed by parturition (2,902?m±107, and preparturition (2,682?m±121. We found moon phase had no effect on daily, nocturnal, and diurnal deer movements and fine-scale temporal weather conditions had an inconsistent influence on deer movement patterns within season. Our data suggest that hourly and daily variation in weather events have minimal impact on movements of white-tailed deer in southern latitudes. Instead, routine crepuscular movements, presumed to maximize thermoregulation and minimize predation risk, appear to be the most important factors influencing movements.

  20. Iodine-129 in forage and deer on the Hanford site and other Pacific Northwest locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of surface soil, litter, forage, and deer (rumen content, muscle, liver, and thyroid gland) were collected from Bend, Oregon; Centralia, Washington; Wenatchee, Washington; the Wooten Game Range near Dayton, Washington; and on or near the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The concentrations of 129I and 127I were determined using neturon activation techniques. The purpose of the study was to establish the current levels of 129I in the environs of the Hanford Site prior to the proposed restart of fuel reprocessing at the PUREX plant. The results of this study clearly demonstrated the longevity of 129I in the biosphere following gaseous release from a nuclear facility. Analyses of thyroid glands showed that deer living within 160 km (Wooten Game Range) of Hanford had elevated levels of 129I when compared to the more distant Pacific Northwest locations (Centralia, or Bend). Levels of 129I in deer thyroid from Bend, or Centralia, (15 fCi/g wet weight), were about five times higher than values reported for the central United States, while, Hanford samples were about 2,700 times higher. The average concentration of 129I in deer thyroids collected at Hanford in 1978 was similar to samples collected 14 years earlier. The concentrations of 129I in soil, litter, forage, and other deer samples generally decrease in the order: Hanford > Wooten > Wenatchee > Centralia approx. = Bend. This corresponds to an increase in distance from the Hanford Site

  1. Invasive ants disrupt frugivory by endemic island birds

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Naomi E.; O'Dowd, Dennis J; Mac Nally, Ralph; Green, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Biological invasions can alter direct and indirect interactions between species, generating far-reaching changes in ecological networks that affect key ecological functions. We used model and real fruit assays to show that the invasion and formation of high-density supercolonies by the yellow crazy ant (YCA), Anoplolepis gracilipes, disrupt frugivory by endemic birds on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. The overall handling rates of model fruits by birds were 2.2–2.4-fold lower in ant-invaded t...

  2. Pure Ultrasonic Communication in an Endemic Bornean Frog

    OpenAIRE

    Arch, Victoria S.; Grafe, T. Ulmar; Gridi-Papp, Marcos; Narins, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    Huia cavitympanum, an endemic Bornean frog, is the first amphibian species known to emit exclusively ultrasonic (i.e., >20 kHz) vocal signals. To test the hypothesis that these frogs use purely ultrasonic vocalizations for intraspecific communication, we performed playback experiments with male frogs in their natural calling sites. We found that the frogs respond with increased calling to broadcasts of conspecific calls containing only ultrasound. The field study was complemented by electroph...

  3. The flora of Angola : first record of diversity and endemism

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Estrela; Smith, G. F.; Cesar, Joaquim

    2009-01-01

    Angola is the only southern African country for which a plant inventory has not been produced to date. The lack of a country-level floristic checklist has seriously hampered the estimation of levels of diversity and endemism, and other conservation-driven initiatives. This deficiency was addressed in a collaborative initiative recently concluded among over 30 international project participants. This paper presents the results of the project that aimed, among other things, to survey the Angola...

  4. Multiple aquatic invasions by an endemic, terrestrial Hawaiian moth radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinoff, Daniel; Schmitz, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Insects are the most diverse form of life on the planet, dominating both terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, yet no species has a life stage able to breath, feed, and develop either continually submerged or without access to water. Such truly amphibious insects are unrecorded. In mountain streams across the Hawaiian Islands, some caterpillars in the endemic moth genus Hyposmocoma are truly amphibious. These larvae can breathe and feed indefinitely both above and below the water's surface a...

  5. Flavonoids from Algerian endemic Centaurea microcarpa and their chemotaxonomical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louaar, Souheila; Achouri, Amel; Lefahal, Mostefa; Laouer, Hocine; Medjroubi, Kamel; Duddeck, Helmut; Akkal, Salah

    2011-11-01

    Six flavonoids, namely 6-methoxykaempferol (1), 6-methoxykaempferol 7-O-glucoside (2), kaempferol 7-O-glucoside (3), 6-methoxyluteolin (4), patuletin 7-O-glucoside (5), and hispidulin 7-O-glucoside (6), were isolated from a n-butanolic fraction of Centaurea microcarpa Coss et Dur. flowers. This work describes for the first time the phytochemical composition of this endemic Algerian plant. PMID:22224272

  6. Anticholinesterase Activity of Endemic Plant Extracts from Soqotra

    OpenAIRE

    Bakthira, Hussein; Awadh Ali, Nasser A.; Arnold, Norbert; Teichert, Axel; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2011-01-01

    A total of 30 chloroform and methanol extracts from the following endemic Soqotran plants Acridocarpus socotranus Olive, Boswellia socotranao Balf.fil, Boswellia elongata Balf. fil., Caralluma socotrana N. Br, Cephalocroton socotranus Balf.f, Croton socotranus Balf. fil.., Dendrosicycos socotrana Balf.f., Dorstenia gigas Schweinf. ex Balf. fil., Eureiandra balfourii Cogn. & Balf. fil., Kalanchoe farinaceae Balf.f, Limonium sokotranum (Vierh) Radcl. Sm), Oldenlandia pulvinata, Pulicaria divers...

  7. Micropropagation and root culture of Turkish endemic Astragalus chrysochlorus (Leguminosae)

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanc?ebi?, Semra; C?akir, Neslihan Turgut Kara O?zgu?r; Ari, S?ule

    2011-01-01

    Efficient micropropagation and root culture protocols were developed for the endemic Astragalus chrysochlorus Boiss. & Kotschy. A high frequency of shoot formation (100%) and maximum multiplication (13 shoots per hypocotyl explant) were achieved on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with 0.5 mg/L trans-Zeatin riboside (ZR). By using single regenerated hypocotyl explants, rooting was achieved at a rate of 93% on MS medium containing 2% sucrose without growth regulators. High frequ...

  8. Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

  9. Evaluating Spatial Overlap and Relatedness of White-tailed Deer in a Chronic Wasting Disease Management Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magle, Seth B.; Samuel, Michael D.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.; Robinson, Stacie J.; Mathews, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife disease transmission, at a local scale, can occur from interactions between infected and susceptible conspecifics or from a contaminated environment. Thus, the degree of spatial overlap and rate of contact among deer is likely to impact both direct and indirect transmission of infectious diseases such chronic wasting disease (CWD) or bovine tuberculosis. We identified a strong relationship between degree of spatial overlap (volume of intersection) and genetic relatedness for female white-tailed deer in Wisconsin’s area of highest CWD prevalence. We used volume of intersection as a surrogate for contact rates between deer and concluded that related deer are more likely to have contact, which may drive disease transmission dynamics. In addition, we found that age of deer influences overlap, with fawns exhibiting the highest degree of overlap with other deer. Our results further support the finding that female social groups have higher contact among related deer which can result in transmission of infectious diseases. We suggest that control of large social groups comprised of closely related deer may be an effective strategy in slowing the transmission of infectious pathogens, and CWD in particular. PMID:23437171

  10. Browsing preference and ecological carrying capacity of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) on secondary vegetation in forest plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Dahlan; Jiwan, Dawend

    2015-02-01

    The browsing preference and ecological carrying capacity (ECC) of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) in acacia plantations for management and conservation of the ecosystem were investigated at Sabal Forest Reserve in Sarawak, Malaysia. The identification of the species browsed by the sambar deer was based on an observation of the plant parts consumed. ECC estimation was based on body weight (BW) and the physiological stages of animals browsed in six fenced 4-ha paddocks. Sambar deer were found foraging on only 29 out of 42 species of secondary vegetation in the acacia plantation. The remaining species are too high for the deer to reach. Planted species, Shorea macrophylla are not palatable to the deer. This augurs well for the integration of sambar deer into shorea plantations. The most frequently exploited plants were Ficus spp. Sambar deer preferred woody species more than non-woody species and they are browser animals. By producing metabolizable energy of 19,000 to 27,000 MJ/ha, the ECC was five head/ha to 5.25 head/ha. Given its contribution to the conservation of wildlife and its capacity to sustain the ecosystem, the sambar deer integrated farming system offers a promising strategy for the future of tropical forestry management. PMID:25163638

  11. Parsimony analysis of endemicity of enchodontoid fishes from the Cenomanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hilda Maria Andrade da

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Parsimony analysis of endemicity was applied to analyze the distribution of enchodontoid fishes occurring strictly in the Cenomanian. The analysis was carried out using the computer program PAUP* 4.0b10, based on a data matrix built with 17 taxa and 12 areas. The rooting was made on an hypothetical all-zero outgroup. Applying the exact algorithm branch and bound, 47 trees were obtained with 26 steps, a consistency index of 0.73, and a retention index of 0.50. The topology found with a majority rule consensus was: [(Mexico + (United States + (Morocco + Italy + (Lebanon + Israel + (Italy-Slovenia + (Brazil] + (D.R. Congo + (Sweden + (Germany + (England. The procedure delimited two areas of endemism in the Tethys Ocean. They are Morocco and southern Italy and Lebanon and Israel. The area of endemism formed by Morocco + Italy represents the North African region of the Tethys Ocean, and that formed by Lebanon + Israel is in the mid-Tethyan Ocean. Our results are in partial agreement with the patterns of geographical distribution of certain invertebrate biota.

  12. Loasaceae endémicas del Perú / Loasaceae endemic of Peru

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eric, Rodriguez; Maximilian, Weigend.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La familia Loasaceae está representada en el Perú por ocho géneros y alrededor de 112 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), la mayoría herbáceas. En este trabajo se reconoce y categoriza 59 especies y 10 taxones subespecíficos en cinco géneros como endemismos peruanos. El géne [...] ro Nasa es el más rico en especies. Estos taxones endémicos ocupan principalmente las regiones Mesoandina, Puna Húmeda y Seca y Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, desde los 1400 hasta los 4700 m de altitud. Diez de los endemismos reconocidos se encuentran representados dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Loasaceae are represented in Peru by eight genera and around 112 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mainly herbs. Here we recognize 59 species and 10 infra-specific taxa in five genera as Peruvian endemics. Nasa is the genus with the largest number of endemic species. Th [...] ese endemic taxa are found in the Mesoandean, Humid and Dry Puna, and Very Humid Montane Forest regions, between 1400 and 4700 m elevation. Ten of these taxa have been found in the Peruvian protected areas system.

  13. Epidemiology of Cyclospora cayetanensis: A review focusing in endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacín-Bonilla, Leonor

    2010-09-01

    Cyclospora cayetanensis is an intestinal coccidian protozoon that has emerged as an important cause of endemic or epidemic diarrhoeal illness in children and adults worldwide. Humans appear to be the only natural hosts. However, the role of animals as natural reservoirs is uncertain but of increasing concern. Human-to-human spread of the parasite occurs indirectly via the environment through oocysts in contaminated water, food or soil. In endemic areas, risk factors associated with the infection include contaminated water or food, contact with soil or animals, type of sanitation and low socioeconomic status. Infections linked to soil contact provide reasons to believe that this route of spread may be more common than realised in disadvantaged community settings. C. cayetanensis is an important cause of traveller's diarrhoea and numerous large foodborne outbreaks associated with the globalisation of the food supply and importation of fruits and vegetables from developing countries have occurred. Waterborne outbreaks have also been reported. Implementation of measures to prevent or control the spread of Cyclospora oocysts in the environment is critical. In endemic areas, the most important steps to prevent infection are improving environmental sanitation and health education. Significant gaps remain in our understanding of the epidemiology of human cyclosporiasis that highlight the need for continued research in several aspects of C. cayetanensis. PMID:20382099

  14. Nutritional values of wild rusa deer (Cervus timorensis venison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Jamal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Until 2002, the level of protein consumption from red meat origin by the Indonesian people was only 51.5% from the national target. The reasons for this condition were due to limited resources of domesticated animals and low income of many suburb people to buy red mead. One alternative in supplying the gap of protein consumption is by utilizing local prospective wildlife animals, such as deer. This species is widely distributed among the islands in Indonesia. In order to understand more on the quality of tropical rusa venison (Cervus timorensis, a study was conducted in Palu district, Southeast Sulawesi by collecting venison from hunters. The results showed there was no significant difference on cooking lost among the carcass parts (hind leg, front leg and saddle, with the range between 30.3 to 33.0%. There were also no significant differences on the gross energy, protein, ash, fat and phosphor values among the carcass parts. The contents of sodium , ferum and calcium were significantly different at p9.5% DM, compared to other groups (<4.0% DM. In amino acid contents , it showed no interaction between the carcass parts to amino acid groups, however there was a significant difference among the amino acid groups. Glutamic acid had the highest level (15.74%DM, where as others were ranged between 2.7 to 7.6% DM. (Animal Production 7(1: 46-51 (2005

  15. MONITORING OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN FARMED DEER POPULATIONS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Bajzík

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Deer (Cervidaei belong to the most important species used as farmed animals. We focused on assesing the genetic diversity among five deer populations. Analysis has been performed on a total of 183 animals originating from Czech Republic, Hungary, New Zealand, Poland and Slovak Republic. Genetic variability were investigated using 8 microsatellite markers used in deer. Statistical data of all populations we obtained on the basis of Nei statistics, using by POWERMARKER 3.23 programme. Graphical view of relationships among populations and individuals in the populations was obtained using the Dendroscope software. Molecular genetic data combinated with evaluation in statistical programmes could lead to a complex view of populations and diffrences among them.doi:10.5219/172

  16. Effects of natural phenomena and human activity on the species richness of endemic and non-endemic Heteroptera in the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Real, R.; Guerrero, J. C.; Vargas, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    The geographical patterns of Heleroptera species diversity in the Canary Islands were analysed, and endemic and non-endemic species were studied both together and separately. Causal processes most likely controlling these patterns, as well as the theory of island biogeography, hypotheses about evolutionary time, habitat heterogeneity, climatic stability, intermediate disturbances, energy, environmental favourableness-severity, productivity and human influence were investigated. The combinatio...

  17. Population characteristics and viability of the introduced hog deer (Axis porcinus Zimmermann, 1780 in Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worawidh Wajjwalku

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to study population characteristics of hog deer released into the wild, namely: density,age structure, sex ratio, recruitment rate, threats to hog deer, carrying capacity and inter-specific relationships, as well as toassess the population viability over time. In this study, direct observation was used to study the hog deer population characteristics,and population density was estimated from the pellet-group count method. Vortex program was used to analyze thepopulation viability. Results showed that the population density of hog deer at Thung Ka Mung (TKM in Phu Khieo WildlifeSanctuary (PKWS was 2.03-2.04 individuals/hectare (SD = 1.25. The population structure showed that the average herd sizewas 9.57 individuals. Hog deer in TKM preferred to stay with a group (91.5%, rather than being solitary (8.5%. The sex ratiofor males to females was 54.64:100, and for females to fawns was 100:26.18. The annual recruitment rate was 16.98 %. Theirpredators were Asian wild dogs, Burmese pythons, Asiatic jackals, leopard cats and clouded leopards. The mortality rate ofthe existing hog deer in TKM during the study period was 18.1%. The habitat sharing by camera traps revealed 4 ungulatespecies. They were sambar deer, barking deer, wild boar, and elephant, and their relative abundance were 28.41%, 7.38%,4.70%, and 2.01% respectively. Fifty-year simulation modeling using population viability analysis indicated the sustainabilityof this population. Hog deer population in the simulations did not exhibit sensitivity to an increase or decrease in carryingcapacity. Habitat management should be carried out continuously in TKM area, which is the main habitat for hog deer inPKWS.

  18. Dietary response of sympatric deer to fire using stable isotope analysis of liver tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W. David; Zimmerman, T.J.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Jenks, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon (??13C) and nitrogen (??15N) isotopes in biological samples from large herbivores identify photosynthetic pathways (C3 vs. C4) of plants they consumed and can elucidate potential nutritional characteristics of dietary selection. Because large herbivores consume a diversity of forage types, ??13C and ??15N in their tissue can index ingested and assimilated diets through time. We assessed ??13C and ??15N in metabolically active liver tissue of sympatric mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) to identify dietary disparity resulting from use of burned and unburned areas in a largely forested landscape. Interspecific variation in dietary disparity of deer was documented 2-3 years post-fire in response to lag-time effects of vegetative response to burning and seasonal (i.e., summer, winter) differences in forage type. Liver ??13C for mule deer were lower during winter and higher during summer 2 years post-fire on burned habitat compared to unburned habitat suggesting different forages were consumed by mule deer in response to fire. Liver ??15N for both species were higher on burned than unburned habitat during winter and summer suggesting deer consumed more nutritious forage on burned habitat during both seasons 2 and 3 years post-fire. Unlike traditional methods of dietary assessment that do not measure uptake of carbon and nitrogen from dietary components, analyses of stable isotopes in liver or similar tissue elucidated ??13C and ??15N assimilation from seasonal dietary components and resulting differences in the foraging ecology of sympatric species in response to fire.

  19. Deer carcass decomposition and potential scavenger exposure to chronic wasting disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennelle, C.S.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Berkley, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy afflicting the Cervidae family in North America, causing neurodegeneration and ultimately death. Although there are no reports of natural cross-species transmission of CWD to noncervids, infected deer carcasses pose a potential risk of CWD exposure for other animals. We placed 40 disease-free white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses and 10 gut piles in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin (USA) from September to April in 2003 through 2005. We used photos from remotely operated cameras to characterize scavenger visitation and relative activity. To evaluate factors driving the rate of carcass removal (decomposition), we used KaplanMeier survival analysis and a generalized linear mixed model. We recorded 14 species of scavenging mammals (6 visiting species) and 14 species of scavenging birds (8 visiting species). Prominent scavengers included American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). We found no evidence that deer consumed conspecific remains, although they visited gut piles more often than carcasses relative to temporal availability in the environment. Domestic dogs, cats, and cows either scavenged or visited carcass sites, which could lead to human exposure to CWD. Deer carcasses persisted for 18 days to 101 days depending on the season and year, whereas gut piles lasted for 3 days. Habitat did not influence carcass decomposition, but mammalian and avian scavenger activity and higher temperatures were positively associated with faster removal. Infected deer carcasses or gut piles can serve as potential sources of CWD prions to a variety of scavengers. In areas where surveillance for CWD exposure is practical, management agencies should consider strategies for testing primary scavengers of deer carcass material.

  20. Surveillance to detect chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Damien O; Samuel, Michael D; Langenberg, Julia A; Rolley, Robert E; Keane, Delwyn P

    2009-10-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease affecting North American cervids, has been discovered in at least 12 states and provinces throughout the continent. Since 2002, a number of states and provinces have initiated surveillance programs to detect CWD in native cervid populations. However, many questions remain about the appropriate methods, geographic scope, and number of samples required for an effective CWD surveillance program. We provide an improved statistical method to calculate the probability of detecting CWD in primary sample units (e.g., county or deer management unit) that also considers deer abundance and the nonrandom distribution of CWD and hunter harvests. We used this method to analyze data from a statewide CWD detection program conducted in Wisconsin during the autumns of 2002 and 2003 to determine the distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Deer heads were collected at hunter registration stations, and brainstem (obex) and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were removed for disease testing. Our analysis includes samples from >35,000 deer collected outside the known affected area. The probability of detecting chronic wasting disease at a prevalence of 1% varied from 0.89 to > or =0.99 among the 56 primary sample units. Detection probabilities for 1% CWD prevalence were >0.9 in 55 primary sample units, and >0.99 in 10. Detection probabilities will be higher in areas where CWD prevalence exceeds 1%. CWD-positive deer were detected in eight primary sample units surrounding the known affected area during surveillance activities. Our approach provides a novel statistical technique to accommodate nonrandom sampling in wildlife disease surveillance programs. PMID:19901375

  1. Evaluation of the CervidTB STAT-PAK for the Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Wild Deer in Great Britain?

    OpenAIRE

    Gowtage-Sequeira, S.; Paterson, A.; Lyashchenko, K. P.; Lesellier, S.; Chambers, M A

    2009-01-01

    Deer are acknowledged as hosts of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), and determining the prevalence of infection in deer species is one of the key steps in understanding the epidemiological role played by cervids in the transmission and maintenance of bTB in the United Kingdom. This study evaluated a rapid lateral-flow test for the detection of bTB in samples from wild deer species in the United Kingdom. Fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolu...

  2. Wild boar and red deer display high prevalences of tuberculosis-like lesions in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Baños, Joaquín; Höfle, Ursula; Garrido, Joseba M; García Fernández de Mera, Isabel; Juste, Ramón A; Barral, Marta; Gortázar, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We describe the distribution of tuberculosis-like lesions (TBL) in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Spain. Animals with TBL were confirmed in 84.21% of mixed populations (n = 57) of red deer and wild boar and in 75% of populations of wild boar alone (n = 8) in central and southern Spain (core area). The prevalence of TBL declined towards the periphery of this region. In the core area, the prevalence ranged up to 100% in local populations of wild boar (mean estate preval...

  3. Breeding of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L.) in Fenced Controlled Condition of Šeprešhat

    OpenAIRE

    Marijan Grubeši?; Branko Uroševi?; Zlatan Mihaljevi?; Kristijan Tomljanovi?

    2011-01-01

    The controlled breeding of wild game has been carried out for many years as part of hunting management programs for commercially important game species. The controlled breeding of red deer in the Šeprešhat polygon is the result of long-term game management in open hunting grounds, scientific research, monitoring the state of game in hunting grounds, and supply and demand.One of the reasons for controlled breeding of red deer in Croatia is certainly the reduction in population abundance of t...

  4. Is there adaptation of the exocrine pancreas in wild animal? The case of the Roe Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilloteau Paul

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiology of the exocrine pancreas has been well studied in domestic and in laboratory animals as well as in humans. However, it remains quite unknown in wildlife mammals. Roe deer and cattle (including calf belong to different families but have a common ancestor. This work aimed to evaluate in the Roe deer, the adaptation to diet of the exocrine pancreatic functions and regulations related to animal evolution and domestication. Results Forty bovine were distributed into 2 groups of animals either fed exclusively with a milk formula (monogastric or fed a dry feed which allowed for rumen function to develop, they were slaughtered at 150?days of age. The 35 Roe deer were wild animals living in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, shot during the hunting season and classified in two groups adult and young. Immediately after death, the pancreas was removed for tissue sample collection and then analyzed. When expressed in relation to body weight, pancreas, pancreatic protein weights and enzyme activities measured were higher in Roe deer than in calf. The 1st original feature is that in Roe deer, the very high content in pancreatic enzymes seems to be related to specific digestive products observed (proline-rich proteins largely secreted in saliva which bind tannins, reducing their deleterious effects on protein digestion. The high chymotrypsin and elastase II quantities could allow recycling of proline-rich proteins. In contrast, domestication and rearing cattle resulted in simplified diet with well digestible components. The 2nd feature is that in wild animal, both receptor subtypes of the CCK/gastrin family peptides were present in the pancreas as in calf, although CCK-2 receptor subtype was previously identified in higher mammals. Conclusions Bovine species could have lost some digestive capabilities (no ingestion of great amounts of tannin-rich plants, capabilities to secrete high amounts of proline-rich proteins compared with Roe deer species. CCK and gastrin could play an important role in the regulation of pancreatic secretion in Roe deer as in calf. This work, to the best of our knowledge is the first study which compared the Roe deer adaptation to diet with a domesticated animal largely studied.

  5. Radiocaesium levels in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given on the course of radiocaesium contamination in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria. In autumn 1987 and winter 1987/88 radiocaesium levels rose to values higher than those recorded in 1986 in these regions. The reason for this increase was the very specific feeding selection of roe deer in these forest areas resulting in the ingestion of an unusual high amount of blueberries, ferns and mushrooms. An explanation for the changes of wild boar's contamination has not been found yet, but possible reasons are discussed. (author)

  6. Infectious Prions in the Saliva and Blood of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiason, Candace K.; Powers, Jenny G.; Dahmes, Sallie J.; Osborn, David A.; Miller, Karl V.; Warren, Robert J.; Mason, Gary L.; Hays, Sheila A.; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Seelig, Davis M.; Wild, Margaret A.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Spraker, Terry R.; Miller, Michael W.; Sigurdson, Christina J.; Telling, Glenn C.; Hoover, Edward A.

    2006-10-01

    A critical concern in the transmission of prion diseases, including chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids, is the potential presence of prions in body fluids. To address this issue directly, we exposed cohorts of CWD-naïve deer to saliva, blood, or urine and feces from CWD-positive deer. We found infectious prions capable of transmitting CWD in saliva (by the oral route) and in blood (by transfusion). The results help to explain the facile transmission of CWD among cervids and prompt caution concerning contact with body fluids in prion infections.

  7. Recovery of human DNA profiles from poached deer remains: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobe, Shanan S; Govan, James; Welch, Lindsey A

    2011-12-01

    Poaching is a crime that occurs worldwide and can be extremely difficult to investigate and prosecute due to the nature of the evidence available. If a species is protected by international legislation such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora then simply possessing any part of that species is illegal. Previous studies have focused on the identification of endangered species in cases of potential poaching. Difficulties arise if the poached animal is not endangered. Species such as deer have hunting seasons whereby they can legally be hunted however poaching is the illegal take of deer, irrespective of season. Therefore, identification of deer alone has little probative value as samples could have originated from legal hunting activities in season. After a deer is hunted it is usual to remove the innards, head and lower limbs. The limbs are removed through manual force and represent a potential source of human touch DNA. We investigate the potential to recover and profile human autosomal DNA from poached deer remains. Samples from the legs of ten culled deer were obtained (40 in total) using minitapes. DNA from samples was extracted, quantified and amplified to determine if it would be possible to recover human STR profiles. Low quantification data led to the use of an extended PCR cycling protocol of 34 cycles. Samples from seven deer amplified, however some samples were excluded from further analysis due to 'drop in' alleles or the low level of successfully amplified loci. Samples from five deer could be further analysed and gave match probabilities ranging from 6.37×10(-3) to 9.53×10(-11). This study demonstrates the potential of recovering human touch DNA from poached animal remains. There is the potential for this test to be used in relation to other species of poached remains or other types of wildlife crimes. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that human STR profiling has been successfully applied to touch DNA in regards to simulated wildlife crime. PMID:22137052

  8. White-Tailed Deer Browse Preferences in a Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors examined spring and summer use of browse by white-tailed deer in forest gaps created by group selection timber harvest at the SRS. Total percentage browse was low in both years, averaging 2.5% of the available browse. Six species were rated high use, 4 species as proportional use and 10 species as low use. Ratings were in agreement to others in the Southeast. Preferred species were maple, winged elm, greenbriar and black willow. Deer browse had very little impact on regeneration of most species

  9. Plant and animal endemism in the eastern Andean slope: challenges to conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swenson Jennifer J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Andes-Amazon basin of Peru and Bolivia is one of the most data-poor, biologically rich, and rapidly changing areas of the world. Conservation scientists agree that this area hosts extremely high endemism, perhaps the highest in the world, yet we know little about the geographic distributions of these species and ecosystems within country boundaries. To address this need, we have developed conservation data on endemic biodiversity (~800 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, and plants and terrestrial ecological systems (~90; groups of vegetation communities resulting from the action of ecological processes, substrates, and/or environmental gradients with which we conduct a fine scale conservation prioritization across the Amazon watershed of Peru and Bolivia. We modelled the geographic distributions of 435 endemic plants and all 347 endemic vertebrate species, from existing museum and herbaria specimens at a regional conservation practitioner's scale (1:250,000-1:1,000,000, based on the best available tools and geographic data. We mapped ecological systems, endemic species concentrations, and irreplaceable areas with respect to national level protected areas. Results We found that sizes of endemic species distributions ranged widely (2 to > 200,000 km2 across the study area. Bird and mammal endemic species richness was greatest within a narrow 2500-3000 m elevation band along the length of the Andes Mountains. Endemic amphibian richness was highest at 1000-1500 m elevation and concentrated in the southern half of the study area. Geographical distribution of plant endemism was highly taxon-dependent. Irreplaceable areas, defined as locations with the highest number of species with narrow ranges, overlapped slightly with areas of high endemism, yet generally exhibited unique patterns across the study area by species group. We found that many endemic species and ecological systems are lacking national-level protection; a third of endemic species have distributions completely outside of national protected areas. Protected areas cover only 20% of areas of high endemism and 20% of irreplaceable areas. Almost 40% of the 91 ecological systems are in serious need of protection (= Conclusions We identify for the first time, areas of high endemic species concentrations and high irreplaceability that have only been roughly indicated in the past at the continental scale. We conclude that new complementary protected areas are needed to safeguard these endemics and ecosystems. An expansion in protected areas will be challenged by geographically isolated micro-endemics, varied endemic patterns among taxa, increasing deforestation, resource extraction, and changes in climate. Relying on pre-existing collections, publically accessible datasets and tools, this working framework is exportable to other regions plagued by incomplete conservation data.

  10. Suitability of NIRS analysis for estimating diet quality of free-living red deer Cervus elaphus and roe deer Capreolus capreolus.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamler, Ji?í; Homolka, Miloslav; ?ižmár, D.

    2004-01-01

    Ro?. 10, ?. 3 (2004), s. 235-240. ISSN 0909-6396 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/99/D053; GA AV ?R KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : deer * diet quality * faecal nitrogen Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.535, year: 2004 http://www.wildlifebiology.com/ Articles /en/View-473.aspx

  11. Syzygiumpyneei (Myrtaceae), a new critically endangered endemic species from Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byng, James W; Florens, F B Vincent; Baider, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Syzygium Gaertn. (Myrtaceae), Syzygiumpyneei Byng, V. Florens & Baider, is described from Mondrain Reserve on the island of Mauritius. This species is endemic to the island and differs from any other species by its combination of cauliflory, relatively large flowers, light green to cream hypanthium, light pink stamens, short thick petioles, coriaceous leaves and round, cuneate or sub-cordate to cordate leaf bases. Syzygiumpyneei Byng, V. Florens & Baider is known from only two individuals from the type locality and merits the conservation status of Critically Endangered (CR C2a(i,ii); D). PMID:25878549

  12. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anielle de, Pina-Costa; Patrícia, Brasil; Sílvia Maria Di, Santi; Mariana Pereira de, Araujo; Martha Cecilia, Suárez-Mutis; Ana Carolina Faria e Silva, Santelli; Joseli, Oliveira-Ferreira; Ricardo, Lourenço-de-Oliveira; Cláudio Tadeu, Daniel-Ribeiro.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts [...] 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013). The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon) or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex). The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites that seem to be (or to be very close to) P. vivax and, in a less extent, by Plasmodium malariae and it is transmitted by the bromeliad mosquito Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii. This paper deals mainly with the two profiles of malaria found outside the Amazon: the imported and ensuing introduced cases and the autochthonous cases. We also provide an update regarding the situation in Brazil and the Brazilian endemic Amazon.

  13. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pina-Costa, Anielle; Brasil, Patrícia; Di Santi, Sílvia Maria; de Araujo, Mariana Pereira; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecilia; Santelli, Ana Carolina Faria e Silva; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2014-08-01

    Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation's territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation's malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013). The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon) or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex). The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites that seem to be (or to be very close to) P. vivax and, in a less extent, by Plasmodium malariae and it is transmitted by the bromeliad mosquito Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii. This paper deals mainly with the two profiles of malaria found outside the Amazon: the imported and ensuing introduced cases and the autochthonous cases. We also provide an update regarding the situation in Brazil and the Brazilian endemic Amazon. PMID:25185003

  14. A new world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gething Peter W

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmission intensity affects almost all aspects of malaria epidemiology and the impact of malaria on human populations. Maps of transmission intensity are necessary to identify populations at different levels of risk and to evaluate objectively options for disease control. To remain relevant operationally, such maps must be updated frequently. Following the first global effort to map Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity in 2007, this paper describes the generation of a new world map for the year 2010. This analysis is extended to provide the first global estimates of two other metrics of transmission intensity for P. falciparum that underpin contemporary questions in malaria control: the entomological inoculation rate (PfEIR and the basic reproductive number (PfR. Methods Annual parasite incidence data for 13,449 administrative units in 43 endemic countries were sourced to define the spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission in 2010 and 22,212 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR surveys were used in a model-based geostatistical (MBG prediction to create a continuous contemporary surface of malaria endemicity within these limits. A suite of transmission models were developed that link PfPR to PfEIR and PfR and these were fitted to field data. These models were combined with the PfPR map to create new global predictions of PfEIR and PfR. All output maps included measured uncertainty. Results An estimated 1.13 and 1.44 billion people worldwide were at risk of unstable and stable P. falciparum malaria, respectively. The majority of the endemic world was predicted with a median PfEIR of less than one and a median PfRc of less than two. Values of either metric exceeding 10 were almost exclusive to Africa. The uncertainty described in both PfEIR and PfR was substantial in regions of intense transmission. Conclusions The year 2010 has a particular significance as an evaluation milestone for malaria global health policy. The maps presented here contribute to a rational basis for control and elimination decisions and can serve as a baseline assessment as the global health community looks ahead to the next series of milestones targeted at 2015.

  15. Intergenerational representations of schistosomiasis in endemic area, Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Maria Modena

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the intergenerational process of disease/health representations constitutes a requisite for the construction of projects and health education interventions. The objective of this work is to describe the meaning attributed to schistosomiasis in the family context. Twenty-one residents of an endemic area were interviewed. The interviews were submitted to content analysis. The results demonstrated different representations of the disease by the children, parents and grandparents. This paper discusses the differences in these representations and its impact in schistosomiasis control programs.

  16. In vitro cultivation of the endemic species Andryala levitomentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Vantu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cultivation of the endemic and threatened species Andryala levitomentosa represents an unconventional strategy and action plan for the biological diversity conservation. This plant is considered one of the rarest species in the European flora and in Romania it is founded only on „Pietrosul Brostenilor” mountain. The micropropagation of Andryala levitomentosa implies measures which should allow to conserve and perpetuate this species. The plants of Andryala levitomentosa have been regenerated from callus cultures. The callus cultures were established from stem and leaves explants on MS medium, supplemented with indolylacetic acid and benzylaminopurine.

  17. Brucella epididymo-orchitis: a consideration in endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella sp. and may affect many parts of the body. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This is a case report of Brucella epididymo-orchitis in a Saudi male patient. He presented with a unilateral swelling of the left testicle. He had fever, arthralgia and night sweats. Ultrasound examination revealed enlarged left epididymis and testicle. Brucella serology was positive and the patient responded to treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin. Thus, brucella infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with epididymo-orchitis from an endemic area.

  18. Three finger palpation technique of vas deferens for keyhole vasectomy in spotted (Axis axis and sambar deer (Cervus unicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. William

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Vasectomy is performed in deer for population control, maintain pedigreed animals and prevent inbreeding. Conventional procedure of vasectomy required a long-term anesthesia and longer duration of hospitalization, which often result in stress, morbidity and mortality. A study was conducted to capture, neuter and release the deer with minimal hospitalization and stress by adopting three finger palpation technique of vas deferens and performing vasectomy through a key-hole incision. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on three spotted male deer and three sambar male deer, which were immobilized with a mixture of xylazine at the dose of 1.00 mg/kg and ketamine at the dose of 5.00 mg/kg. The vas deferens could be palpated as a piece of cooked spaghetti at the neck of the scrotum on the anterior aspect by three finger palpation technique and was able to fix the vas deferens between the thumb and middle finger. Through a key-hole incision of <5 mm length, the vas deferens was exteriorized and resected using electrocautery and the skin incision was sealed with methyl methacrylate. The deer were released on the same day, and no post-operative complication was noticed. Conclusion: The study revealed that three finger palpation technique of vas deferens provided guidance for easy access to vas deferens for vasectomy in deer with less hospitalization, and the deer could be released on the same day.

  19. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Teeyapant Punthip; Srijantr Pongsant; Charoensiriwatana Wiyada; Wongvilairattana Jintana

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North E...

  20. Role of Exposure Analysis in Solving the Mystery of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Long, David T.; Voice, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the role of exposure analysis in assessing whether ochratoxin A aristolochic acid are the agents responsible for causing Balkan endemic nephropathy. We constructed a framework for exposure analysis using the lessons learned from the study of endemic goiter within the context of an accepted general model. We used this framework to develop an exposure analysis model for Balkan endemic nephropathy, evaluated previous findings from the literature on ochratoxin A and aristolochic acid...

  1. Differences in insect resistance between tomato species endemic to the Galapagos Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Lucatti, A.F.; van Heusden, A. W.; de Vos, R. C. H.; Visser, R.G.F.; Vosman, B

    2013-01-01

    Background The Galapagos Islands constitute a highly diverse ecosystem and a unique source of variation in the form of endemic species. There are two endemic tomato species, Solanum galapagense and S. cheesmaniae and two introduced tomato species, S. pimpinellifolium and S. lycopersicum. Morphologically the two endemic tomato species of the Galapagos Islands are clearly distinct, but molecular marker analysis shows no clear separation. Tomatoes on the Galapagos are affected by both native and...

  2. Soil Requirements of Three Salt Tolerant, Endemic Species from South-East Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente, Oscar; Collado, Francisco; Boscaiu, Monica; Lido?n, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The edaphic requirements of three endemic species from SE Spain have been investigated. Limonium dufourii is a narrow endemic,critically endangered; Thalictrum maritimum and Centaurea dracunculifolia are SE Iberian endemics, considered vulnerable and nearthreatened, respectively. The three taxa inhabit the same type of saline habitats, salt marshes called “malladas”. Several soil parameters(pH, electrical conductivity, soil chloride and sodium contents) were determined in sampling sites w...

  3. Testing global positioning system telemetry to study wolf predation on deer fawns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demma, D.J.; Barber-Meyer, S. M.; Mech, L.D.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a pilot study to test the usefulness of Global Positioning System (GPS) collars for investigating wolf (Canis lupus) predation on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns. Using GPS collars with short location-attempt intervals on 5 wolves and 5 deer during summers 2002-2004 in northeastern Minnesota, USA, demonstrated how this approach could provide new insights into wolf hunting behavior of fawns. For example, a wolf traveled ???1.5-3.0 km and spent 20-22 hours in the immediate vicinity of known fawn kill sites and ???0.7 km and 8.3 hours at scavenging sites. Wolf travel paths indicated that wolves intentionally traveled into deer summer ranges, traveled ???0.7-4.2 km in such ranges, and spent <1-22 hours per visit. Each pair of 3 GPS-collared wolf pack members were located together for ???6% of potential locations. From GPS collar data, we estimated that each deer summer range in a pack territory containing 5 wolves ???1 year old and hunting individually would be visited by a wolf on average every 3-5 days. This approach holds great potential for investigating summer hunting behavior of wolves in areas where direct observation is impractical or impossible.

  4. Reduced sperm quality in relation to oxidative stress in red deer from a lead mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reglero, Manuel M.; Taggart, Mark A.; Castellanos, Pilar [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Mateo, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.mateo@uclm.e [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    We studied the effects of elevated heavy metal uptake on the sperm quality and the antioxidant mechanisms of sperm and testis of red deer from a Pb mining area in Spain. Testis, liver and bone of red deer from mining (n = 21) and control (n = 20) areas were obtained from hunters and analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, As and Se. Testes were weighed and measured. Motility, acrosome integrity and viability and functionality of membrane were evaluated in epididymal spermatozoa. Lipid peroxidation, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in testis and spermatozoa. Deer from mined areas showed less Cu in testis, a higher testis mass and size and reduced spermatozoa membrane viability and acrosome integrity. Effects on sperm quality were associated to decreased Cu and increased Se in testis, and to decreases in the activity of SOD and GPX in testis and spermatozoa. - A decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in testis correlates with reduced sperm quality in red deer from a Pb mining area.

  5. ABUNDANT PRP-CWD IN TONSIL FROM MULE DEER WITH PRECLINICAL CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal neurologic disease of deer. The unexpected spread of the disease from a limited area in the western US to a number of states and Canadian provinces has prompted a call for extensive surveillance efforts. The current diagnostic test is sensitive and specific...

  6. Recognition of seasonal effect on captive Sumatran Sambar deer reproductive cyclicity and sexual behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD ZUENI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Putranto HD, Soetrisno E, Nurmeiliasari, Zueni A, Gibson B (2010 Recognition of seasonal effect on captive Sumatran Sambar deer reproductive cyclicity and sexual behaviors. Biodiversitas 11: 200-203. The objective of this study was to identify seasonal effect on reproductive cyclicity of a captive female Sumatran sambar deer by monitoring its visual estrus manifestations and visual sexual behaviors in buck during female natural estrus in ex situ habitat. A pair of six years of age Sumatran sambar deer was used in this study. Daily observation of visual estrus manifestations of doe and visual sexual behaviors of buck was conducted using focal-animal sampling by two animal keepers during 0800 to 1700 h from June-July 2009 (dry season to August-September 2009 (rainy season. Doe visual estrus manifestations include apparent reddening and swelling of the external genitalia, loss of appetite and a natural tendency of the doe to approach the buck. There was no significant effect of season on doe visual estrus manifestations and buck sexual behaviors (p > 0.05, except for loss of appetite and fighting behavior, respectively. Estrus was observed monthly and result of the cycle was 25.00 ± 5.22 days. It is possible to assess non-invasively estrous cycle of Sumatran sambar deer by the observation of visual estrus manifestations and there was less of seasonal effect on doe-buck sexual behaviors during female natural estrus in ex situ habitat.

  7. Age distribution and seasonal dynamics of abomasal helminths in wild red deer from central Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study on age distribution and seasonal dynamics of abomasal helminths in wild red deer was conducted in Central Spain, by monthly samplings of fawns ( 2 yr) animals. Both intensity and prevalence of abomasal parasitism was higher in older animals, particularl...

  8. PREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ANTIBODIES IN RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS) AND OTHER WILD RUMINANTS FROM SPAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum samples from 441 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and 161 other wild ruminant species, collected between 1993 and 2005 from six regions of Spain were tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies to T. gondii (MAT 1:25 or higher) were detected in...

  9. Where did they come from – the origin of sika deer population in the Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baran?eková, Miroslava; Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Voloshina, I. V.; Myslenkov, A. I.; Kawata, Y.; Oshida, T.; Lamka, J.; Koubek, Petr

    Paris : Université P. et M. Curie, 2011. s. 106 [European Congress of Mammalogy /7./. 19.07.2011-23.07.2011, Paris] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : sika deer * Czech Republic * origin Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.alphavisa.com/ecm2011/pdf/ECM2011-Abstract_Book.pdf

  10. THE IMPACT OF '4-POSTER' DEER SELF-TREATMENT DEVICES AT THREE LOCATIONS IN MARYLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 1998-2002, 25 deer self-treatment devices (4-posters) using 2% amitraz, were operated at three locations in Maryland to determine their effectiveness in controlling blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, and lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.). Each treatment site was more or less 51...

  11. No correlation between neonatal fitness and heterozygosity in a reintroduced population of Père David's deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan ZENG, Chunwang LI, Linyuan ZHANG, Zhenyu ZHONG, Zhigang JIANG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the severe impacts of genetic bottlenecks and small numbers of founders in populations of reintroduced animals, it is necessary to study inbreeding and its effect on fitness in species of conservation concern. Père David’s deer is one of few large mammal species extinct in the wild but safely preserved in captivity. Its specific background gives us the opportunity to study the relationships between heterozygosity and neonatal fitness in relocated populations. We employed five microsatellite loci to explore heterozygosity-fitness correlations in a population of Père David’s deer at the Beijing Milu Ecological Research Center. We observed associations between microsatellite-based variables sMLH, IR, MD2 and HL, and two components of fitness expressed early in life (birth weight and the neonatal mortality of 123 Père David’s deer calves born over six consecutive years. We found that neonatal mortality was 19.1 ± 7.6%, not higher than the 19% or 18% reported in other ungulates. The heterozygosity of calves was not associated with neonatal mortality, nor birth weight. Our study implies that low genetic variability of microsatellite loci has no overt effect on birth weight and neonatal mortality in reintroduced populations of Père David’s deer [Current Zoology 59 (2: 249–256, 2013].

  12. Mitochondrial Genomes of Giant Deers Suggest their Late Survival in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immel, Alexander; Drucker, Dorothée G; Bonazzi, Marion; Jahnke, Tina K; Münzel, Susanne C; Schuenemann, Verena J; Herbig, Alexander; Kind, Claus-Joachim; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The giant deer Megaloceros giganteus is among the most fascinating Late Pleistocene Eurasian megafauna that became extinct at the end of the last ice age. Important questions persist regarding its phylogenetic relationship to contemporary taxa and the reasons for its extinction. We analyzed two large ancient cervid bone fragments recovered from cave sites in the Swabian Jura (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) dated to 12,000 years ago. Using hybridization capture in combination with next generation sequencing, we were able to reconstruct nearly complete mitochondrial genomes from both specimens. Both mtDNAs cluster phylogenetically with fallow deer and show high similarity to previously studied partial Megaloceros giganteus DNA from Kamyshlov in western Siberia and Killavullen in Ireland. The unexpected presence of Megaloceros giganteus in Southern Germany after the Ice Age suggests a later survival in Central Europe than previously proposed. The complete mtDNAs provide strong phylogenetic support for a Dama-Megaloceros clade. Furthermore, isotope analyses support an increasing competition between giant deer, red deer, and reindeer after the Last Glacial Maximum, which might have contributed to the extinction of Megaloceros in Central Europe. PMID:26052672

  13. Susceptibility of North American white-tailed deer to the Netherlands strain of BTV serotype 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    World-wide there are at least 24 serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV), a complex non-enveloped virus in the family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus. Bluetongue (BT) is an arthropod-borne disease of cattle, sheep, goats, and deer and is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. In 2006, bluetongue serotype ...

  14. Isolation of Mycobacterium caprae (Lechtal genotype) from red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Mario; Zanoni, M; Alborali, L G; Zanardi, G; Avisani, D; Tagliabue, S; Gaffuri, A; Pacciarini, M L; Boniotti, M B

    2014-04-01

    During tuberculosis (TB) surveillance, 53 hunted red deer (Cervus elaphus) were collected to determine whether TB was present in free-ranging animals from an Italian alpine area. Samples (lungs, liver, intestine, and lymph nodes) were cultured and analyzed by real-time PCR assay carried out directly on tissue. Mycobacterium caprae was isolated from small granulomatous, tuberculosis-like lesions in the liver of a 12-yr-old female. Identification of suspect colonies was done by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the gyrb gene, and genotyping was performed by spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit variable number tandem repeat analysis. The isolated strain was genetically identical to strains isolated in the study area in 2001 from dairy cows imported from Austria and in 2010 from an indigenous cow. The genotype, called "Lechtal," is the most frequently detected in the TB outbreaks in Austria and Germany. The possibility that red deer act as a maintenance host of M. caprae between TB outbreaks could be not excluded. Despite the high red deer population density, the detection of only one infected red deer could suggest that the wildlife management measures applied in the study area (prohibition of artificial feeding and secure removal of offal from hunted animals) may reduce the risk of TB spreading. PMID:24499334

  15. Molecular genealogy tools for white-tailed deer with chronic wasting disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of deer, elk, and moose. CWD is a fatal neurologic disease with a long preclinical incubation period, during which the disease is probably transmitted to healthy animals through direct exposure or environ...

  16. Time-dependence of the radiocaesium contamination of roe deer: measurement and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spruce forest and peat bog, the migration of 137Cs from soil to plants, fungi, roe deer and consumers has been surveyed. In spruce forest the 137Cs activity concentration in roe deer decreases slowly with time and has superimposed periodic maxima in autumn which are correlated with the mushroom season. The decrease with time can be described by an effective half-life of 3.5 yr caused by a fraction of the 137Cs in the soil becoming unavailable for green grazing plants with time. The additional transfer of 137Cs into roe deer meat during the mushroom season depends on precipitation in July, August and September which also determines the yield of fungi in autumn. Our model confirms the assumption that fungi also have access to a fraction of the 137Cs in the soil which is unavailable for green plants. On peat bog the 137Cs activity concentration in roe deer is higher than in spruce forest and its effective half-life is about 17 yr, due to reversible binding of 137Cs to organic matter in the peat bog

  17. The effect of environmental remediation on the cesium-137 levels in white-tailed deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Fred J; Green, Timothy; Fasano, Thomas A; Shah, Vishal

    2014-10-01

    Due to activities involving nuclear energy research during the latter half of the 1900 s, environmental contamination in the form of elevated cesium-137 levels was observed within the Brookhaven National Laboratory, a US Department of Energy facility. Between the years 2000 and 2005, the laboratory carried out a major soil cleanup effort to remove cesium-137 from contaminated sites. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of the cleanup effort by comparing the levels of cesium-137 in the meat of white-tailed deer found within and around the laboratory. Results suggest that the cleanup was effective, with mean concentration of cesium-137 in the meat from within the laboratory decreasing from 2.04 Bq/g prior to 1.22 Bq/g after cleanup. At the current level, the consumption of deer would not pose any human health hazard. Nevertheless, statistically higher levels of cesium-137 were detected in the deer within the laboratory as opposed to levels found in deer 1 mi beyond the laboratory site. PMID:25028321

  18. Incidence and Injury Types in Motorcycle Collisions Involving Deer in Western New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bradley W; Buyea, Cathy M; Anders, Mark J

    2015-06-01

    Motorcycle popularity, urban sprawl, and large deer populations result in a significant number of deer-motorcycle collisions. This retrospective review of a level I trauma center in Buffalo, New York, revealed that 40 of 487 (8.2%) of patients admitted because of motorcycle crashes from May 2007 through June 2011 involved deer. There were 120 total injuries: the most common were orthopedic (39/120; 32.5%), chest (38/120; 31.7%), head (18/120; 15.0%), spine (10/120; 8.3%), facial (8/120; 6.7%), and abdominal (7/120; 5.8%). Thirty-five of 40 (87.5%) were men and were older (48.9 years, [SD, 8.9 years]) than the average for all motorcycle crashes during the study period (41.9 years, [SD, 13.9 years]). Mean (SD) injury severity score was 17.1 (9.8), reflecting the severity of encountered injuries. This study highlights the relatively common risk that deer pose to the motorcyclist and is comparable to published series in more rural Midwestern settings. PMID:26047002

  19. OCCURRENCE OF FASCIOLOIDOSIS IN RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS IN BARANJA REGION IN EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Florijan?i?

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Fascioloidosis is a parasitic disease caused by the giant American liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Bassi, 1875. In Croatia, the first report of this disease was in January 2000, in red deer (Cervus elaphus L. from the Tikveš Forestry in Baranja region (east Croatia. The aim of this survey was to determine the geographical distribution of fascioloidosis and the infection prevalence in deer. The survey was carried out in six state hunting grounds that manage with deer game in Baranja region during 2001 – 2004. Parasitological examinations were carried out by qualitative and quantitative faecal exams. The highest prevalence’s (35 – 60% were found in epizootic focuses of two hunting grounds at flooding – bog land area in east Baranja, Danube forestry. The mean intensity of infection, determined on the basis of the number of eggs per gram (EPG was 30 – 33 EPG (range 1 – 300. High 86% of examined samples was in category to 50 EPG. The highest prevalence and the biggest EPG number too, were determined during the first year of survey. In the Baranja area fascioloidosis represents a potential danger for other game species, mainly roe deer and wild boars, as for domestic animals.

  20. Aqueous Extract of Red Deer Antler Promotes Hair Growth by Regulating the Hair Cycle and Cell Proliferation in Hair Follicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-jie Li; Zheng Li; Li-juan Gu; Yun-bo Wang; Mi-ra Lee; Chang-keun Sung

    2014-01-01

    Deer antlers are the only mammalian appendage capable of regeneration. We aimed to investigate the effect of red deer antler extract in regulating hair growth, using a mouse model. The backs of male mice were shaved at eight weeks of age. Crude aqueous extracts of deer antler were prepared at either 4°C or 100°C and injected subcutaneously to two separate groups of mice (n = 9) at 1?mL/day for 10 consecutive days, with water as a vehicle control group. The mice skin quantitative hair grow...

  1. Anatomic and craniometric factors in differentiating roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hircus) skulls

    OpenAIRE

    Onuk Burcu; Kabak Murat; Atalar Kerem

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the bony structures relevant to skull of roe deer, sheep and goat. The skull of five sheep weighing 45-50 kg, three goat weighing 50-60 kg and five roe deer weighing 20-25 kg were used in this study. Macerations of the cranium were performed by the boiling method. The skull of the roe deer was notably similar to that of sheep with the presence of external lacrimal fossa, and to the goat with due to the presence of two points (lateral and medial)...

  2. Rapid assessment of quality of deer antler slices by using an electronic nose coupled with chemometric analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guojie, Xu; Caili, Liao; Xiaolei, Ren; Xue, Zhang; Xinyue, Zhang; Siqi, Liu; Xiaorui, Fu; Haozhong, Wu; Luqi, Huang; Chunsheng, Liu; Xueyong, Wang.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Deer antler is a precious animal-sourced traditional Chinese medicine. We aimed to rapidly assess the quality of deer antler slices by electronic nose so that we can ensure medical safety. In this study, response intensity of the electronic nose was favorably optimized, and samples were well assesse [...] d by using an electronic nose based on LDA model. The results obtained herein suggested that electronic nose could be an effective method to rapidly assess the quality of deer antler slices, and could also be an important tool for categorization of complex aroma mixtures for the control of quality of drugs or food.

  3. A cross-sectional study of reproductive indices and fawn mortality in farmed white-tailed deer

    OpenAIRE

    Haigh, Jerry; Berezowski, John; Murray R. Woodbury

    2005-01-01

    Data were obtained from a questionnaire administered to a random sample of Canadian and United States white-tailed deer (WTD) farmers. Reproductive indices and survival of fawns from birth until 1 y of age were examined. Major factors in limiting herd increase were a low reproductive rate (88 fawns per 100 does exposed to bucks) and a 30% mortality of fawns from birth until 1 y of age. The latter figure differs from reported mortality rates in fallow deer and red deer/wapiti. The unacceptably...

  4. Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann

    2013-01-01

    The present report describes the reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei in a roe deer from Denmark after more than 60 years. The cysticerci were isolated from the thigh muscle of the deer, and the diagnosis was based on histostological analysis, morphology of the rostellar-hooks as well as molecular typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene. The exact definitive host was not revealed in this report, but domestic dogs may play a role of the definitive host in the area. This finding is of concern to hunters and deer meat producers, since the infected meat is usually condemned due to aesthetic reasons.

  5. Biotic Translocation of Phosphorus: The Role of Deer in Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner T. Flueck

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogeochemical cycles are cornerstones of biological evolution. Mature terrestrial ecosystems efficiently trap nutrients and certain ones are largely recycled internally. Preserving natural fluxes of nutrients is an important mission of protected areas, but artificially leaky systems remain common. Native red deer (Cervus elaphus in the Swiss National Park (SNP are known to reduce phosphorus (P in preferred feeding sites by removing more P than is returned with feces. At larger scales it becomes apparent that losses are occurring due to seasonal deer movements out of the SNP where most deer end up perishing. Thus, the SNP contributes to producing deer which translocate P to sink areas outside the SNP due to several artificial factors. An adult female dying outside of SNP exports about 1.8 kg of P, whereas a male dying outside of SNP at 8 years of age exports 7.2 kg of P due also to annual shedding of antlers. Averaged over the vegetated part of the SNP, the about 2,000 deer export 0.32 kg/ha/yr of P. Other ungulate species using the SNP and dying principally outside of its borders would result in additional exports of P. Leakiness in this case is induced by: a absence of the predator community and thus a lack of summer mortalities and absence of several relevant non-lethal predator effects, b hunting-accelerated population turnover rate, and c deaths outside of SNP principally from hunting. The estimated export rate for P compares to rates measured in extensive production systems which receive 10-50 kg/ha/yr of P as fertilizer to compensate the losses from biomass exports. Assumptions were made regarding red deer body weight or population turnover rate, yet substituting my estimates with actual values from the SNP would only affect somewhat the magnitude of the effect, but not its direction. The rate of P loss is a proxy for losses of other elements, the most critical ones being those not essential to autotrophs, but essential to heterotrophs. High deer turnover rates combined with accelerated biomass export warrants detailed mass balances of macro and micro nutrients, and studies of biogeochemical cycles in protected areas are essential if preserving natural processes is a mandate.

  6. Begoniaceae endémicas del Perú / Begoniaceae endemic of Peru

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Blanca, León; Christhian, Monsalve.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La familia Begoniaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar un género, Begonia, y 76 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), mayormente hierbas. En este trabajo reconocemos 38 endemismos. La mayoría de estos taxones endémicos ocupan las regiones de Bosques Húmedos Amazónicos y Bosques Muy Húmedos Monta [...] nos y Premontanos, entre los 400 y 2500 m de altitud. Se aplicaron las categorías y criterios de la UICN a diez taxones. Aparentemente, sólo una de estas especies se encuentra representada dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Begoniaceae are represented in the Peruvian flora by 76 species in the genus Begonia (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), most of them herbs. Here we recognize 38 endemic taxa. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to ten of them. Most of these endemic taxa are found in Humid Lo [...] wland Amazonian Forests and Humid Montane and Premontane Forest regions, between 400 and 2500 m elevation. Only one species has been recorded to date within Peru's protected areas system.

  7. Invasive ants disrupt frugivory by endemic island birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Naomi E; O'Dowd, Dennis J; Mac Nally, Ralph; Green, Peter T

    2010-02-23

    Biological invasions can alter direct and indirect interactions between species, generating far-reaching changes in ecological networks that affect key ecological functions. We used model and real fruit assays to show that the invasion and formation of high-density supercolonies by the yellow crazy ant (YCA), Anoplolepis gracilipes, disrupt frugivory by endemic birds on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. The overall handling rates of model fruits by birds were 2.2-2.4-fold lower in ant-invaded than in uninvaded rainforest, and pecking rates by two bird species declined by 2.6- and 4.5-fold, respectively. YCAs directly interfered with frugivory; their experimental exclusion from fruiting displays increased fruit handling threefold to sixfold, compounding indirect effects of ant invasion on resources and habitat structure that influence bird abundances and behaviours. This invasive ant, whose high densities are sustained through mutualism with introduced scale insects, rapidly decreases fruit handling by endemic island birds and may erode a key ecological function, seed dispersal. Because most other invasive ant species form expansive, high-density supercolonies that depend in part on association with hemipteran mutualists, the effects that we report here on avian frugivore-plant associations may emerge across their introduced ranges. PMID:19755533

  8. Hemoglobin E prevalence in malaria-endemic villages in Myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win,Ne

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The population of Myanmar comprises 8 major indigenous races (Bamar, Kayin, Kachin, Shan, Rakhine, Mon, Chin, and Kayah. The Bamar reside in the 7 central divisions of the country, and the others reside in the 7 peripheral states that border neighboring countries, including China, Laos, and Thailand in the east and India and Bangladesh in the west. Both malaria and HbE are endemic in Myanmar, although the actual prevalence of the latter in the different indigenous races is not yet known. Hemoglobin electrophoresis was performed in 4 malaria-endemic villages, each having a different predominating indigenous race. The overall prevalence of HbE was 11.4% (52/456 villagers, ranging from 2-6% in the Kayin-predominant villages to 13.1-24.4% in the Bamar-predominant villages. Although the overall HbE prevalence in the villages studied was not significantly different from that of the general Myanmar population, this study strongly documented the influence of racial differences on the prevalence of HbE in Myanmar. To prevent and control severe thalassemia syndromes in Myanmar, extensive prevalence studies of the country?s indigenous races are suggested.

  9. Endemic tickborne infectious diseases in Louisiana and the Gulf South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2009-01-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases today, such as West Nile virus and sudden acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS), arise from zoonotic reservoirs and many are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Ticks are among the most competent and versatile arthropod vectors of infectious diseases because ticks of all ages and both sexes remain infectious for generations without having to reacquire infections from reservoir hosts. Today, ticks transmit the most common arthropod-borne infectious disease in the United States (US), Lyme disease (LD); and the most lethal arthropod-borne infectious disease in the US, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Both LD and RMSF are endemic in Louisiana and the Gulf South. Ticks have also become frequent vectors of emerging zoonotic diseases in the Gulf South, including southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI), transmitted by the lone star tick, and Maculatum disease, transmitted by the Gulf Coast tick. Recent environmental changes and human lifestyle choices now place humans and ticks together outdoors in the Gulf South for longer periods in welcoming ecosystems for breeding, blood-feeding, and infectious disease transmission. An increasing incidence of emerging and re-emerging, endemic infectious diseases transmitted by existing and unanticipated tick vectors may be expected. PMID:20108827

  10. ENDEMIC SHALLOW REEF FISHES FROM MALPELO ISLAND: ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION*

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis, Chasqui Velasco; Diego L., Gil-Agudelo; Ramón, Nieto.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de peces endémicos de la isla Malpelo han sido poco estudiadas, al punto que no se cuenta con información sobre sus densidades y preferencias de hábitat. Mediante censos visuales se estudió la distribución y abundancia de las especies de peces arrecifales endémicos de Malpelo. Las espec [...] ies más abundantes fueron Axoclinus rubinoffi (0.18 peces/m²) y Lepidonectes bimaculatus (0.08 peces/m²). La mayor abundancia se encontró en el Bajo de Junior y en relación con sustrato rocoso cubierto con algas coralináceas incrustantes. Abstract in english The fish species endemic to Malpelo Island have been scarcely studied, resulting in a lack of information on their densities and habitat preferences. The distribution and abundance of the endemic reef fish species of Malpelo were estimated using underwater visual census techniques. The most abundant [...] species were Axoclinus rubinoffi (0.18 fish/m²) and Lepidonectes bimaculatus (0.08 fish/m²). The highest abundance was found in rocks covered by coralline algae in the Bajo de Junior site.

  11. Ixodid ticks on white-tailed deer and feral swine in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, S A; Simmons, L A; Burridge, M J

    2001-06-01

    A state-wide survey was conducted in Florida during the 1997-99 hunting seasons to examine white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and feral swine (Sus scrofa) for potential indigenous vectors of the rickettsial agent of heartwater, Cowdria ruminantium. A total of 504 white-tailed deer and 166 feral swine was examined from 30 wildlife management areas across the state. Amblyomma maculatum, an experimental vector of C. ruminantium, was common on both deer and feral swine throughout the state. Of the collection of 3,169 ticks, 34.5% were Ixodes scapularis Say, 34.0% Amblyomma americanum (L.), 25.5% Amblyomma maculatum Koch, 5.8% Dermacentor variabilis (Say), 0.4% Ixodes affinis Neumann, 0.03% Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) and 0.01% Amblyomma auricularium (Conil). The only exotic tick collected was A. auricularium, which is found on armadillos in Central and South America and is not known to be associated with any disease. Overall, the most prevalent species on deer were I. scapularis (51.1%) and A. maculatum (35.8%), with A. americanum less prevalent (16.0%) and D. variabilis (3.0%) and I. affinis (1.9%) rare. On feral swine, the most prevalent species were I. scapularis (69.7%) and D. variabilis (56.9%), with A. maculatum (16.2%) and A. americanum (4.6%) less common. The geographic distribution of ticks differed significantly throughout the state. Both A. maculatum and Dermacentor variabilis were more prevalent on deer from southern Florida compared to northern and central Florida. In contrast, A. americanum were more prevalent in northern and central Florida but rare in southern Florida, and I. scapularis were more common in southern compared to northern Florida. These geographic differences may reflect differences in the risk of tick-borne diseases to domestic animals, wildlife and humans within Florida. PMID:11469190

  12. Patterns in deer-related traffic injuries over a decade: the Mayo clinic experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smoot Dustin L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our American College of Surgeons Level 1 Trauma Center serves a rural population. As a result, there is a unique set of accidents that are not present in an urban environment such as deer related motor vehicle crashes (dMVC. We characterized injury patterns between motorcycle/all-terrain vehicles (MCC and automobile (MVC crashes related to dMVC (deer motor vehicle crash with the hypotheses that MCC will present with higher Injury Severity Score (ISS and that it would be related to whether the driver struck the deer or swerved. Methods The records of 157 consecutive patients evaluated at our institution for injury related to dMVC from January 1st, 1997 to December 31st, 2006 were reviewed from our prospectively collected trauma database. Demographic, clinical, and crash specific parameters were abstracted. Injury severity was analyzed by the Abbreviated Injury Scale score for each body region as well as the overall Injury Severity Score (ISS. Results Motorcycle crashes presented with a higher median ISS than MVCs (14 vs 5, p Within the MVC group, there was no difference between swerving and hitting the deer in any AIS group. Forty-seven percent of drivers were not wearing seat belts which resulted in similar median ISS (6 vs 5 and AIS of all body regions. Conclusions Motorcycle operators suffered higher ISS. There were no significant differences in median ISS if a driver involved in a deer-related motor vehicle crash swerved rather than collided, was helmeted, or restrained.

  13. Gastrointestinal parasites in an isolated Norwegian population of wild red deer ( Cervus elaphus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca K; Kutz, Susan J; Madslien, Knut; Hoberg, Eric; Handeland, Kjell

    2014-10-01

    BackgroundThirteen red deer (Cervus elaphus), culled from the isolated population at the Mongstad Oil Refinery, Norway, were investigated for gastrointestinal helminths. These animals, enclosed by the refinery fence, do not have contact with other ruminants and have a high population density considering the available browsing area (1 km2) within the refinery site (3 km2). The population was estimated to be 110-130 at the time of culling.ResultsThe helminth fauna among these sampled red deer was enumerated and species were identified based on morphology. Ostertagia leptospicularis/O. kolchida was detected in 83% [CI 55 - 95%], Spiculopteragia spiculoptera/S. mathevossiani in 92% [CI 65 - 99%] and Trichostrongylus axei in 42%, [CI 19 - 68%] of the abomasa examined. Characterisation of the intestinal parasite fauna revealed Capillaria bovis, Cooperia oncophora, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Trichuris globulosa and tapeworm fragments (presumed anoplocephalids) in seven individuals. Only one calf had an infection with more than one intestinal helminth (tapeworm fragment and Trichuris globulosa). The remaining six deer had single species intestinal infections.No significant age related trends were seen, with the exception of higher intensity of infection of T. axei in yearlings relative to other age classes. Assessment of abomasal parasite burden and body condition revealed no significant trends. In calves, statistically non-significant correlation was seen between increased parasite burden and decreased slaughter weight, whilst the opposite was seen in adults with the heaviest adults exhibiting the higher burdens. Given the small sample size the trends that were seen need further investigation. The parasite burden was aggregated with three adult red deer harbouring 75% of the total abomasal parasite count.ConclusionThis isolated population was parasitised by a reduced subset of gastrointestinal nematodes typical of this cervid across an extensive geographic range in Eurasia. The intensity and abundance of abomasal nematodes was higher in this isolated population than reported in similar studies of red deer populations across Europe. PMID:25294401

  14. The content of selected metals in muscles of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibniewski, Micha?; Skibniewska, Ewa M; Ko?la, Tadeusz

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cs, Sr and Ba in the muscles of red deer that were hunted in two regions of Poland (south-western and north-eastern). The data obtained were evaluated with regards to benefits and potential risk to consumers' health. Samples for the investigations were collected in 2008 and 2009 from 50 female red deer, and the metal concentrations were determined by using the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) method. The mean concentrations of Pb did not differ statistically between regions and were equal to that permitted for farm animals. The results of this study support the conclusion that the meat of the analysed animals does not pose a risk of lead intoxication. Statistically higher mean concentrations of Cu and Zn were found in the muscles of red deer from the south-western region (namely, 2.99 and 25.78 mg kg(-1)) than those in animals from north-eastern Poland (namely, 2.61 and 23.39 mg kg(-1) wet weight). In terms of human nutritional needs, the meat of red deer can be considered as a good source of Cu and Zn. Furthermore, Rb, Cs, Sr and Ba concentrations did not differ statistically between regions. Their mean concentrations were 4.50, 0.09, 0.16 and 0.31 mg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively. Although high Cs, Sr and Ba concentrations were found, the meat of red deer does not pose a risk for adult consumers. Only high Ba content may potentially result in negative health effects for children. PMID:25548020

  15. Regulatory changes contribute to the adaptive enhancement of thermogenic capacity in high-altitude deer mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheviron, Zachary A; Bachman, Gwendolyn C; Connaty, Alex D; McClelland, Grant B; Storz, Jay F

    2012-05-29

    In response to hypoxic stress, many animals compensate for a reduced cellular O(2) supply by suppressing total metabolism, thereby reducing O(2) demand. For small endotherms that are native to high-altitude environments, this is not always a viable strategy, as the capacity for sustained aerobic thermogenesis is critical for survival during periods of prolonged cold stress. For example, survivorship studies of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) have demonstrated that thermogenic capacity is under strong directional selection at high altitude. Here, we integrate measures of whole-organism thermogenic performance with measures of metabolic enzyme activities and genomic transcriptional profiles to examine the mechanistic underpinnings of adaptive variation in this complex trait in deer mice that are native to different elevations. We demonstrate that highland deer mice have an enhanced thermogenic capacity under hypoxia compared with lowland conspecifics and a closely related lowland species, Peromyscus leucopus. Our findings suggest that the enhanced thermogenic performance of highland deer mice is largely attributable to an increased capacity to oxidize lipids as a primary metabolic fuel source. This enhanced capacity for aerobic thermogenesis is associated with elevated activities of muscle metabolic enzymes that influence flux through fatty-acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation pathways in high-altitude deer mice and by concomitant changes in the expression of genes in these same pathways. Contrary to predictions derived from studies of humans at high altitude, our results suggest that selection to sustain prolonged thermogenesis under hypoxia promotes a shift in metabolic fuel use in favor of lipids over carbohydrates. PMID:22586089

  16. Sustainable monitoring of roe deer in public hunting areas in the Spanish Pyrenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, J.; Torres, R. T.; Prada, C.; Garcia-Serrano, A.; Gimenez-Anaya, A.; Fernandez, O.

    2013-07-01

    Aim of study: Monitoring trends in animal populations is essential for the development of appropriate wildlife management strategies. Area of study: The area is situated in the southern Pyrenees (Aragon), Spain. Material and methods: To measure the abundance, population trends, sex ratio, and mortality of roe deer populations, we analyzed data from i) driven hunts for wild boar (hunting seasons 1995/96-2009/10, n = 1,417, ii) itineraries, which were used to calculate the KAI and density using DS (2003-2010, n = 310 itineraries), iii) roe deer carcass recoveries (2006-2010, n = 100), and iv) data from the deer hunting quota fulfillment (2006-2010, n = 325 hunted animals. Main results: Based on DS, in 2010, the average density of roe deer populations was 2.3 km–2 (CV 17%). Based on the KAI and the battues, the estimated average annual rate of increase was 5.8% and 4.3%, respectively. Based on the KAI and the carcass recoveries, the estimates of the population sex ratio were 0.75 (n = 641) and 0.9 (n = 100) males per female, respectively. Carcass recoveries indicated that mortality was highest in late winter and early spring. The average body masses and sizes of males and females were within the ranges reported for other Iberian and European populations. Research highlights: Monitoring should be continued in the Aragon population of roe deer, although larger sample sizes are required to increase the accuracy of estimates and assessments of the impact of management actions. (Author)

  17. Anatomical study of the gastrointestinal tract in free-living axis deer (Axis axis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, W; Erdogan, S; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-02-01

    The macroscopic anatomy of the stomach and intestines of adult axis deer (Axis axis), a cervid species considered intermediate/mixed feeder, was observed and recorded. Nine adult wild axis deers of both sexes were used and studied by simple dissection. The ruminal papillae were distributed unevenly in the overall area of the inner surface of rumen and primarily were more large and abundant within the atrium. The ruminal pillars had no papillae. There was an additional ruminal pillar located between the right longitudinal and right coronary ventral pillars connected to the caudal pillar. No dorsal coronary pillars were found, and the ventral coronary pillars are connected. The reticulum was the third compartment in size, and the maximum height of the reticular crests was 1.0 mm. The Cellulae reticuli were not divided and rarely contained secondary crests. There were no Papillae unguiculiformes. The omasum was the smallest gastric compartment. The abomasum had about twelve spiral plicae, and a small pyloric torus was present. The intraruminal papillation was similar to those species that are characterized by a higher proportion of grass in their natural diet. The finding of the small reticular crests is typical for browser ruminants and was coincident with data reported for other deer. The comparative ratio of the small intestine to the large intestine was 1.69, in terms of length measurements in axis deer and appears below of the 'browser range'. We concluded that the gastrointestinal system of axis deer reflected similar morphological characteristics of the both types of ruminants: browser and grazer, and we consider it as an intermediate feeder. PMID:24597790

  18. Comparative study of fluoride concentration in human serum and drinking water in fluorinated endemic and non endemic areas of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For comparing the human blood serum and drinking water fluoride levels of subjects with dental fluorosis and bony deformities, this study is carried out with individuals ranging 8-17 age group fluorinated Sham Ki Bhatiyan, Punjab (endemic) and Queens Road, Lahore, Punjab (non-endemic) areas. Fluoride concentrations were determined using ion selective electrode methodology and statistically compared. Both the groups showed a significant difference (p < 0.05). Subjects from fluorotic area showed high concentration of fluoride in water and blood serum samples (mean value: 135.587+-77.435 and 2.765+-0.469 micro molL/sup -1/ in water and blood serum samples respectively) as compared to controls (mean value: 19.509+-2.432 and 2.364+- 0.667 micro molL -1). These findings indicate that serum and water fluoride concentrations have a significant positive dose response relationship with the prevalence of dental fluorosis in an area associated with high fluoride level in drinking water. (author)

  19. Evaluation of inorganic and organochlorine contaminants in sediment and biota from Lake Lowell, Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge: Final report

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Lake Lowell is located on Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge Refuge in Southwest Idaho, in Canyon County. Inflows to the reservoir are a combination of diverted...

  20. Monitoring for bovine viral diarrhea virus in Austrian red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) by using ear-notch samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glawischnig, Walter; Schoepf, Karl; Matt, Monika

    2010-10-01

    During 2007-09, ear-notch samples from free-living (n=527) and farmed (n=237) Austrian red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) were tested for bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1) and type 2 (BVDV-2) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and single-tube real-time reverse transcription PCR. Ear-notch samples were collected by applying modified ear tags from randomly selected hunter-harvested red deer and from individuals originating from deer holdings. All samples tested negative for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. Results of this study show no evidence of persistently infected animals. They indicate further that BVDV is playing a minor role in free-living and farmed red deer in Austria. Ear-notch samples are an effective tool for in vivo and postmortem detection of BVDV in wildlife. This sample collection technique can be easily used in combination with tagging individual wild animals kept in captivity. PMID:20966278

  1. Identification of Genetic Variants Within Androgen Receptor Gene of Sika Deer and its Association with Antler Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antler production is one of the most important economical traits of Sika deer. However, the genetic mechanism of antler growth and genetic markers associated with antler yield remain unclear. In the present study Androgen Receptor (AR gene has been considered as a candidate gene to identify the polymorphisms. Besides, its effect on antler production was investigated in Chinese Sika deer. Genomic sequences of exons1-7 of Sika deer have been successfully obtained and showed high homogeneity with bovine. One SNP ss325995755 was identified in exons3. Genotyping of SNP and association analyses with antler yield were analyzed in two Chinese Sika deer populations (n = 215. The SNP ss325995755 was not significantly (p>0.05 associated with average antler yield.

  2. 77 FR 74204 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Final White-Tailed Deer Management Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ...of the deer herd size through sharpshooting and capture/euthanasia, where appropriate. Alternative D, the selected alternative...herd through sharpshooting, in combination with capture/euthanasia and phasing in reproductive control of does (as...

  3. The C-Banding and Ag-NOR Distribution Patterns in the Fallow Deer Dama dama (Mammalia: Cervidae) from Turkey.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arslan, A.; Zima, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 79, ?. 2 (2014), s. 181- 185 . ISSN 0011-4545 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Karyotype * Chromosome banding * Fallow deer * Indigenous population Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.242, year: 2013

  4. Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI using both molecular and serological tools.

  5. Phylogenetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic incongruence in the North American endemic genus Echinacea (Moench)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We sequenced several nuclear and chloroplast loci from range-representative populations of all species and subspecies of the North American endemic genus of purple coneflower, Echinacea Moench. Chloroplast data support Echinacea as sister group within the Heliantheae to the American endemic genus S...

  6. A comparative evaluation of endemic and non-endemic region of visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar in India with ground survey and space technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreekant Kesari

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In visceral leishmaniasis, phlebotomine vectors are targets for control measures. Understanding the ecosystem of the vectors is a prerequisite for creating these control measures. This study endeavours to delineate the suitable locations of Phlebotomus argentipes with relation to environmental characteristics between endemic and non-endemic districts in India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 25 villages in each district. Environmental data were obtained through remote sensing images and vector density was measured using a CDC light trap. Simple linear regression analysis was used to measure the association between climatic parameters and vector density. Using factor analysis, the relationship between land cover classes and P. argentipes density among the villages in both districts was investigated. The results of the regression analysis indicated that indoor temperature and relative humidity are the best predictors for P. argentipes distribution. Factor analysis confirmed breeding preferences for P. argentipes by landscape element. Minimum Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, marshy land and orchard/settlement produced high loading in an endemic region, whereas water bodies and dense forest were preferred in non-endemic sites. Soil properties between the two districts were studied and indicated that soil pH and moisture content is higher in endemic sites compared to non-endemic sites. The present study should be utilised to make critical decisions for vector surveillance and controlling Kala-azar disease vectors.

  7. A comparative evaluation of endemic and non-endemic region of visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar) in India with ground survey and space technology

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shreekant, Kesari; Gouri Sankar, Bhunia; Vijay, Kumar; Algarswamy, Jeyaram; Alok, Ranjan; Pradeep, Das.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In visceral leishmaniasis, phlebotomine vectors are targets for control measures. Understanding the ecosystem of the vectors is a prerequisite for creating these control measures. This study endeavours to delineate the suitable locations of Phlebotomus argentipes with relation to environmental chara [...] cteristics between endemic and non-endemic districts in India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 25 villages in each district. Environmental data were obtained through remote sensing images and vector density was measured using a CDC light trap. Simple linear regression analysis was used to measure the association between climatic parameters and vector density. Using factor analysis, the relationship between land cover classes and P. argentipes density among the villages in both districts was investigated. The results of the regression analysis indicated that indoor temperature and relative humidity are the best predictors for P. argentipes distribution. Factor analysis confirmed breeding preferences for P. argentipes by landscape element. Minimum Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, marshy land and orchard/settlement produced high loading in an endemic region, whereas water bodies and dense forest were preferred in non-endemic sites. Soil properties between the two districts were studied and indicated that soil pH and moisture content is higher in endemic sites compared to non-endemic sites. The present study should be utilised to make critical decisions for vector surveillance and controlling Kala-azar disease vectors.

  8. Breeding of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L. in Fenced Controlled Condition of Šeprešhat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Grubeši?

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The controlled breeding of wild game has been carried out for many years as part of hunting management programs for commercially important game species. The controlled breeding of red deer in the Šeprešhat polygon is the result of long-term game management in open hunting grounds, scientific research, monitoring the state of game in hunting grounds, and supply and demand.One of the reasons for controlled breeding of red deer in Croatia is certainly the reduction in population abundance of this species in the majority of hunting grounds after the Homeland War. The second reason was the intended aim of increasing the trophy quality of deer game, due to devastation of the gene fund.Issues such as the appearance of disease and parasites (giant liver fluke demand controlled breeding and production of a healthy population that will replace the loss of the natural population.Research to monitoring growth intervals, body and trophy development, breeding technology and the justification of this type of breeding and protection of red deer was carried out in parallel with the targeted breeding of red deer.The primary objective of management at the Šeprešhat polygon is the breeding of high quality Baranja red deer, with the possibility of distributing high quality breeding stock to other hunting grounds in the Republic of Croatia. The population of red deer in Baranja has very high genetic potential, and for this reason, it was used earlier in relocations to other parts of Croatia, the neighboring countries, and even to New Zealand.Researching the controlled breeding of red deer was carried out in the period 2005–2009 at the Šeprešhat polygon. The Šeprešhat polygon is part of the state-owned Podunavlje-Podravlje hunting ground in Baranja. Breeding of game in this polygon began in 2001, for the purpose of studying and preserving the gene fund of the red deer. The polygon originally had only 53 ha, but was gradually expanded with the addition of two fields. Therefore, in 2002, it was expanded to 58 hectares and to 66 ha in 2003. Today, the breeding grounds cover an area of 88 ha, additional areas of 56 ha, and in the most recent expansion of an area for the maturation of trophy red deer of 237 ha, resulting in a total area of 380 ha.The analysis of results of the five-year study of controlled game breeding in the Šeprešhat polygon proves that the establishment of breeding grounds was made, given the population dynamics, growth intervals and potential for the sale of live game, as well as the commercial hunting of high quality trophy heads.It should be stressed that the breeding of deer game is a long process and that the first results can only be expected after five years, after the breeding stock is formed and stabilized and normal reproduction begins. The population dynamics of the red deer fund from the start of establishment of the breeding stock to the first significant results of the live game is shown in Table 1.During the five year selection of red deer for mating, only three to four of the most promising male deer (stags were given the opportunity to mate each year. Each was placed in a separate polygon with fertile females (hinds including young hinds participating in mating for the first time, in the ratio 1:11 to 1:16, (Table 2. The results indicate that the optimal mating ratio is one stag to ten to twelve hinds. With an increase in the sex ratio, the growth interval coefficient is reduced. This is unfavorable as the goal is to obtain the highest possible calves.One of the main parameters in the selection of young is the weight of the calf at the age of 3 weeks. The minimum level is 10 kg for a female calf and 12 kg for a male calf, as all weights beneath this are unsuitable for further breeding. Measurements also indicated that the highest growth interval of body weight was achieved at the age of 15 to 18 months (Fig. 1.One of the most important segments of maintaining good animal condition, good reproduction and good growth interval is securing sufficient and high quality food throughout

  9. Hybridisation and introgression of exotic Cervus (nippon and canadensis) with red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the British Isles

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Stephanie Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Europe’s largest population of wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) resides in the British Isles and has been present since the end of the last ice age, c. 11,000BP. Since the mid-19th century, multiple introductions of Japanese sika (Cervus nippon) and wapiti (Cervus canadensis) have taken place across the British Isles. While wapiti introductions have generally gone extinct, sika have thrived and expanded and now often live in sympatry with red deer. Hybridisation between these s...

  10. Wolves, Canis lupus, carry and cache the collars of radio-collared White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, they killed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.; Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota cached six radio-collars (four in winter, two in spring-summer) of 202 radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) they killed or consumed from 1975 to 2010. A Wolf bedded on top of one collar cached in snow. We found one collar each at a Wolf den and Wolf rendezvous site, 2.5 km and 0.5 km respectively, from each deer's previous locations.

  11. PCR Detection and Serological Evidence of Granulocytic Ehrlichial Infection in Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) and Chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra)

    OpenAIRE

    Liz, Jorge S.; Sumner, John W.; Pfister, Kurt; Brossard, Michel

    2002-01-01

    The role of wild mammals, such as roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), in the epidemiology of granulocytic ehrlichiae in Switzerland was investigated. We tested blood samples for Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup 16S rRNA gene sequences by PCR and for immunoglobulin G antibodies against granulocytic ehrlichiae by indirect fluorescent-antibody assay (IFA). Overall means of 60.9% of 133 roe deer serum samples and 28.2% of 39 chamois serum samples were seroreactive ...

  12. Serological Evidence for Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in White-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, in Vermont, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Berl, Erica; Eisen, Rebecca J.; Macmillan, Katherine; Swope, Bethany N.; Saxton-shaw, Kali D.; Graham, Alan C.; Turmel, Jon P.; Mutebi, John-paul

    2013-01-01

    Serum samples from 489 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were screened for antibodies against the Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) using plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs). EEEV antibodies were detected in 10.2% of serum samples. This is the first evidence that EEEV is present in Vermont. Serum was collected from deer in all 14 counties in the state, and positive EEEV sera were found in 12 (85%) of 14 counties, suggesting statewide EEEV activity in Ver...

  13. Niche divergence accelerates evolution in Asian endemic Procapra gazelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhua; Jiang, Zhigang; Chen, Jing; Qiao, Huijie

    2015-01-01

    Ecological niche divergence and adaptation to new environments are thought to play important roles in driving speciation. Whether recently evolved species show evidence for niche divergence or conservation is vital towards understanding the role of ecology in the process of speciation. The genus Procapra is an ancient, monophyletic lineage endemic to Asia that contains three extant species (P. gutturosa, P. przewalskii and P. picticaudata). These species mainly inhabit the Qinghai-Tibetan and Mongolian Plateaus, and today have primarily allopatric distributions. We applied a series of geographic information system-based analyses to test for environmental variation and niche divergence among these three species. We found substantial evidence for niche divergence in species' bioclimatic preferences, which supports the hypothesis that niche divergence accelerates diversification in Procapra. Our results provide important insight into the evolutionary history of ungulates in Asia and help to elucidate how environmental changes accelerate lineage diversification. PMID:25951051

  14. In vitro Multiplication of Hypericum heterophyllum, an Endemic Turkish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuneyt Cirak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we aimed to establish an effective in vitro propagation protocol for Hypericum heterophyllum Vent., an endemic Turkish species. The seeds were surface sterilised and transferred to Murashige and Skoog basal medium supplemented with BA (benzyladenine, 0.1, 1 mg L-1 and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0.1, 1 mg L-1 under the photoperiod (8/16 h light/dark period, 1200 ?mol m-2s-1. Culturing seeds on MS basal medium supplemented with 1 mg L-1 BA and 0.1 mg L-1 2,4-D resulted in greenish and compact callus induction. MS basal medium supplemented with 4.4 mg L-1 BA was used for shoot induction, while the same basal medium supplemented with 1 mg L-1 IAA (indolacetic acid was employed for the rooting. Regenerated plants were easily acclimatized in greenhouse conditions.

  15. Niche divergence accelerates evolution in Asian endemic Procapra gazelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhua; Jiang, Zhigang; Chen, Jing; Qiao, Huijie

    2015-01-01

    Ecological niche divergence and adaptation to new environments are thought to play important roles in driving speciation. Whether recently evolved species show evidence for niche divergence or conservation is vital towards understanding the role of ecology in the process of speciation. The genus Procapra is an ancient, monophyletic lineage endemic to Asia that contains three extant species (P. gutturosa, P. przewalskii and P. picticaudata). These species mainly inhabit the Qinghai-Tibetan and Mongolian Plateaus, and today have primarily allopatric distributions. We applied a series of geographic information system–based analyses to test for environmental variation and niche divergence among these three species. We found substantial evidence for niche divergence in species’ bioclimatic preferences, which supports the hypothesis that niche divergence accelerates diversification in Procapra. Our results provide important insight into the evolutionary history of ungulates in Asia and help to elucidate how environmental changes accelerate lineage diversification. PMID:25951051

  16. Sufficient conditions of endemic threshold on metapopulation networks

    CERN Document Server

    Takaguchi, Taro

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we focus on susceptible-infected-susceptible dynamics on metapopulation networks in which nodes represent subpopulations. Recent studies suggest that heterogeneous network structure between elements plays an important role in determining the threshold of infection rate at the onset of epidemics, one of fundamental quantities governing epidemic dynamics. We consider the general case in which the infection rate at each node depends on its population size, as shown in recent empirical observations. We prove that the sufficient condition for the endemic threshold (i.e., its upper bound), which was previously derived based on a mean-field approximation of network structure, also holds true for arbitrary networks. We also derive an improved condition which implies that networks with the rich-club property (that is, high connectivity between nodes with large number of links) are more favorable to disease spreading. The dependency of infection rate on population size introduces remarkable differ...

  17. A new endemic cyprinid species from the Danube drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar?i?, Z; Buj, I; Dupli?, A; Caleta, M; Mustafi?, P; Zanella, D; Zupan?i?, P; Mrakov?i?, M

    2011-08-01

    Populations of endemic Croatian dace were found to belong to two different species, one of which is first described in this study. Telestes karsticus sp. nov. differed morphologically from Telestes polylepis in the total count of lateral line scales, number of gill rakers and the shape of the posterior margin of the anal fin. Morphological differences were corroborated with mtDNA analyses (with p-distance between T. polylepis and T. karsticus sp. nov. ranging between 3·2 and 4·1%; and the number of substitutions between 37 and 47). The newly described species is geographically very localized. It has been recorded from only four localities around Velika Kapela and Mala Kapela mountains in Croatia. PMID:21781100

  18. Osteoporosis - an early radiographic sign of endemic fluorosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological investigation of skeletal fluorosis was carried out among the inhabitants from two areas where the fluoride content of water was high, using both conventional radiography and radiographic measurements of bone mineral content (BMC). Of 139 cases in the first group, 68 presented bone abnormalities while 21 of 54 cases in the second group showed a similar change. Four essential types of bony lesion were classified. Osteoporosis, especially in the long bones, was the earliest change to be observed. The results of measurements at the distal end of the ulna indicated the presence of a low BMC even among inhabitants with a good nutritional status. It is concluded that osteoporosis towards the ends of long bones is an early radiographic sign of endemic fluorosis especially in an individual under the age of 40 years. (orig.)

  19. Iridoid glucosides in the endemic Picconia azorica (Oleaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gousiadou, Chryssoula; Kokubun, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    In our continued investigation of plants from the family Oleaceae we have now investigated Picconia azorica endemic to the Azores. Like most species within the family it contains the oleoside-based secoiridoid glucosides ligstroside and oleuropein as the main compounds and in addition verbascoside and echinacoside. As with the previously investigated Picconia excelsa, it also contained the carbocyclic iridoid glucosides involved in the biosynthetic pathway to the oleoside derivatives. However, while P. excelsa contained loganin esterified with some monoterpenoid acids, P. azorica contains similar esters of 7-epi-loganic acid named Picconioside A and B. In addition were found the two 7-O-E/Z-cinnamoyl esters of 7-epi-loganic acid named Picconioside C and D.

  20. An Integrated Approach to Address Endemic Fluorosis in Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke H. MacDonald

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the grounds for an integrated approach to address endemic fluorosis in Jharkhand, India, an approach that encompasses health monitoring, community-based water systems management, and locally synthesized hydroxyapatite, a sustainable water treatment technology. The results of this study, focusing on kinetics and sorption isotherms, demonstrate that an inexpensive, locally synthesized hydroxyapatite effectively removes fluoride from water and that the Dean Index, a measure of dental fluorosis, of school children provides a sensitive, rapid biometric to track the success of a fluoride water treatment intervention. Previous efforts to manage the fluoride problem in Jharkhand were unsuccessful, largely due to lack of accountability and inadequate community involvement. This paper explores how integrating the production of a locally synthesized hydroxyapatite with community health monitoring via the Dean Index fits into a management strategy with robust accountability mechanisms and community participation that, as historical examples suggest, is likely to succeed in Jharkhand.

  1. Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2014-01-01

    "Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle" provides the key elements that should be addressed in the establishment of bovine disease control and eradication programmes. The book aims to reach a broad group of readers, including: students; professionals in veterinary practice, industry and governmental institutions; researchers; and others involved in control and eradication of endemic diseases in livestock. Key elements range from socioeconomic aspects such as motivation; veterinary science (including assessment of biosecurity and establishment of test-strategies); organisational issues such as resources, administrative and logistic considerations; along with other important aspects such as communication. The book addresses questions such as: Why is it important or relevant to eradicate a specific infection? What should be done to eradicate it? Which knowledge gaps still exist? Who should be involved and informed, and how should the programme be organised? Where should the programme be implemented? What measures should be used to monitor progress? When can we conclude that control and eradication have been achieved? The key elements are illustrated primarily using three examples: bovine virus diarrhoea virus, Salmonella Dublin and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The three authors have been particularly involved in the research and development of control and eradication efforts in the Danish cattle industry for these three diseases. The basic idea is to enable "disease profiling", which is governed by the characteristics of the agent and its interaction with the host and environment. This profile, along with due consideration of the socioeconomic circumstances, can be used to determine how best to address the problem.

  2. [Risk of Echinococcus granulosus becoming endemic in Dutch cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, I M G A; Holzhauer, M; van der Giessen, J W B; van Schaik, G

    2009-02-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is rare in The Netherlands and most human patients originate from southern Europe and Africa, where E. granulosus is still endemic in sheep, cattle, and pigs. Since the accession of some south-eastern European countries to the European Union, a large number of cattle have been imported from this area, according to national import data. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of re-introduction of E. granulosus in The Netherlands via the import of cattle from these endemic areas. The number of infected imported cattle was determined by correcting the number of imported cattle with the national animal prevalence of E. granulosus in the country of origin. In 2007, the number of imported E. granulosus-infected cattle varied from 0 (Cyprus) to 4,934 (Romania, accounting for 90% of all positive cattle). The likelihood of detecting E. granulosus at slaughter is low--we assumed, based on confirmed cases, that only 10% of infected cattle will be detected during visual inspection at slaughter. In 2007, 542 infected cattle were probably culled in The Netherlands (assuming that cattle younger than 3 months were not infected). Since the lungs and livers of cattle approved for human consumption may be processed into dog food, there is a risk that dogs that eat E. granulosus-containing dog food may become infected and in turn infect humans. On the basis of a model that assumed that only cattle older than 3 months at the moment of importation were a risk, 23 dogs may have been exposed to E. granulosus in 2007. To reduce the risk of importing E. granulosus, measures should be taken, such as declaring the lungs and livers of Romanian cattle unfit for human consumption and banning the use of infected raw lung and liver in dog food. PMID:19256230

  3. Modeling the impact of climate and landscape on the efficacy of white tailed deer vaccination for cattle tick control in northeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Carreón, Diana; Almazán, Consuelo; de la Fuente, José

    2014-01-01

    Cattle ticks are distributed worldwide and affect animal health and livestock production. White tailed deer (WTD) sustain and spread cattle tick populations. The aim of this study was to model the efficacy of anti-tick vaccination of WTD to control tick infestations in the absence of cattle vaccination in a territory where both host species coexist and sustain cattle tick populations. Agent-based models that included land cover/landscape properties (patch size, distances to patches) and climatic conditions were built in a GIS environment to simulate WTD vaccine effectiveness under conditions where unvaccinated cattle shared the landscape. Published and validated information on tick life cycle was used to build models describing tick mortality and developmental rates. Data from simulations were applied to a large territory in northeastern Mexico where cattle ticks are endemic and WTD and cattle share substantial portions of the habitat. WTD movements were simulated together with tick population dynamics considering the actual landscape and climatic features. The size of the vegetation patches and the distance between patches were critical for the successful control of tick infestations after WTD vaccination. The presence of well-connected, large vegetation patches proved essential for tick control, since the tick could persist in areas of highly fragmented habitat. The continued application of one yearly vaccination on days 1-70 for three years reduced tick abundance/animal/patch by a factor of 40 and 60 for R. annulatus and R. microplus, respectively when compared to non-vaccinated controls. The study showed that vaccination of WTD alone during three consecutive years could result in the reduction of cattle tick populations in northeastern Mexico. Furthermore, the results of the simulations suggested the possibility of using vaccines to prevent the spread and thus the re-introduction of cattle ticks into tick-free areas. PMID:25047078

  4. Drought effect on selection of conservation reserve program grasslands by white-tailed deer on the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Limited information exists regarding summer resource selection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in grassland regions of the Northern Great Plains. During summers 2005-2006, we analyzed habitat selection of adult female white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota. We collected 1905 summer locations and used 21 and 30 home ranges during 2005 and 2006, respectively, to estimate habitat selection. Results indicated that selection occurred at the population (P < 0.001) and home range (P < 0.001) levels. Deer selected for Conservation Reserve Program grasslands and corn during both summers and shifted selection temporally within summer. Use of CRP grasslands occurred during early summer; 73.1 and 88.9% of locations in CRP were documented prior to 1 Jul. during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Conversely, selection for corn occurred during late summer; 86.0 and 68.4% of locations in corn were documented after 1 Jul. during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Additionally, deer selected for forested cover and rural development areas containing permanent water sources during extreme drought conditions during 2006. Deer likely selected for fields of CRP grasslands during early summer for cover and natural forages, such as clover (Trifolium sp.), prior to the period when agricultural crops become available. Drought conditions occurring in semiarid prairie grassland regions may reduce food and water availability and contribute to subsequent changes in deer habitat selection across the range of the species.

  5. Toxicological evaluation of New Zealand deer velvet powder. Part I: acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Wanwimolruk, S; Coville, P F; Schofield, J C; Williams, G; Haines, S R; Suttie, J M

    2000-11-01

    Potential toxic effects of acute and subchronic dosage regimens of deer velvet powder have been assessed in rats following OECD guidelines. In the acute study, rats of both sexes were exposed to a single dose of 2 g/kg body weight. There was no mortality or other signs of toxicity during 14 days' observation. Furthermore, no significant alteration either in relative organ weights or their histology was discernible at terminal autopsy. In the 90-day subchronic study, deer velvet was administered in 1 g/kg daily doses by gavage to rats. A control group of rats received water only. There was no effect on body weight, food consumption, clinical signs, haematology and most parameters of blood chemistry including carbohydrate metabolism, liver and kidney function. No significant differences were seen between the mean organ weights of the adrenal, kidney and brain in rats treated with deer velvet and control rats. However, there was a significant difference (P<0.05) in the group mean relative liver weight (3.52 +/- 0.30 vs 3.81 +/- 0.26 g/100 g body weight) of deer velvet-treated and control male rats. The gross necropsy and pathological examination of rats treated with deer velvet did not reveal any abnormalities in tissue morphology. Based on these results, it may be concluded that rats had no deer velvet treatment-related toxicological and histopathological abnormalities at the doses administered, despite the observed minor changes in liver weight. PMID:11038235

  6. Anatomic and craniometric factors in differentiating roe deer (Capreolus capreolus from sheep (Ovis aries and goat (Capra hircus skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onuk Burcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the bony structures relevant to skull of roe deer, sheep and goat. The skull of five sheep weighing 45-50 kg, three goat weighing 50-60 kg and five roe deer weighing 20-25 kg were used in this study. Macerations of the cranium were performed by the boiling method. The skull of the roe deer was notably similar to that of sheep with the presence of external lacrimal fossa, and to the goat with due to the presence of two points (lateral and medial on the septal process and a significant fissure formed between the nasal, lacrimal, frontal and maxillary bones. In addition to these similarities, the formations which were specific to the roe deer were structures such as the number and position of the lacrimal foramen and presence of an uncertain muscular tubercle in the basilar portion of the occipital bone. In addition, the craniometric parameters specific to the roe deer’s skull were determined as the zygomatic, interorbital, neurocranium and nasal lengths.

  7. Experimental transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagleish, Mark P; Martin, Stuart; Steele, Philip; Finlayson, Jeanie; Sisó, Sílvia; Hamilton, Scott; Chianini, Francesca; Reid, Hugh W; González, Lorenzo; Jeffrey, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Background Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), primarily affects cattle. Transmission is via concentrate feed rations contaminated with infected meat and bone meal (MBM). In addition to cattle, other food animal species are susceptible to BSE and also pose a potential threat to human health as consumption of infected meat products is the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, which is invariably fatal. In the UK, farmed and free ranging deer were almost certainly exposed to BSE infected MBM in proprietary feeds prior to legislation banning its inclusion. Therefore, although BSE has never been diagnosed in any deer species, a possible risk to human health remains via ingestion of cervine products. Chronic wasting disease (CWD), also a TSE, naturally infects several cervid species in North America and is spreading rapidly in both captive and free-ranging populations. Results Here we show that European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) are susceptible to intra-cerebral (i/c) challenge with BSE positive cattle brain pool material resulting in clinical neurological disease and weight loss by 794–1290 days and the clinical signs are indistinguishable to those reported in deer with CWD. Spongiform changes typical of TSE infections were present in brain and accumulation of the disease-associated abnormal prion protein (PrPd) was present in the central and peripheral nervous systems, but not in lymphoid or other tissues. Western immunoblot analysis of brain material showed a similar glycosylation pattern to that of BSE derived from infected cattle and experimentally infected sheep with respect to protease-resistant PrP isoforms. However, the di-, mono- and unglycosylated bands migrated significantly (p < 0.001) further in the samples from the clinically affected deer when compared to BSE infected brains of cattle and sheep. Conclusion This study shows that deer are susceptible to BSE by intra-cerebral inoculation and display clinical signs and vacuolar pathology that are similar to those of CWD. These findings highlight the importance of preventing the spread to Europe of CWD from North America as this may necessitate even more extensive testing of animal tissues destined for human consumption within the EU. Although the absence of PrPd in lymphoid and other non-neurological tissues potentially limits the risk of transmission to humans, the replication of TSE agents in peripheral tissues following intra-cerebral challenge is often limited. Thus the assessment of risk posed by cervine BSE as a human pathogen or for environmental contamination should await the outcome of ongoing oral challenge experiments. PMID:18507844

  8. Predation by coyotes on White-Tailed Deer neonates in South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilgo, John, C.; Ray, Scott, H.; Vukovich, Mark; Goode, Mathew, J.; Ruth, Charles.

    2012-05-07

    Abstract: Coyotes (Canis latrans) are novel predators throughout the southeastern United States and their depredation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates may explain observed declines in some deer populations in the region, but direct evidence for such a relationship is lacking. Our objective was to quantify neonate survival rates and causes of mortality at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina to directly evaluate degree of predation in this deer population. From 2006 to 2009, we radio-monitored 91 neonates captured with the aid of vaginal implant transmitters in pregnant adult females and opportunistic searches. Overall Kaplan�¢����Meier survival rate to 16 weeks of age was 0.230 (95% CI = 0.155-0.328), and it varied little among years. Our best-fitting model estimated survival at 0.220 (95% CI = 0.144-0.320). This model included a quadratic time trend variable (lowest survival rate during the first week of life and increasing to near 1.000 around week 10), and Julian date of birth (survival probability declining as date of birth increased). Predation by coyotes was the most frequent cause of death among the 70 monitored neonates that died, definitively accounting for 37% of all mortalities and potentially accounting for as much as 80% when also including probable coyote predation. Predation by bobcats (Felis rufus) accounted for 7% (definitive) to 9% (including probable bobcat predation) of mortalities. The level of coyote-induced mortality we observed is consistent with the low recruitment rates exhibited in the SRS deer population since establishment of coyotes at the site. If representative of recruitment rates across South Carolina, current harvest levels appear unsustainable. This understanding is consistent with the recent declining trend in the statewide deer population. The effects of coyote predation on recruitment should be considered when setting harvest goals, regardless of whether local deer population size is currently above or below desired levels, because coyotes can substantially reduce fawn recruitment. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. BIOMONITORING OF NICKEL IN POPULATION OF ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY SETTLEMENTS. A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radunka Mitrovi?

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Endemic nephropathy (EN is a disease of unknown etiology, and its occurrence is determined only at the Balkan peninsula. This study started form the assumption that nickel, being a highly toxic and cancerogenous substance, could be a risk factor or precipitating factor in generation of EN and urothelial tumors as well. The aim of the study was to prove the extent to which nickel, as a cancerogenous substance, is present in the urine and kidneys of inhabitants in EN settlements. As a material, 93 samples of urine and 32 samples of autopsy material were used. The urine samples were taken by the random sampling method from inhabitants of endemic and hypo endemic settlements in the valley of South Morava river, as well as from urban population of the municipality of Nis, as the control settlement. The samples of the kidney tissue represented autopsy material taken from cadavers who used to live, almost the whole life, in some of the endemic of hypo endemic settlements (target group, or in the urban zone of municipality of Nis (control group. The nickel presence was determined using method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The nickel concentration in the urine is higher in the endemic/hypo endemic settlements population than that in the control settlement group. The difference is not though, statistically significant. The nickel content in the kidney tissue of inhabitants from endemic or hypo endemic settlements is higher then in relevant kidney samples of inhabitants from control settlements, but the difference is not statistically significant either. Further investigations of the nickel content in biological materials are needed, along with the epidemiological study of incidence and prevalence of EN and malignant changes of the urotrackt in the endemic settlement population.

  10. Comparative studies on the distribution of binucleate cells in the placentae of the deer and cow using the monoclonal antibody, SBU-3.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, C.S.; Gogolin-Ewens, K; Brandon, M R

    1986-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody SBU-3 raised against an antigen expressed by the binucleate cells in the trophoblast of the sheep placentome crossreacts with an antigen expressed by binucleate cells in the placenta of the deer and the cow. This monoclonal antibody has been used to study the distribution of this subpopulation of binucleate cells in the deer and cow during fetal development. In the deer at less than 30 days of gestation, SBU-3-positive binucleate cells were observed in the trophoblast of...

  11. In vitro dry matter disappearance using roe deer inocula from summer and winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Holand

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available In vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD of 12 forages were determined using ruminai inocula from 10 European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L. collected in summer and winter. There was significant difference in the ability of winter and summer inocula to digest winter and summer forages respectively. Each of the 6 summer forages had a significantly higher IVDMD in ruminal inocula of animals collected in summer versus winter. However, no significant difference in IVDMD of winter versus summer inocula was observed for each of the 6 winter forages. These results suggest adaption, although limited, by ruminal microorganisms in roe deer to winter forages or a potential problem in standard in vitro laboratory procedures when using animals on a high-fiber diet as inocula donors.

  12. Location analysis and strontium-90 concentrations in deer antlers on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the levels of strontium-90 (90Sr) in deer antlers collected from near previously active reactor sites and distant from the reactor sites along that portion of the Columbia River which borders the Hanford Site. A second objective was to analyze the movements and home-ranges of mule deer residing within these areas and determine to what extent this information contributes to the observed 90Sr concentrations. 90Sr is a long-lived radionuclide (29.1 year half life) produced by fission in irradiated fuel in plutonium production reactors on the Hanford Site. It is also a major component of atmospheric fallout from weapons testing. Concentrations of radionuclides found in the developed environment onsite do not pose a health concern to humans or various wildlife routinely monitored. However, elevated levels of radionuclides in found biota may indicate routes of exposure requiring attention

  13. Electron probe study of human and red deer cementum and root dentin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A topographical description of the concentration profiles of Ca, P, Mg, Zn, F, S, and K in human and red deer cementum and root dentin is given. The concentrations reported should be regarded as semiquantitative values. A downward slope of the Ca, P, and Mg profiles toward the pulpal cavity seemed largely to correspond with the secondary dentin. Marked elevations of the Zn profiles, modest elevations of the F profiles, and in a few instances of the S profiles, toward root surface and pulpal cavity were registered. In a couple of scans a slight elevation of the K profile toward the root surface was observed. A high degree of concordance in human and red deer teeth was ascertained. (author)

  14. Electron probe study of human and red deer cementum and root dentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toetdal, B. (Department of Physics, University of Trondheim, The Norwegian Institute of Technology); Hals, E. (Department of Cariology and Endodontics, Faculty of Odontology, University of Bergen, Norway)

    1985-01-01

    A topographical description of the concentration profiles of Ca, P, Mg, Zn, F, S, and K in human and red deer cementum and root dentin is given. The concentrations reported should be regarded as semiquantitative values. A downward slope of the Ca, P, and Mg profiles toward the pulpal cavity seemed largely to correspond with the secondary dentin. Marked elevations of the Zn profiles, modest elevations of the F profiles, and in a few instances of the S profiles, toward root surface and pulpal cavity were registered. In a couple of scans a slight elevation of the K profile toward the root surface was observed. A high degree of concordance in human and red deer teeth was ascertained.

  15. Feeding of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seasonal feed choice of a roe deer for a 3-year period has been investigated on the basis of the rumen content analysis. Results of the investigation are given. A list of 125 species of forage plants is presented. Seasonal intensity of their consumption is characterized. Significance of main plant assemblages of the evacuated zone of Chernobyl in the diet of the animal population is elucidated. Special attention is paid to the role of the above-ground parts of Oenotera biennis that comprise 34% of the average annual forage of roe deer and are consumed by the animal during 9-10 months. Recent state of the forage base of the population is estimated. An attempt to predict its dynamics for the nearest 10-15 years is made

  16. Transfer of natural and man made radionuclides from plants to roe deer and farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the transfer behavior of long living radionuclides from the Thorium decay series (Ra-228, Th-228, Th-232) as well as of K-40 and Cs-137 is studied. In a small area of middle Europe (southeast Gemany) showing an increased Thorium content of soil the activity concentrations in samples of feed plants, farm animals, farm animal products, roe deer has been determined. The concentration ratios feed-to-animal tissue and to animal products are calculated indicating a significantly enhanced transfer from feed to roe deer tissues. Determinations of the activity concentrations in fish (carp), pig (tissues), egg, milk complete this examinations. Among all studied samples which are important for human nourishing eggs and carp cause the greatest exposure by ingestion. (author). 14 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Spatial scales of foraging in fallow deer: Implications for associational effects in plant defences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, Pasi; Kesti, Kari; Bergvall, Ulrika A.; Tuomi, Juha; Leimar, Olof

    2008-07-01

    Large herbivores select food at several spatial scales: plant communities are chosen at a landscape scale, plant patches are chosen within a plant community, and individual plants within a patch. Foraging decision at the patch level can result in associational effects in plant communities and populations. Several studies have shown that herbivore attack and consumption rates may not only depend on a plant's own defence traits, but also on the defence traits of its neighbours. In the present experiment we investigated whether the spatial scale of the food distribution affects food selection by fallow deer and whether the foraging behaviour gives rise to associational effects in plant defences. In a population of captured wild fallow deer we simulated a natural situation where two separate plant patches are exposed to intense herbivory pressure. We presented different spatial arrangements of low- and high-tannin food to the deer, varying the frequency of the feeder types within and between patches. We found that the deer consumed palatable food among the unpalatable food on average as much as they consumed palatable food among other palatable feeders. However, when unpalatable food occurred among the palatable food it was more consumed than among other unpalatable feeders. Hence, we did not find support for associational defence, but our results supported associational susceptibility. At the between patch level a patch of mainly high-tannin feeders was consumed less when presented near to a patch of mainly low-tannin feeders, suggesting that for well-defended plants having palatable neighbours in a nearby patch might accentuate the effectiveness of their defence.

  18. Evaluation of roe deer effects upon forest structure in Nogueira Mountain (NE of Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Crespí, António L.; Aurora Monzon; Sónia Pinto; Adriano Castro; Fernandes, Claúdia P.; Rogério Rodrigues; Alberto Costa; Sónia Bernardos

    2007-01-01

    Analytical methodologies that describe ecological functionalities in the landscape are decisive to quantify the effects of their apparent modifications. When dealing with game resource management it is necessary to understand how landscape variables respond to changes in the abundance of particular species.The main goal of the present work is to evaluate how a forest ecosystem reacts to an increment of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) abundance in a reproduction enclosure.This experience has...

  19. Grazing Effects on Deer Mice with Implications to Human Exposure to Sin Nombre Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Leary, Abigail J.; Kuenzi, Amy J.; Douglass, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of grazing on deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) movements into buildings using passive integrated transponder (PIT) technology and small simulated buildings located on 0.6-ha treatment (grazing) and control (no grazing) plots. Twelve experimental 9-day trials were conducted over the course of the study. During these trials, mouse movements into buildings were monitored during three time periods (each 3 days in length). In the treatment plots these time periods corres...

  20. Dybowski's sika deer (Cervus nippon hortulorum): genetic diversity of native Primorian and introduced Czech populations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Baran?eková, Miroslava; Vallo, Peter; Voloshina, I. V.; Koubek, Petr

    Moscow : IUGB, 2009, s. 1-5. ISBN 978-5-7035-2118-2. [IUGB Congress /29./. Moscow (RU), 17.08.2009-22.08.2009] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA524/09/1569; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Dybowski's sika deer * genetic diversity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology http://www.iugb-moscow2009.ru/cd/docs/ps/Krojerova_poster_1_report_eng.pdf

  1. A Virulent Babesia bovis Strain Failed to Infect White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ueti, Massaro W.; Pia U. Olafson; Freeman, Jeanne M; Johnson, Wendell C.; SCOLES, GLEN A.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife are an important component in the vector-host-pathogen triangle of livestock diseases, as they maintain biological vectors that transmit pathogens and can serve as reservoirs for such infectious pathogens. Babesia bovis is a tick-borne pathogen, vectored by cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus spp., that can cause up to 90% mortality in naive adult cattle. While cattle are the primary host for cattle fever ticks, wild and exotic ungulates, including white-tailed deer (WTD), are known to...

  2. Linking Hunter Knowledge with Forest Change to Understand Changing Deer Harvest Opportunities in Intensively Logged Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Kofinas; Terry Chapin; Todd J. Brinkman; David K. Person

    2009-01-01

    The effects of landscape changes caused by intensive logging on the availability of wild game are important when the harvest of wild game is a critical cultural practice, food source, and recreational activity. We assessed the influence of extensive industrial logging on the availability of wild game by drawing on local knowledge and ecological science to evaluate the relationship between forest change and opportunities to harvest Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) on Pri...

  3. Invasive Species Fact Sheets: Crayfish, Crab, Deer, Frog, Fern, Mouse, Anole, Bullfrog

    Science.gov (United States)

    This resource from ATEEC provides a number of fact sheets on invasive species which may be printed out or used as presentation material. The species described here are the rusty crayfish, the green crab, the Indian spotted deer, the Caribbean tree frog, the small leaf climbing fern, the house mouse, the brown anole and the North American bullfrog. The lesson plan is available for download as a PDF; users must create a free, quick login with ATEEC to access the materials.

  4. Sustainable monitoring of roe deer in public hunting areas in the Spanish pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Corte?s, Juan; Torres, R. T.; Prada, C.; Garcia-serrano, A.; Gimenez-anaya, A.; Ferna?ndez-arberas, Olatz

    2013-01-01

    Aim of study: Monitoring trends in animal populations is essential for the development of appropriate wildlife management strategies. Area of study: The area is situated in the southern Pyrenees (Aragon), Spain. Material and methods: To measure the abundance, population trends, sex ratio, and mortality of roe deer populations, we analyzed data from i) driven hunts for wild boar (hunting seasons 1995/96-2009/10, n = 1,417, ii) itineraries, which were used to calculate the KAI and density using...

  5. Pancreatic injury in hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice after subchronic exposure to ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatitis caused by activation of digestive zymogens in the exocrine pancreas is a serious chronic health problem in alcoholic patients. However, mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis remains obscure due to lack of a suitable animal model. Earlier, we reported pancreatic injury and substantial increases in endogenous formation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH-) deer mice fed 4% ethanol. To understand the mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis, we evaluated dose-dependent metabolism of ethanol and related pancreatic injury in ADH- and hepatic ADH-normal (ADH+) deer mice fed 1%, 2% or 3.5% ethanol via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet daily for 2 months. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was remarkably increased and the concentration was ? 1.5-fold greater in ADH- vs. ADH+ deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. At the end of the experiment, remarkable increases in pancreatic FAEEs and significant pancreatic injury indicated by the presence of prominent perinuclear space, pyknotic nuclei, apoptotic bodies and dilation of glandular ER were found only in ADH- deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. This pancreatic injury was further supported by increased plasma lipase and pancreatic cathepsin B (a lysosomal hydrolase capable of activating trypsinogen), trypsinogen activation peptide (by-product of trypsinogen activation process) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (ends) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (endoplasmic reticulum stress marker). These findings suggest that ADH-deficiency and high alcohol levels in the body are the key factors in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury. Therefore, determining how this early stage of pancreatic injury advances to inflammation stage could be important for understanding the mechanism(s) of alcoholic pancreatitis.

  6. First Record of Setaria Tundra in Danish Roe Deer (Capreolus Capreolus)

    OpenAIRE

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Harslund, Jakob Le Fe?vre; Oksanen, A.; Chrie?l, Mariann; Al-sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman

    2012-01-01

    No previous finds of the mosquito-borne filarioid nematode Setaria tundra have been reported from Denmark, although it was described decades ago in Swedish and Norwegian reindeer as well as in roe deer from Germany, Bulgaria and more recently also from Italy and Finland. Setaria spp. are usually considered harmless inhabitants of the abdominal cavity of ungulates causing only focal areas of mild chronic peritonitis. However, in recent years S. tundra has been associated with an em...

  7. Cross-generational effects of habitat and density on life history in red deer.

    OpenAIRE

    McLoughlin, PD; T. COULSON; Clutton-Brock, T.

    2008-01-01

    We used long-term data on movements, survival, and reproduction of female red deer (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus) of the Isle of Rum, Scotland (1970-2001), to explain variation in life history (age at maturity) from a hind's access to habitat resources and exposure to local density, and cross-generational (maternal) effects on observed relationships. We described each hind's use of resources relative to availability in the study area from an individual-based resource selection function (RSF); we d...

  8. Calendrical Deer, Time-Reckoning and landscape in Iron-Age North-West Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Gonza?lez-garci?a, A. Ce?sar; Garci?a Quintela, Marco V.; Belmonte, Juan Antonio; Santos Este?vez, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    [EN]The relationship between petroglyphs and archaeoastronomy has been treated in several ways in the past. In the present study we examine a particular motif found among the rock carvings in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula: a large deer with over-sized horns and an unnatural number of tips on each horn. A multidisciplinary approach combining landscape archaeology, comparative history of religions, and archaeoastronomy suggests a coherent interpretation of the motif. It revea...

  9. Competition drives cooperation among closely-related sperm of deer mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Heidi S.; Hoekstra, Hopi E.

    2010-01-01

    Among the extraordinary adaptations driven by sperm competition is the cooperative behaviour of spermatozoa1. By forming cooperative groups, sperm can increase their swimming velocity and thereby gain an advantage in intermale sperm competition1,2. Accordingly, selection should favour cooperation of the most closely related sperm to maximize fitness3. Here we show that sperm of deer mice (genus Peromyscus) form motile aggregations, then we use this system test predictions of sperm cooperation...

  10. Relationships of foetal haemoglobin level to age of newborn fallow deer (Dama dama)

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, Arnd; Braza, Francisco; San Jose?, Cristina; Arago?n, Santiago

    1992-01-01

    The relative proportions of foetal and adult haemoglobins were quantified by densitometry of isoelectric focusing patterns in blood samples from 157 fawns from a free-living population of fallow deer (Dama dama) in Coto Doñana National Park, southwestern Spain. During the first week of life, the ratio of adult to foetal haemoglobin concentration increases with age. The proportion of foetal haemoglobin to total haemoglobin in peripheral blood proved a better indicator of age than morphologica...

  11. Breakage on rowan caused by deer - an important factor for Sorbeto-Piceetum stand regeneration?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heroldová, Marta; Homolka, Miloslav; Kamler, Ji?í

    2003-01-01

    Ro?. 181, 1-2 (2003), s. 131-138. ISSN 0378-1127. [International conference on Forest Dynamics and Ungulate Herbivory. Davos, 03.10.2001-06.10.2001] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/99/D053; GA AV ?R IBS6093003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : red deer * Sorbus aucuparia * forest regeneration Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2003

  12. Cost Structure and Profitability Analysis of the John Deere 1490D Slash Bundler in Northern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Fernandez, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Spain is one of the main markets of the John Deere 1490D ECOIII slash bundler in Europe. The Northern Spain has special natural conditions which make the bundling of forest residues an interesting option for the forestry companies of the region. The slash bundling from forest residues has a positive impact in the forestry companies, increasing their revenues and allowing them to complement their business model using residues that traditionally were left in the forest to rot. Those residues le...

  13. Regulatory changes contribute to the adaptive enhancement of thermogenic capacity in high-altitude deer mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cheviron, Zachary A.; Bachman, Gwendolyn C.; Connaty, Alex D.; Mcclelland, Grant B.; Storz, Jay F.

    2012-01-01

    In response to hypoxic stress, many animals compensate for a reduced cellular O2 supply by suppressing total metabolism, thereby reducing O2 demand. For small endotherms that are native to high-altitude environments, this is not always a viable strategy, as the capacity for sustained aerobic thermogenesis is critical for survival during periods of prolonged cold stress. For example, survivorship studies of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) have demonstrated that thermogenic capacity is under...

  14. Quality traits of fallow deer (Dama dama) dry-cured hams

    OpenAIRE

    Piasentier, E.; Volpelli, L. A.; Pittia, P.; Valusso, R.; Morgante, M.

    2011-01-01

    Meat processing by drying, after salting or fermentation and before a long ripening period, is an ancient and widespread process, used to preserve meat from spoilage. Among the wide variety of dry meat products made in Europe, the most famous ones are made from pork (Italian and Spanish dry-cured hams, fermented sausages), but other interesting products are obtained from meat of different species: i.e., the “bresaola”, from bovine, horse, goat, etc. (Paleari et al., 2002). Deer me...

  15. Indirect effects of pandemic deer overabundance inferred from caterpillar-host relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatall, Laura; Nuttle, Tim; Yerger, Ellen

    2013-10-01

    Externally feeding phytophagous insect larvae (i.e., caterpillars, here, larval Lepidoptera and sawflies, Hymenoptera: Symphyta) are important canopy herbivores and prey resources in temperate deciduous forests. However, composition of forest trees has changed dramatically in the eastern United States since 1900. In particular, browsing by high densities of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has resulted in forests dominated by browse-tolerant species, such as black cherry (Prunus serotina), and greatly reduced relative abundance of other tree species, notably pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica) and birches (Betula spp.). To quantify effects of these changes on caterpillars, we sampled caterpillars from 960 branch tips of the 8 tree species that comprise 95% of trees in Allegheny hardwood forests: red maple (Acer rubrum), striped maple (Acer pensylvanicum), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), sweet birch (Betula lenta), yellow birch (Betula allegheniensis), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), black cherry, and pin cherry. We collected 547 caterpillar specimens that belonged to 66 Lepidoptera and 10 Hymenoptera species. Caterpillar density, species richness, and community composition differed significantly among tree species sampled. Pin cherry, nearly eliminated at high deer density, had the highest density and diversity of caterpillars. Pin cherry shared a common caterpillar community with black cherry, which was distinct from those of other tree hosts. As high deer density continues to replace diverse forests of cherries, maples, birches, and beech with monodominant stands of black cherry, up to 66% of caterpillar species may be eliminated. Hence, deer-induced changes in forest vegetation are likely to ricochet back up forest food webs and therefore negatively affect species that depend on caterpillars and moths for food and pollination. PMID:23678968

  16. Eld’s Deer Translocated to Human-Inhabited Areas Become Nocturnal

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Duo; Teng, Liwei; Cui, Fangjie; Zeng, Zhigao; Bravery, Benjamin D.; Zhang, Qiong; Song, Yanling

    2010-01-01

    As human populations expand and nonhuman animals decline, understanding the interactions between people and wildlife is essential. For endangered species, appreciating the effect of human disturbance can be important for their conservation. However, a human disturbance angle is often absent from ecological research, despite growing evidence of the negative impact of nonfatal human interference. Here, we monitored Hainan Eld’s deer living within a reserve and translocated animals living amon...

  17. Aligning conservation goals: are patterns of species richness and endemism concordant at regional scales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricketts, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation strategies commonly target areas of high species richness and/or high endemism. However, the correlation between richness and endemism at scales relevant to conservation is unclear; these two common goals of conservation plans may therefore be in conflict. Here the spatial concordance between richness and endemism is tested using five taxa in North America: butterflies, birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. This concordance is also tested using overall indices of richness and endemism (incorporating all five taxa. For all taxa except birds, richness and endemism were significantly correlated, with amphibians, reptiles, and the overall indices showing the highest correlations (rs = 0.527-0.676. However, 'priority sets' of ecoregions (i.e., the top 10% of ecoregions based on richness generally overlapped poorly with those based on endemism (< 50% overlap for all but reptiles. These results offer only limited support for the idea that richness and endemism are correlated at broad scales and indicate that land managers will need to balance these dual, and often conflicting, goals of biodiversity conservation.

  18. TERRITORIAL INVESTIGATION OF DONJA TRNAVA VILLAGE AS ENDEMIC AREA 22 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojin Savi?

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Endemic nephropathy is a renal disease of unknown aetiology, which occurs endemically and affects individuals from risk families, with latent but progressive natural course and fatal outcome. In earlier territorial investigations, endemic areas were found along the Juzna Morava River: Brestovac, Kutles, Trupale, Gornja i Donja Toponica, Luzane, Nozrina, Moravac and other settlements. The last extensive studies of endemic nephropathy in these villages were conducted in 1981. These investigations showed that 2.7% of inhabitants along the right side of Juzna Morava River, in Donja Trnava village, suffered from endemic nephropathy. In the present study, a total of 291 persons (153 female and 138 male, aged 7 to 77, were investigated. Diagnosis of endemic nephropathy was made according to the natural history, physical examination and urine analysis. Two persons or 0.68 % (one with chronic renal failure, and the other with an end-stage renal disease, on haemodialysis treatments had endemic nephropathy. Eight persons (or 2.75% suffered from other renal diseases. There were no urothelial tumors, which was confirmed in previous studies. Based on these investigations, a total of 39 persons from 29 risk families was selected for further examinations and following-up at the Institute of Nephrology and Haemodialysis in Nis.

  19. Aggressive defensive behavior by free-ranging white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Jenks, J.A.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Swanson, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal investment plays a critical role in neonate survival, and adults can improve survival of offspring by defending them against predators. However, limited information exists documenting ungulate aggression toward humans in defense of neonates. During captures of neonates in spring 2007 and 2008 in north-central South Dakota, we documented 24 aggressive encounters by adult female and yearling male and female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) defending neonates. Eleven (45.8%) aggressive encounters included yearlings accompanying adult females. Mean ages and weights of neonates that were aggressively defended were greater (P < 0.0001) than ages and weights of those that were not; adults began protecting neonates at approximately 4 days of age. Male fawns were more likely (P = 0.013) to be defended than female fawns. Examination of our data suggests that sex- and age-biased maternal defensive behavior exists in white-tailed deer, and that deer biased maternal investment toward older, male neonates. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  20. Daily movements of female white-tailed deer relative to parturition and breeding.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gino J. D' Angelo; Christopher E. Comer; John C. Kilgo; Cory D. Drennan; David A. Osborn; Karl V. Miller

    2005-10-01

    Abstract: To assess how white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herd demographics influence reproductive behaviors, we examined 24-h diel movements of female whitetailed deer relative to parturition and breeding in a low-density population with a near even sex ratio at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina. We conducted a series of intensive, 24-h radio-tracking periods of 13 females during spring and fall 2002. We compared daily range (ha), rate of travel (m/h), and distance between extreme daily locations (m), among the periods of pre-parturition and post-parturition and pre-, peak-, and post-rut. From pre-parturition to post-parturition, we observed decreases in diel range size (�¢����38.2%), distance between extreme diel locations (�¢����17.0%), and diel rate of travel (�¢����18.2%). Diel range size, distance between extreme diel locations, and diel rate of travel during the pre-rut and rut exceeded those observed during post-rut. We further identified substantial increases in mobility during 12 24-h diel periods for eight females during our fall monitoring. Our data suggest that female white-tailed deer reduce mobility post-fawning following exaggerated movements during pre-parturition. Furthermore, despite a near equal sex ratio, estrous does may be required to actively seek potential mates due to low population density.

  1. Molecular biogeography of red deer Cervus elaphus from eastern Europe: insights from mitochondrial DNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzia?kowska, Magdalena; J?drzejewska, Bogumi?a; Honnen, Ann-Christin; Otto, Thurid; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Perzanowski, Kajetan; Skog, Anna; Hartl, Günther B.; Borowik, Tomasz; Bunevich, Aleksei N.; Lang, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    European red deer are known to show a conspicuous phylogeographic pattern with three distinct mtDNA lineages (western, eastern and North-African/Sardinian). The western lineage, believed to be indicative of a southwestern glacial refuge in Iberia and southern France, nowadays covers large areas of the continent including the British Isles, Scandinavia and parts of central Europe, while the eastern lineage is primarily found in southeast-central Europe, the Carpathians and the Balkans. However, large parts of central Europe and the whole northeast of the continent were not covered by previous analyses. To close this gap, we produced mtDNA control region sequences from more than 500 red deer from Denmark, Germany, Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine and western Russia and combined our data with sequences available from earlier studies to an overall sample size of almost 1,100. Our results show that the western lineage extends far into the European east and is prominent in all eastern countries except for the Polish Carpathians, Ukraine and Russia where only eastern haplotypes occurred. While the latter may actually reflect the natural northward expansion of the eastern lineage after the last ice age, the present distribution of the western lineage in eastern Europe may in large parts be artificial and a result of translocations and reintroduction of red deer into areas where the species became extinct in historical times. PMID:21350595

  2. Control of mycobacterium bovis infection in two sika deer herds in ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partridge Tom

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a number of countries, tuberculosis (due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis is a significant health problem of captive deer. This paper describes outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis in sika deer (Cervus nippon on two farms in Ireland and the methods used to control the disease. On Farm A, infection was first detected during 1993. The infection was eradicated using a programme of test and removal, in association with segregation of young animals. A second outbreak (also due to infection with M. bovis, but a different RFLP profile was detected in 2002. In the latter outbreak, infection was particularly prevalent in two groups of young deer. M. bovis with the same RFLP profile was also isolated in a badger found dead on the farm. Control was achieved by test and removal in association with herd management changes. In Herd B, infection was first detected in 1995, and subsequently eradicated using test and removal alone. In Herd A, re-infection remains an ongoing risk. Control rather than eradication of infection may more realistic in the short-to medium-term.

  3. Weather conditions associated with autumn migration by mule deer in Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Chadwick D; Mong, Tony W; Hart, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining ecological integrity necessitates a proactive approach of identifying and acquiring lands to conserve unfragmented landscapes, as well as evaluating existing mitigation strategies to increase connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The increased use of highway underpasses and overpasses to restore connectivity for wildlife species offers clear conservation benefits, yet also presents a unique opportunity to understand how weather conditions may impact movement of wildlife species. We used remote camera observations (19,480) from an existing wildlife highway underpass in Wyoming and daily meteorological observations to quantify weather conditions associated with autumn migration of mule deer in 2009 and 2010. We identified minimal daily temperature and snow depth as proximate cues associated with mule deer migration to winter range. These weather cues were consistent across does and bucks, but differed slightly by year. Additionally, extreme early season snow depth or cold temperature events appear to be associated with onset of migration. This information will assist wildlife managers and transportation officials as they plan future projects to maintain and enhance migration routes for mule deer. PMID:26137426

  4. Weather conditions associated with autumn migration by mule deer in Wyoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadwick D. Rittenhouse

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining ecological integrity necessitates a proactive approach of identifying and acquiring lands to conserve unfragmented landscapes, as well as evaluating existing mitigation strategies to increase connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The increased use of highway underpasses and overpasses to restore connectivity for wildlife species offers clear conservation benefits, yet also presents a unique opportunity to understand how weather conditions may impact movement of wildlife species. We used remote camera observations (19,480 from an existing wildlife highway underpass in Wyoming and daily meteorological observations to quantify weather conditions associated with autumn migration of mule deer in 2009 and 2010. We identified minimal daily temperature and snow depth as proximate cues associated with mule deer migration to winter range. These weather cues were consistent across does and bucks, but differed slightly by year. Additionally, extreme early season snow depth or cold temperature events appear to be associated with onset of migration. This information will assist wildlife managers and transportation officials as they plan future projects to maintain and enhance migration routes for mule deer.

  5. Using Pellet Groups To Assess Response Of Elk and Deer to Roads and Energy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Dzialak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Development and extraction of resources such as oil and gas has directly and indirectly reduced available habitat to wildlife through changes in behavior and resource use. To assess how elk (Cervus elaphus and deer (Odocoileus spp. were spatially distributed relative to roads and coal-bed natural gas well pads, we collected pellet group data during 2 summers in south-central Colorado. We used generalized linear mixed models to assess the relative probability of use of elk and deer in relation to roads and well pads. We found relative probability of use was positively associated with distance from roads, indicating greater use of areas farther away from roads. Relative probability of use was negatively associated with distance to well pads, potentially as a result of plant phenology and reseeding in disturbed areas around well pads. Other factors such as elevation, slope and vegetative security cover also influenced elk and deer spatial distributions. Based on these data, it appears resource use may be driven by forage and security cover more than disturbance features. Pellet group surveys appear to be an appropriate technique for evaluating resource use of populations across large spatial extents when logistical and financial constraints limit the use of more advanced technology such as very high frequency and global positioning system collars.

  6. Man-induced gradient adjustment of the South Fork Forked Deer River, west Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.; Robbins, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    Channel modifications from 1968 to 1969 on the South Fork Forked Deer River in western Tennessee have caused upstream degradation, downstream aggradation, and bank failures along the altered channels, adjacent reaches, and tributaries. The result of these adjustments is a general decrease in gradient as the channel attempts to absorb the imposed increase in energy conditions created by channelization. Headward degradation at a rate of approximately 2.57 km/yr on the South Fork Forked Deer River caused from 1.52 m to about 3.14 m of incision over a 13.5 km reach from 1969 to 1981. As a consequence of substantially increased sediment supply, approximately 2.13 m of aggradation was induced downstream of this reach during the same period. This accumulation represents a 60% recovery of bed level at the downstream site since the completion of channel work in 1969. Gradient adjustment with time is described by exponential decay functions. The length of time required for adjustment to some new quasi-equilibrium condition is computed by these decay functions and is about 20 years from the completion of channel work. Adjusted slopes are less than predisturbed values, probably because straightened channels dissipate less energy by friction, allowing more energy for sediment transport. An equivalent sediment load, therefore, can be transported at a considerably gentler slope. The predisturbed slope exceeds the adjusted slope by an order of magnitude on the downstream reach of the South Fork Forked Deer River. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  7. HABITAT SUITABILITY MODELING FOR EXPLORATION OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF KASHMIR MUSK DEER IN DACHIGAM NATIONAL PARK, KASHMIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Musk deer are highly important as a medicinal species that are severely exploited throughout their range of occurrence due to the medicinal value of the musk produced only by the male individuals. Methods used for studying the populations and distributions of other ungulates do not work well with musk deer and the presence of a unified methodology for studying musk deer appear to be lacking worldwide. Therefore, the development of a simple predictive model for studying the distribution of the musk deer habitats stands as an important task to be accomplished. Two kinds of research questions were pursued during the present study-examining through field research what kind of habitat musk deer used and mapping the habitat in the park using a GIS and remote sensing environment. The parameters which were found to have a profound influence in predicting the species’s spatial distribution have been used in the modeling of the current habitat suitability for the Kashmir musk deer (Moschus cupreus. The study was conducted at the upper reaches (elevations 2200 m and above of the Dachigam National Park, Kashmir (34°05΄18.40΄΄N-34°06΄04.69΄΄N and 75°03΄32.05΄΄E-75°04΄27.26΄΄E during January 2005-January 2008 to evaluate the characteristics of the musk deer habitats. The environmental attributes which were found to have a profound influence in predicting the species’s spatial distribution included the slope exposures in the range of 293°Northwest -68° Northeast, slope gradients of 25-40° and elevations of 2100 m and above, with the preference ratings of aspect > slope > elevation and, therefore, were considered for the development of the habitat suitability model for prediction of the spatial distribution of the Kashmir musk deer. The current suitable musk deer habitat in Dachigam National Park is estimated in the extent of about 40 sq. km. (~28% area of the national park. The model results were found to have a good performance in making fair predictions (about 50% area of the National Park has been validated for predictions. The spatial distribution of musk deer reflected the musk deer habitats mostly spread through the Picea smithiana and blue pine forest and some habitats close to the alpine scrub nearby to the rocky cliffs. The potential of the model has been utilized in finding the density of musk deer. Possible 60 musk deer survive in Dachigam National Park with a density of 0.42 individuals per sq. km. However, the weighted mean density in the musk deer habitats was about 1.55 individuals per sq. km.

  8. Multiple models of porcine teschovirus pathogenesis in endemically infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shu-Chun; Yang, Chih-Lin; Chen, Ya-Mei; Hu, Shu-Chia; Chiu, Kuo-Chao; Lin, Yi-Chien; Chang, Chia-Yi; Wang, Fun-In

    2014-01-10

    Porcine teschoviruses (PTVs) belong to the genus Teschovirus within the family Picornaviridae. PTVs are universal contaminants in pig herds in endemic and multi-infection status. To further the understanding of PTV pathogenesis in endemically infected pigs, a set of samples was studied by real time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) to quantitate viral loads in tissues and by in situ hybridization (ISH) to locate PTV signals in target cells, both targeting the 5'-NTR. cRNA of PTV-1 and PTV-7, in vitro transcribed from cloned fragments of 5'-NTR of 2 viruses, was used to construct standard curves and to run parallel in qRT-PCR, which had detection limits of 10(1) copies/per reaction, with a linearity in between 10(1) and 10(7) copies/per reaction and correlation coefficients of 0.997-0.9988. The qRT-PCR specifically amplified RNA from PTV-1 to -11, while excluding those of Sapelovirus, PEV-9 and PEV-10. Inguinal lymph node (LN) had the highest viral load of all (assuming 100%), followed by ileac LN (89-91%), tonsil (66-68%), ileum (59-60%), spleen (38-40%), and kidney (30-31%), with the least in brain (22.9%) of the inguinal LN. The 22.9% load in brain was higher than that anticipated from a simple fecal-oral-viremia operative model. The results suggested in addition that intranasal infection and retrograding axonal infection from the tonsils were equally operative and significant. ISH revealed PTV signals in a wider variety of tissue cell types than before. PTV signals were noted most impressively in neurons of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus and in the dark zone of the germinal center and adjacent paracortex of regional LN. Multiple operative models indicated that PTVs seemed to have no difficulty invading the brain. The key to whether encephalitis would ensue resided in the animal's immune status and topographic differences of neurons' susceptibilities to PTVs. When common co-infected agents are present, as is typical in the field, PTVs may synergize in causing diseases. PMID:24268804

  9. Potential Role of Masting by Introduced Bamboos in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) Population Irruptions Holds Public Health Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melissa C; Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Mack, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that the ongoing naturalization of frost/shade tolerant Asian bamboos in North America could cause environmental consequences involving introduced bamboos, native rodents and ultimately humans. More specifically, we asked whether the eventual masting by an abundant leptomorphic ("running") bamboo within Pacific Northwest coniferous forests could produce a temporary surfeit of food capable of driving a population irruption of a common native seed predator, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), a hantavirus carrier. Single-choice and cafeteria-style feeding trials were conducted for deer mice with seeds of two bamboo species (Bambusa distegia and Yushania brevipaniculata), wheat, Pinus ponderosa, and native mixed diets compared to rodent laboratory feed. Adult deer mice consumed bamboo seeds as readily as they consumed native seeds. In the cafeteria-style feeding trials, Y. brevipaniculata seeds were consumed at the same rate as native seeds but more frequently than wheat seeds or rodent laboratory feed. Females produced a median litter of 4 pups on a bamboo diet. Given the ability of deer mice to reproduce frequently whenever food is abundant, we employed our feeding trial results in a modified Rosenzweig-MacArthur consumer-resource model to project the population-level response of deer mice to a suddenly available/rapidly depleted supply of bamboo seeds. The simulations predict rodent population irruptions and declines similar to reported cycles involving Asian and South American rodents but unprecedented in deer mice. Following depletion of a mast seed supply, the incidence of Sin Nombre Virus (SNV) transmission to humans could subsequently rise with dispersal of the peridomestic deer mice into nearby human settlements seeking food. PMID:25898267

  10. Potential Role of Masting by Introduced Bamboos in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) Population Irruptions Holds Public Health Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melissa C.; Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Mack, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that the ongoing naturalization of frost/shade tolerant Asian bamboos in North America could cause environmental consequences involving introduced bamboos, native rodents and ultimately humans. More specifically, we asked whether the eventual masting by an abundant leptomorphic (“running”) bamboo within Pacific Northwest coniferous forests could produce a temporary surfeit of food capable of driving a population irruption of a common native seed predator, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), a hantavirus carrier. Single-choice and cafeteria-style feeding trials were conducted for deer mice with seeds of two bamboo species (Bambusa distegia and Yushania brevipaniculata), wheat, Pinus ponderosa, and native mixed diets compared to rodent laboratory feed. Adult deer mice consumed bamboo seeds as readily as they consumed native seeds. In the cafeteria-style feeding trials, Y. brevipaniculata seeds were consumed at the same rate as native seeds but more frequently than wheat seeds or rodent laboratory feed. Females produced a median litter of 4 pups on a bamboo diet. Given the ability of deer mice to reproduce frequently whenever food is abundant, we employed our feeding trial results in a modified Rosenzweig-MacArthur consumer-resource model to project the population-level response of deer mice to a suddenly available/rapidly depleted supply of bamboo seeds. The simulations predict rodent population irruptions and declines similar to reported cycles involving Asian and South American rodents but unprecedented in deer mice. Following depletion of a mast seed supply, the incidence of Sin Nombre Virus (SNV) transmission to humans could subsequently rise with dispersal of the peridomestic deer mice into nearby human settlements seeking food. PMID:25898267

  11. Effects of Cougar Predation and Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Declines in the IM Province of the Columbia Basin, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielgus, Robert; Shipley, Lisa; Myers, Woodrow

    2003-09-01

    Construction of the Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams has resulted in inundation and loss of 29,125 total habitat units for mule deer and irrigation agriculture in many parts the Intermountain Province (IM) of the Columbia Basin. Mule deer in the Shrub-Steppe are ranked high priority target species for mitigation and management and are declining in most portions of the sub basins of the IM. Reasons for the decline are unknown but believed to be related to habitat changes resulting from dams and irrigation agriculture. White-tailed deer are believed to be increasing throughout the basin because of habitat changes brought about by the dams and irrigation agriculture. Recent research (1997-2000) in the NE IM and adjacent Canadian portions of the Columbia Basin (conducted by this author and funded by the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program B.C.), suggest that the increasing white-tailed deer populations (because of dams and irrigation agriculture) are resulting in increased predation by cougars on mule deer (apparent competition or alternate prey hypothesis). The apparent competition hypothesis predicts that as alternate prey (white-tailed deer) densities increase, so do densities of predators, resulting in increased incidental predation on sympatric native prey (mule deer). Apparent competition can result in population declines and even extirpation of native prey in some cases. Such a phenomenon may account for declines of mule deer in the IM and throughout arid and semi-arid West where irrigation agriculture is practiced. We will test the apparent competition hypothesis by conducting a controlled, replicated 'press' experiment in at least 2 treatment and 2 control areas of the IM sub basins by reducing densities of white-tailed deer and observing any changes in cougar predation on mule deer. Deer densities will be monitored by WADFW personnel using annual aerial surveys and/or other trend indices. Predation rates and population growth rates of deer will be determined using radio telemetry. Changes in cougar functional (kills/unit time), aggregative (cougars/unit area), numerical (offspring/cougar), and total (predation rate) responses on deer will also be monitored using radio telemetry. The experiment will be conducted and completed over a period of 5 years. Results will be used to determine the cause and try to halt the mule deer population declines. Results will also guide deer mitigation and management in the IM and throughout the North American West.

  12. Effects of Cougar Predation and Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Declines in the Intermountain Province of the Columbia Basin, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielgus, Robert B.; Shipley, Lisa

    2002-07-01

    Construction of the Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams has resulted in inundation and loss of 29,125 total habitat units for mule deer and irrigation agriculture in many parts the Intermountain Province (IM) of the Columbia Basin. Mule deer in the Shrub-Steppe are ranked high priority target species for mitigation and management and are declining in most portions of the subbasins of the IM. Reasons for the decline are unknown but believed to be related to habitat changes resulting from dams and irrigation agriculture. White-tailed deer are not ranked as target species and are believed to be increasing throughout the basin because of habitat changes brought about by the dams and irrigation agriculture. Recent research (1997-2000) in the NE IM and adjacent Canadian portions of the Columbia Basin (conducted by this author and funded by the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program B.C.), suggest that the increasing white-tailed deer populations (because of dams and irrigation agriculture) are resulting in increased predation by cougars on mule deer (apparent competition or alternate prey hypothesis). The apparent competition hypothesis predicts that as alternate prey (white-tailed deer) densities increase, so do densities of predators, resulting in increased incidental predation on sympatric native prey (mule deer). Apparent competition can result in population declines and even extirpation of native prey in some cases. Such a phenomenon may account for declines of mule deer in the IM and throughout arid and semi-arid West where irrigation agriculture is practiced. We will test the apparent competition hypothesis by conducting a controlled, replicated ''press'' experiment in at least 2 treatment and 2 control areas of the IM subbasins by reducing densities of white-tailed deer and observing any changes in cougar predation on mule deer. Deer densities will be monitored by WADFW personnel using annual aerial surveys and/or other trend indices. Predation rates and population growth rates of deer will be determined using radio telemetry. Changes in cougar functional (kills/unit time), aggregative (cougars/unit area), numerical (offspring/cougar), and total (predation rate) responses on deer will also be monitored using radio telemetry. The experiment will be conducted and completed over a period of 5 years. Results will be used to determine the cause and try to halt the mule deer population declines. Results will also guide deer mitigation and management in the IM and throughout the North American West.

  13. Experimental transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Hugh W

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, a member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE, primarily affects cattle. Transmission is via concentrate feed rations contaminated with infected meat and bone meal (MBM. In addition to cattle, other food animal species are susceptible to BSE and also pose a potential threat to human health as consumption of infected meat products is the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, which is invariably fatal. In the UK, farmed and free ranging deer were almost certainly exposed to BSE infected MBM in proprietary feeds prior to legislation banning its inclusion. Therefore, although BSE has never been diagnosed in any deer species, a possible risk to human health remains via ingestion of cervine products. Chronic wasting disease (CWD, also a TSE, naturally infects several cervid species in North America and is spreading rapidly in both captive and free-ranging populations. Results Here we show that European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus are susceptible to intra-cerebral (i/c challenge with BSE positive cattle brain pool material resulting in clinical neurological disease and weight loss by 794–1290 days and the clinical signs are indistinguishable to those reported in deer with CWD. Spongiform changes typical of TSE infections were present in brain and accumulation of the disease-associated abnormal prion protein (PrPd was present in the central and peripheral nervous systems, but not in lymphoid or other tissues. Western immunoblot analysis of brain material showed a similar glycosylation pattern to that of BSE derived from infected cattle and experimentally infected sheep with respect to protease-resistant PrP isoforms. However, the di-, mono- and unglycosylated bands migrated significantly (p Conclusion This study shows that deer are susceptible to BSE by intra-cerebral inoculation and display clinical signs and vacuolar pathology that are similar to those of CWD. These findings highlight the importance of preventing the spread to Europe of CWD from North America as this may necessitate even more extensive testing of animal tissues destined for human consumption within the EU. Although the absence of PrPd in lymphoid and other non-neurological tissues potentially limits the risk of transmission to humans, the replication of TSE agents in peripheral tissues following intra-cerebral challenge is often limited. Thus the assessment of risk posed by cervine BSE as a human pathogen or for environmental contamination should await the outcome of ongoing oral challenge experiments.

  14. Immunosuppressive principles from Achillea talagonica, an endemic species of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saeidnia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background and the purpose of study: Achillea talagonica Boiss. (Asteraceae grows in the western and central parts of Iran. This plant has long been used in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent for treatment of rheumatic pain. Previously, the immunosuppressive activity of the aqueous extract of this endemic plant in experimental animals was reported. In this research, isolation of the main immunologically active components of A. talagonica, which were effective on humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice is elucidated. Methods: In order to find the main immunosuppressive components of A. talagonica, methanol and methanol-water (80% and 50% v:v extracts were injected to BALB/c mice and the hemagglutinating antibody titer was assayed after immunization with SRBC (sheep red blood cells. Guided by this assay, active principles were separated by chromatographic methods. Results: Isolated compounds were identified as caffeic acid 9-O-glucoside (1, quercetin (2, luteolin (3, 3'-methoxy luteolin (4, proline (5 and choline (6 by comparison of their spectral data with those of reported in literatures. Immunosuppressive property of choline (5 mgkg-1 was comparable to those of prednisolone (10 mgkg-1; although, quercetin (20 mgkg-1 and caffeoyl glucoside (20 mgkg-1 decreased anti-SRBC titer in comparison with control groups. Major conclusion: Immunosuppressive effects of A. talagonica are due to some components belonging to betaine, flavonol and phenoilc esters.

  15. Vegetative propagation of the Azorean endemic shrub Viburnum treleasei Gand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNICA MOURA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viburnum treleasei Gand. is a threatened hermaphroditic shrub or small tree endemic to the Azores islands. In this study we aimed at defining a fast, simple and cost-efficient propagation methodology that could be used by non-skilled workers in conservation actionplans. Our objective was also to produce cleaner material for initiation of in vitro cultures and to determine the effects of season, placement of cuttings in the branch, placement of vegetative buds in cuttings and forcing solutions in shoot development. It was possible to produce clean shoots from cuttings using a forcing solution with 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate (8-HQS, 2% sucrose and no growth regulators addition. Shoot development results obtained with apical and sub-apical cuttings indicate that V. treleasei possessesapical dominance and deep endodormancy. Apical semihardwood cuttings in autumn or airlayered branches in autumn and winter with 2 or 5% (w/w of IBA produced excellent rooting results which will allow reinforcing depleted populations of V. treleasei efficientlyand at reduced costs.

  16. «Suspects» in Etiology of Endemic Nephropathy: Aristolochic Acid versus Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Pepeljnjak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite many hypotheses that have been challenged, the etiology of endemic nephropathy (EN is still unknown. At present, the implications of aristolochic acid (AA and mycotoxins (ochratoxin A—OTA and citrinin—CIT are under debate. AA-theory is based on renal pathohistological similarities between Chinese herbs nephropathy (CHN and EN, findings of AA-DNA adducts in EN and in patients with urinary tract tumors (UTT, as well as the domination of A:T?T:A transversions in the p53 mutational spectrum of UTT patients, which corresponds with findings of such mutations in AA-treated rats. However, exposure pathways of EN residents to AA are unclear. Experimental studies attempting to deduce whether nephrotoxins OTA and CIT appear at higher frequencies or levels (or both in the food and blood or urine of EN residents support the mycotoxin theory. Also, some molecular studies revealed the presence of OTA-DNA adducts in the renal tissue of EN and UTT patients. In this review, data supporting or arguing against AA and mycotoxin theory are presented and discussed.

  17. The population dynamics of an endemic collectible cactus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandujano, María C.; Bravo, Yolotzin; Verhulst, Johannes; Carrillo-Angeles, Israel; Golubov, Jordan

    2015-02-01

    Astrophytum is one of most collected genera in the cactus family. Around the world several species are maintained in collections and yearly, several plants are taken from their natural habitats. Populations of Astorphytum capricorne are found in the northern Chihuahuan desert, Mexico, and as many endemic cactus species, it has a highly restricted habitat. We conducted a demographic study from 2008 to 2010 of the northern populations found at Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We applied matrix population models, included simulations, life table response experiments and descriptions of the population dynamics to evaluate the current status of the species, and detect key life table stages and demographic processes. Population growth rate decreased in both years and only 4% individual mortality can be attributed to looting, and a massive effort is needed to increase seedling recruitment and reduce adult mortality. The fate of individuals differed between years even having the same annual rainfall mainly in accentuated stasis, retrogression and high mortality in all size classes, which coupled with low seed production, no recruitment and collection of plants are the causes contributing to population decline, and hence, increase the risk in which A. capricorne populations are found. Reintroduction of seedlings and lowering adult mortality are urgently needed to revert the alarming demographic condition of A. capricorne populations.

  18. Testing of newly developed glycophospholipid antigen for the detection of P. falciparum malaria by laser light immunoassay in endemic and non-endemic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Roy, S. Biswas, M.M. Mya, R.K. Saxena & K.B. Roy

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A glycophospholipid (GPL antigen isolated from Plasmodium falciparum culture supernatant hasbeen tested for its antigenicity. Detection of malaria positive known blood samples and unknown fieldsamples from endemic and non-endemic areas were compared. In this study laser light scattering immunoassay(LIA was used for the detection of P. falciparum malaria. Test results of control (malaria negativesamples from Surat were compared with known positive samples and unknown malaria positivefield samples. A positive correlation has been observed (97% in falciparum positive samples from laboratoryand unknown samples from endemic area (Haldwani by LIA method using GPL antigen. Fromthe results of the study it was found that GPL antigen has a better antigenic property and can detectalmost all the cases of Pf malaria by LIA method.

  19. Host culling as an adaptive management tool for chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer: a modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserberg, Gideon; Osnas, Erik E; Rolley, Robert E; Samuel, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    Emerging wildlife diseases pose a significant threat to natural and human systems. Because of real or perceived risks of delayed actions, disease management strategies such as culling are often implemented before thorough scientific knowledge of disease dynamics is available. Adaptive management is a valuable approach in addressing the uncertainty and complexity associated with wildlife disease problems and can be facilitated by using a formal model. We developed a multi-state computer simulation model using age, sex, infection-stage, and seasonality as a tool for scientific learning and managing chronic wasting disease (CWD) in white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus. Our matrix model used disease transmission parameters based on data collected through disease management activities. We used this model to evaluate management issues on density- (DD) and frequency-dependent (FD) transmission, time since disease introduction, and deer culling on the demographics, epizootiology, and management of CWD. Both DD and FD models fit the Wisconsin data for a harvested white-tailed deer population, but FD was slightly better. Time since disease introduction was estimated as 36 (95% CI, 24–50) and 188 (41–>200) years for DD and FD transmission, respectively. Deer harvest using intermediate to high non-selective rates can be used to reduce uncertainty between DD and FD transmission and improve our prediction of long-term epidemic patterns and host population impacts. A higher harvest rate allows earlier detection of these differences, but substantially reduces deer abundance. Results showed that CWD has spread slowly within Wisconsin deer populations, and therefore, epidemics and disease management are expected to last for decades. Non-hunted deer populations can develop and sustain a high level of infection, generating a substantial risk of disease spread. In contrast, CWD prevalence remains lower in hunted deer populations, but at a higher prevalence the disease competes with recreational hunting to reduce deer abundance. Synthesis and applications. Uncertainty about density- or frequency-dependent transmission hinders predictions about the long-term impacts of chronic wasting disease on cervid populations and the development of appropriate management strategies. An adaptive management strategy using computer modelling coupled with experimental management and monitoring can be used to test model predictions, identify the likely mode of disease transmission, and evaluate the risks of alternative management responses. PMID:19536340

  20. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the Moroccan endemic endangered species Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae)1

    OpenAIRE

    El Bahloul, Yasmina; Dauchot, Nicolas; Machtoun, Ikrame; Gaboun, Fatima; Cutsem, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the Moroccan endemic endangered species Argania spinosa with a combination of a typical library enrichment procedure and a 454 GS FLX Titanium–based high-throughput sequencing approach.

  1. MICROMORPHOLOGICAL AND PALYNOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS REGARDING THE ENDEMIC SPECIES CAMPANULA CARPATICA JACQ.

    OpenAIRE

    IRINA NETA GOSTIN

    2012-01-01

    Micromorphology and palinology of Campanula carpatica, endemic for the Carpathian Mountains, have been investigated. Leaves, different parts of the flowers and pollen grains were investigated from micromorphological point of view.

  2. MICROMORPHOLOGICAL AND PALYNOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS REGARDING THE ENDEMIC SPECIES CAMPANULA CARPATICA JACQ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA NETA GOSTIN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphology and palinology of Campanula carpatica, endemic for the Carpathian Mountains, have been investigated. Leaves, different parts of the flowers and pollen grains were investigated from micromorphological point of view.

  3. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in patients with endemic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huski?, J; Kulenovi?, H; Culo, F

    1996-01-01

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme was measured in 60 patients with endemic nephropathy and in 30 healthy individuals. According to the arterial blood pressure, the patients with endemic nephropathy were further divided into groups with arterial hypertension (n = 30) and without arterial hypertension (n = 30). The activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme was determined by a spectrophotometric method using hippuryl-l-histidyl-l-leucine as a substrate. The serum activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme was significantly increased in the patients with endemic nephropathy (28.51 +/- 1.64 U/l) as compared with healthy individuals (20.83 +/- 1.33 U/l). The level of the enzyme was further increased if the endemic nephropathy was accompanied by arterial hypertension (37.09 +/- 1.45 U/l). The possible mechanisms of the increase in the angiotensin-converting enzyme activity are discussed. PMID:8883029

  4. ISSR Variation in the Endemic and Endangered Plant Cycas guizhouensis (Cycadaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    XIAO, LONG?QIAN; GE, XUE?JUN; Gong, Xun; Hao, Gang; ZHENG, SI?XIANG

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Cycas guizhouensis (Cycadaceae) is a rare and endangered species endemic to the southwest of China. An investigation was undertaken into the genetic variation of wild populations.

  5. Micropropagation of Ilex khasiana, a critically endangered and endemic holly of Northeast India

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Jiten Chandra; Kumaria,Suman; Kumar, Shrawan; Tandon, Pramod

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes in vitro techniques for mass propagation of IIex khasiana, a rare and critically endangered holly endemic to Khasi Hills Hills of Meghalaya, India. The approach will help conserve I. khasiana and other endangered species.

  6. Time trends (1986-2003) of radiocesium transfer to roe deer and wild boar in two Austrian forest regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting shortly after the Chernobyl accident, samples of roe deer and wild boar from two comparatively highly contaminated Austrian forest stands have been regularly analysed for 137Cs. Until 1995 average 137Cs concentrations exceeded 1000 Bq kg-1 in both roe deer and wild boar. Long-term and seasonal trends are similar in both investigation sites. While 137Cs aggregated transfer factor (Tag) values show a significant decreasing trend in roe deer (ecological half-time 8.6 and 7.2 years, respectively), Tag-values in wild boar are highly variable, but rather increasing values are observed over the last years. Tag-values for roe deer are between 0.04 and 0.008 m2 kg-1 fresh weight (1987-2003); values for wild boar are between 0.008 m2 kg-1 (1988) and 0.046 m2 kg-1 (1996) fresh weight. Seasonal trends for both species are in good agreement with observations from German forests: increased mushroom ingestion leads to higher 137Cs Tag-values for roe deer in the second half of the year (August-December) compared to the first half (January-July). Tag-values for wild boar are highest in the first half of the year

  7. Plants Composing the Diet of Marsh and Pampas Deer in the Brazilian Pantanal Wetland and Their Ethnomedicinal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia S. Costa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus (Illiger, 1815 and pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758 are two wild endangered species of South America whose foraging habits are still little known. This study focuses on the plant species consumed by both deer living at a Private Natural Heritage Reserve in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland as well as the ethnomedicinal properties of those plants. The diet composition was determined by direct observation of foraging activity of these animals during wet and dry seasons. Twenty-one plant species, belonging to thirteen botanical families, were inventoried. Among them, eight plant species, identified as Andira cuyabensis, Cecropia pachystachya, Desmodium distortum, Lippia alba, Ludwigia nervosa, Phyllanthus amarus, Polygonum acuminatum and Vernonia scabra, are used in Brazil for their healing properties. Five other plant species belong to medicinal botanical genera such as Mimosa, Pavonia, Sabicea, Sebastiania and Sida. Marsh and pampas deer seem to behave as grazer and browser into the delimited area chosen for our study, feeding on grasses, shoots, leaves and flowers of several shrubs and trees. This study contributes to the knowledge of the feeding habits of those deer and may help with the management of conservation strategies into that Natural Reserve.

  8. PCR Detection and Serological Evidence of Granulocytic Ehrlichial Infection in Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) and Chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liz, Jorge S.; Sumner, John W.; Pfister, Kurt; Brossard, Michel

    2002-01-01

    The role of wild mammals, such as roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), in the epidemiology of granulocytic ehrlichiae in Switzerland was investigated. We tested blood samples for Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup 16S rRNA gene sequences by PCR and for immunoglobulin G antibodies against granulocytic ehrlichiae by indirect fluorescent-antibody assay (IFA). Overall means of 60.9% of 133 roe deer serum samples and 28.2% of 39 chamois serum samples were seroreactive by IFA. PCR results were positive for 18.4% of 103 roe deer serum samples as well. None of the 24 chamois blood samples tested were positive by PCR. Partial 16S rRNA gene and groESL heat shock operon sequences of three roe deer samples tested showed strong degrees of homology (?99.7 and ?98.6%, respectively) with the sequences of granulocytic ehrlichiae isolated from humans. These results confirm that chamois, and particularly roe deer, are commonly infected with granulocytic ehrlichiae and provide evidence that these wild mammals are potential reservoirs for granulocytic ehrlichiae in Switzerland. PMID:11880411

  9. High Prevalence of the EBER Variant EB-8m in Endemic Nasopharyngeal Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhi-chao; Luo, Bing; Chen, Jian-ning; Chao, Yan; Shao, Chun-kui; Liu, Qian-qian; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) are the most highly expressed transcripts in all EBV-associated tumors and are involved in both lymphoid and epithelioid carcinogenesis. Our previous study on Chinese isolates from non-endemic area of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) identified new EBER variants (EB-8m and EB-10m) which were less common but relatively more frequent in NPC cases than healthy donors. In the present study, we determined the EBER variants in NPC cases and healthy donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of NPC within China and compared the EBER variants, in relation to the genotypes at BamHI F region (prototype F and f variant), between population groups and between two areas. According to the phylogenetic tree, four EBER variants (EB-6m, EB-8m, EB-10m and B95-8) were identified. EB-6m was dominant in all population groups except for endemic NPC group, in which EB-8m was dominant. EB-8m was more common in endemic NPC cases (82.0%, 41/50) than non-endemic NPC cases (33.7%, 32/95) (p<0.0001), and it was also more frequent in healthy donors from endemic area (32.4%, 24/74) than healthy donors from non-endemic area (1.1%, 1/92) (p<0.0001). More importantly, the EB-8m was more prevalent in NPC cases than healthy donors in both areas (p<0.0001). The f variant, which has been suggested to associate with endemic NPC, demonstrated preferential linkage with EB-8m in endemic isolates, however, the EB-8m variant seemed to be more specific to NPC isolates than f variant. These results reveal high prevalence of EBER EB-8m variant in endemic NPC cases, suggesting an association between NPC development and EBV isolates carrying EB-8m variant. Our finding identified a small healthy population group that shares the same viral strain which predominates in NPC cases. It could be interesting to carry extensive cohort studies following these individuals to evaluate the risk to develop NPC. PMID:25807550

  10. Plant and animal endemism in the eastern Andean slope: challenges to conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson Jennifer J; Young Bruce E; Beck Stephan; Comer Pat; Córdova Jesús H; Dyson Jessica; Embert Dirk; Encarnación Filomeno; Ferreira Wanderley; Franke Irma; Grossman Dennis; Hernandez Pilar; Herzog Sebastian K; Josse Carmen; Navarro Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The Andes-Amazon basin of Peru and Bolivia is one of the most data-poor, biologically rich, and rapidly changing areas of the world. Conservation scientists agree that this area hosts extremely high endemism, perhaps the highest in the world, yet we know little about the geographic distributions of these species and ecosystems within country boundaries. To address this need, we have developed conservation data on endemic biodiversity (~800 species of birds, mammals, amphib...

  11. Prevalence of Lyme meningitis in children with aseptic meningitis in a Lyme disease-endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garro, Aris C; Rutman, Maia S; Simonsen, Kari; Jaeger, Jenifer L; Chapin, Kimberle; Lockhart, Gregory

    2011-11-01

    This study determined the prevalence of Lyme meningitis in children with undifferentiated aseptic meningitis from April to December in a Lyme disease-endemic region. Of the 60 children, 8 were seropositive (prevalence 13.3%; 95% confidence interval: 6.3-25.1%), with another probable case having high cerebrospinal fluid antibody titers. Clinicians in endemic regions should evaluate children with undifferentiated aseptic meningitis for Lyme meningitis in appropriate seasons. PMID:21909050

  12. Introduced Mammalian Predators Induce Behavioural Changes in Parental Care in an Endemic New Zealand Bird

    OpenAIRE

    Massaro, Melanie; Starling-Windhof, Amanda; Briskie, James V.; Martin, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of predatory mammals to oceanic islands has led to the extinction of many endemic birds. Although introduced predators should favour changes that reduce predation risk in surviving bird species, the ability of island birds to respond to such novel changes remains unstudied. We tested whether novel predation risk imposed by introduced mammalian predators has altered the parental behaviour of the endemic New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura). We examined parental behaviour ...

  13. Strategies for monitoring and conservation of troglobitic endemic fauna in some subterranean sites od Sardinia

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    From the biogeographic and biospeleological points of view, the subterranean fauna of Sardinia is one of the most interesting in the Mediterranean area: very rich in taxa, mostly endemic and highly specialised, it is apparently well known and currently investigated. Nevertheless, the amount of unexpected discoveries is still increasing every year. In the present thesis, at first, owing to the general low interest of the public for the protection of invertebrate endemic, trog...

  14. How endemic countries can accelerate lymphatic filariasis elimination? An analytical review identify strategic and programmatic interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Tomar, Chandrakant Lahariya Shailendra S.

    2011-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is endemic in 81 countries in the world, and a number of these countries have targetedfor LF elimination. This review of literature and analysis was conducted to identify additional and sustainablestrategies to accelerate LF elimination from endemic countries. This review noted that adverse events due tomass drug administration (MDA) of diethyl carbamazine (DEC) tablets, poor knowledge and information aboutLF amongst health workers & community members, and limited fo...

  15. Endemic infection reduces transmission potential of an epidemic parasite during co-infection

    OpenAIRE

    Randall, J.; Cable, J.; Guschina, I. A.; J. L. Harwood; Lello, J

    2013-01-01

    Endemic, low-virulence parasitic infections are common in nature. Such infections may deplete host resources, which in turn could affect the reproduction of other parasites during co-infection. We aimed to determine whether the reproduction, and therefore transmission potential, of an epidemic parasite was limited by energy costs imposed on the host by an endemic infection. Total lipids, triacylglycerols (TAG) and polar lipids were measured in cockroaches (Blattella germanica) that were fed a...

  16. HBV endemicity in Mexico is associated with HBV genotypes H and G

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Roman; Arturo Panduro

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes have distinct genetic and geographic diversity and may be associated with specific clinical characteristics, progression, severity of disease and antiviral response. Herein, we provide an updated overview of the endemicity of HBV genotypes H and G in Mexico. HBV genotype H is predominant among the Mexican population, but not in Central America. Its geographic distribution is related to a typical endemicity among the Mexicans which is characterized by a low he...

  17. High Genetic Diversity in Geographically Remote Populations of Endemic and Widespread Coral Reef Angelfishes (genus: Centropyge)

    OpenAIRE

    Munday, Philip L.; Jones, Geoffrey P.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Lynne van Herwerden; Dean R. Jerry

    2013-01-01

    In the terrestrial environment, endemic species and isolated populations of widespread species have the highest rates of extinction partly due to their low genetic diversity. To determine if this pattern holds in the marine environment, we examined genetic diversity in endemic coral reef angelfishes and isolated populations of widespread species. Specifically, this study tested the prediction that angelfish (genus: Centropyge) populations at Christmas and Cocos Islands have low genetic divers...

  18. Two new endemic species of Chrysopodes (Neosuarius) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) from the Galapagos Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Tauber; Maurice Tauber

    2010-01-01

    Two new species that were previously undistinguished from the Galapagos endemic Chrysopodes (Neosuarius) nigripilosus (Banks), are described. These descriptions double, from two to four, the number of endemic green lacewing species known from the archipelago. The four species include: Chrysoperla galapagoensis (Banks), Chrysopodes (N.) nigricubitus sp. n.; C. (N.) nigripilosus; and C. (N.) pecki sp. n. Three of these species – C. (N.) nigripilosus, C. (N.) nigricubitus and Chrysoperla galap...

  19. Does a ruderal strategy dominate the endemic flora of the West African forests?

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, M.; Poorter, L.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To understand the distribution pattern of endemic plant species in West African rain forests, one of the global priority areas for biodiversity conservation. Location Upper Guinean forests, West Africa (Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana and Togo). Methods We used herbarium collections from the whole Upper Guinean region (sensu White 1981) to analyse the distribution patterns of 216 vascular plant species (approximately one-third of the endemic ...

  20. Cost risk benefit analysis to support chemoprophylaxis policy for travellers to malaria endemic countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ab, Coutinho Francisco; Behrens Ben C; Massad Eduardo; Behrens Ronald H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In a number of malaria endemic regions, tourists and travellers face a declining risk of travel associated malaria, in part due to successful malaria control. Many millions of visitors to these regions are recommended, via national and international policy, to use chemoprophylaxis which has a well recognized morbidity profile. To evaluate whether current malaria chemo-prophylactic policy for travellers is cost effective when adjusted for endemic transmission risk and durat...

  1. Transfer of 137 Cs to milk of cow and muscle of roe deer. Investigations of dairy farms and forest areas in Central Sweden after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis comprises two articles, both separately indexed, which discuss the 137 Cs content of milk and roe deer meat respectively on the basis of measurements performed in 1987 and 1988. It is concluded that the Cs content of deer will remain high much longer than the Cs content of milk. 46 refs

  2. Efficacy of amitraz collars on white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) against free-living populations of Lone Star Ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collars containing the acaricide amitraz were fitted around necks of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) confined in a 38.8 ha deer-fenced, densely vegetated plot in south Texas to determine efficacy in controlling free-living populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (...

  3. Endemic infection reduces transmission potential of an epidemic parasite during co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, J; Cable, J; Guschina, I A; Harwood, J L; Lello, J

    2013-10-22

    Endemic, low-virulence parasitic infections are common in nature. Such infections may deplete host resources, which in turn could affect the reproduction of other parasites during co-infection. We aimed to determine whether the reproduction, and therefore transmission potential, of an epidemic parasite was limited by energy costs imposed on the host by an endemic infection. Total lipids, triacylglycerols (TAG) and polar lipids were measured in cockroaches (Blattella germanica) that were fed ad libitum, starved or infected with an endemic parasite, Gregarina blattarum. Reproductive output of an epidemic parasite, Steinernema carpocapsae, was then assessed by counting the number of infective stages emerging from these three host groups. We found both starvation and gregarine infection reduced cockroach lipids, mainly through depletion of TAG. Further, both starvation and G. blattarum infection resulted in reduced emergence of nematode transmission stages. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to demonstrate directly that host resource depletion caused by endemic infection could affect epidemic disease transmission. In view of the ubiquity of endemic infections in nature, future studies of epidemic transmission should take greater account of endemic co-infections. PMID:23966641

  4. Clinical importance of solitary solid nodule of the thyroid in endemic goiter region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurleyik Emin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Endemic area and iodine supplementation may affect the pathogenesis of the nodule which commonly occurs in endemic thyroid enlargement due to iodine deficiency. Aims: To establish pathological changes in solitary solid and larger nodule of the thyroid in endemic area. Setting and Design: Retrospective study in Surgical Department of University Hospital. Methods and Material: We determined 44 surgically treated patients with solitary solid nodule in endemic goiter area in which the population routinely receives iodinated salt. The thyroid nodule was preoperatively evaluated with blood chemistry, ultrasound, nuclear scanning and FNAC. The results of preoperative evaluation, surgical interventions, and histopathological examination were analyzed. Statistical analysis: Student t test and Fisher?s exact test. Results: Twenty (45%;20/44 patients with hot (autonomous nodule have received the diagnosis of toxic adenoma. Twenty four patients had solitary solid and cold nodule. Total thyroidectomy was performed on two patients with papillary cancer (PTC diagnosed by FNAC from cold nodules. Forty two patients have been treated with total excision of the lobe including hyper or hypoactive solitary solid nodule. Pathological examination has reported two more cases of PTC and one case of insular cancer arising from cold nodules. Completion thyroidectomy was performed on these 3 patients. Conclusions: Solitary solid and large nodule is a common indication for thyroid surgery in endemic goiter area. High incidence of hyperthyroidism due to single autonomous nodule, and high rate of malignant change (mainly papillary cancer in solitary hypoactive nodule arises from this series in endemic thyroid enlargement.

  5. Non-invasive genetic approaches for estimation of ungulate population size: a study on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus based on faeces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimating population size is particularly difficult for animal species living in concealing habitats with dense vegetation. This is the case for roe deer as for many other ungulates. Our objective was to develop a non–invasive genetic capture–mark–recapture approach based on roe deer faeces collected along transects. In a pilot study, we collected 1,790 roe deer faeces during five sampling days in a forested study area in south western Germany. We extracted DNA from 410 of these samples and carried out microsatellite analysis using seven dinucleotide markers. The analyses resulted in 328 useable consensus genotypes which were assigned to 174 individuals. The population size estimated using a Bayesian approach was 94 (82–111 male and 136 (121–156 female roe deer. Our study shows that non–invasive genetic methods are a valuable management tool for roe deer.

  6. Species distribution modelling for conservation of an endangered endemic orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wonkka, Carissa L; Treglia, Michael L; Grant, William E; Smeins, Fred E; Rogers, William E

    2015-01-01

    Concerns regarding the long-term viability of threatened and endangered plant species are increasingly warranted given the potential impacts of climate change and habitat fragmentation on unstable and isolated populations. Orchidaceae is the largest and most diverse family of flowering plants, but it is currently facing unprecedented risks of extinction. Despite substantial conservation emphasis on rare orchids, populations continue to decline. Spiranthes parksii (Navasota ladies' tresses) is a federally and state-listed endangered terrestrial orchid endemic to central Texas. Hence, we aimed to identify potential factors influencing the distribution of the species, quantify the relative importance of each factor and determine suitable habitat for future surveys and targeted conservation efforts. We analysed several geo-referenced variables describing climatic conditions and landscape features to identify potential factors influencing the likelihood of occurrence of S. parksii using boosted regression trees. Our model classified 97 % of the cells correctly with regard to species presence and absence, and indicated that probability of existence was correlated with climatic conditions and landscape features. The most influential variables were mean annual precipitation, mean elevation, mean annual minimum temperature and mean annual maximum temperature. The most likely suitable range for S. parksii was the eastern portions of Leon and Madison Counties, the southern portion of Brazos County, a portion of northern Grimes County and along the borders between Burleson and Washington Counties. Our model can assist in the development of an integrated conservation strategy through: (i) focussing future survey and research efforts on areas with a high likelihood of occurrence, (ii) aiding in selection of areas for conservation and restoration and (iii) framing future research questions including those necessary for predicting responses to climate change. Our model could also incorporate new information on S. parksii as it becomes available to improve prediction accuracy, and our methodology could be adapted to develop distribution maps for other rare species of conservation concern. PMID:25900746

  7. Evidence for widespread endemism among Antarctic micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyverman, Wim; Verleyen, Elie; Wilmotte, Annick; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Willems, Anne; Peeters, Karolien; Van de Vijver, Bart; De Wever, Aaike; Leliaert, Frederik; Sabbe, Koen

    2010-08-01

    Understanding the enormous diversity of microbes, their multiple roles in the functioning of ecosystems, and their response to large-scale environmental and climatic changes, are at the forefront of the international research agenda. In Antarctica, where terrestrial and lacustrine environments are predominantly microbial realms, an active and growing community of microbial ecologists is probing this diversity and its role in ecosystem processes. In a broader context, this work has the potential to make a significant contribution to the long-standing debate as to whether microbes are fundamentally different from macroorganisms in their biogeography. According to the ubiquity hypothesis, microbial community composition is not constrained by dispersal limitation and is solely the result of species sorting along environmental gradients. However, recent work on several groups of microalgae is challenging this view. Global analyses using morphology-based diatom inventories have demonstrated that, in addition to environmental harshness, geographical isolation underlies the strong latitudinal gradients in local and regional diversity in the Southern hemisphere. Increasing evidence points to a strong regionalization of diatom floras in the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions, mirroring the biogeographical regions that have been recognized for macroorganisms. Likewise, the application of molecular-phylogenetic techniques to cultured and uncultured diversity revealed a high number of Antarctic endemics among cyanobacteria and green algae. Calibration of these phylogenies suggests that several clades have an ancient evolutionary history within the Antarctic continent, possibly dating back to 330 Ma. These findings are in line with the current view on the origin of Antarctic terrestrial metazoa, including springtails, chironomids and mites, with most evidence suggesting a long history of geographic isolation on a multi-million year, even pre-Gondwana break-up timescale.

  8. Endemic Mo Isotopic Anomalies in Iron and Carbonaceous Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. H.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Ngo, H. H.

    2004-01-01

    Mo in refractory interstellar grains shows large isotope anomalies. Recent Mo studies showed isotope effects in Allende and Murchison, and in iron meteorites, mesosiderites, and pallasites. Excesses of p- and r-process isotopes (or depletion of sprocess isotopes) of up to 3.5 epsilon units (epsilon u=parts in 10(exp 4)) were reported. We have reported on endemic isotope anomalies in Ru. Other workers have resolved no isotope anomalies for Mo or Ru and have claimed that the work by others is incorrect. Because Ru isotopes can interfere at Mo-96, Mo-98, Mo-100, we improved the chemical separations and eliminated interferences. For Mo work, we used the same solutions from which we separated and analyzed Ru. Three of the iron meteorites (Coahuila, Cape York, and Cape of Good Hope) were chosen for their large Mo isotopic effects. Mo was loaded on outgassed Re filaments, and then reduced; we used Ba(OH)2-NaOH as emitter, and measured Mo in static mode, as MoO3(-). We used Mo-98/Mo-96 for the mass fractionation correction (exponential law). No interferences from Ru or Zr isotopes were detected using the electron multiplier and no corrections were needed. For results on Mo standards we show 2 sigma(not 2 sigma mean) external precision better than: 0.7 epsilon u for Mo-94/Mo-96 and Mo-95/Mo-96; 1.0 epsilon u for Mo-92/Mo-96 and Mo-97/Mo-96; 1.4 epsilon u for Mo-100/Mo-96. Reproducibility for Mo standards is shown as contours (blue lines).

  9. Factors Associated to Endemic Dental Fluorosis in Brazilian Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Henrique N. G. Abreu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the relationship between hydrochemical characteristics and endemic dental fluorosis, controlling for variables with information on an individual level. An epidemiological survey was carried out in seven rural communities in two municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Thystrup & Fejerskov index was employed by a single examiner for the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. A sampling campaign of deep groundwater in the rural communities of interest was carried out concomitantly to the epidemiological survey for the determination of physiochemical parameters. Multilevel modeling of 276 individuals from seven rural communities was achieved using the non-linear logit link function. Parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Analysis was carried out considering two response variables: presence (TF 1 to 9 or absence (TF = 0 of any degree of dental fluorosis; and presence (TF ? 5—with loss of enamel structure or absence of severe dental fluorosis (TF ? 4—with no loss of enamel structure. Hydrogeological analyses revealed that dental fluorosis is influenced by the concentration of fluoride (OR = 2.59 CI95% 1.07–6.27; p = 0.073 and bicarbonate (OR = 1.02 CI95% 1.01–1.03; p = 0.060 in the water of deep wells. No other variable was associated with this prevalence (p > 0.05. More severe dental fluorosis (TF ? 5 was only associated with age group (p < 0.05. No other variable was associated to the severe dental fluorosis (p > 0.05. Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent and severe. A chemical element besides fluoride was found to be associated (p > 0.05 to the prevalence of dental fluorosis, although this last finding should be interpreted with caution due to its p value.

  10. Estimating the Global Burden of Endemic Canine Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Katie; Coudeville, Laurent; Lembo, Tiziana; Sambo, Maganga; Kieffer, Alexia; Attlan, Michaël; Barrat, Jacques; Blanton, Jesse D.; Briggs, Deborah J.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Costa, Peter; Freuling, Conrad M.; Hiby, Elly; Knopf, Lea; Leanes, Fernando; Meslin, François-Xavier; Metlin, Artem; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth; Müller, Thomas; Nel, Louis H.; Recuenco, Sergio; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Schumacher, Carolin; Taylor, Louise; Vigilato, Marco Antonio Natal; Zinsstag, Jakob; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies is a notoriously underreported and neglected disease of low-income countries. This study aims to estimate the public health and economic burden of rabies circulating in domestic dog populations, globally and on a country-by-country basis, allowing an objective assessment of how much this preventable disease costs endemic countries. Methodology/Principal Findings We established relationships between rabies mortality and rabies prevention and control measures, which we incorporated into a model framework. We used data derived from extensive literature searches and questionnaires on disease incidence, control interventions and preventative measures within this framework to estimate the disease burden. The burden of rabies impacts on public health sector budgets, local communities and livestock economies, with the highest risk of rabies in the poorest regions of the world. This study estimates that globally canine rabies causes approximately 59,000 (95% Confidence Intervals: 25-159,000) human deaths, over 3.7 million (95% CIs: 1.6-10.4 million) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and 8.6 billion USD (95% CIs: 2.9-21.5 billion) economic losses annually. The largest component of the economic burden is due to premature death (55%), followed by direct costs of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, 20%) and lost income whilst seeking PEP (15.5%), with only limited costs to the veterinary sector due to dog vaccination (1.5%), and additional costs to communities from livestock losses (6%). Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that investment in dog vaccination, the single most effective way of reducing the disease burden, has been inadequate and that the availability and affordability of PEP needs improving. Collaborative investments by medical and veterinary sectors could dramatically reduce the current large, and unnecessary, burden of rabies on affected communities. Improved surveillance is needed to reduce uncertainty in burden estimates and to monitor the impacts of control efforts. PMID:25881058

  11. Toll-like receptor polymorphisms in malaria-endemic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Peter A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptors (TLR and related downstream signaling pathways of innate immunity have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Because of their potential role in malaria pathogenesis, polymorphisms in these genes may be under selective pressure in populations where this infectious disease is endemic. Methods A post-PCR Ligation Detection Reaction-Fluorescent Microsphere Assay (LDR-FMA was developed to determine the frequencies of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, MyD88-Adaptor Like Protein (MAL single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and TLR2 length polymorphisms in 170 residents of two regions of Kenya where malaria transmission is stable and high (holoendemic or episodic and low, 346 residents of a malaria holoendemic region of Papua New Guinea, and 261 residents of North America of self-identified ethnicity. Results The difference in historical malaria exposure between the two Kenyan sites has significantly increased the frequency of malaria protective alleles glucose-6-phoshpate dehydrogenase (G6PD and Hemoglobin S (HbS in the holoendemic site compared to the episodic transmission site. However, this study detected no such difference in the TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, and MAL allele frequencies between the two study sites. All polymorphisms were in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium in the Kenyan and Papua New Guinean populations. TLR9 SNPs and length polymorphisms within the TLR2 5' untranslated region were the only mutant alleles present at a frequency greater than 10% in all populations. Conclusion Similar frequencies of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, and MAL genetic polymorphisms in populations with different histories of malaria exposure suggest that these innate immune pathways have not been under strong selective pressure by malaria. Genotype frequencies are consistent with Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and the Neutral Theory, suggesting that genetic drift has influenced allele frequencies to a greater extent than selective pressure from malaria or any other infectious agents in these populations.

  12. Levels of infection, pathology and nodule size of Onchocerca flexuosa (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) in red deer (Cervus elaphus) from northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, M R; Martínez, A; Carreño, R A; González, S; Ferreras, M C; Díez, N

    2015-05-01

    Between 2005 and 2007, the presence of Onchocerca flexuosa (Wedl, 1856) was discovered and investigated in 110 red deer (Cervus elaphus) shot in the Riaño Regional Hunting Reserve, in the province of León (north-western Spain). Nodules containing O. flexuosa were located in the dorsal region and flanks of the deer. These were collected and measured, and some adult parasites were extracted from the nodules and identified by morphology and by obtaining mitochondrial 12S rDNA sequences, which were identical to those of previously published sequences for O. flexuosa. Some nodules were prepared for histology, embedded in paraffin, sectioned and stained with haematoxylin-eosin. Histologically, the worms were found in several compartments separated by an infiltrated fibrous tissue. These compartments were inhabited by several females and males, surrounded by a fibrous capsule. A total of 85.45% (95% confidence interval (CI): 78.86-92.04%) of red deer were parasitized, with a mean intensity of 9.53 ± 12.27 nodules/host, ranging between 1 and 74 nodules/deer. Significant differences in prevalence and intensity of infection were found between young and adult red deer, and also between seasons. However, no significant differences between males and females were observed. Five hundred and ninety-seven nodules were measured (15.81 ± 3.94 mm) and classified by sizes into small ( 20 mm). No relation was found between the size of the nodules and the time of infection. The high values found in the studied parameters show that northern Spain is an area of high-intensity infection for deer. PMID:24622346

  13. Characterization of enteropathogenic and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in cattle and deer in a shared agroecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pallavi; Sha, Qiong; Lacher, David W.; Del Valle, Jacquelyn; Mosci, Rebekah E.; Moore, Jennifer A.; Scribner, Kim T.; Manning, Shannon D.

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important foodborne pathogen. Cattle are suggested to be an important reservoir for STEC; however, these pathogens have also been isolated from other livestock and wildlife. In this study we sought to investigate transmission of STEC, enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) between cattle and white-tailed deer in a shared agroecosystem. Cattle feces were collected from 100 animals in a Michigan dairy farm in July 2012, while 163 deer fecal samples were collected during two sampling periods (March and June). The locations of deer fecal pellets were recorded via geographic information system mapping and microsatellite multi-locus genotyping was used to link the fecal samples to individual deer at both time points. Following subculture to sorbitol MacConkey agar and STEC CHROMagar, the pathogens were characterized by serotyping, stx profiling, and PCR-based fingerprinting; multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed on a subset. STEC and EHEC were cultured from 12 to 16% of cattle, respectively, and EPEC was found in 36%. Deer were significantly less likely to have a pathogen in March vs. June where the frequency of STEC, EHEC, and EPEC was 1, 6, and 22%, respectively. PCR fingerprinting and MLST clustered the cattle- and deer-derived strains together in a phylogenetic tree. Two STEC strains recovered from both animal species shared MLST and fingerprinting profiles, thereby providing evidence of interspecies transmission and highlighting the importance of wildlife species in pathogen shedding dynamics and persistence in the environment and cattle herds. PMID:25883908

  14. Deer antler--a novel model for studying organ regeneration in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyi; Zhao, Haiping; Liu, Zhen; McMahon, Chris

    2014-11-01

    Deer antler is the only mammalian organ that can fully grow back once lost from its pedicle - the base from which it grows. Therefore, antlers probably offer the most pertinent model for studying organ regeneration in mammals. This paper reviews our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying regeneration of antlers, and provides insights into the possible use for human regenerative medicine. Based on the definition, antler renewal belongs to a special type of regeneration termed epimorphic. However, histological examination failed to detect dedifferentiation of any cell type on the pedicle stump and the formation of a blastema, which are hallmark features of classic epimorphic regeneration. Instead, antler regeneration is achieved through the recruitment, proliferation and differentiation of the single cell type in the pedicle periosteum (PP). The PP cells are the direct derivatives of cells resident in the antlerogenic periosteum (AP), a tissue that exists in prepubertal deer calves and can induce ectopic antler formation when transplanted elsewhere on the deer body. Both the AP and PP cells express key embryonic stem cell markers and can be induced to differentiate into multiple cell lineages in vitro and, therefore, they are termed antler stem cells, and antler regeneration is a stem cell-based epimorphic regeneration. Comparisons between the healing process on the stumps from an amputated mouse limb and early regeneration of antlers suggest that the stump of a mouse limb cannot regenerate because of the limited potential of periosteal cells in long bones to proliferate. If we can impart a greater potential of these periosteal cells to proliferate, we might at least be able to partially regenerate limbs lost from humans. Taken together, a greater understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the regeneration of antlers may provide a valuable insight to aid the field of regenerative medicine. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation. PMID:25046387

  15. Collaboration in natural resource governance: reconciling stakeholder expectations in deer management in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Althea L; White, Rehema M

    2012-12-15

    The challenges of integrated, adaptive and ecosystem management are leading government agencies to adopt participatory modes of engagement. Collaborative governance is a form of participation in which stakeholders co-produce goals and strategies and share responsibilities and resources. We assess the potential and challenges of collaborative governance as a mechanism to provide an integrated, ecosystem approach to natural resource management, using red deer in Scotland as a case study. Collaborative Deer Management Groups offer a well-established example of a 'bridging organisation', intended to reduce costs and facilitate decision making and learning across institutions and scales. We examine who initiates collaborative processes and why, what roles different actors adopt and how these factors influence the outcomes, particularly at a time of changing values, management and legislative priorities. Our findings demonstrate the need for careful consideration of where and how shared responsibility might be best implemented and sustained as state agencies often remain key to the process, despite the partnership intention. Differing interpretations between agencies and landowners of the degree of autonomy and division of responsibilities involved in 'collaboration' can create tension, while the diversity of landowner priorities brings additional challenges for defining shared goals in red deer management and in other cases. Effective maintenance depends on appropriate role allocation and adoption of responsibilities, definition of convergent values and goals, and establishing communication and trust in institutional networks. Options that may help private stakeholders offset the costs of accepting responsibility for delivering public benefits need to be explicitly addressed to build capacity and support adaptation. This study indicates that collaborative governance has the potential to help reconcile statutory obligations with stakeholder empowerment. The potential of collaboration to reduce the costs of sustainable management remains contentious and, in times of increasing resource constraints, the potential mismatch between resource investment and anticipated goals is likely to become a critical issue, which may challenge the goals and capacity of the state and existing managers. PMID:22898708

  16. Avoiding toxic levels of essential minerals: a forgotten factor in deer diet preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceacero, Francisco; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Olguín, Augusto; Miranda, María; García, Andrés; Martínez, Alberto; Cassinello, Jorge; Miguel, Valentín; Gallego, Laureano

    2015-01-01

    Ungulates select diets with high energy, protein, and sodium contents. However, it is scarcely known the influence of essential minerals other than Na in diet preferences. Moreover, almost no information is available about the possible influence of toxic levels of essential minerals on avoidance of certain plant species. The aim of this research was to test the relative importance of mineral content of plants in diet selection by red deer (Cervus elaphus) in an annual basis. We determined mineral, protein and ash content in 35 common Mediterranean plant species (the most common ones in the study area). These plant species were previously classified as preferred and non-preferred. We found that deer preferred plants with low contents of Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Cu, Sr and Zn. The model obtained was greatly accurate identifying the preferred plant species (91.3% of correct assignments). After a detailed analysis of these minerals (considering deficiencies and toxicity levels both in preferred and non-preferred plants) we suggest that the avoidance of excessive sulphur in diet (i.e., selection for plants with low sulphur content) seems to override the maximization for other nutrients. Low sulphur content seems to be a forgotten factor with certain relevance for explaining diet selection in deer. Recent studies in livestock support this conclusion, which is highlighted here for the first time in diet selection by a wild large herbivore. Our results suggest that future studies should also take into account the toxicity levels of minerals as potential drivers of preferences. PMID:25615596

  17. Aerial line transect survey to estimate abundance of marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) (Illiger, 1815)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Artur, Andriolo; Ubiratan, Piovezan; Mateus José Rodrigues Paranhos da, Costa; Jeff, Laake; José Maurício Barbanti, Duarte.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A população de cervo-do-pantanal (Blastocerus dichotomus) está drasticamente reduzida no Brasil. O nosso objetivo foi o de estimar a abundância do cervo-do-pantanal na bacia do Rio Paraná e discutir a metodologia aplicada. Os resultados darão suporte para uma análise do impacto do enchimento da repr [...] esa de Porto Primavera sobre essa população. Sessenta e nove animais foram registrados através de sobrevôo utilizando-se a metodologia de transecção linear com amostragem das distâncias. Os dados não corrigidos resultaram em uma densidade estimada de 0,0035ind/ha e uma população de 636 indivíduos. A correção de g para os animais que não foram vistos apresentou uma densidade de 0,0049 ind/ha e uma abundância de 896 (CV=0,27) indivíduos. A metodologia foi aplicada com sucesso na estimativa de cervo-do-pantanal. Esse resultado é importante para avaliarmos a população do cervo-do-pantanal na área e para futuramente analisarmos o impacto do enchimento da represa. Abstract in english The objective was to estimate abundance of marsh deer in the Paraná River basin of this work. The results provided information to support further analysis of the impact of the Porto Primavera flooding lake over population. Sixty-nine animals were recorded by aerial survey using distance sampling met [...] hodology. Animals were widely distributed throughout the study area. The uncorrected data resulted in a estimate density of 0.0035 ind/ha and a population size of 636 individuals. Correcting the g for the animals that could be missed the calculated abundance was 896 (CV=0.27) individuals. This methodology was applied with success to survey marsh deer. The result was important to evaluate the marsh deer status in the area, and for future analysis of the impact of the flooding dam.

  18. Aerial line transect survey to estimate abundance of marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus (Illiger, 1815

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Andriolo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to estimate abundance of marsh deer in the Paraná River basin of this work. The results provided information to support further analysis of the impact of the Porto Primavera flooding lake over population. Sixty-nine animals were recorded by aerial survey using distance sampling methodology. Animals were widely distributed throughout the study area. The uncorrected data resulted in a estimate density of 0.0035 ind/ha and a population size of 636 individuals. Correcting the g for the animals that could be missed the calculated abundance was 896 (CV=0.27 individuals. This methodology was applied with success to survey marsh deer. The result was important to evaluate the marsh deer status in the area, and for future analysis of the impact of the flooding dam.A população de cervo-do-pantanal (Blastocerus dichotomus está drasticamente reduzida no Brasil. O nosso objetivo foi o de estimar a abundância do cervo-do-pantanal na bacia do Rio Paraná e discutir a metodologia aplicada. Os resultados darão suporte para uma análise do impacto do enchimento da represa de Porto Primavera sobre essa população. Sessenta e nove animais foram registrados através de sobrevôo utilizando-se a metodologia de transecção linear com amostragem das distâncias. Os dados não corrigidos resultaram em uma densidade estimada de 0,0035ind/ha e uma população de 636 indivíduos. A correção de g para os animais que não foram vistos apresentou uma densidade de 0,0049 ind/ha e uma abundância de 896 (CV=0,27 indivíduos. A metodologia foi aplicada com sucesso na estimativa de cervo-do-pantanal. Esse resultado é importante para avaliarmos a população do cervo-do-pantanal na área e para futuramente analisarmos o impacto do enchimento da represa.

  19. Biometrics, testosterone, cortisol and antler growth cycle in Iberian red deer stags (Cervus elaphus hispanicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-López, E; Landete-Castillejos, T; Estevez, J A; Ceacero, F; Gallego, L; García, A J

    2010-04-01

    In this article, we aimed to describe the changes related to mating season in red deer, especially those related to antler growth, body condition score, testosterone and cortisol. Antler growth was studied in 17 Iberian red deer males, including body weight, antler length, biometric measures and testosterone and cortisol determination during 15 months. Body weight, body condition score, thoracic perimeter (TP), neck perimeter (NL) and testicular diameter (TD) showed the highest values immediately before mating season (autumn), decreased during it and remained constant at winter. Antler growth lasted 158 days and produced antlers with a final length of 80.8 +/- 2.0 cm. Testosterone and cortisol showed seasonal changes with maximum values at September and May, respectively. Final antler size was related positively to cranial longitude, TP, NL, TD and body weight at casting time. No relationship between weight loss during precedent mating season and current antler size was found, but spring recovery weight was positively related to final antler size. Final length was related to the descent in testosterone values during previous mating season and to body weight before it. Spring recovery weight was related to relative weight loss during previous mating season. These results suggest that there is no relationship between the reproductive effort performed during one season and the next year size of the antler. In contrast, antler size was positively related to spring recovery weight, in the sense that those deer that recover a higher percentage of body weight at the early stages of antler growth develop higher antlers. PMID:18992114

  20. THE CONSERVATION AND POTENTIAL HABITAT OF THE HIMALAYAN MUSK DEER, MOSCHUS CHRYSOGASTER, IN THE PROTECTED AREAS OF NEPAL

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Achyut; Subedi, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) is a cervid distributed from the eastern to the western Himalayas of Nepal. The species is listed as endangered in appendix I of IUCN Red data, and protected in Nepal under the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1973. Musk deer occupy the middle to the higher mountain regions, which cover 12 protected areas of Nepal (6 national parks, 5 conservation areas, 1 hunting reserve). However, of the 30177.19 km2 potential habitat, only 19.26...

  1. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, M. H.; Berumen, M. L.; Hobbs, J.-P. A.; van Herwerden, L.

    2015-06-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) aim to mitigate anthropogenic impacts by conserving biodiversity and preventing overfishing. The effectiveness of MPAs depends on population connectivity patterns between protected and non-protected areas. Remote islands are endemism hotspots for coral reef fishes and provide rare examples of coral reefs with limited fishing pressure. This study explored population genetic connectivity across a network of protected and non-protected areas for the endemic wrasse, Coris bulbifrons, which is listed as "vulnerable" by the IUCN due to its small, decreasing geographic range and declining abundance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA (msatDNA) markers were used to estimate historic and contemporary gene flow to determine the level of population self-replenishment and to measure genetic and genotypic diversity among all four locations in the species range (south-west Pacific Ocean)—Middleton Reef (MR), Elizabeth Reef (ER), Lord Howe Island (LHI) and Norfolk Island (NI). MPAs exist at MR and LHI and are limited or non-existent at ER and NI, respectively. There was no obvious differentiation in mtDNA among locations, however, msatDNA revealed differentiation between the most peripheral (NI) and all remaining locations (MR, ER and LHI). Despite high mtDNA connectivity ( M = 259-1,144), msatDNA connectivity was limited ( M = 3-9) with high self-replenishment (68-93 %) at all locations. NI is the least connected and heavily reliant on self-replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management approach consisting of a MPA network protecting part of each location could provide reasonable protection for these species. Thus, the existing network of MPAs at this endemic hotspot appears adequate at some locations, but not at all.

  2. Testing the Wildlink activity-detection system on wolves and white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, K.E.; Chapman, R.C.; Mech, L.D.; Gese, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    We tested the reliability and predictive capabilities of the activity meter in the new Wildlink Data Acquisition and Recapture System by comparing activity counts with concurrent observations of captive wolf (Canis lupus) and free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) activity. The Wildlink system stores activity data in a computer within a radio collar with which a biologist can communicate. Three levels of activity could be detected. The Wildlink system provided greater activity discrimination and was more reliable, adaptable, and efficient and was easier to use than conventional telemetry activity systems. The Wildlink system could be highly useful for determining wildlife energy budgets.

  3. Acumulation of Cs**137 and Sr**90 in red deers, roes and wild boars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of the global fallout of Cs**137 in the heart muscles and the concentration of Sr**90 in the bones of red deers, roes and wild boars from three hunting grounds in Latvia have been established in 1996. The mean indices of concentration of Cs**137 were 2.0:1.7 and 7.3 Bq/kgE-1 and that of Sr**90 7.1; 7.5 and 4.2 Bq/kgE-1 in the species mentioned above respectively

  4. Volatile compounds from the red deer (Cervus elaphus) Secretion from the tail gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, J M; Figenschou, E

    1983-04-01

    The major volatile, organic compounds secreted by the tail gland of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) have been identified as phenol,m-cresol, cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, benzoic acid, phenylacetic acid, ethylphenol, dimethyl sulfone,o-cresol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid. The secretion from ten dead and three live animals was investigated, those from the live ones over a period of time. There were variations in the relative amounts of the identified compounds, but no correlation of the variations with time of sampling was possible. PMID:24407458

  5. Co-Infection and Genetic Diversity of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Roe Deer from Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Welc-fale?ciak, Renata; Werszko, Joanna; Cydzik, Krystian; Bajer, Anna; Michalik, Jerzy; Behnke, Jerzy M.

    2013-01-01

    Wild species are essential hosts for maintaining Ixodes ticks and the tick-borne diseases. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence, the rate of co-infection with Babesia, Bartonella, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and the molecular diversity of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer in Poland. Almost half of the tested samples provided evidence of infection with at least 1 species. A. phagocytophilum (37.3%) was the most common and Bartonella (13.4%) the rarest infection. A total of 18....

  6. Genetic diversity of the Czech red deer population based on mitochondrial DNA.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Baran?eková, Miroslava; Koubek, Petr

    Elsevier. Ro?. 78, Special issue (2013), s. 16. ISSN 1616-5047. [Annual Meeting of the German Society of Mammalogy /87./. 08.09.2013-12.09.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : red deer * genetic diversity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1616504713000785/pdfft?md5=4eff76b3a90ed9210d1b36ceb2654a14&pid=1-s2.0-S1616504713000785-main.pdf

  7. Supplementary feeding of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L with late harvested hay. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rehbinder

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the fodder available for roedeer during wintertime, late harvested hay was placed on racks early in November in three consecutive years. Freeezing kept the hay dry and fresh during all three winters. In the first winter, with much snow, the bulk of the hay was consumed whereas consumption in the two subsequent mild winters was low and selective. The crude protein content of the hay was low (3.5 - 8.4% dry matter. Metabolizable energy estimated from digestion in vitro was 3.5 — 5.6 MJ per kg dry matter. Rumen liquor from roe deer during a mild winter gave lower in vitro digestion than liquor from sheep fed with ordinary rations. The value of this poor hay for roe deer is discussed with respect to the animals requirements, seasonal adaption, the energy and protein content of the hay, water consumption and normal behavior. The results indicate that late harvested hay may be more suitable than regularly harvested hay or concentrates to help roe deer to survive spells of severe winter conditions. With late harvested hay placed out at several localized feeding sites, the risks of indigestion and dehydration, associated with a more concentrated, feed, are minimized and the ranking among the roe deer in particular will be less important and thus more animals will have improved prospects of gaining access to the fodder.Tilskottsutfodring av rådjur (Capreolus capreolus L med sent skordat ho. En pilotstudie.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: I avsikt att, for rådjur, oka mångden tillgångligt foder under vintertid, skordades och håssjades ho i borjan av november under tre på varandra foljande år. Hoet fros torn och holl sig fårskt alla vintrarna. Forstå vintern med mycket sno konsumerades huvuddelen av hoet medan de två foljande milda vintrarna konsumptionen var låg och selektiv. Mångden råprotein i hoet var lågt (3.5 — 8.4 % i torrsubstans. Innehållet av omsåttbar energi beråknad från digestion in vitro var 3.5 — 5.6 MJ per kg torrsubstans. Våmvåtska från rådjur under en mild vinter gav lagra in vitro digestion ån våmvåtska från ordinårt utfodrade får. Vårdet av det mycket sent skordade hoet for rådjur diskuteras med utgångspunkt från djurens behov, såsongmåssiga adaption, energi- och proteininnehåll i hoet, vattenkonsumtion och normala beteende. Resultatén pekar på att, sent skordat ho kan vara låmpligare ån på normal tid skordat ho eller kraftfoder att hjålpa rådjur att overleva perioder med svåra vinterforhållanden. Med sent skordat och håssjat ho, vilket gjorts tillgångligt på ett flertal utfodringsplatser, minskar riskerna for våmindigestion och dehydrering, forenade med en mer hogvårdig utfodring, samtidigt som djurens inbordes rangordning blir mindre betydelsefull. Det senare innebarande att fler djur får tillgång till fodret.

  8. Copper deficiency and effects of copper supplementation in a herd of red deer (Cervus elaphus)

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhoft Aksel; Handeland Kjell; Aartun Magne S

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Copper (Cu) deficiency was diagnosed in a Norwegian red deer (Cervus elaphus) herd subsequent to deaths due to emaciation in late autumn 1999. The animals had free access to salt licks containing 3000 mg Cu/kg. An evaluation of the herd revealed poor calf growth rate, low weights of adult hinds, dull and light-coloured hair coats and cases of diarrhoea. The herd was subsequently monitored throughout a three-year period of Cu-supplementation. The monitoring regimen included clinical o...

  9. Radiocesium in roe deer and wild boars and their forage in the Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue samples from 67 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 73 wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) were obtained from the evacuated zone around the damaged nuclear reactor in Chernobyl, Ukraine. The samplings were performed from June 1992 to February 1995 regularly during each typical season (spring in mid-May, summer in mid-August, autumn in mid-October and winter in late February). By using botanical analysis of rumen/stomach contents, dominant forage plants were identified and collected in the area where the animals had been foraging. The results show that there is a considerable individual variation in diet selection within each season for both these animal species and also a seasonal variation in the radiocesium contamination of muscular tissue. The seasonal variation is most pronounced in the wild boar. Minimum levels of 137Cs were seen during summer and autumn (mean 6kBq/kg w.w. and 2 kBq/kg w.w., resp.) and maximum levels in winter (mean 113 kBq/kg w.w.). In the roe deer, the minimum levels were seen in winter (mean 6kBq/kg w.w.) and maximum levels in autumn (mean 58 kBq/kg w.w.). These variations are caused by differences in pasture selection during different seasons of the year. One very important forage plant eaten both by roe deer and by wild boars during all seasons was evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.). Also the underground parts of this plant are consumed by the wild boar. Also the role of soil as an intake source of radioactive contaminants has been estimat radioactive contaminants has been estimated by determination of inorganic residues after ashing of rumen/stomach samples. In the winter, wild boars show the highest ash content with 32% (mean of dry matter) and the lowest in summer with 6%. In roe deer, the differences between seasons are smaller, with an average of 9% in the spring and 15% in winter. The level of 137Cs contamination in muscular tissue of these two species has not decreased noticeably in the studied area during the study period from summer 1992 to winter 1995

  10. Co-endemicity of Cysticercosis and Schistosomiasis in Africa - how many people are at risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Braae, Uffe Christian

    This study investigates the number of people in Sub-Saharan Africa living in areas where two neglected tropical diseases, cysticercosis and schistosomiasis, are co-endemic. The World Health Organisation is aiming for elimination of schistosomiasis by 2020 through mass drug administration (MDA). However, the drug used for this, praziquantel, has been reported to cause dramatic side effects among people suffering from neurocysticercosis. Both diseases are presumed to be widely distributed on the continent, but the co-endemicity is unclear. We carried out a meta-analysis of the literature of T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in humans and porcine cysticercosis in pigs. Only epidemiological/clinical studies were included, qualitative questionnaire based surveys were discarded. Cysticercosis presence was georeferenced with an online gazetteer using information on place names in the published literature. We found 110 reports of cysticercosis in Africa from 1970 to 2012. A total of 597 districts (admin level 4 or equivalent) in 29 countries were identified. According to the data published by WHO on the estimated burden of schistosomiasis, the 29 countries where cysticercosis was found, were considered, on national scale, to be co-endemic with schistosomiasis. The co-endemicity dataset was then combined with modelled data on population density for 2015 derived from the WorldPop database. We used the open source GIS software QGIS and GRASS to overlay the two datasets and identified the number of people living in co-endemic districts. Almost 150 million people live in the co-endemic areas. Of these, almost 44 million live in high prevalence areas for schistosomiasis where WHO recommend MDA for the entire population. In co-endemic areas resources need to be allocated for evaluating the extent of adverse effects caused by mass drug administration in areas where people suffer from neurocysticercosis. One Health control strategies should be implemented, monitored and evaluated to enhance disease control with a long-term goal of elimination.

  11. Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-transmitted, economically important disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Although only five of the 26 reported bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes are considered endemic to the USA, 10 exotic serotypes have been isolated primarily in the southeastern region of the count...

  12. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of turkish endemic Sideritis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünver, Ahmet

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Sideritis species are traditionally used as teas, flavoring agents and for medicinal purposes in Turkey . In this study, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Sideritis condensata Boiss. & Heldr. (SC and Sideritis eryhrantha v ar. erythrantha Boiss. & Heldr. (SE endemic species' extracts of Lamiaceae were determined. These extracts were investigated for antibacterial activity by using the agar diffusion method against 15 species of bacteria: Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus feacalis, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica. Statistical differences within bacteria were significant at pLas especies de Sideritis de usan tradicionalmente para la elaboración del té, como flavorizantes y con fines médicos en Turquía. En este estudio, se han determinado las actividades antimicrobiana y antioxidante de extractos de especies endémicas de la Familia Lamiaceae , como son Sideritis condensata Boiss. & Heldr. (SC y Sideritis erythrantha v ar. erythrantha Boiss. & Heldr. (SE. La actividad antibacteriana fue determinada mediante el método de difusión en agar con 15 especies de bacterias: Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus , Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus feacalis, Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus y Yersinia enterocolitica. Se consideraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas cuando p<0,05. El extracto de SC tuvo mayor actividad antimicrobiana que el extracto de SE. La bacteria más sensible fue P. aeruginosa , mientras que las más resistentes fueron E. feacalis para el extracto de SC, y E. feacalis y S. aureus para el extracto de SE. También se determinó en los extractos el contenido de polifenoles, la capacidad de secuestrar radicales libres mediante el método del 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazilo (DPPH, y la capacidad antioxidante mediante el método de formación del complejo fosfomolibdeno. Los compuestos fenólicos totales fueron 247,62 ± 1,91 mg de equivalentes de ácido gálico (GAE/g de extracto seco en SC, y 217,61 ± 0,95 mg GAE/g de extracto seco en SE. A la concentración de 100 ppm, se observó una actividad secuestradora de radicales libres de 72,01 ± 1,93 % y 71,48 ± 1,95 % para los extractos de SC y SE, respectivamente. La actividad antioxidante mediante el método del fosfomolibdeno fue de 279,37 ± 3,61 y 146,11 ± 3,11 mg/g de extracto seco de SC y SE, respectivamente.

  13. Imposex in endemic volutid from Northeast Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ítalo Braga de, Castro; Carlos Augusto Oliveira de, Meirelles; Helena, Matthews-Cascon; Cristina de Almeida, Rocha-Barreira; Pablo, Penchaszadeh; Gregório, Bigatti.

    1065-10-01

    Full Text Available O imposex caracteriza-se pelo surgimento de estruturas sexuais masculinas, em fêmeas de gastrópodes. Cerca de 120 espécies de moluscos que exibem o fenômeno quando expostas a contaminação por compostos orgânicos de estanho tais como o Tributilestanho (TBT) e o Trifenilestanho (TPT). Esses compostos [...] são utilizados, sobretudo em embarcações, no intuito de evitar a bioincrustração que danifica as embarcações e eleva os custos das viagens marítimas. No Brasil se conhecem 5 espécies de moluscos gastrópodes que manifestam imposex, são elas: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum e Olivancillaria vesica. No Nordeste, monitoramentos da contaminação por organoestânicos foram realizados utilizando o imposex em gastrópodes como biomarcador. O presente estudo tem por objetivo notificar a primeira ocorrência de imposex na espécie endêmica do Nordeste brasileiro, Voluta ebraea. De um total de 11 animais observados, duas fêmeas apresentaram imposex, provenientes da Praia do Pacheco no litoral do Ceará. Observou-se nesses indivíduos a presença de glândula de cápsulas, ovidutos e receptáculo seminal concomitantemente ao pênis o que caracteriza o imposex. Como o imposex só se manifesta em moluscos expostos a compostos organoestânicos tipicamente encontrados em portos, marinas, estaleiros e locais com grande fluxo de embarcações atribui-se a origem dessa contaminação provavelmente a um estaleiro localizado nas proximidades da área de coleta. Abstract in english Imposex is characterized by the development of masculine sexual organs in neogastropod females. Almost 120 mollusk species are known to present imposex when exposed to organic tin compounds as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT). These compounds are used as biocide agents in antifouling paints [...] to prevent the incrustations on boats. Five gastropod species are known to present imposex in Brazil: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum and Olivancillaria vesica. This paper reports the first record of imposex observed in the endemic gastropod Voluta ebraea from Pacheco Beach, Northeast Brazil. Animals presenting imposex had regular female reproductive organs (capsule gland, oviduct and sperm-ingesting gland) and an abnormal penis. As imposex occurs in mollusks exposed to organotin compounds typically found at harbors, marinas, shipyards and areas with high shipping activities, probably contamination of Pacheco Beach is a consequence of a shipyard activity located in the nearest areas.

  14. Historical rainforest contractions, localized extinctions and patterns of vertebrate endemism in the rainforests of Australia's wet tropics.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, S. E.; Pearson, R. G.

    1997-01-01

    The spatial patterns in the distributions of vertebrates in the rainforests of the wet tropics biogeographic region of north-eastern Australia were examined to form hypotheses on the processes that have shaped vertebrate assemblages and patterns of species richness and regional endemism. These rainforests occur in a relatively narrow and discontinuous strip along the coast of north-eastern Australia. We found that the number of regionally endemic species and the proportion of regional endemic...

  15. Análise de parcimônia de endemismo de cercopídeos neotropicais (Hemiptera, Cercopidae) Parsimony analysis of endemicity of Neotropical spittlebugs (Hemiptera, Cercopidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ângela Goldani; Gervásio Silva Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    The spittlebugs have an extent distribution in the American continent. Their diversity may determinate endemism areas based on their occurence in different localities. We have used Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity method, which is an important historic biogeography tool for detecting and establishing the relationship among endemics areas. A data matrix was built up based on the occurence registration for the species by 66 genus in whole localities divided in five degrees quadrats in the Neotr...

  16. External quality assessment on the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in a non-endemic setting

    OpenAIRE

    Bruggeman Cathrien; Muyembe Jean-Jacques; Van Esbroeck Marjan; Vernelen Kris; Mukadi Pierre; Gillet Philippe; Jacobs Jan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are increasingly used as a tool for the diagnosis of malaria, both in endemic and in non-endemic settings. The present study reports the results of an external quality assessment (EQA) session on RDTs in a non-endemic setting. Methods After validation of antigen stability during shipment at room temperature, three clinical samples and a questionnaire were sent to clinical laboratories in Belgium and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg using ...

  17. Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, E.; Hansen, Anders J.

    2002-01-01

    By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log-transformed species numbers as dependent and log-transformed modified area (i.e. area not covered with barren lava) as an independent variable. This holds both for total species number, for native species number, for endemic species number and for total number of seed plants as well as number of endemic seed plants. For the ratio between endemic and native species, modified area is also the major significant variable, but with a negative regression slope. Multiple regression models show that some isolation measures are significant contributors and may explain some of the residual variation, but their contribution to total explained variation is in general small. The results show that the species area relationships are different for native and endemic species. This is discussed in relation to classical island biogeographical models, and the concepts of radiative speciation. Udgivelsesdato: 2002

  18. Microsporidian Parasites Found in the Hemolymph of Four Baikalian Endemic Amphipods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madyarova, Ekaterina V.; Adelshin, Renat V.; Dimova, Mariya D.; Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V.; Lubyaga, Yulia A.; Timofeyev, Maxim A.

    2015-01-01

    At present, approximately 187 genera and over 1300 species of Microsporidia have been described, among which almost half infect aquatic species and approximately 50 genera potentially infect aquatic arthropods. Lake Baikal is the deepest and one of the oldest lakes in the world, and it has a rich endemic fauna with a predominance of arthropods. Among the arthropods living in this lake, amphipods (Crustacea) are the most dominant group and are represented by more than 350 endemic species. Baikalian amphipods inhabit almost all depths and all types of substrates. The age and geographical isolation of this group creates excellent opportunities for studying the diversity, evolution and genetics of host-parasite relationships. However, despite more than 150 years of study, data investigating the microsporidia of Lake Baikal remain incomplete. In this study, we used molecular genetic analyses to detect microsporidia in the hemolymph of several endemic species of amphipods from Lake Baikal. We provide the first evidence that microsporidian species belonging to three genera (Microsporidium, Dictyocoela and Nosema) are present in the hemolymph of Baikalian endemic amphipods. In the hemolymph of Eulimnogammarus verrucosus, we detected SSU rDNA of microsporidia belonging to the genus Nozema. In the hemolymph of Pallasea cancellous, we found the DNA of Microsporidium sp. similar to that in other Baikalian endemic amphipods; Dictyocoela sp. was found in the hemolymph of Eulimnogammarus marituji and Acanthogammarus lappaceus longispinus. PMID:26087136

  19. Stated preferences for tropical wildlife conservation amongst distant beneficiaries : charisma, endemism, scope and substitution effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morse-Jones, Sian; Bateman, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite heightened awareness of the need to find additional resources for tropical biodiversity conservation, and recognition that the benefits to populations in developed countries may be significant, very few empirical studies have been conducted to estimate these values. In this article, we report the results of a choice experiment survey that investigated the preferences of UK residents for the conservation of threatened wildlife in the Eastern Arc Mountains in Tanzania, part of the Eastern Afromontane “biodiversity hotspot”. We examine the sensitivity of values to species types, the number of species, the number of conservation sites and, more unusually, to potential substitutes/complements. Critically we find some evidence of coherency in preferences. Respondents are willing to pay significant, positive amounts to conserve charismatic and/or endemic species and are scope sensitive to the number of endemic species. In contrast, species which are neither endemic nor charismatic, and the number of conservation sites, do not contribute significantly to utility. Further, changing the overall scope of the ‘good’ is found to have a significant and differential impact on respondent's choices depending on the species type: as the availability of wildlife increases, we observe substitution effects for non-endemic charismatic species, and complementarity for endemic (non-charismatic) species.

  20. Endemic versus epidemic viral spreads display distinct patterns of HTLV-2b replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the replication pattern of leukemogenic PTLVs possesses a strong pathogenic impact, we investigated HTLV-2 replication in vivo in asymptomatic carriers belonging into 2 distinct populations infected by the same HTLV-2b subtype. They include epidemically infected American blood donors, in whom HTLV-2b has been present for only 30 years, and endemically infected Bakola Pygmies from Cameroon, characterized by a long viral endemicity (at least few generations). In blood donors, both the circulating proviral loads and the degree of infected cell proliferation were largely lower than those characterizing asymptomatic carriers infected with leukemogenic PTLVs (HTLV-1, STLV-1). This might contribute to explain the lack of known link between HTLV-2b infection and the development of malignancies in this population. In contrast, endemically infected individuals displayed high proviral loads resulting from the extensive proliferation of infected cells. The route and/or the duration of infection, viral genetic drift, host immune response, genetic background, co-infections or a combination thereof might have contributed to these differences between endemically and epidemically infected subjects. As the clonality pattern observed in endemically infected individuals is very reminiscent of that of leukemogenic PTLVs at the pre-leukemic stage, our results highlight the possible oncogenic effect of HTLV-2b infection in such population

  1. Biogeography of Timor and Surrounding Wallacean Islands: Endemism in Ants of the Genus Polyrhachis Fr. Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin R. Trainor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Wallacean island of Timor is of particular biological interest due to its relatively large size and transitional location between the Indo-Malayan and Australasian biogeographic realms. However, the origins and levels of endemism of its invertebrate fauna are poorly known. A recent study of Timorese ants revealed a diverse fauna with predominantly Indo-Malayan affinities, but species-level taxonomy was considered to be too poorly understood for an analysis of levels of endemism. The highly diverse Old World tropical genus Polyrhachis represents a notable exception, and here we analyse levels of endemism in the Polyrhachis fauna of Timor and surrounding islands. We supplement the species listed in the previous study with additional collections to record a total of 35 species of Polyrhachis from Timor and surrounding islands. Only 14 (40% of the 35 species could be named (P. constricta, P. costulata, P. gab, P. sokolova, P. hera, P. illaudata, P. rixosa, P. acantha chrysophanes, P. saevissima, P. bicolor, P. cryptoceroides, P. dives, P. longipes and P. olybria, and the large majority of the remaining species have not previously been collected. These are very likely to be endemic to Timor and surrounding islands, and point to remarkably high levels (>50% of endemism in the regional ant fauna.

  2. El endemismo en las Liliopsida mexicanas / The endemism in Mexican Liliopsida

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adolfo, Espejo Serna.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un listado actualizado de las Liliopsida endémicas de México. De las 4,542 especies silvestres que habitan en el territorio nacional, 2,010 son endémicas exclusivas y la cifra asciende a 2,764 si consideramos la ampliación de los límites a lo que Rzedowski denomina Megaméxico 3. Se inclu [...] yen datos relativos al número de taxa endémicos por familia, por género y por estado, así como otros análisis relativos a la representación del endemismo por forma biológica y algunos ejemplos de endemismo ecológico. Abstract in english An updated cheklist of the Liliopsida endemic to Mexico is presented. Of the 4,542 species of native monocots that inhabit the national territory, 2,010 are strict endemics. The number increases to 2,764 if we consider the Rzedowski's Megamexico 3 concept. Data about the number of endemic taxa by fa [...] mily, genera and state, and other analysis related to the endemic representation by life forms and some examples of ecological endemism are included.

  3. Fifty years of research in Balkan endemic nephropathy: where are we now?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovic, V.; Polenakovic, M. [Faculty of Medicine, Nish (Serbia)

    2009-07-01

    Despite broad investigations into the possible role of genetic factors, environmental agents and immune mechanisms, the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is only partially understood. An increased incidence of upper urothelial cancer in patients with BEN and in populations from endemic settlements has been demonstrated. Genetic studies have landed support for genetic predisposition to BEN. The similarity of the morphological and clinical pattern of BEN and Chinese herbs nephropathy has raised the possibility of a common etiologic agent, aristolochic acid (AA), described in 1969 by Ivic and confirmed by a recent study of AA-DNA adducts. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is studied extensively as the etiologic agent of BEN. Weathering of low-rank coals nearby the endemic villages produces water-soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic amines, similar to metabolic products of acetaminophen, which has a causal relationship with analgesic nephropathy. AA is confirmed as the etiologic agent of BEN; however, it may not be the sole risk factor. More research is needed on the patterns of BEN over time and between different endemic places. Therefore, it is important to test etiological hypotheses in different endemic foci, preferably as a multicentric research. An international approach to solving the etiology of BEN is needed in the coming years. The geographic correlation and presence of AA-DNA adducts in both BEN and associated urothelial cancer support the hypothesis that these diseases share a common etiology.

  4. The pCS20 PCR assay for Ehrlichia ruminantium does not cross-react with the novel deer ehrlichial agent found in white-tailed deer in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Burridge

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available White-tailed deer are susceptible to heartwater (Ehrlichia [Cowdria] ruminantium infection and are likely to suffer high mortality if the disease spreads to the United States. It is vital, therefore, to validate a highly specific and sensitive detection method for E. ruminantium infection that can be reliably used in testing white-tailed deer, which are reservoirs of antigenically or genetically related agents such as Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Anaplasma (Ehrlichia phagocytophilum (HGE agent and Ehrlichia ewingii. Recently, a novel but as yet unnamed ehrlichial species, the white-tailed deer ehrlichia (WTDE, has been discovered in deer populations in the United States. Although the significance of WTDE as a pathogen is unknown at present, it can be distinguished from other Ehrlichia spp. based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In this study it was differentiated from E. ruminantium by the use of the pCS20 PCR assay which has high specificity and sensitivity for the detection of E. ruminantium. This assay did not amplify DNA from the WTDE DNA samples isolated from deer resident in Florida, Georgia and Missouri, but amplified the specific 279 bp fragment from E. ruminantium DNA. The specificity of the pCS20 PCR assay for E. ruminantium was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Similarly, the 16S PCR primers (nested that amplify a specific 405-412 bp fragment from the WTDE DNA samples, did not amplify any product from E. ruminantium DNA. This result demonstrates that it would be possible to differentiate between E. ruminantium and the novel WTDE agent found in white tailed deer by applying the two respective PCR assays followed by Southern hybridizations. Since the pCS20 PCR assay also does not amplify any DNA products from E. chaffeensis or Ehrlichia canis DNA, it is therefore the method of choice for the detection of E. ruminantium in these deer and other animal hosts.

  5. Activity of Cs-137 in red deer and wild boar in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of monitoring the activity of radiocesium in game animals from various parts of Slovakia are presented. Samples of game flesh were collected by veterinary officials during hunting seasons 1988-1994. More than 80 % of samples came from following districts of Slovakia: Ziar nad Hronom, Prievidza, Martin, Rimavska Sobota, Senica, Banska Bystrica, Roznava, Poprad and Spisska Nova Ves. All measurements were carried out using gamma spectrometric system equipped with 4 high purity germanium detectors. Presented results were obtained using statistical evaluation for left-censored log-normal distribution of data sets. Overall activities of Cs-137 found in red deer and wild boards in Slovakia are considerably lower, than activities reported in game animals from some parts of Northern Moravia, Southern Bohemia and Austria. While the mean activities in red deer show a decreasing tendency, mean activities of wild boar are low, but with higher occurrence of extreme values, and hence, higher variance. The observed difference could be explained by the feeding habits of wild boar: grubbing in the ground for worms, larvae, roots, etc. can lead to presence of up to 20 % of contaminated soil in their stomach. At the same time wild boars often graze farmlands, where the activity of the Cs-137 in the top soil layer is reduced by ploughing and radiocesium on clay particles. Fraction of farmlands in the home range of the wild boars and the time of shooting could contribute to observed variations in radiocesium activity. (J.K.) 2 tabs., 3 refs

  6. Zoonotic Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in Pere David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) in Henan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenjie; Huang, Jianying; Karim, Md Robiul; Zhao, Jinfeng; Dong, Haiju; Ai, Weichang; Li, Fuhuang; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun

    2015-08-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a zoonotic pathogen of the phylum Microspora that infects humans as well as a variety of animal species worldwide. While molecular epidemiologic studies have characterized this parasite in various hosts, isolates from many susceptible hosts have not yet been examined. In this study, E. bieneusi was isolated from 47 Pere David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) in Henan, China and characterized via PCR analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene. E. bieneusi was detected in 16 out of 47 (34.0%) fecal specimens examined. Sequence analysis of the ITS revealed six known genotypes: type IV (4), EbpC (4), EbpA (4), BEB6 (2), COS-I (1), and COS-II (1). Of these, type IV, EbpC, and EbpA are known to cause human microsporidiosis worldwide, whereas the remaining genotypes are generally specific to ruminants. The present study indicated that Pere David's deer are naturally infected with E. bieneusi, predominantly with zoonotic genotypes, and may pose a risk for human transmission. PMID:25982030

  7. Chromosome polymorphism in the Brazilian dwarf brocket deer, Mazama nana (Mammalia, Cervidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa Veltrini, Abril; José Maurício Barbanti, Duarte.

    Full Text Available The Brazilian dwarf brocket deer (Mazama nana) is the smallest deer species in Brazil and is considered threatened due to the reduction and alteration of its habitat, the Atlantic Rainforest. Moreover, previous work suggested the presence of intraspecific chromosome polymorphisms which may contribut [...] e to further population instability because of the reduced fertility arising from the deleterious effects of chromosome rearrangements during meiosis. We used G- and C-banding, and nucleolus organizer regions localization by silver-nitrate staining (Ag-NOR) to investigate the causes of this variation. Mazama nana exhibited eight different karyotypes (2n = 36 through 39 and FN = 58) resulting from centric fusions and from inter and intraindividual variation in the number of B chromosomes (one to six). Most of the animals were heterozygous for a single fusion, suggesting one or several of the following: a) genetic instability in a species that has not reached its optimal karyotypic evolutionary state yet; b) negative selective pressure acting on accumulated rearrangements; and c) probable positive selection pressure for heterozygous individuals which maintains the polymorphism in the population (in contrast with the negative selection for many rearrangements within a single individual).

  8. Chromosome polymorphism in the Brazilian dwarf brocket deer, Mazama nana (Mammalia, Cervidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Veltrini Abril

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian dwarf brocket deer (Mazama nana is the smallest deer species in Brazil and is considered threatened due to the reduction and alteration of its habitat, the Atlantic Rainforest. Moreover, previous work suggested the presence of intraspecific chromosome polymorphisms which may contribute to further population instability because of the reduced fertility arising from the deleterious effects of chromosome rearrangements during meiosis. We used G- and C-banding, and nucleolus organizer regions localization by silver-nitrate staining (Ag-NOR to investigate the causes of this variation. Mazama nana exhibited eight different karyotypes (2n = 36 through 39 and FN = 58 resulting from centric fusions and from inter and intraindividual variation in the number of B chromosomes (one to six. Most of the animals were heterozygous for a single fusion, suggesting one or several of the following: a genetic instability in a species that has not reached its optimal karyotypic evolutionary state yet; b negative selective pressure acting on accumulated rearrangements; and c probable positive selection pressure for heterozygous individuals which maintains the polymorphism in the population (in contrast with the negative selection for many rearrangements within a single individual.

  9. Equivalence in the strength of deer herbivory on above and below ground communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Reynolds, W. Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Herbivores exert a strong influence on the species composition and richness of plant communities, but the magnitude of their effect on belowground communities remains poorly understood. While an increasing number of studies acknowledge the importance of documenting belowground effects of herbivores, very few of these evaluate variation in the strength of the response from aboveground to belowground communities. Our study documents the long-term consequences of sustained deer herbivory for plant and arthropod communities adjacent to 15 exclosures that have been in place since 1996. We hypothesized that herbivory would alter the composition and diversity of communities, but the strength of the effects of herbivory would weaken from plants, to leaf-litter invertebrates, and to belowground microarthropod communities. First, we found that herbivory negatively impacted plant seedling and sapling abundance and performance, reduced the abundance of ants and the taxonomic richness of arthropods in the litter layer andreduced the richness of soil microarthropod communities. Second, in contrast to our hypothesis, the magnitude of effect size did not vary among trophic levels, indicating that effects of deer herbivory cascade from plants to the leaf-litter and soil arthropod communities with equal strength. While much recent research has focused on how specific traits of plants may mediate the effects of herbivory on associated species, our results suggest that indirect effects of herbivory might influence many components of belowground communities.

  10. A postmortem experience of Indian rock python (Python molurus molurus that swallowed a whole barking deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amam Zonaed Siddiki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to report a post mortem findings of a female Indian Rock Python with a length of 406 cm (13.32 feet and approximate weight of 60 kg (including a whole deer that was swallowed by the python, that was brought to the Teaching Veterinary Hospital, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (CVASU by the Forest Department of Kumira Range Office, Chittagong. The local inhabitants accidently found the python at the forest area of Kumira and they frightenedly injured and killed the snake eventually. The postmortem (PM examination was performed according to standard protocols. Gross examination revealed bloody discharge was come out through mouth and a couple of skin lacerations observed on the right dorso-lateral part of the abdominal region. The whole barrel-shaped body cavity was opened and whole deer (partially decomposed was recovered from the stomach. Furthermore, three fractured ribs were found on right thorax. The PM examination team believes that the possible cause of python death was traumatic injury inflicted by the local people. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 163-165

  11. Determining Optimal Sampling Schemes to Study Red Deer Diets by Fecal Analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria João, Maia; Francisco, Rego; Francisco Sousa, Machado.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos têm-se vindo a realizar em Portugal diversos estudos sobre a ecologia alimentar do veado com o recurso à utilização da análise micro-histológica de fezes. Estas análises exigem enorme consumo de tempo, pelo que interessa optimizar os esquemas de amostragem a múltiplos níveis geralme [...] nte utilizados. Baseados em amostras fecais de veado em Vila Viçosa (no Sul de Portugal) as estimativas das componentes de variância indicam uma variação mínima entre os diversos elementos constituintes do mesmo grupo fecal. Conclui-se que, com a identificação de 100 fragmentos epidérmicos por cada elemento do grupo fecal, é necessário um mínimo de 4 grupos para atingir um compromisso razoável entre precisão e custo. Abstract in english Studies on red deer feeding ecology have been conducted in Portugal for several years and in various locations using microhistological techniques on feces. These analyses are extremely time consuming requiring the optimization of the multistage sampling scheme used. Estimates of variance components [...] based on samples from red deer pellets in Vila Viçosa (southern Portugal) indicate that variability among individual pellets of the same pellet group is minimal. It is concluded that using 100 plant fragments observed per pellet, a minimum number of 4 pellet groups provides a reasonable compromise between precision and cost.

  12. The impact of 4-Poster deer self-treatment devices at three locations in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, John F; Hill, Dolores E; Allen, Patricia C; Young, Kenneth W; Miramontes, Eli; Kramer, Matthew; Pound, J Mathews; Miller, J Allen; George, John E

    2009-08-01

    From 1998-2002 twenty-five deer self-treatment devices (4-Posters), using 2% amitraz, were operated at three locations in Maryland to determine their effectiveness in controlling blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, and lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.). Each treatment site was approximately 518 ha and paired with a similar site lacking 4-Posters. Locations varied in deer density, tick abundance, and land use. Flagging for host-seeking ticks showed declines in tick populations at all treatment sites compared to control sites by the third year. By 2002, control of I. scapularis nymphs attributable to the 4-Poster intervention at the three sites was 69.0%, 75.8%, and 80%. Control of A. americanum nymphs at the two sites where they occurred was 99.5% and 95.3%. In 2003, the first posttreatment year, control of I. scapularis remained around 2001-2002 levels, but by 2004, an upward trend in nymphal numbers was detectable. Populations of A. americanum showed no increase posttreatment. These results demonstrate that control of these tick species is locally possible with 4-Poster intervention. PMID:19650735

  13. Methods to determine deer diet composition: A comparison of their efficiency and feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivas, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present literary review is focused on examining the different methods that exist to determine deer diets composition. We considered research back ground of different deer species in several regions of the world. The aim was to compare the efficiency and feasibility of the methods. Among the aspects that were considered were the type of samples and the scope of every method to discriminate the composition of the diet up to minors’taxons as genus and species or for type of forage (pastures, herbaceous or shrubs.These studies cover Europa’s regions, Africa, Australia, North and South America. It was found that six methodologies exist: 1 Observation in field, 2 Fecal analysis, 3 Esophageal and rumen fistula techniques, 4 Stomach analysis, 5 n-alkanes in plant’s cuticles (waxes and 6 Infrared reflectance spectroscopy. The most commonly used is the micro-histological analysis of dregs, which offers the advantage of easy access of samples, as well as unlimited quantity of the same ones, and the use of not specialized equipment.

  14. Natural and experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the United States with an Ehrlichia sp. closely related to Ehrlichia ruminantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J; Loftis, Amanda D; Little, Susan E

    2008-04-01

    An Ehrlichia sp. (Panola Mountain [PM] Ehrlichia sp.) closely related to Ehrlichia ruminantium was recently detected in a domestic goat experimentally infested with lone star ticks (LSTs, Amblyomma americanum) collected from Georgia, USA. The infected goat exhibited pyrexia and mild clinical pathologic abnormalities consistent with ehrlichiosis. At least two other Ehrlichia species (Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii) are maintained in nature by a cycle involving LSTs as the primary vector and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginanus) as a known or suspected reservoir. To investigate the possibility that white-tailed deer are potential hosts of the PM Ehrlichia sp., whole blood samples collected from 87 wild deer from 2000 to 2002 were screened with a species-specific nested PCR assay targeting the citrate synthase gene. In addition, two laboratory-raised white-tailed deer fawns were each infested with 120 wild-caught LST adults from Missouri, USA, and blood samples were periodically collected and tested for the PM Ehrlichia sp. Of 87 deer tested from 20 locations in the southeastern United States, three (3%) deer from Arkansas, North Carolina, and Virginia were positive for the PM Ehrlichia sp. Wild-caught ticks transmitted the PM Ehrlichia sp. to one of two deer fawns, and colony-reared nymphal LSTs acquired the organism from the deer, maintained it transstadially as they molted to adults, and transmitted the PM Ehrlichia sp. to two naïve fawns. These findings indicate that white-tailed deer are naturally and experimentally susceptible to infection with an Ehrlichia sp. closely related to E. ruminantium and are able to serve as a source of infection to LSTs. PMID:18436670

  15. Evaluation of the CervidTB STAT-PAK for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild deer in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowtage-Sequeira, S; Paterson, A; Lyashchenko, K P; Lesellier, S; Chambers, M A

    2009-10-01

    Deer are acknowledged as hosts of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), and determining the prevalence of infection in deer species is one of the key steps in understanding the epidemiological role played by cervids in the transmission and maintenance of bTB in the United Kingdom. This study evaluated a rapid lateral-flow test for the detection of bTB in samples from wild deer species in the United Kingdom. Fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and red deer (Cervus elaphus) from areas in Wales, the Cotswolds, and southwestern England were necropsied for a bTB survey. Serum samples from individual deer were tested with the CervidTB STAT-PAK, and the results were evaluated against the culture of M. bovis from tissues (n = 432). Sensitivity and specificity were 85.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.1 to 99.6%) and 94.8% (95% CI, 92.3 to 96.7%), respectively, with an odds ratio of 109.9 (95% CI, 12.7 to 953.6%) for a positive STAT-PAK result among culture-positive deer. The low prevalence of infection (3.8%, n = 860) affected the confidence of the sensitivity estimate of the test, but all culture-positive fallow deer (n = 6) were detected by the test. In addition, antibodies to M. bovis could be detected in poor-quality serum samples. The results suggest that the CervidTB STAT-PAK could be deployed as a field test for further evaluation. PMID:19656989

  16. Evaluation of the CervidTB STAT-PAK for the Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Wild Deer in Great Britain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowtage-Sequeira, S.; Paterson, A.; Lyashchenko, K. P.; Lesellier, S.; Chambers, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    Deer are acknowledged as hosts of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), and determining the prevalence of infection in deer species is one of the key steps in understanding the epidemiological role played by cervids in the transmission and maintenance of bTB in the United Kingdom. This study evaluated a rapid lateral-flow test for the detection of bTB in samples from wild deer species in the United Kingdom. Fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and red deer (Cervus elaphus) from areas in Wales, the Cotswolds, and southwestern England were necropsied for a bTB survey. Serum samples from individual deer were tested with the CervidTB STAT-PAK, and the results were evaluated against the culture of M. bovis from tissues (n = 432). Sensitivity and specificity were 85.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.1 to 99.6%) and 94.8% (95% CI, 92.3 to 96.7%), respectively, with an odds ratio of 109.9 (95% CI, 12.7 to 953.6%) for a positive STAT-PAK result among culture-positive deer. The low prevalence of infection (3.8%, n = 860) affected the confidence of the sensitivity estimate of the test, but all culture-positive fallow deer (n = 6) were detected by the test. In addition, antibodies to M. bovis could be detected in poor-quality serum samples. The results suggest that the CervidTB STAT-PAK could be deployed as a field test for further evaluation. PMID:19656989

  17. Molecular detection and identification of hemoparasites in pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus Linnaeus, 1758) from the Pantanal Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Júlia A G; Rabelo, Elida M L; Lacerda, Ana C R; Borges, Paulo A L; Tomás, Walfrido M; Pellegrin, Aiesca O; Tomich, Renata G P; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2013-06-01

    Hemoparasites were surveyed in 60 free-living pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus from the central area of the Pantanal, known as Nhecolândia, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, through the analysis of nested PCR assays and nucleotide sequencing. Blood samples were tested for Babesia/Theileria, Anaplasma spp., and Trypanosoma spp. using nPCR assays and sequencing of the 18S rRNA, msp4, ITS, and cathepsin L genes. The identity of each sequence was confirmed by comparison with sequences from GenBank using BLAST software. Forty-six (77%) pampas deer were positive for at least one hemoparasite, according to PCR assays. Co-infection occurred in 13 (22%) animals. Based on the sequencing results, 29 (48%) tested positive for A. marginale. Babesia/Theileria were detected in 23 (38%) samples, and according to the sequencing results 52% (12/23) of the samples were similar to T. cervi, 13% (3/23) were similar to Babesia bovis, and 9% (2/23) were similar to B. bigemina. No samples were amplified with the primers for T. vivax, while 11 (18%) were amplified with the ITS primers for T. evansi. The results showed pampas deer to be co-infected with several hemoparasites, including species that may cause serious disease in cattle. Pampas deer is an endangered species in Brazil, and the consequences of these infections to their health are poorly understood. PMID:23567028

  18. Bacterial community composition and fermentation patterns in the rumen of sika deer (Cervus nippon) fed three different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Wright, André-Denis G; Liu, Hanlu; Bao, Kun; Zhang, Tietao; Wang, Kaiying; Cui, Xuezhe; Yang, Fuhe; Zhang, Zhigang; Li, Guangyu

    2015-02-01

    Sika deer (Cervus nippon) rely on microorganisms living in the rumen to convert plant materials into chemical compounds, such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), but how the rumen bacterial community is affected by different forages and adapt to altered diets remains poorly understood. The present study used 454-pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes to examine the relationship between rumen bacterial diversity and metabolic phenotypes using three sika deer in a 3?×?3 latin square design. Three sika deer were fed oak leaves (OL), corn stover (CS), or corn silage (CI), respectively. After a 7-day feeding period, when compared to the CS and CI groups, the OL group had a lower proportion of Prevotella spp. and a higher proportion of unclassified bacteria belonging to the families Succinivibrionaceae and Paraprevotellaceae (Pchange of dominant bacterial genera in the OL group after 28 days of feeding. Conversely, total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) showed an increase after 28 days of feeding, mainly due to the increasing of acetate, propionate, and valerate (Pcomposition and metabolic phenotypes were altered in the native and domesticated diets indicating the changed fermentation patterns in the rumen of sika deer. PMID:25252928

  19. Freezing tolerance and low molecular weight cryoprotectants in an invasive parasitic fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Petteri; Paakkonen, Tommi; Eerilä, Harri; Puukka, Katri; Riikonen, Joakim; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2012-01-01

    Insect cold hardiness is often mediated by low molecular weight cryoprotectants, such as sugars, polyols, and amino acids (AA). While many free-living northern insects must cope with extended periods of freezing ambient temperatures (Ta), the ectoparasitic deer ked Lipoptena cervi imago can encounter subfreezing Ta only during a short autumnal period between hatching and host location. Subsequently, it benefits from the body temperature of the cervid host for survival in winter. This study investigated the cold tolerance of the species by determining its lower lethal temperature (100% mortality, LLT100) during faster and slower cold acclimation, by determining the supercooling point (SCP) and by measuring the concentrations of potential low molecular weight cryoprotectants. The LLT100 of the deer ked was approximately -16 ° C, which would enable it to survive freezing nighttime Ta not only in its current area of distribution but also further north. The SCP was -7.8 ° C, clearly higher than the LLT100 , indicating that the deer ked displays freezing tolerance. The concentrations of free AA, especially nonessential AA, were higher in the cold-acclimated deer keds similar to several other insects. The concentrations of proline increased together with ?-aminobutyrate, arginine, asparagine, cystine, glutamate, glutamine, hydroxylysine, sarcosine, serine, and taurine. AA could be hypothesized to act as cryoprotectants by, e.g., protecting enzymes and lipid membranes from damage caused by cold. PMID:22076947

  20. Post-mortem hemoparasite detection in free-living Brazilian brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira, Fischer 1814).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Júlia Angélica Gonçalves da; Rabelo, Elida Mara Leite; Lima, Paula Cristina Senra; Chaves, Bárbara Neves; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Tick-borne infections can result in serious health problems for wild ruminants, and some of these infectious agents can be considered zoonosis. The aim of the present study was the post-mortem detection of hemoparasites in free-living Mazama gouazoubira from Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The deer samples consisted of free-living M. gouazoubira (n = 9) individuals that died after capture. Necropsy examinations of the carcasses were performed to search for macroscopic alterations. Organ samples were collected for subsequent imprint slides, and nested PCR assays were performed to detect hemoparasite species. Imprint slide assays from four deer showed erythrocytes infected with Piroplasmida small trophozoites, and A. marginale corpuscles were observed in erythrocytes from two animals. A. marginale and trophozoite co-infections occurred in two deer. A nested PCR analysis of the organs showed that six of the nine samples were positive for Theileria sp., five were positive for A. phagocytophilum and three were positive for A. marginale, with co-infection occurring in four deer. The results of the present study demonstrate that post-mortem diagnostics using imprint slides and molecular assays are an effective method for detecting hemoparasites in organs. PMID:25054500

  1. CONTROL OF IXODES SCAPULARIS AND AMBLYOMMA AMERICANUM USING THE '4-POSTER' TREATMENT DEVICE ON DEER IN MARYLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deer self-treatment devices (`4-posters¿) were evaluated for their efficacy in reducing populations of blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, and lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum. At each of 3 locations in Maryland, 25 `4-posters¿ were operated in approximately 518 ha study areas. Populations ...

  2. THE CONSERVATION AND POTENTIAL HABITAT OF THE HIMALAYAN MUSK DEER, MOSCHUS CHRYSOGASTER, IN THE PROTECTED AREAS OF NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut ARYAL

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster is a cervid distributed from the eastern to the western Himalayas of Nepal. The species is listed as endangered in appendix I of IUCN Red data, and protected in Nepal under the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1973. Musk deer occupy the middle to the higher mountain regions, which cover 12 protected areas of Nepal (6 national parks, 5 conservation areas, 1 hunting reserve. However, of the 30177.19 km2 potential habitat, only 19.26% (5815.08 km2 is inside the protected areas and the remaining 80.73% falls outside the protected areas. Consequently, poaching, habitat destruction, livestock grazing and forest fire in the musk deer habitat are important challenges for the conservation of musk deer in the country. A thorough status survey in and outside the protected areas should be carried out and a species-focused conservation action plan should be prepared and implemented properly. A program for increasing awareness and enhancing livelihood of the local populations be launched in the poor and poaching risk zones of Nepal.

  3. Woody plants as an important component of the red and roe deer diet in the floodplain forest.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokešová, Jarmila; Baran?eková, Miroslava; Homolka, Miloslav; Koubek, Petr

    Šiauliai : Šiauliai university, 2004 - (Bal?iauskas, L.), s. 59-66 ISBN 9955-608-04-8. [Rational management of cervids in forest habitats. Šiauliai (LT), 28.01.2004-30.01.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IBS6093003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : diet * deer * floodplain forest Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  4. Annual changes in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) diet in the Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic/Germany.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baran?eková, Miroslava; Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Šustr, P.; Heurich, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 56, ?. 3 (2010), s. 327-333. ISSN 1612-4642 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : roe deer * diet composition * faecal analyses Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2010

  5. Performance and dietary preferences of white-tailed deer grazing chicory, birdsfoot trefoil or alfalfa in north central Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, G A; Bork, E W; Donkor, N T; Hudson, R J

    2009-12-01

    Little information exists on the performance of deer on alternative forage species in northern temperate environments during summer and fall, the period of inherent maximum growth in deer. In performance and choice experiments, we compared live weight gain (g/kg(0.75)/day), absolute [kg/ha dry matter (DM)] and relative (% DM) herbage utilization, relative preference index (RPI) as well as plant community visitation of white-tailed deer grazing alfalfa (Medicago sativa), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) or chicory (Cichorium intybus) in north central Alberta, Canada. Herbage phytomass and quality was also measured on the grazed pastures. Alfalfa had higher dry matter yields and crude protein concentrations than chicory and trefoil. Chicory had lower neutral detergent fiber concentrations than the other forages. Tannin concentrations were greatest in birds foot trefoil (nearly 55 g/kg DM), well above those in the other forages ( 0.05) among the three forage species. In contrast, relative herbage utilization was greater from birds foot trefoil (52% DM) than chicory (40% DM) or alfalfa (25% DM). These results suggest that the use of alfalfa with other alternative forages may prove beneficial to deer production, rather than using alfalfa pasture alone. PMID:19138349

  6. Feeding patterns of red deer along altitudinal gradient in the Bohemian Forest: the effect of habitat and season.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Baran?eková, Miroslava; Šustr, P.; Heurich, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 16, ?. 2 (2010), s. 173-184. ISSN 0909-6396 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Bavarian Forest National Park * red deer * PCA * seasonal and spatial variation * Šumava National Park Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.697, year: 2010

  7. Selenium in soil and endemic diseases in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jian'an; Zhu, Wenyu; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Ribang; Hou, Shaofan; Wang, Dacheng; Yang, Linsheng

    2002-02-01

    Selenium is an essential element for humans, animals and some species of microorganisms. The biological function of selenium shows dual characteristics. The selenium content range between toxic and deficient concentration is very narrow. The present paper discusses the geographical distribution of two forms (total and water-soluble) of selenium in topsoil (plough layer for cultivated soils, eluvial horizon for natural soils) and evaluates its relationship with some human health problems in China. Topsoil samples, 354 in total, including 156 natural and 198 cultivated soils of 21 main soil types were collected. The total Se concentration in soil samples was determined with DAN (di-aminonaphthalene)-fluorescence spectrophotometer method. Soil water-soluble Se concentration was determined with the same method after extraction with water (water/soil = 5:1). The results showed that the geometric and arithmetic means of total Se concentration in soil, for all samples, were 0.173 mg/kg and 0.239 mg/kg, respectively, with the lowest value being 0.022 mg/kg and the highest being 3.806 mg/kg. For the cultivated soil, the geometric mean of total Se was 0.188 mg/kg, its arithmetic mean was 0.269 mg/kg and higher than those in the natural soil, 0.154 mg/kg and 0.206 mg/kg, respectively. The geometric and arithmetic means of water-soluble Se in soil for all the samples were 4.0 and 6.4 microg/kg, the lowest 0.6 microg/kg and the highest value being 109.4 microg/kg. For the cultivated soils, the average concentration of water-soluble Se was 4.3 microg/kg, similar to that of natural soil, they are and 4.4 microg/kg by geometric mean. Two sequences of the soil types, arranged separately in the concentration of total Se and water-soluble Se, are different and this demonstrates that the proportions of the two forms of selenium existing in various soils are different. The percentages of water-soluble Se to total Se in different types of soils varied from 1.07 to 6.69%. However, generally the laterite and other subtropic soil still have relatively high absolute water-soluble Se contents because of their higher total Se contents. A very significant correlation between total Se and water-soluble Se has been found in cultivated soil with a correlation coefficient of 0.58 (P < 0.01). The relationships between soil Se and human endemic diseases Keshan disease, Kashin-Back diseases and selenosis have been discussed. The reference criteria for evaluating Se deficiency and Se excess in soil were suggested. PMID:11846167

  8. Studies of endemic cretinism in Papua New Guinea: digital and palmar dermatoglyphic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrick, J W; Plato, C C; Hornabrook, R W

    1983-06-01

    We have tested the hypothesis that the abnormal development of the central nervous system seen in endemic cretinism might be accompanied by concurrent abnormal dermatoglyphic patterns. We compared digital and palmar dermatoglyphics of normal individuals and endemic cretins inhabiting the Huon Peninsula of Papua New Guinea. The population sampled from the Irumu River Valley included 118 males and 114 females with 22 male cretins and 23 female cretins. The population sampled from the Wantoat River Valley included 72 males and 38 females with 12 male cretins. No pathognomonic patterns were found that could identify the endemic cretin subpopulation. However, the occurrence of a number of differences between controls and cretins suggests that subtle changes in dermatoglyphic patterns accompany the anomalous development of the CNS secondary to maternal iodine deficiency. We discuss the significance of these findings and compare the dermatoglyphic patterns of normal Irumu and Wantoat natives and 21 other populations of Papua New Guinea. PMID:6881322

  9. Distribution pattern, ecology and endemism of family crassulaceae in Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution pattern, ecology and endemism of family Crassul aceae have been studied in Pakistan and Kashmir. Out of 31 taxa, 15 are Irano-Turanian elements, 16 are Sino-Japanese elements and only one is Mediterranean element. Twenty nine taxa are classified as uniregional, while one is biregional element. Only one taxon is considered as pluriregional element. Rhodiola saxifragoides, Rosularia adenotricha subsp. chitralica and Hylotelephium pakistanicum are endemic taxa. While Rhodiola pachyclados and Rosularia sedoides are partim endemic. The former species is confined to (Kurrum valley) Pakistan and Afghanistan whereas the latter species distributed in Kashmir and N India. Rhodiola coccinea subsp. scabrida is subendemic to the peripheral belt of Irano-Turanian and Sino-Japanese regions. (author)

  10. HTLV-I associated myelopathy: an endemic disease of Canadian aboriginals of the Northwest Pacific coast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oger, J J; Werker, D H; Foti, D J; Dekaban, G A

    1993-11-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) is responsible for HTLV-I associated myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and for adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Both diseases have been well described in individuals living in Japan, West Indies, Seychelles Islands and Columbia where infection with HTLV-I is considered endemic and in persons whose descendants originated from these endemic areas. We report here 4 cases of HAM/TSP in 4 natives from 4 different tribal groups from British Columbia (B.C.). These are the first case reports of HTLV-I linked diseases found among North American Aboriginals. Possible routes of infection for HTLV-I infection included sexual transmission, breast feeding, blood transfusions and IV drug use. The seroprevalence of HTLV-I in North American Native population is unknown and we suggest that it is endemic in this ethnic group. PMID:8313245

  11. Recent records, range loss, and current threats to the pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Mammalia, Cervidae in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo C. Benedet

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The native grasslands in the micro-region of Lages are the natural habitat of the pampas deer, and the locality of Coxilha Rica, known for its short grass, is its largest refuge in the state of Santa Catarina. Recent novel records of the pampas deer in this state are published here for the first time, as well as evidence of a reduction in its historical distribution. In a grassland environment that is increasingly invaded by plantations of exotic species, partition of land, and burning of grasslands, adequate management of the areas where the pampas deer still persist may be decisive for the survival of remaining populations.

  12. Detection of Ehrlichia spp. in the Blood of Wild White-Tailed Deer in Missouri by PCR Assay and Serologic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Arens, Max Q.; Liddell, Allison M.; Buening, Gerald; Gaudreault-keener, Monique; Sumner, John W.; Comer, James A.; Buller, Richard S.; Storch, Gregory A.

    2003-01-01

    Blood samples collected from wild deer in Missouri in November of 2000 and 2001 were positive by PCR assays for Ehrlichia chaffeensis (50 of 217; 23%), Ehrlichia ewingii (44 of 217; 20%), and Anaplasma species (214 of 217; 99%). Nucleotide sequences of selected amplicons from the assay for anaplasma matched sequences of the white-tailed deer agent. Serologic analysis of 112 deer sampled in 2000 showed a very high prevalence of antibodies to E. chaffeensis (97 of 112; 87%) and a low prevalence...

  13. Reduction in the number of patients with neuroborreliosis, following a significant reduction in roe deer abundance on the island of Funen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nanna Skaarup; Moestrup Jensen, Per

    Objectives The Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population on the island of Funen, Denmark has since the year 2002, been suffering from increased mortality. The underlying cause has so far been connected to symptoms of diarrhea and malnutrition of unknown etiology and there has been a 50% reduction in the annual hunting bag, mirroring the existing abundance of roe deer. It is well established that the abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus, - the vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sl in Europe,- is correlated with the abundance of roe deer. Since tick abundance correlates with human cases of neuroborreliosis, it can be expected that changes in roe deer densities lead to changes in human neuroborreliosis cases in the region. Due to sizable reduction in roe deer abundance on the island of Funen, it was hypothesized that the number of I. ricinus must have declined and thereby the number of patients with neuroborreliosis. However, since the ticks has a three year lifecycle and human mainly serves as hosts for nymphs, it was suspected that the reduction of neuroborreliosis cases are delayed as compared to the reduction in roe deer, which serves as the main host for adult ticks. Methods Patients resident on Funen and hospitalized with intratecal antibody response to Borrelia Burgdroferi s.l. (A) and/or the diagnosis ICD-10A69.2 Lymes Disease (B), were compared to data from the annual Danish Game Bag Statistic on roe deer(C). Data were analyzed by linear regression modeling using SAS 9,3. Results The data collected from 1990/94 to 2013 is shown in figure 1*. Linear regression show significant correlation with the roe deer bag for current year, and bag numbers of the past one to three years (P’s <0.0001). The degree of explanation vary considerably from R-square = 0.42 for current year roe deer bag, to R-square = 0.51, 0.62 and 0.49 in for the past one to three years, respectively. The highest level of explanation was therefore found between roe deer bag two-years-past. Conclusion The reduction in roe deer abundance can explain up to 62% of the total variation in patients with neurborreliosis on the island of Funen in the period 1994 to 2013. The highest correlation was observed by assuming a two year delay from changes in the roe deer population to neuroborreliosis manifestation in the human population. The cause for the delay is defined by the development periods of the local tick population and difference in tick instar host-preferences.

  14. Amphibian diversity and endemism in the swamp forests of Agusan Marsh, Agusan del Sur, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlita L. Almeria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Agusan Marsh, an ecologically significant wetland in the Philippines, consists of an extensivefloodplain heavily dissected by numerous rivers and streams making it a very important source offreshwater, storing more than 15% of the nation’s freshwater resource in the form of swamp forests.Since amphibians are very good indicators of climate change and ecosystem health, species diversity andendemism were assessed in sago swamp, terminalia, mixed swamp, and peat swamp forests in AgusanMarsh using a combination of cruising, pitfall trap and quadrat methods. Seventeen species with 41%endemism were recorded. Of the seven endemic species, five are Mindanao endemic. The twoundescribed species of Oreophryne and one Philautus could be new species and were observed in theterminalia, sago, and mixed swamp forests but not in the peat swamp forest. The peat swamp forestwhere the invasive Rhinella marina was abundant, had the least species richness owing to habitatdisturbance brought about by human encroachment. The highest species richness and abundance wereobserved in the terminalia forest primarily due to the presence of suitable microhabitats. Four vulnerablespecies were recorded in the marsh. Most of the vulnerable and endemic species were documented in theterminalia and mixed swamp forests. High diversity and more or less even distribution were observed inall sites. Three amphibian species are considered socio-economically important and are hunted for foodand bait for fish. The presence of endemic and vulnerable species indicates that Agusan Marsh is a keyconservation site. Logging and widespread mining, discharging tons of mine tailings into the rivers whichfind their way into the swamp forests are just some of the threats to the amphibians in the marsh.Conservation action is necessary to protect the endemic and vulnerable species in the swamp forests andthe Agusan marsh in general.

  15. Molecular evidence reveals a polyphyletic origin and chromosomal speciation of Lake Baikal's endemic asellid isopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidding, B; Michel, E; Natyaganova, A V; Sherbakov, D Yu

    2003-06-01

    The six endemic isopod species of Lake Baikal have been regarded as a small species flock with uncertain affinities to related asellids. We provide evidence from 16S rRNA sequences for polyphyletic origins of Baikalian Asellidae. One clade of two species is related to the Eurasian genus Asellus. The other clade, Baicalasellus, shows affinities to North American asellids and may have a long evolutionary history within the lake basin. Some speciation events within Baicalasellus clearly have a chromosomal basis. In contrast with numerous taxa exhibiting monophyletic radiations in ancient lakes, the endemic Baikalian isopods arose by multiple invasions and chromosomal mechanisms. PMID:12755879

  16. The prevention and cure effect of radon-bearing groundwater on some endemic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through numerous data processing from the investigation on source of drinkable ground-water, sampling and analysis, and in situ determination of radon in water, the origin of endemic diseases and pathogenic factors in drinkable water in a certain region have been determined. The methods of schematic diagrams and similarity discriminant analysis have been adopted to quantitatively define the action of different radon concentration in water and new knowledge on the prevention and cure effect of radon-bearing ground-water on some endemic diseases has been obtained. All of these will provide important basis for the development and utilization of radon springs to bring benefit to mankind in the future

  17. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

    OpenAIRE

    Ca?ceres Gonza?lez, Daniel A.; Schulte, Katharina; Schmidt, Marco; Zizka, Georg

    2013-01-01

    An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica). 124 species (62.6%) grow ex...

  18. Diets and habitat analyses of mule deer on the 200 areas of the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uresk, D.W.; Uresk, V.A.

    1980-10-01

    Forty-four food items were identified in the fecal pellets of the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) on three areas of the Hanford Site. Microscopic analysis of plant fragments indicated that bitterbrush was the most common species occurring in the diets of deer from the B-C Cribs area. Russian thistle (Salsola kali) and goldenrod (Solidago sp.) were the most abundant plants found in the fecal pellets collected from B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond habitats, respectively. The similarity in diets among the habitats was low, ranging from 10% to 16%. Preference indices of forage plants among sites were not similar (7% to 19%). The B-C Cribs, B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond habitats were characterized for canopy cover and frequency of occurrence of plant species. Twelve species were sampled in the B-C Cribs and B Pond areas; 22 species were identified on the Gable Mountain site. The most commonly occurring plant was cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in all three sites. The similarity in frequency and canopy cover of plants was low among sites. Mule deer inhabiting the Hanford site can serve as a pathway for movement of radioactive material from low-level radioactive waste management areas to man. Maximum levels of /sup 137/Cs found in deer pellet groups collected from B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond areas were 100 pCi/g and 128 pCi/g, respectively. Background levels were reported at B-C Cribs area. Maximum /sup 90/Sr values found in deer pellets at B Pond were 107 pCi/g and 184 pCi/g at Gable Mountain Pond.

  19. Diets and habitat analyses of mule deer on the 200 areas of the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-four food items were identified in the fecal pellets of the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) on three areas of the Hanford Site. Microscopic analysis of plant fragments indicated that bitterbrush was the most common species occurring in the diets of deer from the B-C Cribs area. Russian thistle (Salsola kali) and goldenrod (Solidago sp.) were the most abundant plants found in the fecal pellets collected from B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond habitats, respectively. The similarity in diets among the habitats was low, ranging from 10% to 16%. Preference indices of forage plants among sites were not similar (7% to 19%). The B-C Cribs, B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond habitats were characterized for canopy cover and frequency of occurrence of plant species. Twelve species were sampled in the B-C Cribs and B Pond areas; 22 species were identified on the Gable Mountain site. The most commonly occurring plant was cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in all three sites. The similarity in frequency and canopy cover of plants was low among sites. Mule deer inhabiting the Hanford site can serve as a pathway for movement of radioactive material from low-level radioactive waste management areas to man. Maximum levels of 137Cs found in deer pellet groups collected from B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond areas were 100 pCi/g and 128 pCi/g, respectively. Background levels were reported at B-C Cribs area. Maximum 90Sr values found in deer pellets at B Pond were 107 pCi/g and 184 pCi/g at Gable Mountain Pond

  20. A comparison of urinary tract pathology and morbidity in adult populations from endemic and non-endemic zones for urinary schistosomiasis on Unguja Island, Zanzibar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamis Simba

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal tract involvement is implicated in both early and late schistosomiasis leading to increased disease burden. Despite there being good estimates of disease burden due to renal tract disease secondary to schistosomiasis at the global level, it is often difficult to translate these estimates into local communities. The aim of this study was to assess the burden of urinary tract pathology and morbidity due to schistosomiasis in Zanzibar and identify reliable clinical predictors of schistosomiasis associated renal disease. Methods A cross-sectional comparison of Ungujan men and women living within either high or low endemic areas for urinary schistosomiasis was conducted. Using urine analysis with reagent strips, parasitological egg counts, portable ultrasonography and a qualitative case-history questionnaire. Data analysis used single and multiple predictor variable logistic regression. Results One hundred and sixty people were examined in the high endemic area (63% women and 37% men, and 101 people in the low endemic area (61% women and 39% men. In the high endemic area, egg-patent schistosomiasis and urinary tract pathology were much more common (p = 1 × 10-3, 8 × 10-6, respectively in comparison with the low endemic area. Self-reported frothy urine, self-reported haematuria, dysuria and urgency to urinate were associated with urinary tract pathology (p = 1.8 × 10-2, p = 1.1 × 10-4, p = 1.3 × 10-6, p = 1.1 × 10-7, respectively as assessed by ultrasonography. In a multi-variable logistic regression model, self-reporting of schistosomiasis in the past year, self-reporting of urgency to urinate and having an egg-positive urine sample were all independently associated with detectable urinary tract abnormality, consistent with schistosomiasis-specific disease. Having two or more of these features was moderately sensitive (70% as a predictor for urinary tract abnormality with high specificity (92%. Conclusion Having two out of urgency to urinate, self reporting of previous infections and detection of eggs in the urine were good proxy predictors of urinary tract abnormality as detected by ultrasound.

  1. Elk and Deer Study, Material Disposal Area G, Technical Area 54: Source document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Ferenbaugh; P. R. Fresquez; M. H. Ebinger; G. J. Gonzales; P. A. Jordan

    1999-09-01

    As nuclear research has become more prevalent, environmental contamination from the disposal of radioactive waste has become a prominent issue. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in northern New Mexico, radioactive contamination from disposal operations has raised some very specific concerns. Material Disposal Area G (Area G) is the primary low-level radioactive waste disposal site at LANL and occupies an area adjacent to land belonging to the Native American community of the Pueblo of San Ildefonso. Analyses of soil and vegetation collected from the perimeter of Area G have shown concentrations of radionuclides greater than background concentrations established for northern New Mexico. As a result, Pueblo residents had become concerned that contaminants from Area G could enter tribal lands through various ecological pathways. The residents specifically questioned the safety of consuming meat from elk and deer that forage near Area G and then migrate onto tribal lands. Consequently, this study addresses the uptake of {sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup tot}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 137}Cs by elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) that forage around the perimeter of Area G and the associated doses to the animals and to humans who consume these animals. Radionuclide uptake by and internal dose to animals was estimated using equations modified from National Council on Radiological Protection Report 76. The Residual Radiation computer code was used to estimate the external dose to animals and the dose to humans consuming meat. Soil and water concentrations from the perimeter of Area G and from background regions in northern New Mexico were averaged over 4 years (1993--1996) and used as input data for the models. Concentration estimates generated by the model correspond to the concentration range measured in actual tissue samples from elk and deer collected at LANL. The highest dose estimates for both animals (0.028 mrad/d) and humans (0.072 mrem/y) were well below guidelines established to protect the environment (100 mrad/d) and the public (100 mrem/y) from radiological health risks.

  2. Elk and Deer Study, Material Disposal Area G, Technical Area 54: Source document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As nuclear research has become more prevalent, environmental contamination from the disposal of radioactive waste has become a prominent issue. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in northern New Mexico, radioactive contamination from disposal operations has raised some very specific concerns. Material Disposal Area G (Area G) is the primary low-level radioactive waste disposal site at LANL and occupies an area adjacent to land belonging to the Native American community of the Pueblo of San Ildefonso. Analyses of soil and vegetation collected from the perimeter of Area G have shown concentrations of radionuclides greater than background concentrations established for northern New Mexico. As a result, Pueblo residents had become concerned that contaminants from Area G could enter tribal lands through various ecological pathways. The residents specifically questioned the safety of consuming meat from elk and deer that forage near Area G and then migrate onto tribal lands. Consequently, this study addresses the uptake of 3H, 90Sr, totU, 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, and 137Cs by elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) that forage around the perimeter of Area G and the associated doses to the animals and to humans who consume these animals. Radionuclide uptake by and internal dose to animals was estimated using equations modified from National Council on Radiological Protection Report 76. The Residual Radiation computer code was used to estimate the external dose to animals and the dose to humans consuming meat. Soil and water concentrations from the perimeter of Area G and from background regions in northern New Mexico were averaged over 4 years (1993--1996) and used as input data for the models. Concentration estimates generated by the model correspond to the concentration range measured in actual tissue samples from elk and deer collected at LANL. The highest dose estimates for both animals (0.028 mrad/d) and humans (0.072 mrem/y) were well below guidelines established to protect the environment (100 mrad/d) and the public (100 mrem/y) from radiological health risks

  3. Survey of Leptospira spp in pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus in the Pantanal wetlands of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil by serology and polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahí Souto Vieira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a survey of Leptospira spp in pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus in the Pantanal wetlands of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Seventy pampas deer were captured in the dry season and surveyed using PCR, microscopic agglutination test (MAT (n = 51 and by both techniques (n = 47. PCR detected infections in two pampas deer and MAT detected infections in three. Through sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, the PCR-amplified fragment detected in deer was identified as Leptospira interrogans. Serovars Pomona and Butembo were detected using MAT and the highest titre was 200 for serovar Pomona. Epidemiological aspects of the findings are discussed.

  4. Survey of Leptospira spp in pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) in the Pantanal wetlands of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil by serology and polymerase chain reaction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anahí Souto, Vieira; Grácia Maria Soares, Rosinha; Carina Elisei de, Oliveira; Silvio Arruda, Vasconcellos; Paulo Andre, Lima-Borges; Walfrido Moraes, Tomás; Guilherme Miranda, Mourão; Ana Cristina Reis, Lacerda; Cleber Oliveira, Soares; Flábio Ribeiro de, Araújo; Ubiratan, Piovezan; Carlos Andre, Zucco; Aiesca Oliveira, Pellegrin.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a survey of Leptospira spp in pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) in the Pantanal wetlands of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seventy pampas deer were captured in the dry season and surveyed using PCR, microscopic agglutinat [...] ion test (MAT) (n = 51) and by both techniques (n = 47). PCR detected infections in two pampas deer and MAT detected infections in three. Through sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, the PCR-amplified fragment detected in deer was identified as Leptospira interrogans. Serovars Pomona and Butembo were detected using MAT and the highest titre was 200 for serovar Pomona. Epidemiological aspects of the findings are discussed.

  5. Population genetic structure of Plasmodium falciparum across a region of diverse endemicity in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobegi Victor A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria parasite population genetic structure varies among areas of differing endemicity, but this has not been systematically studied across Plasmodium falciparum populations in Africa where most infections occur. Methods Ten polymorphic P. falciparum microsatellite loci were genotyped in 268 infections from eight locations in four West African countries (Republic of Guinea, Guinea Bissau, The Gambia and Senegal, spanning a highly endemic forested region in the south to a low endemic Sahelian region in the north. Analysis was performed on proportions of mixed genotype infections, genotypic diversity among isolates, multilocus standardized index of association, and inter-population differentiation. Results Each location had similar levels of pairwise genotypic diversity among isolates, although there were many more mixed parasite genotype infections in the south. Apart from a few isolates that were virtually identical, the multilocus index of association was not significant in any population. Genetic differentiation between populations was low (most pairwise FST values? Conclusions Although proportions of mixed genotype infections varied with endemicity as expected, population genetic structure was similar across the diverse sites. Very substantial reduction in transmission would be needed to cause fragmented or epidemic sub-structure in this region.

  6. Neobisium deltshevi (Neobisiidae, Pseudoscorpiones), a new endemic cave-dwelling pseudoscorpion from East Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    ?ur?i? B.P.M.; Dimitrijevi? R.N.; ?ur?i? Nina B.

    2010-01-01

    A new endemic cave-dwelling pseudoscorpion species from the Sesela?ka Pe?ina Cave, village Seselac, nr. Soko Banja, East Serbia is presented, described and illustrated. Its main morphometric characteristics and important diagnostic features are analyzed and compared to those of its closest congener Neobisium carpaticum (Beier, 1930) from Serbia.

  7. Molecular resemblance of an AIDS-associated lymphoma and endemic Burkitt lymphomas: Implications for their pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a common feature of AIDS. Approximately 30-40% of these tumors exhibit clinical features suggestive of endemic Burkitt lymphoma: they are aggressive malignancies that occur in association with Epstein-Barr virus infection, they arise in the setting of immunosuppression, and they carry t(8;14) translocations without detectable rearrangement of the MYC oncogene. To understand the molecular basis of these parallels, the authors analyzed a case of Epstein-Barr-positive AIDS-associated undifferentiated lymphoma. Southern blots show that the tumor exhibits immunoglobulin joining segment rearrangement but no rearrangement of the MYC oncogene. Cloning of the rearranged joining segment allowed the isolation of recombinant clones encompassing the translocation breakpoint, and sequencing of the translocation junction disclosed that the breakpoint is situated 7 base pairs from the chromosome 14 site involved in a previously described endemic Burkitt lymphoma translocation. Furthermore, the breakpoint is situated far from MYC on chromosome 8, a constant finding in endemic Burkitt lymphomas. That the molecular architecture of the translocation in this case is strikingly similar to previously analyzed translocations from endemic Burkitt lymphomas strongly suggests that common molecular mechanisms must be operative in the pathogenesis of these tumors

  8. Molecular resemblance of an AIDS-associated lymphoma and endemic Burkitt lymphomas: implications for their pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluska, F G; Russo, G; Kant, J; Andreef, M; Croce, C M

    1989-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a common feature of AIDS. Approximately 30-40% of these tumors exhibit clinical features suggestive of endemic Burkitt lymphoma: they are aggressive malignancies that occur in association with Epstein-Barr virus infection, they arise in the setting of immunosuppression, and they carry t(8;14) translocations without detectable rearrangement of the MYC oncogene. To understand the molecular basis of these parallels, we analyzed a case of Epstein-Barr-positive AIDS-associated undifferentiated lymphoma. Southern blots show that the tumor exhibits immunoglobulin joining segment rearrangement but no rearrangement of the MYC oncogene. Cloning of the rearranged joining segment allowed the isolation of recombinant clones encompassing the translocation breakpoint, and sequencing of the translocation junction disclosed that the breakpoint is situated 7 base pairs from the chromosome 14 site involved in a previously described endemic Burkitt lymphoma translocation. Furthermore, the breakpoint is situated far from MYC on chromosome 8, a constant finding in endemic Burkitt lymphomas. That the molecular architecture of the translocation in this case is strikingly similar to previously analyzed translocations from endemic Burkitt lymphomas strongly suggests that common molecular mechanisms must be operative in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Images PMID:2682665

  9. Molecular resemblance of an AIDS-associated lymphoma and endemic Burkitt lymphomas: Implications for their pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haluska, F.G.; Russo, G.; Croce, C.M. (Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, Philadelphia, PA (USA)); Kant, J. (Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (USA)); Andreef, M. (Memorial Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, NY (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a common feature of AIDS. Approximately 30-40% of these tumors exhibit clinical features suggestive of endemic Burkitt lymphoma: they are aggressive malignancies that occur in association with Epstein-Barr virus infection, they arise in the setting of immunosuppression, and they carry t(8;14) translocations without detectable rearrangement of the MYC oncogene. To understand the molecular basis of these parallels, the authors analyzed a case of Epstein-Barr-positive AIDS-associated undifferentiated lymphoma. Southern blots show that the tumor exhibits immunoglobulin joining segment rearrangement but no rearrangement of the MYC oncogene. Cloning of the rearranged joining segment allowed the isolation of recombinant clones encompassing the translocation breakpoint, and sequencing of the translocation junction disclosed that the breakpoint is situated 7 base pairs from the chromosome 14 site involved in a previously described endemic Burkitt lymphoma translocation. Furthermore, the breakpoint is situated far from MYC on chromosome 8, a constant finding in endemic Burkitt lymphomas. That the molecular architecture of the translocation in this case is strikingly similar to previously analyzed translocations from endemic Burkitt lymphomas strongly suggests that common molecular mechanisms must be operative in the pathogenesis of these tumors.

  10. Societal Responses to Endemic Terror: Evidence from Driving Behavior in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklov, Guy; Goldstein, Joshua R.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, using data on traffic volume and fatal accident rates in Israel from 2001 to 2004--a period spanning much of the Second Intifada--we examine the population-level responses to endemic terror to uncover whether societies become habituated so that the response weakens following repeated attacks or whether they become increasingly…

  11. Enigmatic Ethiopian endemic rodent Muriculus imberbis (Rüppell 1842) represents a separate lineage within genus Mus.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meheretu, Yonas; Šumbera, R.; Bryja, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 79, ?. 1 (2015), s. 15-23. ISSN 0025-1461 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP506/10/0983; GA ?R GCP502/11/J070 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Afroalpine * endemic * Ethiopia * Nannomys * phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.824, year: 2013

  12. Epidemic and endemic Kaposi's sarcoma: A comparison of outcomes and survival after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary: We retrospectively studied the outcomes of 80 Epidemic and African-Endemic Kaposi's Sarcoma (EKS and AKS) patients treated with radiotherapy doses of 8.0 Gy. The objective response for EKS at one month was 74 and 58% for AKS while 5-year survival for EKS was 27 and 46% for AKS

  13. Antibacterial Activities of Extracts from Some Turkish Endemic Plants on Common Fish Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Tu?rker, Hakan; Yildirim, Arzu Bi?ri?nci?

    2009-01-01

    Antibacterial activities of 24 alcoholic and aqueous extracts from 8 endemic Turkish plants (Crocus abantensis, Crocus ancyrensis, Galanthus plicatus subsp. byzantinus, Paronychia chionaea, Astragalus gymnolobus, Trifolium pannonicum subsp.elongatum, Eryngium bithynicum, and Convolvulus galaticus) of 7 different families were screened. Antibacterial activity was carried out with 5 different fish pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia ruckeri, Streptococcus agalactia, Lactococcus garvieae, ...

  14. Rift Valley fever virus-infected mosquito ova and associated pathology: possible implications for endemic maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Endemic/enzootic maintenance mechanisms like vertical transmission, pathogen passage from infected adults to their offspring, are central in the epidemiology of zoonotic pathogens. In Kenya, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) may be maintained by vertical transmission in ground-pool mosquit...

  15. A Possible Role for Rusa Deer (Cervus timorensis russa and Wild Pigs in Spread of Trypanosoma evansi from Indonesia to Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Reid

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Movement of transmigrants and livestock from western Indonesia to southeastern areas of Irian Jaya near the border with Papua New Guinea may pose a risk of introducing Trypanosoma evansi into Papua New Guinea via feral Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa and wild pigs which inhabit these areas in large numbers. Pilot experimental studies were conducted to observe infection in pigs and Rusa deer with a strain of T. evansi isolated in Indonesia. Parasitaemia and signs of clinical disease were monitored each second day for 120 days. Trypanosomes were observed in haematocrit tubes at the plasma-buffy coat interface of jugular blood of deer and pigs on 86% and 37% of sampling occasions respectively. Parasitaemia was at a high level in deer for 35% of the time but for only 11.5% of the time in pigs. Results indicate that both Rusa deer and pigs have a high tolerance for infection with T. evansi. The deer suffered mild anaemia evidenced by a 25% reduction in packed cell volume (PCV 14 days after infection which coincided with the initial peak in parasitaemia. However, PCV had returned to pre infection values by the end of the experiment. The pigs showed no change in PCV. There were no visual indications of disease in either species and appetite was not noticeably affected. It was concluded that both Rusa deer and pigs were capable reservoir hosts for T. evansi but that Rusa deer, with their more persistent higher levels of parasitaemia, have more potential to spread T. evansi into Papua New Guinea from West Irian than pigs.

  16. Summer Watering Patterns of Mule Deer in the Great Basin Desert, USA: Implications of Differential Use by Individuals and the Sexes for Management of Water Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Andrew V.; Larsen, Randy T.; Whiting, Jericho C.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the abundance and distribution of free water can negatively influence wildlife in arid regions. Free water is considered a limiting factor for mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in the Great Basin Desert. Consequently, a better understanding of differential use of water by individuals and the sexes could influence the conservation and management of mule deer and water resources in their habitats. We deployed remote cameras at all known water sources (13 wildlife water developments and...

  17. What has made deer farming in New Zealand so successful? The importance of venison quality, understanding the industry, the market and the biology of the animals

    OpenAIRE

    Pearse, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    In summarising these aspects of success within the NZ deer industry we can note: (1) NZ traditional farming skills of pasture based production have been readily adapted to deer farming. (2) The industry has grown with strength through the diversity of its participants, leading farmers, innovative researchers, business investors and leaders and the NZDFA and its membership. All are united in their determination that market signals, rather than farm production demands should shape the developme...

  18. Dehydrogenase-dependent ethanol metabolism in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) lacking cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase. Reversibility and isotope effects in vivo and in subcellular fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsten, C; Cronholm, T; Ekström, G; Handler, J A; Thurman, R G; Ingelman-Sundberg, M

    1989-04-01

    Elimination of [2H]ethanol in vivo as studied by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry occurred at about half the rate in deer mice reported to lack alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-) compared with ADH+ deer mice and exhibited kinetic isotope effects on Vmax and Km (D(V/K] of 2.2 +/- 0.1 and 3.2 +/- 0.8 in the two strains, respectively. To an equal extent in both strains, ethanol elimination was accompanied by an ethanol-acetaldehyde exchange with an intermolecular transfer of hydrogen atoms, indicating the occurrence of dehydrogenase activity. This exchange was also observed in perfused deer mouse livers. Based on calculations it was estimated that at least 50% of ethanol elimination in ADH- deer mice was caused by the action of dehydrogenase systems. NADPH-supported cytochrome P-450-dependent ethanol oxidation in liver microsomes from ADH+ and ADH- deer mice was not stereoselective and occurred with a D(V/K) of 3.6. The D(V/K) value of catalase-dependent oxidation was 1.8, whereas a kinetic isotope effect of cytosolic ADH in the ADH+ strain was 3.2. Mitochondria from both ADH+ and ADH- deer mice catalyzed NAD+-dependent ethanol oxidation and NADH-dependent acetaldehyde reduction. The kinetic isotope effects of NAD+-dependent ethanol oxidation in the mitochondrial fraction from ADH+ and ADH- deer mice were 2.0 +/- 0.1 and 2.3 +/- 0.3, respectively. The results indicate only a minor contribution by cytochrome P-450 to ethanol elimination, whereas the isotope effects are consistent with ethanol oxidation by the catalase-H2O2 system in ADH- deer mice in addition to the dehydrogenase systems. PMID:2925622

  19. A Possible Role for Rusa Deer (Cervus timorensis russa) and Wild Pigs in Spread of Trypanosoma evansi from Indonesia to Papua New Guinea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SA, Reid; A, Husein; GW, Hutchinson; DB, Copeman.

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Movement of transmigrants and livestock from western Indonesia to southeastern areas of Irian Jaya near the border with Papua New Guinea may pose a risk of introducing Trypanosoma evansi into Papua New Guinea via feral Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) and wild pigs which inhabit these areas in la [...] rge numbers. Pilot experimental studies were conducted to observe infection in pigs and Rusa deer with a strain of T. evansi isolated in Indonesia. Parasitaemia and signs of clinical disease were monitored each second day for 120 days. Trypanosomes were observed in haematocrit tubes at the plasma-buffy coat interface of jugular blood of deer and pigs on 86% and 37% of sampling occasions respectively. Parasitaemia was at a high level in deer for 35% of the time but for only 11.5% of the time in pigs. Results indicate that both Rusa deer and pigs have a high tolerance for infection with T. evansi. The deer suffered mild anaemia evidenced by a 25% reduction in packed cell volume (PCV) 14 days after infection which coincided with the initial peak in parasitaemia. However, PCV had returned to pre infection values by the end of the experiment. The pigs showed no change in PCV. There were no visual indications of disease in either species and appetite was not noticeably affected. It was concluded that both Rusa deer and pigs were capable reservoir hosts for T. evansi but that Rusa deer, with their more persistent higher levels of parasitaemia, have more potential to spread T. evansi into Papua New Guinea from West Irian than pigs.

  20. PCR Detection and Serological Evidence of Granulocytic Ehrlichial Infection in Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) and Chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra)

    OpenAIRE

    Liz, Jorge S.; Sumner, John W.; Pfister, Kurt; Brossard, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The role of wild mammals, such as roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), in the epidemiology of granulocytic ehrlichiae in Switzerland was investigated. We tested blood samples for Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup 16S rRNA gene sequences by PCR and for immunoglobulin G antibodies against granulocytic ehrlichiae by indirect fluorescent-antibody assay (IFA). Overall means of 60.9% of 133 roe deer serum samples and 28.2% of 39 chamois serum samples were seroreactive ...

  1. Detection of four species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Rijpkema, S. G.; Herbes, R. G.; Verbeek-de Kruif, N.; Schellekens, J. F.

    1996-01-01

    Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) were investigated for their value as sentinel animals for Lyme borreliosis in the Netherlands. Serum was obtained from 114 roe deer, and 513 Ixodes ricinus, predominantly females (72%), were obtained from 47 animals (41%). The polymerase chain reaction was used to detect DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in a total of 190 ticks, comprising 106 engorged ticks and 84 non-engorged ticks. Borrelia DNA was detected in 24 engorged ticks (23%) and 26 non-engorged ...

  2. Spring hunting of European roe deer in Vojvodina: Age structure and trophy value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga?i? Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Trophies of the European roe deer are the main source of income in Vojvodina hunting grounds managed by hunting associations. The specificity of site conditions (agro-biotope aggravates the hunting, especially regarding the assessment of the age and trophy value, so the best males are hunted before they reach the culmination of trophy development. The aim of this study is to define reliably the age of males in spring hunting and to analyze their trophy structure. The study results show that, in the majority of the study hunting grounds, spring (May hunting was performed correctly and professionally, and the age structure and trophy value of the males were very favorable. The males that are considered as mature for shooting account for one half of the total spring hunting, while their percentage is even higher in the so-called "trophy hunting" (60.7%, which results in a high percentage of trophies in medals (21.5%.

  3. A case study: Residue reduction at Deer Park Refining Limited Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With input from Shell Synthetic Fuels Inc. (SSFI), Deer Park Refining Limited Partnership (DPRLP) analyzed options for managing the bottom of the barrel to extinction, with an objective of high return on investment. DPRLP is a joint venture of PEMEX and Shell Oil Company. This Gulf Coast refiner processes 227M BBL/D of heavy, high sulfur crude. This paper discusses the process options considered, their advantages and disadvantages, and the option selected as well as the options still open. Recent modernization projects at DPRLP are now on stream with high yield of clean products.There remains one by-product, petroleum coke, which presents opportunity as a low cost feed for one or more process options yielding attractive products. The Shell Coke (or Coal) Gasification Process is one of the options now being considered

  4. A white-tailed deer/lone star tick model for studying transmission of Ehrlichia chaffeensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Deborah C; Bowen, C Jerry; Wasala, Nalinda B

    2013-03-01

    Animal models for Ehrlichia chaffeensis have been unsuccessful in recapitulating the natural disease cycle. We have developed an animal model for tick feeding and transmission using white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus), the intracellular bacterium (Ehrlichia chaffeensis), and the lone star tick vector (Amblyomma americanum). Here, we report the acquisition and transmission of E. chaffeensis infections by refeeding male ticks in this experimental model. This finding is important because techniques for gene silencing are most successful for unfed adult ticks. Males are able to refeed several days after acquiring a tick-borne pathogen. Using refeeding male lone star ticks and RNA interference technology, we plan to decipher underlying molecular mechanisms involved in transmitting E. chaffeensis to a host via a lone star tick bite. PMID:23421885

  5. Germ cell differentiation in cryopreserved, immature, Indian spotted mouse deer (Moschiola indica) testes xenografted onto mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothana, Lavanya; Makala, Himesh; Devi, Lalitha; Varma, Vivek Phani; Goel, Sandeep

    2015-03-01

    Death of immature animals is one of the reasons for the loss of genetic diversity of rare and endangered species. Because sperm cannot be collected from immature males, cryobanking of testicular tissue combined with testis xenografting is a potential option for conservation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the establishment of spermatogenesis in cryopreserved immature testicular tissues from Indian spotted mouse deer (Moschiola indica) after ectopic xenografting onto immunodeficient nude mice. Results showed that testis tissues that were frozen in cryomedia containing either 10% DMSO with 80% fetal bovine serum (D10S80) or 20% DMSO with 20% fetal bovine serum (D20S20) had significantly more (P animals onto mice resulted in the establishment of spermatogenesis with initiation of meiosis. These findings are encouraging for cryobanking of testicular tissues from immature endangered animals to conserve their germplasm. PMID:25467768

  6. Quality traits of fallow deer (Dama dama dry-cured hams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Piasentier

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Meat processing by drying, after salting or fermentation and before a long ripening period, is an ancient and widespread process, used to preserve meat from spoilage. Among the wide variety of dry meat products made in Europe, the most famous ones are made from pork (Italian and Spanish dry-cured hams, fermented sausages, but other interesting products are obtained from meat of different species: i.e., the “bresaola”, from bovine, horse, goat, etc. (Paleari et al., 2002. Deer meat and meat products are interesting in this picture, since they include the high degree of consumers’ appreciation for dried products and considering the growing interest for food obtained by natural husbandry and technology...

  7. Contribution to investigation of klinical picture and renal function in patients with endemic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukvi? Danica ?.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, detailed investigation of tubular function in patients with endemic nephropathy have been performed in the relatively small number of patients who have already been in chronic renal failure /3,4,5,9,15/. That is why we started this work with the aim to determine renal function of the patients suffering by endemic nephropathy in different stages of the disease, especially in the early stage of the disease. The study included 119 patients with endemic nephropathy who were grouped according to creatinine clearance values into four groups (Table 1. The first group covered the patients with normal crearinine clearance values, and other three covered the patients who were in the different stages of renal failure. The diagnosis of endemic nephropathy was established according to criteria given by Danilovic /7/ and Velimirovic /8/ after ruling out the known renal diseases. The results of clinical and laboratory examinations were processed by appropriate epidemiological and statistical techniques. The results proved that there was no significant difference between sexes of our patients (p>0,05. Objective examination reveals characteristic tan pale yellow with copperish glow on the cheeks, in 15,48% of our patients in the early stage of the disease, which is in accordance with the results of Velimirovic/8/. Among nephropathy patients 13% of them had kidney smaller than normal measured by sonography, and even 51% measured by static scintigraphy, in the early phase of the disease (Table 4, Table 5. The earlier works /11,12/ mainly supported that kidneys get smaller during renal insufficiency, and in the early phase of the disease kidneys have a normal size, whereas the later works indicated that even the patients with normal glomerular filtration have smaller kidneys/13,14,15,16/. The laboratory findings and urine analysis of this disease suggested absens of biochemical indicators of inflammation in endemic nephropathy patients (Table 2, Table 3, which is in accordance with the previous in investigations. We noticed correlation between ceatinine clearance values and values of serum beta 2 microglobulin (r==,56; p==,0002; Figure 1. It has been documented that with decreased of creatinine clearance values serum values of beta 2 microglobulin increased, in chronic renal failure /22/. Quantitative measuring of proteinuria shows values less than 1,0g/l in all examined patients. Proteinuria of tubular type has been described in endemic nephropathy/5,8,13,16/. Beta 2 microglobulinuria have been registered at 10,97% patients with normal creatinine clearance values (Table 7. Increased urinry contrecation of beta 2 microglobulin is generally accepted as an important feature of endemic nephropathy /19,20,21/. Glicosuria increased with the progression of the disease. Urine osmolallity of endemic nephropathy patients decreased with the progression of chronic renal failure (Table 6. 65,46% of the investigated patients of the first group, who were in the clinically early phase of the disease, had decreased urine osmolallity (measuring by coefficient of osmolallity U osm/Posm. The tubular reabsorbtion of the phosphate decreased with the progression of chronic renal failure and that correlation was statistically significant r<0,69; p<0,05; Figure 2. Fractional tubular excretion of sodium increased with the progression of endemic nephropathy (Table7. The obteined results of the function of proximal tubul are comparabile with the results of the other authors, but in the smaller number of patients /4,13,15,16/. Our results of functional investigations of kidney et patients with endemic nephropathy suggests primary tubular dysfunction, and reduced kidney size and that was registered in the early phase of the disease.

  8. Bed site selection by neonate deer in grassland habitats on the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Bed site selection is an important behavioral trait influencing neonate survival. Vegetation characteristics of bed sites influence thermal protection of neonates and concealment from predators. Although previous studies describe bed site selection of neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in regions of forested cover, none determined microhabitat effects on neonate bed site selection in the Northern Great Plains, an area of limited forest cover. During summers 2007–2009, we investigated bed site selection (n ?=? 152) by 81 radiocollared neonate white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota, USA. We documented 80 (52.6%) bed sites in tallgrass–Conservation Reserve Program lands, 35 (23.0%) bed sites in forested cover, and 37 (24.3%) in other habitats (e.g., pasture, alfalfa, wheat). Bed site selection varied with age and sex of neonate. Tree canopy cover (P < 0.001) and tree basal area (P < 0.001) decreased with age of neonates, with no bed sites observed in forested cover after 18 days of age. Male neonates selected sites with less grass cover (P < 0.001), vertical height of understory vegetation (P < 0.001), and density of understory vegetation (P < 0.001) but greater bare ground (P ?=? 0.047), litter (P ?=? 0.028), and wheat (P ?=? 0.044) than did females. Odds of bed site selection increased 3.5% (odds ratio ?=? 1.035, 95% CI ?=? 1.008–1.062) for every 1-cm increase in vertical height of understory vegetation. Management for habitat throughout the grasslands of South Dakota that maximizes vertical height of understory vegetation would enhance cover characteristics selected by neonates.

  9. Interaction effects between weather and space use on harvesting effort and patterns in red deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivrud, Inger M; Meisingset, Erling L; Loe, Leif E; Mysterud, Atle

    2014-12-01

    Most cervid populations in Europe and North America are managed through selective harvesting, often with age- and sex-specific quotas, with a large influence on the population growth rate. Less well understood is how prevailing weather affects harvesting selectivity and off-take indirectly through changes in individual animal and hunter behavior. The behavior and movement patterns of hunters and their prey are expected to be influenced by weather conditions. Furthermore, habitat characteristics like habitat openness are also known to affect movement patterns and harvesting vulnerability, but how much such processes affect harvest composition has not been quantified. We use harvest data from red deer (Cervus elaphus) to investigate how weather and habitat characteristics affect behavioral decisions of red deer and their hunters throughout the hunting season. More specifically, we look at how sex and age class, temperature, precipitation, moon phase, and day of week affect the probability of being harvested on farmland (open habitat), hunter effort, and the overall harvest numbers. Moon phase and day of week were the strongest predictors of hunter effort and harvest numbers, with higher effort during full moon and weekends, and higher numbers during full moon. In general, the effect of fall weather conditions and habitat characteristics on harvest effort and numbers varied through the season. Yearlings showed the highest variation in the probability of being harvested on farmland through the season, but there was no effect of sex. Our study is among the first to highlight that weather may affect harvesting patterns and off-take indirectly through animal and hunter behavior, but the interaction effects of weather and space use on hunter behavior are complicated, and seem less important than hunter preference and quotas in determining hunter selection and harvest off-take. The consideration of hunter behavior is therefore key when forming management rules for sustainable harvesting. PMID:25558369

  10. A project of environmental improvement for Red deer on the Tuscan-Emilian Apennines, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoloso S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Red deer (Cervus elaphus L. population living on the Tuscan-Emilian Apennines had in 2006 an estimated minimum size of approximately 2275 individuals, which occur in two Regions (Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna and four Provinces (Pistoia, Prato, Florence and Bologna. Since 2000 the population has been target of selective hunting, also in order to respond to the increasing request for concrete solutions against species impact on human activities. In this note we describe a pilot experience of projecting environmental improvement actions - such as restoration and preservation of open areas - purposely intended for Red deer. Surveys concentrated on the mountainous area of Pistoia and Sambuca Pistoiese Communes and in the territories belonging to Tuscany Regional Public Property within the competence of the Pistoiese Apennines Mountain Community or within general public competence. Here, the once pastured zones are affected by the invasion and progressive colonization of arbustive and herbaceous vegetation. Areas which are currently covered by shrubs and/or other pioneer vegetation forms have been located by means of GPS technology. For each area a descriptive paper has been realized, whose aim is including the main information recollected during field surveys jointly with data inferred from the Plan for the Forest Resource Assessment in force. 16 areas we considered fitting this project’s goals have been located, for a total extent of 21 ha: on this surface extensive vegetation cutting by mowing and mulching using mechanical machinery will be carried out in the summer 2007. Where soil position allows, superficial tillage activities with subsequent sowing of autochthonous herbaceous species are planned. In the end we evaluated intervention and correct application terms of Tuscany Forest Law no. 39/00 and Tuscany Forest Regulations (D.P.G.R. no. 48/R/03.

  11. Deer bone extract prevents against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chun Nan; Min, A Young; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Shin, Suk Kyung; Yu, Ha Ni; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Chang-Won; Jung, Sung Ug; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2015-02-01

    Deer bone has been used as a health-enhancing food as well as an antiaging agent in traditional Oriental medicine. Recently, the water extract of deer bone (DBE) showed a neuroprotective action against glutamate or A?1-42-induced cell death of mouse hippocampal cells by exerting antioxidant activity through the suppression of MAP kinases. The present study is to examine whether DBE improves memory impairment induced by scopolamine. DBE (50, 100 or 200?mg/kg) was administered orally to mice for 14 days, and then scopolamine (2?mg/kg, i.p.) was administered together with DBE for another 7 days. Memory performance was evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM) test and passive avoidance test. Also, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, biomarkers of oxidative stress and the loss of neuronal cells in the hippocampus, was evaluated by histological examinations. Administration of DBE significantly restored memory impairments induced by scopolamine in the MWM test (escape latency and number of crossing platform area), and in the passive avoidance test. Treatment with DBE inhibited the AChE activity and increased the ChAT activity in the brain of memory-impaired mice induced by scopolamine. Additionally, the administration of DBE significantly prevented the increase of lipid peroxidation and the decrease of glutathione level in the brain of mice treated with scopolamine. Also, the DBE treatment restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase to control the level. Furthermore, scopolamine-induced oxidative damage of neurons in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions were prevented by DBE treatment. It is suggested that DBE may be useful for memory improvement through the regulation of cholinergic marker enzyme activities and the suppression of oxidative damage of neurons in the brain of mice treated with scopolamine. PMID:25546299

  12. Modeling routes of chronic wasting disease transmission: Environmental prion persistence promotes deer population decline and extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almberg, Emily S.; Cross, Paul C.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Richards, Bryan J.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of deer, elk, and moose transmitted through direct, animal-to-animal contact, and indirectly, via environmental contamination. Considerable attention has been paid to modeling direct transmission, but despite the fact that CWD prions can remain infectious in the environment for years, relatively little information exists about the potential effects of indirect transmission on CWD dynamics. In the present study, we use simulation models to demonstrate how indirect transmission and the duration of environmental prion persistence may affect epidemics of CWD and populations of North American deer. Existing data from Colorado, Wyoming, and Wisconsin's CWD epidemics were used to define plausible short-term outcomes and associated parameter spaces. Resulting long-term outcomes range from relatively low disease prevalence and limited host-population decline to host-population collapse and extinction. Our models suggest that disease prevalence and the severity of population decline is driven by the duration that prions remain infectious in the environment. Despite relatively low epidemic growth rates, the basic reproductive number, R0, may be much larger than expected under the direct-transmission paradigm because the infectious period can vastly exceed the host's life span. High prion persistence is expected to lead to an increasing environmental pool of prions during the early phases (i.e. approximately during the first 50 years) of the epidemic. As a consequence, over this period of time, disease dynamics will become more heavily influenced by indirect transmission, which may explain some of the observed regional differences in age and sex-specific disease patterns. This suggests management interventions, such as culling or vaccination, will become increasingly less effective as CWD epidemics progress.

  13. The Effects of Population Density on Juvenile Growth Rate in White-Tailed Deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Brannon; Wolverton, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Animal body size is driven by habitat quality, food availability, and nutrition. Adult size can relate to birth weight, to length of the ontogenetic growth period, and/or to the rate of growth. Data requirements are high for studying these growth mechanisms, but large datasets exist for some game species. In North America, large harvest datasets exist for white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus), but such data are collected under a variety of conditions and are generally dismissed for ecological research beyond local population and habitat management. We contend that such data are useful for studying the ecology of white-tailed deer growth and body size when analyzed at ordinal scale. In this paper, we test the response of growth rate to food availability by fitting a logarithmic equation that estimates growth rate only to harvest data from Fort Hood, Texas, and track changes in growth rate over time. Results of this ordinal scale model are compared to previously published models that include additional parameters, such as birth weight and adult weight. It is shown that body size responds to food availability by variation in growth rate. Models that estimate multiple parameters may not work with harvest data because they are prone to error, which renders estimates from complex models too variable to detect interannual changes in growth rate that this ordinal scale model captures. This model can be applied to harvest data, from which inferences about factors that influence animal growth and body size (e.g., habitat quality and nutritional availability) can be drawn.

  14. First Record of Setaria Tundra in Danish Roe Deer (Capreolus Capreolus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Harslund, Jakob le Fèvre

    2011-01-01

    No previous finds of the mosquito-borne filarioid nematode Setaria tundra have been reported from Denmark, although it was described decades ago in Swedish and Norwegian reindeer as well as in roe deer from Germany, Bulgaria and more recently also from Italy and Finland. Setaria spp. are usually considered harmless inhabitants of the abdominal cavity of ungulates causing only focal areas of mild chronic peritonitis. However, in recent years S. tundra has been associated with an emerging epidemic disease resulting in severe morbidity and mortality for both reindeer and moose in Finland. The Danish find of S. tundra was from a fawn shot in October 2010 near Randers, in the eastern part of Jutland. At slaughter several (>20) approximately 5 cm long, slender, white worms were observed in the peritoneal cavity. Morphology of the worms, revealed by light microscopy, correlated to that of S. tundra described by Rejewsky (1929) and Nikander et al. (2007). Sequences of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and cox1 genes, 454 and 595 base pairs respectively, were 99.5-99.7% identical to previously published S. tundra isolates from France and Italy. Roe deer are thought to be asymptomatic carriers of S. tundra, and may be connected to the spreading of this parasite. In reindeer heavy worm burdens of S. tundra have been found to cause severe peritonitis and negatively affect body condition score. Thus in the light of the possible climatic changes which could result in warmer, more humid weather in Scandinavia and thereby larger numbers of mosquitoes, it is important to monitor this vector-borne parasite. This will not only increase the understanding of factors promoting its expansion but also help to predict disease outbreaks.

  15. Copper deficiency and effects of copper supplementation in a herd of red deer (Cervus elaphus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhoft Aksel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Copper (Cu deficiency was diagnosed in a Norwegian red deer (Cervus elaphus herd subsequent to deaths due to emaciation in late autumn 1999. The animals had free access to salt licks containing 3000 mg Cu/kg. An evaluation of the herd revealed poor calf growth rate, low weights of adult hinds, dull and light-coloured hair coats and cases of diarrhoea. The herd was subsequently monitored throughout a three-year period of Cu-supplementation. The monitoring regimen included clinical observation, copper serum examination, weighing, faecal parasitological examination, and reproduction control by ultrasound. During the period January 2000 to May 2001, the animals were treated with Cu oxid capsules (1 g CuO/10 kg liveweight at 2–4 months intervals, with the exception of March to September 2000. The animals were fed continuously with Cu-enriched concentrates containing 300 mg Cu/kg, at a rate of 1/2 kg per head and day, from May 2001 to January 2003. Following both copper supplementation regimens adequate serum Cu concentrations were measured, and markedly improved body weights, coat quality and reproductive results were observed, except for the period from March to September 2000 when no treatment was given. The results showed that in a deer herd, with a diet low in Cu, supplementation with CuO capsules had to be given at intervals of a few months to maintain adequate serum Cu levels. Free access to Cu-containing salt licks did not meet the animals' Cu demand. Good and stable results were achieved by the daily feeding of Cu-enriched concentrates.

  16. Diversity and distribution of white-tailed deer mtdna lineages in chronic wasting disease (cwd) outbreak areas in southern wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, K.G.; Robinson, S.J.; Samuel, M.D.; Grear, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the CWD management zone of southern Wisconsin. A 576-base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA of 359 white-tailed deer from 12 sample populations was analyzed. Fifty-eight variable sites were detected within the sequence, defining 43 haplotypes. While most sample populations displayed similar levels of haplotype diversity, individual haplotypes were clustered on the landscape. Spatial clusters of different haplotypes were apparent in distinct ecoregions surrounding CWD outbreak areas. The spatial distribution of mtDNA haplotypes suggests that clustering of the deer matrilineal groups and population connectivity are associated with broad-scale geographic landscape features. These landscape characteristics may also influence the contact rates between groups and therefore the potential spread of CWD; this may be especially true of local disease spread between female social groups. Our results suggest that optimal CWD management needs to be tailored to fit gender-specific dispersal behaviors and regional differences in deer population connectivity. This information will help wildlife managers design surveillance and monitoring efforts based on population interactions and potential deer movement among CWD-affected and unaffected areas. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  17. Cache Valley and Potosi viruses (Bunyaviridae) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): experimental infections and antibody prevalence in natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, C G; Grimstad, P R

    1998-11-01

    Cache Valley virus (CVV) and Potosi virus (POTV) are two closely related mosquito-borne viruses (Bunyaviridae: Bunyamwera group) that appear to circulate in several regions of the United States, especially the Midwest. We determined the prevalence of specific neutralizing antibodies to both viruses in Indiana white-tailed deer and conducted infection experiments to assess whether deer could serve as an vertebrate-amplifying host. Cross-infection experiments also were carried out to investigate the level of antibody cross-reactivity and cross-protection between the two viruses. The seroprevalence rate was high for both CVV (> 66%) and POTV (> 43%) in adult deer statewide. Antibodies neutralizing CVV were more common among deer harvested in the northern part of Indiana whereas the prevalence of POTV antibodies suggested a more southern distribution for this virus. Experimental infections of captive deer showed that they may serve as amplifying hosts for either virus. Deer infected with CVV or POTV developed a 1-3-day viremia with 3.0 and 4.1 log10 plaque-forming units/ml mean peak titers, respectively. However, significant levels of antibody cross-reactivity between the two viruses were observed. Viremia was lower and shorter when animals immune to either CVV or POTV were cross-infected with the alternate virus and antibody responses following cross-infections resembled original antigenic sin with higher titers of antibodies against the primary agent. PMID:9840585

  18. Winter browse selection by white-tailed deer and implications for bottomland forest restoration in the Upper Mississippi River Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogger, Benjamin J.; De Jager, Nathan R.; Thomsen, Meredith; Adams, Carrie Reinhardt

    2014-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) forage selectively, modifying upland forest species composition and in some cases shifting ecosystems to alternative stable states. Few studies, however, have investigated plant selection by deer in bottomland forests. Herbaceous invasive species are common in wetlands and their expansion could be promoted if deer avoid them and preferentially feed on native woody species. We surveyed plant species composition and winter deer browsing in 14 floodplain forest restoration sites along the Upper Mississippi River and tributaries. Tree seedling density declined rapidly with increasing cover of invasive Phalaris arundinacea, averaging less than 1 per m2 in all sites in which the grass was present. Deer browsed ?46% of available tree seedling stems (branches) at mainland restorations, compared to ?3% at island sites. Across all tree species, the number of browsed stems increased linearly with the number available and responded unimodally to tree height. Maximum browsing rates were observed on trees with high stem abundances (>10 per plant) and of heights between 50 and 150 cm. Deer preferred Ulmus americana and Acer saccharinum, and avoided Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Acer negundo, and Quercus spp. at mainland sites, and did not browse Phalaris arundinacea if present. Depending on plant growth responses to herbivory and the competitive effects of unbrowsed species, our results suggest that selective foraging could promote the expansion of invasive species and/or alter tree species composition in bottomland forest restorations. Islands may, however, serve as refuges from browsing on a regional scale.

  19. Metals in obex and retropharyngeal lymph nodes of Illinois white-tailed deer and their variations associated with CWD status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Nelda A; Novakofski, Jan; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Kelly, Amy; Satterthwaite-Phillips, Damian; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra

    2015-01-01

    Prion proteins (PrP(C)) are cell membrane glycoproteins that can be found in many cell types, but specially in neurons. Many studies have suggested PrP(C)'s participation in metal transport and cellular protection against stress in the central nervous system (CNS). On the other hand PrP(Sc), the misfolded isoform of PrP(C) and the pathogenic agent in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), has been associated with brain metal dyshomeostasis in prion diseases. Thus, changes in metal concentration associated with protein misfolding and aggregation have been reported for human and animal prion diseases, as well as for other neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. The use of metal concentrations in tissues as surrogate markers for early detection of TSEs has been suggested. Studies on the accumulation of metals in free-ranging white-tailed deer have not been conducted. This study established concentrations of copper, iron, manganese, and magnesium in 2 diagnostic tissues used for CWD testing (obex and retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN)). We compared these concentrations between tissues and in relation to CWD status. We established reference intervals (RIs) for these metals and explored their ability to discriminate between CWD-positive and CWD-negative animals. Our results indicate that independent of CWD status, white-tailed deer accumulate higher concentrations of Fe, Mn and Mg in RLN than in obex. White-tailed deer infected with CWD accumulated significantly lower concentrations of Mn and Fe than CWD-negative deer. These patterns differed from other species infected with prion diseases. Overlapping values between CWD positive and negative groups indicate that evaluation of these metals in obex and RLN may not be appropriate as a diagnostic tool for CWD infection in white-tailed deer. Because the CWD-negative deer were included in constructing the RIs, high specificities were expected and should be interpreted with caution. Due to the low sensitivity derived from the RIs, we do not recommend using metal concentrations for disease discrimination. PMID:25695915

  20. An Attempt at Hybridization of Farmed Axis (Axis Axis and Fallow Deer (Dama Dama by Intrauterine Laparoscopic Artificial Insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W. Lewis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine whether axis (Axis axis and fallow deer (Dama dama could be hybridized using artificial insemination (AI. The feasibility of hybridization between these two deer species has implications for free-ranging (mixed populations of deer species and intensive deer farming production systems. An intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (CIDR was inserted into axis (n=16 and fallow (n=38 does for 14 d to synchronize estrus. Following CIDR removal, axis does were artificially inseminated laparoscopically with fallow buck semen and fallow does with axis buck semen. Blood samples were collected on d 21, 28, 35 and 42 post-AI for determination of serum concentrations of progesterone (P and serum 4 pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB measured on d 28 and 35 post-AI. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed on d 42 post-AI for pregnancy detection. On d 14 (axis does or 17 (fallow does post-AI, axis bucks and fallow bucks, respectively, were placed with same-species does for 60 d and subsequent pregnancy and fawning data recorded. Ultrasonography revealed that none of the axis or fallow does conceived to the inter-species AI. Serum concentrations of P were not elevated 21 d post-AI and serum PSPB was undetectable 4 at d 28 and 35 post-AI for all does. Axis and fallow does maintained with same species axis and fallow clean up sires post-AI resulted in pregnancy rates of 93.8 and 89.5%, respectively and fawning rates of 72.7 and 87.5%, respectively. Using laparoscopic AI procedures, hybridization of axis and fallow does inseminated with fallow and axis buck semen, respectively, did not result in apparent pregnancies. Given the genetic differences between axis and fallow deer (chromosome number: 2n=66 and 68, respectively and the absence of documented reports of hybridization occurring in large free ranging populations of axis and fallow deer, hybridization between these two species appears unlikely and requires further study.