WorldWideScience
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Radiocarbon and U-series dating of the endemic deer Praemegaceros cazioti (Deperet) from 'Grotta Juntu', Sardinia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiocarbon and U-series methods ({sup 230}Th/U and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U) for absolute age determination have been applied to some fossil samples from Grotta Juntu, in North Eastern Sardinia (Italy). The remains belong to the endemic deer species Praemegaceros cazioti, which is here represented by an almost complete skeleton. The three dating methods lead to concordant ages of about 7500 years BP, indicating that the skeleton was maintained as closed system after burial. Taking into consideration these results, Praemegaceros cazioti from Grotta Juntu is now the youngest representative of this species in Sardinia. (authors)

Benzi, V. [Univ Bologna, Lab Ing Nucl, I-40136 Bologna, (Italy); Abbazzi, L. [Univ Florence, Dipartimento Sci Terra and Museo Storia Nat, I-50121 Florence, (Italy); Bartolomei, P.; Giampieri, R. [ENEA, I-40136 Bologna, (Italy); Esposito, M. [U Series Srl, I-40127 Bologna, (Italy); Fasso, C. [Azienda Foreste Demaniali Reg Sarda, I-09123 Cagliari, (Italy); Fonzo, O. [Via Lai 2, I-09123 Cagliari, (Italy); Murgia, F. [Grp Grotte Nuorese, I-08100 Nuoro, (Italy); Reyss, J.L. [Lab mixte CEA Saclay-CNRS, Lab Sci Climat and Environm, F-91198 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

2007-07-01

2

SARDINIAN DEER: DERIVATIONS, FOSSIL DISCOVERIES AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTION  

OpenAIRE

The main purpose of my work is to describe and to apply the current method of census of roaring of Sardinian deer, and to deepen the aspect of his derivations and the fossil discoveries concerning the presence of cervids in Sardinia in the Quaternary. I focused this work on the fossil endemic species Praemegaceros cazioti and on the actual endemic species Cervus elaphus corsicanus, because I wanted to obtain the most complete view about their morphological and evolutive characteristics

Stefano Melis; Suzana Salvadori; Gian Pillola

2010-01-01

3

SARDINIAN DEER: DERIVATIONS, FOSSIL DISCOVERIES AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of my work is to describe and to apply the current method of census of roaring of Sardinian deer, and to deepen the aspect of his derivations and the fossil discoveries concerning the presence of cervids in Sardinia in the Quaternary. I focused this work on the fossil endemic species Praemegaceros cazioti and on the actual endemic species Cervus elaphus corsicanus, because I wanted to obtain the most complete view about their morphological and evolutive characteristics

Stefano Melis

2010-10-01

4

Acaricidal Treatment of White-Tailed Deer to Control Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a New York Lyme Disease-Endemic Community  

Science.gov (United States)

The 4-Poster device for the topical treatment of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) against ticks using the acaricide amitraz was evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic community in Connecticut. As part of a 5-year project from 1997 to 2002, 21–24 of the 4-Posters were distribut...

5

Potential role of deer tick virus in Powassan encephalitis cases in Lyme disease-endemic areas of New York, U.S.A.  

Science.gov (United States)

Powassan virus, a member of the tick-borne encephalitis group of flaviviruses, encompasses 2 lineages with separate enzootic cycles. The prototype lineage of Powassan virus (POWV) is principally maintained between Ixodes cookei ticks and the groundhog (Marmota momax) or striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), whereas the deer tick virus (DTV) lineage is believed to be maintained between Ixodes scapularis ticks and the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). We report 14 cases of Powassan encephalitis from New York during 2004-2012. Ten (72%) of the patients were residents of the Lower Hudson Valley, a Lyme disease-endemic area in which I. scapularis ticks account for most human tick bites. This finding suggests that many of these cases were caused by DTV rather than POWV. In 2 patients, DTV infection was confirmed by genetic sequencing. As molecular testing becomes increasingly available, more cases of Powassan encephalitis may be determined to be attributable to the DTV lineage. PMID:24274334

El Khoury, Marc Y; Camargo, Jose F; White, Jennifer L; Backenson, Bryon P; Dupuis, Alan P; Escuyer, Kay L; Kramer, Laura; St George, Kirsten; Chatterjee, Debarati; Prusinski, Melissa; Wormser, Gary P; Wong, Susan J

2013-12-01

6

Potential for Lyme disease in Maine: deer survey of distribution of Ixodes dammini, the tick vector.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of deer brought to tagging stations at 24 sites in Main revealed the presence of the deer tick, Ixodes dammini, on 5.1 percent of deer. Ticks were found almost exclusively on deer from southwest coastal sites in the state. The potential for endemic Lyme disease in coastal Maine merits further study. PMID:2305920

Smith, R P; Rand, P W; Lacombe, E H

1990-03-01

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A Plague of Deer  

Science.gov (United States)

This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience journal is on the issue of deer overpopulation. Unchecked deer populations are causing a decline in forest diversity. Overbrowsing by deer leaves only the few plant species deer can't digest as survivors. Managing deer populations through revised hunting practices, however, meets strong resistance.

SHARON LEVY (; )

2006-09-01

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Correlation of TBE incidence with red deer and roe deer abundance in Slovenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a virus infection which sometimes causes human disease. The TBE virus is found in ticks and certain vertebrate tick hosts in restricted endemic localities termed TBE foci. The formation of natural foci is a combination of several factors: the vectors, a suitable and numerous enough number of hosts and in a habitat with suitable vegetation and climate. The present study investigated the influence of deer on the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. We were able to obtain data from deer culls. Using this data, the abundance of deer was estimated and temporal and spatial analysis was performed. The abundance of deer has increased in the past decades, as well as the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. Temporal analysis confirmed a correlation between red deer abundance and tick-borne encephalitis occurrence. Additionally, spatial analysis established, that in areas with high incidence of tick-borne encephalitis red deer density is higher, compared to areas with no or few human cases of tick-borne encephalitis. However, such correlation could not be confirmed between roe deer density and the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. This is presumably due to roe deer density being above a certain threshold so that availability of tick reproduction hosts has no apparent effect on ticks' host finding and consequently may not be possible to correlate with incidence of human TBE. PMID:23776668

Knap, Nataša; Avši?-Županc, Tatjana

2013-01-01

9

Deer Population  

Science.gov (United States)

The deer population activity allows students to experiment with the factors which influence population dynamics. In their exploration, they encounter both exponential and logistic growth curves. Students should be familiar with the concepts of birth and death rates, emigration and immigration, predation, limiting factors such as food supply and habitat size, and carrying capacity. The activity is self-paced with extensions provided for those who have extra time.

Maryland Virtual High School

10

Correlation of TBE Incidence with Red Deer and Roe Deer Abundance in Slovenia  

OpenAIRE

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a virus infection which sometimes causes human disease. The TBE virus is found in ticks and certain vertebrate tick hosts in restricted endemic localities termed TBE foci. The formation of natural foci is a combination of several factors: the vectors, a suitable and numerous enough number of hosts and in a habitat with suitable vegetation and climate. The present study investigated the influence of deer on the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. We were able...

Knap, Natas?a; Avs?ic?-z?upanc, Tatjana

2013-01-01

11

Oh Deer! Project Wild Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

The representation is an activity/game in which students portray deer and habitat components. As students play the game they observe deer competing for limited resources. After the game is finished they discuss the results (numbers of deer and resources present after each round.) These results represent the fluctuations in the deer population that result from competition for limited resources.

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Mycobacterial diseases of deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most significant mycobacterial diseases of free-living, captive and farmed deer are bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, Johne's disease (paratuberculosis), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (basonym M. paratuberculosis), and avian tuberculosis, caused principally by M. avium subsp avium. The first case of M. bovis infection in farmed deer was identified in New Zealand in 1978. In 1983, a voluntary scheme was introduced in New Zealand to control tuberculosis in farmed deer, followed by a compulsory tuberculosis control scheme in 1990. The primary control measure is the slaughter of infected animals, detected by skin testing and blood testing, together with movement control and vector control. The number of infected deer herds peaked in the mid 1990s at over 160 herds, but by 30 June 2002 this had been reduced to 79 (1.45%), and to 67 (1.23%) by June 2003. Deer-to-deer transmission occurs, but the majority of herd breakdowns are believed to be from infected vectors. Factors likely to affect the susceptibility of deer include age, environment, population density, exposure and genetics. Avian tuberculosis occasionally causes clinical disease in wild, captive and farmed deer in New Zealand and overseas. Mycobacterium intracellulare, and subspecies of M. avium other than M. paratuberculosis, are widespread throughout New Zealand and are thought to be largely responsible for the high level of sensitisation to avian purified protein derivative (PPD), which is used for comparison purposes in tuberculosis skin testing of deer in this country. Infections with these organisms are usually subclinical in farmed deer, although M. avium subsp avium commonly causes lesions in retropharyngeal, mesenteric and ileocaecal lymph nodes. These lesions cause problems because of their gross and microscopic similarity to those due to M. bovis infection. Birds and domestic animals are most likely to become infected via environmental contamination of food, water, bedding litter or soil, while carnivores or scavengers may also become infected by ingesting infected carcasses. Johne's disease has been reported in deer in the wild and in zoos, especially in North America, the United Kingdom (UK) and Europe. Since first being confirmed in farmed deer in New Zealand in 1979, the incidence of Johne's disease has increased steadily. To date, M. paratuberculosis has been identified in >600 farmed deer on 300 properties. The majority of cases have been identified from suspected tuberculous lesions submitted from deer slaughter plants. Clinically, Johne's disease in deer is similar to the disease in sheep and cattle, with typical signs of loss of weight and condition, and diarrhoea. However, outbreaks of Johne's disease frequently occur in young red deer, 8-15 months of age, whereas the clinical disease in sheep and cattle is sporadic and usually affects adults 3-5 years of age. The disease is characterised by a chronic granulomatous enteritis and lymphadenitis, especially affecting the jejunum and ileum and the mesenteric lymph nodes. Deer affected subclinically may have lesions in these lymph nodes at slaughter, which are grossly indistinguishable from those due to bovine tuberculosis. Because of the antigenic similarity between M. intracellulare and all the subspecies of M. avium, including M. paratuberculosis, the diagnostic tests for Johne's disease lack sensitivity and specificity, making control difficult. PMID:15726126

Mackintosh, C G; de Lisle, G W; Collins, D M; Griffin, J F T

2004-08-01

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Demographic characterization and social patterns of the Neotropical pampas deer  

OpenAIRE

The most endangered subspecies of pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus uruguayensis is an endemic cervidae of the Uruguayan temperate grasslands. The aim of our study was to assess the demographic trends, grouping structure and dynamic of this small and isolated population. We surveyed the population during seven years and detected an average of 117 (+ 72.7 SD) individuals (44 censuses). The average population structure observed was 55% adult females, 34% adult males, 10% juveniles, and 1% fawn...

Cosse, Mariana; Gonza?lez, Susana

2013-01-01

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Demographic characterization and social patterns of the Neotropical pampas deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most endangered subspecies of pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus uruguayensis is an endemic cervidae of the Uruguayan temperate grasslands. The aim of our study was to assess the demographic trends, grouping structure and dynamic of this small and isolated population. We surveyed the population during seven years and detected an average of 117 (+ 72.7 SD) individuals (44 censuses). The average population structure observed was 55% adult females, 34% adult males, 10% juveniles, and 1% fawns, with a low recruitment rate of 0.11. The pampas deer is a gregarious cervidae with 62% of individuals being observed within groups of at least three animals. Nevertheless we observed substantial differences on group size and composition based on sex, reproductive status, season and trophic resources availability. The population dynamics showed significant changes around the year in the sexual aggregation-segregation pattern, corresponding with reproductive and physiological status. The mean density on this population (11 deer/ km(2)) is the highest reported for the species. Comparable data, from other populations, showed a significant correlation between density and sex ratio, with a reduction in the proportion of males with higher deer densities. An action plan for this endangered population should include initiatives involving private landowners, and guidelines to improve the deer habitat. PMID:23853746

Cosse, Mariana; González, Susana

2013-12-01

15

SRP deer hunt data base  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Savannah River Plant (SRP) site is an ideal habitat for white-tailed deer. The large deer population of more than 6000 animals has resulted in collisions between deer and automobiles. To control this population and thus reduce accidents, deer hunts were begun in 1965. These hunts are organized and supervised by U.S. Forestry Service Personnel. The deer have access to all of the plant site except the fenced operating areas. Access to radioactive liquid effluents and contamination vegetation can result in radioactive body burdens in deer. Prior to 1970, samples of about 20% of the deer shot during the deer hunts were radioassayed. Based on these results and plant effluent information, 137Cs was the radionuclide of interest. A portable instrument was developed to measure 137Cs in deer and, beginning in 1970, all deer have been monitored for their 137Cs concentration before being released to the hunters. All slain deer were released to the hunters immediately after monitoring; no deer were above acceptable safe limits for food

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Deer Fibroma: A Review  

OpenAIRE

Fibromas are frequent cutaneous neoplasms of young deer of many species, characterized by proliferation of both epithelial and dermal cells. Virus particles, similar to those found in fibrous skin tumors of several wild and domestic species, have been identified in some species by electron microscopy. Attempted transmission of fibromas has not been uniformly successful using filtered preparations.

Sundberg, J. P.; Nielsen, S. W.

1981-01-01

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Deer Tracks in the City?  

Science.gov (United States)

"Why would a deer print be in the city?" wondered a student. She had noticed the track near a grocery store that morning with her mother. She was familiar with deer and had noticed their prints on a trip to a local museum; however, she had never seen a deer in the city before this experience. As she retold the story to her classmates, her question…

Quigley, Cassie Fay; Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole; Riggs, Morgan; Rodriguez, Antonia; Buck, Gayle

2009-01-01

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Population Study Game: Oh, Deer!  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners model a population of deer and see how the number of deer changes over time. Learners investigate population change and graph the population over time to learn about how habitat availability affects populations. This activity works best outside.

South Carolina ETV Commission

2006-01-01

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White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as a potential sentinel for human Lyme disease in Indiana.  

Science.gov (United States)

We assessed the potential of white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus) to be a sentinel for human cases of Lyme disease (LD) in Indiana using location data from a 3-year survey of approximately 3400 hunted deer with associated tick Ixodes scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) data. Data on human LD cases at the county level were obtained from the Indiana Department of Health. All data were assigned to county centroids to match the resolution of the LD data before creating optimized trend surfaces for LD incidence, hunted deer count, Ixodes scapularis and Bb prevalence. To determine whether LD was spatially associated with the areas of high densities of deer, deer with Ixodes scapularis and deer with ticks infected with Bb, we used spatial analysis with distance indices (SADIE). The SADIE analysis found significant spatial association between LD and the distribution of three organismal predictor variables, that is, WTD, Ixodes ticks and Bb. Lyme disease incident rate varied between 0.08 cases per 10,000 habitants (Johnson county) and 5.9 cases per 10,000 habitants (Warren county). In conclusion, WTD can be used as an accurate and cost-effective sentinel for human LD. This method will permit public health workers to identify potentially endemic areas independently of human case reports. PMID:22776734

Raizman, E A; Holland, J D; Shukle, J T

2013-05-01

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Habitat, wildlife, and one health: Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Maryland and Upper Eastern Shore white-tailed deer populations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Understanding the distribution of disease in wildlife is key to predicting the impact of emerging zoonotic one health concerns, especially for wildlife species with extensive human and livestock interfaces. The widespread distribution and complex interactions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus with humans suggest deer population health and management may have implications beyond stewardship of the animals. The intracranial abscessation suppurative meningitis (IASM disease complex in deer has been linked to Arcanobacterium pyogenes, an under-diagnosed and often misdiagnosed organism considered commensal in domestic livestock but associated with serious disease in numerous species, including humans. Methods: Our study used standard bacterial culture techniques to assess A. pyogenes prevalence among male deer sampled across six physiogeographic regions in Maryland and male and female deer in the Upper Eastern Shore under Traditional Deer Management (TDM and Quality Deer Management (QDM, a management protocol that alters population demographics in favor of older male deer. Samples were collected from antler pedicles for males, the top of the head where pedicles would be if present for females, or the whole dorsal frontal area of the head for neonates. We collected nasal samples from all animals by swabbing the nasopharyngeal membranes. A gram stain and catalase test were conducted, and aerobic bacteria were identified to genus and species when possible. We evaluated the effect of region on whether deer carried A. pyogenes using Pearson's chi-square test with Yates’ continuity correction. For the white-tailed deer management study, we tested whether site, age class and sex predisposed animals to carrying A. pyogenes using binary logistic regression. Results: A. pyogenes was detected on deer in three of the 6 regions studied, and was common in only one region, the Upper Eastern Shore. In the Upper Eastern Shore, 45% and 66% of antler and nasal swabs from deer were positive for A. pyogenes, respectively. On the Upper Eastern Shore, prevalence of A. pyogenes cultured from deer did not differ between management areas, and was abundant among both sexes and across all age classes. No A. pyogenes was cultured from a small sample of neonates. Conclusion: Our study indicates A. pyogenes may be carried widely among white-tailed deer regardless of sex or age class, but we found no evidence the pathogen is acquired in utero. The distribution of A. pyogenes across regions and concentration in a region with low livestock levels suggests the potential for localized endemicity of the organism and the possibility that deer may serve as a maintenance reservoir for an emerging one health concern.

Melissa M. Turner

2013-08-01

21

Monitoring Red Deer and Roe Deer Population Density in Yedigoller-Yesiloz Wildlife Reserves in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wildlife inventories are very new in Turkey. Thus, there is no enough data about red deer and roe deer population. However, these studies have gained momentum in recent years. In this study, it is aimed to determine and to monitor status of red deer and roe deer population densities. In the study, it was used a kind of drive count which was combined with point count. The study was conducted between 2003 and 2010 in October, once a year. Red deer and roe deer densities were determined between 0.45 and 1.19 red deer/km2; 1.48 and 2.05 roe deer/km2. Also, average of annual growth rates were estimated for red deer (0.135 and roe deer (-0.0059. The study showed that whilst the red deer population has been increasing, roe deer population has been decreasing in long term period.

Vedat Beskardes

2012-01-01

22

Rabies in Captive Deer, Pennsylvania, USA, 2007–2010  

OpenAIRE

Since January 2007, a total of 11 rabid deer from 4 deer farms have been identified in 2 neighboring Pennsylvania counties. Vaccination of deer against rabies, decreasing wildlife animal contact with deer, and education of deer farmers may prevent further cases of rabies in captive deer and exposures to humans.

Petersen, Brett W.; Tack, Danielle M.; Longenberger, Allison; Simeone, Aliza; Moll, Ma?ria E.; Deasy, Marshall P.; Blanton, Jesse D.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2012-01-01

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Effect of deer reduction on abundance of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini).  

OpenAIRE

To evaluate the role of deer in regulating the abundance of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini) we attempted to treat with acaricide, but eventually removed, about 70 percent of deer from Great Island, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Deer were captured in box traps, a corral, an entanglement net, and with rifle-fired tranquilizer. Failure of these attempts, combined with ineffective acaricides, led us to deer destruction begun in fall 1982. Larval tick abundance on mice was monitored before and after dee...

Wilson, M. L.; Levine, J. F.; Spielman, A.

1984-01-01

24

Welfare issues of modern deer farming  

OpenAIRE

This paper will start with briefly outlining the recent domestication history of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama), followed by a description of the present status of modern deer farming. It will then review the main welfare issues of deer farming. The following aspects will be considered: accommodation and housing, management and handling, nutrition (feed and water provision), transport and slaughter, plus a short mention of velvet harvest. As a summary, the following pra...

Silvana Mattiello

2009-01-01

25

Anaplasma phagocytophilum in White-tailed Deer  

OpenAIRE

We examined the reservoir potential of white-tailed deer for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Results suggest that white-tailed deer harbor a variant strain not associated with human infection, but contrary to published reports, white-tailed deer are not a reservoir for strains that cause human disease. These results will affect surveillance studies of vector and reservoir populations.

Massung, Robert F.; Courtney, Joshua W.; Hiratzka, Shannon L.; Pitzer, Virginia E.; Smith, Gary; Dryden, Richard L.

2005-01-01

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Topical Treatment of White-Tailed Deer with an Acaricide for the Control of Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Connecticut Lyme Borreliosis Hyperendemic Community  

Science.gov (United States)

The 4-Poster device for the topical treatment of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), against ticks using the acaricide amitraz, was evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic community in Connecticut. As part of a 5-year project from 1997 to 2002, 21–24 of the 4-Posters were distrib...

27

Monitoring Red Deer and Roe Deer Population Density in Yedigoller-Yesiloz Wildlife Reserves in Turkey  

OpenAIRE

Wildlife inventories are very new in Turkey. Thus, there is no enough data about red deer and roe deer population. However, these studies have gained momentum in recent years. In this study, it is aimed to determine and to monitor status of red deer and roe deer population densities. In the study, it was used a kind of drive count which was combined with point count. The study was conducted between 2003 and 2010 in October, once a year. Red deer and roe deer densities were determined between ...

Vedat Beskardes

2012-01-01

28

Deer browsing in floodplain forest.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Šiauliai : Šiauliai university, 2004 - (Bal?iauskas, L.), s. 59-66 ISBN 9955-608-04-8. [Rational management of cervids in forest habitats. Šiauliai (LT), 28.01.2004-30.01.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IBS6093003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : browsing * deer * floodplain forest Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

Baran?eková, Miroslava; Prokešová, Jarmila; Homolka, Miloslav; Koubek, Petr

29

Borrelia burgdorferi not detected in widespread Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from white-tailed deer in Tennessee.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lyme disease (LD), caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted in the eastern United States by blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, is classified as nonendemic in Tennessee and surrounding states in the Southeast. Low incidence of LD in these states has been attributed, in part, to vector ticks being scarce or absent; however, tick survey data for many counties are incomplete or out of date. To improve our knowledge of the distribution, abundance, and Borrelia spp. prevalence of I. scapularis, we collected ticks from 1,018 hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman)) from 71 of 95 Tennessee counties in fall 2007 and 2008. In total, 160 deer (15.7%) from 35 counties were infested with adult I. scapularis; 30 of these counties were new distributional records for this tick. The mean number of I. scapularis collected per infested deer was 5.4 +/- 0.6 SE. Of the 883 I. scapularis we removed from deer, none were positive for B. burgdorferi and one tested positive for B. miyamotoi. Deer are not reservoir hosts for B. burgdorferi; nevertheless, past surveys in northern LD-endemic states have readily detected B. burgdoreferi in ticks collected from deer. We conclude that I. scapularis is far more widespread in Tennessee than previously reported. The absence of detectable B. burgdorferi infection among these ticks suggests that the LD risk posed by I. scapularis in the surveyed areas of Tennessee is much lower than in LD-endemic areas of the Northeast and upper Midwest. PMID:23270178

Rosen, M E; Hamer, S A; Gerhardt, R R; Jones, C J; Muller, L I; Scott, M C; Hickling, G J

2012-11-01

30

High red deer density depresses body mass of roe deer fawns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many previous studies have pointed out that, when resources are limited, the potential for competition should be high among sympatric species that display overlaps in habitat and nutritional niches. However, reliable evidence of competition between red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) has not been yet reported for life history traits directly measuring performance such as body mass, reproduction, or survival. From long-term monitoring of deer populations in the reserve of La Petite Pierre (France), we measured the sex-specific responses of roe deer fawn body mass to changes in red deer density after accounting for possible confounding effects of date of shooting, climatic conditions, and roe deer density. As expected under the hypothesis of competition, red deer density in a given year had a marked negative influence on body mass of roe deer fawns born the same year and the following year. Fawn mass of roe deer males and females responded in similar ways to changes in red deer density. Our study provides the first evidence of a negative response of roe deer performance to high red deer density. PMID:20033821

Richard, Emmanuelle; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Saïd, Sonia; Hamann, Jean-Luc; Klein, François

2010-05-01

31

White-tailed deer winter feeding strategy in area shared with other deer species.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 57, ?. 3 (2008), s. 283-293. ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/97/0172 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : diet analysis * fallow deer * red deer * roe deer Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/57/3/283_293.pdf

Homolka, Miloslav; Heroldová, Marta; Bartoš, L.

2008-01-01

32

Spatial interactions of yarded White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the spatial interactions of nine female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in two deeryards (winter aggregations) in northeastern Minnesota during February-April 1999. Global positioning system (GPS) collars yielded seven pair-wise comparisons of deer that were located at the same time (???1 minute apart) and mat used overlapping areas. Deer traveled separately and did not associate with one another. Within overlapping areas, comparisons of distances between deer and distances between random locations indicated deer moved without regard to each other. Similarly, comparisons of observed and expected probabilities of deer using areas overlapping those of other deer also evinced that deer moved independently.

Nelson, M.E.; Sargeant, G.A.

2008-01-01

33

Enterocytozoon bieneusi in sika deer (Cervus nippon) and red deer (Cervus elaphus): deer specificity and zoonotic potential of ITS genotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the most common cause of the human microsporidiosis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi has been found in a wide variety of animal hosts. Deers are the ruminant mammals living in a variety of biomes, and the distribution of deer species differ by geography. To understand the prevalence of natural infection of E. bieneusi in deer and to assess their epidemiological role in the transmission of microsporidiosis caused by E. bieneusi, 91 fecal specimens were collected from 86 sika deers and five red deers in the northeast of China. By PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of E. bieneusi, an average infection rate of 31.9% (29/91) was observed in deer, with 32.6% (28/86) for sika deer, and 20% (1/5) for red deer. Six ITS genotypes were identified: one known genotype BEB6 (n?=?20) and five novel genotypes HLJD-I to HLJD-IV (one each) and HLJD-V (n?=?5). A phylogenetic analysis based on a neighbor-joining tree of the ITS gene sequences of E. bieneusi indicated that genotypes HLJD-II and HLJD-III fell into group 1 of zoonotic potential, while the other genotypes (BEB6, HLJD-I, HLJD-IV, HLJD-V) were clustered into so-called bovine-specific group 2. This is the first report of E. bieneusi in deer in China. The observation of genotype BEB6 in humans previously and in deer here and also the findings of the two novel genotypes (HLJD-II to HLJ-III) belonging to potential zoonotic group 1 suggested the possibility of deer in the transmission of E. bieneusi to humans. PMID:25185666

Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Weizhe; Wang, Rongjun; Liu, Weishi; Liu, Aiqin; Yang, Dong; Yang, Fengkun; Karim, Md Robiul; Zhang, Longxian

2014-11-01

34

DEER Distance Measurements on Proteins  

Science.gov (United States)

Distance distributions between paramagnetic centers in the range of 1.8 to 6 nm in membrane proteins and up to 10 nm in deuterated soluble proteins can be measured by the DEER technique. The number of paramagnetic centers and their relative orientation can be characterized. DEER does not require crystallization and is not limited with respect to the size of the protein or protein complex. Diamagnetic proteins are accessible by site-directed spin labeling. To characterize structure or structural changes, experimental protocols were optimized and techniques for artifact suppression were introduced. Data analysis programs were developed, and it was realized that interpretation of the distance distributions must take into account the conformational distribution of spin labels. First methods have appeared for deriving structural models from a small number of distance constraints. The present scope and limitations of the technique are illustrated.

Jeschke, Gunnar

2012-05-01

35

Immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally infected European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The cause of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK was the inclusion of contaminated meat and bone meal in the protein rations fed to cattle. Those rations were not restricted to cattle but were also fed to other livestock including farmed and free living deer. Although there are no reported cases to date of natural BSE in European deer, BSE has been shown to be naturally or experimentally transmissible to a wide range of different ungulate species. Moreover, several species of North America's cervids are highly susceptible to chronic wasting disease (CWD, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE that has become endemic. Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations. This study compares the immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally-infected European red deer (Cervus elpahus elaphus. Results After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues. In this respect it was different from CWD, and although the neuropathological features of both diseases were similar, BSE could be clearly differentiated from CWD by immunohistochemical and Western blotting methods currently in routine use. Conclusion Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

Dagleish Mark P

2009-07-01

36

Therapy of endemic goitre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1. In childhood the first line treatment of endemic goitre is Kl (100-150 ?g/day). Once the goitre volume has shrinked during L-thyroxine treatment in older patients, this effect is to be maintained by Kl (?200 ?g/day). The same holds true after surgery in cases with normal TSH responsiveness to TRH. 2. TSH suppressive L-thyroxine therapy is indicated in goitre patients older than 40 years. However, the effectiveness will be limited by the nodularity of the thyroid. So prevention of further growth prevails over true tissue reduction. 3. Obviously thyroid surgery yields the best cosmetic results with an acceptably low complication rate. When euthyroidism is established, a lifelong iodine prophylaxy (200 ?g/day) of recurrent goitre is mandatory. In cases with latent or overt hypothyroidism an appropriate therapy with thyroid hormone should be given. 4. By radiodine it is possible to realize a short term volume loss of 30-40% which may increase further on up to 60%. Relief of symptoms is usually even more impressive than actual volume loss. (orig./MG)

37

Analyzing the Correlation between Deer Habitat and the Component of the Risk for Lyme Disease in Eastern Ontario, Canada: A GIS-Based Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis, caused by the bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, is an emerging vector-borne infectious disease in Canada. According to the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC, by the year 2020, 80% of Canadians will live in Lyme endemic areas. An understanding of the association of Ixodes scapularis, the main vector of Lyme disease, with it hosts is a fundamental component in assessing changes in the spatial distribution of human risk for Lyme disease. Through the application of Geographic Information System (GIS mapping methods and spatial analysis techniques, this study examines the population dynamics of the black-legged Lyme tick and its primary host, the white-tailed deer, in eastern Ontario, Canada. By developing a habitat suitability model through a GIS-based multi-criteria decision making (MCDM analysis, the relationship of the deer habitat suitability map was generated and the results were compared with deer harvest data. Tick submission data collected from two public health units between 2006 and 2012 were used to explore the relationship between endemic ticks and deer habitat suitability in eastern Ontario. The positive correlation demonstrated between the deer habitat suitability model and deer harvest data allows us to further analyze the association between deer habitat and black-legged ticks in our study area. Our results revealed that the high tick submission number corresponds with the high suitability. These results are useful for developing management strategies that aim to prevent Lyme from becoming a threat to public health in Canada. Further studies are required to investigate how tick survival, behaviour and seasonal activity may change with projected climate change.

Dongmei Chen

2015-01-01

38

Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings.

Reddy D

2009-01-01

39

Identity of rumen fluke in deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

As evidence is growing that in many temperate areas paramphistome infections are becoming more common and widespread, this study was undertaken to determine the role of deer as reservoirs for rumen fluke infections in livestock. A total of 144 deer faecal samples (88 from fallow deer, 32 from red deer and 24 samples from sika, sika/red deer hybrids) were screened for the presence of fluke eggs. Based on the ITS-2 rDNA locus plus flanking 5.8S and 28S sequences (ITS-2+), fluke eggs were identified to species level. Our results indicate that, of the 3 deer species, fallow deer had the highest fluke infection rates. Two rumen fluke species, Calicophoron daubneyi and Paramphistomum leydeni, with morphologically distinct eggs, were identified. Concurrent infections of the two paramphistome species and liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, were common. Considering the comparatively low egg burdens observed in this study, it is unlikely that deer represent a significant source of infection for Irish livestock. PMID:25127736

O'Toole, Ailis; Browne, John A; Hogan, Sean; Bassière, Thomas; DeWaal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; Zintl, Annetta

2014-11-01

40

Ehrlichia chaffeensis Infection of Sika Deer, Japan  

OpenAIRE

To determine whether Ehrlichia chaffeensis exists in Japan, we used PCR to examine blood from sika deer in Nara, Japan. Of 117 deer, 36 (31%) were infected with E. chaffeensis. The E. chaffeensis 16S rRNA base and GroEL amino acid sequences from Japan were most closely related to those of E. chaffeensis Arkansas.

Kawahara, Makoto; Tajima, Tomoko; Torii, Harumi; Yabutani, Mitsutaka; Ishii, Joji; Harasawa, Makiko; Isogai, Emiko; Rikihisa, Yasuko

2009-01-01

41

Parapoxvirus Infections of Red Deer, Italy  

OpenAIRE

To characterize parapoxviruses causing severe disease in wild ruminants in Stelvio Park, Italy, we sequenced and compared the DNA of several isolates. Results demonstrated that the red deer isolates are closely related to the parapox of red deer in New Zealand virus.

Scagliarini, Alessandra; Vaccari, Francesca; Turrini, Filippo; Bianchi, Alessandro; Cordioli, Paolo; Lavazza, Antonio

2011-01-01

42

Welfare issues of modern deer farming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper will start with briefly outlining the recent domestication history of red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama, followed by a description of the present status of modern deer farming. It will then review the main welfare issues of deer farming. The following aspects will be considered: accommodation and housing, management and handling, nutrition (feed and water provision, transport and slaughter, plus a short mention of velvet harvest. As a summary, the following practices can be recommended to ensure animal welfare in modern deer farming: the adoption of suitable housing systems and of adequate management techniques (e.g. specific handling pens and drop-floor cradles or crushes and the respect of specific needs (e.g. provision of protection and shelter from predators as well as from climatic extremes, such as cold winds or direct solar radiation. Handling and yarding operations will be easier when they occur in dim light. Special attention must be paid to the manipulation of the newborns. At the slaughterhouse, facilities must be designed specifically for deer. The presence of well trained stockpersons, with a sound knowledge of deer physiology and behaviour, is also a key-factor for improving welfare levels in deer farms. To achieve these aims, training of the managers and stockpersons and the adoption of specific codes of conducts are highly recommendable.

Silvana Mattiello

2010-01-01

43

Muscleworms, Parelaphostrongylus andersoni (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae), discovered in Columbia white-tailed deer from Oregon and Washington: implications for biogeography and host associations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parelaphostrongylus andersoni is considered a characteristic nematode infecting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Host and geographic distribution for this parasite, however, remain poorly defined in the region of western North America. Fecal samples collected from Columbia white-tailed deer (O. v. leucurus) in a restricted range endemic to Oregon and Washington, USA, were examined for dorsal-spined larvae characteristic of many protostrongylid nematodes. Multilocus DNA sequence data (internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) established the identity and a new record for P. andersoni in a subspecies of white-tailed deer previously unrecognized as hosts. Populations of P. andersoni are now recognized along the basin of the lower Columbia River in Oregon and Washington and from south-central Oregon on the North Umpqua River. Current data indicate a potentially broad zone of sympatry for P. andersoni and Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei in the western region of North America, although these elaphostrongylines seem to be segregated, respectively, in white-tailed deer or in black-tailed and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) at temperate latitudes. The geographic range for P. andersoni in white-tailed deer is extended substantially to the west of the currently defined limit in North America, and we confirm an apparently extensive range for this elpahostrongyline. These observations are explored in the broader context of host and geographic associations for P. andersoni and related elaphostrongylines in North American cervids. PMID:18263818

Asmundsson, Ingrid M; Mortenson, Jack A; Hoberg, Eric P

2008-01-01

44

Tick burden on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)  

OpenAIRE

In our study we assessed the tick burden on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in relation to age, physical condition, sex, deer density and season. The main objective was to find predictive parameters for tick burden. In September 2007, May, July, and September 2008, and in May and July 2009 we collected ticks on 142 culled roe deer from nine forest departments in Southern Hesse, Germany. To correlate tick burden and deer density we estimated deer density using line transect sampling that acc...

Vor, Torsten; Kiffner, Christian; Hagedorn, Peter; Niedrig, Matthias; Ru?he, Ferdinand

2010-01-01

45

Plutonium content in deer in the southeastern United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective was to determine the distribution of plutonium in tissues of deer foraging on natural vegetation in the southeastern United States. The deer were obtained from North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in South Carolina. Nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and global fallout are the primary sources of plutonium at SRP. Plutonium analyses of deer indicate that the plutonium content of onsite deer muscle is similar to values in offsite deer

46

Prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminthiasis in captive deer of Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

The investigation was undertaken to study the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthiasis in captive deer. About 76.2% deer were affected with gastrointestinal helminthiasis. Paramphistomum spp. and Haemonchus spp. were mostly prevalent in deer. It is revealed that Para or Hog deer (90.91%) was mostly susceptible to gastrointestinal helminthiasis followed by Barking deer (78.79%), Spotted deer (75%) and Samber deer (70%). Mixed infection was noted in majority of the deer. Paramphistomum spp....

Kanungo, S.; Das, A.; Das Gupta, M.; Shakif-ul-Azam

2010-01-01

47

Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-transmitted, economically important disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Although only five of the 26 reported bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes are considered endemic to the USA, 10 exotic serotypes have been isolated primarily in the southeastern region of the country since 1999. For an exotic BTV serotype to become endemic there must be susceptible animal species and competent vectors. In the USA, sheep and white-tailed deer (WTD) are the primary sentinel livestock and wildlife species, respectively. In 2006, BTV-8 was introduced into Northern Europe and subsequently overwintered, causing unprecedented livestock disease and mortality during the 2006-2007 vector seasons. To assess the risk of the European strain of BTV-8 to North American WTD, and understand the role they could play after a similar introduction, eight bluetongue-seronegative WTD were inoculated with BTV-8. Body temperatures and clinical signs were recorded daily. Blood samples were analyzed for BTV RNA with quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), serum analyzed for BTV antibodies by cELISA, and tissues taken for histopathology and qRT-PCR. All eight deer became infected and developed moderate to severe clinical disease from days 8 to 15. Peak viremia was from day 7 to 10 with detectable titers through the end of the study (28 days) in most deer. Serum antibody was detected by day 6, peaked by day 10 and continued through day 28. We conclude that North American WTD are highly susceptible to BTV-8 and would act as clinical disease sentinels and amplifying hosts during an outbreak. PMID:23876932

Drolet, Barbara S; Reister, Lindsey M; Rigg, Tara D; Nol, Pauline; Podell, Brendan K; Mecham, James O; VerCauteren, Kurt C; van Rijn, Piet A; Wilson, William C; Bowen, Richard A

2013-10-25

48

Radiocesium transfer to roe deer and moose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study is part of an on-going research project which focuses on the transfer of 137Cs to roe deer and moose living in contaminated forests. The specific aim was to describe and explain the seasonal, yearly and long- term variations of radiocaesium levels in roe deer and moose. A particularity of the study was that field observations were combined with the development of mathematical models

49

Fatal Case of Deer Tick Virus Encephalitis  

OpenAIRE

Deer tick virus is related to Powassan virus, a tickborne encephalitis virus. A 62-year-old man presented with a meningoencephalitis syndrome and eventually died. Analyses of tissue samples obtained during surgery and at autopsy revealed a widespread necrotizing meningoencephalitis. Nucleic acid was extracted from formalin-fixed tissue, and the presence of deer tick virus was verified on a flavivirus-specific polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay, followed by sequence confirmation. Immunohist...

Tavakoli, Norma P.; Wang, Heng; Dupuis, Michelle; Hull, Rene; Ebel, Gregory D.; Gilmore, Emily J.; Faust, Phyllis L.

2009-01-01

50

Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in feces  

OpenAIRE

Infectious prion diseases 1 – scrapie of sheep 2 and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer family 3,4 – are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals 5–8, the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prion...

Tamgu?ney, Gu?ltekin; Miller, Michael W.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Sirochman, Tracey M.; Glidden, David V.; Palmer, Christina; Lemus, Azucena; Dearmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

2009-01-01

51

The global analysis of DEER data  

OpenAIRE

Double Electron–Electron Resonance (DEER) has emerged as a powerful technique for measuring long range distances and distance distributions between paramagnetic centers in biomolecules. This information can then be used to characterize functionally relevant structural and dynamic properties of biological molecules and their macromolecular assemblies. Approaches have been developed for analyzing experimental data from standard four-pulse DEER experiments to extract distance distributions. Ho...

Brandon, Suzanne; Beth, Albert H.; Hustedt, Eric J.

2012-01-01

52

Oestrosis in red deer from Spain  

OpenAIRE

A survey of naso-pharyngeal myiasis affecting red deer (Cervus elaphus) in southern Spain was conducted. The parasites involved were the larvae of Pharyngomyia picta and Cephenemyia auribarbis (Diptera:Oestridae), which coexist sympatrically within this host. Males and older animals had higher prevalences and intensities of fly larvae. Differences in behaviour and habitat use by male and female deer, and the increase of head size in older males are possibly responsible for this. There were lo...

Bueno La Fuente, Lourdes; Moreno, Virginia; Pe?rez, Jesu?s M.; Ruiz-marti?nez, Isidoro; Soriguer, Ramo?n C.

1998-01-01

53

Radiocesium transfer to roe deer and moose  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study is part of an on-going research project which focuses on the transfer of {sup 137}Cs to roe deer and moose living in contaminated forests. The specific aim was to describe and explain the seasonal, yearly and long- term variations of radiocaesium levels in roe deer and moose. A particularity of the study was that field observations were combined with the development of mathematical models.

Avila, R. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

1999-11-01

54

Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

1994-12-31

55

Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of carfentanil-xylazine and medetomidine-ketamine used for immobilization of mule deer and mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids.  

OpenAIRE

Three mule deer and 4 mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids were immobilized in a crossover study with carfentanil (10 microg/kg) + xylazine (0.3 mg/kg) (CX), and medetomidine (100 microg/kg) + ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) (MK). The deer were maintained in left lateral recumbency for 1 h with each combination. Deer were immobilized with MK in 230+/-68 s (mean +/- SD) and with CX in 282+/-83 seconds. Systolic, mean and diastolic arterial pressure were significantly higher with MK. Heart rate, PaO2, PaCO...

Caulkett, N. A.; Cribb, P. H.; Haigh, J. C.

2000-01-01

56

Authenticity control of game meat products--a single method to detect and quantify adulteration of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) by real-time PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

This contribution presents a single real-time PCR assay allowing the determination of the deer content (the sum of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon)) in meat products to detect food adulteration. The PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with 20 animal species and 43 botanical species potentially contained in game meat products. The limit of quantification is 0.5% for fallow deer and red deer and 0.1% for sika deer. The deer content in meat products is determined by relating the concentration obtained with the deer PCR assay to that obtained with a reference system which amplifies mammals and poultry DNA. The analysis of binary meat mixtures with pork, a meat mixture containing equal amounts of fallow deer, red deer and sika deer in pork and a model game sausage showed that the quantification approach is very accurate (systematic error generally <25%). PMID:25306377

Druml, Barbara; Grandits, Stephanie; Mayer, Walter; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit

2015-03-01

57

Roe and fallow deer: are they compatible neighbours?  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The analysis of the relationships between population density and habitat features is important to evaluate the ecological needs of a species, its potential impact on ecosystems and its interspecific interactions. We analysed the spatial variation of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and fallow deer Dama dama densities in a Mediterranean area in summer 2007 and winter 2007/2008. Previous research has shown that fallow deer can actively displace and exclude roe deer from natural ...

Ferretti, Francesco; Bertoldi, Gabriele; Sforzi, Andrea; Fattorini, Lorenzo

2011-01-01

58

Habitat use by roe and red deer in Southern Spain  

OpenAIRE

In order to analyse how altitude, cover, and botanical diversity may be involved in the habitat preferences of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Southern Spain, 44 plots in four linear transects were established in 'Los Alcornocales' Park (Cádiz). The results revealed a certain degree of spatial interaction between the two species in spring and summer. Roe deer selected the lowest altitudes during the territorial period (March-August) and red deer selected the s...

San Jose?, Cristina; Braza, Francisco; Arago?n, Santiago; Delibes, J. R.

1997-01-01

59

Bluetongue Virus Serotypes 1 and 4 in Red Deer, Spain  

OpenAIRE

We studied the potential of red deer as bluetongue maintenance hosts and sentinels. Deer maintained detectable bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 4 RNA for 1 year after the virus was cleared from livestock. However, the virus was not transmitted to yearlings. BTV serotype 1 RNA was detected in red deer immediately after its first detection in cattle.

Rodri?guez-sa?nchez, Bele?n; Gorta?zar, Christian; Ruiz-fons, Francisco; Sa?nchez-vizcai?no, Jose? M.

2010-01-01

60

Dietary preferences and ruminal protozoal populations in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, fallow deer (Dama dama and mouflon (Ovis musimon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, fallow deer (Dama dama and mouflon (Ovis musimon are among the most common wild ungulates in Italy and frequently their home ranges overlap. Despite the fact that roe deer is classified as concentrate selector (Hofmann, 1989 and fallow deer and mouflons as intermediate and grass eater, respectively, the composition of the diet can be affected by other factors such as geographical area and plant communities distribution and availability

O. Olivieri

2010-01-01

61

Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in endangered Florida Key deer and Key deer habitat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was first reported in the endangered Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) in 1996 on Big Pine Key, Florida, USA. By 2008, eight additional MAP-positive Key deer had been identified on Big Pine Key and the nearby Newfound Harbor Keys. This study was conducted to determine if MAP was still present in Key deer and whether natural or man-made freshwater sources were contaminated with MAP. Between November 2009 and September 2012, MAP was isolated from 36/369 (10%) fecal samples collected from the ground throughout the Key deer range on Big Pine Key and the Newfound Harbor Keys, but all 36 positive samples were from Little Palm Island (36/142 [25%]). Only 1/729 (0.1%) environmental samples was positive; this was from the garden fountain on Little Palm Island (1/81 [1%]). In addition, MAP was detected in 3/43 (7%) necropsied Key deer, all from Little Palm Island (3/3 [100%]). Of these three Key deer, pooled samples from the ileum, cecum, and ileocecal lymph node from two were MAP-culture positive and feces from one of these were culture-positive. The third deer was only PCR-positive. Evidence of MAP was only detected on Little Palm Island during this sampling period and environmental contamination was limited. PMID:24506424

Murray, Heidi L; Yabsley, Michael J; Keel, M Kevin; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Wilmers, Thomas J; Corn, Joseph L

2014-04-01

62

Canine exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi and prevalence of Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) on deer as a measure of Lyme disease risk in the northeastern United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveillance programs that identify areas where both the vector (Ixodes dammini) and etiologic agent (Borrelia burgdorferi) are present may identify the risk of Lyme disease and its spread earlier and more accurately than do programs relying on any single method, particularly human case reports. Hunter-killed deer (n = 1,204) from 22 counties in Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, and Pennsylvania were examined in fall 1989 and all ectoparasites were identified. The following spring, canine sera (n = 884) were obtained from these sites, which included known endemic areas and those where Lyme disease is uncommon, and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Regression analysis of canine seroprevalence versus tick prevalence on deer from the same counties demonstrate a significant positive linear relationship. Sites were designated as low-, moderate-, or high-risk counties based upon their position on the regression curve. The geographic distribution of the sites correlated well with the distribution of known Lyme disease endemic and nonendemic areas. Locations were also identified where Lyme disease may be emerging. The positive relationship between measures of vector and pathogen abundance determined in this study permits public health workers to identify endemic and potentially endemic areas independently of human case reports. PMID:8433324

Daniels, T J; Fish, D; Levine, J F; Greco, M A; Eaton, A T; Padgett, P J; LaPointe, D A

1993-01-01

63

Survey of Borreliae in ticks, canines, and white-tailed deer from Arkansas, U.S.A.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Eastern and Upper Midwestern regions of North America, Ixodes scapularis (L. is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans and the primary vector of B. burgdorferi, whereas in the southeastern region Amblyomma americanum (Say is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans but cannot transmit B. burgdorferi. Surveys of Borreliae in ticks have been conducted in the southeastern United States and often these surveys identify B. lonestari as the primary Borrelia species, surveys have not included Arkansas ticks, canines, or white-tailed deer and B. lonestari is not considered pathogenic. The objective of this study was to identify Borrelia species within Arkansas by screening ticks (n?=?2123, canines (n?=?173, and white-tailed deer (n?=?228 to determine the identity and locations of Borreliae endemic to Arkansas using PCR amplification of the flagellin (flaB gene. Methods Field collected ticks from canines and from hunter-killed white-tailed were identified to species and life stage. After which, ticks and their hosts were screened for the presence of Borrelia using PCR to amplify the flaB gene. A subset of the positive samples was confirmed with bidirectional sequencing. Results In total 53 (21.2% white-tailed deer, ten (6% canines, and 583 (27.5% Ixodid ticks (252 Ixodes scapularis, 161 A. americanum, 88 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 50 Amblyomma maculatum, 19 Dermacentor variabilis, and 13 unidentified Amblyomma species produced a Borrelia flaB amplicon. Of the positive ticks, 324 (22.7% were collected from canines (151 A. americanum, 78 R. sanguineus, 43 I. scapularis, 26 A. maculatum, 18 D. variabilis, and 8 Amblyomma species and 259 (37.2% were collected from white-tailed deer (209 I. scapularis, 24 A. maculatum, 10 A. americanum, 10 R. sanguineus, 1 D. variabilis, and 5 Amblyomma species. None of the larvae were PCR positive. A majority of the flaB amplicons were homologous with B. lonestari sequences: 281 of the 296 sequenced ticks, 3 canines, and 27 deer. Only 22 deer, 7 canines, and 15 tick flaB amplicons (12 I. scapularis, 2 A. maculatum, and 1 Amblyomma species were homologous with B. burgdorferi sequences. Conclusions Data from this study identified multiple Borreliae genotypes in Arkansas ticks, canines and deer including B. burgdorferi and B. lonestari; however, B. lonestari was significantly more prevalent in the tick population than B. burgdorferi. Results from this study suggest that the majority of tick-borne diseases in Arkansas are not B. burgdorferi.

Fryxell Rebecca T

2012-07-01

64

Potential Wildlife Reservoir for Parachlamydia in Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) and Roe Deer (Capreolus c. capreolus)  

OpenAIRE

Wildlife populations represent an important reservoir for emerging pathogens and transboundary livestock diseases. However, exact knowledge on common domestic pathogens such as Chlamydiales in these populations is lacking. During the hunting season of 2008, 863 samples, including blood, eye swabs, organs and fecal samples, from 99 red deer and 64 roe deer were collected in the eastern Swiss Alps, and samples were tested by ELISA, PCR and immunohistochemistry for Chlamydiaceae and Parachlam...

Regenscheit, Nadine

2012-01-01

65

The global analysis of DEER data  

Science.gov (United States)

Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER) has emerged as a powerful technique for measuring long range distances and distance distributions between paramagnetic centers in biomolecules. This information can then be used to characterize functionally relevant structural and dynamic properties of biological molecules and their macromolecular assemblies. Approaches have been developed for analyzing experimental data from standard four-pulse DEER experiments to extract distance distributions. However, these methods typically use an a priori baseline correction to account for background signals. In the current work an approach is described for direct fitting of the DEER signal using a model for the distance distribution which permits a rigorous error analysis of the fitting parameters. Moreover, this approach does not require a priori background correction of the experimental data and can take into account excluded volume effects on the background signal when necessary. The global analysis of multiple DEER data sets is also demonstrated. Global analysis has the potential to provide new capabilities for extracting distance distributions and additional structural parameters in a wide range of studies.

Brandon, Suzanne; Beth, Albert H.; Hustedt, Eric J.

2012-05-01

66

Dermatomycosis (Ringworm) in Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus)  

OpenAIRE

Six mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with dermatomycosis are described. Trichophyton verrucosum was isolated from four. All infections were mild and were not debilitating. The lesions involved the legs in five animals and the face in two. This is the second report of ringworm in a wild ungulate in North America.

Wobeser, G.; Mitcham, S. A.; Saunders, J. R.; Hunt, H. M.

1983-01-01

67

Deer Me: A Predator/Prey Simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners will simulate the interactions between a predator population of gray wolves and a prey population of deer in a forest. After collecting the data, the learners plot the data and then extend the graph to predict the populations for several more generations.

2012-06-26

68

Intranasal inoculation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with lyophilized chronic wasting disease prion particulate complexed to montmorillonite clay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte), lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure. PMID:23671598

Nichols, Tracy A; Spraker, Terry R; Rigg, Tara D; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Hoover, Clare; Michel, Brady; Bian, Jifeng; Hoover, Edward; Gidlewski, Thomas; Balachandran, Aru; O'Rourke, Katherine; Telling, Glenn C; Bowen, Richard; Zabel, Mark D; VerCauteren, Kurt C

2013-01-01

69

Spatial niche partitioning in sub-tropical solitary ungulates: four-horned antelope and barking deer in Nepal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Differential resource use allows a diversity of species to co-exist in a particular area by specializing in individual ecological niches. Four-horned antelope Tetracerus quadricornis is endemic to the Indian subcontinent and has a restricted distribution in Nepal and India; however, the barking deer Muntiacus vaginalis is relatively common throughout its wide distribution range. We wanted a better understanding of their habitats and how these two similarly sized solitary ungulates manage to coexist in lowland Nepal. We used fecal pellet belt transect surveys in the Babai valley, Bardia National Park to study the habitat associations of both species. We found empirical evidence that four-horned antelope prefer hill sal forest and deciduous hill forest at higher elevations, whereas barking deer preferred riverine and sal forest in lower elevations. We found a clear niche differentiation of four-horned antelope and barking deer that made the coexistence of these similarly sized solitary ungulates possible. Hence, resource partitioning is the key to coexistence of these solitary ungulates, and the fine-grained habitat mosaic of different forest types in the study landscape appears to be the underlying feature. Therefore, maintaining the habitat mosaic and preserving valuable hill sal and deciduous hill forests will facilitate the coexistence of herbivores in sub-tropical regions. PMID:25714092

Pokharel, Krishna Prasad; Ludwig, Tobias; Storch, Ilse

2015-01-01

70

Spatial Niche Partitioning in Sub-Tropical Solitary Ungulates: Four-Horned Antelope and Barking Deer in Nepal  

Science.gov (United States)

Differential resource use allows a diversity of species to co-exist in a particular area by specializing in individual ecological niches. Four-horned antelope Tetracerus quadricornis is endemic to the Indian subcontinent and has a restricted distribution in Nepal and India; however, the barking deer Muntiacus vaginalis is relatively common throughout its wide distribution range. We wanted a better understanding of their habitats and how these two similarly sized solitary ungulates manage to coexist in lowland Nepal. We used fecal pellet belt transect surveys in the Babai valley, Bardia National Park to study the habitat associations of both species. We found empirical evidence that four-horned antelope prefer hill sal forest and deciduous hill forest at higher elevations, whereas barking deer preferred riverine and sal forest in lower elevations. We found a clear niche differentiation of four-horned antelope and barking deer that made the coexistence of these similarly sized solitary ungulates possible. Hence, resource partitioning is the key to coexistence of these solitary ungulates, and the fine-grained habitat mosaic of different forest types in the study landscape appears to be the underlying feature. Therefore, maintaining the habitat mosaic and preserving valuable hill sal and deciduous hill forests will facilitate the coexistence of herbivores in sub-tropical regions. PMID:25714092

Pokharel, Krishna Prasad; Ludwig, Tobias; Storch, Ilse

2015-01-01

71

Deer density and the abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The abundance of Ixodes scapularis Say (Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman & Corwin), the vector tick of the Lyme disease spirochete and other human pathogens, is related to the presence of its primary reproductive stage host, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman). However, this relationship has not been quantified in terms that would guide wildlife management in areas in which the public is, or is likely to become, exposed to infected ticks. In this study, deer density and tick abundance were measured in an emergent area for Lyme disease at three spatial scales using estimation methods appropriate for each. Simple linear regression was used to relate (1) the number of ticks found on deer at tagging stations in southern Maine to harvest-derived estimates of the density of deer within the towns in which they were killed, (2) tick densities estimated from fall flagging counts to deer densities estimated from pellet group counts made within multiple transects distributed through 5.2-km2 study sites, and (3) tick counts to pellet group counts within the individual transects. At the broadest scale, ticks on deer decreased with elevation and distance from the coast and increased with deer density, although deer and tick presence were only weakly related. Among the 5.2-km2 study sites and within individual transects, tick abundance related more strongly to deer pellet group counts. Few ticks were collected at deer densities <7/km2. PMID:12693846

Rand, Peter W; Lubelczyk, Charles; Lavigne, Gerald R; Elias, Susan; Holman, Mary S; Lacombe, Eleanor H; Smith, Robert P

2003-03-01

72

77 FR 61248 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Deer Lodge, MT  

Science.gov (United States)

...12-ANM-7 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Deer Lodge, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E airspace at Deer Lodge-City- County Airport, Deer Lodge, MT. Controlled airspace is necessary...

2012-10-09

73

75 FR 41774 - Proposed Establishment and Modification of Class E Airspace; Deer Park, WA  

Science.gov (United States)

...Establishment and Modification of Class E Airspace; Deer Park, WA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...surface airspace and modify existing Class E airspace at Deer Park Airport, Deer Park, WA, to accommodate aircraft using the...

2010-07-19

74

76 FR 35467 - Deer and Vegetation Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Fire Island National Seashore...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the abundance and distribution of white-tailed...abundance and deer behavior due to the presence...deer abundance and distribution across the island; ecology of Lyme disease...abundance and deer behavior due to the...

2011-06-17

75

75 FR 41232 - Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, Canyon, Owyhee, Payette, and Washington Counties, ID; Malheur...  

Science.gov (United States)

...1265-0000-10137 S3] Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, Canyon, Owyhee, Payette...plan (CCP) for Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge). The Refuge...Refuge Manager, Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, 13751 Upper...

2010-07-15

76

75 FR 71106 - Deer Creek Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...October 14, 2010, Deer Creek Hydro, LLC (Deer Creek Hydro) filed an application...Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Deer Creek Pumped Storage Project...Franklin St. Ste. 2, Boise, ID 83702; phone: (208)...

2010-11-22

77

Prevalence of eastern equine encephalitis virus antibodies among white-tailed deer populations in maine.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the fall of 2010, 332 deer serum samples were collected from 15 of the 16 (93.8%) Maine counties and screened for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) antibodies using plaque reduction neutralizing tests (PRNTs). The aim was to detect and map EEEV activity in the state of Maine. Forty-seven of the 332 (14.2%) sera were positive for EEEV antibodies, showing a much wider distribution of EEEV activity in Maine than previously known. The percentage of EEEV antibody-positive deer sera was ?10% in six counties-Piscataquis (100%), Somerset (28.6%), Waldo (22.2%), Penobscot (21.7%), Kennebec (13.7%), and Sagadahoc (10%). Positive sera were detected in all the six counties (Somerset, Waldo, Penobscot, Kennebec, Cumberland, and York) that were positive in 2009, suggesting endemic EEEV activity in these counties. EEEV antibodies were not detected in sera collected in five counties-Franklin, Knox, Lincoln, Oxford, and Washington-which was either due to low sample size or lack of EEEV activity in these counties. Our data suggest higher EEEV activity in central Maine compared to southern Maine, whereas EEEV activity in Maine has historically been associated with the southern counties of York and Cumberland. PMID:25793477

Mutebi, John-Paul; Godsey, Marvin; Smith, Robert P; Renell, Melanie R; Smith, Leticia; Robinson, Sara; Sears, Stephen; Lubelczyk, Charles

2015-03-01

78

Comparison of plutonium concentrations in deer from the southeastern United States and in deer from an integrated nuclear fuel cycle facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data are presented of plutonium concentrations and concentration ratios measured in different organs and tissues of deer resident on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) compared with those of deer in neighboring locations. The dose-to-man is calculated from ingestion of the deer meat from approximately 1000 deer harvested each year on SRP during organised hunts. (U.K.)

79

Country, Cover or Protection: What Shapes the Distribution of Red Deer and Roe Deer in the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem?  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bohemian Forest Ecosystem encompasses various wildlife management systems. Two large, contiguous national parks (one in Germany and one in the Czech Republic) form the centre of the area, are surrounded by private hunting grounds, and hunting regulations in each country differ. Here we aimed at unravelling the influence of management-related and environmental factors on the distribution of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in this ecosystem. We used the standing crop method based on counts of pellet groups, with point counts every 100 m along 218 randomly distributed transects. Our analysis, which accounted for overdispersion as well as zero inflation and spatial autocorrelation, corroborated the view that both human management and the physical and biological environment drive ungulate distribution in mountainous areas in Central Europe. In contrast to our expectations, protection by national parks was the least important variable for red deer and the third important out of four variables for roe deer; protection negatively influenced roe deer distribution in both parks and positively influenced red deer distribution in Germany. Country was the most influential variable for both red and roe deer, with higher counts of pellet groups in the Czech Republic than in Germany. Elevation, which indicates increasing environmental harshness, was the second most important variable for both species. Forest cover was the least important variable for roe deer and the third important variable for red deer; the relationship for roe deer was positive and linear, and optimal forest cover for red deer was about 70% within a 500 m radius. Our results have direct implications for the future conservation management of deer in protected areas in Central Europe and show in particular that large non-intervention zones may not cause agglomerations of deer that could lead to conflicts along the border of protected, mountainous areas. PMID:25781942

Heurich, Marco; Brand, Tom T. G.; Kaandorp, Manon Y.; Šustr, Pavel; Müller, Jörg; Reineking, Björn

2015-01-01

80

Country, cover or protection: what shapes the distribution of red deer and roe deer in the bohemian forest ecosystem?  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bohemian Forest Ecosystem encompasses various wildlife management systems. Two large, contiguous national parks (one in Germany and one in the Czech Republic) form the centre of the area, are surrounded by private hunting grounds, and hunting regulations in each country differ. Here we aimed at unravelling the influence of management-related and environmental factors on the distribution of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in this ecosystem. We used the standing crop method based on counts of pellet groups, with point counts every 100 m along 218 randomly distributed transects. Our analysis, which accounted for overdispersion as well as zero inflation and spatial autocorrelation, corroborated the view that both human management and the physical and biological environment drive ungulate distribution in mountainous areas in Central Europe. In contrast to our expectations, protection by national parks was the least important variable for red deer and the third important out of four variables for roe deer; protection negatively influenced roe deer distribution in both parks and positively influenced red deer distribution in Germany. Country was the most influential variable for both red and roe deer, with higher counts of pellet groups in the Czech Republic than in Germany. Elevation, which indicates increasing environmental harshness, was the second most important variable for both species. Forest cover was the least important variable for roe deer and the third important variable for red deer; the relationship for roe deer was positive and linear, and optimal forest cover for red deer was about 70% within a 500 m radius. Our results have direct implications for the future conservation management of deer in protected areas in Central Europe and show in particular that large non-intervention zones may not cause agglomerations of deer that could lead to conflicts along the border of protected, mountainous areas. PMID:25781942

Heurich, Marco; Brand, Tom T G; Kaandorp, Manon Y; Šustr, Pavel; Müller, Jörg; Reineking, Björn

2015-01-01

81

Prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminthiasis in captive deer of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The investigation was undertaken to study the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthiasis in captive deer. About 76.2% deer were affected with gastrointestinal helminthiasis. Paramphistomum spp. and Haemonchus spp. were mostly prevalent in deer. It is revealed that Para or Hog deer (90.91% was mostly susceptible to gastrointestinal helminthiasis followed by Barking deer (78.79%, Spotted deer (75% and Samber deer (70%. Mixed infection was noted in majority of the deer. Paramphistomum spp., Haemonchus spp. and Strongyloides spp. were common in three different captive location but Fasciola spp. was detected only in Dhaka zoo and Dulahazara Safari Park.

S. Kanungo

2010-10-01

82

Mountain lions prey selectively on prion-infected mule deer  

OpenAIRE

The possibility that predators choose prey selectively based on age or condition has been suggested but rarely tested. We examined whether mountain lions (Puma concolor) selectively prey upon mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) infected with chronic wasting disease, a prion disease. We located kill sites of mountain lions in the northern Front Range of Colorado, USA, and compared disease prevalence among lion-killed adult (?2 years old) deer with prevalence among sympatric deer taken by hunters...

Krumm, Caroline E.; Conner, Mary M.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Hunter, Don O.; Miller, Michael W.

2009-01-01

83

Food choice in fallow deer – experimental studies of selectivity  

OpenAIRE

In this thesis, I experimentally investigate feeding selectivity in fallow deer (Dama dama), with respect to plant secondary compounds, especially tannins, which can decrease the quality of foods. I found that fallow deer avoided foods with higher amounts of tannic acid and Quebracho tannin, even though the deer ate some high-tannin food. The food choice was strongly dependent on the context in which the food was presented, so that the food choice in relation to tannin content was relative ra...

Alm Bergvall, Ulrika

2007-01-01

84

An Experimental Test of Factors Attracting Deer Mice into Buildings  

OpenAIRE

Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the principal reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV). Deer mice use a wide variety of habitats including peridomestic settings in and around human dwellings, their presence in and around homes has been implicated as a risk factor for acquiring Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. Deer mice are believed to enter buildings in order to gain access to a variety of resources including food, bedding material, and better thermal microclimates. However, no one has e...

Kuenzi, Amy J.; Douglass, Richard

2009-01-01

85

Season changes in radiocesium contamination of roe deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the results of our studies on Cs 137 contamination of roe deer during the year 2002 in the south of Germany. The contamination of roe deer showed a maximum in September. Comparison with the Cs 137 activity concentration in mushrooms and plants collected from the same area indicated that the autumn peak in radio-caesium contamination of roe deer is correlated with the appearance of mushrooms. Using our data we estimated the equivalent dose per year from radiation received by adult persons due to the consumption of roe deer meat (authors)

86

Seedling barrier protection from deer and elk browse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discusses the methods of detecting and assessing deer and elk browse problems, and describes possible methods of protecting seedlings from browse damage using physical protection devices. The publication is intended for use by foresters and forest technicians concerned with minimising deer and elk browse damage to commercial trees. It includes information on the types of trees preferred by deer and elk in British Columbia, tree shelters, fencing, site characteristics affecting the selection of protection methods, and cost comparisons of various methods of seedling protection. Concludes with descriptions of selected deer and elk browse protection project sites in British Columbia. The appendix includes a directory of manufacturers and distributors of seedling protection products.

Booth, I.A.; Henigman, J.F.

1996-09-01

87

The Deer Lake Basin: constraints on structure from seismic data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seismic surveys were performed in order to re-evaluate petroleum potential of the Deer Lake Basin in Newfoundland. Basin stratigraphy had been previously studied, but the interpretation of the depth structure was limited by the lack of seismic data. The survey intended to: (1) determine the appropriate acquisition parameters for high resolution seismics in the region, (2) determine the thickness and structure of the Deer Lake Group, and (3) determine the nature of the basement underlying the Deer Lake Group. Thermal maturation indicators and paleo-geotherm models indicated that both the lower Deer Lake Group and the underlying Wigwam Brook were in the oil window. 4 refs., 1 fig.

Wright, J.; Hoffe, B.; Barnes, P.; Hurich, C.; Hall, J.; Zhu, J.; Quinlan, G. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, NF (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences

1995-12-31

88

Babesias of red deer (Cervus elaphus in Ireland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Blood samples were obtained from 38 wild red deer (Cervus elaphus at two sites in Ireland and subjected to PCR analysis of the 18S rRNA gene followed by sequencing. Two fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were generated by two different PCR protocols and subsequent sequencing suggested that at least six of the deer were infected by a babesia that, in those loci, is indistinguishable from Babesia divergens, an important tick-borne pathogen of cattle and of zoonotic significance. Additionally, a B. odocoilei-like parasite was detected in three samples and a babesia that did not match any sequences in the GenBank database was found in five samples. Neither B. capreoli nor B. venatorum (EU1 were found. There have been several reports of B. divergens occurring in deer species, including red deer, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. However, in view of recent re-sequencing of bovine-origin samples deposited previously in GenBank, it is unlikely that any of these sequences from deer are B. divergens. The present study describes the only deer piroplasm detected so far that shows complete identity with B. divergens, in just over half of the 18S rRNA gene. The entire gene of this deer parasite should be analysed and transmission experiments undertaken before the infectivity of B. divergens for red deer can be confirmed.

Zintl Annetta

2011-01-01

89

Babesias of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Ireland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood samples were obtained from 38 wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) at two sites in Ireland and subjected to PCR analysis of the 18S rRNA gene followed by sequencing. Two fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were generated by two different PCR protocols and subsequent sequencing suggested that at least six of the deer were infected by a babesia that, in those loci, is indistinguishable from Babesia divergens, an important tick-borne pathogen of cattle and of zoonotic significance. Additionally, a B. odocoilei-like parasite was detected in three samples and a babesia that did not match any sequences in the GenBank database was found in five samples. Neither B. capreoli nor B. venatorum (EU1) were found. There have been several reports of B. divergens occurring in deer species, including red deer, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). However, in view of recent re-sequencing of bovine-origin samples deposited previously in GenBank, it is unlikely that any of these sequences from deer are B. divergens. The present study describes the only deer piroplasm detected so far that shows complete identity with B. divergens, in just over half of the 18S rRNA gene. The entire gene of this deer parasite should be analysed and transmission experiments undertaken before the infectivity of B. divergens for red deer can be confirmed. PMID:21314977

Zintl, Annetta; Finnerty, Eugene J; Murphy, Thomas M; de Waal, Theo; Gray, Jeremy S

2011-01-01

90

Mitochondrial DNA analysis of hybridization between sympatric white-tailed deer and mule deer in west Texas.  

OpenAIRE

Sympatric populations of white-tailed deer and mule deer (Odocoileus virginianus and Odocoileus hemionus, respectively) on a west Texas ranch share a common mitochondrial DNA restriction map genotype. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this genotype is more characteristic of O. virginianus than of O. hemionus. The genotype of west Texas deer differs from that of O. virginianus from South Carolina by five mutational events (1.3% sequence divergence), whereas it differs from that of O. hemion...

Carr, S. M.; Ballinger, S. W.; Derr, J. N.; Blankenship, L. H.; Bickham, J. W.

1986-01-01

91

Iodine-129 in man, cow and deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations of 129I and values of the 129I/127I ratio have been measured in over forty individual thyroids of human, cow and deer from Missouri. Deer thyroids show an average value of 129I/127I = 1.8 x 10-8 and 129I concentrations of 3 x 10-3 pCi per g of thyroid (wet weight). Thyroids of cow and human show successively lower values of the 129I/127I ratio and for the 129I content due to dilution of 129I from the natural geochemical cycle with mineral iodine in their diets. Analyses on a few thyroids from other areas are also reported. (author)

92

Deer monitoring at the Savannah River Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To protect public health, all deer and feral hogs harvested at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during controlled hunts are monitored for Cs-137. A new monitoring program has been developed by the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS). To provide increased confidence in dose data and compliance with regulations, many changes have been made to the deer and hog monitoring program. Using field count information, a computerized database determines Cs-137 concentration and calculates the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) resulting from consumption of the animal. The database then updates each hunter's cumulative CEDE in real time. Also, enhancements to the instrument calibration and quality control portions of the monitoring program were implemented. These include improved monitor calibration, intercomparison of field results from the same animal using different detectors, and regular use of check sources to verify equipment performance. With these program changes, EMS can produce more accurate and verifiable dose data

93

Seminar Papers: 2000 Red Deer, Alberta Seminar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A one-day seminar was held in Red Deer, Alberta, to discuss primarily economic issues of propane gas. Individual papers discussed issues such as the effects of North American supply and demand on prices in Alberta, the general economic outlook in Alberta, deregulation of the electricity industry and its effects on demand for propane, labour forecast for the propane industry and training options for propane professionals. The emphasis was on informal discussions, accordingly only speaking notes have been made available

94

Injury and Illness Among Deer Hunters  

OpenAIRE

General practice and out-patient emergency records for a five-year period were reviewed for injuries and illnesses that occurred during the week of deer rifle hunting on Manitoulin Island. Of 65 hunters who were identified, most had lacerations secondary to knife injuries. There were two deaths (one shooting and one in a motor vehicle accident), and 19 persons required hospitalization. More than half of these serious accidents occurred on the weekends immediately preceding or following the hu...

Mcrae, Shelagh M.

1989-01-01

95

Structural information from orientationally selective DEER spectroscopy.  

OpenAIRE

Double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy can determine, from measurement of the dipolar interaction, the distance and orientation between two paramagnetic centres in systems lacking long-range order such as powders or frozen solution samples. In spin systems with considerable anisotropy, the microwave pulses excite only a fraction of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum and the resulting orientation selection needs to be explicitly taken into account if a meaningfu...

Lovett, Je; Bowen, Am; Timmel, Cr; Jones, Mw; Dilworth, Jr; Caprotti, D.; Bell, Sg; Wong, Ll; Harmer, J.

2009-01-01

96

Seminar Papers: 2000 Red Deer, Alberta Seminar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A one-day seminar was held in Red Deer, Alberta, to discuss primarily economic issues of propane gas. Individual papers discussed issues such as the effects of North American supply and demand on prices in Alberta, the general economic outlook in Alberta, deregulation of the electricity industry and its effects on demand for propane, labour forecast for the propane industry and training options for propane professionals. The emphasis was on informal discussions, accordingly only speaking notes have been made available.

NONE

2000-07-01

97

Microsatellites reveal heterosis in red deer.  

OpenAIRE

The fitness consequences of inbreeding and outbreeding are poorly understood in natural populations. We explore two microsatellite-based variables, individual heterozygosity (likely to correlate with recent inbreeding) and a new individual-specific internal distance measure, mean d2 (focusing on events deeper in the pedigree), in relation to two measures of fitness expressed early in life, birth weight and neonatal survival, in 670 red deer calves (Cervus elaphus) born on the Isle of Rum betw...

Coulson, Tn; Pemberton, Jm; Albon, Sd; Beaumont, M.; Marshall, Tc; Slate, J.; Guinness, Fe; Clutton-brock, Th

1998-01-01

98

Discounted Deer Quality Value as a Criterion for Deer Management Decisions  

OpenAIRE

Discounted cash flow analysis is a standard financial tool that considers the time value of money and calculates the present value of a future sum of money. A model was developed using the same concept to estimate discounted deer quality value of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herd based on the value and survival rate(s) by sex, age. These values are discounted, using market interest rate as the discount rate and as the measure of the time value. The model was used to determine ...

Thomas James Straka; David C Guynn, Jr; Wills, Scott P.

2011-01-01

99

Deer browse resistant exotic-invasive understory: an indicator of elevated human risk of exposure to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in southern coastal Maine woodlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the relationships between forest understory structure and the abundance of questing adult and nymphal blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), in three Maine towns endemic for Lyme disease, 2001-2003. In fragmented New England woodlands, over-abundant white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman, overbrowse palatable species, allowing browse-resistant exotic-invasive species to replace native forest understory structures. We predicted there would be more ticks in plots dominated by exotic-invasive shrubs (such as Japanese barberry, Berberis thunbergii DC) than in plots dominated by native shrubs, ferns, or open understory. We assessed canopy composition and closure, tree basal area, litter composition, percentage of coverage and stem density of understory species, litter depth, soil moisture, and abundance of small mammals and white-tailed deer pellet groups. We used generalized linear mixed model analysis of covariance to determine the effect of understory structure on tick counts, controlling for continuous habitat and host covariates and adjusting for random spatial effects. There were twice as many adults and nearly twice as many nymphs in plots dominated by exotic-invasives than in plots dominated by native shrubs. Both adult and nymphal counts were lowest in open understory with coniferous litter. Adults were positively associated with increasing litter depth, medium soil moisture, and increasing abundance of white-footed deer mice, Peromyscus leucopus Rafinesque, and deer pellet group counts. Nymphs were positively associated with increasing litter depth, moderately wet soil, and mice. We concluded that deer browse-resistant exotic-invasive understory vegetation presented an elevated risk of human exposure to the vector tick of Lyme disease. PMID:17162946

Elias, Susan P; Lubelczyk, Charles B; Rand, Peter W; Lacombe, Eleanor H; Holman, Mary S; Smith, Robert P

2006-11-01

100

Merogonic stages of Theileria cervi in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus).  

Science.gov (United States)

In February 2012, 12 farmed mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were moved from a facility in southwestern Oklahoma to a facility in southeastern Oklahoma that housed 100 farmed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Between the third and fifth weeks, 9 of the 12 mule deer had died, 4 of which were submitted for necropsy. The deer were heavily infested with Amblyomma americanum (lone star ticks). Hematologic data from 1 deer revealed severe anemia, leukocytosis, and intraerythrocytic hemoparasites consistent with Theileria spp. Microscopically, the liver, lymph nodes, and spleen contained multifocally distributed, enlarged monocytic cells whose cytoplasm was replaced by developing meronts in various stages of merogony. It appears that, upon arrival, the Theileria cervi-naïve mule deer became infested with large numbers of Theileria-infected lone star ticks leading to massive exposure of the mule deer to sporozoites of the protozoan, resulting in an acute hemolytic crisis and fatalities. The merogonic stages of T. cervi are also described. The lack of earlier reports of merogony may be due to the fact that only a single, short-lived, merogonic cycle follows exposure to sporozoites and thus merogonic stages are demonstrable for only a short period. Polymerase chain reaction testing of paraffin-embedded tissue yielded a 507-bp amplicon sequence that was 100% identical with the sequence of T. cervi previously reported from white-tailed deer in Oklahoma and from elk in Wisconsin and Indiana. PMID:24029405

Wood, Jason; Johnson, Eileen M; Allen, Kelly E; Campbell, Gregory A; Rezabek, Grant; Bradway, Daniel S; Pittman, Louis L; Little, Susan E; Panciera, Roger J

2013-09-01

101

Hepatocellular adenocarcinoma in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

OpenAIRE

A white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), shot during the 1978-79 New Jersey hunting season, was presented with an enlarged, multinodular liver and numerous skin growths. The skin lesions were found to be fibromas and the liver tumor was identified as a hepatocellular adenocarcinoma, a rare neoplasm, not only in deer but all wild animals.

Placke, M. E.; Roscoe, D. E.; Wyand, D. S.; Nielsen, S. W.

1982-01-01

102

Can coyotes affect deer populations in Southeastern North America?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ABSTRACT The coyote (Canis latrans) is a recent addition to the fauna of eastern North America, and in many areas coyote populations have been established for only a decade or two. Although coyotes are known predators of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in their historic range, effects this new predator may have on eastern deer populations have received little attention. We speculated that in the southeastern United States, coyotes may be affecting deer recruitment, and we present 5 lines of evidence that suggest this possibility. First, the statewide deer population in South Carolina has declined coincident with the establishment and increase in the coyote population. Second, data sets from the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina indicate a new mortality source affecting the deer population concurrent with the increase in coyotes. Third, an index of deer recruitment at SRS declined during the period of increase in coyotes. Fourth, food habits data from SRS indicate that fawns are an important food item for coyotes during summer. Finally, recent research from Alabama documented significant coyote predation on fawns there. Although this evidence does not establish cause and effect between coyotes and observed declines in deer recruitment, we argue that additional research should proactively address this topic in the region. We identified several important questions on the nature of the deer–coyote relationship in the East.

Kilgo, J., C.; Ray, H., Scott; Ruth, Charles; Miller, Karl, V.

2010-07-01

103

Red Deer College Fact Book, 1999/2000.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report is a compilation of 1999-2000 student data at Red Deer College (Canada). It also includes data from 1997/98 through 1999/2000 for the purpose of three-year comparisons. Programs offered at Red Deer College include university transfer, career certificates, diploma, high school equivalency (academic upgrading), job readiness training,…

Red Deer Coll. (Alberta).

104

Selenium toxicosis in a white-tailed deer herd  

OpenAIRE

Chronic selenium (Se) toxicosis was found in a herd of white-tailed deer showing signs of anorexia, weight loss, and lameness. Concentration of Se in the liver ranged from 2.7 to 8.97 mg/kg wet weight. Myocardial necrosis, mineralization, and fibroplasia were seen histologically. This is the first report of this toxicosis in white-tailed deer.

Al-dissi, Ahmad N.; Blakley, Barry R.; Woodbury, Murray R.

2011-01-01

105

Increasing Contact with Hepatitis E Virus in Red Deer, Spain  

OpenAIRE

To describe the epidemiology of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in red deer in mainland Spain, we tested red deer for HEV RNA and antibodies. Overall, 10.4% and 13.6% of serum samples were positive by ELISA and reverse transcription–PCR, respectively. The increasing prevalence suggests a potential risk for humans.

Boadella, Mariana; Casas, Maribel; Marti?n, Marga; Vicente, Joaqui?n; Segale?s, Joaquim; La Fuente, Jose?; Gorta?zar, Christian

2010-01-01

106

Hantavirus in Montana deer mouse populations: preliminary results.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dynamics of small mammal populations and the prevalence of antibodies for hantavirus were determined in six locations in central and western Montana (USA). Eighteen live-trapping grids were trapped monthly from June through September 1994. Deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) populations ranged from 0 to over 90 on one-hectare grids. Our bleeding technique had no apparent effect on survival of deer mice. Deer mice, meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), and sagebrush voles (Lagurus curtatus) were seropositive. Thirty-eight (8%) (range, 0% to 30%) of 471 deer mice were seropositive for hantavirus antibodies. Seropositive mice were older and had lower monthly survival rates than seronegative deer mice. We found no relationship between prevalence of hantavirus antibodies and population density. PMID:8827681

Douglass, R J; Van Horn, R; Coffin, K W; Zanto, S N

1996-07-01

107

DEER-Stitch: Combining three- and four-pulse DEER measurements for high sensitivity, deadtime free data  

Science.gov (United States)

Over approximately the last 15 years the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique of double electron electron resonance (DEER) has attracted considerable attention since it allows for the precise measurement of the dipole-dipole coupling between radicals and thus can lead to distance information between pairs of radicals separated by up to ca. 8 nm. The "deadtime free" 4-pulse DEER sequence is widely used but can suffer from poor sensitivity if the electron spin-echo decays too quickly to allow collection of a sufficiently long time trace. In this paper we present a method which takes advantage of the much greater sensitivity that the 3-pulse sequence offers over the 4-pulse sequence since the measured electron spin-echo intensity (for equal sequence lengths) is greater. By combining 3- and 4-pulse DEER time traces using a method coined DEER-Stitch (DEERS) accurate dipole-dipole coupling measurements can be made which combine the sensitivity of the 3-pulse DEER sequence with the deadtime free advantage of the 4-pulse DEER sequence. To develop the DEER-Stitch method three systems were measured: a semi-rigid bis-nitroxide labeled nanowire, the bis-nitroxide labeled protein CD55 with a distance between labels of almost 8 nm and a dimeric copper amine oxidase from Arthrobacter globiformis (AGAO).

Lovett, J. E.; Lovett, B. W.; Harmer, J.

2012-10-01

108

Morphological Examination of the Siberian Roe Deer Capreolus pygargus in South Korea  

OpenAIRE

This study compare the external morphological characteristics of Korean roe deer inhabit the inland and Jeju island areas and to clarify the morphological differences by the two groups. Also, total of 40 roe deer bodies were collected from road-kill, poaching and injured survey from December 2004 to June 2009. The result showed that there were significant differences between Inland and Jeju roe deer. Jeju roe deer was relatively smaller than Inland roe deer in body mass. Thus, it appeared to ...

Jong-Taek Kim; Woo-Shin Lee; Yong-Su Park; Hong-Shik Oh

2011-01-01

109

CONSERVATION DEVELOPMENT OF TIMOR DEER (Cervus timorensis) AS COMMERCIAL PURPOSE(WITH OPTIMISTIC RATE ESTIMATION)  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this research was to determine the profit obtained from breeding of Timor deer commercially. This research was done in East Java. Survey method was used to answer the objective. The study location were selected by purposive sampling. Usually deer was develop in conservation area, but because the area was decrease so the number of deer also decrease. Model of deer raising development should be improved not only for conservation but also for commercial purpose. The optimum deer raisi...

Hanani, N.; Nugroho, B. A.; Fanani, Z.; Santoso, S. I.

2012-01-01

110

Estimation of flock/herd-level true Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis prevalence on sheep, beef cattle and deer farms in New Zealand using a novel Bayesian model.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study aimed to estimate the national- and island-level flock/herd true prevalence (HTP) of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in pastoral farmed sheep, beef cattle and deer in New Zealand. A random sample of 238 single- or multi-species farms was selected from a postal surveyed population of 1940 farms. The sample included 162 sheep flocks, 116 beef cattle and 99 deer herds from seven of 16 geographical regions. Twenty animals from each species present on farm were randomly selected for blood and faecal sampling. Pooled faecal culture testing was conducted using a single pool (sheep flocks) or two pools (beef cattle/deer herds) of 20 and 10 samples per pool, respectively. To increase flock/herd-level sensitivity, sera from all 20 animals from culture negative flocks/herds were individually tested by Pourquier(®) ELISA (sheep and cattle) or Paralisa™ (deer). Results were adjusted for sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests using a novel Bayesian latent class model. Outcomes were adjusted by their sampling fractions to obtain HTP estimates at national level. For each species, the posterior probability (POPR) of HTP differences between New Zealand North (NI) and South (SI) Islands was obtained. Across all species, 69% of farms had at least one species test positive. Sheep flocks had the highest HTP estimate (76%, posterior probability interval (PPI) 70-81%), followed by deer (46%, PPI 38-55%) and beef herds (42%, PPI 35-50%). Differences were observed between the two main islands of New Zealand, with higher HTP in sheep and beef cattle flocks/herds in the NI. Sheep flock HTP was 80% in the NI compared with 70% (POPR=0.96) in the SI, while the HTP for beef cattle was 44% in the NI and 38% in the SI (POPR=0.80). Conversely, deer HTP was higher in the SI (54%) than the NI (33%, POPR=0.99). Infection with MAP is endemic at high prevalence in sheep, beef cattle and deer flocks/herds across New Zealand. PMID:25457132

Verdugo, Cristobal; Jones, Geoff; Johnson, Wes; Wilson, Peter; Stringer, Lesley; Heuer, Cord

2014-12-01

111

A deer cult in Buile Suibhne  

OpenAIRE

By saying these words: "Cidh iomdha dom dhamraidh-si " (O'Keeffe, 1913/1996, p. 79) d.l.e. "A mathair na groidhi-si" (ibid.) , at paragraph 40 of the Buile Suibhne, Fer benn, is adressing the same type of spirit as the Tungus do in Anisimov's study "Cosmological concepts of the Peoples of the North", namely Bugady Enintyn. Both are considered a mother and an animal, elk or deer, and both play the same part as guardian of her herds : "The mistress of the earth has a husband--the nameless sheph...

Boucherit, Gilles

2011-01-01

112

An Interdisciplinary Deer and Human Population Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity helps the learner answer the question: "What environmental problems arise due to animal and human overpopulation and what might need to be done to combat these problems?" Learners play a game that simulates population sampling in an imaginary state park. After the game is completed, each park must decide if they are at the carrying capacity for their park or out of equilibrium. Learners write a proposal detailing how they plan to correct their deer population problem and present it to the group (the Department of Natural Resources). This lesson is described as an interdisciplinary unit and includes literature and math curriculum connections.

William J. Webb

2009-01-01

113

Clinical significance of neurocysticercosis in endemic villages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cerebral cysticercosis is the main cause of late-onset epilepsy in most developing countries. Data on the neuroepidemiology of cysticercosis in endemic populations is scarce. In an endemic village on the northern coast of Peru, 49 individuals with neurological symptomatology (41 epileptic and 8 non-epileptic) were screened for antibodies to Taenia solium, using a serum electroimmuno transfer blot assay. Fifteen subjects were seropositive, 14 (34%) of those with epilepsy but only one (13%) of those who were non-epileptic. A history of passing proglottides was associated with positive serology. Thirteen of the 15 seropositive individuals underwent cerebral computed tomography; only 7 (54%) were abnormal. A randomly selected sample of 20 pigs from the village was also tested, and 6 (30%) were seropositive. This study demonstrated the importance of cysticercosis in the aetiology of epilepsy in endemic villages and the close relationship between porcine and human infection

114

Transmission of Elk and Deer Prions to Transgenic Mice†  

OpenAIRE

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal prion disease in deer and elk. Unique among the prion diseases, it is transmitted among captive and free-ranging animals. To facilitate studies of the biology of CWD prions, we generated five lines of transgenic (Tg) mice expressing prion protein (PrP) from Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), denoted Tg(ElkPrP), and two lines of Tg mice expressing PrP common to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), den...

Tamgu?ney, Gu?ltekin; Giles, Kurt; Bouzamondo-bernstein, Essia; Bosque, Patrick J.; Miller, Michael W.; Safar, Jiri; Dearmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

2006-01-01

115

Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk and white-tailed deer to fallow deer by intracerebral route: Final report  

OpenAIRE

Final observations on experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to fallow deer (Dama dama) are reported herein. During the 5-year study, 13 fawns were inoculated intracerebrally with CWD-infected brain material from white-tailed deer (n = 7; Group A) or elk (n = 6; Group B), and 3 other fawns were kept as uninoculated controls (Group C). As described previously, 3 CWD-inoculated deer were euthani...

Hamir, Amir N.; Greenlee, Justin J.; Nicholson, Eric M.; Kunkle, Robert A.; Richt, Juergen A.; Miller, Janice M.; Hall, Mark

2011-01-01

116

Somatic Chromosomes of the Bornean Sambar Deer and Rusa Deer Interspecific Hybrids  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: Hybridization has potential benefits to the Malaysian farmed deer industries in terms of increased growth rate and increased proportion of muscle and an improved alignment of feed supply and annual energy requirement. Species or subspecies of different chromosome constitution could mate to produce healthy hybrid offspring in a normal ratio of males and females. If any of the hybrid offspring were sterile, the sterile offspring would be the heterogametic offspring. The study...

Ismail Idris; Saidi Moin

2009-01-01

117

A method for testing handgun bullets in deer  

CERN Document Server

Using service handguns to test bullets in deer is problematic because of velocity loss with range and accuracy giving sub-optimal shot placement. An alternate method is presented using a scoped muzzleloader shooting saboted handgun bullets to allow precise (within 2" in many cases) shot placement for studying terminal ballistics in a living target. Deer are baited to a known range and path obstructions are used to place the deer broadside to the shooter. Muzzleloading powder charges provide a combination of muzzle velocity and velocity loss due to air resistance for a given ballistic coefficient that produce impact velocities corresponding to typical pistol velocities. With readily available sabots, this approach allows for testing of terminal ballistics of .355, .357, .40, .429, .45, and .458 caliber bullets with two muzzleloaders (.45 and .50 caliber). Examples are described demonstrating the usefulness of testing handgun bullets in deer for acoustic shooting event reconstruction, understanding tissue damag...

Courtney, M; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael

2007-01-01

118

Serologic profile of exotic deer at Point Reyes National Seashore.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serotests were conducted on axis (Axis axis) and fallow (Dama dama) deer at Point Reyes National Seashore to determine their status with respect to nine diseases enzootic to the native black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) or to resident dairy cattle. In the exotic deer, the proportion of animals that were seropositive included: anaplasmosis, 35%; bluetongue, 48%; brucellosis, 0%; bovine viral diarrhea, 2%; infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, 3%; leptospirosis, 7%; parainfluenza-3, 49%; toxoplasmosis, 8%; and Q fever, 51%. The prevalence of antibodies among a small sample of the black-tailed deer included anaplasmosis, 100%; toxoplasmosis, 29%; and Q fever, 57%. The antibody prevalences in a sample of dairy cattle in the area included anaplasmosis, 19%; toxoplasmosis, 8%; and Q fever, 100%. PMID:521370

Riemann, H P; Ruppanner, R; Willeberg, P; Franti, C E; Elliott, W H; Fisher, R A; Brunetti, O A; Aho, J H; Howarth, J A; Behymer, D E

1979-11-01

119

Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission  

Science.gov (United States)

The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer ( Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission.

Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji

2008-03-01

120

Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela  

OpenAIRE

In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species) and malaria antigen (Pla...

Carmen Elena Contreras; Marcos De Donato; María Ana Rivas; Hectorina Rodulfo; Robert Mora; María Eulalia Batista; Norka Marcano

2011-01-01

121

Distribution of Mycobacterium ulcerans in Buruli Ulcer Endemic and Non-Endemic Aquatic Sites in Ghana  

OpenAIRE

Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, is an emerging environmental bacterium in Australia and West Africa. The primary risk factor associated with Buruli ulcer is proximity to slow moving water. Environmental constraints for disease are shown by the absence of infection in arid regions of infected countries. A particularly mysterious aspect of Buruli ulcer is the fact that endemic and non-endemic villages may be only a few kilometers apart within the same watershed. Rec...

Williamson, Heather R.; Benbow, Mark E.; Nguyen, Khoa D.; Beachboard, Dia C.; Kimbirauskas, Ryan K.; Mcintosh, Mollie D.; Quaye, Charles; Ampadu, Edwin O.; Boakye, Daniel; Merritt, Richard W.; Small, Pamela L. C.

2008-01-01

122

Ehrlichia ewingii Infection in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

OpenAIRE

Two closely related zoonotic ehrlichiae, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. ewingii, are transmitted by Amblyomma americanum, the lone star tick. Because white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are critical hosts for all mobile stages of A. americanum and are important vertebrate reservoirs of E. chaffeensis, we investigated whether deer may be infected with E. ewingii, a cause of granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis in humans and dogs. To test for E. ewingii infection, we used polymerase chain reacti...

Yabsley, Michael J.; Varela, Andrea S.; Tate, Cynthia M.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Stallknecht, David E.; Little, Susan E.; Davidson, William R.

2002-01-01

123

Do Père David's Deer Lose Memories of Their Ancestral Predators?  

OpenAIRE

Whether prey retains antipredator behavior after a long period of predator relaxation is an important question in predator-prey evolution. Père David's deer have been raised in enclosures for more than 1200 years and this isolation provides an opportunity to study whether Père David's deer still respond to the cues of their ancestral predators or to novel predators. We played back the sounds of crows (familiar sound) and domestic dogs (familiar non-predators), of tigers and wolves (ancestra...

Li, Chunwang; Yang, Xiaobo; Ding, Yuhua; Zhang, Linyuan; Fang, Hongxia; Tang, Songhua; Jiang, Zhigang

2011-01-01

124

Red deer habitat management in the Highlands: Consequences for invertebrates  

OpenAIRE

In Scotland, the well documented increase in the red deer population is widely regarded as a cause for concern, due to potentially detrimental impacts of grazing. This has lead to conflicting objectives between conservation and deer managers, despite the extent of the increase and the resulting impact both being hotly debated issues. Upland heather moorland is of international conservation importance while woodland habitats are some of the most stable ecosystems in anthropogeni...

Tinsley-marshall, Paul James

2011-01-01

125

Melatonin Promotes Superovulation in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon)  

OpenAIRE

In this study, the effects of melatonin (MT) on superovulation and reproductive hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and PRL) were investigated in female sika deer. Different doses (40 or 80 mg/animal) of melatonin were subcutaneously implanted into deer before the breeding season. Exogenous melatonin administration significantly elevated the serum FSH levels at the time of insemination compared with levels in control animals. During superovulation...

Liang Wang; Zhi-Yong Zhuo; Wen-Qing Shi; Dun-Xian Tan; Chao Gao; Xiu-Zhi Tian; Lu Zhang; Guang-Bin Zhou; Shi-En Zhu; Peng Yun; Guo-Shi Liu

2014-01-01

126

Deer - a bioindicator for environmental pollution from nuclear accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the possibilities, the preconditions and limitations of using roe deer as biological indicators for the monitoring of anthropogenic and geogenic airborne materials as well as undesirable persistent materials. A practical example is introduced: Determination of the regional distribution of the radioactive cesium fallout in Bavaria after the Chernobyl accident and the fate of these radioisotopes in the roe deer game. The introduction of an ecological half-life for the radioisotopes of cesium is suggested. (orig.)

127

An Assessment of Agricultural Damage Caused by Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L.)and Fallow Deer (Dama dama L.) in Southwest England  

OpenAIRE

The impact of deer grazing on agricultural grassland and cereal crops was assessed at two locations with medium to high deer densities in the Exmoor area of southwest England. Red deer impact on early spring grazing was measured at one site by comparing samples of herbage cut from inside and outside deer-proof exclosure cages, just prior to turn out of livestock, on 1 March 1989. Fallow deer impact on first-cut silage grass production was similarly measured using exclosure cages at a second s...

Charles John Wilson; Alan Britton; Roger Symes

2009-01-01

128

Effect of pelvic suspension on the instrumental meat quality characteristics of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) venison.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of pelvic and Achilles tendon suspension of red and fallow deer carcasses on meat quality parameters were compared. Venison was evaluated from red deer stags (n=14), bucks (n=14) and fallow deer does (n=10) between 12 and 36months old. Immediately after slaughter, carcasses were split down the dorsal midline and assigned to one of the two hanging methods and pH and core body temperature measured. Twenty-four hours post-slaughter muscles were excised. Venison from fallow deer and red deer stags pelvic-suspended had significantly lower (Pdeer industry to increase tenderness of venison. PMID:24922603

Hutchison, C L; Mulley, R C; Wiklund, E; Flesch, J S; Sims, K

2014-10-01

129

Paratuberculosis in cattle and free-living exotic deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paratuberculosis was studied among dairy cows and exotic deer that shared grazing areas at Point Reyes National Seashore, California. Of the 10 dairy herds tested, 5 (50%) were infected with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (based on results of fecal culture). Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was cultured from 9 (8.7%) of the 103 bovine fecal samples and from 4 (3.9%) of the 103 bovine rectal mucosa scapings tested. Of 89 fecal samples from 52 axis deer (Axis axis) and 37 fallow deer (Dama dama), 5 (9.6%) and 3 (8.1%), respectively, contained M paratuberculosis. Culture of intestinal necropsy samples from the same deer indicated that 3 (5.8%) of the axis deer and 2 (5.4%) of the fallow deer were infected with M paratuberculosis. The cows were tested for serum antibodies by the complement-fixation test and by radioimmunoassay. Of 95 sera tested by complement fixation, 15 (15.8%) were positive, as were 15 (14.7%) of 102 sera tested by radioimmunoassay. Culture results and serologic test results were compared on a herd basis. PMID:500426

Riemann, H; Zaman, M R; Ruppanner, R; Aalund, O; Jorgensen, J B; Worsaae, H; Behymer, D

1979-04-15

130

Radiological surveys of deer harvests on the Oak Ridge Reservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rapidly increasing number of deer/vehicle collisions on the Oak Ridge Reservation and contiguous lands resulted in the need for an aggressive method of reducing the deer population. Managed hunts on the reservation was the method chosen for this reduction, and the Oak Ridge Wildlife Management Area was established in November 1984. Because of possible radiological contamination of the deer herd from the three major nuclear installations on the reservation, a rigorous radiological survey of all harvested deer was deemed necessary to ensure that successful hunters or their families would not be exposed to excess radiation dose from the consumption of venison from the managed hunts. Data collected from previous vehicle-killed deer showed the possibility of contamination from 137Cs, 90Sr, 60Co, and 75Se. Methodology for 90Sr screening at a 0.25-mSv commitment required special considerations for field analysis since 90Sr decays by beta emission. A versatile data-base program was established with a personal computer system to handle the copious data related to both radiological and biological parameters collected during the harvest. The field screen values were verified by subsequent laboratory analyses utilizing Cerenkov counting. These verification analyses proved the utility of the field methodology for 90Sr detection in deer bones at the 1 Bq/g screening leveling level

131

Melatonin Promotes Superovulation in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the effects of melatonin (MT on superovulation and reproductive hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and PRL were investigated in female sika deer. Different doses (40 or 80 mg/animal of melatonin were subcutaneously implanted into deer before the breeding season. Exogenous melatonin administration significantly elevated the serum FSH levels at the time of insemination compared with levels in control animals. During superovulation, the serum LH levels in donor sika deer reached their highest values (7.1 ± 2.04 ng/mL at the point of insemination, compared with the baseline levels (4.98 ± 0.07 ng/mL in control animals. This high level of LH was sustained until the day of embryo recovery. In contrast, the serum levels of PRL in the 80 mg of melatonin-treated group were significantly lower than those of control deer. The average number of corpora lutea in melatonin-treated deer was significantly higher than that of the control (p < 0.05. The average number of embryos in the deer treated with 40 mg of melatonin was higher than that of the control; however, this increase did not reach significant difference (p > 0.05, which may be related to the relatively small sample size. In addition, embryonic development in melatonin-treated groups was delayed.

Liang Wang

2014-07-01

132

Arterial thoracic vascularization in some deer species: pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) and axis deer (Axis axis).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the arterial distributions of the aortic arches of three deer species (Axis axis, Ozotoceros bezoarticus and Mazama gouazoubira) were described. The animals were dissected immediately after being found dead. Latex injection method was used to observe the vascularization of the thorax. The branching pattern of the arteries of the thoracic aorta in O. bezoarticus was similar to domestic ruminants. In the M. gouazoubira and A. axis, there were no bicarotid trunk. Interestingly, the first branch of the brachiocephalic trunk was the left costocervical trunk in A. axis. Then, brachiocephalic trunk was divided into right and left subclavian arteries. M. gouazoubira and A. axis in contrast to O. bezoarticus were different when compared with other ruminants, and the absence of bicarotid trunk was more striking than previous reports. PMID:24611999

Pérez, W; Erdo?an, S

2014-12-01

133

Dealing with coal bursts at Deer Creek  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deer Creek mine, Utah, is prone to coal bursts because of deep cover and sandstone channels. Bursts have occurred on gate pillars and at the longwall face during development. The introduction of a two entry gateroad system with 9-m-wide yield pillars has been a major factor in controlling and minimizing gate pillar bursts, but the pillars themselves experienced bursts at depths of 550-610 m. Computer-backed analyses were used to investigate the stresses associated with face bursts in a longwall panel at 610 m. These investigations are reported and models used described. Satisfactory mitigation of higher tailgate/face stresses beyond cover depths of 610 to 670 m may be difficult. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Agapito, J.F.T.; Goodrich, R.R.; Moon, M. [Agapito Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)

1997-07-01

134

DEER-Stitch: combining three- and four-pulse DEER measurements for high sensitivity, deadtime free data.  

OpenAIRE

Over approximately the last 15 years the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique of double electron electron resonance (DEER) has attracted considerable attention since it allows for the precise measurement of the dipole-dipole coupling between radicals and thus can lead to distance information between pairs of radicals separated by up to ca. 8 nm. The "deadtime free" 4-pulse DEER sequence is widely used but can suffer from poor sensitivity if the electron spin-echo decays too quickly...

Lovett, Je; Lovett, Bw; Harmer, J.

2012-01-01

135

Therapy of endemic goiter and hypothyroidism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Successful treatment of endemic goitre depends on the correct diagnosis and the comprehension of the pathophysiologic changes as well. Several criteria, e.g. anamnestic data, general clinical condition, local symptoms and signs, certainty of diagnosis, contraindications, rates of success, and side effects, determine the particular form of therapy (suppression with thyroid hormones, surgical resection, radio-iodine). The decision criteria are discussed. Prophylaxis of recurrent goitre with either thyroid hormones or iodine salts is necessary after successful treatment. Some endemic goitres behave like either hyper- or hypothyroidism. Treatment with thyroid hormones of patients with latent hyperthyroidism is senseless and dangerous, whereas other methods of treatment may be applied. An unequivocal indication for treatment exists in patients with latent hypothyroidism accompanied by goitre, but not in all patients without goitre. Hormonal replacement therapy of manifest hypothydroidism is simple, but long term success is not achieved in all patients.

Luft, D.

1983-09-12

136

Therapy of endemic goiter and hypothyroidism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Successful treatment of endemic goitre depends on the correct diagnosis and the comprehension of the pathophysiologic changes as well. Several criteria, e.g. anamnestic data, general clinical condition, local symptoms and signs, certainty of diagnosis, contraindications, rates of success, and side effects, determine the particular form of therapy (suppression with thyroid hormones, surgical resection, radio-iodine). The decision criteria are discussed. Prophylaxis of recurrent goitre with either thyroid hormones or iodine salts is necessary after successful treatment. Some endemic goitres behave like either hyper- or hypothyroidism. Treatment with thyroid hormones of patients with latent hyperthyroidism is senseless and dangerous, whereas other methods of treatment may be applied. An unequivocal indication for treatment exists in patients with laent hypothyroidism accompanied by goitre, but not in all patients without goitre. Hormonal replacement therapy of manifest hypothydroidism is simple, but long term success is not achieved in all patients. (orig.)

137

Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity  

OpenAIRE

Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diver...

Wanger, Thomas C.; Wielgoss, Arno C.; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W.; Sodhi, Navjot S.; Tscharntke, Teja

2010-01-01

138

Endemic pemphigus over a century: Part II  

OpenAIRE

Background: Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) is an autoimmune disease, classically occurring in a restricted geographic area. Foci of EPF have been described in several Central and South American countries, often affecting young people and Amerindians, with some female predilection. Although most American EPF cases have been documented in Brazil, cases have been reported in Peru, Paraguay, El Salvador and Venezuela. An additional variant of EPF has been described in El Bagre, Colombia, (El B...

Ana María Abréu-Vélez; Ana Maria Roselino; Howard, Michael S.; Messias Reason, Iara J.

2010-01-01

139

Wolf, Canis lupus, visits towhite-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, summer ranges: Optimal foraging?  

Science.gov (United States)

We tested whether Wolf (Canis lupus) visits to individual female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) summer ranges during 2003 and 2004 in northeastern Minnesota were in accord with optimal-foraging theory. Using GPS collars with 10- to 30-minute location attempts on four Wolves and five female deer, plus eleven VHF-collared female deer in the Wolves' territory, provided new insights into the frequency of Wolf visits to summer ranges of female deer. Wolves made a mean 0.055 visits/day to summer ranges of deer three years and older, significantly more than their 0.032 mean visits/day to ranges of two-year-old deer, which generally produce fewer fawns, and most Wolf visits to ranges of older deer were much longer than those to ranges of younger deer. Because fawns comprise the major part of the Wolf's summer diet, this Wolf behavior accords with optimal-foraging theory.

Demma, D.J.; Mech, L.D.

2009-01-01

140

High prevalence of Theileria sp. in wild Chinese Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus) in South Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild Chinese Water Deer exist in large numbers in Northeast Asia, including South Korea. The deer population is so widespread that they are common even in urban areas, resulting in increased contact with humans and domestic animals. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of Theileria sp. infection in wild Chinese Water Deer in South Korea. Using biomolecular techniques, blood samples taken from 18 wild Chinese Water Deer were examined. Thirteen of the 18 samples (72%) tested positive for infection. In 11 of the deer, a Theileria sp. was detected that is nearly identical to the highly pathogenic Theileria sp. reported in China. Theileria ovis and Theileria capreoli were also detected individually in two deer. These results indicate that there may be a high prevalence of Theileria sp. infection in wild Chinese Water Deer, and that the deer may act as a reservoir for the Theileria sp. infection of domestic animals. PMID:19577370

Han, Jae-Ik; Jang, Hye-Jin; Lee, Sook-Jin; Na, Ki-Jeong

2009-10-14

141

78 FR 44148 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Antietam, Monocacy, Manassas White-tailed Deer...  

Science.gov (United States)

...use of sharpshooting with firearms, possible capture and euthanasia to reduce deer populations to the target density and maintain...use of sharpshooting with firearms, possible capture, and euthanasia to reduce deer populations to a desirable level and...

2013-07-23

142

Experimental Infection of White-Tailed Deer with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Etiologic Agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis  

OpenAIRE

Serologic and molecular evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been demonstrated in white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus), and deer are an important host for the tick vector Ixodes scapularis. In this study, we describe experimental infection of WTD with A. phagocytophilum. We inoculated four WTD with a human isolate of A. phagocytophilum propagated in tick cells. Two additional deer served as negative controls. All inoculated deer developed antibodies (titers, ?64) to A. phago...

Tate, Cynthia M.; Mead, Daniel G.; Luttrell, M. Page; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.; Davidson, William R.

2005-01-01

143

Impacts of endangered Key deer hervivory on imperiled pine rocklands: a conservation dilemma?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the lower Florida Keys, endangered Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium herbivory, along with fire, can affect pine rocklands, an endangered plant community. We compared pineland vegetation from three studies over approximately 50 years on four islands with either high or low deer density (historical analysis. We also compared extant vegetation samples between two islands with high or low deer density, which contained pinelands burned 10 years and 14 years prior to sampling and control areas (unburned for > 50yr. In addition, experimental deer exclosures and control plots established in pineland were prescribe burned and analyzed for deer effects on an island with high density of Key deer. The historical analysis suggests that, over time, deer-preferred plant species declined while less-preferred species increased, regardless of fire history on islands. The extant vegetation analysis suggests that fire and Key deer herbivory both reduce hardwood plant density and growth. Densities of deer-preferred woody species were higher on an island with low deer density than on an island with high deer density in burn treatments, but relatively similar in control areas. On the high deer density island, a fire effect was evident in that the control area had higher densities of woody species than burned areas, and herbaceous species richness was higher in the control area, indicating a possible refuge from deer herbivory. In deer exclosures, preferred woody species and herbaceous species tended to increase after fire, but decrease in adjacent open plots. Results suggest that Key deer herbivory, along with fire, shapes pine rockland plant communities, and that overbrowsing might have substantial impacts on preferred herbaceous and woody species in pinelands. Therefore, efforts could be confounded in managing both the endangered Key deer and the endangered pine rocklands that they affect.

Barrett, M. A.

2006-12-01

144

Newly Recognized Herpesvirus Causing Malignant Catarrhal Fever in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

OpenAIRE

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was diagnosed by clinical signs and lesions in five out of six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a North American zoo. The clinical signs and histopathological lesions in these deer were typical of MCF. Antibody to an epitope conserved among the MCF viruses was detected in the sera collected from the deer. PCR failed to amplify viral sequences from DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and/or spleens of the deer with primers specific ...

Li, Hong; Dyer, Neil; Keller, Janice; Crawford, Timothy B.

2000-01-01

145

Reproductive biology of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus): a review  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) is a South American grazing deer which is in extreme danger of extinction. Very little is known about the biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, most information has not been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, and is only available in local publications, theses, etc. Therefore, our aim was to update and summarize the available information regarding the reproductive biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, in most sections, we have als...

Olazabal Daniel; Villagrán Matías; Bielli Alejandro; González-Pensado Solana; Ungerfeld Rodolfo; Pérez William

2008-01-01

146

Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) courtship and mating behavior  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus 1758), is a South American grazing deer categorized as "near threatened". However, knowledge about pampas deer behavior including courtship and mating is scarce and incomplete. The aim of this study was to characterize the courtship and mating behavior of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), an endangered species from South America. Methods We performed focal observations of 5 males allocated at the Estación de Cría de F...

Morales-Piñeyrúa Jéssica T; Ungerfeld Rodolfo

2012-01-01

147

Fatty Acid Profiles and Cholesterol Composition of Venison from Farmed Deer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is important to evaluate venison characteristics as a new high quality red meat in the meat marketing system. This information is vital to ensure their commercial success and dietary benefits. The aim of this study is to determine the venison quality from farmed deer according to cuts or muscles based on fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content and to do comparative study on venison quality between species of farmed deer (rusa, sambar, fallow and imported red deer and feeding regimens, i.e., grass-fed vs concentrate-fed venison. The samples of venison were derived from javan rusa (Cervus timorensis russa, moluccan rusa (Cervus timorensis moluccensis, sambar (Cervus unicolor brookei, fallow (Dama dama and imported red deer (Cervus elaphus. Moluccan rusa and red deer were grass-fed deer. Javan rusa, sambar and fallow deer were concentrate-fed deer. Cholesterol content in Longissimus Dorsi (LD muscles of sambar, fallow and rusa deer were 75.36, 76.61 and 77.58 mg/100g of fresh venison, respectively. Cholesterol content in Biceps Femoris (BF muscles of moluccan rusa, sambar, fallow and red deer were 56.61, 59.26, 86.37 and 98.44 mg/100g of fresh venison, respectively. Concentrate-fed deer LD and Psoas Major (PM muscles show higher C18:2 (n-6 than grass-fed deer. Grass-fed rusa deer shows the highest C18:3 (n- 3 percentages in PM muscle. Grass-fed rusa and red deer gave an ideal n-6:n-3 ratio of less than 5. Species of deer did not influence n-6:n-3 ratio and fatty acid composition in venison. Feeding regimens (grass-fed vs concentrate-fed significantly (p< 0.05 influence n-6:n-3 ratio, fatty acid profiles and cholesterol content in the venison of farmed deer in this study.

N.A. Norfarizan-Hanoon

2007-01-01

148

Environmental and strategic uncertainty in common property management : the case of Scottish red deer  

OpenAIRE

The range of red deer populations in the Scottish Highlands can cover several different landholdings (estates), many of which derive their income primarily from the private hunting (stalking) of stags. The deer belong to nobody and their seasonal movement does not respect the boundaries of individual estates, but a 'rule of capture' does apply as, once shot, the deer become the property of the estate owner. This paper argues that deer populations would best be managed as a common property res...

Bullock, Craig

1999-01-01

149

Can we reconstruct deer browsing history and how? Lessons from Gaultheria shallon Pursh  

OpenAIRE

We identified and analysed browsing signatures left by Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) on Salal (Gaultheria shallon) to reconstruct deer browsing history. Radial growth analyses showed negative abrupt growth changes on islands with deer probably linked to defoliation. Deer browsing pressure was best assessed by the incidence of morphological changes caused by browsing in section form, lobes, pith form, pith position or the presence of decaying wood and by changes in st...

Vila, Bruno; Guibal, Fre?de?ric; Torre, Franck; Martin, Jean-louis

2005-01-01

150

Relationship between maximum leaf photosynthesis, nitrogen content and specific leaf area in balearic endemic and non-endemic mediterranean species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gas exchange parameters, leaf nitrogen content and specific leaf area (SLA) were measured in situ on 73 C3 and five C4 plant species in Mallorca, west Mediterranean, to test whether species endemic to the Balearic Islands differed from widespread, non-endemic Mediterranean species and crops in their leaf traits and trait inter-relationships. Endemic species differed significantly from widespread species and crops in several parameters; in particular, photosynthetic capacity, on an area basis (A), was 20 % less in endemics than in non-endemics. Similar differences between endemics and non-endemics were found in parameters such as SLA and leaf nitrogen content per area (Na). Nevertheless, most of the observed differences were found only within the herbaceous deciduous species. These could be due to the fact that most of the non-endemic species within this group have adapted to ruderal areas, while none of the endemics occupies this kind of habitat. All the species-including the crops-showed a positive, highly significant correlation between photosynthetic capacity on a mass basis (Am), leaf nitrogen content on a mass basis (Nm) and SLA. However, endemic species had a lower Am for any given SLA and Nm. Hypotheses are presented to explain these differences, and their possible role in reducing the distribution of many endemic Balearic species is discussed. PMID:12805082

Gulias, Javier; Flexas, Jaume; Mus, Maurici; Cifre, Josep; Lefi, Elkadri; Medrano, Hipolito

2003-08-01

151

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii has not been detected previously in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We tested whole blood from 60 white-tailed deer for Bartonella spp. DNA; three (5%) were positive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. This is the first detection of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in white-tailed deer. PMID:23568932

Chitwood, M Colter; Maggi, Ricardo G; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Toliver, Marcée; DePerno, Christopher S

2013-04-01

152

VACCINATION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER WITH MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS BACILLUS CALMETTE GUERIN (BCG)  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1994, a focus of M. bovis infection in white-tailed deer was identified in Michigan. This represents the first known reservoir of M. bovis in free-ranging wildlife in the United. Current control measures include decreasing deer density and limitations on feeding and baiting of deer. Another possi...

153

VACINATION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER WITH MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS BACILLUS CALMETTE GUERIN (BCG)  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1994, a focus of M. bovis infection in white-tailed deer was identified in Michigan. This represents the first known reservoir of M. bovis in free-ranging wildlife in the United. Current control measures include decreasing deer density and limitations on feeding and baiting of deer. Another possi...

154

ORAL BACILLE CALMETTE-GUERIN (BCG) VACCINATION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER AGAINST BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1994, a focus of M. bovis infection in white-tailed deer was identified in Michigan. This represents the first known reservoir of M. bovis in free-ranging wildlife in the United. Current control measures include decreasing deer density and limitations on feeding and baiting of deer. Another possi...

155

75 FR 61609 - Establishment and Modification of Class E Airspace; Deer Park, WA  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Modification of Class E Airspace; Deer Park, WA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...and amend existing Class E airspace at Deer Park, WA, to accommodate aircraft using...Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Deer Park, WA. This will improve the...

2010-10-06

156

The Netherlands strain of BTV serotype 8 in white-tailed deer  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the susceptibility of U.S. white-tailed deer to the European strain of BTV-8 (EU-BTV-8) isolated in The Netherlands, eight seronegative deer were injected subcutaneously in the neck and intradermally in the inner left leg. Two deer were sham inoculated to serve as uninfected controls an...

157

Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in roe deer from Spain  

Science.gov (United States)

Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is an important game animal in Spain. Sera from 278 roe deer sera from eight areas in mainland Spain were assayed for antibodies to T. gondii by modified agglutination test (MAT). Titers of 1:25 or higher were found in 109 (39.2%) of 278 deer. No significant difference...

158

Vaccination with BM86, subolesin and akirin protective antigens for the control of tick infestations in white tailed deer and red deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are hosts for different tick species and tick-borne pathogens and play a role in tick dispersal and maintenance in some regions. These factors stress the importance of controlling tick infestations in deer and several methods such as culling and acaricide treatment have been used. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective alternative for tick control that reduced cattle tick infestations and tick-borne pathogens prevalence while reducing the use of acaricides. Our hypothesis is that vaccination with vector protective antigens can be used for the control of tick infestations in deer. Herein, three experiments were conducted to characterize (1) the antibody response in red deer immunized with recombinant BM86, the antigen included in commercial tick vaccines, (2) the antibody response and control of cattle tick infestations in white-tailed deer immunized with recombinant BM86 or tick subolesin (SUB) and experimentally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and (3) the antibody response and control of Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. field tick infestations in red deer immunized with mosquito akirin (AKR), the SUB ortholog and candidate protective antigen against different tick species and other ectoparasites. The results showed that deer produced an antibody response that correlated with the reduction in tick infestations and was similar to other hosts vaccinated previously with these antigens. The overall vaccine efficacy was similar between BM86 (E=76%) and SUB (E=83%) for the control of R. microplus infestations in white-tailed deer. The field trial in red deer showed a 25-33% (18-40% when only infested deer were considered) reduction in tick infestations, 14-20 weeks after the first immunization. These results demonstrated that vaccination with vector protective antigens could be used as an alternative method for the control of tick infestations in deer to reduce tick populations and dispersal in regions where deer are relevant hosts for these ectoparasites. PMID:22079077

Carreón, Diana; de la Lastra, José M Pérez; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Boadella, Mariana; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Villar, Margarita; Gortázar, Christian; Reglero, Manuel; Villarreal, Ricardo; de la Fuente, José

2012-01-01

159

Model for predicting 90Sr levels in mule deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model was developed to estimate the strontium-90 levels in male mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) from known 90Sr intake rates. The model was formulated on results from a study on the effects of age and season on Sr kinetics in mule deer. Captive deer of various ages, at selected times throughout the year, were given acute oral doses of 85SrCl2 and whole body counted to determine the retention function. A two-component exponential equation was used to mathematically describe the retention of 85Sr. The average for the slopes of the short component (1.09 day-1) corresponded very closely with the mean retention time for insoluble material in the gastrointestinal tract. For male deer, the value of the fractional intercept of the long component generally increased with age. The fractional intercepts also varied with the time of year the deer was administered the 85Sr, ranging from an average of 0.0539 during antler dormancy to 0.154 during periods of antler growth. The average of the observed values for the slope of the long component was 0.00365 day-1 for all deer. For the bucks, the slope of the long component was observed to decrease with age at time of spiking and to vary from a minimum for those spiked during antler dormancy to a maximum for those spiked during the antler growth period. There were no apparent effects of age and season on the kinetics of Sr in female deer. The model wkinetics of Sr in female deer. The model was developed to describe the uptake and retention of chronically ingested Sr. Due to the variations in the fractional intercept and slope of the long component, both associated with skeletal bone remodeling, the model utilized varying parameters. The predicted values were compared with those observed in a wild deer population and the close agreement added credibility to the coefficients of the total body retention equations utilized in the model

160

Polonium assimilation and retention in mule deer and pronghorn antelope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Excretion kinetics and tissue distribution of polonium-210 in mule deer and pronghorn were studied. Each animal in a captive herd of 7 mule deer and 2 pronghorn received an intraruminal injection of 4.4 ?Ci of polonium chloride. Feces and urine were collected periodically over a 43-day period and daily excretion rate for each pathway was regressed as a function of time. Assimilation fractions of 0.40 and 0.51 were calculated for mule deer (n=2) and 0.60 for a pronghorn. Body burden retention functions were calculated from integrated excretion rate functions. Polonium burdens in muscle, liver, and kidney were calculated as a fraction of body burden from serially-sacrificed animals. Background tissue burdens in mule deer were comparable to those of other ruminants reported in the literature. Hypothetical cases were assumed which combined feeding rate of mule deer, forage concentrations of polonium, retention function, tissue burden fraction, and human intake to estimate human radiation dose. 26 references

161

Melatonin promotes superovulation in sika deer (Cervus nippon).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the effects of melatonin (MT) on superovulation and reproductive hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and PRL) were investigated in female sika deer. Different doses (40 or 80 mg/animal) of melatonin were subcutaneously implanted into deer before the breeding season. Exogenous melatonin administration significantly elevated the serum FSH levels at the time of insemination compared with levels in control animals. During superovulation, the serum LH levels in donor sika deer reached their highest values (7.1±2.04 ng/mL) at the point of insemination, compared with the baseline levels (4.98±0.07 ng/mL) in control animals. This high level of LH was sustained until the day of embryo recovery. In contrast, the serum levels of PRL in the 80 mg of melatonin-treated group were significantly lower than those of control deer. The average number of corpora lutea in melatonin-treated deer was significantly higher than that of the control (pdeer treated with 40 mg of melatonin was higher than that of the control; however, this increase did not reach significant difference (p>0.05), which may be related to the relatively small sample size. In addition, embryonic development in melatonin-treated groups was delayed. PMID:25007067

Wang, Liang; Zhuo, Zhi-Yong; Shi, Wen-Qing; Tan, Dun-Xian; Gao, Chao; Tian, Xiu-Zhi; Zhang, Lu; Zhou, Guang-Bin; Zhu, Shi-En; Yun, Peng; Liu, Guo-Shi

2014-01-01

162

Discounted Deer Quality Value as a Criterion for Deer Management Decisions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Discounted cash flow analysis is a standard financial tool that considers the time value of money and calculates the present value of a future sum of money. A model was developed using the same concept to estimate discounted deer quality value of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus herd based on the value and survival rate(s by sex, age. These values are discounted, using market interest rate as the discount rate and as the measure of the time value. The model was used to determine the optimum age for harvest of antlered bucks in commercial hunting operations. Based on discount rate, value by age and quality, and survival rates, optimum harvest age varied from 1.5 years to 5.5 years. Survival rate (s was fundamental in determination of optimal harvest ages. The model was also used to examine the feasibility of management practices aimed at increasing or improving herd condition. Assuming a discount rate of 10% and increasing values for bucks ranging from 1.5 to 5.5 years of age, the optimum harvest ages produced ranged from 5.5 years when s ? 80% and 1.5 years when s < 60%.

Thomas James Straka

2011-06-01

163

Removal of cesium from red deer meat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect was studied of marinading on the reduction of cesium radionuclide activity in red deer meat contaminated by ingestion of feed containing 134Cs+137Cs from radioactive fallout following the Chernobyl accident. Two types of marinade were studied, viz., a vinegar infusion and a vinegar infusion with an addition of vegetables and spices. The meat was chopped to cubes of about 1.5 cm in size and the marinading process took place at temperatures of 5 and 11 degC. The drop of cesium content in the meat was determined by gamma spectrometry at given time intervals. The replacement of the marinade and the duration of the process were found to maximally affect efficiency. If the solution was not replaced, about 80% of cesium radionuclides were removed after seven hours of marinading. With one replacement of the infusion the drop in 134Cs+137Cs radioactivity amounted to up to 90% after seven hours of marinading. No effects were shown of vegetable additions to the vinegar infusion and of the change in temperature from 5 to 11 degC on the efficiency of the process. (author). 3 tabs., 6 refs

164

A new gene mapping resource: Interspecies hybrids between Pere David`s deer (Elaphurus davidianus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three male F{sub 1} hybrids between Pere David`s deer and red deer were mated to red deer to produce 143 backcross calves. The pedigrees are a rare example of a fertile hybrid between evolutionarily divergent species. We examined the use of these families for genetic mapping of evolutionarily conserved (Type I) loci by testing for genetic linkage between five species-specific protein variants and 12 conserved DNA probes. Two probes were homologous, and the remainder syntenic, to the protein coding loci in cattle or humans. Using six restriction enzymes, each DNA probe detected one or more restriction fragments specific to Pere David`s deer. Linkage analyses among the species-specific variants placed the loci into four linkage groups within which linkage between adjacent loci and gene order was supported by a LOD > 3. Southern and protein analysis of LDHA and ALB provided identical segregation data. These linkage groups were consistent with the cattle gene map and provide new information for comparing the gene maps of ruminants, humans and mice. The deer hybrids are an important new resource that can contribute to the comparative analysis of the mammalian genome. 68 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Tate, M.L.; Mathias, H.C.; Penty, J.M.; Hill, D.F. [Univ. of Otago (New Zealand); Fennessy, P.F.; Dodds, K.G. [Invermay Agricultural Centre, Mosgiel (New Zealand)

1995-03-01

165

Toponyms for centers of endemism in Madagascar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A biogeographical model was proposed in 2006 to explain the centers of endemism and the importance of riparian for­est of some watersheds as refuges or dispersal corridors during paleoclimatic oscillations. Here, we consider these geographical features highlighting their biological and socio-cultural importance. We explain the etymology or eponymy of the major rivers of the retreat-dispersal watersheds, i.e., the drainage basins of Bemarivo, Antainambalana, Mangoro, Manampatrana, Mananara South, Mandrare, Onilahy, Mangoky, Tsiribihina, Betsiboka, Maevarano, Sambirano, and Mahavavy North. We propose a toponymy for each of the 15 centers of endemism and highlight their peculiarities. We named the cent­ers of endemism of Vohimarina, Masoala, Analanjirofo, Tanala, Manombo, Anosy, Ranopiso, Karimbola, Mikea, Menabe, Melaky, Sofia, Ampasindava, Ankify, and Ankarana. We illustrate each center of endemism with a flagship spe­cies and report on its natural and cultural histories, and conservation. RÉSUMÉUn modèle biogéographique a été proposé en 2006 pour expliquer les centres d’endémisme de la biodiversité et l’importance des ripisylves de certains bassins versants en tant que refuges ou couloirs de dispersion au cours des oscillations paléoclimatiques. Ici, nous considérons ces dispositifs géographiques en soulignant leur importance biologique et socioculturelle. Dans un premier temps, nous expliquons la toponymie ou l’éponymie des grands fleuves des bassins refuges et de dispersion, à savoir les bassins de la Bemarivo, de l’Antainambalana, du Mangoro, de la Manampatrana, de la Mananara du Sud, du Mandrare, de l’Onilahy, du Mangoky, de la Tsiribihina, de la Betsiboka, de la Maevarano, du Sambirano et de la Mahavavy du Nord. Puis nous proposons une toponymie pour chacun des 17 centres et sous-centres d’endémisme en justifiant leurs particularités. Nous retenons ainsi les centres d’endémisme de Vohimarina, de l’Atsinanana (dont Masoala et Analanjirofo, Tanala, de Manombo, de l’Anosy, d’Ala maika (dont Ranopiso, Karimbola et Mikea, du Menabe, du Melaky, de la Sofia, d’Ampasindava, d’Ankify et de l’Ankarana. Nous illustrons chacun des centres d’endémisme avec une espèce symbolique et rapportons des aspects de son histoire naturelle et culturelle ainsi que de sa conservation.

Eric Mathieu

2012-06-01

166

MRI of the spine in endemic fluorosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate role of MRI in the diagnosis of the spinal lesions in endemic fluorosis. Methods: MRI of the spine in 81 patients with endemic fluorosis, including the cervical spine in 57 patients, thoracic spine in 10, and lumbar spine in 14, were analyzed and compared with X-ray plain films. Results: Fat-containing marrow in the vertebral bodies with endemic fluorosis was decreased and unevenly distributed. Signal intensity of the vertebral bodies was homogeneously or inhomogeneously decreased on T1- and T2- weighted images. The mean values of signal intensity of the cervical vertebral bodies from 3rd to 7th were lower in 32 patients with fluorosis than those in 100 patients of the control group on T1-weighted image (P1-weighted images, the signal intensity similar to yellow bone marrow within OPLL in 63 patients and within OYL in 36 patients was observed in 32 patients (50%) and in 31 patients (86%), respectively. Of the 81 patients, herniation of the intervertebral disk was found in 68 patients (84%), degeneration of und in 68 patients (84%), degeneration of the intervertebral disk was observed in 57 patients (70%), and spinal canal narrowing was found in 75 patients (93%), in which compression of the spinal cord was showed in 63 patients (78%) and pathologic changes within the cord were noted in 28 patients (35%). In 57 patients with fluorosis, MR showed compression of the cervical spinal cord in 48 patients (84.21%), the anterioposterior diameter of the cervical spinal canal on X-ray plain film was either 9 mm or less at any level of the vertebra (indicating the compression of the cervical spinal cord) in 41(71.92%) patients (P=0.115). In 57 patients with fluorosis and 100 patients of control group, intervertebral herniation was observed in 51 patients (89.47%) and 62 patients (62%), respectively (P<0.001), and intervertebral degeneration was noted in 37 patients (64.91%) and 37 patients (37%), respectively (P=0.001). Conclusion: The spine of endemic fluorosis with MR examination may interpret homogeneous or inhomogeneous low signal from the increasing activity of osteoblasts, content and distribution of the calcium fluoride and fat-containing bone marrow within the vertebral body. MR is superior to X-ray plain film in showing the compression and pathologic changes of the spine cord, intervertebral herniation, and intervertebral degeneration. (authors)

167

Abomasal ulcers in captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Abomasal ulceration was noted in 32 of 200 white-tailed deer. Ulceration was most common in the abomasal pylorus and at the abomasal-duodenal junction. Abomasal ulceration was characterized by focal to multifocal, sharply demarcated areas of coagulation necrosis and haemorrhage extending through the mucosa, with fibrin thrombi in mucosal blood vessels of small diameter. Ulcerated areas were often covered by a mixture of mucus, debris and neutrophils. Visible bacteria were not associated with ulcerative lesions. All deer with abomasal ulceration had intercurrent disease, including bacterial pneumonia, enterocolitis, intussusception, chronic diarrhoea, capture myopathy, or experimentally induced tuberculosis. The anatomical distribution of abomasal ulcers in this population of captive white-tailed deer resembled that seen in veal calves. PMID:11578141

Palmer, M V; Waters, W R; Whipple, D L

2001-01-01

168

Isolation and characterisation of antimicrobial peptides from deer neutrophils.  

Science.gov (United States)

The New Zealand deer industry is the largest and most advanced in the world. Antimicrobial peptides have been isolated from a wide range of organisms, but as yet there have been no reports on any from deer. This work investigates the antimicrobial activity and characterisation of peptides isolated from Cervus elaphus blood. It was found that deer blood contains proline/arginine-rich cathelicidins, similar to Bac5 peptides isolated from cattle, sheep and goats. A beta-defensin was also isolated that had a conserved amino acid sequence and mass similar to bovine neutrophil beta-defensins. The cathelicidin displayed strong activity against Gram-negative bacteria, but lesser activity against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast, whilst the beta-defensin showed good activity against all three test organisms. PMID:16011891

Treffers, Charlotte; Chen, Liying; Anderson, Rachel C; Yu, Pak-Lam

2005-08-01

169

A 3-decade dearth of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a wolf (Canis lupus)-dominated ecosystem  

Science.gov (United States)

Some 30 years after wolves (Canis lupus) were implicated in decimating wintering white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a 3000-km2 area of northeastern Minnesota, winter deer still have not recolonized the area. Although habitat in the study area generally remains poor, some regeneration has taken place, and deer have increased adjacent to the area. However, wolf numbers have persisted by preying on moose (Alces alces). We could detect no reason other than wolf predation and deer migration traditions for why wintering deer have not recolonized the area.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

2006-01-01

170

Habitat distribution and diversity of forest plant as feed resources of mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus and barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak in Nature Preserve of west and east Nusakambangan  

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Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to study on habitat distribution and the diversity of forest plants as feed resources of mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus and barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak was conducted in Nature Preserve of Nusakambangan. Preferred Habitat of mouse deer is the dense of bushes with many fallen dry leaves which seemingly they use for their mattress cover as well as the places with bush dense of zalacca palm and generally not far from the river. While the barking deer prefers the dense of bushes on the edges of forest with coarse grass grow there. Forest plants as feed resources for mouse deer and barking deer found in this research consist of 34 species grouped in 21 families.

GOZALI SUMAATMADJA

2003-07-01

171

The Association of BDNF Gene Variants with Behaviour Traits in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon  

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Full Text Available It is widely accepted that Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF is involved in modulating behaviour performance induced by environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to study polymorphisms of the BDNF gene and their relationship with animal behaviour in sika deer (Cervus nippon. About 48 sika deer reared under Ping-Shan-Tang Farm (25 deers and Zhu-Yu-Wan Park (23 deers, Yangzhou City, Jiangsu province, China were observed and blood samples taken to identify BDNF genotypes. Data were subjected to ANOVA analysis to evaluate the link between genotype and animal behaviour traits. After PCR and electrophoresis, polymorphisms were found in two pairs of primers. At primer P-4, AA genotype (26 deer rested significantly less than BB genotype (16 deers (p<0.05. The AA genotype deer also performed significantly more locomotion behaviour (p = 0.001. At the primer P-5, deer of genotypes CC/DD/CD differed significantly in their watching behaviour. Deer of genotype CC performed significantly less resting and self-grooming behaviour than deer of genotypes CD or DD (both p<0.05. The findings suggest that polymorphisms in BDNF may be involved in some aspects of animal behaviour traits especially in the high sensitive sika deer reared for several years in China park.

Wei Wan-Hong

2011-01-01

172

Sarcocystosis in a Barasingha deer (Cervus duvauceli branderi).  

Science.gov (United States)

An adult female hard-ground swamp deer (Barasingha), Cervus duvauceli branderi, was found dead of unknown cause in Kanha National Park. A necropsy of this animal failed to reveal any significant gross lesions. However, histopathologic examination revealed mature sarcocysts of Sarcocystis in the cardiac muscles. The morphology of the sarcocysts was similar to that of different species of Sarcocystis from wild and domestic animals. Final identification of Sarcocystis in this case could not be made. This is the first recorded case of Sarcocystis infection in hard-ground Barasingha deer. PMID:10572876

Shrivastav, A B; Sharma, R K; Chaudhry, R K; Malik, P

1999-09-01

173

Model for predicting strontium-90 levels in mule deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A predictive model was developed which effectively estimated the strontium-90 levels in male mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) from known 90Sr intake rates. The model was formulated on results from a study on the effects of age and season on the kinetics of Sr in mule deer. Captive deer of various ages, at selected times throughout the year, were given acute oral doses of 85SrCl2 and whole body counted to determine the retention function. A two-component exponential equation provided the best mathematical description of the retention of 85Sr. The average for the slopes of the short component (1.09/day) corresponded very closely with the mean retention time for insoluble material in the gastrointestinal tract. For male deer the value of the fractional intercept of the long component generally increased with age. The fractional intercepts also varied with the time of year the deer was administered the 85Sr, ranging from an average of 0.0539 during antler dormancy to 0.154 during periods of antler growth. The average of the observed values for the slope of the long component was 0.00365/day for all deer. For the bucks, the slope of the long component was observed to decrease with age at time of spiking and to vary from a minimum for those spiked during antler dormancy to a maximum for those spiked during the antler growth period. There were no apparent effects of age and season on the kinetics of Sr in female nd season on the kinetics of Sr in female deer. The variations in the fractional intercept and the slope of the long component, both associated with skeletal bone remodeling, necessitated construction of a model which utilized varying parameters to describe the uptake and retention of chronically ingested Sr. The predicted values were compared with those observed in a wild deer population and the close agreement added credibility to the coefficients of the total body retention equations which were utilized in the model. (U.S.)

174

Reindeer warble fly larvae found in red deer  

OpenAIRE

Seven third instar larvae of the reindeer warble fly (Hypoderma (=Oedemagena) tarandi) were found in a 2-3 year old male red deer {Cervus elaphus) shot on 14 November 1985 at Todalen, western Norway. This it, the first report of H. tarandi from red deer. In reindeer third instar larvae are found from February to June, and the unusual date of this record indicates a delayed development of the larvae due to abnormal host reactions. Warble fly larvae, probably H. tarandi, are also reported from ...

Gjershaug, J. O.; Nilssen, A. C.

1988-01-01

175

Sexual dimorphism, survival and dispersal in red deer  

OpenAIRE

A detailed and extensive mark-recapture-recovery study of red deer on the island of Rum forms the basis of the modeling of this article. We analyze male and female deer separately, and report results for both in this article, but use the female data to demonstrate our modeling approach. We provide a model-selection procedure that allows us to describe the survival by a combination of age-classes, with common survival within each class, and senility, which is modeled continuously as a parametr...

Catchpole, Ea; Fan, Y.; Morgan, Bjt; Clutton-brock, Th; Coulson, T.

2004-01-01

176

Reindeer warble fly larvae found in red deer  

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Full Text Available Seven third instar larvae of the reindeer warble fly (Hypoderma (=Oedemagena tarandi were found in a 2-3 year old male red deer {Cervus elaphus shot on 14 November 1985 at Todalen, western Norway. This it, the first report of H. tarandi from red deer. In reindeer third instar larvae are found from February to June, and the unusual date of this record indicates a delayed development of the larvae due to abnormal host reactions. Warble fly larvae, probably H. tarandi, are also reported from moose {Alces alces in northern Norway.

A. C. Nilssen

1988-06-01

177

Babesias of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Ireland  

OpenAIRE

Blood samples were obtained from 38 wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) at two sites in Ireland and subjected to PCR analysis of the 18S rRNA gene followed by sequencing. Two fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were generated by two different PCR protocols and subsequent sequencing suggested that at least six of the deer were infected by a babesia that, in those loci, is indistinguishable from Babesia divergens, an important tick-borne pathogen of cattle and of zoonotic significance. Additionally, a B....

Zintl, Annetta; Finnerty, Eugene J.; Murphy, Thomas M.; Waal, Theo; Gray, Jeremy S.

2011-01-01

178

Distribution of Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster in Neelum Valley, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir  

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Full Text Available To study the present and past distribution of Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster Survey in Neelum valley, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir was conducted from April to November 2002, Findings show that Musk deer is distributed throughout the Neelum valley. Poaching, deforestation and trans human grazing resulted in scattering of population of the musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster into separate pockets. Population of the musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster recorded from the area is 120 animals. Investigation indicates Musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster resides at low altitude as compared to other areas reported from Pakistan. Seasonal migration of musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster was also noted as a result of Trans-human grazing in summer in summer. To conserve the dwindling population of musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster from Neelum Valley there must be expansion of Salkhla game reserve up to palri and Gail along with the law enforcement and awareness campaign.

Baseer ud Din Qureshi

2004-01-01

179

Hydroclimatological Controls of Endemic and Non-endemic Cholera of the 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

Cholera remains a major public health threat for the developing countries. Since the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous to aquatic environment, it is not possible to eradicate the agent of the disease. Hydroclimatology based prediction and prevention strategies can be implemented in disease susceptible regions for reducing incidence rates. However, the precise role of hydrological and climatological processes, which will further aid in development of suitable prediction models, in creating spatial and temporal environmental conditions favorable for disease outbreak has not been adequately quantified. Here, we show distinction between seasonality and occurrence of cholera in epidemic and non-endemic regions. Using historical cholera mortality data, from the late 1800s for 27 locations in the Indian subcontinent, we show that non-endemic regions are generally located close to regional river systems but away from the coasts and are characterized by single sporadic outbreak in a given year. Increase in air temperature during the low river flow season increases evaporation, leading to an optimal salinity and pH required for bacterial growth. Thereafter, monsoonal rainfall, leads to interactions of contaminated river waters via human activity resulting in cholera epidemics. Endemic regions are located close to coasts where cholera outbreak occurs twice (spring and fall) in a year. Spring outbreak is generally associated with intrusion of bacterial seawater to inland whereas the fall peak is correlated with widespread flooding and cross-contamination of water resources via increased precipitation. This may be one of the first studies to hydroclimatologically quantitatively the seasonality of cholera in both endemic and non-endemic regions. Our results prompt the need of region and cause-specific prediction models for cholera, employing appropriate environmental determinants.

Jutla, A. S.; Whitcombe, E.; Colwell, R.

2012-12-01

180

Endemic goitre, nutrition, and landholding in Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endemic goitre in adult females, cretinism, and anthropometry in children were examined in a goitrous area of Bangladesh. An area survey showed total goitre varying from 62.0 to 93.0%, visible goitre from 9.0 to 54.8% between areas. A village study examining thyroid size in 538 adult females and anthropometry in 116 children showed goitre prevalences varying significantly (p less than 0.001) but unpredictably with household landholding size; underweight and wasting varied inversely and significantly (p less than 0.01 and 0.05 respectively) with the same socioeconomic indicator. By household, there was no relationship between anthropometry in children and thyroid enlargement in the mother. Hormone analyses showed depressed serum T4, but no raised TSH. Only one deaf-mute cretin was found in the area. It is speculated that variation in goitre prevalence in this moderately severe endemic primarily reflects qualitative and quantitative changes in diet, as a function of the socioeconomic status of the household. PMID:6698705

Stone, T

1984-03-01

181

Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diversity. We call this the invasive-naivety effect (an opposite of enemy release), whereby alien species may not harbour anti-predatory defences against a novel native predator. A positive effect of the toads on native ants may facilitate their predation on insect vectors of cacao diseases. Hence, toads may increase crop yield, but further research is needed on this aspect. Ironically, amphibians are globally the most threatened vertebrate class and are strongly impacted by the conversion of rainforest to cacao plantations in Sulawesi. It is, therefore, crucial to manage cacao plantations to maintain these endemic toads, as they may provide critical ecosystem services, such as invasion resistance and preservation of native insect diversity. PMID:20826488

Wanger, Thomas C; Wielgoss, Arno C; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W; Sodhi, Navjot S; Tscharntke, Teja

2011-03-01

182

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA IN ENDEMIC AREAS  

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Full Text Available

Malaria infection is still to be considered a major public health problem in those 106 countries where the risk of contracting the infection with one or more of the Plasmodium species exists. According to estimates from the World Health Organization, over 200 million cases and about 655.000 deaths have occurred in 2010. Estimating the real health and social burden of the disease is a difficult task, because many of the malaria endemic countries have limited diagnostic resources, especially in rural settings where conditions with similar clinical picture may coexist in the same geographical areas. Moreover, asymptomatic parasitaemia may occur in high transmission areas after childhood, when anti-malaria semi-immunity occurs. Malaria endemicity and control activities are very complex issues, that are influenced by factors related to the host, to the parasite, to the vector, to the environment and to the health system capacity to fully implement available anti-malaria weapons such as rapid diagnostic tests, artemisinin-based combination treatment, impregnated bed-nets and insecticide residual spraying while waiting for an effective vaccine to be made available.

Beatrice Autino

2012-01-01

183

Diversity and endemism of Peruvian mammals  

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Full Text Available We present an annotated list for all land, aquatic and marine mammals known to occur in Peru and their distribution by ecoregions. We also present species conservation status according to international organizations and the legal conservation status in Peru. At present, we record 508 species, in 13 orders, 50 families, and 218 genera, making Peru the third most diverse country with regards to mammals in the New World, after Brazil and Mexico, and the fifth most diverse country for mammals in the World. This diversity includes 40 didelphimorphs, 2 paucituberculates, 1 manatee, 6 cingulates, 7 pilosa, 39 primates, 162 rodents, 1 rabbit, 2 soricomorphs, 165 bats, 34 carnivores, 2 perissodactyls, and 47 cetartiodactyls. Bats and rodents (327 species represent almost two thirds of total diversity (64% for Peru. Five genera and 65 species (12.8% are endemics to Peru, with the majority of these being rodents (45 species, 69,2%. Most of the endemic species are restricted to the Yungas of the eastern slope of the Andes (39 species, 60% followed by Selva Baja (14 species, 21.5%. The taxonomic status of some species is commented on, when those depart from accepted taxonomy. The marsupial Marmosa phaea; the rodents Melanomys caliginosus, M. robustulus, and Echinoprocta rufescens; the shrew Cryptotis equatoris; the bats Anoura fistulata, Phyllostomus latifolius, Artibeus ravus, Cynomops greenhalli, Eumops maurus, and Rhogeessa velilla; and the carnivore Nasuella olivacea are first records of species occurrence in Peru. Finally, we also include a list of 15 non-native species.

Víctor Pacheco

2011-07-01

184

Glycolytic potential and ultimate muscle pH values in red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama  

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Full Text Available The ultimate pH value of meat (measured at approx. 24 hours post slaughter gives information about the technological quality, i.e. shelf life, colour, water-holding properties and tenderness and is a direct consequence of muscle glycogen (energy levels at slaughter. It may therefore also indicate whether or not the animal has been exposed to stressful energy depleting events prior to slaughter. In the present study, 141 animals (130 red deer (Cervus elaphus and 11 fallow deer (Dama dama were included to investigate the relationship between ultimate pH and residual glycogen concentration in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus. In addition, the muscle glycogen content and ultimate pH values in three red deer muscles (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus and biceps femoris were studied. M. triceps brachii had higher ultimate pH and lower glycogen content compared with the other two studied muscles. The frequency of intermediate DFD (5.8? pH<6.2 was 5.4% in red deer M. longissimus, compared with 9.1% in fallow deer, while the frequency of DFD (pH? 6.2 was much lower in red deer (3.8% than in fallow deer (54.5%. A curvilinear relationship between ultimate pH and total glucose concentration (glycogen and glucose 30 min post slaughter in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus was found. The relationship between muscle pH and lactic acid concentration however, was indicated to be linear. A significant variation in total glucose concentration at ultimate pH below 5.80 was observed, including values in the range from 18 to 123 mmol/kg wet tissue. It was concluded that further studies are needed to further explore the relationship between muscle glycogen content and technological and sensory quality attributes of meat from different deer species.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:Köttets pH-värde (mätt ca 24 timmar efter slakt har stor betydelse för den teknologiska kvaliteten som t. ex. hållbarhet, färg, vattenhållande förmåga och mörhet. Glykogenförrådet (energinivån i djurens muskulatur vid slakt är helt avgörande för köttets slutliga pH-värde. Därför kan pH-värdet också indikera om hanteringen av slaktdjur varit skonsam eller om stora mängder muskelenergi har förbrukats vid stress. I vår undersökning ingick 141 hjortar (130 kronhjortar (Cervus elaphus och 11 dovhjortar (Dama dama för att studera sambandet mellan köttets pH-värde och glykogeninnehållet i M. longissimus. Glykogeninnehåll och pH-värden i 3 muskler från kronhjort (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus och biceps femoris undersöktes också. M. triceps brachii hade högre pH-värde och lägre glykogeninnehåll jämfört med de två andra musklerna. Det var inte så stor skillnad i frekvensen av intermediär DFD (pH-värden mellan 5,8 og 6,2 mellan de två hjortarterna (5,4% för kronhjort och 9,1% för dovhjort, däremot var frekvensen av DFD (pH-värden över 6,2 mycket låg hos kronhjort (3,8% jämfört med dovhjort (54,5%. Det fanns ett kurvlinjärt samband mellan slutligt pH-värde i köttet och total glukoskoncentration (glykogen + glukos mätt i M. longissimus 30 min efter slakt för både kron- och dovhjort. Ett linjärt samband mellan pH-värde och koncentration av mjölksyra i M. longissimus kunde också visas. Vi fann en mycket stor varitation i glukoskoncentration (18?123 mmol/kg våtvikt när köttets pH-värdet var 5,8 eller lägre. Det behövs fler undersökningar för att vidare klargöra sambanden mellan glykogeninnehåll i muskulaturen och teknologisk och sensorisk kvalitet i olika typer av hjortkött.

Eva Wiklund

2004-04-01

185

Health status and relative exposure of mule deer and white-tailed deer to soil contaminants at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer [13 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and 5 white-tailed deer (O. virginianus)] from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, near Denver, Colorado, USA, a Superfund site contaminated with a variety of materials, including organochlorine pesticides, metals and nerve gas production by-products. Radio-collared deer were tracked for 1 to 3 years (1989--1992) to identify relative exposure to contaminants based on telemetry locations plotted on grid maps depicting known soil contaminant concentrations. At the end of the study, all animals were in fair or good body condition at the time of necropsy. Mean ages of mule deer and white-tailed deer were 7.4 and 10.6 years, respectively. At necropsy, tissues were collected from the deer for serology, histopathology, and analysis for eight chlorinated hydrocarbons and two metals. Detectable residues of mercury were found in the kidneys of 10 deer, dieldrin was found in fat, liver, and brain, and DDE was found in the muscle of one animal. Relative exposure estimates derived from telemetry and soil contamination data were correlated with tissue levels of dieldrin and mercury. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. The prevalence of antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85%.

Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C. [Geological Survey, Madison, WI (United States). National Wildlife Health Center; Whittaker, D.G. [Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR (United States); Roy, R.R. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Commerce City, CO (United States). Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge]|[Fish and Wildlife Service, Moses Lake, WA (United States). Moses Lake Field Office; Baker, D.L. [Colorado Div. of Wildlife, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1999-02-01

186

Relationship between Maximum Leaf Photosynthesis, Nitrogen Content and Specific Leaf Area in Balearic Endemic and Non?endemic Mediterranean Species  

OpenAIRE

Gas exchange parameters, leaf nitrogen content and specific leaf area (SLA) were measured in situ on 73 C3 and five C4 plant species in Mallorca, west Mediterranean, to test whether species endemic to the Balearic Islands differed from widespread, non?endemic Mediterranean species and crops in their leaf traits and trait inter?relationships. Endemic species differed significantly from widespread species and crops in several parameters; in particular, photosynthetic capacity, on an area ba...

Guli?as, Javier; Flexas, Jaume; Mus, Maurici; Cifre, Josep; Lefi, Elkadri; Medrano, Hipo?lito

2003-01-01

187

Ingestion by an endemic frugivore enhances seed germination of endemic plant species but decreases seedling survival of exotics  

OpenAIRE

Aim To test whether ingestion by endemic frugivores differentially affects the seed germination time, germination percentage and seedling survival of endemic, native and exotic fleshy fruited plant species, and to identify the principal processes and attributes driving such effects. Location Round Island, Mauritius. Methods We conducted a germination and seedling survival experiment for 3months to test whether ingestion (gut passage and deposition in faeces) by the endemic Telfair's skink (Le...

Zuel, N.; Griffiths, Cj; Hector, A.; Hansen, Dm; Jones, Cg; Albrecht, M.

2012-01-01

188

Analysis of radionuclide concentrations and movement patterns of Hanford-site mule deer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From 1980 through 1982, the movements of 37 radio-collared mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were monitored for periods of 3 to 17 months on the Handord Site in southcentral Washington. The objectives were to compare radionuclide concentrations in deer residing near the 200 Area waste management sites with concentrations in deer occupying areas remote from waste management sites and to document movement patterns of Hanford Site deer with particular emphasis on offsite movements. Cesium-137 in deer muscle and liver and /sup 90/Sr concentrations in deer bone were statistically higher in deer living near the 200 Area than in control animals. During this study, the highest concentrations of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr in 200 Area deer were in those individuals residing in or immediately adjacent to radiation zones. Cesium-137 and /sup 90/Sr concentrations were more variable in deer residing near the 200 Area than in control animals, where only background (fallout) levels were observed. Movement patterns of Hanford site deer were analyzed to determine home range size and usage. The average home range was 0.39 +- 27 km/sup 2/. In addition, ten (27%) of the monitored deer made offsite movements during the study period. While most of these movements were made in the spring and summer, some fall and winter movements were noted. It was estimated that approximately 8% (95% confidence interval is from 0 to 21%) of the Hanford deer herd is harvested each year. As a result of the low harvest rate, the Hanford deer herd appears to have a disproportionate number of older animals, with 24% of the 17 examined deer older than 10.5 years.

Eberhardt, L.E.; Hanson, E.E.; Cadwell, L.L.

1982-10-01

189

Too Many Deer! A Case Study in Managing Urban Deer Herds  

Science.gov (United States)

A town meeting is the setting for this case study in which students explore the topics of overpopulation, bioethics, and management of urban wildlife. The case makes use of role playing, small group discussion, interrupted case techniques, and critical analytical reflective papers to enable students to examine a common urban forest management problem. Hidden within the examination of making decisions about deer herds is a set of questions that brings out the scientific method and its application. Although developed for a non-majors biology course, by restructuring some of the activities and asking different questions the case could be successfully used in an introductory biology course for majors, an ecology course, a conservation biology seminar, or a course on bioethics.

Eric Ribbens

2002-01-01

190

Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) to white-tailed deer by intracerebral route  

Science.gov (United States)

To compare clinicopathological findings of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in a natural host, three groups (n = 5) of white-tailed deer (WTD) fawns were intracerebrally inoculated with WTD, mule deer or elk isolates of CWD. Three other uninoculated fawns served as controls. Approximately 10 months pos...

191

SOX9 Duplication Linked to Intersex in Deer  

OpenAIRE

A complex network of genes determines sex in mammals. Here, we studied a European roe deer with an intersex phenotype that was consistent with a XY genotype with incomplete male-determination. Whole genome sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed a triple dose of the SOX9 gene, allowing insights into a new genetic defect in a wild animal.

Kropatsch, Regina; Dekomien, Gabriele; Akkad, Amer Denis; Gerding, Wanda Maria; Petrasch-parwez, Elisabeth; Young, Neil D.; Altmu?ller, Janine; Nu?rnberg, Peter; Gasser, Robin B.; Epplen, Jo?rg T.; He, Bin

2013-01-01

192

SOX9 Duplication Linked to Intersex in Deer  

Science.gov (United States)

A complex network of genes determines sex in mammals. Here, we studied a European roe deer with an intersex phenotype that was consistent with a XY genotype with incomplete male-determination. Whole genome sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed a triple dose of the SOX9 gene, allowing insights into a new genetic defect in a wild animal. PMID:24040047

Kropatsch, Regina; Dekomien, Gabriele; Akkad, Denis A.; Gerding, Wanda M.; Petrasch-Parwez, Elisabeth; Young, Neil D.; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Gasser, Robin B.; Epplen, Jörg T.

2013-01-01

193

Enterocytozoon bieneusi, giardia, and Cryptosporidium infecting white-tailed deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite a white-tailed deer (WTD) population in the United States of approximately 32 million animals extremely little is known of the prevalence and species of the protists that infect these animals. This study was undertaken to determine the presence of potential human protist pathogens in culled WTD in central Maryland. Feces from fawns to adults were examined by molecular methods. The prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia was determined by PCR. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the species and genotype(s). Of specimens from 80 WTD, 26 (32.5%) contained 17 genotypes of E. bieneusi. Four genotypes were previously reported (I, J, WL4, LW1) and 13 novel genotypes were identified and named DeerEb1-DeerEb13. Genotypes I, J, and LW1 are known to infect humans. Ten (12.5%) specimens contained the Cryptosporidium deer genotype, and one (1.25%) contained Giardia duodenalis Assemblage A. The identification zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblage A as well as four E. bieneusi genotypes previously identified in humans suggest that WTD could play a role in the transmission of those parasites to humans. PMID:25066778

Santin, Monica; Fayer, Ronald

2015-01-01

194

Lead content in soft tissues of white-tailed deer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The white-tailed deer is one of the North America`s most abundant game animals and can be used to monitor the quality of the environment. During the 1994 and 1995 hunting seasons, twenty-nine white-tailed deer were harvested with the permission of the Game Biologist of the Alabama Cooperative Deer Management Assistance Program and their liver and kidney samples were analyzed for lead levels. The lead levels in the livers and kidneys, were 0.35 and 0.37 ppm, respectively. The lead levels in the livers and kidneys did not show any significant difference. The lead levels in the livers of males and females were 0.49 and 0.28 ppm and in the kidneys of males and females were 0.36 and 0.38 ppm, respectively. The lead levels in the livers and kidneys of males and females also did not show any significant difference. Likewise, the lead level neither in the livers nor in the kidneys of young and old deer showed any significant difference.

Khan, A.T. [Tuskegee Univ., AL (United States). School of Veterinary Medicine

1995-12-31

195

Red deer as maintenance host for bovine tuberculosis, Alpine region.  

Science.gov (United States)

To estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in the Alpine region, we studied the epidemiology of Mycobacterium caprae in wildlife during the 2009-2012 hunting seasons. Free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus) were a maintenance host in a hot-spot area, mainly located in Austria. PMID:25695273

Fink, Maria; Schleicher, Corina; Gonano, Monika; Prodinger, Wolfgang M; Pacciarini, Maria; Glawischnig, Walter; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Walzer, Chris; Stalder, Gabrielle L; Lombardo, Dorotea; Schobesberger, Hermann; Winter, Petra; Büttner, Mathias

2015-03-01

196

Diseases of white-tailed deer. Chapter 5. Neoplasia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data on the occurrence and etiology of neoplasms in native populations of white-tailed deer are reviewed. Cutaneous fibromas, non-progressive lesions considered to be of viral etiology, are discussed in detail. The clinical signs associated with other benign and malignant neoplasms are discussed briefly. 30 references.

Cosgrove, G. E.; Satterfield, L. D.; Nettles, V. F.

1977-01-01

197

Red Deer as Maintenance Host for Bovine Tuberculosis, Alpine Region  

Science.gov (United States)

To estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in the Alpine region, we studied the epidemiology of Mycobacterium caprae in wildlife during the 2009–2012 hunting seasons. Free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus) were a maintenance host in a hot-spot area, mainly located in Austria. PMID:25695273

Schleicher, Corina; Gonano, Monika; Prodinger, Wolfgang M.; Pacciarini, Maria; Glawischnig, Walter; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Walzer, Chris; Stalder, Gabrielle L.; Lombardo, Dorotea; Schobesberger, Hermann; Winter, Petra; Büttner, Mathias

2015-01-01

198

Craniofacial malformation among endemic cretins in Ecuador.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nearly 6% of the inhabitants of two villages in Ecuador are deaf-mute and mentally retarded cretins. These communities are situated in the Andean highlands where environmental and dietary stores of iodine are extremely scarce. Endemic goiter and cretinism are widespread, and 10% of the cretins are additionally burdened with dwarfism and facial dysmorphia. Those with obvious involvement of the skeletal system were selected in order to study the extent of craniofacial malformation. Their appearance is characterized by midface hypoplasia, a broad nose with a depressed bridge, and a conspicuous circumoral prominence. Radiographic evaluation demonstrates a vertical displacement of the cranial base with an associated upward tilt of the midface. The flattened frontal bone, reduced frontal sinus pneumatization, and diminutive nasal bones collectively create a backward sloping face. The defect in the craniofacial skeleton of these Ecuadorian cretins is characteristic, and it readily sets them apart from the dysmorphism of those cretins with myxedema. PMID:6874895

Israel, H; Johnson, G F; Fierro-Benitez, R

1983-01-01

199

Endemic human fasciolosis in the Bolivian Altiplano.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fasciolosis, caused by trematodes of the genus Fasciola, is an emerging disease of humans. One of the highest levels of human fasciolosis hepatica is found amongst the indigenous Aymaran people of the Northern Bolivian Altiplano. A meta-analysis of epidemiological surveys from 38 communities in the region demonstrates that fasciolosis has been endemic in the region since at least 1984 and is a zoonosis of rural communities. Human and bovine fasciolosis is associated with the communities lying in the plain from Lake Titicaca to La Paz, predominantly in the Los Andes province. In Los Andes incidences of up to 67% of population cohorts were found, and prevalence is age-related with the highest infection rate in children aged 8-11 years. PMID:17064455

Parkinson, M; O'Neill, S M; Dalton, J P

2007-05-01

200

ANTIGENAEMIA AS AN INDICATOR OF FILARIAL ENDEMICITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a report of 1 -year evaluation of chemotherapeutic intervention in an area of Indonesia endemic for lymphatic filariasis. Control measures were initiated in 1977 by parasite control, informal health educa­tion, and community participation at the village level, well in accord with the WHO-concept of health for all. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC was mass distributed in 1977 and 1988, and selectively distributed in 1978, 1979, 1981, and 1982 to those who were micro-filaraemic prior to DEC treatments, those with a history of adenoly mphangitis over the previous one year period, and to all new comers. In addition, each villager with acute symptoms of adenolymphangitis was immediately treated with a single course of 300 mg DEC for 10 days. No intervention measures were taken between 1982 to 1988, and no attempt was taken to control the vector or to restrict movement between controlled and uncontrolled areas during the whole studies. With these measures, the microfilaria (mf rate decreased from 30% to 0%, the adenolymphangitis rate from 46% to 11%, and the elephantiasis rate from 35% to 3%. The abatement of acute and chronic filarial symptoms over the study period and the disappearance of microfilaremia in the community are pointing towards the possibility of eradicating the partasite from the community. To test this hypothesis, serum samples were tested for circulating filarial antigen by a two-site antigen capture assay employing anti-phosphorylcholine monoclonal antibodies. There was a sharp fall in circulating antigenaemia, demonstrating that infection has either been eliminated from nearly all villagers, or that intensity of infection is now undetectably low. We feel that antigenaemia can be used as an indicator of filarial endemicity.

F. Partono

2012-09-01

201

Winter fasting and refeeding effects on urine characteristics in white-tailed deer  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on urinary characteristics of 9 captive, female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were studied from 23 February to 3 May 1984. Urinary sodium (na) and potassium (K) were diminished in fasted deer after 2 and 4 weeks. Renal excretion of Na and K were lower, whereas urinary phosphorus (P) was higher in fasted deer compared to deer fed high protein-high energy (HPHE) diets. Urinary P excretion of the fasted deer was also greater than in a low protein-high energy (LPHE)-fed group. Urinary area excretion of fasted deer was similar to that of deer fed low and high protein diets. One fasted deer died during the study and exhibited notably high excretion of urea, Na, K, and calcium (Ca). No effects of the 2 levels of dietary protein on urinary characteristics were detected. Urinary Na:C and K:C ratios wer significantly correlated with Na and K intake. Urinalysis has potential as a sensitive means of monitoring the nutritional status of white-tailed deer. Data are presented as reference values for interpretation of data from deer under less controlled circumstances.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Karns, P.D.

1987-01-01

202

Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus courtship and mating behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus 1758, is a South American grazing deer categorized as "near threatened". However, knowledge about pampas deer behavior including courtship and mating is scarce and incomplete. The aim of this study was to characterize the courtship and mating behavior of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, an endangered species from South America. Methods We performed focal observations of 5 males allocated at the Estación de Cría de Fauna Autóctona Cerro Pan de Azúcar, Uruguay, 4 times a day from 5 to 20 minutes each time on a daily basis from February to May. During that period we recorded all courtship and mating behaviors, as well as quantified the frequency of the specific behaviors shown. As mating were rarely observed, we recorded that behavior when it was observed in the context of other studies performed in the same population during the following 2 years. Results During the observation period we recorded 928 courtships and 5 mating periods. In addition, we recorded 10 more matings performed during other studies, totaling 15. The duration of each mating calculated from the 15 recordings was 3.9?±?0.4 s, and the total period of female receptivity (from first to last mating acceptance was 8.2?±?1.1 min. Main observed courtship behaviors in males were “chase” and “ostentation”, while the most observed close to mating were “chinning”, “raised head” and “anogenital sniffing”. The most observed behaviors in females during the mating period were “vulva exhibition” and “move away”. Conclusion This is the first detailed report in pampas deer mating behavior. Estrus lasted only 8 min accepting only 3 short copulations per estrus. However, female behavior during courtship can be characterized as highly proceptive.

Morales-Piñeyrúa Jéssica T

2012-10-01

203

Seasonal variation in the behavior of captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus, in Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm, of China  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Musk deer farming has the potential to be an effective conservation tool for the protection of musk deer as well as the production of valuable musk. To be successful, this requires a thorough understanding of the behavior of captive musk deer in order to improve their reproductive success and manage [...] ment. Between August 2005 to January 2006, the behavior sampling of 19 male and 13 female captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus Büchner, 1891, was used to examine the durations of twelve behavioral characteristics during the pre-rut (August to October) and rut seasons (November to January). Both males and females exhibited some seasonal variation in behavior. Males rested and fed more during the pre-rut than the rut and spent more time walking, fighting, and standing alert during the rut. Females spent more time feeding, ruminating, and interacting non-aggressively with other individuals during the pre-rut and more time in agonistic interactions during the rut. The significance of these behavioral changes and their association with husbandry practices and farm management are discussed.

Luan, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Changjie; Hui, Cenyi; Meng, Xiuxiang.

204

Seasonal variation in the behavior of captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus, in Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm, of China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Musk deer farming has the potential to be an effective conservation tool for the protection of musk deer as well as the production of valuable musk. To be successful, this requires a thorough understanding of the behavior of captive musk deer in order to improve their reproductive success and management. Between August 2005 to January 2006, the behavior sampling of 19 male and 13 female captive alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus Büchner, 1891, was used to examine the durations of twelve behavioral characteristics during the pre-rut (August to October and rut seasons (November to January. Both males and females exhibited some seasonal variation in behavior. Males rested and fed more during the pre-rut than the rut and spent more time walking, fighting, and standing alert during the rut. Females spent more time feeding, ruminating, and interacting non-aggressively with other individuals during the pre-rut and more time in agonistic interactions during the rut. The significance of these behavioral changes and their association with husbandry practices and farm management are discussed.

Luan Xiaofeng

2010-01-01

205

Comparison of the prevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in endemic and non-endemic Bulgarian locations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives: The Balkans is an endemic region for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF, caused by the CCHF virus (CCHFV. Several Bulgarian regions comprised of smaller locations are categorized either as endemic or non-endemic for CCHF. However, little is known about the dynamics that underlie the development of endemicity within the locations throughout the years. Methods: Seven locations categorized as endemic in one central Bulgarian region (Stara Zagora were compared to seven non-endemic areas. During the period 2006-12, a total of 1775 blood samples from cattle, were tested for anti-CCHFV antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay. Also, the infestation of 617 mature ticks for CCHFV was studied using a combination of an immunofluorescence haemocytes assay and molecularvirological methods. Results: Anti-CCHFV antibodies were established in 7.89% (140/1775 of the sera. The average CCHFV-infestation in the ticks was 1.46% (9/617. CCHFV was detected in three tick species: H.m. marginatum (3.73%, 6/161, being the main vector of the infection; R. sanguineus (1.63%, 2/123; and I. ricinus (1.96%, 1/51. Interpretation & conclusion: The data for the endemic and non-endemic locations did not reveal significant differences for the prevalence of CCHFV. Mosaic dispersion of the virus was determined in the studied region and the results did not vary significantly throughout the investigated years.

Ivanka Gergova

2013-12-01

206

Urinary iodine excretion in relation to goiter prevalence in households of goiter endemic and non endemic regions of Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Survey of goiter prevalence, among population of five endemic and four non endemic regions of Ethiopia was carried out prior to the distribution of iodate d salt. urine samples were collected from 327 subjects selected by systematic random sampling from endemic and 276 taken as non endemic. The lowest mean urinary iodine excretion (UIE) value was recorded in Bure (22 micro gl/day) and the highest in Alemmaya (148 micro gl/day). The highest goiter rate ( percent TGR) was recorded in Sawla 55.6 %) and the lowest (0.6 %) in Yabello. Iodine content of drinking was in the range of 0.4 - 48.5 micro gl. Iodine content of water source was correlated positively ( r0.8399) with the mean of UIE and TGR, however, indicates that sites considered as non endemic seem to be affected by iodine deficiency. The study results urge the need for intervention in controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders. 3 tab

207

Pathophysiology of white-tailed deer vaccinated with porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptive  

Science.gov (United States)

White-tailed deer (n = 14 treated, n = 7 control) were examined postmortem to identify any possible pathophysiology resulting from PZP immunocontraception vaccination. Deer were treated twice in 1997; given a booster in 1998, with six being revaccinated in September 2000. Granulomas were found at injection sites of most deer, even 2 years post-treatment. Eosinophilic oophoritis occurred in 6 of 8 (75%) deer vaccinated in 1998, and 3 of 6 (50%) revaccinated in 2000. The 2000 revaccinates without oophoritis, had significantly fewer normal secondary follicles than control females (P = 0.03), and deer in the1998 treatment group (P = 0.04). PZP immunocontraceptive vaccine elicited ovarian pathologies in deer similar to those observed in other species. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Curtis, P.D.; Richmond, M.E.; Miller, L.A.; Quimby, F.W.

2007-01-01

208

137Cs levels in deer following the Three Mile Island accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus) tongues were assayed to assess whether or not significant widespread 137Cs contamination occurred in the vicinity of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station as a result of the 1979 accident. White-tailed deer tongues harvested from 10 Pennsylvania counties more than 88 km away from Three Mile Island had significantly higher 137Cs levels than deer tongues harvested from counties surrounding the nuclear plant. The mean deer tongue 137Cs levels found in Pennsylvania white-tailed deer were lower than 137Cs levels found in deer from other parts of the US sampled shortly after culmination of major atmospheric nuclear testing. These findings support the conclusions of previous studies suggesting that only minimal quantities of 137Cs escaped from the damaged Three Mile Island plant after the accident

209

Detection of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), in questing ticks (Ixodes ricinus), and in ticks infesting roe deer in southern Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is the most common tick in Central Europe and plays an important role as a vector of several pathogens. In the complex life cycles of these pathogens, the role of wild animals as natural reservoirs has been discussed. The aims of this study were to investigate the role of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) as a potential reservoir host for Babesia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. Therefore, we explored the differences in the infection rates of roe deer and engorged and questing ticks with these pathogens from a single forest site with special attention to coinfection. Blood, spleen, and skin samples of a total of 95 roe deer individuals were screened by molecular methods for these pathogens from September 2010 to January 2012 in the 'Angelberger Forst' (Bavaria, Germany). Moreover, 331 engorged ticks from 44 roe deer individuals and 199 host-seeking ticks from the same area were screened. Altogether, the following prevalence rates and a high diversity of species were detected for the respective pathogens in individual animals and ticks: (i) Babesia spp.: roe deer, 89.5%; engorged ticks, 7.3%; questing ticks: adults, 2.5%, nymphs, 3.3%. Sequencing revealed B. venatorum, B. capreoli, and B. microti. (ii) A. phagocytophilum: roe deer 98.9%; engorged ticks, 86.1%; questing ticks: adults, 8.9%, nymphs, 0.8%. (iii) Rickettsia spp.: roe deer, 0%; engorged ticks, 16.6%; questing ticks: adults, 13.9%, nymphs, 17.5%. Sequencing revealed R. helvetica. Furthermore, several coinfections were detected in both roe deer and ticks. The high prevalence rates of B. capreoli and A. phagocytophilum in roe deer support their role as reservoir hosts for these pathogens, but no evidence for a role of roe deer in the life cycle of R. helvetica could be provided. PMID:23571115

Overzier, Evelyn; Pfister, Kurt; Herb, Ingrid; Mahling, Monia; Böck, Georg; Silaghi, Cornelia

2013-06-01

210

Transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus among white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

OpenAIRE

Cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, are an important source of viral transmission to susceptible hosts. Persistent BVDV infections have been identified in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America. As PI deer shed BVDV similarly to PI cattle, maintenance of BVDV within white-tailed deer populations may be possible. To date, intraspecific transmission of BV...

Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S.; Givens, M. Daniel; Brock, Kenny V.; Deyoung, Randy W.; Walz, Paul H.

2009-01-01

211

Large-scale model-based assessment of deer-vehicle collision risk.  

OpenAIRE

Ungulates, in particular the Central European roe deer Capreolus capreolus and the North American white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, are economically and ecologically important. The two species are risk factors for deer-vehicle collisions and as browsers of palatable trees have implications for forest regeneration. However, no large-scale management systems for ungulates have been implemented, mainly because of the high efforts and costs associated with attempts to estimate population ...

Hothorn, Torsten; Brandl, Roland; Mu?ller, Jo?rg

2012-01-01

212

Association mapping of genetic risk factors for chronic wasting disease in wild deer  

OpenAIRE

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. We assessed the feasibility of association mapping CWD genetic risk factors in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using a panel of bovine microsatellite markers from three homologous deer linkage groups predicted to contain candidate genes. These markers had a low cross-species amplification rate (27.9%) and showed weak linkage dis...

Matsumoto, Tomomi; Samuel, Michael D.; Bollinger, Trent; Pybus, Margo; Coltman, David W.

2012-01-01

213

Impacts of endangered Key deer hervivory on imperiled pine rocklands: a conservation dilemma  

OpenAIRE

In the lower Florida Keys, endangered Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) herbivory, along with fire, can affect pine rocklands, an endangered plant community. We compared pineland vegetation from three studies over approximately 50 years on four islands with either high or low deer density (historical analysis). We also compared extant vegetation samples between two islands with high or low deer density, which contained pinelands burned 10 years and 14 years prior to sampling and contr...

Stiling, P.; Barrett, A.

2006-01-01

214

Experimental Treatment of Fallow Deer (Dama dama) with Abamectin  

OpenAIRE

Macrolide Endectocides (ME) are antiparasitic agents that are daily applied in pharmacotherapy of food-producing animals. Worldwide numbers of pharmacokinetics studies performed on various matrixes of domestic animals with diverse detection methods for ME determination were developed. However only few studies on deer matrixes were published although ME are licensed and in use for treatment of red deer, fallow deer and reindeer in some countries of European Union, America and Australia. The pu...

Vengust, A.; Arko, M.; Vengust, G.; Gabrijela Tavcar-Kalcher; Diana Zele; Bidovec, A.; Silvestra Kobal

2007-01-01

215

Prevalence of granulocytic Ehrlichia infection among white-tailed deer in Wisconsin.  

OpenAIRE

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) is caused by an agent that is nearly indistinguishable from the veterinary pathogens Ehrlichia equi and Ehrlichia phagocytophila. The deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, is a vector of the HGE agent, and the white-tailed deer is the primary host for adult Ixodes ticks. We assessed the distribution of granulocytic Ehrlichia infection among deer living within (Wisconsin) and outside (western and southern Iowa) the geographic range of L. scapularis. Whole-blood sa...

Belongia, E. A.; Reed, K. D.; Mitchell, P. D.; Kolbert, C. P.; Persing, D. H.; Gill, J. S.; Kazmierczak, J. J.

1997-01-01

216

Genetic differentiation between red deer from different sample sites on the Tianshan Mountains (Cervus elaphus), China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract About 273 individuals were identified from 471 fecal samples from six different red deer populations in China. The genetic structure showed that the red deer from the western and eastern Tianshan Mountains was different. A total number of 12 haplotypes were defined by 97 variable sites by the control region (CR), and 10 haplotypes were defined by 34 variable sites by cytochrome b. There was no haplotype sharing between red deer populations from western and eastern Tianshan Mountains by the CR and the cytochrome b. The red deer populations from west were clade with wapiti from North American and red deer from Siberia, while red deer populations from east were clade with red deer from Crimea in Pleistocene rather than west at present. The result of NETWORK also showed that red deer populations from western and eastern Tianshan Mountains were different. The haplotype and the Fst value between western and eastern Tianshan red deer were significantly different. The AMOVA analysis showed that 97.34% and 1.14% of the total genetic variability were found within populations and among populations within groups, respectively, by microsatellite. AMOVA for mitochondria showed that most of the variance was explained among-group. The Fst, pairwise distance, and phylogenetic relationship result showed that red deer between western and eastern Tianshan were more different than some of the red deer from North-Asia, South-Asia, East-Asia, and wapiti. All data from this study do support that the genetic characteristics of red deer between western and eastern Tianshan Mountains by microsatellite, control region, and cytochrome b were different. PMID:25431826

Zhou, Can-Lin; Turdy, Risalat; Halik, Mahmut

2014-11-28

217

Kinetics of Immune Responses in Deer Mice Experimentally Infected with Sin Nombre Virus  

OpenAIRE

Deer mice are the principal reservoir hosts of Sin Nombre virus, the etiologic agent of most hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome cases in North America. Infection of deer mice results in persistence without conspicuous pathology, and most, if not all, infected mice remain infected for life, with periods of viral shedding. The kinetics of viral load, histopathology, virus distribution, and immune gene expression in deer mice were examined. Viral antigen was detected as early as 5 days postinfe...

Schountz, Tony; Acun?a-retamar, Mariana; Feinstein, Shira; Prescott, Joseph; Torres-perez, Fernando; Podell, Brendan; Peters, Staci; Ye, Chunyan; Black, William C.; Hjelle, Brian

2012-01-01

218

Experiments on the ectoparasitic deer ked that often attacks humans; preferences for body parts, colour and temperature.  

Science.gov (United States)

The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) can fail in its host search. Host search fails when an individual deer ked irreversibly accepts a host unsuitable for its reproduction (e.g. a human) and drops its wings. In northern Europe, the main host of the deer ked is the moose (Alces alces). The deer ked is increasingly causing serious problems for humans (for example, causing deer ked dermatitis) and is considered a threat for the recreational use of forests. The adult deer ked flies in early and mid-autumn to search for a host. Our aims were: (i) to study whether there are ways to avoid deer ked attacks by wearing particular clothing, and (ii) to evaluate deer ked host choice. Using human targets, we explored the cues the deer ked uses for host selection. We studied which part of the host body deer keds target and if body colour and temperature affect their choice. In our experiments, deer keds landed more on dark and red clothing than on white clothing. Moreover, deer keds mostly attacked the upper body parts and preferred the back side of the body over the front side. Finally, deer keds preferred the warmest areas of the host. PMID:19698197

Kortet, R; Härkönen, L; Hokkanen, P; Härkönen, S; Kaitala, A; Kaunisto, S; Laaksonen, S; Kekäläinen, J; Ylönen, H

2010-06-01

219

White-tailed deer are a biotic filter during community assembly, reducing species and phylogenetic diversity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community assembly entails a filtering process, where species found in a local community are those that can pass through environmental (abiotic) and biotic filters and successfully compete. Previous research has demonstrated the ability of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to reduce species diversity and favour browse-tolerant plant communities. In this study, we expand on our previous work by investigating deer as a possible biotic filter altering local plant community assembly. We used replicated 23-year-old deer exclosures to experimentally assess the effects of deer on species diversity (H'), richness (SR), phylogenetic community structure and phylogenetic diversity in paired browsed (control) and unbrowsed (exclosed) plots. Additionally, we developed a deer-browsing susceptibility index (DBSI) to assess the vulnerability of local species to deer. Deer browsing caused a 12 % reduction in H' and 17 % reduction in SR, consistent with previous studies. Furthermore, browsing reduced phylogenetic diversity by 63 %, causing significant phylogenetic clustering. Overall, graminoids were the least vulnerable to deer browsing based on DBSI calculations. These findings demonstrate that deer are a significant driver of plant community assembly due to their role as a selective browser, or more generally, as a biotic filter. This study highlights the importance of knowledge about the plant tree of life in assessing the effects of biotic filters on plant communities. Application of such knowledge has considerable potential to advance our understanding of plant community assembly. PMID:24916059

Begley-Miller, Danielle R; Hipp, Andrew L; Brown, Bethany H; Hahn, Marlene; Rooney, Thomas P

2014-01-01

220

Notes and Discussion: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predation on grassland songbird nestlings  

Science.gov (United States)

White-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were videotaped depredating four songbird nests in grassland habitats in southeastern and northcentral North Dakota, 1996-1999. Deer ate two Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), two grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), one clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida), one red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) and three brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) nestlings. Deer removed nestlings quickly (5-19 sec/nest) at night (22:00 to 05:17 Central Daylight Time) and left no evidence of predation. Although probably opportunistic, deer predations clearly were deliberate and likely are more common than generally believed.

Pietz, P.J.; Granfors, D.A.

2000-01-01

221

Studies on the biological half-life of caesium in roe deer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using over 100 samples of roe deer venison taken largely from the Rural District of Marburg-Biedenkopf and adjoining areas, a biological half-life of 21.9±2.2 days was established for caesium in roe deer. Since the radioactive contamination of the environment after Chernobyl and, therefore, the intake of radioactivity by the animals lasted for only a very short period of time, no significant contamination levels are expected through the consumption of newly killed roe deer. After 120 days, the radioactivity of caesium in a live roe deer has subsided again to less than 1/40 of its initial value

222

Tinea capitis an endemic disease in Madras.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of Tinea capitis in Outpatient Clinic, Skin Department, Government General Hospital, Madras during a three year period from November, 1973 to October, 1976, has shown a gradual increase in incidence of 3.56%, 5.09% and 6.25% respectively. Findings suggest that Tinea capitis is endemic in South India. Male children were more commonly affected than female children and the age groups chiefly affected were between 5 and 10 years. A considerably number of adults were also affected. The disease showed no correlation to environmental temperature, humidity and rainfall but was correlated to all types of mycoses and total incidence of mycoses. Among 357 isolates, Trichophyton violaceum was the commonest in 264 (73.94%) and T. tonsurans was the next common in 47 (13.16%). The other agents were T. rubrum in 30 (8.4%), T. mentagrophytes in 11 (3.08%) and T. simii in 5 (1.4%). Noninflammatory lesions were more common than inflammatory lesions and both were produced by T. violaceum and T. tonsurans, suggesting strain differences in pathogenesis. Treatment with oral griseofulvin was satisfactory in all but had to be discontinued in 4 patients due to side effects. PMID:7383142

Kamalam, A; Thambiah, A S

1980-05-01

223

REVIEW: Endemic plants of serpentine soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant adaptation to serpentine soils is a system ideal for studies in evolutionary ecology. Serpentine soils are characterized by low calcium to magnesium ratios with Ca at significantly lower concentrations relative to surrounding areas. Although some variation occurs between sites which identified three collective traits: poor plant productivity, high rates of endemism and vegetation type distinct from those of neighboring areas. The several morphological feature characteristic of serpentine-tolerant species is possess xeromorphic foliage, including reduced leaf size and sclerophylls, the stature is significantly reduced relative to counterparts on non serpentine soil and root systems of species growing on and off serpentine sites are often more developed on serpentine soils than on neighboring soils. Serpentine soils are ubiquitous, but patchily distributed and thus promote geographic isolation. Adaptation to edaphic conditions may also beget reproductive isolation. Adaptive mutation might be influenced frequently from related species inhabiting surrounding areas. For the future studies involving serpentine systems merge the fields of ecology, evolution, physiology, and genetics required for serpentine adaptation.

SUDARMONO

2007-10-01

224

Capture myopathy in red deer and wild goat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This syndrome is a shock-like hyper metabolic myopathy triggered in susceptible animals by stress. Capture myopathy (C.M. is a commonly occurring condition in mammals following trapping and ransportation. In this case 12 to 24 hours after transportation of red deer (Cevus elaphus and wild goats (Capra ibex clinical signs such as: muscular tremor, ataxia, recumbency, hyperthermia, tachycardia, hyperventilation and red brown urine observed. According to symptoms Capture myoparthy was diagnosed Treatment was ineffective on one red deer and one wild goat. Necropsy findings of dead animals were included: hyperemia, petechial hemorrhage in pericardium and heart muscle, pale foci of leg and heart muscles and red brown urine in bladder. This case report represents the attention to Capture myopathy in wild animals and particular caution that should be exercised in capturing and handling of these animals.

Mirian, J.

2011-12-01

225

Red deer synchronise their activity with close neighbours  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Models of collective animal behaviour frequently make assumptions about the effects of neighbours on the behaviour of focal individuals, but these assumptions are rarely tested. One such set of assumptions is that the switch between active and inactive behaviour seen in herding animals is influenced by the activity of close neighbours, where neighbouring animals show a higher degree of behavioural synchrony than would be expected by chance. We tested this assumption by observing the simultaneous behaviour of paired individuals within a herd of red deer Cervus elaphus. Focal individuals were more synchronised with their two closest neighbours than with the third closest or randomly selected individuals from the herd. Our results suggest that the behaviour of individual deer is influenced by immediate neighbours. Even if we assume that there are no social relationships between individuals, this suggests that the assumptions made in models about the influence of neighbours may be appropriate.

Sean A. Rands

2014-04-01

226

Cutaneous fibroma in the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fibromas present very frequent skin neoplasms in different species of wild game of the family Cervidae. Viral etiology of skin neoplasms was proven in certain species of wild game from this family, with the most frequent diagnoses being: fibromas, ossifying fibromas, fibrosarcomas, multiple neurofibromatosis, fibropapillomas, and papillomas. The diagnozed tumor in the roe deer had the histological characteristics of a polimorphous fibroblast, which is not the case with domestic animals. This finding can be considered as a characteristic of fibromas in animals of the family Cervidae. Solitary fibroma or multiple fibroma (fibromatosis does not present a significant cause of deer deaths, but they cause concern among hunters who are in direct contact with them. Although fibromas do not lead to spoilage of game meat, they are esthetically repellent and people are reluctant to consume meat of such game.

Kureljuši? Branislav

2009-01-01

227

Detection and genetic characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) derived from ticks removed from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and isolated from spleen samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Croatia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a growing public health concern in central and northern European countries. Even though TBE is a notifiable disease in Croatia, there is a significant lack of information in regard to vector tick identification, distribution as well as TBE virus prevalence in ticks or animals. The aim of our study was to identify and to investigate the viral prevalence of TBE virus in ticks removed from red fox (Vulpes vulpes) carcasses hunted in endemic areas in northern Croatia and to gain a better insight in the role of wild ungulates, especially red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the maintenance of the TBE virus in the natural cycle. We identified 5 tick species (Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes hexagonus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor reticulatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus) removed from 40 red foxes. However, TBE virus was isolated only from adult I. ricinus and I. hexagonus ticks showing a viral prevalence (1.6%) similar to or higher than reported in endemic areas of other European countries. Furthermore, 2 positive spleen samples from 182 red deer (1.1%) were found. Croatian TBE virus isolates were genetically analyzed, and they were shown to be closely related, all belonging to the European TBE virus subgroup. However, on the basis of nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis, 2 clusters were identified. Our results show that further investigation is needed to understand the clustering of isolates and to identify the most common TBE virus reservoir hosts in Croatia. Sentinel surveys based on wild animal species would give a better insight in defining TBE virus-endemic and possible risk areas in Croatia. PMID:24035586

Jemerši?, Lorena; Dež?ek, Danko; Brni?, Dragan; Prpi?, Jelena; Janicki, Zdravko; Keros, Tomislav; Roi?, Besi; Slavica, Alen; Terzi?, Svjetlana; Konjevi?, Dean; Beck, Relja

2014-02-01

228

Incidence of gasrointestinal helminthiasis in captive deers at Nagpur  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Out of 60 Samples of deer from Maharajbag Zoo, Nagpur, 30 were positive for eggs and larvae of helminthic parasites. The encountered parasitic species were Haemonchus spp., Dicrocoelium spp., Paramphistomum spp., Oesophagostomum spp. and Bunostomum spp. etc. Direct smear method together with sedimentation technique were used for the purpose. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 337-338

A. T. Borghare

229

Mesola red deer: physical characteristics, population dynamics and conservation perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The biometry, demography and genetics of red deer Cervus elaphus of Mesola Wood (NE Italy, are presented and discussed in relation to the conservation of this population. Modest body size, low stature, oversimplified antlers and a low reproductive performance characterise red deer from Mesola Wood. The mitochondrial genome showed a private haplotype, different from other red deer in Italy and central Europe. The uniqueness of this nucleus and its biogeographic importance make a long-term conservation plan particularly urgent. Management measures such as fallow deer reduction, winter feeding and pasture mowing were tested, giving promising results. The physical condition of the animals improved, calf and adult mortality declined, and a few cases of antlers with bez tine or crown were reported in this study after four decades. Riassunto Il Cervo della Mesola: caratteristiche fisiche, dinamica di popolazione e prospettive di conservazione La biometria, la demografia e la genetica del cervo Cervus elaphus del Gran Bosco della Mesola (Italia nord-orientale, vengono presentate e discusse in relazione alla salvaguardia di questa popolazione. Il cervo della Mesola risulta caratterizzato dalle modeste dimensioni corporee, dalla struttura semplificata dei palchi e da un basso rendimento riproduttivo. L'analisi del genoma mitocondriale ha evidenziato un aplotipo privato, diverso da quello degli altri cervi italiani e centroeuropei. L'unicità di questo nucleo e la sua importanza biogeografica rendono particolarmente urgente un piano di conservazione a lungo termine. Sono stati verificati interventi gestionali quali la riduzione numerica dei daini, il foraggiamento invernale e lo sfalcio delle superfici a pascolo, con risultati promettenti. Le condizioni fisiche degli animali sono migliorate, la mortalità tra i piccoli e gli adulti è diminuita, e sono stati registrati alcuni casi di palchi dotati di ago o corona per la prima volta dopo quattro decenni.

Stefano Mattioli

2003-10-01

230

Pathogenicity of immature Fascioloides magna in white-tailed deer.  

OpenAIRE

The pathogenesis of early prepatent Fascioloides magna infection was investigated in seven fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) given 500 metacercariae and examined at one, two, three, five, eight, 12 and 13 weeks postinoculation. Blood samples were taken from eight inoculated deer every two weeks up to 16 weeks postinoculation. Eosinophilia with a mild transitory anemia were the main clincopathological features. Postmortem examination at two weeks postinoculation revealed extensive migration of im...

Presidente, P. J.; Mccraw, B. M.; Lumsden, J. H.

1980-01-01

231

Attachment site selection of ticks on roe deer, Capreolus capreolus  

OpenAIRE

The spatio-temporal attachment site patterns of ticks feeding on their hosts can be of significance if co-feeding transmission (i.e. from tick to tick without a systemic infection of the host) of pathogens affects the persistence of a given disease. Using tick infestation data on roe deer, we analysed preferred attachment sites and niche width of Ixodes ticks (larvae, nymphs, males, females) and investigated the degree of inter- and intrastadial aggregation. The different development stages s...

Kiffner, C.; Lo?dige, C.; Alings, Matthias; Vor, T.; Ru?he, F.

2010-01-01

232

Gestation length in red deer: genetically determined or environmentally controlled?  

Science.gov (United States)

The red deer (Cervus elaphus) of European origin (e.g. subspecies scoticus, hispanicus, hippelaphus) is a medium sized (100-150kg mature hind weight) ruminant that exhibits highly seasonally patterns of autumn conceptions and summer births. Historic data indicate average (+/- s.d.) gestation length of 233-234 (+/- 2-4) days. Recently, however, there has been growing awareness that there is considerably greater variation in gestation length than earlier indicated and that there is a significant element of environmental, and possibly even social, control over the duration of pregnancy in this species. Imposition of variable levels of nutrition over late pregnancy of red deer hinds has been observed to influence fetal growth trajectory and gestation length, with no apparent effect on birth weight. This supports a hypothesis that under conditions of modest feed imbalance, variation in gestation length compensates for variation in fetal growth trajectory to ensure optimisation of birth weight. More recent studies on primiparous (24 month old) red deer hinds have identified surprisingly large variation in gestation length (193-263 days) compared with adult hinds (228-243 days), with earlier conceiving individuals within the primiparous cohort expressing significantly longer gestation than the later conceiving hinds, resulting in a higher level of calving synchrony than expected from known conception dates. This introduces an intriguing hypothesis of social indicative effects on parturition timing to promote within-cohort birth synchrony. Collectively, these data debunk the commonly held notion that gestation length of red deer is genetically fixed within strict limits. A review of the literature points to this as possibly a common phenomenon across a range of non-domesticated ruminant species but this conclusion is not supported by numerous conflicting studies on domestic sheep and cattle. PMID:17491152

Asher, G W

2007-01-01

233

Male fertility and sex ratio at birth in red deer.  

OpenAIRE

Efforts to test sex ratio theory have focused mostly on females. However, when males possess traits that could enhance the reproductive success of sons, males would also benefit from the manipulation of the offspring sex ratio. We tested the prediction that more-fertile red deer males produce more sons. Our findings reveal that male fertility is positively related to the proportion of male offspring. We also show that there is a positive correlation between the percentage of morphologically n...

Gomendio, M.; Malo, Af; Soler, Aj; Fernández-Santos, MR; Esteso, Mc; Garci?a, Aj; Roldan, Er; Garde, J.

2006-01-01

234

Global climate change and phenotypic variation among red deer cohorts.  

OpenAIRE

The variability of two fitness-related phenotypic traits (body weight and a mandibular skeletal ratio) was analysed among cohorts and age-classes of red deer in Norway. Phenotypic variation among cohorts was pronounced for calves, yearlings and reproductively mature adults. Fluctuations in cohort-specific mean body weights and skeletal ratios of adults correlated with global climatic variation in winter conditions influenced by the North Atlantic Oscillation while cohorts were in utero. Red d...

Post, E.; Stenseth, N. C.; Langvatn, R.; Fromentin, J. M.

1997-01-01

235

What does testosterone do for red deer males?  

OpenAIRE

Testosterone has been proposed to have a dual effect, enhancing sexual traits while depressing parasite resistance in males. Here, we test this hypothesis in red deer, examining males from captive populations during the whole annual cycle and males from natural populations during the breeding season. We first explored the effects of body size, age and sampling date on testosterone to avoid confounding effects. Our results show that in captive populations seasonal changes in testosterone level...

Malo, Af; Roldan, Er; Garde, Jj; Soler, Aj; Vicente, J.; Gortazar, C.; Gomendio, M.

2009-01-01

236

Density-related changes in sexual selection in red deer.  

OpenAIRE

In sexually dimorphic mammals, high population density is commonly associated with increased mortality of males relative to females and with female-biased adult sex ratios. This paper investigates the consequences of these changes on the distribution of male breeding success, the intensity of competition for females and the opportunity for sexual selection. After the red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) population of the North Block of Rum (Inner Hebrides) was released from culling, female numbers ro...

Clutton-brock, T. H.; Rose, K. E.; Guinness, F. E.

1997-01-01

237

The dynamics of endemic malaria in populations of varying size  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mathematical model for endemic malaria involving variable human and mosquito populations is analysed. A threshold parameter R0 exists and the disease can persist if and only if R0 exceeds 1. R0 is seen to be a generalisation of the basic reproduction ratio associated with the Ross-Macdonald model for malaria transmission. The disease free equilibrium always exist and is globally stable when R0 is below 1. A perturbation analysis is used to approximate the endemic equilibrium in the important case where the disease related death rate is nonzero. A diffusion approximation is used to approximate the quasi-stationary distribution of the associated stochastic model. Numerical simulations show that when R0 is distinctly greater than 1, the endemic deterministic equilibrium is globally stable. Furthermore, in quasi-stationarity, the stochastic process undergoes oscillations about a mean population whose size can be approximated by the stable endemic deterministic equilibrium. (author)

238

Approach to the diagnosis of the endemic mycoses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The endemic mycoses are often overlooked in the evaluation of community-acquired pneumonia, and appropriate testing is not performed until the patient has failed to improve on antibacterial therapy. Antigen detection and fungal serology may be helpful in diagnosis of endemic mycoses as causes for pneumonia. Guidelines for recognition and evaluation of endemic mycoses as causes for community-acquired pneumonia are proposed. Performance of antigen testing on bronchial washings or lavage fluid may improve the sensitivity for diagnosis over microscopic examination and the speed of diagnosis over culture. This article focuses on antigen detection and serology for diagnosis of endemic mycoses. Of note is that isolation of the fungus by culture remains the only method for definitive diagnosis, and the only method for diagnosis in some patients. PMID:19375642

Wheat, L Joseph

2009-06-01

239

77 FR 1720 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Rock Creek Park  

Science.gov (United States)

...herd by either sharpshooting or capture and euthanasia of individual deer. Capture and euthanasia of individual deer would be an approach...include both sharpshooting and capture/euthanasia and would be taken initially to...

2012-01-11

240

78 FR 46603 - Notice of Availability of a Draft White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Environmental Impact...  

Science.gov (United States)

...management actions (sharpshooting with firearms or capture and euthanasia of individual deer) to reduce the herd size. Alternative...deer herd through sharpshooting with firearms or capture and euthanasia and nonsurgical reproductive control of does with an...

2013-08-01

241

Serosurvey for selected pathogens in Iberian roe deer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The roe deer is the most abundant and widespread wild Eurasian cervid. Its populations are expanding and increasingly in contact with livestock. This may affect the distribution of infectious diseases shared with other wild and domestic ungulates. Methods We investigated the antibody seroprevalence against Pestivirus, Herpesvirus, Bluetongue (BT virus, M. avium paratuberculosis (MAP, and Brucella sp. in 519 roe deer from different regions in Spain, south-western Europe. Results No antibodies were detected against BT and Brucella sp. However, antibodies were detected against Pestivirus (1.5%, Herpesvirus (0.2% and MAP (9.2%. MAP antibodies were detected in seven of the eight populations (range 5-16.4%. Conclusions The detection of MAP antibodies in samples from most roe deer populations suggests that contact with MAP is widespread in this wildlife species. The highest prevalence was detected in sites with abundant dairy cattle and frequent use of liquid manure on pastures. Considering the results obtained regarding exposure to different pathogens, we suggest that antibody prevalences in this non-gregarious browser are largely determined by environmental factors, potentially modulating vector populations or pathogen survival in the environment.

Oleaga Álvaro

2010-11-01

242

Competition drives cooperation among closely related sperm of deer mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the extraordinary adaptations driven by sperm competition is the cooperative behaviour of spermatozoa. By forming cooperative groups, sperm can increase their swimming velocity and thereby gain an advantage in intermale sperm competition. Accordingly, selection should favour cooperation of the most closely related sperm to maximize fitness. Here we show that sperm of deer mice (genus Peromyscus) form motile aggregations, then we use this system to test predictions of sperm cooperation. We find that sperm aggregate more often with conspecific than heterospecific sperm, suggesting that individual sperm can discriminate on the basis of genetic relatedness. Next, we provide evidence that the cooperative behaviour of closely related sperm is driven by sperm competition. In a monogamous species lacking sperm competition, Peromyscus polionotus, sperm indiscriminately group with unrelated conspecific sperm. In contrast, in the highly promiscuous deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, sperm are significantly more likely to aggregate with those obtained from the same male than with sperm from an unrelated conspecific donor. Even when we test sperm from sibling males, we continue to see preferential aggregations of related sperm in P. maniculatus. These results suggest that sperm from promiscuous deer mice discriminate among relatives and thereby cooperate with the most closely related sperm, an adaptation likely to have been driven by sperm competition. PMID:20090679

Fisher, Heidi S; Hoekstra, Hopi E

2010-02-11

243

Endemic goitre in Sarawak, Malaysia: I. Somatic growth and aetiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative epidemiological and anthropometric survey was conducted among Ibans, the largest indigenous ethnic group in Sarawak, in three regions where the endemicity of goitre exhibited marked differences , to assess the effect of endemic goitre on somatic growth. In the Ai river region the prevalence of goitre was 99.5%; 35% having grade 3 goitres, 55% grade 2 goitres and 9.5% grade 1 goitres. At Rubu the prevalence of endemic goitre was 74%; 3% having grade 3 goitre, 16% grade 2 goitre and 55% grade 1 goitre. In the Bajong region relatively few people were detected with goitre and most of these had migrated from other regions. Neurological cretinism was estimated at 3.6% in the severely goitrous Ai river population but was not detected in the other regions. Anthropometric data obtained from the three adult populations did not reveal any statistically significant differences in the following parameters: weight, height, weight/height ratio, height/sitting height ratios, head circumference, scapular skinfold thickness and left mid arm muscle circumference. The haemoglobin, serum total protein and serum albumin concentrations were similar in the three populations. It is concluded that endemic goitre occurs with a frequency of close to 100% in certain Iban populations which represents one of the highest incidences of endemic goitre in the world. Neurological cretinism is common in this population. Our observations suggest that body proportions and somatic growth do not vary among similar ethnic populations exhibiting greatly different endemicity of goitre. Although no iodine balance studies were performed, assessment of diets suggested that iodine deficiency is a significant contributory factor in the development of endemic goitre in Sarawak. Urgent attention to iodine supplementation is indicated to prevent the development of endemic goitre and neurological cretinism. PMID:1030847

Maberly, G F; Eastman, C J

1976-09-01

244

Evolutionary Relationships of Endemic/Epidemic and Sylvatic Dengue Viruses  

OpenAIRE

Endemic/epidemic dengue viruses (DEN) that are transmitted among humans by the mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are hypothesized to have evolved from sylvatic DEN strains that are transmitted among nonhuman primates in West Africa and Malaysia by other Aedes mosquitoes. We tested this hypothesis with phylogenetic studies using envelope protein gene sequences of both endemic/epidemic and sylvatic strains. The basal position of sylvatic lineages of DEN-1, -2, and -4 suggested...

Wang, Eryu; Ni, Haolin; Xu, Renling; Barrett, Alan D. T.; Watowich, Stanley J.; Gubler, Duane J.; Weaver, Scott C.

2000-01-01

245

Endogenous Quasicycles and Stochastic Coherence in a Closed Endemic Model  

OpenAIRE

We study the role of demographic fluctuations in typical endemics as exemplified by the stochastic SIRS model. The birth-death master equation of the model is simulated using exact numerics and analysed within the linear noise approximation. The endemic fixed point is unstable to internal demographic noise, and leads to sustained oscillations. This is ensured when the eigenvalues ($\\lambda$) of the linearised drift matrix are complex, which in turn, is possible only if detai...

Ghose, Somdeb; Adhikari, R.

2010-01-01

246

Oral Vaccination of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)  

OpenAIRE

Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to other deer and cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer, thus interfering with the intraspecies and interspecies transmission cycles. Thirty-three white-tailed deer were assigned to one of two groups; oral vaccination with 1×108 colony-forming ...

Palmer, Mitchell V.; Thacker, Tyler C.; Waters, W. Ray; Robbe-austerman, Suelee

2014-01-01

247

Antigen Recognition by Serum Antibodies in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

OpenAIRE

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have emerged as reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis in northern America. For tuberculosis surveillance of deer, antibody-based assays are particularly attractive because deer are handled only once and immediate processing of the sample is not required. Sera collected sequentially from 25 Mycobacterium bovis-infected and 7 noninfected deer were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting, and multiantigen print immunoassay (MA...

Waters, W. R.; Palmer, M. V.; Bannantine, J. P.; Whipple, D. L.; Greenwald, R.; Esfandiari, J.; Andersen, P.; Mcnair, J.; Pollock, J. M.; Lyashchenko, K. P.

2004-01-01

248

Distribution of Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster) in Neelum Valley, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir  

OpenAIRE

To study the present and past distribution of Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) Survey in Neelum valley, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir was conducted from April to November 2002, Findings show that Musk deer is distributed throughout the Neelum valley. Poaching, deforestation and trans human grazing resulted in scattering of population of the musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) into separate pockets. Population of the musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) recorded from the are...

Baseer ud Din Qureshi; Muhammad Siddique Awan; Aleem Ahmed Khan; Naheem Iftikhar Dar; Muhammad Ejaz-ul-Islam Dar

2004-01-01

249

Habitat Ecology of Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster) in Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal  

OpenAIRE

The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) is an endangered species found in the Himalayan region of Nepal. This research was conducted in the Manaslu Conservation Area to explore the deers general population status, distribution, habitat preference and conservation threats. Musk deer are distributed within the altitudinal range of 3128-4039 m spanning 35.43 km2, with the most potential habitat in the Prok VDC (Village Development Committee). Within this area the Musk deer highly preferre...

Xiuxiang Meng; Yajna Prasad Timilsina; Raj Kumar Koirala; Achyut Aryal; Ashok Subedi; Fiona McKenzie

2012-01-01

250

Elk and deer studies related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) was conducted in the vicinity of planned site characterization activities for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). Both species are known to be sensitive to disturbance and are considered important species because they are recreationally and/or commercially valuable. The principal objectives of the study were to (1) estimate pre-activity (site characterization) recruitment of deer and elk, (2) characterize deer and elk use of limited habitats critical to their survival (e.g., riparian areas), (3) describe preferential habitat use by deer and elk during critical seasons (i.e., winter and summer), and (4) document pre-activity distributions of seasonal home range centers of deer and elk. Early termination of BWIP prevented some of the objectives from being fully addressed. Fifteen adult elk (11 females and 4 males) and 19 female deer equipped with radio transmitters were studied on the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve from February through December 1987. More than 1800 relocations of the marked elk and deer were made during aerial and ground tracking sessions. Deer confined their activities to within 2 km of water sources. In contrast, elk used 6-12 times the average area used by deer. As with deer, female elk were closely associated with available water sources during the summer and fall, presumably because of the physiological demands of lactation. However, during the winter, female elk showed no preference for areas near water, as did male elk throughout the study. Riparian areas, which are scarce on the arid Hanford Site, are particularly valuable habitat to both elk and deer because they provide drinking water and succulent forage during the dry summer and early fall months.

Eberhardt, L.E.; McCorquodale, S.M.; Sargeant, G.A.

1989-03-01

251

Elk and deer studies related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) was conducted in the vicinity of planned site characterization activities for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). Both species are known to be sensitive to disturbance and are considered important species because they are recreationally and/or commercially valuable. The principal objectives of the study were to (1) estimate pre-activity (site characterization) recruitment of deer and elk, (2) characterize deer and elk use of limited habitats critical to their survival (e.g., riparian areas), (3) describe preferential habitat use by deer and elk during critical seasons (i.e., winter and summer), and (4) document pre-activity distributions of seasonal home range centers of deer and elk. Early termination of BWIP prevented some of the objectives from being fully addressed. Fifteen adult elk (11 females and 4 males) and 19 female deer equipped with radio transmitters were studied on the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve from February through December 1987. More than 1800 relocations of the marked elk and deer were made during aerial and ground tracking sessions. Deer confined their activities to within 2 km of water sources. In contrast, elk used 6-12 times the average area used by deer. As with deer, female elk were closely associated with available water sources during the summer and fall, presumably because of the physiological demands of lactation. However, during the winter, female elk showed no preuring the winter, female elk showed no preference for areas near water, as did male elk throughout the study. Riparian areas, which are scarce on the arid Hanford Site, are particularly valuable habitat to both elk and deer because they provide drinking water and succulent forage during the dry summer and early fall months

252

Endemic harvestmen and spiders of Austria (Arachnida: Opiliones, Araneae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus, beside 9 subendemic harvestman and 38 subendemic spider species have been recorded from Austria. Hot-spots of endemism in the Eastern Alps are the north-eastern (Ennstaler Alps and southern Calcareous Alps (Karawanken, Karnische Alps and the Central Alps (Hohe Tauern, Gurktaler Alps, Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps. Most of the endemic arachnid species occur from the nival down to the montane zone. Important habitats are rocky areas, caves and woodlands. High absolute numbers and percentages of endemics can be found within the harvestman families Cladonychiidae, Ischyropsalididae and Nemastomatidae and in the spider genera Lepthyphantes s. l. and Troglohyphantes. The conservation status of these highly endangered taxa – 85 % of the spider species and 100 % of the harvestman taxa are endangered in Austria – is poor.

Komposch, Christian

2011-01-01

253

Prediction of phylogeographic endemism in an environmentally complex biome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phylogeographic endemism, the degree to which the history of recently evolved lineages is spatially restricted, reflects fundamental evolutionary processes such as cryptic divergence, adaptation and biological responses to environmental heterogeneity. Attempts to explain the extraordinary diversity of the tropics, which often includes deep phylogeographic structure, frequently invoke interactions of climate variability across space, time and topography. To evaluate historical versus contemporary drivers of phylogeographic endemism in a tropical system, we analyse the effects of current and past climatic variation on the genetic diversity of 25 vertebrates in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. We identify two divergent bioclimatic domains within the forest and high turnover around the Rio Doce. Independent modelling of these domains demonstrates that endemism patterns are subject to different climatic drivers. Past climate dynamics, specifically areas of relative stability, predict phylogeographic endemism in the north. Conversely, contemporary climatic heterogeneity better explains endemism in the south. These results accord with recent speleothem and fossil pollen studies, suggesting that climatic variability through the last 250 kyr impacted the northern and the southern forests differently. Incorporating sub-regional differences in climate dynamics will enhance our ability to understand those processes shaping high phylogeographic and species endemism, in the Neotropics and beyond. PMID:25122231

Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Waltari, Eric; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Rosauer, Dan; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Damasceno, Roberta; Prates, Ivan; Strangas, Maria; Spanos, Zoe; Rivera, Danielle; Pie, Marcio R; Firkowski, Carina R; Bornschein, Marcos R; Ribeiro, Luiz F; Moritz, Craig

2014-10-01

254

Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species) and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only) in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762). All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8%) than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%). Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur. PMID:21537669

Contreras, Carmen Elena; Donato, Marcos de; Rivas, María Ana; Rodulfo, Hectorina; Mora, Robert; Batista, María Eulalia; Marcano, Norka

2011-03-01

255

Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic are [...] as of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species) and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only) in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762). All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8%) than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%). Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.

Carmen Elena, Contreras; Marcos de, Donato; María Ana, Rivas; Hectorina, Rodulfo; Robert, Mora; María Eulalia, Batista; Norka, Marcano.

2011-03-01

256

Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762. All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8% than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%. Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.

Carmen Elena Contreras

2011-03-01

257

Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The Canary Islands are home to a guild of endemic, threatened bird-pollinated plants. Previous work has suggested that these plants evolved floral traits as adaptations to pollination by flower specialist sunbirds, but subsequently, they appear to have co-opted generalist passerine birds as sub-optimal pollinators. To test this idea, we carried out a quantitative study of the pollination biology of three of the bird-pollinated plants, Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae), Isoplexis canariensis (Veronicaceae) and Lotus berthelotii (Fabaceae), on the island of Tenerife. Using colour vision models, we predicted the detectability of flowers to bird and bee pollinators. We measured pollinator visitation rates, nectar standing crops as well as seed-set and pollen removal and deposition. These data showed that the plants are effectively pollinated by non-flower specialist passerine birds that only occasionally visit flowers. The large nectar standing crops and extended flower longevities (>10 days) of Canarina and Isoplexis suggests that they have evolved a bird pollination system that effectively exploits these low frequency non-specialist pollen vectors and is in no way sub-optimal. Seed set in two of the three species was high and was significantly reduced or zero in flowers where pollinator access was restricted. In L. berthelotii, however, no fruit set was observed, probably because the plants were self-incompatible horticultural clones of a single genet. We also show that, while all three species are easily detectable for birds, the orange Canarina and the red Lotus (but less so the yellow-orange Isoplexis) should be difficult to detect for insect pollinators without specialised red receptors, such as bumblebees. Contrary to expectations if we accept that the flowers are primarily adapted to sunbird pollination, the chiffchaff ( Phylloscopus canariensis) was an effective pollinator of these species.

Ollerton, Jeff; Cranmer, Louise; Stelzer, Ralph J.; Sullivan, Steve; Chittka, Lars

2009-02-01

258

Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Canary Islands are home to a guild of endemic, threatened bird-pollinated plants. Previous work has suggested that these plants evolved floral traits as adaptations to pollination by flower specialist sunbirds, but subsequently, they appear to have co-opted generalist passerine birds as sub-optimal pollinators. To test this idea, we carried out a quantitative study of the pollination biology of three of the bird-pollinated plants, Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae), Isoplexis canariensis (Veronicaceae) and Lotus berthelotii (Fabaceae), on the island of Tenerife. Using colour vision models, we predicted the detectability of flowers to bird and bee pollinators. We measured pollinator visitation rates, nectar standing crops as well as seed-set and pollen removal and deposition. These data showed that the plants are effectively pollinated by non-flower specialist passerine birds that only occasionally visit flowers. The large nectar standing crops and extended flower longevities (>10 days) of Canarina and Isoplexis suggests that they have evolved a bird pollination system that effectively exploits these low frequency non-specialist pollen vectors and is in no way sub-optimal. Seed set in two of the three species was high and was significantly reduced or zero in flowers where pollinator access was restricted. In L. berthelotii, however, no fruit set was observed, probably because the plants were self-incompatible horticultural clones of a single genet. We also show that, while all three species are easily detectable for birds, the orange Canarina and the red Lotus (but less so the yellow-orange Isoplexis) should be difficult to detect for insect pollinators without specialised red receptors, such as bumblebees. Contrary to expectations if we accept that the flowers are primarily adapted to sunbird pollination, the chiffchaff (Phylloscopus canariensis) was an effective pollinator of these species. PMID:18931830

Ollerton, Jeff; Cranmer, Louise; Stelzer, Ralph J; Sullivan, Steve; Chittka, Lars

2009-02-01

259

First occurrence of Paramphistomum microbothrium (Fischoeder 1901) in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Serbia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paramphistomum parasites identified by histology as Paramphistomum microbothrium were found in 18 of 34 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) intestines from central Serbia, examined between 1998 and 2004. This represents the first record of P. microbothrium in roe deer in Serbia. PMID:22493136

Pavlovi?, Ivan; Savi?, Božidar; Ivanovi?, Snežana; ?irovi?, Duško

2012-04-01

260

Vaccination of White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis BCG  

Science.gov (United States)

Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis in domestic livestock. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer in order to interrupt...

261

Vaccination of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerin  

Science.gov (United States)

Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis in domestic livestock. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccinate deer in order to interrupt...

262

White-tailed Deer Visitation Rates at Medicated Bait Sites in Southern Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

The cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has been found on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) complicating eradication efforts of the USDA’s Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program. Our objective was to assess patterns of deer visitation to medicated bait sites used to treat...

263

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF SQUIRRELS AS A POSSIBLE RESERVOIR FOR DEER ADENOVIRUS (ORAL PRESENTATION)  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel adenovirus was the cause of an epizootic that caused high mortality in deer in California in 1993-1994. Retrospective analysis demonstrated adenovirus in tissues from deer that died during a similar epizootic in 1987. It is unknown whether there is a reservoir species that harbors the viru...

264

Lack of caching of direct-seeded Douglas fir seeds by deer mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seed caching by deer mice was investigated by radiotagging seeds in forest and clear-cut areas in coastal British Columbia. Deer mice tend to cache very few Douglas fir seeds in the fall when the seed is uniformly distributed and is at densities comparable with those used in direct-seeding programs. (author)

265

Roe deer diet composition based on micro-histological analyses of faeces.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Srní : Šumava National Park, 2011 - (Šustr, P.). s. 10 [European Roe Deer Meeting /11./. 07.06.2011-10.06.2011, Srní] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : roe deer * diet Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://10roedeermeeting.npsumava.cz/RDM2011abstractbook.pdf

Baran?eková, Miroslava; Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Šustr, P.; Heurich, M.

266

The effect of deer management on the abundance of Ixodes ricinus in Scotland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The management of wildlife hosts for controlling parasites and disease has a history of mixed success. Deer can be important hosts for ticks, such as Ixodes ricinus, which is the primary vector of disease-causing zoonotic pathogens in Europe. Deer are generally managed by culling and fencing for forestry protection, habitat conservation, and commercial hunting, and in this study we test whether these deer management methods can be useful for controlling ticks, with implications for tick-borne pathogens. At different spatial scales and habitats we tested the hypotheses that tick abundance is reduced by (1) culling deer and (2) deer exclusion using fencing. We compared abundance indices of hosts and questing I. ricinus nymphs using a combination of small-scale fencing experiments on moorland, a large-scale natural experiment of fenced and unfenced pairs of forests, and cross-sectional surveys of forest and moorland areas with varying deer densities. As predicted, areas with fewer deer had fewer ticks, and fenced exclosures had dramatically fewer ticks in both large-scale forest and small-scale moorland plots. Fencing and reducing deer density were also associated with higher ground vegetation. The implications of these results on other hosts, pathogen prevalence, and disease risk are discussed. This study provides evidence of how traditional management methods of a keystone species can reduce a generalist parasite, with implications for disease risk mitigation. PMID:22611862

Gilbert, L; Maffey, G L; Ramsay, S L; Hester, A J

2012-03-01

267

Anaplasma phagocytophilum variants in sympatric red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sheep in southern Norway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections by the ixodid tick-transmitted bacterial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum are common in domestic ruminants and cervids in the coastal areas of southern Norway. Previous experimental work has shown that A. phagocytophilum strains recovered from red deer (Cervus elaphus) are infective in lambs, but epidemiological links between infections in red deer and sheep have yet to be established. To address this shortfall, the present study explores the genotypic relatedness between A. phagocytophilum strains infecting sympatric red deer and sheep. Blood from 32 lambs grazing on tick-infested pasture, and blood and tissues from 8 red deer shot in proximity to these pastures were collected during the summer and autumn of 2007. The presence of A. phagocytophilum in these samples was determined by PCR-based methods, and genotyping of detected strains was performed using comparative sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and msp4 fragments. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 12 lambs and 7 red deer, 11 and 4 individuals of which 16S rDNA and msp4 sequence data were obtained from, respectively. A total of 9 genotypes were delineated, and only different individuals of the same host species were infected with indistinguishable A. phagocytophilum genotypes. Although 3 of the red deer-infecting genotypes belonged to a cluster of exclusively deer-associated strains phylogenetically remote from those commonly encountered in sheep, one red deer-infecting genotype, although unique, clustered tightly with genotypes associated with a wide range of hosts including sheep. PMID:23414797

Stuen, Snorre; Pettersen, Kristin Sæbø; Granquist, Erik Georg; Bergström, Karin; Bown, Kevin John; Birtles, Richard John

2013-04-01

268

Distribution and abundance of fallow deer leks at Point Reyes National Seashore, California  

Science.gov (United States)

Only two species of ungulates (hoofed mammals) are native to Marin County, tule elk (Cervis elaphus nannodes) and Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus). In the 1940s, European fallow deer (Dama dama) obtained from the San Francisco Zoo were released at Point Reyes. When Point Reyes National Seashore was established in 1962, fallow deer were well established within the boundaries of the National Seashore. The fallow deer population was estimated to be 500 in 1973 (Wehausen, 1973) and that number increased to 860 by 2005 (National Park Service, unpubl. data). Fallow deer have an unusual mating system. During the fall mating season (or rut), male fallow deer establish areas known as leks where they display to potential mates (Hirth, 1997). This behavior is unique among deer and elk, but it is similar to breeding systems used by grouse and a few other birds and mammals. Formation of leks in ungulates decreases the number of aggressive encounters in which dominant males are involved when the local male density becomes too high, because the spatial stability of territories in leks reduces the number of aggressive encounters between males (Hovi et al., 1996; Pelabon et al., 1999). A fallow deer lek is typically an area of about 100-150 m2 and typically includes two to five males. Using their hooves and antlers, each male clears away most or all of the vegetation and digs a rutting pit that he defends throughout the breeding season.

Fellers, Gary M.; Osbourn, Michael

2006-01-01

269

Morphological Examination of the Siberian Roe Deer Capreolus pygargus in South Korea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study compare the external morphological characteristics of Korean roe deer inhabit the inland and Jeju island areas and to clarify the morphological differences by the two groups. Also, total of 40 roe deer bodies were collected from road-kill, poaching and injured survey from December 2004 to June 2009. The result showed that there were significant differences between Inland and Jeju roe deer. Jeju roe deer was relatively smaller than Inland roe deer in body mass. Thus, it appeared to be a unique native species inhabited only in Jeju island in Korea. Because Jeju roe deer that inhabit the island region could be classified as a subspecies level when at least have geographically isolated for a long time and have represented significant external morphology. Therefore, Siberian roe deer in Jeju give a scientific name to Capreolus pygargus jejuensis. Also, body mass, hind foot length, ear length and width in morphometric analysis were identified as efficient characteristics for differentiating Inland from Jeju roe deer.

Jong-Taek Kim

2011-01-01

270

CHARACTERISTICS AND MIGRATION PATTERNS OF MULE DEER ON THE NEVADA TEST SITE  

Science.gov (United States)

When NTS deer migrate, the majority of the animals stay within the confines of the NTS or the Nellis Bombing Range, and present little potential for radiation transport off the NTS. Also, the few deer that leave the NTS area do so during the winter when they cannot legally be hun...

271

Mycobacterial screening of Czech red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations in overwintering sites, 2004-2006.  

Science.gov (United States)

One isolate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected in 2,212 fecal samples of wild deer assembled in overwintering sites (OwS). Neither M. bovis nor M. a. subsp. avium was found. Therefore, congregating deer in OwSs does not automatically lead to the amplification of these pathogens among animals in OWSs. PMID:21719853

Pribylova, Radka; Lamka, Jiri; Kopecna, Marketa; Trcka, Ivo; Moravkova, Monika; Pavlik, Ivo

2011-07-01

272

Therapy of endemic goitre; Therapie der Jodmangelstruma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1. In childhood the first line treatment of endemic goitre is Kl (100-150 {mu}g/day). Once the goitre volume has shrinked during L-thyroxine treatment in older patients, this effect is to be maintained by Kl ({proportional_to}200 {mu}g/day). The same holds true after surgery in cases with normal TSH responsiveness to TRH. 2. TSH suppressive L-thyroxine therapy is indicated in goitre patients older than 40 years. However, the effectiveness will be limited by the nodularity of the thyroid. So prevention of further growth prevails over true tissue reduction. 3. Obviously thyroid surgery yields the best cosmetic results with an acceptably low complication rate. When euthyroidism is established, a lifelong iodine prophylaxy (200 {mu}g/day) of recurrent goitre is mandatory. In cases with latent or overt hypothyroidism an appropriate therapy with thyroid hormone should be given. 4. By radiodine it is possible to realize a short term volume loss of 30-40% which may increase further on up to 60%. Relief of symptoms is usually even more impressive than actual volume loss. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] 1. Kaliumjodid ist heute das Mittel der Wahl zur Behandlung der Jodmangelstruma von Kindern (100 {mu}g) und Jugendlichen (150 {mu}g). Lebenslange Einnahme von Jodid (200 {mu}g) dient der Erhaltung einer Organverkleinerung, die durch L-Thyroxin bei aelteren Patienten erreicht wurde, und postoperativ bei gesicherter Euthyreose (TSH). In der Schwangerschaft ist eine Jodid-Medikation fuer Mutter und Kind erforderlich. 2. L-Thyroxin in TSH-suppressiver Dosierung sollte eingesetzt werden, wenn mit Jodid kein Verkleinerungseffekt erreichbar ist. Primaer ist es indiziert bei Patienten ueber 40 Jahren. Postoperativ muss L-Thyroxin dann verordnet werden, wenn eine latente oder manifeste Hypothyreose gesichert ist. Damit behandelt es sich aber nicht um eine Rezidiv-Prophylaxe im engeren Sinn. 3. Eine wirkliche Substanzverminderung des Kropfes gelingt durch die operative Resektion. Eine konsequente, wahrscheinlich lebenslange Rezidivprophylaxe (Jodid 200 {mu}g) hat ihr unbedingt zu folgen. 4. Auch die Radiojodtherapie erzielt eine Reduktion der Strumamasse durch Verminderung der Follikelzahl kurzfristig in der Groessenordnung von 30-40% und langfristig bis zu 60%. Die Besserung der Beschwerden ist noch eindrucksvoller als der sonographisch objektivierte Volumenrueckgang. (orig./MG)

Leisner, B. [Allg. Krankenhaus St. Georg, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

1995-12-01

273

Association mapping of genetic risk factors for chronic wasting disease in wild deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. We assessed the feasibility of association mapping CWD genetic risk factors in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using a panel of bovine microsatellite markers from three homologous deer linkage groups predicted to contain candidate genes. These markers had a low cross-species amplification rate (27.9%) and showed weak linkage disequilibrium (<1 cM). Markers near the prion protein and the neurofibromin 1 (NF1) genes were suggestively associated with CWD status in white-tailed deer (P = 0.006) and mule deer (P = 0.02), respectively. This is the first time an association between the NF1 region and CWD has been reported. PMID:23467626

Matsumoto, Tomomi; Samuel, Michael D; Bollinger, Trent; Pybus, Margo; Coltman, David W

2013-02-01

274

Mule deer antlers as biomonitors of strontium-90 on the Hanford Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study evaluated deer antlers as indicators of animal uptake of localized 90Sr contamination on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. Levels of 90Sr were examined in 38 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) antler samples collected near and distant from previously active nuclear reactor facilities and from a reference site in central Oregon. Results showed that 90Sr concentrations in antlers collected near reactor facilities were significantly higher (P90Sr compared with Hanford. Strontium-90 concentrations in deer antlers collected at the reference locations were higher than Hanford site deer, presumably because the deer inhabited mountain regions during the summer months that received more atmospheric fallout from historic weapons testing

275

Mule deer antlers as biomonitors of strontium-90 on the Hanford Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study evaluated deer antlers as indicators of animal uptake of localized {sup 90}Sr contamination on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. Levels of {sup 90}Sr were examined in 38 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) antler samples collected near and distant from previously active nuclear reactor facilities and from a reference site in central Oregon. Results showed that {sup 90}Sr concentrations in antlers collected near reactor facilities were significantly higher (P<0.001) than other Hanford samples. Reference samples contained nearly 5 times the levels of {sup 90}Sr compared with Hanford. Strontium-90 concentrations in deer antlers collected at the reference locations were higher than Hanford site deer, presumably because the deer inhabited mountain regions during the summer months that received more atmospheric fallout from historic weapons testing.

Tiller, Brett L.; Poston, Ted M

1999-01-01

276

Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. in deer ked pupae, adult keds and moose blood in Finland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) is a haematophagous ectoparasite of cervids that harbours haemotrophic Bartonella. A prerequisite for the vector competence of the deer ked is the vertical transmission of the pathogen from the mother to its progeny and transstadial transmission from pupa to winged adult. We screened 1154 pupae and 59 pools of winged adult deer keds from different areas in Finland for Bartonella DNA using PCR. Altogether 13 pupa samples and one winged adult deer ked were positive for the presence of Bartonella DNA. The amplified sequences were closely related to either B. schoenbuchensis or B. bovis. The same lineages were identified in eight blood samples collected from free-ranging moose. This is the first demonstration of Bartonella spp. DNA in a winged adult deer ked and, thus, evidence for potential transstadial transmission of Bartonella spp. in the species. PMID:24901607

Korhonen, E M; Pérez Vera, C; Pulliainen, A T; Sironen, T; Aaltonen, K; Kortet, R; Härkönen, L; Härkönen, S; Paakkonen, T; Nieminen, P; Mustonen, A-M; Ylönen, H; Vapalahti, O

2015-02-01

277

Habitat Ecology of Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster in Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster is an endangered species found in the Himalayan region of Nepal. This research was conducted in the Manaslu Conservation Area to explore the deers general population status, distribution, habitat preference and conservation threats. Musk deer are distributed within the altitudinal range of 3128-4039 m spanning 35.43 km2, with the most potential habitat in the Prok VDC (Village Development Committee. Within this area the Musk deer highly preferred altitudes between 3601-3800 m, with a 21-30 slope, 26-50% crown cover and 26-50% ground cover. There are significant differences in the use of different habitat types in terms of altitude, slope, crown cover, ground cover and topography. The preferred tree species were Abies spectabilis, Betula utilis and Rhododendron species. Poaching of deer for their musk is the major conservation threat.

Xiuxiang Meng

2012-01-01

278

Choroid plexitis in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in southern New York State.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brains, spinal cords, nerve roots, nerves and muscle tissues were removed from deer in southern New York State and examined for histologic evidence of infection by the causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi. There was no histologic evidence of this infection and only four of 26 deer had serologic evidence of past infection despite the fact that all were parasitized by the tick vector, Ixodes dammini. Of these ticks, 21% were carrying B. burgdorferi. In contrast, most of the deer had choroid plexitis. All but one of 48 deer tested were infected with Trypanosoma cervi, 20 of 24 deer had sarcocystis in skeletal muscles and two had dural lesions probably due to the nematode Pneumostrongylus tenuis. The causal relationship between choroid plexitis and trypanosomiasis is discussed. PMID:3603961

Levine, S; Fish, D; Magnarelli, L A; Anderson, J F

1987-05-01

279

Radiocesium transfer to roe deer and moose. Modelling and experimental studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis summarises and discusses results of modelling and experimental studies of radiocesium transfer to roe deer and moose. Experimental studies were conducted in two forested areas highly contaminated by the Chernobyl deposition. One area is 40 km north west of Uppsala, in central Sweden and the other is in the Bryansk region of Russia. Experimental studies in Sweden are based on measurements of radiocesium levels in roe deer and moose carried out during 1988-1997. Issues addressed were: reasons for seasonal variations of radiocesium levels in roe deer, between years variations and long-term dynamics, correlation between radiocesium levels in roe deer and moose and role of fungi for radiocesium transfer to roe deer and moose. Experimental studies in Bryansk focused on calibration and validation of models developed during the study. Radiocaesium levels in roe deer increase in up to 5 times in summer and autumn due to mushrooms ingestion and remain almost constant the rest of the year. Mushrooms ingestion explained quantitatively between years variations in radiocesium levels in roe deer and 70 % of the variations in moose. The 137Cs levels of in roe deer and moose will decrease at a rate close to 137Cs physical half-life. The radiocesium levels were 2-2.5 times higher in roe deer than in moose. A conceptual model of radiocesium migration and transfer in a forest ecosystem is presented as an interaction matrix. This matrix can be used to stuion matrix. This matrix can be used to study migration pathways and cause-effect relationships and to present status of knowledge. A model of radiocesium transfer in forest ecosystems was developed, which simulates well seasonal and long-term dynamics of radiocesium levels in roe deer and moose. A process level model of radiocesium transfer from soil to understorey plants is used to derive equations relating soil-to-plant concentration ratios with soil characteristics

280

Radiocesium transfer to roe deer and moose. Modelling and experimental studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis summarises and discusses results of modelling and experimental studies of radiocesium transfer to roe deer and moose. Experimental studies were conducted in two forested areas highly contaminated by the Chernobyl deposition. One area is 40 km north west of Uppsala, in central Sweden and the other is in the Bryansk region of Russia. Experimental studies in Sweden are based on measurements of radiocesium levels in roe deer and moose carried out during 1988-1997. Issues addressed were: reasons for seasonal variations of radiocesium levels in roe deer, between years variations and long-term dynamics, correlation between radiocesium levels in roe deer and moose and role of fungi for radiocesium transfer to roe deer and moose. Experimental studies in Bryansk focused on calibration and validation of models developed during the study. Radiocaesium levels in roe deer increase in up to 5 times in summer and autumn due to mushrooms ingestion and remain almost constant the rest of the year. Mushrooms ingestion explained quantitatively between years variations in radiocesium levels in roe deer and 70 % of the variations in moose. The {sup 137}Cs levels of in roe deer and moose will decrease at a rate close to {sup 137}Cs physical half-life. The radiocesium levels were 2-2.5 times higher in roe deer than in moose. A conceptual model of radiocesium migration and transfer in a forest ecosystem is presented as an interaction matrix. This matrix can be used to study migration pathways and cause-effect relationships and to present status of knowledge. A model of radiocesium transfer in forest ecosystems was developed, which simulates well seasonal and long-term dynamics of radiocesium levels in roe deer and moose. A process level model of radiocesium transfer from soil to understorey plants is used to derive equations relating soil-to-plant concentration ratios with soil characteristics 57 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

Avila Moreno, R. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Radioecology

1998-12-31

281

The Impact of Sika Deer on Vegetation in Japan: Setting Management Priorities on a National Scale  

Science.gov (United States)

Irreversible shifts in ecosystems caused by large herbivores are becoming widespread around the world. We analyzed data derived from the 2009-2010 Sika Deer Impact Survey, which assessed the geographical distribution of deer impacts on vegetation through a questionnaire, on a scale of 5-km grid-cells. Our aim was to identify areas facing irreversible ecosystem shifts caused by deer overpopulation and in need of management prioritization. Our results demonstrated that the areas with heavy impacts on vegetation were widely distributed across Japan from north to south and from the coastal to the alpine areas. Grid-cells with heavy impacts are especially expanding in the southwestern part of the Pacific side of Japan. The intensity of deer impacts was explained by four factors: (1) the number of 5-km grid-cells with sika deer in neighboring 5 km-grid-cells in 1978 and 2003, (2) the year sika deer were first recorded in a grid-cell, (3) the number of months in which maximum snow depth exceeded 50 cm, and (4) the proportion of urban areas in a particular grid-cell. Based on our model, areas with long-persistent deer populations, short snow periods, and fewer urban areas were predicted to be the most vulnerable to deer impact. Although many areas matching these criteria already have heavy deer impact, there are some areas that remain only slightly impacted. These areas may need to be designated as having high management priority because of the possibility of a rapid intensification of deer impact.

Ohashi, Haruka; Yoshikawa, Masato; Oono, Keiichi; Tanaka, Norihisa; Hatase, Yoriko; Murakami, Yuhide

2014-09-01

282

Fast and efficient DNA-based method for winter diet analysis from stools of three cervids: moose, red deer, and roe deer  

OpenAIRE

Effects of cervid browsing on timber production, especially during winter, lead to economic losses in forest management. The aim of this study was to present an efficient DNA-based method which allows qualitative assessment of the winter diet from stools of moose (Alces alces), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and red deer (Cervus elaphus). The preliminary results of the diet composition of the three cervids from Poland were also presented with a special emphasis on moose. The electropherogram...

Czernik, Marta; Taberlet, Pierre; S?wis?ocka, Magdalena; Czajkowska, Magdalena; Duda, Norbert; Ratkiewicz, Miros?aw

2013-01-01

283

Extraordinary micro-endemism in Australian desert spring amphipods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing pressure for water in the Australian arid zone is placing enormous stress on the diverse endemic communities inhabiting desert springs. Detailed information about the evolutionary processes occurring within and between individual endemic species will help to develop effective and biologically relevant management strategies this fragile ecosystem. To help determine conservation priorities, we documented the genetic structure of the endemic freshwater amphipod populations in springs fed by the Great Artesian Basin in central Australia. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic history and genetic diversity measures were examined using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from approximately 500 chiltoniid amphipods across an entire group of springs. Pronounced genetic diversity was identified, demonstrating that levels of endemism have been grossly underestimated in these amphipods. Using the GMYC model, 13 genetically divergent lineages were recognized as Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs), all of which could be considered as separate species. The results show that due to the highly fragmented ecosystem, these taxa have highly restricted distributions. Many of the identified ESUs are endemic to a very small number of already degraded springs, with the rarest existing in single springs. Despite their extraordinarily small ranges, most ESUs showed relative demographic stability and high levels of genetic diversity, and genetic diversity was not directly linked to habitat extent. The relatively robust genetic health of ESUs does not preclude them from endangerment, as their limited distributions ensure they will be highly vulnerable to future water extraction. PMID:23142695

Murphy, N P; Adams, M; Guzik, M T; Austin, A D

2013-03-01

284

Brassicaceae endémicas del Perú / Brassicaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La familia Brassicaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar 27 géneros y 111 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), principalmente hierbas. En este trabajo reconocemos 34 endemismos en 12 géneros. Dos géneros, Catadysia y Dactylocardamum, son también endémicos del Perú. Esto [...] s taxones endémicos se encuentran principalmente en las regiones Puna Húmeda y Seca y Altoandina, creciendo por encima de los 3000 m de altitud. Se aplicaron las categorías y criterios de la UICN a 31 taxones. Seis especies endémicas han sido registradas en el Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Brasicaceae are represented in Peru by 27 genera and 111 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mostly herbs. Here we recognize 34 endemic taxa in 12 genera. Two genera, Catadysia and Dactylocardamum, are also endemic to Peru. These endemic taxa are found mainly in the Very [...] Humid and Dry Puna, and High-Andean regions, growing above 3000 m elevation. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to 31 endemic taxa. Six endemic species are known from the Peruvian park system.

Christhian, Monsalve.

2006-12-01

285

Action Central: Red Deer steps forward as oilfield operations capital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growth of Red Deer as the center of the oil and natural gas service industry in the Alberta oilpatch was discussed. Red Deer is the home base of many of Alberta's major service companies (Haliburton, Schlumberger, Computalog, Nowsco, Canadian Fracmaster, Hughes, Bonus and Challenger), and new companies are regularly looking for industrial properties to establish themselves in the city. Industrial land acquisition currently runs at about triple of the average for the previous ten years. Another significant spin-off of energy wealth around Red Deer comes from the manufacturing of petrochemical building blocks of plastics, at nearby Joffre. With expansion projects that include Union Carbide Canada and Amoco Canada, predictions of population growth to 100,000 from the current 75,000, are commonplace. These expansion projects spell up to 2,500 construction jobs for the next three years, and then 400 new permanent plant positions that will pay $60,000 and up for skilled specialist jobs. There are some concerns about the threat of the Alliance Gas Pipeline project that if it materializes it might export many jobs, along with the natural gas, to the United States. However, these concerns are less serious than the fear that Alliance threatens to raise the price of the raw material by draining away surpluses from the industry, thus removing the major Canadian advantage in competition with U.S. industry. Alliance supporters counter that even at maximum export through the Cochat even at maximum export through the Cochin liquid pipeline, only half of the ethane production that will be potentially available, will be exported

286

Action Central: Red Deer steps forward as oilfield operations capital  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The growth of Red Deer as the center of the oil and natural gas service industry in the Alberta oilpatch was discussed. Red Deer is the home base of many of Alberta`s major service companies (Haliburton, Schlumberger, Computalog, Nowsco, Canadian Fracmaster, Hughes, Bonus and Challenger), and new companies are regularly looking for industrial properties to establish themselves in the city. Industrial land acquisition currently runs at about triple of the average for the previous ten years. Another significant spin-off of energy wealth around Red Deer comes from the manufacturing of petrochemical building blocks of plastics, at nearby Joffre. With expansion projects that include Union Carbide Canada and Amoco Canada, predictions of population growth to 100,000 from the current 75,000, are commonplace. These expansion projects spell up to 2,500 construction jobs for the next three years, and then 400 new permanent plant positions that will pay $60,000 and up for skilled specialist jobs. There are some concerns about the threat of the Alliance Gas Pipeline project that if it materializes it might export many jobs, along with the natural gas, to the United States. However, these concerns are less serious than the fear that Alliance threatens to raise the price of the raw material by draining away surpluses from the industry, thus removing the major Canadian advantage in competition with U.S. industry. Alliance supporters counter that even at maximum export through the Cochin liquid pipeline, only half of the ethane production that will be potentially available, will be exported.

Jaremko, G.

1997-12-01

287

Linking Hunter Knowledge with Forest Change to Understand Changing Deer Harvest Opportunities in Intensively Logged Landscapes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of landscape changes caused by intensive logging on the availability of wild game are important when the harvest of wild game is a critical cultural practice, food source, and recreational activity. We assessed the influence of extensive industrial logging on the availability of wild game by drawing on local knowledge and ecological science to evaluate the relationship between forest change and opportunities to harvest Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. We used data collected through interviews with local deer hunters and GIS analysis of land cover to determine relationships among landscape change, hunter access, and habitat for deer hunting over the last 50 yr. We then used these relationships to predict how harvest opportunities may change in the future. Intensive logging from 1950 into the 1990s provided better access to deer and habitat that facilitated deer hunting. However, successional changes in intensively logged forests in combination with a decline in current logging activity have reduced access to deer and increased undesirable habitat for deer hunting. In this new landscape, harvest opportunities in previously logged landscapes have declined, and hunters identify second-growth forest as one of the least popular habitats for hunting. Given the current state of the logging industry in Alaska, it is unlikely that the logging of the remaining old-growth forests or intensive management of second-growth forests will cause hunter opportunities to rebound to historic levels. Instead, hunter opportunities may continue to decline for at least another human generation, even if the long-term impacts of logging activity and deer harvest on deer numbers are minimal. Adapting hunting strategies to focus on naturally open habitats such as alpine and muskeg that are less influenced by external market forces may require considerably more hunting effort but provide the best option for sustaining deer hunting as a local tradition over the long run. We speculate that managing deer habitat in accessible areas may be more important than managing the overall health of deer populations on a regional scale. We further suggest that the level of access to preferred hunting habitat may be just as important as deer densities in determining hunter efficiency.

Gary Kofinas

2009-06-01

288

Relaciones espaciales y numéricas entre venados de las pampas (Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer) y chanchos cimarrones (Sus scrofa) en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Bahía Samborombón, Argentina / Spatial and numerical relationships between Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer) and feral pigs (Sus scrofa) in the Bahía Samborombón Wildlife Refuge, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer es la subespecie más austral del venado de las pampas; es endémica de la eco-región pampeana y se encuentra seriamente amenazada de extinción. En Buenos Aires, el último núcleo poblacional existente se localiza en la Bahía Samborombón. El objetivo del presente trabajo fu [...] e determinar las variaciones en la distribución y abundancia de venados y chanchos cimarrones en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Bahía Samborombón, y discutir la interacción potencial entre ambas especies. Se realizaron seis muestreos aéreos durante el período 2002-2005, en los que se contabilizaron 747 venados y 2690 chanchos, y se registró una leve disminución del número de venados y un notable incremento del de chanchos. Se halló una correlación negativa entre la densidad de ambas especies (r s=-0.83; P=0.04) y se detectó que su distribución no es independiente entre sí. En las últimas tres décadas se observó un cambio en la distribución de venados, posiblemente asociado al incremento de chanchos. Este trabajo aporta evidencias indirectas de la existencia potencial de interacciones negativas entre las dos especies que se reflejan en relaciones numéricas y espaciales inversas. Abstract in english Ozotoceros bezoarticus celer, the southernmost subspecies of pampas deer and endemic to the Argentine Pampas, is seriously endangered. In Buenos Aires Province, the last Pampas deer population is located in the Bahía Samborombón region. Poaching and the increase in exotic species such as feral dogs [...] and feral pigs have been suggested as the most important causes affecting the recovery of the deer population. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the spatial and temporal variations in distribution and abundance of the Pampas deer and the feral pig in the Bahía Samborombón Wildlife Refuge and to discuss the possible consequences of the interaction between these species. Six aerial surveys were conducted during 2002-2005. A total of 747 deer and 2690 feral pigs were counted, with a slight decrease in the deer sightings and an important increase in pig sightings during the sampling period. Estimated density ranged between 0.63-1.56 individuals/km² for deer and from 0.91 to 7.78 individuals/km² for pigs. A negative correlation was found between densities of the two species (r s=-0.83; P=0.04), and the distributions are not mutually independent. A progressive change in distribution has been detected in the Pampas deer population during the last three decades. This study provides evidence of the potential existence of negative interactions between Pampas deer and pigs. Due to the critical situation of the Pampas deer population, a control plan for feral pigs should be developed and urgently implemented to prevent the increase and expansion of this population to the south of the Samborombón bay, and consequently, to reduce the potential competition and predation on the existing deer population.

Lorena C, Pérez Carusi; Mario S, Beade; Fernando, Miñarro; Alejandro R, Vila; Mariano, Giménez-Dixon; David N, Bilenca.

2009-04-01

289

[Current epidemiology and laboratory diagnosis of endemic mycoses in Spain].  

Science.gov (United States)

Histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis are emerging infections in Spain associated with immigration and travelling. In last three decades a total of 128 cases of histoplasmosis have been reported in Spain, 59 in travellers, 63 in immigrants, three associated to drug abuse, two in laboratory workers, and one in a solid organ transplant receptor. In 1969 the first Spanish case of paracoccidioidomycosis was published and a total of 21 cases have been reported so far. Those patients suffered from the chronic form of the disease with period of latency as long as 50 years. Other endemic mycoses such as blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, lobomycosis, pythiosis and sporotrichosis have not increased in frequency. Microbiological cultures of endemic fungi must be handled in facilities which comply with international biosafety regulations and must also be taken into account for cultures from patients with suspected endemic mycosis. PMID:22130575

Buitrago, María J; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

2012-08-01

290

Instability of ovine babesiosis in an endemic area in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to determine the endemic status of Babesia ovis in sheep in Turkey. A total of 2000 sheep, from different age groups (i.e. 0-3, 4-6, 6-9, 10-12, and >12 months), were selected randomly from 132 sheep flocks. The presence of specific antibodies against B. ovis was diagnosed by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A total of 843 (42.15%) serum samples were determined to be positive. The seropositivity rates in the age groups stated above were 31.90, 31.64, 47.69, 40.22, and 52.99%, respectively. The endemic status of the disease was determined by calculating the inoculation rate (h) of each group. The h value for each group was determined to be lower than 0.005, which revealed that the endemic status of B. ovis was instable. This report may indicate the necessity of vaccination. PMID:22538091

Ekici, Ozlem Derinbay; Sevinc, Ferda; Isik, Nermin

2012-09-10

291

Radiological spectrum of endemic fluorosis: relationship with calcium intake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Skeletal fluorosis continues to be endemic in many parts of India. Osteosclerosis and interosseous membrane calcification have long been regarded as hallmarks of this disease. Our study showed in addition a wide variety of radiological patterns: Coarse trabecular pattern, axial osteosclerosis with distal osteopenia and diffuse osteopenia. Subjects with osteopenic changes had a significantly lower dietary intake of calcium than those groups having normal radiological findings, predominant osteosclerosis or coarse trabecular pattern (p<0.001, p<0.01, and p<0.01 respectively). This suggests the role of calcium intake in determining the skeletal changes in endemic fluorosis. (orig.)

292

Forage Food of Timor Deer (Cervus timorensis in Manokwari, West Papua  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditionally, back yard deer husbandry is well developed in some parts in Papua, though information on deer husbandry has not been provided yet. Therefore, this study was aimed at highlighting the diet provided to the deer in back yard husbandry model in Manokwari. Survey method was approached by visiting eight deer back yard farmer respondents. Direct observation to the feeding site and semi-structured interview were carried out to learn about the deer management system, and identify the forage diet species consumed and served to the animals. The results indicated five most common forage species consumed in the study; they were field grass, Imperata (Imperata cylindrica, elephant grass (Penisetum purpureum, king grass (Penisetum purpureopoidhes and Melinis minutiflora depending on the location of farmed deer. Drinking water was offered and feed supplement such as various leafs, food and vegetable left over and banana peel was provided by 62.5% of the respondents. Food supplement was given two times per day (morning, evening and (afternoon, evening. Forage food species consumed in the study sites were relatively more similar to the food in the natural habitat. (Animal Production 12(2: 91-95 (2010Key Words: forage, food, Timor deer, Manokwari

AYS Arobaya

2010-05-01

293

Toxinotyping of Clostridium perfringens fecal isolates of reintroduced Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen causing sudden death syndrome, necrotic enteritis, and gas gangrene in ruminants, especially some deer species. Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) is one of the world's rare species and is an endangered and protected species in China. Some Père David's deer in the Chinese Shishou Père David's Deer Preserve died due to C. perfringens infection. We investigated the toxin types and C. perfringens enterotoxin-positive (cpe(+)) strains of isolated C. perfringens in Père David's deer in China. We collected 155 fecal samples from the Beijing Nanhaizi Père David's Deer Park and the Jiangsu Dafeng Père David's Deer National Nature Reserve between July 2010 and July 2011. Bacteria isolated using blood agar and mannitol agar plates were identified by Gram staining and nested PCR for 16S rRNA. We isolated C. perfringens from 41 fecal samples and used PCR amplification of five toxin genes to identify the toxinotypes and the cpe(+) strains of C. perfringens. Twenty-one isolates were type A, 15 were type E, and five were type D. Fifteen isolates were cpe(+) strains, including eight that were type A and seven that were type E. PMID:25050802

Qiu, Huiling; Chen, Fu; Leng, Xinyan; Fei, Rongmei; Wang, Libo

2014-10-01

294

Factors affecting deer ked (Lipoptena cervi prevalence and infestation intensity in moose (Alces alces in Norway  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi, a hematophagous ectoparasite of Cervids, is currently spreading in Scandinavia. In Norway, keds are now invading the south-eastern part of the country and the abundant and widely distributed moose (Alces alces is the definitive host. However, key factors for ked abundance are poorly elucidated. The objectives of our study were to (i determine deer ked infestation prevalence and intensity on moose and (ii evaluate if habitat characteristics and moose population density are determinants of deer ked abundance on moose. Methods In order to identify key factors for deer ked abundance, a total of 350 skin samples from the neck of hunted moose were examined and deer keds counted. Infestation intensity was analyzed in relation to moose age and sex, moose population density and landscape characteristics surrounding the killing site. Results Deer ked infestation prevalence was 100%, but infestation intensity varied from 0.001 to 1.405 keds/cm2. Ked intensity was highest in male yearlings (~1.5 years and positively associated with longitude and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris dominated habitat and negatively associated with bogs and latitude. Moose population density during autumn showed a tendency to be positively associated, while altitude tended to be negatively associated with ked intensity. Conclusions Deer keds exploit the whole moose population within our study area, but are most prevalent in areas dominated by Scots pine. This is probably a reflection of Scots pine being the preferred winter browse for moose in areas with highest moose densities in winter. Ked intensity decreases towards the northwest and partly with increasing altitude, probably explained by the direction of dispersal and reduced temperature, respectively. Abundant deer ked harm humans and domestic animals. Moose management authorities should therefore be aware of the close relationship between moose, deer ked and habitat, using the knowledge as a management tool for locally regulating the ked burden.

Madslien Knut

2012-11-01

295

A deer study at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Project planning, data assimilation, and risk assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For more than 75 years, Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) has been in the business of research, development, and testing of munitions and military vehicles for the US Army. Currently, APG is on the National Priorities List and an installation wide human health risk assessment is underway. Like many Department of the Army facilities, APG has an active hunting program. Hunters harvest approximately 800 whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginanus) from APG annually. To assure public safety, the authors completed a study during the 1993 hunting season to identify any potential human health hazards associated with consumption of venison from APG. This paper will discuss the unique strategy behind the experimental design, the actual assimilation of the data, and the results of the human health risk assessment to establish an appropriate contaminant levels in APG deer. Also, based on information in the literature, the authors considered gender, age, and season in the study design. The list of chemicals for residue analysis included explosives, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, and metals (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg). Of the 150 deer sampled, metals were the only chemicals detected. The authors compared these data to metal levels in deer collected from an off post background site. Metal levels did not differ significantly between APG deer and off post deer. Finally, the authors completed a health risk assessment of eating deer harvested from both APG and off post. From a survey distributed to the hunters, they incorporated actual consumption data into the exposure assessment. Their findings concluded that the risk of eating APG deer was no higher than eating off post deer; however, total arsenic levels in muscle did appear to elevate the risk.

Whaley, J.; Leach, G.; Lee, R. [Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1995-12-31

296

Endemism in the Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Southern Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We review the current state of knowledge and patterns of distribution in the endemic Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Southern Africa and describe two species of the Western Cape, of which one is new to science. Frey (1993, Korovchinsky (2006 and Smirnov (2008 previously suggested that South Africa harbours few endemics in the Cladocera. In the current study, we show that so-called low endemism in this region is mainly attributed to our limited state of knowledge of the local cladoceran fauna. Many of the South African taxa are ignored and revisions are lacking, as we briefly discuss for the genus Daphnia. We list known Southern African endemic Cladocera with notes on their status, map the distributions of well-studied taxa, and discuss the importance of temporary freshwater rockpools. We confirm that Southern Africa is a region of endemism for the group. We recognise three categories of endemics: i Montane endemics in the East (e.g. Drakensberg mountains; ii endemics of the Western Cape (lowlands; iii South African endemics, widely distributed in the region, both in the mountains and the lowlands. South African endemics have previously been regarded as relicts (Korovchinsky 2006, yet for the two taxa explored in detail in this study, there are no specific primitive morphological characters in comparison to congeners (within their respective genus/species group and the morphology mainly suggests strong isolation. The two species belong to the Chydoridae and the Eurycercidae, respectively, and are used here as case studies for the investigation of Western Cape endemics. The first, Alona capensis Rühe, 1914 (Anomopoda: Chydoridae: Aloninae, is redescribed based on the type material. We discuss the affinities of this enigmatic species for the first time. Morphology of the habitus and the postabdomen parallel that of members of the Alona affinis-complex. The disconnected head pores and limb characters, on the other hand, place A. capensis in the Alona pulchella-group, a different lineage in the Aloninae subfamily. The specific postabdomen shape of A. capensis and a unique, inflated rostrum, diverge from the main A. pulchella-morphotype and illustrate the significant morphological isolation of A. capensis within its group. The second species, Eurycercus (Eurycercus freyi sp.nov. (Eurycercidae, is described based on material from the collection of the late Prof. Dr. David G. Frey. It is an E. lamellatus-like taxon that is easily differentiated from the two related species (E. lamellatus and E. microdontus by a strong indentation (with depth larger than head pore diameter behind the head pores. E. freyi sp.nov. seems to be the closest relative of E. lamellatus. The small clade of just two species is supported by two synapomorphies: i the rostrum is long; and ii the spine situated on the proximal segment of the exopod of antenna II is longer than the second segment, in contrast to E. microdontus. 

Alexey A. Kotov

2013-10-01

297

Areas of endemism in the southern central Andes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este trabajo analiza la distribución de especies de plantas vasculares endémicas de la porción sur de los Andes centrales (sudoeste de Bolivia y noroeste de Argentina). En el análisis se incluyeron 540 especies endémicas de la región estudiada (aproximadamente 720.600 km²). La mayoría de las especie [...] s endémicas se halla en ambientes semiáridos, entre 1500-3500 m s.m., encontrándose principalmente en valles, laderas y mesetas del topográficamente complejo sur de los Andes centrales. Las áreas de endemismos aquí halladas se presentan consecuentemente en ambientes áridos y no en ambientes húmedos subtropicales de las Yungas tucumano-bolivianas, a pesar de que en esta última región la diversidad de plantas vasculares es mayor. Se identificaron un total de 17 patrones de distribución bien definidos, y parcialmente solapados. El patrón de distribución más amplio define un área general de endemismos para los Andes centrales. Esta área se extiende a lo largo de casi toda la región y está delimitada por especies que se distribuyen en ambientes desérticos a sub-húmedos en laderas, valles o regiones altoandinas. Casi todas las restantes áreas de endemismo se encuentran anidadas dentro del patrón de distribución amplio antes citado, superponiéndose en el sentido norte-sur a lo largo de pendientes y valles de los Andes y de las Sierras Pampeanas. A pesar del sesgo observado en la distribución hacia ambientes áridos, aproximadamente la mitad de las especies endémicas están restringidas a unas pocas áreas de alto endemismo, las que se encuentran en yuxtaposición con las zonas más lluviosas de la región. Estas áreas de alto endemismo incluyen los rangos de hábitat más amplios de la región en términos de altitud y precipitación, siendo las especies endémicas igualmente variables en sus requerimientos de humedad y elevación. Las unidades fitogeográficas previamente definidas por diversos autores no fueron encontradas entre los patrones de distribución hallados; no obstante, la parte norte de la provincia Prepuneña puede ser definida con dos patrones de distribución parcialmente superpuestos. Abstract in english This paper analyzes the distribution of vascular plants species endemic to the southern central Andes (south-western Bolivia and north-western Argentina). All 540 species endemic to the study regions (approx. 720600 km²) have been included in the analysis. The main part of the endemic species is fou [...] nd in semiarid habitats between 1500-3500 m asl pointing to the topographically complex plateau, slope, and valley system of the southern central Andes as the main locations for its endemic flora. The distribution of the endemic species within arid sites is in contrast with that of vascular plant diversity in general, as the most diverse habitat of the region is the moist subtropical Tucumano-Bolivian Yungas forest of the eastern Andes slope. A total of 17 well defined and partly overlapping distribution patterns were indentified. The broadest distribution pattern defines a general area of endemism for the southern central Andes. This area extends through nearly the entire region and is defined by species that are widespread within the region in desert to sub-humid environments of the high Andes, slopes, or valleys. Nearly all other areas of endemism are nested within this broad distribution pattern as successively north-south overlapping areas along the slopes and valleys of the Andes and the Pampeanas Range. Despite the distributional bias of endemism towards the arid sites almost half of the endemic species are restricted to a few high endemic areas that lie in juxtaposition to the main rainfall zones. These areas contain the widest habitat ranges in terms of altitude and rainfall within the region with the endemic species being equally variable in altitude and moisture requirements. Previous defined phytogeographic units were not recognized among the distribution patterns. However, the norther

Lone, Aagesen; Maria J., Bena; Soledad, Nomdedeu; Adela, Panizza; Ramiro P., López; Fernando O., Zuloaga.

2012-12-01

298

Coalbed methane development in Red Deer County : position paper  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, there has been a substantial increase in Coalbed Methane (CBM) prospecting in Canada as a result of market conditions and technological advances in North America. Red Deer County residents are interested in obtaining information about the short and long-term impacts of CBM production as the county has been significantly impacted by a recent wave of CBM activity. The purpose of this position paper is to outline what is occurring within the County in the field of CBM development and ascertain what role, if any may be played by Red Deer County on behalf of its residents. It discusses conventional natural gas versus unconventional coalbed methane, issues and concerns expressed by County staff and County residents with regard to CBM development, as well as recommendations. These include: adopting a position as host of educational sessions to help provide landowners with information and useful resources regarding oil and gas exploration within the County; engage in communication processes with oil and gas producers and related stakeholders; investigate how other municipalities are dealing with the increased CBM activity; communicate with industry stakeholders to explore more efficient means of processing the various and changing CBM exploration and development activities within our municipalities; implement a protocol or a set of standards that would be provided to all companies conducting oil and gas related business within the County borders. 2 figs.

Weber, C.

2005-03-10

299

Unexpected population genetic structure of European roe deer in Poland: an invasion of the mtDNA genome from Siberian roe deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introgressive hybridization is a widespread evolutionary phenomenon which may lead to increased allelic variation at selective neutral loci and to transfer of fitness-related traits to introgressed lineages. We inferred the population genetic structure of the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Poland from mitochondrial (CR and cyt b) and sex-linked markers (ZFX, SRY, DBY4 and DBY8). Analyses of CR mtDNA sequences from 452 individuals indicated widespread introgression of Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus) mtDNA in the European roe deer genome, 2000 km from the current distribution range of C. pygargus. Introgressed individuals constituted 16.6% of the deer studied. Nearly 75% of them possessed haplotypes belonging to the group which arose 23 kyr ago and have not been detected within the natural range of Siberian roe deer, indicating that majority of present introgression has ancient origin. Unlike the mtDNA results, sex-specific markers did not show signs of introgression. Species distribution modelling analyses suggested that C. pygargus could have extended its range as far west as Central Europe after last glacial maximum. The main hybridization event was probably associated with range expansion of the most abundant European roe deer lineage from western refugia and took place in Central Europe after the Younger Dryas (10.8-10.0 ka BP). Initially, introgressed mtDNA variants could have spread out on the wave of expansion through the mechanism of gene surfing, reaching high frequencies in European roe deer populations and leading to observed asymmetrical gene flow. Human-mediated introductions of C. pygargus had minimal effect on the extent of mtDNA introgression. PMID:24697866

Matosiuk, Maciej; Borkowska, Anetta; ?wis?ocka, Magdalena; Mirski, Pawe?; Borowski, Zbigniew; Krysiuk, Kamil; Danilkin, Aleksey A; Zvychaynaya, Elena Y; Saveljev, Alexander P; Ratkiewicz, Miros?aw

2014-05-01

300

Wild red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) grazing may seriously reduce forage production in mountain meadows  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed at estimating the impact of red deer grazing on the productivity of meadows located in Pian Cansiglio, north-eastern Italian Pre-Alps. These meadows (383 ha; average elevation 1000 m asl are managed for hay/silage production (1-2 cuts per season) and are included in a protected area that hosts a high density of deer (around 30 heads/100 ha). In 2008 and 2010, dry matter (DM) production and loss due to deer grazing were estimated with exclusion cages (1 m2; 48 exclusion cages ...

Maurizio Ramanzin; Enrico Sturaro; Elisa Marchiori

2012-01-01

301

Intranasal naltrexone and atipamezole for reversal of white-tailed deer immobilized with carfentanil and medetomidine  

OpenAIRE

Carfentanil and medetomidine were used to immobilize 8 captive female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using mean dosages [± standard deviation (s)] of 14.2 ± 1.11 ?g/kg carfentanil and 17.8 ± 2.03 ?g/kg of medetomidine. Deer were reversed by intranasally or intramuscularly administered naltrexone and atipamezole. Dosages of carfentanil and medetomidine proved reliable for immobilization of most, but not all deer, with a mean induction time of 13.3 ± 3.13 min. Effective and re...

Shury, Todd K.; Caulkett, Nigel A.; Woodbury, Murray R.

2010-01-01

302

Gross anatomy of the stomach of the pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The macroscopic anatomy of the stomach of the adult pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758), a cervid species considered to ingest high quantities of grass in its natural diet, was described. Fourteen deceased adult pampas deer of both sexes from a captive breeding station were used for [...] this study. There were no differences in the absolute or relative size from the different compartments of the stomach in relation to gender. Compared to measurements in other ruminants, pampas deer appeared anatomically capable of feeding on a variety of diets as an 'intermediate feeder'.

William, Perez; Rodolfo, Ungerfeld.

2012-08-01

303

Gross anatomy of the stomach of the pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The macroscopic anatomy of the stomach of the adult pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758, a cervid species considered to ingest high quantities of grass in its natural diet, was described. Fourteen deceased adult pampas deer of both sexes from a captive breeding station were used for this study. There were no differences in the absolute or relative size from the different compartments of the stomach in relation to gender. Compared to measurements in other ruminants, pampas deer appeared anatomically capable of feeding on a variety of diets as an 'intermediate feeder'.

William Perez

2012-08-01

304

Tracking of white-tailed deer migration by Global Positioning System  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on global positioning system (GPS) radiocollars in northeastern Minnesota, deer migrated 23-45 km in spring during 31-356 h, deviating a maximum 1.6-4.0 km perpendicular from a straight line of travel between their seasonal ranges. They migrated a minimum of 2.1-18.6 km/day over 11-56 h during 2-14 periods of travel. Minimum travel during 1-h intervals averaged 1.5 km/h. Deer paused 1-12 times, averaging 24 h/pause. Deer migrated similar distances in autumn with comparable rates and patterns of travel.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.; Frame, P.F.

2004-01-01

305

[The nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the red deer (Cervus elaphus)--anatomical corrosion studies].  

Science.gov (United States)

By means of thirty skulls of dominating female animals the formation and topography of the Cavum nasi and its Sinus paranasales of the red-deer are described. The main results are on the one hand the total absence of a Sinus frontalis and a Sinus sphenoidalis and on the other hand the characteristic formation of the Sinus ethmoidales. Amongst critical discussion with the available literature concerning the pneumatisation of skulls of red-deer a comparison with the well-known findings about the Cavum nasi and its Sinus paranasalis at the sheep, goat, roe-deer and cattle is following. PMID:357242

Pohlmeyer, K

1978-01-01

306

Prevalence of infectious agents in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northeastern Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Mexico. Deer (n=521) were captured from helicopter using a netgun on 15 ranches covering 62,114 ha in the states of Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas during spring 2004. The prevalence of antibodies against Leptospira, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, BVDV, and brucellosis were 5.6, 41.1, 63.5, and 0%, respectively, indicating that white-tailed deer and cattle may share disease agents when cohabiting in northeastern Mexico. PMID:18957659

Cantu, Antonio; Ortega-S, J Alfonso; Mosqueda, Juan; Garcia-Vazquez, Zeferino; Henke, Scott E; George, John E

2008-10-01

307

Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

D'Angelo, Gino, J., John C. Kilgo, Christopher E. Comer, Cory D. Drennan, David A. Osborn, and Karl V. Miller. 2003. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer. In: Proceedings of the Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies. 57:317-325. This article explores the relationship between controlled dog hunting and the movements of female white tailed deer at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The data suggests that short term, controlled dog hunting has little long-term effect on adult, female white-tailed deer movement on the Savannah River Site.

D' Angelo, Gino, J.; Kilgo, John, C.; Comer, Christopher, E.; Drennan, Cory, D.; Osborn, David, A.; Miller, Karl, V.

2003-12-31

308

Screening of Traditionally Used Endemic Soqotraen Plants for Cytotoxic Activity  

OpenAIRE

Thirty extracts obtained from 10 endemic plant species belonging to 8 plant families used in the traditional medicine in Socotra have been tested for cytotoxic activity against FL-cells. Extracts of Eureiandra balfourii and Commiphora ornifolia showed the strongest activity against FL-cells with IC50 < 10 µg/ml and 39.3 µg/ml respectively.

Awadh Ali, Nasser A.; Ramzi, Mothana; Ghaleb, Nasr Abdo; Lindequist, Ulrike

2007-01-01

309

Malvaceae endémicas del Perú / Malvaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Malvaceae es reconocida en el Perú con 38 géneros y 264 especies (Brako & Zarucchi 1993, Ulloa et al. 2004), mayormente arbustos y hierbas. En este trabajo reconocemos 87 especies endémicas en 16 géneros. El género más rico en especies endémicas es Nototriche. Las especies endémicas se en [...] cuentran en varias regiones ecológicas, entre ellas Altoandina, Mesoandina y Puna Húmeda y Seca, por encima de los 2500 m, hasta alcanzar los límites de la vegetación a 5100 m de altitud. Se aplicaron las categorías y criterios de la UICN a 84 especies. Once especies endémicas se encuentran presentes en el Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Malvaceae are represented in Peru by 38 genera and 264 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mostly shrubs and herbs. Here we recognize 87 endemic species in 16 genera. Nototriche is the genus with the largest number of endemic species. Endemic Malvaceae species are found i [...] n many ecological regions, including High-Andean, Mesoandean, and Humid and Dry Puna, between 2500 m and 5100 m elevation. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to 84 species. Eleven endemic species have been recorded from Peru´s protected areas system.

Magda, Chanco; Blanca, León; Isidoro, Sánchez.

2006-12-01

310

Trichomonad infection in endemic and introduced columbids in the Seychelles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Island endemic avifaunas face many threats, including the now well-documented impacts of pathogens. The impacts of pathogens on the endemic Seychelles avifauna, however, have been little studied. The protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae has been shown to reduce survival and reproductive success of the endemic Pink Pigeon Columba mayeri on the nearby island of Mauritius. I investigated trichomonad infection prevalence and pathogenicity in endemic Seychelles Blue Pigeons, Alectroenas pulcherrima, and two introduced species of columbid, the Madagascar Turtle-dove, Streptopelia picturata, and the Barred Ground Dove, Geopelia striata, on the Seychelles island of Mahé during September-October 2007. I asked whether: 1) trichomonad infections occur in these species; 2) prevalence varies among species; and 3) birds show any signs of pathogenicity consistent with tricho-monosis. I use the results to assess the potential threat of this pathogen to A. pulcherrima. All three species were infected with trichomonads, and the overall prevalence was 27.5%. Alectroenas pulcherrima had higher prevalence (47.1%) than the two introduced species combined (24.3%). No infected individuals showed any signs of disease. These findings suggest that trichomonad parasites should be considered as a potential disease threat to the A. pulcherrima population. PMID:21719842

Bunbury, N

2011-07-01

311

Gentianaceae endémicas del Perú / Gentianaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Gentianaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar alrededor de 15 géneros y aproximadamente de 170 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004; S. Castillo, com.pers.), mayormente hierbas y arbustos. En este trabajo se reconoce 103 especies endémicas en siete géneros. Los [...] géneros con mayor número de especies endemicas son Gentianella y Macrocarpaea. Las especies endémicas ocupan principalmente las regiones de la Puna Húmeda y Seca, Páramo y Bosque Muy Húmedo Montano, entre los 1000 y 5100 m de altitud. Se aplicaron las categorías y criterios de la UICN a 99 especies. Treinta y tres especies endémicas se encuentran representadas dentro de un área protegida. Abstract in english The Gentianaceae are represented in Peru by 15 genera and nearly 170 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004; S. Castillo, pers. comm.), mainly herbs and shrubs. Here we recognize 103 endemic species in seven genera. Gentianella and Macrocarpaea are the genera with the largest numb [...] er of endemic species. Endemic Gentianaceae are found in the Humid and Dry Puna, Paramo and Very Humid Montane Forests regions, between 1000 and 5100 m elevation. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to 99 species. Thirty-three endemic species have been found to date in Peruvian protected areas.

Susy, Castillo; Norma, Salinas; Blanca, León; Isidoro, Sánchez.

2006-12-01

312

Late endemic syphilis: case report of bejel with gummatous laryngitis.  

OpenAIRE

An elderly Bedouin woman originally thought, on clinical and histological grounds, to have tuberculosis of the larynx was found to have gummatous laryngitis due to late endemic syphilis (bejel). This disease is highly prevalent in the Bedouin tribes of the Middle East. Doctors dealing with Arab patients, either in the Middle East or elsewhere, should be aware of this possibility.

Pace, J. L.; Csonka, G. W.

1988-01-01

313

Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a) regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b) mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single variable based models. PMID:25501852

Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi

2014-01-01

314

Investigation of Balkan endemic nephropathy in Serbia: How to proceed?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN presents an unsolved puzzle despite fifty years of its investigation. Academy of Medical Sciences of the Serbian Medical Society organized a round table discussion on current unsolved problems related to BEN. The present paper summarizes presentations, discussion and conclusions of this meeting. During the last fifty years, the course of BEN prolonged and it shifted towards the older age in all endemic foci. Data on the incidence of BEN have been controversial and frequently based on the data on the number of BEN patients starting haemodialysis treatment. In Serbia, BEN patients present 6.5% of haemodialysis population and this percentage differs among different centres ranging from 5% (Leskovac to 46% (Lazarevac. Maintenance of high prevalence of BEN patients on regular haemodialysis indicates that BEN is not an expiring disease. In addition, recent data have shown more frequent microalbuminuria and low-molecular weight proteinuria in children from endemic than from nonendemic families. Aetiology of BEN is still unknown despite numerous investigations of environmental and genetic factors. Today, there is a very current hypothesis on the aetiological role of aristolochic acid but the role of viruses, geochemical factors and genetic factors must not be neglected. Morphological features of BEN are nonspecific and characterized by acellular interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy and changes on preand postglomerular vessels. New immunohistochemical and molecular biology methods offer a new approach to BEN investigation. Association of BEN with high incidence of upperurothelial tumours is well-known. Recent studies have shown significant changes of demographic characteristics of patients suffering upper-urothelial tumours, their prevalence in different endemic foci and characteristics of tumours. Further studies of BEN should be directed to determination of incidence and prevalence of disease in different endemic foci, investigations of different insufficiently examined aetiological factors as well as pathomorphological features of the disease by the use of modern methods.

?ukanovi? Ljubica

2010-01-01

315

The application of reproductive technologies to natural populations of red deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past decade, there has been increasing interest in the application of reproductive technology to the conservation and management of natural populations of deer. The application of assisted reproduction technologies within natural population of deer is in its infancy. However, its future potential is enormous, particularly in relation to genetic management or conservation. This paper reviews the present state of such technologies for a wild subspecies of red deer, the Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus), by discussing the major components of oestrous synchronization, semen collection/cryopreservation and insemination techniques. In addition, findings made during the course of studies on natural populations have enormous potential for the understanding of novel reproductive mechanism that may not be uncovered by livestock or human studies. A summary of these results are also reviewed here. PMID:16984473

Garde, J J; Martínez-Pastor, F; Gomendio, M; Malo, A F; Soler, A J; Fernández-Santos, M R; Esteso, M C; García, A J; Anel, L; Roldán, E R S

2006-10-01

316

Case studies in wildlife immunocontraception: wild and feral equids and white-tailed deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-lethal management methods are required for wild equids that are protected by law and for deer inhabiting areas where lethal controls are not legal or safe. Single or multiple inoculations of porcine zona pellucida (PZP) vaccine have been delivered to wild horses and deer by means of darts. Contraceptive efficacy in horses after two inoculations ranged from 90% to 100%, and after a single inoculation ranged from 19% to 28%. Mares given a controlled-release form of the vaccine had foaling rates ranging from 7% to 20%. No detectable changes in social organization or behaviours among treated horses occurred. Contraceptive effects were reversible after 4 consecutive years of treatment but 5-7 years of treatment resulted in ovulation failure and decreased urinary oestrogen concentrations. Among deer, two inoculations were 70-100% effective in preventing fawns, but one inoculation yielded a contraceptive efficacy of horses and deer. PMID:9109199

Kirkpatrick, J F; Turner, J W; Liu, I K; Fayrer-Hosken, R; Rutberg, A T

1997-01-01

317

Seasonality of 137Cs in roe deer from Austria and Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Empirical data on the 137Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) roaming in 3 spruce forest areas and one peat bog area are presented and compared. They cover time series of nearly 20 years after a spike contamination in 1986 originating from Chernobyl. A model is presented which considers three soil compartments to describe the change of the availability of 137Cs with time. The time-dependency of the 137Cs activity concentration in meat of roe deer is a combination of two components: (1) an exponential decay and (2) a peak in the second half of each year during the mushroom season. The exponential decay over the years can be described by a sum of two exponential functions. The additional transfer of 137Cs into roe deer during the mushroom season depends on precipitation. On the peat bog the 137Cs activity concentration in roe deer is higher and more persistent than in spruce forest

318

New Holocene refugia of giant deer (Megaloceros giganteus Blum.) in Siberia: updated extinction patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

We obtained new data on the existence of giant deer (Megaloceros giganteus Blum.) in Siberia during the Holocene. Bones and antler of giant deer from new localities in western (Baraba forest steppe) and eastern (Angara River basin) Siberia are dated by radiocarbon, ranging 7900-10,300 BP (ca 8800-12,200 cal BP). Based on these data, we can extend the 'Siberian' Early Holocene habitat of giant deer at least 2400 km to the east compared to previous works. The final extinction of giant deer turned out to be more complex than it was previously thought, with perhaps relatively large refugium in Western Siberia at 7900-7000 BP (ca 8800-7900 cal BP) which was reduced to the Trans-Urals region at 7000-6800 BP (ca 7900-7600 cal BP).

van der Plicht, J.; Molodin, V. I.; Kuzmin, Y. V.; Vasiliev, S. K.; Postnov, A. V.; Slavinsky, V. S.

2015-04-01

319

Potential use of quadrivalent selenium as a systemic deer-browsing repellent: A cautionary note  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study evaluates the potential usefulness and toxicity of applying quadrivalent selenium (selenite ion) to the soil to discourage white-tailed deer from browsing conifer seedlings. After adsorption by the root system and internal transport, organoselenium compounds are volatilized by the foliage, and the characteristic garlic odor is hypothesized to protect coniferous tree seedlings from browsing damage. Results indicate that either 5, 17, or 24 months after treatment, selenized white spruce seedlings did not show significantly different deer-browsing damage from control seedlings when deer numbers were high. Five and seventeen months after treatment, selenium had not leached but had accumulated in the top soil. Large-scale application of selenium may represent a potential environmental risk, hence the authors do not recommend use of selenite ion to prevent damage from deer-browsing of white spruce seedlings.

Jobidon, R.; Prevost, M. (Resources Naturelles du Quebec, Sainte-Foy (Canada). Direction de la recherche)

1994-06-01

320

Efficacy of clorsulon and albendazole against Fascioloides magna in naturally infected white-tailed deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of clorsulon and of albendazole against Fascioloides magna were evaluated in 36 naturally infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in southern Texas. A single oral dose of clorsulon suspension (12 to 30 mg/kg of body weight; mean = 24 mg/kg) was given to each deer and killed 153 (92%) of 167 mature flukes and 4 (80%) of 5 immature flukes recovered at necropsy. A single oral dose of albendazole paste (17 to 46 mg/kg; mean = 26 mg/kg) was given to each deer and killed 148 (89%) of 167 mature flukes and 4 (67%) of 6 immature flukes recovered at necropsy. In 82 nontreated control deer, 271 live flukes were recovered; dead flukes were not recovered. PMID:4077630

Foreyt, W J; Drawe, D L

1985-12-01

321

Identification of a novel Mannheimia granulomatis lineage from pathological lesions in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Eight atypical Mannheimia isolates were isolated from lesions in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Traditional classification based on morphologic and physiologic traits showed that they belong to a distinct biogroup (taxon) within genus Mannheimia. Extensive phenotypic characterization suggested that the isolates should be classified as M. granulomatis, although the presence of distinct traits justified their classification into a separate biogroup within this species. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA sequences from two roe deer isolates and 41 other Mannheimia strains supported that the roe deer isolates form a monophyletic group within M. granulomatis. The lktA genotype was present in all roe deer isolates based on Southern blot analysis, whereas the corresponding beta-hemolytic phenotype was absent in one of these isolates.

Bojesen, Anders M.; Larsen, Jesper

2007-01-01

322

Cellulolytic bacteria in rumen microbial ecosystem of red deer (Cervus elaphus).  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Innsbruck : Innsbruck University Press, 2013. [International Symposium on Anaerobic Microbiology /8./. 12.06.2013-15.06.2013, Innsbruck] Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : red deer Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

Šim?nek, Ji?í Jr.; Šim?nek, Ji?í; Kope?ný, Jan; Rada, V.

323

Life in the Fast Lane: Road Crossing Behavior of Mule Deer in a Wildland-Urban Interface  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2009, approximately 260,000 animal-vehicle collisions were reported in the United States, resulting in 12,000 human injuries and 173 human fatalities. Research has focused on identifying factors associated with high densities of animal-vehicle collisions, including variables such as traffic speed and volume, road design, topographic features, vegetative cover, and local deer or elk (Cervus elaphus) abundance. The purposes of this study were to document how often and where mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) crossed roads in a western United States wildland-urban interface area, and to relate deer road-crossing behavior to deer-vehicle collision locations. Seven adult mule deer (four males [M] and three females [F]) were captured and collared with GPS-enabled collars during December 2001 and January 2002. Five of the seven deployed collars were recovered. None of the roads in the study area appeared to act as a substantial barrier to deer passage. Deer home ranges straddled highways and primary, secondary, and tertiary arterial roads. Deer crossed all types of roads. The average number of times deer crossed road during 24 hours of monitoring ranged from 2.1 to 7.0. Deer in the Los Alamos townsite avoided crossing roads during day and before sunset. Deer-vehicle accidents occurred at 350 percent of the level expected after sunset. All other time periods had fewer accidents than expected. The distribution of accidents across time periods was not similar to the distribution of road crossings across time periods for any deer. Within Los Alamos County there was a clear trend for deer-vehicle collisions to occur on roads with speed limits > 35 mph. Deer in the townsite frequently crossed roads with lower speed limits; therefore, the reason for the paucity of accidents along these roads was evidently the ability of drivers to detect deer (or the ability of deer to detect vehicles) and respond before an accident occurred. There was a significant but not strong correlation between the density of accidents and the density of road crossings. This was probably related to the high number of deer crossings of tertiary arterial roads, where accidents were not likely to occur.

Hansen, Leslie A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Biggs, James [Northern New Mexico College; Bennett, Kathryn D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bare, Carey [Bare and Associates, LLC; Sherwood, Sherri R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-04-04

324

Nasal rhinosporiodiosis from uttar pradesh (India: a non-endemic zone: first case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rhinosporiodiosis is a cosmopolitan disease of man and animals, endemic in India and Sri Lanka with main focus of infection in Southern Tamil Nadu. Uttar Pradesh (UP is not known to be an endemic zone for this disease .We present here the first case of nasal Rhinosporiodiosis from this non-endemic zone.

Shalini Malhotra

2011-06-01

325

Geographic distribution of white-tailed deer with ticks and antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in Connecticut.  

OpenAIRE

Ticks and blood specimens were collected from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Connecticut and analyzed to identify foci for Lyme borreliosis. Males and females of Ixodes scapularis, the chief vector of Borrelia burgdorferi, were collected from deer in five of eight counties during 1989-1991. Analysis by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) staining of midgut tissues showed that prevalence of infection was highest (9.5% of 367 ticks) in south central and southeastern Connecticut. ...

Magnarelli, L. A.; Anderson, J. F.; Cartter, M. L.

1993-01-01

326

Deer Browsing Delays Succession by Altering Aboveground Vegetation and Belowground Seed Banks  

OpenAIRE

Soil seed bank composition is important to the recovery of natural and semi-natural areas from disturbance and serves as a safeguard against environmental catastrophe. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations have increased dramatically in eastern North America over the past century and can have strong impacts on aboveground vegetation, but their impacts on seed bank dynamics are less known. To document the long-term effects of deer browsing on plant successional dynamics, we st...

Ditommaso, Antonio; Morris, Scott H.; Parker, John D.; Cone, Caitlin L.; Agrawal, Anurag A.

2014-01-01

327

Escherichia coli survival in, and release from, white-tailed deer feces.  

Science.gov (United States)

White-tailed deer are an important reservoir for pathogens that can contribute a large portion of microbial pollution in fragmented agricultural and forest landscapes. The scarcity of experimental data on survival of microorganisms in and release from deer feces makes prediction of their fate and transport less reliable and development of efficient strategies for environment protection more difficult. The goal of this study was to estimate parameters for modeling Escherichia coli survival in and release from deer (Odocoileus virginianus) feces. Our objectives were as follows: (i) to measure survival of E. coli in deer pellets at different temperatures, (ii) to measure kinetics of E. coli release from deer pellets at different rainfall intensities, and (iii) to estimate parameters of models describing survival and release of microorganisms from deer feces. Laboratory experiments were conducted to study E. coli survival in deer pellets at three temperatures and to estimate parameters of Chick's exponential model with temperature correction based on the Arrhenius equation. Kinetics of E. coli release from deer pellets were measured at two rainfall intensities and used to derive the parameters of Bradford-Schijven model of bacterial release. The results showed that parameters of the survival and release models obtained for E. coli in this study substantially differed from those obtained by using other source materials, e.g., feces of domestic animals and manures. This emphasizes the necessity of comprehensive studies of survival of naturally occurring populations of microorganisms in and release from wildlife animal feces in order to achieve better predictions of microbial fate and transport in fragmented agricultural and forest landscapes. PMID:25480751

Guber, Andrey K; Fry, Jessica; Ives, Rebecca L; Rose, Joan B

2015-02-01

328

Measuring Fine-Scale White-Tailed Deer Movements and Environmental Influences Using GPS Collars  

OpenAIRE

Few studies have documented fine-scale movements of ungulate species, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), despite the advent of global positioning system (GPS) technology incorporated into tracking devices. We collected fine-scale temporal location estimates (i.e., 15 min/relocation attempt) from 17 female and 15 male white-tailed deer over 7 years and 3 seasons in Oklahoma, USA. Our objectives were to document fine-scale movements of females and males and determine effects ...

Webb, Stephen L.; Gee, Kenneth L.; Strickland, Bronson K.; Stephen Demarais; Deyoung, Randy W.

2010-01-01

329

Diagnostic detection methods for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in white-tailed deer  

OpenAIRE

This study compares the results and suitability of serological testing, microscopic examination, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection, and bacterial culture for detecting Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection in asymptomatic farmed white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus). Deer were classified as infected if culture slants from their feces, lymph nodes, or ileum were positive, or if a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay detected Map DNA in any of its tissues. ...

Woodbury, Murray R.; Chirino-trejo, Manuel; Mihajlovic, Biljana

2008-01-01

330

Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. (family Anaplasmataceae) from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)  

OpenAIRE

Recently, an undescribed Anaplasma sp. (also called Ehrlichia-like sp. or WTD agent) was isolated in ISE6 tick cells from captive white-tailed deer. The goal of the current study was to characterize this organism using a combination of experimental infection, morphologic, serologic, and molecular studies. Each of 6 experimentally inoculated white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) became chronically infected (100+ days) with the Anaplasma sp. by inoculation of either infected whole bl...

Tate, Cynthia M.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Mead, Daniel G.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Luttrell, M. Page; Sahora, Alexandra I.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.; Davidson, William R.; Yabsley, Michael J.

2012-01-01

331

Borrelia burgdorferi in an urban environment: white-tailed deer with infected ticks and antibodies.  

OpenAIRE

Ticks and blood samples were collected from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in forests located in an insular, urban area of Bridgeport, Conn., and in rural south central Connecticut during 1992 and 1993. Immature and adult Ixodes scapularis ticks were tested for Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme borreliosis, by indirect fluorescent-antibody staining methods. Deer sera were analyzed for antibodies to this bacterium by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infected ti...

Magnarelli, L. A.; Denicola, A.; Stafford, K. C.; Anderson, J. F.

1995-01-01

332

White-Tailed Deer Response to Vehicle Approach: Evidence of Unclear and Present Danger  

OpenAIRE

The fundamental causes of animal-vehicle collisions are unclear, particularly at the level of animal detection of approaching vehicles and decision-making. Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) are especially costly in terms of animal mortality, property damage, and safety. Over one year, we exposed free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach under low ambient light conditions, from varying start distances, and vehicle speeds from 20 km/h to approximately 90 km/h. We ...

Blackwell, Bradley F.; Seamans, Thomas W.; Devault, Travis L.

2014-01-01

333

Molecular genealogy tools for white-tailed deer with chronic wasting disease  

OpenAIRE

Molecular genetic data provide powerful tools for genealogy reconstruction to reveal mechanisms underlying disease ecology. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) congregate in matriarchal groups; kin-related close social spacing may be a factor in the spread of infectious diseases. Spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of deer and their cervid relatives, is presumed to be associated with direct contact between individuals and by exposure to shared food and water sourc...

Ernest, Holly B.; Hoar, Bruce R.; Well, Jay A.; O’rourke, Katherine I.

2010-01-01

334

Sex differences and data quality as determinants of income from hunting red deer Cervus elaphus  

OpenAIRE

When hunting species in which the sexes differ substantially in value, sex-selective harvesting can increase income dramatically. In some hunted species, for example the red deer Cervus elaphus in Scotland, there are also marked ecological differences between the sexes. In red deer, stag mortality and dispersal rates are substantially higher when hind densities are high. Hence, there is a trade-off between having enough hinds to produce valuable stags, but keeping densities low enough to mini...

Milner-gulland, Ej; Coulson, T.; Clutton-brock, Th

2004-01-01

335

ESR dating. Pt. 3: a study of fossils of deer and ox tooth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ages of fossils of deer and ox tooth, from Maanshan Tongzi in Guizhou and Zhaocun Qianan in Hebei respectively have been determined by using ESR dating. The age of the deer tooth is (1.5 ± 0.2) x 104 a and that of the ox tooth is (3.7 ± 0.5) x 104 a. The property of trapped center, as the source of ESR signal, has been preliminarily established with positron annihilation technique

336

Barking in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus): seasonal trends and possibile functions  

OpenAIRE

We studied barking behaviour of roe deer, Capreolus capreolus, in an area when wolves actively prey on this species, to determine the possible functions of this signal. Our data showed that males barked more frequently than females and that males barked more often during the territorial period than outside it. Undisturbed deer that barked spontaneously, before the arrival of the observer, were significantly more likely to be male than female, while both males and females showed the same likel...

Rossi, Iva; Mauri, Lorenza; Laficara, Simona; Apollonio, Marco

2002-01-01

337

Barking in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus): seasonal trends and possibile functions  

OpenAIRE

Abstract We studied barking behaviour of roe deer, Capreolus capreolus, in an area when wolves actively prey on this species, to determine the possible functions of this signal. Our data showed that males barked more frequently than females and that males barked more often during the territorial period than outside it. Undisturbed deer that barked spontaneously, before the arrival of the observer, were significantly more likely to be male tha...

Iva Rossi; Lorenza Mauri; Simona Laficara; Marco Apollonio

2002-01-01

338

Experimental infection in lambs with a red deer (Cervus elaphus) isolate of Anaplasma phagocytophilum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaplasma phagocytophilum transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks is the causative agent of tick-borne fever (TBF) in domestic ruminants. TBF is widespread along the coast of southern Norway and may cause a severe problem for the sheep industry. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) are important hosts for ticks and have been found to be infected naturally with A. phagocytophilum. However, it is unclear whether red deer could serve as reservoir hosts for A. phagocytophilum infections in sheep. We infected lambs experimentally with a red deer and a sheep isolate, respectively. The 497 base pairs of the partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of both isolates were 100% identical to GenBank accession number M73220; the 3.8 kilobases of the total ank gene sequences were 99% identical. Sixteen lambs were used, four lambs in each group. Two groups were inoculated with the red deer isolate on day 0, and then challenged on day 42 with the ovine or the red deer isolate, respectively. The third group was inoculated with the sheep isolate on day 0 and challenged with the red deer strain on day 42. Four lambs were used as uninfected controls. Blood samples for hematology, bacteriology, and serology were collected regularly for 12 wk. Presence of A. phagocytophilum in blood was determined using blood smears. Serologic response was measured by indirect immunofluorescence. Although animals inoculated with the ovine strain showed more severe clinical manifestations, lambs infected with the red deer isolate reacted with typical signs of TBF such as fever, bacteremia, and neutropenia. We conclude that A. phagocytophilum strains causing TBF in sheep might circulate in the red deer population in Norway. PMID:20688686

Stuen, Snorre; Scharf, Wiebke; Schauer, Sonja; Freyburger, Felix; Bergström, Karin; von Loewenich, Friederike D

2010-07-01

339

Facilitative and competitive interactions between sympatric cattle, red deer and wild boar in Dutch woodland pastures  

OpenAIRE

Use of cattle-grazed and ungrazed woodland pastures by red deer Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758 and wild boar Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 was investigated monthly by measuring dung-deposition rates. Cattle Bos taurus grazed pastures year-round, with peak intensities during the growing season (May¿September). Red deer and wild boar grazed pastures primarily during autumn and winter (October-April) when cattle occupancy was at a minimum. The lower occupancy of cattle in pastures from November to A...

Kuiters, A. T.; Groot Bruinderink, G. W. T. A.; Lammertsma, D. R.

2005-01-01

340

CONSERVATION DEVELOPMENT OF TIMOR DEER (Cervus timorensis AS COMMERCIAL PURPOSE(WITH OPTIMISTIC RATE ESTIMATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the profit obtained from breeding of Timor deer commercially. This research was done in East Java. Survey method was used to answer the objective. The study location were selected by purposive sampling. Usually deer was develop in conservation area, but because the area was decrease so the number of deer also decrease. Model of deer raising development should be improved not only for conservation but also for commercial purpose. The optimum deer raising were considered and monitored with a purpose to maximize commercial Timor deer by using Multiple Objective Goal Programming (MOGP to find the Optimistic Rate Estimation. The result of this study showed to get the optimum benefit, it had to be applied together with conservation and commercial effort at the same time. Results of study showed that profit was taken from selling velvet was 164.46%. Profits taken from selling antler was 350.56%, from selling alive deer was 394.28%, from selling recreation tickets was 259.08%, from selling venison1 was 135.98%, and from selling deer leather was 141.24%. Operational cost spent were 168.46% for feeding cost, 213.23% for maintenance cost, and 232.04% for labors’ salaries. The amount of operational cost required in MOGP model, with lower expenses and commercial priority were 185.54% for feeding cost, 253.13% for maintenance cost, and 246.95% for paying labors’ salaries. The MOGP model result with commercial priority reached 335.21%, while in MOGP model with lower costs and commercial priority gave profit for breeders up to 381.26%.

N. Hanani

2012-09-01

341

Radionuclide Concentrations in Deer and Elk from Los Alamos National Laboratory: 1991-1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) forage in many areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that may contain radioactivity above natural and/or worldwide fallout levels. This paper summarizes radionuclide concentrations 3H, 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, and total uranium in muscle and bone tissue of deer and elk collected from LANL lands from 1991 through 1998. Also, the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) and the risk of excess cancer fatalities (RECF) to people who ingest muscle and bone from deer and elk collected from LANL lands were estimated. Most radionuclide concentrations in muscle and bone from individual deer and elk collected from LANL lands were either at less than detectable quantities (where the analytical result was smaller than two counting uncertainties) and/or within upper (95%) level background (BG) concentrations. As a group, most radionuclides in muscle and bone of deer and elk from LANL lands were not significantly higher (p<0.10) than in similar tissues from deer and elk collected from BG locations. Also, elk that had been radio collared and tracked for two years and spent an average time of 50% on LANL lands were not significantly different in most radionuclides from road kill elk that have been collected as part of the environmental surveillance program. Overall, the upper (95%) level net CEDES (the CEDE plus two sigma for each radioisotope minus background) at the most conservative ingestion rate (51 lbs of muscle and 13 lbs of bone) were as follows: deer muscle = 0.220, deer bone = 3.762, elk muscle = 0.117, and elk bone = 1.67 mrendy. AU CEDES were far below the International Commission on Radiological Protection guideline of 100 mrem/y, and the highest muscle plus bone CEDE (4.0 mrendy) corresponded to a RECF of 2E-06 which is far below the Environmental Protection Agency upper level guideline of 1E04.

D. H. Kraig; J. K. Ferenbaugh; J. R. Biggs; K. D. Bennett; M. A. Mullen; P. R. Fresquez

1998-12-01

342

Winter habitat selection of mule deer before and during development of a natural gas field  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased levels of natural gas exploration, development, and production across the Intermountain West have created a variety of concerns for mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations, including direct habitat loss to road and well-pad construction and indirect habitat losses that may occur if deer use declines near roads or well pads. We examined winter habitat selection patterns of adult female mule deer before and during the first 3 years of development in a natural gas field in western Wyoming. We used global positioning system (GPS) locations collected from a sample of adult female mule deer to model relative frequency or probability of use as a function of habitat variables. Model coefficients and predictive maps suggested mule deer were less likely to occupy areas in close proximity to well pads than those farther away. Changes in habitat selection appeared to be immediate (i.e., year 1 of development), and no evidence of well-pad acclimation occurred through the course of the study; rather, mule deer selected areas farther from well pads as development progressed. Lower predicted probabilities of use within 2.7 to 3.7 km of well pads suggested indirect habitat losses may be substantially larger than direct habitat losses. Additionally, some areas classified as high probability of use by mule deer before gas field development changed to areas of low use following development, and others originally classified as low probability of use were used more frequently as the field developed. If areas with high probability of use before development were those preferred by the deer, observed shifts in their distribution as development progressed were toward less-preferred and presumably less-suitable habitats.

Sawyer, H.; Nielson, R.M.; Lindzey, F.; McDonald, L.L.

2006-01-01

343

Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms  

OpenAIRE

Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal componen...

Chintoan-uta, C; Morgan, E. R.; Skuce, P. J.; Coles, G. C.

2014-01-01

344

Spatial pattern of grazing pressure of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Norway  

OpenAIRE

The dramatic increase of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) harvest in Norway the recent decades have led to concerns of possible oversized populations, and negative density effects on animal life history traits have been documented. However, few studies have been done on the state of the plant community. Measurements of accumulated browsing on important winter forage were conducted in two municipalities in Sogn and Fjordane, both to get better data on red deer diet and also in order to suggest wh...

Askilsrud, Harald

2008-01-01

345

Using Pellet Groups To Assess Response Of Elk and Deer to Roads and Energy Development  

OpenAIRE

Development and extraction of resources such as oil and gas has directly and indirectly reduced available habitat to wildlife through changes in behavior and resource use. To assess how elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus spp.) were spatially distributed relative to roads and coal-bed natural gas well pads, we collected pellet group data during 2 summers in south-central Colorado. We used generalized linear mixed models to assess the relative probability of use of elk and deer in relati...

Dzialak, Matthew R.; Webb, Stephen L.; Osborn, Robert G.; Harju, Seth M.; John Wondzell; Larry Hayden-Wing; Winstead, Jeffery B.

2011-01-01

346

Divergent nonlinear responses of the boreal forest field layer along an experimental gradient of deer densities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The early responses of the field layer to changes in biotic and abiotic conditions are key determinants of the future composition and structure of forests where sustained heavy browsing pressure has depauperated the shrub understory. We investigated the relationships between white-tailed deer density and field layer plant community dynamics in boreal forests managed for wildlife and timber production. We hypothesized that the growth and reproduction of field layer plants are either: (H(1)) directly proportional to deer density, or (H(2)) related to deer density through nonlinear relationships or (H(3)) through nonlinear relationships with thresholds. We tested these hypotheses using data from a controlled browsing experiment involving a gradient of deer densities (0, 7.5, 15, 27 and 56 deer km(-2)) in interaction with timber harvesting conducted on Anticosti Island, Canada. In recent clearcuts, the dominant responses of the field layer plants were exponential recovery in growth and reproduction with decreasing deer densities. The abundance of browse-tolerant species such as grasses was positively related to deer density, suggesting an apparent competitive gain. These results support the prediction from our second hypothesis, although the presence of ecological thresholds should not be ruled out. Rapid changes in the early successional stages have potentially long-term consequences on successional patterns through processes such as the modulation of germination and early establishment success of seedlings from later successional species. Quantitative data as those presented here are essential for the development of ecosystem management prescriptions. On Anticosti Island, reduction of local deer densities to levels conservation of browse-sensitive plant species. PMID:16896768

Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Huot, Jean; Potvin, François

2006-11-01

347

Wolf reintroduction to Scotland: public attitudes and consequences for red deer management  

OpenAIRE

Reintroductions are important tools for the conservation of individual species, but recently more attention has been paid to the restoration of ecosystem function, and to the importance of carrying out a full risk assessment prior to any reintroduction programme. In much of the Highlands of Scotland, wolves (Canis lupus) were eradicated by 1769, but there are currently proposals for them to be reintroduced. Their main wild prey if reintroduced would be red deer (Cervus elaphus). Red deer are ...

Nilsen, Eb; Milner-gulland, Ej; Schofield, L.; Mysterud, A.; Stenseth, Nc; Coulson, T.

2007-01-01

348

Wolf reintroduction to Scotland: public attitudes and consequences for red deer management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reintroductions are important tools for the conservation of individual species, but recently more attention has been paid to the restoration of ecosystem function, and to the importance of carrying out a full risk assessment prior to any reintroduction programme. In much of the Highlands of Scotland, wolves (Canis lupus) were eradicated by 1769, but there are currently proposals for them to be reintroduced. Their main wild prey if reintroduced would be red deer (Cervus elaphus). Red deer are themselves a contentious component of the Scottish landscape. They support a trophy hunting industry but are thought to be close to carrying capacity, and are believed to have a considerable economic and ecological impact. High deer densities hamper attempts to reforest, reduce bird densities and compete with livestock for grazing. Here, we examine the probable consequences for the red deer population of reintroducing wolves into the Scottish Highlands using a structured Markov predator-prey model. Our simulations suggest that reintroducing wolves is likely to generate conservation benefits by lowering deer densities. It would also free deer estates from the financial burden of costly hind culls, which are required in order to achieve the Deer Commission for Scotland's target deer densities. However, a reintroduced wolf population would also carry costs, particularly through increased livestock mortality. We investigated perceptions of the costs and benefits of wolf reintroductions among rural and urban communities in Scotland and found that the public are generally positive to the idea. Farmers hold more negative attitudes, but far less negative than the organizations that represent them. PMID:17264063

Nilsen, Erlend B; Milner-Gulland, E J; Schofield, Lee; Mysterud, Atle; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Coulson, Tim

2007-04-01

349

Retinal Cone Photoreceptors of the Deer Mouse Peromyscus maniculatus: Development, Topography, Opsin Expression and Spectral Tuning  

OpenAIRE

A quantitative analysis of photoreceptor properties was performed in the retina of the nocturnal deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, using pigmented (wildtype) and albino animals. The aim was to establish whether the deer mouse is a more suitable model species than the house mouse for photoreceptor studies, and whether oculocutaneous albinism affects its photoreceptor properties. In retinal flatmounts, cone photoreceptors were identified by opsin immunostaining, and their numbers, spectral ty...

Arbogast, Patrick; Glo?smann, Martin; Peichl, Leo

2013-01-01

350

A Paleozoological Perspective on White-Tailed Deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana) Population Density and Body Size in Central Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

Archaeological and paleontological datasets are used in conservation to add time-depth to ecology. In central Texas, several top carnivores including prehistoric Native American hunters have been extirpated or have had their historic ranges restricted, which has resulted in pest-level white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana) populations in some areas. Differences in body size of deer between prehistory and modernity are expected, given that a lack of predation likely has increased intraspecific competition for forage among deer, resulting in smaller body size today. In fact, modern deer from settings without harvest pressure are significantly smaller than those from harvested areas and from prehistoric deer. From a natural history perspective, this research highlights potential evolutionary causes and effects of top-predator removal on deer populations and related components of biological communities in central Texas.

Wolverton, Steve; Kennedy, James H.; Cornelius, John D.

2007-04-01

351

Geography, deer, and host biodiversity shape the pattern of Lyme disease emergence in the Thousand Islands Archipelago of Ontario, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Thousand Islands region of eastern Ontario, Canada, Lyme disease is emerging as a serious health risk. The factors that influence Lyme disease risk, as measured by the number of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) vectors infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, are complex and vary across eastern North America. Despite study sites in the Thousand Islands being in close geographic proximity, host communities differed and both the abundance of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in them varied among sites. Using this archipelago in a natural experiment, we examined the relative importance of various biotic and abiotic factors, including air temperature, vegetation, and host communities on Lyme disease risk in this zone of recent invasion. Deer abundance and temperature at ground level were positively associated with tick abundance, whereas the number of ticks in the environment, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection, and the number of infected nymphs all decreased with increasing distance from the United States, the presumed source of this new endemic population of ticks. Higher species richness was associated with a lower number of infected nymphs. However, the relative abundance of Peromyscus leucopus was an important factor in modulating the effects of species richness such that high biodiversity did not always reduce the number of nymphs or the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection. Our study is one of the first to consider the interaction between the relative abundance of small mammal hosts and species richness in the analysis of the effects of biodiversity on disease risk, providing validation for theoretical models showing both dilution and amplification effects. Insights into the B. burgdorferi transmission cycle in this zone of recent invasion will also help in devising management strategies as this important vector-borne disease expands its range in North America. PMID:24416435

Werden, Lisa; Barker, Ian K; Bowman, Jeff; Gonzales, Emily K; Leighton, Patrick A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Jardine, Claire M

2014-01-01

352

Prevalence of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in deer ticks (Ixodes dammini) collected from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Saint Croix State Park, Minnesota.  

Science.gov (United States)

During a special two-day hunt (11, 12 November 1989) in Saint Croix State Park, Minnesota (USA), one side of the neck for each of 146 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was examined for ticks. Of the 5,442 ticks collected, 90% (4,893) were the winter tick, Dermacentor albipictus, and 10% (549) were the deer tick, Ixodes dammini, the primary vector of the causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi. Adult males had the greatest frequency of infestation of either D. albipictus (100%) or I. dammini (88%) and had on average more ticks, compared to other deer. Based on an examination of midgut material from 435 I. dammini by polyclonal antibody analysis, spirochetes were observed in 22% of the ticks. Species-specific monoclonal antibody analysis of the spirochetes confirmed that the bacteria were B. burgdorferi. PMID:8445791

Gill, J S; Johnson, R C; Sinclair, M K; Weisbrod, A R

1993-01-01

353

Cesium-137 in deer: Savannah River Plant vs. southeastern coastal plain herds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 137Cs content in deer killed during programmed hunts at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has averaged 9.0 pCi/g. This value, based on measurements of 13,907 deer taken over 14 years (1965 to 1978), similar to the value obtained for 552 deer from other southeastern Coastal Plain locations, indicating the 137Cs content is due to fallout from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons rather than from SRP operations. The computerized SRP data base for each harvested deer includes age, sex, weight, cesium content, kill location, date, and the hunter's name. Analysis of these data enables the estimation of population dose from ingestion of the edible meat. Consumption of all edible meat from deer killed at SRP from 1965 to 1978 gives a whole body population dose of 196 man-rem from 137Cs. Assuming an annual consumption rate of 20 kg gives an average individual whole body dose of 13 mrem, about 10% of local annual background level. The radiation dose from 40K of natural potassium content of deer is comparable to the radiation dose from 137Cs

354

The Effect of Rearing Experience on the Behavior Patterns of Captive Male Alpine Musk Deer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of maternal and peer separation during infancy were studied on adult male alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF in Gansu province, China. The aim was to determine the effect of early experience on the behavior in adult deer. Doe Reared (DR males remained with their mothers for a minimum of 3 months, prior to weaning which occurred annually in early October. Hand Reared (HR males were removed from their parents before 3 weeks of age and reared in isolation, prior to weaning. Focal sampling was conducted on twenty two adult males (13 HR; 9 DR to record the frequencies of 12 behavioral categories; resting, standing-alert, locomotion, ruminating, tail-pasting, urinating/defecating, environmental sniffing, self-directed behavior, ano-genital sniffing, affinitive interaction and agonistic interaction. The results showed that HR male musk deer demonstrate significantly more agonistic and less affinitive behavior when compared to DR males. This may be owing to the separation of HR deer from their peers and mother, in addition to proportionally greater contact with human caretakers. The results of this study have implication for musk deer farming.

Xiuxiang Meng

2011-01-01

355

Response of mule deer to habitat modification near natural gas development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus are known to shift habitat use in response to environmental modifications, including those associated with energy development. Their specific behavioral responses, however, and capacities to habituate to particular aspects of energy development have not been effectively studied. We examined mule deer response to habitat alteration near natural gas wells in Las Animas County, Colorado, USA in 2008—2010, an area experiencing development for extraction of natural gas. We created 10-1 ha openings in forests adjacent to 10 wells by removing standing trees in 2008, with concomitant establishment of 10 1-ha control sites adjacent to the same wells. On each site, we estimated deer use, indexed by pellet density, before and after tree removal. Concurrently, we measured plant production, cover, nutritional quality, species composition and biomass removed by deer and other large herbivores. Species richness and diversity and graminoid and forb cover and biomass increased on cut sites following tree removal. Use increased following tree removal on cut and control sites, but was greater on cut sites in 2010. Herbivores removed negligible quantities of vegetation on control sites in both years, suggesting that control sites may have been used primarily for concealment. Mule deer demonstrated the behavioral capacity to habituate to habitat modifications and other environmental changes associated with development for the extraction of energy. Managing forage and habitat availability appears to have the potential to affect the type of response and degree of habituation by mule deer to such development.

Fred Van Dyke

2012-09-01

356

Determinants of tick-borne encephalitis virus antibody presence in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) sera.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to identify variables associated with the presence of the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus, we conducted a serological survey of roe deer [Capreolus capreolus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae, Linnaeus 1758)] in three forest districts of southern Hesse, Germany. Overall, 24 out of 105 (22.9%) of the sera were positive (?1 : 10 plaque reduction neutralization test). Using a logistic regression approach, we found that unexplained spatial variation, indexed roe deer density (positive correlation), hind foot length of the tested roe deer (positive correlation) and infestation with female Ixodes spp. ticks (negative correlation) predicted the probability of TBE virus antibody presence in individual roe deer sera. Spring temperature increase and host sex were rejected as explanatory variables. We found considerable differences in TBE virus antibody seroprevalence (50.0% vs. 17.6%) between two forest districts located in the same county; this finding questions the current county-resolution of public health recordings. Given the high seroprevalence of roe deer and the considerable explanatory power of our model, our approach appears suitable to delineate science-based risk maps at a smaller spatial scale and to abandon the current human incidence per county criterion. Importantly, using roe deer as sentinels would eliminate the inherent bias of risk maps based on human incidence (varying levels of immunization and exposure of humans). PMID:21592155

Kiffner, C; Vor, T; Hagedorn, P; Niedrig, M; Rühe, F

2012-03-01

357

Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from northwestern Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, the seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in roe deer in relation to different parameters in northwestern Spain was investigated. A total of 154 roe deer hunted between April 2007 and October 2008 from different localities of Galicia (northwest Spain) were examined. From each animal, a blood sample and all attached ticks found were collected. All the specimens for tick stages (larva, nymph, and adult) were speciated based on reference keys. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi were detected by indirect immunofluorescence (titer > or = 1:64). The percentage of roe deer seropositive for B. burgdorferi was 68.8% (106/ 154), of which 88.7% (94/106) were parasitized by ticks. Ixodes ricinus was the only species identified and was detected in 83.1% of roe deer with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) intensity of 46 +/- 47 ticks. Individual host characteristics such as age or sex did not have any effect on the prevalence of B. burgdorferi, but significant seasonal variation was observed, with higher prevalences in April-July than in August-October. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi were related to the presence of ticks. When analyzing all the factors together, the total number of ticks parasitizing roe deer was found as the most influential factor on B. burgdorferi prevalence. The results of this study have shown that roe deer in the northwest of Spain are highly exposed to B. burgdorferi and that exposure is related to the presence of I. ricinus. PMID:24063094

Pato, Francisco J; Panadero, Rosario; Vázquez, Luis; López, Ceferino M; Díaz, Pablo; Vázquez, Esther; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio; Fernández, Gonzalo

2013-09-01

358

Abundance and impacts of fallow deer leks at Point Reyes National Seashore  

Science.gov (United States)

Fallow deer, Dama dama, were released at Point Reyes National Seashore in the 1940s. A population of about 860 of these non-native deer are now well-established within the park. Fallow deer have an unusual mating system. During the fall, males establish areas known as leks where they display to potential mates. A fallow deerlek is typically an area of 100-150 m2 and usually includes 2-5 males. Using their hooves and antlers, each male clears away most or all of the vegetation and digs a rutting pit that he defends throughout the breeding season. A total of 159 fallow deer leks was located within the 298.8 ha of our study areas. In the Olema Valley, where fallow deer densities are high, there were 116 leks, compared with 43 in the similar sized Estero trailhead study area, where deer density was moderate. A total of 705 rutting pits was found in the two study areas, with a mean of 5.1 pits per lek in the Olema Valley and 2.5 for Estero trailhead. The leks and associated pits have resulted in damage to both the ground and the associated vegetation, especially in riparian areas.

Fellers, G.M.; Osbourn, M.S.

2007-01-01

359

Coyotes, deer, and wildflowers: diverse evidence points to a trophic cascade  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial gradients in human activity, coyote activity, deer activity, and deer herbivory provide an unusual type of evidence for a trophic cascade. Activity of coyotes, which eat young mule deer (fawns), decreased with proximity to a remote biological field station, indicating that these predators avoided an area of high human activity. In contrast, activity of adult female deer (does) and intensity of herbivory on palatable plant species both increased with proximity to the station and were positively correlated with each other. The gradient in deer activity was not explained by availabilities of preferred habitats or plant species because these did not vary with distance from the station. Does spent less time feeding when they encountered coyote urine next to a feed block, indicating that increased vigilance may contribute, along with avoidance of areas with coyotes, to lower herbivory away from the station. Judging from two palatable wildflower species whose seed crop and seedling recruitment were greatly reduced near the field station, the coyote-deer-wildflower trophic cascade has the potential to influence plant community composition. Our study illustrates the value of a case-history approach, in which different forms of ecological data about a single system are used to develop conceptual models of complex ecological phenomena. Such an iterative model-building process is a common, but underappreciated, way of understanding how ecological systems work.

Waser, Nickolas M.; Price, Mary V.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Arózqueta, S. Reneé; Escobar, Betsabé D. Castro; Pickens, Richard; Pistoia, Alessandra

2014-05-01

360

Grazing Habitat of the Rusa Deer (Cervus timorensis in the Upland Kebar, Manokwari  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The general objective of the study was to provide current information on grassland communities as deer habitat and its future development plan for a sustainable forage management in upland Kebar, Papua. Quantitative estimation of forage production was carried out by measuring a biomass harvest in fresh weight bases, while occasional observations on ranging deer were done within habitat range with the aid of 7x50 binoculars verified by actual visitation of grazed area. The study indicated that Kebar was the only grazing area of deer varies in low layer vegetation composition that comprised of eleven grass species and five legume species. Imperata cylindrica, Paspalum conjugatum, Themeda arguens, Melinis minutiflora and Cyperus rotundus were identified as food plant of deer in Kebar. Among these species T. arguens, M. minutiflora, C. rotundus and I. cylindrica were the most preferred species consumed by deer. The biomass harvest (species productivity was 30.36 kg/ha fresh weight, while deer food productivity in the grassland was slightly lower (26.70 kg/ha than total productivity of the grassland. The major drainage area is Kasi River, but two other rivers across this valley (Api River, Apriri River are also supply water to the swampy area.

AGUSTINA YOHANA SETYARINI AROBAYA

2009-07-01

361

Enteric bacterial pathogens with zoonotic potential isolated from farm-raised deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The raising of captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a growing agricultural industry in Ohio as it is in several other areas of the United States and around the world. Pooled fecal samples were collected from 30 white-tailed deer confinement facilities. Samples were cultured for five enteric bacterial pathogens. Premise prevalence rates were as follows: Escherichia coli O157, 3.3%; Listeria monocytogenes, 3.3%; Salmonella enterica, 0%; Yersinia enterocolitica, 30%; and Clostridium difficile, 36.7%. The ail virulence gene could not be amplified from any of the Y. enterocolitica isolates recovered. Toxigenic strains of C. difficile polymerase chain reaction ribotype 078, an emerging C. difficile genotype of humans and food animals, were recovered from 4 of 11 (36.4%) C. difficile-positive deer farms. Venison from farm-raised deer might become contaminated with foodborne pathogens, deer farmers may have occupational exposure to these zoonotic agents, and farm-raised deer could be a reservoir from which the environment and other livestock may become contaminated with a number of potentially zoonotic bacteria. PMID:20575673

French, Elizabeth; Rodriguez-Palacios, Alex; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

2010-09-01

362

Male fertility and sex ratio at birth in red deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efforts to test sex ratio theory have focused mostly on females. However, when males possess traits that could enhance the reproductive success of sons, males would also benefit from the manipulation of the offspring sex ratio. We tested the prediction that more-fertile red deer males produce more sons. Our findings reveal that male fertility is positively related to the proportion of male offspring. We also show that there is a positive correlation between the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa (a main determinant of male fertility) and the proportion of male offspring. Thus, males may contribute significantly to biases in sex ratio at birth among mammals, creating the potential for conflicts of interest between males and females. PMID:17138900

Gomendio, Montserrat; Malo, Aurelio F; Soler, Ana J; Fernández-Santos, Maria R; Esteso, Milagros C; García, Andrés J; Roldan, Eduardo R S; Garde, Julian

2006-12-01

363

[Corynebacterium ulcerans infection in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)].  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first report of a Corynebacterium (C) ulcerans-infection in European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). The bacterium was isolated from a grapefruit sized abscess of an animal that had been shot. In addition to biochemical tests, the isolate was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and partial sequencing of the rpoB gene. The isolated bacteria showed phospholipase D activity that could be demonstrated by reverse CAMP-test. A tox-gene could be detected by PCR but the Elek-test specific for diphtheria toxin failed.The isolate was compared to two C. ulcerans-strains isolated from wild boar (Sus scrofa) from the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg described recently. PMID:22515035

Rau, Jörg; Blazey, Birgit; Contzen, Matthias; Sting, Reinhard

2012-01-01

364

Efficacy of a 15-Strand High-Tensile Electric Fence to Control White-tailed Deer Movements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although, high-tensile electric fences (HTEF have gained in popularity as a low-cost alternative to traditional fence designs, little research has focused on the effects of HTEF on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Our objectives were to: determine the efficacy of a HTEF to control deer movements and evaluate its influence on deer spatial dynamics. We conducted our study on the Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation Wildlife Unit located in Oklahoma, USA. An electric 15-strand, 2.5 m high fence was erected around the study area in 1992. We captured and ear-tagged 419 deer from 1993-2005 and fitted 35 of these deer (19 females, 16 males with GPS collars during winter 1998-2004. Eight of 35 radio-collared deer (23% crossed through the fence a total of 15 times and returned 13 times. Most fence crossings were at or near a hole or water gap (75%; n = 21 while 21.4% (n = 6 crossed through the electric strands. Twenty four of 419 (6% ear-tagged deer were reported dead or harvested off of the property over 13 years. We found ?13 deer core areas and ?29 of home ranges bordered the fence. Core area and home range sizes of males and females were larger for deer associated with the fence compared to deer not associated with the fence. The percentage of deer FK core area and home range perimeters in common with the fence was 17 and 28%, respectively. It appears deer were tolerable of the fence and willing to attempt to cross at weak locations (i.e., holes and water gaps. If fully maintained, the 15-strand HTEF would have been a safe and effective alternative to more traditional and expensive fence designs.

R. DeYoung

2009-06-01

365

Isolation of Ehrlichia chaffeensis from wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) confirms their role as natural reservoir hosts.  

OpenAIRE

Field and experimental studies have implicated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as probable reservoir hosts for Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, but natural infection in deer has not been confirmed through isolation of E. chaffeensis. Thirty-five white-tailed deer collected from three Amblyomma americanum-infested populations in Georgia were examined for evidence of E. chaffeensis infection by serologic, molecular, cell culture, and xenodia...

Lockhart, J. M.; Davidson, W. R.; Stallknecht, D. E.; Dawson, J. E.; Howerth, E. W.

1997-01-01

366

Susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to infection with Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the etiologic agent of human ehrlichiosis.  

OpenAIRE

Although more than 320 cases of human ehrlichiosis have been diagnosed in 27 states since 1986, the reservoir host or hosts remain unknown. Since antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the etiologic agent of human ehrlichiosis, have been found in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), we experimentally evaluated the susceptibilities of four white-tailed deer to infection with E. chaffeensis and Ehrlichia canis, a closely related species. A fifth deer served as a negative control. ...

Dawson, J. E.; Stallknecht, D. E.; Howerth, E. W.; Warner, C.; Biggie, K.; Davidson, W. R.; Lockhart, J. M.; Nettles, V. F.; Olson, J. G.; Childs, J. E.

1994-01-01

367

A cross-sectional study of the causes of morbidity and mortality in farmed white-tailed deer  

OpenAIRE

Two questionnaires were designed and administered. The first was to a random sample of 340 farmers of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Canada and the United States. The second was a 10-year retrospective survey of deer submissions to veterinary diagnostic pathology laboratories in Canada and the United States. One-year rates of mortality and common causes of morbidity and mortality for the deer are reported. The primary diagnosis for each record was used to classify diseases into...

Haigh, Jerry; Berezowski, John; Woodbury, Murray R.

2005-01-01

368

129I in deer thyroids from the Savannah River Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

129I can be released in many forms, most of which can be incorporated into animals, metabolized, concentrated and stored in the small thyroid gland. Atmospheric nuclear weapons tests added ?0.37 TBq of 129I to the ?1.48 TBq naturally present in the earth, oceans, and atmosphere. Previous investigators showed that during 1965--1969, thyroids of most cattle in USA contained less than 0.001 Bq 129I/g (wet weight) of thyroid. From 1984 through 1993 the authors measured 129I in 19 to 143 deer thyroids per year from the 316 square miles Savannah River Site (SRS) in SC. Most of these thyroids have averaged 0.1 to 2.8 Bq 129I/g. The storage and release of 129I at the SRS has been extensively reviewed. That report shows between 1954 and 1989 approximately 0.1. TBq of 129I was released into seepage basins, 0.2 TBq released into the atmosphere and 0.3 TBq retained in waste storage tanks. From 1985--1987 the annual medians of 129I/g deer thyroid from SRS were sustained at 0.03--0.06 Bq g-1 thyroid. In 1988 the median was highest at 0.12 Bq/g thyroid. The medians then decreased and in 1992 and 1993 they were 0.028 and 0.032 Bq 129I/g thyroid. The annual average concentrations showed a similar trend with a maximum in 1989 of 2.3 Bq/g thyroid and in 1992 and 1993 the averages were reduced to 0.12 and 0.34 Bq 129I/g. 129I in thyroid glands may be a minimal biohazard but it is a convenient biological index of contamination by a long-lived fission product

369

Coccidioidomycosis and Blastomycosis: Endemic Mycotic Co-Infections in the HIV Patient.  

Science.gov (United States)

Opportunistic fungal infections including aspergillosis species, candida species, and fusarium can be found in HIV-infected patients. Disseminated diseases due to endemic mycoses including histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and blastomycosis are all being reported among HIV patients who reside in the known endemic areas. However, in the non-endemic areas, or due to the rarity of these pathogens, it might be difficult to recognize these unfamiliar disease presentations. We report a patient with HIV who had dual infections with endemic mycotic infections of coccidioidomycosis and blastomycosis, as he had a brief stay in the endemic area. PMID:25584108

Jehangir, Waqas; Tadepalli, Geeta Santoshi; Sen, Shuvendu; Regevik, Nina; Sen, Purnendu

2015-03-01

370

Prevalence of five tick-borne bacterial genera in adult Ixodes scapularis removed from white-tailed deer in western Tennessee.  

Science.gov (United States)

BackgroundIn the northeastern and midwestern regions of the United States Ixodes scapularis Say transmits the causal agents of anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), babesiosis (Babesia microti), and borreliosis (Borrelia burgdorferi and B. miyamotoi). In the southeastern United States, none of those pathogens are considered endemic and two other tick-borne diseases (TBDs) (ehrlicihosis and rickettiosis) are more common. Our objective was to determine baseline presence and absence data for three non-endemic bacterial agents (Anaplasma, Borrelia and Babesia) and two commonly reported bacterial agents (Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia) in southern I. scapularis (n = 47) collected from 15 hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in western Tennessee. FindingsOf the 47 ticks, 27 tested PCR positive for non-pathogenic Rickettsia species, two for Ehrlichia ewingii, one for Ehrlichia sp. ¿Panola Mountain¿, and one for Anaplasma phagocytophilum variant 1 strain. None of these ticks were positive for Babesia or Borrelia (including B. burgdorferi).ConclusionsFinding human pathogens in host-fed I. scapularis merits additional studies surveying pathogen prevalence in questing ticks. Collection of questing I. scapularis in their peak activity months should be undertaken to determine the overall encounter rates and relative risk of pathogenic Ehrlichia in southern I. scapularis. Ehrlichia sequences were homologous to previous human isolates, but neither Babesia nor B. burgdorferi were identified in these ticks. With the identification of pathogenic bacteria in this relatively small collection of I. scapularis from western Tennessee, the study of the absence of Lyme disease in the south should be refocused to evaluate the role of pathogenic Ehrlichia in southern I. scapularis. PMID:25331818

Mays, Sarah E; Hendricks, Brian M; Paulsen, David J; Houston, Allan E; Trout Fryxell, Rebecca T

2014-10-22

371

Deforestation and apparent extinctions of endemic forest beetles in Madagascar.  

Science.gov (United States)

Madagascar has lost about half of its forest cover since 1953 with much regional variation, for instance most of the coastal lowland forests have been cleared. We sampled the endemic forest-dwelling Helictopleurini dung beetles across Madagascar during 2002-2006. Our samples include 29 of the 51 previously known species for which locality information is available. The most significant factor explaining apparent extinctions (species not collected by us) is forest loss within the historical range of the focal species, suggesting that deforestation has already caused the extinction, or effective extinction, of a large number of insect species with small geographical ranges, typical for many endemic taxa in Madagascar. Currently, roughly 10% of the original forest cover remains. Species-area considerations suggest that this will allow roughly half of the species to persist. Our results are consistent with this prediction. PMID:17341451

Hanski, Ilkka; Koivulehto, Helena; Cameron, Alison; Rahagalala, Pierre

2007-06-22

372

Responses to TRH in patients with endemic goiter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The response to TRH was studied in 32 patients from an endemic goiter area, 20 of them had been previously treated with iodized oil. Blood samples were taken at 0, 20, 40 and 120 minutes after de i.v. administration of 400?g of TRH, and serum levels of TSH, T3 and T4 were measured. The results obtained show that in endemic goiter area there is a modification in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism, with increased reserve of pituitary TSH and changes in T4 and T3 secretion. The injection of TRH gave exaggerated and delayed responses in the secretion of TSH and T3. Iodized oil used as a prophylatic method produced a disminution of pituitary TSH reserve, and of serum levels of TSH and T3, as a result of the return tonormality of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism. (author)

373

Droseraceae endémicas del Perú / Droseraceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Entre las familias que constituyen novedades a la flora endémica peruana se encuentra la Droseraceae. Esta familia incluye plantas de porte herbáceo e insectívoras y es reconocida en el Perú con un género, Drosera, y una especie (Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), la cual en este trabajo reconocemos como en [...] démica. Ocupa microhábitats en la región Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, a 2700-2800 m de altitud. No se encuentra representada en el Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Droseraceae are one of the recent novelties in the Peruvian endemic flora. The family includes herbs and insectivorous plants and is represented in Peru by one species in the genus Drosera (Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), which here is recognized as endemic. It grows in microhabitats of the Very Humi [...] d Montane Forests region, between 2700 and 2800 m elevation. It has not yet been recorded in Peru´s protected areas system.

Blanca, León.

2006-12-01

374

Endogenous Quasicycles and Stochastic Coherence in a Closed Endemic Model  

CERN Document Server

We study the role of demographic fluctuations in typical endemics as exemplified by the stochastic SIRS model. The birth-death master equation of the model is simulated using exact numerics and analysed within the linear noise approximation. The endemic fixed point is unstable to internal demographic noise, and leads to sustained oscillations. This is ensured when the eigenvalues ($\\lambda$) of the linearised drift matrix are complex, which in turn, is possible only if detailed balance is violated. In the oscillatory state, the phases decorrelate asymptotically, distinguishing such oscillations from those produced by external periodic forcing. These so-called quasicycles are of sufficient strength to be detected reliably only when the ratio $|Im(\\lambda)/Re(\\lambda)|$ is of order unity. The coherence or regularity of these oscillations show a maximum as a function of population size, an effect known variously as stochastic coherence or coherence resonance. We find that stochastic coherence can be simply under...

Ghose, Somdeb

2010-01-01

375

The flora of Angola : first record of diversity and endemism  

OpenAIRE

Angola is the only southern African country for which a plant inventory has not been produced to date. The lack of a country-level floristic checklist has seriously hampered the estimation of levels of diversity and endemism, and other conservation-driven initiatives. This deficiency was addressed in a collaborative initiative recently concluded among over 30 international project participants. This paper presents the results of the project that aimed, among other things, to survey the Angola...

Figueiredo, Estrela; Smith, G. F.; Cesar, Joaquim

2009-01-01

376

Deforestation and apparent extinctions of endemic forest beetles in Madagascar  

OpenAIRE

Madagascar has lost about half of its forest cover since 1953 with much regional variation, for instance most of the coastal lowland forests have been cleared. We sampled the endemic forest-dwelling Helictopleurini dung beetles across Madagascar during 2002–2006. Our samples include 29 of the 51 previously known species for which locality information is available. The most significant factor explaining apparent extinctions (species not collected by us) is forest loss within the historical r...

Hanski, Ilkka; Koivulehto, Helena; Cameron, Alison; Rahagalala, Pierre

2007-01-01

377

Plasmodium vivax malaria endemicity in Indonesia in 2010.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax imposes substantial morbidity and mortality burdens in endemic zones. Detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of this parasite is needed to combat it. We used model based geostatistics (MBG) techniques to generate a contemporary map of risk of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Indonesia in 2010. METHODS: Plasmodium vivax Annual Parasite Incidence data (2006-2008) and temperature masks were used to map P. vivax transmission limits. A total of 4,65...

Elyazar, Ir; Gething, Pw; Patil, Ap; Rogayah, H.; Sariwati, E.; Palupi, Nw; Tarmizi, Sn; Kusriastuti, R.; Baird, Jk; Hay, Si

2012-01-01

378

Endemic pemphigus foliaceus over a century: Part I  

OpenAIRE

Background: Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) is the only known autoimmune disease presenting in circumscribed geographic areas. Aim: We aim to provide information concerning the natural course of EPF, including systemic compromise in the presteroid era, which has been largely unavailable in the current medical literature. Material & Methods: By a retrospective review of the literature we aim to compile and compare the focus of EPF and the current knowledge about them. The main aim of this re...

Ana María Abréu-Vélez; Messias Reason, Iara J.; Howard, Michael S.; Ana Maria Roselino

2010-01-01

379

Global patterns in endemism explained by past climatic change.  

OpenAIRE

I propose that global patterns in numbers of range-restricted endemic species are caused by variation in the amplitude of climatic change occurring on time-scales of 10-100 thousand years (Milankovitch oscillations). The smaller the climatic shifts, the more probable it is that palaeoendemics survive and that diverging gene pools persist without going extinct or merging, favouring the evolution of neoendemics. Using the change in mean annual temperature since the last glacial maximum, estimat...

Jansson, Roland

2003-01-01

380

Brain tuberculoma in a non-endemic area  

OpenAIRE

Brain tuberculoma has previously accounted for up to a third of new intracranial lesions in areas endemic with tuberculosis, but is unexpected in the United States and other Western countries with improved disease control. Here we show the importance of considering this diagnosis in at-risk patients, even with no definitive pulmonary involvement. We describe a young man who presented with partial seizures and underwent craniotomy for resection of a frontoparietal tuberculoma. He subsequently ...

Harminder Singh; Anand Veeravagu; Lober, Robert M.

2013-01-01

381

A database on endemic plants at Tirumala hills in India  

OpenAIRE

Medicinal plants play an important role in health care. The use of medicinal plants for treatment is growing in view of cost and non-compliance of modern medicine as in case of non-communicable diseases. Plants such as Boswellia, ovalifoliolata, Cycas beddomei, Pimpinella tirupatiensis, Pterocarpus santalinus, Shorea thumbuggaia, Syzygium alternifolium, Terminalia pallida are endemic to Tirumala hills of seshachalam range falling under the Eastern Ghats of India. ...

Latheef, Shaik Abdul; Prasad, Beerkam; Bavaji, Middi; Subramanyam, Gangapatnam

2008-01-01

382

Anticholinesterase Activity of Endemic Plant Extracts from Soqotra  

OpenAIRE

A total of 30 chloroform and methanol extracts from the following endemic Soqotran plants Acridocarpus socotranus Olive, Boswellia socotranao Balf.fil, Boswellia elongata Balf. fil., Caralluma socotrana N. Br, Cephalocroton socotranus Balf.f, Croton socotranus Balf. fil.., Dendrosicycos socotrana Balf.f., Dorstenia gigas Schweinf. ex Balf. fil., Eureiandra balfourii Cogn. & Balf. fil., Kalanchoe farinaceae Balf.f, Limonium sokotranum (Vierh) Radcl. Sm), Oldenlandia pulvinata, Pulicaria divers...

Bakthira, Hussein; Awadh Ali, Nasser A.; Arnold, Norbert; Teichert, Axel; Wessjohann, Ludger

2011-01-01

383

Clostridium difficile infection in an endemic setting in the Netherlands  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The purpose of this investigation was to study risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in an endemic setting. In a 34-month prospective case–control study, we compared the risk factors and clinical characteristics of all consecutively diagnosed hospitalised CDI patients (n?=?93) with those of patients without diarrhoea (n?=?76) and patients with non-CDI diarrhoea (n?=?64). The incidence of CDI was 17.5 per 10,000 hospital admissions. C. diffici...

2010-01-01

384

Managing Conservation Reliant Species: Hawai'i's Endangered Endemic Waterbirds  

OpenAIRE

Hawai'I's coastal plain wetlands are inhabited by five endangered endemic waterbird species. These include the Hawaiian Coot ('alae ke'oke'o), Hawaiian Duck (koloa maoli), Hawaiian Stilt (ae'o), Hawaiian Gallinule (Moorhen) ('alae 'ula), and Hawaiian Goose (n?n?). All five species are categorized as being “conservation reliant.” The current strategy to recover these endangered birds includes land protection and active management of wetlands. To assess the effectiveness of the current ma...

Underwood, Jared G.; Silbernagle, Mike; Nishimoto, Mike; Uyehara, Kim

2013-01-01

385

Large Impact of Eurasian Lynx Predation on Roe Deer Population Dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear) and Type II (non-linear) functional responses) and of season (winter, summer) on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was ? = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E.), while after lynx re-colonization it was ? = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.). Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by ?? = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E.) after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E.), suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system. PMID:25806949

Andrén, Henrik; Liberg, Olof

2015-01-01

386

Large impact of eurasian lynx predation on roe deer population dynamics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear) and Type II (non-linear) functional responses) and of season (winter, summer) on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was ? = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E.), while after lynx re-colonization it was ? = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.). Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by ?? = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E.) after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E.), suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system. PMID:25806949

Andrén, Henrik; Liberg, Olof

2015-01-01

387

Strontium 90 content in bone samples of deer and domestic animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative radioecological determination of 90Sr content in leg bone samples of wild deer from Bulgaria (Veliko Tyrnovo), rain deer from Finland (Lapland) and domestic cows and pigs from Bulgaria have been carried out. The study includes four Finish rain deer, three of them 1-5 Y old, shut in 1991, and one - 13.5 Y old, shut in 1974, two Bulgarian deer, 5-6 Y old, shut in 1991, two cows and a pig killed in 1991. The samples have been prepared by a standard procedure. The fumic nitric acid method has been used for chemical separation of 90Sr, and a low background beta plastic scintillation device - for counting, The results show that the contamination effect is better expressed in the wild animals due to their specific open air manner of life. The 90Sr activities vary from 41,5 to 136.9 Bq/kg bone in the Bulgarian deer, from 219.5 to 386.1 Bq/kg bone in the three younger Finish deer, and from 1921.0 to 1967.9 Bq/kg bone in the oldest rain deer. The higher 90Sr values in the samples of the Finish deer can be connected with the specific trophic chain of these animals and the important role in it of lichen. The quantity of 90Sr in the investigated pig is 10-20 times lower than its content in the deer (2.1 - 4.4 Bq/kg bone). It is explained with the pig's age (10 months old) and the diet based on food grown about 5 years after Chernobyl. There is no significant difference in 90Sr content of the cows' and 90Sr content of the cows' and deer's samples. This is due to their very similar zoological systems of eating and similar trophic chains (open pasture). The data obtained show a good reproducibility proved by the similar values of the radiochemical yields achieved (60-70%) in each of the analysis made. 1 tab., 1 refs

388

Aquifoliaceae endémicas del Perú / Aquifoliaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Esta es una de las familias más conspicuas en los bosques pluviales montanos y húmedos de la vertiente oriental. La familia Aquifoliaceae es reconocida en el Perú por 34 especies en el género Ilex (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), básicamente árboles. En este trabajo reconocemos nu [...] eve especies endémicas, casi la mitad de ellas son conocidas solamente en una localidad, y de éstas sólo una ha sido recolectada en el siglo XX. Estos taxones endémicos habitan principalmente las regiones Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos y Bosques Muy Húmedos Premontanos, entre los 1100 y 3500 m de altitud. Cuatro especies endémicas de Ilex han sido reportadas en el Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english This is one of the most conspicuous families in the pluvial and humid forests of the eastern Andean slopes. The Aquifoliaceae are represented in Peru by 34 species in the genus Ilex (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mostly trees. Here we recognize nine endemic species, nearly half [...] of which are known from a single locality. Of these, only one species has been collected in the 20th century. These endemic taxa are found mainly in Very Humid Montane and Premontane Forests regions, between 1100 and 3500 m elevation. Four endemic species of Ilex have been reported within Peru's protected areas system.

Blanca, León.

2006-12-01

389

Cucurbitaceae endémicas del Perú / Cucurbitaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La familia Cucurbitaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar alrededor de 27 géneros y 110 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), todas ellas bejucos y lianas. En este trabajo reconocemos 23 especies endémicas en siete géneros. Un género, Guraniopsis, es endémico del Perú. L [...] as Cucurbitaceae endémicas ocupan varias regiones, tales como Desierto Semicálido Tropical y Matorral Desértico, entre los 150 y 2400 m de altitud. Se aplicaron las categorías y criterios de la UICN a 10 especies. Ninguna especie endémica se encuentra representada en el Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Cucurbitaceae are represented in Peru by around 27 genera and 110 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), all of them vines and lianas. Here we recognize 23 endemic species in seven genera. One genus, Guraniopsis, is endemic to Peru. Endemic species are found in several regio [...] ns, as Subtropical Costal Desert and Desert Shrubland, between 150 and 2400 m elevation. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to 10 species. None of the species have been registered within Peru's protected areas system.

Blanca, León.

2006-12-01

390

Onagraceae endémicas del Perú / Onagraceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Esta es la familia de las «fucsias», la cual es reconocida en el Perú por presentar seis géneros y 76 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), principalmente arbustos y hierbas. En este trabajo reconocemos 24 especies endémicas, la mayoría en el género Fuchsia. Las especies endém [...] icas se encuentran mayormente en la región Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, entre los 1600 y 2500 m de altitud. Diez especies endémicas se encuentran representados dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english This is the «fuchsia» family, which is represented in Peru by six genera and 76 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mostly shrubs and herbs. Here we recognize 24 endemic species, most of them in the genus Fuchsia. These endemic species are found mainly in the Very Humid Monta [...] ne Forests region, between 1600 and 2500 m elevation. Ten endemic species have been recorded in the Peruvian System of Protected Natural Areas.

Susy, Castillo; Christhian, Monsalve; Blanca, León.

2006-12-01

391

New endemic foci of schistosomiasis infections in the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schistosomiasis affects 28 provinces in the Philippines found along the southeastern part where there is continuous rainfall throughout the year. In 2002 and 2005 respectively, two new endemic foci were reported in the northernmost (Gonzaga, Cagayan) and central (Calatrava, Negros Occidental) parts of the country. This study conducted in March 2008-March 2009 confirmed the presence of the disease by determining its prevalence using four diagnostic tests - Kato-Katz, circumoval precipitin test (COPT), ELISA and ultrasonography. Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi was identified through snail surveys conducted in possible snail habitats in the seven new endemic villages. Animal surveys through stool examination confirmed the presence of schistosomiasis infection in animals in Gonzaga but not in Calatrava. Compared to Calatrava, Gonzaga demonstrated markedly higher prevalence of schistosomiasis using all four diagnostic methods. Proximity of snail habitats to human habitation including higher snail density and snail infection rate could be responsible for the high prevalence. Snail sites were more widespread in Gonzaga whereas those in Calatrava were confined only in areas not frequented by the general population except by farmers. GIS maps showing spatial distribution of snails in Gonzaga and Calatrava indicated differences in elevation among the snail sites. It is hypothesized that the snail intermediate host has been in these sites for sometime but discovered only lately. Migration of people from endemic provinces into Gonzaga and Calatrava brought in cases and in the presence of snail intermediate hosts, emergence of disease was just a matter of time. PMID:23583862

Leonardo, Lydia; Rivera, Pilarita; Saniel, Ofelia; Antonio Solon, Juan; Chigusa, Yuichi; Villacorte, Elena; Christoper Chua, James; Moendeg, Kharleezelle; Manalo, Daria; Crisostomo, Bobby; Sunico, Louie; Boldero, Nicasio; Payne, Lara; Hernandez, Leda; Velayudhan, Raman

2015-01-01

392

Araliaceae endémicas del Perú / Araliaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Esta familia es reconocida en el Perú por presentar seis géneros y 77 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mayormente árboles y arbustos. En este trabajo reconocemos 28 endemismos en tres géneros. Las Araliaceae se hallan bajo estudio sistemático por lo que se esperan novedad [...] es y cambios en la taxonomía (J. Wen, com. pers.). Los taxones endémicos reconocidos en este trabajo ocupan las regiones Bosques Pluviales Montanos y Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, así como de Bosques Húmedos Amazónicos, entre los 230 y 3640 m de altitud. Se adjudicó las categorías y criterios de la UICN a 22 especies. Solamente dos de estas especies han sido registradas en un área natural protegida. Abstract in english This family is represented in Peru by six genera and 77 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004), mostly shrubs and trees. Here we recognize 28 endemic species in three genera. The systematics of Araliaceae is currently under study, and taxonomic changes and novelties are to be exp [...] ected (J. Wen, pers. comm.). Endemic Araliaceae are found in the Pluvial Montane Forest, Very Humid Montane, and Humid Lowland Amazonian Forest regions, between 230 and 3640 m elevation. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to 22 species. Only two endemic species have been found in a protected area.

Blanca, León.

2006-12-01

393

Asclepiadaceae endémicas del Perú / Asclepiadaceae endemic of Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Asclepiadaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar 27 géneros y 107 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), mayormente bejucos y hierbas. Esta familia se halla bajo revisión sistemática. Para la flora peruana, estos estudios en desarrollo probablemente concluyan con la necesidad de un reord [...] enamiento de los taxones a nivel de los géneros (S. Liede, com. pers.). Dada la escasez de colecciones herborizadas y la falta de consenso sobre los taxones, aquí se reconocen provisionalmente 43 endemismos. En general, los endemismos en esta familia ocupan las regiones Mesoandina y Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, entre los 900 y 2600 m de altitud. Se aplicaron las categorías y criterios de la UICN a cinco especies. Dos endémicas se encuentran registradas en el Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Abstract in english The Asclepiadaceae are represented in Peru by 27 genera and 107species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993), mostly vines and lianas. The family is under systematic revision, and these ongoing studies are likely to result in genus-level changes for the Peruvian Asclepiadaceae flora (S. Liede, pers. comm.). Give [...] n the scarcity of collections and the lack of consensus on the taxonomic status of several taxa, we provisionally recognize 43 endemic species. The endemic taxa are found in the Mesoandean and Very Humid Montane Forest regions, between 900 and 2600 m elevation. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to five species. Two endemic species have been found in protected areas.

Blanca, León.

2006-12-01

394

Influence of level of nutrition during late pregnancy on reproductive productivity of red deer (2) Adult hinds gestating wapitixred deer crossbred calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to relate feed intake of red deer hinds in the later stages of gestating wapitixred deer crossbred foetuses on dam body condition, gestation length, birth weight and calf growth. Multiparous hinds (N=18) conceiving at known dates to either wapiti (n=12) or red deer (n=6) sires were housed in individual pens from days 150-220 of pregnancy, during which time they were offered either ad libitum access to pelletised rations (n=6 crossbred-bearing hinds [HH] and n=6 red deer-bearing hinds [RH]) or a restricted offer (n=6 crossbred-bearing hinds [HL]) set at 70% of the average ad libitum intake of HH hind in the previous week. Hinds were returned to pasture at day 220 and calving was closely monitored. Liveweights, body condition score (BCS), and lactation score (LS) of hinds were recorded weekly from day 130 of pregnancy until calves were weaned at 12 weeks of age. Calves were tagged and weighed at birth, and subsequently weighed at 7 and 12 weeks of age. HH and RH hinds exhibited similar patterns and levels of MEI/kg0.75, which peaked at 7.8 MJME/kg0.75 at day 220. HL hinds peaked at approximately 5 MJME/kg0.75 and showed significantly lower rates of liveweight gain during pregnancy. Interestingly, both crossbred-bearing groups initiated mammary development in advance of the RH hinds. While there were significant effects of foetal genotype on mean gestation length (239 days versus 234 days for crossbred versus red deer) and mean birth weight (14.5 kg versus 10 kg), the nutritional contrast for gestation length of crossbred-bearing hinds (i.e. HH versus HL) was not significant but approached significance for birth weight (14.5 kg versus 11.9 kg; P=0.06). Regression analysis revealed weak relationships between changes in hind liveweight and gestation length (P>0.05) but a significant relationship with birth weight (Pred deer calves. However, those reared by HL hinds were significantly lighter than their genotype contemporaries and only marginally heavier than the red deer calves. These results generally contrast with the previous studies on red deer hinds gestating red deer foetuses [Asher, G.W., Mulley, R.C., O'Neill, K.T., Scott, I.C., Jopson, N.B., Littlejohn, R. 2004. Influence of level of nutrition during late pregnancy on reproductive productivity of red deer, (1) Adult and primiparous hinds gestating red deer calves. Anim. Reprod. Sci., in press] and indicate that the genetically determined higher growth requirements of crossbred foetuses may override any mechanism of compensatory control of gestation length at the expense of calf birth weight. Furthermore, there were marked carryover effects of late gestational feeding on crossbred calf growth and their dam's BCS that highlight the high nutritional demands of lactation. PMID:15766806

Asher, G W; Scott, I C; O'Neill, K T; Littlejohn, R P

2005-04-01

395

Lead and cadmium in red deer and wild boar from different hunting grounds in Croatia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concentration and relations of Cd and Pb as environmental risk factors were studied by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the liver, kidney and muscle of free ranging wild boar (n = 94) and red deer (n = 45) from hunting grounds in four counties of north-east Croatia. In all four counties, the levels of Cd found in the kidney of red deer ranged from 2.28 to 5.91 mg/kg, and in wild boar from 3.47 to 21.10 mg/kg. The mean renal concentration of Cd was significantly higher in wild boar than in red deer from all four study areas. The mean hepatic (0.11 to 0.49 mg/kg, respectively) and muscle (0.01 to 0.04 mg/kg, respectively) Cd concentrations were similar in both species. The mean renal Cd concentration in wild boar and red deer exceeded 1 mg/kg in all four counties, ranging from 67.0% to 91.4% and from 45.5% to 69.2%, respectively. Also, the hepatic Cd/renal Cd ratio was lower than 1 in all animals. In all four counties, renal Pb concentration ranged from 0.058 to 3.77 mg/kg in red deer and from 0.056 to 11.60 mg/kg in wild boar. Hepatic Pb concentration was similar in both species (0.061 to 0.202 mg/kg in wild boar and 0.077 to 0.108 mg/kg in red deer). Because of the high Cd level in the organs of wild boar and red deer, further research is needed to identify the source of contamination in order to preserve the health of animals and humans.

Bilandzic, Nina, E-mail: bilandzic@veinst.hr [Croatian Veterinary Institute, Savska cesta 143, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sedak, Marija [Croatian Veterinary Institute, Savska cesta 143, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Vrataric, Darija; Peric, Tomislav [Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management Veterinary Directorat, Ulica grada Vukovara 78, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Simic, Branimir [Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

2009-07-01

396

Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical sign of BVDV to isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer. Results we isolated a suspected BVDV strain from livers of an aborted fetus from sika deer in Changchun (China using MDBK cell lines, named as CCSYD strain, and identified it by cytopathic effect (CPE, indirect immunoperoxidase test (IPX and electron microscopy(EM. The results indicated that this virus was BVDV by a series of identification. The structural proteins E0 gene was cloned and sequenced. The obtained E0 gene sequence has been submitted to GenBank with the accession number: FJ555203. Alignment with other 9 strains of BVDV, 7 strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV and 3 strains of border disease virus(BDV in the world, showed that the homology were 98.6%-84.8%, 76.0%-74.7%, 76.6%-77.0% for nucleotide sequence, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that new isolation and identification CCSYD strain belonged to BVDV1b. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that BVDV was isolated and identified in sika deer. This current research contributes development new BVDV vaccine to prevent and control of BVD in sika deer.

Wang Nan

2011-02-01

397

Co-infection and genetic diversity of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer from Poland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild species are essential hosts for maintaining Ixodes ticks and the tick-borne diseases. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence, the rate of co-infection with Babesia, Bartonella, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and the molecular diversity of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer in Poland. Almost half of the tested samples provided evidence of infection with at least 1 species. A. phagocytophilum (37.3%) was the most common and Bartonella (13.4%) the rarest infection. A total of 18.3% of all positive samples from roe deer were infected with at least 2 pathogens, and one-third of those were co-infected with A. phagocytophilum, Bartonella, and Babesia species. On the basis of multilocus molecular studies we conclude that: (1) Two different genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum, zoonotic and nonzoonotic, are widely distributed in Polish roe deer population; (2) the roe deer is the host for zoonotic Babesia (Bab. venatorum, Bab. divergens), closely related or identical with strains/species found in humans; (3) our Bab. capreoli and Bab. divergens isolates differed from reported genotypes at 2 conserved base positions, i.e., positions 631 and 663; and (4) this is the first description of Bart. schoenbuchensis infections in roe deer in Poland. We present 1 of the first complex epidemiological studies on the prevalence of Babesia, Bartonella, and A. phagocytophilum in naturally infected populations of roe deer. These game animals clearly have an important role as reservoir hosts of tick-borne pathogens, but the pathogenicity and zoonotic potential of the parasite genotypes hosted by roe deer requires further detailed investigation. PMID:23473225

Welc-Fal?ciak, Renata; Werszko, Joanna; Cydzik, Krystian; Bajer, Anna; Michalik, Jerzy; Behnke, Jerzy M

2013-05-01

398

Evidence of Anaplasma infections in European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from southern Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaplasma spp. (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) are tick-borne pathogens of veterinary and human importance. The wildlife hosts for these pathogens are not well characterized and may play an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. The objective of this research was to study the infection with A. marginale, A. ovis and A. phagocytophilum in free-ranging European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from Cádiz, Andalucía, Spain. Of 17 roe deer tested, 14 (82%) and 5 (29%) had antibodies reactive to Anaplasma spp. and A. phagocytophilum by competitive ELISA and indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of Anaplasma major surface protein 4 (msp4) gene was conducted on blood samples from all roe deer examined. Nine (53%) animals had evidence of infection with A. ovis and 3 (18%) were positive for A. phagocytophilum. Concurrent infections were not detected. Despite the presence of A. marginale infections in cattle in the study site (36% msp4 PCR-positive animals), none of the msp4 amplicons from roe deer corresponded to A. marginale sequences. A. ovis msp4 sequences were identical to a genotype previously identified in sheep in Sicily, Italy. Two different A. phagocytophilum genotypes were identified in infected roe deer. This is the first report of roe deer naturally infected with A. ovis. These results demonstrate that roe deer are infected with A. ovis and A. phagocytophilum in Spain and suggest that this species may be involved in the natural cycle of these pathogens in this region, thus acting as potential reservoir for transmission to domestic and wild animals. PMID:17655893

de la Fuente, José; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Naranjo, Victoria; Torina, Alessandra; Rodríguez, Oscar; Gortázar, Christian

2008-06-01

399

Lead and cadmium in red deer and wild boar from different hunting grounds in Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration and relations of Cd and Pb as environmental risk factors were studied by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the liver, kidney and muscle of free ranging wild boar (n = 94) and red deer (n = 45) from hunting grounds in four counties of north-east Croatia. In all four counties, the levels of Cd found in the kidney of red deer ranged from 2.28 to 5.91 mg/kg, and in wild boar from 3.47 to 21.10 mg/kg. The mean renal concentration of Cd was significantly higher in wild boar than in red deer from all four study areas. The mean hepatic (0.11 to 0.49 mg/kg, respectively) and muscle (0.01 to 0.04 mg/kg, respectively) Cd concentrations were similar in both species. The mean renal Cd concentration in wild boar and red deer exceeded 1 mg/kg in all four counties, ranging from 67.0% to 91.4% and from 45.5% to 69.2%, respectively. Also, the hepatic Cd/renal Cd ratio was lower than 1 in all animals. In all four counties, renal Pb concentration ranged from 0.058 to 3.77 mg/kg in red deer and from 0.056 to 11.60 mg/kg in wild boar. Hepatic Pb concentration was similar in both species (0.061 to 0.202 mg/kg in wild boar and 0.077 to 0.108 mg/kg in red deer). Because of the high Cd level in the organs of wild boar and red deer, further research is needed to identify the source of contamination in order to preserve the health of animals and humans.

400

An assessment of zoonotic and production limiting pathogens in rusa deer (Cervus timorensis rusa) from Mauritius.  

Science.gov (United States)

A population of approximately 70,000 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) represents the most important mammal species reared for food on the island of Mauritius, being the main source of red meat for the local population. However, very limited information is available on the circulation of pathogens affecting the productivity and health of this species. To produce baseline data on the circulation of infectious pathogens in rusa deer under production, a serological survey and/or direct pathogen detection for six selected infectious diseases was undertaken in 2007 in a sample of 53% of the herds reared in semi-free-ranging conditions in hunting estates. Seropositive results were recorded for Johne's disease with an indirect ELISA test (1.7%, n = 351), heartwater with an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) (95.5%, n = 178) and leptospirosis with a Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) (25.9%, n = 363). Significant associations were found between seroprevalence to some of the leptospiral serogroups detected (Tarassovi, Pomona, Sejroe and Mini) and age of the animals, animal density or location of the estates (being more prevalent in hotter and more humid areas). In addition, Mycobacterium bovis and M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis were confirmed in two deer carcasses by culture and PCR, respectively. No antibodies against Brucella spp. nor Rift Valley Fever virus were detected with the use of respective indirect ELISA's. The results obtained suggest that the population of rusa deer from Mauritius is exposed to a wide range of pathogens which may affect their productivity. In addition, the results highlight the potential public health risks incurred by deer industry workers and consumers. This survey fills an important gap in knowledge regarding the health of tropical deer meat in Mauritius and justifies the need to implement more regular surveys of selected pathogens in the deer population. PMID:24382104

Jori, F; Godfroid, J; Michel, A L; Potts, A D; Jaumally, M R; Sauzier, J; Roger, M

2014-08-01

401

Wild red deer (Cervus elaphus L. grazing may seriously reduce forage production in mountain meadows  

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Full Text Available This study aimed at estimating the impact of red deer grazing on the productivity of meadows located in Pian Cansiglio, north-eastern Italian Pre-Alps. These meadows (383 ha; average elevation 1000 m asl are managed for hay/silage production (1-2 cuts per season and are included in a protected area that hosts a high density of deer (around 30 heads/100 ha. In 2008 and 2010, dry matter (DM production and loss due to deer grazing were estimated with exclusion cages (1 m2; 48 exclusion cages in 2008 and 52 in 2010. Night counts with spotlights were conducted to index deer use of meadows plots. DM production inside the cages was fairly good for the area (first and second cut: 5079 - 2193 Kg DM/ha in 2008, and 4200 - 2615 Kg DM/ha in 2010. DM production outside the cages was significantly lower (first and second cut in 2008: 4314-1389 Kg DM/ha, and in 2010: 3376-2052 Kg DM/ha. Therefore, the magnitude of losses was of 15-20% in the first and 25-40% in the second cut. DM losses in the different meadow plots were positively correlated with index of deer use, which in some plots was as high as 7-8 heads/ha. Deer grazing reduced also crude protein (CP content of forage (15.6±4.4% DM inside exclusion cages and 13.8±3.5% DM outside, with losses being greater where CP content was higher. This study demonstrates that high densities of grazing deer may seriously impact on forage production and quality.

Maurizio Ramanzin

2012-01-01

402

The Association of BDNF Gene Variants with Behaviour Traits in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon)  

OpenAIRE

It is widely accepted that Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is involved in modulating behaviour performance induced by environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to study polymorphisms of the BDNF gene and their relationship with animal behaviour in sika deer (Cervus nippon). About 48 sika deer reared under Ping-Shan-Tang Farm (25 deers) and Zhu-Yu-Wan Park (23 deers), Yangzhou City, Jiangsu province, China were observed and blood samples taken to identify BDNF genotypes. Dat...

Wei Wan-Hong; Guo Jun; Yang Yan; Lv Shen-Jin

2011-01-01

403

Cytogenetic study on Thai brow-antlered deer, Cervus eldi siamensis and Thamin brow-antlered deer, Cervus eldi thamin (Artiodactyla, Cervidae by conventional staining method  

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Full Text Available Cytogenetics of Thai brow-antlered deer (Cervus eldi siamensis were studied in comparison with those of Thamin brow-antlered deer (Cervus eldi thamin. Blood samples were taken from the two subspecies kept in Khoa Kheow Open Zoo, Chonburi Province. After the standard whole blood lymphocyte were cultured in presence of colchicine, the metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and air-dried. Conventional Giemsa’s staining were applied to stain chromosome. Thai and Thamin brow-antlered deers exhibited the same karyotype with diploid number of 2n = 58 (NF = 70 for females and 2n = 58 (NF = 71 for males. The types of autosome are 6 large metacentric, 6 large submetacentric, 8 large telocentric, 20 medium telocentric and 16 small telocentric chromosomes. In addition, satellites are clearly observed in terminal position on the short arm of a pair of chromosome 7. The X chromosome is the largest telocentric and the Y chromosome is the smallest metacentric chromosome. The karyotype formula of Thai and Thamin brow-antlered deer is as follows: 2n (58 = Lm6+Lsm6+Lt8+Mt20+St16+sex chromosome

Monthira Monthatong1

2008-03-01

404

Characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of wild boars (Sus scrofa), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhodococcus equi is a soil saprophyte and an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in animals, and rarely in humans. The presence of R. equi in tissues and faeces of some wild animal species was demonstrated previously. In this study we characterized R. equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of free-living wild boars (n=23), red deer (n=2) and roe deer (n=2). This is the first description of R. equi strains isolated from tissues of the Cervidae. All isolates were initially recognized as R. equi based on the phenotypic properties. Their identification was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, detection of the choE gene and by sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. The presence of three plasmidic genes (traA, vapA and vapB) associated with R. equi virulence was investigated by PCR. In 16 wild boar isolates the traA and vapB genes were detected and they were located on virulence plasmids type 5, 7 or 11. The isolates from cervids and the remaining wild boar isolates were classified as avirulent based on a genotype traA(-)/vapA(-)B(-). In summary, these results confirm that wild boars can be a source of intermediately virulent R. equi strains, and indicate that red deer and roe deer can be a reservoir of avirulent R. equi strains. PMID:24878324

Rzewuska, Magdalena; Witkowski, Lucjan; Cisek, Agata A; Stefa?ska, Ilona; Chrobak, Dorota; Stefaniuk, El?bieta; Kizerwetter-?wida, Magdalena; Takai, Shinji

2014-08-01

405

Chronic wasting disease infection patterns in female white-tailed deer related to demographics, genetic relationships, and spatial proximity of infected deer in southern Wisconsin  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500 km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310 kin2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and non-infected deer. Ow results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) kee-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible non-linear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

Grear, Daniel A.

2006-01-01

406

Iodine-129 in forage and deer on the Hanford site and other Pacific Northwest locations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samples of surface soil, litter, forage, and deer (rumen content, muscle, liver, and thyroid gland) were collected from Bend, Oregon; Centralia, Washington; Wenatchee, Washington; the Wooten Game Range near Dayton, Washington; and on or near the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The concentrations of 129I and 127I were determined using neturon activation techniques. The purpose of the study was to establish the current levels of 129I in the environs of the Hanford Site prior to the proposed restart of fuel reprocessing at the PUREX plant. The results of this study clearly demonstrated the longevity of 129I in the biosphere following gaseous release from a nuclear facility. Analyses of thyroid glands showed that deer living within 160 km (Wooten Game Range) of Hanford had elevated levels of 129I when compared to the more distant Pacific Northwest locations (Centralia, or Bend). Levels of 129I in deer thyroid from Bend, or Centralia, (15 fCi/g wet weight), were about five times higher than values reported for the central United States, while, Hanford samples were about 2,700 times higher. The average concentration of 129I in deer thyroids collected at Hanford in 1978 was similar to samples collected 14 years earlier. The concentrations of 129I in soil, litter, forage, and other deer samples generally decrease in the order: Hanford > Wooten > Wenatchee > Centralia approx. = Bend. This corresponds to an increase in distance from the Hanford Site

407

Measuring Fine-Scale White-Tailed Deer Movements and Environmental Influences Using GPS Collars  

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Full Text Available Few studies have documented fine-scale movements of ungulate species, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, despite the advent of global positioning system (GPS technology incorporated into tracking devices. We collected fine-scale temporal location estimates (i.e., 15 min/relocation attempt from 17 female and 15 male white-tailed deer over 7 years and 3 seasons in Oklahoma, USA. Our objectives were to document fine-scale movements of females and males and determine effects of reproductive phase, moon phase, and short-term weather patterns on movements. Female and male movements were primarily crepuscular. Male total daily movements were 20% greater during rut (7,363?m±364 than postrut (6,156?m±260. Female daily movements were greatest during postparturition (3,357?m±91, followed by parturition (2,902?m±107, and preparturition (2,682?m±121. We found moon phase had no effect on daily, nocturnal, and diurnal deer movements and fine-scale temporal weather conditions had an inconsistent influence on deer movement patterns within season. Our data suggest that hourly and daily variation in weather events have minimal impact on movements of white-tailed deer in southern latitudes. Instead, routine crepuscular movements, presumed to maximize thermoregulation and minimize predation risk, appear to be the most important factors influencing movements.

Stephen L. Webb

2010-01-01

408

Where deer roam: chronic yet acute site exposures preclude ecological risk assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global positioning system (GPS) technology has made possible the detailed tracking of the spatial movements of wildlife. Using GPS tracking collars placed on female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) over a protracted period, we illustrate that this species is spatially irrelevant for consideration in ecological risk assessments (ERAs) for commonly assessed contaminated sites. Specifically, deer movements do not allow for a sufficiency of chemical exposures to occur such that toxicological endpoints would be triggered. Deer are spatially irrelevant not only because their home ranges and overall utilized areas dwarf prototypical hazardous waste sites. They are also inappropriate for assessment because they only minimally contact reasonably sized preferred locations, this while demonstrating a confounding high degree of site affinity for them. Our spatial movements analysis suggests that deer introduce the ERA novelty of a species displaying elements of both chronic and acute site exposure. We further suggest that other large commonly assessed high-profile mammals could also be found to be spatially irrelevant for ERAs were they to submit to the GPS tracking and subsequent data analysis we performed for the deer. Recognizing that certain receptors need not be considered in ERAs can help to simplify the ERA process. PMID:22985105

Tannenbaum, Lawrence V; Gulsby, William D; Zobel, Shaina S; Miller, Karl V

2013-05-01

409

Serum biochemical and electrophoretic values from four deer species and from pronghorn antelope.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serums from 4 species of deer and 1 species of antelope were analyzed for various components in order to define an animal disease model for sickle cell disease in people. Animal species included black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon), fallow deer (Dama dama), and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). The mean serum values for total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, creatinine, urea nitrogen, and electrolytes were similar in all species and were in the normal range for human beings. Cholesterol and uric acid values for all animals were lower than those for people. Alkaline phosphatase values in the 4 cervid species were higher than in the pronghorn antelope. Values for glutamic oxalacetic transaminase were lower in the cervids than in the pronghorn antelope. Lactic dehydrogenase values were similar in the 5 species. High activities for glutamic oxalacetic transaminase and lactic dehydrogenase in the 5 species probably related to muscle mass and great muscular activity. PMID:1190586

Dhindsa, D S; Cochran, T H; Castro, A; Swanson, J R; Metcalfe, J

1975-10-01

410

Physiological assessment of deer populations by analysis of urine in snow  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared the nutritional status of free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 3 natural yards and 1 yard where deer were supplementally fed from 1 January to 31 March 1985 in northeastern Minnesota. We monitored deer nutritonal status by sequential collection and chemical analysis of urine in snow (snow-urine) for urea nitrogen (U), sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P). Dilution of urine by snow was corrected by comparing these data as ratios to creatinine (C). All deer remained in an early phase of undernutrition; however, declining trends of U:C, Na:C, and K:C in 2 natural yards indicated increasingly inadequate nutrition as winter progressed. Unaltered values of these ratios and P.C in snow-urine collected from the third natural yard reflected stable levels of nutrient availability. Significant (P urine analysis provided an improved understanding of the relationship between snow cover and the nutritional well-being of these deer.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

1989-01-01

411

Fine-scale genetic structure and social organization in female white-tailed deer.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abstract: Social behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have important management implications. The formation of matrilineal social groups among female deer has been documented and management strategies have been proposed based on this well-developed social structure. Using radiocollared (n = 17) and hunter or vehicle-killed (n = 21) does, we examined spatial and genetic structure in white-tailed deer on a 7,000-ha portion of the Savannah River Site in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. We used 14 microsatellite DNA loci to calculate pairwise relatedness among individual deer and to assign doe pairs to putative relationship categories. Linear distance and genetic relatedness were weakly correlated (r = –0.08, P = 0.058). Relationship categories differed in mean spatial distance, but only 60% of first-degree-related doe pairs (full sibling or mother–offspring pairs) and 38% of second-degree-related doe pairs (half sibling, grandmother–granddaughter pairs) were members of the same social group based on spatial association. Heavy hunting pressure in this population has created a young age structure among does, where the average age is <2.5 years, and <4% of does are >4.5 years old. This—combined with potentially elevated dispersal among young does—could limit the formation of persistent, cohesive social groups. Our results question the universal applicability of recently proposed models of spatial and genetic structuring in white-tailed deer, particularly in areas with differing harvest histories.

Comer, Christopher E.; Kilgo, John C.; D' Angelo, Gino J.; Glenn, Travis C.; Miller, Karl V.

2005-07-01

412

Determinants of vigilance in a reintroduced population of Père David's deer  

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Full Text Available After being kept in captivity and isolated from natural predators for more than 1,200 years, Père David’s deer has been reintroduced in China and now occurs in a reserve where human activity is the only potential threat. Antipredator vigilance is an important component of survival for many prey animals in their natural habitat. Do deer still adjust vigilance as a function of risk after such a long period of relaxed predation pressure? Here, we examined vigilance levels in Père David’s deer groups as a function of group size, sex and level of human disturbance. The results showed that individual vigilance significantly decreased with group size in all-female groups but not in all-males or mixed-sex groups. In rutting season, males compete with one another and harass females, and we argue that vigilance is partly aimed at threatening males and that such vigilance increases with group size. This explains why overall vigilance did not vary with group size for males in general and for females in mixed-sex groups. Vigilance increased in more disturbed areas but in in male deer only. The results indicate that despite relaxed predation pressure over centuries, Père David’s deer can still adjust antipredator responses as a function of perceived risk. Such information may become useful in the rewilding programme now under way for this species in China [Current Zoology 59 (2: 265–270, 2013].

Wei ZHENG, Guy BEAUCHAMP, Xuelei JIANG, Zhongqiu LI, Qinglong YANG

2013-04-01

413

Establishment rate of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus).  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the establishment of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in red deer, five red deer and five sheep aged 5-6 months were challenged with a mixed burden of sheep GIN at a rate of 327L3/kg bodyweight. The LSmean (SE) establishment rates (%) for Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Cooperia curticei, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum+Chabertia spp. were 18.6 (0.03), 35.5 (0.04), 30.7 (0.04), 74.9 (0.05), 19.9 (0.06), respectively in sheep and 10.5 (0.03), 1.0 (0.04), 0.1 (0.04), 1.0 (0.05), 4.8 (0.06) respectively, in deer. Establishment rates were significantly different (pdeer but were present in all sheep. Trichostrongylus axei were seen in both hosts but there were relatively more which established in sheep than in deer (pdeer but were present in four of five sheep in low numbers. The only species of Oesophagostomum seen in either host was Oesophagostomum venulosum. These results suggest that the sheep GIN most likely to infect red deer grazing the same pastures are H. contortus, T. axei and O. venulosum. PMID:25657087

Tapia-Escárate, D; Pomroy, W E; Scott, I; Wilson, P R; Lopez-Villalobos, N

2015-04-15

414

The Deer Lake Basin, Newfoundland: structural constraints from new seismic data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The petroleum potential of the Deer Lake Basin of western Newfoundland, one of a series of fault-bounded sedimentary basins found in the northern Appalachian orogen, was studied, based in seismic reflection data, acquired and processed in mid-1994 along two test lines near the town of Deer Lake. The stratigraphy and architecture of the basin have been previously studied by surface mapping; the seismic study was undertaken to provide an improved base of available data, specifically, to determine the structure of the Deer Lake Group, and to determine the `basement` to the Deer Lake Group in this part of the basin. Results showed a clear change in reflective character of the sediments on both lines at about 0.7s-0.9s two-way time. A number of high-angle faults, many associated with an intensely faulted zone at the base of the Deer Lake Group, were found to intersect the Upper Carboniferous sediments. This intensely faulted zone was interpreted as a flower structure which developed in the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous period, and is believed to provide good opportunities for both migration and entrapment of petroleum. These and other findings tend to support the view that the Group is well within the oil generation window. 24 refs., 5 figs.

Wright, J. A.; Hoffe, B. H.; Langdon, G. S.; Quinlan, G. M. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, NF (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences

1996-12-01

415

Bioaccumulation of metals and reproductive effects in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reproductive parameters were used to evaluate the potential effects of exposure on female deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) to metals-enriched soils in the Upper Clark Fork River Superfund Complex. Deer mice were collected from floodplain and transitional area habitats in each of four drainages with a wide range of metals concentrations in soil. Whole-body tissue concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc were measured in composite samples of male and female deer mice. Females were necropsied, and the uterus was removed to evaluate reproductive performance based on percentages of females with embryos and with uterine scars (i.e., implantation sites) and the mean numbers of embryos and uterine scars per female. Reproductive activity was evidenced by the presence of embryos or uterine scaring in animals from metals-enriched areas. Despite elevated body burden of metals in mice from study areas, deer mice were prevalent in all areas, and mean litter size (4.4/female) was normal for this region (4--6 pups/female). Reproductive indicators suggested that the rate of reproduction was higher in the study areas than in the reference area. These results indicate that the metals elevations in deer mice do not result in measurable effects on reproduction.

La Tier, A.J.; Pastorok, R.A.; Ginn, T.C. [PTI Environmental Services, Bellevue, WA (United States); Garcia, P.I. [BioSystems Analysis, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

1994-12-31

416

Measuring Fine-Scale White-Tailed Deer Movements and Environmental Influences Using GPS Collars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Few studies have documented fine-scale movements of ungulate species, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), despite the advent of global positioning system (GPS) technology incorporated into tracking devices. We collected fine-scale temporal location estimates (i.e., 15 min/relocation attempt) from 17 female and 15 male white-tailed deer over 7 years and 3 seasons in Oklahoma, USA. Our objectives were to document fine-scale movements of females and males and determine effects of reproductive phase, moon phase, and short-term weather patterns on movements. Female and male movements were primarily crepuscular. Male total daily movements were 20% greater during rut (7,363? 364) than postrut (6,156 m±260). Female daily movements were greatest during post parturition (3,357 91), followed by parturition (2,902 m±107), and pre parturition (2,682 m±121). We found moon phase had no effect on daily, nocturnal, and diurnal deer movements and fine-scale temporal weather conditions had an inconsistent influence on deer movement patterns within season. Our data suggest that hourly and daily variation in weather events have minimal impact on movements of white-tailed deer in southern latitudes. Instead, routine crepuscular movements, presumed to maximize thermoregulation and minimize predation risk, appear to be the most important factors influencing movements.

417

Impact of abomasal nematodes on roe deer and chamois body condition in an alpine environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abomasal helminths were examined from 101 roe deer and 43 chamois, shot or found-dead, in the period July-November 1993-95, in the Parco Naturale Paneveggio Pale di San Martino (Italian Eastern Alps). Twelve helminth species were observed in both roe deer and chamois. For both host species, discriminant analysis, using the abundance of each parasite species in the hosts, failed to distinguish between subjects from each of the three study years. For 44 roe deer and 27 chamois data on body weight, body length, foot length, withers height, thoracic circumference and kidney fat index were also available. Principal Component Analysis was performed on the biometrical data in order to group related variables into a few compound variables. In both host species it was possible to identify two principal components, with an explained variance > 80%: the first component, led by body length, was an expression of skeletal development and the second, led by kidney fat index, of nutritional status. Parasite abundance and richness appeared to be negatively correlated with the scores of both skeletal and nutritional Components in the two host species, although only the correlation between parasite abundance and the scores of the nutritional component in roe deer was statistically significant (Spearman r = -0.411; p < 0.05). These results support the susceptibility of roe deer to abomasal helminths, which could be important considering the spatial and nutritional interspecific competition between domestic and wild ruminants often recorded in alpine environments. PMID:9802085

Zaffaroni, E; Citterio, C; Sala, M; Lauzi, S

1997-12-01

418

The Quality of Hunted Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolor Venison from East Kalimantan  

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Full Text Available Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor is the heaviest in its body weight and widest in its distribution of tropical deer. A Report by East Kalimantan governor indicated that no less than 5,000 wild sambar deer were slaughtered annually. In 1990 a pilot project of sambar deer farm was established and still under its development. Up to the present there is no data available on the nutritional values of sambar venison. The objective of the study was to determine the nutritional quality of wild sambar venison. Samples were collected from three traditional markets. Whitin 10 hours after being hunted, meat was sampled in three sites, front leg, back leg and saddle. The result showed that pH values of hunted sambar venison ranged from 6.18-6.46, but there were no differences in cutting sites. The moisture content was over 74%. Crude Protein, ash, fat and cholesterol (%DM were 88.84-90.24, 3.86-4.14, 2.9-3.8, 0.24-0.27, respectively. Amino acids, fatty acids and minerals values were within the average of domesticated animals meat values, thought some values in sambar show a better performance. (Animal Production 5(1: 35-41 (2003 Key words: Sambar , Deer, Cervus unicolor, Venison, Meat

G Semiadi

2003-01-01

419

Genetic diversity and relatedness among seven red deer (Cervus elaphus populations  

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Full Text Available Deer (Cervidae recently belongs to the most important species. The aim of presenting study was evaluation of genetic diversity and relationship within and among seven red deer populations from different origins - Czech Republic, Hungary, hybrids Hungary x New Zealand, Lithuania, New Zealand, Poland and Slovak Republic. This study was conducted to determine the levels of genetic variability and relationships among deer populations from a total of 637 animals originating from seven countries Czech Republic (50, Hungary (35, Hungary x New Zealand hybrids (67, Lithuania (26, New Zealand (82, Poland (347 and Slovak Republic (30.  We used the hair bulbs as a source of DNA.  In total, 213 alleles were observed from the 10 loci surveyed. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 11 (IOBT965 to 35 (T156, RT13. Genetic diversity and relatedness among red deer populations has been performed on a total of 637 animals. A panel of 10 microsatellite markers used in deer were optimized. On the basis of this panel of microsatellites we were investigated genetic variability and relationships by using statistical and graphical programmes. We evaluated how close populations are to each other and their genetic admixture. Molecular genetic data combined with evaluation in statistical programmes could lead to a complex view of populations. 

Lenka Maršálková

2014-02-01

420

Late Quaternary distribution dynamics and phylogeography of the red deer ( Cervus elaphus) in Europe  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we present spatial-temporal patterns for European late Quaternary red deer (Cervus elaphus), based on radiocarbon-supported evidence derived mainly from archaeological sites. This is followed by an overview of the recent phylogeography of this species using haplogroup studies of recent molecular data. The implications of the synthesis of palaeontological and genetic data are discussed and we propose that present day European red deer haplogroup distributions are best explained against the history of late Quaternary population contractions into and expansions from glacial refugia. Around 800 records of Cervus elaphus were assigned to the period covering the later part of the Last Glacial and the Early to Middle Holocene. Red deer becomes increasingly visible in faunal assemblages dated to late OIS-3 (deer from its southern refugia into Central and Northern Europe begins rapidly at 12,500 14C BP. The expansion of red deer coincides with the sudden rise in temperature at the onset of Greenland Interstadial 1e and the dispersion of open birch woodland into the northern half of Europe. Radiocarbon supported records show a more or less universal distribution of Cervus elaphus across Europe following the Pleistocene/Holocene climatic change at 10.0 ka 14C BP for the first time. Molecular data and fossil record combined provide a clearer temporal and spatial pattern for the Lateglacial recolonisation process of the northern part of Europe.

Sommer, R. S.; Zachos, F. E.; Street, M.; Jöris, O.; Skog, A.; Benecke, N.

2008-04-01

421

Actinides in deer tissues at the rocky flats environmental technology site.  

Science.gov (United States)

Limited hunting of deer at the future Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge has been proposed in U.S. Fish and Wildlife planning documents as a compatible wildlife-dependent public use. Historically, Rocky Flats site activities resulted in the contamination of surface environmental media with actinides, including isotopes of americium, plutonium, and uranium. In this study, measurements of actinides [Americium-241 (241Am); Plutonium-238 (238Pu); Plutonium-239,240 (239,240Pu); uranium-233,244 (233,234U); uranium-235,236 (235,236U); and uranium-238 (238U)] were completed on select liver, muscle, lung, bone, and kidney tissue samples harvested from resident Rocky Flats deer (N = 26) and control deer (N = 1). In total, only 17 of the more than 450 individual isotopic analyses conducted on Rocky Flats deer tissue samples measured actinide concentrations above method detection limits. Of these 17 detects, only 2 analyses, with analytical uncertainty values added, exceeded threshold values calculated around a 1 x 10(-6) risk level (isotopic americium, 0.01 pCi/g; isotopic plutonium, 0.02 pCi/g; isotopic uranium, 0.2 pCi/g). Subsequent, conservative risk calculations suggest minimal human risk associated with ingestion of these edible deer tissues. The maximum calculated risk level in this study (4.73 x 10(-6)) is at the low end of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's acceptable risk range. PMID:16639905

Todd, Andrew S; Sattelberg, R Mark

2005-11-01

422

Is Sustainablity Possible in Protected Areas in Mexico? Deer as an Example of a Renewable Resource  

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Full Text Available In 2000, Mexico’s National Commission of Protected Areas (CONANP was created to encourage the protection, management and restoration of natural and cultural resources and their conservation. Protected areas were recently increased by more than 3 million hectares, for a current total of more than 25 million hectares, corresponding to 174 protected areas that cover 12.90% of the country’s surface area. The information obtained by research helps us understand both biodiversity and ecological processes, as well as the social and economic phenomena that influence the use of ecosystems. In Mexico there are four species of deer: white-tailed deer, mule deer, red brocket and brown brocket. These ungulates have been an important part of the diet of indigenous people and rural communities, and represent an important resource for sport and trophy hunting. We found the best deer populations in protected areas; these can therefore maintain the gene pool and serve as source populations for other areas. These populations are also useful from a research perspective. People living in some protected areas continue to use natural resources such as deer, and also receive economic inputs to develop ecotourism programs, and support from the government for the environmental services derived from conserving biodiversity.

Sonia Gallina

2012-09-01

423

Does fluctuating asymmetry of antlers in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) follow patterns predicted for sexually selected traits?  

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Secondary sexual characters have been hypothesized to signal male quality and should demonstrate a negative relationship between the size of the trait and degree of fluctuating asymmetry because they are costly to produce. We collected morphometric and antler data from 439 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Oklahoma, USA, in order to determine whether measures of antler asymmetry follow the patterns predicted for sexually selected characters. Relative fluctuating asymmetry was negatively related to antler size for all deer and within age groups up to five and a half years of age. We did not detect an association between asymmetry and antler size among deer that were six and a half years or older. When categorizing deer by antler size, we found that deer with small antlers (???33rd percentile) had greater levels of relative asymmetry than deer with large antlers (???67th percentile). The relative asymmetry of antlers was negatively related to age and was greatest in deer that were one and a half years old. Relative asymmetry was also negatively related to carcass mass, inside spread, skull length and body length. These data suggest that asymmetry in the antlers of white-tailed deer may be a reliable signal of quality and, as such, may be important in maintaining honesty in intrasexual advertisements during the breeding season.

Ditchkoff, S.S.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.; Starry, W.R.; Leslie, D.M., Jr.

2001-01-01

424

Browsing preference and ecological carrying capacity of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) on secondary vegetation in forest plantation.  

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The browsing preference and ecological carrying capacity (ECC) of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) in acacia plantations for management and conservation of the ecosystem were investigated at Sabal Forest Reserve in Sarawak, Malaysia. The identification of the species browsed by the sambar deer was based on an observation of the plant parts consumed. ECC estimation was based on body weight (BW) and the physiological stages of animals browsed in six fenced 4-ha paddocks. Sambar deer were found foraging on only 29 out of 42 species of secondary vegetation in the acacia plantation. The remaining species are too high for the deer to reach. Planted species, Shorea macrophylla are not palatable to the deer. This augurs well for the integration of sambar deer into shorea plantations. The most frequently exploited plants were Ficus spp. Sambar deer preferred woody species more than non-woody species and they are browser animals. By producing metabolizable energy of 19,000 to 27,000 MJ/ha, the ECC was five head/ha to 5.25 head/ha. Given its contribution to the conservation of wildlife and its capacity to sustain the ecosystem, the sambar deer integrated farming system offers a promising strategy for the future of tropical forestry management. PMID:25163638

Ismail, Dahlan; Jiwan, Dawend

2015-02-01

425

Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus  

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A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

Nelson, Michael E.

2011-01-01

426

Testing mechanisms of the dilution effect: deer mice encounter rates, Sin Nombre virus prevalence and species diversity.  

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Species diversity has been shown to decrease prevalence of disease in a variety of host-pathogen systems, in a phenomenon termed the Dilution Effect. Several mechanisms have been proposed by which diversity may decrease prevalence, though few have been tested in natural host-pathogen systems. We investigated the mechanisms by which diversity influenced the prevalence of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), a directly transmitted virus in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). We monitored both intra and interspecific encounters of deer mice using foraging arenas at five sites in the Great Basin Desert with disparate levels of species diversity to examine two potential mechanisms which may contribute to the dilution of SNV prevalence: (1) reduced frequency of encounters between deer mice, or (2) reduced duration of contacts between deer mice. We also investigated the relationship between deer mouse density and these mechanisms, as density is often predicted to influence both inter and intraspecific encounters. Results of our study indicate that frequency of intraspecific interactions between deer mice was reduced with increased diversity. Species diversity did not impact average duration of encounters. Density was correlated with absolute, but not relative rates of encounters between deer mice, suggesting that encounters may be influenced by factors other than density. Our study indicates that species diversity influences the dynamics of SNV by reducing encounters between deer mice in a trade-off between intra and interspecific interactions. PMID:19495881

Clay, Christine A; Lehmer, Erin M; St Jeor, Stephen; Dearing, M Denise

2009-06-01

427

Oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)  

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Wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis represent serious obstacles to the eradication of tuberculosis from livestock, particularly cattle. In Michigan, USA tuberculous white-tailed deer transmit M. bovis to other deer and cattle. One approach in dealing with this wildlife reservoir is to vaccina...

428

Radiocaesium activity in soil, plants and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Glenveagh National Park, Co. Donegal, Ireland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was based in Glenveagh National Park, north-west County Donegal where the vegetation is grazed by Red Deer (Cervus elaphus). The work presented investigates the effects of topography on deposition of fallout, the uptake of radiocaesium from soils by plants and its subsequent assimilation by Red Deer. (author)

429

Distribution, density, and Lyme disease spirochete infection in Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) on white-tailed deer in Maryland.  

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A Statewide survey of ticks parasitizing white-tailed deer was carried out in Maryland during November 1989 to assess the status of the deer tick, Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman & Corwin, the major vector of Lyme disease in the northeastern United States. Ticks were collected from deer carcasses brought in by hunters at 23 check stations (one per county). A total of 3,437 I. dammini were collected from 538 of 1,281 deer (42%), together with 2,013 Dermacentor albipictus (Packard) and 23 Amblyomma americanum (L.) from 34 and 0.5% of deer respectively. I. dammini prevalence ranged from 0 to 79% of deer and mean abundance from 0 to 7.3 ticks per deer at different check stations. Lyme spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner, infection rates in ticks ranged from 0 to 21%, with a mean of 8%. Deer-tick density and spirochete infection rates varied with physiographic region and were low in the Appalachian, intermediate in the Piedmont, and high in the Western and Eastern Coastal Plains regions. County-based human case rates correlated positively with I. dammini abundance. We concluded that I. dammini was well established except in the mountainous western region of Maryland and was involved in Lyme disease transmission. PMID:1552529

Amerasinghe, F P; Breisch, N L; Azad, A F; Gimpel, W F; Greco, M; Neidhardt, K; Pagac, B; Piesman, J; Sandt, J; Scott, T W

1992-01-01

430

Plant and animal endemism in the eastern Andean slope: challenges to conservation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Andes-Amazon basin of Peru and Bolivia is one of the most data-poor, biologically rich, and rapidly changing areas of the world. Conservation scientists agree that this area hosts extremely high endemism, perhaps the highest in the world, yet we know little about the geographic distributions of these species and ecosystems within country boundaries. To address this need, we have developed conservation data on endemic biodiversity (~800 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, and plants and terrestrial ecological systems (~90; groups of vegetation communities resulting from the action of ecological processes, substrates, and/or environmental gradients with which we conduct a fine scale conservation prioritization across the Amazon watershed of Peru and Bolivia. We modelled the geographic distributions of 435 endemic plants and all 347 endemic vertebrate species, from existing museum and herbaria specimens at a regional conservation practitioner's scale (1:250,000-1:1,000,000, based on the best available tools and geographic data. We mapped ecological systems, endemic species concentrations, and irreplaceable areas with respect to national level protected areas. Results We found that sizes of endemic species distributions ranged widely (2 to > 200,000 km2 across the study area. Bird and mammal endemic species richness was greatest within a narrow 2500-3000 m elevation band along the length of the Andes Mountains. Endemic amphibian richness was highest at 1000-1500 m elevation and concentrated in the southern half of the study area. Geographical distribution of plant endemism was highly taxon-dependent. Irreplaceable areas, defined as locations with the highest number of species with narrow ranges, overlapped slightly with areas of high endemism, yet generally exhibited unique patterns across the study area by species group. We found that many endemic species and ecological systems are lacking national-level protection; a third of endemic species have distributions completely outside of national protected areas. Protected areas cover only 20% of areas of high endemism and 20% of irreplaceable areas. Almost 40% of the 91 ecological systems are in serious need of protection (= Conclusions We identify for the first time, areas of high endemic species concentrations and high irreplaceability that have only been roughly indicated in the past at the continental scale. We conclude that new complementary protected areas are needed to safeguard these endemics and ecosystems. An expansion in protected areas will be challenged by geographically isolated micro-endemics, varied endemic patterns among taxa, increasing deforestation, resource extraction, and changes in climate. Relying on pre-existing collections, publically accessible datasets and tools, this working framework is exportable to other regions plagued by incomplete conservation data.

Swenson Jennifer J

2012-01-01

431

[Visceral leishmaniasis as a threat for non-endemic countries].  

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Global warming, globalisation, and constantly increasing number of people involved in long-distance tourism and travel to exotic destinations are likely to increase the number of cases of exotic diseases "imported" to nonendemic countries. One of the often forgotten and neglected diseases has been visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala-azar). The disease is endemic to 62 countries, with India and Sudan accounting for the majority of the cases. It is typically fatal if left untreated. Each year about 500 000 new cases are reported worldwide, and 50 000 die as a result of the disease. Kala-azar is present in the Mediterranean Europe and 70% of cases are imported to non-endemic countries of European Union from that area. Immunocompromised status of patients, like HIV carriers are the principal prospective target for kala-azar. HIV/VL-coinfected patients have significantly higher relapse rates and decreased life expectancy. There is no formal system of reporting imported cases in Europe, except from Germany. In non-endemic countries, including Poland, there is usually the substantial delay between the onset of symptoms and the final diagnosis, with an average exceeding 3 months. This fact suggests that physicians are not familiar with leishmania infections. Despite progress in vaccine development, the only way to prevent the infection is avoiding sandfly bites. Mosquito nets, wearing appropriate clothes and repellents containing DEET (diethyl toluamide) can reduce number of bites and protect also from the other vector-borne diseases like malaria or dengue. Education concerning kala-azar risk and ways of the disease prevention is a needed for tourists and the other travelers. PMID:19856834

Górski, Stanis?aw; Wierci?ska-Drapa?o, Alicja

2009-01-01

432

Behavioural Study of Timor Deer (Cervus timorensis in PT Kuala Tembaga, Aertembaga Village, Bitung-North Sulawesi  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to observe the daily behavior of Timor deer (Cervus timorensis. The study was conducted in Aertembaga village, Bitung-North Sulawesi for 30 days. Deer were kept out in the conventional coconut plantations under extensive care system. Seven Timor deers were used in this study. The daily behavior were observed for their activities; as grazing, ruminating, lying, urinating, defecating, vocalizing, working and other activities. A time sampling method was used to record the behavior activities and observations were repeated in five time. The respective percentage of daily activities of Timor deer for grazing, ruminating, lying, working, standing, defecating, urinating, approaching and other activities were 31.17; 14.63; 13.54; 6.23; 7.55; 8.51; 3.96; 7.915 and 6.48%. (Animal Production 7(2: 121-126 (2005 Key Words: Care, Behavior, Timor deer, Extensive

Wirdateti

2005-05-01

433

Endemic Babesiosis in Another Eastern State: New Jersey  

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In the United States, most reported cases of babesiosis have been caused by Babesia microti and acquired in the northeast. Although three cases of babesiosis acquired in New Jersey were recently described by others, babesiosis has not been widely known to be endemic in New Jersey. We describe a case of babesiosis acquired in New Jersey in 1999 in an otherwise healthy 53-year-old woman who developed life-threatening disease. We also provide composite data on 40 cases of babesiosis acquired fro...

Herwaldt, Barbara L.; Mcgovern, Paul C.; Gerwel, Michal P.; Easton, Rachael M.; Macgregor, Rob Roy

2003-01-01

434

Brucella epididymo-orchitis: a consideration in endemic area  

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Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella sp. and may affect many parts of the body. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This is a case report of Brucella epididymo-orchitis in a Saudi male patient. He presented with a unilateral swelling of the left testicle. He had fever, arthralgia and night sweats. Ultrasound examination revealed enlarged left epididymis and testicle. Brucella serology was positive and the patient responded to treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin. Thus, brucella infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with epididymo-orchitis from an endemic area.

Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq

2006-06-01

435

In vitro cultivation of the endemic species Andryala levitomentosa  

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Full Text Available In vitro cultivation of the endemic and threatened species Andryala levitomentosa represents an unconventional strategy and action plan for the biological diversity conservation. This plant is considered one of the rarest species in the European flora and in Romania it is founded only on „Pietrosul Brostenilor” mountain. The micropropagation of Andryala levitomentosa implies measures which should allow to conserve and perpetuate this species. The plants of Andryala levitomentosa have been regenerated from callus cultures. The callus cultures were established from stem and leaves explants on MS medium, supplemented with indolylacetic acid and benzylaminopurine.

Smaranda Vantu

2010-12-01

436

Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts [...] 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013). The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon) or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex). The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites that seem to be (or to be very close to) P. vivax and, in a less extent, by Plasmodium malariae and it is transmitted by the bromeliad mosquito Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii. This paper deals mainly with the two profiles of malaria found outside the Amazon: the imported and ensuing introduced