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1

Relationship between exposure to Fasciola hepatica in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and cattle extensively reared in an endemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work is to know the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in 301 roe deer and in 676 beef cattle kept in an endemic area. Detection of antibodies was determined in roe deer using a homemade ELISA with excretory/secretory antigens (FhES) and a recombinant protein (FhrAPS). None of the deer passed eggs by faeces and none flukes in their livers were found. The seroprevalence of F. hepatica was 29% using FhES, with significantly higher values in the oldest ones (36%). Twenty-eight percent of the samples were positive to FhrAPS. Twenty-three percent of the cows eliminated eggs of F. hepatica and the seroprevalence was 67% using FhrAPS. No relationship between the seropositivity values of deer and cattle was demonstrated. The role of wild ruminants as reservoirs of F. hepatica is discussed. We encourage the use of ELISA to know the possibility of exposure to trematodes in wild ruminants. PMID:23993660

Arias, M S; Pińeiro, P; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Suárez, J L; Hillyer, G V; Díez-Bańos, P; Paz-Silva, A; Morrondo, P

2013-12-01

2

Correlation of TBE incidence with red deer and roe deer abundance in Slovenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a virus infection which sometimes causes human disease. The TBE virus is found in ticks and certain vertebrate tick hosts in restricted endemic localities termed TBE foci. The formation of natural foci is a combination of several factors: the vectors, a suitable and numerous enough number of hosts and in a habitat with suitable vegetation and climate. The present study investigated the influence of deer on the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. We were able to obtain data from deer culls. Using this data, the abundance of deer was estimated and temporal and spatial analysis was performed. The abundance of deer has increased in the past decades, as well as the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. Temporal analysis confirmed a correlation between red deer abundance and tick-borne encephalitis occurrence. Additionally, spatial analysis established, that in areas with high incidence of tick-borne encephalitis red deer density is higher, compared to areas with no or few human cases of tick-borne encephalitis. However, such correlation could not be confirmed between roe deer density and the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. This is presumably due to roe deer density being above a certain threshold so that availability of tick reproduction hosts has no apparent effect on ticks' host finding and consequently may not be possible to correlate with incidence of human TBE. PMID:23776668

Knap, Nataša; Avši?-Županc, Tatjana

2013-01-01

3

Red deer (Cervus elaphus)  

...Nature ReservesResearchSurveillance and MonitoringNatural Heritage Grant ProgrammePrioritised Action FrameworkRed deer (Cervus elaphus)Last updated: 31 December 2010The red deer is the largest land animal...

4

Deer Sedge (Trichophorum cespitosum)  

...ProgrammePrioritised Action FrameworkDeer Sedge (Trichophorum cespitosum)Last updated: 31 December...endures grazing and trampling by sheep, cattle and deer as well as fire damage. It is widespread...

5

Correlation of TBE Incidence with Red Deer and Roe Deer Abundance in Slovenia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a virus infection which sometimes causes human disease. The TBE virus is found in ticks and certain vertebrate tick hosts in restricted endemic localities termed TBE foci. The formation of natural foci is a combination of several factors: the vectors, a suitable and numerous enough number of hosts and in a habitat with suitable vegetation and climate. The present study investigated the influence of deer on the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. We were able...

Knap, Natas?a; Avs?ic?-z?upanc, Tatjana

2013-01-01

6

Rabies in Captive Deer  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Dr. Brett Petersen, a medical officer at CDC, discusses rabies in captive deer.  Created: 4/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/30/2012.

2012-04-30

7

Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in populations of Siberian and European roe deer (Capreolus pygargus and C. capreolus).  

Science.gov (United States)

We have amplified and sequenced 679 nucleotides of the mitochondrial DNA control-region in 45 Siberian (Capreolus pygargus) and European (C. capreolus) roe deer from two localities in Russia and seven in Italy. Average interspecific sequence divergence was 4.9%. Six different haplotypes were found in Siberian roe deer, and 14 haplotypes in Alpine European roe deer. A population of the endemic Italian subspecies C. c. italicus was monomorphic bearing a single haplotype with one unique nucleotide deletion and a fixed transversion. Phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes indicated that the two species were separated with 100% bootstrap support, and there were two distinct population clusters within each species. These clusters correspond to different geographical locations of the samples: Siberian roe deer were subdivided into west Siberia (Kurgan region) and east Siberia (Amur region), and European roe deer were subdivided into an eastern and a western Alpine group. Average sequence divergence among conspecific populations was 1.2%. Calibrations of evolutionary rates of the different domains of the control-region suggest that Siberian and European roe deer speciated about 2-3 million years ago, and haplotype diversity within species was generated during the last 150,000-370,000 years. Geographical structuring of sequence variability in roe deer allows us to identify historical and recent intraspecific population differences, including the effects of human disturbance. The genetic peculiarities of the endemic Italian subspecies C. c. italicus call for careful conservation of its surviving populations. PMID:9618912

Randi, E; Pierpaoli, M; Danilkin, A

1998-04-01

8

Population Study Game: Oh, Deer!  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners model a population of deer and see how the number of deer changes over time. Learners investigate population change and graph the population over time to learn about how habitat availability affects populations. This activity works best outside.

Commission, South C.

2006-01-01

9

Monitoring Red Deer and Roe Deer Population Density in Yedigoller-Yesiloz Wildlife Reserves in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wildlife inventories are very new in Turkey. Thus, there is no enough data about red deer and roe deer population. However, these studies have gained momentum in recent years. In this study, it is aimed to determine and to monitor status of red deer and roe deer population densities. In the study, it was used a kind of drive count which was combined with point count. The study was conducted between 2003 and 2010 in October, once a year. Red deer and roe deer densities were determined between 0.45 and 1.19 red deer/km2; 1.48 and 2.05 roe deer/km2. Also, average of annual growth rates were estimated for red deer (0.135 and roe deer (-0.0059. The study showed that whilst the red deer population has been increasing, roe deer population has been decreasing in long term period.

Vedat Beskardes

2012-01-01

10

Serological evidence of bovine herpesvirus 1-related virus infection in the white-tailed deer population on Anticosti Island, Quebec.  

Science.gov (United States)

High white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population densities and the occurrence of harsh environmental conditions are present on Anticosti Island, located in the Gulf of Saint-Lawrence (Quebec, Canada). This island is the northernmost region of white-tailed deer distribution in northeastern North America. The aim of this work was to determine whether a herpesvirus serologically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) may occur in a stressed white-tailed deer population. One hundred one deer sera were collected from apparently healthy animals during the hunting season from September to late November 1985. Fifty-three percent of tested deer were positive to the seroneutralization test using Colorado strain of BHV1 virus. Higher percentages of seropositivity were observed in animals of both sexes greater than 4-yr-old. Analysis of antibody titers in seropositive animals according to age suggests that BHV1-related viral infection is endemic in the Anticosti Island deer population. It is postulated that environmental stress may induce immunosuppression of certain infected and/or carrier animals in their population that shed virus for long periods of time. PMID:2541261

Lamontagne, L; Sadi, L; Joyal, R

1989-04-01

11

Monitoring Red Deer and Roe Deer Population Density in Yedigoller-Yesiloz Wildlife Reserves in Turkey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wildlife inventories are very new in Turkey. Thus, there is no enough data about red deer and roe deer population. However, these studies have gained momentum in recent years. In this study, it is aimed to determine and to monitor status of red deer and roe deer population densities. In the study, it was used a kind of drive count which was combined with point count. The study was conducted between 2003 and 2010 in October, once a year. Red deer and roe deer densities were determined between ...

Vedat Beskardes

2012-01-01

12

The sustainable management of wild deer populations in England: a ...  

Jun 15, 2009 ... primary responsibility for deer management lies with landowners and deer ..... \\Sparsholt College in 2007/08 training approximately 30 students, ..... some of the \\conflicts that exist in deer management and the extent to which.

13

Effects of deer density on tick infestation of rodents and the hazard of tick-borne encephalitis. I: empirical assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tick borne encephalitis (TBE) is endemic to eastern and central Europe with broad temporal and spatial variation in infection risk. Although many studies have focused on understanding the environmental and socio-economic factors affecting exposure of humans to TBE, comparatively little research has been devoted to assessing the underlying ecological mechanisms of TBE occurrence in enzootic cycles, and therefore TBE hazard. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the main ungulate tick hosts on the pattern of tick infestation in rodents and TBE occurrence in rodents and questing adult ticks. In this empirical study, we considered three areas where endemic human TBE occurs and three control sites having no reported human TBE cases. In these six sites located in Italy and Slovakia, we assessed deer density using the pellet group count-plot sampling technique, collected questing ticks, live-trapped rodents (primarily Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus) and counted ticks feeding on rodents. Both rodents and questing ticks were screened for TBE infection. TBE infection in ticks and rodents was positively associated with the number of co-feeding ticks on rodents and negatively correlated with deer density. We hypothesise that the negative relationship between deer density and TBE occurrence on a local scale (defined by the minimum overlapping area of host species) could be attributed to deer (incompetent hosts) diverting questing ticks from rodents (competent hosts), know as the 'dilution effect hypothesis'. We observed that, after an initial increase, the number of ticks feeding on rodents reached a peak for an intermediate value of estimated deer density and then decreased. Therefore, while at a regional scale, tick host availability has already been shown to be directly correlated with TBE distribution, our results suggest that the interactions between deer, rodents and ticks are much more complex on a local scale, supporting the possibility of a dilution effect for TBE. PMID:22464896

Cagnacci, F; Bolzoni, L; Rosŕ, R; Carpi, G; Hauffe, H C; Valent, M; Tagliapietra, V; Kazimirova, M; Koci, J; Stanko, M; Lukan, M; Henttonen, H; Rizzoli, A

2012-04-01

14

Enterocytozoon bieneusi in sika deer (Cervus nippon) and red deer (Cervus elaphus): deer specificity and zoonotic potential of ITS genotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the most common cause of the human microsporidiosis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi has been found in a wide variety of animal hosts. Deers are the ruminant mammals living in a variety of biomes, and the distribution of deer species differ by geography. To understand the prevalence of natural infection of E. bieneusi in deer and to assess their epidemiological role in the transmission of microsporidiosis caused by E. bieneusi, 91 fecal specimens were collected from 86 sika deers and five red deers in the northeast of China. By PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of E. bieneusi, an average infection rate of 31.9 % (29/91) was observed in deer, with 32.6 % (28/86) for sika deer, and 20 % (1/5) for red deer. Six ITS genotypes were identified: one known genotype BEB6 (n?=?20) and five novel genotypes HLJD-I to HLJD-IV (one each) and HLJD-V (n?=?5). A phylogenetic analysis based on a neighbor-joining tree of the ITS gene sequences of E. bieneusi indicated that genotypes HLJD-II and HLJD-III fell into group 1 of zoonotic potential, while the other genotypes (BEB6, HLJD-I, HLJD-IV, HLJD-V) were clustered into so-called bovine-specific group 2. This is the first report of E. bieneusi in deer in China. The observation of genotype BEB6 in humans previously and in deer here and also the findings of the two novel genotypes (HLJD-II to HLJ-III) belonging to potential zoonotic group 1 suggested the possibility of deer in the transmission of E. bieneusi to humans. PMID:25185666

Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Weizhe; Wang, Rongjun; Liu, Weishi; Liu, Aiqin; Yang, Dong; Yang, Fengkun; Karim, Md Robiul; Zhang, Longxian

2014-11-01

15

Welfare issues of modern deer farming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper will start with briefly outlining the recent domestication history of red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama, followed by a description of the present status of modern deer farming. It will then review the main welfare issues of deer farming. The following aspects will be considered: accommodation and housing, management and handling, nutrition (feed and water provision, transport and slaughter, plus a short mention of velvet harvest. As a summary, the following practices can be recommended to ensure animal welfare in modern deer farming: the adoption of suitable housing systems and of adequate management techniques (e.g. specific handling pens and drop-floor cradles or crushes and the respect of specific needs (e.g. provision of protection and shelter from predators as well as from climatic extremes, such as cold winds or direct solar radiation. Handling and yarding operations will be easier when they occur in dim light. Special attention must be paid to the manipulation of the newborns. At the slaughterhouse, facilities must be designed specifically for deer. The presence of well trained stockpersons, with a sound knowledge of deer physiology and behaviour, is also a key-factor for improving welfare levels in deer farms. To achieve these aims, training of the managers and stockpersons and the adoption of specific codes of conducts are highly recommendable.

Silvana Mattiello

2010-01-01

16

Identity of rumen fluke in deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

As evidence is growing that in many temperate areas paramphistome infections are becoming more common and widespread, this study was undertaken to determine the role of deer as reservoirs for rumen fluke infections in livestock. A total of 144 deer faecal samples (88 from fallow deer, 32 from red deer and 24 samples from sika, sika/red deer hybrids) were screened for the presence of fluke eggs. Based on the ITS-2 rDNA locus plus flanking 5.8S and 28S sequences (ITS-2+), fluke eggs were identified to species level. Our results indicate that, of the 3 deer species, fallow deer had the highest fluke infection rates. Two rumen fluke species, Calicophoron daubneyi and Paramphistomum leydeni, with morphologically distinct eggs, were identified. Concurrent infections of the two paramphistome species and liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, were common. Considering the comparatively low egg burdens observed in this study, it is unlikely that deer represent a significant source of infection for Irish livestock. PMID:25127736

O'Toole, Ailis; Browne, John A; Hogan, Sean; Bassičre, Thomas; DeWaal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; Zintl, Annetta

2014-11-01

17

Immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally infected European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The cause of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK was the inclusion of contaminated meat and bone meal in the protein rations fed to cattle. Those rations were not restricted to cattle but were also fed to other livestock including farmed and free living deer. Although there are no reported cases to date of natural BSE in European deer, BSE has been shown to be naturally or experimentally transmissible to a wide range of different ungulate species. Moreover, several species of North America's cervids are highly susceptible to chronic wasting disease (CWD, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE that has become endemic. Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations. This study compares the immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally-infected European red deer (Cervus elpahus elaphus. Results After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues. In this respect it was different from CWD, and although the neuropathological features of both diseases were similar, BSE could be clearly differentiated from CWD by immunohistochemical and Western blotting methods currently in routine use. Conclusion Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

Dagleish Mark P

2009-07-01

18

Tick burden on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In our study we assessed the tick burden on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in relation to age, physical condition, sex, deer density and season. The main objective was to find predictive parameters for tick burden. In September 2007, May, July, and September 2008, and in May and July 2009 we collected ticks on 142 culled roe deer from nine forest departments in Southern Hesse, Germany. To correlate tick burden and deer density we estimated deer density using line transect sampling that acc...

Vor, Torsten; Kiffner, Christian; Hagedorn, Peter; Niedrig, Matthias; Ru?he, Ferdinand

2010-01-01

19

Prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminthiasis in captive deer of Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The investigation was undertaken to study the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthiasis in captive deer. About 76.2% deer were affected with gastrointestinal helminthiasis. Paramphistomum spp. and Haemonchus spp. were mostly prevalent in deer. It is revealed that Para or Hog deer (90.91%) was mostly susceptible to gastrointestinal helminthiasis followed by Barking deer (78.79%), Spotted deer (75%) and Samber deer (70%). Mixed infection was noted in majority of the deer. Paramphistomum spp....

Kanungo, S.; Das, A.; Das Gupta, M.; Shakif-ul-Azam

2010-01-01

20

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs) in Deer  

include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, scrapie in sheep and \\goats and chronic wasting disease ... There is a risk that British deer were \\exposed to the BSE agent in contaminated feed, particularly before ... Teeth \\grinding.

 
 
 
 
21

Oestrosis in red deer from Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A survey of naso-pharyngeal myiasis affecting red deer (Cervus elaphus) in southern Spain was conducted. The parasites involved were the larvae of Pharyngomyia picta and Cephenemyia auribarbis (Diptera:Oestridae), which coexist sympatrically within this host. Males and older animals had higher prevalences and intensities of fly larvae. Differences in behaviour and habitat use by male and female deer, and the increase of head size in older males are possibly responsible for this. There were lo...

Bueno La Fuente, Lourdes; Moreno, Virginia; Pe?rez, Jesu?s M.; Ruiz-marti?nez, Isidoro; Soriguer, Ramo?n C.

1998-01-01

22

Radiocesium contamination of roe-deers kidneys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiocesium (137Cs and 134Cs) have been measured in kidneys of 48 roe-deers shot in November 1986 on several Belgian game reserves. A large variability of the contamination levels was observed from one site to another due to significant differences in radioactive deposits after the Chernobyl accident. As direct deposit measurements are lacking, the radioactivity accumulated in bramble leaves could be a good indicator of internal roe-deer contamination. (Author)

23

Radiocesium transfer to roe deer and moose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study is part of an on-going research project which focuses on the transfer of 137Cs to roe deer and moose living in contaminated forests. The specific aim was to describe and explain the seasonal, yearly and long- term variations of radiocaesium levels in roe deer and moose. A particularity of the study was that field observations were combined with the development of mathematical models

24

Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

1994-12-31

25

Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-transmitted, economically important disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Although only five of the 26 reported bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes are considered endemic to the USA, 10 exotic serotypes have been isolated primarily in the southeastern region of the country since 1999. For an exotic BTV serotype to become endemic there must be susceptible animal species and competent vectors. In the USA, sheep and white-tailed deer (WTD) are the primary sentinel livestock and wildlife species, respectively. In 2006, BTV-8 was introduced into Northern Europe and subsequently overwintered, causing unprecedented livestock disease and mortality during the 2006-2007 vector seasons. To assess the risk of the European strain of BTV-8 to North American WTD, and understand the role they could play after a similar introduction, eight bluetongue-seronegative WTD were inoculated with BTV-8. Body temperatures and clinical signs were recorded daily. Blood samples were analyzed for BTV RNA with quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), serum analyzed for BTV antibodies by cELISA, and tissues taken for histopathology and qRT-PCR. All eight deer became infected and developed moderate to severe clinical disease from days 8 to 15. Peak viremia was from day 7 to 10 with detectable titers through the end of the study (28 days) in most deer. Serum antibody was detected by day 6, peaked by day 10 and continued through day 28. We conclude that North American WTD are highly susceptible to BTV-8 and would act as clinical disease sentinels and amplifying hosts during an outbreak. PMID:23876932

Drolet, Barbara S; Reister, Lindsey M; Rigg, Tara D; Nol, Pauline; Podell, Brendan K; Mecham, James O; VerCauteren, Kurt C; van Rijn, Piet A; Wilson, William C; Bowen, Richard A

2013-10-25

26

Therapy of endemic goitre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1. In childhood the first line treatment of endemic goitre is Kl (100-150 ?g/day). Once the goitre volume has shrinked during L-thyroxine treatment in older patients, this effect is to be maintained by Kl (?200 ?g/day). The same holds true after surgery in cases with normal TSH responsiveness to TRH. 2. TSH suppressive L-thyroxine therapy is indicated in goitre patients older than 40 years. However, the effectiveness will be limited by the nodularity of the thyroid. So prevention of further growth prevails over true tissue reduction. 3. Obviously thyroid surgery yields the best cosmetic results with an acceptably low complication rate. When euthyroidism is established, a lifelong iodine prophylaxy (200 ?g/day) of recurrent goitre is mandatory. In cases with latent or overt hypothyroidism an appropriate therapy with thyroid hormone should be given. 4. By radiodine it is possible to realize a short term volume loss of 30-40% which may increase further on up to 60%. Relief of symptoms is usually even more impressive than actual volume loss. (orig./MG)

27

Regulatory Impact Assessment for the Deer Regulatory Reform Order  

limited and to make informed estimates about the likely business response to .... \\Unlike red, fallow, roe and sika deer, male and female Chinese water deer ..... \\There are no benefits associated with this option other than the ability to.

28

75 FR 43915 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station  

Science.gov (United States)

...of the Deer Creek Station Energy Facility...locations: White Site 1 (Brookings County...residences, and has site conditions that are...Impacts of Deer Creek Station,'' of the EIS...Alternative at White Site 1 as its...

2010-07-27

29

Authenticity control of game meat products - A single method to detect and quantify adulteration of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) by real-time PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

This contribution presents a single real-time PCR assay allowing the determination of the deer content (the sum of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon)) in meat products to detect food adulteration. The PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with 20 animal species and 43 botanical species potentially contained in game meat products. The limit of quantification is 0.5% for fallow deer and red deer and 0.1% for sika deer. The deer content in meat products is determined by relating the concentration obtained with the deer PCR assay to that obtained with a reference system which amplifies mammals and poultry DNA. The analysis of binary meat mixtures with pork, a meat mixture containing equal amounts of fallow deer, red deer and sika deer in pork and a model game sausage showed that the quantification approach is very accurate (systematic error generally <25%). PMID:25306377

Druml, Barbara; Grandits, Stephanie; Mayer, Walter; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit

2015-03-01

30

Feeding and Management of Spotted Deer at Dhaka Zoo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this experiment the feeds and feeding, production and reproduction profile and herd management of spotted deer were studied in captive condition at Dhaka zoo. Data collected from forty deers, ten deers of each group consisting of adult male, adult female, juvenile and infant were studied January 15th to April 15th 2004 for a period of three months. Available feeds supplied to the spotted deer were maize fodder, para and bucksha grass, poi shak, cabbages, carrot, papaya, wheat bran...

Bhuiyan, A. K. F. H.; Hossain, M. M.; Azad, M. A. K.

2005-01-01

31

Habitat use by roe and red deer in Southern Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to analyse how altitude, cover, and botanical diversity may be involved in the habitat preferences of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Southern Spain, 44 plots in four linear transects were established in 'Los Alcornocales' Park (Cádiz). The results revealed a certain degree of spatial interaction between the two species in spring and summer. Roe deer selected the lowest altitudes during the territorial period (March-August) and red deer selected the s...

San Jose?, Cristina; Braza, Francisco; Arago?n, Santiago; Delibes, J. R.

1997-01-01

32

Roe and fallow deer: are they compatible neighbours?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The analysis of the relationships between population density and habitat features is important to evaluate the ecological needs of a species, its potential impact on ecosystems and its interspecific interactions. We analysed the spatial variation of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and fallow deer Dama dama densities in a Mediterranean area in summer 2007 and winter 2007/2008. Previous research has shown that fallow deer can actively displace and exclude roe deer from natural ...

2011-01-01

33

The nature of serpentine endemism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serpentine soils are a model system for the study of plant adaptation, speciation, and species interactions. Serpentine soil is an edaphically stressful, low productivity soil type that hosts stunted vegetation and a spectacular level of plant endemism. One of the first papers on serpentine plant endemism was by Arthur Kruckeberg, titled "Intraspecific variability in the response of certain native plant species to serpentine soil." Published in the American Journal of Botany in 1951, it has been cited over 100 times. Here, I review the context and content of the paper, as well as its impact. On the basis of the results of reciprocal transplant experiments in the greenhouse, Kruckeberg made three important conclusions on the nature of serpentine plant endemism: (1) Plants are locally adapted to serpentine soils, forming distinct soil ecotypes; (2) soil ecotypes are the first stage in the evolutionary progression toward serpentine endemism; and (3) serpentine endemics are restricted from more fertile nonserpentine soils by competition. Kruckeberg's paper inspired a substantial amount of research, especially in the three areas reviewed here: local adaptation and plant traits, speciation, and the interaction of climate and soil in plant endemism. In documenting soil ecotypes, Kruckeberg identified serpentine soils as a potent selective factor in plant evolution and helped establish serpentine soils as a model system in evolution and ecology. PMID:24509800

Anacker, Brian L

2014-02-01

34

The control of endemic treponematoses.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the 1950s and 1960s, following a decision by the Second World Health Assembly in 1949, mass treatment campaigns against the endemic treponematoses were undertaken with the support of the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund. The control policy was based on recognition of the importance of screening at least 90% of the target population; of conducting periodic resurveys and treating missed, new, and imported cases; of treating the entire treponemal reservoir (including latent cases and contacts); and of using adequate dosages of long-acting penicillin (minimal dosages were recommended). Later, policies on the extent of contact treatment at different levels of endemicity were established. During these mass campaigns, approximately 50 million clinical and latent cases and contacts were treated; prevalence of endemic treponematoses was reduced dramatically. The major reasons for resurgence of yaws and endemic syphilis in some areas are discussed. One important factor has been the failure of many countries to integrate active control measures into local health services after the mass campaigns. Yaws and pinta are continuing to decline to very low levels in the Americas. In West Africa, especially, incidence of yaws and endemic syphilis have returned to high levels. Few significant endemic areas remain in Asia except in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. PMID:4012161

Antal, G M; Causse, G

1985-01-01

35

Dietary preferences and ruminal protozoal populations in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, fallow deer (Dama dama and mouflon (Ovis musimon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, fallow deer (Dama dama and mouflon (Ovis musimon are among the most common wild ungulates in Italy and frequently their home ranges overlap. Despite the fact that roe deer is classified as concentrate selector (Hofmann, 1989 and fallow deer and mouflons as intermediate and grass eater, respectively, the composition of the diet can be affected by other factors such as geographical area and plant communities distribution and availability

O. Olivieri

2010-01-01

36

Dietary preferences and ruminal protozoal populations in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and mouflon (Ovis musimon)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and mouflon (Ovis musimon) are among the most common wild ungulates in Italy and frequently their home ranges overlap. Despite the fact that roe deer is classified as concentrate selector (Hofmann, 1989) and fallow deer and mouflons as intermediate and grass eater, respectively, the composition of the diet can be affected by other factors such as geographical area and plant communities distribution and availability

Olivieri, O.; Antonini, C.; Acuti, G.; Riganelli, N.; Capecci, A.; Trabalza Marinucci, M.

2010-01-01

37

Toxoplasmosis in naturally infected deer from Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum samples from 107 cervids were examined for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using indirect hemagglutination (IHA), indirect immunofluorescence (IFA), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Dot-ELISA. Samples were obtained from 66 marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) in the State of Săo Paulo (Brazil) and from 41 pampas deer (Ozotocerus bezoarticus) in the State of Goiás (Brazil). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 23 (22%) of the deer, with 18 and 5 positive samples, respectively, for B. dichotomus and O. bezoarticus. The highest prevalence of T. gondii antibodies were young adults (32%), following by adults (27%) and fawns (13%). Only one serum sample (8%) from a newborn fawn was positive in the serological tests. The convenience of the Dot-ELISA test is obvious when compared with other serological tests for both laboratory or field surveys, mainly due to its features of practicability and reagent stability. PMID:9391980

Ferreira, R A; Mineo, J R; Duarte, J M; Silva, D A; Patarroyo, J H

1997-10-01

38

Potential Wildlife Reservoir for Parachlamydia in Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) and Roe Deer (Capreolus c. capreolus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wildlife populations represent an important reservoir for emerging pathogens and transboundary livestock diseases. However, exact knowledge on common domestic pathogens such as Chlamydiales in these populations is lacking. During the hunting season of 2008, 863 samples, including blood, eye swabs, organs and fecal samples, from 99 red deer and 64 roe deer were collected in the eastern Swiss Alps, and samples were tested by ELISA, PCR and immunohistochemistry for Chlamydiaceae and Parachlam...

Regenscheit, Nadine

2012-01-01

39

Pathogenesis of endemic pemphigus foliaceus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pemphigus refers to a group of human autoimmune blistering diseases involving skin and/or mucous membranes. Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF), or fogo selvagem is an organ-specific autoimmune blistering disease, first reported in the beginning of the 20th century in rural areas of Brazil. The disease follows the course of streams and creeks, and vanishes after urbanization of the endemic areas. The auto-antigen related to EPF is desmoglein 1, a 160 kDa glycoprotein of the desmossomal core, targeted by in situ and circulating IgG autoantibodies, mainly of the IgG4 subclass. PMID:21605806

Aoki, Valeria; Sousa, Joaquim Xavier; Diaz, Luis A

2011-07-01

40

Deer Me: A Predator/Prey Simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners will simulate the interactions between a predator population of gray wolves and a prey population of deer in a forest. After collecting the data, the learners plot the data and then extend the graph to predict the populations for several more generations.

Zoo, Minnesota; Eduweb

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Food choice in fallow deer – experimental studies of selectivity  

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In this thesis, I experimentally investigate feeding selectivity in fallow deer (Dama dama), with respect to plant secondary compounds, especially tannins, which can decrease the quality of foods. I found that fallow deer avoided foods with higher amounts of tannic acid and Quebracho tannin, even though the deer ate some high-tannin food. The food choice was strongly dependent on the context in which the food was presented, so that the food choice in relation to tannin content was relative ra...

Alm Bergvall, Ulrika

2007-01-01

42

Mountain lions prey selectively on prion-infected mule deer  

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The possibility that predators choose prey selectively based on age or condition has been suggested but rarely tested. We examined whether mountain lions (Puma concolor) selectively prey upon mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) infected with chronic wasting disease, a prion disease. We located kill sites of mountain lions in the northern Front Range of Colorado, USA, and compared disease prevalence among lion-killed adult (?2 years old) deer with prevalence among sympatric deer taken by hunters...

Krumm, Caroline E.; Conner, Mary M.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Hunter, Don O.; Miller, Michael W.

2010-01-01

43

Mesola red deer: physical characteristics, population dynamics and conservation perspectives  

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Abstract The biometry, demography and genetics of red deer Cervus elaphus of Mesola Wood (NE Italy), are presented and discussed in relation to the conservation of this population. Modest body size, low stature, oversimplified antlers and a low reproductive performance characterise red deer from Mesola Wood. The mitochondrial genome showed a private haplotype, different from other red deer in Italy and central Europe. The uniqueness of this n...

Stefano Mattioli; Rosario Fico; Rita Lorenzini; Giovanni Nobili

2003-01-01

44

Temporal and spatial variation in predation on roe deer fawns  

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This thesis deals with variation in mortality of roe deer fawns, over time and in space, caused by red fox and Eurasian lynx predation in a boreal landscape. The thesis considers historic and recent effects of vole population dynamics on red fox predation on roe deer fawns, using long term time series from Grimsö Wildlife Research Area. Historically, the vole population of south-central Sweden has varied cyclically, causing red fox and roe deer fawns to fluctuate synchronically in accordance...

Nordstro?m, Jonas

2010-01-01

45

Babesias of red deer (Cervus elaphus in Ireland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Blood samples were obtained from 38 wild red deer (Cervus elaphus at two sites in Ireland and subjected to PCR analysis of the 18S rRNA gene followed by sequencing. Two fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were generated by two different PCR protocols and subsequent sequencing suggested that at least six of the deer were infected by a babesia that, in those loci, is indistinguishable from Babesia divergens, an important tick-borne pathogen of cattle and of zoonotic significance. Additionally, a B. odocoilei-like parasite was detected in three samples and a babesia that did not match any sequences in the GenBank database was found in five samples. Neither B. capreoli nor B. venatorum (EU1 were found. There have been several reports of B. divergens occurring in deer species, including red deer, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. However, in view of recent re-sequencing of bovine-origin samples deposited previously in GenBank, it is unlikely that any of these sequences from deer are B. divergens. The present study describes the only deer piroplasm detected so far that shows complete identity with B. divergens, in just over half of the 18S rRNA gene. The entire gene of this deer parasite should be analysed and transmission experiments undertaken before the infectivity of B. divergens for red deer can be confirmed.

Zintl Annetta

2011-01-01

46

Season changes in radiocesium contamination of roe deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the results of our studies on Cs 137 contamination of roe deer during the year 2002 in the south of Germany. The contamination of roe deer showed a maximum in September. Comparison with the Cs 137 activity concentration in mushrooms and plants collected from the same area indicated that the autumn peak in radio-caesium contamination of roe deer is correlated with the appearance of mushrooms. Using our data we estimated the equivalent dose per year from radiation received by adult persons due to the consumption of roe deer meat (authors)

47

Deer monitoring at the Savannah River Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To protect public health, all deer and feral hogs harvested at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during controlled hunts are monitored for Cs-137. A new monitoring program has been developed by the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS). To provide increased confidence in dose data and compliance with regulations, many changes have been made to the deer and hog monitoring program. Using field count information, a computerized database determines Cs-137 concentration and calculates the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) resulting from consumption of the animal. The database then updates each hunter's cumulative CEDE in real time. Also, enhancements to the instrument calibration and quality control portions of the monitoring program were implemented. These include improved monitor calibration, intercomparison of field results from the same animal using different detectors, and regular use of check sources to verify equipment performance. With these program changes, EMS can produce more accurate and verifiable dose data

48

Salivary prions in sheep and deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids are transmissible prion diseases. Milk and placenta have been identified as sources of scrapie prions but do not explain horizontal transmission. In contrast, CWD prions have been reported in saliva, urine and feces, which are thought to be responsible for horizontal transmission. While the titers of CWD prions have been measured in feces, levels in saliva or urine are unknown. Because sheep produce ~17 L/day of saliva, and scrapie prions are present in tongue and salivary glands of infected sheep, we asked if scrapie prions are shed in saliva. We inoculated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing ovine prion protein, Tg(OvPrP) mice, with saliva from seven Cheviot sheep with scrapie. Six of seven samples transmitted prions to Tg(OvPrP) mice with titers of -0.5 to 1.7 log ID?? U/ml. Similarly, inoculation of saliva samples from two mule deer with CWD transmitted prions to Tg(ElkPrP) mice with titers of -1.1 to -0.4 log ID?? U/ml. Assuming similar shedding kinetics for salivary prions as those for fecal prions of deer, we estimated the secreted salivary prion dose over a 10-mo period to be as high as 8.4 log ID?? units for sheep and 7.0 log ID?? units for deer. These estimates are similar to 7.9 log ID?? units of fecal CWD prions for deer. Because saliva is mostly swallowed, salivary prions may reinfect tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and contribute to fecal prion shedding. Salivary prions shed into the environment provide an additional mechanism for horizontal prion transmission. PMID:22453179

Tamgüney, Gültekin; Richt, Jürgen A; Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Young, Alan J; Glidden, David V; Johnson, Natrina L; Giles, Kurt; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

2012-01-01

49

Valuing Wildlife Management: A Utah Deer Herd  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most current efforts in applying valuation methods to wildlife-related recreation have focused upon variables which are inappropriate to the majority of management decisions. Managers generally are concerned with increasing the stock of wildlife through habitat manipulation: The economic criteria for these decisions should be the value of a change in the stock of the wildlife population. An estimate of such a value was made for the Oak Creek deer herd in Utah, using a household production fun...

Keith, John E.; Lyon, Kenneth S.

1985-01-01

50

Structural information from orientationally selective DEER spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy can determine, from measurement of the dipolar interaction, the distance and orientation between two paramagnetic centres in systems lacking long-range order such as powders or frozen solution samples. In spin systems with considerable anisotropy, the microwave pulses excite only a fraction of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum and the resulting orientation selection needs to be explicitly taken into account if a meaningful distance and orientation is to be determined. Here, a general method is presented to analyze the dipolar interaction between two paramagnetic spin centres from a series of DEER traces recorded so that different orientations of the spin-spin vector are sampled. Delocalised spin density distributions and spin projection factors (as for example in iron-sulfur clusters), are explicitly included. Application of the analysis to a spin-labelled flavoprotein reductase/reduced iron-sulfur ferredoxin protein complex and a bi-radical with two Cu(ii) ions provides distance and orientation information between the radical centres. In the protein complex this enables the protein-protein binding geometry to be defined. Experimentally, orientationally selective DEER measurements are possible on paramagnetic systems where the resonator bandwidth allows the frequencies of pump and detection pulses to be separated sufficiently to excite enough orientations to define adequately the spin-spin vector. PMID:19639159

Lovett, J E; Bowen, A M; Timmel, C R; Jones, M W; Dilworth, J R; Caprotti, D; Bell, S G; Wong, L L; Harmer, J

2009-08-21

51

Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) deer tick mesoscale populations in natural areas: effects of deer, area, and location.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say deer ticks were collected at 22 parks or other natural areas on Long Island, New York, to examine the relationship between tick populations and geographic position, size of area, presence of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman), and numbers of human Lyme disease cases in adjacent communities. Nymphal ticks were 93% less abundant when deer were absent and were also less common in smaller natural areas. Geographic position on Long Island was not important. Tick numbers were significantly correlated with human Lyme disease incidence in adjacent townships. A second survey of larval ticks from five areas where deer were absent and six where deer were present found larvae present at four of the five sites without deer, but at only 2% of the levels found where deer were present. These results suggest that populations of I. scapularis can occur and reproduce in the absence of white-tailed deer, so that eradication of all deer would greatly reduce, but not eliminate, all risk of Lyme disease. PMID:8158618

Duffy, D C; Campbell, S R; Clark, D; DiMotta, C; Gurney, S

1994-01-01

52

Experimental contagious ecthyma in mule deer, white-tailed deer, pronghorn and wapiti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand-reared mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus), pronghorn fawns (Antilocapra americana) and wapiti calves (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) were exposed to contagious ecthyma lesion material obtained from Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis in these species. All four species developed mucocutaneous proliferative lesions of the oral cavity, grossly and histologically compatible with contagious ecthyma. The limited clinical responses to the virus indicated that contagious ecthyma would not seriously impact free-ranging individuals. PMID:6685778

Lance, W R; Hibler, C P; DeMartini, J

1983-07-01

53

INVESTIGATION OF BALCAN ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY IN MEMBERS OF ENDEMIC FAMILIES IN THE ENDEMIC VILLAGE MORAVAC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The village Moravac, situated on the left bank of the River South Morava, has been known as endemic area for fifty years. The highest prevalence of Balcan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN was noted during the seventh and eight decade in the last century, and after that period, permanent decreasing has been shown. The present study involved fifty members of endemic families. In all investigated subjects, clinical observations included anamnesis, physical examinations and urinalysis. In twelve (24% subjects, urinary abnormalities were proven (proteinuria, microhaematuria, leucocyturia. These subjects further underwent the additional functional and morphological examinations at the Clinic of Nephrology, Clinical Center Nis. In 11 (22% subjects, clinical examinations showed different forms of renal diseases, but BEN was proven in four (one of them suffered from BEN since 2004 and he was treated by haemodialyses, while the others were diagnosed during the investigation. Other renal diseases in the examined patients were: cystic kidney disease (6%, nephrolithiasis (4%, diabetic nephropathy (2%, obstructive nephropathy (4% and tumores of kidney (2%. In our opinion, based on this investigation, BEN showed the rising tendency. Our retrograde study on the incidence of the upper urinary tract urothelial cancer in the endemic village Moravac showed the highest frequency, like BEN, in the seventh and eight decade in the last century. Despite encouraging results, further detailed and larger investigations are needed along the River South Morava, because a number of studies suggested lower progression and middle clinical course of disease, and also a rare appearance of the upper urinary tract cancer, which is why the patients seldom visit the health institutions, mostly in advanced stage of renal insufficiency. The aim of further investigations is to detect such subjects in the initial, early phase of disease, when prevention of progressive course and therapy are more successful.

Branka Miti?

2009-04-01

54

Intracranial abscessation in white-tailed deer of North America.  

Science.gov (United States)

From January 1996 through April 1997, the geographic distribution, etiology, demographics, seasonality, and prevalence of an intracranial abscessation/suppurative meningoencephalitits syndrome in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were evaluated by surveying wildlife disease diagnostic laboratories and by examining both natural mortality and hunter-harvested deer skulls from North America. Intracranial abscesses were diagnosed as the cause of death or illness in 97 of nearly 4,500 (2.2%) white-tailed deer examined from 12 states and four Canadian provinces by the diagnostic laboratories. The bacterium Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from 61% of cases; 18 other genera of bacteria also were isolated. The disease was strongly gender-biased (P or = 1 yr) with few cases among male fawns. Among antlered males, cases were seasonal, primarily occurring from September through April. Four hundred eighteen skulls from deer found dead in the field were examined from southeastern USA, and of the 119 used for further evaluation, 9% had characteristic lesions. Skulls from hunter-harvested males in the southeastern USA had a lesion prevalence of 1.4%. The similarity of disease prevalence among male deer found dead in the field (9.0%) and deer examined as southeastern diagnostic laboratory cases (8.4%) suggests that this disease accounts for slightly < 10% of the natural mortality for yearling and adult male white-tailed deer in the southeastern region. The strong bias for occurrence among males suggests this disease may affect quality deer management strategies. PMID:11763729

Baumann, C D; Davidson, W R; Roscoe, D E; Beheler-Amass, K

2001-10-01

55

Abnormal antler growth associated with testicular hypogonadism in red deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

A wild 5-yr-old red deer (Cervus elaphus) was eulled from a privately owned herd because of deformed antlers, retained velvet and bilateral symmetrical testicular hypogonadism. The clinical and pathological changes seen in this deer were most consistent with congenital hypoplasia, but testicular atrophy was an alternative possibility for the etiology of their condition. PMID:9249723

Carrasco, L; Fierro, Y; Sánchez-Castillejo, J M; Hervás, J; Pérez, J; Gómez-Villamandos, J C

1997-07-01

56

Serosurvey for selected pathogens in Iberian roe deer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The roe deer is the most abundant and widespread wild Eurasian cervid. Its populations are expanding and increasingly in contact with livestock. This may affect the distribution of infectious diseases shared with other wild and domestic ungulates. Methods We investigated the antibody seroprevalence against Pestivirus, Herpesvirus, Bluetongue (BT) virus, M. avium paratuberculosis (MAP), and Brucella sp. in 519 roe deer from d...

Oleaga Álvaro; Carta Tania; Boadella Mariana; Pajares Gerardo; Muńoz Marta; Gortázar Christian

2010-01-01

57

Schmallenberg Virus Infection among Red Deer, France, 2010–2012  

Science.gov (United States)

Schmallenberg virus infection is emerging in European domestic and wild ruminants. We investigated the serologic status of 9 red deer populations to describe virus spread from September 2010 through March 2012 among wildlife in France. Deer in 7 populations exhibited seropositivity, with an average seroprevalence of 20%. PMID:24377838

Laloy, Eve; Bréard, Emmanuel; Sailleau, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Desprat, Alexandra; Zientara, Stéphan; Klein, François; Hars, Jean

2014-01-01

58

Schmallenberg virus infection among red deer, France, 2010-2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schmallenberg virus infection is emerging in European domestic and wild ruminants. We investigated the serologic status of 9 red deer populations to describe virus spread from September 2010 through March 2012 among wildlife in France. Deer in 7 populations exhibited seropositivity, with an average seroprevalence of 20%. PMID:24377838

Laloy, Eve; Bréard, Emmanuel; Sailleau, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Desprat, Alexandra; Zientara, Stéphan; Klein, François; Hars, Jean; Rossi, Sophie

2014-01-01

59

Morphological Examination of the Siberian Roe Deer Capreolus pygargus in South Korea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study compare the external morphological characteristics of Korean roe deer inhabit the inland and Jeju island areas and to clarify the morphological differences by the two groups. Also, total of 40 roe deer bodies were collected from road-kill, poaching and injured survey from December 2004 to June 2009. The result showed that there were significant differences between Inland and Jeju roe deer. Jeju roe deer was relatively smaller than Inland roe deer in body mass. Thus, it appeared to ...

Jong-Taek Kim; Woo-Shin Lee; Yong-Su Park; Hong-Shik Oh

2011-01-01

60

THE AXIS DEER (AXIS AXIS IN BRIJUNI NATIONAL PARK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The axis deer (Axis axis was imported from Germany and introduced into Brijuni in 1911. Brijuni are a group of islands in the Adriatic Sea along the western coast of the southern peak of the Istrian Peninsula in the Republic of Croatia. In 1983 the area was declared a National Park. The objective of this paper was to research the adaptation of the axis deer to living conditions on the islands. Observation has shown that on the Brijuni islands the axis deer lives in herds comprising 10 to 30 individuals. The youngest male deer seeking access to does was four years old, while at the age of fi ve they started roaring. Deer fi ghts are not frequent during roaring period. The natural grazing rhythm is disturbed by the vast number of tourists. The calving periods of the axis deer during the year indicate three well-pronounced ruts, namely January to February, July-August and October-November. They also show that oestrus occurs soon after calving in most of the females. Gestation period of does is 7 to 7.8 months. 85% of the does on the Brijuni Islands produce their offspring in the warmer part of the year, between 1 March and 31 September. The population of the axis deer in the area of the Brijuni National Park is stable, rather numerous (about 100 individuals and well acclimatized, and as such it presents reproductive material suitable to populate enclosed hunting grounds and big game farms.

Nikica Šprem

2008-11-01

 
 
 
 
61

Profiling helper T cell subset gene expression in deer mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus are the most common mammals in North America and are reservoirs for several zoonotic agents, including Sin Nombre virus (SNV, the principal etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in North America. Unlike human HCPS patients, SNV-infected deer mice show no overt pathological symptoms, despite the presence of virus in the lungs. A neutralizing IgG antibody response occurs, but the virus establishes a persistent infection. Limitations of detailed analysis of deer mouse immune responses to SNV are the lack of reagents and methods for evaluating such responses. Results We developed real-time PCR-based detection assays for several immune-related transcription factor and cytokine genes from deer mice that permit the profiling of CD4+ helper T cells, including markers of Th1 cells (T-bet, STAT4, IFN?, TNF, LT, Th2 cells (GATA-3, STAT6, IL-4, IL-5 and regulatory T cells (Fox-p3, IL-10, TGF?1. These assays compare the expression of in vitro antigen-stimulated and unstimulated T cells from individual deer mice. Conclusion We developed molecular methods for profiling immune gene expression in deer mice, including a multiplexed real-time PCR assay for assessing expression of several cytokine and transcription factor genes. These assays should be useful for characterizing the immune responses of experimentally- and naturally-infected deer mice.

Hjelle Brian

2006-08-01

62

Proteome analysis of red deer antlers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deer antlers are the only mammalian organs capable of repeated regeneration. Although antlers are known to develop from pedicles, which arise from antlerogenic cells of cranial periosteum, their developmental process is not fully elucidated. For example, while endocrine and environmental factors influence the antler development, it is still unclear which signaling pathways are involved in the transduction of such stimuli. To study the developmental process of antlers and identify proteins functioning in their growth, we have established proteome maps of red deer (Cervus elaphus) antlers. With two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, we analyzed more than 800 protein spots and identified approximately 130 individual proteins derived from the growing tip of antlers. The overall profile of the antler proteome was dissimilar to those of other types of tissue. Also comparison of proteomes derived from proximal bony tissue and the growing tip of antlers revealed substantial differences. Moreover several cell growth or signaling-related proteins are expressed exclusively in the growing tip, suggesting that these proteins function in the growth and differentiation of antlers. Currently, using the antler proteome maps, we are actively searching for the regulatory factor(s) that may control the antler development. PMID:15529405

Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Do Hee; Park, Sung Goo; Lee, Sang Chul; Cho, Sayeon; Kim, Ha Kun; Kim, Jae Jong; Bae, Hyunsu; Park, Byoung Chul

2004-11-01

63

A comparison of 2 techniques for estimating deer density  

Science.gov (United States)

We applied mark-resight and area-conversion methods to estimate deer abundance at a 2,862-ha area in and surrounding the Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site during 1987-1991. One observer in each of 11 compartments counted marked and unmarked deer during 65-75 minutes at dusk during 3 counts in each of April and November. Use of radio-collars and vinyl collars provided a complete inventory of marked deer in the population prior to the counts. We sighted 54% of the marked deer during April 1987 and 1988, and 43% of the marked deer during November 1987 and 1988. Mean number of deer counted increased from 427 in April 1987 to 582 in April 1991, and increased from 467 in November 1987 to 662 in November 1990. Herd size during April, based on the mark-resight method, increased from approximately 700-1,400 from 1987-1991, whereas the estimates for November indicated an increase from 983 for 1987 to 1,592 for 1990. Given the large proportion of open area and the extensive road system throughout the study area, we concluded that the sighting probability for marked and unmarked deer was fairly similar. We believe that the mark-resight method was better suited to our study than the area-conversion method because deer were not evenly distributed between areas suitable and unsuitable for sighting within open and forested areas. The assumption of equal distribution is required by the area-conversion method. Deer marked for the mark-resight method also helped reduce double counting during the dusk surveys.

Robbins, C.S.

1977-01-01

64

Proteomic studies in endemic nephropathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Endemic nephropathy (EN) is a chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy with an early insidious and slow development into terminal renal failure. Proteomics is the systematic study of a proteome, which is the total protein content of a cell, organism or body fluids. Application of proteomic technologies in nephrology has enabled more detailed analyses of protein functions and examined their importance in various physiological and pathological states. Biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity to early diagnosis are needed for a better understanding of the mechanisms of EN development and its consequences. Urine beta2-microglobulin (B2M) was mainly used as a tubular marker of EN but recently alpha1-microglobulin (AMBP) was proposed for the diagnosis of EN. We studied the urine proteins of 360 patients with EN, diabetic nephropathy (DN) and acute kidney injury (AKI) and the healthy population using proteomic tools. Protein maps from the urine of patients with EN showed significant differences in comparison to the healthy subjects and patients with DN and AKI. Our study highlights six proteins in urine that were differentially excreted in the urine of EN patients compared with the other groups and have potential to be markers for EN prediction. In one of our studies, using routine biomarkers, we investigated the potential of urine B2M, AMBP, albumin and total protein as diagnostic markers for EN, in comparison to glomerulonephritis, nephrosclerosis and a healthy state. Modern proteomic technologies are still robust investigation tools, but can access a vast amount of information from one set of experiments in comparison to a classic diagnostic approach. Key words: endemic nephropathy, beta2-microglobulin, alpha1-microglobulin, urine proteomics. PMID:24798594

Stefanovi?, V; Peši?, I; Cukuranovi?, R; Müller, G; Dihazi, H

2014-01-01

65

Detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in Brazilian marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Ehrlichia chaffeensis was detected for the first time in blood samples from Brazilian marsh deers (Blastocerus dichotomus) captured in the marshes of Parana River in Southeast Brazil in 1998. Seven EDTA-blood samples from deers were analyzed by PCR and nested PCR for presence of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, Ehrlichia canis, Neoriickettsia risticii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale. Three samples showed positive reactions for E. chaffeensis and Anaplasma marginale. None contained detectable A. phagocytophilum, E. ewingii, E. canis or Neorickettsia risticii DNA. In Brazil, the wild marsh deer may be a natural reservoir of the agents that cause human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis and ruminant erythrocytic anaplasmosis. PMID:16621285

Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Duarte, José Maurício B; Dagnone, Ana Silvia; Szabó, Matias Pablo J

2006-06-30

66

Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission  

Science.gov (United States)

The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer ( Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission.

Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji

2008-03-01

67

Mycobacterium bovis infection in a captive herd of Sika deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infection with Mycobacterium bovis was diagnosed in a small privately owned herd of Sika deer. After postmortem examination of a deer with progressive pulmonary disease, diagnosis of infection with M bovis was confirmed by bacteriologic culture. The 2 remaining deer in this herd were euthanatized, necropsied, and confirmed to be infected with M bovis. Three cats in contact with the deer were also euthanatized and necropsied. One of these cats had lesions suggestive of mycobacterial infection in the colon and mesenteric lymph nodes. Infection of this cat with M bovis was not confirmed by bacterial culture. Mycobacteriosis, infrequently encountered in clinical veterinary practice, may be confused with disease caused by other infective agents or neoplasia. The zoonotic potential of these bacteria and a recent increase in human tuberculosis warrants continued surveillance of companion and food animal populations for mycobacterial infection. PMID:1612999

Mirsky, M L; Morton, D; Piehl, J W; Gelberg, H

1992-05-15

68

Reproductive biology of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus is a South American grazing deer which is in extreme danger of extinction. Very little is known about the biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, most information has not been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, and is only available in local publications, theses, etc. Therefore, our aim was to update and summarize the available information regarding the reproductive biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, in most sections, we have also included new, unpublished information. Detailed descriptions are provided of the anatomy of both the female and the male reproductive tract, puberty onset, the oestrous cycle and gestational length. Birthing and the early postpartum period are described, as are maternal behaviour and early fawn development, seasonal distribution of births, seasonal changes in male reproduction and antler cycle, reproductive behaviour, semen collection, and cryopreservation. Finally, an overview is given and future directions of research are proposed.

Olazabal Daniel

2008-06-01

69

Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer (Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission. PMID:18004533

Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji

2008-03-01

70

A method for testing handgun bullets in deer  

CERN Document Server

Using service handguns to test bullets in deer is problematic because of velocity loss with range and accuracy giving sub-optimal shot placement. An alternate method is presented using a scoped muzzleloader shooting saboted handgun bullets to allow precise (within 2" in many cases) shot placement for studying terminal ballistics in a living target. Deer are baited to a known range and path obstructions are used to place the deer broadside to the shooter. Muzzleloading powder charges provide a combination of muzzle velocity and velocity loss due to air resistance for a given ballistic coefficient that produce impact velocities corresponding to typical pistol velocities. With readily available sabots, this approach allows for testing of terminal ballistics of .355, .357, .40, .429, .45, and .458 caliber bullets with two muzzleloaders (.45 and .50 caliber). Examples are described demonstrating the usefulness of testing handgun bullets in deer for acoustic shooting event reconstruction, understanding tissue damag...

Courtney, M; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael

2007-01-01

71

[Schistosomiasis endemic in Burkina Faso].  

Science.gov (United States)

Burkina Faso, through the works of many teams of the OCCGE based in Bobo-Dioulasso, has signi-ficant data on several tropical endemics of which schistosomiasis. With the complementary works, it appears to be possible to establish a distribution of the schistosomiasis which reveals its importance. It will be the first stage of the planned national control program. The parasitologic data-gathering which covers the period of 1951 to 2000, used all the standard techniques. It is about Kato-Kartz and MIF for the intestinal schistosomiasis, centrifugation, filtration, serology reagent strips, macroscopy of urines and echography of the urinary system for the urinary schistosomiasis. All the eleven medical areas of the country have many sites submitted to parasitologic investigation. As regard the distribution of the two parasites involved with man (Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni), the data of prevalence (1% to 100%) and their distribution confirm their endemicity and the focal transmission. S. mansoni is located in eight medical areas particularly in the South and the West. S. haematobium is present in all the eleven medical areas of the country. In hydraulic planning as Sourou where the prevalences went from 23% to 70% for S. haematobium and from 0% to 69% for S. mansoni between 1987 and 1998. The situation requires a continuous monitoring. The spatial distribution of the six species of intermediate hosts shows that Bulinus truncatus and B. senegalensis Soudano-Sahelian species are present in all the ecological zones. B. globosus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi meet preferentially in the southern half of the country which reinforces the observation according to which the 14th northern parallel is often considered as the limit of septentrional extension of these two species. The other species Bulinus forskalii and B umbilicatus could have preference areas. All the species show a certain affinity with a type of biotope. The rarity and temporary aquatic systems lead to a concentration of the domestic and especially entertaining children activities around these biotopes very often contaminated. The phenomenon is amplified by the increase of contacts man-water, whose frequency and intensity are themselves dependent on activities related to hydro-agricultural planning. The analysis of the data shows, that in terms of colonization of the biotopes by molluscs and the relations between parasites and intermediate and final hosts, hydraulic planning turns out to be an amplifying factor of the species proliferation and parasitic flux host-parasite. PMID:15104159

Poda, J N; Traoré, A; Sondo, B K

2004-02-01

72

Do Pčre David's Deer Lose Memories of Their Ancestral Predators?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Whether prey retains antipredator behavior after a long period of predator relaxation is an important question in predator-prey evolution. Pčre David's deer have been raised in enclosures for more than 1200 years and this isolation provides an opportunity to study whether Pčre David's deer still respond to the cues of their ancestral predators or to novel predators. We played back the sounds of crows (familiar sound) and domestic dogs (familiar non-predators), of tigers and wolves (ancestra...

Li, Chunwang; Yang, Xiaobo; Ding, Yuhua; Zhang, Linyuan; Fang, Hongxia; Tang, Songhua; Jiang, Zhigang

2011-01-01

73

Deer - a bioindicator for environmental pollution from nuclear accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the possibilities, the preconditions and limitations of using roe deer as biological indicators for the monitoring of anthropogenic and geogenic airborne materials as well as undesirable persistent materials. A practical example is introduced: Determination of the regional distribution of the radioactive cesium fallout in Bavaria after the Chernobyl accident and the fate of these radioisotopes in the roe deer game. The introduction of an ecological half-life for the radioisotopes of cesium is suggested. (orig.)

74

Conservation and game management of roe deer in Andalusia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At present roe deer distribution in Andalusia is limited to two population nuclei separated by the Guadalquivir River. The first one, more threatened by demographic extinction, is located in Sierra Morena, between Ciudad Real, Córdoba and Jaén provinces. The second one, relatively well conserved, is located in the mountainous zones of Cádiz-Málaga. The roe deer disappeared from many Andalusian areas mainly due to the disappearing of the suitable habitat for the species and to the increase...

C. San Josu00E9; Ndez-salguero, P. Fernu E.; Redondo, I.

2013-01-01

75

Arterial Thoracic Vascularization in Some Deer Species: Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), Brown Brocket Deer (Mazama gouazoubira) and Axis Deer (Axis axis).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the arterial distributions of the aortic arches of three deer species (Axis axis, Ozotoceros bezoarticus and Mazama gouazoubira) were described. The animals were dissected immediately after being found dead. Latex injection method was used to observe the vascularization of the thorax. The branching pattern of the arteries of the thoracic aorta in O. bezoarticus was similar to domestic ruminants. In the M. gouazoubira and A. axis, there were no bicarotid trunk. Interestingly, the first branch of the brachiocephalic trunk was the left costocervical trunk in A. axis. Then, brachiocephalic trunk was divided into right and left subclavian arteries. M. gouazoubira and A. axis in contrast to O. bezoarticus were different when compared with other ruminants, and the absence of bicarotid trunk was more striking than previous reports. PMID:24611999

Pérez, W; Erdo?an, S

2014-12-01

76

Identification and characterization of deer astroviruses  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The threat of emerging infectious viruses in humans requires a more effective approach regarding virus surveillance. A thorough understanding of virus diversity in wildlife provides epidemiological baseline information about pathogens and may lead to the identification of newly emerging pathogens in the future. In this study, diarrhoea samples from an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness in a Danish population of European roe deer were gathered for which no aetiological agent could be identified. Large-scale molecular RNA virus screening, based on host nucleic acid depletion, sequence-independent amplification and sequencing of partially purified viral RNA, revealed the presence of novel astroviruses, CcAstV-1 and CcAstV-2, in two of ten diarrhoea samples. Whether these viruses were responsible for causing diarrhoea remains to be determined. Phylogenetic analyses on amplified sequences showed that these viruses were most closely related to each other, were a novel species in the genus Mamastrovirus and may represent two different serotypes.

Smits, Saskia L.; van Leeuwen, Marije

2010-01-01

77

Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd`s unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd`s overall health and reproductive status.

Tiller, B.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Poston, T.M. [and others

1997-03-01

78

Radiological surveys of deer harvests on the Oak Ridge Reservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rapidly increasing number of deer/vehicle collisions on the Oak Ridge Reservation and contiguous lands resulted in the need for an aggressive method of reducing the deer population. Managed hunts on the reservation was the method chosen for this reduction, and the Oak Ridge Wildlife Management Area was established in November 1984. Because of possible radiological contamination of the deer herd from the three major nuclear installations on the reservation, a rigorous radiological survey of all harvested deer was deemed necessary to ensure that successful hunters or their families would not be exposed to excess radiation dose from the consumption of venison from the managed hunts. Data collected from previous vehicle-killed deer showed the possibility of contamination from 137Cs, 90Sr, 60Co, and 75Se. Methodology for 90Sr screening at a 0.25-mSv commitment required special considerations for field analysis since 90Sr decays by beta emission. A versatile data-base program was established with a personal computer system to handle the copious data related to both radiological and biological parameters collected during the harvest. The field screen values were verified by subsequent laboratory analyses utilizing Cerenkov counting. These verification analyses proved the utility of the field methodology for 90Sr detection in deer bones at the 1 Bq/g screening leveling level

79

Shifts in Species Interactions Due to the Evolution of Functional Differences between Endemics and Non-Endemics: An Endemic Syndrome Hypothesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Species ranges have been shifting since the Pleistocene, whereby fragmentation, isolation, and the subsequent reduction in gene flow have resulted in local adaptation of novel genotypes and the repeated evolution of endemic species. While there is a wide body of literature focused on understanding endemic species, very few studies empirically test whether or not the evolution of endemics results in unique function or ecological differences relative to their widespread congeners; in particular while controlling for environmental variation. Using a common garden composed of 15 Eucalyptus species within the subgenus Symphyomyrtus (9 endemic to Tasmania, 6 non-endemic), here we hypothesize and show that endemic species are functionally and ecologically different from non-endemics. Compared to non-endemics, endemic Eucalyptus species have a unique suite of functional plant traits that have extended effects on herbivores. We found that while endemics occupy many diverse habitats, they share similar functional traits potentially resulting in an endemic syndrome of traits. This study provides one of the first empirical datasets analyzing the functional differences between endemics and non-endemics in a common garden setting, and establishes a foundation for additional studies of endemic/non-endemic dynamics that will be essential for understanding global biodiversity in the midst of rapid species extinctions and range shifts as a consequence of global change. PMID:25340402

Gorman, Courtney E.; Potts, Brad M.; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; Bailey, Joseph K.

2014-01-01

80

Environmental Monitoring of Endemic Cholera  

Science.gov (United States)

Cholera remains a major public health threat. Since Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease, is autochthonous to riverine, estuarine, and coastal waters, it is unlikely the bacteria can be eradicated from its natural habitat. Prediction of disease, in conjunction with preventive vaccination can reduce the prevalence rate of a disease. Understanding the influence of environmental parameters on growth and proliferation of bacteria is an essential first step in developing prediction methods for outbreaks. Large scale geophysical variables, such as SST and coastal chlorophyll, are often associated with conditions favoring growth of V. cholerae. However, local environmental factors, meaning biological activity in ponds from where the bulk of populations in endemic regions derive water for daily usage, are either neglected or oversimplified. Using data collected from several sites in two geographically distinct locations in South Asia, we have identified critical local environmental factors associated with cholera outbreak. Of 18 environmental variables monitored for water sources in Mathbaria (a coastal site near the Bay of Bengal) and Bakergonj (an inland site) of Bangladesh, water depth and chlorophyll were found to be important factors associated with initiation of cholera outbreaks. Cholera in coastal regions appears to be related to intrusion. However, monsoonal flooding creates conditions for cholera epidemics in inland regions. This may be one of the first attempts to relate in-situ environmental observations with cholera. We anticipate that it will be useful for further development of prediction models in the resource constrained regions.

ElNemr, W.; Jutla, A. S.; Constantin de Magny, G.; Hasan, N. A.; Islam, M.; Sack, R.; Huq, A.; Hashem, F.; Colwell, R.

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

First seropositive cases of Coxiella burnetii in red deer populations in the southwest Iberian peninsula.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in different red deer populations and to investigate role of red deer densities, livestock, and habitat on seroprevalence. The serosurvey revealed 5 positive cases out of 137 sera (3.64%) that occurred in two of the three study areas. This study documents the first cases of Coxiella burnetii in red deer in the southwest Iberian peninsula. A relationship between deer density and Coxiella seroprevalence was not found. Results revealed that indirect transmission through ticks between livestock and red deer might be associated with higher prevalence. The timing of shelter area usage may influence the contact between ticks and red deer by favoring transmission. Coxiella burnetii in red deer may be associated with infertility or early abortions with reabsorption. Further research is needed to evaluate its epidemiology and effect on the disease dynamics of red deer in the southwest Iberian peninsula. PMID:20945645

Castillo, Leticia; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Carranza Almansa, Juan; Bermejo, Félix; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

2010-09-01

82

Wolf, Canis lupus, visits towhite-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, summer ranges: Optimal foraging?  

Science.gov (United States)

We tested whether Wolf (Canis lupus) visits to individual female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) summer ranges during 2003 and 2004 in northeastern Minnesota were in accord with optimal-foraging theory. Using GPS collars with 10- to 30-minute location attempts on four Wolves and five female deer, plus eleven VHF-collared female deer in the Wolves' territory, provided new insights into the frequency of Wolf visits to summer ranges of female deer. Wolves made a mean 0.055 visits/day to summer ranges of deer three years and older, significantly more than their 0.032 mean visits/day to ranges of two-year-old deer, which generally produce fewer fawns, and most Wolf visits to ranges of older deer were much longer than those to ranges of younger deer. Because fawns comprise the major part of the Wolf's summer diet, this Wolf behavior accords with optimal-foraging theory.

Demma, D. J.; Mech, L. D.

2009-01-01

83

Fatty Acid Profiles and Cholesterol Composition of Venison from Farmed Deer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is important to evaluate venison characteristics as a new high quality red meat in the meat marketing system. This information is vital to ensure their commercial success and dietary benefits. The aim of this study is to determine the venison quality from farmed deer according to cuts or muscles based on fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content and to do comparative study on venison quality between species of farmed deer (rusa, sambar, fallow and imported red deer and feeding regimens, i.e., grass-fed vs concentrate-fed venison. The samples of venison were derived from javan rusa (Cervus timorensis russa, moluccan rusa (Cervus timorensis moluccensis, sambar (Cervus unicolor brookei, fallow (Dama dama and imported red deer (Cervus elaphus. Moluccan rusa and red deer were grass-fed deer. Javan rusa, sambar and fallow deer were concentrate-fed deer. Cholesterol content in Longissimus Dorsi (LD muscles of sambar, fallow and rusa deer were 75.36, 76.61 and 77.58 mg/100g of fresh venison, respectively. Cholesterol content in Biceps Femoris (BF muscles of moluccan rusa, sambar, fallow and red deer were 56.61, 59.26, 86.37 and 98.44 mg/100g of fresh venison, respectively. Concentrate-fed deer LD and Psoas Major (PM muscles show higher C18:2 (n-6 than grass-fed deer. Grass-fed rusa deer shows the highest C18:3 (n- 3 percentages in PM muscle. Grass-fed rusa and red deer gave an ideal n-6:n-3 ratio of less than 5. Species of deer did not influence n-6:n-3 ratio and fatty acid composition in venison. Feeding regimens (grass-fed vs concentrate-fed significantly (p< 0.05 influence n-6:n-3 ratio, fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content in the venison of farmed deer in this study.

N.A. Norfarizan-Hanoon

2007-01-01

84

Impacts of endangered Key deer hervivory on imperiled pine rocklands: a conservation dilemma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the lower Florida Keys, endangered Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium herbivory, along with fire, can affect pine rocklands, an endangered plant community. We compared pineland vegetation from three studies over approximately 50 years on four islands with either high or low deer density (historical analysis. We also compared extant vegetation samples between two islands with high or low deer density, which contained pinelands burned 10 years and 14 years prior to sampling and control areas (unburned for > 50yr. In addition, experimental deer exclosures and control plots established in pineland were prescribe burned and analyzed for deer effects on an island with high density of Key deer. The historical analysis suggests that, over time, deer-preferred plant species declined while less-preferred species increased, regardless of fire history on islands. The extant vegetation analysis suggests that fire and Key deer herbivory both reduce hardwood plant density and growth. Densities of deer-preferred woody species were higher on an island with low deer density than on an island with high deer density in burn treatments, but relatively similar in control areas. On the high deer density island, a fire effect was evident in that the control area had higher densities of woody species than burned areas, and herbaceous species richness was higher in the control area, indicating a possible refuge from deer herbivory. In deer exclosures, preferred woody species and herbaceous species tended to increase after fire, but decrease in adjacent open plots. Results suggest that Key deer herbivory, along with fire, shapes pine rockland plant communities, and that overbrowsing might have substantial impacts on preferred herbaceous and woody species in pinelands. Therefore, efforts could be confounded in managing both the endangered Key deer and the endangered pine rocklands that they affect.

P. Stiling

2006-01-01

85

Relationship between diet and liver carcinomas in roe deer in Kielder Forest and Galloway Forest  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The winter diets of roe deer culled from Kielder Forest, in north-east England, where the incidence of liver carcinomas in roe deer is high, and Galloway Forest, in south-west Scotland, where the incidence of liver carcinomas is low, were compared by microhistological analysis of faeces. Both areas are planted with spruce forests but the diets of the deer from Kielder Forest were less varied and contained more spruce and heather than the diets of the deer from Galloway Forest.

Jong, C. B.; Wieren, S. E.; Gill, R. M. A.; Munro, R.

2004-01-01

86

Environmental and strategic uncertainty in common property management : the case of Scottish red deer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The range of red deer populations in the Scottish Highlands can cover several different landholdings (estates), many of which derive their income primarily from the private hunting (stalking) of stags. The deer belong to nobody and their seasonal movement does not respect the boundaries of individual estates, but a 'rule of capture' does apply as, once shot, the deer become the property of the estate owner. This paper argues that deer populations would best be managed as a common property res...

Bullock, Craig

1999-01-01

87

Fifty years of Balkan endemic nephropathy: daunting questions, elusive answers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) has remained a geographically constant endemic for 50 years. Despite extensive research, its etiology remains unknown. In the current issue, in a study in one of the earliest sites where the endemic was first recognized, Dimitrov et al. confirm the persistance of the endemic into a new generation and also identify a maternal link in the pathogenesis of BEN. This intriguing finding needs to be confirmed in other endemic areas. PMID:16467889

Batuman, V

2006-02-01

88

Polonium assimilation and retention in mule deer and pronghorn antelope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Excretion kinetics and tissue distribution of polonium-210 in mule deer and pronghorn were studied. Each animal in a captive herd of 7 mule deer and 2 pronghorn received an intraruminal injection of 4.4 ?Ci of polonium chloride. Feces and urine were collected periodically over a 43-day period and daily excretion rate for each pathway was regressed as a function of time. Assimilation fractions of 0.40 and 0.51 were calculated for mule deer (n=2) and 0.60 for a pronghorn. Body burden retention functions were calculated from integrated excretion rate functions. Polonium burdens in muscle, liver, and kidney were calculated as a fraction of body burden from serially-sacrificed animals. Background tissue burdens in mule deer were comparable to those of other ruminants reported in the literature. Hypothetical cases were assumed which combined feeding rate of mule deer, forage concentrations of polonium, retention function, tissue burden fraction, and human intake to estimate human radiation dose. 26 references

89

Melatonin promotes superovulation in sika deer (Cervus nippon).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the effects of melatonin (MT) on superovulation and reproductive hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and PRL) were investigated in female sika deer. Different doses (40 or 80 mg/animal) of melatonin were subcutaneously implanted into deer before the breeding season. Exogenous melatonin administration significantly elevated the serum FSH levels at the time of insemination compared with levels in control animals. During superovulation, the serum LH levels in donor sika deer reached their highest values (7.1±2.04 ng/mL) at the point of insemination, compared with the baseline levels (4.98±0.07 ng/mL) in control animals. This high level of LH was sustained until the day of embryo recovery. In contrast, the serum levels of PRL in the 80 mg of melatonin-treated group were significantly lower than those of control deer. The average number of corpora lutea in melatonin-treated deer was significantly higher than that of the control (p0.05), which may be related to the relatively small sample size. In addition, embryonic development in melatonin-treated groups was delayed. PMID:25007067

Wang, Liang; Zhuo, Zhi-Yong; Shi, Wen-Qing; Tan, Dun-Xian; Gao, Chao; Tian, Xiu-Zhi; Zhang, Lu; Zhou, Guang-Bin; Zhu, Shi-En; Yun, Peng; Liu, Guo-Shi

2014-01-01

90

An Assessment of Agricultural Damage Caused by Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L.and Fallow Deer (Dama dama L. in Southwest England  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impact of deer grazing on agricultural grassland and cereal crops was assessed at two locations with medium to high deer densities in the Exmoor area of southwest England. Red deer impact on early spring grazing was measured at one site by comparing samples of herbage cut from inside and outside deer-proof exclosure cages, just prior to turn out of livestock, on 1 March 1989. Fallow deer impact on first-cut silage grass production was similarly measured using exclosure cages at a second site by cutting samples on 31 May 1990 and on 6 June 1995. In addition, impact of fallow deer on cereal crops was assessed at this site by measuring sample grain yields from areas of the crop used or unused by deer in 1995 (winter wheat, 1996 (winter barley and 1997 (winter wheat. Significant dry matter yield losses were recorded for red deer impact on spring grazing in 1989 (14.5% and for fallow deer impact on first-cut silage (15.9% in 1995 but not in 1990. In 1995 a small but significant yield loss (7.1% was recorded for winter wheat at the fallow deer site but no loss in cereal yield was recorded in 1996 or 1997. These assessments, carried out in response to complaints about deer damage, suggest that the impacts of deer in this area, where they occur at relatively high density, are only moderate. This highlights the need for careful assessment of cost-benefits when considering deer management strategies to reduce perceived agricultural damage.

Charles John Wilson

2009-12-01

91

Vaccination with BM86, subolesin and akirin protective antigens for the control of tick infestations in white tailed deer and red deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are hosts for different tick species and tick-borne pathogens and play a role in tick dispersal and maintenance in some regions. These factors stress the importance of controlling tick infestations in deer and several methods such as culling and acaricide treatment have been used. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective alternative for tick control that reduced cattle tick infestations and tick-borne pathogens prevalence while reducing the use of acaricides. Our hypothesis is that vaccination with vector protective antigens can be used for the control of tick infestations in deer. Herein, three experiments were conducted to characterize (1) the antibody response in red deer immunized with recombinant BM86, the antigen included in commercial tick vaccines, (2) the antibody response and control of cattle tick infestations in white-tailed deer immunized with recombinant BM86 or tick subolesin (SUB) and experimentally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and (3) the antibody response and control of Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. field tick infestations in red deer immunized with mosquito akirin (AKR), the SUB ortholog and candidate protective antigen against different tick species and other ectoparasites. The results showed that deer produced an antibody response that correlated with the reduction in tick infestations and was similar to other hosts vaccinated previously with these antigens. The overall vaccine efficacy was similar between BM86 (E=76%) and SUB (E=83%) for the control of R. microplus infestations in white-tailed deer. The field trial in red deer showed a 25-33% (18-40% when only infested deer were considered) reduction in tick infestations, 14-20 weeks after the first immunization. These results demonstrated that vaccination with vector protective antigens could be used as an alternative method for the control of tick infestations in deer to reduce tick populations and dispersal in regions where deer are relevant hosts for these ectoparasites. PMID:22079077

Carreón, Diana; de la Lastra, José M Pérez; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Boadella, Mariana; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Villar, Margarita; Gortázar, Christian; Reglero, Manuel; Villarreal, Ricardo; de la Fuente, José

2012-01-01

92

Removal of cesium from red deer meat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect was studied of marinading on the reduction of cesium radionuclide activity in red deer meat contaminated by ingestion of feed containing 134Cs+137Cs from radioactive fallout following the Chernobyl accident. Two types of marinade were studied, viz., a vinegar infusion and a vinegar infusion with an addition of vegetables and spices. The meat was chopped to cubes of about 1.5 cm in size and the marinading process took place at temperatures of 5 and 11 degC. The drop of cesium content in the meat was determined by gamma spectrometry at given time intervals. The replacement of the marinade and the duration of the process were found to maximally affect efficiency. If the solution was not replaced, about 80% of cesium radionuclides were removed after seven hours of marinading. With one replacement of the infusion the drop in 134Cs+137Cs radioactivity amounted to up to 90% after seven hours of marinading. No effects were shown of vegetable additions to the vinegar infusion and of the change in temperature from 5 to 11 degC on the efficiency of the process. (author). 3 tabs., 6 refs

93

Discounted Deer Quality Value as a Criterion for Deer Management Decisions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Discounted cash flow analysis is a standard financial tool that considers the time value of money and calculates the present value of a future sum of money. A model was developed using the same concept to estimate discounted deer quality value of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus herd based on the value and survival rate(s by sex, age. These values are discounted, using market interest rate as the discount rate and as the measure of the time value. The model was used to determine the optimum age for harvest of antlered bucks in commercial hunting operations. Based on discount rate, value by age and quality, and survival rates, optimum harvest age varied from 1.5 years to 5.5 years. Survival rate (s was fundamental in determination of optimal harvest ages. The model was also used to examine the feasibility of management practices aimed at increasing or improving herd condition. Assuming a discount rate of 10% and increasing values for bucks ranging from 1.5 to 5.5 years of age, the optimum harvest ages produced ranged from 5.5 years when s ? 80% and 1.5 years when s < 60%.

Thomas James Straka

2011-06-01

94

FOUR DECADES OF ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY IN MEZGRAJA  

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Full Text Available Mezgraja village, situated on the right bank of the river South Morava, has presented the focus of endemic nephropathy for the last four decades. The eight and ninth decade of the last century, distinguish the high prevalence of endemic nephropathy, but the last decade is characterized by the degradation in prevalence of this disease in Mezgraja.The present section research includes 67% of the population in Mezgraja. They have implied through anamneses, physical check and the examination of the first morning urine. In 27% of testees, a different urine abnormality was recorded (proteinuria, glicosuria, microhematuria, leucocituria. The persons with urine abnormality were subjected to the additional clinical investigation in the Department of nephrology and haemodialisis.In the course of section research as well as the additional aspire clinical research, different kidney diseases were discovered in 4,18% of the testees, such as: endemic nephropathy (0,52%, cystic disease of kidney (0,52%, renal calculosa (1,04%, and diabetic nephropathy (2,08%. The prevalence of endemic nephropathy is therefore on the level of the previous one, dating from the year of 1966.All the attained data represent the base for the further prospective analysis of the clinical-epidemiological characteristic of endemic nephropathy. The descending rate of this disease in the last decade rejoice, but it should not baffle and discourage the researchers as it can mean only one "lull before storm".

Dejan Zdravkovi?

2003-07-01

95

A new gene mapping resource: Interspecies hybrids between Pere David`s deer (Elaphurus davidianus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three male F{sub 1} hybrids between Pere David`s deer and red deer were mated to red deer to produce 143 backcross calves. The pedigrees are a rare example of a fertile hybrid between evolutionarily divergent species. We examined the use of these families for genetic mapping of evolutionarily conserved (Type I) loci by testing for genetic linkage between five species-specific protein variants and 12 conserved DNA probes. Two probes were homologous, and the remainder syntenic, to the protein coding loci in cattle or humans. Using six restriction enzymes, each DNA probe detected one or more restriction fragments specific to Pere David`s deer. Linkage analyses among the species-specific variants placed the loci into four linkage groups within which linkage between adjacent loci and gene order was supported by a LOD > 3. Southern and protein analysis of LDHA and ALB provided identical segregation data. These linkage groups were consistent with the cattle gene map and provide new information for comparing the gene maps of ruminants, humans and mice. The deer hybrids are an important new resource that can contribute to the comparative analysis of the mammalian genome. 68 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Tate, M.L.; Mathias, H.C.; Penty, J.M.; Hill, D.F. [Univ. of Otago (New Zealand); Fennessy, P.F.; Dodds, K.G. [Invermay Agricultural Centre, Mosgiel (New Zealand)

1995-03-01

96

THE YIELD OF DNA IN THERMAL TERATED DEER MEAT  

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Full Text Available Residuals of DNA are one of the most important factors for detection, traceability and reverse authentication of deer meat. In this project we isolated DNA from deer processed meat and analysed by electrophoresis. Goal of the study was compute ratio between raw meat and several heat processed deer meat. Samples were prepared by five heat treatment techniques (pan roasted with temperature 180-240°C, fried with 156°C, braised with temperature 100-150°C, boiled in 100.2°C water and autoclaved in different time intervals. The highest amount of residual DNA 1927ng was obtained with two hours boiled sample. The lowest value 89.89ng was obtained with one hour braised sample. In technological adjustments highest amount of DNA and 1927ng, so the total yield of 192.7ng.-l was observed in the sample we cooked for two hours at boiling temperature.   doi:10.5219/153 

Jozef Golian

2011-07-01

97

Clinical significance of neurocysticercosis in endemic villages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cerebral cysticercosis is the main cause of late-onset epilepsy in most developing countries. Data on the neuroepidemiology of cysticercosis in endemic populations is scarce. In an endemic village on the northern coast of Peru, 49 individuals with neurological symptomatology (41 epileptic and 8 non-epileptic) were screened for antibodies to Taenia solium, using a serum electroimmuno transfer blot assay. Fifteen subjects were seropositive, 14 (34%) of those with epilepsy but only one (13%) of those who were non-epileptic. A history of passing proglottides was associated with positive serology. Thirteen of the 15 seropositive individuals underwent cerebral computed tomography; only 7 (54%) were abnormal. A randomly selected sample of 20 pigs from the village was also tested, and 6 (30%) were seropositive. This study demonstrated the importance of cysticercosis in the aetiology of epilepsy in endemic villages and the close relationship between porcine and human infection

98

Relationship of anemia to Balkan endemic nephropathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anemia has been reported to be an early sign of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) occurring before the serum creatinine is elevated. This study was designed to determine if anemia occurred more frequently in an otherwise 'healthy' population living in an area where BEN is endemic when compared to a control population. Also, we wished to determine if any relationship existed between anemia and beta 2-microglobulinuria (beta 2mu) in these populations. The prevalence of anemia in the control village population was 7%, compared to 21.4% of the at-risk village population. These data suggest that anemia is a part of the pathophysiologic picture of endemic nephropathy, and that anemia can be found in an early, non-azotemic phase of the kidney disease. PMID:1762333

Hrabar, A; Ceovi?, S; Aleraj, B; Cvoriscec, D; Hall, P W

1991-11-01

99

A 3-decade dearth of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a wolf (Canis lupus)-dominated ecosystem  

Science.gov (United States)

Some 30 years after wolves (Canis lupus) were implicated in decimating wintering white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a 3000-km2 area of northeastern Minnesota, winter deer still have not recolonized the area. Although habitat in the study area generally remains poor, some regeneration has taken place, and deer have increased adjacent to the area. However, wolf numbers have persisted by preying on moose (Alces alces). We could detect no reason other than wolf predation and deer migration traditions for why wintering deer have not recolonized the area.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

2006-01-01

100

Naturalization and current state of fallow deer (cervus dama) population in lithuanian  

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In Lithuania, fallow-deer appeared in parks at the 17-19 c. Supposedly they disappeared after the Second World War. In 1976-1977 up to 1988, 9 warrens were set up where fallow-deer were bred which gave start for fallow deer living in freedom in Lithuania. Under the last ten years in Lithuania, fallow deer increased in number. According to official data, in 1997, in eleven districts fallow deer amounted to 470, while in 2008, they amounted to 720 in twelve districts. In 1997, there were 81 fal...

Uzdras, Remigijus

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Reindeer warble fly larvae found in red deer  

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Full Text Available Seven third instar larvae of the reindeer warble fly (Hypoderma (=Oedemagena tarandi were found in a 2-3 year old male red deer {Cervus elaphus shot on 14 November 1985 at Todalen, western Norway. This it, the first report of H. tarandi from red deer. In reindeer third instar larvae are found from February to June, and the unusual date of this record indicates a delayed development of the larvae due to abnormal host reactions. Warble fly larvae, probably H. tarandi, are also reported from moose {Alces alces in northern Norway.

J. O. Gjershaug

1988-06-01

102

Prevention of endemic goitre with iodized salt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper describes a study, carried out over 16 years, of the use of iodized salt for the control of endemic goitre in a valley of the Himalayan foothills. From 1956, salt was fortified with either potassium iodide or potassium iodate to provide an estimated daily intake of 200 mug per head. There was a progressive and significant decline in goitre prevalence, together with a return of the pattern of iodine metabolism to within normal limits. It is concluded that endemic goitre can be successfully controlled by iodization of domestic salt. PMID:4546523

Sooch, S S; Deo, M G; Karmarkar, M G; Kochupillai, N; Ramachandran, K; Ramalingaswami, V

1973-01-01

103

Glycolytic potential and ultimate muscle pH values in red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama  

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Full Text Available The ultimate pH value of meat (measured at approx. 24 hours post slaughter gives information about the technological quality, i.e. shelf life, colour, water-holding properties and tenderness and is a direct consequence of muscle glycogen (energy levels at slaughter. It may therefore also indicate whether or not the animal has been exposed to stressful energy depleting events prior to slaughter. In the present study, 141 animals (130 red deer (Cervus elaphus and 11 fallow deer (Dama dama were included to investigate the relationship between ultimate pH and residual glycogen concentration in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus. In addition, the muscle glycogen content and ultimate pH values in three red deer muscles (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus and biceps femoris were studied. M. triceps brachii had higher ultimate pH and lower glycogen content compared with the other two studied muscles. The frequency of intermediate DFD (5.8? pH<6.2 was 5.4% in red deer M. longissimus, compared with 9.1% in fallow deer, while the frequency of DFD (pH? 6.2 was much lower in red deer (3.8% than in fallow deer (54.5%. A curvilinear relationship between ultimate pH and total glucose concentration (glycogen and glucose 30 min post slaughter in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus was found. The relationship between muscle pH and lactic acid concentration however, was indicated to be linear. A significant variation in total glucose concentration at ultimate pH below 5.80 was observed, including values in the range from 18 to 123 mmol/kg wet tissue. It was concluded that further studies are needed to further explore the relationship between muscle glycogen content and technological and sensory quality attributes of meat from different deer species.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:Köttets pH-värde (mätt ca 24 timmar efter slakt har stor betydelse för den teknologiska kvaliteten som t. ex. hĺllbarhet, färg, vattenhĺllande förmĺga och mörhet. Glykogenförrĺdet (energinivĺn i djurens muskulatur vid slakt är helt avgörande för köttets slutliga pH-värde. Därför kan pH-värdet ocksĺ indikera om hanteringen av slaktdjur varit skonsam eller om stora mängder muskelenergi har förbrukats vid stress. I vĺr undersökning ingick 141 hjortar (130 kronhjortar (Cervus elaphus och 11 dovhjortar (Dama dama för att studera sambandet mellan köttets pH-värde och glykogeninnehĺllet i M. longissimus. Glykogeninnehĺll och pH-värden i 3 muskler frĺn kronhjort (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus och biceps femoris undersöktes ocksĺ. M. triceps brachii hade högre pH-värde och lägre glykogeninnehĺll jämfört med de tvĺ andra musklerna. Det var inte sĺ stor skillnad i frekvensen av intermediär DFD (pH-värden mellan 5,8 og 6,2 mellan de tvĺ hjortarterna (5,4% för kronhjort och 9,1% för dovhjort, däremot var frekvensen av DFD (pH-värden över 6,2 mycket lĺg hos kronhjort (3,8% jämfört med dovhjort (54,5%. Det fanns ett kurvlinjärt samband mellan slutligt pH-värde i köttet och total glukoskoncentration (glykogen + glukos mätt i M. longissimus 30 min efter slakt för bĺde kron- och dovhjort. Ett linjärt samband mellan pH-värde och koncentration av mjölksyra i M. longissimus kunde ocksĺ visas. Vi fann en mycket stor varitation i glukoskoncentration (18?123 mmol/kg vĺtvikt när köttets pH-värdet var 5,8 eller lägre. Det behövs fler undersökningar för att vidare klargöra sambanden mellan glykogeninnehĺll i muskulaturen och teknologisk och sensorisk kvalitet i olika typer av hjortkött.

Eva Wiklund

2004-04-01

104

Glycolytic potential and ultimate muscle pH values in red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The ultimate pH value of meat (measured at approx. 24 hours post slaughter gives information about the technological quality, i.e. shelf life, colour, water-holding properties and tenderness and is a direct consequence of muscle glycogen (energy levels at slaughter. It may therefore also indicate whether or not the animal has been exposed to stressful energy depleting events prior to slaughter. In the present study, 141 animals (130 red deer (Cervus elaphus and 11 fallow deer (Dama dama were included to investigate the relationship between ultimate pH and residual glycogen concentration in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus. In addition, the muscle glycogen content and ultimate pH values in three red deer muscles (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus and biceps femoris were studied. M. triceps brachii had higher ultimate pH and lower glycogen content compared with the other two studied muscles. The frequency of intermediate DFD (5.8? pH<6.2 was 5.4% in red deer M. longissimus, compared with 9.1% in fallow deer, while the frequency of DFD (pH? 6.2 was much lower in red deer (3.8% than in fallow deer (54.5%. A curvilinear relationship between ultimate pH and total glucose concentration (glycogen and glucose 30 min post slaughter in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus was found. The relationship between muscle pH and lactic acid concentration however, was indicated to be linear. A significant variation in total glucose concentration at ultimate pH below 5.80 was observed, including values in the range from 18 to 123 mmol/kg wet tissue. It was concluded that further studies are needed to further explore the relationship between muscle glycogen content and technological and sensory quality attributes of meat from different deer species.

Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:

Köttets pH-värde (mätt ca 24 timmar efter slakt har stor betydelse för den teknologiska kvaliteten som t. ex. hĺllbarhet, färg, vattenhĺllande förmĺga och mörhet. Glykogenförrĺdet (energinivĺn i djurens muskulatur vid slakt är helt avgörande för köttets slutliga pH-värde. Därför kan pH-värdet ocksĺ indikera om hanteringen av slaktdjur varit skonsam eller om stora mängder muskelenergi har förbrukats vid stress. I vĺr undersökning ingick 141 hjortar (130 kronhjortar (Cervus elaphus och 11 dovhjortar (Dama dama för att studera sambandet mellan köttets pH-värde och glykogeninnehĺllet i M. longissimus. Glykogeninnehĺll och pH-värden i 3 muskler frĺn kronhjort (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus och biceps femoris undersöktes ocksĺ. M. triceps brachii hade högre pH-värde och lägre glykogeninnehĺll jämfört med de tvĺ andra musklerna. Det var inte sĺ stor skillnad i frekvensen av intermediär DFD (pH-värden mellan 5,8 og 6,2 mellan de tvĺ hjortarterna (5,4% för kronhjort och 9,1% för dovhjort, däremot var frekvensen av DFD (pH-värden över 6,2 mycket lĺg hos kronhjort (3,8% jämfört med dovhjort (54,5%. Det fanns ett kurvlinjärt samband mellan slutligt pH-värde i köttet och total glukoskoncentration (glykogen + glukos mätt i M. longissimus 30 min efter slakt för bĺde kron- och dovhjort. Ett linjärt samband mellan pH-värde och koncentration av mjölksyra i M. longissimus kunde ocksĺ visas. Vi fann en mycket stor varitation i glukoskoncentration (18?123 mmol/kg vĺtvikt när köttets pH-värdet var 5,8 eller lägre. Det behövs fler undersökningar för att vidare klargöra sambanden mellan glykogeninnehĺll i muskulaturen och teknologisk och sensorisk kvalitet i olika typer av hjortkött.

Roger P. Littlejohn

2004-04-01

105

The Association of BDNF Gene Variants with Behaviour Traits in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon  

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Full Text Available It is widely accepted that Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF is involved in modulating behaviour performance induced by environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to study polymorphisms of the BDNF gene and their relationship with animal behaviour in sika deer (Cervus nippon. About 48 sika deer reared under Ping-Shan-Tang Farm (25 deers and Zhu-Yu-Wan Park (23 deers, Yangzhou City, Jiangsu province, China were observed and blood samples taken to identify BDNF genotypes. Data were subjected to ANOVA analysis to evaluate the link between genotype and animal behaviour traits. After PCR and electrophoresis, polymorphisms were found in two pairs of primers. At primer P-4, AA genotype (26 deer rested significantly less than BB genotype (16 deers (p<0.05. The AA genotype deer also performed significantly more locomotion behaviour (p = 0.001. At the primer P-5, deer of genotypes CC/DD/CD differed significantly in their watching behaviour. Deer of genotype CC performed significantly less resting and self-grooming behaviour than deer of genotypes CD or DD (both p<0.05. The findings suggest that polymorphisms in BDNF may be involved in some aspects of animal behaviour traits especially in the high sensitive sika deer reared for several years in China park.

Wei Wan-Hong

2011-01-01

106

Inbreeding depression in red deer calves  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the fitness consequences of inbreeding is of major importance for evolutionary and conservation biology. However, there are few studies using pedigree-based estimates of inbreeding or investigating the influence of environment and age variation on inbreeding depression in natural populations. Here we investigated the consequences of variation in inbreeding coefficient for three juvenile traits, birth date, birth weight and first year survival, in a wild population of red deer, considering both calf and mother's inbreeding coefficient. We also tested whether inbreeding depression varied with environmental conditions and maternal age. Results We detected non-zero inbreeding coefficients for 22% of individuals with both parents and at least one grandparent known (increasing to 42% if the dataset was restricted to those with four known grandparents. Inbreeding depression was evident for birth weight and first year survival but not for birth date: the first year survival of offspring with an inbreeding coefficient of 0.25 was reduced by 77% compared to offspring with an inbreeding coefficient of zero. However, it was independent of measures of environmental variation and maternal age. The effect of inbreeding on birth weight appeared to be driven by highly inbred individuals (F = 0.25. On the other hand first year survival showed strong inbreeding depression that was not solely driven by individuals with the highest inbreeding coefficients, corresponding to an estimate of 4.35 lethal equivalents. Conclusions These results represent a rare demonstration of inbreeding depression using pedigree-based estimates in a wild mammal population and highlight the potential strength of effects on key components of fitness.

Walling Craig A

2011-10-01

107

Distribution of Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster in Neelum Valley, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir  

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Full Text Available To study the present and past distribution of Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster Survey in Neelum valley, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir was conducted from April to November 2002, Findings show that Musk deer is distributed throughout the Neelum valley. Poaching, deforestation and trans human grazing resulted in scattering of population of the musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster into separate pockets. Population of the musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster recorded from the area is 120 animals. Investigation indicates Musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster resides at low altitude as compared to other areas reported from Pakistan. Seasonal migration of musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster was also noted as a result of Trans-human grazing in summer in summer. To conserve the dwindling population of musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster from Neelum Valley there must be expansion of Salkhla game reserve up to palri and Gail along with the law enforcement and awareness campaign.

Baseer ud Din Qureshi

2004-01-01

108

Health status and relative exposure of mule deer and white-tailed deer to soil contaminants at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer [13 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and 5 white-tailed deer (O. virginianus)] from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, near Denver, Colorado, USA, a Superfund site contaminated with a variety of materials, including organochlorine pesticides, metals and nerve gas production by-products. Radio-collared deer were tracked for 1 to 3 years (1989--1992) to identify relative exposure to contaminants based on telemetry locations plotted on grid maps depicting known soil contaminant concentrations. At the end of the study, all animals were in fair or good body condition at the time of necropsy. Mean ages of mule deer and white-tailed deer were 7.4 and 10.6 years, respectively. At necropsy, tissues were collected from the deer for serology, histopathology, and analysis for eight chlorinated hydrocarbons and two metals. Detectable residues of mercury were found in the kidneys of 10 deer, dieldrin was found in fat, liver, and brain, and DDE was found in the muscle of one animal. Relative exposure estimates derived from telemetry and soil contamination data were correlated with tissue levels of dieldrin and mercury. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. The prevalence of antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85%.

Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C. [Geological Survey, Madison, WI (United States). National Wildlife Health Center; Whittaker, D.G. [Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR (United States); Roy, R.R. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Commerce City, CO (United States). Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge]|[Fish and Wildlife Service, Moses Lake, WA (United States). Moses Lake Field Office; Baker, D.L. [Colorado Div. of Wildlife, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1999-02-01

109

Hepatic mineral values of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Virginia.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a lack of information on mineral requirements of free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). In addition, mineral deficiencies or excesses may play a role in the development of parasitism/malnutrition syndrome. We measured hepatic mineral values in apparently healthy white-tailed deer from two sites in Virginia, USA, as well as in deer with presumptive parasitism/malnutrition syndrome during 2005-2007. Deer with presumptive parasitism/malnutrition syndrome that were displaying signs of emaciation and chronic diarrhea had significantly higher mean hepatic levels of magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) compared with healthy deer. Healthy deer in our study from northern Virginia, USA (i.e., Fairfax, Fauquier, Loudoun, and Prince William counties) had significantly lower mean hepatic selenium (Se) levels compared with deer from Nottoway County, Virginia, USA, which is 200 km distant. Healthy deer from northern Virginia, USA, also had significantly lower mean hepatic cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), and molybdenum (Mo) levels. Adult deer had significantly higher mean levels of hepatic iron (Fe) compared with fawns. In addition, male deer had significantly higher mean hepatic Co levels compared with female deer. The significantly higher mean (+/-SD) level of Zn in sick deer from northern Virginia, USA (78.7+/-54.9 microg/g versus 35.8+/-7.4 microg/g in healthy deer) is potentially clinically significant, although no signs consistent with Zn poisoning were observed. All deer in our study from northern Virginia, USA, had marginal or deficient levels of Cu (mean+/-SD=27.4+/-18.3 microg/g) and Se (mean=0.08+/-0.03 microg/g), which may be predisposing this population to the development of parasitism/malnutrition syndrome. PMID:20688645

Sleeman, Jonathan M; Magura, Karl; Howell, Jay; Rohm, John; Murphy, Lisa A

2010-04-01

110

ENDEMIC WATERBORNE DISEASE: BENNETT-TYPE  

Science.gov (United States)

Bennett et al. attempted to estimate national waterborne disease (endemic and epidemic) in 1985 by using both actual data and estimates by CDC experts. These investigators reported that 940,000 cases of waterborne disease and 900 associated deaths could have occurred in the U.S. ...

111

Diseases of white-tailed deer. Chapter 5. Neoplasia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data on the occurrence and etiology of neoplasms in native populations of white-tailed deer are reviewed. Cutaneous fibromas, non-progressive lesions considered to be of viral etiology, are discussed in detail. The clinical signs associated with other benign and malignant neoplasms are discussed briefly. 30 references.

Cosgrove, G. E.; Satterfield, L. D.; Nettles, V. F.

1977-01-01

112

Incidence of gastrointestinal helminthiasis in captive deers at Nagpur  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Out of 60 Samples of deer from Maharajbag Zoo, Nagpur, 30 were positive for eggs and larvae of helminthic parasites. The encountered parasitic species were Haemonchus spp., Dicrocoelium spp., Paramphistomum spp., Oesophagostomum spp. and Bunostomum spp. etc. Direct smear method together with sedimentation technique were used for the purpose.

Borghare, A. T.; Bagde, V. P.; Jaulkar, A. D.; Katre, D. D.; Jumde, P. D.; Maske, D. K.; Bhangale, G. N.

2009-01-01

113

Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk and white-tailed deer to fallow deer by intracerebral route: final report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Final observations on experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to fallow deer (Dama dama) are reported herein. During the 5-year study, 13 fawns were inoculated intracerebrally with CWD-infected brain material from white-tailed deer (n = 7; Group A) or elk (n = 6; Group B), and 3 other fawns were kept as uninoculated controls (Group C). As described previously, 3 CWD-inoculated deer were euthanized at 7.6 mo post-inoculation (MPI). None revealed presence of abnormal prion protein (PrP(d)) in their tissues. At 24 (Group A) and 26 (Group B) MPI, 2 deer were necropsied. Both animals had a small focal accumulation of PrP(d) in their midbrains. Between 29 and 37 MPI, 3 other deer (all from Group A) were euthanized. The 5 remaining deer became sick and were euthanized between 51 and 60 MPI (1 from Group A and 4 from Group B). Microscopic lesions of spongiform encephalopathy (SE) were observed in only these 5 animals; however, PrP(d) was detected in tissues of the central nervous system by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and by commercial rapid test in all animals that survived beyond 24 MPI. This study demonstrates that intracerebrally inoculated fallow deer not only amplify CWD prions, but also develop lesions of spongiform encephalopathy. PMID:21731188

Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Nicholson, Eric M; Kunkle, Robert A; Richt, Juergen A; Miller, Janice M; Hall, Mark

2011-04-01

114

Weak population structure in European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and evidence of introgressive hybridization with Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus) in northeastern Poland.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated contemporary and historical influences on the pattern of genetic diversity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). The study was conducted in northeastern Poland, a zone where vast areas of primeval forests are conserved and where the European roe deer was never driven to extinction. A total of 319 unique samples collected in three sampling areas were genotyped at 16 microsatellites and one fragment (610 bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. Genetic diversity was high, and a low degree of genetic differentiation among sampling areas was observed with both microsatellites and mtDNA. No evidence of genetic differentiation between roe deer inhabiting open fields and forested areas was found, indicating that the ability of the species to exploit these contrasting environments might be the result of its phenotypic plasticity. Half of the studied individuals carried an mtDNA haplotype that did not belong to C. capreolus, but to a related species that does not occur naturally in the area, the Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus). No differentiation between individuals with Siberian and European mtDNA haplotypes was detected at microsatellite loci. Introgression of mtDNA of Siberian roe deer into the genome of European roe deer has recently been detected in eastern Europe. Such introgression might be caused by human-mediated translocations of Siberian roe deer within the range of European roe deer or by natural hybridization between these species in the past. PMID:25271423

Olano-Marin, Juanita; Plis, Kamila; Sönnichsen, Leif; Borowik, Tomasz; Niedzia?kowska, Magdalena; J?drzejewska, Bogumi?a

2014-01-01

115

Weak Population Structure in European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) and Evidence of Introgressive Hybridization with Siberian Roe Deer (C. pygargus) in Northeastern Poland  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated contemporary and historical influences on the pattern of genetic diversity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). The study was conducted in northeastern Poland, a zone where vast areas of primeval forests are conserved and where the European roe deer was never driven to extinction. A total of 319 unique samples collected in three sampling areas were genotyped at 16 microsatellites and one fragment (610 bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. Genetic diversity was high, and a low degree of genetic differentiation among sampling areas was observed with both microsatellites and mtDNA. No evidence of genetic differentiation between roe deer inhabiting open fields and forested areas was found, indicating that the ability of the species to exploit these contrasting environments might be the result of its phenotypic plasticity. Half of the studied individuals carried an mtDNA haplotype that did not belong to C. capreolus, but to a related species that does not occur naturally in the area, the Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus). No differentiation between individuals with Siberian and European mtDNA haplotypes was detected at microsatellite loci. Introgression of mtDNA of Siberian roe deer into the genome of European roe deer has recently been detected in eastern Europe. Such introgression might be caused by human-mediated translocations of Siberian roe deer within the range of European roe deer or by natural hybridization between these species in the past. PMID:25271423

Olano-Marin, Juanita; Plis, Kamila; Sonnichsen, Leif; Borowik, Tomasz; Niedzialkowska, Magdalena; Jedrzejewska, Bogumila

2014-01-01

116

Therapy of endemic goiter and hypothyroidism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Successful treatment of endemic goitre depends on the correct diagnosis and the comprehension of the pathophysiologic changes as well. Several criteria, e.g. anamnestic data, general clinical condition, local symptoms and signs, certainty of diagnosis, contraindications, rates of success, and side effects, determine the particular form of therapy (suppression with thyroid hormones, surgical resection, radio-iodine). The decision criteria are discussed. Prophylaxis of recurrent goitre with either thyroid hormones or iodine salts is necessary after successful treatment. Some endemic goitres behave like either hyper- or hypothyroidism. Treatment with thyroid hormones of patients with latent hyperthyroidism is senseless and dangerous, whereas other methods of treatment may be applied. An unequivocal indication for treatment exists in patients with laent hypothyroidism accompanied by goitre, but not in all patients without goitre. Hormonal replacement therapy of manifest hypothydroidism is simple, but long term success is not achieved in all patients. (orig.)

117

Intervention policy in endemic goitre areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The multifactorial nature and complex interactions of regionspecific environmental conditions with host factors in the pathogenesis of endemic goitre constitute a major challenge to the understanding and control of the problem in endemic areas. However, to control and prevent this important public health problem, the most obvious but difficult initial step requires substantial socioeconomic improvements in the affected areas of less developed countries, including, first, provision of efficient iodine prophylaxis programs, second, diversification of dietary constituents with adequate daily protein-calorie intake, and third, institution of proper sanitary conditions with effective water treatment to eliminate organic and bacterial pollutants. This last intervention is also a requirement to control and prevent goitre in the iodine-sufficient more developed countries. In this regard, more research is needed to provide effective ways of water treatment that can be applied in individual households or at the community level. PMID:1726413

Gaitan, E

1990-12-01

118

Endemic (Balkan) nephropathy is aristolochic acid nephropathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Endemic nephropathy is a syndrome that comprises two entities: chronic interstitial nephropathy and urothelial cell cancers predominantly of the upper urinary tract. The etiological agent for the disease is aristolochic acid, a compound found in the plants of Aristolochia spp. The development of urothelial cancers is characterized by the formation of aristolactam DNA adducts leading to mutations, predominantly A: T- > T: A transversions. In order to comprehensively understand the gene regulation programs in upper urothelial cancers we performed integrated miRNA and mRNA expression profiling of paired tumours and unaffected urothelium samples. The obtained data will help us to understand the carcinogenesis caused by aristolochic acid and might be the source for the design of a diagnostic biomarker. Key words: endemic nephropathy, aristolochic acid nephropathy, aristolochic acid, upper urothelial cancers, microRNA. PMID:24798595

Karanovi?, S; Tomi?, K; Dittrich, D; Borove?ki, F; Zavadil, J; Vukovi?-Lela, I; Karlovi?, K; Kneževi?, M; Jelakovi?, B

2014-01-01

119

Detection of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), in questing ticks (Ixodes ricinus), and in ticks infesting roe deer in southern Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is the most common tick in Central Europe and plays an important role as a vector of several pathogens. In the complex life cycles of these pathogens, the role of wild animals as natural reservoirs has been discussed. The aims of this study were to investigate the role of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) as a potential reservoir host for Babesia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. Therefore, we explored the differences in the infection rates of roe deer and engorged and questing ticks with these pathogens from a single forest site with special attention to coinfection. Blood, spleen, and skin samples of a total of 95 roe deer individuals were screened by molecular methods for these pathogens from September 2010 to January 2012 in the 'Angelberger Forst' (Bavaria, Germany). Moreover, 331 engorged ticks from 44 roe deer individuals and 199 host-seeking ticks from the same area were screened. Altogether, the following prevalence rates and a high diversity of species were detected for the respective pathogens in individual animals and ticks: (i) Babesia spp.: roe deer, 89.5%; engorged ticks, 7.3%; questing ticks: adults, 2.5%, nymphs, 3.3%. Sequencing revealed B. venatorum, B. capreoli, and B. microti. (ii) A. phagocytophilum: roe deer 98.9%; engorged ticks, 86.1%; questing ticks: adults, 8.9%, nymphs, 0.8%. (iii) Rickettsia spp.: roe deer, 0%; engorged ticks, 16.6%; questing ticks: adults, 13.9%, nymphs, 17.5%. Sequencing revealed R. helvetica. Furthermore, several coinfections were detected in both roe deer and ticks. The high prevalence rates of B. capreoli and A. phagocytophilum in roe deer support their role as reservoir hosts for these pathogens, but no evidence for a role of roe deer in the life cycle of R. helvetica could be provided. PMID:23571115

Overzier, Evelyn; Pfister, Kurt; Herb, Ingrid; Mahling, Monia; Böck, Georg; Silaghi, Cornelia

2013-06-01

120

A case of chronic wasting disease in a captive red deer (Cervus elaphus).  

Science.gov (United States)

A 22-month-old, female red deer (Cervus elaphus) was submitted to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for necropsy and chronic wasting disease (CWD) testing. The deer was found positive for the abnormal prion protein in the obex and the retropharyngeal lymph node by immunohistochemical staining. Microscopic lesions of spongiform encephalopathy and immunohistochemical staining patterns and intensity were similar to those in CWD-positive elk and experimentally infected red deer. PMID:23950558

Schwabenlander, Marc D; Culhane, Marie R; Hall, S Mark; Goyal, Sagar M; Anderson, Paul L; Carstensen, Michelle; Wells, Scott J; Slade, William B; Armién, Aníbal G

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

EXAMINATION OF NASAL BOTFLY (CEPHENEMYIA STIMULATOR,CLARK, 1815) OF ROE DEER  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract- Parameters of nasal botfly infestation of roe deer in plain locations I am investigating the occurrence of one of the diseases caused by parasites in plain roe deer populations, namely a botfly larvae, Cephenemyia stimulator, (CLARK, 1815) ranged among the Oestridae family. Nasal botfly larvae are common roe deer parasites and aregenerally spread nationwide. The subject of the present survey is the processing of the data gained about ...

Szilárd Pinnyey

2013-01-01

122

An analysis of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) traffic collisions in the Belluno province, eastern Italian Alps  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Data of roe deer traffic collisions from 1989 to 2004 in the Belluno province were analyzed to describe patterns of road kills by zone, season and sex and to compare resulting annual trends and sex ratios with those estimated for roe deer population. The province was divided in 2 districts on the base of differences in climate, landscape and roe deer population status. Pearson’s simple correlation was used to investigate the associations, in the two districts, among road kills data, yea...

Sturaro, E.; Ramanzin, M.; Dal Compare, L.; Cocca, G.

2010-01-01

123

A review of the methods for monitoring roe deer European populations with particular reference to Italy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Throughout the last century, deer populations have shown a remarkable increase both in North America and Europe. As a consequence, the estimate of roe deer density has become a matter of interest. We reviewed the available literature on the methods used for monitoring roe deer populations in Europe from 1950 to 2004, with the aim of detecting the trend of papers and distribution of census techniques by years, countries and habitat types. Particular a...

Alberto Meriggi; Francesca Sotti; Paolo Lamberti; Nicola Gilio

2009-01-01

124

Molecular phylogeny of Megaloceros giganteus--the giant deer or just a giant red deer?  

Science.gov (United States)

Two fragments of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the cytochrome b gene (137 bp and 167 bp) were successfully isolated and sequenced from antlers and bones of five specimens of the Giant Deer (Megaloceros giganteus) to examine the phylogenetic position of Megaloceros giganteus within the family Cervidae. This is the first report on ancient DNA (aDNA) sequences from Megaloceros giganteus. A phylogenetic analysis based on parameter-rich models describes the evolutionary relationships between five individuals of fossil Megaloceros giganteus and 37 individuals of 11 extant species of the family Cervidae. The results support a "Cervus-Megaloceros" clade. The phylogenetic positions of sympatric Megaloceros and Cervus elaphus specimens in particular indicate either that the Megaloceros mtDNA gene pool did not evolve for a substantial time period as an entity distinct from Cervus elaphus until its extinction, or that Megaloceros contributed mtDNA to Cervus elaphus or vice versa. The results of this study allow the conclusion that the European Megaloceros giganteus is more related to its modern regional counterparts of the species of Cervus elaphus than recent claims have suggested. PMID:16219984

Kuehn, Ralph; Ludt, Christian J; Schroeder, Wolfgang; Rottmann, Oswald

2005-09-01

125

Isolation of bovine viral diarrhea virus from a free-ranging mule deer in Wyoming.  

Science.gov (United States)

A noncytopathic type 1a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was isolated from a free-ranging yearling female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from northwestern Wyoming (USA). The mule deer was emaciated, weak, and salivating, and Arcanobacterium pyogenes was cultured from lung abscesses. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from lung, however, BVDV antigen was not detected by immunohistochemistry. The BVDV genotype was determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and the RNA sequences from the 5'UTR and E2 genes compared with sequences of a type 1a BVDV isolated from cattle from the same area as the deer. The sequences from the deer BVDV were distinct from those of the bovine type 1a BVDV, but similar to other bovine type 1a BVDVs. Seventy-four (60%) of 124 sera collected from mule deer in this area had serum neutralizing antibody titers to type 1a BVDV of > or = 1:32. The high prevalence of seropositive mule deer and isolation of BVDV suggests that this virus circulates in the mule deer population. The isolate described in this report is the second reported BVDV isolate from free-ranging deer in North America and the first from a mule deer. PMID:11310881

Van Campen, H; Ridpath, J; Williams, E; Cavender, J; Edwards, J; Smith, S; Sawyer, H

2001-04-01

126

White-tailed deer are a biotic filter during community assembly, reducing species and phylogenetic diversity  

Science.gov (United States)

Community assembly entails a filtering process, where species found in a local community are those that can pass through environmental (abiotic) and biotic filters and successfully compete. Previous research has demonstrated the ability of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to reduce species diversity and favour browse-tolerant plant communities. In this study, we expand on our previous work by investigating deer as a possible biotic filter altering local plant community assembly. We used replicated 23-year-old deer exclosures to experimentally assess the effects of deer on species diversity (H?), richness (SR), phylogenetic community structure and phylogenetic diversity in paired browsed (control) and unbrowsed (exclosed) plots. Additionally, we developed a deer-browsing susceptibility index (DBSI) to assess the vulnerability of local species to deer. Deer browsing caused a 12 % reduction in H? and 17 % reduction in SR, consistent with previous studies. Furthermore, browsing reduced phylogenetic diversity by 63 %, causing significant phylogenetic clustering. Overall, graminoids were the least vulnerable to deer browsing based on DBSI calculations. These findings demonstrate that deer are a significant driver of plant community assembly due to their role as a selective browser, or more generally, as a biotic filter. This study highlights the importance of knowledge about the plant tree of life in assessing the effects of biotic filters on plant communities. Application of such knowledge has considerable potential to advance our understanding of plant community assembly. PMID:24916059

Begley-Miller, Danielle R.; Hipp, Andrew L.; Brown, Bethany H.; Hahn, Marlene; Rooney, Thomas P.

2014-01-01

127

White-tailed deer are a biotic filter during community assembly, reducing species and phylogenetic diversity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community assembly entails a filtering process, where species found in a local community are those that can pass through environmental (abiotic) and biotic filters and successfully compete. Previous research has demonstrated the ability of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to reduce species diversity and favour browse-tolerant plant communities. In this study, we expand on our previous work by investigating deer as a possible biotic filter altering local plant community assembly. We used replicated 23-year-old deer exclosures to experimentally assess the effects of deer on species diversity (H'), richness (SR), phylogenetic community structure and phylogenetic diversity in paired browsed (control) and unbrowsed (exclosed) plots. Additionally, we developed a deer-browsing susceptibility index (DBSI) to assess the vulnerability of local species to deer. Deer browsing caused a 12 % reduction in H' and 17 % reduction in SR, consistent with previous studies. Furthermore, browsing reduced phylogenetic diversity by 63 %, causing significant phylogenetic clustering. Overall, graminoids were the least vulnerable to deer browsing based on DBSI calculations. These findings demonstrate that deer are a significant driver of plant community assembly due to their role as a selective browser, or more generally, as a biotic filter. This study highlights the importance of knowledge about the plant tree of life in assessing the effects of biotic filters on plant communities. Application of such knowledge has considerable potential to advance our understanding of plant community assembly. PMID:24916059

Begley-Miller, Danielle R; Hipp, Andrew L; Brown, Bethany H; Hahn, Marlene; Rooney, Thomas P

2014-01-01

128

Red deer synchronise their activity with close neighbours.  

Science.gov (United States)

Models of collective animal behaviour frequently make assumptions about the effects of neighbours on the behaviour of focal individuals, but these assumptions are rarely tested. One such set of assumptions is that the switch between active and inactive behaviour seen in herding animals is influenced by the activity of close neighbours, where neighbouring animals show a higher degree of behavioural synchrony than would be expected by chance. We tested this assumption by observing the simultaneous behaviour of paired individuals within a herd of red deer Cervus elaphus. Focal individuals were more synchronised with their two closest neighbours than with the third closest or randomly selected individuals from the herd. Our results suggest that the behaviour of individual deer is influenced by immediate neighbours. Even if we assume that there are no social relationships between individuals, this suggests that the assumptions made in models about the influence of neighbours may be appropriate. PMID:24765578

Rands, Sean A; Muir, Hayley; Terry, Naomi L

2014-01-01

129

Red deer synchronise their activity with close neighbours  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Models of collective animal behaviour frequently make assumptions about the effects of neighbours on the behaviour of focal individuals, but these assumptions are rarely tested. One such set of assumptions is that the switch between active and inactive behaviour seen in herding animals is influenced by the activity of close neighbours, where neighbouring animals show a higher degree of behavioural synchrony than would be expected by chance. We tested this assumption by observing the simultaneous behaviour of paired individuals within a herd of red deer Cervus elaphus. Focal individuals were more synchronised with their two closest neighbours than with the third closest or randomly selected individuals from the herd. Our results suggest that the behaviour of individual deer is influenced by immediate neighbours. Even if we assume that there are no social relationships between individuals, this suggests that the assumptions made in models about the influence of neighbours may be appropriate.

Sean A. Rands

2014-04-01

130

Cutaneous fibroma in the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus  

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Full Text Available Fibromas present very frequent skin neoplasms in different species of wild game of the family Cervidae. Viral etiology of skin neoplasms was proven in certain species of wild game from this family, with the most frequent diagnoses being: fibromas, ossifying fibromas, fibrosarcomas, multiple neurofibromatosis, fibropapillomas, and papillomas. The diagnozed tumor in the roe deer had the histological characteristics of a polimorphous fibroblast, which is not the case with domestic animals. This finding can be considered as a characteristic of fibromas in animals of the family Cervidae. Solitary fibroma or multiple fibroma (fibromatosis does not present a significant cause of deer deaths, but they cause concern among hunters who are in direct contact with them. Although fibromas do not lead to spoilage of game meat, they are esthetically repellent and people are reluctant to consume meat of such game.

Kureljuši? Branislav

2009-01-01

131

Polycystic kidney disease in a European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).  

Science.gov (United States)

A severe case of polycystic nephropathy was seen in an adult European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), culled in a German hunting district. The doe had bilaterally drastically enlarged kidneys, completely riddled with variably sized, fluid-filled cysts of up to 4 cm in diameter. Histopathologic and ultrastructural examination revealed disseminated formation of cysts with flattened epithelial cell linings in the entire renal parenchyma, as well as severe dilations of renal tubules, marked interstitial fibrosis, nephron atrophy, and chronic interstitial lymphoplasmacytic infiltrations in the intercystic kidney tissue. These morphologic findings most likely resemble the hallmarks of autosomal dominant polycystic disease in humans, and present the first detailed description of a case of polycystic kidney disease in a roe deer. PMID:23805573

Blutke, Andreas; März, Kristian; Matenaers, Cyrill; Oswald, Karl; Hermanns, Walter; Wanke, Rüdiger

2013-06-01

132

What does testosterone do for red deer males?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Testosterone has been proposed to have a dual effect, enhancing sexual traits while depressing parasite resistance in males. Here, we test this hypothesis in red deer, examining males from captive populations during the whole annual cycle and males from natural populations during the breeding season. We first explored the effects of body size, age and sampling date on testosterone to avoid confounding effects. Our results show that in captive populations seasonal changes in testosterone level...

Malo, Af; Roldan, Er; Garde, Jj; Soler, Aj; Vicente, J.; Gortazar, C.; Gomendio, M.

2009-01-01

133

Incidence of gasrointestinal helminthiasis in captive deers at Nagpur  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Out of 60 Samples of deer from Maharajbag Zoo, Nagpur, 30 were positive for eggs and larvae of helminthic parasites. The encountered parasitic species were Haemonchus spp., Dicrocoelium spp., Paramphistomum spp., Oesophagostomum spp. and Bunostomum spp. etc. Direct smear method together with sedimentation technique were used for the purpose. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 337-338

A. T. Borghare

134

Mesola red deer: physical characteristics, population dynamics and conservation perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The biometry, demography and genetics of red deer Cervus elaphus of Mesola Wood (NE Italy, are presented and discussed in relation to the conservation of this population. Modest body size, low stature, oversimplified antlers and a low reproductive performance characterise red deer from Mesola Wood. The mitochondrial genome showed a private haplotype, different from other red deer in Italy and central Europe. The uniqueness of this nucleus and its biogeographic importance make a long-term conservation plan particularly urgent. Management measures such as fallow deer reduction, winter feeding and pasture mowing were tested, giving promising results. The physical condition of the animals improved, calf and adult mortality declined, and a few cases of antlers with bez tine or crown were reported in this study after four decades. Riassunto Il Cervo della Mesola: caratteristiche fisiche, dinamica di popolazione e prospettive di conservazione La biometria, la demografia e la genetica del cervo Cervus elaphus del Gran Bosco della Mesola (Italia nord-orientale, vengono presentate e discusse in relazione alla salvaguardia di questa popolazione. Il cervo della Mesola risulta caratterizzato dalle modeste dimensioni corporee, dalla struttura semplificata dei palchi e da un basso rendimento riproduttivo. L'analisi del genoma mitocondriale ha evidenziato un aplotipo privato, diverso da quello degli altri cervi italiani e centroeuropei. L'unicitŕ di questo nucleo e la sua importanza biogeografica rendono particolarmente urgente un piano di conservazione a lungo termine. Sono stati verificati interventi gestionali quali la riduzione numerica dei daini, il foraggiamento invernale e lo sfalcio delle superfici a pascolo, con risultati promettenti. Le condizioni fisiche degli animali sono migliorate, la mortalitŕ tra i piccoli e gli adulti č diminuita, e sono stati registrati alcuni casi di palchi dotati di ago o corona per la prima volta dopo quattro decenni.

Stefano Mattioli

2003-10-01

135

Cutaneous fibroma in the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fibromas present very frequent skin neoplasms in different species of wild game of the family Cervidae. Viral etiology of skin neoplasms was proven in certain species of wild game from this family, with the most frequent diagnoses being: fibromas, ossifying fibromas, fibrosarcomas, multiple neurofibromatosis, fibropapillomas, and papillomas. The diagnozed tumor in the roe deer had the histological characteristics of a polimorphous fibroblast, which is not the case with domestic animals. This ...

Kureljuši? Branislav; Savi? Božidar; Prodanovi? Radiša; ?irovi? Duško

2009-01-01

136

Attachment site selection of ticks on roe deer, Capreolus capreolus  

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The spatio-temporal attachment site patterns of ticks feeding on their hosts can be of significance if co-feeding transmission (i.e. from tick to tick without a systemic infection of the host) of pathogens affects the persistence of a given disease. Using tick infestation data on roe deer, we analysed preferred attachment sites and niche width of Ixodes ticks (larvae, nymphs, males, females) and investigated the degree of inter- and intrastadial aggregation. The different development stages s...

Kiffner, C.; Lo?dige, C.; Alings, Matthias; Vor, T.; Ru?he, F.

2011-01-01

137

Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow  

Science.gov (United States)

(1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

1987-01-01

138

Red deer in Italy: recent changes in range and numbers  

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Full Text Available Abstract The following paper illustrates changes in distribution range and population size of the red deer Cervus elaphus in Italy in the last three decades. It mentions the main events of reintroduction and restocking together with hunting statistics. The mean yearly increase from 1970 to 1998 was 6% in range and 8% in population size: in 28 years the range had a five fold and the numbers a tenfold incrase. In 1998 the total red deer population in Italy was estimated at 32,000 head, of which 75% are in the central and eastern Alps. In the central and eastern Alps the current population derives mainly from spontaneous recolonisation from neighbouring countries. In the western Alps the contribution of reintroduction prevails. In the northern and central Apennines the present occurrence of red deer is exclusively due to reintroduction. In Sardinia C. e. corsicanus is recovering gradually. The autochthonous nucleus from Mesola Wood needs a long term conservation plan.

Stefano Mattioli

2001-09-01

139

Serosurvey for selected pathogens in Iberian roe deer  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The roe deer is the most abundant and widespread wild Eurasian cervid. Its populations are expanding and increasingly in contact with livestock. This may affect the distribution of infectious diseases shared with other wild and domestic ungulates. Methods We investigated the antibody seroprevalence against Pestivirus, Herpesvirus, Bluetongue (BT virus, M. avium paratuberculosis (MAP, and Brucella sp. in 519 roe deer from different regions in Spain, south-western Europe. Results No antibodies were detected against BT and Brucella sp. However, antibodies were detected against Pestivirus (1.5%, Herpesvirus (0.2% and MAP (9.2%. MAP antibodies were detected in seven of the eight populations (range 5-16.4%. Conclusions The detection of MAP antibodies in samples from most roe deer populations suggests that contact with MAP is widespread in this wildlife species. The highest prevalence was detected in sites with abundant dairy cattle and frequent use of liquid manure on pastures. Considering the results obtained regarding exposure to different pathogens, we suggest that antibody prevalences in this non-gregarious browser are largely determined by environmental factors, potentially modulating vector populations or pathogen survival in the environment.

Oleaga Álvaro

2010-11-01

140

77 FR 1720 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Rock Creek Park  

Science.gov (United States)

...herd by either sharpshooting or capture and euthanasia of individual deer. Capture and euthanasia of individual deer would be an approach...include both sharpshooting and capture/euthanasia and would be taken initially to...

2012-01-11

 
 
 
 
141

Elk and deer studies related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) was conducted in the vicinity of planned site characterization activities for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). Both species are known to be sensitive to disturbance and are considered important species because they are recreationally and/or commercially valuable. The principal objectives of the study were to (1) estimate pre-activity (site characterization) recruitment of deer and elk, (2) characterize deer and elk use of limited habitats critical to their survival (e.g., riparian areas), (3) describe preferential habitat use by deer and elk during critical seasons (i.e., winter and summer), and (4) document pre-activity distributions of seasonal home range centers of deer and elk. Early termination of BWIP prevented some of the objectives from being fully addressed. Fifteen adult elk (11 females and 4 males) and 19 female deer equipped with radio transmitters were studied on the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve from February through December 1987. More than 1800 relocations of the marked elk and deer were made during aerial and ground tracking sessions. Deer confined their activities to within 2 km of water sources. In contrast, elk used 6-12 times the average area used by deer. As with deer, female elk were closely associated with available water sources during the summer and fall, presumably because of the physiological demands of lactation. However, during the winter, female elk showed no preference for areas near water, as did male elk throughout the study. Riparian areas, which are scarce on the arid Hanford Site, are particularly valuable habitat to both elk and deer because they provide drinking water and succulent forage during the dry summer and early fall months.

Eberhardt, L.E.; McCorquodale, S.M.; Sargeant, G.A.

1989-03-01

142

Elk and deer studies related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) was conducted in the vicinity of planned site characterization activities for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). Both species are known to be sensitive to disturbance and are considered important species because they are recreationally and/or commercially valuable. The principal objectives of the study were to (1) estimate pre-activity (site characterization) recruitment of deer and elk, (2) characterize deer and elk use of limited habitats critical to their survival (e.g., riparian areas), (3) describe preferential habitat use by deer and elk during critical seasons (i.e., winter and summer), and (4) document pre-activity distributions of seasonal home range centers of deer and elk. Early termination of BWIP prevented some of the objectives from being fully addressed. Fifteen adult elk (11 females and 4 males) and 19 female deer equipped with radio transmitters were studied on the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve from February through December 1987. More than 1800 relocations of the marked elk and deer were made during aerial and ground tracking sessions. Deer confined their activities to within 2 km of water sources. In contrast, elk used 6-12 times the average area used by deer. As with deer, female elk were closely associated with available water sources during the summer and fall, presumably because of the physiological demands of lactation. However, during the winter, female elk showed no preuring the winter, female elk showed no preference for areas near water, as did male elk throughout the study. Riparian areas, which are scarce on the arid Hanford Site, are particularly valuable habitat to both elk and deer because they provide drinking water and succulent forage during the dry summer and early fall months

143

Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm  

Science.gov (United States)

In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Bochsler, P.N.; Hall, S.M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

2008-01-01

144

Toponyms for centers of endemism in Madagascar  

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Full Text Available A biogeographical model was proposed in 2006 to explain the centers of endemism and the importance of riparian for­est of some watersheds as refuges or dispersal corridors during paleoclimatic oscillations. Here, we consider these geographical features highlighting their biological and socio-cultural importance. We explain the etymology or eponymy of the major rivers of the retreat-dispersal watersheds, i.e., the drainage basins of Bemarivo, Antainambalana, Mangoro, Manampatrana, Mananara South, Mandrare, Onilahy, Mangoky, Tsiribihina, Betsiboka, Maevarano, Sambirano, and Mahavavy North. We propose a toponymy for each of the 15 centers of endemism and highlight their peculiarities. We named the cent­ers of endemism of Vohimarina, Masoala, Analanjirofo, Tanala, Manombo, Anosy, Ranopiso, Karimbola, Mikea, Menabe, Melaky, Sofia, Ampasindava, Ankify, and Ankarana. We illustrate each center of endemism with a flagship spe­cies and report on its natural and cultural histories, and conservation. RÉSUMÉUn modčle biogéographique a été proposé en 2006 pour expliquer les centres d’endémisme de la biodiversité et l’importance des ripisylves de certains bassins versants en tant que refuges ou couloirs de dispersion au cours des oscillations paléoclimatiques. Ici, nous considérons ces dispositifs géographiques en soulignant leur importance biologique et socioculturelle. Dans un premier temps, nous expliquons la toponymie ou l’éponymie des grands fleuves des bassins refuges et de dispersion, ŕ savoir les bassins de la Bemarivo, de l’Antainambalana, du Mangoro, de la Manampatrana, de la Mananara du Sud, du Mandrare, de l’Onilahy, du Mangoky, de la Tsiribihina, de la Betsiboka, de la Maevarano, du Sambirano et de la Mahavavy du Nord. Puis nous proposons une toponymie pour chacun des 17 centres et sous-centres d’endémisme en justifiant leurs particularités. Nous retenons ainsi les centres d’endémisme de Vohimarina, de l’Atsinanana (dont Masoala et Analanjirofo, Tanala, de Manombo, de l’Anosy, d’Ala maika (dont Ranopiso, Karimbola et Mikea, du Menabe, du Melaky, de la Sofia, d’Ampasindava, d’Ankify et de l’Ankarana. Nous illustrons chacun des centres d’endémisme avec une espčce symbolique et rapportons des aspects de son histoire naturelle et culturelle ainsi que de sa conservation.

Eric Mathieu

2012-06-01

145

Endemic taxa of vascular plants in the Polish Carpathians  

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Full Text Available The Carpathians, particularly their highest massif, the Tatra Mountains, exhibit the greatest richness of endemics in Poland. The present paper is a critical recapitulation of existing knowledge of endemism among the vascular plants of the Polish part of the Carpathians. It comprises a list of all 110 taxa (49 species, 26 microspecies of the genus Alchemilla and 35 conspicuous subspecies that can be considered Carpathian endemics or subendemics. Their distribution, vertical ranges and habitats are characterized.

Halina Pi?ko?-Mirkowa

2003-09-01

146

Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity.  

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Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diversity. We call this the invasive-naivety effect (an opposite of enemy release), whereby alien species may not harbour anti-predatory defences against a novel native predator. A positive effect of the toads on native ants may facilitate their predation on insect vectors of cacao diseases. Hence, toads may increase crop yield, but further research is needed on this aspect. Ironically, amphibians are globally the most threatened vertebrate class and are strongly impacted by the conversion of rainforest to cacao plantations in Sulawesi. It is, therefore, crucial to manage cacao plantations to maintain these endemic toads, as they may provide critical ecosystem services, such as invasion resistance and preservation of native insect diversity. PMID:20826488

Wanger, Thomas C; Wielgoss, Arno C; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W; Sodhi, Navjot S; Tscharntke, Teja

2011-03-01

147

Diversity and endemism of Peruvian mammals  

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Full Text Available We present an annotated list for all land, aquatic and marine mammals known to occur in Peru and their distribution by ecoregions. We also present species conservation status according to international organizations and the legal conservation status in Peru. At present, we record 508 species, in 13 orders, 50 families, and 218 genera, making Peru the third most diverse country with regards to mammals in the New World, after Brazil and Mexico, and the fifth most diverse country for mammals in the World. This diversity includes 40 didelphimorphs, 2 paucituberculates, 1 manatee, 6 cingulates, 7 pilosa, 39 primates, 162 rodents, 1 rabbit, 2 soricomorphs, 165 bats, 34 carnivores, 2 perissodactyls, and 47 cetartiodactyls. Bats and rodents (327 species represent almost two thirds of total diversity (64% for Peru. Five genera and 65 species (12.8% are endemics to Peru, with the majority of these being rodents (45 species, 69,2%. Most of the endemic species are restricted to the Yungas of the eastern slope of the Andes (39 species, 60% followed by Selva Baja (14 species, 21.5%. The taxonomic status of some species is commented on, when those depart from accepted taxonomy. The marsupial Marmosa phaea; the rodents Melanomys caliginosus, M. robustulus, and Echinoprocta rufescens; the shrew Cryptotis equatoris; the bats Anoura fistulata, Phyllostomus latifolius, Artibeus ravus, Cynomops greenhalli, Eumops maurus, and Rhogeessa velilla; and the carnivore Nasuella olivacea are first records of species occurrence in Peru. Finally, we also include a list of 15 non-native species.

Víctor Pacheco

2011-07-01

148

Alternative feeding strategies and potential disease transmission in Wisconsin white-tailed deer  

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We conducted experimental feeding using 3 feeding methods (pile, spread, trough) and 2 quantities (rationed, ad libitum) of shelled corn to compare deer activity and behavior with control sites and evaluate potential direct and indirect transmission of infectious disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central Wisconsin, USA. Deer use was higher at 2 of the feeding sites than at natural feeding areas (P ??? 0.02). Deer spent a higher proportion of time (P < 0.01) feeding at pile (49%) and spread (61%) treatments than at natural feeding areas (36%). We found higher deer use for rationed than ad libitum feeding quantities and feeding intensity was greatest at rationed piles and lowest at ad libitum spreads. We also observed closer pairwise distances (???0.3 m) among deer when corn was provided in a trough relative to spread (P=0.03). Supplemental feeding poses risks for both direct and indirect disease transmission due to higher deer concentration and more intensive use relative to control areas. Concentrated feeding and contact among deer at feeding sites can also increase risk for disease transmission. Our results indicated that restrictions on feeding quantity would not mitigate the potential for disease transmission None of the feeding strategies we evaluated substantially reduced the potential risk for disease transmission and banning supplemental feeding to reduce transmission is warranted.

Thompson, A. K.; Samuel, M. D.; Van Deelen, T. R.

2008-01-01

149

Alternative feeding strategies and potential disease transmission in Wisconsin white-tailed deer  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted experimental feeding using 3 feeding methods (pile, spread, trough) and 2 quantities (rationed, ad libitum) of shelled corn to compare deer activity and behavior with control sites and evaluate potential direct and indirect transmission of infectious disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central Wisconsin, USA. Deer use was higher at 2 of the feeding sites than at natural feeding areas (P ??? 0.02). Deer spent a higher proportion of time (P feeding at pile (49%) and spread (61%) treatments than at natural feeding areas (36%). We found higher deer use for rationed than ad libitum feeding quantities and feeding intensity was greatest at rationed piles and lowest at ad libitum spreads. We also observed closer pairwise distances (???0.3 m) among deer when corn was provided in a trough relative to spread (P=0.03). Supplemental feeding poses risks for both direct and indirect disease transmission due to higher deer concentration and more intensive use relative to control areas. Concentrated feeding and contact among deer at feeding sites can also increase risk for disease transmission. Our results indicated that restrictions on feeding quantity would not mitigate the potential for disease transmission None of the feeding strategies we evaluated substantially reduced the potential risk for disease transmission and banning supplemental feeding to reduce transmission is warranted.

Thompson, A.K.; Samuel, M.D.; VanDeelen, T.R.

2008-01-01

150

78 FR 16523 - Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, Canyon, Payette, Owyhee, and Washington Counties, ID, and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...habitats on the 104 islands that comprise the Snake River Islands Unit make them...to facilitate long-term conservation...alternatives for managing Deer Flat NWR for the...hunting would no longer be allowed at...the Snake River Islands by increasing...observation and deer, upland and...

2013-03-15

151

76 FR 35467 - Deer and Vegetation Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Fire Island National Seashore...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Management Plan at Fire Island National Seashore, New...distribution of white-tailed deer at Fire Island National Seashore (Seashore...issues include impacts from deer on the natural and cultural...undertaken in support of the long-term protection,...

2011-06-17

152

First occurrence of Paramphistomum microbothrium (Fischoeder 1901) in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Serbia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paramphistomum parasites identified by histology as Paramphistomum microbothrium were found in 18 of 34 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) intestines from central Serbia, examined between 1998 and 2004. This represents the first record of P. microbothrium in roe deer in Serbia. PMID:22493136

Pavlovi?, Ivan; Savi?, Božidar; Ivanovi?, Snežana; ?irovi?, Duško

2012-04-01

153

Morphological Examination of the Siberian Roe Deer Capreolus pygargus in South Korea  

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Full Text Available This study compare the external morphological characteristics of Korean roe deer inhabit the inland and Jeju island areas and to clarify the morphological differences by the two groups. Also, total of 40 roe deer bodies were collected from road-kill, poaching and injured survey from December 2004 to June 2009. The result showed that there were significant differences between Inland and Jeju roe deer. Jeju roe deer was relatively smaller than Inland roe deer in body mass. Thus, it appeared to be a unique native species inhabited only in Jeju island in Korea. Because Jeju roe deer that inhabit the island region could be classified as a subspecies level when at least have geographically isolated for a long time and have represented significant external morphology. Therefore, Siberian roe deer in Jeju give a scientific name to Capreolus pygargus jejuensis. Also, body mass, hind foot length, ear length and width in morphometric analysis were identified as efficient characteristics for differentiating Inland from Jeju roe deer.

Jong-Taek Kim

2011-01-01

154

Anaplasma phagocytophilum variants in sympatric red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sheep in southern Norway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections by the ixodid tick-transmitted bacterial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum are common in domestic ruminants and cervids in the coastal areas of southern Norway. Previous experimental work has shown that A. phagocytophilum strains recovered from red deer (Cervus elaphus) are infective in lambs, but epidemiological links between infections in red deer and sheep have yet to be established. To address this shortfall, the present study explores the genotypic relatedness between A. phagocytophilum strains infecting sympatric red deer and sheep. Blood from 32 lambs grazing on tick-infested pasture, and blood and tissues from 8 red deer shot in proximity to these pastures were collected during the summer and autumn of 2007. The presence of A. phagocytophilum in these samples was determined by PCR-based methods, and genotyping of detected strains was performed using comparative sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and msp4 fragments. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 12 lambs and 7 red deer, 11 and 4 individuals of which 16S rDNA and msp4 sequence data were obtained from, respectively. A total of 9 genotypes were delineated, and only different individuals of the same host species were infected with indistinguishable A. phagocytophilum genotypes. Although 3 of the red deer-infecting genotypes belonged to a cluster of exclusively deer-associated strains phylogenetically remote from those commonly encountered in sheep, one red deer-infecting genotype, although unique, clustered tightly with genotypes associated with a wide range of hosts including sheep. PMID:23414797

Stuen, Snorre; Pettersen, Kristin Sćbř; Granquist, Erik Georg; Bergström, Karin; Bown, Kevin John; Birtles, Richard John

2013-04-01

155

Molecular phylogeny of musk deer: a genomic view with mitochondrial 16S rRNA and cytochrome b gene.  

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The phylogenetic status of the infra order Pecora is controversial, even though it is supported by paleontological, morphological, and molecular evidence. We analyzed two mitochondrial genes (i.e., 16S rRNA and cytochrome b) to resolve the phylogenetic position of pecoran species, i.e., the Bovidae, Cervidae, and Moschidae endemic to the Indian subcontinent. We used phylogenetic analysis based on different algorithms, including neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, minimum evolution, median joining network, along with multidimensional scaling, and DNA word analysis. Our results established the basal position of Tragulidae and the monophyly of the infra order Pecora within the Suborder Ruminantia. Our results also demonstrated that Bovidae, Cervidae, and Moschidae are allied with the placement of musk deer as more closely related to bovids than to cervids. Molecular dating based on sequence analysis shows that the radiation of Pecora occurred during the early Oligocene and that the majority of the pecoran families radiated and dispersed rapidly during the Oligocene/Miocene transition. PMID:17158073

Guha, Saurav; Goyal, S P; Kashyap, V K

2007-03-01

156

Ingestion by an endemic frugivore enhances seed germination of endemic plant species but decreases seedling survival of exotics  

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Aim To test whether ingestion by endemic frugivores differentially affects the seed germination time, germination percentage and seedling survival of endemic, native and exotic fleshy fruited plant species, and to identify the principal processes and attributes driving such effects. Location Round Island, Mauritius. Methods We conducted a germination and seedling survival experiment for 3months to test whether ingestion (gut passage and deposition in faeces) by the endemic Telfair's skink (Le...

Zuel, N.; Griffiths, Cj; Hector, A.; Hansen, Dm; Jones, Cg; Albrecht, M.

2012-01-01

157

Detection of stx1 and stx2 Genes in Pennsylvanian White-Tailed Deer  

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Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing E. coli carrying the stx1 and/or stx2 genes can cause multi-symptomatic illness in humans. A variety of terrestrial and aquatic environmental reservoirs of stx have been described. Culture based detection of microbes in deer species have found a low percentage of samples that have tested positive for Stx-producing microbes, suggesting that while deer may contain these microbes, their overall abundance in deer is low. In this study, quantitative PCR (qPCR was utilized to test for the presence of stx genes in white-tailed deer fecal matter in western Pennsylvania. In this culture independent screening, nearly half of the samples tested positive for the stx2 gene, with a bias towards samples that were concentrated with stx2. This study, while limited in scope, suggests that deer may be a greater reservoir for stx than was previously thought.

Steven A. Mauro

2011-06-01

158

Detection of stx and stx genes in Pennsylvanian white-tailed deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shiga toxin-producing E. coli carrying the stx(1) and/or stx(2) genes can cause multi-symptomatic illness in humans. A variety of terrestrial and aquatic environmental reservoirs of stx have been described. Culture based detection of microbes in deer species have found a low percentage of samples that have tested positive for Stx-producing microbes, suggesting that while deer may contain these microbes, their overall abundance in deer is low. In this study, quantitative PCR (qPCR) was utilized to test for the presence of stx genes in white-tailed deer fecal matter in western Pennsylvania. In this culture independent screening, nearly half of the samples tested positive for the stx(2) gene, with a bias towards samples that were concentrated with stx(2). This study, while limited in scope, suggests that deer may be a greater reservoir for stx than was previously thought. PMID:22069730

Kistler, Whitney M; Mulugeta, Surafel; Mauro, Steven A

2011-06-01

159

Pathogens in water deer (hydropotes inermis) in South Korea, 2010-12.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water deer (Hydropotes inermis) are among the most common wildlife to approach farmhouses and livestock barns in Korea. We collected 305 water deer from Gangwon (n=168), South Chungcheong (n=89), and Gyeongsang (n=48) provinces in 2010-12 and used PCR and serologic tests to screen the deer for pathogens. In 2010, tests for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), rotavirus, and Brucella abortus were positive in 8% (5/60), 2% (1/60), and 59% (33/56) of the animals, respectively. In 2010, the water deer were negative for foot-and-mouth disease virus, coronaviruses, and Mycobacterium bovis. All samples collected in 2011 and 2012 were negative for all pathogens analyzed. These results suggest that at least two of the investigated pathogens, BVDV and B. abortus, circulate among water deer in South Korea. PMID:24779466

Kim, Seol-Hee; Choi, Heelack; Yoon, Junheon; Woo, Chanjin; Chung, Hyen-Mi; Kim, Jong-Taek; Shin, Jeong-Hwa

2014-07-01

160

Habitat Ecology of Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster in Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal  

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Full Text Available The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster is an endangered species found in the Himalayan region of Nepal. This research was conducted in the Manaslu Conservation Area to explore the deers general population status, distribution, habitat preference and conservation threats. Musk deer are distributed within the altitudinal range of 3128-4039 m spanning 35.43 km2, with the most potential habitat in the Prok VDC (Village Development Committee. Within this area the Musk deer highly preferred altitudes between 3601-3800 m, with a 21-30 slope, 26-50% crown cover and 26-50% ground cover. There are significant differences in the use of different habitat types in terms of altitude, slope, crown cover, ground cover and topography. The preferred tree species were Abies spectabilis, Betula utilis and Rhododendron species. Poaching of deer for their musk is the major conservation threat.

Xiuxiang Meng

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Climate alters response of an endemic island plant to removal of invasive herbivores  

Science.gov (United States)

Islands experience higher rates of species extinction than mainland ecosystems, with biological invasions among the leading causes; they also serve as important model systems for testing ideas in basic and applied ecology. Invasive removal programs on islands are conservation efforts that can also be viewed as powerful manipulative experiments, but few data are available to evaluate their effects. We collected demographic and herbivore damage data for Castilleja mollis Pennell, an endangered plant endemic to Santa Rosa Island, California, over a 12-year period before, during, and after the implementation of control for introduced cattle, deer, and elk. We used these long-term data to explore mechanisms underlying herbivore effects, assess the results of herbivore reduction at the scales of both individual plants and populations, and determine how temporal variability in herbivory and plant demography influenced responses to herbivore removals. For individual plants, herbivore effects mediated by disturbance were greater than those of grazing. Deer and elk scraping of the ground substantially increased plant mortality and dormancy and reduced flowering and growth. Stem damage from browsing did not affect survivorship but significantly reduced plant growth and flower production. Herbivore control successfully lowered damage rates, which declined steeply between 1997 and 2000 and have remained relatively low. Castilleja mollis abundances rose sharply after 1997, suggesting a positive effect of herbivore control, but then began to decline steadily again after 2003. The recent decline appears to be driven by higher mean growing season temperatures; interestingly, not only reductions in scraping damage but a period of cooler conditions were significant in explaining increases in C. mollis populations between 1997 and 2002. Our results demonstrate strong effects of introduced herbivores on both plant demography and population dynamics and show that climate-driven variation may counteract and mask positive responses to herbivore removal. Regional mean temperatures already have risen significantly over the last 50 years, suggesting that climate change could increasingly swamp the effects of management targeted at other environmental problems. Similar interactions between climate and invasive species will play an even greater role in future management, with long-term data sets like this critical to quantifying such effects. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

Kathryn, Mceachern, A.; Thomson, D. M.; Chess, K. A.

2009-01-01

162

Climate alters response of an endemic island plant to removal of invasive herbivores.  

Science.gov (United States)

Islands experience higher rates of species extinction than mainland ecosystems, with biological invasions among the leading causes; they also serve as important model systems for testing ideas in basic and applied ecology. Invasive removal programs on islands are conservation efforts that can also be viewed as powerful manipulative experiments, but few data are available to evaluate their effects. We collected demographic and herbivore damage data for Castilleja mollis Pennell, an endangered plant endemic to Santa Rosa Island, California, over a 12-year period before, during, and after the implementation of control for introduced cattle, deer, and elk. We used these long-term data to explore mechanisms underlying herbivore effects, assess the results of herbivore reduction at the scales of both individual plants and populations, and determine how temporal variability in herbivory and plant demography influenced responses to herbivore removals. For individual plants, herbivore effects mediated by disturbance were greater than those of grazing. Deer and elk scraping of the ground substantially increased plant mortality and dormancy and reduced flowering and growth. Stem damage from browsing did not affect survivorship but significantly reduced plant growth and flower production. Herbivore control successfully lowered damage rates, which declined steeply between 1997 and 2000 and have remained relatively low. Castilleja mollis abundances rose sharply after 1997, suggesting a positive effect of herbivore control, but then began to decline steadily again after 2003. The recent decline appears to be driven by higher mean growing season temperatures; interestingly, not only reductions in scraping damage but a period of cooler conditions were significant in explaining increases in C. mollis populations between 1997 and 2002. Our results demonstrate strong effects of introduced herbivores on both plant demography and population dynamics and show that climate-driven variation may counteract and mask positive responses to herbivore removal. Regional mean temperatures already have risen significantly over the last 50 years, suggesting that climate change could increasingly swamp the effects of management targeted at other environmental problems. Similar interactions between climate and invasive species will play an even greater role in future management, with long-term data sets like this critical to quantifying such effects. PMID:19769104

McEachern, A Kathryn; Thomson, Diane M; Chess, Katherine A

2009-09-01

163

Babesia capreoli infections in alpine chamois (rupicapra R. Rupicapra), roe deer (capreolus C. Capreolus) and red deer (cervus elaphus) from Switzerland  

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Five cases of fatal babesiosis in free-ranging chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra) attributed to infections with Babesia capreoli were recently recorded in two regions of the Swiss Alps. To investigate the ecologic factors that possibly lead to those fatal B. capreoli infections in chamois, blood, ticks, and demographic data of 46 roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus), 48 chamois, and nine red deer (Cervus elaphus) were collected in 2006 and 2007 in both affected regions. Whereas no parasitic inclus...

Hoby, S.; Mathis, A.; Doherr, M.; Robert, N.; Ryser-degiorgis, M.

2009-01-01

164

The Impact of Sika Deer on Vegetation in Japan: Setting Management Priorities on a National Scale  

Science.gov (United States)

Irreversible shifts in ecosystems caused by large herbivores are becoming widespread around the world. We analyzed data derived from the 2009-2010 Sika Deer Impact Survey, which assessed the geographical distribution of deer impacts on vegetation through a questionnaire, on a scale of 5-km grid-cells. Our aim was to identify areas facing irreversible ecosystem shifts caused by deer overpopulation and in need of management prioritization. Our results demonstrated that the areas with heavy impacts on vegetation were widely distributed across Japan from north to south and from the coastal to the alpine areas. Grid-cells with heavy impacts are especially expanding in the southwestern part of the Pacific side of Japan. The intensity of deer impacts was explained by four factors: (1) the number of 5-km grid-cells with sika deer in neighboring 5 km-grid-cells in 1978 and 2003, (2) the year sika deer were first recorded in a grid-cell, (3) the number of months in which maximum snow depth exceeded 50 cm, and (4) the proportion of urban areas in a particular grid-cell. Based on our model, areas with long-persistent deer populations, short snow periods, and fewer urban areas were predicted to be the most vulnerable to deer impact. Although many areas matching these criteria already have heavy deer impact, there are some areas that remain only slightly impacted. These areas may need to be designated as having high management priority because of the possibility of a rapid intensification of deer impact.

Ohashi, Haruka; Yoshikawa, Masato; Oono, Keiichi; Tanaka, Norihisa; Hatase, Yoriko; Murakami, Yuhide

2014-09-01

165

Divergent nonlinear responses of the boreal forest field layer along an experimental gradient of deer densities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The early responses of the field layer to changes in biotic and abiotic conditions are key determinants of the future composition and structure of forests where sustained heavy browsing pressure has depauperated the shrub understory. We investigated the relationships between white-tailed deer density and field layer plant community dynamics in boreal forests managed for wildlife and timber production. We hypothesized that the growth and reproduction of field layer plants are either: (H(1)) directly proportional to deer density, or (H(2)) related to deer density through nonlinear relationships or (H(3)) through nonlinear relationships with thresholds. We tested these hypotheses using data from a controlled browsing experiment involving a gradient of deer densities (0, 7.5, 15, 27 and 56 deer km(-2)) in interaction with timber harvesting conducted on Anticosti Island, Canada. In recent clearcuts, the dominant responses of the field layer plants were exponential recovery in growth and reproduction with decreasing deer densities. The abundance of browse-tolerant species such as grasses was positively related to deer density, suggesting an apparent competitive gain. These results support the prediction from our second hypothesis, although the presence of ecological thresholds should not be ruled out. Rapid changes in the early successional stages have potentially long-term consequences on successional patterns through processes such as the modulation of germination and early establishment success of seedlings from later successional species. Quantitative data as those presented here are essential for the development of ecosystem management prescriptions. On Anticosti Island, reduction of local deer densities to levels deer km(-2) in the first 3 years following timber harvesting appears to be compatible with the regeneration dynamics of this system although lower levels of deer densities may be required for the conservation of browse-sensitive plant species. PMID:16896768

Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Huot, Jean; Potvin, François

2006-11-01

166

Radiocesium transfer to roe deer and moose. Modelling and experimental studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis summarises and discusses results of modelling and experimental studies of radiocesium transfer to roe deer and moose. Experimental studies were conducted in two forested areas highly contaminated by the Chernobyl deposition. One area is 40 km north west of Uppsala, in central Sweden and the other is in the Bryansk region of Russia. Experimental studies in Sweden are based on measurements of radiocesium levels in roe deer and moose carried out during 1988-1997. Issues addressed were: reasons for seasonal variations of radiocesium levels in roe deer, between years variations and long-term dynamics, correlation between radiocesium levels in roe deer and moose and role of fungi for radiocesium transfer to roe deer and moose. Experimental studies in Bryansk focused on calibration and validation of models developed during the study. Radiocaesium levels in roe deer increase in up to 5 times in summer and autumn due to mushrooms ingestion and remain almost constant the rest of the year. Mushrooms ingestion explained quantitatively between years variations in radiocesium levels in roe deer and 70 % of the variations in moose. The 137Cs levels of in roe deer and moose will decrease at a rate close to 137Cs physical half-life. The radiocesium levels were 2-2.5 times higher in roe deer than in moose. A conceptual model of radiocesium migration and transfer in a forest ecosystem is presented as an interaction matrix. This matrix can be used to stuion matrix. This matrix can be used to study migration pathways and cause-effect relationships and to present status of knowledge. A model of radiocesium transfer in forest ecosystems was developed, which simulates well seasonal and long-term dynamics of radiocesium levels in roe deer and moose. A process level model of radiocesium transfer from soil to understorey plants is used to derive equations relating soil-to-plant concentration ratios with soil characteristics

167

The physical condition of roe and red deer killed by wolves in a region of the western Alps, Italy  

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The leg bone marrow fat of 11 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) killed by wolves (Canis lupus) was examined and compared with that of 15 roe deer killed in traffic accidents. Moreover, a sample of 14 red deer (Cervus elaphus) kills was examined. High levels of femur marrow fat (75-100 %) were detected in 45% of the roe deer killed by wolves. The amount of leg bone marrow fat showed a decrease through the winter season, roe deer killed by wolves did not show a significantly lower marrow fat level...

Ferroglio, Ezio

2007-01-01

168

Action Central: Red Deer steps forward as oilfield operations capital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growth of Red Deer as the center of the oil and natural gas service industry in the Alberta oilpatch was discussed. Red Deer is the home base of many of Alberta's major service companies (Haliburton, Schlumberger, Computalog, Nowsco, Canadian Fracmaster, Hughes, Bonus and Challenger), and new companies are regularly looking for industrial properties to establish themselves in the city. Industrial land acquisition currently runs at about triple of the average for the previous ten years. Another significant spin-off of energy wealth around Red Deer comes from the manufacturing of petrochemical building blocks of plastics, at nearby Joffre. With expansion projects that include Union Carbide Canada and Amoco Canada, predictions of population growth to 100,000 from the current 75,000, are commonplace. These expansion projects spell up to 2,500 construction jobs for the next three years, and then 400 new permanent plant positions that will pay $60,000 and up for skilled specialist jobs. There are some concerns about the threat of the Alliance Gas Pipeline project that if it materializes it might export many jobs, along with the natural gas, to the United States. However, these concerns are less serious than the fear that Alliance threatens to raise the price of the raw material by draining away surpluses from the industry, thus removing the major Canadian advantage in competition with U.S. industry. Alliance supporters counter that even at maximum export through the Cochat even at maximum export through the Cochin liquid pipeline, only half of the ethane production that will be potentially available, will be exported

169

Endemic fluorosis presenting as cervical cord compression  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neurological involvement in fluorosis occurs in the advanced stage of the disease and is due to compression of the spinal cord and/or nerve roots. There are only a few reports on the role of surgical management of these cases in the medical literature. Five cases of fluorosis from the endemic areas of Uttar Pradesh, India, had associated cervical cord compression. Their mean age was 43 yr (range 35-50), and all cases were manual laborers. Three patients with blocked cervical subarachnoid space on myelography underwent laminectomy using local anesthesia. All three cases improved significantly after surgery. The usefulness of laminectomy in selected cases of cervical cord compression due to fluorosis is suggested.

Misra, U.K.; Husain, M.; Newton, G.

170

List of rare, endemic and threatened plants in Romania (I)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The IUCN list of rare, endemic and threatened plant species of Romania are presented with the indication of corresponding IUCN Red Data Book Categories, habitat codes and threat codes. In this first report 47 endemic and 101 other threatened plant species were included.

Leon, Ch; Chirca, Eugenia; Szabo, Attila T.; Pazmany, Denes; Moldovan, I.

1984-01-01

171

Evaluation of diagnostic criteria for endemic nephropathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Diagnosis of endemic nephropathy (EN) is based on the combination of several clinical and laboratory criteria. Despite extensive research no specific diagnostic biomarker for EN has yet been identified. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic significance of the variables previously proposed as diagnostic criteria, but also new ones. After an extended questionnaire, the clinical and laboratory examination population in EN villages was classified according to the modified WHO criteria. The urinary active form of TGF-? was measured with a bioassay using a cell line which expresses luciferase activity. In the study we used ROC analysis to examine the predictive value of the tested variables. In the study there was no difference in haemoglobin level between the study subgroups. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) in urine and active urinary TGF-? levels were increased in the EN diseased group when compared to other subgroups, but they did not fulfil the statistical criteria needed for differentiating a diseased form from other study subgroups. Both kidney length and parenchima thickness, alfa1-microglobulinuria, and kidney function assessed by MDRD formula were the variables that differentiated the study subgroups well. Based on our results the cut-off value of alfa1microglobulin for screening should be 23.5 mg/g creatinine instead of 15 mg/g creatinine in the present criteria, and for making a diagnosis of EN 31,5 mg/g creatinine. Persons with a positive family history for EN had a 5.8 times greater risk of developing EN when compared to a negative one. Taken together, the abovementioned variables should be implemented in new uniform diagnostic criteria for EN. Key words: endemic nephropathy, aristolochic acid nephropathy, diagnostic criteria, TGFbeta, alfa1-micro-globulin. PMID:24798596

Dika, Z; Antoine, M-H; Husson, C; De Prez, E G; Kos, J; Miši?, M; Fu?ek, M; Cvoriš?ec, D; Bourgeade, M-F; Nortier, J L; Jelakovi?, B

2014-01-01

172

Investigation of the lead-, mercury- and cadmium concentration found in red deer, deer and chamois in an tyrolian preserve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

t mushrooms in the fall which contained an average 1.029 ppm Hg. Changes in concentrations could not be determined to be sex and age dependet. The cadmium concentration was highest in the kidney cortex in all three animal types. A highly significant dependency should be observed in the cadmium concentration. Deer showed the greatest amounts in each age class, which can be referred back to the grazing habits, to the preferred herbs and mushrooms which have high cadmium contents. Due to the strong influence of the age factor in cadmium storage in the organism, a sex or season dependency of concentration gradient could not be determined. (Author)

173

Comparison of the prevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in endemic and non-endemic Bulgarian locations  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: The Balkans is an endemic region for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF, caused by the CCHF virus (CCHFV. Several Bulgarian regions comprised of smaller locations are categorized either as endemic or non-endemic for CCHF. However, little is known about the dynamics that underlie the development of endemicity within the locations throughout the years. Methods: Seven locations categorized as endemic in one central Bulgarian region (Stara Zagora were compared to seven non-endemic areas. During the period 2006-12, a total of 1775 blood samples from cattle, were tested for anti-CCHFV antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay. Also, the infestation of 617 mature ticks for CCHFV was studied using a combination of an immunofluorescence haemocytes assay and molecularvirological methods. Results: Anti-CCHFV antibodies were established in 7.89% (140/1775 of the sera. The average CCHFV-infestation in the ticks was 1.46% (9/617. CCHFV was detected in three tick species: H.m. marginatum (3.73%, 6/161, being the main vector of the infection; R. sanguineus (1.63%, 2/123; and I. ricinus (1.96%, 1/51. Interpretation & conclusion: The data for the endemic and non-endemic locations did not reveal significant differences for the prevalence of CCHFV. Mosaic dispersion of the virus was determined in the studied region and the results did not vary significantly throughout the investigated years.

Ivanka Gergova

2013-12-01

174

What do they eat? Using DNA barcoding to assess diet preferences of deer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Humans have modified most ecosystems on Earth to a degree where even the largest “wild” nature reserves need management to avoid the loss of biodiversity. Native large herbivore grazing has potential as an efficient and natural tool in this management because they create dynamics and keep landscapes open. However, in order to use this tool properly, we need to know more about what the animals eat compared to what is available in different habitats and how access to supplementary fodder influences the grazing effect on the vegetation. Using DNA barcoding of feces, we are investigating the diet preferences of deer (red deer and roe deer) in Klelund Deer Park in Denmark. Over one year, we collect feces samples every month from different habitat types (e.g., heath, marsh, meadow, open forests and coniferous plantation) within the park. DNA barcoding can not only tell us which plants are consumed but also in which proportions. We intend to uncover the variation in deer diet over a year and among different habitatsand how supplementary fodder influences the diet preference. The results will contribute to a better understanding of deer management as well as how deer grazing can be used as a tool in management of open landscapes.

FlŘjgaard, Camilla; Ejrnćs, Rasmus

175

Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus in the Helan Mountains, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes in forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833. The use of vegetation types varied seasonally according to food availability and ambient temperature. Red deer used montane coniferous forest and alpine shrub and meadow zones distributed above 2,000 m and 3,000 m in summer, alpine shrub and meadows above 3,000 m in autumn, being restricted to lower elevation habitats in spring and winter. The winter habitat of C. elaphus alxaicus was dominated by Ulmus glaucescens Franch. and Juglans regia Linnaeus, deciduous trees, and differed from the habitats selected by other subspecies of red deer. Cervus elaphus alxaicus preferred habitats with abundant vegetation coverage to open habitats in winter, but the reverse pattern was observed in summer and autumn. Red deer preferred gentle slopes (<10° but the use of slope gradient categories varied seasonally. Red deer avoidance of human disturbance in the Helan Mountains varied significantly by season. Information on red deer habitat selection can help understand the factors affecting seasonal movements and also support decision making in the management and conservation of red deer and their habitats.

Mingming Zhang

2013-02-01

176

Acute impacts of the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) infestation on reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) behaviour.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood-sucking ectoparasites have often a strong impact on the behaviour of their hosts. The annual insect harassment of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) has increased in the southern part of the Finnish reindeer herding area because of the recent invasion of a blood-feeding ectoparasitic louse-fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi). We studied the impact of the deer ked on the behaviour of reindeer. Twelve reindeer were infested with a total of 300 keds/reindeer on six occasions in a 5-week period during the deer ked flight season in autumn, while six non-infested reindeer were used as controls. Behavioural patterns indicating potential stress were monitored by visual observation from August to December. The infested reindeer displayed more incidences of restless behaviour than the controls. Shaking and scratching were the most common forms of restless behaviour after infestation of deer keds. Increased grooming was also observed after the transplantation and also later, 1 month after the infestation. Based on the results, the deer ked infestation can cause acute behavioural disturbance in reindeer and, thus, could pose a potential threat to reindeer welfare. Antiparasitic treatment with, e.g. ivermectin, may increase the welfare of parasitized reindeer by reducing deer keds. If the deer ked infestation intensity on the reindeer herding area increases and restless behaviour of reindeer becomes more common, the present results can help in further evaluation of the duration and magnitude of behavioural changes. PMID:24562815

Kynkäänniemi, Sanna-Mari; Kettu, Maria; Kortet, Raine; Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja; Paakkonen, Tommi; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri; Härkönen, Sauli; Ylönen, Hannu; Laaksonen, Sauli

2014-04-01

177

Microgeographic distribution of immature Ixodes dammini ticks correlated with that of deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to determine whether the small-scale distribution of immature Ixodes dammini Spielman et al. corresponds closely to the activity patterns of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman), these relationships were examined in a site on Long Island, New York, U.S.A. We first determined the extent and temporal pattern of adult ticks feeding on deer by examining twenty-three resident deer tranquilized during September-December 1985. I. dammini adults infested deer throughout this fall period, most abundantly during October and November. With radio-telemetry collars attached to deer we determined the relative frequency that they occupied 0.25 ha quadrats of the study site. During the following summer, we examined white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque), that inhabited these quadrats and removed immature ticks from each. 8975 larval and 163 nymphal I. dammini were removed from 208 mice trapped in forty-three such quadrats. The frequency of deer using these quadrats was positively correlated with both the number of larval and of nymphal ticks per mouse. These results suggest that risk of I. damminiborne zoonotic disease may be decreased by locally reducing deer density in sites that experience intense human activity. PMID:2132979

Wilson, M L; Ducey, A M; Litwin, T S; Gavin, T A; Spielman, A

1990-04-01

178

Toxinotyping of Clostridium perfringens Fecal Isolates of Reintroduced Pčre David's Deer (Elaphurus davidianus) in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen causing sudden death syndrome, necrotic enteritis, and gas gangrene in ruminants, especially some deer species. Pčre David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) is one of the world's rare species and is an endangered and protected species in China. Some Pčre David's deer in the Chinese Shishou Pčre David's Deer Preserve died due to C. perfringens infection. We investigated the toxin types and C. perfringens enterotoxin-positive (cpe(+)) strains of isolated C. perfringens in Pčre David's deer in China. We collected 155 fecal samples from the Beijing Nanhaizi Pčre David's Deer Park and the Jiangsu Dafeng Pčre David's Deer National Nature Reserve between July 2010 and July 2011. Bacteria isolated using blood agar and mannitol agar plates were identified by Gram staining and nested PCR for 16S rRNA. We isolated C. perfringens from 41 fecal samples and used PCR amplification of five toxin genes to identify the toxinotypes and the cpe(+) strains of C. perfringens. Twenty-one isolates were type A, 15 were type E, and five were type D. Fifteen isolates were cpe(+) strains, including eight that were type A and seven that were type E. PMID:25050802

Qiu, Huiling; Chen, Fu; Leng, Xinyan; Fei, Rongmei; Wang, Libo

2014-10-01

179

Tagging studies of mule deer fawns on the Hanford Site, 1969 to 1977  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From 1969 to 1977, 346 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) fawns were tagged and released on islands and shoreline habitat associated with the Columbia River on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. The purpose was to determine the movement of mule deer along the Columbia River shoreline from the Hanford Site through tag recovery. Twenty-one tagged deer have been killed primarily by hunters near the Hanford Site or on areas of the Hanford Site open to public access. Movements of up to 113 km from Hanford have been documented. Although the Columbia River at Hanford is one of the largest and most swift-flowing rivers in North America it is not an impassable barrier to mule deer. River islands are important and perhaps critical fawining habitat for the local deer herd. The selection of these islands by pregnant female deer is apparently influenced by predation, human access, and recreational use of islands. The number of fawns captured decreased during the latter years of the study (1974 to 1977). This is probably a reflection of an actual decrease in deer productivity, particularly along the upper stretch of the Columbia flowing through the Hanford Site. The reasons for this apparent decrease are unkown.

Eberhardt, L.E.; Hedlund, J.D.; Rickard, W.H.

1979-10-01

180

Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in ?-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml(-1) ± 0.13 µg ml(-1)) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms. PMID:24552838

Chintoan-Uta, C; Morgan, E R; Skuce, P J; Coles, G C

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

Undernutrition and serum and urinary urea nitrogen of white-tailed deer during winter  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct, practical means of assessing undernutrition in deer (Odocoileus spp.) and other ungulates during winter are needed in areas of research and management. We examined the relationship between mass loss and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine (U:C) in captive white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). During 4 February-5 May 1988, we maintained 7 adult white-tailed deer on various feeding regimes to simulate natural nutritional restriction during winter. Mass loss was greater (P = 0.037) in deer (17.0-32.2%) fed restricted amounts of a low protein low energy diet versus control deer (7.0-17.4%) fed the same diet ad libitum. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations did not differ (P = 0.191) between groups, but declined (P = 0.001) as nutrition declined. Slopes of percent mass lossSUN and urinary U:C relationships were positive (P = 0.008 and 0.055) in 7 and 6 deer, respectively. Mean U:C was directly related (r2 = 0.52, P = 0.040) to mean cumulative mass loss, whereas mean SUN was not (r2 = 0.29, P = 0.125). Data presented support the potential of urinary U:C as an index of winter nutritional condition of white-tailed deer; however, additional research is required to provide a complete understanding of this index's utility under field conditions.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

1994-01-01

182

Transabdominal ultrasound for pregnancy diagnosis in Reeves' muntjac deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reeves' muntjac deer (Muntiacus reevesi) are a small cervid species native to southeast Asia, and are currently being investigated as a potential model of prion disease transmission and pathogenesis. Vertical transmission is an area of interest among researchers studying infectious diseases, including prion disease, and these investigations require efficient methods for evaluating the effects of maternal infection on reproductive performance. Ultrasonographic examination is a well-established tool for diagnosing pregnancy and assessing fetal health in many animal species(1-7), including several species of farmed cervids(8-19), however this technique has not been described in Reeves' muntjac deer. Here we describe the application of transabdominal ultrasound to detect pregnancy in muntjac does and to evaluate fetal growth and development throughout the gestational period. Using this procedure, pregnant animals were identified as early as 35 days following doe-buck pairing and this was an effective means to safely monitor the pregnancy at regular intervals. Future goals of this work will include establishing normal fetal measurement references for estimation of gestational age, determining sensitivity and specificity of the technique for diagnosing pregnancy at various stages of gestation, and identifying variations in fetal growth and development under different experimental conditions. PMID:24430673

Walton, Kelly D; McNulty, Erin; Nalls, Amy V; Mathiason, Candace K

2014-01-01

183

Factors affecting deer ked (Lipoptena cervi prevalence and infestation intensity in moose (Alces alces in Norway  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi, a hematophagous ectoparasite of Cervids, is currently spreading in Scandinavia. In Norway, keds are now invading the south-eastern part of the country and the abundant and widely distributed moose (Alces alces is the definitive host. However, key factors for ked abundance are poorly elucidated. The objectives of our study were to (i determine deer ked infestation prevalence and intensity on moose and (ii evaluate if habitat characteristics and moose population density are determinants of deer ked abundance on moose. Methods In order to identify key factors for deer ked abundance, a total of 350 skin samples from the neck of hunted moose were examined and deer keds counted. Infestation intensity was analyzed in relation to moose age and sex, moose population density and landscape characteristics surrounding the killing site. Results Deer ked infestation prevalence was 100%, but infestation intensity varied from 0.001 to 1.405 keds/cm2. Ked intensity was highest in male yearlings (~1.5 years and positively associated with longitude and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris dominated habitat and negatively associated with bogs and latitude. Moose population density during autumn showed a tendency to be positively associated, while altitude tended to be negatively associated with ked intensity. Conclusions Deer keds exploit the whole moose population within our study area, but are most prevalent in areas dominated by Scots pine. This is probably a reflection of Scots pine being the preferred winter browse for moose in areas with highest moose densities in winter. Ked intensity decreases towards the northwest and partly with increasing altitude, probably explained by the direction of dispersal and reduced temperature, respectively. Abundant deer ked harm humans and domestic animals. Moose management authorities should therefore be aware of the close relationship between moose, deer ked and habitat, using the knowledge as a management tool for locally regulating the ked burden.

Madslien Knut

2012-11-01

184

Therapeutic Efficacy of Selected Anthelmintics against Gastrointestinal Nematodiasis in Captive Deer  

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Full Text Available The investigation was undertaken to study the hematological changes and efficacy selected anthelmintics in gastrointestinal nematodiasis affected spotted deer. The hematological picture gave the evidence of anemia in spotted deer affected with gastrointestinal nematodiasis, characterized by a significant reduction (p<0.01 in total erythrocyte counts (TEC, haemoglobin (Hb and alteration in values of MCV, MCH and MCHC. A significant leukocytosis (P<0.05 was evident in gastrointestinal nematodiasis affected spotted deer. Albendazole and levamisole were found to be effective in reducing fecal eggs count but the efficacy of albendazole was higher in contrast to levamisole

S. Kanungo

2011-05-01

185

Aggressive defensive behavior by free-ranging white-tailed deer  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal investment plays a critical role in neonate survival, and adults can improve survival of offspring by defending them against predators. However, limited information exists documenting ungulate aggression toward humans in defense of neonates. During captures of neonates in spring 2007 and 2008 in north-central South Dakota, we documented 24 aggressive encounters by adult female and yearling male and female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) defending neonates. Eleven (45.8%) aggressive encounters included yearlings accompanying adult females. Mean ages and weights of neonates that were aggressively defended were greater (P white-tailed deer, and that deer biased maternal investment toward older, male neonates. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

Grovenburg, T. W.; Jenks, J. A.; Jacques, C. N.; Klaver, R. W.; Swanson, C. C.

2009-01-01

186

Gross anatomy of the stomach of the pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae  

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Full Text Available The macroscopic anatomy of the stomach of the adult pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758, a cervid species considered to ingest high quantities of grass in its natural diet, was described. Fourteen deceased adult pampas deer of both sexes from a captive breeding station were used for this study. There were no differences in the absolute or relative size from the different compartments of the stomach in relation to gender. Compared to measurements in other ruminants, pampas deer appeared anatomically capable of feeding on a variety of diets as an 'intermediate feeder'.

William Perez

2012-08-01

187

Gross anatomy of the stomach of the pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The macroscopic anatomy of the stomach of the adult pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758), a cervid species considered to ingest high quantities of grass in its natural diet, was described. Fourteen deceased adult pampas deer of both sexes from a captive breeding station were used for [...] this study. There were no differences in the absolute or relative size from the different compartments of the stomach in relation to gender. Compared to measurements in other ruminants, pampas deer appeared anatomically capable of feeding on a variety of diets as an 'intermediate feeder'.

William, Perez; Rodolfo, Ungerfeld.

2012-08-01

188

Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

D'Angelo, Gino, J., John C. Kilgo, Christopher E. Comer, Cory D. Drennan, David A. Osborn, and Karl V. Miller. 2003. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer. In: Proceedings of the Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies. 57:317-325. This article explores the relationship between controlled dog hunting and the movements of female white tailed deer at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The data suggests that short term, controlled dog hunting has little long-term effect on adult, female white-tailed deer movement on the Savannah River Site.

D' Angelo, Gino, J.; Kilgo, John, C.; Comer, Christopher, E.; Drennan, Cory, D.; Osborn, David, A.; Miller, Karl, V.

2003-12-31

189

Roe deer in Borre :an analysis of hunting statistics and recommendations for future management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

English: The roe deer project in Borre (RiB) was initiated in 1999 to coordinate and improve the roe deer management in Horten municipality. In the period 1999-2005, a total of 689 roe deer were shot in the regular hunt. Of these animals, slaughter weight, sex and age is known for 563 individuals. In this report, the first conclusive analyses of these data are reported. Throughout the period, there has been a slight increase in slaughter weights, jaw lengths and fat content. This indicates th...

Nilsen, Erlend Birkeland

2008-01-01

190

[Acute pasteurellosis in fallow deer, cattle and pigs in a region of Eastern Germany].  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemorrhagic septicaemia, an acute disease caused by P multocida capsular type B which is rarely detected in Europe, caused considerable losses in fallow deer, cattle and pigs within a region along the border of the federal states Brandenburg and Saxony-Anhalt in the summer of 2010. Clinical appearances and diagnostic findings are presented and possible triggering influences discussed. Pasteurella multocida capsular type B has not been cultivated from clinically healthy cattle and pigs of the region. Examination of fallow deer and roe deer in the region revealed the presence of singular carriers, which may act as a source of clinical infections. PMID:22515030

Soike, Dirk; Schulze, Christoph; Kutzer, Peter; Ewert, Benno; van der Grinten, Elisabeth; Schliephake, Annette; Ewers, Christa; Bethe, Astrid; Rau, Jörg

2012-01-01

191

Relaciones espaciales y numéricas entre venados de las pampas (Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer) y chanchos cimarrones (Sus scrofa) en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Bahía Samborombón, Argentina / Spatial and numerical relationships between Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer) and feral pigs (Sus scrofa) in the Bahía Samborombón Wildlife Refuge, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer es la subespecie más austral del venado de las pampas; es endémica de la eco-región pampeana y se encuentra seriamente amenazada de extinción. En Buenos Aires, el último núcleo poblacional existente se localiza en la Bahía Samborombón. El objetivo del presente trabajo fu [...] e determinar las variaciones en la distribución y abundancia de venados y chanchos cimarrones en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Bahía Samborombón, y discutir la interacción potencial entre ambas especies. Se realizaron seis muestreos aéreos durante el período 2002-2005, en los que se contabilizaron 747 venados y 2690 chanchos, y se registró una leve disminución del número de venados y un notable incremento del de chanchos. Se halló una correlación negativa entre la densidad de ambas especies (r s=-0.83; P=0.04) y se detectó que su distribución no es independiente entre sí. En las últimas tres décadas se observó un cambio en la distribución de venados, posiblemente asociado al incremento de chanchos. Este trabajo aporta evidencias indirectas de la existencia potencial de interacciones negativas entre las dos especies que se reflejan en relaciones numéricas y espaciales inversas. Abstract in english Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer, the southernmost subspecies of pampas deer and endemic to the Argentine Pampas, is seriously endangered. In Buenos Aires Province, the last Pampas deer population is located in the Bahía Samborombón region. Poaching and the increase in exotic species such as feral dogs [...] and feral pigs have been suggested as the most important causes affecting the recovery of the deer population. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the spatial and temporal variations in distribution and abundance of the Pampas deer and the feral pig in the Bahía Samborombón Wildlife Refuge and to discuss the possible consequences of the interaction between these species. Six aerial surveys were conducted during 2002-2005. A total of 747 deer and 2690 feral pigs were counted, with a slight decrease in the deer sightings and an important increase in pig sightings during the sampling period. Estimated density ranged between 0.63-1.56 individuals/km˛ for deer and from 0.91 to 7.78 individuals/km˛ for pigs. A negative correlation was found between densities of the two species (r s=-0.83; P=0.04), and the distributions are not mutually independent. A progressive change in distribution has been detected in the Pampas deer population during the last three decades. This study provides evidence of the potential existence of negative interactions between Pampas deer and pigs. Due to the critical situation of the Pampas deer population, a control plan for feral pigs should be developed and urgently implemented to prevent the increase and expansion of this population to the south of the Samborombón bay, and consequently, to reduce the potential competition and predation on the existing deer population.

Lorena C, Pérez Carusi; Mario S, Beade; Fernando, Mińarro; Alejandro R, Vila; Mariano, Giménez-Dixon; David N, Bilenca.

2009-04-01

192

Relaciones espaciales y numéricas entre venados de las pampas (Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer) y chanchos cimarrones (Sus scrofa) en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Bahía Samborombón, Argentina / Spatial and numerical relationships between Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer) and feral pigs (Sus scrofa) in the Bahía Samborombón Wildlife Refuge, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer es la subespecie más austral del venado de las pampas; es endémica de la eco-región pampeana y se encuentra seriamente amenazada de extinción. En Buenos Aires, el último núcleo poblacional existente se localiza en la Bahía Samborombón. El objetivo del presente trabajo fu [...] e determinar las variaciones en la distribución y abundancia de venados y chanchos cimarrones en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Bahía Samborombón, y discutir la interacción potencial entre ambas especies. Se realizaron seis muestreos aéreos durante el período 2002-2005, en los que se contabilizaron 747 venados y 2690 chanchos, y se registró una leve disminución del número de venados y un notable incremento del de chanchos. Se halló una correlación negativa entre la densidad de ambas especies (r s=-0.83; P=0.04) y se detectó que su distribución no es independiente entre sí. En las últimas tres décadas se observó un cambio en la distribución de venados, posiblemente asociado al incremento de chanchos. Este trabajo aporta evidencias indirectas de la existencia potencial de interacciones negativas entre las dos especies que se reflejan en relaciones numéricas y espaciales inversas. Abstract in english Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer, the southernmost subspecies of pampas deer and endemic to the Argentine Pampas, is seriously endangered. In Buenos Aires Province, the last Pampas deer population is located in the Bahía Samborombón region. Poaching and the increase in exotic species such as feral dogs [...] and feral pigs have been suggested as the most important causes affecting the recovery of the deer population. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the spatial and temporal variations in distribution and abundance of the Pampas deer and the feral pig in the Bahía Samborombón Wildlife Refuge and to discuss the possible consequences of the interaction between these species. Six aerial surveys were conducted during 2002-2005. A total of 747 deer and 2690 feral pigs were counted, with a slight decrease in the deer sightings and an important increase in pig sightings during the sampling period. Estimated density ranged between 0.63-1.56 individuals/km˛ for deer and from 0.91 to 7.78 individuals/km˛ for pigs. A negative correlation was found between densities of the two species (r s=-0.83; P=0.04), and the distributions are not mutually independent. A progressive change in distribution has been detected in the Pampas deer population during the last three decades. This study provides evidence of the potential existence of negative interactions between Pampas deer and pigs. Due to the critical situation of the Pampas deer population, a control plan for feral pigs should be developed and urgently implemented to prevent the increase and expansion of this population to the south of the Samborombón bay, and consequently, to reduce the potential competition and predation on the existing deer population.

Lorena C, Pérez Carusi; Mario S, Beade; Fernando, Mińarro; Alejandro R, Vila; Mariano, Giménez-Dixon; David N, Bilenca.

193

Advances in methods for measuring patterns of endemic plant diversity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endemism, the restriction of a taxon’s distribution to a specified geographical area, is central to the study of biogeography. Understanding endemism not only concerns a number of evolutionary and biogeographical issues, but also plays an important role in maintaining biodiversity and in the selection of priority areas for conservation. In recent years, various measures and analytical methods have been used to investigate patterns of endemism for various taxa from different regions. The emergence of these new measurements has benefited from the construction of phylogenetic trees and the implementation of data from spatial statistics. Some of these measures, such as phylogenetic diversity, phylogenetic endemism, and biogeographically weighted evolutionary distinctiveness deserve much more attention. Here, we review progress in the methodology used to measure the distribution patterns of endemism. These metrics have generally developed from a single time or space perspective to space-time united patterns. Specifically, the metrics include species richness, phylogenetic diversity and evolutionary distinctiveness, plus all there in combination as well as the weight of species range size. Moreover, we propose that studies on the distribution patterns of Chinese endemic taxa should pay attention to species diversity, phylogenetic diversity, species ?-diversity, and phylogenetic ?-diversity. In particular, model simulation analysis should be emphasized and implemented during investigations. These studies will provide fundamental knowledge for comprehensive recognition of scale-induced differences and for the detection of mechanisms underlying the distribution patterns of endemic taxa, and therefore provide theoretical support for biodiversity conservation.

Jihong Huang

2013-01-01

194

REVIEW: Endemic plants of serpentine soils  

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Full Text Available Plant adaptation to serpentine soils is a system ideal for studies in evolutionary ecology. Serpentine soils are characterized by low calcium to magnesium ratios with Ca at significantly lower concentrations relative to surrounding areas. Although some variation occurs between sites which identified three collective traits: poor plant productivity, high rates of endemism and vegetation type distinct from those of neighboring areas. The several morphological feature characteristic of serpentine-tolerant species is possess xeromorphic foliage, including reduced leaf size and sclerophylls, the stature is significantly reduced relative to counterparts on non serpentine soil and root systems of species growing on and off serpentine sites are often more developed on serpentine soils than on neighboring soils. Serpentine soils are ubiquitous, but patchily distributed and thus promote geographic isolation. Adaptation to edaphic conditions may also beget reproductive isolation. Adaptive mutation might be influenced frequently from related species inhabiting surrounding areas. For the future studies involving serpentine systems merge the fields of ecology, evolution, physiology, and genetics required for serpentine adaptation.

SUDARMONO

2007-10-01

195

Foot infections associated with Arcanobacterium pyogenes in free-living fallow deer (Dama dama).  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe foot infection associated with Arcanobacterium pyogenes in three adult male free-living fallow deer (Dama dama) from Sueve Regional Hunting Reserve (Principality of Asturias, Spain). Affected fallow deer were culled in November 1997 and 1998 during the hunting season. Necropsy, radiography, and microbiologic analysis were carried out for each animal. Unilateral swelling of one extremity at the coronary band was observed in all three cases. Areas of bone loss, severe periosteal reaction, and soft tissue swelling were seen on radiography. Lead fragments were observed in one fallow deer. Seven bacterial species were isolated, but only Arcanobacterium pyogenes was routinely found. Weather conditions in the area (mild temperatures and high humidity), the land (alternating pasture land and rock), the animal population density (both fallow deer and domestic herds of cows, horses, sheep, and goats, live side by side in the same areas), and hunting activities could be related to the frequency of these infections. PMID:15465736

Lavín, Santiago; Ruiz-Bascarán, María; Marco, Ignasi; Abarca, María Lourdes; Crespo, Maria Jesus; Franch, Jordi

2004-07-01

196

Different responses to doxorubicin-induced chromosome aberrations in Brazilian deer species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tendency toward chromosome fragility is one of the theories that may explain chromosome variation in brocket deer species (genus Mazama). We tested doxorubicin as an inducer of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of three brocket deer species, Mazama gouazoubira, M. americana and M. nana, compared to the marsh deer, Blastocerus dichotomus. Doxorubicin, at a concentration of 0.25 microg/mL, induced chromosome aberrations and fragile sites in all four species; the highest frequencies were seen in M. gouazoubira; they were lowest in B. dichotomus and intermediate in M. americana and M. nana. These results were expected based on previous karyotypic studies, but they failed to explain the higher sensitivity seen in M. gouazoubira. This may be because not all the aberrations and fragile sites are related to chromosome evolution in brocket deer; other factors, such as environmental influences, may be involved in chromosome fragility. PMID:20714996

Vargas-Munar, D S F; Sarria-Perea, J A; Duarte, J M B

2010-01-01

197

Seasonality of 137Cs in roe deer from Austria and Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Empirical data on the 137Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) roaming in 3 spruce forest areas and one peat bog area are presented and compared. They cover time series of nearly 20 years after a spike contamination in 1986 originating from Chernobyl. A model is presented which considers three soil compartments to describe the change of the availability of 137Cs with time. The time-dependency of the 137Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer is a combination of two components: (1) an exponential decay and (2) a peak in the second half of each year during the mushroom season. The exponential decay over the years can be described by a sum of two exponential functions. The additional transfer of 137Cs into roe deer during the mushroom season depends on precipitation. On the peat bog the 137Cs activity concentration in roe deer is higher and more persistent than in spruce forest

198

Identification of a novel Mannheimia granulomatis lineage from pathological lesions in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Eight atypical Mannheimia isolates were isolated from lesions in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Traditional classification based on morphologic and physiologic traits showed that they belong to a distinct biogroup (taxon) within genus Mannheimia. Extensive phenotypic characterization suggested that the isolates should be classified as M. granulomatis, although the presence of distinct traits justified their classification into a separate biogroup within this species. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA sequences from two roe deer isolates and 41 other Mannheimia strains supported that the roe deer isolates form a monophyletic group within M. granulomatis. The lktA genotype was present in all roe deer isolates based on Southern blot analysis, whereas the corresponding beta-hemolytic phenotype was absent in one of these isolates.

Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Bisgaard, Magne

2007-01-01

199

[Reduction of plant fibers in the digestive tract of the moose and the red deer].  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative study of the reduction of plant fibers moving in the digestive tract of nine red deer (Cervus elaphus) and six moose (Alces alces) was made. In the winter season, the character of fiber reduction in the moose and the red deer was similar. In the deer obtained in the early autumn, the relative concentration of small-sized fractions was significantly higher. A sharp decrease in the share oflarge-sized fibers was observed in the omasum as compared to the rumen and the reticulum. It was especially pronounced in the deer obtained in September. Deceleration of fibers of large-sized fractions in the rumen and the reticulum and the structure of the reticulo-omasal opening and its functions were considered. PMID:23136740

Naumova, E I; Zharova, G K; Chistova, T Iu; Danilkin, A A

2012-01-01

200

The dynamics of endemic malaria in populations of varying size  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mathematical model for endemic malaria involving variable human and mosquito populations is analysed. A threshold parameter R0 exists and the disease can persist if and only if R0 exceeds 1. R0 is seen to be a generalisation of the basic reproduction ratio associated with the Ross-Macdonald model for malaria transmission. The disease free equilibrium always exist and is globally stable when R0 is below 1. A perturbation analysis is used to approximate the endemic equilibrium in the important case where the disease related death rate is nonzero. A diffusion approximation is used to approximate the quasi-stationary distribution of the associated stochastic model. Numerical simulations show that when R0 is distinctly greater than 1, the endemic deterministic equilibrium is globally stable. Furthermore, in quasi-stationarity, the stochastic process undergoes oscillations about a mean population whose size can be approximated by the stable endemic deterministic equilibrium. (author)

 
 
 
 
201

Spatial distribution of Madeira Island Laurisilva endemic spiders (Arachnida: Araneae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Madeira island presents a unique spider diversity with a high number of endemic species, many of which are still poorly known. A recent biodiversity survey on the terrestrial arthropods of the native forest, Laurisilva, provided a large set of standardized samples from various patches throughout the island. Out of the fifty two species recorded, approximately 33.3% are Madeiran endemics, many of which had not been collected since their original description. Two new species to science are reported - Ceratinopsis n. sp. and Theridion n. sp. - and the first records of Poecilonetavariegata (Blackwall, 1841) and Tetragnathaintermedia Kulczynski, 1891 are reported for the first time for Madeira island. Considerations on species richness and abundance from different Laurisilva locations are presented, together with distribution maps for endemic species. These results contribute to a better understanding of spider diversity patterns and endemic species distribution in the native forest of Madeira island. PMID:24855443

Crespo, Luís C; Boieiro, Mário; Cardoso, Pedro; Aguiar, Carlos A S; Amorim, Isabel R; Barrinha, Carla; Borges, Paulo A V; Menezes, Dília; Pereira, Fernando; Rego, Carla; Ribeiro, Sérvio; Silva, Israel F; Serrano, Artur R M

2014-01-01

202

White-Tailed Deer Response to Vehicle Approach: Evidence of Unclear and Present Danger  

Science.gov (United States)

The fundamental causes of animal-vehicle collisions are unclear, particularly at the level of animal detection of approaching vehicles and decision-making. Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) are especially costly in terms of animal mortality, property damage, and safety. Over one year, we exposed free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach under low ambient light conditions, from varying start distances, and vehicle speeds from 20 km/h to approximately 90 km/h. We modeled flight response by deer to an approaching vehicle and tested four hypotheses: 1) flight-initiation distance (FID) would correlate positively with start distance (indicating a spatial margin of safety); 2) deer would react to vehicle speed using a temporal margin of safety; 3) individuals reacting at greater FIDs would be more likely to cross the path of the vehicle; and 4) crossings would correlate positively with start distance, approach speed, and distance to concealing/refuge cover. We examined deer responses by quantiles. Median FID was 40% of start distance, irrespective of start distance or approach speed. Converting FID to time-to-collision (TTC), median TTC was 4.6 s, but uncorrelated with start distance or approach speed. The likelihood of deer crossing in front of the vehicle was not associated with greater FIDs or other explanatory variables. Because deer flight response to vehicle approach was highly variable, DVCs should be more likely with increasing vehicle speeds because of lower TTCs for a given distance. For road sections characterized by frequent DVCs, we recommend estimating TTC relative to vehicle speed and candidate line-of-sight distances adjusted downward by (1-P), where P represents our findings for the proportion of start distance by which >75% of deer had initiated flight. Where road design or conservation goals limit effectiveness of line-of-sight maintenance, we suggest incorporation of roadway obstacles that force drivers to slow vehicles, in addition to posting advisory speed limits. PMID:25333922

Blackwell, Bradley F.; Seamans, Thomas W.; DeVault, Travis L.

2014-01-01

203

Winter habitat selection of mule deer before and during development of a natural gas field  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased levels of natural gas exploration, development, and production across the Intermountain West have created a variety of concerns for mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations, including direct habitat loss to road and well-pad construction and indirect habitat losses that may occur if deer use declines near roads or well pads. We examined winter habitat selection patterns of adult female mule deer before and during the first 3 years of development in a natural gas field in western Wyoming. We used global positioning system (GPS) locations collected from a sample of adult female mule deer to model relative frequency or probability of use as a function of habitat variables. Model coefficients and predictive maps suggested mule deer were less likely to occupy areas in close proximity to well pads than those farther away. Changes in habitat selection appeared to be immediate (i.e., year 1 of development), and no evidence of well-pad acclimation occurred through the course of the study; rather, mule deer selected areas farther from well pads as development progressed. Lower predicted probabilities of use within 2.7 to 3.7 km of well pads suggested indirect habitat losses may be substantially larger than direct habitat losses. Additionally, some areas classified as high probability of use by mule deer before gas field development changed to areas of low use following development, and others originally classified as low probability of use were used more frequently as the field developed. If areas with high probability of use before development were those preferred by the deer, observed shifts in their distribution as development progressed were toward less-preferred and presumably less-suitable habitats.

Sawyer, H.; Nielson, R.M.; Lindzey, F.; McDonald, L.L.

2006-01-01

204

Using Pellet Groups To Assess Response Of Elk and Deer to Roads and Energy Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Development and extraction of resources such as oil and gas has directly and indirectly reduced available habitat to wildlife through changes in behavior and resource use. To assess how elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus spp.) were spatially distributed relative to roads and coal-bed natural gas well pads, we collected pellet group data during 2 summers in south-central Colorado. We used generalized linear mixed models to assess the relative probability of use of elk and deer in relati...

Dzialak, Matthew R.; Webb, Stephen L.; Osborn, Robert G.; Harju, Seth M.; John Wondzell; Larry Hayden-Wing; Winstead, Jeffery B.

2011-01-01

205

Assessment of Swamp Deer Habitat in and Around Jhilmil Jheel Conservation Reserve, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India  

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Swamp deer (Rucervus duvaucelii duvaucelii) or Barasingha is categorized as vulnerable on the IUCN Red list. With a global population of less than 5,000 the species has a very limited distribution spanning over 2,000 km2 in India and Nepal. A small population of swamp deer was recently rediscovered in Uttarakhand state at Jhilmil Jheel. This population warranted a conservation initiative because the habitat around this Conservation Reserve is heavily fragmented due to expansion of agriculture...

Tewari, Rachna; Rawat, Gopal Singh

2013-01-01

206

Cortico-striatal oxidative status, dopamine turnover and relation with stereotypy in the deer mouse  

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The deer mouse presents with spontaneous stereotypic movements that resemble the repetitive behaviours of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and demonstrates a selective response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors. OCD has been linked to altered redox status and since increased dopamine signalling can promote stereotypies as well as oxidative stress, we investigated whether the severity of deer mouse stereotypy may be associated with altered dopamine turnover and cortico-striatal redox stat...

Harvey, Brian Herbert; Gu?ldenpfennig, Marianne; Wolmarans, Petrus Wet; Du Preez, Jan Lourens; Stein, Dan J.

2011-01-01

207

Antipredator aspects of fallow deer behaviour during calving season at Dońana National Park (Spain)  

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This study evaluates some morphological, ecological and behavioural aspects of fallow deer mothers and fawns during the calving season in order to know the antipredator tactics selected in this species living in a particularly open habitat at Donana National Park. In this area fallow deer give birth in synchrony during the first fortnight of June. At this time they move away from their matriarchal groups. A concentration of births in the early afternoon was detected, coinciding with the minim...

San Jose?, Cristina; Braza, Francisco

1997-01-01

208

Antipredator aspects of fallow deer behaviour during calving season at Dońana National Park (Spain)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study evaluates some morphological, ecological and behavioural aspects of fallow deer mothers and fawns during the calving season in order to know the antipredator tactics selected in this species living in a particularly open habitat at Donana National Park. In this area fallow deer give birth in synchrony during the first fortnight of June. At this time they move away from their matriarchal groups. A concentration of births in the early afternoon was detected, coinciding with the minim...

San Jose?, Cristina; Braza, Francisco

1992-01-01

209

CONSERVATION DEVELOPMENT OF TIMOR DEER (Cervus timorensis AS COMMERCIAL PURPOSE(WITH OPTIMISTIC RATE ESTIMATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the profit obtained from breeding of Timor deer commercially. This research was done in East Java. Survey method was used to answer the objective. The study location were selected by purposive sampling. Usually deer was develop in conservation area, but because the area was decrease so the number of deer also decrease. Model of deer raising development should be improved not only for conservation but also for commercial purpose. The optimum deer raising were considered and monitored with a purpose to maximize commercial Timor deer by using Multiple Objective Goal Programming (MOGP to find the Optimistic Rate Estimation. The result of this study showed to get the optimum benefit, it had to be applied together with conservation and commercial effort at the same time. Results of study showed that profit was taken from selling velvet was 164.46%. Profits taken from selling antler was 350.56%, from selling alive deer was 394.28%, from selling recreation tickets was 259.08%, from selling venison1 was 135.98%, and from selling deer leather was 141.24%. Operational cost spent were 168.46% for feeding cost, 213.23% for maintenance cost, and 232.04% for labors’ salaries. The amount of operational cost required in MOGP model, with lower expenses and commercial priority were 185.54% for feeding cost, 253.13% for maintenance cost, and 246.95% for paying labors’ salaries. The MOGP model result with commercial priority reached 335.21%, while in MOGP model with lower costs and commercial priority gave profit for breeders up to 381.26%.

N. Hanani

2012-09-01

210

Deer Frozen Semen Quality in Tris Sucrose and Tris Glucose Extender with Different Glycerol Concentrations  

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In order to improve Timor deer (Cervus timorensis) frozen semen quality, the influence of sugar and glycerol concentration on semen characteristics of sperm was investigated. The semen was collected from five sexually mature Timor deer using an electroejaculator. The semen was evaluated and divided into six equal tubes and diluted with Tris sucrose glycerol 10% (TSG10); Tris sucrose glycerol 12% (TSG12); Tris sucrose glycerol 14% (TSG14); Tris glucose glycerol 10% (TGG10); Tris glucose glyce...

Nalley, W. M. M.; Handarini, R.; Arifiantini, R. I.; Yusuf, T. L.; Purwantara, B.; Semiadi, G.

2011-01-01

211

Performance of immunochromatographic and ELISA tests for detecting fallow deer infected with Mycobacterium bovis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fallow deer (Dama dama) are widely distributed as natural or naturalised populations, as well as in game parks and deer farms. We used 157 fallow deer sampled in populations considered to be Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) free and 73 Mycobacterium bovis-infected fallow deer confirmed postmortem by culture to evaluate the diagnostic performance of two tests for the detection of anti-mycobacterial antibodies: the dual path platform (DPP) VetTB assay and the bovine purified protein derivative (bPPD) ELISA. We also compared their sensitivity with that of the skin test, analyzed the effect of haemolysis degree on the antibody detection and described the relationship between the test readings and presence/absence of gross tuberculosis (TB) compatible lesions. Sensitivity of bPPD ELISA was 51% at a specificity of 96%. Depending on the cut-off value selected, the sensitivity of DPP VetTB ranged from 62 to 71%, while its specificity was 88-95%. In the subgroup of M. bovis-infected deer for which the skin test data were available (33 of 73); this method detected 76% of culture-positive animals, although the specificity of the intradermal test was not determined in this study. When the DPP VetTB and skin test data were combined, the resulting sensitivity obtained in this sub-group of M. bovis-infected deer increased to 97%. Gross pathology identified TB compatible lesions (TBL) in 89% culture-confirmed fallow deer. The infected animals with visible lesions had significantly higher readings in the DPP VetTB, but not in the bPPD ELISA. Only high levels of haemolysis decreased antibody test sensitivity and this effect was more evident for the bPPD ELISA. The results allowed inferring a number of management recommendations for rapid detection of MTC infection in live fallow deer and in surveys on hunter-harvested cervids. PMID:22071126

Boadella, M; Barasona, J A; Diaz-Sanchez, S; Lyashchenko, K P; Greenwald, R; Esfandiari, J; Gortazar, C

2012-04-01

212

White-tailed deer response to vehicle approach: evidence of unclear and present danger.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fundamental causes of animal-vehicle collisions are unclear, particularly at the level of animal detection of approaching vehicles and decision-making. Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) are especially costly in terms of animal mortality, property damage, and safety. Over one year, we exposed free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach under low ambient light conditions, from varying start distances, and vehicle speeds from 20 km/h to approximately 90 km/h. We modeled flight response by deer to an approaching vehicle and tested four hypotheses: 1) flight-initiation distance (FID) would correlate positively with start distance (indicating a spatial margin of safety); 2) deer would react to vehicle speed using a temporal margin of safety; 3) individuals reacting at greater FIDs would be more likely to cross the path of the vehicle; and 4) crossings would correlate positively with start distance, approach speed, and distance to concealing/refuge cover. We examined deer responses by quantiles. Median FID was 40% of start distance, irrespective of start distance or approach speed. Converting FID to time-to-collision (TTC), median TTC was 4.6 s, but uncorrelated with start distance or approach speed. The likelihood of deer crossing in front of the vehicle was not associated with greater FIDs or other explanatory variables. Because deer flight response to vehicle approach was highly variable, DVCs should be more likely with increasing vehicle speeds because of lower TTCs for a given distance. For road sections characterized by frequent DVCs, we recommend estimating TTC relative to vehicle speed and candidate line-of-sight distances adjusted downward by (1-P), where P represents our findings for the proportion of start distance by which >75% of deer had initiated flight. Where road design or conservation goals limit effectiveness of line-of-sight maintenance, we suggest incorporation of roadway obstacles that force drivers to slow vehicles, in addition to posting advisory speed limits. PMID:25333922

Blackwell, Bradley F; Seamans, Thomas W; DeVault, Travis L

2014-01-01

213

Existing theories do not explain sex ratio variation at birth in monomorphic roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The phenomenon of skewed sex ratios at birth has been reported in many ungulate species. So far, no consistent trend has emerged for roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), because male-biased, female-biased and equal sex ratios at birth have all been found. Nevertheless, both the Trivers-Willard hypothesis and the theory of local resource competition have gained support. Despite the great number of studies carried out regarding the ecology of roe deer, too many aspects remain unclear, and contradict...

Vreugdenhil, S. J.; Breukelen, L.; Wieren, S. E.

2007-01-01

214

Barking in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus): seasonal trends and possibile functions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract We studied barking behaviour of roe deer, Capreolus capreolus, in an area when wolves actively prey on this species, to determine the possible functions of this signal. Our data showed that males barked more frequently than females and that males barked more often during the territorial period than outside it. Undisturbed deer that barked spontaneously, before the arrival of the observer, were significantly more likely to be male tha...

Iva Rossi; Lorenza Mauri; Simona Laficara; Marco Apollonio

2002-01-01

215

Living on the edge: roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) density in the margins of its geographical range.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decades roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) populations have increased in number and distribution throughout Europe. Such increases have profound impacts on ecosystems, both positive and negative. Therefore monitoring roe deer populations is essential for the appropriate management of this species, in order to achieve a balance between conservation and mitigation of the negative impacts. Despite being required for an effective management plan, the study of roe deer ecology in Portugal is at an early stage, and hence there is still a complete lack of knowledge of roe deer density within its known range. Distance sampling of pellet groups coupled with production and decay rates for pellet groups provided density estimates for roe deer in northeastern Portugal (Lombada National Hunting Area--LNHA, Serra de Montesinho--SM and Serra da Nogueira--SN; LNHA and SM located in Montesinho Natural Park). The estimated roe deer density using a stratified detection function was 1.23/100 ha for LNHA, 4.87/100 ha for SM and 4.25/100 ha in SN, with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 0.68 to 2.21, 3.08 to 7.71 and 2.25 to 8.03, respectively. For the entire area, the estimated density was about 3.51/100 ha (95% CI - 2.26-5.45). This method can provide estimates of roe deer density, which will ultimately support management decisions. However, effective monitoring should be based on long-term studies that are able to detect population fluctuations. This study represents the initial phase of roe deer monitoring at the edge of its European range and intends to fill the gap in this species ecology, as the gathering of similar data over a number of years will provide the basis for stronger inferences. Monitoring should be continued, although the study area should be increased to evaluate the accuracy of estimates and assess the impact of management actions. PMID:24533091

Valente, Ana M; Fonseca, Carlos; Marques, Tiago A; Santos, Joăo P; Rodrigues, Rogério; Torres, Rita Tinoco

2014-01-01

216

Barking in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus): seasonal trends and possibile functions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We studied barking behaviour of roe deer, Capreolus capreolus, in an area when wolves actively prey on this species, to determine the possible functions of this signal. Our data showed that males barked more frequently than females and that males barked more often during the territorial period than outside it. Undisturbed deer that barked spontaneously, before the arrival of the observer, were significantly more likely to be male than female, while both males and females showed the sam...

Rossi, Iva; Mauri, Lorenza; Laficara, Simona; Apollonio, Marco

2002-01-01

217

Is there adaptation of the exocrine pancreas in wild animal? The case of the Roe Deer.  

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Abstract Background Physiology of the exocrine pancreas has been well studied in domestic and in laboratory animals as well as in humans. However, it remains quite unknown in wildlife mammals. Roe deer and cattle (including calf) belong to different families but have a common ancestor. This work aimed to evaluate in the Roe deer, the adaptation to diet of the exocrine pancreatic functions and regulations related to animal evolution and domestication. Results For...

Guilloteau Paul; Vitari Francesca; Meuth Valérie; Le Normand Laurence; Romé Véronique; Savary Gérard; Delaby Luc; Domeneghini Cinzia; Morisset Jean

2012-01-01

218

Selection of trees for rubbing by red and roe deer in forest plantations  

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Antler rubbing is a form of behaviour by which deer may damage and ultimately induce mortality of trees. Understanding factors affecting selection of trees for rubbing may contribute to mitigation of negative effects of such behaviour in plantations or woodlands. We analysed characteristics of trees rubbed by red and roe deer along transects established in plantations of Pinus pinaster (Aiton), Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco, Betula alba L. and Quercus robur L. in Northeast Portugal. T...

Ramos, Jaime; Bugalho, Miguel; Cortez, Jose? Paulo; Iason, Glenn

2006-01-01

219

An investigation of bone histology as a potential age indicator in Roe Deer  

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The histological structure of 72 modem roe deer mandibles was examined to see if those features that showed age-related development patterns in humans (Kerley, 1965), and laboratory rats (Singh & Gunberg, 1971), could be quantified and used to predict age in a species which poses particular ageing problems to zooarchaeologists. The roe deer sample consisted of 30 bucks and 42 does ranging in age from kids through to 14 years. Bone pieces, 5mm thick, were removed from the base o...

Ruddle, J. L.

1997-01-01

220

Ticks, Deer, Mice, and a Touch of Sensitivity: A Recipe for Controlling Lyme Disease  

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Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto is a bacterial spirochete prevalent in the Northeastern United States that causes Lyme disease. Lyme disease is the most common arthropod-borne disease in the United States; affecting mice, deer, humans and other mammals. The disease is spread by Ixodes Scapularis, a species of tick whose primary food source are deer and mice. Reducing the population of ticks feeding on both large and small mammals below some critical threshold can decrease...

Jastrebski, Matthew; Ponce, Joan; Burkow, Daniel; Udiani, Oyita; Arriola, Dr Leon

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Radionuclide export by deer mice at a solid radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations of 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, and 241Am in deer mice tissues collected from a radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho were significantly (p less than 0.05) higher than those from a control area. The highest concentrations of Pu and Am occurred in pelts of deer mice inhabiting an area which had elevated surface and subsurface soil concentrations of these nuclides as compared to other Subsurface Disposal Area locations. Therefore, transuranic contamination in tissues likely originated from both soil depths. However, 137Cs and 90Sr in tissues likely originated from subsurface areas, since surface soils were below background concentrations for these nuclides. Based on a minimum of 6160 deer mice inhabiting the 36-ha waste disposal area over a 1-yr period, a total minimum inventory of 22.8 mu Ci radioactivity was contained in deer mice tissues. Of this estimate, 22.7 mu Ci activity was due to the radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs. An estimated total of 8.4 mu Ci was transported from the disposal area in mice dispersing from the area. A calculated annual radionuclide inventory of 28.8 mu Ci in deer mice feces was deposited in and around the radioactive waste disposal area. Deer mice inhabiting the SDA are a mode of radionuclide uptake and transport; however, the environmental consequences of this transport mechanism are likely minimal. The results for deer mice, which make up 69% of the small mammal biomass, are discussed in relation to other small mammals within the disposal area. Other modes of transport associated with the deer mice, such as radionuclides in excavated soils associated with burrowing activities and predation, are also discussed

222

White-tailed deer are susceptible to the agent of sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to the agent of scrapie after intracerebral inoculation and to compare clinical signs and lesions to those reported for chronic wasting disease (CWD. Deer (n = 5 were inoculated with 1 mL of a 10% (wt/vol brain homogenate derived from a sheep clinically affected with scrapie. A non-inoculated deer was maintained as a negative control. Deer were observed daily for clinical signs of disease and euthanized and necropsied when unequivocal signs of scrapie were noted. One animal died 7 months post inoculation (pi due to intercurrent disease. Examinations of brain tissue for the presence of the disease-associated abnormal prion protein (PrPSc by western blot (WB and immunohistochemistry (IHC were negative whereas IHC of lymphoid tissues was positive. Deer necropsied at 15-22 months pi were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Deer necropsied after 20 months pi had clinical signs of depression and progressive weight loss. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain (at levels of cerebrum, hippocampus, colliculus, cerebellum, and brainstem, trigeminal ganglion, neurohypophysis, retina, spinal cord, and various lymphoid tissues including tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and spleen. This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation. To further test the susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie these experiments will be repeated with a more natural route of inoculation.

Greenlee Justin J

2011-10-01

223

Cryopreservation of roe deer abomasal nematodes for morphological identification.  

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Conventional methods to preserve adult nematodes for taxonomic purposes involve the use of fixative or clearing solutions (alcohol, formaldehyde, AFA and lactophenol), which cause morphological alterations and are toxic. The aim of this study is to propose an alternative method based on glycerol-cryopreservation of nematodes for their subsequent identification. Adults of trichostrongylid nematodes from the abomasum of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus) were glycerol-cryopreserved and compared with those fixed in formaldehyde, fresh and frozen without cryoprotectans. Morphology, transparency and elasticity of the anterior and posterior portion of male nematodes were compared, especially the caudal cuticular bursa and genital accessories. The method presented is quick and easy to use, and the quality of nematode specimens is better than that of nematodes fixed by previously used fixatives. Moreover, glycerol cryopreserved nematodes can be stored for a long time at -20 degrees C in perfect condition and they could be suitable for further analyses, such as histological or ultrastructural examinations. PMID:24684056

Beraldo, Paola; Pascotto, Ernesto

2014-02-01

224

A bivalent scale for measuring crowding among deer hunters  

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One factor that may influence satisfaction in outdoor recreation is crowding, which historically has been defined as a negative evaluation of the density of other participants. While this definition is suitable for most scenarios, there are circumstances where encounters with others in the area are evaluated positively and thus contribute to the satisfaction of the participant. To adequately describe this phenomenon we suggest a more inclusive measurement of crowding that allows for both positive and negative evaluations of participant density to more accurately explore the relationship between crowding and satisfaction. We identified a sub-group of deer hunters who negatively evaluated the low density of other hunters, which reduced their satisfaction with their overall hunting experience. The methodology for measuring crowding in recreation research may have an important effect in identifying the relationship crowding has with other relevant variables as well as management implications.

Gigliotti, Larry M.; Chase, Loren

2014-01-01

225

a Uav-Based ROE Deer Fawn Detection System  

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This paper presents a UAV based remote sensing system for the detection of fawns in the meadows. There is a high demand because during pasture mowing many wild animals, especially roe deer fawns are killed by mowing machines. The system was tested in several real situations especially with di?ering weather and iluminating conditions. Its primary sensor is a lightweight thermal infrared camera. The images are captured onboard of the ?ight system and also transmitted as analog video stream to the ground station, where the user can follow the camera live stream on a monitor for manual animal detection. Beside a high detection rate a fast work?ow is another very important objective for this application. Therefore a waypoint planning software was developed that accelerates the work?ow. At adequate illuminating and weather conditions the presented UAV-based fawn detection via thermal imaging is a comfortable, fast and reliable method.

Israel, M.

2011-09-01

226

Endemic pemphigus foliaceus: towards understanding autoimmune mechanisms of disease development.  

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Fogo selvagem is an endemic form of pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) found in Brazil. Environmental and genetic factors are thought to contribute to the disease, which is associated with pathogenic IgG4 autoantibodies against the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein 1. In this issue, as an additional framework to understand autoimmune mechanisms in EPF, Flores et al. have investigated whether fogo selvagem patients and healthy individuals from endemic areas develop autoantibody responses against other desmosomal cadherins and E-cadherin. PMID:23069908

Di Zenzo, Giovanni; Zambruno, Giovanna; Borradori, Luca

2012-11-01

227

Endomyocardial fibrosis: A form of endemic restrictive cardiomyopathy  

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Endomyocardial fibrosis is a form of endemic restrictive cardiomyopathy that affects mainly children and adolescents, and is geographically restricted to some poor areas of Africa, Latin America and Asia. It is a condition with high morbidity and mortality, for which no effective therapy is available. Although several hypotheses have been proposed as triggers or causal factors for the disease, none are able to explain the occurrence of the disease worldwide. In endemic areas of Africa endomyo...

Ana Olga Mocumbi

2012-01-01

228

Impacts of white-tailed deer on red trillium (Trillium recurvatum): defining a threshold for deer browsing pressure at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore  

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Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been a concern for land managers in eastern North America because of their impacts on native forest ecosystems. Managers have sought native plant species to serve as phytoindicators of deer impacts to supplement deer surveys. We analyzed experimental data about red trillium (Trillium recurvatum), large flowered trillium (T. grandiflorum), nodding trillium (T. cernuum), and declined trillium (T. flexipes) growth in paired exclosure (fenced) plots and control (unfenced) plots from 2002 to 2010 at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The latter two species lacked replication, so statistical analysis was not possible. All red trillium plants were surveyed for height-to-leaf, effects of browsing, and presence of flowers. Data from individuals in 2009 demonstrated a sigmoidal relationship between height-to-leaf and probability of flowering. The relationship on moraine soils was shifted to taller plants compared to those on sand substrates, with respectively 50 percent flowering at 18 and 16 cm and 33 percent flowering at 16 and 14 cm height-to-leaf. On a plot basis, the proportion of plants flowering was influenced by height to leaf, duration of protection, and deviation in rainfall. The proportion of plants flowering increased ninefold in exclosures (28 percent) compared to control plots (3 percent) over the 8 years of protection. The mean height-to-leaf was a function of the interaction between treatment and duration, as well as red trillium density. Changes in height-to-leaf in control plots from year to year were significantly influenced by an interaction between change in deer density and change in snowfall depth. There was a significant negative correlation between change in deer density and snowfall depth. Plants in the exclosures increased in height at a rate of 1.5 cm yr?1 whereas control plants decreased in height by 0.9 cm yr?1. In all, 78 percent of the control plots lacked flowering individuals over the 9 years of study, indicating that red trillium is being negatively affected by deer throughout the East Unit of the park. Of the five deer management zones studied, only one showed pre-impact height-to-leaf and flowering percentages in control plots that then declined after 2005. The results of this study demonstrate that Trillium species growing in the lands of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore are being suppressed reproductively by deer browsing. Specifically, we demonstrate, for the first time, the utility of using red trillium (Trillium recurvatum) height-to-leaf and percentage of flowering as indicators of the impacts of deer browsing. Application of the recommended thresholds demonstrates their utility in adopting red trillium as a phytoindicator of deer impact. Responses of plants to protection from deer suggest that deer culling might be necessary for 6 or more years for red trillium populations and rare trillium species to recover.

Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Grundel, Ralph

2014-01-01

229

129I in deer thyroids from the Savannah River Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

129I can be released in many forms, most of which can be incorporated into animals, metabolized, concentrated and stored in the small thyroid gland. Atmospheric nuclear weapons tests added ?0.37 TBq of 129I to the ?1.48 TBq naturally present in the earth, oceans, and atmosphere. Previous investigators showed that during 1965--1969, thyroids of most cattle in USA contained less than 0.001 Bq 129I/g (wet weight) of thyroid. From 1984 through 1993 the authors measured 129I in 19 to 143 deer thyroids per year from the 316 square miles Savannah River Site (SRS) in SC. Most of these thyroids have averaged 0.1 to 2.8 Bq 129I/g. The storage and release of 129I at the SRS has been extensively reviewed. That report shows between 1954 and 1989 approximately 0.1. TBq of 129I was released into seepage basins, 0.2 TBq released into the atmosphere and 0.3 TBq retained in waste storage tanks. From 1985--1987 the annual medians of 129I/g deer thyroid from SRS were sustained at 0.03--0.06 Bq g-1 thyroid. In 1988 the median was highest at 0.12 Bq/g thyroid. The medians then decreased and in 1992 and 1993 they were 0.028 and 0.032 Bq 129I/g thyroid. The annual average concentrations showed a similar trend with a maximum in 1989 of 2.3 Bq/g thyroid and in 1992 and 1993 the averages were reduced to 0.12 and 0.34 Bq 129I/g. 129I in thyroid glands may be a minimal biohazard but it is a convenient biological index of contamination by a long-lived fission product

230

A Paleozoological Perspective on White-Tailed Deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana) Population Density and Body Size in Central Texas  

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Archaeological and paleontological datasets are used in conservation to add time-depth to ecology. In central Texas, several top carnivores including prehistoric Native American hunters have been extirpated or have had their historic ranges restricted, which has resulted in pest-level white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana) populations in some areas. Differences in body size of deer between prehistory and modernity are expected, given that a lack of predation likely has increased intraspecific competition for forage among deer, resulting in smaller body size today. In fact, modern deer from settings without harvest pressure are significantly smaller than those from harvested areas and from prehistoric deer. From a natural history perspective, this research highlights potential evolutionary causes and effects of top-predator removal on deer populations and related components of biological communities in central Texas.

Wolverton, Steve; Kennedy, James H.; Cornelius, John D.

2007-04-01

231

Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants  

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The Canary Islands are home to a guild of endemic, threatened bird-pollinated plants. Previous work has suggested that these plants evolved floral traits as adaptations to pollination by flower specialist sunbirds, but subsequently, they appear to have co-opted generalist passerine birds as sub-optimal pollinators. To test this idea, we carried out a quantitative study of the pollination biology of three of the bird-pollinated plants, Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae), Isoplexis canariensis (Veronicaceae) and Lotus berthelotii (Fabaceae), on the island of Tenerife. Using colour vision models, we predicted the detectability of flowers to bird and bee pollinators. We measured pollinator visitation rates, nectar standing crops as well as seed-set and pollen removal and deposition. These data showed that the plants are effectively pollinated by non-flower specialist passerine birds that only occasionally visit flowers. The large nectar standing crops and extended flower longevities (>10 days) of Canarina and Isoplexis suggests that they have evolved a bird pollination system that effectively exploits these low frequency non-specialist pollen vectors and is in no way sub-optimal. Seed set in two of the three species was high and was significantly reduced or zero in flowers where pollinator access was restricted. In L. berthelotii, however, no fruit set was observed, probably because the plants were self-incompatible horticultural clones of a single genet. We also show that, while all three species are easily detectable for birds, the orange Canarina and the red Lotus (but less so the yellow-orange Isoplexis) should be difficult to detect for insect pollinators without specialised red receptors, such as bumblebees. Contrary to expectations if we accept that the flowers are primarily adapted to sunbird pollination, the chiffchaff ( Phylloscopus canariensis) was an effective pollinator of these species.

Ollerton, Jeff; Cranmer, Louise; Stelzer, Ralph J.; Sullivan, Steve; Chittka, Lars

2009-02-01

232

Response of mule deer to habitat modification near natural gas development  

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Full Text Available Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus are known to shift habitat use in response to environmental modifications, including those associated with energy development. Their specific behavioral responses, however, and capacities to habituate to particular aspects of energy development have not been effectively studied. We examined mule deer response to habitat alteration near natural gas wells in Las Animas County, Colorado, USA in 2008—2010, an area experiencing development for extraction of natural gas. We created 10-1 ha openings in forests adjacent to 10 wells by removing standing trees in 2008, with concomitant establishment of 10 1-ha control sites adjacent to the same wells. On each site, we estimated deer use, indexed by pellet density, before and after tree removal. Concurrently, we measured plant production, cover, nutritional quality, species composition and biomass removed by deer and other large herbivores. Species richness and diversity and graminoid and forb cover and biomass increased on cut sites following tree removal. Use increased following tree removal on cut and control sites, but was greater on cut sites in 2010. Herbivores removed negligible quantities of vegetation on control sites in both years, suggesting that control sites may have been used primarily for concealment. Mule deer demonstrated the behavioral capacity to habituate to habitat modifications and other environmental changes associated with development for the extraction of energy. Managing forage and habitat availability appears to have the potential to affect the type of response and degree of habituation by mule deer to such development.

Fred Van Dyke

2012-09-01

233

Cesium-137 in deer: Savannah River Plant vs. southeastern coastal plain herds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 137Cs content in deer killed during programmed hunts at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has averaged 9.0 pCi/g. This value, based on measurements of 13,907 deer taken over 14 years (1965 to 1978), similar to the value obtained for 552 deer from other southeastern Coastal Plain locations, indicating the 137Cs content is due to fallout from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons rather than from SRP operations. The computerized SRP data base for each harvested deer includes age, sex, weight, cesium content, kill location, date, and the hunter's name. Analysis of these data enables the estimation of population dose from ingestion of the edible meat. Consumption of all edible meat from deer killed at SRP from 1965 to 1978 gives a whole body population dose of 196 man-rem from 137Cs. Assuming an annual consumption rate of 20 kg gives an average individual whole body dose of 13 mrem, about 10% of local annual background level. The radiation dose from 40K of natural potassium content of deer is comparable to the radiation dose from 137Cs

234

Differences in immunocontraceptive responses in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and goats (Capra hircus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirteen deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and three goats (Capra hircus) were given an initial immunization of 300 microg porcine zona pellucida (PZP) combined with 50 mg synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate ml(-1) (STDCM) in drakeol i.m. in the semitendinosus and semimembranosus muscles. This immunization was followed by two booster injections of 300 microg PZP, 2 weeks apart. The vaccinations were made from the same purified batch of PZP and lot of adjuvant. All the doses were made at the same time and injected on the same day. The immune response was quantified by measuring serum anti-PZP IgG antibody concentration by ELISA. The results showed that the mean serum IgG concentration of the deer increased from 0.000 +/- 0.003 to 0.083 +/- 0.023 absorbance units, whereas in the goats the mean IgG concentration increase was from 0.044 +/- 0.019 to 1.245 +/- 0.774 absorbance units. Both the goats and deer showed a significant increase in IgG concentration (P < 0.05) after the final booster injection compared with preimmune serum. The final goat IgG concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of the deer. If PZP and Freund's adjuvant are administered to deer, immunocontraception is achieved, but the IgG concentration in the deer in this study did not appear to be compatible with immunocontraception. PMID:12220152

Fayrer-Hosken, R A; Barber, M R; Crane, M; Collins, T; Hodgden, R

2002-01-01

235

Grazing Habitat of the Rusa Deer (Cervus timorensis in the Upland Kebar, Manokwari  

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Full Text Available The general objective of the study was to provide current information on grassland communities as deer habitat and its future development plan for a sustainable forage management in upland Kebar, Papua. Quantitative estimation of forage production was carried out by measuring a biomass harvest in fresh weight bases, while occasional observations on ranging deer were done within habitat range with the aid of 7x50 binoculars verified by actual visitation of grazed area. The study indicated that Kebar was the only grazing area of deer varies in low layer vegetation composition that comprised of eleven grass species and five legume species. Imperata cylindrica, Paspalum conjugatum, Themeda arguens, Melinis minutiflora and Cyperus rotundus were identified as food plant of deer in Kebar. Among these species T. arguens, M. minutiflora, C. rotundus and I. cylindrica were the most preferred species consumed by deer. The biomass harvest (species productivity was 30.36 kg/ha fresh weight, while deer food productivity in the grassland was slightly lower (26.70 kg/ha than total productivity of the grassland. The major drainage area is Kasi River, but two other rivers across this valley (Api River, Apriri River are also supply water to the swampy area.

AGUSTINA YOHANA SETYARINI AROBAYA

2009-07-01

236

Observations of a long-acting formulation of oxytetracycline in red deer (Cervus elaphus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Six nine-month-old red deer were injected intramuscularly with a long-acting injectable solution of oxytetracycline (Terramycin-LA, Pfizer Ltd) at a dose rate of 20 mg/kg. Four similar control deer were injected with saline. There was no significant pain response to injection, and only minor palpable swellings at the injection site were observed in three oxytetracycline-treated and one control animal. No statistically significant changes in white blood cell numbers, blood fibrinogen, creatine phosphokinase or glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase concentrations occurred as a result of oxytetracycline administration up to seven days after injection. Mean plasma oxytetracycline concentration reached a peak (4.68 mg/l) two hours after injection and declined to levels below assay sensitivity (0.3 mg/l) in five deer 72 hours after injection, and in all deer by 96 hours after injection. No gross lesions at the injection site were observed at slaughter 30 days after injection. There were traces of oxytetracycline at the injection site muscle of two deer after 30 days, but residues were not detected in injection site muscle from the other four deer, or in any of the liver, kidney or other muscle specimens. PMID:16030964

Wilson, P R

1983-05-01

237

Ophthalmic manifestations of induced sickling of erythrocytes in Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon).  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine female Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon) were used in a total of 25 experiments in which sickling was chemically induced. During these experiments, color fundic and color fluorescein photographs were taken. Fundic changes included retinal vascular attenuation, blood column pallor, and decreased tapetal reflectivity. These changes were most likely directly associated with a decreased hematocrit and a generalized shocklike condition. Three deer had a congested appearance in retinal blood vessels and tapetum lucidum. Two of the 3 deer developed serous detachment of the retina. These changes seemingly were associated with severe venous statis; all 3 deer died shortly after the experiment was terminated. These experiments yielded data only for the acutely affected deer. None of the ocular changes could be considered the result of chronic sickling because of the reversal of sickling that occurred despite continued intravenous administration of bicarbonate. None of the deer developed ocular changes characteristic of sickle cell retinopathy in human beings. The changes in human beings probably result from continued stress and prolongation of sickling, and especially from a multiplicity of repeated severe episodes of sickling occurring over many years. PMID:1147329

Vainisi, S J; Parshall, C J; Goldberg, M F; Wolf, E D

1975-06-01

238

DEFECATION RATE IN CAPTIVE DEER IN “LOS CAPOMOS”, MUNICIPALITY OF El FUERTE, SINALOA  

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Full Text Available The sustainable use of white-tailed deer in Mexico can only be performed in Management Units for the Conservation of Wildlife (UMA , for its acronym in Spanish , based on a management plan for legal operation. Among the methods for population estimate harvest rates, highlights fecal count groups, depending on the frequency at which a deer excretes daily, and whose values are estimated from captive specimens and tolerant observer, but considering subspecies and different from the northern Sinaloa conditions. Using these rates of defecation can lead to overharvesting. This research was conducted in the farmed deer of the indigenous ejido (Mayo-Yoreme ethnic group called “Los Capomos”, in the municipality of El Fuerte, Sinaloa, between October 2011 and May 2012, to estimate the rate of defecation counts from fecal groups, obtained from a confined deer population and in apparent equilibrium with its environment through adjustments to the model of Eberhardt and Van Etten. It was found that the lowest rate published defecation (12.7 deer fecal groups per day, the estimated population accounted for half of the known population, which would prevent excessive use of native deer in the wild. However, the pattern of random grouping of excreta in confinement, makes it advisable that it be used in conditions of freedom, since it presupposes the mathematical model used aggregate grouping patterns.

Héctor Gibrán Ochoa-Álvarez

2014-01-01

239

Coyotes, deer, and wildflowers: diverse evidence points to a trophic cascade  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial gradients in human activity, coyote activity, deer activity, and deer herbivory provide an unusual type of evidence for a trophic cascade. Activity of coyotes, which eat young mule deer (fawns), decreased with proximity to a remote biological field station, indicating that these predators avoided an area of high human activity. In contrast, activity of adult female deer (does) and intensity of herbivory on palatable plant species both increased with proximity to the station and were positively correlated with each other. The gradient in deer activity was not explained by availabilities of preferred habitats or plant species because these did not vary with distance from the station. Does spent less time feeding when they encountered coyote urine next to a feed block, indicating that increased vigilance may contribute, along with avoidance of areas with coyotes, to lower herbivory away from the station. Judging from two palatable wildflower species whose seed crop and seedling recruitment were greatly reduced near the field station, the coyote-deer-wildflower trophic cascade has the potential to influence plant community composition. Our study illustrates the value of a case-history approach, in which different forms of ecological data about a single system are used to develop conceptual models of complex ecological phenomena. Such an iterative model-building process is a common, but underappreciated, way of understanding how ecological systems work.

Waser, Nickolas M.; Price, Mary V.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Arózqueta, S. Reneé; Escobar, Betsabé D. Castro; Pickens, Richard; Pistoia, Alessandra

2014-05-01

240

Abundance and impacts of fallow deer leks at Point Reyes National Seashore  

Science.gov (United States)

Fallow deer, Dama dama, were released at Point Reyes National Seashore in the 1940s. A population of about 860 of these non-native deer are now well-established within the park. Fallow deer have an unusual mating system. During the fall, males establish areas known as leks where they display to potential mates. A fallow deerlek is typically an area of 100-150 m2 and usually includes 2-5 males. Using their hooves and antlers, each male clears away most or all of the vegetation and digs a rutting pit that he defends throughout the breeding season. A total of 159 fallow deer leks was located within the 298.8 ha of our study areas. In the Olema Valley, where fallow deer densities are high, there were 116 leks, compared with 43 in the similar sized Estero trailhead study area, where deer density was moderate. A total of 705 rutting pits was found in the two study areas, with a mean of 5.1 pits per lek in the Olema Valley and 2.5 for Estero trailhead. The leks and associated pits have resulted in damage to both the ground and the associated vegetation, especially in riparian areas.

Fellers, G. M.; Osbourn, M. S.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from northwestern Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, the seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in roe deer in relation to different parameters in northwestern Spain was investigated. A total of 154 roe deer hunted between April 2007 and October 2008 from different localities of Galicia (northwest Spain) were examined. From each animal, a blood sample and all attached ticks found were collected. All the specimens for tick stages (larva, nymph, and adult) were speciated based on reference keys. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi were detected by indirect immunofluorescence (titer > or = 1:64). The percentage of roe deer seropositive for B. burgdorferi was 68.8% (106/ 154), of which 88.7% (94/106) were parasitized by ticks. Ixodes ricinus was the only species identified and was detected in 83.1% of roe deer with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) intensity of 46 +/- 47 ticks. Individual host characteristics such as age or sex did not have any effect on the prevalence of B. burgdorferi, but significant seasonal variation was observed, with higher prevalences in April-July than in August-October. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi were related to the presence of ticks. When analyzing all the factors together, the total number of ticks parasitizing roe deer was found as the most influential factor on B. burgdorferi prevalence. The results of this study have shown that roe deer in the northwest of Spain are highly exposed to B. burgdorferi and that exposure is related to the presence of I. ricinus. PMID:24063094

Pato, Francisco J; Panadero, Rosario; Vázquez, Luis; López, Ceferino M; Díaz, Pablo; Vázquez, Esther; Díez-Bańos, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio; Fernández, Gonzalo

2013-09-01

242

Evaluation of roe deer effects upon forest structure in Nogueira Mountain (NE of Portugal  

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Full Text Available Analytical methodologies that describe ecological functionalities in the landscape are decisive to quantify the effects of their apparent modifications. When dealing with game resource management it is necessary to understand how landscape variables respond to changes in the abundance of particular species.The main goal of the present work is to evaluate how a forest ecosystem reacts to an increment of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L. abundance in a reproduction enclosure.This experience has been developed in the Nogueira Mountains (Trás-os-Montes, NE of Portugal, where a relict nucleus of roe deer persists. In order to promote a roe deer increment, a 15 ha enclosure was installed eight years ago in a natural forest of Quercus pyrenaica.The methodology presently proposed is based on a phytostructural approach, where structural basic matrices of vegetation diversity, abundance and cover, obtained from 10 x 10 m sampling areas along two transepts (inside and outside the enclosure are resumed in a contingency structural matrix. This contingency matrix is characterised according to a set of multivariate statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis, Discriminant Canonical Analysis, ANOVAs and results are correlated with roe deer food preferences (previously typified in four classes according to selectivity. The present results emphasised the roe deer’s capacity to transform the structural organization of the vegetation and therefore, the methodology used is a functional tool to describe landscape changes processes promoted by ungulates.

António L. Crespí

2007-12-01

243

New bedding site examination-based method to analyse deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) infection in cervids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasion of the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi), an ectoparasitic fly commonly found in cervids, has been rapid in Finland during the last four decades. As the distribution area of this species has expanded from the south towards the northern latitudes, the associated problems have become more evident. Various animals such as horses, cattle and especially reindeer have been reported to host this parasite. Moreover, in certain areas, the deer ked causes major inconveniences for humans potentially limiting recreational activities in forests. We wanted to study if deer ked parasitism and intensity of the infection in winter time could be detected by using visual examination of the snow on cervid bedding sites and by analysing biotic samples found from the bedding sites. Our results demonstrate that chronic deer ked infection causes reddish-brown snow discolouration (host tissue fluid and deer ked faeces) on the bedding sites to the extent that parasitism can be diagnosed. Hence, we suggest that deer ked infection prevalence and range expansion could be rapidly monitored using our new practical and reliable method. In the future, bedding site analyses will likely be useful in predicting and potentially preventing the negative effects of this ecologically and socio-economically important parasite. PMID:19050924

Kaunisto, Sirpa; Kortet, Raine; Härkönen, Laura; Härkönen, Sauli; Ylönen, Hannu; Laaksonen, Sauli

2009-03-01

244

Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic are [...] as of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species) and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only) in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762). All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8%) than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%). Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.

Carmen Elena, Contreras; Marcos de, Donato; María Ana, Rivas; Hectorina, Rodulfo; Robert, Mora; María Eulalia, Batista; Norka, Marcano.

245

The endemic flora of Greece : Understanding and documenting plant diversity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something or quite a lot about the plants, no intelligent steps can be taken towards protecting them. 520 of the c. 750 endemics are listed on the Red Data "endangered list" by the Council of Europe in 1986 but few know the nature or extent of the threat. Work is currently in preparation on an Endemic Flora of Greece. Three volumes are envisaged: the first deals with the Peloponnese; the second will cover Crete and the islands and the third, the rest of mainland Greece. It is planned to have a sound and scientific basis for plant conservation and education. Within the Balkans more than 60% of the endemic taxa have been mapped and it is already possible to recognize the hot-spots of biodiversity as these are linked to the centres of endemism. Determining the centres of diversity is an important and significant contribution to further conservation measures at the global level.

Tan, Kit

2007-01-01

246

Endemic harvestmen and spiders of Austria (Arachnida: Opiliones, Araneae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus, beside 9 subendemic harvestman and 38 subendemic spider species have been recorded from Austria. Hot-spots of endemism in the Eastern Alps are the north-eastern (Ennstaler Alps and southern Calcareous Alps (Karawanken, Karnische Alps and the Central Alps (Hohe Tauern, Gurktaler Alps, Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps. Most of the endemic arachnid species occur from the nival down to the montane zone. Important habitats are rocky areas, caves and woodlands. High absolute numbers and percentages of endemics can be found within the harvestman families Cladonychiidae, Ischyropsalididae and Nemastomatidae and in the spider genera Lepthyphantes s. l. and Troglohyphantes. The conservation status of these highly endangered taxa – 85 % of the spider species and 100 % of the harvestman taxa are endangered in Austria – is poor.

Komposch, Christian

2011-01-01

247

Efficacy of a 15-Strand High-Tensile Electric Fence to Control White-tailed Deer Movements  

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Full Text Available Although, high-tensile electric fences (HTEF have gained in popularity as a low-cost alternative to traditional fence designs, little research has focused on the effects of HTEF on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Our objectives were to: determine the efficacy of a HTEF to control deer movements and evaluate its influence on deer spatial dynamics. We conducted our study on the Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation Wildlife Unit located in Oklahoma, USA. An electric 15-strand, 2.5 m high fence was erected around the study area in 1992. We captured and ear-tagged 419 deer from 1993-2005 and fitted 35 of these deer (19 females, 16 males with GPS collars during winter 1998-2004. Eight of 35 radio-collared deer (23% crossed through the fence a total of 15 times and returned 13 times. Most fence crossings were at or near a hole or water gap (75%; n = 21 while 21.4% (n = 6 crossed through the electric strands. Twenty four of 419 (6% ear-tagged deer were reported dead or harvested off of the property over 13 years. We found ?13 deer core areas and ?29 of home ranges bordered the fence. Core area and home range sizes of males and females were larger for deer associated with the fence compared to deer not associated with the fence. The percentage of deer FK core area and home range perimeters in common with the fence was 17 and 28%, respectively. It appears deer were tolerable of the fence and willing to attempt to cross at weak locations (i.e., holes and water gaps. If fully maintained, the 15-strand HTEF would have been a safe and effective alternative to more traditional and expensive fence designs.

R. DeYoung

2009-06-01

248

Annual changes in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) diet in the Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic/Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The composition of roe deer diet in the Bohemian Forest was analysed with the aim to assess its role in forest habitat altered by bark beetle outbreaks and wind calamities. The annual diet of roe deer was studied at both, Czech and German, sides of the Bohemian Forest using microscopic analyses of faeces. On average, the largest part of the roe deer diet consisted of forbs (32%), followed by three other components—grasses (17%), coniferous trees (13%) and broadleaved tre...

2009-01-01

249

Hematology, blood chemistry and selenium values of captive pronghorn antelope, white-tailed deer and American bison.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pronghorn were observed to have a significantly higher whole blood selenium concentration than either the white-tailed deer or bison. Pronghorn colloid values were significantly less than those of the bison, and approached statistical significance for the white-tailed deer. Differential white blood cell counts for the white-tailed deer were markedly different from those of the pronghorn and bison. The American bison had significantly higher cortisol values and lower T3 values than either the white-tailed deer or pronghorn. PMID:2885128

Clemens, E T; Meyer, K L; Carlson, M P; Schneider, N R

1987-01-01

250

Geography, deer, and host biodiversity shape the pattern of Lyme disease emergence in the Thousand Islands Archipelago of Ontario, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Thousand Islands region of eastern Ontario, Canada, Lyme disease is emerging as a serious health risk. The factors that influence Lyme disease risk, as measured by the number of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) vectors infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, are complex and vary across eastern North America. Despite study sites in the Thousand Islands being in close geographic proximity, host communities differed and both the abundance of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in them varied among sites. Using this archipelago in a natural experiment, we examined the relative importance of various biotic and abiotic factors, including air temperature, vegetation, and host communities on Lyme disease risk in this zone of recent invasion. Deer abundance and temperature at ground level were positively associated with tick abundance, whereas the number of ticks in the environment, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection, and the number of infected nymphs all decreased with increasing distance from the United States, the presumed source of this new endemic population of ticks. Higher species richness was associated with a lower number of infected nymphs. However, the relative abundance of Peromyscus leucopus was an important factor in modulating the effects of species richness such that high biodiversity did not always reduce the number of nymphs or the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection. Our study is one of the first to consider the interaction between the relative abundance of small mammal hosts and species richness in the analysis of the effects of biodiversity on disease risk, providing validation for theoretical models showing both dilution and amplification effects. Insights into the B. burgdorferi transmission cycle in this zone of recent invasion will also help in devising management strategies as this important vector-borne disease expands its range in North America. PMID:24416435

Werden, Lisa; Barker, Ian K; Bowman, Jeff; Gonzales, Emily K; Leighton, Patrick A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Jardine, Claire M

2014-01-01

251

Therapy of endemic goitre; Therapie der Jodmangelstruma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1. In childhood the first line treatment of endemic goitre is Kl (100-150 {mu}g/day). Once the goitre volume has shrinked during L-thyroxine treatment in older patients, this effect is to be maintained by Kl ({proportional_to}200 {mu}g/day). The same holds true after surgery in cases with normal TSH responsiveness to TRH. 2. TSH suppressive L-thyroxine therapy is indicated in goitre patients older than 40 years. However, the effectiveness will be limited by the nodularity of the thyroid. So prevention of further growth prevails over true tissue reduction. 3. Obviously thyroid surgery yields the best cosmetic results with an acceptably low complication rate. When euthyroidism is established, a lifelong iodine prophylaxy (200 {mu}g/day) of recurrent goitre is mandatory. In cases with latent or overt hypothyroidism an appropriate therapy with thyroid hormone should be given. 4. By radiodine it is possible to realize a short term volume loss of 30-40% which may increase further on up to 60%. Relief of symptoms is usually even more impressive than actual volume loss. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] 1. Kaliumjodid ist heute das Mittel der Wahl zur Behandlung der Jodmangelstruma von Kindern (100 {mu}g) und Jugendlichen (150 {mu}g). Lebenslange Einnahme von Jodid (200 {mu}g) dient der Erhaltung einer Organverkleinerung, die durch L-Thyroxin bei aelteren Patienten erreicht wurde, und postoperativ bei gesicherter Euthyreose (TSH). In der Schwangerschaft ist eine Jodid-Medikation fuer Mutter und Kind erforderlich. 2. L-Thyroxin in TSH-suppressiver Dosierung sollte eingesetzt werden, wenn mit Jodid kein Verkleinerungseffekt erreichbar ist. Primaer ist es indiziert bei Patienten ueber 40 Jahren. Postoperativ muss L-Thyroxin dann verordnet werden, wenn eine latente oder manifeste Hypothyreose gesichert ist. Damit behandelt es sich aber nicht um eine Rezidiv-Prophylaxe im engeren Sinn. 3. Eine wirkliche Substanzverminderung des Kropfes gelingt durch die operative Resektion. Eine konsequente, wahrscheinlich lebenslange Rezidivprophylaxe (Jodid 200 {mu}g) hat ihr unbedingt zu folgen. 4. Auch die Radiojodtherapie erzielt eine Reduktion der Strumamasse durch Verminderung der Follikelzahl kurzfristig in der Groessenordnung von 30-40% und langfristig bis zu 60%. Die Besserung der Beschwerden ist noch eindrucksvoller als der sonographisch objektivierte Volumenrueckgang. (orig./MG)

Leisner, B. [Allg. Krankenhaus St. Georg, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

1995-12-01

252

Wild red deer (Cervus elaphus L. grazing may seriously reduce forage production in mountain meadows  

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Full Text Available This study aimed at estimating the impact of red deer grazing on the productivity of meadows located in Pian Cansiglio, north-eastern Italian Pre-Alps. These meadows (383 ha; average elevation 1000 m asl are managed for hay/silage production (1-2 cuts per season and are included in a protected area that hosts a high density of deer (around 30 heads/100 ha. In 2008 and 2010, dry matter (DM production and loss due to deer grazing were estimated with exclusion cages (1 m2; 48 exclusion cages in 2008 and 52 in 2010. Night counts with spotlights were conducted to index deer use of meadows plots. DM production inside the cages was fairly good for the area (first and second cut: 5079 - 2193 Kg DM/ha in 2008, and 4200 - 2615 Kg DM/ha in 2010. DM production outside the cages was significantly lower (first and second cut in 2008: 4314-1389 Kg DM/ha, and in 2010: 3376-2052 Kg DM/ha. Therefore, the magnitude of losses was of 15-20% in the first and 25-40% in the second cut. DM losses in the different meadow plots were positively correlated with index of deer use, which in some plots was as high as 7-8 heads/ha. Deer grazing reduced also crude protein (CP content of forage (15.6±4.4% DM inside exclusion cages and 13.8±3.5% DM outside, with losses being greater where CP content was higher. This study demonstrates that high densities of grazing deer may seriously impact on forage production and quality.

Maurizio Ramanzin

2012-01-01

253

An assessment of zoonotic and production limiting pathogens in rusa deer (Cervus timorensis rusa) from Mauritius.  

Science.gov (United States)

A population of approximately 70,000 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) represents the most important mammal species reared for food on the island of Mauritius, being the main source of red meat for the local population. However, very limited information is available on the circulation of pathogens affecting the productivity and health of this species. To produce baseline data on the circulation of infectious pathogens in rusa deer under production, a serological survey and/or direct pathogen detection for six selected infectious diseases was undertaken in 2007 in a sample of 53% of the herds reared in semi-free-ranging conditions in hunting estates. Seropositive results were recorded for Johne's disease with an indirect ELISA test (1.7%, n = 351), heartwater with an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) (95.5%, n = 178) and leptospirosis with a Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) (25.9%, n = 363). Significant associations were found between seroprevalence to some of the leptospiral serogroups detected (Tarassovi, Pomona, Sejroe and Mini) and age of the animals, animal density or location of the estates (being more prevalent in hotter and more humid areas). In addition, Mycobacterium bovis and M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis were confirmed in two deer carcasses by culture and PCR, respectively. No antibodies against Brucella spp. nor Rift Valley Fever virus were detected with the use of respective indirect ELISA's. The results obtained suggest that the population of rusa deer from Mauritius is exposed to a wide range of pathogens which may affect their productivity. In addition, the results highlight the potential public health risks incurred by deer industry workers and consumers. This survey fills an important gap in knowledge regarding the health of tropical deer meat in Mauritius and justifies the need to implement more regular surveys of selected pathogens in the deer population. PMID:24382104

Jori, F; Godfroid, J; Michel, A L; Potts, A D; Jaumally, M R; Sauzier, J; Roger, M

2014-08-01

254

Generation of competent bone marrow-derived antigen presenting cells from the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Human infections with Sin Nombre virus (SNV and related New World hantaviruses often lead to hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS, a sometimes fatal illness. Lungs of patients who die from HCPS exhibit cytokine-producing mononuclear infiltrates and pronounced pulmonary inflammation. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus are the principal natural hosts of SNV, in which the virus establishes life-long persistence without conspicuous pathology. Little is known about the mechanisms SNV employs to evade the immune response of deer mice, and experimental examination of this question has been difficult because of a lack of methodologies for examining such responses during infection. One such deficiency is our inability to characterize T cell responses because susceptible syngeneic deer mice are not available. Results To solve this problem, we have developed an in vitro method of expanding and generating competent antigen presenting cells (APC from deer mouse bone marrow using commercially-available house mouse (Mus musculus granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. These cells are capable of processing and presenting soluble protein to antigen-specific autologous helper T cells in vitro. Inclusion of antigen-specific deer mouse antibody augments T cell stimulation, presumably through Fc receptor-mediated endocytosis. Conclusions The use of these APC has allowed us to dramatically expand deer mouse helper T cells in culture and should permit extensive characterization of T cell epitopes. Considering the evolutionary divergence between deer mice and house mice, it is probable that this method will be useful to other investigators using unconventional models of rodent-borne diseases.

Farrell Regina M

2004-09-01

255

An evaluation of a mitigation strategy for deer-vehicle collisions  

Science.gov (United States)

High mule deer Odocoileus hemionus mortality in southwestern Utah led to the establishment of a mitigation strategy with two major objectives: 1) reduction of wildlife-vehicle collisions and 2) restoration of landscape connectivity to facilitate wildlife movement across the roaded landscape. During our study, we assessed the effectiveness of the mitigation measures in reducing mule deer mortality in the following ways: 1) we compared the number of deer-vehicle collisions in the newly fenced area with a control area without fencing; 2) we analyzed the ‘end-of-the-fence’ problem, defined here as increased mortality of mule deer at the ends of the 2.4-m high exclusion fences; and 3) we evaluated the frequency of animal crossings of the new underpasses using remotely-sensed cameras and compared them with crossing frequency rates for a 20-year-old control underpass. We compared six years of pre-construction mortality (during 1998-2003) with two years of post-construction data on mortality (during 2005-2006) and found a 98.5% decline in deer mortalities in the treatment (i.e. fenced, jump-outs and underpasses) vs a 2.9% decline in the control (i.e. no fences, no jump-outs and no underpasses). We detected no end-of-the-fence problems related to deer mortality. Migratory movements during fall and spring were clearly reflected in the use of underpass. Overall results demonstrated that the mitigation strategy was effective and reduced the number of deer-vehicle accidents, while allowing wildlife movement across the landscape.

Bissonette, John A.; Rosa, Silvia

2012-01-01

256

Characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of wild boars (Sus scrofa), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhodococcus equi is a soil saprophyte and an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in animals, and rarely in humans. The presence of R. equi in tissues and faeces of some wild animal species was demonstrated previously. In this study we characterized R. equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of free-living wild boars (n=23), red deer (n=2) and roe deer (n=2). This is the first description of R. equi strains isolated from tissues of the Cervidae. All isolates were initially recognized as R. equi based on the phenotypic properties. Their identification was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, detection of the choE gene and by sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. The presence of three plasmidic genes (traA, vapA and vapB) associated with R. equi virulence was investigated by PCR. In 16 wild boar isolates the traA and vapB genes were detected and they were located on virulence plasmids type 5, 7 or 11. The isolates from cervids and the remaining wild boar isolates were classified as avirulent based on a genotype traA(-)/vapA(-)B(-). In summary, these results confirm that wild boars can be a source of intermediately virulent R. equi strains, and indicate that red deer and roe deer can be a reservoir of avirulent R. equi strains. PMID:24878324

Rzewuska, Magdalena; Witkowski, Lucjan; Cisek, Agata A; Stefa?ska, Ilona; Chrobak, Dorota; Stefaniuk, El?bieta; Kizerwetter-?wida, Magdalena; Takai, Shinji

2014-08-01

257

Chronic wasting disease infection patterns in female white-tailed deer related to demographics, genetic relationships, and spatial proximity of infected deer in southern Wisconsin  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500 km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310 kin2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and non-infected deer. Ow results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) kee-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible non-linear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

Grear, Daniel A.

2006-01-01

258

Lecythidaceae endémicas del Perú / Lecythidaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Lecythidaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar ocho géneros y 20 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), todas ellas árboles. En este trabajo reconocemos dos especies endémicas en dos géneros. Estos taxones endémicos ocupan la región Bosques Húmedos Amazónicos, [...] entre los 100 y 270 m de altitud. Una especie endemica de Lecythidaceae se encuentra representada dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english Lecythidaceae are represented in Peru by eight genera and 20 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), all of them trees. Here we recognize two endemic species in two genera. These endemic taxa grow in the Humid Lowland Amazonian Forest region, between 100 and 270 m elevation. One [...] endemic species of Lecythidaceae has been registered in the Peruvian protected areas system.

Blanca, León.

259

[Current epidemiology and laboratory diagnosis of endemic mycoses in Spain].  

Science.gov (United States)

Histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis are emerging infections in Spain associated with immigration and travelling. In last three decades a total of 128 cases of histoplasmosis have been reported in Spain, 59 in travellers, 63 in immigrants, three associated to drug abuse, two in laboratory workers, and one in a solid organ transplant receptor. In 1969 the first Spanish case of paracoccidioidomycosis was published and a total of 21 cases have been reported so far. Those patients suffered from the chronic form of the disease with period of latency as long as 50 years. Other endemic mycoses such as blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, lobomycosis, pythiosis and sporotrichosis have not increased in frequency. Microbiological cultures of endemic fungi must be handled in facilities which comply with international biosafety regulations and must also be taken into account for cultures from patients with suspected endemic mycosis. PMID:22130575

Buitrago, María J; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

2012-08-01

260

Iodine-129 in forage and deer on the Hanford site and other Pacific Northwest locations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samples of surface soil, litter, forage, and deer (rumen content, muscle, liver, and thyroid gland) were collected from Bend, Oregon; Centralia, Washington; Wenatchee, Washington; the Wooten Game Range near Dayton, Washington; and on or near the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The concentrations of 129I and 127I were determined using neturon activation techniques. The purpose of the study was to establish the current levels of 129I in the environs of the Hanford Site prior to the proposed restart of fuel reprocessing at the PUREX plant. The results of this study clearly demonstrated the longevity of 129I in the biosphere following gaseous release from a nuclear facility. Analyses of thyroid glands showed that deer living within 160 km (Wooten Game Range) of Hanford had elevated levels of 129I when compared to the more distant Pacific Northwest locations (Centralia, or Bend). Levels of 129I in deer thyroid from Bend, or Centralia, (15 fCi/g wet weight), were about five times higher than values reported for the central United States, while, Hanford samples were about 2,700 times higher. The average concentration of 129I in deer thyroids collected at Hanford in 1978 was similar to samples collected 14 years earlier. The concentrations of 129I in soil, litter, forage, and other deer samples generally decrease in the order: Hanford > Wooten > Wenatchee > Centralia approx. = Bend. This corresponds to an increase in distance from the Hanford Site

 
 
 
 
261

Positioning the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) Hunted by the Tyrolean Iceman into a Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeny  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last years several phylogeographic studies of both extant and extinct red deer populations have been conducted. Three distinct mitochondrial lineages (western, eastern and North-African/Sardinian) have been identified reflecting different glacial refugia and postglacial recolonisation processes. However, little is known about the genetics of the Alpine populations and no mitochondrial DNA sequences from Alpine archaeological specimens are available. Here we provide the first mitochondrial sequences of an Alpine Copper Age Cervus elaphus. DNA was extracted from hair shafts which were part of the remains of the clothes of the glacier mummy known as the Tyrolean Iceman or Ötzi (5,350–5,100 years before present). A 2,297 base pairs long fragment was sequenced using a mixed sequencing procedure based on PCR amplifications and 454 sequencing of pooled amplification products. We analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of the Alpine Copper Age red deer's haplotype with haplotypes of modern and ancient European red deer. The phylogenetic analyses showed that the haplotype of the Alpine Copper Age red deer falls within the western European mitochondrial lineage in contrast with the current populations from the Italian Alps belonging to the eastern lineage. We also discussed the phylogenetic relationships of the Alpine Copper Age red deer with the populations from Mesola Wood (northern Italy) and Sardinia. PMID:24988290

Olivieri, Cristina; Marota, Isolina; Rizzi, Ermanno; Ermini, Luca; Fusco, Letizia; Pietrelli, Alessandro; De Bellis, Gianluca; Rollo, Franco; Luciani, Stefania

2014-01-01

262

EXAMINATION OF NASAL BOTFLY (CEPHENEMYIA STIMULATOR,CLARK, 1815 OF ROE DEER  

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Full Text Available Abstract- Parameters of nasal botfly infestation of roe deer in plain locations I am investigating the occurrence of one of the diseases caused by parasites in plain roe deer populations, namely a botfly larvae, Cephenemyia stimulator, (CLARK, 1815 ranged among the Oestridae family. Nasal botfly larvae are common roe deer parasites and aregenerally spread nationwide. The subject of the present survey is the processing of the data gained about roe deer bucks of the year 2009 and their infestation indices. I investigated botfly larvae in 75 bucks’ nasal andpharyngeal cavity. We have found botfly larva in 17,3% of the examined bucks (prevalence, this means 13 infected specimen. I collected 199 pieces of larvae from the samples, with a 15,3 pieces mean intensity. In our  investigations prevalence was lower than in previous Hungarian researches. This was manifested both in our overall data, and in our examinations by the different age groups. The rate of infestation was demonstrably higher in the old age group. This can be explained by the territorial behaviour of the roe deer, which can also be manifested by the older bucks’ displacement to weaker habitats.

Szilárd Pinnyey

2013-05-01

263

The Quality of Hunted Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolor Venison from East Kalimantan  

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Full Text Available Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor is the heaviest in its body weight and widest in its distribution of tropical deer. A Report by East Kalimantan governor indicated that no less than 5,000 wild sambar deer were slaughtered annually. In 1990 a pilot project of sambar deer farm was established and still under its development. Up to the present there is no data available on the nutritional values of sambar venison. The objective of the study was to determine the nutritional quality of wild sambar venison. Samples were collected from three traditional markets. Whitin 10 hours after being hunted, meat was sampled in three sites, front leg, back leg and saddle. The result showed that pH values of hunted sambar venison ranged from 6.18-6.46, but there were no differences in cutting sites. The moisture content was over 74%. Crude Protein, ash, fat and cholesterol (%DM were 88.84-90.24, 3.86-4.14, 2.9-3.8, 0.24-0.27, respectively. Amino acids, fatty acids and minerals values were within the average of domesticated animals meat values, thought some values in sambar show a better performance. (Animal Production 5(1: 35-41 (2003 Key words: Sambar , Deer, Cervus unicolor, Venison, Meat

G Semiadi

2003-01-01

264

Physiological assessment of deer populations by analysis of urine in snow  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared the nutritional status of free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 3 natural yards and 1 yard where deer were supplementally fed from 1 January to 31 March 1985 in northeastern Minnesota. We monitored deer nutritonal status by sequential collection and chemical analysis of urine in snow (snow-urine) for urea nitrogen (U), sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P). Dilution of urine by snow was corrected by comparing these data as ratios to creatinine (C). All deer remained in an early phase of undernutrition; however, declining trends of U:C, Na:C, and K:C in 2 natural yards indicated increasingly inadequate nutrition as winter progressed. Unaltered values of these ratios and P.C in snow-urine collected from the third natural yard reflected stable levels of nutrient availability. Significant (P urine analysis provided an improved understanding of the relationship between snow cover and the nutritional well-being of these deer.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

1989-01-01

265

Cloning and characterization of deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus cytokine and chemokine cDNAs  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sin Nombre virus (SNV establishes a persistent infection in the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus. A strong antibody response occurs in response to SNV infection, but the role of the innate immune response is unclear. To address this issue, we have initiated an effort to identify and characterize deer mouse cytokine and chemokine genes. Such cytokines and chemokines are involved in various aspects of immunity, including the transition from innate to adaptive responses, type I and type II responses, recruitment of leukocytes to sites of infection, and production of mature cells from bone marrow progenitors. Results We established a colony of SNV antibody-negative deer mice and cloned 11 cytokine and chemokine partial cDNA sequences using directed PCR. Most of the deer mouse sequences were highly conserved with orthologous sequences from other rodent species and functional domains were identified in each putative polypeptide. Conclusions The availability of these sequences will allow the examination of the role of these cytokines in deer mouse responses to infection with Sin Nombre virus.

Root J

2004-01-01

266

An analysis of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus traffic collisions in the Belluno province, eastern Italian Alps  

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Full Text Available Data of roe deer traffic collisions from 1989 to 2004 in the Belluno province were analyzed to describe patterns of road kills by zone, season and sex and to compare resulting annual trends and sex ratios with those estimated for roe deer population. The province was divided in 2 districts on the base of differences in climate, landscape and roe deer population status. Pearson’s simple correlation was used to investigate the associations, in the two districts, among road kills data, year, population density, traffic index, and snow depth. Bonferroni’s confidential intervals to 95% of significance were used to compare the monthly distributions of collisions between sexes and between districts. In conclusion, the analysis of car accidents may not reflect population trends and sex ratios when traffic rates change and when different ecological factors, others from deer density, influence the probability of deer to incur in a car accident. In addition, differences of accident probability between sexes and months can be found in areas with different landscapes, climates and population structures. These factors should be evaluated in order to manage accident risk and to understand the potential of car accidents records as a tool for monitoring population status.

E. Sturaro

2010-04-01

267

Fine-scale genetic structure and social organization in female white-tailed deer.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abstract: Social behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have important management implications. The formation of matrilineal social groups among female deer has been documented and management strategies have been proposed based on this well-developed social structure. Using radiocollared (n = 17) and hunter or vehicle-killed (n = 21) does, we examined spatial and genetic structure in white-tailed deer on a 7,000-ha portion of the Savannah River Site in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. We used 14 microsatellite DNA loci to calculate pairwise relatedness among individual deer and to assign doe pairs to putative relationship categories. Linear distance and genetic relatedness were weakly correlated (r = –0.08, P = 0.058). Relationship categories differed in mean spatial distance, but only 60% of first-degree-related doe pairs (full sibling or mother–offspring pairs) and 38% of second-degree-related doe pairs (half sibling, grandmother–granddaughter pairs) were members of the same social group based on spatial association. Heavy hunting pressure in this population has created a young age structure among does, where the average age is <2.5 years, and <4% of does are >4.5 years old. This—combined with potentially elevated dispersal among young does—could limit the formation of persistent, cohesive social groups. Our results question the universal applicability of recently proposed models of spatial and genetic structuring in white-tailed deer, particularly in areas with differing harvest histories.

Comer, Christopher E.; Kilgo, John C.; D' Angelo, Gino J.; Glenn, Travis C.; Miller, Karl V.

2005-07-01

268

Calving pattern on captive sambar deer (Cervus unicolor in East Kalimantan  

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Full Text Available Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor is the biggest of tropical deer with its distribution in Indonesia limited to Kalimantan and Sumatera islands and neighboring islands near Sumatera. Several countries such as Malaysia and Thailand have been developing their tropical deer farming, whereas in Indonesia they are still in its infancy, as captive breeding. The knowledge on the biology of reproduction from tropical deer is still limited, particularly those under their natural habitat. An evaluation on the reproduction profiles of captive sambar deer were conducted by analyzing log book of the captive breeding in East Kalimantan. The results indicated that conception rates was very low, only 48,8% (SD=16.24; n=10 years with peak calving time between June and July and mean calving date was on 4 July (SD=10.4 days; n=109 fawns. Calving interval was 388,2 days (SD=82.45; n=33 fawns, with natural nursing lasted for 148 days. Young hind gave birth for the first time at the age of 693.8 days (SD=89.40; n=4 hinds, giving a time estimate of first mating at the age of 453 days.

ANDI TRASODIHARTO

2005-01-01

269

Genetic diversity and relatedness among seven red deer (Cervus elaphus populations  

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Full Text Available Deer (Cervidae recently belongs to the most important species. The aim of presenting study was evaluation of genetic diversity and relationship within and among seven red deer populations from different origins - Czech Republic, Hungary, hybrids Hungary x New Zealand, Lithuania, New Zealand, Poland and Slovak Republic. This study was conducted to determine the levels of genetic variability and relationships among deer populations from a total of 637 animals originating from seven countries Czech Republic (50, Hungary (35, Hungary x New Zealand hybrids (67, Lithuania (26, New Zealand (82, Poland (347 and Slovak Republic (30.  We used the hair bulbs as a source of DNA.  In total, 213 alleles were observed from the 10 loci surveyed. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 11 (IOBT965 to 35 (T156, RT13. Genetic diversity and relatedness among red deer populations has been performed on a total of 637 animals. A panel of 10 microsatellite markers used in deer were optimized. On the basis of this panel of microsatellites we were investigated genetic variability and relationships by using statistical and graphical programmes. We evaluated how close populations are to each other and their genetic admixture. Molecular genetic data combined with evaluation in statistical programmes could lead to a complex view of populations. 

Lenka Maršálková

2014-02-01

270

Reports of oligodendrogliomas in three white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Central nervous system tumors are rarely reported in cervids. The current report describes gross and histopathologic oligodendrogliomas in 3 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and selected immunohistochemical properties of 2 deer. All deer were euthanized due to central nervous system signs. Grossly, masses were variably circumscribed, locally invasive in the brain, light grey, and soft, and ranged from 2 to 5 cm in diameter. Histologically, tumors were characteristic for oligodendroglioma. The tumors were composed primarily of oval to round cells with round normochromatic to hyperchromatic nuclei, a pale granular cytoplasm, and well-delineated cytoplasmic membrane, and variable amounts of mucinous material, hemorrhage, and dystrophic mineralization. Immunohistochemistry, performed on masses from 2 deer, had positive cytoplasmic staining for S100 and variable staining on glial fibrillary acidic protein (1 deer negative and the other with rare positivity in astrocytes within the mass). This manuscript includes a discussion on the significance of these findings relative to central nervous system tumors of cervids and oligodendrogliomas from other species. PMID:22362955

Gottdenker, Nicole L; Gerhold, Richard; Cartoceti, Andrew; Keel, M Kevin; Goltz, James P; Howerth, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

271

Low heterozygosity at microsatellite markers in Iberian red deer with small antlers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deer antlers are costly structures subjected to directional sexual selection that may be sensitive to heterozygosity. However, a relationship between heterozygosity and antler development has only been found for select protein-coding loci and MHC genes in one deer species (the white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus). Here, we study the relationship between multilocus heterozygosity at 11 microsatellite markers and antler size (AS) in a sample of 367 Iberian red deer males (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) from two study areas with different ecological and genetic conditions. We found that males with very small antlers (10% of the sampled individuals with the lowest values of AS) had lower levels of heterozygosity than those with bigger antlers (significant effect in an analysis of variance, P = 0.011). This relationship was noticeable mainly in situations of low genetic diversity, where the differences in heterozygosity between groups of males were greater. Finally, we conducted analyses to address the hypotheses proposed by the heterozygosity-fitness correlation, and we found the local effect as the most likely hypothesis. Our findings reveal an expected but not previously detected association between low heterozygosity and reduced AS, with implications for red deer evolution and management. PMID:20478822

Pérez-González, Javier; Carranza, Juan; Torres-Porras, Jerónimo; Fernández-García, José L

2010-01-01

272

Measuring Fine-Scale White-Tailed Deer Movements and Environmental Influences Using GPS Collars  

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Full Text Available Few studies have documented fine-scale movements of ungulate species, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, despite the advent of global positioning system (GPS technology incorporated into tracking devices. We collected fine-scale temporal location estimates (i.e., 15 min/relocation attempt from 17 female and 15 male white-tailed deer over 7 years and 3 seasons in Oklahoma, USA. Our objectives were to document fine-scale movements of females and males and determine effects of reproductive phase, moon phase, and short-term weather patterns on movements. Female and male movements were primarily crepuscular. Male total daily movements were 20% greater during rut (7,363?m±364 than postrut (6,156?m±260. Female daily movements were greatest during postparturition (3,357?m±91, followed by parturition (2,902?m±107, and preparturition (2,682?m±121. We found moon phase had no effect on daily, nocturnal, and diurnal deer movements and fine-scale temporal weather conditions had an inconsistent influence on deer movement patterns within season. Our data suggest that hourly and daily variation in weather events have minimal impact on movements of white-tailed deer in southern latitudes. Instead, routine crepuscular movements, presumed to maximize thermoregulation and minimize predation risk, appear to be the most important factors influencing movements.

Stephen L. Webb

2010-01-01

273

Urinary 3-methylhistidine and progressive winter undernutrition in white-tailed deer  

Science.gov (United States)

Physiological indicators of muscle catabolism would aid assessment of winter nutritional restriction of ungulates, and urinary 3-methylhistidine has exhibited potential in this regard in several species. We examined the effect of chronic moderate and severe nutritional restriction during winter on urinary 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratios in seven adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and the relationship of these ratios to urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine ratios. Mean base line estimates of urinary 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratio for the control and severely restricted deer (0.043 and 0.086 ??mol:mg, respectively) were similar (P = 0.280) and remained unchanged in the control deer throughout the study. In contrast, mean 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratios increased dramatically as nutritional restriction and cumulative mass loss progressed; the quadratic component of the data for the chronically restricted deer was significant (P < 0.001). Likewise, there was a strong curvilinear relationship (R2 = 0.82) between cumulative mass loss (up to 29%) of the pooled deer and urinary 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratios. Further, urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine ratios were strongly related to 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratios (r2 = 0.89). Our study indicates that further investigation of 3-methylhistidine as an indicator of physical condition and muscle protein breakdown is warranted.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Kerr, K.D.; Mech, L.D.; Riggs, M.R.; Seal, U.S.

1998-01-01

274

Is Sustainablity Possible in Protected Areas in Mexico? Deer as an Example of a Renewable Resource  

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Full Text Available In 2000, Mexico’s National Commission of Protected Areas (CONANP was created to encourage the protection, management and restoration of natural and cultural resources and their conservation. Protected areas were recently increased by more than 3 million hectares, for a current total of more than 25 million hectares, corresponding to 174 protected areas that cover 12.90% of the country’s surface area. The information obtained by research helps us understand both biodiversity and ecological processes, as well as the social and economic phenomena that influence the use of ecosystems. In Mexico there are four species of deer: white-tailed deer, mule deer, red brocket and brown brocket. These ungulates have been an important part of the diet of indigenous people and rural communities, and represent an important resource for sport and trophy hunting. We found the best deer populations in protected areas; these can therefore maintain the gene pool and serve as source populations for other areas. These populations are also useful from a research perspective. People living in some protected areas continue to use natural resources such as deer, and also receive economic inputs to develop ecotourism programs, and support from the government for the environmental services derived from conserving biodiversity.

Sonia Gallina

2012-09-01

275

Red deer (Cervus elaphus) as a host for the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Yucatan, Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhipicephalus microplus is the most economically important cattle tick in the Mexican tropics. Wild ungulate species, including red deer (Cervus elaphus), are gaining popularity in diversified livestock ranching operations in Mexico. However, there is no information available on the susceptibility of red deer to infestation with the cattle tick, R. microplus, under hot, subhumid tropical conditions in Mexico. Biological data on R. microplus as an ectoparasite of cattle and red deer in a farm in the Mexican tropics are presented here. Ticks collected from red deer were identified as R. microplus (97 %) and Amblyomma cajennense (3 %), and tick species infesting cattle included R. microplus (95 %) and A. cajennense (5 %). Standard counts of R. microplus engorged females on red deer were 11 times higher than on cattle (428 ± 43 vs. 40 ± 18; p 0.05). Hemolymph samples of R. microplus collected from cattle were positive for Babesia spp. (10 %, 2/50) and all the samples from ticks infesting red deer were negative. Seventeen and ten percent of the blood samples from cattle and red deer were positive for Anaplasma marginale, respectively. The role of red deer as a host of R. microplus in Yucatan, Mexico and the importance of this host-parasite relationship relative to the epidemiology of R. microplus-borne diseases are discussed. PMID:23423423

Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Trinidad-Martínez, I C; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Ticante-Perez, V; Castro-Marín, J M; Tapia-Moo, C A; Vázquez-Gómez, G

2013-08-01

276

Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus  

Science.gov (United States)

A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

Nelson, Michael E.

2011-01-01

277

Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies associated with vesicular ulcerative and necrotizing lesions of the digestive mucosa in fallow deer (Dama dama L.  

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Full Text Available Intracytoplasmic epithelial inclusion bodies in the digestive mucosa of fallow deer (Dama dama L. were found to most probably be the result of an unspecific degenerative or post mortal change. There are reasons to believe that this is true also for the inclusion bodies found in reindeer, roe deer and moose.

Regina Diaz

1990-09-01

278

The 36. Red Deer Seminar - still going strong  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several issues dominated the 36th Red Deer Seminar of the propane industry, among them changes to the Alberta fuel tax collection system, propane and automobile emissions and industry self-management. With regard to changes to the Alberta fuel tax collection system, details were provided on how the system, coming into effect on January 1, 1997, will impact on producers, distributors and retailers. In terms of automobile emissions, it was said that propane has lagged behind gasoline in technological development, hence propane no longer has advantages in emissions. It was noted, however, that with equivalent technology propane can still meet ultra-low emission standards. Regarding industry self-management, it was stressed that self-management did not mean deregulation since government retains policy, regulation and standard setting. It means a new partnership arrangement in which industry delivers services formerly provided by government. In this spirit of cooperation, it was announced that effective September 1996, administration of the auto propane vehicle conversion program will be transferred to the PGAC under the name of Alberta Propane Vehicle Administration Organization. 3 figs.

Anon.

1996-09-01

279

The John Deere E diesel Test & Research Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three non-road Tier II emissions compliant diesel engines manufactured by John Deere were placed on a durability test plan of 2000 hours each at full load, rated speed (FLRS). The fuel was a blend of 10% fuel ethanol and 90% low sulfur #2 diesel fuel. Seven operational failures involving twenty seven fuel system components occurred prior to completion of the intended test plan. Regulated emissions measured prior to component failure indicated compliance to Tier II certification goals for the observed test experience. The program plan included operating three non-road Tier II diesel engines for 2000 hours each monitoring the regulated emissions at 500 hour intervals for changes/deterioration. The program was stopped prematurely due to number and frequency of injection system failures. The failures and weaknesses observed involved injector seat and valve wear, control solenoid material incompatibility, injector valve deposits and injector high pressure seal cavitation erosion. Future work should target an E diesel fuel standard that emphasizes minimum water content, stability, lubricity, cetane neutrality and oxidation resistance. Standards for fuel ethanol need to require water content no greater than the base diesel fuel standard. Lubricity bench test standards may need new development for E diesel.

Fields, Nathan; Mitchell, William E.

2008-09-23

280

The 36. Red Deer Seminar - still going strong  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several issues dominated the 36th Red Deer Seminar of the propane industry, among them changes to the Alberta fuel tax collection system, propane and automobile emissions and industry self-management. With regard to changes to the Alberta fuel tax collection system, details were provided on how the system, coming into effect on January 1, 1997, will impact on producers, distributors and retailers. In terms of automobile emissions, it was said that propane has lagged behind gasoline in technological development, hence propane no longer has advantages in emissions. It was noted, however, that with equivalent technology propane can still meet ultra-low emission standards. Regarding industry self-management, it was stressed that self-management did not mean deregulation since government retains policy, regulation and standard setting. It means a new partnership arrangement in which industry delivers services formerly provided by government. In this spirit of cooperation, it was announced that effective September 1996, administration of the auto propane vehicle conversion program will be transferred to the PGAC under the name of Alberta Propane Vehicle Administration Organization. 3 figs

 
 
 
 
281

Childhood parasitic infections endemic to the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endemic parasitic infections in the United States are more frequent than is commonly perceived. Intestinal parasitic infection with Cryptosporidium, Dientamoeba, and Giardia occurs most often in children in northern states during the summer months. Zoonotic Toxocara and Toxoplasma parasitic infections are more frequent in southern states, in African Americans, and in populations with lower socioeconomic status. Approximately 300, 000 people in the United States have Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Local, vector-borne transmission of T cruzi and Leishmania infections has been documented in southern states. Parasitic diseases endemic to the United States are not uncommon but are understudied. PMID:23481112

Barry, Meagan A; Weatherhead, Jill E; Hotez, Peter J; Woc-Colburn, Laila

2013-04-01

282

Cadmium accumulation in deer tongue grass (Panicum clandestinum L.) and potential for trophic transfer to microtine rodents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Site 36 at the Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge includes a Cd-contaminated soil dominated by deer tongue grass (Panicum clandestinum L.). Analysis of deer tongue grass from this site indicated that biomass and leaf surface area were reduced and that there was a linear relationship between both plant bioavailable soil Cd and total soil Zn and tissue Cd concentration. The Cd concentrations in stems and leaves were also used to estimate the dietary Cd exposures that might be experienced by prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) and pine voles (M. pinetorum) consuming deer tongue grass. Renal and hepatic Cd burdens predicted from exclusive consumption of deer tongue grass would be comparable to those that have resulted in chronic toxicity in rodents. The results suggest that for the contaminated soil at Site 36, conditions could allow for the accumulation of Cd in deer tongue grass to concentrations that may pose an ecological risk. PMID:17258848

Sankaran, Renuka P; Ebbs, Stephen D

2007-07-01

283

The occurrence of Demodex kutzeri Bukva, 1987 (Acari, Demodecidae) in red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) in Poland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of Demodex kutzeri Bukva, 1987 was examined and compared in red deer coming from different populations--25 red deer from northern Poland (Masurian Lake District) and 25 from southern Poland (Lower Silesia). The total prevalence of infestation in red deer by D. kutzeri was 52% with the mean intensity of 38 individuals and the intensity range of 1-135. Parameters of infestation for red deer from northern Poland were much higher (68%, 49), while for other red deer--lower (36%, 16). Demodectic mites D. kutzeri are associated with common hair follicles, therefore they can be found in different parts of the body, however most of the specimens were found in the head skin. Regardless of the location and the infestation rate (including density of mites in the skin), infestations were not accompanied by symptoms of demodecosis. PMID:24171302

Izdebska, Joanna N; Kozina, Paulina; Fryderyk, S?awomira

2013-01-01

284

Areas of endemism in the southern central Andes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este trabajo analiza la distribución de especies de plantas vasculares endémicas de la porción sur de los Andes centrales (sudoeste de Bolivia y noroeste de Argentina). En el análisis se incluyeron 540 especies endémicas de la región estudiada (aproximadamente 720.600 km˛). La mayoría de las especie [...] s endémicas se halla en ambientes semiáridos, entre 1500-3500 m s.m., encontrándose principalmente en valles, laderas y mesetas del topográficamente complejo sur de los Andes centrales. Las áreas de endemismos aquí halladas se presentan consecuentemente en ambientes áridos y no en ambientes húmedos subtropicales de las Yungas tucumano-bolivianas, a pesar de que en esta última región la diversidad de plantas vasculares es mayor. Se identificaron un total de 17 patrones de distribución bien definidos, y parcialmente solapados. El patrón de distribución más amplio define un área general de endemismos para los Andes centrales. Esta área se extiende a lo largo de casi toda la región y está delimitada por especies que se distribuyen en ambientes desérticos a sub-húmedos en laderas, valles o regiones altoandinas. Casi todas las restantes áreas de endemismo se encuentran anidadas dentro del patrón de distribución amplio antes citado, superponiéndose en el sentido norte-sur a lo largo de pendientes y valles de los Andes y de las Sierras Pampeanas. A pesar del sesgo observado en la distribución hacia ambientes áridos, aproximadamente la mitad de las especies endémicas están restringidas a unas pocas áreas de alto endemismo, las que se encuentran en yuxtaposición con las zonas más lluviosas de la región. Estas áreas de alto endemismo incluyen los rangos de hábitat más amplios de la región en términos de altitud y precipitación, siendo las especies endémicas igualmente variables en sus requerimientos de humedad y elevación. Las unidades fitogeográficas previamente definidas por diversos autores no fueron encontradas entre los patrones de distribución hallados; no obstante, la parte norte de la provincia Prepuneńa puede ser definida con dos patrones de distribución parcialmente superpuestos. Abstract in english This paper analyzes the distribution of vascular plants species endemic to the southern central Andes (south-western Bolivia and north-western Argentina). All 540 species endemic to the study regions (approx. 720600 km˛) have been included in the analysis. The main part of the endemic species is fou [...] nd in semiarid habitats between 1500-3500 m asl pointing to the topographically complex plateau, slope, and valley system of the southern central Andes as the main locations for its endemic flora. The distribution of the endemic species within arid sites is in contrast with that of vascular plant diversity in general, as the most diverse habitat of the region is the moist subtropical Tucumano-Bolivian Yungas forest of the eastern Andes slope. A total of 17 well defined and partly overlapping distribution patterns were indentified. The broadest distribution pattern defines a general area of endemism for the southern central Andes. This area extends through nearly the entire region and is defined by species that are widespread within the region in desert to sub-humid environments of the high Andes, slopes, or valleys. Nearly all other areas of endemism are nested within this broad distribution pattern as successively north-south overlapping areas along the slopes and valleys of the Andes and the Pampeanas Range. Despite the distributional bias of endemism towards the arid sites almost half of the endemic species are restricted to a few high endemic areas that lie in juxtaposition to the main rainfall zones. These areas contain the widest habitat ranges in terms of altitude and rainfall within the region with the endemic species being equally variable in altitude and moisture requirements. Previous defined phytogeographic units were not recognized among the distribution patterns. However, the norther

Lone, Aagesen; Maria J., Bena; Soledad, Nomdedeu; Adela, Panizza; Ramiro P., López; Fernando O., Zuloaga.

285

Areas of endemism in the southern central Andes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este trabajo analiza la distribución de especies de plantas vasculares endémicas de la porción sur de los Andes centrales (sudoeste de Bolivia y noroeste de Argentina). En el análisis se incluyeron 540 especies endémicas de la región estudiada (aproximadamente 720.600 km˛). La mayoría de las especie [...] s endémicas se halla en ambientes semiáridos, entre 1500-3500 m s.m., encontrándose principalmente en valles, laderas y mesetas del topográficamente complejo sur de los Andes centrales. Las áreas de endemismos aquí halladas se presentan consecuentemente en ambientes áridos y no en ambientes húmedos subtropicales de las Yungas tucumano-bolivianas, a pesar de que en esta última región la diversidad de plantas vasculares es mayor. Se identificaron un total de 17 patrones de distribución bien definidos, y parcialmente solapados. El patrón de distribución más amplio define un área general de endemismos para los Andes centrales. Esta área se extiende a lo largo de casi toda la región y está delimitada por especies que se distribuyen en ambientes desérticos a sub-húmedos en laderas, valles o regiones altoandinas. Casi todas las restantes áreas de endemismo se encuentran anidadas dentro del patrón de distribución amplio antes citado, superponiéndose en el sentido norte-sur a lo largo de pendientes y valles de los Andes y de las Sierras Pampeanas. A pesar del sesgo observado en la distribución hacia ambientes áridos, aproximadamente la mitad de las especies endémicas están restringidas a unas pocas áreas de alto endemismo, las que se encuentran en yuxtaposición con las zonas más lluviosas de la región. Estas áreas de alto endemismo incluyen los rangos de hábitat más amplios de la región en términos de altitud y precipitación, siendo las especies endémicas igualmente variables en sus requerimientos de humedad y elevación. Las unidades fitogeográficas previamente definidas por diversos autores no fueron encontradas entre los patrones de distribución hallados; no obstante, la parte norte de la provincia Prepuneńa puede ser definida con dos patrones de distribución parcialmente superpuestos. Abstract in english This paper analyzes the distribution of vascular plants species endemic to the southern central Andes (south-western Bolivia and north-western Argentina). All 540 species endemic to the study regions (approx. 720600 km˛) have been included in the analysis. The main part of the endemic species is fou [...] nd in semiarid habitats between 1500-3500 m asl pointing to the topographically complex plateau, slope, and valley system of the southern central Andes as the main locations for its endemic flora. The distribution of the endemic species within arid sites is in contrast with that of vascular plant diversity in general, as the most diverse habitat of the region is the moist subtropical Tucumano-Bolivian Yungas forest of the eastern Andes slope. A total of 17 well defined and partly overlapping distribution patterns were indentified. The broadest distribution pattern defines a general area of endemism for the southern central Andes. This area extends through nearly the entire region and is defined by species that are widespread within the region in desert to sub-humid environments of the high Andes, slopes, or valleys. Nearly all other areas of endemism are nested within this broad distribution pattern as successively north-south overlapping areas along the slopes and valleys of the Andes and the Pampeanas Range. Despite the distributional bias of endemism towards the arid sites almost half of the endemic species are restricted to a few high endemic areas that lie in juxtaposition to the main rainfall zones. These areas contain the widest habitat ranges in terms of altitude and rainfall within the region with the endemic species being equally variable in altitude and moisture requirements. Previous defined phytogeographic units were not recognized among the distribution patterns. However, the norther

Lone, Aagesen; Maria J., Bena; Soledad, Nomdedeu; Adela, Panizza; Ramiro P., López; Fernando O., Zuloaga.

2012-12-01

286

Serosurvey of roe deer, chamois and domestic sheep in the central Italian Alps.  

Science.gov (United States)

Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), chamois (Rupicapra rupricapra rupicapra), and domestic sheep in the Orobie Alps, Italy, were serologically tested for antibodies to selected pathogens that may be transmitted across species. Antibodies against Brucella spp. and bovine herpesvirus 1 (roe deer and chamois only) were not detected in any species. In roe deer, antibodies were detected against Toxoplasma gondii (13%) and Neospora caninum (3%). Chamois tested positive for antibodies to T. gondii (5%), N. caninum (21%), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) (41%), bovine parainfluenza type-3 virus (17%), pestiviruses (18%), and Mycoplasma conjunctivae (17%). In the sheep, particularly high antibody prevalence rates were found for T. gondii (78%), Chlamydophila spp. (20%), pestiviruses (90%), BRSV (82%), and M. conjunctivae (81%). PMID:17092903

Gaffuri, Alessandra; Giacometti, Marco; Tranquillo, Vito Massimo; Magnino, Simone; Cordioli, Paolo; Lanfranchi, Paolo

2006-07-01

287

Hematology of free-living marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) from southeast Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work reports basic hematologic values of a sample of a population of free-living marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) living by the Paraná River in Southeast Brazil. Hematologic values are presented separately for male, female, and young animals as well as for anesthetized and nonanesthetized cervids. Nonanesthetized deer restrained by physical means had significantly higher erythrocyte indices and total leukocyte counts. Comparisons of blood parameters of anesthetized animals of different ages and gender differed slightly, with only two significant differences observed: young animals had significantly higher red blood cell counts than adult males and a lower blood total protein content when compared to adult females. Results indicate that two main reference ranges for blood values should be considered for marsh deer, for blood obtained from anesthetized or physically restrained individuals. PMID:17312766

Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Matushima, Eliana Reiko; de Castro, Márcio Botelho; Santana, Danilo Alvaro; de Paula, Cátia Dejuste; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti

2005-09-01

288

Prevalence and molecular characterization of Mycoplasma ovis in selected free-ranging Brazilian deer populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycoplasma ovis is a hemoplasma that may cause anemia and mortality in small ruminants. Our aim was to determine whether M. ovis infects populations of free-ranging deer in Brazil. Buffy coat samples from 64 Blastocerus dichotomus from Porto Primavera, 18 Ozotocerus bezoarticus from Pantanal, and 21 O. bezoarticus from Emas National Park were tested. Using a M. ovis PCR protocol to amplify extracted DNA, 46/64 (72%) of deer from Porto Primavera, 10/18 (56%) from Pantanal, and 4/21 (19%) from Emas National Park were positive, giving an overall positive rate of 58% for hemoplasma in these wild deer. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed 3 genetically distinct hemoplasmas including M. ovis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma erythrocervae', and a hemoplasma most closely related to M. ovis. Phylogenetic analysis of the 23S rRNA gene from selected sequences confirmed these relationships. PMID:22102675

Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Santos, Andrea Pires; Guimarăes, Ana Marcia Sa; Mohamed, Ahmed; Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Messick, Joanne Belle

2011-10-01

289

Experimental malignant catarrhal fever (African form) in white-tailed deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were experimentally infected with the African form of malignant catarrhal fever (AMCF) virus by inoculation of whole blood from experimentally infected cattle, from whole blood obtained from a greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and from virus isolated in cell culture. The incubation period from AMCF in experimentally infected deer ranged from 13 to 18 days. Clinical disease was characterized by lacrimation, an elevated body temperature, conjunctivitis and swelling of the external lymph nodes. Histologic lesions were primarily characterized by widespread vasculitis and lymphadenopathy. The organs most severely affected were liver, lymphoid tissue, brain and lungs. Successful recovery and identification of AMCF virus was accomplished from one experimentally infected deer. PMID:7310953

Whitenack, D L; Castro, A E; Kocan, A A

1981-07-01

290

MONITORING OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN FARMED DEER POPULATIONS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS  

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Full Text Available Deer (Cervidaei belong to the most important species used as farmed animals. We focused on assesing the genetic diversity among five deer populations. Analysis has been performed on a total of 183 animals originating from Czech Republic, Hungary, New Zealand, Poland and Slovak Republic. Genetic variability were investigated using 8 microsatellite markers used in deer. Statistical data of all populations we obtained on the basis of Nei statistics, using by POWERMARKER 3.23 programme. Graphical view of relationships among populations and individuals in the populations was obtained using the Dendroscope software. Molecular genetic data combinated with evaluation in statistical programmes could lead to a complex view of populations and diffrences among them.doi:10.5219/172

Pavol Bajzík

2011-12-01

291

Impacts of Gender and Age on Behavioral Frequencies of Captive Musk Deer During Lactation  

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Full Text Available Behavioral patterns of captive alpine musk deer were studied at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF in northwest China. Throughout the lactation season (August-October 2003, 13 behaviors categories were recorded for 30 female and 24 male alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus to explore effects of gender and age-classes. Females had a higher frequency of resting, feeding, ruminating and affinitive behaviors than males, potentially due to the increased energy demands and influences of newborn fawns during lactation. Among females there was no effect of age-class on the behavioral patterns whereas, adult males displayed more frequent tail-pasting behavior and agonistic interaction than sub-adult males. The potential causative mechanisms for the behavioral differences were discussed.

Xiuxiang Meng

2011-01-01

292

Genotype-4 hepatitis E in a human after ingesting roe deer meat in South Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent increase in the number of cases of indigenous hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection highlights the importance of identifying the transmission routes for the prevention of such infections. Presented herein is the first case of acute HEV infection after ingesting wild roe deer meat in South Korea. A 43-year-old male presented with abdominal discomfort and jaundice. He had not recently traveled abroad, but had eaten raw roe-deer meat 6-8 weeks before the presentation. On the 7th day of hospitalization the patient was diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis E. Phylogenetic analysis of his serum revealed genotype-4 HEV. This case supports the possibility of zoonotic transmission of HEV because the patient appears to have been infected with genotype-4 HEV after ingesting raw deer meat. PMID:24133670

Choi, Ja Yoon; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Jo, Yun Won; Min, Hyun Ju; Kim, Hyun Jin; Jung, Woon Tae; Lee, Ok Jae; Yun, Haesun; Yoon, Yeong-Sil

2013-09-01

293

A First Attempt at Modelling Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus Distributions Over Europe  

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Full Text Available The presence of roe deer can be an important component within ecological and epidemiological systems contributing to the risk and spread of a range of vector-borne diseases. Deer are important hosts for many vectors, and may therefore serve as a focal point or attractant for vectors or may themselves act as a reservoir for vector-borne disease. Three spatial modelling techniques were used to generate an ensemble model describing the proportion of suitable roe deer habitat within recorded distributions for Europe as identified from diverse sources. The resulting model is therefore an index of presence, which may be useful in supporting the modelling of vector-borne disease across Europe.

Neil S Alexander

2014-07-01

294

Population characteristics and viability of the introduced hog deer (Axis porcinus Zimmermann, 1780 in Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand  

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Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to study population characteristics of hog deer released into the wild, namely: density,age structure, sex ratio, recruitment rate, threats to hog deer, carrying capacity and inter-specific relationships, as well as toassess the population viability over time. In this study, direct observation was used to study the hog deer population characteristics,and population density was estimated from the pellet-group count method. Vortex program was used to analyze thepopulation viability. Results showed that the population density of hog deer at Thung Ka Mung (TKM in Phu Khieo WildlifeSanctuary (PKWS was 2.03-2.04 individuals/hectare (SD = 1.25. The population structure showed that the average herd sizewas 9.57 individuals. Hog deer in TKM preferred to stay with a group (91.5%, rather than being solitary (8.5%. The sex ratiofor males to females was 54.64:100, and for females to fawns was 100:26.18. The annual recruitment rate was 16.98 %. Theirpredators were Asian wild dogs, Burmese pythons, Asiatic jackals, leopard cats and clouded leopards. The mortality rate ofthe existing hog deer in TKM during the study period was 18.1%. The habitat sharing by camera traps revealed 4 ungulatespecies. They were sambar deer, barking deer, wild boar, and elephant, and their relative abundance were 28.41%, 7.38%,4.70%, and 2.01% respectively. Fifty-year simulation modeling using population viability analysis indicated the sustainabilityof this population. Hog deer population in the simulations did not exhibit sensitivity to an increase or decrease in carryingcapacity. Habitat management should be carried out continuously in TKM area, which is the main habitat for hog deer inPKWS.

Worawidh Wajjwalku

2012-07-01

295

Late-glacial recolonization and phylogeography of European red deer (Cervus elaphus L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pleistocene was an epoch of extreme climatic and environmental changes. How individual species responded to the repeated cycles of warm and cold stages is a major topic of debate. For the European fauna and flora, an expansion-contraction model has been suggested, whereby temperate species were restricted to southern refugia during glacial times and expanded northwards during interglacials, including the present interglacial (Holocene). Here, we test this model on the red deer (Cervus elaphus) a large and highly mobile herbivore, using both modern and ancient mitochondrial DNA from the entire European range of the species over the last c. 40,000 years. Our results indicate that this species was sensitive to the effects of climate change. Prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) haplogroups restricted today to South-East Europe and Western Asia reached as far west as the UK. During the LGM, red deer was mainly restricted to southern refugia, in Iberia, the Balkans and possibly in Italy and South-Western Asia. At the end of the LGM, red deer expanded from the Iberian refugium, to Central and Northern Europe, including the UK, Belgium, Scandinavia, Germany, Poland and Belarus. Ancient DNA data cannot rule out refugial survival of red deer in North-West Europe through the LGM. Had such deer survived, though, they were replaced by deer migrating from Iberia at the end of the glacial. The Balkans served as a separate LGM refugium and were probably connected to Western Asia with genetic exchange between the two areas. PMID:23927498

Meiri, Meirav; Lister, Adrian M; Higham, Thomas F G; Stewart, John R; Straus, Lawrence G; Obermaier, Henriette; González Morales, Manuel R; Marín-Arroyo, Ana B; Barnes, Ian

2013-09-01

296

Pre-orbital gland opening in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) during stressful handling.  

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Stressful manipulation by humans has been previously shown to result in opening the pre-orbital gland of the newborn red deer. We hypothesized that exposure of red deer to stressful handling would result in opening the pre-orbital gland. Further, we tested the potential factors associated with pre-orbital opening, including season, sex, age and struggling behavior. Pre-orbital gland status was observed in 76 red deer (48 males, 28 females) during 281 handling events with the animal isolated and fixed in a mechanical restraint cradle (crush) within 3 consecutive years. The deer age ranged from 1 to 5 yr in males, and from 1 to 11 yr in females at the beginning of observations. The proportion of handling events with an open gland was considerably greater during than before handling (27.76 vs. 0%, respectively, P sex. Thus, pre-orbital opening seemed to accompany the behaviors that have been found to be related to acute stress. The probability that the animal opens its pre-orbitals during handling sharply increased at the beginning of the rut (mating season, P sexes (P Sex of the animal did not influence the probability of pre-orbital opening. We found significant variability in pre-orbital opening across the individuals (P gland and stressful handling in sub-adult and adult red deer, although repeated human handling did not elicit such incidence of pre-orbital opening as found in newborn red deer calves. Our results support multifactorial origins of pre-orbital opening and prompt the necessity of further research to distinguish between different motivations that might have been involved in opening of pre-orbitals. PMID:22585799

Bartošová, J; Bartoš, L; Kotrba, R; Ceacero, F

2012-09-01

297

Deer carcass decomposition and potential scavenger exposure to chronic wasting disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy afflicting the Cervidae family in North America, causing neurodegeneration and ultimately death. Although there are no reports of natural cross-species transmission of CWD to noncervids, infected deer carcasses pose a potential risk of CWD exposure for other animals. We placed 40 disease-free white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses and 10 gut piles in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin (USA) from September to April in 2003 through 2005. We used photos from remotely operated cameras to characterize scavenger visitation and relative activity. To evaluate factors driving the rate of carcass removal (decomposition), we used KaplanMeier survival analysis and a generalized linear mixed model. We recorded 14 species of scavenging mammals (6 visiting species) and 14 species of scavenging birds (8 visiting species). Prominent scavengers included American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). We found no evidence that deer consumed conspecific remains, although they visited gut piles more often than carcasses relative to temporal availability in the environment. Domestic dogs, cats, and cows either scavenged or visited carcass sites, which could lead to human exposure to CWD. Deer carcasses persisted for 18 days to 101 days depending on the season and year, whereas gut piles lasted for 3 days. Habitat did not influence carcass decomposition, but mammalian and avian scavenger activity and higher temperatures were positively associated with faster removal. Infected deer carcasses or gut piles can serve as potential sources of CWD prions to a variety of scavengers. In areas where surveillance for CWD exposure is practical, management agencies should consider strategies for testing primary scavengers of deer carcass material.

Jennelle, C.S.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Berkley, E.A.

2009-01-01

298

Dietary response of sympatric deer to fire using stable isotope analysis of liver tissue  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon (??13C) and nitrogen (??15N) isotopes in biological samples from large herbivores identify photosynthetic pathways (C3 vs. C4) of plants they consumed and can elucidate potential nutritional characteristics of dietary selection. Because large herbivores consume a diversity of forage types, ??13C and ??15N in their tissue can index ingested and assimilated diets through time. We assessed ??13C and ??15N in metabolically active liver tissue of sympatric mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) to identify dietary disparity resulting from use of burned and unburned areas in a largely forested landscape. Interspecific variation in dietary disparity of deer was documented 2-3 years post-fire in response to lag-time effects of vegetative response to burning and seasonal (i.e., summer, winter) differences in forage type. Liver ??13C for mule deer were lower during winter and higher during summer 2 years post-fire on burned habitat compared to unburned habitat suggesting different forages were consumed by mule deer in response to fire. Liver ??15N for both species were higher on burned than unburned habitat during winter and summer suggesting deer consumed more nutritious forage on burned habitat during both seasons 2 and 3 years post-fire. Unlike traditional methods of dietary assessment that do not measure uptake of carbon and nitrogen from dietary components, analyses of stable isotopes in liver or similar tissue elucidated ??13C and ??15N assimilation from seasonal dietary components and resulting differences in the foraging ecology of sympatric species in response to fire.

Walter, W.D.; Zimmerman, T.J.; Leslie, D.M., Jr.; Jenks, J.A.

2009-01-01

299

Seasonal variation of activity patterns in roe deer in a temperate forested area.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the activity patterns of a European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population living in a forested Apennine area in central Italy, in order to shed light on the environmental and biological factors that were expected to account for the observed activity patterns on daily and yearly bases. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of 31 radio-collared roe deer were assessed through sessions of radio tracking for a total period of 18 consecutive months. Roe deer showed bimodal activity patterns throughout the year, with the two highest peaks of activity recorded at dawn and dusk. Activity patterns of males and females differed during the territorial period (from early spring to late summer), whereas they did not during the nonterritorial period. Most likely, behavioral thermoregulation can be held responsible for variation of daily activity patterns in different seasons. In winter, for instance, activity during the dawn period was significantly higher than in other seasons and daylight activity was significantly higher than at night. Nocturnal activity was highest in summer and lowest in winter. During the hunting season, moreover, roe deer showed lower activity levels than during the rest of the year. The prediction that roe deer would show lower activity levels during full moon nights, when the predation risk was assumed to be higher, was not confirmed by our data. Activity rhythms in roe deer were thus subjected to both endogenous and environmental factors, the latter working as exogenous synchronization cues. Accordingly, in changing environmental and ecological conditions, a circadian cycle of activity could be seen as the result of complex interactions among daily behavioral rhythm, digestive physiology, and external modifying factors. PMID:23738905

Pagon, Nives; Grignolio, Stefano; Pipia, Anna; Bongi, Paolo; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Apollonio, Marco

2013-07-01

300

Dietary Response of Sympatric Deer to Fire Using Stable Isotope Analysis of Liver Tissue  

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Full Text Available Carbon (?13C and nitrogen (?15N isotopes in biological samples from large herbivores identify photosynthetic pathways (C3 vs. C4 of plants they consumed and can elucidate potential nutritional characteristics of dietary selection. Because large herbivores consume a diversity of forage types, ?13C and ?15N in their tissue can index ingested and assimilated diets through time. We assessed ?13C and ?15N in metabolically active liver tissue of sympatric mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus to identify dietary disparity resulting from use of burned and unburned areas in a largely forested landscape. Interspecific variation in dietary disparity of deer was documented 2–3 years post-fire in response to lag-time effects of vegetative response to burning and seasonal (i.e., summer, winter differences in forage type. Liver ?13C for mule deer were lower during winter and higher during summer 2 years post-fire on burned habitat compared to unburned habitat suggesting different forages were consumed by mule deer in response to fire. Liver ?15N for both species were higher on burned than unburned habitat during winter and summer suggesting deer consumed more nutritious forage on burned habitat during both seasons 2 and 3 years post-fire. Unlike traditional methods of dietary assessment that do not measure uptake of carbon and nitrogen from dietary components, analyses of stable isotopes in liver or similar tissue elucidated ?13C and ?15N assimilation from seasonal dietary components and resulting differences in the foraging ecology of sympatric species in response to fire.

David M. Leslie, Jr.

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Gentianaceae endémicas del Perú / Gentianaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Gentianaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar alrededor de 15 géneros y aproximadamente de 170 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004; S. Castillo, com.pers.), mayormente hierbas y arbustos. En este trabajo se reconoce 103 especies endémicas en siete géneros. Los [...] géneros con mayor número de especies endemicas son Gentianella y Macrocarpaea. Las especies endémicas ocupan principalmente las regiones de la Puna Húmeda y Seca, Páramo y Bosque Muy Húmedo Montano, entre los 1000 y 5100 m de altitud. Se aplicaron las categorías y criterios de la UICN a 99 especies. Treinta y tres especies endémicas se encuentran representadas dentro de un área protegida. Abstract in english The Gentianaceae are represented in Peru by 15 genera and nearly 170 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004; S. Castillo, pers. comm.), mainly herbs and shrubs. Here we recognize 103 endemic species in seven genera. Gentianella and Macrocarpaea are the genera with the largest numb [...] er of endemic species. Endemic Gentianaceae are found in the Humid and Dry Puna, Paramo and Very Humid Montane Forests regions, between 1000 and 5100 m elevation. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to 99 species. Thirty-three endemic species have been found to date in Peruvian protected areas.

Susy, Castillo; Norma, Salinas; Blanca, León; Isidoro, Sánchez.

302

[Onchocerciasis infection following temporary stay in endemic areas].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the clinical picture of an European female patient, who suffered from Onchocercosis after a 4 year stay in endemic areas in Africa. The diagnosis was based on repeated skin-snips. Despite two courses of systemic chemotherapy, initial corneal changes could be observed as peripheral superficial stroma infiltrations. PMID:2023372

Steinhorst, U; Mehlhorn, H

1991-01-01

303

Crassulaceae endémicas del Perú / Crassulaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Crassulaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar cinco géneros y 29 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), mayormente arbustos y hierbas. En este trabajo reconocemos 13 especies y dos variedades como endemismos peruanos en tres géneros. Echeveria es el género con el mayor número de especie [...] s endémicas. Los taxones endémicos ocupan principalmente las regiones Mesoandina y Puna Húmeda y Seca, entre los 1700 y 4500 m de altitud. Se aplicaron las categorías y criterios de la UICN a nueve taxones. Dos Crassulaceae endémicas están representados dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Crassulaceae are represented in Peru by five genera and 29 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), mostly shrubs and herbs. Here we recognize as endemics 13 species and two varieties in three genera. Echeveria is the genus with the largest number of endemic species. Endemic taxa grow in Mesoandean, an [...] d Humid and Dry Puna regions, between 1700 and 4500 m elevation. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to nine taxa. Two endemic Crassulaceae have been found in Peru´s protected areas system.

Blanca, León.

304

List of rare, endemic and threatened plants in Romania (II)  

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This note presents another 35 endemic species accepted by the Romanian specialists (8) consecutive to the IUCN list published earlier (13) as well as 137 rare species, the majority of them threatened. The ecologic, sozologic and phytocenotic indices are presented by IUCN Red Data Book Categories.

Dragos, L.; Pazmany, Denes; Moldovan, I.

1989-01-01

305

Ecological predictors of extinction risks of endemic mammals of China.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this brief report, we analyzed ecological correlates of risk of extinction for mammals endemic to China using phylogenetic eigenvector methods to control for the effect of phylogenetic inertia. Extinction risks were based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List and ecological explanatory attributes that include range size and climatic variables. When the effect of phylogenetic inertia were controlled, climate became the best predictor for quantifying and evaluating extinction risks of endemic mammals in China, accounting for 13% of the total variation. Range size seems to play a trivial role, explaining ~1% of total variation; however, when non-phylogenetic variation partitioning analysis was done, the role of range size then explained 7.4% of total variation. Consequently, phylogenetic inertia plays a substantial role in increasing the explanatory power of range size on the extinction risks of mammals endemic to China. Limitations of the present study are discussed, with a focus on under-represented sampling of endemic mammalian species. PMID:25017756

Chen, You-Hua

2014-07-18

306

Acanthaceae endémicas del Perú / Acanthaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Acanthaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar 41 géneros y alrededor de 275 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), básicamente arbustos y hierbas. En este trabajo reconocemos 42 taxones endémicos en 15 géneros. Tres de estos géneros, Cephalacanthus, Orophochilus [...] y Trichosanchezia, son endémicos al Perú. La mayoría de los taxones endémicos ocupan las regiones Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos y Bosques Húmedos Amazónicos, entre los 100 y 2870 m de altitud. Siete de los endemismos están representados por lo menos en una área natural protegida. Abstract in english The Acanthaceae are represented in Peru by 41 genera and approximately 275 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), basically shrubs and herbs. Here we recognize 42 endemic taxa in 15 genera. Three genera, Cephalacanthus, Orophochilus and Trichosanchezia, are endemic to Peru. Most [...] endemic Acanthaceae are found in the Very Humid Montane and Humid Lowland Amazonian Forests regions, between 100 and 2870 m elevation. Seven endemic species are represented within Peru's protected areas system.

Blanca, León.

307

Wild boar and red deer display high prevalences of tuberculosis-like lesions in Spain  

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We describe the distribution of tuberculosis-like lesions (TBL) in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Spain. Animals with TBL were confirmed in 84.21% of mixed populations (n = 57) of red deer and wild boar and in 75% of populations of wild boar alone (n = 8) in central and southern Spain (core area). The prevalence of TBL declined towards the periphery of this region. In the core area, the prevalence ranged up to 100% in local populations of wild boar (mean estate preval...

Vicente Ban?os, Joaqui?n; Ho?fle, Ursula; Garrido, Joseba M.; Garci?a Ferna?ndez Mera, Isabel; Juste, Ramo?n A.; Barral, Marta; Gorta?zar, Christian

2006-01-01

308

Infectious Prions in the Saliva and Blood of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

A critical concern in the transmission of prion diseases, including chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids, is the potential presence of prions in body fluids. To address this issue directly, we exposed cohorts of CWD-naďve deer to saliva, blood, or urine and feces from CWD-positive deer. We found infectious prions capable of transmitting CWD in saliva (by the oral route) and in blood (by transfusion). The results help to explain the facile transmission of CWD among cervids and prompt caution concerning contact with body fluids in prion infections.

Mathiason, Candace K.; Powers, Jenny G.; Dahmes, Sallie J.; Osborn, David A.; Miller, Karl V.; Warren, Robert J.; Mason, Gary L.; Hays, Sheila A.; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Seelig, Davis M.; Wild, Margaret A.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Spraker, Terry R.; Miller, Michael W.; Sigurdson, Christina J.; Telling, Glenn C.; Hoover, Edward A.

2006-10-01

309

First report of a Brucella suis infection in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present case report the detection of Brucella (B.) suis biovar 2 in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is described for the first time. The roe deer fawn was found emaciated and moribund in a hunting ground in the district Hohenlohe in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, in February 2013. A post-mortem examination revealed particularly a high-grade fibrinous pleurisy caused by the pathogen which could be multiplied in a dense growth on sheep blood agar and confirmed and differentiated subsequently by PCR. PMID:24693656

Sting, Reinhard; Schwabe, Ingo; Oehme, Rainer; Elschner, Mandy Carolina; Melzer, Falk

2014-01-01

310

Assessing the susceptibility of transgenic mice overexpressing deer prion protein to bovine spongiform encephalopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several transgenic mouse models have been developed which facilitate the transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids and allow prion strain discrimination. The present study was designed to assess the susceptibility of the prototypic mouse line, Tg(CerPrP)1536(+/-), to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions, which have the ability to overcome species barriers. Tg(CerPrP)1536(+/-) mice challenged with red deer-adapted BSE resulted in 90% to 100% attack rates, and BSE from cattle failed to transmit, indicating agent adaptation in the deer. PMID:24257620

Vickery, Christopher M; Lockey, Richard; Holder, Thomas M; Thorne, Leigh; Beck, Katy E; Wilson, Christina; Denyer, Margaret; Sheehan, John; Marsh, Sarah; Webb, Paul R; Dexter, Ian; Norman, Angela; Popescu, Emma; Schneider, Amanda; Holden, Paul; Griffiths, Peter C; Plater, Jane M; Dagleish, Mark P; Martin, Stuart; Telling, Glenn C; Simmons, Marion M; Spiropoulos, John

2014-02-01

311

Breeding of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L.) in Fenced Controlled Condition of Šeprešhat  

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The controlled breeding of wild game has been carried out for many years as part of hunting management programs for commercially important game species. The controlled breeding of red deer in the Šeprešhat polygon is the result of long-term game management in open hunting grounds, scientific research, monitoring the state of game in hunting grounds, and supply and demand.One of the reasons for controlled breeding of red deer in Croatia is certainly the reduction in population abundance of t...

Marijan Grubeši?; Branko Uroševi?; Zlatan Mihaljevi?; Kristijan Tomljanovi?

2011-01-01

312

QTL for pubertal and seasonality traits in male Pčre David's x red deer interspecies hybrids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The unique Pere David's (Elaphurus davidianus) x red deer (Cervus elaphus) backcross hybrid has been used to search for evidence of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for antler pubertal (date and live weight at pedicle initiation) and antler seasonality (date of antler cleaning and casting) traits in temperate species of deer. Analyses using marker information revealed evidence for a QTL for date at pedicle initiation (LOD = 3.7) and live weight at pedicle initiation (LOD = 3.1). These QTL explained 13% and 11% of the phenotypic variance in these traits, respectively. PMID:10994707

Goosen, G J; Dodds, K G; Tate, M L; Fennessy, P F

2000-01-01

313

Jurbarkas forest stewardship Panemunes forestry district Stakiai sector of a forest animals deer population survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Magistro darbe tiriama kokia elnini? žv?ri? populiacijos situacija yra Jurbarko mišk? ur?dijos, Panemun?s girninkijos, Staki? eiguvos miškuose. Darbo objektas - Darbe tyrin?jama V? Jurbarko mišk? ur?dijos Panemun?s girininkijos Staki? eiguvos elnini? žv?ri?: ( tauri?j? elni? (lot. Cervus elaphus, angl. Red deer, vok. Rothirsch), stirn? (lot. Capreolus capreolus, angl. Roe Deer, vok. Reh) ir briedži? (lot. Alces alces, angl. Moose, vok. Hirsch )) populiacijos, be...

Z?ebrauskas, Aleksas

2010-01-01

314

Radiocaesium levels in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report is given on the course of radiocaesium contamination in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria. In autumn 1987 and winter 1987/88 radiocaesium levels rose to values higher than those recorded in 1986 in these regions. The reason for this increase was the very specific feeding selection of roe deer in these forest areas resulting in the ingestion of an unusual high amount of blueberries, ferns and mushrooms. An explanation for the changes of wild boar's contamination has not been found yet, but possible reasons are discussed. (author)

315

Site fidelity of male roe deer in a Mediterranean fragmented area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract We present data on site fidelity based on 7 adult male roe deer Capreolus capreolus (L.), which were studied for two years (March 1999-February 2001) by radiotelemetry. The median site fidelity of roe deer between year 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 was 63%. Throughout the year 2000, the analysis of distance between core areas (50% kernel) centres revealed 2 tactics of habitat use by adult males: "annually site-faithful" males, who occupied...

Claudia Melis; Francesca Cagnacci; Sandro Lovari

2004-01-01

316

Genetic analysis reveals Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus population structure in North-Eastern Italian Alps  

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Full Text Available This preliminary study described the genetic variability and analysed the population structure of 119 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus sampled over the provinces of Belluno and Trento, in the north-eastern Italian Alps, using 11 microsatellite markers. The panel of microsatellites was highly informative, and the whole population was subdivided into 2 distinct sub populations. The observed ecological population sub-units did not coincide with the administrative subdivision (the provinces borders that are now in use for management. The results of this work confirm that molecular genetic approaches may provide useful indication for roe deer management in that area.

Maurizio Ramanzin

2010-01-01

317

Mushroom spores and 137Cs in faeces of the roe deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Levels of 137Cs in meat, faeces and feed of Danish roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) were studied. Faecal samples were studied in the microscope for the occurrence of fungal spores. The 137Cs levels in collections of meat and faeces indicated that the food selection of the roe deer changes in the autumn towards a more caesium rich menu. The 137Cs levels in some of the faecal samples were so high that they could only be explained by the ingestion of a very caesium rich feed, like mushrooms. (Author)

318

Recovery of human DNA profiles from poached deer remains: a feasibility study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poaching is a crime that occurs worldwide and can be extremely difficult to investigate and prosecute due to the nature of the evidence available. If a species is protected by international legislation such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora then simply possessing any part of that species is illegal. Previous studies have focused on the identification of endangered species in cases of potential poaching. Difficulties arise if the poached animal is not endangered. Species such as deer have hunting seasons whereby they can legally be hunted however poaching is the illegal take of deer, irrespective of season. Therefore, identification of deer alone has little probative value as samples could have originated from legal hunting activities in season. After a deer is hunted it is usual to remove the innards, head and lower limbs. The limbs are removed through manual force and represent a potential source of human touch DNA. We investigate the potential to recover and profile human autosomal DNA from poached deer remains. Samples from the legs of ten culled deer were obtained (40 in total) using minitapes. DNA from samples was extracted, quantified and amplified to determine if it would be possible to recover human STR profiles. Low quantification data led to the use of an extended PCR cycling protocol of 34 cycles. Samples from seven deer amplified, however some samples were excluded from further analysis due to 'drop in' alleles or the low level of successfully amplified loci. Samples from five deer could be further analysed and gave match probabilities ranging from 6.37×10(-3) to 9.53×10(-11). This study demonstrates the potential of recovering human touch DNA from poached animal remains. There is the potential for this test to be used in relation to other species of poached remains or other types of wildlife crimes. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that human STR profiling has been successfully applied to touch DNA in regards to simulated wildlife crime. PMID:22137052

Tobe, Shanan S; Govan, James; Welch, Lindsey A

2011-12-01

319

Fabaceae endémicas del Perú / Fabaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Fabaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar alrededor de 145 géneros y 1000 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mayormente árboles y arbustos. En este trabajo reconocemos 234 especies y 40 variedades como endémicas en 47 géneros. Un género, Weberbauerella, es [...] endémico del Perú. Sin lugar a dudas, el género con mayor número de especies endémicas es Lupinus, siendo al mismo tiempo el que mayor necesidad tiene de estudios taxonómicos detallados y mayor recolección. Las Fabaceae endémicas ocupan la mayoría de regiones, principalmente la Mesoandina, Puna Húmeda y Seca y Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, entre los 1100 y 4800 m de altitud. Se aplicaron las categorías y criterios de la UICN a 203 taxones. Diecisiete taxones endémicos se encuentran representados dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Fabaceae are represented in Peru by 145 genera and 1000 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mainly trees and shrubs. Here we recognize as Peruvian endemics 234 species and 40 varieties in 47 genera. One genus, Weberbauerella, is endemic to Peru. Undoubtedly, Lupinus is th [...] e genus with the largest number of endemic species in the family, and at the same time, the genus that most needs detailed taxonomic studies and more collection. Endemic Fabaceae are found in almost all regions, mainly Mesoandean, Humid and Dry Puna, and Very Humid Montane Forests, between 1100 and 4800 m elevation. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to 203 taxa. Seventeen endemic taxa have been recorded within Peru's protected areas system.

Severo, Baldeón; Mercedes, Flores; José, Roque.

320

Fabaceae endémicas del Perú / Fabaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Fabaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar alrededor de 145 géneros y 1000 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mayormente árboles y arbustos. En este trabajo reconocemos 234 especies y 40 variedades como endémicas en 47 géneros. Un género, Weberbauerella, es [...] endémico del Perú. Sin lugar a dudas, el género con mayor número de especies endémicas es Lupinus, siendo al mismo tiempo el que mayor necesidad tiene de estudios taxonómicos detallados y mayor recolección. Las Fabaceae endémicas ocupan la mayoría de regiones, principalmente la Mesoandina, Puna Húmeda y Seca y Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, entre los 1100 y 4800 m de altitud. Se aplicaron las categorías y criterios de la UICN a 203 taxones. Diecisiete taxones endémicos se encuentran representados dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Fabaceae are represented in Peru by 145 genera and 1000 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mainly trees and shrubs. Here we recognize as Peruvian endemics 234 species and 40 varieties in 47 genera. One genus, Weberbauerella, is endemic to Peru. Undoubtedly, Lupinus is th [...] e genus with the largest number of endemic species in the family, and at the same time, the genus that most needs detailed taxonomic studies and more collection. Endemic Fabaceae are found in almost all regions, mainly Mesoandean, Humid and Dry Puna, and Very Humid Montane Forests, between 1100 and 4800 m elevation. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to 203 taxa. Seventeen endemic taxa have been recorded within Peru's protected areas system.

Severo, Baldeón; Mercedes, Flores; José, Roque.

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

Sperm Flagellum Volume Determines Freezability in Red Deer Spermatozoa  

Science.gov (United States)

The factors affecting the inter-individual differences in sperm freezability is a major line of research in spermatology. Poor sperm freezability is mainly characterised by a low sperm velocity, which in turn is associated with low fertility rates in most animal species. Studies concerning the implications of sperm morphometry on freezability are quite limited, and most of them are based on sperm head size regardless of the structural parts of the flagellum, which provides sperm motility. Here, for the first time, we determined the volumes of the flagellum structures in fresh epididymal red deer spermatozoa using a stereological method under phase contrast microscopy. Sperm samples from thirty-three stags were frozen and classified as good freezers (GF) or bad freezers (BF) at two hours post-thawing using three sperm kinetic parameters which are strongly correlated with fertility in this species. Fourteen stags were clearly identified as GF, whereas nineteen were BF. No significant difference in sperm head size between the two groups was found. On the contrary, the GF exhibited a lower principal piece volume than the BF (6.13 µm3 vs 6.61 µm3, respectively, p?=?0.006). The volume of the flagellum structures showed a strong negative relationship with post-thawing sperm velocity. For instance, the volume of the sperm principal piece was negatively correlated with sperm velocity at two hours post-thawing (r?=??0.60; p<0.001). Our results clearly show that a higher volume of the sperm principal piece results in poor freezability, and highlights the key role of flagellum size in sperm cryopreservation success. PMID:25380133

Ros-Santaella, José Luis; Domínguez-Rebolledo, Álvaro Efrén; Garde, José Julián

2014-01-01

322

Morphological observation of antler regeneration in red deer (Cervus elaphus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Deer antler offers a unique opportunity to explore how nature solves the problem of mammalian appendage regeneration. Annual antler renewal is an example of epimorphic regeneration, which is known to take place through initial blastema formation. Detailed examination of the early process of antler regeneration, however, has thus far been lacking. Therefore, we conducted morphological observations on antler regeneration from naturally cast and artificially created pedicle/antler stumps. On the naturally cast pedicle stumps, early antler regeneration underwent four distinguishable stages (with the Chinese equivalent names): casting of previous hard antlers (oil lamp bowl), early wound healing (tiger eye), late wound healing and early regeneration (millstone), and formation of main beam and brown tine (small saddle). Overall, no cone-shaped regenerate, a common feature to blastema-based regeneration, was observed. Taken together with the examination on the sagittal plane of each regenerating stage sample, we found that there are considerable overlaps between late-stage wound healing and the establishment of posterior and anterior growth centers. Observation of antler regeneration from the artificially created stumps showed that the regeneration potential of antler remnants was significantly reduced compared with that of pedicle tissue. Interestingly, the distal portion of a pedicle stump had greater regeneration potential than the proximal region, although this differential potential may not be constitutive, but rather caused by whether or not pedicle antlerogenic tissue becomes closely associated with the enveloping skin at the cut plane. Antler formation could take place from the distal peripheral tissues of an antler/pedicle stump, without the obvious participation of the entire central bony portion. Overall, our morphological results do not support the notion that antler regeneration takes place through the initial formation of a blastema; rather, it may be a stem cell-based process. PMID:15487018

Li, Chunyi; Suttie, James M; Clark, Dawn E

2004-12-01

323

Two new endemic species of Lygaeinae from Baja California, Mexico (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) .  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new species of Lygaeinae endemic to the Peninsula of Baja California, Mexico, are described. Dalmochrimnus insularis sp. nov. endemic to San Ildefonso Island in the Gulf of California and Melacoryphus lagunensis sp. nov. endemic to the Reserve area of Sierra La Laguna in the South of the Peninsula. A discussion about their relationships within their genera and their endemic status is also provided. PMID:25283432

Peredo, Luis Cervantes; Brailovsky, Harry

2014-01-01

324

Factors Associated with Shooting Accuracy and Wounding Rate of Four Managed Wild Deer Species in the UK, Based on Anonymous Field Records from Deer Stalkers  

Science.gov (United States)

The amount of wounding during routine culling is an important factor in the welfare of wild deer. Little information exists on factors determining shooting accuracy and wounding rates under field conditions in the UK. In this study, 102 anonymous stalkers collected data on the outcomes and circumstances of 2281 shots. Using hot-deck imputation and generalised linear mixed modelling, we related the probability that a shot hit its target, and the probability that the shot killed the deer if it was hit, to 28 variables describing the circumstances of the shot. Overall, 96% of deer were hit, of which 93% were killed outright. A reduced probability of hitting the target was associated with an uncomfortable firing position, too little time available, shooting off elbows or freehand, taking the head or upper neck as point of aim, a heavily obscured target, a distant target, shooting at females, lack of shooting practice and a basic (or no) stalker qualification. An increase in the likelihood of wounding was associated with an uncomfortable firing position, shooting with insufficient time, a distant target (only when time was not sufficient), a bullet weight below 75 grains, a target concealed in thicket or on the move and an area rarely stalked. To maximise stalking success and deer welfare, we recommend that stalkers ensure a comfortable firing position, use a gun rest, aim at the chest, use bullets heavier than 75 grains, avoid taking a rushed shot, shoot a distant animal only if there is plenty of time, fire only when the target is stationary, avoid shooting at an obscured animal, take care when the ground is unfamiliar, and do shooting practice at least once a month. The high miss rate of basic-level stalkers suggests that training should include additional firing practice under realistic shooting conditions. PMID:25334012

Aebischer, Nicholas J.; Wheatley, Christopher J.; Rose, Hugh R.

2014-01-01

325

[Study on distribution of endemic arsenism in China].  

Science.gov (United States)

Drinking water and burning coal endemic arsenism as a severe disease is confirmed by National Ministry of Health in China in 1992. It is not uniform survey of the disease for the whole country from its report in 1980 in xijiang. Therefore National Ministry of Scientific and Technology in China supports to study on distribution of endemic arsenism in 21 provinces in China, so that it can know the basic distribution of endemic arsenism in China, and the data results will be a guide for the disease prevention and control. The project used environmental epidemiology study including retrospective epidemiology, present situation survey of the disease in severe areas and sampling investigation in unknown areas, collecting data of exposure population and arsenism cases. At the same time, the data of arsenic level in environment were collected, and environment samples were analyzed by standard chemical method. The both data were statistical analysis by access database and SAS procedure in computer. Through the study, it achieves the expected aim that grasps spreading distribution of drinking water arsenism and burning coal arsenism, including arsenic level in water, coal, food and air, as well as patient's condition of the disease at macroscopic. Drinking water endemic arsenism distributed in 8 provinces, 40 counties, affecting 2,343,238 peoples, among 522566 peoples expositing to the drinking water arsenic higher than 0.05 mg/L, and 7821 arsenism patients were diagnosed. Burning coal endemic arsenism spreads in 2 provinces, 8 counties, affecting 333905 peoples, 48438 peoples exposing to high arsenic of burning coal pollution, and 2402 peoples causing chronic arsenic poising by coal burning. Drinking water endemic arsenism: Nemeng, Shanxi is a severe drinking water endemic region also. Wusu city in Xinjiang is old arsenism area, which reformed drinking water to decrease arsenic, so chronic arsenic poisoning condition decreasing. Reforming drinking water measures to decreees arsenic were performed in some areas of Neimeng and Shanxi. On other hand, 1 county of Jilin and 1 county of Ningxia as drinking water arsenism areas were affirmed. 11 counties of Shanyi, 1 Banner of Nemeng, 1 city of Jilin, 1 county of Qinhai and 1 counties of Anhui province were discovered for new drinking water arsenism areas in this survey. Shunyi district of Beijing has high arsenic in drinking water. Otherwise, high arsenic content in drinking water in some areas decreased to lower than 0.05 mg/L, which including some villages of Liaoning province, Tongxing city of Zhejiang province, and Tianzhu village of Shunyi district in Beijing. Blackfoot disease related to high arsenic in drinking water in Taiwan province does not include in this study. Burning coal endemic arsenism: Guizhou province has a typical burning coal arsenism areas in China and world. Although to reform stove and decreasing arsenic pollution, but the chronic arsenic poisoning from domestic coal combustion exists, because it located high seal level and poor areas. Some new burning coal arsenism areas in Shanxi province were found, which produced air pollution and food pollution of arsenic from domestic coal combustion for cooking and heating. The paper summarizes the arsenic distribution levels in drinking water and in environment of burning coal. At the same time, preventive and control measures of endemic arsenism were provided. PMID:14963897

Jin, Yinlong; Liang, Chaoke; He, Gongli; Cao, Jingxiang

2003-11-01

326

Oral and fecal shedding of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, serotype 1 from experimentally infected white-tailed deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD), one of the most important infectious diseases of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), is vectored by species of midges in the genus Culicoides. Although vector borne, fecal shedding of EHD virus, serotype 2 has been reported from infected deer in a previous study. To evaluate the potential for fecal and oral shedding, oral and rectal swabs were obtained on day 8 post-inoculation from white-tailed deer fawns experimentally infected with EHD virus, serotype 1 (EHDV-1). Eight deer were viremic for EHDV-1; virus was detected in oral swabs from three (38%) and in rectal swabs from four (50%). The ability to isolate EHDV-1 in oral secretions or feces was not dependent on being able to detect clinical disease. These results indicate that in a relatively large proportion of EHDV-1 infected deer, virus can be detected in feces and oral secretions. Although more work is necessary, such shedding may be important in experimental studies or pen situations where deer-to-deer contact is prevalent and intense. PMID:11838208

Gaydos, Joseph K; Allison, Andrew B; Hanson, Britta A; Yellin, Anna S

2002-01-01

327

Three finger palpation technique of vas deferens for keyhole vasectomy in spotted (Axis axis and sambar deer (Cervus unicolor  

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Full Text Available Aim: Vasectomy is performed in deer for population control, maintain pedigreed animals and prevent inbreeding. Conventional procedure of vasectomy required a long-term anesthesia and longer duration of hospitalization, which often result in stress, morbidity and mortality. A study was conducted to capture, neuter and release the deer with minimal hospitalization and stress by adopting three finger palpation technique of vas deferens and performing vasectomy through a key-hole incision. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on three spotted male deer and three sambar male deer, which were immobilized with a mixture of xylazine at the dose of 1.00 mg/kg and ketamine at the dose of 5.00 mg/kg. The vas deferens could be palpated as a piece of cooked spaghetti at the neck of the scrotum on the anterior aspect by three finger palpation technique and was able to fix the vas deferens between the thumb and middle finger. Through a key-hole incision of <5 mm length, the vas deferens was exteriorized and resected using electrocautery and the skin incision was sealed with methyl methacrylate. The deer were released on the same day, and no post-operative complication was noticed. Conclusion: The study revealed that three finger palpation technique of vas deferens provided guidance for easy access to vas deferens for vasectomy in deer with less hospitalization, and the deer could be released on the same day.

B. J. William

2014-09-01

328

Molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens of the family Anaplasmataceae in Brazilian brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira, Fischer, 1814) and marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus, Illiger, 1815).  

Science.gov (United States)

Deer are important natural reservoir hosts of Anaplasmataceae. The present study used nested PCR and nucleotide sequencing to evaluate the occurrence of Anaplasmataceae species in 23 free-living and six captive specimens of the cervids Mazama gouazoubira and Blastocerus dichotomus in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Blood samples were tested for the presence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp. using nPCR assays and sequencing of the msp4, msp1 and 16S rRNA genes. The identity of each sequence was confirmed by comparison with sequences available from GenBank using BLAST software. Of the animals investigated, 93.1% (27/29) were infected with haemoparasites including Anaplasma marginale (79.3%), Ehrlichia chaffeensis (3.4%), Anaplasma bovis (3.4%) and Anaplasma spp. (assigned to A. platys and A. phagocytophilum) (17.2%). Co-infection occurred in 20% (6/29) of the deer examined. Four (13.8%) were infected with A. marginale and Anaplasma sp., one (3.4%) was infected with A. marginale and E. chaffeensis, and one (3.4%) was infected with A. marginale and A. bovis. The results of the present study suggest that cross-protection does not occur in these deer. Immunological cross-reaction occurs when sera are tested diagnostically because these bacteria are closely related taxonomically, reinforcing the importance of molecular diagnosis followed by nucleotide sequencing. PMID:22136597

Silveira, J A G; Rabelo, E M L; Ribeiro, M F B

2012-08-01

329

Seroepidemiology of Coxiella burnetii in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York, United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coxiella burnetii is an environmentally resistant bacterium that has been reported in wildlife populations. Frequent contact on pasture between white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cattle has been reported by farmers in the Northeast U.S., and transmission of C. burnetii is thought to occur between wild deer and domestic livestock such as cows, sheep, and goats. Blood samples were collected from white-tailed deer throughout New York State in 2009 and 2010 and examined for anti-C. burnetii phase II antibodies via indirect microimmunofluorescence assays. Exploratory spatial cluster analysis revealed a lack of significant clustering of C. burnetii-seropositive deer. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between the C. burnetii serostatus of deer and sex, percent agriculture, shrub, and forest cover, and townships with more than 10 bovine herds. A lack of significant association was revealed between the serostatus of deer and the year of sampling, soil type, percent wetland and open water cover, total annual precipitation, and townships with more than two sheep or goat herds. Because four different land cover types were associated with a higher probability of C. burnetii seropositivity, it is likely that land cover is not a discriminating factor in C. burnetii exposure. This is probably because C. burnetii environmental contamination is widespread and not localized to certain cover types. The social behavior of male deer may contribute to the lack of spatial clustering. Bucks typically travel over greater distances, which leads to a greater variety of encountered environments and a greater chance for exposure to C. burnetii. Because increasing agricultural land cover and townships with greater than 10 bovine herds are associated with an increased probability of diagnosing a seropositive deer, it appears likely that transmission of C. burnetii between domestic livestock and white-tailed deer may occur. PMID:22989183

Kirchgessner, Megan S; Dubovi, Edward J; Whipps, Christopher M

2012-11-01

330

Testing global positioning system telemetry to study wolf predation on deer fawns  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted a pilot study to test the usefulness of Global Positioning System (GPS) collars for investigating wolf (Canis lupus) predation on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns. Using GPS collars with short location-attempt intervals on 5 wolves and 5 deer during summers 2002-2004 in northeastern Minnesota, USA, demonstrated how this approach could provide new insights into wolf hunting behavior of fawns. For example, a wolf traveled ???1.5-3.0 km and spent 20-22 hours in the immediate vicinity of known fawn kill sites and ???0.7 km and 8.3 hours at scavenging sites. Wolf travel paths indicated that wolves intentionally traveled into deer summer ranges, traveled ???0.7-4.2 km in such ranges, and spent <1-22 hours per visit. Each pair of 3 GPS-collared wolf pack members were located together for ???6% of potential locations. From GPS collar data, we estimated that each deer summer range in a pack territory containing 5 wolves ???1 year old and hunting individually would be visited by a wolf on average every 3-5 days. This approach holds great potential for investigating summer hunting behavior of wolves in areas where direct observation is impractical or impossible.

Demma, D.J.; Barber-Meyer, S. M.; Mech, L.D.

2007-01-01

331

Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus) in the Helan Mountains, China  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes i [...] n forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833). The use of vegetation types varied seasonally according to food availability and ambient temperature. Red deer used montane coniferous forest and alpine shrub and meadow zones distributed above 2,000 m and 3,000 m in summer, alpine shrub and meadows above 3,000 m in autumn, being restricted to lower elevation habitats in spring and winter. The winter habitat of C. elaphus alxaicus was dominated by Ulmus glaucescens Franch. and Juglans regia Linnaeus, deciduous trees, and differed from the habitats selected by other subspecies of red deer. Cervus elaphus alxaicus preferred habitats with abundant vegetation coverage to open habitats in winter, but the reverse pattern was observed in summer and autumn. Red deer preferred gentle slopes (

Mingming, Zhang; Zhensheng, Liu; Liwei, Teng.

332

Cercopithifilaria rugosicauda (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) in a roe deer and ticks from southern Italy?  

Science.gov (United States)

Cercopithifilaria rugosicauda (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) is a subcutaneous filarial nematode of the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) transmitted by Ixodes ricinus (Acari, Ixodidae). At the necropsy of a roe deer from the Parco Regionale di Gallipoli Cognato (Basilicata region, southern Italy), two female nematodes of C. rugosicauda were found. Following the necropsy, seven skin snips were sampled from different body regions and 96 I. ricinus ticks were collected. In addition, 240 ticks were collected by dragging in the enclosure where the roe deer lived. Samples were examined for the presence of C. rugosicauda larvae and assayed by PCR targeting cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1, ?300 bp) and 12S rDNA (?330 bp) gene fragments. Female nematodes, microfilariae from skin samples and eight third stage larvae (L3) from ticks were morphologically and molecularly identified as C. rugosicauda. Phylogenetic analyses clustered this species with other sequences of Cercopithifilaria spp. This study represents the first report of C. rugosicauda in a roe deer and ticks from Italy and provides new morphological and molecular data on this little known nematode. PMID:24533349

Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Giannelli, Alessio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mallia, Egidio; Passantino, Giuseppe; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Otranto, Domenico

2013-01-01

333

Isolation of Mycobacterium caprae (Lechtal genotype) from red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

During tuberculosis (TB) surveillance, 53 hunted red deer (Cervus elaphus) were collected to determine whether TB was present in free-ranging animals from an Italian alpine area. Samples (lungs, liver, intestine, and lymph nodes) were cultured and analyzed by real-time PCR assay carried out directly on tissue. Mycobacterium caprae was isolated from small granulomatous, tuberculosis-like lesions in the liver of a 12-yr-old female. Identification of suspect colonies was done by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the gyrb gene, and genotyping was performed by spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit variable number tandem repeat analysis. The isolated strain was genetically identical to strains isolated in the study area in 2001 from dairy cows imported from Austria and in 2010 from an indigenous cow. The genotype, called "Lechtal," is the most frequently detected in the TB outbreaks in Austria and Germany. The possibility that red deer act as a maintenance host of M. caprae between TB outbreaks could be not excluded. Despite the high red deer population density, the detection of only one infected red deer could suggest that the wildlife management measures applied in the study area (prohibition of artificial feeding and secure removal of offal from hunted animals) may reduce the risk of TB spreading. PMID:24499334

Chiari, Mario; Zanoni, M; Alborali, L G; Zanardi, G; Avisani, D; Tagliabue, S; Gaffuri, A; Pacciarini, M L; Boniotti, M B

2014-04-01

334

A habitat selection model for Javan deer (Rusa timorensis in Wanagama I Forest, Yogyakarta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purnomo DW. 2010. A Habitat selection model for Javan deer (Rusa timorensis in Wanagama I Forest, Yogyakarta. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 84-89. Wanagama I Forest is the natural breeding habitat of Javan deer (Rusa timorensis de Blainville, 1822. Habitat changes had affected Timor’s resource selection and caused the deer to move from undisturbed areas to developed areas with agriculture and human settlements. We suspected that this shift was caused by the degradation of natural habitat. The research aimed to identify factors that might influence future habitat selection. Habitat selection was analyzed by comparing proportions of sites actually used to sites that we considered available to use. The results of a logistic regression of site categories showed there are three habitat variables that influence resource selection: sum of tree species (expß=1.305, slope (expß=1.061, and distance to a water source (expß=1.002. The three variables influence the deer existing in a certain site of Wanagama Forest and arrange resource selection probability function (RSPF.

DANANG WAHYU PURNOMO

2010-07-01

335

Formant frequencies as indicators of body size in red deer roars  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies of animal vocal communication have emphasized the potential for vocal tract resonances to encode information on the size of callers and the need for receivers to attend to this information, in particular in the context of intra-sexual competition and inter-sexual mate choice. Our recent work on red deer roaring, a classical example of a sexual communication signal, is reviewed here. A combination of anatomical analyses of the vocal apparatus, acoustical analyses, and playback experiments using re-synthesized calls has enabled us to show that: (i) red deer and fallow deer males have a descended and mobile larynx, an anatomical innovation that was previously believed to be uniquely human and that enables callers to modulate their formants during vocalizing; (ii) minimum formant frequencies provide an honest indication of body size in red deer roars and (iii) stags use rivals' minimum formant frequencies in assessment during male-male contests, and adjust the formants of their own replies in relation to what they hear.

Reby, David; McComb, Karen; Darwin, Chris; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

2005-04-01

336

Effectiveness of rodenticides for managing invasive roof rats and native deer mice in orchards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Roof rats (Rattus rattus) and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are occasional pests of nut and tree fruit orchards throughout California and in many other parts of the USA and beyond. In general, the most practical and cost-effective control method for rodents in many agricultural environments is the use of rodenticides (toxic baits), but little or no information exists on the efficacy of current rodenticides in controlling roof rats and deer mice in orchards. Therefore, our goals were to develop an index of rodent activity to monitor efficacy of rodenticides and to subsequently test the efficacy of three California Department of Food and Agriculture rodenticide baits (0.005 % chlorophacinone treated oats, 0.005 % diphacinone treated oats, and 0.005 % diphacinone wax block) to determine their utility for controlling roof rats and deer mice in agricultural orchards. We determined that a general index using the number of roof rat photos taken at a minimum of a 5-min interval was strongly correlated to the minimum number known estimate of roof rats; this approach was used to monitor roof rat and deer mouse populations pre- and post-treatment. Of the baits tested, the 0.005 % diphacinone treated oats was most effective for both species; 0.005 % chlorophacinone grain was completely ineffective against roof rats. Our use of elevated bait stations proved effective at providing bait to target species and should substantially limit access to rodenticides by many non-target species. PMID:24443051

Baldwin, Roger A; Quinn, Niamh; Davis, David H; Engeman, Richard M

2014-05-01

337

Chronic wasting disease in free-ranging Wisconsin white-tailed deer  

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Three White-tailed Deer shot within 5 km during the 2001 hunting season in Wisconsin tested positive for chronic wasting disease, a prion disease of cervids. Subsequent sampling within 18 km showed a 3% prevalence (n=476). This discovery represents an important range extension for chronic wasting disease into the eastern United States.

Joly, D.O.; Ribic, C.A.; Langenberg, J.A.; Beheler, K.; Batha, C.A.; Dhuey, B.J.; Rolley, R.E.; Bartelt, G.; VanDeelen, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

2003-01-01

338

The effect of environmental remediation on the cesium-137 levels in white-tailed deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to activities involving nuclear energy research during the latter half of the 1900s, environmental contamination in the form of elevated cesium-137 levels was observed within the Brookhaven National Laboratory, a US Department of Energy facility. Between the years 2000 and 2005, the laboratory carried out a major soil cleanup effort to remove cesium-137 from contaminated sites. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of the cleanup effort by comparing the levels of cesium-137 in the meat of white-tailed deer found within and around the laboratory. Results suggest that the cleanup was effective, with mean concentration of cesium-137 in the meat from within the laboratory decreasing from 2.04 Bq/g prior to 1.22 Bq/g after cleanup. At the current level, the consumption of deer would not pose any human health hazard. Nevertheless, statistically higher levels of cesium-137 were detected in the deer within the laboratory as opposed to levels found in deer 1 mi beyond the laboratory site. PMID:25028321

Rispoli, Fred J; Green, Timothy; Fasano, Thomas A; Shah, Vishal

2014-10-01

339

Proximity of White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, Ranges to Wolf, Canis lupus, Pack Homesites  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is among the recent postings at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) Website. Michael E. Nelson and L. David Mech authored the article, which focuses on White-tailed Deer in northeastern Minnesota living close to Wolf pack homesites. The article was first published in the Canadian Field-Naturalist [114(3):503-504].

Mech, L. D.; Nelson, Michael E.

340

Spatial epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in Wisconsin white-tailed deer  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal, emerging disease of cervids associated with transmissible protease-resistant prion proteins. The potential for CWD to cause dramatic declines in deer and elk populations and perceived human health risks associated with consuming CWD-contaminated venison have led wildlife agencies to embark on extensive CWD control programs, typically involving culling to reduce deer populations. We characterized the spatial distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Wisconsin to facilitate CWD management. We found that CWD prevalence declined with distance from a central location, was locally correlated at a scale of 3.6 km, and was correlated with deer habitat abundance. The latter result is consistent with patterns expected for a positive relationship between density and prevalence of CWD. We recommend management activities focused on culling in geographic areas with high prevalence to have the greatest probability of removing infected individuals. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors in envolved in CWD spread and infection rates, especially the role of density-dependent transmission. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2006.

Joly, D.O.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Blanchong, J.A.; Batha, C.A.; Rolley, R.E.; Keane, D.P.; Ribic, C.A.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Population Dynamics of Banteng, Buffalo and Deer in Bekol Savannah, Baluran National Park  

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Full Text Available Baluran National Park give contribution at regional development to draw tourist and fascination provided is savannah in area. Savannah circumstance, forest, landscape, climate, vegetation and wild animal is represent experienced attraction. Research method use population dynamics perception of banteng, buffalo and deer in savannah of Bekol year 2004 and year 2005 as primary data, while secondary data year population dynamics 2003, 2004, and year 2005 outside savannah of Bekol, year population dynamics 2003 in savannah of Bekol. Secondary data obtained from daily report of Controller ecosystem Forest Worker animal discovery Baluran National Park from Section Bekol. Research location of outside savannah Bekol were Balanan, Perengan, Bitakol, Karangtekok, Pandean, Pondok jaran, Bama, Curah uling, Gunung Montor, Lempuyang, Bilik, Batangan, Labuhan Merak, Kramat, Semiang, Sirokoh, Lemah bang, Gunung Krasak, and Glengseran. The populations of banteng and buffalo in the savannah is unstable compared to the populations of them outside Bekol savannah. The populations of banteng and buffalo in Bekol savannah decrease, whereas the populations of them outside the Bekol savannah increase. The population of deer in Bekol savannah in 2004 is better than population of 2003, 2005, and 2006, whereas the population of deer outside Bekol savannah in 2006 increase significantly. The populations of banteng, buffalo, and deer decrease from year to year, in which the reductions of banteng and buffalo populations are obviously significant.

SUHADI

2009-07-01

342

Time-dependence of the radiocaesium contamination of roe deer: measurement and modelling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In spruce forest and peat bog, the migration of 137Cs from soil to plants, fungi, roe deer and consumers has been surveyed. In spruce forest the 137Cs activity concentration in roe deer decreases slowly with time and has superimposed periodic maxima in autumn which are correlated with the mushroom season. The decrease with time can be described by an effective half-life of 3.5 yr caused by a fraction of the 137Cs in the soil becoming unavailable for green grazing plants with time. The additional transfer of 137Cs into roe deer meat during the mushroom season depends on precipitation in July, August and September which also determines the yield of fungi in autumn. Our model confirms the assumption that fungi also have access to a fraction of the 137Cs in the soil which is unavailable for green plants. On peat bog the 137Cs activity concentration in roe deer is higher than in spruce forest and its effective half-life is about 17 yr, due to reversible binding of 137Cs to organic matter in the peat bog

343

THE RESPONSES OF PRAIRIE DEER MICE TO A FIELD SO2 GRADIENT  

Science.gov (United States)

A capture-mark-release study of deer mice (Peromyscus) was conducted on two 10-acre grassland areas (Zonal Air Pollution Systems or ZAPS) at monthly intervals from April to September 1976. Both areas were subdivided into four in-line experimental plots, with three smaller plots a...

344

Seasonal variations in red deer (Cervus elaphus) hematology related to antler growth and biometrics measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to relate seasonal hematology changes with the rest of physiological variations suffered by red deer, such as antler and biometrics cycle, and to assess the relationship between hematology and the effort performed in antler development. Blood samples were taken from 21 male red deer every 4 weeks during 18 months. Samples were analyzed for the main hematological parameters. Simultaneously, biometrics measurements were taken, such as antler length, body weight, body condition score, testicular diameter (TD), and thoracic and neck girth. All the blood cell types (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets) showed seasonal variations, increasing as antler cleaning approached, as did hematocrit and hemoglobin. The final size of antlers was negatively related to leukocyte count, nonlymphoid leukocyte count, red cell distribution width, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean platelet volume, and TD, whereas it was positively related to body condition during antler growth. Huge seasonal variations in some hematological values have been found to be related to changes in antler and biometrics measurements. Since these variations are even greater than the caused by deer handling, they should be taken into account when evaluating hematology in deer populations. PMID:21351240

Gaspar-López, Enrique; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Estevez, Jose Antonio; Ceacero, Francisco; Gallego, Laureano; García, Andrés Jose

2011-04-01

345

Gene expression of axon growth promoting factors in the deer antler.  

Science.gov (United States)

The annual regeneration cycle of deer (Cervidae, Artiodactyla) antlers represents a unique model of epimorphic regeneration and rapid growth in adult mammals. Regenerating antlers are innervated by trigeminal sensory axons growing through the velvet, the modified form of skin that envelopes the antler, at elongation velocities that reach one centimetre per day in the common deer (Cervus elaphus). Several axon growth promoters like NT-3, NGF or IGF-1 have been described in the antler. To increase the knowledge on the axon growth environment, we have combined different gene-expression techniques to identify and characterize the expression of promoting molecules not previously described in the antler velvet. Cross-species microarray analyses of deer samples on human arrays allowed us to build up a list of 90 extracellular or membrane molecules involved in axon growth that were potentially being expressed in the antler. Fifteen of these genes were analysed using PCR and sequencing techniques to confirm their expression in the velvet and to compare it with the expression in other antler and skin samples. Expression of 8 axon growth promoters was confirmed in the velvet, 5 of them not previously described in the antler. In conclusion, our work shows that antler velvet provides growing axons with a variety of promoters of axon growth, sharing many of them with deer's normal and pedicle skin. PMID:21187928

Pita-Thomas, Wolfgang; Fernández-Martos, Carmen; Yunta, Mónica; Maza, Rodrigo M; Navarro-Ruiz, Rosa; Lopez-Rodríguez, Marcos Javier; Reigada, David; Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel; Nieto-Diaz, Manuel

2010-01-01

346

Identifying novel genes involved in both deer physiological and human pathological osteoporosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoporosis attacks 10% of the population worldwide. Humans or even the model animals of the disease cannot recover from porous bone. Regeneration in skeletal elements is the unique feature of our newly investigated osteoporosis model, the red deer (Cervus elaphus) stag. Cyclic physiological osteoporosis is a consequence of the annual antler cycle. This phenomenon raises the possibility to identify genes involved in the regulation of bone mineral density on the basis of comparative genomics between deer and human. We compare gene expression activity of osteoporotic and regenerating rib bone samples versus autumn dwell control in red deer by microarray hybridization. Identified genes were tested on human femoral bone tissue from non-osteoporotic controls and patients affected with age-related osteoporosis. Expression data were evaluated by Principal Components Analysis and Canonical Variates Analysis. Separation of patients into a normal and an affected group based on ten formerly known osteoporosis reference genes was significantly improved by expanding the data with newly identified genes. These genes include IGSF4, FABP3, FABP4, FKBP2, TIMP2, TMSB4X, TRIB, and members of the Wnt signaling. This study supports that extensive comparative genomic analyses, here deer and human, provide a novel approach to identify new targets for human diagnostics and therapy. PMID:19107525

Borsy, Adrienn; Podani, János; Stéger, Viktor; Balla, Bernadett; Horváth, Arnold; Kósa, János P; Gyurján, István; Molnár, Andrea; Szabolcsi, Zoltán; Szabó, László; Jakó, Eéna; Zomborszky, Zoltán; Nagy, János; Semsey, Szabolcs; Vellai, Tibor; Lakatos, Péter; Orosz, László

2009-03-01

347

No correlation between neonatal fitness and heterozygosity in a reintroduced population of Pčre David's deer  

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Full Text Available Considering the severe impacts of genetic bottlenecks and small numbers of founders in populations of reintroduced animals, it is necessary to study inbreeding and its effect on fitness in species of conservation concern. Pčre David’s deer is one of few large mammal species extinct in the wild but safely preserved in captivity. Its specific background gives us the opportunity to study the relationships between heterozygosity and neonatal fitness in relocated populations. We employed five microsatellite loci to explore heterozygosity-fitness correlations in a population of Pčre David’s deer at the Beijing Milu Ecological Research Center. We observed associations between microsatellite-based variables sMLH, IR, MD2 and HL, and two components of fitness expressed early in life (birth weight and the neonatal mortality of 123 Pčre David’s deer calves born over six consecutive years. We found that neonatal mortality was 19.1 ± 7.6%, not higher than the 19% or 18% reported in other ungulates. The heterozygosity of calves was not associated with neonatal mortality, nor birth weight. Our study implies that low genetic variability of microsatellite loci has no overt effect on birth weight and neonatal mortality in reintroduced populations of Pčre David’s deer [Current Zoology 59 (2: 249–256, 2013].

Yan ZENG, Chunwang LI, Linyuan ZHANG, Zhenyu ZHONG, Zhigang JIANG

2013-04-01

348

Radiocaesium transfer to man from moose and roe deer in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies of radiocaesium in the forest ecosystems in Sweden resulted in aggregated transfer factors quantified for the transfer of 137Cs from soil to moose and roe deer. These aggregated transfer factors were 0.02 m2 kg-1 for moose and 0.05 m2 kg-1 for roe deer. There seems to be no decrease in the 137Cs activity concentrations in moose harvested in our research area and therefore we suggest the use of the physical half-life of 137Cs (30 years) as the effective ecological half-life. The time-integrated transfer of 137Cs from the Chernobyl fall-out to man by moose in Sweden was calculated and found to be 115 GBq, corresponding to 1500 man Sv for moose. The time-integrated transfer by roe deer to man was estimated to be between 25-48 GBq, corresponding to 327-620 man Sv for roe deer. The annual transfer of 137Cs to man by moose has varied between 2.0-2.7 GBq, corresponding to 27-34 man Sv. Depending on the group studied, the mean annual transfer of 137Cs can be calculated to be from about 250 to 43'000 Bq. For example, the mean annual transfer of 137Cs by moose to hunters and their families in Gaevle commune, the most affected commune in Sweden, was estimated to be about 26'000 Bq, corresponding to 0.34 mSv

349

Babesia sp. EU1 from Roe Deer and Transmission within Ixodes ricinus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report in vitro culture of zoonotic Babesia sp. EU1 from blood samples of roe deer in France. This study provides evidence of transovarial and transstadial transmission of the parasite within Ixodes ricinus, which suggests that this tick could be a vector and reservoir of EU1.

Bonnet, Sarah; Jouglin, Maggy; L’hostis, Monique; Chauvin, Alain

2007-01-01

350

Mismatch between birth date and vegetation phenology slows the demography of roe deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marked impacts of climate change on biodiversity have frequently been demonstrated, including temperature-related shifts in phenology and life-history traits. One potential major impact of climate change is the modification of synchronization between the phenology of different trophic levels. High phenotypic plasticity in laying date has allowed many bird species to track the increasingly early springs resulting from recent environmental change, but although changes in the timing of reproduction have been well studied in birds, these questions have only recently been addressed in mammals. To track peak resource availability, large herbivores like roe deer, with a widespread distribution across Europe, should also modify their life-history schedule in response to changes in vegetation phenology over time. In this study, we analysed the influence of climate change on the timing of roe deer births and the consequences for population demography and individual fitness. Our study provides a rare quantification of the demographic costs associated with the failure of a species to modify its phenology in response to a changing world. Given these fitness costs, the lack of response of roe deer birth dates to match the increasingly earlier onset of spring is in stark contrast with the marked phenotypic responses to climate change reported in many other mammals. We suggest that the lack of phenotypic plasticity in birth timing in roe deer is linked to its inability to track environmental cues of variation in resource availability for the timing of parturition. PMID:24690936

Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Coulson, Tim; Hewison, A J Mark; Delorme, Daniel; Warnant, Claude; Bonenfant, Christophe

2014-04-01

351

Cercopithifilaria rugosicauda (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) in a roe deer and ticks from southern Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cercopithifilaria rugosicauda (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) is a subcutaneous filarial nematode of the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) transmitted by Ixodes ricinus (Acari, Ixodidae). At the necropsy of a roe deer from the Parco Regionale di Gallipoli Cognato (Basilicata region, southern Italy), two female nematodes of C. rugosicauda were found. Following the necropsy, seven skin snips were sampled from different body regions and 96 I. ricinus ticks were collected. In addition, 240 ticks were collected by dragging in the enclosure where the roe deer lived. Samples were examined for the presence of C. rugosicauda larvae and assayed by PCR targeting cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1, ?300 bp) and 12S rDNA (?330 bp) gene fragments. Female nematodes, microfilariae from skin samples and eight third stage larvae (L3) from ticks were morphologically and molecularly identified as C. rugosicauda. Phylogenetic analyses clustered this species with other sequences of Cercopithifilaria spp. This study represents the first report of C. rugosicauda in a roe deer and ticks from Italy and provides new morphological and molecular data on this little known nematode. PMID:24533349

Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Giannelli, Alessio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mallia, Egidio; Passantino, Giuseppe; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Otranto, Domenico

2013-12-01

352

Seasonality of {sup 137}Cs in roe deer from Austria and Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Empirical data on the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) roaming in 3 spruce forest areas and one peat bog area are presented and compared. They cover time series of nearly 20 years after a spike contamination in 1986 originating from Chernobyl. A model is presented which considers three soil compartments to describe the change of the availability of {sup 137}Cs with time. The time-dependency of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer is a combination of two components: (1) an exponential decay and (2) a peak in the second half of each year during the mushroom season. The exponential decay over the years can be described by a sum of two exponential functions. The additional transfer of {sup 137}Cs into roe deer during the mushroom season depends on precipitation. On the peat bog the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in roe deer is higher and more persistent than in spruce forest.

Fielitz, U. [Environmental Studies, Thomasberg 33, D-37115 Duderstadt (Germany)], E-mail: mail@environmental-studies.de; Klemt, E. [Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, University of Applied Sciences, Doggenried Str., D-88250 Weingarten (Germany)], E-mail: klemt@hs-weingarten.de; Strebl, F. [Div. Radiation Safety and Applications, Austrian Research Centers GmbH - ARC, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: friederike.strebl@arcs.ac.at; Tataruch, F. [Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Savoyenstr. 1, A-1160 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: frieda.tataruch@vu-wien.ac.at; Zibold, G. [Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, University of Applied Sciences, Doggenried Str., D-88250 Weingarten (Germany)], E-mail: zibold@hs-weingarten.de

2009-03-15

353

THE FEED PREFERENCE OF ROE DEER (CAPREOLUS CAPREOLUS ON AGRICULTURAL HABITATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  In Hungary the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus is the most widespread big game, estimated population in 2012 exceeded three hundred and fifty thousand (National Game Management Database (OVA, 2012. The aim of this research is to find out what kind of differences and resemblances can be found in feeding strategies on the examined agricultural plain habitats. The feed selection habit of one of the most important big game in our homeland has not been researched yet in detail in the counties Csongrád and Békés, where the roe deer population is numerous and excellent. The detailed knowledge of the related specific feeding strategies contributes not only to the better cognition of this kind but also provides a developed opportunity for the game managers to reach better game husbandry results. Beyond the practical significance of the theme there are some other peculiarities to be cleared up in connection with the nourishment of roe deer: what kind of feeding strategies would be typical for the roe deer living on the plain at different food supply?  

Tamás Barta

2013-05-01

354

Influence of Holocene environmental change and anthropogenic impact on the diversity and distribution of roe deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extant patterns of population structure and levels of diversity are a consequence of factors that vary in both space and time. Our objective in this study is to investigate a species that has responded to both natural and anthropogenic changes in ways that have shaped modern populations and provide insight into the key processes. The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is one of the two species of deer native to Britain. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), the British habitat was largely under ice and there was a land bridge to mainland Europe. As the Earth warmed during the early Holocene, the land bridge was lost. Subsequent hunting on the British mainland left the southern region extirpated of roe deer, whereas a refugial population remained in the north. Later reintroductions from Europe led to population expansion, especially in southern United Kingdom. Here, we combine data from ancient and modern DNA to track population dynamics and patterns of connectivity, and test hypotheses about the influence of natural and anthropogenic environmental change. We find that past expansion and divergence events coincided with a warming environment and the subsequent closure of the land bridge between Europe and the United Kingdom. We also find turnover in British roe deer haplotypes between the late-Holocene and modern day that have likely resulted from recent human disturbance activities such as habitat perturbation, overhunting and restocking. PMID:24448563

Baker, K H; Hoelzel, A R

2014-06-01

355

Long-term density-dependent changes in habitat selection in red deer (Cervus elaphus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding how habitat selection changes with population density is a key concept in population regulation, community composition and managing impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services. At low density, it is expected that individuals select habitats in terms of their preference, but as population density increases, the availability of resources per individual declines on preferred habitats, leading to competition which forces some individuals to exploit less preferred habitats. Using spatial information of Scottish red deer (Cervus elaphus) winter counts, carried out in 110 areas across Scotland between 1961 and 2004 (a total of 1,206,495 deer observations), we showed how winter habitat niche breadth in red deer has widened with increasing population density. Heather moorland and montane habitats were most and least preferred for deer, respectively. Increasing density favoured the selection of grassland, to the detriment of the selection of heather moorland. The selection of heather and grassland decreased when temperature increased, while the selection of montane and peatland habitats increased. These findings are important for understanding how habitat use, density and population are likely to be affected by weather, and allow us to predict habitat impacts by large mammal herbivory and climate. PMID:23719900

Pérez-Barbería, F J; Hooper, R J; Gordon, I J

2013-11-01

356

Evaluation of ethanol vortex ELISA for detection of bovine tuberculosis in cattle and deer  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The use of serological assays for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (TB) has been intensively studied and use of specific antigens have aided in improving the diagnostic accuracy of the assays. In the present study, we report an in-house enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), developed by using ethanol extract of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). The assay, named (ethanol vortex ELISA [EVELISA]), was evaluated for detection of anti- M. bovis antibodies in the sera of cattle and white-tailed deer. Methods By using the EVELISA, we tested sera obtained from two species of animals; cattle (n?=?62 [uninfected, n?=?40; naturally infected, n?=?22]) and white-tailed deer (n?=?41 [uninfected, n?=?25; naturally infected, n?=?7; experimentally infected, n?=?9]). To detect species specific molecules, components in the ethanol extract were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and western blotting. Results Among the tested animals, 77.2% of infected cattle and 87.5% of infected deer tested positive for anti- M. bovis antibody. There were only minor false positive reactions (7.5% in cattle and 0% in deer) in uninfected animals. M. bovis -specific lipids and protein (MPB83) in the ethanol extract were detected by thin layer chromatography and western blotting, respectively. Conclusion The results warrant further evaluation and validation of EVELISA for bovine TB diagnosis of traditional and alternative livestock as well as for free-ranging animal species. PMID:24992970

2014-01-01

357

Invasion rate of deer ked depends on spatiotemporal variation in host density.  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasive parasites are of great global concern. Understanding the factors influencing the spread of invading pest species is a first step in developing effective countermeasures. Growing empirical evidence suggests that spread rates are essentially influenced by spatiotemporal dynamics of host-parasite interactions, yet approaches modelling spread rate have typically assumed static environmental conditions. We analysed invasion history of the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) in Finland with a diffusion-reaction model, which assumed either the movement rate, the population growth rate, or both rates may depend on spatial and temporal distribution of moose (Alces alces), the main host of deer ked. We fitted the model to the data in a Bayesian framework, and used the Bayesian information criterion to show that accounting for the variation in local moose density improved the model's ability to describe the pattern of the invasion. The highest ranked model predicted higher movement rate and growth rate of deer ked with increasing moose density. Our results suggest that the historic increase in host density has facilitated the spread of the deer ked. Our approach illustrates how information about the ecology of an invasive species can be extracted from the spatial pattern of spread even with rather limited data. PMID:24521661

Meier, C M; Bonte, D; Kaitala, A; Ovaskainen, O

2014-06-01

358

Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present report describes the reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei in a roe deer from Denmark after more than 60 years. The cysticerci were isolated from the thigh muscle of the deer, and the diagnosis was based on histostological analysis, morphology of the rostellar-hooks as well as molecular typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene. The exact definitive host was not revealed in this report, but domestic dogs may play a role of the definitive host in the area. This finding is of concern to hunters and deer meat producers, since the infected meat is usually condemned due to esthetic reasons. PMID:23298567

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Holm, Elisabeth; Jensen, Tim Kĺre; Stĺhl, Marie; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

2013-09-01

359

Efficacy of a 15-Strand High-Tensile Electric Fence to Control White-tailed Deer Movements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although, high-tensile electric fences (HTEF) have gained in popularity as a low-cost alternative to traditional fence designs, little research has focused on the effects of HTEF on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Our objectives were to: determine the efficacy of a HTEF to control deer movements and evaluate its influence on deer spatial dynamics. We conducted our study on the Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation Wildlife Unit located in Oklahoma, USA. An electric 15-strand, 2.5 m high...

Deyoung, R.; Strickland, B.; Demarais, S.; Gee, K.; Webb, S.

2009-01-01

360

Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present report describes the reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei in a roe deer from Denmark after more than 60 years. The cysticerci were isolated from the thigh muscle of the deer, and the diagnosis was based on histostological analysis, morphology of the rostellar-hooks as well as molecular typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene. The exact definitive host was not revealed in this report, but domestic dogs may play a role of the definitive host in the area. This finding is of concern to hunters and deer meat producers, since the infected meat is usually condemned due to aesthetic reasons.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Habitat Selection and Risk of Predation: Re-colonization by Lynx had Limited Impact on Habitat Selection by Roe Deer  

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Risk of predation is an evolutionary force that affects behaviors of virtually all animals. In this study, we examined how habitat selection by roe deer was affected by risk of predation by Eurasian lynx - the main predator of roe deer in Scandinavia. Specifically, we compared how habitat selection by roe deer varied (1) before and after lynx re-established in the study area and (2) in relation to habitat-specific risk of predation by lynx. All analyses were conducted at the spatial and tempo...

Samelius, Gustaf; Andren, Henrik; Kjellander, Petter; Liberg, Olof

2013-01-01

362

Anatomic and craniometric factors in differentiating roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hircus) skulls  

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This study was carried out to investigate the bony structures relevant to skull of roe deer, sheep and goat. The skull of five sheep weighing 45-50 kg, three goat weighing 50-60 kg and five roe deer weighing 20-25 kg were used in this study. Macerations of the cranium were performed by the boiling method. The skull of the roe deer was notably similar to that of sheep with the presence of external lacrimal fossa, and to the goat with due to the presence of two points (lateral and medial)...

Onuk Burcu; Kabak Murat; Atalar Kerem

2013-01-01

363

Biotic Translocation of Phosphorus: The Role of Deer in Protected Areas  

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Full Text Available Biogeochemical cycles are cornerstones of biological evolution. Mature terrestrial ecosystems efficiently trap nutrients and certain ones are largely recycled internally. Preserving natural fluxes of nutrients is an important mission of protected areas, but artificially leaky systems remain common. Native red deer (Cervus elaphus in the Swiss National Park (SNP are known to reduce phosphorus (P in preferred feeding sites by removing more P than is returned with feces. At larger scales it becomes apparent that losses are occurring due to seasonal deer movements out of the SNP where most deer end up perishing. Thus, the SNP contributes to producing deer which translocate P to sink areas outside the SNP due to several artificial factors. An adult female dying outside of SNP exports about 1.8 kg of P, whereas a male dying outside of SNP at 8 years of age exports 7.2 kg of P due also to annual shedding of antlers. Averaged over the vegetated part of the SNP, the about 2,000 deer export 0.32 kg/ha/yr of P. Other ungulate species using the SNP and dying principally outside of its borders would result in additional exports of P. Leakiness in this case is induced by: a absence of the predator community and thus a lack of summer mortalities and absence of several relevant non-lethal predator effects, b hunting-accelerated population turnover rate, and c deaths outside of SNP principally from hunting. The estimated export rate for P compares to rates measured in extensive production systems which receive 10-50 kg/ha/yr of P as fertilizer to compensate the losses from biomass exports. Assumptions were made regarding red deer body weight or population turnover rate, yet substituting my estimates with actual values from the SNP would only affect somewhat the magnitude of the effect, but not its direction. The rate of P loss is a proxy for losses of other elements, the most critical ones being those not essential to autotrophs, but essential to heterotrophs. High deer turnover rates combined with accelerated biomass export warrants detailed mass balances of macro and micro nutrients, and studies of biogeochemical cycles in protected areas are essential if preserving natural processes is a mandate.

Werner T. Flueck

2009-04-01

364

Berberidaceae endémicas del Perú / Berberidaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Berberidaceae es reconocida en el Perú con un género, Berberis, y 32 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), mayormente arbustos. Esta familia incluye 14 endemismos. La mayoría de estas especies endémicas ocupan la región Mesoandina, entre los 2000 y 4200 m de altitud. Dos de estos taxones end [...] émicos están representados dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Berberidaceae are represented in Peru by 32 species in the genus Berberis (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), most of them shrubs. Most of the 14 endemic species grow in the Mesoandean region, between 2000 and 4200 m elevation. Two of these endemic species have been reported in the Peruvian System of Prot [...] ected Natural Areas.

Carmen, Ulloa Ulloa; Abundio, Sagástegui; Isidoro, Sánchez.

2006-12-01

365

Relation between endemic (Balkan) nephropathy and urinary-tract tumours.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum and urine beta 2-microglobulin concentrations were determined in 38-6% of the 869 inhabitants of a village in which both Balkan endemic nephropathy and papillary tumours of the urinary-tract epithelium are common. Over 23% of the "healthy" population had raised serum and/or urine beta 2-microglobulin. 5 of 6 patients with papillary tumours of the renal pelvis, without evidence of renal parenchymal involvement, and 13-4% of the "healthy" population had raised serum-beta 2-microglobulin. It is suggested that overproduction of beta 2-microglobulin, a light-chain-like immune globulin, by the tumour cells may result in a light-chain-like nephropathy--i.e., endemic Balkan nephropathy. PMID:64805

Sattler, T A; Dimitrov, T; Hall, P W

1977-02-01

366

Responses to TRH in patients with endemic goiter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The response to TRH was studied in 32 patients from an endemic goiter area, 20 of them had been previously treated with iodized oil. Blood samples were taken at 0, 20, 40 and 120 minutes after de i.v. administration of 400?g of TRH, and serum levels of TSH, T3 and T4 were measured. The results obtained show that in endemic goiter area there is a modification in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism, with increased reserve of pituitary TSH and changes in T4 and T3 secretion. The injection of TRH gave exaggerated and delayed responses in the secretion of TSH and T3. Iodized oil used as a prophylatic method produced a disminution of pituitary TSH reserve, and of serum levels of TSH and T3, as a result of the return tonormality of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism. (author)

367

Lythraceae endémicas del Perú / Lythraceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Lythraceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar 10 géneros y 30 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), la mayoría hierbas y arbustos. En este trabajo reconocemos una especie endémica en el género Cuphea. Esta especie endémica ocupa la región de los Bosques Muy Húme [...] dos Montanos, entre los 2400 y 3000 m de altitud. No se encuentra representada en el Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Lythraceae are represented in Peru by 10 genera and 30 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mostly herbs and shrubs. Here we recognize one endemic taxon in the genus Cuphea. This endemic has been found in areas of the Very Humid Montane Forest region, between 2400 and 3000 [...] m elevation. It has not yet been registered within the Peruvian protected areas system.

Blanca, León.

2006-12-01

368

Prevalence and molecular characterization of Anaplasmataceae agents in free-ranging Brazilian marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaplasmataceae organisms comprise a group of obligate intracellular gram-negative, tick-borne bacteria that can infect both animals and humans. In the present work we investigate the presence of Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Neorickettsia species in blood samples from Brazilian marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus), using both molecular and serologic techniques. Blood was collected from 143 deer captured along floodplains of the Paraná River, near the Porto Primavera hydroelectric power plant. Before and after flooding, marsh deer were captured for a wide range research program under the financial support of Săo Paulo State Energy Company (CESP), between 1998 and 2001. Samples were divided into four groups according to time and location of capture and named MS01 (n=99), MS02 (n=18) (Mato Grosso do Sul, before and after flooding, respectively), PX (n=9; Peixe River, after flooding), and AGUA (n=17; Aguapeí River, after flooding). The seroprevalences for Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were 76.76% and 20.2% in MS01, 88.88% and 5.55% in MS02, 88.88% and 22.22% in PX, and 94.12% and 5.88% in AGUA, respectively. Sixty-one animals (42.65% of the total population) were PCR-positive for E. chaffeensis PCR (100.0% identity based on 16S rRNA, dsb, and groESL genes). Seventy deer (48.95% of the total population) were PCR-positive for Anaplasma spp. (99.0% of identity with A. platys, and in the same clade as A. phagocytophilum, A. bovis, and A. platys based on 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis). Our results demonstrate that Brazilian marsh deer are exposed to E. chaffeensis and Anaplasma spp. and may act as reservoirs for these rickettsial agents, playing a role in disease transmission to humans and other animals. PMID:22381686

Sacchi, A B V; Duarte, J M B; André, M R; Machado, R Z

2012-07-01

369

Patterns in deer-related traffic injuries over a decade: the Mayo clinic experience  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Our American College of Surgeons Level 1 Trauma Center serves a rural population. As a result, there is a unique set of accidents that are not present in an urban environment such as deer related motor vehicle crashes (dMVC. We characterized injury patterns between motorcycle/all-terrain vehicles (MCC and automobile (MVC crashes related to dMVC (deer motor vehicle crash with the hypotheses that MCC will present with higher Injury Severity Score (ISS and that it would be related to whether the driver struck the deer or swerved. Methods The records of 157 consecutive patients evaluated at our institution for injury related to dMVC from January 1st, 1997 to December 31st, 2006 were reviewed from our prospectively collected trauma database. Demographic, clinical, and crash specific parameters were abstracted. Injury severity was analyzed by the Abbreviated Injury Scale score for each body region as well as the overall Injury Severity Score (ISS. Results Motorcycle crashes presented with a higher median ISS than MVCs (14 vs 5, p Within the MVC group, there was no difference between swerving and hitting the deer in any AIS group. Forty-seven percent of drivers were not wearing seat belts which resulted in similar median ISS (6 vs 5 and AIS of all body regions. Conclusions Motorcycle operators suffered higher ISS. There were no significant differences in median ISS if a driver involved in a deer-related motor vehicle crash swerved rather than collided, was helmeted, or restrained.

Smoot Dustin L

2010-08-01

370

Comparing protein and energy status of winter-fed white-tailed deer  

Science.gov (United States)

Although nutritional status in response to controlled feeding trials has been extensively studied in captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), there remains a considerable gap in understanding the influence of variable supplemental feeding protocols on free-ranging deer. Consequently, across the northern portion of the white-tailed deer range, numerous property managers are investing substantial resources into winter supplemental-feeding programs without adequate tools to assess the nutritional status of their populations. We studied the influence of a supplemental winter feeding gradient on the protein and energy status of free-ranging white-tailed deer in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. We collected blood and fecal samples from 31 captured fawns across 3 sites that varied considerably in the frequency, quantity, and method of supplemental feed distribution. To facilitate population-wide comparisons, we collected fresh fecal samples off the snow at each of the 3 sites with supplemental feeding and 1 reference site where no feeding occurred. Results indicated that the method of feed distribution, in addition to quantity and frequency, can affect the nutritional status of deer. The least intensively fed population showed considerable overlap in diet quality with the unfed population in a principal components ordination, despite the substantial time and financial resources invested in the feeding program. Data from fecal samples generally denoted a gradient in diet quality and digestibility that corresponded with the availability of supplements. Our results further demonstrated that fecal nitrogen and fecal fiber, indices of dietary protein and digestibility, can be estimated using regressions of fecal pellet mass, enabling a rapid qualitative assessment of diet quality.

Page, B.D.; Underwood, H.B.

2006-01-01

371

Movement behavior, dispersal, and the potential for localized management of deer in a suburban environment  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the potential for localized management of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to be successful by measuring movements, testing site fidelity, and modeling the effects of dispersal. Fifty-nine females were radiomarked and tracked during 1997 through 2000 in Irondequoit, New York, USA, a suburb of Rochester. We constructed home ranges for those deer with A greater than or equal to 18 reclocations/season. Fifty percent minimum convex polygons (MCP) averaged 3.9 (SE = 0.53) ha in the summer and 5.3 (SE = 0.80) ha in the winter. Deer showed strong fidelity to both summer and winter home ranges, and 30 of 31 females showed overlap of summer and winter home ranges. Annual survival was 64%; the major cause of mortality was deer-automobile collisions. Average annual dispersal rates were management objectives in adjacent locales of approximately 1,000 ha. Modeling showed that if female dispersal was 8%, culling would have to reduce annual survival to 58% to maintain a population just under ecological carrying capacity and reduce survival to 42% to keel) the population at one-half carrying capacity. With the same dispersal, contraception Would need to be effective in 32% of females if the population is near carrying capacity and 68% if the population is at one-half of carrying capacity. Movement behavior data and modeling results lend support to the use of a localized approach to management of females that emphasizes neighborhood-scale manipulation of deer populations, but our research suggests that dispersal rates in females could be critical to long-term success.

Porter, W.F.; Underwood, H.B.; Woodard, J.L.

2004-01-01

372

Patterns in deer-related traffic injuries over a decade: the Mayo clinic experience  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Our American College of Surgeons Level 1 Trauma Center serves a rural population. As a result, there is a unique set of accidents that are not present in an urban environment such as deer related motor vehicle crashes (dMVC). We characterized injury patterns between motorcycle/all-terrain vehicles (MCC) and automobile (MVC) crashes related to dMVC (deer motor vehicle crash) with the hypotheses that MCC will present with higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) and that it would be related to whether the driver struck the deer or swerved. Methods The records of 157 consecutive patients evaluated at our institution for injury related to dMVC from January 1st, 1997 to December 31st, 2006 were reviewed from our prospectively collected trauma database. Demographic, clinical, and crash specific parameters were abstracted. Injury severity was analyzed by the Abbreviated Injury Scale score for each body region as well as the overall Injury Severity Score (ISS). Results Motorcycle crashes presented with a higher median ISS than MVCs (14 vs 5, p < 0.001). Median Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) of the spine for MCC riders was higher (3 vs 0, p < 0.001) if they swerved rather than collided. Seventy-seven percent of riders were not wearing a helmet which did not result in a statistically significant increase in median ISS (16 vs 10), head AIS (2 vs 0) or spine AIS (0 vs 0). Within the MVC group, there was no difference between swerving and hitting the deer in any AIS group. Forty-seven percent of drivers were not wearing seat belts which resulted in similar median ISS (6 vs 5) and AIS of all body regions. Conclusions Motorcycle operators suffered higher ISS. There were no significant differences in median ISS if a driver involved in a deer-related motor vehicle crash swerved rather than collided, was helmeted, or restrained. PMID:20716341

2010-01-01

373

The occurrence of phenyl propanoid glycosides in endemic Teucrium species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phenyl propanoid fraction of Teucrium subspinosum Pourrette ex Willd. (Lamiaceae) from Baleari Island, was examined together with the same fraction of T. subspinosum from Sardinia. In T. subspinosum, besides verbascoside as main component, a new phenyl-propanoid-glycoside was isolated and identified by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra analysis. Comparison with molecular composition of T. marum confirmed the differences between these species and evidenced their endemic character. PMID:17654286

Serrilli, Anna Maria; Ramunno, Alessia; Rullo, Rosanna; Ballero, Mauro; Serafini, Mauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano

2007-07-20

374

Nuclear DNA content of non-endemic Burkitt's lymphoma.  

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The nuclear DNA content of 26 non-endemic Burkitt's lymphomas was studied by flow cytometry. Eighteen of the tumours showed a pattern characteristic for diploid chromosome distribution, while eight of the tumours were aneuploid. Six of the aneuploid tumours showed an almost diploid, aneuploid DNA index, while two were tetraploid tumours. Patients with aneuploid tumours had a significantly worse prognosis (p less than 0.005) than those with diploid tumours. One of the aneuploid tumours was pos...

Lehtinen, T.; Lehtinen, M.; Aine, R.; Kallioniemi, O. P.; Leino, T.; Hakala, T.; Leinikki, P.; Alavaikko, M.

1987-01-01

375

Flavonoids from Algerian endemic Centaurea microcarpa and their chemotaxonomical significance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six flavonoids, namely 6-methoxykaempferol (1), 6-methoxykaempferol 7-O-glucoside (2), kaempferol 7-O-glucoside (3), 6-methoxyluteolin (4), patuletin 7-O-glucoside (5), and hispidulin 7-O-glucoside (6), were isolated from a n-butanolic fraction of Centaurea microcarpa Coss et Dur. flowers. This work describes for the first time the phytochemical composition of this endemic Algerian plant. PMID:22224272

Louaar, Souheila; Achouri, Amel; Lefahal, Mostefa; Laouer, Hocine; Medjroubi, Kamel; Duddeck, Helmut; Akkal, Salah

2011-11-01

376

Cactaceae endémicas del Perú / Cactaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Cactaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar 43 géneros y alrededor de 250 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mayormente cactus arbustivo-columnares. En este trabajo reconocemos 199 endemismos en 32 géneros. Seis géneros, Calymnanthium, Lasiocereus, Matucana, [...] Mila, Oroya y Pygmaeocereus son endémicos al Perú. Esta familia requiere de esfuerzos metódicos para incrementar su representación en los herbarios nacionales, asociados con una evaluación de las poblaciones y de sus hábitats, así como una evaluación de la taxonomía y sistemática de estos taxones. La mayoría de los taxones endémicos ocupan las regiones Matorral Desértico y Mesoandina, desde el nivel del mar hasta los 4000 m de altitud. Se aplicaron las categorías y criterios de la UICN a 58 taxones. Quince taxones endémicos están representados dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Cactaceae are represented in Peru by 43 genera and nearly 250 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mostly erect-columnar or sprawling cactus. Here we recognize 1999 endemic taxa in 32 genera. Six genera-Calymnanthium, Lasiocereus, Matucana, Mila, Oroya and Pygmaeocereus- a [...] re endemic to Peru. This family requires methodic efforts to increase the number of vouchers in national herbaria, as well as evaluations of the populations, habitats, taxonomy and systematics of these taxa. Most endemic taxa are found in the Desert Shrubland and Mesoandean regions, from sea level to 4000 m elevation. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to 58 taxa. Fifteen endemic taxa have been recorded in the Peruvian parks system.

Mónica, Arakaki; Carlos, Ostolaza; Fátima, Cáceres; José, Roque.

2006-12-01

377

New endemic foci of schistosomiasis infections in the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schistosomiasis affects 28 provinces in the Philippines found along the southeastern part where there is continuous rainfall throughout the year. In 2002 and 2005 respectively, two new endemic foci were reported in the northernmost (Gonzaga, Cagayan) and central (Calatrava, Negros Occidental) parts of the country. This study conducted in March 2008-March 2009 confirmed the presence of the disease by determining its prevalence using four diagnostic tests - Kato-Katz, circum-oval precipitin test (COPT), ELISA and ultrasonography. Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi was identified through snail surveys conducted in possible snail habitats in the seven new endemic villages. Animal surveys through stool examination confirmed the presence of schistosomiasis infection in animals in Gonzaga but not in Calatrava. Compared to Calatrava, Gonzaga demonstrated markedly higher prevalence of schistosomiasis using all four diagnostic methods. Proximity of snail habitats to human habitation including higher snail density and snail infection rate could be responsible for the high prevalence. Snail sites were more widespread in Gonzaga whereas those in Calatrava were confined only in areas not frequented by the general population except by farmers. GIS maps showing spatial distribution of snails in Gonzaga and Calatrava indicated differences in elevation among the snail sites. It is hypothesized that the snail intermediate host has been in these sites for sometime but discovered only lately. Migration of people from endemic provinces into Gonzaga and Calatrava brought in cases and in the presence of snail intermediate hosts, emergence of disease was just a matter of time. PMID:23583862

Leonardo, Lydia; Rivera, Pilarita; Saniel, Ofelia; Antonio Solon, Juan; Chigusa, Yuichi; Villacorte, Elena; Christoper Chua, James; Moendeg, Kharleezelle; Manalo, Daria; Crisostomo, Bobby; Sunico, Louie; Boldero, Nicasio; Payne, Lara; Hernandez, Leda; Velayudhan, Raman

2013-04-10

378

Loasaceae endémicas del Perú / Loasaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Loasaceae está representada en el Perú por ocho géneros y alrededor de 112 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), la mayoría herbáceas. En este trabajo se reconoce y categoriza 59 especies y 10 taxones subespecíficos en cinco géneros como endemismos peruanos. El géne [...] ro Nasa es el más rico en especies. Estos taxones endémicos ocupan principalmente las regiones Mesoandina, Puna Húmeda y Seca y Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, desde los 1400 hasta los 4700 m de altitud. Diez de los endemismos reconocidos se encuentran representados dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Loasaceae are represented in Peru by eight genera and around 112 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mainly herbs. Here we recognize 59 species and 10 infra-specific taxa in five genera as Peruvian endemics. Nasa is the genus with the largest number of endemic species. Th [...] ese endemic taxa are found in the Mesoandean, Humid and Dry Puna, and Very Humid Montane Forest regions, between 1400 and 4700 m elevation. Ten of these taxa have been found in the Peruvian protected areas system.

Eric, Rodriguez; Maximilian, Weigend.

2006-12-01

379

Lauraceae endémicas del Perú / Lauraceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Entre las familias características de los bosques montanos orientales se halla la familia Lauraceae, la cual es reconocida en el Perú con 16 géneros y 247 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004). En este trabajo se reconoce y categoriza 55 especies endémicas en 11 géneros. Nectan [...] dra y Ocotea son los géneros más ricos en especies endémicas. Las Lauraceae endémicas, mayormente árboles y arbustos, ocupan principalmente las regiones Bosques Húmedos Amazónicos y Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, entre los 125 y 3100 m de altitud. Nueve de las especies endémicas se encuentran representadas dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Lauraceae, a characteristic family of Peru's eastern montane forests are represented in Peru by 16 genera and 247 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004). Here we recognize 55 endemic species included in 11 genera. Nectandra and Ocotea are the genera with the largest number of [...] endemic species. These endemic taxa, mostly trees and shrubs, are found mainly in the Humid Lowland Amazonian Forest and Very Humid Montane Forest regions, between 125 and 3100 m elevation. Nine of these species have been recorded to date in the Peruvian protected areas system.

Blanca, León.

2006-12-01

380

Study on brain CT of neurological endemic cretinism  

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A study on brain CT was made in 20 cases of typical endemic cretinism and 15 cases of normal persons. These patients from severely iodine deficient area were diagnosed as neurological endemic cretinism characterized by severe mental retardation with impairment of hearing, speech, neuromotor, etc. to varying degrees. The brain CT showed that there were many and deep depressions in cerebral cortex, especially in frontal and parietal lobes of some cretins, the lateral ventricle system was dilated, particularly in posterior part of it, and the interhemisphere fissure, lateral fissure and subarachnoid cisterns were also expanded. The CT value of cortex was higher and white matter was lower than that of normal persons. In some severe cases, the two hemispheres of brain were not the same in size. These findings above indicated that these endemic cretins had a severe retardation of brain development including cerebral cortex and white matter. In addition, some abnormal calcification in brain and abnormal structure of middle line of brain were also found.

Ma, J.; Wang, K.; Li, J.; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Inomata, Taiten; Maeda, Tomoho.

1988-12-01

 
 
 
 
381

Loasaceae endémicas del Perú / Loasaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Loasaceae está representada en el Perú por ocho géneros y alrededor de 112 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), la mayoría herbáceas. En este trabajo se reconoce y categoriza 59 especies y 10 taxones subespecíficos en cinco géneros como endemismos peruanos. El géne [...] ro Nasa es el más rico en especies. Estos taxones endémicos ocupan principalmente las regiones Mesoandina, Puna Húmeda y Seca y Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, desde los 1400 hasta los 4700 m de altitud. Diez de los endemismos reconocidos se encuentran representados dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Loasaceae are represented in Peru by eight genera and around 112 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mainly herbs. Here we recognize 59 species and 10 infra-specific taxa in five genera as Peruvian endemics. Nasa is the genus with the largest number of endemic species. Th [...] ese endemic taxa are found in the Mesoandean, Humid and Dry Puna, and Very Humid Montane Forest regions, between 1400 and 4700 m elevation. Ten of these taxa have been found in the Peruvian protected areas system.

Eric, Rodriguez; Maximilian, Weigend.

382

Drought effect on selection of conservation reserve program grasslands by white-tailed deer on the Northern Great Plains  

Science.gov (United States)

Limited information exists regarding summer resource selection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in grassland regions of the Northern Great Plains. During summers 2005-2006, we analyzed habitat selection of adult female white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota. We collected 1905 summer locations and used 21 and 30 home ranges during 2005 and 2006, respectively, to estimate habitat selection. Results indicated that selection occurred at the population (P drought conditions during 2006. Deer likely selected for fields of CRP grasslands during early summer for cover and natural forages, such as clover (Trifolium sp.), prior to the period when agricultural crops become available. Drought conditions occurring in semiarid prairie grassland regions may reduce food and water availability and contribute to subsequent changes in deer habitat selection across the range of the species.

Grovenburg, T. W.; Jacques, C. N.; Klaver, R. W.; Jenks, J. A.

2011-01-01

383

77 FR 74204 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Final White-Tailed Deer Management Plan...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Dunes National Lakeshore, 1100 North Mineral Springs Road, Porter, Indiana 46304; telephone (219) 395-1550. Copies of the...ensure that the local deer population does not become a dominant force that negatively influences ecosystem components within...

2012-12-13

384

Monitoring for bovine viral diarrhea virus in Austrian red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) by using ear-notch samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

During 2007-09, ear-notch samples from free-living (n=527) and farmed (n=237) Austrian red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) were tested for bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1) and type 2 (BVDV-2) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and single-tube real-time reverse transcription PCR. Ear-notch samples were collected by applying modified ear tags from randomly selected hunter-harvested red deer and from individuals originating from deer holdings. All samples tested negative for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. Results of this study show no evidence of persistently infected animals. They indicate further that BVDV is playing a minor role in free-living and farmed red deer in Austria. Ear-notch samples are an effective tool for in vivo and postmortem detection of BVDV in wildlife. This sample collection technique can be easily used in combination with tagging individual wild animals kept in captivity. PMID:20966278

Glawischnig, Walter; Schoepf, Karl; Matt, Monika

2010-10-01

385

A cross-sectional study of the causes of morbidity and mortality in farmed white-tailed deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two questionnaires were designed and administered. The first was to a random sample of 340 farmers of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Canada and the United States. The second was a 10-year retrospective survey of deer submissions to veterinary diagnostic pathology laboratories in Canada and the United States. One-year rates of mortality and common causes of morbidity and mortality for the deer are reported. The primary diagnosis for each record was used to classify diseases into categories, such as parasitic, infectious, toxicological, and neoplastic. Submissions were further classified according to the anatomical location, the pathological change, and the etiology associated with each lesion. Trauma was the most important reported cause of farmed white-tailed deer mortality; necrobacillosis was a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in fawns. PMID:16048010

Haigh, Jerry; Berezowski, John; Woodbury, Murray R

2005-06-01

386

Antibodies to vesicular stomatitis New Jersey type virus in white-tailed deer on Ossabaw Island, Georgia, 1985 to 1989.  

Science.gov (United States)

From 1985 to 1989, 491 serum samples were collected from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Ossabaw Island, Georgia (USA) and were tested for neutralizing antibodies to New Jersey and Indiana type vesicular stomatitis viruses. Prevalence of antibodies to vesicular stomatitis New Jersey (VSNJ) virus in deer for the 5-yr period was 43%. Prevalence of antibodies differed by year (P less than 0.0001), and was dependent on age class (P less than 0.0001) and location on the island (P less than 0.0001). Of 173 deer sampled from other locations in the southeastern United States, only two had VSNJ antibody titers normally considered positive (greater than or equal to 1: 32). The positive deer were from Union County, Arkansas (USA) and Wakulla County, Florida (USA). No evidence of exposure to vesicular stomatitis Indiana Virus was observed. PMID:1661786

Fletcher, W O; Stallknecht, D E; Kearney, M T; Eernisse, K A

1991-10-01

387

Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in hunter-killed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in four regions of Minnesota.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sera from 1,367 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 4 geographic regions in Minnesota collected during 4 hunting seasons (1990-1993) were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using the modified direct agglutination test incorporating mercaptoethanol. Sera from 30% of the deer had antibody titers > or = 25; 8.6% were positive at a titer of 25, 11% at a titer of 50, and 10% at a titer > or = 500. There was a significant increase in seropositivity with age (P pine/aspen forest, southwest tall-grass prairie, southeast mixed-hardwood forest, and aspen/oak suburban park land. There were no statistically significant differences by year of collection. The prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in white-tailed