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Radiocarbon and U-series dating of the endemic deer Praemegaceros cazioti (Deperet) from 'Grotta Juntu', Sardinia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiocarbon and U-series methods (230Th/U and 231Pa/235U) for absolute age determination have been applied to some fossil samples from Grotta Juntu, in North Eastern Sardinia (Italy). The remains belong to the endemic deer species Praemegaceros cazioti, which is here represented by an almost complete skeleton. The three dating methods lead to concordant ages of about 7500 years BP, indicating that the skeleton was maintained as closed system after burial. Taking into consideration these results, Praemegaceros cazioti from Grotta Juntu is now the youngest representative of this species in Sardinia. (authors)

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Radiocarbon and U-series dating of the endemic deer Praemegaceros cazioti (Deperet) from 'Grotta Juntu', Sardinia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiocarbon and U-series methods ({sup 230}Th/U and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U) for absolute age determination have been applied to some fossil samples from Grotta Juntu, in North Eastern Sardinia (Italy). The remains belong to the endemic deer species Praemegaceros cazioti, which is here represented by an almost complete skeleton. The three dating methods lead to concordant ages of about 7500 years BP, indicating that the skeleton was maintained as closed system after burial. Taking into consideration these results, Praemegaceros cazioti from Grotta Juntu is now the youngest representative of this species in Sardinia. (authors)

Benzi, V. [Univ Bologna, Lab Ing Nucl, I-40136 Bologna, (Italy); Abbazzi, L. [Univ Florence, Dipartimento Sci Terra and Museo Storia Nat, I-50121 Florence, (Italy); Bartolomei, P.; Giampieri, R. [ENEA, I-40136 Bologna, (Italy); Esposito, M. [U Series Srl, I-40127 Bologna, (Italy); Fasso, C. [Azienda Foreste Demaniali Reg Sarda, I-09123 Cagliari, (Italy); Fonzo, O. [Via Lai 2, I-09123 Cagliari, (Italy); Murgia, F. [Grp Grotte Nuorese, I-08100 Nuoro, (Italy); Reyss, J.L. [Lab mixte CEA Saclay-CNRS, Lab Sci Climat and Environm, F-91198 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

2007-07-01

3

Acaricidal Treatment of White-Tailed Deer to Control Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a New York Lyme Disease-Endemic Community  

Science.gov (United States)

The 4-Poster device for the topical treatment of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) against ticks using the acaricide amitraz was evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic community in Connecticut. As part of a 5-year project from 1997 to 2002, 21–24 of the 4-Posters were distribut...

4

A Plague of Deer  

Science.gov (United States)

This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience journal is on the issue of deer overpopulation. Unchecked deer populations are causing a decline in forest diversity. Overbrowsing by deer leaves only the few plant species deer can't digest as survivors. Managing deer populations through revised hunting practices, however, meets strong resistance.

SHARON LEVY (;)

2006-09-01

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ORR Deer Hunt Monitoring Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary purpose for the initiation of deer hunts on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was deer population control to reduce collisions with vehicles and maintain a healthy herd and habitat. As of 1997, thirteen annual deer hunts have been conducted on the ORR. The deer hunt monitoring program (DHMP) has two components -- a field screening monitoring program and a confirmatory laboratory analysis program of both retained and randomly selected released deer samples.

Scofield, P.A.; Teasley, N.A.

1999-09-01

6

Mycobacterial diseases of deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most significant mycobacterial diseases of free-living, captive and farmed deer are bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, Johne's disease (paratuberculosis), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (basonym M. paratuberculosis), and avian tuberculosis, caused principally by M. avium subsp avium. The first case of M. bovis infection in farmed deer was identified in New Zealand in 1978. In 1983, a voluntary scheme was introduced in New Zealand to control tuberculosis in farmed deer, followed by a compulsory tuberculosis control scheme in 1990. The primary control measure is the slaughter of infected animals, detected by skin testing and blood testing, together with movement control and vector control. The number of infected deer herds peaked in the mid 1990s at over 160 herds, but by 30 June 2002 this had been reduced to 79 (1.45%), and to 67 (1.23%) by June 2003. Deer-to-deer transmission occurs, but the majority of herd breakdowns are believed to be from infected vectors. Factors likely to affect the susceptibility of deer include age, environment, population density, exposure and genetics. Avian tuberculosis occasionally causes clinical disease in wild, captive and farmed deer in New Zealand and overseas. Mycobacterium intracellulare, and subspecies of M. avium other than M. paratuberculosis, are widespread throughout New Zealand and are thought to be largely responsible for the high level of sensitisation to avian purified protein derivative (PPD), which is used for comparison purposes in tuberculosis skin testing of deer in this country. Infections with these organisms are usually subclinical in farmed deer, although M. avium subsp avium commonly causes lesions in retropharyngeal, mesenteric and ileocaecal lymph nodes. These lesions cause problems because of their gross and microscopic similarity to those due to M. bovis infection. Birds and domestic animals are most likely to become infected via environmental contamination of food, water, bedding litter or soil, while carnivores or scavengers may also become infected by ingesting infected carcasses. Johne's disease has been reported in deer in the wild and in zoos, especially in North America, the United Kingdom (UK) and Europe. Since first being confirmed in farmed deer in New Zealand in 1979, the incidence of Johne's disease has increased steadily. To date, M. paratuberculosis has been identified in >600 farmed deer on 300 properties. The majority of cases have been identified from suspected tuberculous lesions submitted from deer slaughter plants. Clinically, Johne's disease in deer is similar to the disease in sheep and cattle, with typical signs of loss of weight and condition, and diarrhoea. However, outbreaks of Johne's disease frequently occur in young red deer, 8-15 months of age, whereas the clinical disease in sheep and cattle is sporadic and usually affects adults 3-5 years of age. The disease is characterised by a chronic granulomatous enteritis and lymphadenitis, especially affecting the jejunum and ileum and the mesenteric lymph nodes. Deer affected subclinically may have lesions in these lymph nodes at slaughter, which are grossly indistinguishable from those due to bovine tuberculosis. Because of the antigenic similarity between M. intracellulare and all the subspecies of M. avium, including M. paratuberculosis, the diagnostic tests for Johne's disease lack sensitivity and specificity, making control difficult. PMID:15726126

Mackintosh, C G; de Lisle, G W; Collins, D M; Griffin, J F T

2004-08-01

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Veterinary surveillance - Deer  

Jan 16, 2007 ... Defra - Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. ... Calves are usually \\weaned, antlers, certainly of the adults, are usually ... The Chinese water deer is \\also an introduced species with limited distribution in the UK.

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Alarm signals of the Sichuan sika deer Cervus nippon sichuanicus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sichuan sika deer (Cervus nippon sichuanicus) is an endangered and endemic subspecies of sika deer to Sichuan Province, China. According to our observations in the wild, the Sichuan sika deer makes alarm signals in the presence of actual or potential predators. In order to test the variation of the rhythmic alarm calls in some sex/age classes and different risk contexts, we recorded alarm calls of Sichuan sika deer from 2 October to 30 November 2008 and from 4 April to 5 September 2009 in the Tiebu Nature Reserve, Zoige County, Sichuan Province, China, and made acoustic analysis of these alarm calls. The results showed that the fundamental frequencies of alarm signals of Sichuan sika deer tended to decrease with age, and were significantly higher for females than for males. Duration tended to increase with age, and was significantly longer for males than for females. The fundamental frequencies and duration of alarm calls in adults were significantly higher and shorter respectively in high-risk than in moderate-risk contexts. PMID:22775249

Yang, Chengzhong; Xiao, Zhen; Guo, Yanshu; Xiong, Yuanqing; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong

2012-07-01

9

SRP deer hunt data base  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Savannah River Plant (SRP) site is an ideal habitat for white-tailed deer. The large deer population of more than 6000 animals has resulted in collisions between deer and automobiles. To control this population and thus reduce accidents, deer hunts were begun in 1965. These hunts are organized and supervised by U.S. Forestry Service Personnel. The deer have access to all of the plant site except the fenced operating areas. Access to radioactive liquid effluents and contamination vegetation can result in radioactive body burdens in deer. Prior to 1970, samples of about 20% of the deer shot during the deer hunts were radioassayed. Based on these results and plant effluent information, 137Cs was the radionuclide of interest. A portable instrument was developed to measure 137Cs in deer and, beginning in 1970, all deer have been monitored for their 137Cs concentration before being released to the hunters. All slain deer were released to the hunters immediately after monitoring; no deer were above acceptable safe limits for food

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Dinitrotoluene in deer tissues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP), Baraboo, Wisconsin, has within a security-fenced area, a herd of whitetail deer. The US Army and the State of Wisconsin, Department of Health and Social Services have determined that approximately 20 of the deer be harvested and tissue samples thus collected be analyzed for 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,4- and 2,6-DNT) by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to a sensitivity of 0.1 part per million (ppm). The HPLC analyses will be done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) following protocol used previously for similar work for other government sites. ORNL shall instruct Olin relative to the quantity and type of tissue required, storage and shipment requirements, and other information to ensure that all protocol and chain of custody requirements are clear. A final report will be made to Olin Corporation upon completion of the HPLC analyses.

Shugart, L.R.

1991-09-30

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The complete mitochondrial genome of the Alpine musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster).  

Science.gov (United States)

Though extensive efforts have been made to investigate the phylogeny of the Cetartiodactyla, the relationships within the Cetartiodactyla, especially the position of the family Moschidae among Ruminantia families, still remain controversial. To further clarify these relationships, we sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the Alpine musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster), which is an endemic endangered species from China. Then, we conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses of the Alpine musk deer and 49 other species on the basis of Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods. The results show that the Moschidae is the sister group of the Bovidae, both of which form a clade that clusters with the Cervidae. The cetaceans are nested within the Artiodactyla as the sister group of the Hippopotamidae. Among the musk deer, M. chrysogaster and M. berezovskii are more closely related to each other than to M. moschiferus. PMID:23577614

Yang, Chengzhong; Xiang, Changkui; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong

2013-10-01

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Hybridisation between red deer (Cervus elaphus) and Japanese sika (C. nippon) on the Kintyre Peninsula, Scotland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hybridisation between introduced and endemic species causes conservation concerns, but also provides us with an opportunity to study the dynamics of gene flow between two species as they first meet. Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon) were introduced to the British Isles at a number of locations at the beginning of the 20th century. In the intervening time, sika have spread and their range now extends across approximately 40% of Scotland, where they overlap with that of native red ...

Senn, Helen V.

2009-01-01

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Anaplasma phagocytophilum in White-tailed Deer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examined the reservoir potential of white-tailed deer for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Results suggest that white-tailed deer harbor a variant strain not associated with human infection, but contrary to published reports, white-tailed deer are not a reservoir for strains that cause human disease. These results will affect surveillance studies of vector and reservoir populations.

Massung, Robert F.; Courtney, Joshua W.; Hiratzka, Shannon L.; Pitzer, Virginia E.; Smith, Gary; Dryden, Richard L.

2005-01-01

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Topical Treatment of White-Tailed Deer with an Acaricide for the Control of Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Connecticut Lyme Borreliosis Hyperendemic Community  

Science.gov (United States)

The 4-Poster device for the topical treatment of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), against ticks using the acaricide amitraz, was evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic community in Connecticut. As part of a 5-year project from 1997 to 2002, 21–24 of the 4-Posters were distrib...

15

Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluor...

Reddy D

2009-01-01

16

Mitochondrial genome of the Anhui musk deer (Moschus anhuiensis).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Anhui musk deer (Moschus anhuiensis) is an endangered species which is endemic to a narrow region in two National Nature Reserves in Dabie Mountains, Anhui Province, China. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of M. anhuiensis. The results showed that the total length of the mitogenome was 16,351 bp as a circular DNA and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region. Overall base composition of the complete mitochondrial DNA was 34.0% A, 28.1% T, 25.0% C, and 12.9% G. The M. anhuiensis mitochondrial genome had 21 tRNA genes folded in the typical cloverleaf structure, with a unique exception of tRNA(Ser). The mitochondrial genes from M. anhuiensis were overlapped in a total of 72 bp at seven locations, as well as interleaved with a total of 62 bp intergenic spacers. PMID:23198975

Zhu, Xiaoxue; Shi, Wenbo; Pan, Tao; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Lizhi; Zhang, Baowei

2013-06-01

17

Aerial survey estimates of fallow deer abundance  

Science.gov (United States)

Reliable estimates of the distribution and abundance of an ungulate species is essential prior to establishing and implementing a management program. We used ground surveys to determine distribution and ground and aerial surveys and individually marked deer to estimate the abundance of fallow deer (Dama dama) in north-coastal California. Fallow deer had limited distribution and heterogeneous densities. Estimated post-rut densities across 4 annual surveys ranged from a low of 1.4 (SE=0.2) deer/km2 to a high of 3.3 (se=0.5) deer/km2 in a low density stratum and from 49.0 (SE=8.3) deer/km2 to 111.6 deer/km2 in a high density stratum. Sightability was positively influenced by the presence of white color-phase deer in a group and group size, and varied between airial and ground-based observers and by density strata. Our findings underscore the utility of double-observer surveys and aerial surveys with individually marked deer, both incorporating covariates to model sightability, to estimate deer abundance.

Gogan, Peter J.; Gates, Natalie B.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Pettit, Suzanne

2012-01-01

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75 FR 33238 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station  

Science.gov (United States)

...Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA...Statement (EIS) for the proposed Deer Creek Station project in Brookings and Duel Counties...proposed 300 megawatt (MW) Deer Creek Station in Brookings and Deuel Counties,...

2010-06-11

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Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium bovis Isolates from Michigan White-Tailed Deer during the 2009 Hunting Season  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Michigan has had an ongoing outbreak of endemic Mycobacterium bovis which has been recognized within and sustained by its free-ranging white-tailed deer population since 1994. Worldwide, organisms within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex have exhibited the ability to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents, resulting in both the multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of human tuberculosis. Michigan's Bovine Tuberculosis Working Group has conducted activ...

Kaneene, John B.; Fitzgerald, Scott D.; Schooley, Angie M.; Berry, Dale E.

2011-01-01

20

High red deer density depresses body mass of roe deer fawns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many previous studies have pointed out that, when resources are limited, the potential for competition should be high among sympatric species that display overlaps in habitat and nutritional niches. However, reliable evidence of competition between red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) has not been yet reported for life history traits directly measuring performance such as body mass, reproduction, or survival. From long-term monitoring of deer populations in the reserve of La Petite Pierre (France), we measured the sex-specific responses of roe deer fawn body mass to changes in red deer density after accounting for possible confounding effects of date of shooting, climatic conditions, and roe deer density. As expected under the hypothesis of competition, red deer density in a given year had a marked negative influence on body mass of roe deer fawns born the same year and the following year. Fawn mass of roe deer males and females responded in similar ways to changes in red deer density. Our study provides the first evidence of a negative response of roe deer performance to high red deer density. PMID:20033821

Richard, Emmanuelle; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Saďd, Sonia; Hamann, Jean-Luc; Klein, François

2010-05-01

 
 
 
 
21

Spatial interactions of yarded White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the spatial interactions of nine female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in two deeryards (winter aggregations) in northeastern Minnesota during February-April 1999. Global positioning system (GPS) collars yielded seven pair-wise comparisons of deer that were located at the same time (???1 minute apart) and mat used overlapping areas. Deer traveled separately and did not associate with one another. Within overlapping areas, comparisons of distances between deer and distances between random locations indicated deer moved without regard to each other. Similarly, comparisons of observed and expected probabilities of deer using areas overlapping those of other deer also evinced that deer moved independently.

Nelson, M.E.; Sargeant, G.A.

2008-01-01

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Neonatal mortality in roe deer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using radiotelemetry I investigated magnitude and main causes of neonatal mortality of the European roe deer Capreolus capreolus in two long-term studies (Ekenäs 1986-1999, Bogesund 1997-2003) in central Sweden. Summer mortality was 51 and 52% in the two areas, respectively, and predation by red fox Vulpes vulpes accounted for 88% of the mortality in both areas. Other causes of death were starvation/hypothermia/disease and mowing machines. Potential mowing mortality was, however, estimated t...

Jarnemo, Anders

2004-01-01

23

Enterocytozoon bieneusi in sika deer (Cervus nippon) and red deer (Cervus elaphus): deer specificity and zoonotic potential of ITS genotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the most common cause of the human microsporidiosis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi has been found in a wide variety of animal hosts. Deers are the ruminant mammals living in a variety of biomes, and the distribution of deer species differ by geography. To understand the prevalence of natural infection of E. bieneusi in deer and to assess their epidemiological role in the transmission of microsporidiosis caused by E. bieneusi, 91 fecal specimens were collected from 86 sika deers and five red deers in the northeast of China. By PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of E. bieneusi, an average infection rate of 31.9% (29/91) was observed in deer, with 32.6% (28/86) for sika deer, and 20% (1/5) for red deer. Six ITS genotypes were identified: one known genotype BEB6 (n?=?20) and five novel genotypes HLJD-I to HLJD-IV (one each) and HLJD-V (n?=?5). A phylogenetic analysis based on a neighbor-joining tree of the ITS gene sequences of E. bieneusi indicated that genotypes HLJD-II and HLJD-III fell into group 1 of zoonotic potential, while the other genotypes (BEB6, HLJD-I, HLJD-IV, HLJD-V) were clustered into so-called bovine-specific group 2. This is the first report of E. bieneusi in deer in China. The observation of genotype BEB6 in humans previously and in deer here and also the findings of the two novel genotypes (HLJD-II to HLJ-III) belonging to potential zoonotic group 1 suggested the possibility of deer in the transmission of E. bieneusi to humans. PMID:25185666

Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Weizhe; Wang, Rongjun; Liu, Weishi; Liu, Aiqin; Yang, Dong; Yang, Fengkun; Karim, Md Robiul; Zhang, Longxian

2014-11-01

24

Immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally infected European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The cause of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK was the inclusion of contaminated meat and bone meal in the protein rations fed to cattle. Those rations were not restricted to cattle but were also fed to other livestock including farmed and free living deer. Although there are no reported cases to date of natural BSE in European deer, BSE has been shown to be naturally or experimentally transmissible to a wide range of different ungulate species. Moreover, several species of North America's cervids are highly susceptible to chronic wasting disease (CWD, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE that has become endemic. Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations. This study compares the immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally-infected European red deer (Cervus elpahus elaphus. Results After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues. In this respect it was different from CWD, and although the neuropathological features of both diseases were similar, BSE could be clearly differentiated from CWD by immunohistochemical and Western blotting methods currently in routine use. Conclusion Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

Dagleish Mark P

2009-07-01

25

Parapoxvirus Infections of Red Deer, Italy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To characterize parapoxviruses causing severe disease in wild ruminants in Stelvio Park, Italy, we sequenced and compared the DNA of several isolates. Results demonstrated that the red deer isolates are closely related to the parapox of red deer in New Zealand virus.

Scagliarini, Alessandra; Vaccari, Francesca; Turrini, Filippo; Bianchi, Alessandro; Cordioli, Paolo; Lavazza, Antonio

2011-01-01

26

Identity of rumen fluke in deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

As evidence is growing that in many temperate areas paramphistome infections are becoming more common and widespread, this study was undertaken to determine the role of deer as reservoirs for rumen fluke infections in livestock. A total of 144 deer faecal samples (88 from fallow deer, 32 from red deer and 24 samples from sika, sika/red deer hybrids) were screened for the presence of fluke eggs. Based on the ITS-2 rDNA locus plus flanking 5.8S and 28S sequences (ITS-2+), fluke eggs were identified to species level. Our results indicate that, of the 3 deer species, fallow deer had the highest fluke infection rates. Two rumen fluke species, Calicophoron daubneyi and Paramphistomum leydeni, with morphologically distinct eggs, were identified. Concurrent infections of the two paramphistome species and liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, were common. Considering the comparatively low egg burdens observed in this study, it is unlikely that deer represent a significant source of infection for Irish livestock. PMID:25127736

O'Toole, Ailis; Browne, John A; Hogan, Sean; Bassičre, Thomas; DeWaal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; Zintl, Annetta

2014-11-01

27

Dispersal in female white-tailed deer  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven of 35 yearling female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a migratory herd in northeastern Minnesota dispersed 18-168 km from natal ranges during late May through June. Dispersal as a proximate event appears voluntary and independent of deer density.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

1992-01-01

28

Therapy of endemic goitre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1. In childhood the first line treatment of endemic goitre is Kl (100-150 ?g/day). Once the goitre volume has shrinked during L-thyroxine treatment in older patients, this effect is to be maintained by Kl (?200 ?g/day). The same holds true after surgery in cases with normal TSH responsiveness to TRH. 2. TSH suppressive L-thyroxine therapy is indicated in goitre patients older than 40 years. However, the effectiveness will be limited by the nodularity of the thyroid. So prevention of further growth prevails over true tissue reduction. 3. Obviously thyroid surgery yields the best cosmetic results with an acceptably low complication rate. When euthyroidism is established, a lifelong iodine prophylaxy (200 ?g/day) of recurrent goitre is mandatory. In cases with latent or overt hypothyroidism an appropriate therapy with thyroid hormone should be given. 4. By radiodine it is possible to realize a short term volume loss of 30-40% which may increase further on up to 60%. Relief of symptoms is usually even more impressive than actual volume loss. (orig./MG)

29

Analyzing the Correlation between Deer Habitat and the Component of the Risk for Lyme Disease in Eastern Ontario, Canada: A GIS-Based Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis, caused by the bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, is an emerging vector-borne infectious disease in Canada. According to the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC, by the year 2020, 80% of Canadians will live in Lyme endemic areas. An understanding of the association of Ixodes scapularis, the main vector of Lyme disease, with it hosts is a fundamental component in assessing changes in the spatial distribution of human risk for Lyme disease. Through the application of Geographic Information System (GIS mapping methods and spatial analysis techniques, this study examines the population dynamics of the black-legged Lyme tick and its primary host, the white-tailed deer, in eastern Ontario, Canada. By developing a habitat suitability model through a GIS-based multi-criteria decision making (MCDM analysis, the relationship of the deer habitat suitability map was generated and the results were compared with deer harvest data. Tick submission data collected from two public health units between 2006 and 2012 were used to explore the relationship between endemic ticks and deer habitat suitability in eastern Ontario. The positive correlation demonstrated between the deer habitat suitability model and deer harvest data allows us to further analyze the association between deer habitat and black-legged ticks in our study area. Our results revealed that the high tick submission number corresponds with the high suitability. These results are useful for developing management strategies that aim to prevent Lyme from becoming a threat to public health in Canada. Further studies are required to investigate how tick survival, behaviour and seasonal activity may change with projected climate change.

Dongmei Chen

2015-01-01

30

Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings.

Reddy D

2009-01-01

31

Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings. PMID:19305069

Reddy, D Raja

2009-01-01

32

EXPOSURE OF WHITE TAILED DEER TO BOVINE DIARRHEA VIRUS  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of white tail deer as a reservoir of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been a point of controversy. The objective of this project was to observe the infectivity of BVDV white tail deer isolates in white tailed deer. Eight white tailed deer fawn 2-4 weeks in age were divided int...

33

75 FR 71106 - Deer Creek Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...13862-000] Deer Creek Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary...2010, Deer Creek Hydro, LLC (Deer Creek Hydro) filed an application...feasibility of the Deer Creek Pumped Storage Project (Project...conduit; (2) an underground powerhouse to be...

2010-11-22

34

Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

1994-12-31

35

Authenticity control of game meat products--a single method to detect and quantify adulteration of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) by real-time PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

This contribution presents a single real-time PCR assay allowing the determination of the deer content (the sum of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon)) in meat products to detect food adulteration. The PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with 20 animal species and 43 botanical species potentially contained in game meat products. The limit of quantification is 0.5% for fallow deer and red deer and 0.1% for sika deer. The deer content in meat products is determined by relating the concentration obtained with the deer PCR assay to that obtained with a reference system which amplifies mammals and poultry DNA. The analysis of binary meat mixtures with pork, a meat mixture containing equal amounts of fallow deer, red deer and sika deer in pork and a model game sausage showed that the quantification approach is very accurate (systematic error generally <25%). PMID:25306377

Druml, Barbara; Grandits, Stephanie; Mayer, Walter; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit

2015-03-01

36

Feeding and Management of Spotted Deer at Dhaka Zoo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this experiment the feeds and feeding, production and reproduction profile and herd management of spotted deer were studied in captive condition at Dhaka zoo. Data collected from forty deers, ten deers of each group consisting of adult male, adult female, juvenile and infant were studied January 15th to April 15th 2004 for a period of three months. Available feeds supplied to the spotted deer were maize fodder, para and bucksha grass, poi shak, cabbages, carrot, papaya, wheat bran...

Bhuiyan, A. K. F. H.; Hossain, M. M.; Azad, M. A. K.

2005-01-01

37

Reproductive biology of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus): a review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) is a South American grazing deer which is in extreme danger of extinction. Very little is known about the biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, most information has not been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, and is only available in local publications, theses, etc. Therefore, our aim was to update and summarize the available information regarding the reproductive biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, in most sections, we have also include...

Ungerfeld, Rodolfo; Gonza?lez-pensado, Solana; Bielli, Alejandro; Villagra?n, Mati?as; Olazabal, Daniel; Pe?rez, William

2008-01-01

38

Deer responses to repellent stimuli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four repellents representing different modes of action (neophobia, irritation, conditioned aversion, and flavor modification) were tested with captive white-tailed deer in a series of two-choice tests. Two diets differing significantly in energy content were employed in choice tests so that incentive to consume repellent-treated diets varied according to which diet was treated. When the high-energy diet was treated with repellents, only blood (flavor modification) and capsaicin (irritation) proved highly effective. Rapid habituation to the odor of meat and bone meal (neophobia) presented in a sachet limited its effectiveness as a repellent under conditions with a high feeding motivation. Thiram, a stimulus used to condition aversions, was not strongly avoided in these trials, that included only limited exposures to the repellent. These data support previous studies indicating that habituation to odor limits the effectiveness of repellents that are not applied directly to food, while topically-applied irritants and animal-based products produce significant avoidance. PMID:20013037

Kimball, Bruce A; Taylor, Jimmy; Perry, Kelly R; Capelli, Christina

2009-12-01

39

The sustainable management of wild deer populations in England: a ...  

Jun 15, 2009 ... During the period covered by the first Deer Action Plan (2005-8) there ... \\supported by its executive arm Deer Initiative Ltd., is working well at ... the Deer \\Research Working Group (DRWG), which brings together a range of ...... has \\been secured, after which comparative analyses will be undertaken to test for.

40

Supplier Education--Deere & Company Partners with Black Hawk College.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the partnership between Deere & Company and Black Hawk College that provided a training program for John Deere suppliers, resulting in a cost-effective approach to upgrading supplier skills and improving Deere product quality. Lists benefits of supplier development and training. (YKH)

Lundquist, Linda

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Seasonal variation in the behavior of captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus, in Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm, of China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Musk deer farming has the potential to be an effective conservation tool for the protection of musk deer as well as the production of valuable musk. To be successful, this requires a thorough understanding of the behavior of captive musk deer in order to improve their reproductive success and management. Between August 2005 to January 2006, the behavior sampling of 19 male and 13 female captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus Büchner, 1891, was used to examine the durations of twelve beh...

Luan Xiaofeng; Zhao Changjie; Hui Cenyi; Meng Xiuxiang

2010-01-01

42

Potential Wildlife Reservoir for Parachlamydia in Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) and Roe Deer (Capreolus c. capreolus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wildlife populations represent an important reservoir for emerging pathogens and transboundary livestock diseases. However, exact knowledge on common domestic pathogens such as Chlamydiales in these populations is lacking. During the hunting season of 2008, 863 samples, including blood, eye swabs, organs and fecal samples, from 99 red deer and 64 roe deer were collected in the eastern Swiss Alps, and samples were tested by ELISA, PCR and immunohistochemistry for Chlamydiaceae and Parachlam...

Regenscheit, Nadine

2012-01-01

43

Survey of Borreliae in ticks, canines, and white-tailed deer from Arkansas, U.S.A.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Eastern and Upper Midwestern regions of North America, Ixodes scapularis (L. is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans and the primary vector of B. burgdorferi, whereas in the southeastern region Amblyomma americanum (Say is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans but cannot transmit B. burgdorferi. Surveys of Borreliae in ticks have been conducted in the southeastern United States and often these surveys identify B. lonestari as the primary Borrelia species, surveys have not included Arkansas ticks, canines, or white-tailed deer and B. lonestari is not considered pathogenic. The objective of this study was to identify Borrelia species within Arkansas by screening ticks (n?=?2123, canines (n?=?173, and white-tailed deer (n?=?228 to determine the identity and locations of Borreliae endemic to Arkansas using PCR amplification of the flagellin (flaB gene. Methods Field collected ticks from canines and from hunter-killed white-tailed were identified to species and life stage. After which, ticks and their hosts were screened for the presence of Borrelia using PCR to amplify the flaB gene. A subset of the positive samples was confirmed with bidirectional sequencing. Results In total 53 (21.2% white-tailed deer, ten (6% canines, and 583 (27.5% Ixodid ticks (252 Ixodes scapularis, 161 A. americanum, 88 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 50 Amblyomma maculatum, 19 Dermacentor variabilis, and 13 unidentified Amblyomma species produced a Borrelia flaB amplicon. Of the positive ticks, 324 (22.7% were collected from canines (151 A. americanum, 78 R. sanguineus, 43 I. scapularis, 26 A. maculatum, 18 D. variabilis, and 8 Amblyomma species and 259 (37.2% were collected from white-tailed deer (209 I. scapularis, 24 A. maculatum, 10 A. americanum, 10 R. sanguineus, 1 D. variabilis, and 5 Amblyomma species. None of the larvae were PCR positive. A majority of the flaB amplicons were homologous with B. lonestari sequences: 281 of the 296 sequenced ticks, 3 canines, and 27 deer. Only 22 deer, 7 canines, and 15 tick flaB amplicons (12 I. scapularis, 2 A. maculatum, and 1 Amblyomma species were homologous with B. burgdorferi sequences. Conclusions Data from this study identified multiple Borreliae genotypes in Arkansas ticks, canines and deer including B. burgdorferi and B. lonestari; however, B. lonestari was significantly more prevalent in the tick population than B. burgdorferi. Results from this study suggest that the majority of tick-borne diseases in Arkansas are not B. burgdorferi.

Fryxell Rebecca T

2012-07-01

44

Endemic treponematosis: review and update.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite major efforts to eradicate these disorders, yaws, bejel, and pinta (endemic treponematosis) remain serious health issues in many regions of the world. Aside from prominent skin manifestations, these diseases may also lead to significant osseous, neurologic, and ophthalmologic complications. Although progress has been made in differentiating the causative species in a research setting, a simple, specific, and sensitive diagnostic test remains elusive. Parenteral penicillin, in appropriate dosage, is the treatment of choice; alternative antibiotics such as tetracycline and erythromycin may also be effective. PMID:16714199

Farnsworth, Neil; Rosen, Ted

2006-01-01

45

Real-time PCR for detection and quantification of red deer (Cervus elaphus), fallow deer (Dama dama), and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in meat mixtures.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique using SYBR Green detection system, has been developed for the quantification of red deer, fallow deer, and roe deer DNAs in meat mixtures. The method combines the use of cervid-specific primers that amplify a 134, 169, and 120bp of the 12S rRNA gene fragment of red deer, fallow deer and roe deer, respectively, and universal primers that amplify a 140bp fragment on the nuclear 18S rRNA gene from eukaryotic DNA. The C(t) (threshold cycle) values obtained with the 18S rRNA primers are used to normalize those obtained from each of the cervid-specific systems, serving as endogenous control for the total content of PCR-amplifiable DNA in the sample. Analysis of experimental raw and heat treated binary mixtures of red deer, fallow deer or roe deer meat in a swine meat matrix demonstrated the suitability of the assay for the detection and quantification of the target cervid DNAs in the range 0.1-0.8%, depending on the species and treatment of the meat samples analyzed. PMID:22062757

Fajardo, Violeta; González, Isabel; Martín, Irene; Rojas, María; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

2008-06-01

46

DNA barcoding revises a misidentification on musk deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract As an endangered animal group in China, musk deer (genus Moschus) have attracted the attention of deer biologists and wildlife conservationists. Clarifying the taxonomic status and distribution of musk deer species is important to determine the conservation status for each species and establish appropriate conservation strategies. There remains some uncertainty about the species determination of the musk deer in the Guandi Forest District of Shanxi Province, China. The musk deer in Shanxi would appear to represent an extension of the geographical distribution of either the Forest Musk Deer from the southwest or the Siberian Musk Deer from the northeast, or possibly both. The musk deer population in Shanxi Province provides an interesting and significant case to test the value of applying molecular methods to make a genetic species identification. In order to clarify the species status of the Shanxi musk deer, we sequenced 627?bp of the COI gene and ?723?bp of the D-loop gene in 12 musk deer samples collected from the Guandi Forest District, and the two reference samples collected from Sichuan. Genetic analyses from the data suggest that all of the samples from the Guandi Forest District are M. berezovskii rather than M. moschiferus. It is most likely that the most previous studies had wrong species identification. And it is the first time we use DNA barcoding to prove that Shanxi is a new distribution of M. berezovskii. PMID:24491100

Yang, Chengzhong; Xiao, Zhen; Zou, Yuan; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yang, Bo; Hao, Yinghong; Moermond, Timothy; Yue, Bisong

2014-02-01

47

Genetic susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in free-ranging white-tailed deer: Complement component C1q and Prnp polymorphisms  

Science.gov (United States)

The genetic basis of susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids is of great interest. Association studies of disease susceptibility in free-ranging populations, however, face considerable challenges including: the need for large sample sizes when disease is rare, animals of unknown pedigree create a risk of spurious results due to population admixture, and the inability to control disease exposure or dose. We used an innovative matched case-control design and conditional logistic regression to evaluate associations between polymorphisms of complement C1q and prion protein (Prnp) genes and CWD infection in white-tailed deer from the CWD endemic area in south-central Wisconsin. To reduce problems due to admixture or disease-risk confounding, we used neutral genetic (microsatellite) data to identify closely related CWD-positive (n = 68) and CWD-negative (n = 91) female deer to serve as matched cases and controls. Cases and controls were also matched on factors (sex, location, age) previously demonstrated to affect CWD infection risk. For Prnp, deer with at least one Serine (S) at amino acid 96 were significantly less likely to be CWD-positive relative to deer homozygous for Glycine (G). This is the first characterization of genes associated with the complement system in white-tailed deer. No tests for association between any C1q polymorphism and CWD infection were significant at p deer with at least one Glycine (G) at amino acid 56 of the C1qC gene. While we documented numerous amino acid polymorphisms in C1q genes none appear to be strongly associated with CWD susceptibility. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Blanchong, J.A.; Heisey, D.M.; Scribner, K.T.; Libants, S.V.; Johnson, C.; Aiken, J.M.; Langenberg, J.A.; Samuel, M.D.

2009-01-01

48

Genetic susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in free-ranging white-tailed deer: complement component C1q and Prnp polymorphisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genetic basis of susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids is of great interest. Association studies of disease susceptibility in free-ranging populations, however, face considerable challenges including: the need for large sample sizes when disease is rare, animals of unknown pedigree create a risk of spurious results due to population admixture, and the inability to control disease exposure or dose. We used an innovative matched case-control design and conditional logistic regression to evaluate associations between polymorphisms of complement C1q and prion protein (Prnp) genes and CWD infection in white-tailed deer from the CWD endemic area in south-central Wisconsin. To reduce problems due to admixture or disease-risk confounding, we used neutral genetic (microsatellite) data to identify closely related CWD-positive (n=68) and CWD-negative (n=91) female deer to serve as matched cases and controls. Cases and controls were also matched on factors (sex, location, age) previously demonstrated to affect CWD infection risk. For Prnp, deer with at least one Serine (S) at amino acid 96 were significantly less likely to be CWD-positive relative to deer homozygous for Glycine (G). This is the first characterization of genes associated with the complement system in white-tailed deer. No tests for association between any C1q polymorphism and CWD infection were significant at p<0.05. After controlling for Prnp, we found weak support for an elevated risk of CWD infection in deer with at least one Glycine (G) at amino acid 56 of the C1qC gene. While we documented numerous amino acid polymorphisms in C1q genes none appear to be strongly associated with CWD susceptibility. PMID:19723593

Blanchong, Julie A; Heisey, Dennis M; Scribner, Kim T; Libants, Scot V; Johnson, Chad; Aiken, Judd M; Langenberg, Julia A; Samuel, Michael D

2009-12-01

49

Intranasal inoculation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with lyophilized chronic wasting disease prion particulate complexed to montmorillonite clay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte), lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure. PMID:23671598

Nichols, Tracy A; Spraker, Terry R; Rigg, Tara D; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Hoover, Clare; Michel, Brady; Bian, Jifeng; Hoover, Edward; Gidlewski, Thomas; Balachandran, Aru; O'Rourke, Katherine; Telling, Glenn C; Bowen, Richard; Zabel, Mark D; VerCauteren, Kurt C

2013-01-01

50

Intranasal Inoculation of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Lyophilized Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Particulate Complexed to Montmorillonite Clay  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte), lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure. PMID:23671598

Nichols, Tracy A.; Spraker, Terry R.; Rigg, Tara D.; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Hoover, Clare; Michel, Brady; Bian, Jifeng; Hoover, Edward; Gidlewski, Thomas; Balachandran, Aru; O'Rourke, Katherine; Telling, Glenn C.; Bowen, Richard

2013-01-01

51

Addendum: Nutrient loading from Ramsay Point and Deer Lake Peat Licences  

Subject: Addendum: Nutrient loading from Ramsay Point and Deer Lake Peat Licences ... Title: Addendum: Nutrient loading from Ramsay Point and Deer Lake Peat Licences ...Addendum: Nutrient loading from Ramsay Point and Deer Lake Peat Licences

52

White-tailed deer ecology and management on Fire Island  

Science.gov (United States)

Deer populations have grown dramatically on Fire Island National Seashore (FIlS) since 1983. Trend data reveal a dichotomy in deer dynamics. In the eastern half of the island, deer density appears to have stabilized between 25-35 deer/km2. In the western half of the island, deer densities are 3-4 times as high in residential communities. Concomitant with that increase has been a general decline in physical stature of some animals, visible impacts on island vegetation, especially in the Sunken Forest, and a perceived increase in the frequency of human and deer interactions. Intensive research on FIlS has shown that deer occupy relatively predictable home ranges throughout the year, but can and do move up and down the island. Impacts of deer on vegetation are most dramatic in the Sunken Forest. Most obvious are the effects of browsing on the herb layer of the Sunken Forest. The least obvious, but perhaps more significant impact is the stark lack of regeneration of canopy tree species since about 1970, which coincides with the initiation of the deer population irruption. A number of herbs and shrubs have been greatly reduced in the understory, and their propagules from the soil. Deer do not readily transmit the bacterium that causes Lyme disease to other organisms, but deer are important hosts for adult ticks which underscores their importance in the transmission pathway of the disease to humans. Deer on FIlS, while occasionally docile, are still wild animals and should be treated as such. Some animals are relatively unafraid of humans due to the absence of predation and a lack of harassment. This in turn has contributed to a longstanding tradition of feeding deer by many residents and visitors, particularly in western portions of the island. Feeding affects both the behavior and population dynamics of deer inhabiting Fire Island. Recent efforts to reduce deer feeding by visitors and residents have been very effective. Ongoing experiments with Porcine Zona Pellucida immunocontraception demonstrate some promise of this technology as a population management tool.. Success appears to be linked directly to factors affecting access to deer, which vary considerably among treatment locations. Continued high National Park Service visibility among communities in the form of interpretive programs, extension and outreach activities, and continued support of research and monitoring of deer and their effects on island biota are keys to successful resolution of persistent issues.

Underwood, H.B.

2005-01-01

53

Comparison of plutonium concentrations in deer from the southeastern United States and in deer from an integrated nuclear fuel cycle facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data are presented of plutonium concentrations and concentration ratios measured in different organs and tissues of deer resident on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) compared with those of deer in neighboring locations. The dose-to-man is calculated from ingestion of the deer meat from approximately 1000 deer harvested each year on SRP during organised hunts. (U.K.)

54

Mesola red deer: physical characteristics, population dynamics and conservation perspectives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The biometry, demography and genetics of red deer Cervus elaphus of Mesola Wood (NE Italy), are presented and discussed in relation to the conservation of this population. Modest body size, low stature, oversimplified antlers and a low reproductive performance characterise red deer from Mesola Wood. The mitochondrial genome showed a private haplotype, different from other red deer in Italy and central Europe. The uniqueness of this n...

Stefano Mattioli; Rosario Fico; Rita Lorenzini; Giovanni Nobili

2003-01-01

55

Mountain lions prey selectively on prion-infected mule deer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The possibility that predators choose prey selectively based on age or condition has been suggested but rarely tested. We examined whether mountain lions (Puma concolor) selectively prey upon mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) infected with chronic wasting disease, a prion disease. We located kill sites of mountain lions in the northern Front Range of Colorado, USA, and compared disease prevalence among lion-killed adult (?2 years old) deer with prevalence among sympatric deer taken by hunters...

Krumm, Caroline E.; Conner, Mary M.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Hunter, Don O.; Miller, Michael W.

2009-01-01

56

An Experimental Test of Factors Attracting Deer Mice into Buildings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the principal reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV). Deer mice use a wide variety of habitats including peridomestic settings in and around human dwellings, their presence in and around homes has been implicated as a risk factor for acquiring Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. Deer mice are believed to enter buildings in order to gain access to a variety of resources including food, bedding material, and better thermal microclimates. However, no one has e...

Kuenzi, Amy J.; Douglass, Richard

2009-01-01

57

Temporal and spatial variation in predation on roe deer fawns  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis deals with variation in mortality of roe deer fawns, over time and in space, caused by red fox and Eurasian lynx predation in a boreal landscape. The thesis considers historic and recent effects of vole population dynamics on red fox predation on roe deer fawns, using long term time series from Grimsö Wildlife Research Area. Historically, the vole population of south-central Sweden has varied cyclically, causing red fox and roe deer fawns to fluctuate synchronically in accordance...

Nordstro?m, Jonas

2010-01-01

58

Dinitrotoluene in deer tissues. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP), Baraboo, Wisconsin, has within a security-fenced area, a herd of whitetail deer. The US Army and the State of Wisconsin, Department of Health and Social Services have determined that approximately 20 of the deer be harvested and tissue samples thus collected be analyzed for 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,4- and 2,6-DNT) by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to a sensitivity of 0.1 part per million (ppm). The HPLC analyses will be done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) following protocol used previously for similar work for other government sites. ORNL shall instruct Olin relative to the quantity and type of tissue required, storage and shipment requirements, and other information to ensure that all protocol and chain of custody requirements are clear. A final report will be made to Olin Corporation upon completion of the HPLC analyses.

Shugart, L.R.

1991-09-30

59

Deer monitoring at the Savannah River Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To protect public health, all deer and feral hogs harvested at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during controlled hunts are monitored for Cs-137. A new monitoring program has been developed by the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS). To provide increased confidence in dose data and compliance with regulations, many changes have been made to the deer and hog monitoring program. Using field count information, a computerized database determines Cs-137 concentration and calculates the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) resulting from consumption of the animal. The database then updates each hunter's cumulative CEDE in real time. Also, enhancements to the instrument calibration and quality control portions of the monitoring program were implemented. These include improved monitor calibration, intercomparison of field results from the same animal using different detectors, and regular use of check sources to verify equipment performance. With these program changes, EMS can produce more accurate and verifiable dose data

60

Season changes in radiocesium contamination of roe deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the results of our studies on Cs 137 contamination of roe deer during the year 2002 in the south of Germany. The contamination of roe deer showed a maximum in September. Comparison with the Cs 137 activity concentration in mushrooms and plants collected from the same area indicated that the autumn peak in radio-caesium contamination of roe deer is correlated with the appearance of mushrooms. Using our data we estimated the equivalent dose per year from radiation received by adult persons due to the consumption of roe deer meat (authors)

 
 
 
 
61

[Review: endemic treponematoses are not always eradicated].  

Science.gov (United States)

Yaws and other endemic treponematoses (bejel or endemic syphilis, pinta) are resurging in many countries of the tropical belt. Today there are more than 2.5 million cases of these diseases, 75% of them in children. More than 100 million additional children are at risk for these disabling and disfiguring infections which destroy tissue and bone. In the 1950's and 1960's, through concerted efforts and leadership of UNICEF and WHO, more than 50 million individuals in 46 countries were cured and the diseases were brought under control or even eliminated from large parts of the world. Despite the success, endemic foci remained and in the last years there has been an alarming resurgence of the endemic treponematoses, in particular in parts of West and Central Africa. Endemic treponematosis control is based on treatment with single-dose penicillin of the entire treponemal reservoir. No instances of penicillin-resistance have been documented and these infections should be eliminated while the organisms still remain sensitive to penicillin. An endemic treponematosis control programme must be fully integrated into the primary health care system and the persistence of endemic treponematoses in an area is an indicator of the failing effectiveness of primary health care. PMID:2682125

De Schryver, A; Meheus, A

1989-01-01

62

Delimiting Areas of Endemism through Kernel Interpolation  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a new approach for identification of areas of endemism, the Geographical Interpolation of Endemism (GIE), based on kernel spatial interpolation. This method differs from others in being independent of grid cells. This new approach is based on estimating the overlap between the distribution of species through a kernel interpolation of centroids of species distribution and areas of influence defined from the distance between the centroid and the farthest point of occurrence of each species. We used this method to delimit areas of endemism of spiders from Brazil. To assess the effectiveness of GIE, we analyzed the same data using Parsimony Analysis of Endemism and NDM and compared the areas identified through each method. The analyses using GIE identified 101 areas of endemism of spiders in Brazil GIE demonstrated to be effective in identifying areas of endemism in multiple scales, with fuzzy edges and supported by more synendemic species than in the other methods. The areas of endemism identified with GIE were generally congruent with those identified for other taxonomic groups, suggesting that common processes can be responsible for the origin and maintenance of these biogeographic units. PMID:25611971

Oliveira, Ubirajara; Brescovit, Antonio D.; Santos, Adalberto J.

2015-01-01

63

[Schistosomiasis endemic in Burkina Faso].  

Science.gov (United States)

Burkina Faso, through the works of many teams of the OCCGE based in Bobo-Dioulasso, has signi-ficant data on several tropical endemics of which schistosomiasis. With the complementary works, it appears to be possible to establish a distribution of the schistosomiasis which reveals its importance. It will be the first stage of the planned national control program. The parasitologic data-gathering which covers the period of 1951 to 2000, used all the standard techniques. It is about Kato-Kartz and MIF for the intestinal schistosomiasis, centrifugation, filtration, serology reagent strips, macroscopy of urines and echography of the urinary system for the urinary schistosomiasis. All the eleven medical areas of the country have many sites submitted to parasitologic investigation. As regard the distribution of the two parasites involved with man (Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni), the data of prevalence (1% to 100%) and their distribution confirm their endemicity and the focal transmission. S. mansoni is located in eight medical areas particularly in the South and the West. S. haematobium is present in all the eleven medical areas of the country. In hydraulic planning as Sourou where the prevalences went from 23% to 70% for S. haematobium and from 0% to 69% for S. mansoni between 1987 and 1998. The situation requires a continuous monitoring. The spatial distribution of the six species of intermediate hosts shows that Bulinus truncatus and B. senegalensis Soudano-Sahelian species are present in all the ecological zones. B. globosus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi meet preferentially in the southern half of the country which reinforces the observation according to which the 14th northern parallel is often considered as the limit of septentrional extension of these two species. The other species Bulinus forskalii and B umbilicatus could have preference areas. All the species show a certain affinity with a type of biotope. The rarity and temporary aquatic systems lead to a concentration of the domestic and especially entertaining children activities around these biotopes very often contaminated. The phenomenon is amplified by the increase of contacts man-water, whose frequency and intensity are themselves dependent on activities related to hydro-agricultural planning. The analysis of the data shows, that in terms of colonization of the biotopes by molluscs and the relations between parasites and intermediate and final hosts, hydraulic planning turns out to be an amplifying factor of the species proliferation and parasitic flux host-parasite. PMID:15104159

Poda, J N; Traoré, A; Sondo, B K

2004-02-01

64

Can coyotes affect deer populations in Southeastern North America?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ABSTRACT The coyote (Canis latrans) is a recent addition to the fauna of eastern North America, and in many areas coyote populations have been established for only a decade or two. Although coyotes are known predators of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in their historic range, effects this new predator may have on eastern deer populations have received little attention. We speculated that in the southeastern United States, coyotes may be affecting deer recruitment, and we present 5 lines of evidence that suggest this possibility. First, the statewide deer population in South Carolina has declined coincident with the establishment and increase in the coyote population. Second, data sets from the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina indicate a new mortality source affecting the deer population concurrent with the increase in coyotes. Third, an index of deer recruitment at SRS declined during the period of increase in coyotes. Fourth, food habits data from SRS indicate that fawns are an important food item for coyotes during summer. Finally, recent research from Alabama documented significant coyote predation on fawns there. Although this evidence does not establish cause and effect between coyotes and observed declines in deer recruitment, we argue that additional research should proactively address this topic in the region. We identified several important questions on the nature of the deer–coyote relationship in the East.

Kilgo, J., C.; Ray, H., Scott; Ruth, Charles; Miller, Karl, V.

2010-07-01

65

Schmallenberg virus infection among red deer, France, 2010-2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schmallenberg virus infection is emerging in European domestic and wild ruminants. We investigated the serologic status of 9 red deer populations to describe virus spread from September 2010 through March 2012 among wildlife in France. Deer in 7 populations exhibited seropositivity, with an average seroprevalence of 20%. PMID:24377838

Laloy, Eve; Bréard, Emmanuel; Sailleau, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Desprat, Alexandra; Zientara, Stéphan; Klein, François; Hars, Jean; Rossi, Sophie

2014-01-01

66

Welfare of farmed deer in New Zealand. 1. Management practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review summarises research of management practices that potentially impact on the welfare of farmed deer. The processes of capture and initial domestication of feral deer caused many welfare problems but are now essentially complete in New Zealand. The health and production status of farmed deer, and readily visible indicators of their welfare are generally good, although preventive medicines and optimum management practices have not been universally adopted. Research into social behaviour, effects of yarding, weaning, mating, calving, shelter, shade and nutrition has identified ways of improving the welfare of farmed deer and has provided recommendations for deer industry quality assurance programmes. Research has identified transport design and practices that minimise the impact of transport on deer welfare and reduce carcass wastage caused by bruising during transport. Time in lairage prior to slaughter should be minimised and electrical stunning is a humane method of slaughter. Ongoing research is needed on management practices and farm environments to further improve the welfare of farmed deer, consistent with the goals of the New Zealand deer industry and its proactive approach to date. PMID:16032276

Pollard, J C; Wilson, P R

2002-12-01

67

Abundance variation of cervids in east lithuania and antlers morphometric characteristics of deer and roe deer in different areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research is made to estimate live stock of Cervidae family animals in east Lithuania territory during winter seasons of 2004 - 2010. Also evaluate 2006 - 2009 in Lithuania hunted roe deer and red deer precious antlers morphometric features of development and differences in individual parts of Lithuania.

Umbrasas, Dainius

2014-01-01

68

A deer cult in Buile Suibhne  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

By saying these words: "Cidh iomdha dom dhamraidh-si " (O'Keeffe, 1913/1996, p. 79) d.l.e. "A mathair na groidhi-si" (ibid.) , at paragraph 40 of the Buile Suibhne, Fer benn, is adressing the same type of spirit as the Tungus do in Anisimov's study "Cosmological concepts of the Peoples of the North", namely Bugady Enintyn. Both are considered a mother and an animal, elk or deer, and both play the same part as guardian of her herds : "The mistress of the earth has a husband--the nameless sheph...

Boucherit, Gilles

2011-01-01

69

An Interdisciplinary Deer and Human Population Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity helps the learner answer the question: "What environmental problems arise due to animal and human overpopulation and what might need to be done to combat these problems?" Learners play a game that simulates population sampling in an imaginary state park. After the game is completed, each park must decide if they are at the carrying capacity for their park or out of equilibrium. Learners write a proposal detailing how they plan to correct their deer population problem and present it to the group (the Department of Natural Resources). This lesson is described as an interdisciplinary unit and includes literature and math curriculum connections.

Webb, William J.

2009-01-01

70

THE AXIS DEER (AXIS AXIS IN BRIJUNI NATIONAL PARK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The axis deer (Axis axis was imported from Germany and introduced into Brijuni in 1911. Brijuni are a group of islands in the Adriatic Sea along the western coast of the southern peak of the Istrian Peninsula in the Republic of Croatia. In 1983 the area was declared a National Park. The objective of this paper was to research the adaptation of the axis deer to living conditions on the islands. Observation has shown that on the Brijuni islands the axis deer lives in herds comprising 10 to 30 individuals. The youngest male deer seeking access to does was four years old, while at the age of fi ve they started roaring. Deer fi ghts are not frequent during roaring period. The natural grazing rhythm is disturbed by the vast number of tourists. The calving periods of the axis deer during the year indicate three well-pronounced ruts, namely January to February, July-August and October-November. They also show that oestrus occurs soon after calving in most of the females. Gestation period of does is 7 to 7.8 months. 85% of the does on the Brijuni Islands produce their offspring in the warmer part of the year, between 1 March and 31 September. The population of the axis deer in the area of the Brijuni National Park is stable, rather numerous (about 100 individuals and well acclimatized, and as such it presents reproductive material suitable to populate enclosed hunting grounds and big game farms.

Nikica Šprem

2008-11-01

71

Clinical significance of neurocysticercosis in endemic villages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cerebral cysticercosis is the main cause of late-onset epilepsy in most developing countries. Data on the neuroepidemiology of cysticercosis in endemic populations is scarce. In an endemic village on the northern coast of Peru, 49 individuals with neurological symptomatology (41 epileptic and 8 non-epileptic) were screened for antibodies to Taenia solium, using a serum electroimmuno transfer blot assay. Fifteen subjects were seropositive, 14 (34%) of those with epilepsy but only one (13%) of those who were non-epileptic. A history of passing proglottides was associated with positive serology. Thirteen of the 15 seropositive individuals underwent cerebral computed tomography; only 7 (54%) were abnormal. A randomly selected sample of 20 pigs from the village was also tested, and 6 (30%) were seropositive. This study demonstrated the importance of cysticercosis in the aetiology of epilepsy in endemic villages and the close relationship between porcine and human infection

72

Prevention of endemic goitre with iodized salt*  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper describes a study, carried out over 16 years, of the use of iodized salt for the control of endemic goitre in a valley of the Himalayan foothills. From 1956, salt was fortified with either potassium iodide or potassium iodate to provide an estimated daily intake of 200 ?g per head. There was a progressive and significant decline in goitre prevalence, together with a return of the pattern of iodine metabolism to within normal limits. It is concluded that endemic goitre can be successfully controlled by iodization of domestic salt. PMID:4546523

Sooch, S. S.; Deo, M. G.; Karmarkar, M. G.; Kochupillai, N.; Ramachandran, K.; Ramalingaswami, V.

1973-01-01

73

Evaluating immunocontraception for managing suburban white-tailed deer in Irondequoit, New York  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunocontraception is frequently proposed as an alternative to lethal removal of females for deer management. However, little information is available for evaluating the potential of applying immunocontraceptives to free-ranging populations. Our objectives were to estimate effort required to apply porcine zona pellucida (PZP) to individual deer and assess the utility of using immunocontraception to control growth of deer populations. The study was conducted in a 43-km2 suburban community with about 400 deer. Effort per deer was measured as time required to capture and mark deer, and then to apply booster immunocontraceptive treatments by remote injection. Estimates of numbers of females to treat to control population growth were based on the generalized sustained-yield (SY) model adapted for contraception of females. The SY curve was calibrated using data on deer abundance acquired from aerial population surveys and nutritional condition of females removed by a concurrent culling program. Effort was influenced by 4 factors: deer population density, approachability of individual deer, access to private and public land, and efficacy of the contraceptive treatment. Effort and deer density were inversely related. Cumulative effort for treatment increased exponentially because some deer were more difficult to approach than others. Potential of using immunocontraception at low deer population densities (deer populations between 30 and 70% of ecological carrying capacity, but is likely to be useful only in localized populations when the number of females to be treated is small (e.g., deer).

Rudolph, B.A.; Porter, W.F.; Underwood, H.B.

2000-01-01

74

Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission  

Science.gov (United States)

The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer ( Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission.

Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji

2008-03-01

75

Experimental Treatment of Fallow Deer (Dama dama with Abamectin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Macrolide Endectocides (ME are antiparasitic agents that are daily applied in pharmacotherapy of food-producing animals. Worldwide numbers of pharmacokinetics studies performed on various matrixes of domestic animals with diverse detection methods for ME determination were developed. However only few studies on deer matrixes were published although ME are licensed and in use for treatment of red deer, fallow deer and reindeer in some countries of European Union, America and Australia. The purpose of this study was to follow some pharmacokinetic parameters of abamectin in fallow deer plasma 48 h after subcutaneous application of therapeutic dose. Biochemical and haematological parameters were also followed for 120 h after application of antiparasitic agent.

A. Vengust

2007-01-01

76

Reproductive biology of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus is a South American grazing deer which is in extreme danger of extinction. Very little is known about the biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, most information has not been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, and is only available in local publications, theses, etc. Therefore, our aim was to update and summarize the available information regarding the reproductive biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, in most sections, we have also included new, unpublished information. Detailed descriptions are provided of the anatomy of both the female and the male reproductive tract, puberty onset, the oestrous cycle and gestational length. Birthing and the early postpartum period are described, as are maternal behaviour and early fawn development, seasonal distribution of births, seasonal changes in male reproduction and antler cycle, reproductive behaviour, semen collection, and cryopreservation. Finally, an overview is given and future directions of research are proposed.

Olazabal Daniel

2008-06-01

77

Identification and characterization of deer astroviruses  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The threat of emerging infectious viruses in humans requires a more effective approach regarding virus surveillance. A thorough understanding of virus diversity in wildlife provides epidemiological baseline information about pathogens and may lead to the identification of newly emerging pathogens in the future. In this study, diarrhoea samples from an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness in a Danish population of European roe deer were gathered for which no aetiological agent could be identified. Large-scale molecular RNA virus screening, based on host nucleic acid depletion, sequence-independent amplification and sequencing of partially purified viral RNA, revealed the presence of novel astroviruses, CcAstV-1 and CcAstV-2, in two of ten diarrhoea samples. Whether these viruses were responsible for causing diarrhoea remains to be determined. Phylogenetic analyses on amplified sequences showed that these viruses were most closely related to each other, were a novel species in the genus Mamastrovirus and may represent two different serotypes.

Smits, Saskia L.; van Leeuwen, Marije

2010-01-01

78

Arterial thoracic vascularization in some deer species: pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) and axis deer (Axis axis).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the arterial distributions of the aortic arches of three deer species (Axis axis, Ozotoceros bezoarticus and Mazama gouazoubira) were described. The animals were dissected immediately after being found dead. Latex injection method was used to observe the vascularization of the thorax. The branching pattern of the arteries of the thoracic aorta in O. bezoarticus was similar to domestic ruminants. In the M. gouazoubira and A. axis, there were no bicarotid trunk. Interestingly, the first branch of the brachiocephalic trunk was the left costocervical trunk in A. axis. Then, brachiocephalic trunk was divided into right and left subclavian arteries. M. gouazoubira and A. axis in contrast to O. bezoarticus were different when compared with other ruminants, and the absence of bicarotid trunk was more striking than previous reports. PMID:24611999

Pérez, W; Erdo?an, S

2014-12-01

79

Melatonin Promotes Superovulation in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, the effects of melatonin (MT) on superovulation and reproductive hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and PRL) were investigated in female sika deer. Different doses (40 or 80 mg/animal) of melatonin were subcutaneously implanted into deer before the breeding season. Exogenous melatonin administration significantly elevated the serum FSH levels at the time of insemination compared with levels in control animals. During superovulation...

Liang Wang; Zhi-Yong Zhuo; Wen-Qing Shi; Dun-Xian Tan; Chao Gao; Xiu-Zhi Tian; Lu Zhang; Guang-Bin Zhou; Shi-En Zhu; Peng Yun; Guo-Shi Liu

2014-01-01

80

Do Pčre David's Deer Lose Memories of Their Ancestral Predators?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Whether prey retains antipredator behavior after a long period of predator relaxation is an important question in predator-prey evolution. Pčre David's deer have been raised in enclosures for more than 1200 years and this isolation provides an opportunity to study whether Pčre David's deer still respond to the cues of their ancestral predators or to novel predators. We played back the sounds of crows (familiar sound) and domestic dogs (familiar non-predators), of tigers and wolves (ancestra...

Li, Chunwang; Yang, Xiaobo; Ding, Yuhua; Zhang, Linyuan; Fang, Hongxia; Tang, Songhua; Jiang, Zhigang

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Voriconazole Use for Endemic Fungal Infections?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a retrospective review of 24 patients with histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, or coccidioidomycosis treated with voriconazole (most for salvage therapy), the outcome was favorable (improved or stable) for 22 (95.8%) within 2 months of starting voriconazole and for 20 (83.3%) at the last follow-up. Prospective studies are required to determine its role in the treatment of endemic mycoses.

Freifeld, Alison; Proia, Laurie; Andes, David; Baddour, Larry M.; Blair, Janis; Spellberg, Brad; Arnold, Sandra; Lentnek, Arnold; Wheat, L. Joseph

2009-01-01

82

Melatonin Promotes Superovulation in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the effects of melatonin (MT on superovulation and reproductive hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and PRL were investigated in female sika deer. Different doses (40 or 80 mg/animal of melatonin were subcutaneously implanted into deer before the breeding season. Exogenous melatonin administration significantly elevated the serum FSH levels at the time of insemination compared with levels in control animals. During superovulation, the serum LH levels in donor sika deer reached their highest values (7.1 ± 2.04 ng/mL at the point of insemination, compared with the baseline levels (4.98 ± 0.07 ng/mL in control animals. This high level of LH was sustained until the day of embryo recovery. In contrast, the serum levels of PRL in the 80 mg of melatonin-treated group were significantly lower than those of control deer. The average number of corpora lutea in melatonin-treated deer was significantly higher than that of the control (p < 0.05. The average number of embryos in the deer treated with 40 mg of melatonin was higher than that of the control; however, this increase did not reach significant difference (p > 0.05, which may be related to the relatively small sample size. In addition, embryonic development in melatonin-treated groups was delayed.

Liang Wang

2014-07-01

83

Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd's unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd's overall health and reproductive status

84

Radiological surveys of deer harvests on the Oak Ridge Reservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rapidly increasing number of deer/vehicle collisions on the Oak Ridge Reservation and contiguous lands resulted in the need for an aggressive method of reducing the deer population. Managed hunts on the reservation was the method chosen for this reduction, and the Oak Ridge Wildlife Management Area was established in November 1984. Because of possible radiological contamination of the deer herd from the three major nuclear installations on the reservation, a rigorous radiological survey of all harvested deer was deemed necessary to ensure that successful hunters or their families would not be exposed to excess radiation dose from the consumption of venison from the managed hunts. Data collected from previous vehicle-killed deer showed the possibility of contamination from 137Cs, 90Sr, 60Co, and 75Se. Methodology for 90Sr screening at a 0.25-mSv commitment required special considerations for field analysis since 90Sr decays by beta emission. A versatile data-base program was established with a personal computer system to handle the copious data related to both radiological and biological parameters collected during the harvest. The field screen values were verified by subsequent laboratory analyses utilizing Cerenkov counting. These verification analyses proved the utility of the field methodology for 90Sr detection in deer bones at the 1 Bq/g screening leveling level

85

Factors Affecting the Winter-Feeding Ecology of Red Deer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Characteristics of browsing the forest regenerations and the consumption of supplementary given food of red deer were investigated. On a 10,000 ha territory managed by a forest management unit all the regenerations were fenced in due to the high browsing pressure. In the course of the experiment three plots of 0.5 ha-s each regenerated by oak (Querqus robur were left unfenced. On the side of one plot a feeding station was built in which sugar beet slices were given supplementary. On the side of another plot maize fodder was offered, while the third one served as a control. All three plots were surrounded by sandy bands, to be able to count how many deer stepped in weekly the respective plot. During the freeze days deer used significantly less the regeneration plots, and consequently browsed less. The same was found during the snow cover. Although snow was as shallow as 5 cm in average, it caused a change in feeding strategy of deer. Regenerations covered by snow did not offer enough forage anymore, because the hiding of the forbs and grasses. On weeks with snow cover red deer consumed significantly more sugar beet slices, than on weeks without snow. On the days without snow cover the later the week during the winter was, the more sugar beet was consumed. Browsing pressure caused in average by one deer in the neighbouring of the feeding stations was significantly increased by giving supplementary maize or sugar beet slices.

Náhlik, A.

2005-06-01

86

Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd`s unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd`s overall health and reproductive status.

Tiller, B.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Poston, T.M. [and others

1997-03-01

87

Effect of pelvic suspension on the instrumental meat quality characteristics of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) venison.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of pelvic and Achilles tendon suspension of red and fallow deer carcasses on meat quality parameters were compared. Venison was evaluated from red deer stags (n=14), bucks (n=14) and fallow deer does (n=10) between 12 and 36months old. Immediately after slaughter, carcasses were split down the dorsal midline and assigned to one of the two hanging methods and pH and core body temperature measured. Twenty-four hours post-slaughter muscles were excised. Venison from fallow deer and red deer stags pelvic-suspended had significantly lower (Pdeer industry to increase tenderness of venison. PMID:24922603

Hutchison, C L; Mulley, R C; Wiklund, E; Flesch, J S; Sims, K

2014-10-01

88

Endemic harvestmen and spiders of Austria (Arachnida: Opiliones, Araneae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri) and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa) nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus), beside 9 sub...

Komposch, Christian

2012-01-01

89

76 FR 35467 - Deer and Vegetation Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Fire Island National Seashore...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Fire Island National Seashore, New York AGENCY...a Deer and Vegetation Management Plan, Fire Island National Seashore, New York...Deer and Vegetation Management Plan at Fire Island National Seashore, New York....

2011-06-17

90

Minimizing capture-related stress on white-tailed deer with a capture collar  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared the effect of 3 capture methods for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on blood indicators of acute excitement and stress from 1 February to 20 April 1989. Eleven adult females were captured by Clover trap or cannon net between 1 February and 9 April 1989 in northeastern Minnesota [USA]. These deer were fitted with radio-controlled capture collars, and 9 deer were recaptured 7-33 days later. Trapping method affected serum cortisol (P deer (0.54 .+-. 0.07 [SE] .mu.g/dL) compared to Clover-trapped (4.37 .+-. 0.69 .mu.g/dL) and cannon-netted (3.88 .+-. 0.82 .mu.g/dL) deer. Capture-collared deer were minimally stressed compared to deer captured by traditional methods. Use of the capture collar should permit more accurate interpretation of blood profiles of deer for assessement of condition and general health.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

1990-01-01

91

[Ethmoid tumors in moose and roe deer].  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethmoid tumors are expansively-infiltratively growing tumors of carcinomatous or sarcomatous nature, deriving from the mucous membrane of the ethmoid bone. In Sweden, such tumors were found in 35 elks (Alces a. alces) and 4 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) during the years 1947-1982, that means a frequency of about 1 and 0.1 per cent, respectively of the investigation material. However, in the free living elk and roe deer population, the frequency might be much lower. The tumors were malign, extensively melting the soft and hard tissues of the ethmoid region, breaking into the brain cavity, the forehead subcutaneous tissues, etc. Symptoms as suppurative or bloody discharge at the nose, external outline aberrations and disorders to be related to injuries of the central nervous system were observed. In the elk, ethmoid tumors were found only in female animals. In the beginning of this century, ethmoid tumors were found in a number of cattle and horses in Sweden and Norway. Multiple cases occurred in some herds indicating that the tumors were caused by an infectious agent. Since the year 1916, there seem to be no reports on the finding of ethmoid tumors in domestic animals in the Nordic countries. In 1960, however, such tumors were discovered in Indian cattle in Kerala in the south of India. Tumor tissue from the cattle was examined and a herpes-virus was found. Geographically, the distribution of the tumor cases in cattle and elk was very similar in Sweden indicating a possible mutual transmission. As the tumors obviously have disappeared from cattle but not from the elk, it seems likely that the elk might be the primary carrier of the ethmoid tumor. Ethmoid tumors have been observed for many years in Scandinavia but only rather recently they were discovered in India. It has been known for long that birds after contamination might be involved in the spread of virus diseases, provided the virus are reasonably resistant. In the actual case, the suspicion has mainly been directed at three bird species, viz. the blue throat (Luscinia svecica), the scarlet grosbeak (Erythrina erythrina) and the red-necked phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus). In spring and summer, these birds periodically reside in elk habitat where they might be contaminated. In the autumn, they may extend their migration to the southern parts of India. PMID:2993995

Borg, K; Nilsson, P O

1985-01-01

92

Naturalization of fallow-deer in the territory of Raseiniai forest enterprise  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Object of work. Fallow-deer living in Blinstrubišk?s Forest and enclosure of Raseiniai Forest Enterprise Vidukl? Forest District. Objective of work – to examine the course of fallow-deer naturalization in the territory of Raseiniai Forest Enterprise. Methods of work – Assessment of the suitability of dwelling surroundings Quantitative and qualitative counting of fallow-deer in the enclosure by the feeding place Counting of freely-roaming fallow-deer by excrements. Impact...

Marcinkus, Mindaugas

2011-01-01

93

Fatty Acid Profiles and Cholesterol Composition of Venison from Farmed Deer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is important to evaluate venison characteristics as a new high quality red meat in the meat marketing system. This information is vital to ensure their commercial success and dietary benefits. The aim of this study is to determine the venison quality from farmed deer according to cuts or muscles based on fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content and to do comparative study on venison quality between species of farmed deer (rusa, sambar, fallow and imported red deer and feeding regimens, i.e., grass-fed vs concentrate-fed venison. The samples of venison were derived from javan rusa (Cervus timorensis russa, moluccan rusa (Cervus timorensis moluccensis, sambar (Cervus unicolor brookei, fallow (Dama dama and imported red deer (Cervus elaphus. Moluccan rusa and red deer were grass-fed deer. Javan rusa, sambar and fallow deer were concentrate-fed deer. Cholesterol content in Longissimus Dorsi (LD muscles of sambar, fallow and rusa deer were 75.36, 76.61 and 77.58 mg/100g of fresh venison, respectively. Cholesterol content in Biceps Femoris (BF muscles of moluccan rusa, sambar, fallow and red deer were 56.61, 59.26, 86.37 and 98.44 mg/100g of fresh venison, respectively. Concentrate-fed deer LD and Psoas Major (PM muscles show higher C18:2 (n-6 than grass-fed deer. Grass-fed rusa deer shows the highest C18:3 (n- 3 percentages in PM muscle. Grass-fed rusa and red deer gave an ideal n-6:n-3 ratio of less than 5. Species of deer did not influence n-6:n-3 ratio and fatty acid composition in venison. Feeding regimens (grass-fed vs concentrate-fed significantly (p< 0.05 influence n-6:n-3 ratio, fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content in the venison of farmed deer in this study.

N.A. Norfarizan-Hanoon

2007-01-01

94

Calving pattern on captive sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) in East Kalimantan  

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Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) is the biggest of tropical deer with its distribution in Indonesia limited to Kalimantan and Sumatera islands and neighboring islands near Sumatera. Several countries such as Malaysia and Thailand have been developing their tropical deer farming, whereas in Indonesia they are still in its infancy, as captive breeding. The knowledge on the biology of reproduction from tropical deer is still limited, particularly those under their natural habitat. An evaluation on ...

ANDI TRASODIHARTO; Made Jaya Adhi, I. G.; GONO SEMIADI

2005-01-01

95

Endemic mycoses in AIDS: a clinical review.  

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Histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis are serious opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS who reside in areas of endemicity of the United States and Central and South America. Blastomycosis, although less common, also must be recognized as an opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS. Prompt diagnosis requires knowledge of the clinical syndromes and diagnostic tests as well as a high index of suspicion. Histoplasmosis and blastomycosis respond well to antifungal treatment, but rela...

Wheat, J.

1995-01-01

96

Toponyms for centers of endemism in Madagascar  

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A biogeographical model was proposed in 2006 to explain the centers of endemism and the importance of riparian for­est of some watersheds as refuges or dispersal corridors during paleoclimatic oscillations. Here, we consider these geographical features highlighting their biological and socio-cultural importance. We explain the etymology or eponymy of the major rivers of the retreat-dispersal watersheds, i.e., the drainage basins of Bemarivo, Antainambalana, Mangoro, Manampatrana, Mananara So...

Eric Mathieu; Derek Schuurman; Rainer Dolch; Mamy Ravokatra; Lucienne Wilmé; Harald Schuetz; Waeber, Patrick O.

2012-01-01

97

Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity  

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Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diver...

Wanger, Thomas C.; Wielgoss, Arno C.; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W.; Sodhi, Navjot S.; Tscharntke, Teja

2010-01-01

98

Melatonin promotes superovulation in sika deer (Cervus nippon).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the effects of melatonin (MT) on superovulation and reproductive hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and PRL) were investigated in female sika deer. Different doses (40 or 80 mg/animal) of melatonin were subcutaneously implanted into deer before the breeding season. Exogenous melatonin administration significantly elevated the serum FSH levels at the time of insemination compared with levels in control animals. During superovulation, the serum LH levels in donor sika deer reached their highest values (7.1±2.04 ng/mL) at the point of insemination, compared with the baseline levels (4.98±0.07 ng/mL) in control animals. This high level of LH was sustained until the day of embryo recovery. In contrast, the serum levels of PRL in the 80 mg of melatonin-treated group were significantly lower than those of control deer. The average number of corpora lutea in melatonin-treated deer was significantly higher than that of the control (p0.05), which may be related to the relatively small sample size. In addition, embryonic development in melatonin-treated groups was delayed. PMID:25007067

Wang, Liang; Zhuo, Zhi-Yong; Shi, Wen-Qing; Tan, Dun-Xian; Gao, Chao; Tian, Xiu-Zhi; Zhang, Lu; Zhou, Guang-Bin; Zhu, Shi-En; Yun, Peng; Liu, Guo-Shi

2014-01-01

99

Removal of cesium from red deer meat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect was studied of marinading on the reduction of cesium radionuclide activity in red deer meat contaminated by ingestion of feed containing 134Cs+137Cs from radioactive fallout following the Chernobyl accident. Two types of marinade were studied, viz., a vinegar infusion and a vinegar infusion with an addition of vegetables and spices. The meat was chopped to cubes of about 1.5 cm in size and the marinading process took place at temperatures of 5 and 11 degC. The drop of cesium content in the meat was determined by gamma spectrometry at given time intervals. The replacement of the marinade and the duration of the process were found to maximally affect efficiency. If the solution was not replaced, about 80% of cesium radionuclides were removed after seven hours of marinading. With one replacement of the infusion the drop in 134Cs+137Cs radioactivity amounted to up to 90% after seven hours of marinading. No effects were shown of vegetable additions to the vinegar infusion and of the change in temperature from 5 to 11 degC on the efficiency of the process. (author). 3 tabs., 6 refs

100

78 FR 44148 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Antietam, Monocacy, Manassas White-tailed Deer...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Management Plan provides a lethal deer reduction option through the...capture and euthanasia to reduce deer populations to the target density...maintain that level. Donation of meat would also occur, subject to...Alternative D of the White-tailed Deer Management Plan provides a...

2013-07-23

 
 
 
 
101

Abomasal ulcers in captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Abomasal ulceration was noted in 32 of 200 white-tailed deer. Ulceration was most common in the abomasal pylorus and at the abomasal-duodenal junction. Abomasal ulceration was characterized by focal to multifocal, sharply demarcated areas of coagulation necrosis and haemorrhage extending through the mucosa, with fibrin thrombi in mucosal blood vessels of small diameter. Ulcerated areas were often covered by a mixture of mucus, debris and neutrophils. Visible bacteria were not associated with ulcerative lesions. All deer with abomasal ulceration had intercurrent disease, including bacterial pneumonia, enterocolitis, intussusception, chronic diarrhoea, capture myopathy, or experimentally induced tuberculosis. The anatomical distribution of abomasal ulcers in this population of captive white-tailed deer resembled that seen in veal calves. PMID:11578141

Palmer, M V; Waters, W R; Whipple, D L

2001-01-01

102

THE YIELD OF DNA IN THERMAL TERATED DEER MEAT  

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Full Text Available Residuals of DNA are one of the most important factors for detection, traceability and reverse authentication of deer meat. In this project we isolated DNA from deer processed meat and analysed by electrophoresis. Goal of the study was compute ratio between raw meat and several heat processed deer meat. Samples were prepared by five heat treatment techniques (pan roasted with temperature 180-240°C, fried with 156°C, braised with temperature 100-150°C, boiled in 100.2°C water and autoclaved in different time intervals. The highest amount of residual DNA 1927ng was obtained with two hours boiled sample. The lowest value 89.89ng was obtained with one hour braised sample. In technological adjustments highest amount of DNA and 1927ng, so the total yield of 192.7ng.-l was observed in the sample we cooked for two hours at boiling temperature.   doi:10.5219/153 

Jozef Golian

2011-07-01

103

Experimental and Field Studies of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in White-Tailed Deer  

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Studies were conducted to evaluate fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a small group of inoculated deer, determine the prevalence of the bacterium in free-ranging white-tailed deer, and elucidate relationships between E. coli O157:H7 in wild deer and domestic cattle at the same site. Six young, white-tailed deer were orally administered 108 CFU of E. coli O157:H7. Inoculated deer were shedding E. coli O157:H7 by 1 day postinoculation (DPI) and continued to shed decreasing numbers of...

Fischer, John R.; Zhao, Tong; Doyle, Michael P.; Goldberg, Martin R.; Brown, Cathy A.; Sewell, Christopher T.; Kavanaugh, Darrell M.; Bauman, Christopher D.

2001-01-01

104

A 3-decade dearth of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a wolf (Canis lupus)-dominated ecosystem  

Science.gov (United States)

Some 30 years after wolves (Canis lupus) were implicated in decimating wintering white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a 3000-km2 area of northeastern Minnesota, winter deer still have not recolonized the area. Although habitat in the study area generally remains poor, some regeneration has taken place, and deer have increased adjacent to the area. However, wolf numbers have persisted by preying on moose (Alces alces). We could detect no reason other than wolf predation and deer migration traditions for why wintering deer have not recolonized the area.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

2006-01-01

105

Reindeer warble fly larvae found in red deer  

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Full Text Available Seven third instar larvae of the reindeer warble fly (Hypoderma (=Oedemagena tarandi were found in a 2-3 year old male red deer {Cervus elaphus shot on 14 November 1985 at Todalen, western Norway. This it, the first report of H. tarandi from red deer. In reindeer third instar larvae are found from February to June, and the unusual date of this record indicates a delayed development of the larvae due to abnormal host reactions. Warble fly larvae, probably H. tarandi, are also reported from moose {Alces alces in northern Norway.

A. C. Nilssen

1988-06-01

106

Glycolytic potential and ultimate muscle pH values in red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama  

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Full Text Available The ultimate pH value of meat (measured at approx. 24 hours post slaughter gives information about the technological quality, i.e. shelf life, colour, water-holding properties and tenderness and is a direct consequence of muscle glycogen (energy levels at slaughter. It may therefore also indicate whether or not the animal has been exposed to stressful energy depleting events prior to slaughter. In the present study, 141 animals (130 red deer (Cervus elaphus and 11 fallow deer (Dama dama were included to investigate the relationship between ultimate pH and residual glycogen concentration in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus. In addition, the muscle glycogen content and ultimate pH values in three red deer muscles (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus and biceps femoris were studied. M. triceps brachii had higher ultimate pH and lower glycogen content compared with the other two studied muscles. The frequency of intermediate DFD (5.8? pH<6.2 was 5.4% in red deer M. longissimus, compared with 9.1% in fallow deer, while the frequency of DFD (pH? 6.2 was much lower in red deer (3.8% than in fallow deer (54.5%. A curvilinear relationship between ultimate pH and total glucose concentration (glycogen and glucose 30 min post slaughter in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus was found. The relationship between muscle pH and lactic acid concentration however, was indicated to be linear. A significant variation in total glucose concentration at ultimate pH below 5.80 was observed, including values in the range from 18 to 123 mmol/kg wet tissue. It was concluded that further studies are needed to further explore the relationship between muscle glycogen content and technological and sensory quality attributes of meat from different deer species.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:Köttets pH-värde (mätt ca 24 timmar efter slakt har stor betydelse för den teknologiska kvaliteten som t. ex. hĺllbarhet, färg, vattenhĺllande förmĺga och mörhet. Glykogenförrĺdet (energinivĺn i djurens muskulatur vid slakt är helt avgörande för köttets slutliga pH-värde. Därför kan pH-värdet ocksĺ indikera om hanteringen av slaktdjur varit skonsam eller om stora mängder muskelenergi har förbrukats vid stress. I vĺr undersökning ingick 141 hjortar (130 kronhjortar (Cervus elaphus och 11 dovhjortar (Dama dama för att studera sambandet mellan köttets pH-värde och glykogeninnehĺllet i M. longissimus. Glykogeninnehĺll och pH-värden i 3 muskler frĺn kronhjort (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus och biceps femoris undersöktes ocksĺ. M. triceps brachii hade högre pH-värde och lägre glykogeninnehĺll jämfört med de tvĺ andra musklerna. Det var inte sĺ stor skillnad i frekvensen av intermediär DFD (pH-värden mellan 5,8 og 6,2 mellan de tvĺ hjortarterna (5,4% för kronhjort och 9,1% för dovhjort, däremot var frekvensen av DFD (pH-värden över 6,2 mycket lĺg hos kronhjort (3,8% jämfört med dovhjort (54,5%. Det fanns ett kurvlinjärt samband mellan slutligt pH-värde i köttet och total glukoskoncentration (glykogen + glukos mätt i M. longissimus 30 min efter slakt för bĺde kron- och dovhjort. Ett linjärt samband mellan pH-värde och koncentration av mjölksyra i M. longissimus kunde ocksĺ visas. Vi fann en mycket stor varitation i glukoskoncentration (18?123 mmol/kg vĺtvikt när köttets pH-värdet var 5,8 eller lägre. Det behövs fler undersökningar för att vidare klargöra sambanden mellan glykogeninnehĺll i muskulaturen och teknologisk och sensorisk kvalitet i olika typer av hjortkött.

Eva Wiklund

2004-04-01

107

Glycolytic potential and ultimate muscle pH values in red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The ultimate pH value of meat (measured at approx. 24 hours post slaughter gives information about the technological quality, i.e. shelf life, colour, water-holding properties and tenderness and is a direct consequence of muscle glycogen (energy levels at slaughter. It may therefore also indicate whether or not the animal has been exposed to stressful energy depleting events prior to slaughter. In the present study, 141 animals (130 red deer (Cervus elaphus and 11 fallow deer (Dama dama were included to investigate the relationship between ultimate pH and residual glycogen concentration in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus. In addition, the muscle glycogen content and ultimate pH values in three red deer muscles (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus and biceps femoris were studied. M. triceps brachii had higher ultimate pH and lower glycogen content compared with the other two studied muscles. The frequency of intermediate DFD (5.8? pH<6.2 was 5.4% in red deer M. longissimus, compared with 9.1% in fallow deer, while the frequency of DFD (pH? 6.2 was much lower in red deer (3.8% than in fallow deer (54.5%. A curvilinear relationship between ultimate pH and total glucose concentration (glycogen and glucose 30 min post slaughter in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus was found. The relationship between muscle pH and lactic acid concentration however, was indicated to be linear. A significant variation in total glucose concentration at ultimate pH below 5.80 was observed, including values in the range from 18 to 123 mmol/kg wet tissue. It was concluded that further studies are needed to further explore the relationship between muscle glycogen content and technological and sensory quality attributes of meat from different deer species.

Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:

Köttets pH-värde (mätt ca 24 timmar efter slakt har stor betydelse för den teknologiska kvaliteten som t. ex. hĺllbarhet, färg, vattenhĺllande förmĺga och mörhet. Glykogenförrĺdet (energinivĺn i djurens muskulatur vid slakt är helt avgörande för köttets slutliga pH-värde. Därför kan pH-värdet ocksĺ indikera om hanteringen av slaktdjur varit skonsam eller om stora mängder muskelenergi har förbrukats vid stress. I vĺr undersökning ingick 141 hjortar (130 kronhjortar (Cervus elaphus och 11 dovhjortar (Dama dama för att studera sambandet mellan köttets pH-värde och glykogeninnehĺllet i M. longissimus. Glykogeninnehĺll och pH-värden i 3 muskler frĺn kronhjort (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus och biceps femoris undersöktes ocksĺ. M. triceps brachii hade högre pH-värde och lägre glykogeninnehĺll jämfört med de tvĺ andra musklerna. Det var inte sĺ stor skillnad i frekvensen av intermediär DFD (pH-värden mellan 5,8 og 6,2 mellan de tvĺ hjortarterna (5,4% för kronhjort och 9,1% för dovhjort, däremot var frekvensen av DFD (pH-värden över 6,2 mycket lĺg hos kronhjort (3,8% jämfört med dovhjort (54,5%. Det fanns ett kurvlinjärt samband mellan slutligt pH-värde i köttet och total glukoskoncentration (glykogen + glukos mätt i M. longissimus 30 min efter slakt för bĺde kron- och dovhjort. Ett linjärt samband mellan pH-värde och koncentration av mjölksyra i M. longissimus kunde ocksĺ visas. Vi fann en mycket stor varitation i glukoskoncentration (18?123 mmol/kg vĺtvikt när köttets pH-värdet var 5,8 eller lägre. Det behövs fler undersökningar för att vidare klargöra sambanden mellan glykogeninnehĺll i muskulaturen och teknologisk och sensorisk kvalitet i olika typer av hjortkött.

Roger P. Littlejohn

2004-04-01

108

The Association of BDNF Gene Variants with Behaviour Traits in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon  

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Full Text Available It is widely accepted that Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF is involved in modulating behaviour performance induced by environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to study polymorphisms of the BDNF gene and their relationship with animal behaviour in sika deer (Cervus nippon. About 48 sika deer reared under Ping-Shan-Tang Farm (25 deers and Zhu-Yu-Wan Park (23 deers, Yangzhou City, Jiangsu province, China were observed and blood samples taken to identify BDNF genotypes. Data were subjected to ANOVA analysis to evaluate the link between genotype and animal behaviour traits. After PCR and electrophoresis, polymorphisms were found in two pairs of primers. At primer P-4, AA genotype (26 deer rested significantly less than BB genotype (16 deers (p<0.05. The AA genotype deer also performed significantly more locomotion behaviour (p = 0.001. At the primer P-5, deer of genotypes CC/DD/CD differed significantly in their watching behaviour. Deer of genotype CC performed significantly less resting and self-grooming behaviour than deer of genotypes CD or DD (both p<0.05. The findings suggest that polymorphisms in BDNF may be involved in some aspects of animal behaviour traits especially in the high sensitive sika deer reared for several years in China park.

Wei Wan-Hong

2011-01-01

109

Toponyms for centers of endemism in Madagascar  

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Full Text Available A biogeographical model was proposed in 2006 to explain the centers of endemism and the importance of riparian for­est of some watersheds as refuges or dispersal corridors during paleoclimatic oscillations. Here, we consider these geographical features highlighting their biological and socio-cultural importance. We explain the etymology or eponymy of the major rivers of the retreat-dispersal watersheds, i.e., the drainage basins of Bemarivo, Antainambalana, Mangoro, Manampatrana, Mananara South, Mandrare, Onilahy, Mangoky, Tsiribihina, Betsiboka, Maevarano, Sambirano, and Mahavavy North. We propose a toponymy for each of the 15 centers of endemism and highlight their peculiarities. We named the cent­ers of endemism of Vohimarina, Masoala, Analanjirofo, Tanala, Manombo, Anosy, Ranopiso, Karimbola, Mikea, Menabe, Melaky, Sofia, Ampasindava, Ankify, and Ankarana. We illustrate each center of endemism with a flagship spe­cies and report on its natural and cultural histories, and conservation. RÉSUMÉUn modčle biogéographique a été proposé en 2006 pour expliquer les centres d’endémisme de la biodiversité et l’importance des ripisylves de certains bassins versants en tant que refuges ou couloirs de dispersion au cours des oscillations paléoclimatiques. Ici, nous considérons ces dispositifs géographiques en soulignant leur importance biologique et socioculturelle. Dans un premier temps, nous expliquons la toponymie ou l’éponymie des grands fleuves des bassins refuges et de dispersion, ŕ savoir les bassins de la Bemarivo, de l’Antainambalana, du Mangoro, de la Manampatrana, de la Mananara du Sud, du Mandrare, de l’Onilahy, du Mangoky, de la Tsiribihina, de la Betsiboka, de la Maevarano, du Sambirano et de la Mahavavy du Nord. Puis nous proposons une toponymie pour chacun des 17 centres et sous-centres d’endémisme en justifiant leurs particularités. Nous retenons ainsi les centres d’endémisme de Vohimarina, de l’Atsinanana (dont Masoala et Analanjirofo, Tanala, de Manombo, de l’Anosy, d’Ala maika (dont Ranopiso, Karimbola et Mikea, du Menabe, du Melaky, de la Sofia, d’Ampasindava, d’Ankify et de l’Ankarana. Nous illustrons chacun des centres d’endémisme avec une espčce symbolique et rapportons des aspects de son histoire naturelle et culturelle ainsi que de sa conservation.

Eric Mathieu

2012-06-01

110

Blastomycosis: a new endemic focus in Canada.  

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A survey of the 38 patients resident in Ontario from whose sputum, body fluids or tissues Blastomyces dermatitidis was cultured by our laboratory between 1970 and 1981 revealed a new endemic focus to the north and east of Lake Superior, where 20 of 27 traceable patients lived. Direct microscopy revealed B. dermatitidis in 90% of the cases. A lack of clinical awareness, however, had often resulted in a delay (average 15 weeks) in diagnosis. In two cases the disease was identified only at autop...

Kane, J.; Righter, J.; Krajden, S.; Lester, R. S.

1983-01-01

111

Stochastic models of some endemic infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stochastic models are established and studied for several endemic infections with demography. Approximations of quasi-stationary distributions and of times to extinction are derived for stochastic versions of SI, SIS, SIR, and SIRS models. The approximations are valid for sufficiently large population sizes. Conditions for validity of the approximations are given for each of the models. These are also conditions for validity of the corresponding deterministic model. It is noted that some deterministic models are unacceptable approximations of the stochastic models for a large range of realistic parameter values. PMID:12047919

Nĺsell, Ingemar

2002-01-01

112

MRI of the spine in endemic fluorosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate role of MRI in the diagnosis of the spinal lesions in endemic fluorosis. Methods: MRI of the spine in 81 patients with endemic fluorosis, including the cervical spine in 57 patients, thoracic spine in 10, and lumbar spine in 14, were analyzed and compared with X-ray plain films. Results: Fat-containing marrow in the vertebral bodies with endemic fluorosis was decreased and unevenly distributed. Signal intensity of the vertebral bodies was homogeneously or inhomogeneously decreased on T1- and T2- weighted images. The mean values of signal intensity of the cervical vertebral bodies from 3rd to 7th were lower in 32 patients with fluorosis than those in 100 patients of the control group on T1-weighted image (P1-weighted images, the signal intensity similar to yellow bone marrow within OPLL in 63 patients and within OYL in 36 patients was observed in 32 patients (50%) and in 31 patients (86%), respectively. Of the 81 patients, herniation of the intervertebral disk was found in 68 patients (84%), degeneration of und in 68 patients (84%), degeneration of the intervertebral disk was observed in 57 patients (70%), and spinal canal narrowing was found in 75 patients (93%), in which compression of the spinal cord was showed in 63 patients (78%) and pathologic changes within the cord were noted in 28 patients (35%). In 57 patients with fluorosis, MR showed compression of the cervical spinal cord in 48 patients (84.21%), the anterioposterior diameter of the cervical spinal canal on X-ray plain film was either 9 mm or less at any level of the vertebra (indicating the compression of the cervical spinal cord) in 41(71.92%) patients (P=0.115). In 57 patients with fluorosis and 100 patients of control group, intervertebral herniation was observed in 51 patients (89.47%) and 62 patients (62%), respectively (P<0.001), and intervertebral degeneration was noted in 37 patients (64.91%) and 37 patients (37%), respectively (P=0.001). Conclusion: The spine of endemic fluorosis with MR examination may interpret homogeneous or inhomogeneous low signal from the increasing activity of osteoblasts, content and distribution of the calcium fluoride and fat-containing bone marrow within the vertebral body. MR is superior to X-ray plain film in showing the compression and pathologic changes of the spine cord, intervertebral herniation, and intervertebral degeneration. (authors)

113

Incidence of skeletal deformities in endemic fluorosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation was undertaken in three endemic fluorotic areas of Punjab State, India, to assess the prevalence of skeletal deformities. The concentration of fluoride in drinking water varies from 2.3 to 22.5 mg/L. The patients affected with skeletal fluorosis revealed joint pain in both upper and lower limbs, numbing and tingling of the extremities, back pains and knock-knees. Prevalence of skeletal fluorosis was found to be 29% of grade-I, 51% of grade-II and 20% of grade-III and was higher in males (63%) compared with females (37%). PMID:18820194

A, Shashi; M, Kumar; M, Bhardwaj

2008-10-01

114

Amino acid sequence of myoglobin from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Our objective was to determine the primary structure of white-tailed deer myoglobin (Mb). White-tailed deer Mb was isolated from cardiac muscles employing ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel-filtration chromatography. The amino acid sequence was determined by Edman degradation. Sequence analyses of intact Mb as well as tryptic- and cyanogen bromide-peptides yielded the complete primary structure of white-tailed deer Mb, which shared 100% similarity with red deer Mb. White-tailed deer Mb consists of 153 amino acid residues and shares more than 96% sequence similarity with myoglobins from meat-producing ruminants, such as cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat. Similar to sheep and goat myoglobins, white-tailed deer Mb contains 12 histidine residues. Proximal (position 93) and distal (position 64) histidine residues responsible for maintaining the stability of heme are conserved in white-tailed deer Mb. PMID:22608832

Joseph, Poulson; Suman, Surendranath P; Li, Shuting; Fontaine, Michele; Steinke, Laurey

2012-10-01

115

Distribution of Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster in Neelum Valley, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir  

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Full Text Available To study the present and past distribution of Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster Survey in Neelum valley, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir was conducted from April to November 2002, Findings show that Musk deer is distributed throughout the Neelum valley. Poaching, deforestation and trans human grazing resulted in scattering of population of the musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster into separate pockets. Population of the musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster recorded from the area is 120 animals. Investigation indicates Musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster resides at low altitude as compared to other areas reported from Pakistan. Seasonal migration of musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster was also noted as a result of Trans-human grazing in summer in summer. To conserve the dwindling population of musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster from Neelum Valley there must be expansion of Salkhla game reserve up to palri and Gail along with the law enforcement and awareness campaign.

Baseer ud Din Qureshi

2004-01-01

116

Too Many Deer! A Case Study in Managing Urban Deer Herds  

Science.gov (United States)

A town meeting is the setting for this case study in which students explore the topics of overpopulation, bioethics, and management of urban wildlife. The case makes use of role playing, small group discussion, interrupted case techniques, and critical analytical reflective papers to enable students to examine a common urban forest management problem. Hidden within the examination of making decisions about deer herds is a set of questions that brings out the scientific method and its application. Although developed for a non-majors biology course, by restructuring some of the activities and asking different questions the case could be successfully used in an introductory biology course for majors, an ecology course, a conservation biology seminar, or a course on bioethics.

Ribbens, Eric

2002-01-01

117

Analysis of radionuclide concentrations and movement patterns of Hanford-site mule deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 1980 through 1982, the movements of 37 radio-collared mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were monitored for periods of 3 to 17 months on the Handord Site in southcentral Washington. The objectives were to compare radionuclide concentrations in deer residing near the 200 Area waste management sites with concentrations in deer occupying areas remote from waste management sites and to document movement patterns of Hanford Site deer with particular emphasis on offsite movements. Cesium-137 in deer muscle and liver and 90Sr concentrations in deer bone were statistically higher in deer living near the 200 Area than in control animals. During this study, the highest concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr in 200 Area deer were in those individuals residing in or immediately adjacent to radiation zones. Cesium-137 and 90Sr concentrations were more variable in deer residing near the 200 Area than in control animals, where only background (fallout) levels were observed. Movement patterns of Hanford site deer were analyzed to determine home range size and usage. The average home range was 0.39 +- 27 km2. In addition, ten (27%) of the monitored deer made offsite movements during the study period. While most of these movements were made in the spring and summer, some fall and winter movements were noted. It was estimated that approximately 8% (95% confidence interval is from 0 to 21%) of the Hanford deer herd is harvested each year. As a result of the low harvest rate, the Hanford deer herd appears to have a disproportionate number of older animals, with 24% of the 17 examined deer older than 10.5 years

118

Hepatic mineral values of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Virginia.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a lack of information on mineral requirements of free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). In addition, mineral deficiencies or excesses may play a role in the development of parasitism/malnutrition syndrome. We measured hepatic mineral values in apparently healthy white-tailed deer from two sites in Virginia, USA, as well as in deer with presumptive parasitism/malnutrition syndrome during 2005-2007. Deer with presumptive parasitism/malnutrition syndrome that were displaying signs of emaciation and chronic diarrhea had significantly higher mean hepatic levels of magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) compared with healthy deer. Healthy deer in our study from northern Virginia, USA (i.e., Fairfax, Fauquier, Loudoun, and Prince William counties) had significantly lower mean hepatic selenium (Se) levels compared with deer from Nottoway County, Virginia, USA, which is 200 km distant. Healthy deer from northern Virginia, USA, also had significantly lower mean hepatic cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), and molybdenum (Mo) levels. Adult deer had significantly higher mean levels of hepatic iron (Fe) compared with fawns. In addition, male deer had significantly higher mean hepatic Co levels compared with female deer. The significantly higher mean (+/-SD) level of Zn in sick deer from northern Virginia, USA (78.7+/-54.9 microg/g versus 35.8+/-7.4 microg/g in healthy deer) is potentially clinically significant, although no signs consistent with Zn poisoning were observed. All deer in our study from northern Virginia, USA, had marginal or deficient levels of Cu (mean+/-SD=27.4+/-18.3 microg/g) and Se (mean=0.08+/-0.03 microg/g), which may be predisposing this population to the development of parasitism/malnutrition syndrome. PMID:20688645

Sleeman, Jonathan M; Magura, Karl; Howell, Jay; Rohm, John; Murphy, Lisa A

2010-04-01

119

Diversity and endemism of Peruvian mammals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present an annotated list for all land, aquatic and marine mammals known to occur in Peru and their distribution by ecoregions. We also present species conservation status according to international organizations and the legal conservation status in Peru. At present, we record 508 species, in 13 orders, 50 families, and 218 genera, making Peru the third most diverse country with regards to mammals in the New World, after Brazil and Mexico, and the fifth most diverse country for mammals in the World. This diversity includes 40 didelphimorphs, 2 paucituberculates, 1 manatee, 6 cingulates, 7 pilosa, 39 primates, 162 rodents, 1 rabbit, 2 soricomorphs, 165 bats, 34 carnivores, 2 perissodactyls, and 47 cetartiodactyls. Bats and rodents (327 species represent almost two thirds of total diversity (64% for Peru. Five genera and 65 species (12.8% are endemics to Peru, with the majority of these being rodents (45 species, 69,2%. Most of the endemic species are restricted to the Yungas of the eastern slope of the Andes (39 species, 60% followed by Selva Baja (14 species, 21.5%. The taxonomic status of some species is commented on, when those depart from accepted taxonomy. The marsupial Marmosa phaea; the rodents Melanomys caliginosus, M. robustulus, and Echinoprocta rufescens; the shrew Cryptotis equatoris; the bats Anoura fistulata, Phyllostomus latifolius, Artibeus ravus, Cynomops greenhalli, Eumops maurus, and Rhogeessa velilla; and the carnivore Nasuella olivacea are first records of species occurrence in Peru. Finally, we also include a list of 15 non-native species.

Víctor Pacheco

2011-07-01

120

Diseases of white-tailed deer. Chapter 5. Neoplasia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data on the occurrence and etiology of neoplasms in native populations of white-tailed deer are reviewed. Cutaneous fibromas, non-progressive lesions considered to be of viral etiology, are discussed in detail. The clinical signs associated with other benign and malignant neoplasms are discussed briefly. 30 references.

Cosgrove, G. E.; Satterfield, L. D.; Nettles, V. F.

1977-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Constructing STR multiplexes for individual identification of Hungarian red deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Red deer is the most valuable game of the fauna in Hungary, and there is a strong need for genetic identification of individuals. For this purpose, 10 tetranucleotide STR markers were developed and amplified in two 5-plex systems. The study presented here includes the flanking region sequence analysis and the allele nomenclature of the 10 loci as well as the PCR optimization of the DeerPlex I and II. LD pairwise tests and cross-species similarity analyses showed the 10 loci to be independently inherited. Considerable levels of genetic differences between two subpopulations were recorded, and F(ST) was 0.034 using AMOVA. The average probability of identity (PI(ave)) was at the value of 2.6736 × 10(-15). This low value for PI(ave) nearly eliminates false identification. An illegal hunting case solved by DeerPlex is described herein. The calculated likelihood ratio (LR) illustrates the potential of the 10 red deer microsatellite markers for forensic investigations. PMID:24512288

Szabolcsi, Zoltan; Egyed, Balazs; Zenke, Petra; Padar, Zsolt; Borsy, Adrienn; Steger, Viktor; Pasztor, Erzsebet; Csanyi, Sandor; Buzas, Zsuzsanna; Orosz, Laszlo

2014-07-01

122

REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN MALE DEER MICE EXPOSED TO AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR  

Science.gov (United States)

Male deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) were reared in a long photoperiod and housed individually from 3 weeks of age until they were killed 2, 4, or 6 weeks later. Males that were exposed to aggressive females for 2 min, three times per week, were of normal body weight a...

123

Seasonal variation in the behavior of captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus, in Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm, of China  

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Full Text Available Musk deer farming has the potential to be an effective conservation tool for the protection of musk deer as well as the production of valuable musk. To be successful, this requires a thorough understanding of the behavior of captive musk deer in order to improve their reproductive success and management. Between August 2005 to January 2006, the behavior sampling of 19 male and 13 female captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus Büchner, 1891, was used to examine the durations of twelve behavioral characteristics during the pre-rut (August to October and rut seasons (November to January. Both males and females exhibited some seasonal variation in behavior. Males rested and fed more during the pre-rut than the rut and spent more time walking, fighting, and standing alert during the rut. Females spent more time feeding, ruminating, and interacting non-aggressively with other individuals during the pre-rut and more time in agonistic interactions during the rut. The significance of these behavioral changes and their association with husbandry practices and farm management are discussed.

Luan Xiaofeng

2010-01-01

124

Seasonal variation in the behavior of captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus, in Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm, of China  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Musk deer farming has the potential to be an effective conservation tool for the protection of musk deer as well as the production of valuable musk. To be successful, this requires a thorough understanding of the behavior of captive musk deer in order to improve their reproductive success and manage [...] ment. Between August 2005 to January 2006, the behavior sampling of 19 male and 13 female captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus Büchner, 1891, was used to examine the durations of twelve behavioral characteristics during the pre-rut (August to October) and rut seasons (November to January). Both males and females exhibited some seasonal variation in behavior. Males rested and fed more during the pre-rut than the rut and spent more time walking, fighting, and standing alert during the rut. Females spent more time feeding, ruminating, and interacting non-aggressively with other individuals during the pre-rut and more time in agonistic interactions during the rut. The significance of these behavioral changes and their association with husbandry practices and farm management are discussed.

Luan, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Changjie; Hui, Cenyi; Meng, Xiuxiang.

125

Transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus among white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, are an important source of viral transmission to susceptible hosts. Persistent BVDV infections have been identified in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America. As PI deer shed BVDV similarly to PI cattle, maintenance of BVDV within white-tailed deer populations may be possible. To date, intraspecific transmission of BVDV in white-tailed deer has not been evaluated, which prompted this study. Six pregnant white-tailed deer were captured in the first trimester of pregnancy and cohabitated with a PI white-tailed deer. Cohabitation with the PI deer resulted in BVDV infection in all does, as indicated by seroconversion. All does gave birth to live fawns and no reproductive losses were observed. At birth, evidence of BVDV infection was identified in two singlet fawns, of which one was determined to be PI by repeated serum reverse transcription nested PCR, whole blood virus isolation and immunohistochemistry. This study demonstrates for the first time that BVDV transmission may occur among white-tailed deer. The birth of a PI fawn through contact to a PI white-tailed deer indicates that under appropriate circumstances, BVDV may be maintained in white-tailed deer by congenital infection. PMID:19922743

Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S; Givens, M Daniel; Brock, Kenny V; DeYoung, Randy W; Walz, Paul H

2010-01-01

126

Movement patterns of rural and suburban white-tailed deer in Massachusetts  

Science.gov (United States)

We used satellite land cover data and the program FRAGSTATS toquantify land cover types and calculate the amount of forest edge available in suburban and rural regions of northeastern and northwestern Massachusetts. Cover categories included forest cover, open canopy vegetation, and non-deer habitat. We calculated all edge segments where forest cover abutted open canopy cover. Our open canopy vegetation category was calculated both with and without low intensity suburban development. We then compared these findings to movement data from 53 (13 males, 40 females) adult radio-marked white-tailed deerOdocoileus virginianusmonitored biweekly and diurnally from January 2001 to January 2003. The range of movements of suburban deer in eastern Massachusetts showed no difference to that of suburban deer in western Massachusetts (P = 0.7). However, the ranges for suburban deer in both eastern and western Massachusetts were 10 times less than those of deer in rural western Massachusetts (P = 0.001).Our findings suggest that landscape configuration, as described by the amount and distribution of edge due to suburban development, which is related to the amount and distribution of resources such as food and cover, affects migratory behavior of white-tailed deer, allowsdeer to have smaller ranges, and contributes to high deer densities.Inclusion of suburban edge in habitat models will increase our understanding of deer-habitat relationships for management of deer in urbanizing environments. ?? 2005 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.

Gaughan, C.R.; DeStefano, S.

2005-01-01

127

Influence of landscape characteristics on migration strategies of white-tailed deer  

Science.gov (United States)

A trade-off exists for migrating animals as to whether to migrate or remain residents. Few studies have documented relationships between landscape variables and deer migration strategies. From 2000 to 2007 we captured 267 adult female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at 7 study sites in Minnesota and South Dakota and monitored 149 individuals through ???3 seasonal migration periods (585 deer-migration seasons). All deer classified as obligate migrators with ???3 migrations (range 3-9 migration seasons) maintained their obligate status for the duration of the study. Multinomial logistic odds ratios from generalized estimating equations indicated that the odds of being a resident increased by 1.4 and 1.3 per 1-unit increase in forest patch density and mean area, respectively, compared to migrating deer. Odds of being an obligate migrator increased by 0.7 and 0.8 per 1-unit decrease in forest patch density and mean area, respectively, compared to resident or conditional migrating deer. Areas inhabited by resident deer were characterized by greater number of forest patches per 100 ha and larger mean forest patch area than conditional and obligate migrant areas. Odds of migrating increased by 1.1 per 1-unit increase in deer winter severity index. Migration behavior of white-tailed deer varied among regions, and land-cover and landscape characteristics provided predictive indicators of migration strategies for deer that could have important implications for conservation, metapopulation dynamics, and species management. ?? American 2011 Society of Mammalogists.

Grovenburg, T.W.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Deperno, C.S.; Brinkman, T.J.; Swanson, C.C.; Jenks, J.A.

2011-01-01

128

Demonstrating freedom from Mycobacterium bovis infection in Swedish farmed deer using non-survey data sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sweden has been considered free from bovine tuberculosis (BTB) since 1958. In 1987 an infected consignment of farmed deer was imported to Sweden and in 1991 the first infected deer was identified. Despite a thorough trace back investigation, all deer originating from the infected consignment could not be traced. Therefore a national control programme for BTB in farmed deer was implemented. At present the control programme is in its final stage and all deer holdings that have not obtained BTB-free status are put under restrictions. This study aimed to determine the probability that the Swedish farmed deer population is free from BTB using methods that allow analysis of non-structured data, i.e. results from meat inspection, necropsies and tuberculin testing. Surveillance data from 1994 to October 2006 from farmed deer affiliated to the voluntary control programme were analysed using the model described in Martin et al. (2007a). The model was adjusted to allow the within-herd design prevalence to be defined as one infected deer per herd and the between-herd design prevalence to be defined as one infected deer herd in the country. Depending on the chosen within-herd design prevalence: 1, 2, 3 or 4 infected deer per herd or 5% infected deer per herd, the probability of freedom from BTB infection in the Swedish farmed deer population varied between 87% and 97%. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded, with high confidence, that the Swedish farmed deer population is free from M. bovis. PMID:20053473

Wahlström, Helene; Frössling, Jenny; Lewerin, Susanna Sternberg; Ljung, Andrea; Cedersmyg, Maria; Cameron, Angus

2010-04-01

129

ANTIGENAEMIA AS AN INDICATOR OF FILARIAL ENDEMICITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a report of 1 -year evaluation of chemotherapeutic intervention in an area of Indonesia endemic for lymphatic filariasis. Control measures were initiated in 1977 by parasite control, informal health educa­tion, and community participation at the village level, well in accord with the WHO-concept of health for all. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC was mass distributed in 1977 and 1988, and selectively distributed in 1978, 1979, 1981, and 1982 to those who were micro-filaraemic prior to DEC treatments, those with a history of adenoly mphangitis over the previous one year period, and to all new comers. In addition, each villager with acute symptoms of adenolymphangitis was immediately treated with a single course of 300 mg DEC for 10 days. No intervention measures were taken between 1982 to 1988, and no attempt was taken to control the vector or to restrict movement between controlled and uncontrolled areas during the whole studies. With these measures, the microfilaria (mf rate decreased from 30% to 0%, the adenolymphangitis rate from 46% to 11%, and the elephantiasis rate from 35% to 3%. The abatement of acute and chronic filarial symptoms over the study period and the disappearance of microfilaremia in the community are pointing towards the possibility of eradicating the partasite from the community. To test this hypothesis, serum samples were tested for circulating filarial antigen by a two-site antigen capture assay employing anti-phosphorylcholine monoclonal antibodies. There was a sharp fall in circulating antigenaemia, demonstrating that infection has either been eliminated from nearly all villagers, or that intensity of infection is now undetectably low. We feel that antigenaemia can be used as an indicator of filarial endemicity.

F. Partono

2012-09-01

130

Evaluation of diagnostic criteria for endemic nephropathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Diagnosis of endemic nephropathy (EN) is based on the combination of several clinical and laboratory criteria. Despite extensive research no specific diagnostic biomarker for EN has yet been identified. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic significance of the variables previously proposed as diagnostic criteria, but also new ones. After an extended questionnaire, the clinical and laboratory examination population in EN villages was classified according to the modified WHO criteria. The urinary active form of TGF-? was measured with a bioassay using a cell line which expresses luciferase activity. In the study we used ROC analysis to examine the predictive value of the tested variables. In the study there was no difference in haemoglobin level between the study subgroups. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) in urine and active urinary TGF-? levels were increased in the EN diseased group when compared to other subgroups, but they did not fulfil the statistical criteria needed for differentiating a diseased form from other study subgroups. Both kidney length and parenchima thickness, alfa1-microglobulinuria, and kidney function assessed by MDRD formula were the variables that differentiated the study subgroups well. Based on our results the cut-off value of alfa1microglobulin for screening should be 23.5 mg/g creatinine instead of 15 mg/g creatinine in the present criteria, and for making a diagnosis of EN 31,5 mg/g creatinine. Persons with a positive family history for EN had a 5.8 times greater risk of developing EN when compared to a negative one. Taken together, the abovementioned variables should be implemented in new uniform diagnostic criteria for EN. Key words: endemic nephropathy, aristolochic acid nephropathy, diagnostic criteria, TGFbeta, alfa1-micro-globulin. PMID:24798596

Dika, Z; Antoine, M-H; Husson, C; De Prez, E G; Kos, J; Miši?, M; Fu?ek, M; Cvoriš?ec, D; Bourgeade, M-F; Nortier, J L; Jelakovi?, B

2014-01-01

131

Rapid replacement of endemic measles virus genotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although vaccination campaigns have significantly reduced the number of measles cases worldwide, endemic transmission of measles virus (MV) continues to occur in several continents, including Europe. To obtain current information on measles incidence and molecular data on circulating MVs in Germany, a nationwide measles sentinel was established. Phylogenetic analysis based on the variable part of the N gene from 80 MVs isolated between November 1999 and October 2001 revealed the presence of at least six distinct MV genotypes: B3, C2, D4, D6, G2 and a new variant of D7. Both the incidence and the pattern of MV genotypes differed markedly between the former East and West Germany. In the eastern part, few measles cases, mainly caused by genotypes originating from other countries (B3, D4, G2), were detected. In the western and southern parts, genotypes C2, D6 and D7 were associated with endemic transmission. Surprisingly, the indigenous genotypes predominant during the 1990s - C2 and D6 - disappeared simultaneously over the period of observation coinciding with the emergence and the wide spread of D7 viruses. While the incidence of measles remained constant, all MVs isolated in 2001 were assigned to D7. We note that the haemagglutinin (H) sequence of D7 viruses shows distinct exchanges of certain amino acids in the stem and propeller domain compared to C2, D6 and the MV vaccine strains used. This raises the possibility of a selective advantage of D7 viruses transmitted in the presence of H-specific antibodies. PMID:12388805

Santibanez, Sabine; Tischer, Annedore; Heider, Alla; Siedler, Anette; Hengel, Hartmut

2002-11-01

132

Climate alters response of an endemic island plant to removal of invasive herbivores  

Science.gov (United States)

Islands experience higher rates of species extinction than mainland ecosystems, with biological invasions among the leading causes; they also serve as important model systems for testing ideas in basic and applied ecology. Invasive removal programs on islands are conservation efforts that can also be viewed as powerful manipulative experiments, but few data are available to evaluate their effects. We collected demographic and herbivore damage data for Castilleja mollis Pennell, an endangered plant endemic to Santa Rosa Island, California, over a 12-year period before, during, and after the implementation of control for introduced cattle, deer, and elk. We used these long-term data to explore mechanisms underlying herbivore effects, assess the results of herbivore reduction at the scales of both individual plants and populations, and determine how temporal variability in herbivory and plant demography influenced responses to herbivore removals. For individual plants, herbivore effects mediated by disturbance were greater than those of grazing. Deer and elk scraping of the ground substantially increased plant mortality and dormancy and reduced flowering and growth. Stem damage from browsing did not affect survivorship but significantly reduced plant growth and flower production. Herbivore control successfully lowered damage rates, which declined steeply between 1997 and 2000 and have remained relatively low. Castilleja mollis abundances rose sharply after 1997, suggesting a positive effect of herbivore control, but then began to decline steadily again after 2003. The recent decline appears to be driven by higher mean growing season temperatures; interestingly, not only reductions in scraping damage but a period of cooler conditions were significant in explaining increases in C. mollis populations between 1997 and 2002. Our results demonstrate strong effects of introduced herbivores on both plant demography and population dynamics and show that climate-driven variation may counteract and mask positive responses to herbivore removal. Regional mean temperatures already have risen significantly over the last 50 years, suggesting that climate change could increasingly swamp the effects of management targeted at other environmental problems. Similar interactions between climate and invasive species will play an even greater role in future management, with long-term data sets like this critical to quantifying such effects. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

Kathryn, Mceachern A.; Thomson, D.M.; Chess, K.A.

2009-01-01

133

Pathophysiology of white-tailed deer vaccinated with porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptive  

Science.gov (United States)

White-tailed deer (n = 14 treated, n = 7 control) were examined postmortem to identify any possible pathophysiology resulting from PZP immunocontraception vaccination. Deer were treated twice in 1997; given a booster in 1998, with six being revaccinated in September 2000. Granulomas were found at injection sites of most deer, even 2 years post-treatment. Eosinophilic oophoritis occurred in 6 of 8 (75%) deer vaccinated in 1998, and 3 of 6 (50%) revaccinated in 2000. The 2000 revaccinates without oophoritis, had significantly fewer normal secondary follicles than control females (P = 0.03), and deer in the1998 treatment group (P = 0.04). PZP immunocontraceptive vaccine elicited ovarian pathologies in deer similar to those observed in other species. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Curtis, P.D.; Richmond, M.E.; Miller, L.A.; Quimby, F.W.

2007-01-01

134

Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in roe deer from Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is an important game animal in Spain. Sera from 278 roe deer from eight areas in mainland Spain were assayed for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by modified agglutination test (MAT). Titers of 1:25 or higher were found in 109 (39.2%) of 278 deer. No significant differences in antibody prevalence were found between sex or age categories. In contrast, significant differences in seroprevalence between locations were evident. Roe deer from the Northern coastal habitats (high humidity and roe deer density) had the highest prevalence, compared with low prevalence in Central Spain (arid areas and low roe deer density). There was a positive correlation between antibody prevalence and mean annual rainfall (r(s)=0.85, n=8, Pmeat source of T. gondii infections for humans and feral cats. PMID:18316161

Gamarra, J A; Cabezón, O; Pabón, M; Arnal, M C; Luco, D F; Dubey, J P; Gortázar, C; Almeria, S

2008-05-01

135

Effects of winter fasting and refeeding on white-tailed deer blood profiles  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on blood characteristics of 9 nonpregnant, female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in captivity from 23 February to 3 May 1984. Percent weight loss was greater in fasted deer than in deer fed diets of 2 crude protein levels. Fasting effects were also observed for hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), cholesterol, triglycerides, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), potassium (K), glucose, phosphorus (P), insulin, thyroxine (T4), and total protein (TP). Refeeding influenced cholesterol, sodium (Na), and calcium (Ca). Hemoglobin, PCV, Ca, P, and albumin varied with time in fasted deer. Changes over time in the fed deer occurred for several hematological and serum characteristics. Data are presented to serve as reference values for better understanding of data collected from free-ranging deer under less known conditions.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Karns, P.D.

1987-01-01

136

137Cs levels in deer following the Three Mile Island accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus) tongues were assayed to assess whether or not significant widespread 137Cs contamination occurred in the vicinity of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station as a result of the 1979 accident. White-tailed deer tongues harvested from 10 Pennsylvania counties more than 88 km away from Three Mile Island had significantly higher 137Cs levels than deer tongues harvested from counties surrounding the nuclear plant. The mean deer tongue 137Cs levels found in Pennsylvania white-tailed deer were lower than 137Cs levels found in deer from other parts of the US sampled shortly after culmination of major atmospheric nuclear testing. These findings support the conclusions of previous studies suggesting that only minimal quantities of 137Cs escaped from the damaged Three Mile Island plant after the accident

137

Urinary iodine excretion in relation to goiter prevalence in households of goiter endemic and non endemic regions of Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Survey of goiter prevalence, among population of five endemic and four non endemic regions of Ethiopia was carried out prior to the distribution of iodate d salt. urine samples were collected from 327 subjects selected by systematic random sampling from endemic and 276 taken as non endemic. The lowest mean urinary iodine excretion (UIE) value was recorded in Bure (22 micro gl/day) and the highest in Alemmaya (148 micro gl/day). The highest goiter rate ( percent TGR) was recorded in Sawla 55.6 %) and the lowest (0.6 %) in Yabello. Iodine content of drinking was in the range of 0.4 - 48.5 micro gl. Iodine content of water source was correlated positively ( r0.8399) with the mean of UIE and TGR, however, indicates that sites considered as non endemic seem to be affected by iodine deficiency. The study results urge the need for intervention in controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders. 3 tab

138

Bartonella Infections in Deer Keds (Lipoptena cervi) and Moose (Alces alces) in Norway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Infections with Bartonella spp. have been recognized as emerging zoonotic diseases in humans. Large knowledge gaps exist, however, relating to reservoirs, vectors, and transmission of these bacteria. We describe identification by culture, PCR, and housekeeping gene sequencing of Bartonella spp. in fed, wingless deer keds (Lipoptena cervi), deer ked pupae, and blood samples collected from moose, Alces alces, sampled within the deer ked distribution range in Norway. Direct sequencing from moose...

Duodu, Samuel; Madslien, Knut; Hjelm, Eva; Molin, Ylva; Paziewska-harris, Anna; Harris, Philip D.; Colquhoun, Duncan J.; Ytrehus, Bjřrnar

2013-01-01

139

Kinetics of Immune Responses in Deer Mice Experimentally Infected with Sin Nombre Virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Deer mice are the principal reservoir hosts of Sin Nombre virus, the etiologic agent of most hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome cases in North America. Infection of deer mice results in persistence without conspicuous pathology, and most, if not all, infected mice remain infected for life, with periods of viral shedding. The kinetics of viral load, histopathology, virus distribution, and immune gene expression in deer mice were examined. Viral antigen was detected as early as 5 days postinfe...

Schountz, Tony; Acun?a-retamar, Mariana; Feinstein, Shira; Prescott, Joseph; Torres-perez, Fernando; Podell, Brendan; Peters, Staci; Ye, Chunyan; Black, William C.; Hjelle, Brian

2012-01-01

140

Transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus among white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, are an important source of viral transmission to susceptible hosts. Persistent BVDV infections have been identified in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America. As PI deer shed BVDV similarly to PI cattle, maintenance of BVDV within white-tailed deer populations may be possible. To date, intraspecific transmission of BV...

Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S.; Givens, M. Daniel; Brock, Kenny V.; Deyoung, Randy W.; Walz, Paul H.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Fatty Acid Profiles and Cholesterol Composition of Venison from Farmed Deer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is important to evaluate venison characteristics as a new high quality red meat in the meat marketing system. This information is vital to ensure their commercial success and dietary benefits. The aim of this study is to determine the venison quality from farmed deer according to cuts or muscles based on fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content and to do comparative study on venison quality between species of farmed deer (rusa, sambar, fallow and imported red deer) and feeding regimens,...

Norfarizan-hanoon, N. A.; Dahlan, I.

2007-01-01

142

Field testing of commercially manufactured capture collars on white-tailed deer  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted 31 tests of commercially manufactured capture collars on female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, under temperatures from -37C to 22C. Deer were recaptured in 28 of the 31 tests; in the 3 failures, we remotely released the collars from the deer. Communication with the collars was achieved from up to 3.0 km on the ground and 26.5 km from the air.

Mech, L.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Chapman, R.C.; Kreeger, T.J.

1990-01-01

143

EXAMINATION OF NASAL BOTFLY (CEPHENEMYIA STIMULATOR,CLARK, 1815) OF ROE DEER  

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Abstract- Parameters of nasal botfly infestation of roe deer in plain locations I am investigating the occurrence of one of the diseases caused by parasites in plain roe deer populations, namely a botfly larvae, Cephenemyia stimulator, (CLARK, 1815) ranged among the Oestridae family. Nasal botfly larvae are common roe deer parasites and aregenerally spread nationwide. The subject of the present survey is the processing of the data gained about ...

Szilárd Pinnyey

2013-01-01

144

[Behavioral patterns of wild-caught and captive-bred male musk deer].  

Science.gov (United States)

By the method of focal sampling and continuous recording, a comparative study was made on the behavioral patterns of 23 captive alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) , among which, 17 deer were wild-caught (WC), and 6 deer were captive-bred (CB). The results showed that owing to the same enclosure facilities and managing system, there was no essential difference in the behavioral modes between WC and CB, but WC exhibited more collision behavior than CB (P 0.05). PMID:17269331

Meng, Xiuxiang; Feng, Jinchao; Zhou, Yijun; Yang, Qisen; Feng, Zuojian; Xia, Lin; Meng, Zhibin; Hua, Xing

2006-11-01

145

Biological control agents elevate hantavirus by subsidizing deer mouse populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological control of exotic invasive plants using exotic insects is practiced under the assumption that biological control agents are safe if they do not directly attack non-target species. We tested this assumption by evaluating the potential for two host-specific biological control agents (Urophora spp.), widely established in North America for spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) control, to indirectly elevate Sin Nombre hantavirus by providing food subsidies to populations of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), the primary reservoir for the virus. We show that seropositive deer mice (mice testing positive for hantavirus) were over three times more abundant in the presence of the biocontrol food subsidy. Elevating densities of seropositive mice may increase risk of hantavirus infection in humans and significantly alter hantavirus ecology. Host specificity alone does not ensure safe biological control. To minimize indirect risks to non-target species, biological control agents must suppress pest populations enough to reduce their own numbers. PMID:16623730

Pearson, Dean E; Callaway, Ragan M

2006-04-01

146

Red deer synchronise their activity with close neighbours  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Models of collective animal behaviour frequently make assumptions about the effects of neighbours on the behaviour of focal individuals, but these assumptions are rarely tested. One such set of assumptions is that the switch between active and inactive behaviour seen in herding animals is influenced by the activity of close neighbours, where neighbouring animals show a higher degree of behavioural synchrony than would be expected by chance. We tested this assumption by observing the simultaneous behaviour of paired individuals within a herd of red deer Cervus elaphus. Focal individuals were more synchronised with their two closest neighbours than with the third closest or randomly selected individuals from the herd. Our results suggest that the behaviour of individual deer is influenced by immediate neighbours. Even if we assume that there are no social relationships between individuals, this suggests that the assumptions made in models about the influence of neighbours may be appropriate.

Sean A. Rands

2014-04-01

147

[Sacrocystis hjorti lesions in hunted red deer in Switzerland].  

Science.gov (United States)

In meat samples from 2 hunted red deer (Cervus elaphus) of different origins (region Ilanz, region Filisur) large-scale greenish tissue discolorations with a gelatinous change of fascia were observed and diagnosed as eosinophilic fasciitis. Sarcocystis hjorti, a recently described Sarcocystis species in red deer and moose in Norway, was found as the causing agent. Foxes are regarded as final hosts in the development cycle of this parasite. Factors leading to such cases of eosinophilic fasciitis due to sarcosporidiosis, which is widespread in farm and wild ruminants and is normally inapparent are largely unknown. According to meat inspection directives carcasses with such discolorations have to be declared unfit for human consumption. PMID:23188766

Stephan, R; Loretz, M; Eggenberger, E; Grest, P; Basso, W; Grimm, F

2012-12-01

148

Cutaneous fibroma in the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus  

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Full Text Available Fibromas present very frequent skin neoplasms in different species of wild game of the family Cervidae. Viral etiology of skin neoplasms was proven in certain species of wild game from this family, with the most frequent diagnoses being: fibromas, ossifying fibromas, fibrosarcomas, multiple neurofibromatosis, fibropapillomas, and papillomas. The diagnozed tumor in the roe deer had the histological characteristics of a polimorphous fibroblast, which is not the case with domestic animals. This finding can be considered as a characteristic of fibromas in animals of the family Cervidae. Solitary fibroma or multiple fibroma (fibromatosis does not present a significant cause of deer deaths, but they cause concern among hunters who are in direct contact with them. Although fibromas do not lead to spoilage of game meat, they are esthetically repellent and people are reluctant to consume meat of such game.

Kureljuši? Branislav

2009-01-01

149

Polycystic kidney disease in a European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).  

Science.gov (United States)

A severe case of polycystic nephropathy was seen in an adult European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), culled in a German hunting district. The doe had bilaterally drastically enlarged kidneys, completely riddled with variably sized, fluid-filled cysts of up to 4 cm in diameter. Histopathologic and ultrastructural examination revealed disseminated formation of cysts with flattened epithelial cell linings in the entire renal parenchyma, as well as severe dilations of renal tubules, marked interstitial fibrosis, nephron atrophy, and chronic interstitial lymphoplasmacytic infiltrations in the intercystic kidney tissue. These morphologic findings most likely resemble the hallmarks of autosomal dominant polycystic disease in humans, and present the first detailed description of a case of polycystic kidney disease in a roe deer. PMID:23805573

Blutke, Andreas; März, Kristian; Matenaers, Cyrill; Oswald, Karl; Hermanns, Walter; Wanke, Rüdiger

2013-06-01

150

Studies on the biological half-life of caesium in roe deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using over 100 samples of roe deer venison taken largely from the Rural District of Marburg-Biedenkopf and adjoining areas, a biological half-life of 21.9±2.2 days was established for caesium in roe deer. Since the radioactive contamination of the environment after Chernobyl and, therefore, the intake of radioactivity by the animals lasted for only a very short period of time, no significant contamination levels are expected through the consumption of newly killed roe deer. After 120 days, the radioactivity of caesium in a live roe deer has subsided again to less than 1/40 of its initial value

151

The Quality of Hunted Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolor) Venison from East Kalimantan  

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Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) is the heaviest in its body weight and widest in its distribution of tropical deer. A Report by East Kalimantan governor indicated that no less than 5,000 wild sambar deer were slaughtered annually. In 1990 a pilot project of sambar deer farm was established and still under its development. Up to the present there is no data available on the nutritional values of sambar venison. The objective of the study was to determine the nutritional quality of wild sambar v...

Semiadi, G.; Jamal, Y.; Farida, R.; Muchsinin, M.

2003-01-01

152

Notes and Discussion: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predation on grassland songbird nestlings  

Science.gov (United States)

White-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were videotaped depredating four songbird nests in grassland habitats in southeastern and northcentral North Dakota, 1996-1999. Deer ate two Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), two grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), one clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida), one red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) and three brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) nestlings. Deer removed nestlings quickly (5-19 sec/nest) at night (22:00 to 05:17 Central Daylight Time) and left no evidence of predation. Although probably opportunistic, deer predations clearly were deliberate and likely are more common than generally believed.

Pietz, P.J.; Granfors, D.A.

2000-01-01

153

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predation on grassland songbird nestlings  

Science.gov (United States)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were videotaped depredating four songbird nests in grassland habitats in southeastern and northcentral North Dakota, 1996-1999. Deer ate two Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), two grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), one clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida), one red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) and three brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) nestlings. Deer removed nestlings quickly (5-19 sec/nest) at night (22:00 to 05:17 Central Daylight Time) and left no evidence of predation. Although probably opportunistic, deer predations clearly were deliberate and likely are more common than generally believed.

Pietz, P.J.; Granfors, D.A.

2000-01-01

154

Stable fighting strategies to maintain social ranks in captive male Alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted at the XINGLONGSHAN Musk Deer Farm of China from July to September 2008. Results showed that captive male musk deer exhibit aggressive dominance behavior, by which a stable social ranking is established. Generally, there were three types of aggression in agonistic interactions among males: attacking, displacing and threatening. Threatening was more frequently observed than displacing and attacking. When in conflict with other deer, high-rank males exhibited significantly more attacking than displacing and threatening. Moreover, no attacking occurred in low-rank and middle-rank males, but these individuals initiated significantly more threatening displays than high-rank individuals. Among musk deer groups with different social ranks, there were no significant differences between threats received by middle-rank and low-rank groups, but attacks directed to high-rank males was significantly lower than displacing and threatening behaviors. On the basis of these results, it is suggested that when a captive male musk deer population is assembled, individuals should be diversified in fighting ability and level of aggression. In particular, deer with higher aggression should not be enclosed with deer with similar tendencies, but should be enclosed with individuals with lower fighting levels. This should maintain stable social structures within captive musk deer groups and improve the overall welfare of captive musk deer. PMID:22862933

Meng, Xiuxiang; Cody, Nicholas; Gong, Baocao; Xiang, Leilei

2012-08-01

155

Maternal investment and reproductive success in Chinese water deer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Among cervids, maternal investment, estimated as the amount of resources and care allocated to the offspring, was expected to be related to species body size. Therefore, maternal investment in a herd of captive Chinese water deer Hydropotes inermis, a relatively small species of cervid, was investigated over 3 years. Except during the lactation period, reproductive females spent about 2-fold more time resting than feeding. During lactation, the amount of time spent feeding increased highly (2...

Mauget, Christiane; Mauget, Robert

2009-01-01

156

Mesola red deer: physical characteristics, population dynamics and conservation perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The biometry, demography and genetics of red deer Cervus elaphus of Mesola Wood (NE Italy, are presented and discussed in relation to the conservation of this population. Modest body size, low stature, oversimplified antlers and a low reproductive performance characterise red deer from Mesola Wood. The mitochondrial genome showed a private haplotype, different from other red deer in Italy and central Europe. The uniqueness of this nucleus and its biogeographic importance make a long-term conservation plan particularly urgent. Management measures such as fallow deer reduction, winter feeding and pasture mowing were tested, giving promising results. The physical condition of the animals improved, calf and adult mortality declined, and a few cases of antlers with bez tine or crown were reported in this study after four decades. Riassunto Il Cervo della Mesola: caratteristiche fisiche, dinamica di popolazione e prospettive di conservazione La biometria, la demografia e la genetica del cervo Cervus elaphus del Gran Bosco della Mesola (Italia nord-orientale, vengono presentate e discusse in relazione alla salvaguardia di questa popolazione. Il cervo della Mesola risulta caratterizzato dalle modeste dimensioni corporee, dalla struttura semplificata dei palchi e da un basso rendimento riproduttivo. L'analisi del genoma mitocondriale ha evidenziato un aplotipo privato, diverso da quello degli altri cervi italiani e centroeuropei. L'unicitŕ di questo nucleo e la sua importanza biogeografica rendono particolarmente urgente un piano di conservazione a lungo termine. Sono stati verificati interventi gestionali quali la riduzione numerica dei daini, il foraggiamento invernale e lo sfalcio delle superfici a pascolo, con risultati promettenti. Le condizioni fisiche degli animali sono migliorate, la mortalitŕ tra i piccoli e gli adulti č diminuita, e sono stati registrati alcuni casi di palchi dotati di ago o corona per la prima volta dopo quattro decenni.

Stefano Mattioli

2003-10-01

157

Incidence of gasrointestinal helminthiasis in captive deers at Nagpur  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Out of 60 Samples of deer from Maharajbag Zoo, Nagpur, 30 were positive for eggs and larvae of helminthic parasites. The encountered parasitic species were Haemonchus spp., Dicrocoelium spp., Paramphistomum spp., Oesophagostomum spp. and Bunostomum spp. etc. Direct smear method together with sedimentation technique were used for the purpose. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 337-338

A. T. Borghare

158

Capture myopathy in red deer and wild goat  

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This syndrome is a shock-like hyper metabolic myopathy triggered in susceptible animals by stress. Capture myopathy (C.M.) is a commonly occurring condition in mammals following trapping and ransportation. In this case 12 to 24 hours after transportation of red deer (Cevus elaphus) and wild goats (Capra ibex) clinical signs such as: muscular tremor, ataxia, recumbency, hyperthermia, tachycardia, hyperventilation and red brown urine observed. According to symptoms Capture myoparthy was diagnos...

Mirian, J.; Alhami, A.; Hamidieh, H.

2011-01-01

159

Red deer in Italy: recent changes in range and numbers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The following paper illustrates changes in distribution range and population size of the red deer Cervus elaphus in Italy in the last three decades. It mentions the main events of reintroduction and restocking together with hunting statistics. The mean yearly increase from 1970 to 1998 was 6% in range and 8% in population size: in 28 years the range had a five fold and the numbers a tenfold incrase. In 1998 the total red deer population in Italy was estimated at 32,000 head, of which 75% are in the central and eastern Alps. In the central and eastern Alps the current population derives mainly from spontaneous recolonisation from neighbouring countries. In the western Alps the contribution of reintroduction prevails. In the northern and central Apennines the present occurrence of red deer is exclusively due to reintroduction. In Sardinia C. e. corsicanus is recovering gradually. The autochthonous nucleus from Mesola Wood needs a long term conservation plan.

Stefano Mattioli

2001-09-01

160

Predator evasion by white-tailed deer fawns  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite their importance for understanding predator–prey interactions, factors that affect predator evasion behaviours of offspring of large ungulates are poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize the influence of selection and availability of escape cover and maternal presence on predator evasion by white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, fawns in the northern Great Plains, U.S.A. We observed 45 coyote, Canis latrans, chases of fawns, and we participated in 83 human chases of fawns during 2007–2009, of which, 19 and 42 chases, respectively, ended with capture of the fawn. Evasive techniques used by fawns were similar for human and coyote chases. Likelihood of a white-tailed deer fawn escaping capture, however, was influenced by deer group size and a number of antipredator behaviours, including aggressive defence by females, initial habitat and selection of escape cover, all of which were modified by the presence of parturient females. At the initiation of a chase, fawns in grasslands were more likely to escape, whereas fawns in forested cover, cultivated land or wheat were more likely to be captured by a coyote or human. Fawns fleeing to wetlands and grasslands also were less likely to be captured compared with those choosing forested cover, wheat and cultivated land. Increased probability of capture was associated with greater distance to wetland and grassland habitats and decreased distance to wheat. Use of wetland habitat as a successful antipredator strategy highlights the need for a greater understanding of the importance of habitat complexity in predator avoidance.

Grovenburg, Troy W.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Forest cover influences dispersal distance of white-tailed deer  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal dispersal patterns influence gene flow, disease spread, population dynamics, spread of invasive species, and establishment of rare or endangered species. Although differences in dispersal distances among taxa have been reported, few studies have described plasticity of dispersal distance among populations of a single species. In 2002-2003, we radiomarked 308 juvenile (7- to 10-month-old), male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2 study areas in Pennsylvania. By using a meta-analysis approach, we compared dispersal rates and distances from these populations together with published reports of 10 other nonmigratory populations of white-tailed deer. Population density did not influence dispersal rate or dispersal distance, nor did forest cover influence dispersal rate. However, average (r2 = 0.94, P deer were greater in habitats with less forest cover. Hence, dispersal behavior of this habitat generalist varies, and use of landscape data to predict population-specific dispersal distances may aid efforts to model population spread, gene flow, or disease transmission. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

Long, E.S.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, B.D.; Grund, M.D.

2005-01-01

162

Leishmaniases in Maghreb: an endemic neglected disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maghreb is known to be one of the most endemic areas of leishmaniases where both visceral and cutaneous forms are reported. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is older and has a higher prevalence than visceral one (VL). It is caused by four taxa (Leishmania (L.) major, L. infantum, L. tropica and L. killicki) which are responsible for a large clinical spectrum of lesions. Most transmission cycles of these taxa are known and many phlebotomine sandflies vectors and reservoir hosts are identified. The zoonotic transmission is well established for L. major. However, for L. infantum and L. killicki it needs more investigations to be proven. Regarding L. tropica, studies suggest it to be of both zoonotic and anthroponotic types. The isoenzymatic characterization of these four taxa showed a large enzymatic polymorphism varying from two zymodemes for L. major to 10 zymodemes for L. tropica. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is widely distributed and covers all bioclimatic stages with the coexistence of more than one taxon in the same foci. Visceral leishmaniasis is the second form of leishmaniases in Maghreb. Only L. infantum is known to cause this disease. The transmission cycle of this parasite is zoonotic but still not well known. The isoenzymatic identification of L. infantum causing VL showed the presence of six zymodemes. Geographically, VL is distributed in all bioclimatic stages of Maghreb countries. Despite all the previous studies realized on leishmaniases in Maghreb, they are still considered as neglected diseases because of the rarity or the absence of efficient control strategies. PMID:24412727

Chaara, Dhekra; Haouas, Najoua; Dedet, Jean Pierre; Babba, Hamouda; Pratlong, Francine

2014-04-01

163

Health status and relative exposure of mule deer and white-tailed deer to soil contaminants at the rocky mountain arsenal  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer [13 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and 5 white-tailed deer (O. virginianus)] from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, near Denver, Colorado, USA, a Superfund site contaminated with a variety of materials, including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve gas production by-products. Radio-collared deer were tracked for 1 to 3 years (1989-1992) to identify relative exposure to contaminants based on telemetry locations plotted on grid maps depicting known soil contaminant concentrations. At the end of the study, all animals were in fair or good body condition at the time of necropsy. Mean ages of mule deer and white-tailed deer were 7.4 (range 4-12) and 10.6 years (range 5-17), respectively. At necropsy, tissues were collected from the deer for serology, histopathology, and analysis for eight chlorinated hydrocarbons and two metals. Detectable residues of mercury were found in the kidneys of 10 deer (range 0.055-0.096 ??g/g), dieldrin was found in fat (n = 9) (range 0.02-0.72 ??g/g), liver (n = 4) (range 0.017-0.12 ??g/g), and brain (n = 1, 0.018 ??g/g), and DDE was found in the muscle of one animal (0.02 ??g/g). Relative exposure estimates derived from telemetry and soil contamination data were correlated with tissue levels of dieldrin (p deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. The prevalence of antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85%.

Creekmore, T.E.; Whittaker, D.G.; Roy, R.R.; Franson, J.C.; Baker, D.L.

1999-01-01

164

Detection of Lyme disease spirochetes in the skin of naturally infected wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) by PCR.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We demonstrated the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in the skin tissues of naturally infected wild sika deer, using PCR. The risk of transmission of B. burgdorferi sensu lato is recognized in sika deer.

Kimura, K.; Isogai, E.; Isogai, H.; Kamewaka, Y.; Nishikawa, T.; Ishii, N.; Fujii, N.

1995-01-01

165

77 FR 1720 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Rock Creek Park  

Science.gov (United States)

...herd by either sharpshooting or capture and euthanasia of individual deer. Capture and euthanasia of individual deer would be an approach...include both sharpshooting and capture/euthanasia and would be taken initially to...

2012-01-11

166

Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm.  

Science.gov (United States)

In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrP(CWD)) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrP(CWD) in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of recto-anal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection. PMID:18776116

Keane, Delwyn P; Barr, Daniel J; Bochsler, Philip N; Hall, S Mark; Gidlewski, Thomas; O'Rourke, Katherine I; Spraker, Terry R; Samuel, Michael D

2008-09-01

167

Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm  

Science.gov (United States)

In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Bochsler, P.N.; Hall, S.M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

2008-01-01

168

The dynamics of endemic malaria in populations of varying size  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mathematical model for endemic malaria involving variable human and mosquito populations is analysed. A threshold parameter R0 exists and the disease can persist if and only if R0 exceeds 1. R0 is seen to be a generalisation of the basic reproduction ratio associated with the Ross-Macdonald model for malaria transmission. The disease free equilibrium always exist and is globally stable when R0 is below 1. A perturbation analysis is used to approximate the endemic equilibrium in the important case where the disease related death rate is nonzero. A diffusion approximation is used to approximate the quasi-stationary distribution of the associated stochastic model. Numerical simulations show that when R0 is distinctly greater than 1, the endemic deterministic equilibrium is globally stable. Furthermore, in quasi-stationarity, the stochastic process undergoes oscillations about a mean population whose size can be approximated by the stable endemic deterministic equilibrium. (author)

169

Occurrence and overlapping of pharyngeal hot flies Pharyngomyia picta and Cephenemyia auribarbis (Oestridae) in red deer of southern Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From 1985 to 1990, 372 red deer (Cervus elaphus) from southern Spain were examined for larvae of pharyngeal bot flies Pharyngomyia picta and Cephenemyia auribarbis. The infestation was related to age, sex and intensity of infection. Fawns and adult deer (more than 5 years old) had a significantly (P<0.05) higher prevalence and intensity of infection than younger deer. Conversely, no significant difference has been noted between sexes. Ninety percent of deer were found to be infested. A simult...

Rui?z-marti?nez, Isidoro; Palomares, Francisco

1993-01-01

170

The Time Budget of Javan Deer (Rusa timorensis, Blainville 1822 in Panaitan Island, Ujung Kulon National Park, Banten, Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Javan deer that exist in Panaitan Island was reintroduced from Peucang Island during 1978-1982. We observed behavior of the reintroduced Javan deer inhabiting Panaitan Island. Javan deer in this island spent most of their diurnal time for feeding. There were no significant differences between all age-sex variation for all activities pattern. The behavior of Javan deer was influenced by age, sex, social group, temperature, and food availability.

PAIRAH

2014-09-01

171

Endomyocardial fibrosis: A form of endemic restrictive cardiomyopathy  

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Endomyocardial fibrosis is a form of endemic restrictive cardiomyopathy that affects mainly children and adolescents, and is geographically restricted to some poor areas of Africa, Latin America and Asia. It is a condition with high morbidity and mortality, for which no effective therapy is available. Although several hypotheses have been proposed as triggers or causal factors for the disease, none are able to explain the occurrence of the disease worldwide. In endemic areas of Africa endomyo...

Ana Olga Mocumbi

2012-01-01

172

The endemic flora of Greece : Understanding and documenting plant diversity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something or quite a lot about the plants, no intelligent steps can be taken towards protecting them. 520 of the c. 750 endemics are listed on the Red Data "endangered list" by the Council of Europe in 1986 but few know the nature or extent of the threat. Work is currently in preparation on an Endemic Flora of Greece. Three volumes are envisaged: the first deals with the Peloponnese; the second will cover Crete and the islands and the third, the rest of mainland Greece. It is planned to have a sound and scientific basis for plant conservation and education. Within the Balkans more than 60% of the endemic taxa have been mapped and it is already possible to recognize the hot-spots of biodiversity as these are linked to the centres of endemism. Determining the centres of diversity is an important and significant contribution to further conservation measures at the global level.

Tan, Kit

2007-01-01

173

Endemic pemphigus over a century: Part II  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF is an autoimmune disease, classically occurring in a restricted geographic area. Foci of EPF have been described in several Central and South American countries, often affecting young people and Amerindians, with some female predilection. Although most American EPF cases have been documented in Brazil, cases have been reported in Peru, Paraguay, El Salvador and Venezuela. An additional variant of EPF has been described in El Bagre, Colombia, (El Bagre-EPF affecting older men and a few post-menopausal females. Finally, one additional type of EPF has been described in nomadic tribes affecting females of child bearing age in Tunisia, Africa. Aims: The main aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about autoantigens, and immunologic and genetic studies in EPF. Material and Methods: We utilized a retrospective review of the literature, aiming to compile and compare the multiple geographic foci of EPF. Results: The primary autoantigens in EPF are still considered to be desmogleins in the case of the Tunisian and all American cases, in contradistinction to plakins and desmogleins in El Bagre-EPF. Although several autoantigens are been suggested, their biochemical nature needs further elucidation. Current knowledge still supports the concept that an antibody mediated immune response represents the principal pathophysiology in all variants of EPF. Conclusion: A strong genetic susceptibility appears to contribute to disease development in several people affected by these diseases; however, no specific genes have been confirmed at present. We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these disorders immunologically and genetically.

Ana María Abréu-Vélez

2010-03-01

174

Endemic pemphigus over a century: Part II  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) is an autoimmune disease, classically occurring in a restricted geographic area. Foci of EPF have been described in several Central and South American countries, often affecting young people and Amerindians, with some female predilection. Although most American EPF cases have been documented in Brazil, cases have been reported in Peru, Paraguay, El Salvador and Venezuela. An additional variant of EPF has been described in El Bagre, Colombia, (El Bagre-EPF) affecting older men and a few post-menopausal females. Finally, one additional type of EPF has been described in nomadic tribes affecting females of child bearing age in Tunisia, Africa. Aims: The main aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about autoantigens, and immunologic and genetic studies in EPF. Material and Methods: We utilized a retrospective review of the literature, aiming to compile and compare the multiple geographic foci of EPF. Results: The primary autoantigens in EPF are still considered to be desmogleins in the case of the Tunisian and all American cases, in contradistinction to plakins and desmogleins in El Bagre-EPF. Although several autoantigens are been suggested, their biochemical nature needs further elucidation. Current knowledge still supports the concept that an antibody mediated immune response represents the principal pathophysiology in all variants of EPF. Conclusion: A strong genetic susceptibility appears to contribute to disease development in several people affected by these diseases; however, no specific genes have been confirmed at present. We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these disorders immunologically and genetically. PMID:22624125

Abréu-Vélez, Ana María; Roselino, Ana Maria; Howard, Michael S.; Reason, Iara J. de Messias

2010-01-01

175

Prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species in sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the first description of Bartonella prevalence and genetic diversity in 64 Honshu sika deer (Cervus nippon centralis) and 18 Yezo sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Japan. Overall, Bartonella bacteremia prevalence was 41.5% (34/82). The prevalence in wild deer parasitized with ticks and deer keds was 61.8% (34/55), whereas no isolates were detected in captive deer (0/27) free of ectoparasites. The isolates belonged to 11 genogroups based on a combination of the gltA and rpoB gene sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of the ftsZ, gltA, ribC, and rpoB genes of 11 representative isolates showed that Japanese sika deer harbor three Bartonella species, including B. capreoli and two novel Bartonella species. All Yezo deer's isolates were identical to B. capreoli B28980 strain isolated from an elk in the USA, based on the sequences of the ftsZ, gltA, and rpoB genes. In contrast, the isolates from Honshu deer showed a higher genetic diversity. PMID:22832020

Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Yamazaki, Mari; Takeno, Shinako; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Souma, Kousaku; Masuko, Takayoshi; Chomel, Bruno B; Maruyama, Soichi

2012-12-01

176

Allergic contact urticaria and rhinitis to roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in a hunter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is one of the most common game mammals in Europe, where hundreds of thousands people are exposed to this animal. Despite this fact, we are aware of only two cases of allergy to roe deer published until recently, one case of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma and the second of contact urticaria. We describe another case with co-existing allergic contact urticaria and rhinitis in a 55-year old male professional hunter. The symptoms were provoked only by exposure to roe deer, and there were no other past or present allergic diseases. Specific IgE was found to following animal allergens: cow dander (CAP class 5), goat epithelium and horse dander (each CAP class 4), dog epithelium, dog dander and swine epithelium (each CAP class 2). Skin prick tests have shown positive reaction only to cow epithelium (+). Because of lack of deer dander allergen for specific IgE and skin tests, we have confirmed the causal relationship between exposure to roe deer and allergy using the rub test with roe deer's fur. There was a clearly positive urticarial reaction on the patient's skin accompanied by nasal itch, sneezing and rhinorrhea. No reaction was seen in a control person. We surmise that the positive tests with cow epithelium seen in this patient may result from a cross-reactivity to deer allergens. We conclude that although occupational allergies to roe deer seem to be rare, such possibility should be always considered among people having contact with these animals. PMID:12088408

Spiewak, Rados?aw; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

2002-01-01

177

Proximity of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, ranges to wolf Canis lupus, pack homesites  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven adult female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota lived within 1.8 km of Wolf pack (Canis lupus) homesites without vacating their home ranges. Six of these deer and at least three of their fawns survived through the Wolf homesite period.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

2001-01-01

178

Alternative feeding strategies and potential disease transmission in Wisconsin white-tailed deer  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted experimental feeding using 3 feeding methods (pile, spread, trough) and 2 quantities (rationed, ad libitum) of shelled corn to compare deer activity and behavior with control sites and evaluate potential direct and indirect transmission of infectious disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central Wisconsin, USA. Deer use was higher at 2 of the feeding sites than at natural feeding areas (P ??? 0.02). Deer spent a higher proportion of time (P deer use for rationed than ad libitum feeding quantities and feeding intensity was greatest at rationed piles and lowest at ad libitum spreads. We also observed closer pairwise distances (???0.3 m) among deer when corn was provided in a trough relative to spread (P=0.03). Supplemental feeding poses risks for both direct and indirect disease transmission due to higher deer concentration and more intensive use relative to control areas. Concentrated feeding and contact among deer at feeding sites can also increase risk for disease transmission. Our results indicated that restrictions on feeding quantity would not mitigate the potential for disease transmission None of the feeding strategies we evaluated substantially reduced the potential risk for disease transmission and banning supplemental feeding to reduce transmission is warranted.

Thompson, A.K.; Samuel, M.D.; VanDeelen, T.R.

2008-01-01

179

Vaccination of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerin  

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Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis in domestic livestock. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer in order to interrupt...

180

Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. in deer ked pupae, adult keds and moose blood in Finland.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) is a haematophagous ectoparasite of cervids that harbours haemotrophic Bartonella. A prerequisite for the vector competence of the deer ked is the vertical transmission of the pathogen from the mother to its progeny and transstadial transmission from pupa to winged adult. We screened 1154 pupae and 59 pools of winged adult deer keds from different areas in Finland for Bartonella DNA using PCR. Altogether 13 pupa samples and one winged adult deer ked were positive for the presence of Bartonella DNA. The amplified sequences were closely related to either B. schoenbuchensis or B. bovis. The same lineages were identified in eight blood samples collected from free-ranging moose. This is the first demonstration of Bartonella spp. DNA in a winged adult deer ked and, thus, evidence for potential transstadial transmission of Bartonella spp. in the species. PMID:24901607

Korhonen, E M; Pérez Vera, C; Pulliainen, A T; Sironen, T; Aaltonen, K; Kortet, R; Härkönen, L; Härkönen, S; Paakkonen, T; Nieminen, P; Mustonen, A-M; Ylönen, H; Vapalahti, O

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

Deer hunting on Pennsylvania's public and private lands: A two-tiered system of hunters?  

Science.gov (United States)

Recreational hunting is crucial for controlling white-tailed deer populations. Public land is increasingly important as access to private lands declines. However, differences between public and private land hunters remain unknown. Our study of Pennsylvania hunters revealed differences between private and public land hunters that may pose problems for management. Hunters who only hunted public land had lower harvest rates, especially of antlerless deer, spent less time hunting, were less committed to hunting, were more likely to hunt alone, less likely to belong to a hunting camp, and more likely to live in urban areas. They were less likely to believe that high deer populations could damage forest ecosystems, and less willing to harvest antlerless deer. The implications of these findings, in the context of already-declining hunter capacity to keep deer populations in check, and concomitant declining access to private land, are discussed. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Stedman, R.C.; Bhandari, P.; Luloff, A.E.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Finley, J.C.

2008-01-01

182

Habitat Ecology of Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster in Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal  

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Full Text Available The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster is an endangered species found in the Himalayan region of Nepal. This research was conducted in the Manaslu Conservation Area to explore the deers general population status, distribution, habitat preference and conservation threats. Musk deer are distributed within the altitudinal range of 3128-4039 m spanning 35.43 km2, with the most potential habitat in the Prok VDC (Village Development Committee. Within this area the Musk deer highly preferred altitudes between 3601-3800 m, with a 21-30 slope, 26-50% crown cover and 26-50% ground cover. There are significant differences in the use of different habitat types in terms of altitude, slope, crown cover, ground cover and topography. The preferred tree species were Abies spectabilis, Betula utilis and Rhododendron species. Poaching of deer for their musk is the major conservation threat.

Xiuxiang Meng

2012-01-01

183

Seasonal food use by white-tailed deer at Valley Forge National Historical Park, Pennsylvania, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Food habits of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) were examined from January to November 1984 via fecal-pellet analysis at Valley Forge National Historical Park (VFNHP), which represents an “island” habitat for deer surrounded by extensive urbanization, in southeastern Pennsylvania. In addition, use of fields by deer was compared to food habits. Herbaceous vegetation (forbs, leaves of woody plants, and conifer needles) was the predominant food type in all seasons except fall. Acorns and graminoids (grasses and sedges) were important food resources in fall and spring, respectively. Use of woody browse (twigs) was similar among seasons. Field use was relatively high during fall, winter without snow cover (deer at VFNHP indicate the year-round importance of nonwoody foods and field habitats to deer populations on public lands such as national parks in the northeastern United States.

Cypher, Brian L.; Yahner, Richard H.; Cypher, Ellen A.

1988-03-01

184

Febrile response and decrease in circulating lymphocytes following acute infection of white tail deer fawns with either a BVDV1 or a BVDV2 strain  

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While commonly associated with infection in cattle, bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) also replicate in a wide range of domestic and wildlife species including cervids. BVDV has been isolated from a number of cervids including mule deer, German roe deer, Scottish deer, white tail deer and mouse ...

185

The impact of Sika deer on vegetation in Japan: setting management priorities on a national scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

Irreversible shifts in ecosystems caused by large herbivores are becoming widespread around the world. We analyzed data derived from the 2009-2010 Sika Deer Impact Survey, which assessed the geographical distribution of deer impacts on vegetation through a questionnaire, on a scale of 5-km grid-cells. Our aim was to identify areas facing irreversible ecosystem shifts caused by deer overpopulation and in need of management prioritization. Our results demonstrated that the areas with heavy impacts on vegetation were widely distributed across Japan from north to south and from the coastal to the alpine areas. Grid-cells with heavy impacts are especially expanding in the southwestern part of the Pacific side of Japan. The intensity of deer impacts was explained by four factors: (1) the number of 5-km grid-cells with sika deer in neighboring 5 km-grid-cells in 1978 and 2003, (2) the year sika deer were first recorded in a grid-cell, (3) the number of months in which maximum snow depth exceeded 50 cm, and (4) the proportion of urban areas in a particular grid-cell. Based on our model, areas with long-persistent deer populations, short snow periods, and fewer urban areas were predicted to be the most vulnerable to deer impact. Although many areas matching these criteria already have heavy deer impact, there are some areas that remain only slightly impacted. These areas may need to be designated as having high management priority because of the possibility of a rapid intensification of deer impact. PMID:25037481

Ohashi, Haruka; Yoshikawa, Masato; Oono, Keiichi; Tanaka, Norihisa; Hatase, Yoriko; Murakami, Yuhide

2014-09-01

186

Rapid antemortem detection of CWD prions in deer saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an efficiently transmitted prion disease of cervids, now identified in 22 United States, 2 Canadian provinces and Korea. One hallmark of CWD is the shedding of infectious prions in saliva, as demonstrated by bioassay in deer. It is also clear that the concentration of prions in saliva, blood, urine and feces is much lower than in the nervous system or lymphoid tissues. Rapid in vitro detection of CWD (and other) prions in body fluids and excreta has been problematic due to the sensitivity limits of direct assays (western blotting, ELISA) and the presence of inhibitors in these complex biological materials that hamper detection. Here we use real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC) to demonstrate CWD prions in both diluted and prion-enriched saliva samples from asymptomatic and symptomatic white-tailed deer. CWD prions were detected in 14 of 24 (58.3%) diluted saliva samples from CWD-exposed white-tailed deer, including 9 of 14 asymptomatic animals (64.2%). In addition, a phosphotungstic acid enrichment enhanced the RT-QuIC assay sensitivity, enabling detection in 19 of 24 (79.1%) of the above saliva samples. Bioassay in Tg[CerPrP] mice confirmed the presence of infectious prions in 2 of 2 RT-QuIC-positive saliva samples so examined. The modified RT-QuIC analysis described represents a non-invasive, rapid ante-mortem detection of prions in complex biologic fluids, excreta, or environmental samples as well as a tool for exploring prion trafficking, peripheralization, and dissemination. PMID:24040235

Henderson, Davin M; Manca, Matteo; Haley, Nicholas J; Denkers, Nathaniel D; Nalls, Amy V; Mathiason, Candace K; Caughey, Byron; Hoover, Edward A

2013-01-01

187

Action Central: Red Deer steps forward as oilfield operations capital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growth of Red Deer as the center of the oil and natural gas service industry in the Alberta oilpatch was discussed. Red Deer is the home base of many of Alberta's major service companies (Haliburton, Schlumberger, Computalog, Nowsco, Canadian Fracmaster, Hughes, Bonus and Challenger), and new companies are regularly looking for industrial properties to establish themselves in the city. Industrial land acquisition currently runs at about triple of the average for the previous ten years. Another significant spin-off of energy wealth around Red Deer comes from the manufacturing of petrochemical building blocks of plastics, at nearby Joffre. With expansion projects that include Union Carbide Canada and Amoco Canada, predictions of population growth to 100,000 from the current 75,000, are commonplace. These expansion projects spell up to 2,500 construction jobs for the next three years, and then 400 new permanent plant positions that will pay $60,000 and up for skilled specialist jobs. There are some concerns about the threat of the Alliance Gas Pipeline project that if it materializes it might export many jobs, along with the natural gas, to the United States. However, these concerns are less serious than the fear that Alliance threatens to raise the price of the raw material by draining away surpluses from the industry, thus removing the major Canadian advantage in competition with U.S. industry. Alliance supporters counter that even at maximum export through the Cochat even at maximum export through the Cochin liquid pipeline, only half of the ethane production that will be potentially available, will be exported

188

The physical condition of roe and red deer killed by wolves in a region of the western Alps, Italy  

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The leg bone marrow fat of 11 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) killed by wolves (Canis lupus) was examined and compared with that of 15 roe deer killed in traffic accidents. Moreover, a sample of 14 red deer (Cervus elaphus) kills was examined. High levels of femur marrow fat (75-100 %) were detected in 45% of the roe deer killed by wolves. The amount of leg bone marrow fat showed a decrease through the winter season, roe deer killed by wolves did not show a significantly lower marrow fat level...

Ferroglio, Ezio

2007-01-01

189

Therapy of endemic goitre; Therapie der Jodmangelstruma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1. In childhood the first line treatment of endemic goitre is Kl (100-150 {mu}g/day). Once the goitre volume has shrinked during L-thyroxine treatment in older patients, this effect is to be maintained by Kl ({proportional_to}200 {mu}g/day). The same holds true after surgery in cases with normal TSH responsiveness to TRH. 2. TSH suppressive L-thyroxine therapy is indicated in goitre patients older than 40 years. However, the effectiveness will be limited by the nodularity of the thyroid. So prevention of further growth prevails over true tissue reduction. 3. Obviously thyroid surgery yields the best cosmetic results with an acceptably low complication rate. When euthyroidism is established, a lifelong iodine prophylaxy (200 {mu}g/day) of recurrent goitre is mandatory. In cases with latent or overt hypothyroidism an appropriate therapy with thyroid hormone should be given. 4. By radiodine it is possible to realize a short term volume loss of 30-40% which may increase further on up to 60%. Relief of symptoms is usually even more impressive than actual volume loss. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] 1. Kaliumjodid ist heute das Mittel der Wahl zur Behandlung der Jodmangelstruma von Kindern (100 {mu}g) und Jugendlichen (150 {mu}g). Lebenslange Einnahme von Jodid (200 {mu}g) dient der Erhaltung einer Organverkleinerung, die durch L-Thyroxin bei aelteren Patienten erreicht wurde, und postoperativ bei gesicherter Euthyreose (TSH). In der Schwangerschaft ist eine Jodid-Medikation fuer Mutter und Kind erforderlich. 2. L-Thyroxin in TSH-suppressiver Dosierung sollte eingesetzt werden, wenn mit Jodid kein Verkleinerungseffekt erreichbar ist. Primaer ist es indiziert bei Patienten ueber 40 Jahren. Postoperativ muss L-Thyroxin dann verordnet werden, wenn eine latente oder manifeste Hypothyreose gesichert ist. Damit behandelt es sich aber nicht um eine Rezidiv-Prophylaxe im engeren Sinn. 3. Eine wirkliche Substanzverminderung des Kropfes gelingt durch die operative Resektion. Eine konsequente, wahrscheinlich lebenslange Rezidivprophylaxe (Jodid 200 {mu}g) hat ihr unbedingt zu folgen. 4. Auch die Radiojodtherapie erzielt eine Reduktion der Strumamasse durch Verminderung der Follikelzahl kurzfristig in der Groessenordnung von 30-40% und langfristig bis zu 60%. Die Besserung der Beschwerden ist noch eindrucksvoller als der sonographisch objektivierte Volumenrueckgang. (orig./MG)

Leisner, B. [Allg. Krankenhaus St. Georg, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

1995-12-01

190

Changes in body proportion of roe deer with age  

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The aim of the present study was to estimate the development of body and some body parts and internal organs of roe deer, from 1 year of age (fawn) to 2-3 years of age (Buck). Average body mass of fawn was 16.6 kg and of buck 26.4 kg. Body mass of buck was by 1.6 times greater than body mass of fawn. Similar growth intensity was established for body parts (thighs shoulders, loin and back). The proportion of parts in body and carcass mass was same in fawn and buck. The mass of internal organs ...

Vitorovi? Duško; Popovi? Zoran; Periši? Predrag; Adamovi? Ivana

2003-01-01

191

Nutritional values of wild rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) venison  

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Until 2002, the level of protein consumption from red meat origin by the Indonesian people was only 51.5% from the national target. The reasons for this condition were due to limited resources of domesticated animals and low income of many suburb people to buy red mead. One alternative in supplying the gap of protein consumption is by utilizing local prospective wildlife animals, such as deer. This species is widely distributed among the islands in Indonesia. In order to understand more on th...

Jamal, Y.; Semiadi, G.; Hamsun, M.

2005-01-01

192

[The taxonomy of the musk deer (Artiodactyla, Mammalia)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of multiyear studies (1976-1996) of musk deer taxonomy and the published data were generalized. Two groups of subspecies were isolated on the basis of statistical analysis of 13 linear measurements and six indices in 388 skulls from different parts of the range. Group "sibirica" includes four subspecies: Siberian Moschus moschiferus moschiferus F., Verkhoyansk M. moschiferus articticus F., Far-Eastern M. moschiferus turowi Zal., and Sakhalin M. moschiferus sachalinensis F. Group "himalaica" contains three subspecies: Korean M. moschiferus parvipes Hol., Chinese M. moschiferus chrysogaster H., and Himalayan Moschus moschiferus leucogaster H. PMID:9518057

Sokolov, V E; Prikhod'ko, V I

1997-01-01

193

Factors Affecting the Winter-Feeding Ecology of Red Deer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Characteristics of browsing the forest regenerations and the consumption of supplementary given food of red deer were investigated. On a 10,000 ha territory managed by a forest management unit all the regenerations were fenced in due to the high browsing pressure. In the course of the experiment three plots of 0.5 ha-s each regenerated by oak (Querqus robur) were left unfenced. On the side of one plot a feeding station was built in which sugar beet slices were given supplementary. On the side...

Na?hlik, A.; Borkowski, J.; Kira?ly, G.

2005-01-01

194

Linking Hunter Knowledge with Forest Change to Understand Changing Deer Harvest Opportunities in Intensively Logged Landscapes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of landscape changes caused by intensive logging on the availability of wild game are important when the harvest of wild game is a critical cultural practice, food source, and recreational activity. We assessed the influence of extensive industrial logging on the availability of wild game by drawing on local knowledge and ecological science to evaluate the relationship between forest change and opportunities to harvest Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. We used data collected through interviews with local deer hunters and GIS analysis of land cover to determine relationships among landscape change, hunter access, and habitat for deer hunting over the last 50 yr. We then used these relationships to predict how harvest opportunities may change in the future. Intensive logging from 1950 into the 1990s provided better access to deer and habitat that facilitated deer hunting. However, successional changes in intensively logged forests in combination with a decline in current logging activity have reduced access to deer and increased undesirable habitat for deer hunting. In this new landscape, harvest opportunities in previously logged landscapes have declined, and hunters identify second-growth forest as one of the least popular habitats for hunting. Given the current state of the logging industry in Alaska, it is unlikely that the logging of the remaining old-growth forests or intensive management of second-growth forests will cause hunter opportunities to rebound to historic levels. Instead, hunter opportunities may continue to decline for at least another human generation, even if the long-term impacts of logging activity and deer harvest on deer numbers are minimal. Adapting hunting strategies to focus on naturally open habitats such as alpine and muskeg that are less influenced by external market forces may require considerably more hunting effort but provide the best option for sustaining deer hunting as a local tradition over the long run. We speculate that managing deer habitat in accessible areas may be more important than managing the overall health of deer populations on a regional scale. We further suggest that the level of access to preferred hunting habitat may be just as important as deer densities in determining hunter efficiency.

Gary Kofinas

2009-06-01

195

Phylogeography of endemic ermine (Mustela erminea) in southeast Alaska.  

Science.gov (United States)

The North Pacific Coast (NPC) of North America is a region of high mammalian endemism, possibly due to its highly fragmented landscape and complex glacial history. For example, four island and one mainland subspecies of ermine, Mustela erminea, have been described as endemic to southeast Alaska alone. To better understand the role of past climatic change in generating diversity in the region, we examined DNA sequence variation in the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 210 ermine from across North America, with an emphasis on Alaska and British Columbia. We found three distinct (1.5-3.6% uncorrected 'p') lineages of ermine, all of which occur in southeast Alaska. One lineage includes a southeast Alaska endemic and specimens from Alaska (outside of southeast) and Eurasia. A second lineage includes two southeast Alaskan endemics and ermine from western Canada and the coterminous United States. The close relationships of these purported endemics to ermine outside of southeast Alaska suggest that they colonized the region from Beringian and southern glacial refugia, respectively, following deglaciation of the NPC. The third lineage appears restricted to the Prince of Wales Island complex in southeast Alaska (two subspecies) and Graham Island (Haida Gwaii), British Columbia. This restricted distribution suggests that these populations may be derived from relicts that persisted in a coastal refugium during the Wisconsin glaciation. Studies of nuclear genes and adaptive morphological evolution are necessary to further explore discrepancies between the geographical pattern of differentiation based on mtDNA and the existing subspecific taxonomy based on morphology. PMID:11972765

Fleming, Melissa A; Cook, Joseph A

2002-04-01

196

The endemic plants of Micronesia: a geographical checklist and commentary  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Micronesia-Polynesia bioregion is recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot. However, until now estimates regarding the number of endemic plant species for the region were not supported by any comprehensive published work for the region. The results of this study indicate that Micronesia has the world’s highest percentage of plant endemism per square kilometer out of all globally recognized insular biodiversity hotspots. A checklist of all endemic plant species for Micronesia is presented here with their corresponding geographical limits within the region. A summary of previous work and estimates is also provided noting the degree of taxonomic progress in the past several decades. A total of 364 vascular plant species are considered endemic to Micronesia, most of them being restricted to the Caroline Islands with a large percentage restricted to Palau. The checklist includes seven new combinations, one new name, and two unverified names that require additional study to verify endemic status. Overviews of each respective botanical family represented in the list are given including additional information on the Micronesian taxa. Recommendations for future work and potential projects are alluded to throughout the text highlighting major data gaps and very poorly known taxa. The following new combinations and names are made: Cyclosorus carolinensis (Hosokawa Lorence, comb. nov. , Cyclosorusgretheri (W. H. Wagner Lorence, comb. nov., Cyclosorusguamensis (Holttum Lorence, comb. nov., Cyclosorus palauensis (Hosokawa Lorence, comb. nov. , Cyclosorus rupiinsularis (Fosberg Lorence, comb. nov., Dalbergia hosokawae (Hosokawa Costion nom. nov., Syzygium trukensis (Hosokawa Costion & E. Lucas comb. nov.

Lorence, D.H.

2012-05-01

197

Artificial insemination in deer and non-domestic bovids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Artificial insemination technology has revolutionized the domestic cattle breeding industry and allowed for the dissemination of valuable genetics worldwide. This technology has been adapted for use in many other taxa for the conservation of threatened and endangered species, but its use for the genetic management of small populations of deer, antelope and other non-domestic bovids has met numerous challenges and limited success. In practice, adaptation of domestic bovine AI protocols to other artiodactylids for genetic management has been limited by: (1) a lack of understanding of species-specific reproductive characteristics; (2) the inability to minimize handling stress; (3) pregnancy losses; and (4) regulatory challenges in semen importation. To date, AI protocols have been developed for seven species of cervid and 14 species of non-domestic bovids; recent developments in this technology has allowed greater use of AI for dissemination of genetics in farmed deer species. However, despite decades of research in the use of assisted reproduction for the conservation of antelope and other non-domestic bovids, even this simplest technique has not been used repeatedly for genetic management. PMID:18986694

Morrow, C J; Penfold, L M; Wolfe, B A

2009-01-01

198

Balancing income and cost in red deer management.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a bioeconomic analysis of a red deer population within a Norwegian institutional context. This population is managed by a well-defined manager, typically consisting of many landowners operating in a cooperative manner, with the goal of maximizing the present-value hunting related income while taking browsing and grazing damages into account. The red deer population is structured in five categories of animals (calves, female and male yearlings, adult females and adult males). It is shown that differences in the per-animal meat values and survival rates ('biological discounted' values) are instrumental in determining the optimal harvest composition. Fertility plays no direct role. It is argued that this is a general result working in stage-structured models with harvest values. In the numerical illustration it is shown that the optimal harvest pattern stays quite stable under various parameter changes. It is revealed which parameters and harvest restrictions that is most important. We also show that the current harvest pattern involves too much yearling harvest compared with the economically efficient level. PMID:23262406

Skonhoft, Anders; Veiberg, Vebjřrn; Gauteplass, Asle; Olaussen, Jon Olaf; Meisingset, Erling L; Mysterud, Atle

2013-01-30

199

Toxinotyping of Clostridium perfringens fecal isolates of reintroduced Pčre David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen causing sudden death syndrome, necrotic enteritis, and gas gangrene in ruminants, especially some deer species. Pčre David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) is one of the world's rare species and is an endangered and protected species in China. Some Pčre David's deer in the Chinese Shishou Pčre David's Deer Preserve died due to C. perfringens infection. We investigated the toxin types and C. perfringens enterotoxin-positive (cpe(+)) strains of isolated C. perfringens in Pčre David's deer in China. We collected 155 fecal samples from the Beijing Nanhaizi Pčre David's Deer Park and the Jiangsu Dafeng Pčre David's Deer National Nature Reserve between July 2010 and July 2011. Bacteria isolated using blood agar and mannitol agar plates were identified by Gram staining and nested PCR for 16S rRNA. We isolated C. perfringens from 41 fecal samples and used PCR amplification of five toxin genes to identify the toxinotypes and the cpe(+) strains of C. perfringens. Twenty-one isolates were type A, 15 were type E, and five were type D. Fifteen isolates were cpe(+) strains, including eight that were type A and seven that were type E. PMID:25050802

Qiu, Huiling; Chen, Fu; Leng, Xinyan; Fei, Rongmei; Wang, Libo

2014-10-01

200

Forage Food of Timor Deer (Cervus timorensis in Manokwari, West Papua  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditionally, back yard deer husbandry is well developed in some parts in Papua, though information on deer husbandry has not been provided yet. Therefore, this study was aimed at highlighting the diet provided to the deer in back yard husbandry model in Manokwari. Survey method was approached by visiting eight deer back yard farmer respondents. Direct observation to the feeding site and semi-structured interview were carried out to learn about the deer management system, and identify the forage diet species consumed and served to the animals. The results indicated five most common forage species consumed in the study; they were field grass, Imperata (Imperata cylindrica, elephant grass (Penisetum purpureum, king grass (Penisetum purpureopoidhes and Melinis minutiflora depending on the location of farmed deer. Drinking water was offered and feed supplement such as various leafs, food and vegetable left over and banana peel was provided by 62.5% of the respondents. Food supplement was given two times per day (morning, evening and (afternoon, evening. Forage food species consumed in the study sites were relatively more similar to the food in the natural habitat. (Animal Production 12(2: 91-95 (2010Key Words: forage, food, Timor deer, Manokwari

AYS Arobaya

2010-05-01

 
 
 
 
201

Factors affecting Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Maine.  

Science.gov (United States)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) collected in Maine (USA) from November 1988 to December 1989 were examined for Parelaphostrongylus tenuis. Relationships of deer age class, sex, collection year, and deer density to prevalence and intensity of P. tenuis infections were analyzed. Prevalence increased with deer age (P or = 1 yr old (85%, n = 519), but was higher in fawns in 1988 (66%, n = 87) than 1989 (23%, n = 73, P or = 1 yr old (P = 0.032). Neither prevalence (P > 0.50) nor intensity (P > 0.50) of infection was associated with deer density over a range of 1.4 to 5.8 deer per km2. Heads and fecal samples from the same individuals (n = 42) provided prevalence estimates of 73% and 44%, respectively. No differences in prevalence, intensity, or geographic distribution of P. tenuis in adult deer collected in Maine during fall were evident between the late 1980's (this study) and the late 1960's (Gilbert, 1973).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8487376

Bogaczyk, B A; Krohn, W B; Gibbs, H C

1993-04-01

202

Undernutrition and serum and urinary urea nitrogen of white-tailed deer during winter  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct, practical means of assessing undernutrition in deer (Odocoileus spp.) and other ungulates during winter are needed in areas of research and management. We examined the relationship between mass loss and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine (U:C) in captive white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). During 4 February-5 May 1988, we maintained 7 adult white-tailed deer on various feeding regimes to simulate natural nutritional restriction during winter. Mass loss was greater (P = 0.037) in deer (17.0-32.2%) fed restricted amounts of a low protein low energy diet versus control deer (7.0-17.4%) fed the same diet ad libitum. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations did not differ (P = 0.191) between groups, but declined (P = 0.001) as nutrition declined. Slopes of percent mass lossSUN and urinary U:C relationships were positive (P = 0.008 and 0.055) in 7 and 6 deer, respectively. Mean U:C was directly related (r2 = 0.52, P = 0.040) to mean cumulative mass loss, whereas mean SUN was not (r2 = 0.29, P = 0.125). Data presented support the potential of urinary U:C as an index of winter nutritional condition of white-tailed deer; however, additional research is required to provide a complete understanding of this index's utility under field conditions.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

1994-01-01

203

Sensitivity of condition indices to changing density in a white-tailed deer population  

Science.gov (United States)

The ways in which comprehensive condition profiles, incorporating morphometric, histologic, physiologic, and diet quality indices, responded to changes in density of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population were examined. Changes in these condition indices were monitored in a northeastern Oklahoma deer herd as density declined from peaks of 80 and 72 deer/km2 in 1989 and 1990 (high-density) to lows of 39 and 41 deer/km2 in 1991 and 1992 (reduced-density), respectively. Compared to a reference population (6 deer/km2), deer sampled during high-density exhibited classic signs of nutritional stress such as low body and visceral organ masses (except elevated adrenal gland mass), low fecal nitrogen levels, reduced concentrations of serum albumin, elevated serum creatinine concentrations, and a high prevalence of parasitic infections. Although density declined by one half over the 4-yr study, gross indices of condition (in particular body mass and size) remained largely unchanged. However, selected organ masses, serum albumin and non-protein nitrogen constituents, and fecal nitrogen indices reflected improvements in nutritional status with reductions in density. Many commonly used indices of deer condition (fat reserves, hematocrit, total serum protein, and blood urea nitrogen) were not responsive to fluctuations in density. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 1998.

Sams, M.G.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Qualls, C.W., Jr.; Leslie, D.M., Jr.

1998-01-01

204

Lecythidaceae endémicas del Perú / Lecythidaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Lecythidaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar ocho géneros y 20 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), todas ellas árboles. En este trabajo reconocemos dos especies endémicas en dos géneros. Estos taxones endémicos ocupan la región Bosques Húmedos Amazónicos, [...] entre los 100 y 270 m de altitud. Una especie endemica de Lecythidaceae se encuentra representada dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english Lecythidaceae are represented in Peru by eight genera and 20 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), all of them trees. Here we recognize two endemic species in two genera. These endemic taxa grow in the Humid Lowland Amazonian Forest region, between 100 and 270 m elevation. One [...] endemic species of Lecythidaceae has been registered in the Peruvian protected areas system.

Blanca, León.

2006-12-01

205

Amaranthaceae endémicas del Perú / Amaranthaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Amaranthaceae es reconocida en el Perú con 13 géneros y 72 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), básicamente hierbas y arbustos. En este trabajo reconocemos como endemismos ocho especies y dos variedades en seis géneros. Estos 10 taxones endémicos ocupan principalme [...] nte las regiones Matorral Desértico y Mesoandina, entre los 500 y 2400 m de altitud. Hasta la fecha, ninguna de estas especies han sido registradas en áreas protegidas. Abstract in english The Amaranthaceae are represented in Peru by 13 genera and 72 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), basically herbs and shrubs. Here we recognize as endemics eight species and two varieties in six genera. These 1o endemics taxa grow mostly in Desert Shrubland and Mesoandean reg [...] ions, between 500 and 2400 m elevation. No endemic Amaranthaceae have been registered to date within Peru's protected areas system.

Blanca, León; Christhian, Monsalve; Abundio, Sagástegui; Isidoro, Sánchez.

2006-12-01

206

Geraniaceae endémicas del Perú / Geraniaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Geraniaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar cinco géneros y 59 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mayormente hierbas y subarbustos. En este trabajo reconocemos 18 especies endémicas, todas en el género Geranium. Estos endemismos ocupan principalmente las r [...] egiones Puna Húmeda y Seca y Mesoandina, entre los 2000 y 4800 m de altitud. Dos Geraniaceae endémicas se encuentran representadas dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Geraniaceae are represented in Peru by five genera and 59 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mainly herbs and subshrubs. Here we recognize 18 endemic species, all in the genus Geranium. These endemic taxa are found in the Very Humid and Dry Puna, and the Mesoandean regio [...] ns, between 2000 and 4800 m elevation. Two endemic Geraniaceae species have been recorded to date within Peru's protected areas.

Christhian, Monsalve; Blanca, León.

2006-12-01

207

A deer study at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Project planning, data assimilation, and risk assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For more than 75 years, Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) has been in the business of research, development, and testing of munitions and military vehicles for the US Army. Currently, APG is on the National Priorities List and an installation wide human health risk assessment is underway. Like many Department of the Army facilities, APG has an active hunting program. Hunters harvest approximately 800 whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginanus) from APG annually. To assure public safety, the authors completed a study during the 1993 hunting season to identify any potential human health hazards associated with consumption of venison from APG. This paper will discuss the unique strategy behind the experimental design, the actual assimilation of the data, and the results of the human health risk assessment to establish an appropriate contaminant levels in APG deer. Also, based on information in the literature, the authors considered gender, age, and season in the study design. The list of chemicals for residue analysis included explosives, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, and metals (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg). Of the 150 deer sampled, metals were the only chemicals detected. The authors compared these data to metal levels in deer collected from an off post background site. Metal levels did not differ significantly between APG deer and off post deer. Finally, the authors completed a health risk assessment of eating deer harvested from both APG and off post. From a survey distributed to the hunters, they incorporated actual consumption data into the exposure assessment. Their findings concluded that the risk of eating APG deer was no higher than eating off post deer; however, total arsenic levels in muscle did appear to elevate the risk.

Whaley, J.; Leach, G.; Lee, R. [Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1995-12-31

208

Radiological spectrum of endemic fluorosis: relationship with calcium intake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Skeletal fluorosis continues to be endemic in many parts of India. Osteosclerosis and interosseous membrane calcification have long been regarded as hallmarks of this disease. Our study showed in addition a wide variety of radiological patterns: Coarse trabecular pattern, axial osteosclerosis with distal osteopenia and diffuse osteopenia. Subjects with osteopenic changes had a significantly lower dietary intake of calcium than those groups having normal radiological findings, predominant osteosclerosis or coarse trabecular pattern (p<0.001, p<0.01, and p<0.01 respectively). This suggests the role of calcium intake in determining the skeletal changes in endemic fluorosis. (orig.)

209

Radiological spectrum of endemic fluorosis: relationship with calcium intake  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Skeletal fluorosis continues to be endemic in many parts of India. Osteosclerosis and interosseous membrane calcification have long been regarded as hallmarks of this disease. Our study showed in addition a wide variety of radiological patterns: Coarse trabecular pattern, axial osteosclerosis with distal osteopenia and diffuse osteopenia. Subjects with osteopenic changes had a significantly lower dietary intake of calcium than those groups having normal radiological findings, predominant osteosclerosis or coarse trabecular pattern (p<0.001, p<0.01, and p<0.01 respectively). This suggests the role of calcium intake in determining the skeletal changes in endemic fluorosis. (orig.)

Mithal, A. (Dept. of Medical Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)); Trivedi, N. (Dept. of Medical Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)); Gupta, S.K. (Dept. of Medical Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)); Kumar, S. (Dept. of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)); Gupta, R.K. (Dept. of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India))

1993-05-01

210

Parelaphostrongylus tenuis-associated meningoencephalitis in a sika deer (Cervus nippon).  

Science.gov (United States)

An adult, female, free-ranging, sika deer (Cervus nippon yakushimae) from Wicomico County, Maryland, USA, was found circling and having no fear of humans. The animal was euthanized and submitted for a postmortem exam. There were no gross lesions and the deer was negative for rabies. Microscopic examination revealed lymphoplasmacytic, neutrophilic, and eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with intralesional adult nematodes, larvae, and eggs consistent with nematodes in the family Protostrongylidae. Parelaphostrongylus tenuis was identified by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. tenuis-associated encephalitis in a sika deer. PMID:20090046

Gerhold, Richard W; Keel, M Kevin; Arnold, Kim; Hotton, Doug; Beckstead, Robert B

2010-01-01

211

Roe deer in Borre :an analysis of hunting statistics and recommendations for future management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

English: The roe deer project in Borre (RiB) was initiated in 1999 to coordinate and improve the roe deer management in Horten municipality. In the period 1999-2005, a total of 689 roe deer were shot in the regular hunt. Of these animals, slaughter weight, sex and age is known for 563 individuals. In this report, the first conclusive analyses of these data are reported. Throughout the period, there has been a slight increase in slaughter weights, jaw lengths and fat content. This indicates th...

Nilsen, Erlend Birkeland

2008-01-01

212

Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

D'Angelo, Gino, J., John C. Kilgo, Christopher E. Comer, Cory D. Drennan, David A. Osborn, and Karl V. Miller. 2003. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer. In: Proceedings of the Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies. 57:317-325. This article explores the relationship between controlled dog hunting and the movements of female white tailed deer at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The data suggests that short term, controlled dog hunting has little long-term effect on adult, female white-tailed deer movement on the Savannah River Site.

D' Angelo, Gino, J.; Kilgo, John, C.; Comer, Christopher, E.; Drennan, Cory, D.; Osborn, David, A.; Miller, Karl, V.

2003-12-31

213

Aggressive defensive behavior by free-ranging white-tailed deer  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal investment plays a critical role in neonate survival, and adults can improve survival of offspring by defending them against predators. However, limited information exists documenting ungulate aggression toward humans in defense of neonates. During captures of neonates in spring 2007 and 2008 in north-central South Dakota, we documented 24 aggressive encounters by adult female and yearling male and female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) defending neonates. Eleven (45.8%) aggressive encounters included yearlings accompanying adult females. Mean ages and weights of neonates that were aggressively defended were greater (P white-tailed deer, and that deer biased maternal investment toward older, male neonates. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

Grovenburg, T.W.; Jenks, J.A.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Swanson, C.C.

2009-01-01

214

Digestibily of Some Kind of Alternative Diets on Lesser Mouse Deer (Tragulus javanicus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four female lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus were used in this study to observe their feed consumption and digestibility given alternative diets in captive. The results showed that 125g/head/day sweet potatoes supplementation in ration increased the consumption and digestibility of dry matter intake, ash, ether extract, and N-free extract. Supplementation of commercial concentrate in lesser mouse deer’s diet decreased the digestion of dry matter, ash, crude protein, and crude fiber. Animal Production 6(1: 17-22 (2004 Key Words: Digestibility, Consumption, Alternative Diets, Tragulus javanicus

WR Farida

2004-01-01

215

Malignant catarrhal fever associated with ovine herpesvirus-2 in free-ranging mule deer in Colorado.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was diagnosed in four free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in January and February of 2003. Diagnosis was based on typical histologic lesions of lymphocytic vasculitis and PCR identification of ovine herpesvirus-2 (OHV-2) viral genetic sequences in formalin-fixed tissues. The animals were from the Uncompahgre Plateau of southwestern Colorado. Deer from these herds occasionally resided in close proximity to domestic sheep (Ovis aries), the reservoir host of OHV-2, in agricultural valleys adjacent to their winter range. These cases indicate that fatal OHV-2 associated MCF can occur in free-ranging mule deer exposed to domestic sheep that overlap their range. PMID:17699095

Schultheiss, Patricia C; Van Campen, Hana; Spraker, Terry R; Bishop, Chad; Wolfe, Lisa; Podell, Brendan

2007-07-01

216

Communal pellet deposition sites of himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) and associated vegetation composition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster), found in the sub-alpine and alpine vegetation of the Himalayan region, is one of the endangered deer species of Nepal. This study conducted in the Langtang National Park, Nepal analyzed how the musk deer select their communal pellet deposition sites, compared vegetation at the pellet deposition sites with adjacent sites (5-10m from a pellet site) and control sites (30 m from pellet site without pellet groups) and explored the potential role of m...

Shrestha, Bhakta Bahadur

2012-01-01

217

Wild red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) grazing may seriously reduce forage production in mountain meadows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed at estimating the impact of red deer grazing on the productivity of meadows located in Pian Cansiglio, north-eastern Italian Pre-Alps. These meadows (383 ha; average elevation 1000 m asl are managed for hay/silage production (1-2 cuts per season) and are included in a protected area that hosts a high density of deer (around 30 heads/100 ha). In 2008 and 2010, dry matter (DM) production and loss due to deer grazing were estimated with exclusion cages (1 m2; 48 exclusion cages ...

Maurizio Ramanzin; Enrico Sturaro; Elisa Marchiori

2012-01-01

218

Acanthaceae endémicas del Perú / Acanthaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Acanthaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar 41 géneros y alrededor de 275 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), básicamente arbustos y hierbas. En este trabajo reconocemos 42 taxones endémicos en 15 géneros. Tres de estos géneros, Cephalacanthus, Orophochilus [...] y Trichosanchezia, son endémicos al Perú. La mayoría de los taxones endémicos ocupan las regiones Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos y Bosques Húmedos Amazónicos, entre los 100 y 2870 m de altitud. Siete de los endemismos están representados por lo menos en una área natural protegida. Abstract in english The Acanthaceae are represented in Peru by 41 genera and approximately 275 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), basically shrubs and herbs. Here we recognize 42 endemic taxa in 15 genera. Three genera, Cephalacanthus, Orophochilus and Trichosanchezia, are endemic to Peru. Most [...] endemic Acanthaceae are found in the Very Humid Montane and Humid Lowland Amazonian Forests regions, between 100 and 2870 m elevation. Seven endemic species are represented within Peru's protected areas system.

Blanca, León.

2006-12-01

219

Lamiaceae endémicas del Perú / Lamiaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Lamiaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar alrededor de 21 géneros y 190 especies ((Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mayormente hierbas y arbustos. En este trabajo reconocemos 57 especies endémicas en nueve géneros. El género Salvia es el más rico en especies endém [...] icas. Las especies de Lamiaceae endémicas ocupan principalmente las regiones Mesoandina y Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, entre los 1500 y 4250 m de altitud. Siete de estas especies se encuentran representadas dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Lamiaceae are represented in Peru by around 21 genera and 190 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mainly herbs and shrubs. Here we recognize 57 endemic species in nine genera. Salvia is the genus with the largest number of endemic species. Endemic Lamiaceae species are fo [...] und mostly in the Mesoandean and Very Humid Montane Forest regions, between 1500 and 4250 m elevation. Seven endemic species of Lamiaceae have been recorded to date in the Peruvian protected areas system.

Maritza, Rodriguez.

2006-12-01

220

Grossulariaceae endémicas del Perú / Grossulariaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Grossulariaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar tres géneros y aproximadamente 35 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Weigend & Rodriguez, 2006), todos arbustos y árboles. En este trabajo reconocemos 11 especies endémicas en dos géneros. El género Ribes es el más rico en especies end [...] émicas. Las Grossulariaceae endémicas ocupan principalmente las regiones Puna Húmeda y Seca y Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, entre los 2500 y 4600 m de altitud. Dos especies endémicas se encuentran representadas dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Grossulariaceae are represented in Peru by three genera and nearly 35 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Weigend & Rodriguez, 2006 ), all shrubs and trees. Here we recognize 11 endemic species in two genera. Ribes is the genus with the largest number of endemic species. Endemic Grossulariaceae spe [...] cies grow mainly in Humid and Dry Puna, and Very Humid Montane Forest regions, between 2500 and 4600 m elevation. Two endemic Grossulariaceae have been registered to date in the Peruvian protected areas system.

Wilfredo, Mendoza; Christhian, Monsalve.

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

[Resurgence of endemic yaws in Togo. Cause and eradication approach].  

Science.gov (United States)

In Togo, since 1940, yaws declared endemic has been controlled after the 1956 and 1961 eradication campaign. Nowadays, unfortunately, the mutilating treponematosis has reappeared in force. Hence, Togolese Health Officers are in search of ways and means to eradicate the disease so as to prevent handicaps for future generations. PMID:8003898

Edorh, A A; Siamevi, E K; Adanlete, F A; Aflagah, E K; Kassankogno, Y; Amouzou, A B; Lodonou, K G

1994-01-01

222

Seasonality of 137Cs in roe deer from Austria and Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Empirical data on the 137Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) roaming in 3 spruce forest areas and one peat bog area are presented and compared. They cover time series of nearly 20 years after a spike contamination in 1986 originating from Chernobyl. A model is presented which considers three soil compartments to describe the change of the availability of 137Cs with time. The time-dependency of the 137Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer is a combination of two components: (1) an exponential decay and (2) a peak in the second half of each year during the mushroom season. The exponential decay over the years can be described by a sum of two exponential functions. The additional transfer of 137Cs into roe deer during the mushroom season depends on precipitation. On the peat bog the 137Cs activity concentration in roe deer is higher and more persistent than in spruce forest

223

Seasonality of 137Cs in roe deer from Austria and Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Empirical data on the (137)Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) roaming in 3 spruce forest areas and one peat bog area are presented and compared. They cover time series of nearly 20 years after a spike contamination in 1986 originating from Chernobyl. A model is presented which considers three soil compartments to describe the change of the availability of (137)Cs with time. The time-dependency of the (137)Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer is a combination of two components: (1) an exponential decay and (2) a peak in the second half of each year during the mushroom season. The exponential decay over the years can be described by a sum of two exponential functions. The additional transfer of (137)Cs into roe deer during the mushroom season depends on precipitation. On the peat bog the (137)Cs activity concentration in roe deer is higher and more persistent than in spruce forest. PMID:19162381

Fielitz, U; Klemt, E; Strebl, F; Tataruch, F; Zibold, G

2009-03-01

224

Enhancement of exercise endurance capacity by fermented deer antler in BALB/c mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the activity of fermented deer antler on exercise endurance capacity, we evaluated endurance capacity in five-week-old male BALB/c mice by administering the fermented deer antler extract (FA) or the non-fermented deer antler extract (NFA) and then subjected the mice to exercise in the form of swimming. The mice administered 500 mg/kg/day of FA showed a significant increase in swimming time compared with mice administered placebo (16.55 min vs. 21.64 min, Pswimming time or serum LDH from that of the control group. Moreover, the FA-500 group had significantly higher hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity after forced swimming than the control and NFA groups (Pexercise endurance capacity of the deer antler. PMID:25273137

Jang, Seongho; Park, Eu Ddeum; Suh, Hyung Joo; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Jin Soo; Park, Yooheon

2014-10-01

225

Genetic roots of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) population in Eastern Switzerland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Overhunting of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in eastern Switzerland led to its extinction in the second half of the 17th century. Natural recolonization must have taken place later, because red deer were seen again in the canton of the Grisons (eastern Switzerland) in the 1870s. According to historical data, three different populations could have served as the source population. To determine the genetic origin of the eastern Swiss red deer population, we collected samples from five different subpopulations in the canton of the Grisons as well as from four adjacent populations in Germany, Liechtenstein, Austria, and Italy. We analyzed the samples by genotyping 18 microsatellite loci. F(ST) values, assignment tests, correspondence analysis, and fuzzy clustering clearly pointed to Liechtenstein as the most probable source population for the red deer in eastern Switzerland. In addition, our analyses revealed high gene diversity in all examined populations. Gene flow and the high genetic admixture are discussed. PMID:15073229

Kuehn, R; Haller, H; Schroeder, W; Rottmann, O

2004-01-01

226

Differential Lymphocyte and Antibody Responses in Deer Mice Infected with Sin Nombre Hantavirus or Andes Hantavirus  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is a rodent-borne disease with a high case-fatality rate that is caused by several New World hantaviruses. Each pathogenic hantavirus is naturally hosted by a principal rodent species without conspicuous disease and infection is persistent, perhaps for life. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the natural reservoirs of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the etiologic agent of most HCPS cases in North America. Deer mice remain infected despite a helper T cell response that leads to high-titer neutralizing antibodies. Deer mice are also susceptible to Andes hantavirus (ANDV), which causes most HCPS cases in South America; however, deer mice clear ANDV. We infected deer mice with SNV or ANDV to identify differences in host responses that might account for this differential outcome. SNV RNA levels were higher in the lungs but not different in the heart, spleen, or kidneys. Most ANDV-infected deer mice had seroconverted 14 days after inoculation, but none of the SNV-infected deer mice had. Examination of lymph node cell antigen recall responses identified elevated immune gene expression in deer mice infected with ANDV and suggested maturation toward a Th2 or T follicular helper phenotype in some ANDV-infected deer mice, including activation of the interleukin 4 (IL-4) pathway in T cells and B cells. These data suggest that the rate of maturation of the immune response is substantially higher and of greater magnitude during ANDV infection, and these differences may account for clearance of ANDV and persistence of SNV. IMPORTANCE Hantaviruses persistently infect their reservoir rodent hosts without pathology. It is unknown how these viruses evade sterilizing immune responses in the reservoirs. We have determined that infection of the deer mouse with its homologous hantavirus, Sin Nombre virus, results in low levels of immune gene expression in antigen-stimulated lymph node cells and a poor antibody response. However, infection of deer mice with a heterologous hantavirus, Andes virus, results in a robust lymph node cell response, signatures of T and B cell maturation, and production of antibodies. These findings suggest that an early and aggressive immune response to hantaviruses may lead to clearance in a reservoir host and suggest that a modest immune response may be a component of hantavirus ecology. PMID:24829335

Quackenbush, Sandra; Rovnak, Joel; Haddock, Elaine; Black, William C.; Feldmann, Heinz; Prescott, Joseph

2014-01-01

227

a Uav-Based ROE Deer Fawn Detection System  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a UAV based remote sensing system for the detection of fawns in the meadows. There is a high demand because during pasture mowing many wild animals, especially roe deer fawns are killed by mowing machines. The system was tested in several real situations especially with di?ering weather and iluminating conditions. Its primary sensor is a lightweight thermal infrared camera. The images are captured onboard of the ?ight system and also transmitted as analog video stream to the ground station, where the user can follow the camera live stream on a monitor for manual animal detection. Beside a high detection rate a fast work?ow is another very important objective for this application. Therefore a waypoint planning software was developed that accelerates the work?ow. At adequate illuminating and weather conditions the presented UAV-based fawn detection via thermal imaging is a comfortable, fast and reliable method.

Israel, M.

2011-09-01

228

Mortality of white-tailed deer in northeastern Minnesota  

Science.gov (United States)

Two hundred nine white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were radiotracked in the central Superior National Forest, Minnesota, from 1973 through winter 1983-84; 85 deaths were recorded. Annual survival was 0.31 for fawns (< 1.0 years old), 0.80 for yearling (1.0-2.0 years old) females, 0.41 for yearling males, 0.79 for adult (.gtoreq. 2.0 years old) females, and 0.47 for adult males. Monthly survival rates were high from May through December (0.94-1.00), except for yearling (0.60) and adult (0.69) bucks during the November hunting season. Most mortality occurred from January through April when gray wolf (Canis lupus) predation was an important mortality source for all cohorts. Yearling males were most vulnerable to hunting and adult males to wolf predation.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

1986-01-01

229

Energy metabolism and hematology of white-tailed deer fawns  

Science.gov (United States)

Resting metabolic rates, weight gains and hematologic profiles of six newborn, captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns (four females, two males) were determined during the first 3 mo of life. Estimated mean daily weight gain of fawns was 0.2 kg. The regression equation for metabolic rate was: Metabolic rate (kcal/kg0.75/day) = 56.1 +/- 1.3 (age in days), r = 0.65, P less than 0.001). Regression equations were also used to relate age to red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), packed cell volume, white blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. The age relationships of Hb, MCHC, and smaller RBC's were indicative of an increasing and more efficient oxygen-carrying and exchange capacity to fulfill the increasing metabolic demands for oxygen associated with increasing body size.

Rawson, R.E.; DelGiudice, G.D.; Dziuk, H.E.; Mech, L.D.

1992-01-01

230

Cryopreservation of roe deer abomasal nematodes for morphological identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional methods to preserve adult nematodes for taxonomic purposes involve the use of fixative or clearing solutions (alcohol, formaldehyde, AFA and lactophenol), which cause morphological alterations and are toxic. The aim of this study is to propose an alternative method based on glycerol-cryopreservation of nematodes for their subsequent identification. Adults of trichostrongylid nematodes from the abomasum of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus) were glycerol-cryopreserved and compared with those fixed in formaldehyde, fresh and frozen without cryoprotectans. Morphology, transparency and elasticity of the anterior and posterior portion of male nematodes were compared, especially the caudal cuticular bursa and genital accessories. The method presented is quick and easy to use, and the quality of nematode specimens is better than that of nematodes fixed by previously used fixatives. Moreover, glycerol cryopreserved nematodes can be stored for a long time at -20 degrees C in perfect condition and they could be suitable for further analyses, such as histological or ultrastructural examinations. PMID:24684056

Beraldo, Paola; Pascotto, Ernesto

2014-02-01

231

Life in the Fast Lane: Road Crossing Behavior of Mule Deer in a Wildland-Urban Interface  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2009, approximately 260,000 animal-vehicle collisions were reported in the United States, resulting in 12,000 human injuries and 173 human fatalities. Research has focused on identifying factors associated with high densities of animal-vehicle collisions, including variables such as traffic speed and volume, road design, topographic features, vegetative cover, and local deer or elk (Cervus elaphus) abundance. The purposes of this study were to document how often and where mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) crossed roads in a western United States wildland-urban interface area, and to relate deer road-crossing behavior to deer-vehicle collision locations. Seven adult mule deer (four males [M] and three females [F]) were captured and collared with GPS-enabled collars during December 2001 and January 2002. Five of the seven deployed collars were recovered. None of the roads in the study area appeared to act as a substantial barrier to deer passage. Deer home ranges straddled highways and primary, secondary, and tertiary arterial roads. Deer crossed all types of roads. The average number of times deer crossed road during 24 hours of monitoring ranged from 2.1 to 7.0. Deer in the Los Alamos townsite avoided crossing roads during day and before sunset. Deer-vehicle accidents occurred at 350 percent of the level expected after sunset. All other time periods had fewer accidents than expected. The distribution of accidents across time periods was not similar to the distribution of road crossings across time periods for any deer. Within Los Alamos County there was a clear trend for deer-vehicle collisions to occur on roads with speed limits > 35 mph. Deer in the townsite frequently crossed roads with lower speed limits; therefore, the reason for the paucity of accidents along these roads was evidently the ability of drivers to detect deer (or the ability of deer to detect vehicles) and respond before an accident occurred. There was a significant but not strong correlation between the density of accidents and the density of road crossings. This was probably related to the high number of deer crossings of tertiary arterial roads, where accidents were not likely to occur.

Hansen, Leslie A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Biggs, James [Northern New Mexico College; Bennett, Kathryn D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bare, Carey [Bare and Associates, LLC; Sherwood, Sherri R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-04-04

232

Borrelia burgdorferi in an urban environment: white-tailed deer with infected ticks and antibodies.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ticks and blood samples were collected from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in forests located in an insular, urban area of Bridgeport, Conn., and in rural south central Connecticut during 1992 and 1993. Immature and adult Ixodes scapularis ticks were tested for Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme borreliosis, by indirect fluorescent-antibody staining methods. Deer sera were analyzed for antibodies to this bacterium by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infected ti...

Magnarelli, L. A.; Denicola, A.; Stafford, K. C.; Anderson, J. F.

1995-01-01

233

Control of Mycobacterium bovis infection in two sika deer herds in Ireland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a number of countries, tuberculosis (due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis) is a significant health problem of captive deer. This paper describes outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis in sika deer (Cervus nippon) on two farms in Ireland and the methods used to control the disease. On Farm A, infection was first detected during 1993. The infection was eradicated using a programme of test and removal, in association with segregation of young animals. A second outbreak (also due to infection w...

Partridge, Tom; Toolan, Do?nal; Egan, John; More, Simon

2008-01-01

234

Cortico-striatal oxidative status, dopamine turnover and relation with stereotypy in the deer mouse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The deer mouse presents with spontaneous stereotypic movements that resemble the repetitive behaviours of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and demonstrates a selective response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors. OCD has been linked to altered redox status and since increased dopamine signalling can promote stereotypies as well as oxidative stress, we investigated whether the severity of deer mouse stereotypy may be associated with altered dopamine turnover and cortico-striatal redox stat...

Harvey, Brian Herbert; Gu?ldenpfennig, Marianne; Wolmarans, Petrus Wet; Du Preez, Jan Lourens; Stein, Dan J.

2011-01-01

235

How to evaluate body conditions of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in an alpine environment?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this investigation was to compare different indices for evaluating nutritional conditions of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in an alpine environment during the autumn in order to detect the most convenient ones for management purposes in our specific situation. Body conditions of 274 red deer were evaluated using kidney fat index, back fat index and body condition scores. Body Condition Scores was the easiest but the least reliable method. Both kidney fat index and back fat index were s...

Alessandro Bianchi; Anna Cantafora; Alessandra Stefanelli; Elena Andreoli; Silvana Mattiello

2010-01-01

236

Geographic distribution of white-tailed deer with ticks and antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in Connecticut.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ticks and blood specimens were collected from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Connecticut and analyzed to identify foci for Lyme borreliosis. Males and females of Ixodes scapularis, the chief vector of Borrelia burgdorferi, were collected from deer in five of eight counties during 1989-1991. Analysis by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) staining of midgut tissues showed that prevalence of infection was highest (9.5% of 367 ticks) in south central and southeastern Connecticut. ...

Magnarelli, L. A.; Anderson, J. F.; Cartter, M. L.

1993-01-01

237

Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n = 42) and mule deer (n = 41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (Tl), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P deer species, hepatic elemental concentrations would reflect dietary differences; Ca, Cu, K, Co, Mo, Se, and Zn differed (P

Zimmerman, Teresa J; Jenks, Jonathan A; Leslie, David M; Neiger, Regg D

2008-04-01

238

A search for Parelaphostrongylus andersoni in white-tailed deer from Maine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Longissimus dorsi muscles from 42 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Maine (USA) were examined for the Parelaphostrongylus andersoni. No adult nematodes were found. Prevalence based on the Poisson approximation of a binomial distribution could have been between 0 and 9% (95% C.I.). However, based on prevalence documented elsewhere (10 to 18%), it is unlikely that P. andersoni occurs in white-tailed deer in central Maine. PMID:1602587

Bogaczyk, B A

1992-04-01

239

Shedding and Intracage Transmission of Sin Nombre Hantavirus in the Deer Mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mechanism(s) by which Sin Nombre (SN) hantavirus is maintained in deer mouse populations is unclear. Field studies indicate that transmission occurs primarily if not exclusively via a horizontal mechanism. Using an experimental deer mouse infection model in an outdoor laboratory, we tested whether infected rodents shed SN virus in urine, feces, and saliva, whether infected mice transmit infection to naďve cage mates, and whether infected dams are able to vertically transmit virus or anti...

Botten, Jason; Mirowsky, Katy; Ye, Chunyan; Gottlieb, Keith; Saavedra, Melissa; Ponce, Liana; Hjelle, Brian

2002-01-01

240

An assessment of zoonotic and production limiting pathogens in rusa deer (Cervus timorensis rusa) from Mauritius  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A population of approximately 70 000 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) represents the most important mammal species reared for food on the island of Mauritius, being the main source of red meat for the local population. However, very limited information is available on the circulation of pathogens affecting the productivity and health of this species. To produce baseline data on the circulation of infectious pathogens in rusa deer under production, a serological survey and/or direct pathoge...

Jori, Ferran J.; Godfroid, Jacques; Michel, Anita Luise; Potts, A. D.; Jaumally, Mahmad Reshad; Sauzier, Jacqueline; Roger, Matthieu

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota  

Science.gov (United States)

Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n=42) and mule deer (n=41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (T1), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P???0.05) between habitats. Because of the nutritional demands of gestation and lactation, we hypothesized that elemental concentrations would vary depending on reproductive status; Cd, Cu, Ca, P, Mn, Mo, Na, and Zn values differed (P???0.05) by reproductive status. We also hypothesized that, due to variation in feeding strategies and morphology between deer species, hepatic elemental concentrations would reflect dietary differences; Ca, Cu, K, Co, Mo, Se, and Zn differed (P???0.05) between species. Further research is needed to determine causes of variation in hepatic mineral levels due to habitat, reproductive status, and species. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

Zimmerman, T.J.; Jenks, J.A.; Leslie, D.M., Jr.; Neiger, R.D.

2008-01-01

242

Diet quality and immunocompetence influence parasite load of roe deer in a fragmented landscape  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The influence of landscape structure and host diet on parasite load of wildlife is still largely unknown. We studied a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population in a fragmented agricultural landscape in southern France to explore the relationship of gastrointestinal nematode load with spleen mass (to index immunocompetence), faecal nitrogen (to index diet quality), landscape structure and age of 33 hunt-harvested roe deer. Gastrointestinal worm counts were negatively relat...

Navarro-gonzalez, Nora; Verheyden, He?le?ne; Hoste, Herve?; Cargnelutti, Bruno; Lourtet, Bruno; Merlet, Joel; Daufresne, Tanguy; Lavi?n, Santiago; Hewison, A. J. Mark; Morand, Serge; Serrano, Emmanuel

2010-01-01

243

Recognition of seasonal effect on captive Sumatran Sambar deer reproductive cyclicity and sexual behaviors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Putranto HD, Soetrisno E, Nurmeiliasari, Zueni A, Gibson B (2010) Recognition of seasonal effect on captive Sumatran Sambar deer reproductive cyclicity and sexual behaviors. Biodiversitas 11: 200-203. The objective of this study was to identify seasonal effect on reproductive cyclicity of a captive female Sumatran sambar deer by monitoring its visual estrus manifestations and visual sexual behaviors in buck during female natural estrus in ex situ habitat. A pair of six years of age Sumatran s...

AHMAD ZUENI; BERRY GIBSON; NURMEILIASARI; EDI SOETRISNO; HERI DWI PUTRANTO

2010-01-01

244

Radionuclide Concentrations in Deer and Elk from Los Alamos National Laboratory: 1991-1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) forage in many areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that may contain radioactivity above natural and/or worldwide fallout levels. This paper summarizes radionuclide concentrations 3H, 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, and total uranium in muscle and bone tissue of deer and elk collected from LANL lands from 1991 through 1998. Also, the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) and the risk of excess cancer fatalities (RECF) to people who ingest muscle and bone from deer and elk collected from LANL lands were estimated. Most radionuclide concentrations in muscle and bone from individual deer and elk collected from LANL lands were either at less than detectable quantities (where the analytical result was smaller than two counting uncertainties) and/or within upper (95%) level background (BG) concentrations. As a group, most radionuclides in muscle and bone of deer and elk from LANL lands were not significantly higher (p<0.10) than in similar tissues from deer and elk collected from BG locations. Also, elk that had been radio collared and tracked for two years and spent an average time of 50% on LANL lands were not significantly different in most radionuclides from road kill elk that have been collected as part of the environmental surveillance program. Overall, the upper (95%) level net CEDES (the CEDE plus two sigma for each radioisotope minus background) at the most conservative ingestion rate (51 lbs of muscle and 13 lbs of bone) were as follows: deer muscle = 0.220, deer bone = 3.762, elk muscle = 0.117, and elk bone = 1.67 mrendy. AU CEDES were far below the International Commission on Radiological Protection guideline of 100 mrem/y, and the highest muscle plus bone CEDE (4.0 mrendy) corresponded to a RECF of 2E-06 which is far below the Environmental Protection Agency upper level guideline of 1E04.

D. H. Kraig; J. K. Ferenbaugh; J. R. Biggs; K. D. Bennett; M. A. Mullen; P. R. Fresquez

1998-12-01

245

Escherichia coli Survival in, and Release from, White-Tailed Deer Feces.  

Science.gov (United States)

White-tailed deer are an important reservoir for pathogens that can contribute a large portion of microbial pollution in fragmented agricultural and forest landscapes. The scarcity of experimental data on survival of microorganisms in and release from deer feces makes prediction of their fate and transport less reliable and development of efficient strategies for environment protection more difficult. The goal of this study was to estimate parameters for modeling Escherichia coli survival in and release from deer (Odocoileus virginianus) feces. Our objectives were as follows: (i) to measure survival of E. coli in deer pellets at different temperatures, (ii) to measure kinetics of E. coli release from deer pellets at different rainfall intensities, and (iii) to estimate parameters of models describing survival and release of microorganisms from deer feces. Laboratory experiments were conducted to study E. coli survival in deer pellets at three temperatures and to estimate parameters of Chick's exponential model with temperature correction based on the Arrhenius equation. Kinetics of E. coli release from deer pellets were measured at two rainfall intensities and used to derive the parameters of Bradford-Schijven model of bacterial release. The results showed that parameters of the survival and release models obtained for E. coli in this study substantially differed from those obtained by using other source materials, e.g., feces of domestic animals and manures. This emphasizes the necessity of comprehensive studies of survival of naturally occurring populations of microorganisms in and release from wildlife animal feces in order to achieve better predictions of microbial fate and transport in fragmented agricultural and forest landscapes. PMID:25480751

Guber, Andrey K; Fry, Jessica; Ives, Rebecca L; Rose, Joan B

2015-02-01

246

Future of Endemic Flora of Biodiversity Hotspots in India  

Science.gov (United States)

India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a) regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b) mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single variable based models. PMID:25501852

Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi

2014-01-01

247

Comparative genetic structure and demographic history in endemic galapagos weevils.  

Science.gov (United States)

The challenge of maintaining genetic diversity within populations can be exacerbated for island endemics if they display population dynamics and behavioral attributes that expose them to genetic drift without the benefits of gene flow. We assess patterns of the genetic structure and demographic history in 27 populations of 9 species of flightless endemic Galápagos weevils from 9 of the islands and 1 winged introduced close relative. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA reveals a significant population structure and moderately variable, though demographically stable, populations for lowland endemics (F(ST) = 0.094-0.541; ?: 0.014-0.042; Mismatch P = 0.003-0.026; and D((Tajima)) = -0.601 to 1.203), in contrast to signals of past contractions and expansions in highland specialists on 2 islands (Mismatch P = 0.003-0.026 and D((Tajima)) = -0.601 to 1.203). We interpret this series of variable and highly structured population groups as a system of long-established, independently founded island units, where structuring could be a signal of microallopatric differentiation due to patchy host plant distribution and poor dispersal abilities. We suggest that the severe reduction and subsequent increase of a suitably moist habitat that accompanied past climatic variation could have contributed to the observed population fluctuations in highland specialists. We propose the future exploration of hybridization between the introduced and highland endemic species on Santa Cruz, especially given the expansion of the introduced species into the highlands, the sensitivity to past climatic variation detected in highland populations, and the potentially threatened state of single-island endemics. PMID:22174444

Sequeira, Andrea S; Stepien, Courtney C; Sijapati, Manisha; Roque Albelo, Lázaro

2012-01-01

248

Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a) regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b) mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single variable based models. PMID:25501852

Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi

2014-01-01

249

Vertebrate distributions indicate a greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany region of endemism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (MPA) biodiversity hotspot (~274 316 km2) was primarily recognised based on its high plant endemism. Here we present the results of a qualitative biogeographical study of the endemic vertebrate fauna of south-eastern Africa, in an exercise that (1) refines the delimitation of the MPA hotspot, (2) defines zoogeographical units and (3) identifies areas of vertebrate endemism. Initially we listed 62 vertebrate species endemic and 60 near end...

?erban Proche?; Perera, Sandun J.; Dayani Ratnayake-Perera

2011-01-01

250

Maternal investment and reproductive success in Chinese water deer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among cervids, maternal investment, estimated as the amount of resources and care allocated to the offspring, was expected to be related to species body size. Therefore, maternal investment in a herd of captive Chinese water deer Hydropotes inermis, a relatively small species of cervid, was investigated over 3 years. Except during the lactation period, reproductive females spent about 2-fold more time resting than feeding. During lactation, the amount of time spent feeding increased highly (25.3 min/h during lactation vs 17.3 min/hr during the gestation period. Females spent less than 30% of time in communal behaviours with offspring. They did not reject alien fawns during this care period. Frequency and duration of suckling events decreased exponentially from the second week onwards. More than 10 % of suckling bouts were non-filial. Prenatal investment leads to a mean litter mass (about 12% of maternal mass higher than in most cervid species. Postnatal investment in fawns represents a daily mass gain of ca. 85 g/d during the first 2 weeks, without any sexual difference. Female production, timing and synchrony of births and survival of fawns characterized reproductive success. Seventy percent of mature females gave birth, with a mean of 1.9 offspring per female. The sex ratio was even. Births were synchronous, 80% of births occurring in 25 days. In this herd, 0.74 fawn per female was successfully weaned and 0.56 fawn per female survived through their first year. Based on these results we conclude that reproductive strategy of Chinese water deer was efficient and characterized by mother-offspring relationships typical of hiders and high levels of pre- and postnatal investments. This strategy seems typical of small species of cervids without marked sexual dimorphism.

Christiane MAUGET

2009-04-01

251

Branching pattern of aortic arch in the Korean water deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the branching pattern of the aortic arch and its major branches in Korean water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus, Heude, 1884). Silicone casts were taken from the vessels of 23 carcasses (male 14, female 9) with body weights ranging from 1.3-16.0 kg through a retrograde injection into the abdominal aorta. The findings were compared with those from other domestic ruminants. Only the brachiocephalic trunk (Bct) branched from the aortic arch in all carcasses. In 19 of the 23 cases, the Bct branched into the left subclavian artery (LSb), the left common carotid artery (LCc), and then trifurcated into the right common carotid artery (RCc), right costocervical trunk (RCct) and right subclavian artery (RSb). The subclavian artery (Sb) branched into the costocervical trunk (in left), internal thoracic artery (It), and superficial cervical artery (Sc) in that order, and continued as the axillary artery. Instead of separated carotid arteries, the bicarotid trunk from the Bct was observed in only three males and one female. Two of these males had different branching orders of the It and Sc from the Sb in one or both sides. The other male had a RCct from the RSb. The left costocervical trunk (LCct) arose from the LSb in all cases, and branched into the highest intercostal artery, the dorsal scapular artery, and the deep cervical arteries in that order, and continued as the vertebral artery. In 22 cases, the RCct branched directly from the Bct at the same point in which the RCc (or bicarotid trunk) and RSb separated. The artery branching pattern from the RCct was similar to that of the LCct. These results suggest that the Korean water deer has a Bct with different branching patterns from those of domestic ruminants. PMID:18981660

Ahn, Dong-Choon; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Kang, Hyung-Sub; Kim, Nam-Soo; Park, Sang-Youel; Kim, In-Shik

2008-10-01

252

Geography, deer, and host biodiversity shape the pattern of Lyme disease emergence in the Thousand Islands Archipelago of Ontario, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Thousand Islands region of eastern Ontario, Canada, Lyme disease is emerging as a serious health risk. The factors that influence Lyme disease risk, as measured by the number of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) vectors infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, are complex and vary across eastern North America. Despite study sites in the Thousand Islands being in close geographic proximity, host communities differed and both the abundance of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in them varied among sites. Using this archipelago in a natural experiment, we examined the relative importance of various biotic and abiotic factors, including air temperature, vegetation, and host communities on Lyme disease risk in this zone of recent invasion. Deer abundance and temperature at ground level were positively associated with tick abundance, whereas the number of ticks in the environment, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection, and the number of infected nymphs all decreased with increasing distance from the United States, the presumed source of this new endemic population of ticks. Higher species richness was associated with a lower number of infected nymphs. However, the relative abundance of Peromyscus leucopus was an important factor in modulating the effects of species richness such that high biodiversity did not always reduce the number of nymphs or the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection. Our study is one of the first to consider the interaction between the relative abundance of small mammal hosts and species richness in the analysis of the effects of biodiversity on disease risk, providing validation for theoretical models showing both dilution and amplification effects. Insights into the B. burgdorferi transmission cycle in this zone of recent invasion will also help in devising management strategies as this important vector-borne disease expands its range in North America. PMID:24416435

Werden, Lisa; Barker, Ian K; Bowman, Jeff; Gonzales, Emily K; Leighton, Patrick A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Jardine, Claire M

2014-01-01

253

Grazing Habitat of the Rusa Deer (Cervus timorensis in the Upland Kebar, Manokwari  

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Full Text Available The general objective of the study was to provide current information on grassland communities as deer habitat and its future development plan for a sustainable forage management in upland Kebar, Papua. Quantitative estimation of forage production was carried out by measuring a biomass harvest in fresh weight bases, while occasional observations on ranging deer were done within habitat range with the aid of 7x50 binoculars verified by actual visitation of grazed area. The study indicated that Kebar was the only grazing area of deer varies in low layer vegetation composition that comprised of eleven grass species and five legume species. Imperata cylindrica, Paspalum conjugatum, Themeda arguens, Melinis minutiflora and Cyperus rotundus were identified as food plant of deer in Kebar. Among these species T. arguens, M. minutiflora, C. rotundus and I. cylindrica were the most preferred species consumed by deer. The biomass harvest (species productivity was 30.36 kg/ha fresh weight, while deer food productivity in the grassland was slightly lower (26.70 kg/ha than total productivity of the grassland. The major drainage area is Kasi River, but two other rivers across this valley (Api River, Apriri River are also supply water to the swampy area.

AGUSTINA YOHANA SETYARINI AROBAYA

2009-07-01

254

Cesium-137 in deer: Savannah River Plant vs. southeastern coastal plain herds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 137Cs content in deer killed during programmed hunts at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has averaged 9.0 pCi/g. This value, based on measurements of 13,907 deer taken over 14 years (1965 to 1978), similar to the value obtained for 552 deer from other southeastern Coastal Plain locations, indicating the 137Cs content is due to fallout from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons rather than from SRP operations. The computerized SRP data base for each harvested deer includes age, sex, weight, cesium content, kill location, date, and the hunter's name. Analysis of these data enables the estimation of population dose from ingestion of the edible meat. Consumption of all edible meat from deer killed at SRP from 1965 to 1978 gives a whole body population dose of 196 man-rem from 137Cs. Assuming an annual consumption rate of 20 kg gives an average individual whole body dose of 13 mrem, about 10% of local annual background level. The radiation dose from 40K of natural potassium content of deer is comparable to the radiation dose from 137Cs

255

Survival and harvest-related mortality of white-tailed deer in Massachusetts  

Science.gov (United States)

We monitored 142 radiocollared adult (>1.0 yr old) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 3 study areas of Massachusetts, USA, to estimate annual survival and mortality due to legal hunting. We then applied these rates to deer harvest information to estimate deer population trends over time, and compared these to trends derived solely from harvest data estimates. Estimated adult female survival rates were similar (0.82-0.86), and uniformly high, across 3 management zones in Massachusetts that differed in landscape composition, human density, and harvest regulations. Legal hunting accounted for 16-29% of all adult female mortality. Estimated adult male survival rates varied from 0.55 to 0.79, and legal hunting accounted for 40-75% of all mortality. Use of composite hunting mortality rates produced realistic estimates for adult deer populations in 2 zones, but not for the third, where estimation was hindered by regulatory restrictions on antlerless deer harvest. In addition, the population estimates we calculated were generally higher than those derived from population reconstruction, likely due to relatively low harvest pressure. Legal harvest may not be the dominant form of deer mortality in developed landscapes; thus, estimates of populations or trends that rely solely on harvest data will likely be underestimates. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

McDonald, J.E., Jr.; DeStefano, S.; Gaughan, C.; Mayer, M.; Woytek, W.A.; Christensen, S.; Fuller, T.K.

2011-01-01

256

Decreasing prevalence of brucellosis in red deer through efforts to control disease in livestock  

Science.gov (United States)

When a pathogen infects a number of different hosts, the process of determining the relative importance of each host species to the persistence of the pathogen is often complex. Removal of a host species is a potential but rarely possible way of discovering the importance of that species to the dynamics of the disease. This study presents the results of a 12-year programme aimed at controlling brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats and the cascading impacts on brucellosis in a sympatric population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Boumort National Game Reserve (BNGR; NE Spain). From February 1998 to December 2009, local veterinary agencies tested over 36 180 individual blood samples from cattle, 296 482 from sheep and goats and 1047 from red deer in the study area. All seropositive livestock were removed annually. From 2006 to 2009 brucellosis was not detected in cattle and in 2009 only one of 97 red deer tested was found to be positive. The surveillance and removal of positive domestic animals coincided with a significant decrease in the prevalence of brucellosis in red deer. Our results suggest that red deer may not be able to maintain brucellosis in this region independently of cattle, sheep or goats, and that continued efforts to control disease in livestock may lead to the eventual eradication of brucellosis in red deer in the area.

Serrano, E.; Cross, P.C.; Beneria, M.; Ficapal, A.; Curia, J.; Marco, X.; Lavin, S.; Marco, I.

2011-01-01

257

Coyotes, deer, and wildflowers: diverse evidence points to a trophic cascade  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial gradients in human activity, coyote activity, deer activity, and deer herbivory provide an unusual type of evidence for a trophic cascade. Activity of coyotes, which eat young mule deer (fawns), decreased with proximity to a remote biological field station, indicating that these predators avoided an area of high human activity. In contrast, activity of adult female deer (does) and intensity of herbivory on palatable plant species both increased with proximity to the station and were positively correlated with each other. The gradient in deer activity was not explained by availabilities of preferred habitats or plant species because these did not vary with distance from the station. Does spent less time feeding when they encountered coyote urine next to a feed block, indicating that increased vigilance may contribute, along with avoidance of areas with coyotes, to lower herbivory away from the station. Judging from two palatable wildflower species whose seed crop and seedling recruitment were greatly reduced near the field station, the coyote-deer-wildflower trophic cascade has the potential to influence plant community composition. Our study illustrates the value of a case-history approach, in which different forms of ecological data about a single system are used to develop conceptual models of complex ecological phenomena. Such an iterative model-building process is a common, but underappreciated, way of understanding how ecological systems work.

Waser, Nickolas M.; Price, Mary V.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Arózqueta, S. Reneé; Escobar, Betsabé D. Castro; Pickens, Richard; Pistoia, Alessandra

2014-05-01

258

[Summer habitat selection of alpine musk deer in Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve, Northwestern China].  

Science.gov (United States)

During July and August from 2006 to 2008, summer habitat selection was studied in Alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) in Xinglongshan National Natural Reserve in northwestern China. In total, seventy one musk deer utilized habitat plots and 246 random habitat plots were surveyed. Seventeen habitat characteristics were recorded and compared between the two habitat types, using Mann-Whitney U test and chi-square to compare the differences between utilized and random habitat plots, and principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the main factors influencing the habitat selection of musk deer. Mann-Whitney U test and chi-square was conducted to test whether there was significant difference between utilized and random plots. The results showed that musk deer prefers habitat with taller arbor height (7.57 +/- 0.83 ) m, higher food-plants abundance (12.97 +/- 1.80), increasing foliage cover for concealment, lower water dispersion, and higher anthropogenic disturbance. Furthermore, PCA results suggested that the arbor characteristics (arbor canopy and arbor DBH), altitude characteristic, food characteristics (ground-plant cover and food-plant abundance) and shrub characteristics (shrub canopy, shrub height and related arbor density) influence summer habitat selection patterns of alpine musk deer in Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve. The general pattern of summer habitat utilization and selection of alpine musk deer is an adaptive strategy to the changing food, concealment, water source and the physical condition of summer habitat. PMID:21174350

Tong, Meng; Pan, Shi-Xiu; Wang, Xiang-Wei; An, Tan-Hong; Feng, Jin-Chao; Meng, Xiu-Xiang

2010-12-01

259

The Effect of Rearing Experience on the Behavior Patterns of Captive Male Alpine Musk Deer  

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Full Text Available The effects of maternal and peer separation during infancy were studied on adult male alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF in Gansu province, China. The aim was to determine the effect of early experience on the behavior in adult deer. Doe Reared (DR males remained with their mothers for a minimum of 3 months, prior to weaning which occurred annually in early October. Hand Reared (HR males were removed from their parents before 3 weeks of age and reared in isolation, prior to weaning. Focal sampling was conducted on twenty two adult males (13 HR; 9 DR to record the frequencies of 12 behavioral categories; resting, standing-alert, locomotion, ruminating, tail-pasting, urinating/defecating, environmental sniffing, self-directed behavior, ano-genital sniffing, affinitive interaction and agonistic interaction. The results showed that HR male musk deer demonstrate significantly more agonistic and less affinitive behavior when compared to DR males. This may be owing to the separation of HR deer from their peers and mother, in addition to proportionally greater contact with human caretakers. The results of this study have implication for musk deer farming.

Xiuxiang Meng

2011-01-01

260

Histological differences of skin among three body regions in male and female Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus Nippon yesoensis), the largest and most abundant of the sika deer subspecies in Japan, has recently attracted new attention as a target for leather production, in addition to its meat value. To provide fundamental data for facilitating the effective use of skin for leather, the histological properties of skin at the shoulder, back and abdominal regions of male and female deer were compared. The results showed that the thickness of the outer skin layer was not significantly different across all regions irrespective of sex. Regarding collagen composition, we found that large-diameter collagen fibrils were heavily distributed in the shoulder of male deer, whereas small-diameter collagen fibrils were largely confined to the abdomen of female deer. We hope this regional histological data will lead to more efficient processing of Hokkaido sika deer skin for leather production. PMID:22975742

Minaguchi, Jun A; Abe, Ayako; Ueda, Hiromi; Tangkawattana, Prasarn; Takehana, Kazushige

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

A Paleozoological Perspective on White-Tailed Deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana) Population Density and Body Size in Central Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

Archaeological and paleontological datasets are used in conservation to add time-depth to ecology. In central Texas, several top carnivores including prehistoric Native American hunters have been extirpated or have had their historic ranges restricted, which has resulted in pest-level white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana) populations in some areas. Differences in body size of deer between prehistory and modernity are expected, given that a lack of predation likely has increased intraspecific competition for forage among deer, resulting in smaller body size today. In fact, modern deer from settings without harvest pressure are significantly smaller than those from harvested areas and from prehistoric deer. From a natural history perspective, this research highlights potential evolutionary causes and effects of top-predator removal on deer populations and related components of biological communities in central Texas.

Wolverton, Steve; Kennedy, James H.; Cornelius, John D.

2007-04-01

262

Assessment LOPU-IVF in Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon) and application to Vietnamese sika deer (Cervus nippon pseudaxis) a related subspecies threatened with extinction.  

Science.gov (United States)

In mammals, recovery of oocytes by laparoscopic ovum pick-up (LOPU) coupled with in vitro production (IVP) of embryos represents a promising strategy for both amplification and genetic management of sparse animals from captive endangered wild species. As integrated technique developed mainly for domestic livestock, LOPU-IVP requires several studies to set up protocols for follicular stimulation or optimization of IVP before envisaging successful transposition to wild species. In deer, many endangered subspecies would be potentially concerned by applying such an approach using common subspecies for protocols optimization. The aim of the present study was to assess efficiency of follicle stimulation using ovine FSH (oFSH) for recovery of oocytes by LOPU in common sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon) before transposition of an optimized methodology for IVP of embryos from endangered Vietnamese sika deer hinds (Cervus nippon pseudaxis). In common sika deer, two doses of oFSH (0.25 and 0.5 U) and two frequencies of administration (12 and 24 h) were compared by monitoring of subsequent ovarian response, quality of oocytes recovered by LOPU, and in vitro developmental competence. In a first experiment, the dose of oFSH administered did not significantly affect the total number of follicles aspirated per hind per session (8.6 ± 1.0 vs. 8.2 ± 1.6 with 0.5 vs. 0.25 U oFSH, respectively; not significant). In a second experiment, frequency of 0.25 U oFSH administration did not affect ovarian response. Efficiency of IVP determined on blastocysts rates after in vitro maturation, fertilization, and development in oviduct epithelial cells coculture was increased when FSH was administered at 12-h intervals. Immune response after several follicular stimulations was detected against exogenous oFSH in plasma from the majority of sika deer hinds but was not associated with decreased ovarian response. When 0.25 U oFSH was administered at 12-h intervals to Vietnamese sika deer (N = 4), good quality cumulus oocyte complexes with complete and compact cumulus investments were recovered allowing a high cleavage rate after in vitro maturation and fertilization. Development to the blastocyst stage occurred in a high proportion (30% of oocytes) after coculture with ovine epithelial cells allowing cryobanking of transferable embryos from Vietnamese sika deer. These results confirm that LOPU-IVF after ovarian stimulation with oFSH may be a successful tool for cryobanking transferable embryos from endangered sika deer subspecies. PMID:23043947

Locatelli, Y; Hendriks, A; Vallet, J-C; Baril, G; Duffard, N; Bon, N; Ortiz, K; Scala, C; Maurel, M-C; Mermillod, P; Legendre, X

2012-12-01

263

Pyrazine analogs are active components of wolf urine that induce avoidance and fear-related behaviors in deer  

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Our previous studies indicated that a cocktail of pyrazine analogs, identified in wolf urine, induced avoidance and fear behaviors in mice. The effects of the pyrazine cocktail on Hokkaido deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) were investigated in field bioassays at a deer park in Hokkaido, Japan. A set of feeding bioassay trials tested the effects of the pyrazine cocktail odor on the behavior of the deer located around a feeding area in August and September 2013. This odor effectively suppressed th...

Osada, Kazumi; Miyazono, Sadaharu; Kashiwayanagi, Makoto

2014-01-01

264

Pyrazine analogues are active components of wolf urine that induce avoidance and fear-related behaviors in deer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our previous studies indicated that a cocktail of pyrazine analogues, identified in wolf urine, induced avoidance and fear behaviors in mice. The effects of the pyrazine cocktail on Hokkaido deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) were investigated in field bioassays at a deer park in Hokkaido, Japan. A set of feeding bioassay trials tested the effects of the pyrazine cocktail odor on the behavior of the deer located around a feeding area in August and September 2013. This odor effectively suppressed ...

Makoto Kashiwayanagi; Kazumi Osada

2014-01-01

265

HABITAT SUITABILITY MODELING FOR EXPLORATION OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF KASHMIR MUSK DEER IN DACHIGAM NATIONAL PARK, KASHMIR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Musk deer are highly important as a medicinal species that are severely exploited throughout their range of occurrence due to the medicinal value of the musk produced only by the male individuals. Methods used for studying the populations and distributions of other ungulates do not work well with musk deer and the presence of a unified methodology for studying musk deer appear to be lacking worldwide. Therefore, the development of a simple predictive model for studying the distribution of the...

Mudasir Ali

2014-01-01

266

Efficacy of a 15-Strand High-Tensile Electric Fence to Control White-tailed Deer Movements  

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Full Text Available Although, high-tensile electric fences (HTEF have gained in popularity as a low-cost alternative to traditional fence designs, little research has focused on the effects of HTEF on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Our objectives were to: determine the efficacy of a HTEF to control deer movements and evaluate its influence on deer spatial dynamics. We conducted our study on the Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation Wildlife Unit located in Oklahoma, USA. An electric 15-strand, 2.5 m high fence was erected around the study area in 1992. We captured and ear-tagged 419 deer from 1993-2005 and fitted 35 of these deer (19 females, 16 males with GPS collars during winter 1998-2004. Eight of 35 radio-collared deer (23% crossed through the fence a total of 15 times and returned 13 times. Most fence crossings were at or near a hole or water gap (75%; n = 21 while 21.4% (n = 6 crossed through the electric strands. Twenty four of 419 (6% ear-tagged deer were reported dead or harvested off of the property over 13 years. We found ?13 deer core areas and ?29 of home ranges bordered the fence. Core area and home range sizes of males and females were larger for deer associated with the fence compared to deer not associated with the fence. The percentage of deer FK core area and home range perimeters in common with the fence was 17 and 28%, respectively. It appears deer were tolerable of the fence and willing to attempt to cross at weak locations (i.e., holes and water gaps. If fully maintained, the 15-strand HTEF would have been a safe and effective alternative to more traditional and expensive fence designs.

R. DeYoung

2009-06-01

267

Prevalence of five tick-borne bacterial genera in adult Ixodes scapularis removed from white-tailed deer in western Tennessee.  

Science.gov (United States)

BackgroundIn the northeastern and midwestern regions of the United States Ixodes scapularis Say transmits the causal agents of anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), babesiosis (Babesia microti), and borreliosis (Borrelia burgdorferi and B. miyamotoi). In the southeastern United States, none of those pathogens are considered endemic and two other tick-borne diseases (TBDs) (ehrlicihosis and rickettiosis) are more common. Our objective was to determine baseline presence and absence data for three non-endemic bacterial agents (Anaplasma, Borrelia and Babesia) and two commonly reported bacterial agents (Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia) in southern I. scapularis (n = 47) collected from 15 hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in western Tennessee. FindingsOf the 47 ticks, 27 tested PCR positive for non-pathogenic Rickettsia species, two for Ehrlichia ewingii, one for Ehrlichia sp. żPanola Mountainż, and one for Anaplasma phagocytophilum variant 1 strain. None of these ticks were positive for Babesia or Borrelia (including B. burgdorferi).ConclusionsFinding human pathogens in host-fed I. scapularis merits additional studies surveying pathogen prevalence in questing ticks. Collection of questing I. scapularis in their peak activity months should be undertaken to determine the overall encounter rates and relative risk of pathogenic Ehrlichia in southern I. scapularis. Ehrlichia sequences were homologous to previous human isolates, but neither Babesia nor B. burgdorferi were identified in these ticks. With the identification of pathogenic bacteria in this relatively small collection of I. scapularis from western Tennessee, the study of the absence of Lyme disease in the south should be refocused to evaluate the role of pathogenic Ehrlichia in southern I. scapularis. PMID:25331818

Mays, Sarah E; Hendricks, Brian M; Paulsen, David J; Houston, Allan E; Trout Fryxell, Rebecca T

2014-10-22

268

Coccidioidomycosis and Blastomycosis: Endemic Mycotic Co-Infections in the HIV Patient  

Science.gov (United States)

Opportunistic fungal infections including aspergillosis species, candida species, and fusarium can be found in HIV-infected patients. Disseminated diseases due to endemic mycoses including histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and blastomycosis are all being reported among HIV patients who reside in the known endemic areas. However, in the non-endemic areas, or due to the rarity of these pathogens, it might be difficult to recognize these unfamiliar disease presentations. We report a patient with HIV who had dual infections with endemic mycotic infections of coccidioidomycosis and blastomycosis, as he had a brief stay in the endemic area.

Jehangir, Waqas; Tadepalli, Geeta Santoshi; Sen, Shuvendu; Regevik, Nina; Sen, Purnendu

2015-01-01

269

Coccidioidomycosis and Blastomycosis: Endemic Mycotic Co-Infections in the HIV Patient.  

Science.gov (United States)

Opportunistic fungal infections including aspergillosis species, candida species, and fusarium can be found in HIV-infected patients. Disseminated diseases due to endemic mycoses including histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and blastomycosis are all being reported among HIV patients who reside in the known endemic areas. However, in the non-endemic areas, or due to the rarity of these pathogens, it might be difficult to recognize these unfamiliar disease presentations. We report a patient with HIV who had dual infections with endemic mycotic infections of coccidioidomycosis and blastomycosis, as he had a brief stay in the endemic area. PMID:25584108

Jehangir, Waqas; Tadepalli, Geeta Santoshi; Sen, Shuvendu; Regevik, Nina; Sen, Purnendu

2015-03-01

270

Prevalence of Haemoglobin Variants in Malaria Endemic Northeast India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to evaluate the relationship of haemoglobinopathies, particularly Hb E and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northeastern region of India. The diverse autochthonous inhabitant of this part of India exhibits variable gene frequency for ?E-globin gene. The geo-climatic condition of the region supports transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northeastern parts of India. The study revealed that HbE is predominant with a variable gene frequencies in ethnic groups affiliated to Tibeto-Burman linguistic families. Prevalence of Hb E is also associated with the linguistic affiliation of various Tibeto-Burman linguistic families inhabiting in malaria endemic northeast India. We have also observed a positive correlation (R2 = 0.703 of ?E-globin gene frequency and mean incidence of Plasmodium falciparum infection (Pf % in malaria endemic zones.

S.K. Sharma

2009-01-01

271

Endemic human blastomycosis in Quebec, Canada, 1988-2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blastomycosis is a systemic fungal infection found in various parts of the world. A review of literature for Quebec, Canada revealed only few case reports with the most recent one dating back to 1993. However, whether Quebec represents an important endemic region for blastomycosis in North America is unknown. In this work we reviewed 158 cases of human blastomycosis documented in Quebec during 1988-2011 using microbiological records available from the provincial public health laboratory. The estimated annual incidence of blastomycosis in the province is was ~0·133 cases per 100 000 individuals with the highest rates of 0·79 and 0·46 cases per 100 000 recorded in South-eastern and South-western Quebec. Moreover, the annual incidence rate significantly increased over the past 20 years. This study for the first time establishes Quebec as an important endemic region for Blastomyces dermatitidis. PMID:22929032

Litvinov, I V; St-Germain, G; Pelletier, R; Paradis, M; Sheppard, D C

2013-06-01

272

Humiriaceae endémicas del Perú / Humiriaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Humiriaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar seis géneros y 12 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), todas ellas árboles. En este trabajo reconocemos dos especies endémicas en el género Vantanea. Estos endemismos ocupan la región Bosques Húmedos Amazónicos, entre los 100 y 150 m de alt [...] itud. Ninguno de ellos se encuentra representado en el Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Humiriaceae are represented in Peru by six genera and 12 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), all trees. Here we recognize two endemic species in the genus Vantanea. These endemic taxa are found in the Humid Lowland Amazonian Forest region, between 100 and 150 m elevation. Neither of the species ha [...] s been collected to date in Peru's protected areas system.

Blanca, León; Christhian, Monsalve.

2006-12-01

273

Actinidiaceae endémicas del Perú / Actinidiaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Actinidiaceae es reconocida en el Perú con un género, Saurauia, y 11 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), mayormente arbustos. En este trabajo reconocemos tres especies endémicas. Estos taxones endémicos ocupan los bosques de la región Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, entre los 1800 y 3000 m d [...] e altitud. Solamente una especie está representada en un área protegida. Abstract in english The Actinidiaceae are represented in Peru by one genus, Saurauia, and 11 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), mostly shrubs. Here we recognize three endemic species, all found in forests of the Very Humid Montane Forest region, between 1800 and 3000 m elevation. Only one endemic species has been regist [...] ered to date within Peru's protected areas system.

Kenneth R., Young; Blanca, León.

2006-12-01

274

Lythraceae endémicas del Perú / Lythraceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Lythraceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar 10 géneros y 30 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), la mayoría hierbas y arbustos. En este trabajo reconocemos una especie endémica en el género Cuphea. Esta especie endémica ocupa la región de los Bosques Muy Húme [...] dos Montanos, entre los 2400 y 3000 m de altitud. No se encuentra representada en el Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Lythraceae are represented in Peru by 10 genera and 30 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mostly herbs and shrubs. Here we recognize one endemic taxon in the genus Cuphea. This endemic has been found in areas of the Very Humid Montane Forest region, between 2400 and 3000 [...] m elevation. It has not yet been registered within the Peruvian protected areas system.

Blanca, León.

2006-12-01

275

Endogenous Quasicycles and Stochastic Coherence in a Closed Endemic Model  

CERN Document Server

We study the role of demographic fluctuations in typical endemics as exemplified by the stochastic SIRS model. The birth-death master equation of the model is simulated using exact numerics and analysed within the linear noise approximation. The endemic fixed point is unstable to internal demographic noise, and leads to sustained oscillations. This is ensured when the eigenvalues ($\\lambda$) of the linearised drift matrix are complex, which in turn, is possible only if detailed balance is violated. In the oscillatory state, the phases decorrelate asymptotically, distinguishing such oscillations from those produced by external periodic forcing. These so-called quasicycles are of sufficient strength to be detected reliably only when the ratio $|Im(\\lambda)/Re(\\lambda)|$ is of order unity. The coherence or regularity of these oscillations show a maximum as a function of population size, an effect known variously as stochastic coherence or coherence resonance. We find that stochastic coherence can be simply under...

Ghose, Somdeb

2010-01-01

276

Treatment of endemic fluorosis in human beings: an experimental study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Short term in vitro studies showed that bone meal, serpentine, calcium chloride, egg-shell powder, Dowex and Gelusil were effective in removing fluoride from water high in fluoride naturally. Serpentine, when administered orally in 25 mg dosage twice a day to normal controls and 50 mg twice a day to patients with endemic skeletal fluorosis inhibited absorption of fluoride from the bowels. The urinary excretion of fluoride was increased in a patient with endemic skeletal fluorosis on a fluoride-free diet following the administration of serpentine. This increase suggested that serpentine had a direct effect on bone. The exact mechanism of this action and that of bone meal is not known. Further work on this aspect is in progress.

Teotia, S.P.S.; Teotia, M.; Singh, R.K.

1976-04-01

277

Responses to TRH in patients with endemic goiter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The response to TRH was studied in 32 patients from an endemic goiter area, 20 of them had been previously treated with iodized oil. Blood samples were taken at 0, 20, 40 and 120 minutes after de i.v. administration of 400?g of TRH, and serum levels of TSH, T3 and T4 were measured. The results obtained show that in endemic goiter area there is a modification in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism, with increased reserve of pituitary TSH and changes in T4 and T3 secretion. The injection of TRH gave exaggerated and delayed responses in the secretion of TSH and T3. Iodized oil used as a prophylatic method produced a disminution of pituitary TSH reserve, and of serum levels of TSH and T3, as a result of the return tonormality of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism. (author)

278

Pure Ultrasonic Communication in an Endemic Bornean Frog  

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Huia cavitympanum, an endemic Bornean frog, is the first amphibian species known to emit exclusively ultrasonic (i.e., >20 kHz) vocal signals. To test the hypothesis that these frogs use purely ultrasonic vocalizations for intraspecific communication, we performed playback experiments with male frogs in their natural calling sites. We found that the frogs respond with increased calling to broadcasts of conspecific calls containing only ultrasound. The field study was complemented by electroph...

Arch, Victoria S.; Grafe, T. Ulmar; Gridi-papp, Marcos; Narins, Peter M.

2009-01-01

279

Asteraceae endémicas del Perú / Asteraceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las Asteraceae ocupan el segundo lugar entre las familias más diversas de la flora peruana. Esta familia es reconocida en el Perú por presentar alrededor de 250 géneros y 1590 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mayormente hierbas, arbustos y subarbustos. En este trabajo se [...] reconoce 724 endemismos, de los cuales 695 son especies y 29 variedades. Los géneros con mayor número de especies son Senecio, Gynoxys y Verbesina. Esta familia incluye 11 géneros endémicos del Perú: Ascidiogyne, Aynia, Bishopanthus, Chucoa, Ellenbergia, Hughesia, Notobaccharis, Pseudonoseris, Schizotrichia, Syncretocarpus y Uleophytum. Los endemismos reconocidos ocupan la mayoría de las regiones ecológicas, principalmente la Mesoandina, Bosques Pluviales Montanos y Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, desde el nivel del mar hasta por encima de los 4000 m de altitud. Se aplicaron las categorías y criterios de la UICN a 567 taxones. Ochenta y seis especies (aproximadamente el 12% del total) han sido colectadas en por lo menos una de las áreas naturales protegidas. Abstract in english The Asteraceae are the second most diverse family in the Peruvian flora, with approximately 250 genera and 1590 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004). Most Peruvian Asteraceae are herbs, shrubs and subshrubs. Here we recognize 724 endemic taxa, 695 at the species level and 29 va [...] rieties. The most species-rich genera are Senecio, Gynoxys and Verbesina. This family includes 11 genera endemic to Peru: Ascidiogyne, Aynia, Bishopanthus, Chucoa, Ellenbergia, Hughesia, Notobaccharis, Pseudonoseris, Schizotrichia, Syncretocarpus, and Uleophytum. Endemic taxa are mainly found in the Mesoandean, Pluvial Montane Forest and Very Humid Montane Forest regions, from sea level to above 4000 m. We assigned the IUCN categories and criteria to 567 taxa. Eighty-six species (approximately 12% of all endemic Asteraceae) have been registered in a protected area.

Hamilton, Beltrán; Arturo, Granda; Blanca, León; Abundio, Sagástegui; Isidoro, Sánchez; Mario, Zapata.

2006-12-01

280

In vitro cultivation of the endemic species Andryala levitomentosa  

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In vitro cultivation of the endemic and threatened species Andryala levitomentosa represents an unconventional strategy and action plan for the biological diversity conservation. This plant is considered one of the rarest species in the European flora and in Romania it is founded only on „Pietrosul Brostenilor” mountain. The micropropagation of Andryala levitomentosa implies measures which should allow to conserve and perpetuate this species. The plants of Andryala levitomentosa have been...

Smaranda Vantu

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Endemic pemphigus foliaceus over a century: Part I  

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Background: Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) is the only known autoimmune disease presenting in circumscribed geographic areas. Aim: We aim to provide information concerning the natural course of EPF, including systemic compromise in the presteroid era, which has been largely unavailable in the current medical literature. Material & Methods: By a retrospective review of the literature we aim to compile and compare the focus of EPF and the current knowledge about them. The main aim of this re...

Ana María Abréu-Vélez; Messias Reason, Iara J.; Howard, Michael S.; Ana Maria Roselino

2010-01-01

282

Endemic non-venereal syphilis (bejel) in Saudi Arabia.  

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A total of 2515 people attending a large military hospital in Saudi Arabia was studied clinically, serologically, and (when appropriate) radiologically for evidence of treponematosis. The indications are that non-venereal endemic syphilis (bejel) is prevalent among the nomadic communities living in rural areas. In contrast, venereal syphilis is much less common, and is found almost exclusively in urban populations. Some of the high risk regions for bejel have been identified, and many people ...

Pace, J. L.; Csonka, G. W.

1984-01-01

283

Vegetative propagation of the Azorean endemic shrub Viburnum treleasei Gand  

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Viburnum treleasei Gand. is a threatened hermaphroditic shrub or small tree endemic to the Azores islands. In this study we aimed at defining a fast, simple and cost-efficient propagation methodology that could be used by non-skilled workers in conservation action plans. Our objective was also to produce cleaner material for initiation of in vitro cultures and to determine the effects of season, placement of cuttings in the branch, placement of vegetative buds in cuttings and forcing solut...

MÓNICA MOURA; LUÍS SILVA

2009-01-01

284

Comparative analysis of Sierra de Gádor endemic flora  

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Comparative analysis of Sierra de Gádor endemic flora. The Gádor Sierra flora, its isolation levels and its relations with the sorrounding areas are analized in this work; moreover the corological importance of some taxons and an estimation of how their presence is threatened are highlighted. With this purpose those taxons included in the General Catalogue of Species of Recommended Protection in Andalucia present in the Gádor Sierra and adjacent corological units have been used developin...

Go?mez Mercado, Francisco; Gime?nez Luque, Esther

1998-01-01

285

Optimal mix of screening and contact tracing for endemic diseases*  

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Two common means of controlling infectious diseases are screening and contact tracing. Which should be used, and when? We consider the problem of determining the cheapest mix of screening and contact tracing necessary to achieve a desired endemic prevalence of a disease or to identify a specified number of cases. We perform a partial equilibrium analysis of small-scale interventions, assuming that prevalence is unaffected by the intervention; we develop a full equilibrium analysis where we co...

Armbruster, Benjamin; Brandeau, Margaret L.

2007-01-01

286

Managing Conservation Reliant Species: Hawai'i's Endangered Endemic Waterbirds  

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Hawai'I's coastal plain wetlands are inhabited by five endangered endemic waterbird species. These include the Hawaiian Coot ('alae ke'oke'o), Hawaiian Duck (koloa maoli), Hawaiian Stilt (ae'o), Hawaiian Gallinule (Moorhen) ('alae 'ula), and Hawaiian Goose (n?n?). All five species are categorized as being “conservation reliant.” The current strategy to recover these endangered birds includes land protection and active management of wetlands. To assess the effectiveness of the current ma...

Underwood, Jared G.; Silbernagle, Mike; Nishimoto, Mike; Uyehara, Kim

2013-01-01

287

Flavonoids from Algerian endemic Centaurea microcarpa and their chemotaxonomical significance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six flavonoids, namely 6-methoxykaempferol (1), 6-methoxykaempferol 7-O-glucoside (2), kaempferol 7-O-glucoside (3), 6-methoxyluteolin (4), patuletin 7-O-glucoside (5), and hispidulin 7-O-glucoside (6), were isolated from a n-butanolic fraction of Centaurea microcarpa Coss et Dur. flowers. This work describes for the first time the phytochemical composition of this endemic Algerian plant. PMID:22224272

Louaar, Souheila; Achouri, Amel; Lefahal, Mostefa; Laouer, Hocine; Medjroubi, Kamel; Duddeck, Helmut; Akkal, Salah

2011-11-01

288

Lead and cadmium in red deer and wild boar from different hunting grounds in Croatia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concentration and relations of Cd and Pb as environmental risk factors were studied by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the liver, kidney and muscle of free ranging wild boar (n = 94) and red deer (n = 45) from hunting grounds in four counties of north-east Croatia. In all four counties, the levels of Cd found in the kidney of red deer ranged from 2.28 to 5.91 mg/kg, and in wild boar from 3.47 to 21.10 mg/kg. The mean renal concentration of Cd was significantly higher in wild boar than in red deer from all four study areas. The mean hepatic (0.11 to 0.49 mg/kg, respectively) and muscle (0.01 to 0.04 mg/kg, respectively) Cd concentrations were similar in both species. The mean renal Cd concentration in wild boar and red deer exceeded 1 mg/kg in all four counties, ranging from 67.0% to 91.4% and from 45.5% to 69.2%, respectively. Also, the hepatic Cd/renal Cd ratio was lower than 1 in all animals. In all four counties, renal Pb concentration ranged from 0.058 to 3.77 mg/kg in red deer and from 0.056 to 11.60 mg/kg in wild boar. Hepatic Pb concentration was similar in both species (0.061 to 0.202 mg/kg in wild boar and 0.077 to 0.108 mg/kg in red deer). Because of the high Cd level in the organs of wild boar and red deer, further research is needed to identify the source of contamination in order to preserve the health of animals and humans.

Bilandzic, Nina, E-mail: bilandzic@veinst.hr [Croatian Veterinary Institute, Savska cesta 143, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sedak, Marija [Croatian Veterinary Institute, Savska cesta 143, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Vrataric, Darija; Peric, Tomislav [Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management Veterinary Directorat, Ulica grada Vukovara 78, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Simic, Branimir [Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

2009-07-01

289

Lead and cadmium in red deer and wild boar from different hunting grounds in Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration and relations of Cd and Pb as environmental risk factors were studied by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the liver, kidney and muscle of free ranging wild boar (n = 94) and red deer (n = 45) from hunting grounds in four counties of north-east Croatia. In all four counties, the levels of Cd found in the kidney of red deer ranged from 2.28 to 5.91 mg/kg, and in wild boar from 3.47 to 21.10 mg/kg. The mean renal concentration of Cd was significantly higher in wild boar than in red deer from all four study areas. The mean hepatic (0.11 to 0.49 mg/kg, respectively) and muscle (0.01 to 0.04 mg/kg, respectively) Cd concentrations were similar in both species. The mean renal Cd concentration in wild boar and red deer exceeded 1 mg/kg in all four counties, ranging from 67.0% to 91.4% and from 45.5% to 69.2%, respectively. Also, the hepatic Cd/renal Cd ratio was lower than 1 in all animals. In all four counties, renal Pb concentration ranged from 0.058 to 3.77 mg/kg in red deer and from 0.056 to 11.60 mg/kg in wild boar. Hepatic Pb concentration was similar in both species (0.061 to 0.202 mg/kg in wild boar and 0.077 to 0.108 mg/kg in red deer). Because of the high Cd level in the organs of wild boar and red deer, further research is needed to identify the source of contamination in order to preserve the health of animals and humans.

290

An assessment of zoonotic and production limiting pathogens in rusa deer (Cervus timorensis rusa) from Mauritius.  

Science.gov (United States)

A population of approximately 70,000 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) represents the most important mammal species reared for food on the island of Mauritius, being the main source of red meat for the local population. However, very limited information is available on the circulation of pathogens affecting the productivity and health of this species. To produce baseline data on the circulation of infectious pathogens in rusa deer under production, a serological survey and/or direct pathogen detection for six selected infectious diseases was undertaken in 2007 in a sample of 53% of the herds reared in semi-free-ranging conditions in hunting estates. Seropositive results were recorded for Johne's disease with an indirect ELISA test (1.7%, n = 351), heartwater with an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) (95.5%, n = 178) and leptospirosis with a Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) (25.9%, n = 363). Significant associations were found between seroprevalence to some of the leptospiral serogroups detected (Tarassovi, Pomona, Sejroe and Mini) and age of the animals, animal density or location of the estates (being more prevalent in hotter and more humid areas). In addition, Mycobacterium bovis and M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis were confirmed in two deer carcasses by culture and PCR, respectively. No antibodies against Brucella spp. nor Rift Valley Fever virus were detected with the use of respective indirect ELISA's. The results obtained suggest that the population of rusa deer from Mauritius is exposed to a wide range of pathogens which may affect their productivity. In addition, the results highlight the potential public health risks incurred by deer industry workers and consumers. This survey fills an important gap in knowledge regarding the health of tropical deer meat in Mauritius and justifies the need to implement more regular surveys of selected pathogens in the deer population. PMID:24382104

Jori, F; Godfroid, J; Michel, A L; Potts, A D; Jaumally, M R; Sauzier, J; Roger, M

2014-08-01

291

Female white-tailed deer survival across ecoregions in minnesota and south dakota  

Science.gov (United States)

Survival and cause-specific mortality of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been well documented in forested and agricultural landscapes, but limited information has been collected in grassland habitats typical of the Northern Great Plains. Our objectives were to document and compare survival and cause-specific mortality of adult female white-tailed deer in four distinct ecoregions. We captured and radiocollared 190 (159 adult, 31 yearling) female white-tailed deer and monitored (including deer from a previous study) a total of 246 (215 adult, 31 yearling) deer from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2007. We documented 113 mortalities; hunting (including wounding loss) accounted for 69.9% of all mortalities and vehicle collisions accounted for an additional 15.0%. Natural causes (e.g., disease, predation) of mortality were minor compared to human-related causes (e.g., hunting, vehicle collisions). We used known fate modeling in program MARK to estimate survival rates and compare ecoregions and seasons. Model Sseason (winter=summer) had the lowest AICc value suggesting that survival differed only between seasons where winter and summer survival was equal and differed with fall season. Annual and seasonal (summer, fall, winter) survival rates using the top model S season (summer=winter) were 0.76 (95% ci = 0.70-0.80), 0.97 (95% ci = 0.96-0.98), 0.80 (95% ci = 0.76-0.83) and 0.97 (95% ci = 0.96-0.98), respectively. High human-related mortality was likely associated with limited permanent cover, extensive road networks and high hunter density. Deer management in four distinct ecoregions relies on hunter harvest to maintain deer populations within state management goals. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.

Grovenburg, T.W.; Swanson, C.C.; Jacques, C.N.; Deperno, C.S.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

2011-01-01

292

Parasitism of the deer ked, Lipoptena cervi, on the moose, Alces alces, in eastern Finland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The deer ked, Lipoptena cervi L. (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), is an ectoparasitic fly that spread to Finland in the early 1960s from the southeast across the Soviet border. It is currently a common parasite of the moose, Alces alces (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), in the southern part of the country and its area of distribution is gradually spreading to Finnish Lapland, where it will come into contact with another potential cervid host, the semi-domesticated reindeer, Rangifer tarandus tarandus. The aim of this study was to determine the intensity of deer ked parasitism on the moose in eastern Finland. Whole skins of 23 moose were examined for the presence of deer keds, which were extracted and their total numbers estimated. The intensity of deer ked parasitism was correlated to the age, sex, skin area and anatomical region of the host. Bulls had the highest total number of keds (10616 ± 1375) and the highest deer ked density (35.7 ± 4.4 keds/dm(2) of skin). Cows had a higher total number of keds than calves (3549 ± 587 vs. 1730 ± 191), but ked densities on cows and calves were roughly equal (11.8 ± 1.7 vs. 9.4 ± 1.1 keds/dm(2) of skin). The density of keds was highest on the anterior back, followed by the posterior back, front limbs, abdomen, head and hind limbs. The sex ratio of deer keds was close to equal (male : female, 1.0 : 1.1). After they had consumed blood, male keds were heavier than females. As the total numbers and densities of deer keds were higher than reported previously on moose or for any other louse fly species, the effects of parasitism on the health of the host species should be determined. PMID:20868432

Paakkonen, T; Mustonen, A-M; Roininen, H; Niemelä, P; Ruusila, V; Nieminen, P

2010-12-01

293

Generation of competent bone marrow-derived antigen presenting cells from the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Human infections with Sin Nombre virus (SNV and related New World hantaviruses often lead to hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS, a sometimes fatal illness. Lungs of patients who die from HCPS exhibit cytokine-producing mononuclear infiltrates and pronounced pulmonary inflammation. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus are the principal natural hosts of SNV, in which the virus establishes life-long persistence without conspicuous pathology. Little is known about the mechanisms SNV employs to evade the immune response of deer mice, and experimental examination of this question has been difficult because of a lack of methodologies for examining such responses during infection. One such deficiency is our inability to characterize T cell responses because susceptible syngeneic deer mice are not available. Results To solve this problem, we have developed an in vitro method of expanding and generating competent antigen presenting cells (APC from deer mouse bone marrow using commercially-available house mouse (Mus musculus granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. These cells are capable of processing and presenting soluble protein to antigen-specific autologous helper T cells in vitro. Inclusion of antigen-specific deer mouse antibody augments T cell stimulation, presumably through Fc receptor-mediated endocytosis. Conclusions The use of these APC has allowed us to dramatically expand deer mouse helper T cells in culture and should permit extensive characterization of T cell epitopes. Considering the evolutionary divergence between deer mice and house mice, it is probable that this method will be useful to other investigators using unconventional models of rodent-borne diseases.

Farrell Regina M

2004-09-01

294

Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical sign of BVDV to isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer. Results we isolated a suspected BVDV strain from livers of an aborted fetus from sika deer in Changchun (China using MDBK cell lines, named as CCSYD strain, and identified it by cytopathic effect (CPE, indirect immunoperoxidase test (IPX and electron microscopy(EM. The results indicated that this virus was BVDV by a series of identification. The structural proteins E0 gene was cloned and sequenced. The obtained E0 gene sequence has been submitted to GenBank with the accession number: FJ555203. Alignment with other 9 strains of BVDV, 7 strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV and 3 strains of border disease virus(BDV in the world, showed that the homology were 98.6%-84.8%, 76.0%-74.7%, 76.6%-77.0% for nucleotide sequence, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that new isolation and identification CCSYD strain belonged to BVDV1b. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that BVDV was isolated and identified in sika deer. This current research contributes development new BVDV vaccine to prevent and control of BVD in sika deer.

Wang Nan

2011-02-01

295

New endemic foci of schistosomiasis infections in the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schistosomiasis affects 28 provinces in the Philippines found along the southeastern part where there is continuous rainfall throughout the year. In 2002 and 2005 respectively, two new endemic foci were reported in the northernmost (Gonzaga, Cagayan) and central (Calatrava, Negros Occidental) parts of the country. This study conducted in March 2008-March 2009 confirmed the presence of the disease by determining its prevalence using four diagnostic tests - Kato-Katz, circumoval precipitin test (COPT), ELISA and ultrasonography. Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi was identified through snail surveys conducted in possible snail habitats in the seven new endemic villages. Animal surveys through stool examination confirmed the presence of schistosomiasis infection in animals in Gonzaga but not in Calatrava. Compared to Calatrava, Gonzaga demonstrated markedly higher prevalence of schistosomiasis using all four diagnostic methods. Proximity of snail habitats to human habitation including higher snail density and snail infection rate could be responsible for the high prevalence. Snail sites were more widespread in Gonzaga whereas those in Calatrava were confined only in areas not frequented by the general population except by farmers. GIS maps showing spatial distribution of snails in Gonzaga and Calatrava indicated differences in elevation among the snail sites. It is hypothesized that the snail intermediate host has been in these sites for sometime but discovered only lately. Migration of people from endemic provinces into Gonzaga and Calatrava brought in cases and in the presence of snail intermediate hosts, emergence of disease was just a matter of time. PMID:23583862

Leonardo, Lydia; Rivera, Pilarita; Saniel, Ofelia; Antonio Solon, Juan; Chigusa, Yuichi; Villacorte, Elena; Christoper Chua, James; Moendeg, Kharleezelle; Manalo, Daria; Crisostomo, Bobby; Sunico, Louie; Boldero, Nicasio; Payne, Lara; Hernandez, Leda; Velayudhan, Raman

2015-01-01

296

The endemic mimic: blastomycosis an illness often misdiagnosed.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the endemic fungi, Blastomyces dermatitidis, can cause epidemics of infection with multiple persons involved in a point source outbreak but more commonly causes sporadic cases of infection within the areas of endemicity. Blastomycosis can present as an acute pneumonia which is often misdiagnosed as acute pneumococcal pneumonia or the infection may present as a chronic pneumonia along with weight loss, night sweats, hemoptysis, and a lung mass suggesting tuberculosis or carcinoma of the lung. Extrapulmonary infection with B. dermatitidis is protean with many different manifestations. Most commonly, skin or subcutaneous lesions are found with either a verrucous or warty appearance or in an ulcerative form. Cases have been misidentified as keratoacanthoma, pyoderma gangrenosum, carcinoma, or as Weber-Christian panniculitis if there are nodular subcutaneous lesions. Essentially any site or organ can have lesions of disseminated blastomycosis. In our series, cases of laryngeal carcinoma, adrenal insufficiency, thyroid nodules, granulomatous hypercalcemia, abnormal mammograms thought to represent breast carcinoma, otitis media with cranial extension, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, and hemolytic anemia of unknown cause have been misdiagnosed and blastomycosis subsequently identified as the cause. This infection causes manifestations which mimic many other more commonly diagnosed conditions and must always be considered by clinicians practicing in the endemic region. PMID:25125734

Bradsher, Robert W

2014-01-01

297

Apocynaceae endémicas del Perú / Apocynaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Apocynaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar 37 géneros y 158 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mayormente bejucos y lianas. En este trabajo reconocemos 14 endemismos en 10 géneros. Los taxones endémicos ocupan diversas regiones, principalmente Bosques Muy [...] Húmedos Montanos, Bosques Muy Húmedos Premontanos y Bosques Húmedos Amazónicos, entre los 130 y 3000 m de altitud. Se adjudicó las categorías y criterios de la UICN a ocho especies. Hasta la fecha sólo una especie de Apocynaceae endémica ha sido registrada en el Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Apocynaceae are represented in Peru by 37 genera and 158 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), basically vines and lianas. Here we recognize 14 endemic species in 10 genera. The endemic taxa are found in several ecological regions, mainly the Very Humid Montane, Premontane [...] and Humid Lowland Amazonian Forest regions, between 130 and 3000 m elevation. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to eight species. Only one endemic Apocynaceae is represented within Peru's protected areas system.

Blanca, León; Christhian, Monsalve.

2006-12-01

298

Gesneriaceae endémicas del Perú / Gesneriaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Gesneriaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar 31 géneros y 141 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mayormente hierbas y arbustos. En este trabajo reconocemos como endemismos 36 especies y tres variedades en doce géneros. El género Besleria es el más rico en [...] especies endémicas. Las Gesneriaceae endémicas ocupan las regiones Bosques Húmedos Amazónicos y de Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, entre los 100 y 2900 m de altitud. Ocho taxones endémicos de Gesneriaceae se encuentran representados dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Gesneriaceae are represented in Peru by 31 genera and 141 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mainly herbs and shrubs. Here we recognize as endemics 36 species and three varieties in twelve genera. Besleria is the genus with the largest number of endemic species. Peru's e [...] ndemic Gesneriaceae are found in the Humid Lowland Amazonian Forest and Very Humid Montane Forest regions, between 100 and 2900 m elevation. Eight endemic taxa have been recorded within the Peruvian protected areas system.

Irayda, Salinas; Blanca, León.

2006-12-01

299

Lauraceae endémicas del Perú / Lauraceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Entre las familias características de los bosques montanos orientales se halla la familia Lauraceae, la cual es reconocida en el Perú con 16 géneros y 247 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004). En este trabajo se reconoce y categoriza 55 especies endémicas en 11 géneros. Nectan [...] dra y Ocotea son los géneros más ricos en especies endémicas. Las Lauraceae endémicas, mayormente árboles y arbustos, ocupan principalmente las regiones Bosques Húmedos Amazónicos y Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, entre los 125 y 3100 m de altitud. Nueve de las especies endémicas se encuentran representadas dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Lauraceae, a characteristic family of Peru's eastern montane forests are represented in Peru by 16 genera and 247 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004). Here we recognize 55 endemic species included in 11 genera. Nectandra and Ocotea are the genera with the largest number of [...] endemic species. These endemic taxa, mostly trees and shrubs, are found mainly in the Humid Lowland Amazonian Forest and Very Humid Montane Forest regions, between 125 and 3100 m elevation. Nine of these species have been recorded to date in the Peruvian protected areas system.

Blanca, León.

2006-12-01

300

Araliaceae endémicas del Perú / Araliaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Esta familia es reconocida en el Perú por presentar seis géneros y 77 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mayormente árboles y arbustos. En este trabajo reconocemos 28 endemismos en tres géneros. Las Araliaceae se hallan bajo estudio sistemático por lo que se esperan novedad [...] es y cambios en la taxonomía (J. Wen, com. pers.). Los taxones endémicos reconocidos en este trabajo ocupan las regiones Bosques Pluviales Montanos y Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, así como de Bosques Húmedos Amazónicos, entre los 230 y 3640 m de altitud. Se adjudicó las categorías y criterios de la UICN a 22 especies. Solamente dos de estas especies han sido registradas en un área natural protegida. Abstract in english This family is represented in Peru by six genera and 77 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mostly shrubs and trees. Here we recognize 28 endemic species in three genera. The systematics of Araliaceae is currently under study, and taxonomic changes and novelties are to be exp [...] ected (J. Wen, pers. comm.). Endemic Araliaceae are found in the Pluvial Montane Forest, Very Humid Montane, and Humid Lowland Amazonian Forest regions, between 230 and 3640 m elevation. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to 22 species. Only two endemic species have been found in a protected area.

Blanca, León.

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Annonaceae endémicas del Perú / Annonaceae endemic of Peru  

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Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Annonaceae está conformada fundamentalmente por árboles de mediano o gran tamańo y es reconocida en el Perú con 27 géneros y 236 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004). En este trabajo reconocemos 44 endemismos en 15 géneros. Un tercio de estos taxones endémicos fuero [...] n descritos como nuevos para la ciencia después de 1993 y aproximadamente el 30% se conoce solamente de una colección botánica. La mayoría de los taxones endémicos ocupan las regiones de Bosques Muy Húmedos Premontanos y Bosques Húmedos Amazónicos, entre los 90 y 1300 m de altitud. Diez de estas especies han sido registradas en por lo menos una área natural protegida. Abstract in english The Annonaceae include mainly medium to large trees, and are represented in Peru by 27 genera and 236 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004). Here we recognize 44 endemic species in 15 genera. One third of these endemic taxa were described as new to science since 1993, and about [...] 30% only are known from a single botanical collection. Most endemic Annonaceae are found in Very Humid Premontane and Humid Lowland Amazonian Forest regions, between 125 and 2400 m elevation. Ten species are represented within Peru's protected areas system.

Blanca, León; Christhian, Monsalve.

2006-12-01

302

Parsimony analysis of endemicity of enchodontoid fishes from the Cenomanian  

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Full Text Available Parsimony analysis of endemicity was applied to analyze the distribution of enchodontoid fishes occurring strictly in the Cenomanian. The analysis was carried out using the computer program PAUP* 4.0b10, based on a data matrix built with 17 taxa and 12 areas. The rooting was made on an hypothetical all-zero outgroup. Applying the exact algorithm branch and bound, 47 trees were obtained with 26 steps, a consistency index of 0.73, and a retention index of 0.50. The topology found with a majority rule consensus was: [(Mexico + (United States + (Morocco + Italy + (Lebanon + Israel + (Italy-Slovenia + (Brazil] + (D.R. Congo + (Sweden + (Germany + (England. The procedure delimited two areas of endemism in the Tethys Ocean. They are Morocco and southern Italy and Lebanon and Israel. The area of endemism formed by Morocco + Italy represents the North African region of the Tethys Ocean, and that formed by Lebanon + Israel is in the mid-Tethyan Ocean. Our results are in partial agreement with the patterns of geographical distribution of certain invertebrate biota.

Silva Hilda Maria Andrade da

2007-04-01

303

Asclepiadaceae endémicas del Perú / Asclepiadaceae endemic of Peru  

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Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Asclepiadaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar 27 géneros y 107 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), mayormente bejucos y hierbas. Esta familia se halla bajo revisión sistemática. Para la flora peruana, estos estudios en desarrollo probablemente concluyan con la necesidad de un reord [...] enamiento de los taxones a nivel de los géneros (S. Liede, com. pers.). Dada la escasez de colecciones herborizadas y la falta de consenso sobre los taxones, aquí se reconocen provisionalmente 43 endemismos. En general, los endemismos en esta familia ocupan las regiones Mesoandina y Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, entre los 900 y 2600 m de altitud. Se aplicaron las categorías y criterios de la UICN a cinco especies. Dos endémicas se encuentran registradas en el Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Asclepiadaceae are represented in Peru by 27 genera and 107species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), mostly vines and lianas. The family is under systematic revision, and these ongoing studies are likely to result in genus-level changes for the Peruvian Asclepiadaceae flora (S. Liede, pers. comm.). Give [...] n the scarcity of collections and the lack of consensus on the taxonomic status of several taxa, we provisionally recognize 43 endemic species. The endemic taxa are found in the Mesoandean and Very Humid Montane Forest regions, between 900 and 2600 m elevation. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to five species. Two endemic species have been found in protected areas.

Blanca, León.

2006-12-01

304

A study on brain CT of neurological endemic cretinism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study on brain CT was made in 20 cases of typical endemic cretinism and 15 cases of normal persons. These patients from severely iodine deficient area were diagnosed as neurological endemic cretinism characterized by severe mental retardation with impairment of hearing, speech, neuromotor, etc. to varying degrees. The brain CT showed that there were many and deep depressions in cerebral cortex, especially in frontal and parietal lobes of some cretins, the lateral ventricle system was dilated, particularly in posterior part of it, and the interhemisphere fissure, lateral fissure and subarachnoid cisterns were also expanded. The CT value of cortex was higher and white matter was lower than that of normal persons. In some severe cases, the two hemispheres of brain were not the same in size. These findings above indicated that these endemic cretins had a severe retardation of brain development including cerebral cortex and white matter. In addition, some abnormal calcification in brain and abnormal structure of middle line of brain were also found. (author)

305

Loasaceae endémicas del Perú / Loasaceae endemic of Peru  

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Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Loasaceae está representada en el Perú por ocho géneros y alrededor de 112 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), la mayoría herbáceas. En este trabajo se reconoce y categoriza 59 especies y 10 taxones subespecíficos en cinco géneros como endemismos peruanos. El géne [...] ro Nasa es el más rico en especies. Estos taxones endémicos ocupan principalmente las regiones Mesoandina, Puna Húmeda y Seca y Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, desde los 1400 hasta los 4700 m de altitud. Diez de los endemismos reconocidos se encuentran representados dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Loasaceae are represented in Peru by eight genera and around 112 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mainly herbs. Here we recognize 59 species and 10 infra-specific taxa in five genera as Peruvian endemics. Nasa is the genus with the largest number of endemic species. Th [...] ese endemic taxa are found in the Mesoandean, Humid and Dry Puna, and Very Humid Montane Forest regions, between 1400 and 4700 m elevation. Ten of these taxa have been found in the Peruvian protected areas system.

Eric, Rodriguez; Maximilian, Weigend.

2006-12-01

306

Balkan endemic nephropathy: role of ochratoxins A through biomarkers.  

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Several studies implicated mycotoxins, in endemic kidney disease geographically limited to Balkan region (Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN)). In Bulgaria, much higher prevalence of ochratoxin A (OTA), exceeding 2 microg/L, was observed in the blood of affected population. OTA is found more often in the urine of people living in BEN-endemic villages. To confirm and quantify exposure to OTA in Vratza district, we followed up OTA intake for 1 month, OTA in blood and urine from healthy (20-30 years old) volunteers, from two villages with high risk for BEN disease. Food samples were collected daily, blood and urine at the beginning of each week. Relations between increasing OTA intake, blood concentration and elimination of OTA in urine have been studied in rats. Average weekly intake of OTA varies from 1.9 to 206 ng/kg body weight, twice tolerable weekly intake recommended by JECFA. OTA blood concentrations are in the same range as previously reported in this region with concentrations reaching 10 microg/L. Weekly OTA food intake is not directly correlated with blood and urine concentrations. Biomarkers of biological effects such as DNA adducts were detected in patients affected by urinary tract tumours (UTT) and in rat study. All these plead for the implication of OTA, in BEN and UTT. PMID:16715544

Castegnaro, Marcel; Canadas, Delphine; Vrabcheva, Terry; Petkova-Bocharova, Theodora; Chernozemsky, Ivan N; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie

2006-05-01

307

Human African trypanosomiasis in endemic populations and travellers.  

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Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) gambiense (West African form) and T.b. rhodesiense (East African form) that are transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly, Glossina spp.. Whereas most patients in endemic populations are infected with T.b. gambiense, most tourists are infected with T.b. rhodesiense. In endemic populations, T.b. gambiense HAT is characterized by chronic and intermittent fever, headache, pruritus, and lymphadenopathy in the first stage and by sleep disturbances and neuro-psychiatric disorders in the second stage. Recent descriptions of the clinical presentation of T.b. rhodesiense in endemic populations show a high variability in different foci. The symptomatology of travellers is markedly different from the usual textbook descriptions of African HAT patients. The onset of both infections is almost invariably an acute and febrile disease. Diagnosis and treatment are difficult and rely mostly on old methods and drugs. However, new molecular diagnostic technologies are under development. A promising new drug combination is currently evaluated in a phase 3 b study and further new drugs are under evaluation. PMID:21901632

Blum, J A; Neumayr, A L; Hatz, C F

2012-06-01

308

Um albino parcial de veado campeiro (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus no Parque Nacional das Emas, Goiás Partial albinism in the pampas deer and a critical analysis about albino Mammals  

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Full Text Available A case of partial albinism in the pampas deer, recorded at the Emas National Park, Goiás, Brazil is described. The coat color and behaviour of the albino are compared with normal pampas deer.

Flávio H.G. Rodrigues

1999-01-01

309

Characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of wild boars (Sus scrofa), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).  

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Rhodococcus equi is a soil saprophyte and an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in animals, and rarely in humans. The presence of R. equi in tissues and faeces of some wild animal species was demonstrated previously. In this study we characterized R. equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of free-living wild boars (n=23), red deer (n=2) and roe deer (n=2). This is the first description of R. equi strains isolated from tissues of the Cervidae. All isolates were initially recognized as R. equi based on the phenotypic properties. Their identification was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, detection of the choE gene and by sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. The presence of three plasmidic genes (traA, vapA and vapB) associated with R. equi virulence was investigated by PCR. In 16 wild boar isolates the traA and vapB genes were detected and they were located on virulence plasmids type 5, 7 or 11. The isolates from cervids and the remaining wild boar isolates were classified as avirulent based on a genotype traA(-)/vapA(-)B(-). In summary, these results confirm that wild boars can be a source of intermediately virulent R. equi strains, and indicate that red deer and roe deer can be a reservoir of avirulent R. equi strains. PMID:24878324

Rzewuska, Magdalena; Witkowski, Lucjan; Cisek, Agata A; Stefa?ska, Ilona; Chrobak, Dorota; Stefaniuk, El?bieta; Kizerwetter-?wida, Magdalena; Takai, Shinji

2014-08-01

310

Use of cytochrome b polymorphism for species identification of biological material derived from cattle, sheep, goats, roe deer and red deer.  

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The objective of this study was species identification of the following biological trace material: skin, blood stains, meat samples and jawbone with a tooth, which were the subject of expert opinion ordered by a court. The expert appraisement was conducted by an analysis of a cytochrome b fragment. The choice of mtDNA fragment for analysis was based on its conservation in mammals which enabled several farm and wild species to be identified with one pair of primers. The PCR product was differentiated by Tsp509I and Alulenzymes. Due to problems with amplification of roe deer DNA, primers specific to this species only, flanking a cytochrome b fragment (Y1495 1.1), were designed. On the basis of this analysis, it was concluded that the skin sample was derived from a goat, dried blood from a roe deer, the jawbone from cattle, and two meat samples from a roe deer and red deer. This method allowed rapid and efficient identification of several species of mammals using diverse biological material. PMID:20420194

Natonek-Wi?niewska, Ma?gorzata; S?ota, Ewa; Kalisz, Beata

2010-01-01

311

Cytogenetic study on Thai brow-antlered deer, Cervus eldi siamensis and Thamin brow-antlered deer, Cervus eldi thamin (Artiodactyla, Cervidae by conventional staining method  

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Full Text Available Cytogenetics of Thai brow-antlered deer (Cervus eldi siamensis were studied in comparison with those of Thamin brow-antlered deer (Cervus eldi thamin. Blood samples were taken from the two subspecies kept in Khoa Kheow Open Zoo, Chonburi Province. After the standard whole blood lymphocyte were cultured in presence of colchicine, the metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and air-dried. Conventional Giemsa’s staining were applied to stain chromosome. Thai and Thamin brow-antlered deers exhibited the same karyotype with diploid number of 2n = 58 (NF = 70 for females and 2n = 58 (NF = 71 for males. The types of autosome are 6 large metacentric, 6 large submetacentric, 8 large telocentric, 20 medium telocentric and 16 small telocentric chromosomes. In addition, satellites are clearly observed in terminal position on the short arm of a pair of chromosome 7. The X chromosome is the largest telocentric and the Y chromosome is the smallest metacentric chromosome. The karyotype formula of Thai and Thamin brow-antlered deer is as follows: 2n (58 = Lm6+Lsm6+Lt8+Mt20+St16+sex chromosome

Monthira Monthatong1

2008-03-01

312

Chronic wasting disease infection patterns in female white-tailed deer related to demographics, genetic relationships, and spatial proximity of infected deer in southern Wisconsin  

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Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500 km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310 kin2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and non-infected deer. Ow results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) kee-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible non-linear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

Grear, Daniel A.

2006-01-01

313

Effects of natural phenomena and human activity on the species richness of endemic and non-endemic Heteroptera in the Canary Islands  

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The geographical patterns of Heleroptera species diversity in the Canary Islands were analysed, and endemic and non-endemic species were studied both together and separately. Causal processes most likely controlling these patterns, as well as the theory of island biogeography, hypotheses about evolutionary time, habitat heterogeneity, climatic stability, intermediate disturbances, energy, environmental favourableness-severity, productivity and human influence were investigated. The combinatio...

Real, R.; Guerrero, J. C.; Vargas, J. M.

2004-01-01

314

Fine-scale genetic structure and social organization in female white-tailed deer.  

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Abstract: Social behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have important management implications. The formation of matrilineal social groups among female deer has been documented and management strategies have been proposed based on this well-developed social structure. Using radiocollared (n = 17) and hunter or vehicle-killed (n = 21) does, we examined spatial and genetic structure in white-tailed deer on a 7,000-ha portion of the Savannah River Site in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. We used 14 microsatellite DNA loci to calculate pairwise relatedness among individual deer and to assign doe pairs to putative relationship categories. Linear distance and genetic relatedness were weakly correlated (r = –0.08, P = 0.058). Relationship categories differed in mean spatial distance, but only 60% of first-degree-related doe pairs (full sibling or mother–offspring pairs) and 38% of second-degree-related doe pairs (half sibling, grandmother–granddaughter pairs) were members of the same social group based on spatial association. Heavy hunting pressure in this population has created a young age structure among does, where the average age is <2.5 years, and <4% of does are >4.5 years old. This—combined with potentially elevated dispersal among young does—could limit the formation of persistent, cohesive social groups. Our results question the universal applicability of recently proposed models of spatial and genetic structuring in white-tailed deer, particularly in areas with differing harvest histories.

Comer, Christopher E.; Kilgo, John C.; D' Angelo, Gino J.; Glenn, Travis C.; Miller, Karl V.

2005-07-01

315

Impact of abomasal nematodes on roe deer and chamois body condition in an alpine environment.  

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Abomasal helminths were examined from 101 roe deer and 43 chamois, shot or found-dead, in the period July-November 1993-95, in the Parco Naturale Paneveggio Pale di San Martino (Italian Eastern Alps). Twelve helminth species were observed in both roe deer and chamois. For both host species, discriminant analysis, using the abundance of each parasite species in the hosts, failed to distinguish between subjects from each of the three study years. For 44 roe deer and 27 chamois data on body weight, body length, foot length, withers height, thoracic circumference and kidney fat index were also available. Principal Component Analysis was performed on the biometrical data in order to group related variables into a few compound variables. In both host species it was possible to identify two principal components, with an explained variance > 80%: the first component, led by body length, was an expression of skeletal development and the second, led by kidney fat index, of nutritional status. Parasite abundance and richness appeared to be negatively correlated with the scores of both skeletal and nutritional Components in the two host species, although only the correlation between parasite abundance and the scores of the nutritional component in roe deer was statistically significant (Spearman r = -0.411; p < 0.05). These results support the susceptibility of roe deer to abomasal helminths, which could be important considering the spatial and nutritional interspecific competition between domestic and wild ruminants often recorded in alpine environments. PMID:9802085

Zaffaroni, E; Citterio, C; Sala, M; Lauzi, S

1997-12-01

316

Is Sustainablity Possible in Protected Areas in Mexico? Deer as an Example of a Renewable Resource  

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Full Text Available In 2000, Mexico’s National Commission of Protected Areas (CONANP was created to encourage the protection, management and restoration of natural and cultural resources and their conservation. Protected areas were recently increased by more than 3 million hectares, for a current total of more than 25 million hectares, corresponding to 174 protected areas that cover 12.90% of the country’s surface area. The information obtained by research helps us understand both biodiversity and ecological processes, as well as the social and economic phenomena that influence the use of ecosystems. In Mexico there are four species of deer: white-tailed deer, mule deer, red brocket and brown brocket. These ungulates have been an important part of the diet of indigenous people and rural communities, and represent an important resource for sport and trophy hunting. We found the best deer populations in protected areas; these can therefore maintain the gene pool and serve as source populations for other areas. These populations are also useful from a research perspective. People living in some protected areas continue to use natural resources such as deer, and also receive economic inputs to develop ecotourism programs, and support from the government for the environmental services derived from conserving biodiversity.

Sonia Gallina

2012-09-01

317

Measuring Fine-Scale White-Tailed Deer Movements and Environmental Influences Using GPS Collars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Few studies have documented fine-scale movements of ungulate species, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), despite the advent of global positioning system (GPS) technology incorporated into tracking devices. We collected fine-scale temporal location estimates (i.e., 15 min/relocation attempt) from 17 female and 15 male white-tailed deer over 7 years and 3 seasons in Oklahoma, USA. Our objectives were to document fine-scale movements of females and males and determine effects of reproductive phase, moon phase, and short-term weather patterns on movements. Female and male movements were primarily crepuscular. Male total daily movements were 20% greater during rut (7,363? 364) than postrut (6,156 m±260). Female daily movements were greatest during post parturition (3,357 91), followed by parturition (2,902 m±107), and pre parturition (2,682 m±121). We found moon phase had no effect on daily, nocturnal, and diurnal deer movements and fine-scale temporal weather conditions had an inconsistent influence on deer movement patterns within season. Our data suggest that hourly and daily variation in weather events have minimal impact on movements of white-tailed deer in southern latitudes. Instead, routine crepuscular movements, presumed to maximize thermoregulation and minimize predation risk, appear to be the most important factors influencing movements.

318

The Quality of Hunted Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolor Venison from East Kalimantan  

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Full Text Available Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor is the heaviest in its body weight and widest in its distribution of tropical deer. A Report by East Kalimantan governor indicated that no less than 5,000 wild sambar deer were slaughtered annually. In 1990 a pilot project of sambar deer farm was established and still under its development. Up to the present there is no data available on the nutritional values of sambar venison. The objective of the study was to determine the nutritional quality of wild sambar venison. Samples were collected from three traditional markets. Whitin 10 hours after being hunted, meat was sampled in three sites, front leg, back leg and saddle. The result showed that pH values of hunted sambar venison ranged from 6.18-6.46, but there were no differences in cutting sites. The moisture content was over 74%. Crude Protein, ash, fat and cholesterol (%DM were 88.84-90.24, 3.86-4.14, 2.9-3.8, 0.24-0.27, respectively. Amino acids, fatty acids and minerals values were within the average of domesticated animals meat values, thought some values in sambar show a better performance. (Animal Production 5(1: 35-41 (2003 Key words: Sambar , Deer, Cervus unicolor, Venison, Meat

G Semiadi

2003-01-01

319

Urinary 3-methylhistidine and progressive winter undernutrition in white-tailed deer  

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Physiological indicators of muscle catabolism would aid assessment of winter nutritional restriction of ungulates, and urinary 3-methylhistidine has exhibited potential in this regard in several species. We examined the effect of chronic moderate and severe nutritional restriction during winter on urinary 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratios in seven adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and the relationship of these ratios to urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine ratios. Mean base line estimates of urinary 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratio for the control and severely restricted deer (0.043 and 0.086 ??mol:mg, respectively) were similar (P = 0.280) and remained unchanged in the control deer throughout the study. In contrast, mean 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratios increased dramatically as nutritional restriction and cumulative mass loss progressed; the quadratic component of the data for the chronically restricted deer was significant (P deer and urinary 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratios. Further, urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine ratios were strongly related to 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratios (r2 = 0.89). Our study indicates that further investigation of 3-methylhistidine as an indicator of physical condition and muscle protein breakdown is warranted.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Kerr, K.D.; Mech, L.D.; Riggs, M.R.; Seal, U.S.

1998-01-01

320

Measuring Fine-Scale White-Tailed Deer Movements and Environmental Influences Using GPS Collars  

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Full Text Available Few studies have documented fine-scale movements of ungulate species, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, despite the advent of global positioning system (GPS technology incorporated into tracking devices. We collected fine-scale temporal location estimates (i.e., 15 min/relocation attempt from 17 female and 15 male white-tailed deer over 7 years and 3 seasons in Oklahoma, USA. Our objectives were to document fine-scale movements of females and males and determine effects of reproductive phase, moon phase, and short-term weather patterns on movements. Female and male movements were primarily crepuscular. Male total daily movements were 20% greater during rut (7,363?m±364 than postrut (6,156?m±260. Female daily movements were greatest during postparturition (3,357?m±91, followed by parturition (2,902?m±107, and preparturition (2,682?m±121. We found moon phase had no effect on daily, nocturnal, and diurnal deer movements and fine-scale temporal weather conditions had an inconsistent influence on deer movement patterns within season. Our data suggest that hourly and daily variation in weather events have minimal impact on movements of white-tailed deer in southern latitudes. Instead, routine crepuscular movements, presumed to maximize thermoregulation and minimize predation risk, appear to be the most important factors influencing movements.

Stephen L. Webb

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Relationship between estrus cycles and behavioral durations of captive female alpine musk deer.  

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Owing to poor breeding success in captive alpine musk deer, an understanding of the behavioral patterns of musk deer in captivity is important. This study was conducted from June 2004 to January 2005 at the Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm, which is located within Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu Province, China. Focal sampling and continuous recording were used to observe the behaviors of 51 female alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus), 42 of which had completed a single estrus cycle and nine of which had completed two or more estrus cycles. All animals were adults that had been born and raised in captivity. The durations of 12 behaviors, including environmental sniffing, moving and feeding, were recorded during the non-breeding seasons and behavioral patterns were compared. The behavioral patterns of females that had completed a single estrus cycle and females that had completed multiple estrus cycles were compared to assess potential behavioral differences. The results showed that females who had only one complete estrus cycle demonstrated more resting behavior, but less feeding and locomotor behavior than females who had completed multiple estrus cycles. Furthermore, single estrus cycle females demonstrated tail-rubbing during the breeding season. The results may yield useful information that can be used in developing better musk deer farming practices. PMID:21396062

Meng, Xiuxiang; Perkins, Genevieve C; Yang, Qisen; Feng, Zuojian; Meng, Zhibin; Xu, Hongfa

2008-06-01

322

Behavioral Differences Between Captive Female Alpine Musk Deer with Different Reproduction Success in Previous Year  

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Full Text Available Against a background of poor breeding success in captive alpine musk deer, an understanding of the behavioral differences between captive female alpine musk deer with and without reproduction success in previous year may yield useful information for musk deer farming practice. This study was conducted in the musk deer farm of Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu province of China from June 2004 to January 2005. The focal sampling and all occurrence recording was used to observe the behaviors of 38 female alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus in which 5 were barren in previous year and 33 females were bred in previous year. The durations of 12 behaviors such as environment-sniffing, etc. were recorded and the behavioral patterns were compared to explore the differences. The results showed that compared to females barren in previous year, the females bred in previous year was more active, pugnacious and explorative in mating season and expressed less self-directed behavior during non-mating season. The data from the present study should contribute to a better understanding of behavioral differences between females with different reproduction success.

Meng Xiuxiang

2011-01-01

323

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reported the isolation and characterization of eight polymorphic microsatellite loci in endangered forest musk deer Moschus berezovskii. An improved enrichment protocol was used to isolate microsatellites, and polymorphism was explored with samples from wild musk deer population collected in Miyalo of Sichuan Province in China. Approximately 70% of clones from the genomic library constructed in current study contained dinucleotide (AC) repeats. Eight microsatellite loci amplified were highly polymorphic within forest musk deer population. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 14, and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.41 approximately 1.0 and from 0.8 approximately 0.9, respectively. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value for these markers was 0.82. This demonstrated that the eight microsatellite loci developed here are highly polymorphic, and can be used as genetic markers for further investigation of musk deer. Also, the results showed that the musk deer distributed in Miyalo had a relatively higher level of genetic variation. PMID:15930833

Zou, Fangdong; Yue, Bisong; Xu, Liu; Zhang, Yizheng

2005-05-01

324

Determinants of vigilance in a reintroduced population of Pčre David's deer  

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Full Text Available After being kept in captivity and isolated from natural predators for more than 1,200 years, Pčre David’s deer has been reintroduced in China and now occurs in a reserve where human activity is the only potential threat. Antipredator vigilance is an important component of survival for many prey animals in their natural habitat. Do deer still adjust vigilance as a function of risk after such a long period of relaxed predation pressure? Here, we examined vigilance levels in Pčre David’s deer groups as a function of group size, sex and level of human disturbance. The results showed that individual vigilance significantly decreased with group size in all-female groups but not in all-males or mixed-sex groups. In rutting season, males compete with one another and harass females, and we argue that vigilance is partly aimed at threatening males and that such vigilance increases with group size. This explains why overall vigilance did not vary with group size for males in general and for females in mixed-sex groups. Vigilance increased in more disturbed areas but in in male deer only. The results indicate that despite relaxed predation pressure over centuries, Pčre David’s deer can still adjust antipredator responses as a function of perceived risk. Such information may become useful in the rewilding programme now under way for this species in China [Current Zoology 59 (2: 265–270, 2013].

Wei ZHENG, Guy BEAUCHAMP, Xuelei JIANG, Zhongqiu LI, Qinglong YANG

2013-04-01

325

Positioning the red deer (Cervus elaphus) hunted by the Tyrolean Iceman into a mitochondrial DNA phylogeny.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last years several phylogeographic studies of both extant and extinct red deer populations have been conducted. Three distinct mitochondrial lineages (western, eastern and North-African/Sardinian) have been identified reflecting different glacial refugia and postglacial recolonisation processes. However, little is known about the genetics of the Alpine populations and no mitochondrial DNA sequences from Alpine archaeological specimens are available. Here we provide the first mitochondrial sequences of an Alpine Copper Age Cervus elaphus. DNA was extracted from hair shafts which were part of the remains of the clothes of the glacier mummy known as the Tyrolean Iceman or Ötzi (5,350-5,100 years before present). A 2,297 base pairs long fragment was sequenced using a mixed sequencing procedure based on PCR amplifications and 454 sequencing of pooled amplification products. We analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of the Alpine Copper Age red deer's haplotype with haplotypes of modern and ancient European red deer. The phylogenetic analyses showed that the haplotype of the Alpine Copper Age red deer falls within the western European mitochondrial lineage in contrast with the current populations from the Italian Alps belonging to the eastern lineage. We also discussed the phylogenetic relationships of the Alpine Copper Age red deer with the populations from Mesola Wood (northern Italy) and Sardinia. PMID:24988290

Olivieri, Cristina; Marota, Isolina; Rizzi, Ermanno; Ermini, Luca; Fusco, Letizia; Pietrelli, Alessandro; De Bellis, Gianluca; Rollo, Franco; Luciani, Stefania

2014-01-01

326

The John Deere E diesel Test & Research Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three non-road Tier II emissions compliant diesel engines manufactured by John Deere were placed on a durability test plan of 2000 hours each at full load, rated speed (FLRS). The fuel was a blend of 10% fuel ethanol and 90% low sulfur #2 diesel fuel. Seven operational failures involving twenty seven fuel system components occurred prior to completion of the intended test plan. Regulated emissions measured prior to component failure indicated compliance to Tier II certification goals for the observed test experience. The program plan included operating three non-road Tier II diesel engines for 2000 hours each monitoring the regulated emissions at 500 hour intervals for changes/deterioration. The program was stopped prematurely due to number and frequency of injection system failures. The failures and weaknesses observed involved injector seat and valve wear, control solenoid material incompatibility, injector valve deposits and injector high pressure seal cavitation erosion. Future work should target an E diesel fuel standard that emphasizes minimum water content, stability, lubricity, cetane neutrality and oxidation resistance. Standards for fuel ethanol need to require water content no greater than the base diesel fuel standard. Lubricity bench test standards may need new development for E diesel.

Fields, Nathan; Mitchell, William E.

2008-09-23

327

Nutritional values of wild rusa deer (Cervus timorensis venison  

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Full Text Available Until 2002, the level of protein consumption from red meat origin by the Indonesian people was only 51.5% from the national target. The reasons for this condition were due to limited resources of domesticated animals and low income of many suburb people to buy red mead. One alternative in supplying the gap of protein consumption is by utilizing local prospective wildlife animals, such as deer. This species is widely distributed among the islands in Indonesia. In order to understand more on the quality of tropical rusa venison (Cervus timorensis, a study was conducted in Palu district, Southeast Sulawesi by collecting venison from hunters. The results showed there was no significant difference on cooking lost among the carcass parts (hind leg, front leg and saddle, with the range between 30.3 to 33.0%. There were also no significant differences on the gross energy, protein, ash, fat and phosphor values among the carcass parts. The contents of sodium , ferum and calcium were significantly different at p9.5% DM, compared to other groups (<4.0% DM. In amino acid contents , it showed no interaction between the carcass parts to amino acid groups, however there was a significant difference among the amino acid groups. Glutamic acid had the highest level (15.74%DM, where as others were ranged between 2.7 to 7.6% DM. (Animal Production 7(1: 46-51 (2005

Y Jamal

2005-01-01

328

Development of migratory behavior in northern white-tailed deer  

Science.gov (United States)

I examined the development of migratory behavior in northern white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 1975 to 1996 by radio-tracking adult females and their fawns. Of 40 migratory fawns with radio-collared mothers, all returned from winter ranges to their mothers' summer ranges, as did 36 fawns with unknown mothers. Of 1.5- to 3.0-year-old daughters with radio-collared mothers, 67-80% continued migrating with mothers to their traditional summer ranges. Eighty-four percent (16/19) of yearling dispersers continued migratory behavior after replacing their natal summer ranges with their dispersal ranges, and 88% (14/16) of these continued migrating to their natal winter ranges, some through at least 6.5 years of age. Twenty percent (4/20) of nonmigratory fawns dispersed as yearlings, and two became migratory between their dispersal summer ranges and new winter ranges, one through 4.9 years of age and another through 6.5 years. Seven fawns changed their movement behavior from migratory to nonmigratory or vice versa as yearlings or when older, indicating that migratory behavior is not under rigid genetic control. Thus, the adaptiveness of migration must depend upon natural selection operating upon varying capacities and propensities to learn and mimic long-distance movements and not upon migratory behavior directly.

Nelson, M.E.

1998-01-01

329

Co-phylogeography and morphological evolution of sika deer lice (Damalinia sika) with their hosts (Cervus nippon).  

Science.gov (United States)

Lice are obligate parasites of mammals and birds and have become an important model for studies of host-parasite co-evolution and co-phylogenetics. Population genetic and phylogeographic studies represent an important bridge between microevolution and co-phylogenetic patterns. We examine co-phylogeographic patterns in sika deer and their parasitic lice. Co-phylogeographic patterns in deer and lice were evaluated using homologous regions of mitochondrial COI sequences. The phylogeographic breaks recovered for deer populations matched those of previous studies. Comparisons of the phylogeographic tree topology for deer lice with that of their hosts revealed a significant level of congruence. However, comparisons of genetic distances between deer and lice suggested that one of the estimated co-divergence events is more likely a recent host switch. Taking into account genetic divergence, there is not strong evidence for complete phylogeographic co-divergence between deer and their parasitic lice. However, mitochondrial phylogenies only track genetic structure of female lineages, and the incongruence between deer and louse phylogeography may be explained by louse migration mediated by male deer. Morphological analysis of head shape variation based on an elliptic Fourier descriptor showed that overall morphological variation contained phylogenetic signal, suggesting that in general morphology of these lice evolves congruent to population history. PMID:22835817

Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Johnson, Kevin P; Yoshizawa, Kazunori

2012-10-01

330

Variability of female responses to conspecific vs. heterospecific male mating calls in polygynous deer: an open door to hybridization?  

Science.gov (United States)

Males of all polygynous deer species (Cervinae) give conspicuous calls during the reproductive season. The extreme interspecific diversity that characterizes these vocalizations suggests that they play a strong role in species discrimination. However, interbreeding between several species of Cervinae indicates permeable interspecific reproductive barriers. This study examines the contribution of vocal behavior to female species discrimination and mating preferences in two closely related polygynous deer species known to hybridize in the wild after introductions. Specifically, we investigate the reaction of estrous female red deer (Cervus elaphus) to playbacks of red deer vs. sika deer (Cervus nippon) male mating calls, with the prediction that females will prefer conspecific calls. While on average female red deer preferred male red deer roars, two out of twenty females spent more time in close proximity to the speaker broadcasting male sika deer moans. We suggest that this absence of strict vocal preference for species-specific mating calls may contribute to the permeability of pre-zygotic reproductive barriers observed between these species. Our results also highlight the importance of examining inter-individual variation when studying the role of female preferences in species discrimination and intraspecific mate selection. PMID:21887242

Wyman, Megan T; Charlton, Benjamin D; Locatelli, Yann; Reby, David

2011-01-01

331

On-Road Development of John Deere 6081 Natural Gas Engine: Final Technical Report, July 1999 - January 2001; FINAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Report that discusses John Deere's field development of a heavy-duty natural gas engine. As part of the field development project, Waste Management of Orange County, California refitted four existing trash packers with John Deere's prototype spark ignited 280-hp 8.1 L CNG engines. This report describes the project and also contains information about engine performance, emissions, and driveability

332

Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies associated with vesicular ulcerative and necrotizing lesions of the digestive mucosa in fallow deer (Dama dama L.  

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Full Text Available Intracytoplasmic epithelial inclusion bodies in the digestive mucosa of fallow deer (Dama dama L. were found to most probably be the result of an unspecific degenerative or post mortal change. There are reasons to believe that this is true also for the inclusion bodies found in reindeer, roe deer and moose.

Regina Diaz

1990-09-01

333

Evaluating Spatial Overlap and Relatedness of White-tailed Deer in a Chronic Wasting Disease Management Zone  

Science.gov (United States)

Wildlife disease transmission, at a local scale, can occur from interactions between infected and susceptible conspecifics or from a contaminated environment. Thus, the degree of spatial overlap and rate of contact among deer is likely to impact both direct and indirect transmission of infectious diseases such chronic wasting disease (CWD) or bovine tuberculosis. We identified a strong relationship between degree of spatial overlap (volume of intersection) and genetic relatedness for female white-tailed deer in Wisconsin’s area of highest CWD prevalence. We used volume of intersection as a surrogate for contact rates between deer and concluded that related deer are more likely to have contact, which may drive disease transmission dynamics. In addition, we found that age of deer influences overlap, with fawns exhibiting the highest degree of overlap with other deer. Our results further support the finding that female social groups have higher contact among related deer which can result in transmission of infectious diseases. We suggest that control of large social groups comprised of closely related deer may be an effective strategy in slowing the transmission of infectious pathogens, and CWD in particular. PMID:23437171

Magle, Seth B.; Samuel, Michael D.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.; Robinson, Stacie J.; Mathews, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

334

Browsing preference and ecological carrying capacity of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) on secondary vegetation in forest plantation.  

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The browsing preference and ecological carrying capacity (ECC) of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) in acacia plantations for management and conservation of the ecosystem were investigated at Sabal Forest Reserve in Sarawak, Malaysia. The identification of the species browsed by the sambar deer was based on an observation of the plant parts consumed. ECC estimation was based on body weight (BW) and the physiological stages of animals browsed in six fenced 4-ha paddocks. Sambar deer were found foraging on only 29 out of 42 species of secondary vegetation in the acacia plantation. The remaining species are too high for the deer to reach. Planted species, Shorea macrophylla are not palatable to the deer. This augurs well for the integration of sambar deer into shorea plantations. The most frequently exploited plants were Ficus spp. Sambar deer preferred woody species more than non-woody species and they are browser animals. By producing metabolizable energy of 19?000 to 27?000 MJ/ha, the ECC was five head/ha to 5.25 head/ha. Given its contribution to the conservation of wildlife and its capacity to sustain the ecosystem, the sambar deer integrated farming system offers a promising strategy for the future of tropical forestry management. PMID:25163638

Ismail, Dahlan; Jiwan, Dawend

2015-02-01

335

Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus  

Science.gov (United States)

A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

Nelson, Michael E.

2011-01-01

336

Does fluctuating asymmetry of antlers in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) follow patterns predicted for sexually selected traits?  

Science.gov (United States)

Secondary sexual characters have been hypothesized to signal male quality and should demonstrate a negative relationship between the size of the trait and degree of fluctuating asymmetry because they are costly to produce. We collected morphometric and antler data from 439 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Oklahoma, USA, in order to determine whether measures of antler asymmetry follow the patterns predicted for sexually selected characters. Relative fluctuating asymmetry was negatively related to antler size for all deer and within age groups up to five and a half years of age. We did not detect an association between asymmetry and antler size among deer that were six and a half years or older. When categorizing deer by antler size, we found that deer with small antlers (???33rd percentile) had greater levels of relative asymmetry than deer with large antlers (???67th percentile). The relative asymmetry of antlers was negatively related to age and was greatest in deer that were one and a half years old. Relative asymmetry was also negatively related to carcass mass, inside spread, skull length and body length. These data suggest that asymmetry in the antlers of white-tailed deer may be a reliable signal of quality and, as such, may be important in maintaining honesty in intrasexual advertisements during the breeding season.

Ditchkoff, S.S.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.; Starry, W.R.; Leslie, D.M., Jr.

2001-01-01

337

The occurrence of Demodex kutzeri Bukva, 1987 (Acari, Demodecidae) in red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) in Poland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of Demodex kutzeri Bukva, 1987 was examined and compared in red deer coming from different populations--25 red deer from northern Poland (Masurian Lake District) and 25 from southern Poland (Lower Silesia). The total prevalence of infestation in red deer by D. kutzeri was 52% with the mean intensity of 38 individuals and the intensity range of 1-135. Parameters of infestation for red deer from northern Poland were much higher (68%, 49), while for other red deer--lower (36%, 16). Demodectic mites D. kutzeri are associated with common hair follicles, therefore they can be found in different parts of the body, however most of the specimens were found in the head skin. Regardless of the location and the infestation rate (including density of mites in the skin), infestations were not accompanied by symptoms of demodecosis. PMID:24171302

Izdebska, Joanna N; Kozina, Paulina; Fryderyk, S?awomira

2013-01-01

338

Some preliminary studies of the metabolism of 99Mo-labelled compounds in deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The metabolism of (99Mo) compounds in plasma was followed after intravenous injection of (99Mo) trithiomolybdate and intraruminal infusion of (99Mo) molybdate in one red deer and one sika deer. Clearance of (99Mo) trithiomolybdate was rapid and residual radioactivity was (99Mo) dithiomolybdate. After ruminal infusion of (99Mo) molybdate, the main plasma (99Mo) thiomolybdate detected was also (99Mo) dithiomolybdate. These preliminary studies may provide an explanation of the apparent insensitivity of the deer to high dietary Mo, since dithiomolybdate is less likely to be toxic systemically than trithiomolybdate to tetrathiomolybdate. However, further studies with more animals and over a wider range of conditions would be advisable before definitive conclusions are drawn. (author)

339

Novel hemoplasma species detected in free-ranging sika deer (Cervus nippon).  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemoplasma infections in wild ungulates have not been reported yet in Japan. We examined presence of hemoplasmas in blood samples collected from 147 sika deer (Cervus nippon) in the Iwate prefecture by real-time PCR, and found 13 (9%) were positive. Almost entire region of the 16S rRNA gene of the representative strains from positive samples was amplified by conventional PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene were further determined and compared with those of other hemoplasmas. Our examinations 1st revealed the presence of 2 distinct hemoplasma species in sika deer, which are previously not described. One of them was closely related to M. ovis by the 16S rRNA sequence analysis, but was found distinct by comparison of the RNase P RNA gene sequences. Pathogenicity of these two hemoplasma species in sika deer is currently unknown. PMID:20644338

Watanabe, Yusaku; Fujihara, Masatoshi; Obara, Hisato; Matsubara, Kazuei; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Harasawa, Ryô

2010-11-01

340

Serosurvey of roe deer, chamois and domestic sheep in the central Italian Alps.  

Science.gov (United States)

Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), chamois (Rupicapra rupricapra rupicapra), and domestic sheep in the Orobie Alps, Italy, were serologically tested for antibodies to selected pathogens that may be transmitted across species. Antibodies against Brucella spp. and bovine herpesvirus 1 (roe deer and chamois only) were not detected in any species. In roe deer, antibodies were detected against Toxoplasma gondii (13%) and Neospora caninum (3%). Chamois tested positive for antibodies to T. gondii (5%), N. caninum (21%), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) (41%), bovine parainfluenza type-3 virus (17%), pestiviruses (18%), and Mycoplasma conjunctivae (17%). In the sheep, particularly high antibody prevalence rates were found for T. gondii (78%), Chlamydophila spp. (20%), pestiviruses (90%), BRSV (82%), and M. conjunctivae (81%). PMID:17092903

Gaffuri, Alessandra; Giacometti, Marco; Tranquillo, Vito Massimo; Magnino, Simone; Cordioli, Paolo; Lanfranchi, Paolo

2006-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

A First Attempt at Modelling Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus Distributions Over Europe  

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Full Text Available The presence of roe deer can be an important component within ecological and epidemiological systems contributing to the risk and spread of a range of vector-borne diseases. Deer are important hosts for many vectors, and may therefore serve as a focal point or attractant for vectors or may themselves act as a reservoir for vector-borne disease. Three spatial modelling techniques were used to generate an ensemble model describing the proportion of suitable roe deer habitat within recorded distributions for Europe as identified from diverse sources. The resulting model is therefore an index of presence, which may be useful in supporting the modelling of vector-borne disease across Europe.

Neil S Alexander

2014-07-01

342

Genotype-4 hepatitis E in a human after ingesting roe deer meat in South Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent increase in the number of cases of indigenous hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection highlights the importance of identifying the transmission routes for the prevention of such infections. Presented herein is the first case of acute HEV infection after ingesting wild roe deer meat in South Korea. A 43-year-old male presented with abdominal discomfort and jaundice. He had not recently traveled abroad, but had eaten raw roe-deer meat 6-8 weeks before the presentation. On the 7th day of hospitalization the patient was diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis E. Phylogenetic analysis of his serum revealed genotype-4 HEV. This case supports the possibility of zoonotic transmission of HEV because the patient appears to have been infected with genotype-4 HEV after ingesting raw deer meat. PMID:24133670

Choi, Ja Yoon; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Jo, Yun Won; Min, Hyun Ju; Kim, Hyun Jin; Jung, Woon Tae; Lee, Ok Jae; Yun, Haesun; Yoon, Yeong-Sil

2013-09-01

343

Amino acids content and basic chemical composition of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) meat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of roe deer meat considering the animals' sex and age and to estimate the content of amino acids in the meat from two selected groups of the animals, i.e. 2-3-year-old males and females. A further goal was to assess the biological value of proteins as compared to the FAO standard. The study has revealed that in proteins from the roe deer muscle tissue the content of exogenous amino acids (in g/100g) is higher by 20-30% on average comparing to the level of amino acids, in the FAO/WHO (1973) standard protein. Among the endogenous amino acids, the highest (in g/100 g of protein) and the lowest concentrations were found for glutamic acid and proline, respectively. The research has also shown that roe deer meat possesses a high content of protein and a relatively low content of fat. PMID:23390753

Cygan-Szczegielniak, D; Janicki, B

2012-01-01

344

Molybdenum and copper levels in white-tailed deer near uranium mines in Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

Molybdenum toxicity, molybdenosis, in ruminant animals has been identified in at least 15 states and in Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. In most western states, molybdenosis has been associated with strip-mine spoil deposits. Molybdenum toxicity has been diagnosed in cattle pastured near uranium strip-mine spoils in several Texas counties. Recent reports from hunters and the authors' observations indicated that white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) that fed near uranium-mine spoil deposits may also have been exposed to high levels of molybdenum. The objectives of this study were to determine if white-tailed deer from a South Texas uranium mining district were accumulating harmful levels of molybdenum and to compare molybdenum and copper levels with antler development in deer from the mined area vs. an unmined control area.

King, K.A.; LeLeux, J.; Mulhern, B.M.

1984-01-01

345

Natal dispersal and gene flow in white-tailed deer in northeastern Minnesota  

Science.gov (United States)

I documented natal dispersal and gene flow in 79 yearling white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota during 1974-1988. Sixty-four percent (n = 28) of 44 males and 20?/0 (n = 7) of 35 females dispersed from their natal home ranges when 1.0-1.5-years old. Eighty-six percent and 95%, of all yearlings including nondispersers, dispersed 526 and 538 km, respectively. Minimum gene flow was estimated to be 40 deer per generation, based on a circular subpopulation defined by a 26-km radius. Gene flow estimated from allele frequencies for five polymorphic loci averaged 15 deer per generation among five subpopulations. These values of gene flow were concomitant with significant allele frequency heterogeneity at the subpopulation level.

Nelson, M.E.

1993-01-01

346

MONITORING OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN FARMED DEER POPULATIONS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deer (Cervidaei belong to the most important species used as farmed animals. We focused on assesing the genetic diversity among five deer populations. Analysis has been performed on a total of 183 animals originating from Czech Republic, Hungary, New Zealand, Poland and Slovak Republic. Genetic variability were investigated using 8 microsatellite markers used in deer. Statistical data of all populations we obtained on the basis of Nei statistics, using by POWERMARKER 3.23 programme. Graphical view of relationships among populations and individuals in the populations was obtained using the Dendroscope software. Molecular genetic data combinated with evaluation in statistical programmes could lead to a complex view of populations and diffrences among them.doi:10.5219/172

Pavol Bajzík

2011-12-01

347

Impacts of Gender and Age on Behavioral Frequencies of Captive Musk Deer During Lactation  

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Full Text Available Behavioral patterns of captive alpine musk deer were studied at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF in northwest China. Throughout the lactation season (August-October 2003, 13 behaviors categories were recorded for 30 female and 24 male alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus to explore effects of gender and age-classes. Females had a higher frequency of resting, feeding, ruminating and affinitive behaviors than males, potentially due to the increased energy demands and influences of newborn fawns during lactation. Among females there was no effect of age-class on the behavioral patterns whereas, adult males displayed more frequent tail-pasting behavior and agonistic interaction than sub-adult males. The potential causative mechanisms for the behavioral differences were discussed.

Xiuxiang Meng

2011-01-01

348

Plant and animal endemism in the eastern Andean slope: challenges to conservation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Andes-Amazon basin of Peru and Bolivia is one of the most data-poor, biologically rich, and rapidly changing areas of the world. Conservation scientists agree that this area hosts extremely high endemism, perhaps the highest in the world, yet we know little about the geographic distributions of these species and ecosystems within country boundaries. To address this need, we have developed conservation data on endemic biodiversity (~800 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, and plants and terrestrial ecological systems (~90; groups of vegetation communities resulting from the action of ecological processes, substrates, and/or environmental gradients with which we conduct a fine scale conservation prioritization across the Amazon watershed of Peru and Bolivia. We modelled the geographic distributions of 435 endemic plants and all 347 endemic vertebrate species, from existing museum and herbaria specimens at a regional conservation practitioner's scale (1:250,000-1:1,000,000, based on the best available tools and geographic data. We mapped ecological systems, endemic species concentrations, and irreplaceable areas with respect to national level protected areas. Results We found that sizes of endemic species distributions ranged widely (2 to > 200,000 km2 across the study area. Bird and mammal endemic species richness was greatest within a narrow 2500-3000 m elevation band along the length of the Andes Mountains. Endemic amphibian richness was highest at 1000-1500 m elevation and concentrated in the southern half of the study area. Geographical distribution of plant endemism was highly taxon-dependent. Irreplaceable areas, defined as locations with the highest number of species with narrow ranges, overlapped slightly with areas of high endemism, yet generally exhibited unique patterns across the study area by species group. We found that many endemic species and ecological systems are lacking national-level protection; a third of endemic species have distributions completely outside of national protected areas. Protected areas cover only 20% of areas of high endemism and 20% of irreplaceable areas. Almost 40% of the 91 ecological systems are in serious need of protection (= Conclusions We identify for the first time, areas of high endemic species concentrations and high irreplaceability that have only been roughly indicated in the past at the continental scale. We conclude that new complementary protected areas are needed to safeguard these endemics and ecosystems. An expansion in protected areas will be challenged by geographically isolated micro-endemics, varied endemic patterns among taxa, increasing deforestation, resource extraction, and changes in climate. Relying on pre-existing collections, publically accessible datasets and tools, this working framework is exportable to other regions plagued by incomplete conservation data.

Swenson Jennifer J

2012-01-01

349

Population characteristics and viability of the introduced hog deer (Axis porcinus Zimmermann, 1780 in Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand  

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Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to study population characteristics of hog deer released into the wild, namely: density,age structure, sex ratio, recruitment rate, threats to hog deer, carrying capacity and inter-specific relationships, as well as toassess the population viability over time. In this study, direct observation was used to study the hog deer population characteristics,and population density was estimated from the pellet-group count method. Vortex program was used to analyze thepopulation viability. Results showed that the population density of hog deer at Thung Ka Mung (TKM in Phu Khieo WildlifeSanctuary (PKWS was 2.03-2.04 individuals/hectare (SD = 1.25. The population structure showed that the average herd sizewas 9.57 individuals. Hog deer in TKM preferred to stay with a group (91.5%, rather than being solitary (8.5%. The sex ratiofor males to females was 54.64:100, and for females to fawns was 100:26.18. The annual recruitment rate was 16.98 %. Theirpredators were Asian wild dogs, Burmese pythons, Asiatic jackals, leopard cats and clouded leopards. The mortality rate ofthe existing hog deer in TKM during the study period was 18.1%. The habitat sharing by camera traps revealed 4 ungulatespecies. They were sambar deer, barking deer, wild boar, and elephant, and their relative abundance were 28.41%, 7.38%,4.70%, and 2.01% respectively. Fifty-year simulation modeling using population viability analysis indicated the sustainabilityof this population. Hog deer population in the simulations did not exhibit sensitivity to an increase or decrease in carryingcapacity. Habitat management should be carried out continuously in TKM area, which is the main habitat for hog deer inPKWS.

Worawidh Wajjwalku

2012-07-01

350

Susceptibility of European Red Deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) to Alimentary Challenge with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) are susceptible to the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, when challenged intracerebrally but their susceptibility to alimentary challenge, the presumed natural route of transmission, is unknown. To determine this, eighteen deer were challenged via stomach tube with a large dose of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent and clinical signs, gross and histological lesions, presence and distribution of abnormal prion protein and the attack rate recorded. Only a single animal developed clinical disease, and this was acute with both neurological and respiratory signs, at 1726 days post challenge although there was significant (27.6%) weight loss in the preceding 141 days. The clinically affected animal had histological lesions of vacuolation in the neuronal perikaryon and neuropil, typical of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Abnormal prion protein, the diagnostic marker of transmissible encephalopathies, was primarily restricted to the central and peripheral nervous systems although a very small amount was present in tingible body macrophages in the lymphoid patches of the caecum and colon. Serial protein misfolding cyclical amplification, an in vitro ultra-sensitive diagnostic technique, was positive for neurological tissue from the single clinically diseased deer. All other alimentary challenged deer failed to develop clinical disease and were negative for all other investigations. These findings show that transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to European red deer via the alimentary route is possible but the transmission rate is low. Additionally, when deer carcases are subjected to the same regulations that ruminants in Europe with respect to the removal of specified offal from the human food chain, the zoonotic risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, from consumption of venison is probably very low. PMID:25615837

Dagleish, Mark P; Martin, Stuart; Steele, Philip; Finlayson, Jeanie; Eaton, Samantha L; Sisó, Sílvia; Stewart, Paula; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Hamilton, Scott; Pang, Yvonne; Chianini, Francesca; Reid, Hugh W; Goldmann, Wilfred; González, Lorenzo; Castilla, Joaquín; Jeffrey, Martin

2015-01-01

351

Evaluating the effect of predators on white-tailed deer: Movement and diet of coyotes  

Science.gov (United States)

Coyotes (Canis latrans) may affect adult and neonate white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) survival and have been implicated as a contributor to the decline of deer populations. Additionally, coyote diet composition is influenced by prey availability, season, and region. Because coyote movement and diet vary by region, local data are important to understand coyote population dynamics and their impact on prey species. In southeast Minnesota, we investigated the effect of coyotes on white-tailed deer populations by documenting movement rates, distances moved, and habitats searched by coyotes during fawning and non-fawning periods. Additionally, we determined survival, cause-specific mortality, and seasonal diet composition of coyotes. From 2001 to 2003, we captured and radiocollared 30 coyotes. Per-hour rate of movement averaged 0.87 km and was greater (P = 0.046) during the fawning (1.07 km) than the nonfawning period (0.80 km); areas searched were similar (P = 0.175) between seasons. Coyote habitat use differed during both seasons; habitats were not used in proportion to their availability (P deer was 9.1%. During the study, 19 coyotes died; annual survival rate range was 0.33-0.41, which was low compared with other studies. Consumption of deer was low and coyotes searched open areas (i.e., cropland) more than fawning areas with dense cover. These factors in addition to high coyote mortality suggested that coyote predation was not likely limiting white-tailed deer populations in southeast Minnesota. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

Turner, M.M.; Rockhill, A.P.; Deperno, C.S.; Jenks, J.A.; Klaver, R.W.; Jarding, A.R.; Grovenburg, T.W.; Pollock, K.H.

2011-01-01

352

Phylogenetic study of complete cytochrome b genes in musk deer (genus Moschus) using museum samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

As an endangered animal group, musk deer (genus Moschus) are not only a great concern of wildlife conservation, but also of special interest to evolutionary studies due to long-standing arguments on the taxonomic and phylogenetic associations in this group. Using museum samples, we sequenced complete mitochondrial cytochrome b genes (1140 bp) of all suggested species of musk deer in order to reconstruct their phylogenetic history through molecular information. Our results showed that the cytochrome b gene tree is rather robust and concurred for all the algorithms employed (parsimony, maximum likelihood, and distance methods). Further, the relative rate test indicated a constant sequence substitution rate among all the species, permitting the dating of divergence events by molecular clock. According to the molecular topology, M. moschiferus branched off the earliest from a common ancestor of musk deer (about 700,000 years ago); then followed the bifurcation forming the M. berezovskii lineage and the lineage clustering M. fuscus, M. chrysogaster, and M. leucogaster (around 370,000 years before present). Interestingly, the most recent speciation event in musk deer happened rather recently (140,000 years ago), which might have resulted from the diversified habitats and geographic barriers in southwest China caused by gigantic movements of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in history. Combining the data of current distributions, fossil records, and molecular data of this study, we suggest that the historical dispersion of musk deer might be from north to south in China. Additionally, in our further analyses involving other pecora species, musk deer was strongly supported as a monophyletic group and a valid family in Artiodactyla, closely related to Cervidae. PMID:10413620

Su, B; Wang, Y X; Lan, H; Wang, W; Zhang, Y

1999-08-01

353

Dietary Response of Sympatric Deer to Fire Using Stable Isotope Analysis of Liver Tissue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Carbon (?13C and nitrogen (?15N isotopes in biological samples from large herbivores identify photosynthetic pathways (C3 vs. C4 of plants they consumed and can elucidate potential nutritional characteristics of dietary selection. Because large herbivores consume a diversity of forage types, ?13C and ?15N in their tissue can index ingested and assimilated diets through time. We assessed ?13C and ?15N in metabolically active liver tissue of sympatric mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus to identify dietary disparity resulting from use of burned and unburned areas in a largely forested landscape. Interspecific variation in dietary disparity of deer was documented 2–3 years post-fire in response to lag-time effects of vegetative response to burning and seasonal (i.e., summer, winter differences in forage type. Liver ?13C for mule deer were lower during winter and higher during summer 2 years post-fire on burned habitat compared to unburned habitat suggesting different forages were consumed by mule deer in response to fire. Liver ?15N for both species were higher on burned than unburned habitat during winter and summer suggesting deer consumed more nutritious forage on burned habitat during both seasons 2 and 3 years post-fire. Unlike traditional methods of dietary assessment that do not measure uptake of carbon and nitrogen from dietary components, analyses of stable isotopes in liver or similar tissue elucidated ?13C and ?15N assimilation from seasonal dietary components and resulting differences in the foraging ecology of sympatric species in response to fire.

David M. Leslie, Jr.

2009-12-01

354

Surveillance to detect chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer in Wisconsin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease affecting North American cervids, has been discovered in at least 12 states and provinces throughout the continent. Since 2002, a number of states and provinces have initiated surveillance programs to detect CWD in native cervid populations. However, many questions remain about the appropriate methods, geographic scope, and number of samples required for an effective CWD surveillance program. We provide an improved statistical method to calculate the probability of detecting CWD in primary sample units (e.g., county or deer management unit) that also considers deer abundance and the nonrandom distribution of CWD and hunter harvests. We used this method to analyze data from a statewide CWD detection program conducted in Wisconsin during the autumns of 2002 and 2003 to determine the distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Deer heads were collected at hunter registration stations, and brainstem (obex) and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were removed for disease testing. Our analysis includes samples from >35,000 deer collected outside the known affected area. The probability of detecting chronic wasting disease at a prevalence of 1% varied from 0.89 to > or =0.99 among the 56 primary sample units. Detection probabilities for 1% CWD prevalence were >0.9 in 55 primary sample units, and >0.99 in 10. Detection probabilities will be higher in areas where CWD prevalence exceeds 1%. CWD-positive deer were detected in eight primary sample units surrounding the known affected area during surveillance activities. Our approach provides a novel statistical technique to accommodate nonrandom sampling in wildlife disease surveillance programs. PMID:19901375

Joly, Damien O; Samuel, Michael D; Langenberg, Julia A; Rolley, Robert E; Keane, Delwyn P

2009-10-01

355

[Visceral leishmaniasis as a threat for non-endemic countries].  

Science.gov (United States)

Global warming, globalisation, and constantly increasing number of people involved in long-distance tourism and travel to exotic destinations are likely to increase the number of cases of exotic diseases "imported" to nonendemic countries. One of the often forgotten and neglected diseases has been visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala-azar). The disease is endemic to 62 countries, with India and Sudan accounting for the majority of the cases. It is typically fatal if left untreated. Each year about 500 000 new cases are reported worldwide, and 50 000 die as a result of the disease. Kala-azar is present in the Mediterranean Europe and 70% of cases are imported to non-endemic countries of European Union from that area. Immunocompromised status of patients, like HIV carriers are the principal prospective target for kala-azar. HIV/VL-coinfected patients have significantly higher relapse rates and decreased life expectancy. There is no formal system of reporting imported cases in Europe, except from Germany. In non-endemic countries, including Poland, there is usually the substantial delay between the onset of symptoms and the final diagnosis, with an average exceeding 3 months. This fact suggests that physicians are not familiar with leishmania infections. Despite progress in vaccine development, the only way to prevent the infection is avoiding sandfly bites. Mosquito nets, wearing appropriate clothes and repellents containing DEET (diethyl toluamide) can reduce number of bites and protect also from the other vector-borne diseases like malaria or dengue. Education concerning kala-azar risk and ways of the disease prevention is a needed for tourists and the other travelers. PMID:19856834

Górski, Stanis?aw; Wierci?ska-Drapa?o, Alicja

2009-01-01

356

Serologically Defined Variations in Malaria Endemicity in Pará State, Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Measurement of malaria endemicity is typically based on vector or parasite measures. A complementary approach is the detection of parasite specific IgG antibodies. We determined the antibody levels and seroconversion rates to both P. vivax and P. falciparum merozoite antigens in individuals living in areas of varying P. vivax endemicity in Pará state, Brazilian Amazon region. Methodology/Principal Findings The prevalence of antibodies to recombinant antigens from P. vivax and P. falciparum was determined in 1,330 individuals. Cross sectional surveys were conducted in the north of Brazil in Anajás, Belém, Goianésia do Pará, Jacareacanga, Itaituba, Trairăo, all in the Pará state, and Sucuriju, a free-malaria site in the neighboring state Amapá. Seroprevalence to any P. vivax antigens (MSP1 or AMA-1) was 52.5%, whereas 24.7% of the individuals were seropositive to any P. falciparum antigens (MSP1 or AMA-1). For P. vivax antigens, the seroconversion rates (SCR) ranged from 0.005 (Sucuriju) to 0.201 (Goianésia do Pará), and are strongly correlated to the corresponding Annual Parasite Index (API). We detected two sites with distinct characteristics: Goianésia do Pará where seroprevalence curve does not change with age, and Sucuriju where seroprevalence curve is better described by a model with two SCRs compatible with a decrease in force of infection occurred 14 years ago (from 0.069 to 0.005). For P. falciparum antigens, current SCR estimates varied from 0.002 (Belém) to 0.018 (Goianésia do Pará). We also detected a putative decrease in disease transmission occurred ?29 years ago in Anajás, Goianésia do Pará, Itaituba, Jacareacanga, and Trairăo. Conclusions We observed heterogeneity of serological indices across study sites with different endemicity levels and temporal changes in the force of infection in some of the sites. Our study provides further evidence that serology can be used to measure and monitor transmission of both major species of malaria parasite. PMID:25419900

Cunha, Maristela G.; Silva, Eliane S.; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Costa, Sheyla P. T.; Saboia, Tiago C.; Guerreiro, Joăo F.; Póvoa, Marinete M.; Corran, Patrick H.; Riley, Eleanor; Drakeley, Chris J.

2014-01-01

357

Phylogenetic measures of biodiversity and neo- and paleo-endemism in Australian Acacia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding spatial patterns of biodiversity is critical for conservation planning, particularly given rapid habitat loss and human-induced climatic change. Diversity and endemism are typically assessed by comparing species ranges across regions. However, investigation of patterns of species diversity alone misses out on the full richness of patterns that can be inferred using a phylogenetic approach. Here, using Australian Acacia as an example, we show that the application of phylogenetic methods, particularly two new measures, relative phylogenetic diversity and relative phylogenetic endemism, greatly enhances our knowledge of biodiversity across both space and time. We found that areas of high species richness and species endemism are not necessarily areas of high phylogenetic diversity or phylogenetic endemism. We propose a new method called categorical analysis of neo- and paleo-endemism (CANAPE) that allows, for the first time, a clear, quantitative distinction between centres of neo- and paleo-endemism, useful to the conservation decision-making process. PMID:25034856

Mishler, Brent D; Knerr, Nunzio; González-Orozco, Carlos E; Thornhill, Andrew H; Laffan, Shawn W; Miller, Joseph T

2014-01-01

358

Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation's territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation's malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013). The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon) or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex). The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites that seem to be (or to be very close to) P. vivax and, in a less extent, by Plasmodium malariae and it is transmitted by the bromeliad mosquito Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii. This paper deals mainly with the two profiles of malaria found outside the Amazon: the imported and ensuing introduced cases and the autochthonous cases. We also provide an update regarding the situation in Brazil and the Brazilian endemic Amazon. PMID:25185003

de Pina-Costa, Anielle; Brasil, Patrícia; Di Santi, Sílvia Maria; de Araujo, Mariana Pereira; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecilia; Santelli, Ana Carolina Faria e Silva; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

2014-08-01

359

In vitro cultivation of the endemic species Andryala levitomentosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In vitro cultivation of the endemic and threatened species Andryala levitomentosa represents an unconventional strategy and action plan for the biological diversity conservation. This plant is considered one of the rarest species in the European flora and in Romania it is founded only on „Pietrosul Brostenilor” mountain. The micropropagation of Andryala levitomentosa implies measures which should allow to conserve and perpetuate this species. The plants of Andryala levitomentosa have been regenerated from callus cultures. The callus cultures were established from stem and leaves explants on MS medium, supplemented with indolylacetic acid and benzylaminopurine.

Smaranda Vantu

2010-12-01

360

Brucella epididymo-orchitis: a consideration in endemic area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella sp. and may affect many parts of the body. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This is a case report of Brucella epididymo-orchitis in a Saudi male patient. He presented with a unilateral swelling of the left testicle. He had fever, arthralgia and night sweats. Ultrasound examination revealed enlarged left epididymis and testicle. Brucella serology was positive and the patient responded to treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin. Thus, brucella infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with epididymo-orchitis from an endemic area.

Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq

2006-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

A new world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmission intensity affects almost all aspects of malaria epidemiology and the impact of malaria on human populations. Maps of transmission intensity are necessary to identify populations at different levels of risk and to evaluate objectively options for disease control. To remain relevant operationally, such maps must be updated frequently. Following the first global effort to map Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity in 2007, this paper describes the generation of a new world map for the year 2010. This analysis is extended to provide the first global estimates of two other metrics of transmission intensity for P. falciparum that underpin contemporary questions in malaria control: the entomological inoculation rate (PfEIR and the basic reproductive number (PfR. Methods Annual parasite incidence data for 13,449 administrative units in 43 endemic countries were sourced to define the spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission in 2010 and 22,212 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR surveys were used in a model-based geostatistical (MBG prediction to create a continuous contemporary surface of malaria endemicity within these limits. A suite of transmission models were developed that link PfPR to PfEIR and PfR and these were fitted to field data. These models were combined with the PfPR map to create new global predictions of PfEIR and PfR. All output maps included measured uncertainty. Results An estimated 1.13 and 1.44 billion people worldwide were at risk of unstable and stable P. falciparum malaria, respectively. The majority of the endemic world was predicted with a median PfEIR of less than one and a median PfRc of less than two. Values of either metric exceeding 10 were almost exclusive to Africa. The uncertainty described in both PfEIR and PfR was substantial in regions of intense transmission. Conclusions The year 2010 has a particular significance as an evaluation milestone for malaria global health policy. The maps presented here contribute to a rational basis for control and elimination decisions and can serve as a baseline assessment as the global health community looks ahead to the next series of milestones targeted at 2015.

Gething Peter W

2011-12-01

362

Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts [...] 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013). The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon) or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex). The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites that seem to be (or to be very close to) P. vivax and, in a less extent, by Plasmodium malariae and it is transmitted by the bromeliad mosquito Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii. This paper deals mainly with the two profiles of malaria found outside the Amazon: the imported and ensuing introduced cases and the autochthonous cases. We also provide an update regarding the situation in Brazil and the Brazilian endemic Amazon.

Anielle de, Pina-Costa; Patrícia, Brasil; Sílvia Maria Di, Santi; Mariana Pereira de, Araujo; Martha Cecilia, Suárez-Mutis; Ana Carolina Faria e Silva, Santelli; Joseli, Oliveira-Ferreira; Ricardo, Lourenço-de-Oliveira; Cláudio Tadeu, Daniel-Ribeiro.

2014-08-01

363

Daphnia Abundance and the Subsequent Effects on Endemic Bonneville  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Daphnia pulex are important as a food source for juveniles of the 13 species of fishes in Bear Lake Utah/Idaho and can be the main food source of the endemic zooplanktivor, Bonneville cisco Prosopium gemmifer. Previous studies have suggested that Daphnia populations are cyclic in Bear Lake and may be related to lake water levels. We tested this relationship by examining the abundance and spatial distribution of Daphnia in Bear Lake during the summer of 2003, a year culminating a five-year dro...

Robinson, Justin; Luecke, Chris; Kennedy, Ben; Albrecht, Brandon

2004-01-01

364

«Suspects» in Etiology of Endemic Nephropathy: Aristolochic Acid versus Mycotoxins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite many hypotheses that have been challenged, the etiology of endemic nephropathy (EN) is still unknown. At present, the implications of aristolochic acid (AA) and mycotoxins (ochratoxin A—OTA and citrinin—CIT) are under debate. AA-theory is based on renal pathohistological similarities between Chinese herbs nephropathy (CHN) and EN, findings of AA-DNA adducts in EN and in patients with urinary tract tumors (UTT), as well as the domination of A:T?T:A transversions in the p53 mutati...

Stjepan Pepeljnjak; Maja Šegvi? Klari?

2010-01-01

365

Home range study of the Korean water deer (Hydropotes inermis agyropus) using radio and GPS tracking in South Korea: comparison of daily and seasonal habitat use pattern  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The water deer (Hydropotes inermis) is one of the most primitive extant deer of the family Cervidae. Unlike Chinese waterdeer, Korean water deer have rarely been studied, even though they have relatively well remained in Korea. In particular,the home range of the Korean water deer has not yet been studied. Here we estimated the home range of the Koreanwater deer using two different methods (GPS and radio tracking) and analyzed the home range according to sex, time,and season. The mean home ra...

Jong-Taek Kim; Baek Jun Kim; Yong-Su Park; Sang-Don Lee*

2011-01-01

366

John Deere 7290R, potencia y adaptabilidad a la luz de los leds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El 10 de enero, cuando se cumplía justo un ańo del ensayo del John Deere 6190R, volvimos a Olías del Rey (Toledo), para trabajar en la misma comarca con su recién llegado hermano mayor, el John Deere 7290R, que también dispone de recirculación externa refrigerada de gases de escape, e incorpora la nueva transmisión e23 y un novedoso conjunto de iluminación led de 360 grados. En este ensayo se ha trabajado con un cultivador de 6mde anchura útil labrando a una profundidad media de 8 cm...

Diezma Iglesias, Belen; Valero Ubierna, Constantino; Moya Gonzalez, Adolfo; Garrido Izard, Miguel

2014-01-01

367

Maintenance Crude Protein Requirement of Penned Female Korean Spotted Deer (Cervus nippon)  

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This study was conducted to evaluate the protein requirement for maintenance of 2-year-old female Korean spotted deer. In the course of the experiment, each of three hand-reared female spotted deer was fed three diets that were iso-calorically formulated to contain low (approximately 7%), medium (12%), and high (17%) levels of crude protein (CP). Each of six trials included a 5-day transition, a 10-day preliminary, and a 7-day collection period. Dietary protein levels affected the apparent di...

Yang, S. Y.; Oh, Y. K.; Ahn, H. S.; Kwak, W. S.

2014-01-01

368

Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of northeastern sika deer (Cervus nippon hortulorum).  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the northeastern sika deer, Cervus nippon hortulorum, was determined by accurate polymerase chain reaction. The entire genome is 16,434?bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region, all of which are arranged in a typical vertebrate manner. The overall base composition of the northeastern sika deer's mitochondrial genome is 33.3% of A, 24.5% of C, 28.7% of T and 13.5% of G. A termination associated sequence and several conserved central sequence block domains were discovered within the control region. PMID:24660928

Shao, Yuanchen; Zha, Daiming; Xing, Xiumei; Su, Weilin; Liu, Huamiao; Zhang, Ranran

2014-03-24

369

Neutron activation analysis of trace metals in the livers of Japanese sika deer (cervus Nippon)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neutron activation analysis facilities at the JMTR reactor was used to determine the levels of trace metals in the livers of nine Japanese sika deer. The samples were cut into pieces, pulverized in liquid nitrogen, freeze-dried, and finally fractionated through a stainless steel sieve of 200 mesh. Then the samples were irradiated for 6 or 24 hours by a neutron flux of 1.0x10{sup 14} n{center_dot}cm{sup -2}{center_dot}sec{sup -1}. In the present work, we analysed the concentrations of six elements (Ag, Co, Fe, Rb, Se, and Zn) in the livers of nine deer. (author)

Fukushima, Michiko; Tamate, Hidetoshi; Sasaki, Yoshiro [Ishinomaki Senshu Univ., Ishinomaki, Miyagi (Japan); Mitsugasira, Satoaki; Masumoto, Kazuyoshi

1997-03-01

370

Radiocaesium levels in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report is given on the course of radiocaesium contamination in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria. In autumn 1987 and winter 1987/88 radiocaesium levels rose to values higher than those recorded in 1986 in these regions. The reason for this increase was the very specific feeding selection of roe deer in these forest areas resulting in the ingestion of an unusual high amount of blueberries, ferns and mushrooms. An explanation for the changes of wild boar's contamination has not been found yet, but possible reasons are discussed. (author)

371

Heavy metals in white-tailed deer living near a zinc smelter in Pennsylvania.  

Science.gov (United States)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) shot within 20 km of the zinc smelters in the Palmerton, Pennsylvania area contained extremely high renal concentrations of cadmium (372 ppm dry weight (dw] and zinc (600 ppm dw). The deer with the highest renal zinc concentration was shot 4 km from the smelters and had joint lesions similar to those seen in zinc-poisoned horses from the same area. The highest concentrations of lead in both hard and soft tissues were relatively low, 10.9 ppm dw in a sample of teeth, 17.4 ppm dw in a metacarpus, and 4.9 ppm dw in a kidney. PMID:4032627

Sileo, L; Beyer, W N

1985-07-01

372

Experimental infection model for Sin Nombre hantavirus in the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus)  

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The relationship between hantaviruses and their reservoir hosts is not well understood. We successfully passaged a mouse-adapted strain of Sin Nombre virus from deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) by i.m. inoculation of 4- to 6-wk-old deer mouse pups. After inoculation with 5 ID50, antibodies to the nucleocapsid (N) antigen first became detectable at 14 d whereas neutralizing antibodies were detectable by 7 d. Viral N antigen first began to appear in heart, lung, liver, spleen, and/or kidney b...

Botten, Jason; Mirowsky, Katy; Kusewitt, Donna; Bharadwaj, Mausumi; Yee, Joyce; Ricci, Roy; Feddersen, Richard M.; Hjelle, Brian

2000-01-01

373

Lekking in fallow deer (Dama dama): a long walk to territoriality  

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Here I present results of a long-term study (1996-2010) performed in the lekking fallow deer population of San Rossore, Italy, where data were collected through radio-tracking and direct observations. New results on the behavioural ecology of the fallow deer, with special regard to mating strategies and success were reported. First, I showed that the actual position of the lek is handy with regards to female travel costs and predation risk avoidance, in accordance to the female preference and...

Cena, Fabio

2011-01-01

374

Mushroom spores and 137Cs in faeces of the roe deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Levels of 137Cs in meat, faeces and feed of Danish roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) were studied. Faecal samples were studied in the microscope for the occurrence of fungal spores. The 137Cs levels in collections of meat and faeces indicated that the food selection of the roe deer changes in the autumn towards a more caesium rich menu. The 137Cs levels in some of the faecal samples were so high that they could only be explained by the ingestion of a very caesium rich feed, like mushrooms. (Author)

375

Genotype-4 hepatitis E in a human after ingesting roe deer meat in South Korea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The recent increase in the number of cases of indigenous hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection highlights the importance of identifying the transmission routes for the prevention of such infections. Presented herein is the first case of acute HEV infection after ingesting wild roe deer meat in South Korea. A 43-year-old male presented with abdominal discomfort and jaundice. He had not recently traveled abroad, but had eaten raw roe-deer meat 6-8 weeks before the presentation. On the 7th day of ho...

Choi, Ja Yoon; Lee, Jeong-mi; Jo, Yun Won; Min, Hyun Ju; Kim, Hyun Jin; Jung, Woon Tae; Lee, Ok Jae; Yun, Haesun; Yoon, Yeong-sil

2013-01-01

376

White-Tailed Deer Browse Preferences in a Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forest  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors examined spring and summer use of browse by white-tailed deer in forest gaps created by group selection timber harvest at the SRS. Total percentage browse was low in both years, averaging 2.5% of the available browse. Six species were rated high use, 4 species as proportional use and 10 species as low use. Ratings were in agreement to others in the Southeast. Preferred species were maple, winged elm, greenbriar and black willow. Deer browse had very little impact on regeneration of most species

377

Heavy metals in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) living near a zinc smelter in Pennsylvania  

Science.gov (United States)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) shot within 20 km of the zinc smelters in the Palmerton, Pennsylvania area contained extremely high renal concentrations of cadmium (372 ppm dry weight (dw)) and zinc (600 ppm dw). The deer with the highest renal zinc concentration was shot 4 km from the smelters and had joint lesions similar to those seen in zinc-poisoned horses from the same area. The highest concentrations of lead in both hard and soft tissues were relatively low, 10.9 ppm dw in a sample of teeth, 17.4 ppm dw in a metacarpus, and 4.9 ppm dw in a kidney.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.

1985-01-01

378

Relationship between snow depth and gray wolf predation on white-tailed deer  

Science.gov (United States)

Survival of 203 yearling and adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was monitored for 23,441 deer days from January through April 1975-85 in northeastern Minnesota. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) predation was the primary mortality cause, and from year to year during this period, the mean predation rate ranged from 0.00 to 0.29. The sum of weekly snow depths/month explained 51% of the variation in annual wolf predation rate, with the highest predation during the deepest snow.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

1986-01-01

379

Heavy metals in white-tailed deer living near a zinc smelter in Pennsylvania  

Science.gov (United States)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann)) shot within 20 km of the zinc smelters in the Palmerton, Pennsylvania area contained extremely high renal concentrations of cadmium (372 ppm dry weight (dw)) and zinc (600 ppm dw). The deer with the highest renal zinc concentration was shot 4 km from the smelters and had joint lesions similar to those seen in zinc-poisoned horses from the same area. The highest concentrations of lead in both hard and soft tissues were relatively low, 10.9 ppm dw in a sample of teeth, 17.4 ppm dw in a metacarpus, and 4.9 ppm dw in a kidney.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.

1985-01-01

380

First report of a Brucella suis infection in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present case report the detection of Brucella (B.) suis biovar 2 in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is described for the first time. The roe deer fawn was found emaciated and moribund in a hunting ground in the district Hohenlohe in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, in February 2013. A post-mortem examination revealed particularly a high-grade fibrinous pleurisy caused by the pathogen which could be multiplied in a dense growth on sheep blood agar and confirmed and differentiated subsequently by PCR. PMID:24693656

Sting, Reinhard; Schwabe, Ingo; Oehme, Rainer; Elschner, Mandy Carolina; Melzer, Falk

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Is there adaptation of the exocrine pancreas in wild animal? The case of the Roe Deer  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiology of the exocrine pancreas has been well studied in domestic and in laboratory animals as well as in humans. However, it remains quite unknown in wildlife mammals. Roe deer and cattle (including calf belong to different families but have a common ancestor. This work aimed to evaluate in the Roe deer, the adaptation to diet of the exocrine pancreatic functions and regulations related to animal evolution and domestication. Results Forty bovine were distributed into 2 groups of animals either fed exclusively with a milk formula (monogastric or fed a dry feed which allowed for rumen function to develop, they were slaughtered at 150?days of age. The 35 Roe deer were wild animals living in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, shot during the hunting season and classified in two groups adult and young. Immediately after death, the pancreas was removed for tissue sample collection and then analyzed. When expressed in relation to body weight, pancreas, pancreatic protein weights and enzyme activities measured were higher in Roe deer than in calf. The 1st original feature is that in Roe deer, the very high content in pancreatic enzymes seems to be related to specific digestive products observed (proline-rich proteins largely secreted in saliva which bind tannins, reducing their deleterious effects on protein digestion. The high chymotrypsin and elastase II quantities could allow recycling of proline-rich proteins. In contrast, domestication and rearing cattle resulted in simplified diet with well digestible components. The 2nd feature is that in wild animal, both receptor subtypes of the CCK/gastrin family peptides were present in the pancreas as in calf, although CCK-2 receptor subtype was previously identified in higher mammals. Conclusions Bovine species could have lost some digestive capabilities (no ingestion of great amounts of tannin-rich plants, capabilities to secrete high amounts of proline-rich proteins compared with Roe deer species. CCK and gastrin could play an important role in the regulation of pancreatic secretion in Roe deer as in calf. This work, to the best of our knowledge is the first study which compared the Roe deer adaptation to diet with a domesticated animal largely studied.

Guilloteau Paul

2012-05-01

382

Determinants of vigilance in a reintroduced population of Pčre David's deer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After being kept in captivity and isolated from natural predators for more than 1,200 years, Pčre David’s deer has been reintroduced in China and now occurs in a reserve where human activity is the only potential threat. Antipredator vigilance is an important component of survival for many prey animals in their natural habitat. Do deer still adjust vigilance as a function of risk after such a long period of relaxed predation pressure? Here, we examined vigilance levels in Pčre David’s d...

Wei Zheng, Guy Beauchamp

2013-01-01

383

Soil Requirements of Three Salt Tolerant, Endemic Species from South-East Spain  

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The edaphic requirements of three endemic species from SE Spain have been investigated. Limonium dufourii is a narrow endemic,critically endangered; Thalictrum maritimum and Centaurea dracunculifolia are SE Iberian endemics, considered vulnerable and nearthreatened, respectively. The three taxa inhabit the same type of saline habitats, salt marshes called “malladas”. Several soil parameters(pH, electrical conductivity, soil chloride and sodium contents) were determined in sampling sites w...

Vicente, Oscar; Collado, Francisco; Boscaiu, Monica; Lido?n, Antonio

2009-01-01

384

Endemic Outbreaks of Brown Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stal) in Indonesia using Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis  

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This research attempts to compare the method of analysis and the mapping of endemic outbreaks of brown planthopper on the staples commodity and horticulture using spatial autocorrelation method. The research was done through three steps; those are (1) data preprocessing (2) endemic prototype of BPH (3) the analysis of the increase of attacked stem brown planthopper parameter, the rainfall intensity, and the density of natural enemy. GISA, LISA, and Getis Ord Statistic were used in the endemic...

Sri Yulianto Joko Prasetyo; Subanar; Edi Winarko; Budi Setiadi Daryono

2012-01-01

385

Diversity, rarity and the evolution and conservation of the Canary Islands endemic flora  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The endemic vascular flora of the Canary Islands comprises over 680, taxa collectively accounting for more than 50% of the total native flora. To investigate geographical patterns of diversity within the endemic flora, distribution data from published sources together with other field observation and herbarium data were used to compile a data matrix comprising the distributions of ca. 90% of endemic taxa scored on a 10 × 10km UTM grid. WORLDMAP was then used to investigate patterns of endemi...

Reyes-betancort, J. Alfredo; Santos Guerra, Arnoldo; Guma, I. Rosana; Carine, Mark A.; Humphries, Christopher J.

2008-01-01

386

Nasal rhinosporiodiosis from uttar pradesh (India): a non-endemic zone: first case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Rhinosporiodiosis is a cosmopolitan disease of man and animals, endemic in India and Sri Lanka with main focus of infection in Southern Tamil Nadu. Uttar Pradesh (UP) is not known to be an endemic zone for this disease .We present here the first case of nasal Rhinosporiodiosis from this non-endemic [...] zone.

Shalini, Malhotra; Om Prakash, Bobade; Ankit, Chauhan; Nripen, Vishnoi; Charoo, Hans.

2011-06-01

387

Differences in insect resistance between tomato species endemic to the Galapagos Islands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background The Galapagos Islands constitute a highly diverse ecosystem and a unique source of variation in the form of endemic species. There are two endemic tomato species, Solanum galapagense and S. cheesmaniae and two introduced tomato species, S. pimpinellifolium and S. lycopersicum. Morphologically the two endemic tomato species of the Galapagos Islands are clearly distinct, but molecular marker analysis shows no clear separation. Tomatoes on the Galapagos are affected by both native...

Lucatti, A. F.; Heusden, A. W.; Vos, R. C. H.; Visser, R. G. F.; Vosman, B.

2013-01-01

388

Phylogeography and evolutionary history of Leopoldamys neilli, a Murinae rodent endemic to limestone karsts, in Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Limestone karsts are highly threatened biodiversity hotspots supporting high levels of endemic species. Karsts are patchy distributed within Southeast Asia and their isolation from one another give them the features of “islands on the continent” and has important consequences for the genetic structure of endemic taxa. In present study, we have studied the phylogeography of Neill’s Rat Leopoldamys neilli, a threatened Murinae rodent species endemic to limestone karsts of Thailand, on the...

Latinne, Alice; Waengsothorn, Surachit; Herbreteau, Vincent; Michaux, Johan

2012-01-01

389

Clinical and laboratory evaluation of schistosomiasis mansoni patients in Brazilian endemic areas  

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A total of 60% of the territory of Alagoas (AL) is considered endemic for the occurrence of schistosomiasis and the classification of clinical forms of the disease are not known. This paper aimed to evaluate an endemic schistosomiasis population in AL, taking into account the prevalence, classification of the clinical forms and the results of laboratory analyses. The sample consisted of residents in endemic areas. The participants were submitted to a stool examination by the Kato-Katz techniq...

Luciano Fernandes Pereira; Andrei Leite Gazzaneo; Roberta Maria Pereira Albuquerque de Melo; Hugo Cabral Tenório; Darlan Silva de Oliveira; Maria Sonia Correia Alves; Danielle Correia Gama; Rozangela Maria de Almeida Fernandes Wyszomirska

2010-01-01

390

Ochnaceae endémicas del Perú / Ochnaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Esta es una de las familias que constituye una novedad para la flora endémica peruana. La familia Ochnaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar siete géneros y 25 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), la mayoría arbustos y árboles. En este trabajo reconocemos tres especies [...] endémicas en dos géneros. Las especies endémicas se encuentran en las regiones Bosques Muy Húmedos Premontanos y Bosques Húmedos Amazónicos, entre los 260 y 1380 m de altitud. Dos de las especies endémicas se encuentran dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english This family is one of the novelties for the Peruvian endemic flora. The Ochnaceae are represented in Peru by seven genera and 25 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mostly shrubs and trees. Here we recognize three endemic species in two genera. These species grow in Humid Low [...] land Amazonian Forests and Very Humid Premontane Forests regions, between 260 and 1380 m elevation. Two species have been recorded in the Peruvian System of Protected Natural Areas.

Blanca, León.

2006-12-01

391

Loranthaceae endémicas del Perú / Loranthaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Loranthaceae está representada en la flora peruana por 11 géneros y 63 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), la mayoría arbustos. En este trabajo se reconoce 14 especies endémicas en cinco géneros. Los endemismos en esta familia ocupan diversas regiones, como la Mes [...] oandina, Puna Húmeda y Seca y Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, desde los 1400 hasta los 4200 m de altitud. Se aplicaron las categorías y criterios de la UICN a 11 especies. Cinco especies endémicas se encuentran representadas en del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Loranthaceae are represented in Peru by 11 genera and 63 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mostly shrubs. Here we recognize 14 endemic species in five genera. These endemics grow in a variety of different regions, including Mesoandean, Humid and Dry Puna, and Humid Mont [...] ane Forest, between 1400 and 4200 m elevation. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to 11 species. Five of these species have been found within the Peruvian protected areas system.

Blanca, León.

2006-12-01

392

Begoniaceae endémicas del Perú / Begoniaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Begoniaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar un género, Begonia, y 76 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), mayormente hierbas. En este trabajo reconocemos 38 endemismos. La mayoría de estos taxones endémicos ocupan las regiones de Bosques Húmedos Amazónicos y Bosques Muy Húmedos Monta [...] nos y Premontanos, entre los 400 y 2500 m de altitud. Se aplicaron las categorías y criterios de la UICN a diez taxones. Aparentemente, sólo una de estas especies se encuentra representada dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Begoniaceae are represented in the Peruvian flora by 76 species in the genus Begonia (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), most of them herbs. Here we recognize 38 endemic taxa. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to ten of them. Most of these endemic taxa are found in Humid Lo [...] wland Amazonian Forests and Humid Montane and Premontane Forest regions, between 400 and 2500 m elevation. Only one species has been recorded to date within Peru's protected areas system.

Blanca, León; Christhian, Monsalve.

2006-12-01

393

Endomyocardial fibrosis: A form of endemic restrictive cardiomyopathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endomyocardial fibrosis is a form of endemic restrictive cardiomyopathy that affects mainly children and adolescents, and is geographically restricted to some poor areas of Africa, Latin America and Asia. It is a condition with high morbidity and mortality, for which no effective therapy is available. Although several hypotheses have been proposed as triggers or causal factors for the disease, none are able to explain the occurrence of the disease worldwide. In endemic areas of Africa endomyocardial fibrosis is as common a cause of heart failure as rheumatic heart disease, accounting for up to 20% of cases of heart failure and imposes a considerable burden to the communities and the health systems. However, due to lack of resources for research in these areas, the exact epidemiology, etiology and pathogenesis remain unknown, and the natural history is incompletely understood. We here review the main aspects of epidemiology, natural history, clinical picture and management of endomyocardial fibrosis, proposing new ways to increase research into this challenging and neglected cardiovascular disease.

Ana Olga Mocumbi

2012-07-01

394

Early detection of malaria in an endemic area: model development.  

Science.gov (United States)

A malaria epidemic warning system was established in Thailand in 1984 using graphs displaying the median or mean incidence of malaria over the previous five years compiled from malaria surveillance data throughout the country. This reporting mechanism is not timely enough to detect the occurrence of a malaria epidemic which usually occurs at the district level over a short period of time. An alternative method for early detection of a malaria epidemic employing the Poisson model has been proposed. The development of this early malaria epidemic detection model involved 3 steps: model specification, model validation and model testing. The model was based on data collected at the Vector Borne Disease Control Unit (VBDU) Level. The results of model testing reveal the model can detect increasing numbers of cases earlier, one to two weeks prior to reaching their highest peak of transmission. The system was tested using data from Kanchanaburi Province during 2000 to 2001. Results from model testing show the model may be used for monitoring the weekly malaria situation at the district level. The Poisson model was able to detect malaria early in a highly endemic province with a satisfactory level of prediction. As the application is essential for the malaria officers in monitoring of malaria epidemics, this early detection system was introduced into malaria epidemiological work. The model may be helpful in the decision making process, planning and budget allocation for the Malaria Control Program. The software for early malaria detection is currently implemented in several endemic areas throughout Thailand. PMID:17333755

Konchom, Supawadee; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Chuprapawan, Sirichai; Thimasarn, Krongthong; Kidson, Chev; Yimsamran, Surapon; Rojanawatsirivet, Chaiporn

2006-11-01

395

Hemoglobin E prevalence in malaria-endemic villages in Myanmar.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The population of Myanmar comprises 8 major indigenous races (Bamar, Kayin, Kachin, Shan, Rakhine, Mon, Chin, and Kayah. The Bamar reside in the 7 central divisions of the country, and the others reside in the 7 peripheral states that border neighboring countries, including China, Laos, and Thailand in the east and India and Bangladesh in the west. Both malaria and HbE are endemic in Myanmar, although the actual prevalence of the latter in the different indigenous races is not yet known. Hemoglobin electrophoresis was performed in 4 malaria-endemic villages, each having a different predominating indigenous race. The overall prevalence of HbE was 11.4% (52/456 villagers, ranging from 2-6% in the Kayin-predominant villages to 13.1-24.4% in the Bamar-predominant villages. Although the overall HbE prevalence in the villages studied was not significantly different from that of the general Myanmar population, this study strongly documented the influence of racial differences on the prevalence of HbE in Myanmar. To prevent and control severe thalassemia syndromes in Myanmar, extensive prevalence studies of the country?s indigenous races are suggested.

Win,Ne

2005-04-01

396

Etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy and associated urothelial cancer  

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Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a familial chronic tubulointerstitial disease with insidious onset and slow progression to terminal renal failure. Evidence has accumulated that BEN is an environmentally induced disease. There are three actual theories attempting to explain the environmental cause of this disease: (1) the aristolochic acid hypothesis, which considers that the disease is produced by chronic intoxication with Aristolochia, (2) the mycotoxin hypothesis, which considers that BEN is produced by ochratoxin A, and (3) the Pliocene lignite hypothesis, which proposes that the disease is caused by long-term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other toxic organic compounds leaching into the well drinking water from low-rank coals in the vicinity to the endemic settlements. Moreover, it was suggested that BEN risk is influenced by inherited susceptibility. Therefore, it has been expected that molecular biological investigations will discover genetic markers of BEN and associated urothelial cancer, permitting early identification of susceptible individuals who may be at risk of exposure to the environmental agents. Since kidney pathophysiology is complex, gene expression analysis and highly throughput proteomic technology can identify candidate genes, proteins and molecule networks that eventually could play a role in BEN development. Investigation of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions could be the content of further studies determining the precise risk for BEN.

Stefanovic, V.; Toncheva, D.; Atanasova, S.; Polenakovic, M. [Inst. of Nephrology and Hemodialysis, Nish (Serbia Montenegro)

2006-07-01

397

Endogenous quasicycles and stochastic coherence in a closed endemic model  

Science.gov (United States)

We study the role of demographic fluctuations in typical endemics as exemplified by the stochastic SIRS model. The birth-death master equation of the model is simulated using exact numerics and analyzed within the linear noise approximation. The endemic fixed point is unstable to internal demographic noise, and leads to sustained oscillations. This is ensured when the eigenvalues (?) of the linearized drift matrix are complex, which in turn, is possible only if detailed balance is violated. In the oscillatory state, the phases decorrelate asymptotically, distinguishing such oscillations from those produced by external periodic forcing. These so-called quasicycles are of sufficient strength to be detected reliably only when the ratio |Im(?)/Re(?)| is of order unity. The coherence or regularity of these oscillations show a maximum as a function of population size, an effect known variously as stochastic coherence or coherence resonance. We find that stochastic coherence can be simply understood as resulting from a nonmonotonic variation of |Im(?)/Re(?)| with population size. Thus, within the linear noise approximation, stochastic coherence can be predicted from a purely deterministic analysis. The non-normality of the linearized drift matrix, associated with the violation of detailed balance, leads to enhanced fluctuations in the population amplitudes.

Ghose, Somdeb; Adhikari, R.

2010-08-01

398

Detection of human taeniases in Tibetan endemic areas, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Detection of taeniasis carriers of Taenia solium is essential for control of cysticercosis in humans and pigs. In the current study, we assessed the positive detection rate of a self-detection tool, stool microscopy with direct smear and coproPCR for taeniasis carriers in endemic Tibetan areas of northwest Sichuan. The self-detection tool through questioning about a history of proglottid expulsion within the previous one year showed an overall positive detection rate of more than 80% for Taenia saginata, T. solium and T. asiatica. The positive detection rate was similar for T. saginata and T. solium. In 132 taeniid tapeworm carriers, 68 (51·5%) were detected by microscopy and 92 (69·7%) were diagnosed by coproPCR. A combination of microscopy and coproPCR increased the positive detection rate to 77·3%. There remained 10 cases (7·6%) coproPCR negative but microscopy positive. Due to the high cost and complicated process, coproPCR is required for the identification of Taenia species only when necessary, though it had a significant higher positive detection rate than microscopy. Combined use of self-detection and stool microscopy are recommended in community-based mass screening for taeniases in this Tibetan area or in other situation-similar endemic regions. PMID:23866973

Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Wang, Hao; Long, Changping; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehir; Wu, Yunfei; Giraudoux, Patrick; Raoul, Francis; Nkouawa, Agathe; Nakao, Minoru; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

2013-11-01

399

ENDEMIC SHALLOW REEF FISHES FROM MALPELO ISLAND: ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION*  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las especies de peces endémicos de la isla Malpelo han sido poco estudiadas, al punto que no se cuenta con información sobre sus densidades y preferencias de hábitat. Mediante censos visuales se estudió la distribución y abundancia de las especies de peces arrecifales endémicos de Malpelo. Las espec [...] ies más abundantes fueron Axoclinus rubinoffi (0.18 peces/m˛) y Lepidonectes bimaculatus (0.08 peces/m˛). La mayor abundancia se encontró en el Bajo de Junior y en relación con sustrato rocoso cubierto con algas coralináceas incrustantes. Abstract in english The fish species endemic to Malpelo Island have been scarcely studied, resulting in a lack of information on their densities and habitat preferences. The distribution and abundance of the endemic reef fish species of Malpelo were estimated using underwater visual census techniques. The most abundant [...] species were Axoclinus rubinoffi (0.18 fish/m˛) and Lepidonectes bimaculatus (0.08 fish/m˛). The highest abundance was found in rocks covered by coralline algae in the Bajo de Junior site.

Luis, Chasqui Velasco; Diego L., Gil-Agudelo; Ramón, Nieto.

2011-12-01

400

Browse Preference and Browsing Intensity of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus in Allegheny High Plateau Riparian Forests, USA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Decades of chronic browsing by overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman has strongly influenced forest pattern and process on the Allegheny High Plateau Ecoregion of northwestern Pennsylvania, USA. Previous research has found that riparian forests contain the greatest herbaceous plant species richness of regional plant communities but little is known about the impacts of deer browsing on the structure and composition of the herbaceous layer (all vascular plants < 1 m tall of Allegheny High Plateau riparian forests. We examined browse preference and browsing intensity by white-tailed deer on the herbaceous layer of five riparian forest study sites in the Allegheny National Forest during the summer growing season (July, September. Browsing intensity was low to moderate and differed significantly among sites and sample periods. Deer selectively foraged on a few preferred plant species during certain sampling periods, particularly Aster divaricatus, A. prenanthoides, Chelone glabra, Impatiens capensis, Pilea pumila, Polygonum virginianum and Ranunculus hispidis. We found that plant species richness and composition, and browsing intensity by white-tailed deer, are highly variable across riparian forests of the region. In order to assess or predict deer browsing impacts to regional riparian forests, we suggest that riparian sites be studied individually, perhaps on a watershed basis, as the surrounding landscape and available habitat may influence deer densities and foraging activity in an individualistic manner.

C. Williams

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
401

Three finger palpation technique of vas deferens for keyhole vasectomy in spotted (Axis axis and sambar deer (Cervus unicolor  

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Full Text Available Aim: Vasectomy is performed in deer for population control, maintain pedigreed animals and prevent inbreeding. Conventional procedure of vasectomy required a long-term anesthesia and longer duration of hospitalization, which often result in stress, morbidity and mortality. A study was conducted to capture, neuter and release the deer with minimal hospitalization and stress by adopting three finger palpation technique of vas deferens and performing vasectomy through a key-hole incision. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on three spotted male deer and three sambar male deer, which were immobilized with a mixture of xylazine at the dose of 1.00 mg/kg and ketamine at the dose of 5.00 mg/kg. The vas deferens could be palpated as a piece of cooked spaghetti at the neck of the scrotum on the anterior aspect by three finger palpation technique and was able to fix the vas deferens between the thumb and middle finger. Through a key-hole incision of <5 mm length, the vas deferens was exteriorized and resected using electrocautery and the skin incision was sealed with methyl methacrylate. The deer were released on the same day, and no post-operative complication was noticed. Conclusion: The study revealed that three finger palpation technique of vas deferens provided guidance for easy access to vas deferens for vasectomy in deer with less hospitalization, and the deer could be released on the same day.

B. J. William

2014-09-01

402

Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York State, USA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sera collected from 299 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvested in New York State by hunters in November 2010 were assayed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies. White-tailed deer are a useful sentinel for risk of human and domestic animal exposure to Toxoplasma oocysts and pose a potential risk for infection to humans and other animals by ingestion of the meat. White-tailed deer share grazing space with domestic animals raised for meat and are likely to be exposed by horizontal transmission through oocyst consumption, similar to other grazing species of economic concern. Overall, 42.2% of samples were positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indicating a true prevalence of 38.5%, with a significantly higher proportion of adult than immature deer antibody positive. No significant difference in prevalence was found between male and female deer nor was there a significant effect of local human population density on deer antibody prevalence. These results provide insight into the risk of environmental Toxoplasma exposure in New York State and support horizontal transmission through oocyst consumption as the most common mechanism of white-tailed deer infection. PMID:24502721

Schaefer, John J; Kirchgessner, Megan S; Whipps, Christopher M; Mohammed, Hussni O; Bunting, Elizabeth M; Wade, Susan E

2013-10-01

403

From the field: Efficacy of detecting Chronic Wasting Disease via sampling hunter-killed white-tailed deer  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveillance programs for Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids often use a standard of being able to detect 1% prevalence when determining minimum sample sizes. However, 1% prevalence may represent >10,000 infected animals in a population of 1 million, and most wildlife managers would prefer to detect the presence of CWD when far fewer infected animals exist. We wanted to detect the presence of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Pennsylvania when the disease was present in only 1 of 21 wildlife management units (WMUs) statewide. We used computer simulation to estimate the probability of detecting CWD based on a sampling design to detect the presence of CWD at 0.1% and 1.0% prevalence (23-76 and 225-762 infected deer, respectively) using tissue samples collected from hunter-killed deer. The probability of detection at 0.1% prevalence was deer, and the probability of detection at 1.0% prevalence was 46-72% with statewide sample sizes of 2,000-6,000 deer. We believe that testing of hunter-killed deer is an essential part of any surveillance program for CWD, but our results demonstrated the importance of a multifaceted surveillance approach for CWD detection rather than sole reliance on testing hunter-killed deer.

Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Boyd, R.C.

2004-01-01

404

Comparative study of fluoride concentration in human serum and drinking water in fluorinated endemic and non endemic areas of pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For comparing the human blood serum and drinking water fluoride levels of subjects with dental fluorosis and bony deformities, this study is carried out with individuals ranging 8-17 age group fluorinated Sham Ki Bhatiyan, Punjab (endemic) and Queens Road, Lahore, Punjab (non-endemic) areas. Fluoride concentrations were determined using ion selective electrode methodology and statistically compared. Both the groups showed a significant difference (p < 0.05). Subjects from fluorotic area showed high concentration of fluoride in water and blood serum samples (mean value: 135.587+-77.435 and 2.765+-0.469 micro molL/sup -1/ in water and blood serum samples respectively) as compared to controls (mean value: 19.509+-2.432 and 2.364+- 0.667 micro molL -1). These findings indicate that serum and water fluoride concentrations have a significant positive dose response relationship with the prevalence of dental fluorosis in an area associated with high fluoride level in drinking water. (author)

405

Draft Genome Sequence of Brucella abortus BCB027, a Strain Isolated from a Domestic Deer  

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Many Brucella species are isolated from nonpreferred hosts, and these bacteria may show genetic differences from isolates from the preferred hosts. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Brucella abortus BCB027, a novel strain isolated from a domestic deer.

Wang, Lulu; Qiu, Yefeng; Chen, Zeliang; Xu, Jie; Wang, Zhoujia; Ke, Yuehua; Li, Tiefeng; Wang, Dali; Huang, Liuyu; Yu, Yaqin; Zhen, Qing

2013-01-01

406

Population Dynamics of Banteng, Buffalo and Deer in Bekol Savannah, Baluran National Park  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Baluran National Park give contribution at regional development to draw tourist and fascination provided is savannah in area. Savannah circumstance, forest, landscape, climate, vegetation and wild animal is represent experienced attraction. Research method use population dynamics perception of banteng, buffalo and deer in savannah of Bekol year 2004 and year 2005 as primary data, while secondary data year population dynamics 2003, 2004, and year 2005 outside savannah of Bekol, year population dynamics 2003 in savannah of Bekol. Secondary data obtained from daily report of Controller ecosystem Forest Worker animal discovery Baluran National Park from Section Bekol. Research location of outside savannah Bekol were Balanan, Perengan, Bitakol, Karangtekok, Pandean, Pondok jaran, Bama, Curah uling, Gunung Montor, Lempuyang, Bilik, Batangan, Labuhan Merak, Kramat, Semiang, Sirokoh, Lemah bang, Gunung Krasak, and Glengseran. The populations of banteng and buffalo in the savannah is unstable compared to the populations of them outside Bekol savannah. The populations of banteng and buffalo in Bekol savannah decrease, whereas the populations of them outside the Bekol savannah increase. The population of deer in Bekol savannah in 2004 is better than population of 2003, 2005, and 2006, whereas the population of deer outside Bekol savannah in 2006 increase significantly. The populations of banteng, buffalo, and deer decrease from year to year, in which the reductions of banteng and buffalo populations are obviously significant.

SUHADI

2009-07-01

407

Maintenance Crude Protein Requirement of Penned Female Korean Spotted Deer (Cervus nippon).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to evaluate the protein requirement for maintenance of 2-year-old female Korean spotted deer. In the course of the experiment, each of three hand-reared female spotted deer was fed three diets that were iso-calorically formulated to contain low (approximately 7%), medium (12%), and high (17%) levels of crude protein (CP). Each of six trials included a 5-day transition, a 10-day preliminary, and a 7-day collection period. Dietary protein levels affected the apparent digestibility of CP (p<0.05) but not the apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, or acid detergent fiber. All of the deer showed a positive CP balance on all of the diets. The maintenance CP requirement estimated by regression analysis was 4.17 g/kg metabolic body weight (W(0.75))·d. The maintenance digestible CP requirement was 1.42 g/kg W(0.75)·d. The metabolic fecal CP was 1.95 g/kg W(0.75)·d. The blood urea nitrogen of spotted deer increased (p<0.05) as the dietary protein levels increased. PMID:25049923

Yang, S Y; Oh, Y K; Ahn, H S; Kwak, W S

2014-01-01

408

The construction of cloned Sika deer embryos (Cervus nippon hortulorum) by demecolcine auxiliary enucleation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of our study was to establish the feasibility of experimental protocols for cloning sika deer. We performed auxiliary enucleation to improve the efficiency of nuclear transfer operation by optimizing the demecolcine concentration to induce cytoplasmic protrusions in the sika deer oocytes. In the present study,we had studied the impact of different demecolcine concentrations on cytoplasmic protrusions and enucleation rates. We determined that 95.9% of the sika deer oocytes formed cytoplasmic protrusions when treated for 1 h with 0.8 ?g/ml demecolcine. The lowest observed rate of protrusion was 19.3% after overnight treatment with demecolcine. When the oocytes aged or had a poor cumulus expansion, they exhibited a significant decrease in the ability to form cytoplasmic protrusions. The rates of enucleation (94.9% vs 85.8%, p < 0.05), cell fusion (84.6% vs 70.1%, p < 0.05) and blastocyst formation (15.4% vs 10.9%, p < 0.05) using demecolcine auxiliary enucleation were significantly higher than those after blind enucleation. These results demonstrated that sika deer oocytes could be enucleated quickly and effectively using demecolcine auxiliary enucleation, which could enhance the enucleation rate, cell fusion rate and blastocyst rate of cloned embryos in vitro. PMID:24138424

Yin, Y; Mei, M; Zhang, D; Zhang, S; Fan, A; Zhou, H; Li, Z

2014-02-01

409

Persistence of Escherichia coli introduced into streambed sediments with goose, deer and bovine animal waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims:  The focus of this work was to compare the survival of Escherichia coli introduced into streambed sediments from goose, deer and bovine faeces vs indigenous E. coli. Methods and Results:  The survival experiments were conducted in flow-through chambers for 32?days using two sediments (mineral and organic) obtained from a first-order creek in Maryland. Bovine, goose and deer faeces were collected fresh and diluted or enriched so that added E. coli and indigenous populations were equivalent. Escherichia coli and total coliforms were enumerated using the Colilert-18 Quanti-Tray system. Patterns of E. coli survival and inactivation rates were virtually identical for indigenous strains in both mineral and organic sediments. The addition of E. coli strains from bovine, goose or deer faeces had relatively little impact on final E. coli concentrations, with the exception of deer-borne E. coli populations in the organic sediment. Conclusion:  These results indicate that indigenous sediment-borne E. coli strains are generally, or more, persistent than those deposited into sediments, including wildlife. Significance and Impact of the Study:  This is the first study on the survival of E. coli originating from wildlife faeces, in sediments, as opposed to bovine faeces or laboratory-cultured strains. As wildlife are likely to be the primary source of E. coli in most non agricultural watersheds, an understanding of the persistence of these strains is important to understanding microbial water quality. PMID:22897753

Kiefer, L A; Shelton, D R; Pachepsky, Y; Blaustein, R; Santin-Duran, M

2012-08-16

410

Chronic wasting disease in free-ranging Wisconsin White-tailed Deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three White-tailed Deer shot within 5 km during the 2001 hunting season in Wisconsin tested positive for chronic wasting disease, a prion disease of cervids. Subsequent sampling within 18 km showed a 3% prevalence (n=476). This discovery represents an important range extension for chronic wasting disease into the eastern United States. PMID:12737746

Joly, Damien O; Ribic, Christine A; Langenberg, Julie A; Beheler, Kerry; Batha, Carl A; Dhuey, Brian J; Rolley, Robert E; Bartelt, Gerald; Van Deelen, Timothy R; Samuel, Michael D

2003-05-01

411

TRANSMISSION OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE OF MULE DEER TO SUFFOLK SHEEP FOLLOWING INTRACEREBRAL INOCULATION  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the transmissibility of chronic wasting disease (CWD) to sheep, 8 Suffolk lambs of various prion protein (PRNP) genotype (4 ARQ/ARR, 3 ARQ/ARQ, 1 ARQ/VRQ at codons 136, 154 and 171, respectively) were inoculated intracerebrally with brain suspension from mule deer with CWD (CWD**md). Tw...

412

No correlation between neonatal fitness and heterozygosity in a reintroduced population of Pčre David's deer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Considering the severe impacts of genetic bottlenecks and small numbers of founders in populations of reintroduced animals, it is necessary to study inbreeding and its effect on fitness in species of conservation concern. Pčre David’s deer is one of few large mammal species extinct in the wild but safely preserved in captivity. Its specific background gives us the opportunity to study the relationships between heterozygosity and neonatal fitness in relocated populations. We employed five microsatellite loci to explore heterozygosity-fitness correlations in a population of Pčre David’s deer at the Beijing Milu Ecological Research Center. We observed associations between microsatellite-based variables sMLH, IR, MD2 and HL, and two components of fitness expressed early in life (birth weight and the neonatal mortality of 123 Pčre David’s deer calves born over six consecutive years. We found that neonatal mortality was 19.1 ± 7.6%, not higher than the 19% or 18% reported in other ungulates. The heterozygosity of calves was not associated with neonatal mortality, nor birth weight. Our study implies that low genetic variability of microsatellite loci has no overt effect on birth weight and neonatal mortality in reintroduced populations of Pčre David’s deer [Current Zoology 59 (2: 249–256, 2013].

Yan ZENG, Chunwang LI, Linyuan ZHANG, Zhenyu ZHONG, Zhigang JIANG

2013-04-01

413

THE IMPACT OF '4-POSTER' DEER SELF-TREATMENT DEVICES AT THREE LOCATIONS IN MARYLAND  

Science.gov (United States)

From 1998-2002, 25 deer self-treatment devices (4-posters) using 2% amitraz, were operated at three locations in Maryland to determine their effectiveness in controlling blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, and lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.). Each treatment site was more or less 51...

414

Removing Deer Mice from Buildings and the Risk for Human Exposure to Sin Nombre Virus  

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Trapping and removing deer mice from ranch buildings resulted in an increased number of mice, including Sin Nombre virus antibody–positive mice, entering ranch buildings. Mouse removal without mouse proofing will not reduce and may even increase human exposure to Sin Nombre hantavirus.

Douglass, Richard J.; Kuenzi, Amy J.; Williams, Courtney Y.; Douglass, Samuel J.; Mills, James N.

2003-01-01

415

Population dynamics of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) and Sin Nombre virus, California Channel Islands.  

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Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, first documented in 1993, is caused by Sin Nombre virus (SNV), which is carried by the Peromyscus species. In 1994, high SNV antibody prevalence was identified in deer mice from two California Channel Islands. We sampled two locations on three islands to estimate mouse population density and SNV prevalence. Population flux and SNV prevalence appear to vary independently.

Graham, T. B.; Chomel, B. B.

1997-01-01

416

Costs of parturition and rearing in female sika deer (Cervus nippon).  

Science.gov (United States)

The costs of parturition and lactation of female sika deer on Kinkazan Island (9.6 km(2) in size), northern Japan, which live at a high density (about 50 deer/km(2)), were evaluated by c