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Sample records for em camundongos swiss

  1. Teratogenic effect of retinoic acid in swiss mice Efeito teratogênico do ácido retinóico em camundongo swiss

    Paulo Roberto Veiga Quemelo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To identify the types of malformations resulting from the administration of retinoic acid (RA to Swiss mice on different days of pregnancy. METHODS: Twenty-four pregnant Swiss mice were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each. The experimental groups received a single intraperitoneal injection of RA (70 mg/kg on gestational days 7, 8 and 9 (D7, D8 and D9, while control animals (C received only saline solution. RESULTS: Were obtained: exencephaly (C:0; D7:16.1%; D8:25.4%; D9:0, myelomeningocele (C:0; D7:25.8%, D8:30.9%, D9:0, spina bifida occulta (C:0, D7:29%, D8:41.8%, D90, gastroschisis (C:0, D7:6.4% D8:5.4%, D9:0, omphalocele (C:0, D7:6.4%, D8:14.5%, D9:0, lower limb alterations (C:0, D7:74.1%, D8:80%, D9:0, imperforated anus (C:0, D7:100%, D8:100%, D9:100%, and tail agenesis/alteration (C: D7:100%, D8:100%, D9:100%. CONCLUSION: The experimental model using Swiss mice proved to be efficient in the induction of the different types of defects, with the eighth gestational day being the one that most favored the induction of neural tube defect, omphalocele, gastroschisis, lower limb defects, imperforated anus and tail agenesis/alteration. On this basis, this is a useful model for future investigation of neural development and of the formation of the appendicular skeleton.OBJETIVO: Identificar os tipos de malformação resultantes da administração do ácido retinóico (AR a camundongos Swiss em diferentes dias gestacionais. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 24 camundongos fêmeas, linhagem Swiss, prenhes, divididos em 4 grupos com 6 animais cada. Os grupos experimentais receberam uma única injeção intraperitoneal de AR (70mg/Kg nos dias gestacionais 7, 8 e 9 (D7, D8 e D9, enquanto que os animais do grupo controle (C receberam apenas solução salina. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados: exencefalia (C:0; D7:16.1%; D8:25.4%; D9:0; mielomeningocele (C:0; D7:25.8%; D8:30.9%; D9:0; Espina Bífida Oculta (C:0; D7:29%; D8:41.8%; D90; gastrosquise (C:0; D7:6.4% D8:5.4%; D9:0; onfalocele (C:0; D7:6.4%; D8:14.5%; D9:0; alterações do membro inferior (C:0; D7:74.1%; D8:80%; D9:0; imperfuração anal (C:0; D7:100%; D8:100%; D9:100% e agenesia/alteração de cauda (C: D7:100%; D8:100%; D9:100%. CONCLUSÕES: O modelo experimental utilizando camundongo Swiss mostrou-se eficiente na indução dos diferentes tipos de defeitos, sendo o oitavo dia gestacional o mais propicio na indução de DFTN, onfalocele, gastrosquise, defeitos de membro inferior, imperfuração anal e agenesia/alteração de cauda, tornando este um modelo útil para futuras investigações do desenvolvimento neural e no processo de formação do esqueleto apendicular.

  2. Surto de varola murina em camundongos suos em biotrio: Relato de caso An outbreak of mousepox in swiss mice in a laboratory animal facility: Case report

    S. Diniz

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Duzentos camundongos suos foram alojados em um biotrio com instalaes e condies de manejo adequadas para uma criao de animais convencionais sadios. Aps 14 dias de alojamento, dois animais tiveram morte sbita, e em 74 animais (37% foram observados sintomas clnicos como edema da face e das patas. Uma semana aps foram observadas leses generalizadas na pele ou somente no dorso, na face, no focinho e nas patas, ndulos na cauda, e em cinco animais conjuntivite. A necropsia de 10 camundongos indicou alteraes como hepatomegalia, esplenomegalia e hiperplasia dos gnglios. Amostras do fgado, bao e de leses da cauda foram inoculadas em membrana corioalantide (MCA de ovos embrionados de galinha. Aps 72 horas foram detectadas leses necrticas tpicas denominadas "pocks". As MCAs foram maceradas e inoculadas em culturas de clulas Vero e detectado efeito citoptico aps 72 horas. O diagnstico da varola murina foi baseado nos sinais clnicos, leses, cultivo e na identificao do vrus.Two hundred Swiss mice were housed following the requirements to produce healthy laboratory animals. After 14 days two mice had an acute lethal infection and one week later 74 animals (37% presented multiple skin lesions some of them associated with conjunctivitis. Necropsy of 10 mice with clinical signs (swelling of feet and facial area revealed alterations in the spleen, liver and lymphonodes. Samples of hepatic and splenic tissues and of tail lesions were inoculated on chorioallantoic membrane (MCA of embrionated chicken eggs and pocks lesions were detected. The MCAs were grinded and inoculated in Vero cell cultures and the cytophatic effect was detected after 72 hours. Diagnosis of mousepox was based on clinical signs, lesions and virus isolation and identification.

  3. Avaliação da mutagenicidade e antimutagenicidade de um biopolímero extraído do microorganismo Agrobacterium radiobacter em camundongos Swiss Assessment of mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of a biopolymer extracted from the microorganism Agrobacterium radiobacter in mice

    Milka Selestina Primo; Caroline Maria Calliari; Raúl Jorge Hernan Castro-Gómez; Mariana de Oliveira Mauro; Mário Sérgio Mantovani; Rodrigo Juliano Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    A presente pesquisa avaliou a ação mutagênica e antimutagênica de um biopolímero de glucose extraído da Agrobacterium radiobacter (Biopolímero de Agrobacterium radiobacter). O experimento foi realizado com camundongos Swiss machos divididos em oito grupos. O tratamento com o biopolímero foi realizado por gavage em dose única concomitante a uma dose de solução tampão fosfato nos grupos de avaliação da mutagenicidade, ou ao agente indutor de danos no DNA, ciclofosfamida, na concentração de 50 m...

  4. Esquistossomose mansnica em camundongos experimentalmente subnutridos Mansoni schistosomiasis in experimentally undernourished mice

    Luiz Augusto Magalhes; Ana Maria A. Guaraldo; Eliana M. Zanotti-Magalhes; Jos F. de Carvalho; Valdomiro C. Sgarbieri; Francisco G. de Alcntara

    1986-01-01

    Realizou-se estudo sobre o desenvolvimento da esquistossomose mansnica em camundongos submetidos dieta hipoprotica. Foram constitudos 4 grupos de Mus musculus "Swiss" da seguinte forma: 1) no infectados, normoproticos; 2) infectados, normoproticos; 3) no infectados, hipoproticos e 4) infectados, hipoproticos. Os animais foram sacrificados com 60 dias de infeco, aos 90 dias de idade. Verificou-se que os esquistossomos sofreram os efeitos da subnutrio do hospedeiro, principalment...

  5. Estabelecimento de metodologia para alimentação de Aedes aegypti (Diptera-Culicidae em camundongos swiss e avaliação da toxicidade e do efeito residual do óleo essencial de Tagetes minuta L (Asteraceae em populações de Aedes aegypti Establishment of the feeding methodology of Aedes aegypti (Diptera-Culicidae in Swiss mice and evaluation of the toxicity and residual effect of essential oil from Tagetes minuta L (Asteraceae, in populations of Aedes aegypti

    Waldemir Pereira Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se desenvolver um procedimento de alimentação de fêmeas de Aedes aegypti que não cause estresse em camundongo swiss e avaliar a toxicidade e o efeito residual do óleo essencial de Tagetes minuta L (Asteraceae em populações de Aedes aegypti. Camundongos anestesiados: um observado tempo de sedação e outro colocado em gaiola para alimentação de fêmeas. Óleo essencial, diluído em acetona, foi utilizado em bioensaios para avaliação das concentrações letais em larvas de Bauru, SP e São José do Rio Preto, SP, respectivamente, sensíveis e resistentes ao temephos. Os dados obtidos foram comparados com a cepa Rockefeller-EUA. O procedimento com camundongos foi aprovado. Não houve diferença entre as populações quanto à susceptibilidade a Tagetes minuta e os ensaios demonstraram CL50 de 0,24, 0,25 e 0,21mL L-1 e CL99,9 em 0,35, 0,39 e 0,42mL L-1, respectivamente, para Rockfeller, Bauru e São José do Rio Preto. Não foi observado efeito residual da solução.The objectives here were to develop a procedure for feeding females of Aedes aegypti that does not cause stress in Swiss mice and to evaluate the toxicity and residual effect of essential oil from Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae in Aedes aegypti populations. Two mice were anesthetized: one was used to observe the duration of sedation and the other was placed in a cage to feed the female mosquitoes. Essential oil was diluted in acetone and used in bioassays to assess the lethal concentrations in larvae from the Cities of Bauru (SP and São José do Rio Preto (SP that were sensitive and resistant to temephos, respectively. The data obtained were compared with the American Rockefeller strain. The procedure with mice was approved. There was no difference between the populations regarding susceptibility to Tagetes minuta, and the assays showed LC50 of 0.24, 0.25 and 0.21 ml/l and LC99.9 of 0.35, 0.39 and 0.42 ml/l, for Rockefeller, Bauru and São José do Rio Preto, respectively. The solution did not show any residual effect.

  6. Sacarose como veculo de suplementao diettica de cido flico em camundongos prenhes Saccharose as a vehicle for the supplementation of folic acid in pregnant mice

    Giovanna Arcaro de Lima; Cristiane Minot Gutierrez; Maira Yuli Yanaguita; Camila Nunes de Morais Ribeiro; Hlio Rubns Machado; Luiz Cesar Peres

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUO: A ingesto adequada de folato essencial durante a embriognese, e sua deficincia est associada ocorrncia de defeitos no fechamento do tubo neural. OBJETIVO: Determinar se a sacarose um bom veculo para a suplementao de folato em camundongos. MATERIAL E MTODOS: Quarenta camundongos Swiss fmeas foram divididos nos grupos: C: rao comercial + gua ad libitum; DS: rao balanceada isenta de folato + folato adicionado sacarose diluda na gua por 14 dias; D/DS: rao ba...

  7. Neurocriptococose e imunossupressão: modelo experimental, em camundongos

    L.R. Machado; Denise Fecchio; J. C. P. Limongi; Berger, A; J A. Livramento; A. SPINA-FRANÇA

    1985-01-01

    Com o objetivo de padronizar modelo experimental de imunossupressão foram selecionados dois lotes de 50 camundongos impúberes, cada um dividido em grupos de 10, e submetidos a ação de dexametasona. O estudo foi dividido em dois experimentos. No primeiro experimento foi utilizado o primeiro lote de animais e foram estabelecidas as condições para obtenção de modelo de imunossupressão em camundongos mediante administração de dexametasona diluída na água de consumo e ingerida ad libitum pelos ani...

  8. Relação entre a patogenicidade do Schistosoma mansoni em camundongos e a susceptibilidade do molusco vetor: III. Mortalidade, pesos corporal e das vísceras

    Eliana Maria Zanotti-Magalhães; Luiz Augusto Magalhães; José Ferreira de Carvalho

    1995-01-01

    Estudou-se a relação entre o desenvolvimento da hepatomegalia, da esplenomegalia, peso corporal e taxa de mortalidade em camundongos experimentalmente infectados por Schistosoma mansoni com o grau de susceptibilidade de Biomphalaria glahrata e B. tenagophila nas quais se desenvolveram as cercárias infectantes respectivamente, das linhagens BH e SJ. Foram utilizados como hospedeiro definitivo camundongos Swiss, SPF e como hospedeiros intermediários populações de moluscos selecionados geneticam...

  9. Schistosoma mansoni: resistência cutânea em camundongos portadores de infecção primária

    Sílvia E. Gerken

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho avaliou-se a resistência cutânea de camundongos ao Schistosoma mansoni, usándose a orelha como sítio de infecção e de recuperação de esquistossômulos através da incubação de seus fragmentos em recipiente posto em contacto com Elac tamponado com Hepes. Essa técnica mostrou-se eficiente na discriminação do número de esquistossômulos recuperados de camundongos normais e de camundongos previamente infectados (camundongos imunes, quando comparada à técnica de recuperação de parasitas através da digestão da pele em meio contendo colagenase. Através dessa técnica, verificou-se que camundongos imunes reduzem o parasitismo do primeiro ao sétimo dia após a reinfecção (42 a 46%. Essa resistência foi observada em portadores de infecção bissexuada (6.* a 15.ª semanas e unissexuada (33.* e 34.ª semanas e em linhagens isogênicas (C57 BL/10, CBA e Fj do cruzamento CBA x DBA/2 e não isogênica (Swiss. Revelándose apropriadas ao estudo da resistência anti-esquistossomótica que se manifesta ao nível da pele, sugere-se que orelhas possam ser utilizadas como via de infecção em experimentos que visem analisar os fatores que participam da imunidade de camundongos ao S. mansoni.

  10. Neoplasias espontâneas em camundongos de um centro de criação de animais de laboratório

    M.N.S. Trotte

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Verificaram-se a prevalência e as características anatomopatológicas de neoplasias espontâneas encontradas em camundongos, provenientes de biotério. Foram necropsiados 9.219 camundongos pertencentes a 13 linhagens, entre agosto de 2002 e janeiro de 2007, para monitoramento sanitário. Amostras de tecidos foram colhidas, fixadas em formol tamponado a 10% e processadas pelas técnicas habituais para inclusão em parafina. Foram realizados 84 diagnósticos de neoplasmas, sendo acometidos 82 camundongos (0,9%. As principais neoplasias diagnosticadas com as respectivas ocorrências foram: carcinoma mamário, 27,4%; linfoma, 19,0%; adenocarcinoma papilífero pulmonar primário, 17,9%; carcinoma epidermoide, 8,3%; osteossarcoma osteoblástico, 4,8%; e outros com menor porcentagem de ocorrência. Houve predomínio de tumores malignos, sendo mais frequentes os carcinomas mamários. A linhagem BALB/c An foi a que apresentou a maior variedade de tipos de neoplasias, seguida das linhagens outbred Swiss Webster e NIH. Fibrossarcoma em camundongos C57BL/10 ScSn-Dmd mdx/J e carcinoma mamário na linhagem NOD foram relatados pela primeira vez.

  11. Gangliosideos e a resposta de hipersensibilidade retardada em camundongos

    EFS MONTERO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Em trabalhos anteriores mostrou-se que os gangliosdeos (GSLs tm um efeito inibitrio sobre a proliferao linfocitria e a sntese de IL-2, assim como sobre a reao mista de linfcitos. Neste estudo objetivou-se avaliar o efeito dos GSLs sobre a resposta de hipersensibilidade retardada. Foram utilizados 12 camundongos BALB/c, machos, pesando em mdia 30 gramas, provenientes do biotrio setorial da Disciplina de Parasitologia e mantidos por 5 dias para adaptao no biotrio setorial da Disciplina de Tcnica Operatria e Cirurgia Experimental da UNIFESP-EPM, recebendo gua e rao prpria para a espcie. Os animais foram distribudos em trs grupos, de acordo com as doses de GSLs, da seguinte forma: grupo 3mg. kg-1, grupo 9mg. kg-1 e grupo simulado (veculo. Os animais foram tratados, por via intramuscular, nos dias 0 e 4. O parmetro avaliado foi o edema da pata traseira esquerda no local da inoculao do antgeno. Os animais foram anestesiados com Cetamina (60mg.kg-1 e Xilazina (10mg.kg-1, por via intramuscular, sendo em seguida submetidos disseco da veia jugular direita, por onde foram inoculadas 10(6 hemcias de Carneiro no dia 0, para sensibilizao. No dia 4 subsequente, os animais foram novamente anestesiados e receberam, por via subcutnea, 10(8 hemcias de Carneiro, num volume de 0,02ml. Foram realizadas medidas do edema da pata traseira com paqumetro 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas aps o desafio. Os dados mostraram que aps 48h houve um aumento do edema em animais dos grupos simulado e 3mg (mdias=2,3 and 2,1mm, respectivamente, e os camundongos do grupo 9mg no apresentaram aumento importante (mdia=0,1mm. Entretanto, aps 72h, o grupo 9mg apresentou aumento de 1,7mm enquanto, os outros grupos no apresentaram mudana significativa no edema da pata (mdias=0,2 e 0,8mm, grupos simulado e 3mg, respectivamente comparados aos dados do dia antecedente. Aps 96h, todos os grupos apresentaram desaparecimento do edema. Com base nos dados obtidos pode-se concluir que a resposta de hipersensibilidade retardada alterou-se na vigncia de alta dose de GSLs.

  12. Relação entre a patogenicidade do Schistosoma mansoni em camundongos e a susceptibilidade do molusco vetor: III. Mortalidade, pesos corporal e das vísceras Relationship between the pathogenicity of Schistosoma mansoni in mice and the susceptibility of the vector mollusc: III. Mortality, body weight and viscera weights

    Eliana Maria Zanotti-Magalhães; Luiz Augusto Magalhães; José Ferreira de Carvalho

    1995-01-01

    Estudou-se a relação entre o desenvolvimento da hepatomegalia, da esplenomegalia, peso corporal e taxa de mortalidade em camundongos experimentalmente infectados por Schistosoma mansoni com o grau de susceptibilidade de Biomphalaria glahrata e B. tenagophila nas quais se desenvolveram as cercárias infectantes respectivamente, das linhagens BH e SJ. Foram utilizados como hospedeiro definitivo camundongos Swiss, SPF e como hospedeiros intermediários populações de moluscos selecionados geneticam...

  13. Avaliação da mutagenicidade e antimutagenicidade de um biopolímero extraído do microorganismo Agrobacterium radiobacter em camundongos Swiss Assessment of mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of a biopolymer extracted from the microorganism Agrobacterium radiobacter in mice

    Milka Selestina Primo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa avaliou a ação mutagênica e antimutagênica de um biopolímero de glucose extraído da Agrobacterium radiobacter (Biopolímero de Agrobacterium radiobacter. O experimento foi realizado com camundongos Swiss machos divididos em oito grupos. O tratamento com o biopolímero foi realizado por gavage em dose única concomitante a uma dose de solução tampão fosfato nos grupos de avaliação da mutagenicidade, ou ao agente indutor de danos no DNA, ciclofosfamida, na concentração de 50 mg/kg (peso corpóreo - p.c., nos grupos de avaliação da antimutagenicidade. Utilizou-se o teste de micronúcleo em sangue periférico e a coleta de sangue foi realizada 24 e 48 h após a aplicação das substâncias-teste. A análise estatística demonstrou que o biopolímero não possui atividade mutagênica e que é efetivo em prevenir danos no DNA. As porcentagens de redução de danos nos grupos de antimutagenicidade foram de 83,9%, 89,1% e 103,1% em 24 h e 101,24%, 98,14% e 120,64% em 48 h para as doses de 75, 150 e 300mg/kg (p.c., respectivamente. A alta porcentagem de redução de danos associada à ausência de efeitos mutagênicos indica, além da atividade quimioprotetora, a possibilidade do biopolímero ser um alimento funcional candidato à utilização como co-adjuvante na quimioterapia para prevenir efeitos colaterais.This study evaluated the mutagenic and ant mutagenic action of a biopolymer of glucose extracted from Agrobacterium radiobacter (Biopolymer of Agrobacterium radiobacter. The experiment was conducted with Swiss male mice divided into eight groups. Treatment with the biopolymer was performed in a single dose by gavage at a dose of concomitant phosphate buffer groups in the evaluation of mutagenicity, or the agent of inducing DNA damage, cyclophosphamide, the concentration of 50 mg/kg (body weight --b.w., in groups of assessment ant mutagenic. We used the micronucleus test in peripheral blood. The blood sample was held 24 and 48 h after application of the test substances. Statistical analysis showed that the biopolymer has no mutagenic activity and it is effective in preventing damage to DNA. The percentages of damage reduction in groups of ant mutagenic were 83.9%, 89.1% and 103.1% in 24 h and 101.24%, 98.14% and 120.64% at doses of 48 to 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg (b.w. respectively. The high percentage of damage reduction associated with the absence of mutagenic effects indicates the possibility of biopolymer chemoprotection action. It can also be considered a functional food candidate to be used as co-adjuvant chemotherapy to prevent side effects.

  14. O desmame precoce afeta o ganho de peso e a composição corporal em camundongos adultos? Does early weaning influence weight gain and body composition in adult mice?

    Marcelo Macedo Rogero; Maria Carolina Borges; Ivanir Santana de Oliveira Pires; Julio Tirapegui

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do desmame precoce sobre o ganho de peso e a composição corporal de camundongos adultos jovens. MÉTODOS: Camundongos Swiss Webster, machos, foram desmamados precocemente (14º dia de vida) ou amamentados até o 21º dia de vida (grupo controle). Após o desmame, os animais foram alimentados com ração elaborada para roedores em crescimento até o 63º dia de vida, quando então foram sacrificados. RESULTADOS: O peso corporal dos animais do grupo desmamado de forma precoce f...

  15. Esquistossomose mansnica em camundongos experimentalmente subnutridos Mansoni schistosomiasis in experimentally undernourished mice

    Luiz Augusto Magalhes

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo sobre o desenvolvimento da esquistossomose mansnica em camundongos submetidos dieta hipoprotica. Foram constitudos 4 grupos de Mus musculus "Swiss" da seguinte forma: 1 no infectados, normoproticos; 2 infectados, normoproticos; 3 no infectados, hipoproticos e 4 infectados, hipoproticos. Os animais foram sacrificados com 60 dias de infeco, aos 90 dias de idade. Verificou-se que os esquistossomos sofreram os efeitos da subnutrio do hospedeiro, principalmente os vermes machos, que alm de terem seu desenvolvimento prejudicado, tiveram seu nmero reduzido aproximadamente pela metade. O nmero de granulomas foi menor nos roedores subnutridos e o tamanho da leso foi reduzido. Houve acentuada leucopenia nos animais submetidos dieta hipoprotica, principalmente nos infectados subnutridos. A linfopenia e a eosinopenia acentuadas sugeriram que o sistema imunolgico do hospedeiro foi afetado pela subnutrio. A taxa de mortalidade foi muito mais elevada nos animais infectados submetidos dieta hipoprotica. Concluiu-se que os camundongos subnutridos resistiram menos infeco esquistossomtica apesar de terem apresentado menor nmero de leses granulomatosas.Mansoni schistosomiasis was studied in mice fed on a low protein diet. Four groups of the Swiss breed Mus musculus were used in an experiment with two factors, each with two levels: 1-non-infected, normal diet; 2 - infected, normal diet ; 3 - non-infected, low protein diet; 4 - infected, low protein diet. The mice were killed for observation at age 90 days, after 60 days of infection, for those infected. It was found that the worms suffered the effects of malnutrition, mainly males, whose population count was cut by half, in addition to poor individual growth. The hepatic granuloma count was found to be smaller in the undernourished group; while the corresponding lesions were also generally smaller. There was a marked leukopenia in the malnourished mice, even more so in the infected mice. The severe lymphopenia and eosinopenia observed suggest that the immunologic system of the host was affected by malnutrition. Mortality rates were far larger in the infected, low protein diet group. One may then surmise that the malnourished mice offered lower resistance to the infection, their lower number of granuloma notwithstanding.

  16. Alterações histológicas provocadas pelas ondas ultrassônicas contínuas de 01 MHz no disco epifisário em tíbia de camundongo =Histological changes caused by continuous ultrasonic waves of 01 MHz on the epiphyseal disk of murine tibia

    Silva, Daniela Pinheiro da; Muniz, José Wagner Cavalcante; Barcessat, Ana Rita Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos: Verificar alterações histológicas no disco epifisário da tíbia em crescimento de camundongos em exposição a ondas ultrassônicas de frequência de 1 MHz. Métodos: Estudo experimental de natureza quantitativa e randomizado. Para tanto, 16 camundongos albinos da linhagem Swiss Webster, em fase de crescimento, com idade de três semanas e peso entre 10-15 g foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de oito animais cada um, e expostos a ondas ultrassônicas na tíbia direita. Os g...

  17. Processo de reparo em feridas de extrao dentria em camundongos tratados com o complexo Symphytum officinale e Calendula officinallis

    BALDUCCI-ROSLINDO Eleny; Karina Gonzales SILVRIO; MALAGOLI Daniela Mercaldi

    1999-01-01

    Medicamentos homeopticos como o Symphytum officinalle e a Calendula officinallis so dotados de propriedades anti-spticas, antiinflamatria, cicatrizantes e tambm agem como promotores da consolidao de fraturas sseas. Neste trabalho, uniram-se esses dois medicamentos similares em um complexo para verificar o seu efeito no reparo em feridas de extrao dentria em camundongos. O complexo Symphytum officinalle e Calendula officinallis nas potncias de 6CH e 3CH, respectivamente, foi minist...

  18. Avaliação dos efeitos depressores centrais do extrato etanólico das folhas de Synadenium umbellatum Pax. e de suas frações em camundongos albinos Evaluation of the central depressor effects of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Synadenium umbellatum Pax. and its fractions in Swiss mice

    Rodrigo Borges de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O Synadenium umbellatum Pax. (Euphorbiacea é uma planta nativa da África tropical conhecida como "cola-nota", "avelós", "cancerola", "milagrosa", dentre outros. A planta é utilizada pela população brasileira como detentora de propriedades antiinflamatória, analgésica, dentre outras. Foram avaliados os efeitos depressores sobre o sistema nervoso central (SNC do extrato etanólico das folhas de Synadenium umbellatum (EES e de suas frações - hexânica (FH, clorofórmica (FC e metanol/água (FM. Vários testes foram utilizados em camundongos machos albinos (Mus musculus, dentre eles, o sono induzido por barbitúrico, campo aberto e o teste do rota-rod. O EES foi testado nas doses de 25, 50 e 100 mg/kg, enquanto que a FH foi testada na dose de 10 mg/kg, a FC na dose de 20 mg/kg e a FM na dose de 25 mg/kg. O EES e as frações FH e FC, mas não a FM, apresentaram um possível efeito depressor sobre o SNC, visto que foram capazes de aumentar o tempo parado e diminuir o número de bolos fecais no campo aberto, além de potencializarem o sono induzido por barbitúrico. No teste do rota-rod, observou-se que o EES e as frações não foram capazes de causar incoordenação motora ou relaxamento muscular. Assim, conclui-se que o extrato etanólico e as frações FH e FC do Syandenium umbellatum Pax. possuem possível efeito depressor sobre o SNC.Synadenium umbellatum Pax. (Euphorbiacea is a native plant from tropical Africa known as "cola-nota", "avelós", "cancerola", "milagrosa", among others. The plant is used by Brazilian folks for having anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, among others. It was evaluated the depressor effects over the central nervous system (CNS of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Synadenium umbellatum (EES and its fractions - hexane (HF, chloroformic (CF and methanol/water fractions(MF. Several tests were used in Swiss mice (Mus musculus, among them, barbiturate-induced sleep, open field and rota-rod test. The EES was tested at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg doses, while the HF was tested at 10 mg/kg dose, the CF at 20 mg/kg dose and the MF at 25 mg/kg dose. The EES and the HF and the CF fractions, but not the MF, have presented a possible depressor effect over the CNS once they were able to increase the stop time and decrease the number of fecal boli on the open field, besides they were able to potencialize the barbiturate-induced sleep. The rota-rod test showed that the EES and the fractions were not able to cause motor incoordination or muscle relax. Therefore, we conclude that Synadenium umbellatum Pax. have a possible depressor effect over the CNS.

  19. Neoplasias espontneas em camundongos de um centro de criao de animais de laboratrio / Spontaneous neoplasms in mice from a center of a laboratory animal breeding

    M.N.S., Trotte; B.F., Santos; R.C., Menezes; R., Tortelly.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Verificaram-se a prevalncia e as caractersticas anatomopatolgicas de neoplasias espontneas encontradas em camundongos, provenientes de biotrio. Foram necropsiados 9.219 camundongos pertencentes a 13 linhagens, entre agosto de 2002 e janeiro de 2007, para monitoramento sanitrio. Amostras de tec [...] idos foram colhidas, fixadas em formol tamponado a 10% e processadas pelas tcnicas habituais para incluso em parafina. Foram realizados 84 diagnsticos de neoplasmas, sendo acometidos 82 camundongos (0,9%). As principais neoplasias diagnosticadas com as respectivas ocorrncias foram: carcinoma mamrio, 27,4%; linfoma, 19,0%; adenocarcinoma papilfero pulmonar primrio, 17,9%; carcinoma epidermoide, 8,3%; osteossarcoma osteoblstico, 4,8%; e outros com menor porcentagem de ocorrncia. Houve predomnio de tumores malignos, sendo mais frequentes os carcinomas mamrios. A linhagem BALB/c An foi a que apresentou a maior variedade de tipos de neoplasias, seguida das linhagens outbred Swiss Webster e NIH. Fibrossarcoma em camundongos C57BL/10 ScSn-Dmd mdx/J e carcinoma mamrio na linhagem NOD foram relatados pela primeira vez. Abstract in english The prevalence and the pathologic features of spontaneous neoplasms found in mice from a breeding colony were verified. Nine thousand two hundred and nineteen mice belonging to 13 strains were submitted to necropsy from August 2002 to January 2007 for health monitoring. Tissue samples were collected [...] , fixed in 10% buffered formalin, and processed by the usual techniques for inclusion in paraffin. Eighty-four neoplasms were diagnosed and 82 mice had tumors (0.9%). The main neoplasms were diagnosed with the following occurrences: mammary carcinoma, 27.4%; lymphoma, 19.0%; primary papillary pulmonary adenocarcinoma, 17.9%; squamous carcinoma, 8.3%; osteoblastic osteosarcoma, 4.8%; and others with a lower percentage of occurrence. The malignant tumors predominated and the most common tumor was the mammary carcinoma. The wider variety of neoplasm types was found in the BALB/c An strain, followed by the outbred strains Swiss Webster and NIH. The fibrossarcoma in C57BL/10 ScSn-Dmd mdx/J mice and mammary carcinoma in NOD mice were reported for the first time.

  20. Estudo histopatolgico das leses causadas pelo veneno de urutu (Bothrops alternatus em msculo esqueltico de camundongos

    L. S. Queiroz

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Veneno bruto de urutu (Bothrops alternatus dissolvido em soluo salina fisiolgica foi injetado no msculo tibial anterior direito de camundongos adultos na dose de 80 ?g. Os msculos foram examinados em cortes de parafina, corados por Hematoxilina e Eosina. Aos 10 minutos j havia intensa hemorragia difusa no M. tibial anterior, mas apenas raras fibras musculares estavam necrticas. Nas horas seguintes, contudo, observou-se rpido aumento do nmero de fibras afetadas, sendo que s 24 hs o msculo apresentava-se totalmente necrtico. Vasos sangneos intramusculares e nas proximidades do M. tibial anterior mostravam necrose hialina da camada mdia e por vezes trombose. A fagocitose dos restos celulares ocorreu da periferia para o centro e acompanhou-se de regenerao muscular. Aps 1 a 2 meses, em vrios animais houve recuperao considervel do msculo, embora com persistncia de cicatriz. As fibras regeneradas possuiam ncleos centrais e variavam em dimetro, estando muitas atrficas. Em outros camundongos a regenerao do M. tibial anterior foi muito precria, tendo este sido substitudo por tecido fibroadiposo com apenas raras fibras musculares. Os resultados mostram que, apesar da gravidade das leses iniciais devidas ao veneno, ocorre regenerao muscular em grau varivel de animal para animal. Sugere-se que a m regenerao observada em alguns casos poderia ser devida, ao menos em parte, a dano vascular permanente.

  1. Relação entre a patogenicidade do Schistosoma mansoni em camundongos e a susceptibilidade do molusco vetor: III. Mortalidade, pesos corporal e das vísceras

    Zanotti-Magalhães Eliana Maria

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a relação entre o desenvolvimento da hepatomegalia, da esplenomegalia, peso corporal e taxa de mortalidade em camundongos experimentalmente infectados por Schistosoma mansoni com o grau de susceptibilidade de Biomphalaria glahrata e B. tenagophila nas quais se desenvolveram as cercárias infectantes respectivamente, das linhagens BH e SJ. Foram utilizados como hospedeiro definitivo camundongos Swiss, SPF e como hospedeiros intermediários populações de moluscos selecionados geneticamente para o caráter susceptibilidade. Foram observados menores pesos corporais e das visceras em camundongos infectados com cercárias provenientes de moluscos que apresentaram elevado grau de susceptibilidade. A maior susceptibilidade dos moluscos à infecção pelo S. mansoni correspondeu a uma menor sobrevivência dos camundongos infectados. Os resultados fazem crer que a maior adaptação do parasita ao hospedeiro intermediário, traduzidos pelas taxas mais elevadas de susceptibilidade, pode levar a um comportamento diferente deste parasita no hospedeiro definitivo.

  2. Acute toxicity of Psilocybe cubensis (Ear.) Sing., Strophariaceae, aqueous extract in mice / Toxicidade aguda do extrato aquoso de Psilocybe cubensis em camundongos

    Thiago Berti, Kirsten; Maria Martha, Bernardi.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O Psilocybe cubensis (Ear.) Sing., Strophariaceae, um cogumelo alucingeno usado pelos humanos desde a antiguidade, causando diversos efeitos psicticos. Ele contm dois derivados triptamnicos: psilocibina e psilocina, agonistas do receptor 5-HT2 (serotonina). O objetivo deste trabalho foi invest [...] igar os efeitos da administrao do extrato aquoso do P. cubensis (EAPC) na toxicidade aguda de camundongos. Camundongos Swiss adultos machos e fmeas receberam o EAPC e foram observados individualmente, diretamente em uma caixa de vidro e em um campo aberto. Com relao ao grupo controle, animais tratados com EAPC apresentaram: aumento de roer, tremores, decrscimo da locomoo e do levantar aps 29-38 min e nenhuma alterao na auto-limpeza. Alm disso, foram observadas diferenas quanto ao gnero, sendo camundongos fmeas mais sensveis que os machos ao EAPC. Foi sugerido que a administrao do EAPC leva a alteraes especficas no comportamento dos camundongos, caracterstico de drogas que interferem nos sistemas serotoninrgicos e dopaminrgicos centrais. Finalmente, os mtodos de observao aqui empregados foram eficientes em avaliar os efeitos txicos do extrato. Abstract in english Psilocybe cubensis (Ear.) Sing., Strophariaceae, is a hallucinogen mushroom that has been used since the old times by humans, causing several psychotic effects. P. cubensis contains two tryptamine derivates: psilocybin and psilocin, agonists of the 5-HT2 receptor (serotonin). The main objective of t [...] his study was to investigate the acute toxicity effects of P. cubensis aqueous extract (PCAE) administration in mice. Male and female adult Swiss mice received PCAE 0.1 mL/10 g i.p., and were observed individually, directly in a glass box and in an open-field. In relation to the data of the control group, PCAE-treated animals presented: an increased gnawing, appearance of wet-dog shakes and a decreased locomotion and rearing frequencies after 29-38 min. Also a clear gender difference was detected, being female mice more sensible to the PCAE than males. It was suggested that PCAE administration produced specific effects on mice behaviors, characteristic of drugs which interfere on central serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. Finally, the observational methods here employed were efficient to evaluate the toxic effects of the extract.

  3. Infecção experimental pelo Encephalitozoon cuniculi em camundongos imunossuprimidos com dexametasona

    Maria Anete Lallo; Maurício José dos Santos; Eduardo Fernandes Bondan

    2002-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O microsporídio Encephalitozoon cuniculi tem sido reconhecido como um patógeno oportunista em indivíduos imunossuprimidos, tais como pacientes com Aids. O objetivo do trabalho foi desenvolver animais farmacologicamente imunossuprimidos como modelo da infecção natural pelo E. cuniculi. MÉTODOS: Foram usados grupos distintos de camundongos Balb-C adultos, imunossuprimidos com diferentes doses de dexametasona (Dx, 3 ou 5 mg/kg/dia por via intraperitoneal fraction three-quarters IP) e i...

  4. A resposta oxidativa em coraes de camundongos modulada por background gentico

    Marco Aurlio Santos-Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: o tabagismo apresenta importante papel sobre as doenas cardiovasculares, entretanto permanecem pouco compreendidos os motivos pelos quais alguns seres humanos as desenvolvem e outros no. OBJETIVO: nosso objetivo foi analisar o perfil redox do corao de diferentes linhagens de camundongos aps exposio fumaa de cigarro. MTODOS: camundongos machos suos (n = 10, C3H (n = 10, BALB/c (n = 10 e C57BL/6 (n = 10 foram expostos fumaa de cigarro (12 cigarros/dia, enquanto os respectivos controles (n = 10 ao ar ambiente por 60 dias. Aps sacrifcio, o corao foi retirado para anlises bioqumicas. RESULTADOS: embora o contedo de malondialdedo no tenha aumentado em nenhum grupo, a atividade da catalase diminuiu no grupo suo (p < 0,05, BALB/c (p < 0,05 quando comparados aos respectivos grupos-controle, enquanto a mieloperoxidase diminuiu no grupo C3H (p < 0,05 e C57BL/6 (p < 0,001 quando comparados aos respectivos grupos controle. O contedo de glutationa reduzida diminuiu nos grupos suo, C3H, C57BL/6 (p < 0,05 e no grupo BALB/c (p < 0,001 quando comparados com os respectivos controles. Observamos aumento do contedo da glutationa oxidada no grupo Suo (p < 0,05 e diminuio nos grupos C3H (p < 0,05 e BALB/c (p < 0,001 quando comparados aos respectivos grupos-controle. A razo glutationa reduzida/ glutationa oxidada apresentou reduo nos grupos suo e C57BL/6 (p < 0.05 quando comparados aos grupos controle. CONCLUSO: o background gentico nos camundongos pode influenciar na resposta antioxidante aps a exposio fumaa de cigarro e parece ser um fator determinante para o desequilbrio redox no suo e C57BL/6. Compreender as respostas antioxidantes e do background gentico C3H e BALB/c podem fornecer importantes informaes quanto resistncia cardaca a fumaa de cigarro.

  5. Novo método de dosagem de soros antipeçonhentos em camundongos lactentes: I - dosagem do soro anticrotálico

    Bruno Soerensen; Newton Pereira Santos; Mary Dalva Caparroz Vancetto; Maria Laura Sales Rodrigues Lima; João Pessoa de Paula Carvalho

    1984-01-01

    A atividade biológica dos soros antipeçonhentos pode ser determinada "in vivo" em pombos, coelhos, cobaios e camundongos adultos, não existindo, entretanto, nenhum método que possa ser recomendado internacionalmente. Estudou-se comparativamente aos métodos tradicionais de dosagem de soros em pombos e camundongos adultos, a validade do uso de camundongos lactentes de 6 a 7 dias, pesando 4 a 5g, inoculados pela via subcutânea. Inicialmente foi determinada a toxidez do veneno de Crotalus durissu...

  6. Cryptic infections in mice with the Trypanosoma cruzi CL-14 clone Infeces subpatentes em camundongos pelo clone CL-14 do Trypanosoma cruzi

    SOUSA M.A.; PEREIRA S.M.S.

    1999-01-01

    A infectividade do clone CL-14 do Trypanosoma cruzi para camundongos foi revista utilizando-se como inculo metacclicos de cultura em NNN+LIT, pr-incubados ou no com complemento de cobaio. Nos animais inoculados no observamos parasitemia patente, mas a presena do parasito foi confirmada em 30% deles (9/30) atravs de hemocultivo ou xenodiagnstico, este examinado aos 100 dias. A positividade das hemoculturas pde ser evidenciada a partir dos 60 dias quando procederam de camundongos inocu...

  7. Effect of clarithromycin on the cell profile of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in mice with neutrophil-predominant lung disease Efeito da claritromicina na celularidade do lavado broncoalveolar em camundongos com doena pulmonar neutroflica induzida

    Leonardo Arajo Pinto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Macrolide antibiotics have anti-inflammatory properties in lung diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of clarithromycin in pulmonary cellular inflammatory response in mice. METHOD: Eight adult Swiss mice were studied. All animals received an intranasal challenge (80 L with dead Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.0 x 10(12 CFU/mL. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 2 days later, with total cell count and differential cell analysis. The study group (n = 4 received clarithromycin treatment (50 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal for 5 days. Treatment was initiated 2 days before intranasal challenge. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in total cell count between the groups (mean: 2.0 x 10(6 and 1.3 x 10(6, respectively. In both groups, there was a predominance of neutrophils. However, the study group had a higher percentage of lymphocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage than the control group (median of 19% vs 2.5%, P = .029. CONCLUSION: Clarithromycin alters the cytological pattern of bronchoalveolar lavage of Swiss mice with neutrophil pulmonary inflammation, significantly increasing the percentage of lymphocytes.OBJETIVO: Os antibiticos macroldeos podem apresentar um efeito antiinflamatrio em doenas pulmonares. O objetivo deste estudo investigar o efeito da claritromicina na resposta inflamatria celular pulmonar em camundongos Swiss. MTODO: Foram utilizados 8 camundongos Swiss adultos (6-8 semanas. Todos os animais receberam um desafio intranasal (80 L com Pseudomonas aeruginosa mortas (1 x 10(12 UFC/mL. Dois dias aps o desafio, foi realizado lavado broncoalveolar (LBA com contagem total de clulas (CTC e exame citolgico diferencial. O grupo em estudo (n=4 recebeu tratamento com claritromicina (50mg/kg/dia, intraperitoneal por 5 dias, sendo iniciado o tratamento 2 dias antes do desafio intranasal. O grupo controle (n=4 no recebeu tratamento com claritromicina. RESULTADOS: No houve diferena significativa na CTC entre os grupos (mdia de 2x10(6 e 1,3x10(6, respectivamente. Em ambos os grupos, houve predomnio absoluto de neutrfilos. Contudo, o grupo tratado com claritromicina, apresentou um nmero percentual significativamente maior de linfcitos no LBA (mediana de 2,5% vs 19%, p=0,029. CONCLUSO: O uso de claritromicina altera o exame citolgico diferencial do lavado bronco-alveolar de camundongos Swiss com inflamao pulmonar neutroflica, aumentando significativamente o nmero percentual de linfcitos.

  8. Infecção experimental pelo Encephalitozoon cuniculi em camundongos imunossuprimidos com dexametasona

    Maria Anete Lallo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O microsporídio Encephalitozoon cuniculi tem sido reconhecido como um patógeno oportunista em indivíduos imunossuprimidos, tais como pacientes com Aids. O objetivo do trabalho foi desenvolver animais farmacologicamente imunossuprimidos como modelo da infecção natural pelo E. cuniculi. MÉTODOS: Foram usados grupos distintos de camundongos Balb-C adultos, imunossuprimidos com diferentes doses de dexametasona (Dx, 3 ou 5 mg/kg/dia por via intraperitoneal ¾ IP e inoculados com esporos de E. cuniculi por via IP. Também foram usados grupos controle (animais inoculados, mas nãoimunossuprimidos, e animais imunossuprimidos, mas não inoculados. Os esporos de E. cuniculi foram previamente cultivados em células MDCK. Os animais foram sacrificados e submetidos à necropsia aos 7, 14, 21, 28 e 35 dias pós-inoculação. Fragmentos teciduais foram coletados e processados para análise por microscopia de luz, utilizando-se as técnicas de coloração de Gram -chromotrope e de hematoxilina-eosina. RESULTADOS: Em todos os animais imunossuprimidos e inoculados, porém especialmente naqueles que receberam 5 mg/kg/dia de Dx, os achados de necropsia mais proeminentes foram hepato e esplenomegalia. A inoculação experimental resultou em uma infecção disseminada e não-letal, caracterizada por lesões granulomatosas em diversos órgãos (fígado, pulmões, rins, intestino, encéfalo, porém mais notadamente no tecido hepático. Esporos de E. cuniculi foram observados em poucos animais tratados com 5 mg/kg/dia de Dx aos 35 dias pós-infecção. CONCLUSÕES: Microsporidiose em camundongos imunossuprimidos com Dx fornece um modelo útil para estudos da infecção por microsporídios, assemelhando-se àquela naturalmente observada em indivíduos imunodeficientes com Aids.

  9. Infecção experimental pelo Encephalitozoon cuniculi em camundongos imunossuprimidos com dexametasona

    Lallo Maria Anete

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O microsporídio Encephalitozoon cuniculi tem sido reconhecido como um patógeno oportunista em indivíduos imunossuprimidos, tais como pacientes com Aids. O objetivo do trabalho foi desenvolver animais farmacologicamente imunossuprimidos como modelo da infecção natural pelo E. cuniculi. MÉTODOS: Foram usados grupos distintos de camundongos Balb-C adultos, imunossuprimidos com diferentes doses de dexametasona (Dx, 3 ou 5 mg/kg/dia por via intraperitoneal fraction three-quarters IP e inoculados com esporos de E. cuniculi por via IP. Também foram usados grupos controle (animais inoculados, mas nãoimunossuprimidos, e animais imunossuprimidos, mas não inoculados. Os esporos de E. cuniculi foram previamente cultivados em células MDCK. Os animais foram sacrificados e submetidos à necropsia aos 7, 14, 21, 28 e 35 dias pós-inoculação. Fragmentos teciduais foram coletados e processados para análise por microscopia de luz, utilizando-se as técnicas de coloração de Gram -chromotrope e de hematoxilina-eosina. RESULTADOS: Em todos os animais imunossuprimidos e inoculados, porém especialmente naqueles que receberam 5 mg/kg/dia de Dx, os achados de necropsia mais proeminentes foram hepato e esplenomegalia. A inoculação experimental resultou em uma infecção disseminada e não-letal, caracterizada por lesões granulomatosas em diversos órgãos (fígado, pulmões, rins, intestino, encéfalo, porém mais notadamente no tecido hepático. Esporos de E. cuniculi foram observados em poucos animais tratados com 5 mg/kg/dia de Dx aos 35 dias pós-infecção. CONCLUSÕES: Microsporidiose em camundongos imunossuprimidos com Dx fornece um modelo útil para estudos da infecção por microsporídios, assemelhando-se àquela naturalmente observada em indivíduos imunodeficientes com Aids.

  10. Uso de monossulfeto de tetraetiltiuram no tratamento de ectoparasitas em camundongos Use of tetraethiltyuram in the treatment of ectoparasites in mice

    Rosella de Oliveira Santos

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available Casais de camundongos isogênicos das raças CBA, BALB/c e machos e fêmeas de Swiss heterogenéticos criados no sistema convencional, que se encontravam infectados em diferentes graus por Myobia musculi e Myocoptes musculinus, foram submetidos a quatro esquemas de tratamento com Tetmosol. A incidência de ectoparasitas na raça C57BL/10 foi apenas 1,2%. Todos os animais da raça CBA e Swiss encontravam-se parasitados, enquanto que a infestação do BALB/c foi de 50 a 90%. Os melhores resultados dos 4 esquemas de tratamento testados foram observados utilizando-se Tetmosol na concentração 2,5% em banhos seriados com intervalos alternados de 3 e 4 dias, num período de 21 dias. A incidência de ectoparasitas adultos em CBA, BALB/c e Swiss após o tratamento foi de respectivamente 0%, 40% e 0%, enquanto que para ovos viáveis os respectivos resultados foram de 20%, 50% e 0%. Após a introdução de matrizes tratadas num sistema de criação sob barreiras, a colônia tem sido examinada sistematicamente há 24 meses e encontra-se isenta de ectoparasitas.Colonies of CBA, C57BL/10, BALB/c and Swiss mice housed in conventional systems were found to be infected to different degrees with both Myobia musculi and Myocoptes musculinus. Groups of ten different sister-brother pairs of the isogenic mice and groups of 25 mice separated according to were infected by the parasite and then submitted to 4 different schemes of treatment with Tetmosol. C57BL/10 presented a very low incidence of parasites (1.2%. Every pair of CBA, and every Swiss mice examined, were found to be infected while only 50-90% of the pairs of BALB/c mice were infected. The best results of four different schemes were obtained by dipping the animals in 2.5% Tetmosol, at 3-4 days intervals for 21 days. The incidence of adult parasite forms in CBA, BALB/c and Swiss mice were found to be 0%, 40% and 0%, respectively, while in viable eggs it was found to be 20%, 50% and 0%, respectively.

  11. Atividade dissacaridsica intestinal da esquistossomose mansnica: estudo evolutivo em camundongos com diferentes cargas de infestao

    M. G. A. Sadek

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available A esquistossomose mansnica compromete vrios rgos, sendo o intestino e o fgado os mais agredidos. Com a inteno de verificar o comprometimento do intestino delgado, dependente da intensidade e do tempo de infeco pelo Schistosoma mansoni, analisou-se a atividade das dissacaridases lactase, sacarase e maltase em 112 camundongos, distribudos em 3 grupos: grupo I controle, grupo II infestado com 30 cercrias, grupo III infestado com 60 cercrias. Observamos uma diminuio da atividade lactsica, sacarsica e maltsica do intestino delgado, decorrente da infestao esquistossomdtica, do tempo de infestao e da alterao entre ambos. O leo o segmento que demonstrou maior sensibilidade a esquistossomose, tendo uma diminuio das suas dissacaridases a partir da fase inicial de infestao. Opostamente, o jejuno s mais tardiamente mostra essas alteraes, exceto em relao a lactase. Detectou-se um aumento da atividade dissacaridsica, inclusive para a lactase, em todos os grupos, com a evoluo etria dos animais, quantitativamente menor nos infestados. Cargas de 30 e 60 cercrias devem ser consideradas de mesmo porte, pois produziram leduo semelhante na atividade dissacaridsica.

  12. Estudo comparativo do ciclo evolutivo de Rhodnius neglectus alimentados em pombos ou camundongos

    Liléia Diotaiuti

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Baseados no encontro de 77,2% de reação de precipitina positiva para soro antiave de R. neglectus capturados em palmeiras da periferia de Belo Horizonte, estudamos o ciclo evolutivo de uma colonia recém-estabelecida no laboratório alimentada com sangue de pombo ou camundongo, na expectativa de demonstrarmos maior adaptação deste triatomíneo ao sangue da ave. Para comparação, estudamos o ciclo evolutivo destes insetos numa colônia há muito mantida em insetário. Nossos resultados mostram um desenvolvimento mais rápido da colônia recém- estabelecida, assim como do lote de triatomíneos alimentado em camundongo. Esses achados sugerem menor potencial biológico para triatomíneos criados por longo tempo em insetário em comparação a novas colônias. Sendo as aves os principais habitantes das palmeiras, a aparente preferência alimentar por sangue de aves demonstrada pela reação de precipitina parece ser circunstancial e não seletiva na busca do sangue com o qual o triatomíneo obteria melhor desenvolvimento.Feeding pattems of R. neglectus collected in palm trees around Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil were investigated. Precipitin tests showed 77.2% of avian blood. In view of these results, a new colony of R. neglectus established in the laboratory was fed regularly on pigeons or mice, in order to verify a possible better adaptation of this insect to the avian blood. As a control group a colony of R neglectus which has been maintained for several years in the laboratory was also observed. The results show a better development of the “new" colony in comparison with the old one, and of those bugs nourished with mice blood. Such findings suggest a poorer biological potential for triatomines maintained for long time in artificial conditions, in comparison with those living in the natural environment. As birds are the main vertebrate inhabitants of palm trees (the natural ecotope of R neglectus, the apparent feeding preference of this species for avian blood seems to be merely circumstancial and not related to a better biological performance provided by this kind of blood.

  13. Efeito de Momordica charantia I. Em camundongos infectados por Plasmodium berghei

    Helene Mariko Ueno

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available A Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS citou a malãria como um dos principais problemas de saúde no Brasil e no terceiro mundo, onde 80% da população recorre à medicina tradicional (popular para sanar vários problemas de assistência médica primária. No que se refere à malária, seu tratamento e controle têm sido dificultados devido às cepas resistentes às drogas comumente utilizadas. Isso torna urgente a busca de novas drogas antimaláncas. Sabe-se que a população utiliza-se de diferentes plantas para o tratamento e cura de vários males, inclusive a malãria. Neste trabalho nos propusemos reavaliar o efeito de Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae sobre camundongos infectados por Plasmodium berghei. A planta foi testada sob a forma de extratos aquoso e etanólico, na dose de lOOOmg por kg cle peso coipóreo do camundongo, ministrado por via oral, por cinco dias consecutivos da infecção (2º ao 6º. O efeito foi avaliado em função da parasitemia e da sobrevida dos animais. Embora a população indique e utilize essa planta na malária humana, nos ensaios deste trabalho, nas condições do experimento, os extratos de M. charantia não apresentaram atividade satisfatória contra o P. berghei.

  14. Reinfecção pelo Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle & Manceaux, 1909 em camundongos e gatos: estudo experimental

    Ligia M. Ferreira Jamra; Fernando Sogorb Sanchis; Eny Câmara Guimarães

    1985-01-01

    A reinfecção pelo Toxoplasma gondii foi estudada, experimentalmente, em 27 camundongos albinos e 25 gatos domésticos. A infecção e a reinfecção foram comprovadas por sinais clínicos, anticorpos sangüíneos à reação de Sabin & Feldman > 1/4, recuperação do parasita e, nos gatos, também pela eliminação de oocistos. Nos camundongos a mortalidade foi de 56%. A primo-infecção por cepa de baixa virulência ou a infecção por cepa mais virulenta, atenuada pela sulfamonometoxina, deram proteção à reinfe...

  15. Efeito de Momordica charantia I. Em camundongos infectados por Plasmodium berghei

    Helene Mariko Ueno

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available A Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS citou a malãria como um dos principais problemas de saúde no Brasil e no terceiro mundo, onde 80% da população recorre à medicina tradicional (popular para sanar vários problemas de assistência médica primária. No que se refere à malária, seu tratamento e controle têm sido dificultados devido às cepas resistentes às drogas comumente utilizadas. Isso torna urgente a busca de novas drogas antimaláncas. Sabe-se que a população utiliza-se de diferentes plantas para o tratamento e cura de vários males, inclusive a malãria. Neste trabalho nos propusemos reavaliar o efeito de Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae sobre camundongos infectados por Plasmodium berghei. A planta foi testada sob a forma de extratos aquoso e etanólico, na dose de lOOOmg por kg cle peso coipóreo do camundongo, ministrado por via oral, por cinco dias consecutivos da infecção (2º ao 6º. O efeito foi avaliado em função da parasitemia e da sobrevida dos animais. Embora a população indique e utilize essa planta na malária humana, nos ensaios deste trabalho, nas condições do experimento, os extratos de M. charantia não apresentaram atividade satisfatória contra o P. berghei.According to the World Health Organization malaria is one of the major public health problems in Brazil and all over developing countries, where 80% of the population use traditional medicine to solve their primary medical problems. Both treatment and control of this parasitosis have become difficult, because of parasite strains that are resistant to conventional drugs, such as chloroquine. That makes the search for new antimalarial drugs not only important but urgent. We aimed therefore at evaluating the effects of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. We used aquose and ethanotic extracts in a dose of 1OOOmg/kg of body weight, orally, for five consecutive days (i.e. from day 2 to day 6 postinfection. We then followed up the parasitaemia during the course of infection. Although the population use this plant as an antimalarial, in our experimental conditions, M. charantia extracts have not shown such activity.

  16. A resposta oxidativa em coraes de camundongos modulada por background gentico

    Marco Aurlio Santos-Silva; Akinori Cardozo Nagato; Eduardo Tavares Lima Trajano; Jackson Nogueira Alves; Ana Carla Balthar Bandeira; Lus Cristvo Porto; Frank Silva Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    FUNDAMENTO: o tabagismo apresenta importante papel sobre as doenas cardiovasculares, entretanto permanecem pouco compreendidos os motivos pelos quais alguns seres humanos as desenvolvem e outros no. OBJETIVO: nosso objetivo foi analisar o perfil redox do corao de diferentes linhagens de camundongos aps exposio fumaa de cigarro. MTODOS: camundongos machos suos (n = 10), C3H (n = 10), BALB/c (n = 10) e C57BL/6 (n = 10) foram expostos fumaa de cigarro (12 cigarros/dia), enquanto ...

  17. Efeito do treinamento fsico sobre o tecido sseo e a concentrao srica de clcio em camundongos fmeas ovariectomizadas

    Tenrio Anglica da Silva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar as possveis alteraes morfomtricas no tecido sseo e na concentrao srica de clcio em camundongos ovariectomizadas submetidas ao treinamento fsico. MTODOS: Cinqenta camundongos fmeas, com 90 dias de idade, distribudos em 5 grupos (n=10: controle (C, pseudo-operado sedentrio (POS, pseudo-operado treinado (POT, ovariectomizado sedentrio (OVS e ovariectomizado treinado (OVT. Os grupos OVS e OVT foram submetidos a ovariectomia, e os grupos POS e POT a uma pseudo-cirurgia. Trinta dias aps a cirurgia, os grupos POT e OVT foram submetidos ao exerccio fsico, durante 05 semanas em esteira eltrica a uma velocidade de 20 m/min. Os demais animais permaneceram sedentrios no mesmo perodo. Aps esse perodo os animais foram sacrificados, coletando o sangue para realizao de dosagens sricas de clcio e os fmures direitos para estudo histomorfomtrico. RESULTADOS: A concentrao srica de clcio no grupo OVT apresentou-se mais baixa do que nos demais grupos (p<0,05. A massa dos fmures mostrou-se superior em relao ao grupo controle, nos grupos POT e OVT (p<0,05. A densidade mdia de ostecitos foi mais alta no grupo OVS (p<0,05. O valor mdio da rea dos ostecitos mostrou diferena apenas entre os grupos POS e OVS (p<0,05. No houve diferenas no comprimento sseo nem no permetro dos ostecitos. CONCLUSO: O exerccio, em parte, preveniu as alteraes do tecido sseo decorrentes da ovariectomia e possibilitou um aumento da formao ssea.

  18. Hepatic pathology in Capillaria hepatica infected mice Patologia hepática em camundongos infectados pela Capillaria hepatica

    Bruna Magalhães Gotardo

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Septal fibrosis of the liver regularly develops in rats infected with Capillaria hepatica. To find out whether such fibrosis also occurs in mice, 20 animals were submitted to infection with either 100 or 300 embryonated eggs and histologically examined after several periods of time, from 30 to 110 days afterwards. Results showed that mice developed acute, severe, diffuse and focal hepatic lesions that were soon modulated to focal areas of fibrosis containing eggs and worm remnants, despite the fact that a few worms remained alive, at least up to 110 days after inoculation. Areas of perisinusoidal fibrosis appeared in the proximity and around focal parasitic lesions, but clear-cut septal fibrosis was not observed. Why septal fibrosis forms in rats, but not in mice during C. hepatica infection, only further studies can clarify. Mice seem to show better host/parasite relationship than rats in regard to C. hepatica infection.A fibrose septal do fígado se desenvolve regularmente em ratos infectados pela Capillaria hepatica. Com o fito de se verificar se tal tipo de fibrose também se desenvolve em camundongos, 20 animais foram infectados com 100 ou 300 ovos embrionados e examinados histologicamente em vários períodos de tempo, entre 30 até 110 dias após inoculação. Os resultados demonstraram que os camundongos desenvolvem inicialmente uma intensa hepatite aguda, difusa e focal, mas logo estas lesões são moduladas, desaparecendo a hepatite reacional difusa e persistindo as lesões em torno de ovos e restos de vermes. Alguns poucos vermes sobreviveram por todo o período experimental. Embora a fibrose perisinusoidal tenha aparecido em torno das lesões fibróticas focais, a fibrose septal não foi observada. Não se sabe por que a fibrose septal se forma no rato infectado por C. hepatica, mas não no camundongo, mas o assunto merece investigação, pois importantes aspectos da fibrogênese hepática poderiam estar implicados. Os camundongos parecem melhor adaptados à C. hepatica que os ratos; nos primeiros, a infecção é nitidamente autolimitada.

  19. Investigação de lipofuscina em miócitos cardíacos de camundongos após tratamento com oxamniquine

    Maria Luiza Silveira Mello; Bertuzzo, Carmen S

    1984-01-01

    A fluorescencia natural devida à presença de corpos de lipofuscina foi pesquisada em miócitos cardíacos de camundongos adultos jovens tratados com oxamniquine. O objetivo foi buscar uma evidência de indução de envelhecimento celular precoce, com base em dados prévios de acentuação poliploidia, promovida pela droga. Comparando o miocárdio dos camundongos tratados com animais contrôle jovens e velhos, não foi observada a presença de lipofuscina nos seus miócitos. Isto possivelmente se deva a um...

  20. Efeitos de óleos essenciais de plantas no tempo de sono induzido por cetamina em camundongos

    Simony Fauth

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos anteriores mostraram que óleos essenciais voláteis obtidos de plantas potenciam o tempo de sono induzido por pentobarbital e álcool em camundongos. Cetamina é um anestésico muito utilizado em crianças, sendo conhecida por causar uma anestesia dissociativa. Seus efeitos alucinógenos podem ser reduzidos quando administrada em associação a benzodiazepínicos. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a influência dos óleos de Psidium guyanensis (Araçá azedo, Psidium pohlianum (Araçá doce, Psidium guajava (Araçá goiaba, Rosmarinus officinalis (Alecrim e Lippia alba (Cidreira no tempo de sono induzido por cetamina em camundongos. Os resultados indicam que o tempo de sono induzido por cetamina foi prolongado pelos óleos essenciais de Psidium guyanensis, Psidium pohlianum, Psidium guajava e Lippia Alba mostrando novas possibilidades de associação com a cetamina a fim de prolongar o seu efeito sedativo, proporcionando uma anestesia mais adequada.

  1. Experimental encephalitis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice Encefalite experimental causada por cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps em camundongos

    Hidelberto Matos-Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To present the experimental model of neurocysticercosis (NCC caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, to describe the inflammatory process, susceptibility, or resistance of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to this infection, and to describe the host-parasite relationship. METHODS: The animals were intracranially inoculated with initial stage T. crassiceps cysticerci. They were euthanized at 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after the inoculation. Their encephala were removed for the histopathologic analysis, classification of the parasites, and inflammatory lesions. RESULTS: Experimental NCC was observed on both mice lineages. BALB/c mice presented inflammatory lesions with greater intensity, inducing necrosis on late stage parasites, and with an acute inflammation pattern, while C57BL/6 mice showed greater capability on provoking early necrosis in the cysticerci, which showed a chronic inflammation pattern. CONCLUSIONS: This experimental model induced NCC on mice with characteristic inflammation and lesions. C57BL/6 mice were able to induce precocious necrosis of the parasites presenting inflammatory lesions with lower intensity.OBJETIVOS: Apresentar o modelo experimental de neurocisticercose (NCC com cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps, descrever a inflamação, suscetibilidade e resistência em camundongos BALB/c e C57BL/6, caracterizando melhor a relação parasito-hospedeiro. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram inoculados intracranialmente com cisticercos de T. crassiceps em estádio inicial e eutanasiados aos 7, 30, 60 e 90 dias após a infecção. Retiraram-se os encéfalos para análise histopatológica, classificação dos parasitos e lesões inflamatórias. RESULTADOS: Foi possível induzir NCC nas duas linhagens de camundongos utilizados como modelo experimental. Os animais BALB/c apresentaram lesões inflamatórias mais intensas do que os camundongos C57BL/6 e induziram nos parasitos necrose na fase tardia com padrão inflamatório agudo. Os C57BL/6 mostraram-se mais hábeis em provocar necrose precocemente nos cisticercos, mas com padrão inflamatório crônico. CONCLUSÕES: Este modelo experimental induziu NCC nos animais com inflamações e lesões. Os camundongos C57BL/6 foram hábeis em induzir precocemente necrose nos parasitos, apresentando lesões inflamatórias com menor intensidade.

  2. Novo método de dosagem de soros antipeçonhentos em camundongos lactentes: I - dosagem do soro anticrotálico

    Bruno Soerensen

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available A atividade biológica dos soros antipeçonhentos pode ser determinada "in vivo" em pombos, coelhos, cobaios e camundongos adultos, não existindo, entretanto, nenhum método que possa ser recomendado internacionalmente. Estudou-se comparativamente aos métodos tradicionais de dosagem de soros em pombos e camundongos adultos, a validade do uso de camundongos lactentes de 6 a 7 dias, pesando 4 a 5g, inoculados pela via subcutânea. Inicialmente foi determinada a toxidez do veneno de Crotalus durissus terríficus através do estudo da sintomatologia do envenenamento e da atividade letal. O estudo comparativo dos três métodos forneceu maior concordância de resultados em DE100 entre as dosagens realizadas com camundongos lactentes e adultos. A DE100 e DL50 determinadas em camundongos lactentes forneceu resultados mais constantes que os dos métodos de camundongos adultos e pombos. O uso deste novo método permite eliminar a dificuldade de obtenção do atual animal de prova; a utilização de um maior número de animais por ponto de avaliação biológica, possibilitando uma maior precisão e conseguindo-se uma uniformidade nas características exigidas neste tipo de dosagem como peso, idade e linhagem, visando a reprodução sistemática dos resultados.

  3. Relação entre a patogenicidade do Schistosoma mansoni em camundongos e a susceptibilidade do molusco vetor: III. Mortalidade, pesos corporal e das vísceras Relationship between the pathogenicity of Schistosoma mansoni in mice and the susceptibility of the vector mollusc: III. Mortality, body weight and viscera weights

    Eliana Maria Zanotti-Magalhães

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a relação entre o desenvolvimento da hepatomegalia, da esplenomegalia, peso corporal e taxa de mortalidade em camundongos experimentalmente infectados por Schistosoma mansoni com o grau de susceptibilidade de Biomphalaria glahrata e B. tenagophila nas quais se desenvolveram as cercárias infectantes respectivamente, das linhagens BH e SJ. Foram utilizados como hospedeiro definitivo camundongos Swiss, SPF e como hospedeiros intermediários populações de moluscos selecionados geneticamente para o caráter susceptibilidade. Foram observados menores pesos corporais e das visceras em camundongos infectados com cercárias provenientes de moluscos que apresentaram elevado grau de susceptibilidade. A maior susceptibilidade dos moluscos à infecção pelo S. mansoni correspondeu a uma menor sobrevivência dos camundongos infectados. Os resultados fazem crer que a maior adaptação do parasita ao hospedeiro intermediário, traduzidos pelas taxas mais elevadas de susceptibilidade, pode levar a um comportamento diferente deste parasita no hospedeiro definitivo.The relationship between the development of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, body weight and mortality rate and the degree of susceptibility of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. tenagophila at which infective cercariae developed was studied. The study utilized Swiss mice, SPF, as definitive hosts and populations of snails genetically selected for character susceptibility as intermediate hosts. Low body weight and smaller viscera were observed in infected mice with cercariae originating from snails that showed a high degree of susceptibility. The higher susceptibility of molluscs infected with S. mansoni corresponded to a lower survival of the infected mice. These results lead to the conclusion that the higher degree of adaptation of the parasite to its intermediate hosts, evidenced by the high indexes of susceptibility, leads to different behaviour on the part of this parasite in its definitive host.

  4. Infeco experimental pelo Trypanosoma cruzi em camundongos: influncia do exerccio fsico versus linhagens e sexos / Experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in mice: influence of exercise versus strains and sexes

    Roberta Cristhiany Occhi, Soares; Cristiano Schebeleski, Soares; Solange Marta, Franzi-de-Moraes; Mrcia Regina, Batista; Heloisa Nakai, Kwabara; Andr Morelli Rodrigues de, Sousa; Neide Martins, Moreira; Mnica Lcia, Gomes; Silvana Marques de, Arajo.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUO: A doena de Chagas uma infeco causada pelo Trypanosoma cruzi que afeta oito milhes de pessoas na Amrica Latina. Um fator ligado ao estilo de vida que interfere significativamente na resposta infeco o exerccio fsico, dependendo do tipo, intensidade e frequncia da atividade [...] praticada. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influncia do exerccio fsico aerbio moderado crnico pr-infeco na evoluo da infeco experimental pelo T. cruzi em camundongos de duas linhagens distintas pertencentes aos dois sexos. MTODOS: Camundongos Swiss e BALB/c (machos e fmeas) com 30 dias de idade foram divididos em quatro grupos para cada linhagem e sexo (total de 16) e nomeados como segue: SM (Swiss machos), SF (Swiss fmeas), BM (BALB/c machos) e BF (BALB/c fmeas). Os grupos foram: NT+NI (no treinado+no infectado), T+NI (treinado+no infectado), NT+I (no treinado+infectado) e T+I (treinado+infectado). O programa de exerccio fsico aerbio moderado crnico pr-infeco foi realizado durante oito semanas, com uma sesso diria de treinamento, cinco vezes na semana. O inculo foi de 1.400 tripomastgotas sanguneos da cepa Y do T. cruzi, via intraperitoneal. Foi avaliado o pico de parasitos, parasitemia total mdia e as medidas das atividades sricas de CK e CK-MB. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSO: O treinamento fsico promoveu nas duas linhagens e em ambos os sexos reduo no pico de parasitos e na parasitemia total mdia em animais infectados pelo T. cruzi. O treinamento fsico promoveu reduo nas atividades sricas de CK e CK-MB em animais infectados pelo T. cruzi, de ambos os sexos, das duas linhagens, exceto para fmeas Swiss na atividade de CK e CK-MB. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is an infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi that affects eight million people in Latin America. One factor linked to the lifestyle that significantly interferes in the response to infection is physical exercise, depending on the kind, intensity and frequency of the activit [...] y practiced. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of pre-infection chronic moderate aerobic exercise in the development of experimental infection with T. cruzi in mice of two distinct lineages from both sexes. METHODS: 30-day old Swiss and BALB/c mice (male and female) were divided into four groups for each strain and sex (total 16) and named as follows: SM (Swiss males), SF (Swiss females) BM (BALB/c mice) and BF (BALB/c mice). The groups were: NT NI (untrained uninfected) T NI (trained not infected); NT I (untrained infected), TI (trained infected). The aerobic exercise pre-moderate chronic infection training was performed with one daily session for eight weeks, five times a week. The inoculum was 1,400 blood trypomastigotes of Y strain of T. cruzi intraperitoneally. The peak of parasites, parasitemia total and average measurements of the serum activities of CK and CK-MB were evaluated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The physical training promoted reduction in peak, parasitemia parasites and total average in animals infected with T. cruzi in both strains and sexes. Physical training induced reduction in serum activities of CK and CK-MB in animals infected with T. cruzi of both sexes and from the two strains, except for females in the Swiss CK activity.

  5. Experimental meningoencephalomyelitis by Encephalitozoon cuniculi in cyclophosphamide-immunosuppressed mice Meningoencefalomielite experimental por Encephalitozoon cuniculi em camundongos imunossuprimidos com ciclofosfamida

    Maria Anete Lallo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Encephalitozoonosis is an increasingly important opportunistic protozoan infection in immunocompromised individuals. This study aims to examine the development of an experimental Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in the central nervous system of immunosuppressed mice. Adult Balb-C mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with E. cuniculi spores, treated with cyclophosphamide during the experimental period and killed from 15 to 75 days post-inoculation. Tissue samples were collected and processed for light and transmission electron microscopy investigation. Multifocal granulomas were seen in all organs. A lymphocytic, diffuse, non-suppurative menigoencephalomyelitis was observed, with neuronal degeneration and necrosis, macrophagic infiltration and reactive astrocytosis. E. cuniculi spores were seen in the microgranulomas or occurred unassociated with inflammatory reaction. The parasites were rarely seen in Hematoxylin-Eosin stained sections, but were Gram-Chromotrope positive. Proliferative forms and spores were found in parasitophorous vacuoles within neural cells and macrophages. Experimental encephalitozoonosis in immunosuppressed mice provides an useful model for the study of brain lesions associated with these protozoans in man.A encefalitozoonose constitui protozoose emergente em indivíduos imunocomprometidos. Este estudo visa examinar o desenvolvimento de infecção experimental por Encephalitozoon cuniculi no sistema nervoso central de camundongos imunossuprimidos. Camundongos Balb-C adultos foram inoculados intraperitonealmente com esporos de E. cuniculi, tratados com ciclofosfamida durante o período experimental e sacrificados dos 15 aos 75 dias pós-inoculação. Fragmentos teciduais foram coletados e processados para estudos de microscopia de luz e eletrônica de transmissão. Granulomas multifocais foram vistos em todos os órgãos. Foi observada meningoencefalomielite linfocítica, difusa, não-supurativa, com degeneração e necrose neuronal, infiltração macrofágica e astrocitose reativa. Esporos de E. cuniculi foram vistos nos microgranulomas ou ocorreram sem associação com reação inflamatória. Os parasitas raramente foram notados em cortes corados com Hematoxilina-Eosina, mas eram Gram-chromotrope-positivos. Esporos e formas proliferativas foram encontrados em vacúolos parasitóforos dentro de células neurais e macrófagos. A encefalitozoonose experimental em camundongos imunossuprimidos fornece um modelo adequado para o estudo de lesões cerebrais associadas com tais protozoários no homem.

  6. Serum lipid profile and hepatic evaluation in mice fed diet containing pequi nut or pulp (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) / Perfil lipdico srico e avaliao heptica em camundongos alimentados com dieta contendo amndoa ou polpa de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.)

    Edenil Costa, Aguilar; Maria das Graas Mota Nobre, Queiroz; Dario Alves de, Oliveira; Neide Judith Faria de, Oliveira.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O Caryocar brasiliense (popularmente chamado pequi) amplamente consumido pela populao do Cerrado. Este fruto tem alta concentrao de cidos graxos monoinsaturados que podem influenciar positivamente o perfil lipdico. No obstante, o pequi tambm possui uma importante concentrao de cidos gra [...] xos saturados, que, por sua vez, esto relacionados com o risco de aterosclerose. Este trabalho objetivou estudar o efeito de uma dieta suplementada com pequi sobre os nveis lipdicos e glicmicos sanguneos e histologia heptica. Camundongos Albino swiss fmeas foram divididos em trs grupos e alimentados com rao comercial (grupo controle), rao comercial suplementada com 33% de amndoa de pequi (grupo amndoa) e rao comercial suplementada com 33% de polpa de pequi (grupo polpa). Aps 6 semanas, e jejum overnight, sangue e fgados foram coletados para anlises posteriores. O colesterol total e HDL-colesterol sricos foram significativamente maiores nos camundongos alimentados com dietas contendo pequi, quando comparado ao grupo controle. Todavia, no houve modificao nos nveis sanguneos de triglicrides, frao aterognica e glicose. Alm disso, houve desenvolvimento de esteatose microvesicular no fgado relacionada ingesto de pequi. Em concluso, as dietas suplementadas com polpa ou amndoa de pequi diminuram o risco aterognico por aumentar as lipoprotenas antiaterognicas sem mudar a frao pr-aterognica nos camundongos. Abstract in english Caryocar brasiliense (popular name pequi) is widely consumed by the population of Brazilian Savannah. This fruit has a high concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids that can influence positively the lipid profile. In addition, pequi also has an important concentration of saturated fatty acids wh [...] ich, in turn, is associated with atherosclerosis risk. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a pequi-supplemented diet on blood lipid and glucose levels and hepatic histology. Female Albino swiss mice were divided into three groups and fed a standard chow diet (control group), chow diet supplemented with 33% pequi nut (nut group), and chow diet supplemented with 33% pequi pulp (pulp group). After 6 weeks, following an overnight fast, blood and liver were collected for posterior analyses. Serum total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were significantly higher in mice fed pequi-rich diets compared to the control group. Nevertheless, there was no modification in blood triglycerides, atherogenic fraction, and glucose levels. In addition, there was development of liver microvesicular steatosis related to pequi intake. In conclusion, the diets supplemented with pequi nut or pulp reduced the atherogenic risk by increasing the anti-atherogenic lipoproteins without changing the pro-atherogenic fraction in mice.

  7. Ação de raios gama sobre formas sanguícolas de Trypanosoma cruzi: estudo experimental em camundongos

    Gentilda K. F. Takeda

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de sangue de animais infectados com cepa Y de Trypanosoma cruzi foram submetidas, respectivamente, a 200 e 300 krad de radiação gama. Para verificar a eficácia do método na eliminação do parasita, o material foi inoculado em camundongos e os parâmetros utilizados na avaliação foram: parasitemia, cultura, xenodiagnóstico, subinoculação, reinoculação com cepa virulenta e exame anátomo-patológico das vísceras. Os sangues expostos às duas diferentes intensidades de radiação e inoculados em dois períodos após o processo, mostraram-se inócuos quanto a capacidade de produzir infecção nos animais

  8. Novo método de dosagem de soros antipeçonhentos em camundongos lactentes: I - dosagem do soro anticrotálico New method for dosage of antivenoms sera in baby mice: I-Anticrotalic serum's dosage

    Bruno Soerensen; Newton Pereira Santos; Mary Dalva Caparroz Vancetto; Maria Laura Sales Rodrigues Lima; João Pessoa de Paula Carvalho

    1984-01-01

    A atividade biológica dos soros antipeçonhentos pode ser determinada "in vivo" em pombos, coelhos, cobaios e camundongos adultos, não existindo, entretanto, nenhum método que possa ser recomendado internacionalmente. Estudou-se comparativamente aos métodos tradicionais de dosagem de soros em pombos e camundongos adultos, a validade do uso de camundongos lactentes de 6 a 7 dias, pesando 4 a 5g, inoculados pela via subcutânea. Inicialmente foi determinada a toxidez do veneno de Crotalus durissu...

  9. Imunogenicidade da cepa avirulenta RV194-2 do vírus rábico em camundongos

    Rugimar Marcovistz

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available O vírus rábico RV194-2, uma variante avirulenta da cepa CVS (Challenge Vírus Standard, produz uma infecção inaparente quando inoculado intracerebralmente em camundongos adultos. Sugerindo que a resposta imunológica do hospedeiro permite a eliminação do vírus do sistema nervoso central. Por esta razão foram estudadas a indução de interferon e a resposta imune humoral em camundongos BALB/c inoculados com vírus RV194-2. Durante a infecção, estes camundongos apresentaram elevados níveis de interferon no plasma e no cérebro com altos títulos de anticorpos neutralizantes anti-rábicos. A 2-5A sintetase. um marcador da ação dos interferons,foi também analisada no cérebro destes animais. Sua atividade, aumentou, paralelamente, á produção de interferon, demonstrando que este interferon é bioquímicamente ativo. O vírus RV194-2 também induziu, 45 dias após sua inoculação, proteção aos animais quando desafiados com a cepa virulenta CVS. Estes resultados demonstram que a cepa RV194-2possui um alto nível imunogênico.RV194-2 rabies virus, an avirulent mutant of CVS strain, induces an inapparent infection limited to the central nervous system (CNS in adult mice inoculated intracerebrally. This fact suggest that immune response of the host is able to eliminate the virus in CNS. For this reason, we have studied the induction of interferon and the humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice after RV194-2 inoculation. These mice presented high levels of interferon in the plasma and in the brain, with elevated levels of neutralizing antirabies antibodies. The 2-5A synthetase, an enzyme marker of interferon action, was analyzed in the brain of inoculated animals. Its enhancement in parallel to the interferon production in the brain, showed biochemical evidence that this interferon is active. Forty five days after RV194-2 virus inoculation, mice were protected against a challenge with the CVS virulent strain. The results presented herein show that RV194-2 strain has a bigh level of immunogenicity.

  10. Ação de raios gama sobre formas sanguícolas de Trypanosoma cruzi: estudo experimental em camundongos

    Gentilda K. F. Takeda; Rubens Campos; Julio Kieffer; Antonio Augusto B. Moreira; Vicente Amato Neto; Vera Lúcia P. Castilho; Pedro Luiz S. Pinto; Maria Irma Seixas Duarte

    1986-01-01

    Amostras de sangue de animais infectados com cepa Y de Trypanosoma cruzi foram submetidas, respectivamente, a 200 e 300 krad de radiação gama. Para verificar a eficácia do método na eliminação do parasita, o material foi inoculado em camundongos e os parâmetros utilizados na avaliação foram: parasitemia, cultura, xenodiagnóstico, subinoculação, reinoculação com cepa virulenta e exame anátomo-patológico das vísceras. Os sangues expostos às duas diferentes intensidades de radiação e inoculados ...

  11. Porcine peritoneum as source of biocompatible collagen in mice Peritnio suno como fonte de colgeno biocompatvel em camundongos

    Cristina Jardelino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the biocompatibility and biodegradability of a membrane made from porcine peritoneum. METHODS: The membrane (5x5 mm was inserted in the subcutaneous tissue on the back of 15 mice, which were killed after 1, 3 and 9 weeks (ISO 10993-6. The cellular components of the inflammatory response and degradation of the membrane were analyzed in hematoxylin-eosin-stained histological sections. RESULTS: After one week, mononuclear cells were observed inside the membrane. After three weeks, the material was almost completely absorbed. After nine weeks, there was no presence of material and there were signs of tissue remodeling. There was neither a foreign body reaction nor signs of tissue necrosis. CONCLUSION: The collagen membrane derived from porcine peritoneum is biocompatible and bioabsorbable when implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of mice.OBJETIVO: Investigar a biocompatibilidade e biodegradabilidade de uma membrana feita de peritnio suno. MTODOS: A membrana (5x5 mm foi inserida no tecido subcutneo dorsal de 15 camundongos, que foram mortos aps uma, trs e nove semanas (ISO 10993-6. Os componentes celulares da resposta inflamatria e a degradao da membrana foram analisados em cortes corados em hematoxilina-eosina. RESULTADOS: Aps uma semana, clulas mononucleares foram observadas dentro da membrana. Aps trs semanas, o material foi quase completamente absorvido. Aps nove semanas, no houve presena do material e houve sinais de remodelao tecidual. No houve reao de corpo estranho nem sinais de necrose tecidual. CONCLUSO: A membrana colgena derivada de peritnio suno biocompatvel e bioabsorvvel quando implantada no tecido subcutneo do camundongo.

  12. Suplementação de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados ômega-3 reduz marcadores inflamatórios e melhora a ação da insulina em fígado de camundongos

    Gabrielle da Luz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da suplementação do ácido graxo poliinsaturado ômega-3 (n3 sobre a sinalização da insulina e via próinflamatória no tecido hepático de camundongos. MÉTODOS: Camundongos Swiss foram divididos em seis grupos que receberam, por gavagem esofágica, diferentes doses de óleo de peixe contendo ômega-3 (1mg, 5mg, 10mg e 50mg. O grupo-controle recebeu água. Para determinar os efeitos do ômega-3 dependentes de dose e tempo, a glicemia de jejum foi avaliada nos dias 0 (sem suplementação, 14 e 21 (após suplementação. Como o grupo n-3-21dias (21 dias de suplementação apresentou menor nível de glicemia, esse intervalo de tempo foi selecionado para as análises moleculares. Após jejum de 8 horas, amostras do tecido hepático foram obtidas do grupo-controle, e n-3-21dias e análises das vias de sinalização da insulina e próinflamatória foram realizadas por western blot. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que a dose de 10mg induziu maior redução na glicemia no 14° e no 21° dias quando comparada às demais doses. Dessa forma, essa foi a dose utilizada nos experimentos de análises moleculares e foi a que diminuiu de forma significativa a fosforilação da c-Jun n-terminal quinase e quinase e níveis proteicos do fator de transcrição Kappa B. Em paralelo, foi observado aumento na fosforilação do receptor da insulina, substrato do receptor de insulina 1 e proteína quinase B. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo sugere que o ômega-3 induza melhora na via de sinalização da insulina no fígado de camundongos, pelo menos em parte, por reduzir inflamação. Esses resultados podem explicar menores níveis de glicose de jejum.

  13. Avaliação da toxicidade aguda do extrato aquoso de Apeiba tibourbou Aubl (Tiliaceae, em camundongos e ratos

    Luiz Carlos da Cunha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O teste de toxicidade aguda estima a dose letal mediana (DL50 e classifica os toxicantes quanto à periculosidade, inclusive para extratos de plantas. A espécie Apeiba tibourbou Aubl (Tiliaceae, conhecida como paude-jangada ou pente-de-macaco, é empregada popularmente como antirreumática, antiespasmódica e expectorante, embora seja desconhecida quanto aos seus efeitos tóxicos. Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar o potencial de toxicidade aguda do extrato aquoso de A. tibourbou (EAT, administrado por gavagem, em camundongos fêmeas e ratos fêmeas, seguindo as diretrizes OECD Guideline 423/2001 e o screening hipocrático. Os camundongos fêmeas foram divididos em três grupos de três animais cada (C1 – controle, água filtrada, 0,25 mL; C2 – 300 mg/kg de EAT; e C3 – 2000 mg/kg de EAT. Os ratos fêmeas foram divididos em dois grupos de três animais cada (R1 – controle, água filtrada, 0,5 mL; e R2 – 2000 mg/ kg de EAT. O grupo C2 consumiu 28% de água a mais que o grupo C1 (p < 0,05; o grupo C3 produziu 31% de excretas a mais que o grupo C1 (p < 0,0001; o grupo R2 reduziu o consumo de ração e a produção de excretas em 20% e 28% em relação ao grupo R1 (p < 0,05, respectivamente. No screening hipocrático, nenhuma alteração motora e/ou sensorial foi observada. Não houve morte nem estado moribundo de nenhum animal. Conclui-se que o EAT possui DL50 estimada maior que 2000 mg/kg (Classe 5 de toxicidade, segundo o Globally Harmonized System – GHS, ONU, demonstrando reduzido potencial de toxicidade aguda.

  14. Immunohistochemical detection of Tritrichomonas foetus in experimentally infected mice / Deteco imunohistoqumica de Tritrichomonas foetus em camundongos experimentalmente infectados

    Cristina Esther, Monteavaro; Pedro, Soto; Hilda Mara, Echevarra; Mara del Carmen, Catena; Enrique Leo, Portiansky; Eduardo Juan, Gimeno.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade de aumentar o conhecimento da patogenia da tricomonase genital bovina (BGT) conduziu ao uso de modelos experimentais alternativos como o camundongo. No obstante, necessrio elucidar a dinmica da infeco nesta espcie e avaliar as diferentes fases da colonizao e evoluo das alt [...] eraes patolgicas. A imunohistoqumica (IHQ) oferece vantagens sobre as tcnicas histoqumicas de rotina para a observao do protozorio em tecidos, detritos celulares e dentro de macrfagos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi demonstrar pelo uso de uma tcnica de IHQ a presena de Tritrichomonas foetus no sistema reprodutivo de camundongos infectados. Camundongos BALB/c fmeas foram infectados pela via intravaginal, com uma suspenso de T. foetus, na fase de estro, detectado com citologia exfoliativa vaginal. Depois de 10 semanas, os animais foram sacrificados; tero e vagina forma fixados e processados para histologia. Alguns cortes foram corados com HE. O restante dos cortes foi processado para IHQ. Foi usado um soro policlonal imunoadsorvido anti-T. foetus. A tcnica de avidina-biotina (HistoMouse, Zymed?) foi empregada. Os estudos histopatolgicos mostraram uma dilatao das glndulas uterinas, presena de macrfagos no lmen do rgo e parte interna das glndulas endometriais. T. foetus no foi identificado por esse mtodo. A IHQ permitiu identificar as mesmas leses observadas e a presena do protozorio no endomtrio, nas glndulas endometriais, no lmen uterino e dentro de neutrfilos e macrfagos. O estudo citolgico em lminas coradas por IHQ, mostrou T. foetus aderido a clulas epiteliais, ou dentro de macrfagos. Esta tcnica demonstra ser uma ferramenta til para o estudo da patogenia da tricomonase genital bovina (BGT) utilizando-se o camundongo como modelo experimental. Abstract in english The need to intensify knowledge of the pathogenesis of bovine genital trichomoniasis (BGT) led to the use of alternative animal models such as the mouse. Nevertheless, it is necessary to elucidate the dynamics of the infection in this animal species, evaluating different stages of the colonization a [...] nd evolution of the pathological alterations. The immunohistochemistry (IHC) offers advantages over the routine histopathological staining techniques for the detection of the protozoan in tissues, cellular detritus and inside the macrophages. The goal of the present study was to demonstrate the presence of Tritrichomonas foetus in the reproductive tract of infected mice using an IHC technique. Female BALB/c mice were infected with a suspension of T. foetus by intravaginal route, in the estrum phase, detected by exfoliative vaginal cytology. After 10 weeks, the animals were sacrificed; uterus and vagina were fixed and histologically processed. Some slides were stained with HE. The rest of the slides were processed for IHC. An immunoadsorbed polyclonal serum against T. foetus was used. The avidine-biotine technique (HistoMouse, Zymed?) was employed. The histopathological studies showed a dilation of the uterine glands, presence of macrophages in the lumen of the organ and inner part of the endometrial glands. No T. foetus was identified using this method. The IHQ allowed additionally the identification of the protozoan in the endometrium, endometrial glands, uterine lumen and inside neutrophils and macrophages. The cytological studies stained with IHC showed either isolated T. foetus adhered to epithelial cells or inside macrophages. This technique proves to be a useful tool for the study of the pathogenesis of bovine genital trichomoniasis (BGT) in an experimental model.

  15. Investigação de lipofuscina em miócitos cardíacos de camundongos após tratamento com oxamniquine

    Maria Luiza Silveira Mello

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available A fluorescencia natural devida à presença de corpos de lipofuscina foi pesquisada em miócitos cardíacos de camundongos adultos jovens tratados com oxamniquine. O objetivo foi buscar uma evidência de indução de envelhecimento celular precoce, com base em dados prévios de acentuação poliploidia, promovida pela droga. Comparando o miocárdio dos camundongos tratados com animais contrôle jovens e velhos, não foi observada a presença de lipofuscina nos seus miócitos. Isto possivelmente se deva a um não comprometimento da eficiência das lipases lisossomiais apesar da acentuação do fenômeno de poliploidização induzida pela droga.

  16. Basofilia e anisotropia nucleares em células de camundongo após tratamento com oxamniquine

    Ivanira José Bechara

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se estudar a ação da oxamniquine, uma droga utilizada no tratamento da esquistossomose, sobre a cromatina de núcleos de células animais, foram estudados os padrões de basofilia e anisotropia nucleares em hepatócitos, em células do músculo cardíaco e em linfócitos de camundongos adultos jovens. A oxamniquine foi administrada por via oral (436 mg/kg e preparados foram obtidos após diversos tempos de fornecimento da droga aos animais. Nos núcleos corados com azul de toluidina a pH 4,0, após digestão com RNAse, não se encontrou diferença quanto aos padrões de basofilia e anisotropia comparando-se animais tratados com controles. Demonstrou se assim que as moléculas de oxamniquine não se alojam no interior da dupla hélice do DNA, não alteram a sua conformação helicoidal nem se ligam aos grupos fosfatos livres desta macromolécula, diferindo, portanto, da atuação de outro esquistossomicida, o hycanthone.

  17. Trypanocidal activity of human plasma on Trypanosoma evansi in mice Atividade tripanocida do plasma humano sobre Trypanosoma evansi em camundongos

    Aleksandro Schafer Da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to test an alternative protocol with human plasma to control Trypanosoma evansi infection in mice. Plasma from an apparently 27-year-old healthy male, blood type A+, was used in the study. A concentration of 100 mg.dL-1 apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1 was detected in the plasma. Forty mice were divided into four groups with 10 animals each. Group A comprised uninfected animals. Mice from groups B, C and D were inoculated with a T. evansi isolate. Group B was used as a positive control. At three days post-infection (DPI, the mice were administered intraperitoneally with human plasma. A single dose of 0.2 mL plasma was given to those in group C. The mice from group D were administered five doses of 0.2 mL plasma with a 24 hours interval between the doses. Group B showed high increasing parasitemia that led to their death within 5 DPI. Both treatments eliminated parasites from the blood and increased the longevity of animals. An efficacy of 50 (group C and 80% (group D of human plasma trypanocidal activity was found using PCR. This therapeutic success was likely achieved in the group D due to their higher levels of APOL1 compared with group C.Este estudo teve como objetivo testar um protocolo alternativo com plasma humano para controlar a infeco por Trypanosoma evansi em camundongos. O plasma foi oriundo de um homem aparentemente saudvel, com idade entre 27 anos e tipo de sangue A+. Foi detectada uma concentrao de 100 mg.dL -1 de apolipoprotena L1 (APOL1 no plasma. Quarenta camundongos foram divididos em quatro grupos, contendo dez animais cada. Grupo A, composto de animais no infectados. Os roedores dos grupos B, C e D foram inoculados intraperitonealmente com um isolado de T. evansi. O Grupo B foi usado como um controle positivo. Trs dias ps-infeco (DPI, os camundongos foram tratados com plasma humano. Uma dose nica de 0,2 mL de plasma foi administrada nos roedores do grupo C. Os ratos do grupo D receberam cinco doses de 0,2 mL de plasma em intervalos de 24 horas. Os ratos do grupo B apresentaram parasitemia crescente, o que ocasionou a morte dos animais em 5 DPI. Ambos os tratamentos foram capazes de eliminar o parasito do sangue e aumentar a longevidade dos animais. O mtodo da PCR detectou uma eficcia de 50% (grupo C e 80% (grupo D no tratamento com plasma humano. Este sucesso teraputico obtido nos animais do grupo D provavelmente foi por receber maiores nveis de APOL1, comparado ao grupo C.

  18. O desmame precoce afeta o ganho de peso e a composição corporal em camundongos adultos? Does early weaning influence weight gain and body composition in adult mice?

    Marcelo Macedo Rogero

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do desmame precoce sobre o ganho de peso e a composição corporal de camundongos adultos jovens. MÉTODOS: Camundongos Swiss Webster, machos, foram desmamados precocemente (14º dia de vida ou amamentados até o 21º dia de vida (grupo controle. Após o desmame, os animais foram alimentados com ração elaborada para roedores em crescimento até o 63º dia de vida, quando então foram sacrificados. RESULTADOS: O peso corporal dos animais do grupo desmamado de forma precoce foi significantemente maior no 28º, 35º e no 63º dias de vida em relação ao grupo controle (pOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of early weaning on weight gain and body composition of young adult mice. METHODS: Swiss Webster male mice were weaned early, on the 14th day of life, or breastfed until the 21st day of life (control group. After weaning, the animals were fed a chow specifically made for growing rodents up to the 63rd day of life, when they were sacrificed. RESULTS: The body weight of the animals from the early-weaned group was significantly greater on the 28th, 35th, 63rd days of life compared to those from the control group (p<0.05. Nevertheless, no significant difference in the food intake between the groups was observed. The concentration of serum total proteins, albumin and iron, as well as the concentration of protein, DNA and the protein/RNA ratio in the liver, muscle and brain, did not differ between the groups..The early-weaned group showed an increased absolute quantity of lean mass, lipids, protein and ash compared with the control group (p<0.05. The relative quantity of water, lipids, lean mass, protein and ash did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSION: Early weaning, associated with the consumption of a chow specifically made for growing rodents, led to an increase in weight gain, but did not influence body composition in adult mice.

  19. Persistence of specific antibody response in different experimental infections of mice with Toxocara canis larvae Persistncia da resposta humoral em camundongos experimentalmente infectados com larvas de Toxocara canis

    Pedro Paulo Chieffi

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-Toxocara antibody production and persistence were studied in experimental infections of BALB/c mice, according to three different schedules: Group I (GI - 25 mice infected with 200 T. canis eggs in a single dose; Group II (GII 25 mice infected with 150 T. canis eggs given in three occasions, 50 in the 1st, 50 in the 5th and 50 in the 8th days; Group III (GIII - 25 mice also infected with 150 T. canis eggs, in three 50 eggs portions given in the 1st, 14th and 28th days. A 15 mice control group (GIV was maintained without infection. In the 30th, 50th, 60th, 75th, 105th and 180th post-infection days three mice of the GI, GII and GIII groups and two mice of the control group had been sacrificed and exsanguinated for sera obtention. In the 360th day the remainder mice of the four groups were, in the same way, killed and processed. The obtained sera were searched for the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies by an ELISA technique, using T. canis larvae excretion-secretion antigen. In the GI and GII, but not in the GIII, anti-Toxocara antibodies had been found, at least, up to the 180th post-infection day. The GIII only showed anti-Toxocara antibodies, at significant level, in the 30th post-infection day.Estudou-se a cintica de anticorpos anti-Toxocara em camundongos BALB/c infectados experimentalmente segundo trs esquemas: Grupo I (GI: 25 camundongos infectados com dose nica de 200 ovos embrionados de T. canis; grupo II (GII: 25 camundongos infectados com 150 ovos embrionados de T. canis, divididos em trs doses de 50 ovos, administrados no 1, 5 e 8 dias; Grupo III (GIII: 25 camundongos infectados com 150 ovos embrionados de T. canis, administrados em trs doses de 50 ovos no 1, 14 e 28 dias. Um grupo de 15 camundongos foi mantido nas mesmas condies, porm sem infeco, constituindo o grupo controle (GIV. No 30, 50, 60, 75, 105 e 180 dias ps-infeco trs camundongos dos grupos GI, GII e GIII e dois do grupo controle foram sacrificados sob anestesia e sangrados para obteno de soro. No 360 dia os animais restantes dos quatro grupos foram igualmente sacrificados. Pesquisou-se a presena de anticorpos anti-Toxocara nos soros obtidos utilizando-se teste imunoenzimtico (ELISA e empregando-se antgeno de excreo-secreo produzido por larvas de T. canis mantidas em cultura. Nos grupos GI e GII revelou-se a presena de anticorpos anti-Toxocara, em nveis elevados, pelo menos at o 180 dia aps infeco. Nos camundongos do grupo GIII apenas no 30 dia ps-infeco foi possvel detectar anticorpos anti-Toxocara.

  20. Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn. Baill., Cucurbitaceae, acute toxicity in mice Toxicidade aguda de Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn. Baill., Cucurbitaceae, em camundongos

    Aliny P. Lima

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn. Baill., Cucurbitaceae, commonly known as "pluméria" or "taiuiá", is widely used in different ways in Brazilian popular medicine to treat several diseases. Acute toxicity of Siolmatra brasiliensis crude ethanolic extract (CEE was investigated in mice. No mortality or signs of CEE toxicity were observed at the doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg bw, but the administration of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw caused several adverse behavioral effects and mortality. Macroscopic inspection of the organs showed morphologic alterations in the heart of animals treated with doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw. According to our results, S. brasiliensis CEE has an LD50 of 1000 mg/kg bw. We conclude that S. brasiliensis CEE was safe at the doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg bw and presented toxicity at the doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw.Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn. Baill., Cucurbitaceae, popularmente conhecida como "pluméria" ou "taiuiá" é utilizada na medicina popular brasileira para diversos fins terapêuticos. O estudo de toxicidade aguda do extrato bruto etanólico (EBE de Siolmatra brasiliensis foi investigado em camundongos. Nenhuma mortalidade ou sinais de toxicidade foram observados nas doses de 10 e 100 mg/kg, entretanto em doses administradas de 1000 e 2000 mg/kg levou as diversas alterações comportamentais e mortalidade. A DL50 para o EBE foi de 1000 mg/kg. Análise macroscópica dos órgãos demonstrou alterações morfológicas no coração dos animais tratados com 1000 e 2000 mg/kg. Por meios destes resultados conclui-se que o EBE de Siolmatra brasiliensis é seguro em doses de 10 and 100 mg/kg e apresentou toxicidade nas doses de 1000 e 2000 mg/kg.

  1. Efeito do Mycobacterium bovis BCG, lipopolissacarideo bacteriano e hidrocortisona no desenvolvimento de imunidade ao Plasmodium berghei em camundongos

    Jos J. Ferraroni; Thomas G. Douglass; Speer, Clarence A.

    1986-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) aumenta significantemente o desenvolvimento da imunidade nos camundongos CFW, C57BL/6, C57BL/l0ScN e BALB/c (Nu/+) para os estgios eritrocitos do Plasmodium berghei. Camundongos tratados com BCG requerem menos ciclos de infeco com P. berghei e cura pelo Fansidar (pirimetamina + sulfadoxina) para desenvolverem imunidade slida a este parasita do que os controles. Contudo, os animais que receberam BCG 30 dias antes do incio da imunizao evidenciaram uma perda prec...

  2. Relao entre a patogenicidade do Schistoma mansoni em camundongos e a susceptibilidade do molusco vetor: II. Nmero de ovos nas fezes e nmero e tamanho dos granulomas nas vsceras

    Zanotti-Magalhes Eliana Maria; Magalhes Luiz Augusto; Carvalho Jos Ferreira de

    1993-01-01

    Estudou-se a influncia da susceptibilidade de moluscos vetores do S. mansoni no desenvolvimento da patogenicidade do trematdeo no hospedeiro definitivo. Foram utilizadas prognies de moluscos Biomphalaria tenagophila e Biomphalaria glabrata selecionadas para o carter susceptibilidade ao S. mansoni das linhagens SJ e BH, respectivamente. Cercrias oriundas das geraes P, F1 F2, F3 e F4 foram usadas para a infeco de camundongos Swiss, que foram sacrificados oito semanas aps a exposio ...

  3. Investigação de lipofuscina em miócitos cardíacos de camundongos após tratamento com oxamniquine Investigation of lipofuscin in cardiac miocytes of mice treated with oxamniquine

    Maria Luiza Silveira Mello; Bertuzzo, Carmen S

    1984-01-01

    A fluorescencia natural devida à presença de corpos de lipofuscina foi pesquisada em miócitos cardíacos de camundongos adultos jovens tratados com oxamniquine. O objetivo foi buscar uma evidência de indução de envelhecimento celular precoce, com base em dados prévios de acentuação poliploidia, promovida pela droga. Comparando o miocárdio dos camundongos tratados com animais contrôle jovens e velhos, não foi observada a presença de lipofuscina nos seus miócitos. Isto possivelmente se deva a um...

  4. Translocation of Klebsiella sp. in mice fed an enteral diet containing prebiotics Translocação de Klebsiella sp. em camundongos alimentados com dieta enteral contendo prebióticos

    Daniele Ferreira da Silva

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to evaluate the effect of fructooligosaccharide and inulin added to an enteral diet on the translocation of Klebsiella sp. in mice. METHODS: Four- to six-week-old Swiss albino mice were divided into nine groups and fed enteral diets containing different combinations of fructooligosaccharide, inulin, antibiotic and corticoid, inoculated or not with Klebsiella pneumoniae. On day 5, the animals of four groups were fed an enteral diet contaminated with approximately 10(10CFU/g of K. pneumoniae. At defined times, two animals of each group were sacrificed and their organs (spleen, heart, liver, lungs, and kidneys were aseptically collected, weighed, and analyzed for the presence of typical Klebsiella sp. colonies. RESULTS: A higher number of CFU/g of Klebsiella was detected in the organs of the animals in the immune-suppressed group fed the diet contaminated with K. pneumoniae and without prebiotics. Animals fed the diet enriched with fructooligosaccharide and inulin, at a concentration of 15.3mg/g of body weight, had a shorter period of Klebsiella sp. translocation, compared with those not fed prebiotics in the diet. CONCLUSION: The addition of fructooligosacharide and inulin in enterais diets at a concentration of 15.3mg/g of body weight resulted in the reduction of translocation of Klebsiella for spleen, heart, liver, lung and kidneys of mice that had received the diet contaminated associated or not with antibiotic and imunodepressor drug.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da administração de frutooligossacarídeo e inulina, adicionados à dieta enteral, na translocação de Klebsiella sp. em camundongos. MÉTODOS: Camundongos albinos suíços, com quatro a seis semanas de vida, foram divididos em nove grupos e tratados com dietas enterais contendo diferentes combinações de frutooligossacarídeos, inulina, antibiótico e corticóide, inoculadas ou não com Klebsiella pneumoniae. No quinto dia de experimento, os animais dos tratamentos IV, V, VIII e IX foram alimentados com dieta enteral contaminada com, aproximadamente, 10(10UFC/g de Klebsiella pneumoniae. Em tempos definidos (sexto, sétimo, nono, décimo primeiro e décimo terceiro dia de experimento, dois animais de cada grupo foram sacrificados e seus órgãos: baço, coração, fígado, pulmões e rins, foram coletados assepticamente, pesados e analisados quanto à presença de colônias típicas de Klebsiella sp. RESULTADOS: Maior número de UFC/g de Klebsiella sp. foi detectado em órgãos de animais do grupo imunodeprimidos, que receberam dieta com Klebsiella pneumoniae e sem prebióticos. Animais que receberam dieta enriquecida com frutooligossacarídeo e inulina, na concentração de 15,3mg/g de peso corporal, apresentaram menor período para a translocação de Klebsiella sp., quando comparados aos animais que não receberam prebióticos na dieta. CONCLUSÃO: A adição de frutooligossacarídeos e inulina em dietas enterais na dose de 15,3mg/g de peso corporal resultou na diminuição de translocação de Klebsiella para baço, coração, fígado, pulmão e rins de camundongos que receberam a dieta contaminada associada ou não com droga imunodepressora e antibiótico.

  5. Evaluation of oxidative stress in mice subjected to aerobic exercise Avaliação do estresse oxidativo em camundongos submetidos ao exercício físico aeróbico

    Mônica Cruvinel de Lima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of aerobic exercise on oxidative stress in mice. METHODS: The study included twenty female mice Mus musculus-Swiss divided into two groups: sedentary control (GA and exercise (GB, each containing ten animals. All animals underwent an adaptation period of seven days isolated in individual boxes. After this period, the animals in the exercise group (GB were trained in angled running wheel with circumference of 25 cm assembled on an articulated axle during five minutes for three consecutive days. On the fourth day, they underwent an exercise program of one session lasting 45 minutes. The evaluation of oxidative stress was performed by determining the levels of malondialhyde derived of lipid peroxidation by the TBA method. The samples were read in a spectrophotometer at 535 nm. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed in the intergroup comparison of MDA levels in the tissues evaluated. A significant difference was observed in the intragroup comparison of MDA levels in the control group (p = 0.0201.The Tukeys' post hoc test indicated significantly lower values of MDA in the smooth muscle in relation to plasma. In the analysis of variance in the exercise group, a significant difference between tissues (p = 0.0009, with significantly lower values in the smooth muscle in relation to plasma (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do exercício físico aeróbico sobre o estresse oxidativo em camundongos. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 20 camundongos (Swiss, distribuídos em dois grupos: controle-sedentário (GA e exercício (GB cada um contendo dez animais. Todos os animais passaram por um período de adaptação de sete dias. Após os animais do grupo (GB receberam treinamento em roda giratória angulada montada sobre eixo articulado por cinco minutos durante três dias consecutivos. No quarto dia foram submetidos à única sessão de exercício por 45 minutos. A avaliação do estresse oxidativo foi realizada por meio dos níveis de malondiadeído pelo método do TBA. As amostras foram lidas em espectrofotômetro a 535nm. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa na comparação intergrupos nos tecidos avaliados. Diferença significativa foi observada na comparação intragrupo para o GA (p=0,0201. O post hoc test de Tukey apontou valores significantemente inferiores no músculo liso em relação ao plasma. A análise de variância do GB apontou diferença significativa entre os tecidos (p=0,0009, com valores menores no músculo liso em relação ao plasma (p<0,001, e maiores no músculo estriado em relação ao músculo liso (p<0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve alteração nas análises de malondialdeído tecidual entre os grupos avaliados.

  6. Detecção de anticorpo anticoração em camundongos Balb/c imunizados com Streptococcus mutans

    Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck; Moraes, Elisabete; SHIMIZU Mário Tsunezi; UNTERKIRCHER Carmelinda Schimidt

    2000-01-01

    Anticorpos para antígenos cardíacos foram analisados por ELISA em 14 soros de camundongos Balb/c hiperimunizados com Streptococcus mutans, inativado pelo formaldeído. Os níveis de anticorpos da classe IgG anticoração e antimiosina elevaram-se significativamente nos animais imunizados quando comparados com os controles, especialmente no grupo A, imunizado e reestimulado com antígenos solúveis de S. mutans. Neste grupo, os resultados do "Western Blot" mostraram reatividade com miosina cardíaca ...

  7. Infecção experimental pelo Encephalitozoon cuniculi em camundongos imunossuprimidos com dexametasona Experimental Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in dexamethasone-immunosuppressed mice

    Maria Anete Lallo; Maurício José dos Santos; Eduardo Fernandes Bondan

    2002-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O microsporídio Encephalitozoon cuniculi tem sido reconhecido como um patógeno oportunista em indivíduos imunossuprimidos, tais como pacientes com Aids. O objetivo do trabalho foi desenvolver animais farmacologicamente imunossuprimidos como modelo da infecção natural pelo E. cuniculi. MÉTODOS: Foram usados grupos distintos de camundongos Balb-C adultos, imunossuprimidos com diferentes doses de dexametasona (Dx, 3 ou 5 mg/kg/dia por via intraperitoneal ¾ IP) e inoculados com e...

  8. Animais de laboratrio: o camundongo

    M. CHORILLI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A experimentao animal nas pesquisas cientficas tem contribudo sobremaneira para o desenvolvimento da cincia e tecnologia, promovendo ao longo dos anos a descoberta de medidas profilticas e tratamentos de enfermidades que acometem os seres humanos. Animais de vrias espcies tm sido utilizados nos ltimos tempos, sendo os camundongos os mais intensamente utilizados e os mais profundamente conhecidos cientificamente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um levantamento bibliogrfico, incluindo os trabalhos do nosso grupo, sobre o emprego de camundongos na experimentao animal, abordando sua biologia geral, fisiologia de reproduo, sistemas de criao, gentica, habitao, alimentao, manejo, dor e eutansia, tcnicas de risco desenvolvidas na experimentao, coleta de sangue, experimentos farmacolgicos e toxicolgicos. Embora tendncias atuais preconizem a utilizao de mtodos alternativos (estudos in vitro, culturas de clulas, etc., os modelos animais, como os camundongos, apresentam como principal vantagem o fornecimento de informaes sobre o organismo como um todo, fato que no conseguido com outros mtodos, o que ainda possibilita o seu emprego em pesquisas cientficas. Palavras-chave: experimentao animal; camundongo; biologia geral; tcnicas de risco na experimentao.

  9. Mielencefalite espontânea dos camundongos

    Hermínio Linhares

    1944-02-01

    Full Text Available 1 — Duas amostras de vírus capazes de produzir uma mielencefalite foram isoladas de dois camundongos brancos suíços, de criação, espontâneamente infetados, em um total de 7.000 animais examinados; uma terceira amostra foi obtida por trituração e filtração dos intestinos de camundongos aparentemente normais. 2 — Foram feitas separadamente dez passagens por inoculação intra¬cerebral em camundongos jovens e adultos. Verificou-se por testes de imunidade cruzada que as três amostras eram idênticas. Prossegiu-se então nas passagens com apenas uma das amostras. 3 — O poder infetante aumenta com o número de passagens: o período médio de incubação diminui e aumenta a letalidade. 4 — A infecção espontânea e experimental é descrita. A doença parece ser mais comum em animais jovens. O período de incubação varia de 5 a 30 dias. Às vêzes observa-se uma fase prodromica: fraqueza, menor atividade, dificuldade em andar; geralmente surge a paralisia flácida sem sintomas prévios, na grande maioria das vêzes, nos membros posteriores. Três formas clínicas foram observadas: super-aguda, aguda e crônica. 5 — Em camundongos normais o vírus pode ser demonstrado nas fezes e nos intestinos. Ele é comum no tubo digestivo e só ocasionalmente invade o sistema nervoso central, ou melhor, a encefalomielite e primàriamente uma doença do trato digestivo no qual a invasão do SNC é um acidente. 6 — O vírus passa através de velas de CHAMBERLAND L3 e L5, em BER KEFED V, N e W e em filtro Seitz EK, a suspensão sendo tão ativa como antes da filtração. Conserva-se bem em glicerina a 50% pelo menos 60 dias, se guardado na geladeira. Suspensão de cérebro e medula aquecida em banho-maria a 56°C por 30 minutos perde a atividade. 7 — O título variou entre 4.000 e 20.000 dmm. 8 — Obteve-se infecção por inoculação intracerebral, por instilação nasal e, com menos regularidade, por inoculação intraperitoneal; a via gástrica deu sempre resultados negativos. Camundongos muito jovens são mais suscetíveis do que os adultos. 9 — O vírus foi sempre isolado ate 90 dias pos-inoculação, do cérebro e da medula de camundongos com paralisia. Animais inoculados por via i.c., que permaneceram aparentemente normais, albergam o vírus no cérebro pelo menos durante 30 dias. 10 — Não foi possível isolar vírus do fígado, pulmão, bago, rim e sangue de camundongos infetados por via intracerebral. 11 — Camundongos que foram inoculados por via i.c. e não apresentaram sintomas de infecção, mostraram-se em geral imunes a uma posterior inoculação de vírus. Os soros de animais convalescentes apresentam anticorpos neutralizantes verificados por provas de proteção. 12 — A inoculação intracerebral do vírus em macaco, coelho, cobaia e rato, todos jovens, não produziu infecção. 13 — As lesões encontradas foram de poliomielencefalite aguda, com atrofia do corno anterior da medula. Ao nível da substancia cinzenta medular e cerebral encontram-se abundantes focos inflamatórios, com predominância de mononucleares, bem como em torno de numerosos vasos. Em certos pontos do cérebro, sobretudo no rinencéfalo, foram vistos focos extensos de encefalite hemorrágica. É evidente que em torno do foco e participando das infiltrações celulares, muitos elementos microgliais puderam ser reconhecidos. As meninges, especialmente a pia-máter, mostraram-se levemente alteradas e assim mesmo em focos esparsos.1 — Two strains of virus which produce myeloencephalitis were isolated from two white swiss mice, from breeding, spontaneously infected, among 7000 mice examined; another strain was obtained by trituration and filtration of the intestines of normal mice. 2 — There were made separately ten serial passages in young and adult mice by intracerebral route. By crossed immunological test it was verified that the three strains were identical, and so only one was continued. 3 — The infective power grows with the number of passages: the average incubation period diminishes and the mortality ratio increases highly. 4 — The spontaneous and experimental disease is described. The infec¬tion is more commonly among young mice. The average incubation period varies from 5 to 30 days. Sometimes it is possible to observe a prodromal period: weakness, smaller activity, difficulty of locomotion; generally there appears a fiacid paralysis without previous symptoms, most commonly on the hind legs. Clinical forms: superacute, acute and chronic. 5 — In normal mice virus can be demonstrated in the feces and also in the walls of the intestine. The virus appears to be a common inhabitant of the alimentary tract and only occasional invader of the central nervous system, in other words, the encephalomyelitis is primarily an alimentary tract disease in which invasion of the nervous system is only an occasional incident. 6 — The virus is filtrable by Chamberland L3 and L5, Berkefeld V, N and W and Seitz EK; the suspension is as active as before filtration. It will keep well at frigo at least during 60 days in glycerine at 50%. Brain and cord suspensions when heated in hot bath at 56°C by 30 minutes, lost their activity. 7 — The title has varied between 4.000 to 20.000 M. L. D. 8 — Infection was obtained by intracerebral inoculation, nasal instilla¬tion and, with less regularity, by intraperitoneal inoculation; the gastric route was always negative. Very young mice are more susceptible than adult ones. 9 — Virus was always isolated up to 90 days post-inoculation from brain and spinal cord of mice with paralysis. Animals inoculated through in¬tracerebral route, which remain apparently normal, keep the virus in the brain at least during 30 days. 10 – Is was not possible to find virus in the lungs, livers, apleen, kindneys and blood of mice inoculated intracerebrally. 11 – Mice which received virus by intercerebral route and did not show symptoms of infection, generally were immune to another administrations of virus. The convalescent mice sera showed positive protection test. 12 – Young rhesus, rabbit, guinea pigs and rats, inoculated in intracelebrally with relatively large doses of encephalomyelitis virus failed to show symptoms referable to the virus.

  10. Efficacy of drugs against Giardia muris in mice Mus musculus naturally infected/ Eficácia de drogas contra Giardia muris em camundongos Mus musculus naturalmente infectados

    Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole against Giardia muris in mice naturally infected. Forty mice of the species Mus musculus were divided in four groups of ten each, being group A non treated, the control group and groups B, C and D treated with 4mg/ml of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole, respectively. Two feces collection, on day 0 and on day 10 after treatment, were done in order to evaluate the efficacy of the drugs. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate. Efficacy of 97,05% for metronidazole, 98,30% for fenbendazole and 100% for secnidazole were observed in the study. According to the results it was concluded that the tested drugs were effective for the treatment of mice parasitized by Giardia muris.Este estudo visou avaliar a eficácia do metronidazol, fenbendazole e secnidazol contra Giardia muris em camundongos naturalmente infectados. Foram utilizados 40 camundongos da espécie Mus musculus divididos em quatro grupos de 10 animais cada, sendo grupo A, grupo controle, não tratados, e grupos B, C e D tratados com 4mg/ml de metronidazol, fenbendazole e secnidazol, respectivamente. Para avaliar a eficácia dos medicamentos foram realizadas duas coletas de fezes uma no dia zero e outra 10 dias após tratamento. As amostras foram processadas e analisadas a partir do método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco. No estudo observou-se eficácia de 97,05% para metronidazol, 98,30% para fenbendazole e 100% para secnidazol no tratamento de giardiase murina. Com base nos resultados concluí-se que as drogas testadas apresentaram eficácia no tratamento de camundongos parasitados por Giardia muris.

  11. Effects of misoprostrol on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice Efeitos de misoprostrol sobre convulsões induzidas por pentilenotetrazol em camundongos

    Francisco das Chagas Medeiros

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of prostaglandin E - analogue misoprostol on the susceptibility to pentilenetetrazol(PTZ - induced seizures were examined in mice. Misoprostol (200-800 mg/kg, given subcutaneously 45 min before the subconvulsive dose of PTZ (30 mg/kg, i.p provoked dose-dependent clonic-tonic seizures (30 to 100% and mortality in mice. At 300 g/kg, s.c, misoprostol pretreatment significantly (pOs efeitos do misoprostrol, um análogo da prostaglandina E, sobre convulsões induzidas por pentilenotetrazol (PTZ foram estudados em camundongos. Misoprostrol (200-800 mg/Kg administrado por via subcutânea 45 minutos antes da dose subconvulsiva de PTZ (30 mg/Kg, i.p. provocou crises tônico-clônicas (30 a 100% de maneira dose-dependente e mortalidade em camundongos. Na dose de 300 g/Kg, s.c., o pré-tratamento com misoprostrol diminuiu significativamente (p<0,05 o período de latência da primeira convulsão bem como a mortalidade induzida por uma dose convulsiva de PTZ (60 mg/Kg, i.p.. Nesta dose o misoprostrol diminuiu 21 % e 36% os valores de CD50 e de LD50 do PTZ, respectivamente.

  12. Efeito do Mycobacterium bovis BCG, lipopolissacarideo bacteriano e hidrocortisona no desenvolvimento de imunidade ao Plasmodium berghei em camundongos

    José J. Ferraroni

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis (BCG aumenta significantemente o desenvolvimento da imunidade nos camundongos CFW, C57BL/6, C57BL/l0ScN e BALB/c (Nu/+ para os estágios eritrocitos do Plasmodium berghei. Camundongos tratados com BCG requerem menos ciclos de infecção com P. berghei e cura pelo Fansidar (pirimetamina + sulfadoxina para desenvolverem imunidade sólida a este parasita do que os controles. Contudo, os animais que receberam BCG 30 dias antes do início da imunização evidenciaram uma perda precoce da imunidade adquirida para o P. berghei, quando comparado com os animais que receberam BCG 14 dias antes ou que não receberam BCG. Assim, sendo, o BCG aumentada a indução na resposta imune do hospedeiro ao P. berghei no curso de infecções subseqüentes. O tratamento de camundongos CFW, BALB/c e C57BL/6 com lipopolissacarídeo bacteriano ou hidrocortisona faz com que os animais requeiram um número maior de ciclos de infecção e cura para tornarem-se imunes ao P. berghei que os controles. O tratamento dos camundongos C57BL/10ScN com hidrocortisona aboliu completamente a sua habilidade de sobrevida subseqüentes a ciclos de infecção com P. berghei e cura pelo Fansidar.

  13. AVALIAO DA TOXICIDADE AGUDA DO EXTRATO HEXNICO DE FRUTOS DE Melia azedarach (MELIACEAE EM CAMUNDONGOS

    Hlio Bernardes Pires Jnior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed aiming to evaluate the acute effects of Melia azedarach hexanic fruit extract on mice. Two treated groups, one for each dose, 300 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg, were prepared. For each treatment group, a non-treated control group was used. All groups were composed of six animals, three of each sex. The animals were evaluated at 30 min., 1h, 2h, 4h, 6h, 12h and 24h and then daily, for 14 days after treatment, following the Hippocratic screening. At each three days weight gain and ration consumption were evaluated. Macroscopic and microscopic alterations were evaluated in the heart, kidneys, lungs, liver, spleen, intestine and brain. No alteration in the Hippocratic screening in both doses, during the 14-days interval, was observed. The mice treated with the 2000 mg/kg doses consumed fewer rations than the animals of the control group; however, weight gain was statistically similar. No statistic difference was observed between the weight of the organs, and they had no macroscopic alterations. No histopathologic alterations were found on the examined organs, for both doses, except for lung alterations such as hyperaemia, haemorrage and edema in both treated and control groups. Based on the results obtained, we conclude that the hexanic extract of M. azedarach green fruits had no acute effects against Swiss mice.

  14. Sacarose como veículo de suplementação dietética de ácido fólico em camundongos prenhes Saccharose as a vehicle for the supplementation of folic acid in pregnant mice

    Giovanna Arcaro de Lima

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A ingestão adequada de folato é essencial durante a embriogênese, e sua deficiência está associada à ocorrência de defeitos no fechamento do tubo neural. OBJETIVO: Determinar se a sacarose é um bom veículo para a suplementação de folato em camundongos. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Quarenta camundongos Swiss fêmeas foram divididos nos grupos: C: ração comercial + água ad libitum; DS: ração balanceada isenta de folato + folato adicionado à sacarose diluída na água por 14 dias; D/DS: ração balanceada isenta de folato + água com sacarose sem folato por 14 dias seguida de ração balanceada isenta de folato + folato adicionado à sacarose diluída na água por mais 14 dias; D: ração balanceada isenta de folato + água com sacarose sem folato por 14 dias. Os animais de todos os grupos experimentais receberam ração balanceada isenta de folato + folato adicionado à sacarose diluída na água durante os três dias do acasalamento e nos 15 dias restantes até o sacrifício. RESULTADOS: Os animais dos grupos D e D/DS apresentaram alopecia, palidez ocular e adinamia enquanto consumiam água com sacarose sem folato, sinais que foram revertidos quando receberam folato adicionado à sacarose diluída na água. Não houve diferença entre os grupos em relação a prenhez, implantes, fetos vivos, reabsorção, morte fetal tardia, nível sérico de folato e contagem de hemácias ao final do experimento, não tendo sido observadas anomalias congênitas em nenhum dos grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A sacarose é um meio adequado para a suplementação de folato na dieta.Adequate folate intake is essential during embryogenesis and its deficiency is associated with neural tube defects. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if saccharose is a good vehicle for the supplementation of folate in mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 40 Swiss female mice were allocated into the following groups: C (commercial mouse food + ad libitum water; DS (folate-free balanced diet + saccharose with folate diluted in water for 14 days; D/DS (folate-free balanced diet + folate-free saccharose diluted in water for 14 days, followed by folate-free balanced diet + saccharose with folate diluted in water for 14 days; D (folate-free balanced diet + folate-free saccharose diluted in water for 14 days. Mice from all experimental groups received folate-free balanced diet + saccharose with folate diluted in water during their three-day mating period and thereafter 15 days until animals were put down. RESULTS: Mice from groups D and D/DS showed alopecia, pale eyes and adynamia while on folate-free saccharose water regimen. These symptoms disappeared after the introduction of saccharose with folate diluted in water. No statistical difference was noted among groups as to pregnancy, number of implants, live fetuses, reabsorption, late fetal death, serum folate levels and red blood cells count and no congenital abnormalities were identified in any groups by the end of the experiment. CONCLUSION: Saccharose is a suitable vehicle for the dietary supplementation of folate.

  15. Replicação de sendai virus em células epiteliais primárias de camundongo

    Luis I.B. Kanzaki

    1987-01-01

    Células epiteliais primárias obtidas do trato respiratório de camundongos jovens foram infectadas com o Vírus Hemaglutinante do Japão (HVJ, Sendai Virus) e, a progénie viral, tratada ou não com tripsina foi titulada através do método de Imunofluorescência Indireta. A progénie de Sendai Virus obtida de células epiteliais primárias de camundongo apresentou um título considerável, demonstrando-se que há ativação das partículas virais, capazes de infectar células LLC-MK 2, nas quais, a progénie v...

  16. Efeito da adição dietética de milho de alta qualidade protéica em camundongos Effect of adding high-quality protein maize to the diet of mice

    Aline Castro Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo consistiu em avaliar os efeitos da adição de milho quality protein maize BR473 sobre aspectos bioquímicos e fisiológicos. MÉTODOS: Camundongos Swiss, fêmeas, 6-7 semanas, foram alimentados com rações comerciais, rações comerciais com milho híbrido (1:1, rações comerciais com milho de alta qualidade protéica (1:1. Foram avaliados, durante 3 meses, o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso e de tecido adiposo retroperitoneal e os valores plasmáticos de proteínas, triglicerídeos, colesterol e glicose. RESULTADOS: A adição dietética de milho quality protein maize BR473 reduziu o consumo alimentar e o tecido adiposo retroperitoneal, porém manteve a glicemia e trigliceridemia em relação à adição de milho híbrido na ração comercial. CONCLUSÃO: A melhor eficiência alimentar e os impactos sobre os parâmetros bioquímicos do sangue sugerem o potencial do uso do milho quality protein maize BR473 como um importante complemento para garantir a segurança alimentar e nutricional.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to evaluate the biochemical and physiological effects of adding quality protein maize BR473 to the diet of mice. METHODS:Female Swiss mice, 6-7 weeks old, were fed commercial diet alone or supplemented with either hybrid maize (1:1 or quality protein maize (1:1. Food intake, weight gain, abdominal obesity and plasma glucose, proteins, cholesterol and triglycerides levels were evaluated for 3 months. RESULTS: Dietary addition of the quality protein maize BR473 reduced food intake and abdominal fat, yet plasma glucose and triglycerides remained the same when compared with the addition of hybrid maize to the commercial feed. CONCLUSION: A better dietary efficiency and the impacts on the biochemical parameters of the blood suggest that the quality protein maize BR473 is an important complement to guarantee dietary and nutritional security.

  17. Uncoupling protein-2 mRNA expression in mice subjected to intermittent hypoxia / Expresso do mRNA da uncoupling protein-2 em camundongos submetidos hipxia intermitente

    Luciana Rodrigues, Vieira; Denis, Martinez; Luiz Felipe, Forgiarini; Darlan Pase da, Rosa; Gustavo Alfredo Ochs de, Muoz; Micheli, Fagundes; Emerson Ferreira, Martins; Carolina Caruccio, Montanari; Cintia Zappe, Fiori.

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Investigar o efeito da hipxia intermitente com um modelo de apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) sobre a expresso de uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), assim como sobre perfis glicmicos e lipdicos, em camundongos C57BL. Mtodos: Camundongos C57BL machos foram expostos a hipxia intermitente ou h [...] ipxia simulada (grupo controle) 8 h/dia durante 35 dias. A condio de hipxia intermitente envolveu a exposio dos camundongos a uma atmosfera de 92% de N e 8% de CO2 por 30 s, com reduo progressiva de frao de O2 inspirado at 8 1%, seguida por exposio a ar ambiente por 30 s e repeties do ciclo (480 ciclos no perodo experimental de 8 h). Os pncreas foram dissecados para isolar as ilhotas. Foi realizada PCR em tempo real utilizando o mtodo TaqMan. Resultados: A expresso do mRNA da UCP2 nas ilhotas pancreticas foi 20% maior no grupo controle que no grupo hipxia (p = 0,11). A insulina srica de jejum foi maior no grupo hipxia do que no grupo controle (p = 0,01). O modelo de avaliao da homeostase de resistncia insulina indicou que, em comparao com os camundongos controle, aqueles expostos hipxia intermitente apresentaram 15% menor resistncia insulina (p = 0,09) e 21% maior funo das clulas beta (p = 0,01). A colorao das ilhotas pancreticas por imuno-histoqumica no mostrou diferenas significativas entre os grupos em termos da rea ou da intensidade das clulas alfa e beta, marcadas por insulina e glucagon. Concluses: Segundo nosso conhecimento, esta a primeira descrio do efeito da hipxia intermitente sobre a expresso da UCP2. Nossos achados sugerem que UCP2 regula a produo de insulina na AOS. Futuras investigaes sobre o papel da UCP2 no controle glicmico em pacientes com AOS so justificadas. Abstract in english Objective: To investigate the effect of intermittent hypoxia-a model of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)-on pancreatic expression of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), as well as on glycemic and lipid profiles, in C57BL mice. Methods: For 8 h/day over a 35-day period, male C57BL mice were exposed to intermi [...] ttent hypoxia (hypoxia group) or to a sham procedure (normoxia group). The intermittent hypoxia condition involved exposing mice to an atmosphere of 92% N and 8% CO2 for 30 s, progressively reducing the fraction of inspired oxygen to 8 1%, after which they were exposed to room air for 30 s and the cycle was repeated (480 cycles over the 8-h experimental period). Pancreases were dissected to isolate the islets. Real-time PCR was performed with TaqMan assays. Results: Expression of UCP2 mRNA in pancreatic islets was 20% higher in the normoxia group than in the hypoxia group (p = 0.11). Fasting serum insulin was higher in the hypoxia group than in the normoxia group (p = 0.01). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance indicated that, in comparison with the control mice, the mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia showed 15% lower insulin resistance (p = 0.09) and 21% higher pancreatic ?-cell function (p = 0.01). Immunohistochemical staining of the islets showed no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the area or intensity of ?- and ?-cell staining for insulin and glucagon. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report of the effect of intermittent hypoxia on UCP2 expression. Our findings suggest that UCP2 regulates insulin production in OSA. Further study of the role that UCP2 plays in the glycemic control of OSA patients is warranted.

  18. Uncoupling protein-2 mRNA expression in mice subjected to intermittent hypoxia / Expresso do mRNA da uncoupling protein-2 em camundongos submetidos hipxia intermitente

    Luciana Rodrigues, Vieira; Denis, Martinez; Luiz Felipe, Forgiarini; Darlan Pase da, Rosa; Gustavo Alfredo Ochs de, Muoz; Micheli, Fagundes; Emerson Ferreira, Martins; Carolina Caruccio, Montanari; Cintia Zappe, Fiori.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Investigar o efeito da hipxia intermitente com um modelo de apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) sobre a expresso de uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), assim como sobre perfis glicmicos e lipdicos, em camundongos C57BL. Mtodos: Camundongos C57BL machos foram expostos a hipxia intermitente ou h [...] ipxia simulada (grupo controle) 8 h/dia durante 35 dias. A condio de hipxia intermitente envolveu a exposio dos camundongos a uma atmosfera de 92% de N e 8% de CO2 por 30 s, com reduo progressiva de frao de O2 inspirado at 8 1%, seguida por exposio a ar ambiente por 30 s e repeties do ciclo (480 ciclos no perodo experimental de 8 h). Os pncreas foram dissecados para isolar as ilhotas. Foi realizada PCR em tempo real utilizando o mtodo TaqMan. Resultados: A expresso do mRNA da UCP2 nas ilhotas pancreticas foi 20% maior no grupo controle que no grupo hipxia (p = 0,11). A insulina srica de jejum foi maior no grupo hipxia do que no grupo controle (p = 0,01). O modelo de avaliao da homeostase de resistncia insulina indicou que, em comparao com os camundongos controle, aqueles expostos hipxia intermitente apresentaram 15% menor resistncia insulina (p = 0,09) e 21% maior funo das clulas beta (p = 0,01). A colorao das ilhotas pancreticas por imuno-histoqumica no mostrou diferenas significativas entre os grupos em termos da rea ou da intensidade das clulas alfa e beta, marcadas por insulina e glucagon. Concluses: Segundo nosso conhecimento, esta a primeira descrio do efeito da hipxia intermitente sobre a expresso da UCP2. Nossos achados sugerem que UCP2 regula a produo de insulina na AOS. Futuras investigaes sobre o papel da UCP2 no controle glicmico em pacientes com AOS so justificadas. Abstract in english Objective: To investigate the effect of intermittent hypoxia-a model of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)-on pancreatic expression of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), as well as on glycemic and lipid profiles, in C57BL mice. Methods: For 8 h/day over a 35-day period, male C57BL mice were exposed to intermi [...] ttent hypoxia (hypoxia group) or to a sham procedure (normoxia group). The intermittent hypoxia condition involved exposing mice to an atmosphere of 92% N and 8% CO2 for 30 s, progressively reducing the fraction of inspired oxygen to 8 1%, after which they were exposed to room air for 30 s and the cycle was repeated (480 cycles over the 8-h experimental period). Pancreases were dissected to isolate the islets. Real-time PCR was performed with TaqMan assays. Results: Expression of UCP2 mRNA in pancreatic islets was 20% higher in the normoxia group than in the hypoxia group (p = 0.11). Fasting serum insulin was higher in the hypoxia group than in the normoxia group (p = 0.01). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance indicated that, in comparison with the control mice, the mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia showed 15% lower insulin resistance (p = 0.09) and 21% higher pancreatic ?-cell function (p = 0.01). Immunohistochemical staining of the islets showed no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the area or intensity of ?- and ?-cell staining for insulin and glucagon. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report of the effect of intermittent hypoxia on UCP2 expression. Our findings suggest that UCP2 regulates insulin production in OSA. Further study of the role that UCP2 plays in the glycemic control of OSA patients is warranted.

  19. Relação entre a patogenicidade do Schistoma mansoni em camundongos e a susceptibilidade do molusco vetor: II. Número de ovos nas fezes e número e tamanho dos granulomas nas vísceras

    Eliana Maria Zanotti-Magalhães; Luiz Augusto Magalhães; José Ferreira de Carvalho

    1993-01-01

    Estudou-se a influência da susceptibilidade de moluscos vetores do S. mansoni no desenvolvimento da patogenicidade do trematódeo no hospedeiro definitivo. Foram utilizadas progênies de moluscos Biomphalaria tenagophila e Biomphalaria glabrata selecionadas para o caráter susceptibilidade ao S. mansoni das linhagens SJ e BH, respectivamente. Cercárias oriundas das gerações P, F1 F2, F3 e F4 foram usadas para a infecção de camundongos Swiss, que foram sacrificados oito semanas após a exposição à...

  20. Study of the antineoplastic action of Tabebuia avellanedae in carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane in mice Estudo da ao antineoplsica da Tabebuia avellanedae (Ip-Roxo na carcinognese induzida pelo azoximetano em camundongos

    Roberta Alves Higa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the antitumor action of Tabebuia avellanedae in experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis by azoxymethane in mice. METHODS: Fifty (n=50 mice were divided into five groups: in group I azoxymethane (AOM was administered, in Group II - ?-lapachone, in group III - vehicle (diluent and in group IV - vehicle + AOM and finally in group V - ?-lapachone + AOM. RESULTS: It was observed the presence of aberrant crypt foci in all animals of groups I and IV, 50% in group II and 90% in group V. CONCLUSION: The ?-lapachone extracted from the Tabebuia avellanedae showed no protective effect of lesions induced by azoxymethane in colon of mice.OBJETIVO: Estudar a ao antitumoral da Tabebuia avellanedae (Ip-Roxo na carcinognese colnica induzida experimentalmente pelo azoximetano em camundongos. MTODOS: Foram utilizados 50 camundongos divididos em 5 grupos: grupo I administrado Azoximetano (AOM; grupo II - ?-lapachona; grupo III - veculo (diluente; grupo IV - veculo + AOM; e grupo V - ?-lapachona + AOM. RESULTADOS: Observou-se presena de focos de criptas aberrantes em todos os animais dos grupos I e IV, 50% no grupo II e 90% no grupo V. CONCLUSO: A ?-lapachona extrada da Tabebuia avellanedae no apresentou efeito protetor das leses induzidas pelo azoximetano em clon de camundongos.

  1. Novo método de dosagem de soros antipeçonhentos em camundongos lactentes: I - dosagem do soro anticrotálico New method for dosage of antivenoms sera in baby mice: I-Anticrotalic serum's dosage

    Bruno Soerensen

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available A atividade biológica dos soros antipeçonhentos pode ser determinada "in vivo" em pombos, coelhos, cobaios e camundongos adultos, não existindo, entretanto, nenhum método que possa ser recomendado internacionalmente. Estudou-se comparativamente aos métodos tradicionais de dosagem de soros em pombos e camundongos adultos, a validade do uso de camundongos lactentes de 6 a 7 dias, pesando 4 a 5g, inoculados pela via subcutânea. Inicialmente foi determinada a toxidez do veneno de Crotalus durissus terríficus através do estudo da sintomatologia do envenenamento e da atividade letal. O estudo comparativo dos três métodos forneceu maior concordância de resultados em DE100 entre as dosagens realizadas com camundongos lactentes e adultos. A DE100 e DL50 determinadas em camundongos lactentes forneceu resultados mais constantes que os dos métodos de camundongos adultos e pombos. O uso deste novo método permite eliminar a dificuldade de obtenção do atual animal de prova; a utilização de um maior número de animais por ponto de avaliação biológica, possibilitando uma maior precisão e conseguindo-se uma uniformidade nas características exigidas neste tipo de dosagem como peso, idade e linhagem, visando a reprodução sistemática dos resultados.The biological activity of antiserum against venoms can be assessed by "in vivo" tests using pigeons, rabbits, guinea-pigs and adult mice although there is no International standardized reaction for it. The traditional methods using pigeons and adult mice were comparatively studied with those using mice of 4-5 g (6-7 days of age, inoculated by subcutaneous injection. The toxicity of the Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was initially determined by studying the symptomatology after administration of venom and lethal activity. The comparative study of these three methods showed that the best concordance in the results of the ED100 was obtained using adult and baby mice. The most homogeneous ED100 and LD50 results were found in baby mice when compared with those found in a in adult mice and pigeons. With this new method we can avoid the difficulty in obtaining those animals, besides utilization of a great number of animals per biological evaluation point reaching better precision and a great unformity, required in this type of dosage like weight, age and strains, in order to get better reproductibility of results.

  2. Efeito do treinamento físico sobre o tecido ósseo e a concentração sérica de cálcio em camundongos fêmeas ovariectomizadas

    Tenório Angélica da Silva; Alves Simone Bezerra; Bezerra Andrezza de Lemos; Souza Grace Mary Lima de; Catanho Maria Teresa Jansen de Almeida; Tashiro Tetsuo; Galindo Lígia Cristina Monteiro; Moraes Sílvia Regina Arruda de

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Investigar as possíveis alterações morfométricas no tecido ósseo e na concentração sérica de cálcio em camundongos ovariectomizadas submetidas ao treinamento físico. MÉTODOS: Cinqüenta camundongos fêmeas, com 90 dias de idade, distribuídos em 5 grupos (n=10): controle (C), pseudo-operado sedentário (POS), pseudo-operado treinado (POT), ovariectomizado sedentário (OVS) e ovariectomizado treinado (OVT). Os grupos OVS e OVT foram submetidos a ovariectomia, e os grupos POS e POT a uma p...

  3. Effects of taurine supplementation and swimming, associated or not, on obesity and glucose homeostasis in mice = Efeito da suplementação com taurina e da natação, associadas ou não, sobre a obesidade e homeostase glicêmica em camundongos

    Iris Cheng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Studies show that physical exercise (PE is associated with a reduced fat accumulation and increased insulin sensitivity, and taurine (TAU improves glucose homeostasis in lean rodents. The aim in this work was evaluate the effects of supplementing TAU and practice of PE, associated or not, on obesity and glucose homeostasis on obese MSG-mice. Neonate male Swiss mice received injections of monosodium glutamate (MSG group or saline (CON group. From the 30th to the 90th day of life, one group of animals received TAU in drinking water (MSG TAU group, another was subjected to PE (MSG PE group and a third group underwent both procedures (MSG PE TAU group. Mice treated with MSG become obese, hypertriglyceridemic, glucose intolerant and insulin resistant. The supplementation with TAU and the PE, isolated or associated, reduced the triglycerides (38%, glucose intolerance (around 30% and KITT (79% in MSG-obese animals, but did not influence the accumulation of fat. Interestingly, the combination of both strategies significantly reduced the insulin resistance, compared to animals subjected to isolated strategies. In conclusion, the supplementation with TAU and PE, isolated or associated, did not influence the accumulation of fat in MSG-obese mice, however, reduce the triglycerides and insulin resistance. O exercício físico (EF está associado à redução do acúmulo de gordura e aumento na sensibilidade à insulina e a taurina (TAU melhora a homeostase glicêmica em roedores magros. Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da suplementação com TAU e do EF, associados ou não, sobre a obesidade e a homeostase glicêmica em camundongos obesos-MSG. Camundongos Swiss machos neonatos receberam injeções de glutamato monossódico (grupo MSG ou salina (grupo CON. Do 30º ao 90º dia de vida, um grupo de animais MSG recebeu TAU na água de beber (MSG TAU; outro foi submetido ao EF (MSG EX e um terceiro grupo foi submetido aos dois procedimentos (MSG EX TAU. Camundongos -MSG tornaram-se obesos, hipertrigliceridêmicos, intolerantes à glicose e resistentes à insulina. A suplementação com TAU e o EF, associados ou isolados, reduziram a trigliceridemia (38%, a intolerância à glicose (30% e o KITT (79% nos animais obesos-MSG, porém, não influenciaram o acúmulo de gordura. A associação das duas estratégias diminui significativamente a resistência à insulina, comparado aos animais submetidos às estratégias isoladas. Conclui-se que a suplementação com TAU e o EF, associados ou isolados, não influenciam no acúmulo de gordura dos camundongos obesos-MSG, porém, diminuem a trigliceridemia e a resistência à insulina.

  4. Experimentally induced intravaginal Tritrichomonas foetus infection in a mouse model Infecção experimental intravaginal com Tritricho-monas foetus em modelo camundongo

    Pedro Soto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest to develop research on the host-parasite relationship in bovine tritrichomonosis has accomplished the use of experimental models alternative to cattle. The BALB/c mouse became the most appropriate species susceptible to vaginal Tritrichomonas foetus infection requiring previous estrogenization. For the need of an experimental model without persistent estrogenization and with normal estrous cycles, the establishment and persistence of vaginal infection on BALB/c mouse with different concentrations of T. foetus in two experimental groups was evaluated. Group A was treated with 5mg of b-estradiol 3-benzoate to synchronize the estrous, 48 hours before the T. foetus vaginal inoculation, and Group B was inoculated in natural estrus. At 5-7 days after treatment, estrogenic effect decreased allowing all animals to cycle regularly during the experiment. From the first week post-infection, samples of vaginal mucus were taken from all animals during 34 weeks, in order to evaluate the course of infection and the stage of the estrus cycle. Group A showed 93.6% of infected animals, and Group B showed 38%. Different doses of T. foetus were assayed to establish the vaginal infection, with a persistence of 34 weeks. Although different behavior was observed in each subgroup belonging to either Group A or Group B, there were no significant differences among the infecting doses used. The b-estradiol 3-benzoate treatment had a favorable effect on the establishment of the infection (PA necessidade de esclarecer a relação agente-hospedeiro na tricomoníase bovina deu motivo para o uso de modelos experimentais alternativos ao bovino. O camundongo BALB/c resultou como espécie mais adequada para a infeção vaginal com Tritrichomonas foetus, requerendo uma estrogenização prévia. Visando a necessidade de um modelo experimental sem estrogenização persistente e com ciclos estrais normais, foi avaliada a instalação e persistência da infeção vaginal no camundongo BALB/c com diferentes quantidades de T. foetus, em dois grupos experimentais. O Grupo A foi tratado com 5µg de 3-benzoato de beta estradiol, para sincronizar o estro, 48 h antes da inoculação vaginal com T. foetus, e o Grupo B foi inoculado durante o estro natural. O efeito do 3-benzoato de beta estradiol decresceu gradualmente. A totalidade dos animais ciclaram regularmente após 5-7 dias pós-tratamento. Após a primeira semana pós-infecção, todos os animais foram amostrados durante 34 semanas, para avaliar o andamento da infeção vaginal e o estádio de cío. O Grupo A apresentou 93,6% de animais infetados e o Grupo B 38%. Com diferentes dosagens de T. foetus se obteve a instalação e persistência da infecção vaginal durante 34 semanas. Embora tenham-se registrados diferentes comportamentos entre cada um dos lotes dos Grupos A e B, não houveram diferenças significativas entre as doses infectantes. O tratamento com 3-benzoato de beta estradiol teve efeito favorável na instalação da infecção (P<0,0001, porém não teve influência na persistência (P= 0,1097. Em função dos resultados obtidos, apresenta-se um modelo experimental em camundongo, adequado para aprofundar estudos sobre mecanismos de patogenicidade, resposta imune, avaliação protetora de imunógenos e o efeito terapêutico de fármacos.

  5. Grape extract and ?-Tocopherol effect in cardiovascular disease model of Apo E -/- Mice / Efeito do extrato de uva e ?-Tocoferol em camundongos Apo E -/-, modelo de doena cardiovascular

    Maria do Carmo Gouveia, Peluzio; Tatiana Fiche Salles, Teixeira; Vanessa Patrocnio, Oliveira; Cphora Maria, Sabarense; Cristina Maria Ganz Chaves, Dias; Monise Viana, Abranches; Izabel Regina dos Santos Costa, Maldonado.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito do consumo de extrato de uva isolada ou combinada com a suplementao de ?-tocoferol em modelo de aterosclerose, utilizando camundongos Apo E -/-. MTODOS: Os camundongos Apo E -/- foram tratados com dieta aterognica por seis semanas e foram divididos em quatro grupos: [...] Controle, Uva, Tocoferol e Uva e Tocoferol. Aps 11 semanas de tratamento os animais foram submetidos eutanasia. RESULTADOS: Todos os tratamentos apresentaram efeito hipocolesterolmico, com reduo de colesterol plasmtico e heptico. Este efeito foi acompanhado de um aumento na excreo fecal de colesterol. Houve tambm uma maior excreo fecal de cidos graxos saturados nos grupos que receberam extrato de uva ou de ?-tocoferol. Todos os grupos apresentaram uma tendncia a apresentar nveis mais elevados de vitamina E. O perfil de cidos graxos mostrou uma tendncia para a preservao de cidos graxos monoinsaturados, aps consumo de extrato de uva e ?-tocoferol. A anlise morfolgica revelou um menor grau de evoluo da placa aterosclertica dos animais que foram alimentados com ?-tocoferol combinado com extrato de uva, mesmo quando no houve diferena no tamanho da leso. CONCLUSO: Foi observado um efeito sinergstico entre os polifenis e ?-tocoferol, resultando na reduo na evoluo da aterosclerose e um maior de efeito benfico na aterosclerose do que o consumo isolado de antioxidantes sobre a aterosclerose do que o consumo isolado de antioxidantes. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To verify the effect of consumption of grape extract isolated or combined with ?-tocopherol supplementation on atherosclerosis model with Apo E -/- mice. METHODS: After six weeks of atherogenic diet, Apo E -/- mice were divided into the following groups: Control, Grape, Tocopherol and Grape [...] plus Tocopherol. The treatment progressed for 11 weeks when animals were submitted to euthanasia. RESULTS: All the treatments presented hypocholesterolemic effect with reduction of serum and liver cholesterol levels. This effect was parallel to an increase in the fecal excretion of cholesterol. There was also a higher fecal excretion of saturated fatty acids in groups receiving grape extract or ?-tocopherol. All the groups treated presented a tendency to show higher levels of vitamin E. The fatty acid profile showed a tendency for monounsaturated fatty acid preservation after grape extract and ?-tocopherol consumption. Morphological analysis revealed a lower degree of evolution of the atherosclerotic plaque of the animals that were fed ?-tocopherol combined with grape extract, even when no difference was found in the size of the largest lesion. CONCLUSION: A synergistic effect between the polyphenols and ?-tocopherol was observed, resulting in diminished evolution of atherosclerosis and a greater beneficial effect on atherosclerosis than the isolated consumption of antioxidants.

  6. Infecção experimental pelo Encephalitozoon cuniculi em camundongos imunossuprimidos com dexametasona Experimental Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in dexamethasone-immunosuppressed mice

    Maria Anete Lallo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O microsporídio Encephalitozoon cuniculi tem sido reconhecido como um patógeno oportunista em indivíduos imunossuprimidos, tais como pacientes com Aids. O objetivo do trabalho foi desenvolver animais farmacologicamente imunossuprimidos como modelo da infecção natural pelo E. cuniculi. MÉTODOS: Foram usados grupos distintos de camundongos Balb-C adultos, imunossuprimidos com diferentes doses de dexametasona (Dx, 3 ou 5 mg/kg/dia por via intraperitoneal ¾ IP e inoculados com esporos de E. cuniculi por via IP. Também foram usados grupos controle (animais inoculados, mas nãoimunossuprimidos, e animais imunossuprimidos, mas não inoculados. Os esporos de E. cuniculi foram previamente cultivados em células MDCK. Os animais foram sacrificados e submetidos à necropsia aos 7, 14, 21, 28 e 35 dias pós-inoculação. Fragmentos teciduais foram coletados e processados para análise por microscopia de luz, utilizando-se as técnicas de coloração de Gram -chromotrope e de hematoxilina-eosina. RESULTADOS: Em todos os animais imunossuprimidos e inoculados, porém especialmente naqueles que receberam 5 mg/kg/dia de Dx, os achados de necropsia mais proeminentes foram hepato e esplenomegalia. A inoculação experimental resultou em uma infecção disseminada e não-letal, caracterizada por lesões granulomatosas em diversos órgãos (fígado, pulmões, rins, intestino, encéfalo, porém mais notadamente no tecido hepático. Esporos de E. cuniculi foram observados em poucos animais tratados com 5 mg/kg/dia de Dx aos 35 dias pós-infecção. CONCLUSÕES: Microsporidiose em camundongos imunossuprimidos com Dx fornece um modelo útil para estudos da infecção por microsporídios, assemelhando-se àquela naturalmente observada em indivíduos imunodeficientes com Aids.OBJECTIVE: Microsporidian Encephalitozoon cuniculi has been recognized as an opportunistic pathogen in immunosuppressed individuals, such as AIDS patients. The objective of the study was to develop pharmacologically immunosuppressed animals as a model of the natural occurring E. cuniculi infection. METHODS: Distint groups of adult Balb-C mice were immunosuppressed with different doses of dexamethasone (Dx, 3 or 5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal route - IP and inoculated with E. cuniculi spores by IP route intraperitoneally. Control groups (inoculated animals but non-immunosuppressed and non- inoculated animals but immunosuppressed were also used. The spores of E. cuniculi were previously cultivated in MDCK cells. The animals were sacrificed and necropsied at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days post-inoculation. Tissue fragments were collected and processed for light microscopy studies, using Gram-chromotrope and hematoxylin-eosin staining techniques. RESULTS: In all immunosupressed and inoculated inoculated immunosuppressed mice,specially in those that received 5 mg/kg/day of dexamethasone, the most prominent necropsy findings were hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. The experimental inoculation resulted in a disseminated non-lethal infection, characterized by granulomatous lesions in several organs (liver, lungs, kidneys, gut and brain but notably in the hepatic tissue. Spores of E. cuniculi were only seen in few animals treated with 5 mg/kg/day of Dx at 35 days post-infection. CONCLUSIONS: Microsporidiosis in Dx-immunosuppressed mice provides a useful model for studies of the microsporidial infection, resembling that one naturally occurring in immunodeficient individuals with AIDS.

  7. O etanercepte induz QRS de baixa tensão e disfunção autonômica em camundongos com doença de Chagas experimental

    Héctor Rodríguez-Angulo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A doença de Chagas é uma doença parasitária tropical causada pelo protozoário flagelado Trypanosoma cruzi. A cardiomiopatia chagásica é caracterizada por distúrbios na regulação autonômica e na condução do potencial de ação nas fases aguda e crônica da infecção. Embora o fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α tenha sido associadoà cardiomiopatia em modelos experimentais e em pacientes com doença de Chagas, outros relatos sugerem que o TNF-α pode exercer ações antiparasitárias durante a fase aguda da infecção. OBJETIVOS: Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar os efeitos de um blocker TNF-α solúvel, o etanercepte, em parâmetros eletrocardiográficos na fase aguda da infecção experimental com Trypanosoma cruzi. MÉTODOS: Foram feitos eletrocardiogramas em camundongos infectados não tratados e camundongos infectados que foram tratados com etanercepte 7 dias após a infecção. Os parâmetros de variabilidade onda do eletrocardiograma e frequência cardíaca foram determinados utilizando o Chart para Windows. RESULTADOS: O tratamento com etanercepte resultou em uma baixa tensão do complexo QRS e uma redução da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca em comparação com a ausência de tratamento. No entanto, os camundongos tratados apresentaram um atraso na queda da curva de sobrevivência durante a fase aguda. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que, embora o tratamento com etanercepte promova a sobrevivência em camundongos infectados com uma linhagem virulenta de T. cruzi, o bloqueio do TNF-α gera um complexo de baixa tensão e disfunção autonômica durante a fase aguda da infecção. Esses resultados indicam que a mortalidade durante a fase aguda pode ser atribuída a uma resposta inflamatória sistêmica, em vez da disfunção cardíaca.

  8. Efeito do tratamento com prpolis de Scaptotrigona aff. postica sobre o desenvolvimento do tumor de Ehrlich em camundongos / Effect of propolis of Scaptotrigona aff. postica on the development of the tumor of Ehrlich in mice

    Maria Jos A. M., Arajo; Richard P., Dutra; Graciomar C., Costa; Aramys S., Reis; Anne K. M., Assuno; Silvana A., Librio; Mrcia C. G., Maciel; Lucilene A., Silva; Rosane N. M., Guerra; Maria N. S., Ribeiro; Flvia R. F., Nascimento.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi investigado o efeito do extrato hidroalcolico de prpolis (EHP) de Scaptotrigona aff. postica sobre o desenvolvimento do tumor de Ehrlich na forma slida, sobre a celularidade dos rgos linfides dos animais portadores de tumor, bem como, sobre a produo de xido ntrico (NO) p [...] elos macrfagos destes animais. Camundongos Swiss foram divididos em quatro grupos: controle, EHP 0,5; EHP 5 e EHP 50, os quais foram tratados por via intraperitoneal com dose nica de soluo salina (NaCl 0,9%); 0,5; 5 ou 50 mg de EHP/kg de animal, respectivamente. Depois de 48 h do tratamento, os animais foram inoculados com 10(5) clulas do tumor de Ehrlich nas patas. Os resultados mostraram que o tratamento com EHP nas doses de 5 e 50 mg/kg inibiu de forma significativa o desenvolvimento do tumor a partir do 6 dia ps-inculo quando comparado ao controle e ao EHP 0,5. Alm disso, houve aumento significativo da celularidade do bao e da medula ssea nos grupos EHP 0,5 e EHP 5 em relao ao controle. A produo de NO estimulada com concanavalina A (ConA) apresentou uma significante diminuio nos grupos tratados com EHP em relao ao controle. Pode-se concluir que o tratamento com EHP apresentou efeito antitumoral quando administrado nas doses de 5 e 50 mg/kg, o que pode estar relacionado com a sua composio qumica e com a inibio da produo de NO. Abstract in english It was investigated the effect of hydroalcoholic extract (HEP) of propolis from Scaptotrigona aff. postica on the solid Ehrlich tumor, on the tumor-bearing mice lymphoid organs and on the nitric oxide (NO) production. Swiss mice were divided in 4 groups: control, HEP 0.5; HEP 5 and HEP 50 that was t [...] reated by intraperitoneal route with a single dose of saline solution (NaCl 0.9%) or 0.5 or 5 or 50 mg of HEP/kg body weight, respectively. After 48 h of treatment, the animals were inoculated with 10(5) tumor cells in their footpad. The results showed that the treatment with HEP in the doses of 5 and 50 mg/kg inhibited the development of the tumor from the 6th day post inoculums when compared to the control and to the HEP 0.5 groups. Besides, there was an increase of spleen and bone marrow cell number in HEP 0.5 and HEP 5 as compared to the control. Concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated NO production was decreased in all HEP-treated groups when compared to the control. In conclusion, the treatment with HEP had an anti-tumor effect what may be related to its chemical composition and to the inhibition of NO production.

  9. A resposta oxidativa em coraes de camundongos modulada por background gentico The oxidative response of mouse hearts is modulated by genetic background

    Marco Aurlio Santos-Silva; Akinori Cardozo Nagato; Eduardo Tavares Lima Trajano; Jackson Nogueira Alves; Ana Carla Balthar Bandeira; Lus Cristvo Porto; Frank Silva Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    FUNDAMENTO: o tabagismo apresenta importante papel sobre as doenas cardiovasculares, entretanto permanecem pouco compreendidos os motivos pelos quais alguns seres humanos as desenvolvem e outros no. OBJETIVO: nosso objetivo foi analisar o perfil redox do corao de diferentes linhagens de camundongos aps exposio fumaa de cigarro. MTODOS: camundongos machos suos (n = 10), C3H (n = 10), BALB/c (n = 10) e C57BL/6 (n = 10) foram expostos fumaa de cigarro (12 cigarros/dia), enquanto ...

  10. Estudo da expresso de galectina-3 em carcinomas de lngua de camundongos Study of the galectin-3 expression in tongue carcinomas of mice

    Paulo Rogrio de Faria

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUO: A galectina-3 (Gal-3 uma lectina de mamferos ligante de resduos b-galactosdeos. Numerosos estudos tm mostrado que a Gal-3 apresenta importantes papis na biologia tumoral, atuando em fenmenos como apoptose, metstase e transformao maligna. No entanto, em carcinomas de cabea e pescoo, a real significncia da sua expresso ainda pouco compreendida. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a expresso de Gal-3 em tumores de lngua induzidos experimentalmente em camundongos desafiados com o carcingeno 4-nitroquinolona-1-xido (4NQO. MATERIAL E MTODOS: Quarenta e dois camundongos C57BL/6, machos, foram desafiados com 4NQO na gua de beber por 16 semanas e sacrificados em diferentes perodos depois do tratamento. Aps o sacrifcio, as lnguas foram removidas, processadas, coradas por hematoxilina e eosina (HE e microscopicamente analisadas quanto presena de carcinoma. Ensaio imuno-histoqumico para deteco do antgeno Gal-3 e anlise descritiva da sua expresso nos tumores induzidos foram realizados. RESULTADOS: Ao final do experimento, foram produzidos 15 tumores. No tecido epitelial no-neoplsico, forte imunorreatividade foi observada apenas na camada parabasal. Nas camadas mais superficiais a intensidade de marcao foi mais fraca, e na camada basal variou de ausente a fraca. Todos os carcinomas bem diferenciados exibiram fraca marcao, exceto nas reas queratinizantes. No nico caso de carcinoma pouco diferenciado, forte imunorreatividade para Gal-3 foi observada. CONCLUSO: Nossos resultados descritivos mostram que a transformao maligna acompanhada de reduo da intensidade de expresso da Gal-3 e que o aumento da sua expresso com a perda da diferenciao neoplsica sugere a sua vinculao com agressividade tumoral.BACKGROUND: Galectin-3 (Gal-3 is a b-galactoside-binding mammalian lectin. Numerous studies have demonstrated that Gal-3 plays an important role in tumor biology, acting in some events such as apoptosis, metastasis and malignant transformation. However, in carcinomas of head and neck, the real significance of Gal-3 expression requires a better understanding. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper was to evaluate Gal-3 expression in tongue carcinomas experimentally induced in mice challenged with carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Forty-two C57BL/6 male mice were challenged with 4NQO in drinking water for 16 weeks and killed at different periods after induction. In each period, their tongues were removed, routinely processed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and microscopically analyzed as to the presence of carcinoma. Immunohistochemical test for Gal-3 and a descriptive analysis of its expression in induced tumors were performed. RESULTS: By the end of the experiment, 15 tumors had been induced. In the non-neoplastic lingual epithelium, strong and weak immunoreactivity for Gal-3 was noted in parabasal and superficial layers, respectively. In the basal layer, Gal-3 expression varied from absent to weak. All the well-differentiated carcinomas showed weak immunoreactivity for Gal-3, except in keratinized areas. The only case of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma indicated strong immunoreactivity for Gal-3. CONCLUSION: Our results show that malignant transformation is associated with reduced expression of Gal-3, whereas its increased expression in poorly differentiated carcinoma seems to be connected with tumor aggressiveness.

  11. Avaliação do pigmento de Lawsonia inermis (henna como carreador de antígenos inoculados por via transcutânea em camundongos =Evaluation of Lawsonia inermis (henna pigment as a carrier of antigens inoculated by transcutaneous immunization pigment in mice

    Biffi, Karoline et al.

    2013-01-01

    Conclusões: As vacinações transcutâneas com antígeno bruto de P. brasiliensis e albumina sérica bovina em suspensão de pigmento de L. inermis não produziram resposta antigênica detectável em camundongos.

  12. Home range dynamics of mountain hare (<em>Lepus timidusem> in the Swiss Alps

    Anne-Sophie Genini-Gamboni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known on the ecology and behaviour of alpine mountain hare (<em>Lepus timidusem>. Between 1996 and 1997 we analysed by radiotracking the pattern of space use of 8 mountain hares from the Swiss Alps. We estimated home range size using both the kernel density estimator and the minimum convex polygon. We found smaller ranges (38 ha compared to those reported for the species in boreal or arctic habitats, but similar to ranges in Scotland. Hares did not use a centre of major activity (core area and showed high home range overlap, confirming their non-territorial behaviour. Smaller ranges were used during winter compared to the other seasons, whilst no difference in size was found between sexes. Riassunto Dinamica dell'uso dello spazio della lepre bianca (<em>Lepus timidusem> nelle Alpi Svizzere Le informazioni relative all'ecologia e al comportamento della lepre alpina (<em>Lepus timidusem> sono ad oggi scarse. In questo studio abbiamo analizzato l'utilizzo dello spazio di una popolazione di lepre bianca sulle Alpi Svizzere. Tra il 1996 e il 1997 sono stati marcati con redio collare 8 individui di lepre alpina. L'<em>home rangeem> è stato calcolato utilizzando lo stimatore di densità kernel (KDE ed il metodo del minimo poligono convesso (MCP. L'ampiezza degli <em>home rangeem> (38 ha è risultata inferiore a quella riportata per la specie in habitat boreali ed artici. ma simile a quella riscontrata in Scozia. All'interno dell <em>home rangeem> non è stato rilevato alcun centro di maggiore attività (<em>core areaem> ed è stata evidenziata una notevole sovrapposizione tra gli stessi, confermando la non territorialità della specie. Le aree frequentate in inverno sono risultate più piccole rispetto alle altre stagioni e non sono state riscontrate differenze tra i sessi.

  13. Resposta humoral, recuperação bacteriana e lesões histológicas em camundongos geneticamente selecionados para bons e maus produtores de anticorpos e Balb/c, frente à infecção por Leptospira interrogans sorovar icterohaemorrhagiae

    Marinho Márcia; Langoni Helio; Oliveira Silvio Luis; Carreira Rodrigo; Perri Silvia H.V.; Luvizoto Maria Cecilia

    2003-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por finalidade associar a cinética da resposta humoral à recuperação de leptospiras viáveis e à intensidade das lesões teciduais em camundongos geneticamente selecionados para bons (High) e maus (Low) produtores de anticorpos (seleção IV-A), além de camundongos outbreed, Balb/c, inoculados com amostra patogênica de Leptospira interrogans sorovar icterohaemorrhagiae. As linhagens High e Low (seleção IV-A) apresentam modificações em alguns compartimentos da resposta imu...

  14. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Lantana camara L. extract in mice / Efeitos antinociceptivos do extrato de Lantana camara L. em camundongos

    T.S.C., SILVA; I.B., SUFFREDINI; E.L., RICCI; S.R.C., FERNANDES; V.JR, GONALVES; P, ROMOFF; J.H.G, LAGO; M.M., BERNARDI.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Lantana camara L. pertence famlia Verbenaceae, a qual contem muitos princpios ativos em suas folhas e razes com propriedade medicinais e inseticidas. Estudos com plantas da mesma famlia mostram a existncia de propriedades antinflamatrias no modelo de edema de pata induzido pela carra [...] genina, serotonina e histamina, alm da atividade analgsica nos testes de contoro induzida pelo cido actico e da retirada da cauda por estmulo trmico. O presente trabalho investigou os efeitos txicos e antinociceptivos do extrato de L. camara (ACE) em camundongos. Para tanto, investigou-se a porcentagem de mortes em 7 dias aps a administrao de diferentes doses do extrato. Avaliou-se tambm os efeitos antinociceptivos do ACE pelos testes da placa quente, estimulao trmica da cauda e contores abdominais induzidas pelo cido actico com a dose no-txica [1,0 g/Kg]. Os resultados mostraram que 1,5 g/Kg do ACE no causou mortalidade, enquanto que 3,0 e 4,0 g/Kg promoveram 50 e 60% de mortalidade, respectivamente. Em todos os testes antinociceptivos, a dose de 1,0 g/Kg do ACE reduziu a resposta dor. Os presentes resultados indicam que o ACE apresenta propriedades antinflamatrias e analgsicas em doses muito menores que a txica. Abstract in english ABSTRACT: he Lantana camara L. belongs to the family Verbenaceae, which contains several active compounds in leaves and roots and which are reported to have medicinal and insecticidal properties. Studies of plants within the same family show the existence of anti-inflammatory activity in paw edema i [...] nduced by carrageenan, serotonin and histamine and analgesic activity in the acetic acid writhing and tail-flick tests. The present study investigated whether the L. camara extract (ACE) also exerts these effects. The ACE toxicity was studied in male mice, and the percentage of mortality recorded 7 days after treatment was assessed. The ACE was evaluated as an antinociceptive agent in the hot plate, tail-flick and acetic acid writhing tests at a nontoxic dose of 1.0 g/Kg. The results showed that 1.5 g/Kg of ACE was not able to cause death, and doses of 3.0 and 4.0 g/Kg caused 50% and 60% death, respectively, in male mice. In all of the antinociceptive tests, 1 g/Kg of ACE markedly reduced responses to pain. Our findings suggest that ACE may have active anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties in much smaller doses than toxic.

  15. White tea (Camellia sinensis extract reduces oxidative stress and triacylglycerols in obese mice Extrato de chá branco reduz extresse oxidativo e triacilglicerois em camundongos obesos

    Lílian Gonçalves Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available White tea is an unfermented tea made from young shoots of Camellia sinensis protected from sunlight to avoid polyphenol degradation. Although its levels of catechins are higher than those of green tea (derived from the same plant, there are no studies addressing the relationship between this tea and obesity associated with oxidative stress.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of white tea on obesity and its complications using a diet induced obesity model. Forty male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity (Obese group or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% white tea extract (Obese + WTE for 8 weeks. Adipose tissue, serum lipid profile, and oxidative stress were studied. White tea supplementation was not able to reduce food intake, body weight, or visceral adiposity. Similarly, there were no changes in cholesterol rich lipoprotein profile between the groups. A reduction in blood triacylglycerols associated with increased cecal lipids was observed in the group fed the diet supplemented with white tea. White tea supplementation also reduced oxidative stress in liver and adipose tissue. In conclusion, white tea extract supplementation (0.5% does not influence body weight or adiposity in obese mice. Its benefits are restricted to the reduction in oxidative stress associated with obesity and improvement of hypertriacylglycerolemia.O chá branco é um chá não fermentando feito a partir de brotos jovens da Camellia sinensis protegidos da luz solar para evitar a degradação de polifenóis. Embora os níveis de catequinas sejam mais elevados que os do chá verde (mesma planta, nenhum estudo foi realizado sobre estresse oxidativo relacionado obesidade. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar o efeito do chá verde na obesidade e suas complicações, usando um modelo de obesidade induzida por dieta. Quarenta camundongos C57BL/6 machos foram alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica para indução da obesidade ou mesma dieta suplementada com 0,5% de extrato de chá branco durante 8 semanas. Foram estudadoso tecido adiposo bem como o perfil lipídico e o estresse oxidativo. A suplementação com chá branco não foi capaz de reduzir a ingestão alimentar, peso corporal ou adiposidade visceral. De forma similar, não foram encontradas diferenças no perfil de lipoproteínas ricas em colesterol. Uma redução de triacilgliceróis sanguíneos, associada ao aumento de lipídios cecais, foi observada no grupo suplementado com chá branco. A suplementação também reduziu o estresse oxidativo no fígado e tecido adiposo. Em conclusão, suplementação com extrato de chá branco (0,5% não interfere no peso corporal ou adiposidade em camundongos obesos. Seus benefícios são restritos redução do estresse oxidativo associada obesidade e melhora da hipertrigliceridemia.

  16. Detecção de anticorpo anticoração em camundongos Balb/c imunizados com Streptococcus mutans Detection of heart-reactive antibody in Balb/c mice immunized with Streptococcus mutans

    Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck; Moraes, Elisabete; SHIMIZU Mário Tsunezi; UNTERKIRCHER Carmelinda Schimidt

    2000-01-01

    Anticorpos para antígenos cardíacos foram analisados por ELISA em 14 soros de camundongos Balb/c hiperimunizados com Streptococcus mutans, inativado pelo formaldeído. Os níveis de anticorpos da classe IgG anticoração e antimiosina elevaram-se significativamente nos animais imunizados quando comparados com os controles, especialmente no grupo A, imunizado e reestimulado com antígenos solúveis de S. mutans. Neste grupo, os resultados do "Western Blot" mostraram reatividade com miosina cardíaca ...

  17. Detecção de anticorpo anticoração em camundongos Balb/c imunizados com Streptococcus mutans

    LEÃO Mariella Vieira Pereira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Anticorpos para antígenos cardíacos foram analisados por ELISA em 14 soros de camundongos Balb/c hiperimunizados com Streptococcus mutans, inativado pelo formaldeído. Os níveis de anticorpos da classe IgG anticoração e antimiosina elevaram-se significativamente nos animais imunizados quando comparados com os controles, especialmente no grupo A, imunizado e reestimulado com antígenos solúveis de S. mutans. Neste grupo, os resultados do "Western Blot" mostraram reatividade com miosina cardíaca e uma banda de 35 kDa. A análise histológica dos corações dos animais do grupo B, imunizado e reestimulado com antígenos de superfície do microrganismo, demonstrou a presença de degeneração celular, tipo hidrópica e hialina e focos inflamatórios constituídos de linfócitos e macrófagos no miocárdio e pericárdio. Os resultados deste trabalho reforçam a hipótese da existência de mimetismo antigênico entre tecido cardíaco e S. mutans e chamam a atenção para o risco de desenvolvimento de anticorpos reativos com antígenos próprios induzidos por vacina anticárie com componentes estreptocócicos.

  18. Pathogenicity of different rabies virus isolates and protection test in vaccinated mice Patogenicidade de diferentes isolados do vírus da raiva e teste de proteção em camundongos vacinados

    Elenice M.S. Cunha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the pathogenicity of rabies virus isolated from bats and dogs, and to verify the efficacy of a commercial rabies vaccine against these isolates. For evaluation of pathogenicity, mice were inoculated by the intramuscular route (IM with 500MICLD50/0.03mL of the viruses. The cross-protection test was performed by vaccinating groups of mice by the subcutaneous route and challenged through the intracerebral (IC route. Isolates were fully pathogenic when inoculated by the IC route. When inoculated intramuscularly, the pathogenicity observed showed different death rates: 60.0% for the Desmodus rotundus isolate; 50.0% for dog and Nyctinomops laticaudatus isolates; 40.0% for Artibeus lituratus isolate; 9.5% Molossus molossus isolate; and 5.2% for the Eptesicus furinalis isolate. Mice receiving two doses of the vaccine and challenged by the IC route with the isolates were fully protected. Mice receiving only one dose of vaccine were partially protected against the dog isolate. The isolates from bats were pathogenic by the IC route in mice. However, when inoculated through the intramuscular route, the same isolates were found with different degrees of pathogenicity. The results of this work suggest that a commercial vaccine protects mice from infection with bat rabies virus isolates, in addition to a canine rabies virus isolate.O estudo avaliou e comparou as propriedades patogênicas de cinco isolados do vírus da raiva de morcegos e um isolado do vírus da raiva de cão e analisou a eficácia de vacina comercial contra estes isolados, em camundongos. Para o estudo de patogenicidade camundongos foram inoculados pela via IM com 0,1 mL contendo 500MICLD50/0,03mL das amostras de vírus. Quando inoculados pela via IC, os isolados do vírus da raiva provocaram a morte de 100% dos camundongos. No entanto, 500MICLD50/0,03mL das mesmas amostras, inoculadas pela via IM, ocasionaram mortalidade de: 60,0% quando a amostra era de Desmodus rotundus; 50,0% de cão e de Nyctinomops laticaudatus; 40,0% de Artibeus lituratus; 9,5% de Molossus molossus; e 5,2% de Eptesicus furinalis. Camundongos que receberam duas doses de vacina foram protegidos quando desafiados pela via IC, com todas as amostras testadas. Quando os camundongos receberam uma dose da mesma vacina, houve proteção parcial daqueles desafiados com a amostra de cão. Todos os isolados do vírus da raiva testados foram patogênicos para camundongos, inoculados pela IC. No entanto, pela via IM, os mesmos isolados mostraram diferentes graus de patogenicidade. Concluiu-se também que a vacina comercial contra raiva protegeu os camundongos desafiados com amostras de vírus isolados de morcegos e de cão.

  19. Investigação de lipofuscina em miócitos cardíacos de camundongos após tratamento com oxamniquine Investigation of lipofuscin in cardiac miocytes of mice treated with oxamniquine

    Maria Luiza Silveira Mello

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available A fluorescencia natural devida à presença de corpos de lipofuscina foi pesquisada em miócitos cardíacos de camundongos adultos jovens tratados com oxamniquine. O objetivo foi buscar uma evidência de indução de envelhecimento celular precoce, com base em dados prévios de acentuação poliploidia, promovida pela droga. Comparando o miocárdio dos camundongos tratados com animais contrôle jovens e velhos, não foi observada a presença de lipofuscina nos seus miócitos. Isto possivelmente se deva a um não comprometimento da eficiência das lipases lisossomiais apesar da acentuação do fenômeno de poliploidização induzida pela droga.The autofluorescence due to lipofuscin bodies was investigated in cardiac miocytes of young adult mice treated with oxamniquine. The aim was to detect evidence for a cell aging process promoted by the drug, taking into account previous findings on the enhancement of polyploidy in this material. However, as no lipofuscin was observed in these cells, when compared to young and old control animals, it is assumed that the efficiency of the lysosome lipases in the heart miocytes of the treated mice is not affected by the drug induced polyploidy enhancement.

  20. Effects of hyperprolactinemia and ovariectomy on the tibial epiphyseal growth plate and bone formation in mice / Efeitos da hiperprolactinemia e ooforectomia sobre o disco epifisrio da tbia e formao ssea em camundongos fmeas

    Roberta Bastos, Wolff.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do procedimento de ooforectomia e da hiperprolactinemia no disco epifisrio da tbia de camundongos fmeas. MTODOS: Neste estudo, o disco epifisrio de camundongos fmeas ovariectomizadas (OVX) e/ou com hiperprolactinemia induzida por tratamento com 200 ?g de meto [...] clopramida por 50 dias (M) foi avaliado morfologicamente, morfometricamente e imunohistoquimicamente. Quarenta camundongos fmeas e adultas foram divididas em quatro grupos, segundo o tratamento: Grupo V - animais tratados com soluo salina; Grupo H - animais hiperprolactinmicos; Grupo Ovx/V - animais ooforectomizados e tratados com o soluo salina; Grupo Ovx/H - animais ooforectomizados e hiperprolactinmicos. Aps o perodo de tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados, as tbias removidas e fixadas em formalina tamponada a 10% e descalcificadas em cido frmico a 10%. O material foi emblocado em parafina e submetido a processamento histolgico em parafina. Os cortes foram corados pelo tricrmico de Masson e foi feita a imunohistoqumica para a protena pr-apopttica BCL-2. As imagens para o estudo morfolgico e morfomtrico foram analisadas com o programa de imagem AxioVision 4.8 (Carl-Zeiss(r), Alemanha). RESULTADOS: A combinao da hiperprolactinemia e do procedimento de ovariectomia levou reduo do nmero de condrcitos de repouso em 1,5 vezes; o nmero de condrcitos proliferativos em 1,8; a percentagem de cartilagem de repouso em 2,4, e a percentagem de osso trabecular em 2,1 vezes, em comparao com os respectivos animais controles. CONCLUSO: O procedimento de ooforectomia combinado com a condio de hiperprolactinemia induzida pela metoclopramida em camundongos fmeas evidenciou degenerao ssea acentuada, devido diminuio significativa da proliferao celular no disco epifisrio e da formao ssea. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of ovariectomy and the hyperprolactinemia procedure in the tibial epiphyseal growth plate of female mice. METHODS: In this study, the epiphyseal growth plate of ovariectomized (OVX) and/or rendered hyperprolactinemic female mice by 50 days of treatment with 200 [...] ?g metoclopramide (M) was evaluated morphologically, morphometrically and immuno-histochemically. Forty female and adult mice were divided into four groups according to treatment: V group - animals treated with saline solution; H group - hyperprolactinemic animals; Ovx/V group - ovariectomized animals and treated with saline solution; Ovx/H group - hyperprolactinemic and ovariectomized animals. After the treatment period, the animals were sacrificed, tibia was removed and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and decalcified in 10% formic acid. The material was immersed in paraffin and subjected to histological processing in paraffin. The sections were stained with Masson's trichrome and immunohistochemistry was carried out for the pro-apoptotic protein BCL-2. The images for the morphological and morphometric study were analyzed with the imaging program AxioVision 4.8 (Carl-Zeiss(r), Germany). RESULTS: The combination of hyperprolactinemia and the ovariectomy procedure decreased the number of resting chondrocytes 1.5-fold, the number of proliferative chondrocytes 1.8-fold; the percentage of resting cartilage 2.4-fold and the percentage of trabecular bone 2.1-fold, compared with respective control animals. CONCLUSION: The procedure of ovariectomy combined with the metoclopramide-induced hyperprolactinemia in female mice has showed marked bone degeneration due to significant decrease of cell proliferation in the epiphyseal growth plate and bone formation.

  1. Diferença de susceptibilidade à infecção com T. Cruzi entre espécies de triatomíneos alimentados em cão, tatu e camundongo infectados

    Ítalo A. Sherlock

    1973-04-01

    Full Text Available Diversas espécies de triatomíneos foram alimentadas em cão, tatu e camundongos infectados pelo T. cruzi, para verificação de suas susceptibilidades. Em cão T. infestans e P. megistus se infectaram melhor. Em tatus T. iníestans e T. brasiliensis acusaram melhores índices de infecção, enquanto em camundongos as espécies de Rhodnius e T. brasiliensis foram as melhores infectadas. A positividade dos xenos não pareceu obrigatoriamente relacionada com a riqueza da parasitemia evidenciada através da hemoscopia direta. A positividade dos xenos em camundongos variou de 26 a 96%. Quando a mesma espécie de triatomineos foi usada em tipos diversos de animais, pareceu haver uma tendência para apresentarem diferentes taxas de infecções, de acordo com o animal empregado. Dessa forma, a susceptibilidade dos triatomíneos poderia estar dependente dos fatores: cepa do tripanosoma, espécie e fase do triatomíneo e o tipo do animal infectante.Our observations suggest that T. infestans and P. megistus were easier to infect with Trypanosoma cruzi after feeding on infected dog than two species of Rhodnius. In armadillo better infection rates for T. infestans and T. brasiliensis were obtained while those of species of Rhodnius was low. Also, P. megistus recorded high levei of infection but this results could not be compared. During two months after inoculated, beginning at the 5th day, trypanosomes were detected through xenodiagnosis in armadillos. In mice, four species of triatomids used simultaneously with Rhodnius had a higher infection rate, but Rhodnius was more susceptible than other species. Eight out 10 mices inoculated with two different virulent strains of T. cruzi died in a period of four months, two surviving for more than 11 months. The per- centage of positive xenodiagnosis of these mices during the first two months after inoculation varied from 28-96 %. The positivity of xenodiagnosis could not always be correlated with patent parasitaemia, however xenos were most positive during the major phases of parasitaemia. The infection rates of triatomids fed on different sources (dog, armadillo and mice of T. cruzi varied according to the infected host. By the exposed data it could be thought that the triatomid susceptibility would be dependant on several factors, among thern the strain of trypanosomes, the species and the stage of the triatomid, and also the host species.

  2. Transplante experimental cardíaco heterotópico e cutâneo em camundongos Experimental heterotopic cardiac and cutaneous transplantation in mice

    Patrícia Sestrheim

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudo experimental com o objetivo de desenvolver e avaliar a viabilidade das técnicas de transplante experimental cardíaco heterotópico abdominal vascularizado e cutâneo em camundongos, criando um instrumento para investigação da eficácia de soluções de preservação, novas drogas imunossupressoras, agentes biológicos, terapia gênica e indução de tolerância imunológica. MÉTODO: Para este estudo, as técnicas utilizadas foram descritas previamente por Corry et al. e Billingham et al. RESULTADOS: O tempo cirúrgico total para a realização dos transplantes cardíacos (n=20 foi, em média, 60,3±6,3 minutos e para os transplantes cutâneos (n=20, 17,75±0,71 minutos. A média de sobrevida dos aloenxertos cutâneos (n=34 e cardíacos (n=24 foi, respectivamente, 7 e 11 dias, enquanto que os isoenxertos sobreviveram por mais de 100 dias. CONCLUSÕES: Ambas as técnicas se caracterizaram pela fácil reprodutibilidade dos modelos experimentais. As diferenças entre as técnicas não se limitaram às peculiaridades metodológicas ou ao tempo de sobrevida e vascularização, mas principalmente à sua imunogenicidade e suscetibilidade à rejeição.OBJECTIVE: This is an experimental study which aims at developing and evaluating the feasibility of experimental techniques of vascularized and cutaneous abdominal heterotopic heart transplant in mice, creating an instrument of investigation for the effectiveness of prservation solutions, new immunosuppressive drugs, biological agents, genetic therapy and induction of immunological tolerance. METHOD: The techniques used in this work were previously described by Corry et al. and Billingham et al. RESULTS: The total surgical time to perform the cardiac transplants (n=20 was on average 60.3+6.3 minutes and the time of cutaneous transplants (n= 20 17.75+0.71 minutes. The average survival of the cutaneous allografts (n=34 and cardiac (n=24 allografts was 7 and 11 days, respectively, while the syngeneic grafts survived more than 100 days. CONCLUSIONS: Both techniques are characterized by the easy reproducibility of the experimental models. The differences between the techniques were not limited either by the methodological peculiarities or by the length of survival and vascularization, but mainly by the immunogenicity and susceptibility of rejection.

  3. Estudo da infeco esquistossomtica produzida pelas linhagens humana e silvestre do Vale do Rio Paraba do Sul, SP (Brasil, em camundongos isognicos Some results of schistosomiasis mansoni in inbred mice infected with human and wild rodent strains from the Paraiba do Sul River Valley, S. Paulo, Brazil

    Othon de Carvalho Bastos

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a influncia da isogenicidade de camundongos de laboratrio na capacidade de penetrao de cercrias de Schistosoma mansoni de linhagem humana do Vale do Rio Paraba do Sul, SP. Foram estudados, comparativamente, aspectos da biologia e da patogenia das linhagens humana e silvestre do S. mansoni do Vale do Rio Paraba do Sul, SP (Brasil em camundongos isognicos. Foi vantajoso o uso de camundongos isognicos devido a maior homogeneidade dos resultados e a maior penetrao de cercrias pelo tegumento da cauda dos roedores.The behavior of a human S. mansoni strain was studied in infected, outbred mice. A comparative study was carried out to evaluate the effects of the infection in inbred mice, employing human and wild rodent strains of S. mansoni. The use of inbred mice was advantageous in that it allowed greater uniformity in the results as well as greater penetration of surrounding areas through the caudal tegmentum.

  4. Schistosoma mansoni: aspectos quantitativos da evolução de cercarias irradiadas a nível da pele, pulmões e sistema porta, em camundongos Schistosoma mansoni: quantitative aspects of the evolution of gamma-irradiated cercariae at the skin, lungs, and portal system, in mice

    Gileno de Sá Cardoso

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a migração do Schistosoma mansoni (cepas LE e SJ em oito grupos de camundongos albinos (Mus musculus não isogênicos, infectados transcutaneamente com cerca de 450 cercarias não irradiadas (grupos controles e irradiadas com 3 Krad, 20 Krad e 40 Krad de radiação gama proveniente de cobalto-60, Na pele, observou-se uma diminuição progressiva das taxas de recuperação em função do tempo e, nos pulmões e sistema porta, verificou-se uma relação inversa significativa entre as taxas de recuperação total e as doses de irradiação. A dose de 20 Krad praticamente impede a migração dos parasites, de ambas as cepas, dos pulmões até o sistema porta, enquanto a de 40 Krad praticamente impede a migração dos mesmos da pele para os pulmões.The migration of Schistosoma mansoni (LE and SJ strains has been studied in eight groups of outbred Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus, which were previously infected with ca 450 cercariae, transcutaneously. The infection of mice was performed with non irradiated cercariae (control groups, or with gamma-irradiated cercariae, at the schedule of 3, 20 and 40 Krad. Regarding the skin, a progressive decrease was detected for the recovery rates, related to the time of infection. As far as the lungs and portal system are concerned, a significant inverse correlation was observed between the total recovery rate and the irradiation dosages. The dose of 20 Krad practically hinders the migration of the parasites (in both strains from the lungs to the portal system, whereas the dose of 40 Krad prevents the migration of most of the parasites from the skin to the lungs.

  5. Virulence of oral Fusobacterium nucleatum from humans and non-human primates in mice Virulência de Fusobacterium nucleatum orais de primatas humanos e não humanos em camundongos

    Elerson Gaetti-Jardim Júnior

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The lethal action in Balb/c mice of 80 oral Fusobacterium nucleatum recovered from patients with adult periodontitis, healthy subjects or Cebus apella monkeys was studied. Mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with each bacterial inoculum of 5 x 10(8 CFU/ml. All the clinical isolates induced weight and coordinated movements loss. Pathological alterations in liver, CNS, heart, and kidney with inflammatory reactions or vascular congestion were observed. Of all the tested F. nucleatum isolates, 61.2% from periodontal patients, 57.1% from healthy subjects and 60% from monkeys, were capable of killing the mice in 48h. The clinical isolates were significantly more pathogenic than F. nucleatum ATCC 10953 or ATCC 25586. B. fragilis ATCC 23745 showed lethality against control mice. Our results suggest that LPS could be involved in lethal action against mice and it may play an important role in producing tissue damage or death of mice.Foi estudada a ação letal de 80 cepas de Fusobacterium nucleatum orais, isoladas de pacientes adultos com periodontite, indivíduos sadios e macacos Cebus apella, sobre camundongos isogênicos Balb/c. Os camundongos foram inoculados intraperitonealmente com cada inóculo bacteriano de aproximadamente 5 x 10(8 UFC/ml. Todos os isolados clínicos induziram a perda de peso e dos movimentos coordenados. Além disso, foram observadas alterações patológicas no figado, SNC, coração e rins, mostrando reações inflamatórias ou congestão vascular. 61,2% dos isolados de F. nucleatum, provenientes de pacientes periodontais, 51,7% dos indivíduos sadios e 60% dos macacos foram capazes de matar camundongos em 48 h. Os isolados clínicos foram significativamente mais patogênicos que F. nucleatum ATCC 10953 ou ATCC 25586. Também, B. fragilis ATCC 23745 mostrou-se letal contra os animais controle. Esses resultados sugerem que o LPS poderia estar envolvido nessa ação letal contra camundongos e poderia ter um importante papel na destruição dos tecidos ou na morte do animal.

  6. Ensaio terapêutico na infecção por Giardia muris em camundongo com metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole e furazolidone

    Claudia Cristina Pedigone Cruz

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi testado in vivo a sensibilidade de Giardia muris a quatro drogas comumente usadas no tratamento da giardíase humana. Foram utilizados 7 grupos de animais, com 12 camundongos cada, sendo que o grupo controle recebeu apenas solução salina 0,15M (0,5ml/animal. Os demais grupos receberam em dose única: metronidazole e furazolidone (500mg/kg, tinidazole e secnidazole (200mg/kg. A eficácia das drogas foi avaliada através da contagem de cistos nas fezes e pela ausência de trofozoítos no intestino. O metronidazole foi a droga mais eficaz. Os cortes histológicos mostraram diferenças entre o padrão da mucosa intestinal de animais normais e parasitados. No entanto, não se observou diferença entre o padrão de mucosa de animais infectados tratados e não tratados, o que sugere que estas alterações podem ser causadas pelo parasito e não pelas drogas.A comparative study about the effectiveness of metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole and furazolidone was performed on Giardia muris from mice naturally infected. Groups of 12 animals each was constituted: the control treated with saline; one treated with metronidazole; one treated with furazolidone; one treated with tinidazole; one treated with secnidazole; histological normal control; histological infected. Samples of three stools were examined before and after treatment with quantification of cysts. Animals were cured when the trophozoites was not seen in the small bowel. The curative activity of drugs was 58.3% for metronidazole, 50% for furazolidone, 40% for secnidazole and 16% for tinidazole. It was also showed that there was a different pattern of the intestinal mucosa from the control and infected groups, treated or not, suggesting that the alterations encountered in the mucosa of infected animals were due to the parasitism either the action of the drugs.

  7. Processo de reparo em feridas de extração dentária em camundongos tratados com o complexo Symphytum officinale e Calendula officinallis Process of repair in tooth extraction sores in treated mice with Symphytum officinale and Calendula officinallis compound

    BALDUCCI-ROSLINDO Eleny; SILVÉRIO, Karina Gonzales; MALAGOLI Daniela Mercaldi

    1999-01-01

    Medicamentos homeopáticos como o Symphytum officinalle e a Calendula officinallis são dotados de propriedades anti-sépticas, antiinflamatória, cicatrizantes e também agem como promotores da consolidação de fraturas ósseas. Neste trabalho, uniram-se esses dois medicamentos similares em um complexo para verificar o seu efeito no reparo em feridas de extração dentária em camundongos. O complexo Symphytum officinalle e Calendula officinallis nas potências de 6CH e 3CH, respectivamente, foi minist...

  8. Fatores que influenciam a translocação bacteriana em camundongos com esquistossomose crônica

    Kedma de Magalhães Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La esquistosomiasis tiene alteraciones de la mucosa intestinal y baja respuesta inmune celular en la fase crónica. El sexo puede influir en la respuesta inflamatoria contra la infección por Schistosoma mansoni. Investigamos la asociación entre la esquistosomiasis y las infecciones secundarias por traslocación bacteriana. Métodos. Se estudiaron ratones Swiss Webster (Mus musculus con 35 días que fueron divididos en dos grupos: control (10 machos y 10 hembras y esquistosomiasis (10 machos y 10 hembras infectados con 50 cercárias por vía percutánea. Las heces fueron examinadas por el método de Kato-Katz 45 y 97 días después de la infección. La perfusión del hígado se llevó a cabo para la cuantificación de los gusanos. Los animales fueron pesados después de los días 35, 80, 125 y 132 de edad cuando fueron sacrificados para el estudio de la translocación, la mucosa duodenal y la microbiota. Para la microbiota las heces se obtuvieron de la mitad del intestino delgado. Fueron seccionados segmentos de esta región para el análisis morfométrica. Resultados. Las hembras con esquistosomiasis tuvieron mayor número de gusanos adultos y huevos en las heces (P = 0,0001. Ambos sexos tuvieron mayor número de huevos en el día 45 (P = 0,005, disminución del aumento de peso a los días 80, 125 y 132 del nacimiento (P = 0,0001, y el peso del bazo aumentado (P = 0,0001. Los animales con esquistosomiasis presentaron mayor frecuencia de especies bacterianas y unidades formadoras de colonias. El análisis morfométrico reveló una reducción en la altura y el área de las vellosidades y el perímetro de la superficie de la mucosa de ambos grupos con enfermedades crónicas (P = 0,0001. Ocurrió un aumento de la translocación bacteriana en la esquistosomiasis en comparación con los controles, siendo más frecuente en las hembras. Conclusiones. La esquistosomiasis crónica modifica el aumento de peso y el tamaño del bazo, la mucosa duodenal y la microbiota de los ratones. Además, promueve la translocación, la migración y la sepsis, especialmente en ratones hembras, probablemente debido a la intensidad del parasitismo.

  9. Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) rangeli Tejera, 1920: nota prévia sobre a histopatologia em camundongos infectados experimentalmente

    Cecilia de Scorza; Servio Urdaneta-Morales; Felix Tejero

    1986-01-01

    Ratones machos (cepa NMRI) de 3 y 5 gr, inoculados i.p. con 8 x 10(6) y 9 x 10(4) metatripo- mastigotes/gr cosechados de cultivo LIT de 12 días de repique de la cepa "Perro-82" de Trypanosoma rangeli fueron procesados, em determinados períodos postinoculación, para seccionar y teñir con hematoxilina-eosina y Giemsa-colofonio trozos de corozón, hígado, bazo, pulmones, fémur, riñon, intestino, estómago, cerebro, cerebelo, esternón y columna vertebral. Se detallan los resultados preliminares sob...

  10. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and ductal adenocarcinoma induced by DMBA in mice: effects of alcohol and caffeine Neoplasia pancretica intraepithelial e adenocarcinoma ductal induzidos pelo DMBA em camundongos: efeitos do lcool e da cafena

    Luiz Roberto Wendt

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of alcohol and caffeine in a pancreatic carcinogenesis mouse model induced by 7,12-dimethylbenzantracene (DMBA, according to the PanIN classification system. METHODS: 120 male, Mus musculus, CF-1 mice were divided into four groups. Animals received either water or caffeine or alcohol or alcohol + caffeine in their drinking water. In all animals, 1 mg of DMBA was implanted into the head of the pancreas. After 30 days, euthanasia was performed; excised pancreata were then fixed in formalin, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and categorized as follows: normal ducts, reactive hyperplasia, PanIN-1A, PanIN-1B, PanIN-2, PanIN-3 or adenocarcinoma. RESULTS: PanIN lesions were verified in all groups. Adenocarcinoma was detected in 15% of animals in the caffeine group, 16.6% in the water group, 23.8% in the alcohol + caffeine group and 52.9% in the alcohol group (POBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do lcool e da cafena na carcinognese pancretica induzida pelo 7,12-dimetilbenzantraceno (DMBA em camundongos, descrevendo as leses de acordo com a classificao das neoplasias pacreticas intraepiteliais (PanIN. MTODOS: 120 camundogos machos, Mus musculus, CF-1 foram divididos em quatro grupos. Animais receberam gua ou cafena ou lcool ou lcool + cafena para beber. Em todos animais, 1 mg de DMBA foi implantado na cabea do pncreas. Aps 30 dias, eutansia foi realizada, o pncreas foi removido, fixado em formalina e corado com hematoxilina e eosina sendo classificado em: ductos normais, hiperplasia reativa, PanIN-1A, PanIN-1B, PanIN-2, PanIN-3 ou adenocarcinoma. RESULTADOS: Neoplasias pancreticas intraepiteliais foram encontradas em todos grupos. Adenocarcinoma foi detectado em 15% dos animais do grupo cafena, 16,6% do grupo gua, 23,8% do grupo lcool + cafena e 52,9% do grupo lcool (P<0,05. CONCLUSES: O modelo experimental de carcinognese pancretica em camundongos utilizando DMBA induz neoplasias pancreticas intraepiteliais (PanIN e adenocarcinoma pancretico. Este estudoverificou associao entre lcool e adenocarcinoma pancretico, enquanto a cafena no demonstrou este efeito.

  11. Avaliação do pigmento de Lawsonia inermis (henna) como carreador de antígenos inoculados por via transcutânea em camundongos =Evaluation of Lawsonia inermis (henna) pigment as a carrier of antigens inoculated by transcutaneous immunization pigment in mice

    Biffi, Karoline et al.

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Avaliar o papel do pigmento de Lawsonia inermis (henna) como carreador de antígenos em esquema de vacinação transcutânea em camundongos. Métodos: Camundongos foram imunizados por via transcutânea na pele do abdômen e na pele da orelha com antígeno bruto de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis e com albumina sérica bovina nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 50 mg/mL, por três vezes em intervalos de uma semana, na presença ou ausência de pigmentos de L. inermis. Uma semana após a última imuniza...

  12. Sensibilidade toxicológica e especificidade do teste de microfixação de complemento na detecção de toxinas botulínicas C e D em meio de cultura e fígado de camundongos

    Menegucci Edna A.; Dutra Iveraldo S.; Döbereiner Jürgen

    1998-01-01

    No presente estudo pretendeu-se verificar a sensibilidade toxicológica e especificidade do Teste de Microfixação de Complemento (MCF) na detecção de toxinas botulínicas C e D no sobrenadante de cultivos bacterianos e em fígados de camundongos inoculados com doses letais e subletais. As toxinas foram produzidas em meio de cultura Hemoline, tituladas através da determinação da DL50 pelo Bioensaio em Camundongo e diluídas nas concentrações de 10, 1, 0,1, 0,01 e 0,001 DL50. Desta forma, foram uti...

  13. Reinfections with strains of Trypanosoma cruzi, of different biodemes as a factor of aggravation of myocarditis and myositis in mice Reinfeces com cepas do Trypanosoma cruzi de diferentes biodemas como fator agravante da miocardite e miosite em camundongos

    Sonia Gumes Andrade

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Reinfections with Trypanosoma cruzi in patients from endemic areas have been claimed to be an aggravation factor of cardiac manifestations in Chagas' disease. In the present study, the influence of triple infections with strains of different biodemes, on cardiac and skeletal muscle lesions was experimentally tested. Fifty eight mice chronically infected with the Colombian strain (Biodeme Type III were successively reinfected as follows: 1st group - reinfected with 21 SF strain (Type II followed by Y strain (Type I ; 2nd - group reinfections with Y strain followed by 21SF strain. Isoenzyme analysis of parasites from hemocultures obtained from triple infected mice, revealed the patterns of three distinct zymodemes in the same animal. Each Trypanosoma cruzi strain was reisolated after four passages in mice on either the 7th, 14th or 30th day after inoculation with the blood of triple infected mice. Histopathology results demonstrated a significant exacerbation of cardiac and skeletal muscle inflammatory lesions, confirmed by morphometric evaluation, in mice with triple infection. No aggravation of parasitism was detected. The possibility of an enhancement of cellular response in the triple infected mice is suggested.Reinfeces pelo Trypanosoma cruzi em pacientes de reas endmicas tm sido mencionadas como fator agravante das manifestaes cardacas na doena de Chagas. No presente estudo, a influncia da trplice infeco com cepas de diferentes biodemas, sobre as leses do miocrdio e de msculo esqueltico foi investigada experimentalmente. Cinqenta e oito camundongos cronicamente infectados com a cepa Colombiana do Trypanosoma cruzi (Biodema Tipo III foram sucessivamente reinoculadas como a seguir: 1 grupo - reinfectados com a cepa 21 SF (Tipo II seguido pela cepa Y (Tipo I; 2 grupo - reinfeco com a cepa Y seguida pela cepa 21SF. A anlise isoenzimtica dos parasitas das hemoculturas obtidas dos animais com trplice infeco, revelou os padres dos diferentes zimodemas no mesmo animal. Cada cepa do Trypanosoma cruzi foi re-isolada aps quatro passagens em camundongos no 7, no 14, ou no 30 dia aps a inoculao com o sangue de camundongos com trplice infeco. Resultados da histopatologia demonstraram uma significante exacerbao das leses inflamatrias de miocrdio e msculo esqueltico, confirmadas pela avaliao morfomtrica. No foi detectada acentuao do parasitismo. A possibilidade de aumento da resposta celular nos animais com trplice infeco sugerida.

  14. Inibio da expresso de ciclooxigenase 2 em feridas cutneas de camundongos NOD submetidos terapia a laser de baixa intensidade / Inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 expression in NOD mice cutaneous wound by low-level laser therapy

    Carolina de Lourdes Julio Vieira, Rocha; Adeir Moreira, Rocha Jnior; Beatriz Julio Vieira, Aarestrup; Fernando Monteiro, Aarestrup.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A terapia a laser de baixa intensidade (LLLT) tem sido relatada como importante moduladora da cicatrizao de feridas cutneas aumentando a proliferao fibroblstica associada ao aumento da expresso da citocina fator transformador de crescimento- ?2 (TGF-?B2). OBJETIVO: No presente estud [...] o foram avaliados os efeitos da LLLT sobre a expresso da enzima ciclooxigenase 2 (COX2) no stio do reparo tecidual utilizando o modelo experimental com camundongos diabticos no obesos (NOD) para estudar a cicatrizao de feridas cutneas. MTODOS: Foram utilizados 30 camundongos NOD, destes 14 ficaram diabticos e foram divididos em dois grupos: o grupo I (n=7) foi submetido a um procedimento cirrgico de feridas cutneas e o grupo II (n=7) foi submetido a um procedimento cirrgico de feridas cutneas e tratados com LLLT. O grupo II foi submetido LLLT nos seguintes parmetros: 15 mW de potncia, dose de 3,8 J/cm e tempo de aplicao de 20 segundos. Aps sete dias do ato cirrgico e aps aplicao do laser, os animais foram eutanasiados com sobredose de anestesia e amostras das feridas foram colhidas para posterior anlise histopatolgica, histomorfomtrica e imuno-histoqumica. RESULTADOS: A LLLT promoveu a inibio da expresso da COX2 em feridas cutneas de camundongos diabticos. CONCLUSO: Em conjunto, os resultados sugeriram que a LLLT capaz de modular negativamente a expresso da enzima COX2 contribuindo para o controle da resposta inflamatria em feridas cutneas de camundongos NOD. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been reported to modulate the healing of wounds by inducing an increase in fibroblast number associated with increased expression of the cytokine transforming growth factor-?2 (TGF-?2). OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the effect of LLLT on expression o [...] f COX2 at the site of tissue repair was evaluated, using an experimental model with non obese diabetic mice (NOD) to study cutaneous wound healing. METHODS: Thirty NOD mice were used, of which 14 were diabetic and were divided into two groups: group I (n=7) underwent a surgical procedure of skin wounds and group II (n=7) underwent a surgical procedure of skin wounds and treated with LLLT. Group II was submitted to LLLT in the following parameters: 15 mW of power, dose of 3.8 J/cm and exposure time of 20 seconds. Seven days after surgery and after laser application, animals were euthanized with an overdose of anesthesia and tissue samples were collected for subsequent histological analysis, histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The LLLT has promoted the inhibition of COX2 expression in skin wounds in mice diabetic. Taken together the results suggest that LLLT modulate the expression of COX2 improved the control of inflammatory reaction in cutaneous wound lesions in NOD mice. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the results suggested that LLLT is able to negatively modulate the expression of COX2 enzyme contributing to the inflammatory response in cutaneous wounds in NOD mice.

  15. Morfologia e desenvolvimento de Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 em infecções unissexuais experimentalmente produzidas no camundongo Morphology and development of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 in unisexual infections produced experimentally in mice

    Eliana Maria Zanotti

    1982-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o desenvolvimento de Schistosoma mansoni em infecções unissexuais no camundongo. Os esquistossomos fêmeos apresentaram-se menos desenvolvidos do que os machos. Houve correlação entre o comprimento dos machos e o número de testículos. Verificou-se que o isolamento sexual é prejudicial aos dois sexos, principalmente à fêmea.The Schistosoma mansoni development in mice submitted to unisexual infections was studied. The single female worms developed less than the single males. There was correlation between the male's length and the number of his tests. It was verified that sexual isolation of the schistosomes is prejudicial to both sexes, mainly for the female.

  16. Redução do peso e da glicemia resultante da suplementação de ácido linoleico conjugado e fitosteróis à dieta hiperlipídica de camundongos Weight and blood glucose reduction resulting from conjugated linoleic acid and phytosterols supplementation on hiperlipidic diets of mice

    Anne Y Castro Marques; Nathalia Romanelli Vicente Dragano; Mário Roberto Maróstica Júnior

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as possíveis alterações causadas pela ingestão de ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA) e de fitosteróis no ganho de peso, na glicemia e no perfil lipídico de camundongos alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica. Durante nove semanas, vinte e cinco camundongos Swiss machos receberam dietas hiperlipídicas suplementadas com CLA e/ou fitosteróis, na concentração de 2%. Foram aferidos consumo alimentar, ganho de peso, glicemia em jejum, além dos níveis séricos de colester...

  17. Comportamento das cepas Y e Peruana do Trypanosoma cruzi no camundongo, aps passagem em diferentes meios Behavior of the Y and Peruvian strains of Trypanasoma cruzi in mice, ofter passage through different media

    Juracy B. Magalhes

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar se o comportamento morfobiolgico e histopalgico de cerpa do Trypanosoma cruzi mantido aps modificaes no seu meio de manuteno e multiplicao, foram estudados oito grupos de infeco experimental em camundongos com as cepas Y e Peruana, aps manuteno nas seguintes condies cultura acelular em meio de Warren, criopreservao em Nitrognio lquido durante trinta dias, passagem em triatomneos e passagem em camundongos. Os parmetros avaliados foram: parasitemia, mortalidade, sobrevida, morfologiaq dos parasitos no sangue perifrico, tropismo tssular e leses histopatolgicoas. Tanto com a cepa Y como Peruana, cada grupo experimental foi dividido em dois subgrupos de acordo com a dose de inculo, sendo um inoculado com 10.000 e outro com 50.000 formas tripomastigotas, menos o inoculado com formas de triatomneos em que o inculo foi apenas com 10.000 tripomastigotas. Observou-se na infeco pela cepa Y, retardo na evoluo da parasitemia nos inoculados com formas de cultura e atenuao de virulncia com o inculo de 10.000 formas. Os caracteres bsicos da cepa foram mantidos com predominncia de macrofagotropismo na fase inicial da infeco e miotropismo nas fases tardias,predominncia de forma delgadas e elevada patogenicidade, com 100% de mortalidade embora com variao nos periodos de sobrevida. Na infeco pela cepa Peruana observou-se tambm retardo da evoluo da parasitemia com o inculo de 10.000 formas provenientes de triatomneos, de cultura e de criopreservao. Entretanto, as caractersticas morfolgicas, o tropismo tissular e a patogenicidade foram mantidos.The behavior of two strains of Trypanosoma cruzi (Y and Peruvian strains in experimental mouse infection, after being passed through different conditions of maintainance and cultivation was studied. The conditions were: Warren's acellular culture medium, cryopreservation in liquid Nitrogen, passage through the insect vector and direct blood passage from mice to mice. The parameters considered for comparative study were as follows: parasitemia, mortality rate, maximum survival time, morphology of parasites in peripheral blood, tissue tropism and histopathological lesions. Each experimental group consisted of two sub-groups according to the inocula: 10.000 or 50.000 trypomastigotes. The basic characteristics of the strains remained unchanged. These were macrophagotropism, predominance of slender forms of the parasite in early infection and 100 per cent mortality rate in the acute phase of the infection. However, decrease in the virulence was observed when the culture forms were used or when the infection with low inoculum was used (10.00 forms. Therefore the main biological characteristics of the strains tended to remain the same, regardless of the conditions used for maintainance and cultivation.

  18. Pathogenicity of Rhodococcus equi in mice, isolated from environment, human and horse clinical samples Patogenicidade atogenicidade em camundongos de isolados clí- clínicos, nicos, ambientais e humanos de Rhodococcus equi

    Mateus M. Costa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular pathogen associated with bronchopneumonia, mesenteric lymphadenitis and enterocolitis in foals. Although R. equi is likely to be found in every horse-breeding farm, the clinical disease is unrecognized in most of them. Capsule components, equi factor, micolic acid and some products encoded by the large 85-90Kb plasmid were described as virulence factors. However, the pathogenesis of R. equi infections and the sensibility of foals are not completely understood. The aim of this study was evaluate the virulence of R. equi isolated from human, horses and environment for mices. Nine strains carrying the 85-90Kb plasmid isolated from foal clinical specimens, one from immunodeficient human patient and six plasmidless strains (four isolated from feces, one from pasture and one from immunodeficient human patient were inoculated in cyclophosphamide immunossuppressed mice. The pathological changes and viability of R. equi cells in the liver of mice was verified after the 3rd, 6th an 10th day after inoculation for horse and environmental isolates and for R. equi isolates from human patients on the 1st, 3rd and 6th day. During the necropsy procedures, infiltrate of macrophages and pyogranulomatous lesions were detected after the sixth pos-inoculation day in the liver and spleen. In horse isolates, only plasmid positive strains were virulent, but in human isolates both strains (plasmid positive e plasmid negative were virulent. Both groups of the immunossupressed mice inoculated with R. equi isolated from environment showed pathological changes. All R. equi strains were unable to kill non imunossuppressed mice.Rhodococ-cus equi é um patógeno intracelular facultativo associado com broncopneumonia, linfadenite mesentérica e enterocolite em potros. Apesar do patógeno ser amplamente distribuído no ambiente equino, a doença não é encontrada em todos os criatórios. Componentes capsulares, "fator equi", ácido micólico e alguns produtos codificados por um grande plasmídeo de 85-90Kb foram descritos como fatores de virulência. Entretanto, a patogênese da infecção e a susceptibilidade dos potros não s��o completamente entendidas. Nove cepas carreando o plasmídeo e isoladas de potros doentes, um isolado de paciente humano imunossuprimido, e seis cepas sem plasmídeo (4 de fezes, 1 de pastagem e 1 de paciente humano imunossuprimido foram inoculadas em camundongos imunossuprimidos com ciclofosfamida. As alterações patológicas e a viabilidade das células de R. equi no fígado foram verificadas depois do terceiro, sexto e décimo dia após a inoculação para isolados clínicos e depois do primeiro, terceiro e sexto dia para isolados de pacientes humanos. Na necropsia foram detectados infiltrado de macrófagos e lesões piogranulomatosas no fígado e baço dos camundongos após o sexto dia da inoculação. Para isolados clínicos, somente os plasmídeo positivos foram virulentos, mas para os humanos, ambos os isolados (plasmídeo positivos e plasmídeo negativos foram virulentos. Ambos os grupos de camundongos imunossuprimidos inoculados com isolados ambientais mostraram alterações patológicas. Todos os isolados foram incapazes de matar camundongos imunocompe-tentes.

  19. Avaliação experimental do atordoamento da tireóide em camundongos Experimental assessment of thyroid stunning in mice

    Marcelo Tatit Sapienza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O atordoamento do tecido tireoidiano após doses diagnósticas de iodo-131 é descrito como causa de baixa captação e resposta insatisfatória a doses terapêuticas subseqüentes. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi desenvolver um modelo experimental do atordoamento tireoidiano pós-actínico. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Um total de 63 camundongos recebeu dose equivalente de 45 Sv na tireóide, mediante irradiação com iodo-123. Esta dose é similar à estimada para os remanescentes tireoidianos após administração de 185 MBq (5 mCi de iodo-131 para pesquisa de corpo inteiro. As medidas de captação tireoidiana de uma dose traçadora de iodo-131 foram efetuadas em subgrupos de nove animais, 2, 3, 5, 7, 12 e 26 dias após a irradiação. A captação nestes subgrupos foi correlacionada à de um grupo controle de nove animais não irradiados. RESULTADOS: A captação de iodo no grupo controle foi de 9,26%. Não foi observada variação significativa do valor médio de captação no período de tempo estudado. Houve aumento da variância das medidas efetuadas cinco dias após a irradiação, quando quatro dos nove animais apresentaram captação menor que 60% da média do grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve queda sistemática da captação nos animais submetidos à dose de 45 Sv, notando-se, entretanto, tendência a maior flutuação na captação cinco dias após a irradiação. Estes achados podem ser decorrentes de diferenças interespécies ou podem indicar que o atordoamento com doses nesta faixa dependa de características individuais ou anormalidades funcionais prévias, que se somam ao efeito da radiação.OBJECTIVE: Thyroid tissue stunning after iodine-131 doses is a known cause of low uptake and unsatisfactory response to subsequent therapeutic doses. The objective of this study was to develop an experimental model of postactinic thyroid stunning. METHODS: A total of 63 mice received an equivalent dose of 45 Sv on the thyroid, by iodine-123 irradiation. This dose is similar to the estimated dose for the thyroidal remnants after administration of 185 MBq (5 mCi of iodine-131 for whole body scans. The thyroid uptake of iodine-131 tracer doses were measured in subgroups of 9 animals, 2, 3, 5, 7, 12 and 26 days after irradiation and compared to a control group. RESULTS: The iodine uptake in the control group was 9.26%. The mean uptake value variation during the studied period was not significant. There was an increase in variance of the measures performed 5 days after irradiation, when 4 of 9 animals presented uptake 60% lower than the control group mean. CONCLUSION: There was not a systematic uptake fall in the animals submitted to the 45 Sv dose, although there was a trend for higher fluctuation in the uptake 5 days after irradiation. These findings may be due to interspecies differences or may indicate that the stunning with such doses may depend on individual characteristics or previous functional thyroid abnormalities, in addition to the radiation effect.

  20. Hepatic hyperplasia and damages induces by zearalenone Fusarium mycotoxins in BALB/c mice / Hiperplasia e danos hepticos induzidos por micotoxinas do gnero Fusarium-zearalenone em camundongos BAB/c

    Pronobesh, Chatopadhyay; Anurag, Pandey; Asshwani K., Chaurasia; Addesh, Upadhyay; Sanjev, Karmakar; Lokendra, Singh.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Zearalenone um micoestrgeno e considerado como micotoxina. OBJETIVO: Avaliar se o Zearalenone produz hepatotoxicidade por administrao via oral. MTODOS: Zearalenone foi administrada por via oral em doses de 50 g, 100 g e 200 g/peso corporal/dia/14 dias, respectivamente, para trs g [...] rupos de camundongos BAB/C. Modalidades diagnsticas usadas para avaliar o dano heptico e comprometimento da funo heptica pr- e ps-administrao de Zearalenone incluram atividade enzimtica de marcadores hepticos, tempo de sono por pentobarbital, atividade do citocromo P-450 e avaliao histopatolgica heptica. RESULTADOS: Alteraes histopatolgicas significantes como congesto sinusoidal, vacuolizao citoplasmtica, necrose hepatocelular e infiltrao neutroflica foram observadas aps avaliao histolgica de cada grupo aps exposio acumulada de Zearalenone. Alm disto, a exposio Zearalenone incrementou a atividade das enzimas alanina transaminase e aspartato transaminase e perxidos lipdicos, ao passo que as atividades teciduais de glutationa e citocromo P-450 diminuiram, quando comparadas com camundongos-controle. Zearalenone tambm aumentou o tempo de sono e diminuiu a latncia do sono aps a administrao de pentobarbital por via intra-abdominal, quando comparados com camundongos-controle, o que indica o comprometimento das enzimas do metabolismo heptico por ela. CONCLUSO: Zearalenone uma potente hepatotoxina quando administrada por via oral. Abstract in english CONTEXT: Zearalenone is a mycoestrogen and considered a mycotoxin. OBJECTIVE: To establish whether zearalenone produced hepatotoxicity via oral administration. METHODS: Zearalenone was orally administered at a dose of 50 mg, 100 mg and 200 mg ZEN/body weight/daily, respectively, for 14 days to three [...] groups of BALB/c mice. Diagnostic modalities used to evaluate hepatic damage and impaired hepatic function pre- and post zearalenone administration included hepatic marker enzyme activity, pentobarbital sleeping time, cytochrome P-450 activities and histopathologic evaluation of liver. RESULTS: Significant histopathologic changes viz. sinusoidal congestion, cytoplasmic vacuolization, hepatocellular necrosis and neutrophil infiltration were observed after evaluating of liver section from each group after accumulated zearalenone exposure. Further, zearalenone exposure increased activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and lipid peroxides whereas activities of tissue glutathione and cytochrome P450 were decreased as compared to control mice. Zearalenone also increased the sleeping time and decreased sleeping latency after pentobarbital through intraperitoneal route as compared to control mice which indicates that the impairment of hepatic metabolizing enzymes by zearalenone. CONCLUSION: Zearalenone is a potential hepatotoxin by oral route.

  1. Expresso de galectina-3 e beta-catenina em leses pr-malignas e carcinomatosas de lngua de camundongos Galectin-3 and beta-catenin expression in premalignant and carcinomatous lesions in tongue of mice

    Juliana Moreira de Almeida Sant'ana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUO: A galectina-3 (GAL3 apresenta importantes papis na biologia tumoral e recentemente foi mostrada a sua participao na via de sinalizao Wnt, translocando a beta-catenina para o ncleo. Expresso alterada de GAL3 e beta-catenina tem sido descrita em cnceres, mas no h estudos avaliando a expresso de ambas em displasias e carcinomas desenvolvidos em modelos de carcinognese de lngua. OBJETIVOS: Estudar a expresso de GAL3 e beta-catenina em leses displsicas e carcinomas induzidos experimentalmente em lngua de camundongos. MATERIAL E MTODOS: Vinte camundongos C57BL/6 machos foram desafiados com 4NQO na gua de beber por 16 semanas e sacrificados na semana 16 e 32. Aps o sacrifcio, as lnguas foram removidas, processadas, coradas por hematoxilina e eosina (HE para deteco de displasias e carcinomas. Ensaio imuno-histoqumico foi realizado para determinar o ndice de positividade para GAL3 e beta-catenina nessas leses, bem como uma correlao entre elas em carcinomas. RESULTADOS: O nmero de camundongos afetados por carcinoma aumentou entre as semanas 16 e 32 (22,2% vs. 88,9% e o de displasia diminuiu (66,7% vs. 11,1%. Um aumento de clulas positivas para beta-catenina no membranosa e GAL3 citoplasmtica foi observado nas displasias e nos carcinomas, mas essa diferena no foi estatisticamente significativa. No entanto, um aumento estatisticamente significativo de GAL3 nuclear foi observado na evoluo de displasia para carcinoma (p = 0,04. Nenhuma correlao foi encontrada entre beta-catenina e GAL3. CONCLUSO: Tanto nas displasias quanto nos carcinomas a via de sinalizao Wnt est ativa, e o aumento de GAL3 nuclear nos carcinomas sugere um papel na transformao maligna do epitlio lingual.INTRODUCTION: Galectin-3 plays pivotal role in tumor biology and its participation in Wnt signaling pathway translocating beta-catenin into the nucleus has been recently demonstrated. Altered galectin-3 and beta-catenin expressions have been described in different tumors, however, there are no studies evaluating their expression in dysplasias and carcinomas induced in carcinogenic tongue models. OBJECTIVES: To study galectin-3 and beta-catenin expressions in dysplasias and carcinomas experimentally induced in mouse tongue. METHODS: Twenty C57Bl/6 male mice were treated with 4NQO in their drinking water for 16 weeks and sacrificed at weeks 16 and 32. Tongues were removed, routinely processed, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin to detect dysplasias and carcinomas. An immunohistochemical assay was performed to determine the level of positivity for galectin-3 and beta-catenin in these lesions as well as their correlation in carcinomas. RESULTS: The number of mice affected by carcinomas increased from week 16 to week 32 (22.2% vs. 88.9% and the number affected by dysplasias decreased (66.7% vs. 11.1%. There was an increase in non-membranous beta-catenin- and cytoplasmic galectin-3-positive cells in dysplasias and carcinomas, although this difference was not statiscally significant. Nonetheless, there was a significant increase of nuclear galectin-3-positive cells in the evolution from dysplasia to carcinoma (p = 0.04. There was no correlation between beta-catenin and galectin-3. CONCLUSION: Wnt signaling pathway is active in both dysplasias and carcinomas and the increase of nuclear galectin-3-positive cells in carcinomas suggests its influence on malignant transformation in the tongue epithelium.

  2. Sensibilidade toxicológica e especificidade do teste de microfixação de complemento na detecção de toxinas botulínicas C e D em meio de cultura e fígado de camundongos

    Menegucci Edna A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo pretendeu-se verificar a sensibilidade toxicológica e especificidade do Teste de Microfixação de Complemento (MCF na detecção de toxinas botulínicas C e D no sobrenadante de cultivos bacterianos e em fígados de camundongos inoculados com doses letais e subletais. As toxinas foram produzidas em meio de cultura Hemoline, tituladas através da determinação da DL50 pelo Bioensaio em Camundongo e diluídas nas concentrações de 10, 1, 0,1, 0,01 e 0,001 DL50. Desta forma, foram utilizadas em dois modelos experimentais, onde foi determinada a sensibilidade toxicológica do MCF no sobrenadante do meio de cultura com as diluições descritas acima e ainda em extratos hepáticos de camundongos com peso corporal de 20g, inoculados com as mesmas diluições. A tentativa de evidenciação das toxinas botulínicas nos extratos hepáticos de camundongos foi realizada através da sua extração após a morte pela administração das doses letais e ainda pelo sacrifício dos animais inoculados com doses subletais, em intervalos de 5 dias. Os resultados evidenciaram uma sensibilidade toxicológica para o MCF de 100% para os dois tipos de toxinas ao nível de 0,01 DL50, quando testados os sobrenadantes de meio de cultura, portanto 100 vezes superior ao Bioensaio em Camundongo. A sensibilidade toxicológica do MCF, quando examinados extratos hepáticos de camundongos inoculados com 1 e 10 DL50 de toxinas botulínicas C e D, foi inferior, com valores de 100, 80, 89 e 72%, respectivamente. Pelo teste foi possível detectar toxinas botulínicas tipos C e D nos extratos hepáticos de camundongos inoculados com doses subletais até 15 dias após a sua inoculação. A especificidade do MCF foi de 88 e 92%, quando testados extratos hepáticos de camundongos sadios, e confrontados com as antitoxinas C e D; e 100% no sobrenadante do meio de cultura. Os resultados apontam para uma possível utilização do teste como importante instrumento de pesquisa e ainda na eventual substituição dos testes in vivo pelas suas implicações éticas e limitações práticas.

  3. Estudo da associação Li2CO3 e adoçante não-calórico, C7H5NO3S, em células de medula óssea de camundongos A study of Li2CO3 and C7H5NO3S noncaloric sweetener association in mice bone marrow cells

    Simone Busko Valim

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A apresentação destes resultados é uma conseqüência da linha de pesquisa desenvolvida com o carbonato de lítio - Li2CO3 (Li - e adoçantes não-calóricos, em animais de laboratório em fase de estudos, acrescentando-se sacarina (Sc e utilizando-se camundongos Swiss fêmeas. O objetivo foi avaliar diferenças estatisticamente significantes como indicadoras de mutagenicidade, quando grupos de camundongos receberam os tratamentos. Em nove tabelas, analisou-se o percentual de micronúcleos (MN calculados em eritrócitos policromáticos (EP e normocromáticos (EN, isoladamente, e na soma total. Os animais foram tratados por dez dias, v.o. com Li, na dose de 100mg/kg, ou Li associado à sacarina (Sc, nesta mesma diluição. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados com os grupos tratados com ciclofosfamida - Ci. (+ e água - controle (-. A análise de variância seguida do teste de Tukey mostrou diferenças estatisticamente significativas para as médias do percentual de MN em EP, EN e na soma dos totais com valores de F iguais a 16,57**, 9,67** e 15,63**, respectivamente. A comparação dois a dois foi analisada pelos testes “t” de Student (p This article presents the results of a research, project designed to evaluate the association of lithium carbonate and noncaloric sweetener in laboratory Swiss albino female mice, in a study phase using saccharin (Sc. The aim of this study was to evaluate significant differences as indicators of mutagenesis in treated mice groups. In nine tables, the micronucleus (MN rate calculated in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE was assessed. The animals were lithium orally treated for 10 days at the concentration of 100mg/kg or lithium treated in association with saccharin at the same concentration. The results were compared to groups treated with cyclophosphamide (Ci (+ and water (- - controls. Variance statistical analysis followed by Tukey’s test showed significant differences (p < 0.05 as for the mean MN rates in PCE and NCE and as for sum total with F= 16.57, 9.67 and F = 15.63 respectively. The by two comparison was analyzed by Student’s “t” test and significant differences were observed for Ci (+ group only. Considering the methodology used in female mice and the statistical analysis employed no mutagenesis indication was found MN frequency in bone marrow cells for this species.

  4. O uso do aspirado de medula óssea de ilíaco em falhas ósseas de fêmures de camundongos: estudo experimental The use of inhaled bone marrow of ileum in bone failures of femurs of rats: experimental study

    Alberto Tesconi Croci

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores estudam a utilização de medula óssea em camundongos como estimulação da formação de calo ósseo. Foram utilizados dez camundongos adultos machos de linhagem isogênica gioto com peso de aproximadamente 250 gramas, e realizadas falhas ósseas na região distal do fêmur com alternância do lado direito e esquerdo, divididos em grupos A e B, sendo como controle camundongos com falha óssea isolado e com falhas ósseas com medula óssea colhida previamente de cada camundongo. Após análise qualitativa e quantitativa foi observado que o uso do aspirado de medula óssea não leva à estimulação da formação do calo ósseo e não há o aumento de processo inflamatório local.The aim of this study is to analyze the bone marrow employment in rats to stimulate the bone callus formation. Ten adult rats were used, male, isogenic, gioto lineage, approximate weight of 250 grams. Bone failures were produced at femur distal portion, alternating the right and left sides, and they were divided in group A and B. The control was held in rats presenting an isolated bone failure or having their bone marrow previously collected After quantitative and qualitative analysis, it was observed that the bone marrow utilization does not lead to the bone callus formation and there isn't an increase in the local inflammation process.

  5. Capacidade da matriz extracelular da medula óssea de induzir proliferação de células mielóides in vitro no modelo de desnutrição protéica em camundongos Capacity of the extracellular matrix of the bone marrow to induce proliferation of myeloid cells in vitro in model of protein malnutrition in mice

    Cidônia de Lourdes Vituri; Márcio Alvarez-Silva; Andréa Gonçalves Trentin; Primavera Borelli

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho tem por objetivo verificar se a matriz extracelular (MEC) obtida da medula óssea de camundongos com desnutrição protéica energética sustenta a sobrevivência, se induz proliferação de células mielóides, bem como avaliar a capacidade desta MEC de interagir com citocinas hematopoiéticas in vitro. Camundongos machos "Swiss" foram submetidos à desnutrição protéica (4% de caseína) até que perdessem 20% do peso inicial e o grupo-controle foi mantido com uma dieta contendo 14% de caseín...

  6. Avaliao de trs cepas de vrus rbico, antigenicamente distintas, em camundongos: I - Estudo dos perodos de observao clnica Evaluation of three antigenically different rabies virus strains in mice: I - Study of the clinical observation periods

    Pedro Manuel Leal Germano

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, comparativamente, o comportamento de trs cepas de vrus rbico, duas de origem de co, Jales e Nigria, e uma de origem de morcego, DR 19, com perfis antignicos do nucleocapside distintos. Estas cepas foram inoculadas por via intramuscular, na face interna da coxa, em dois grupos de camundongos, com 21 e 28 dias de idade. Os animais foram observados durante 30 dias, levando-se em considerao os perodos de observao clnica (incubao e durao da doena, determinando-se os coeficientes de mortalidade para cada grupo etrio e para cada uma das cepas virais, bem como o ttulo infectante de pool de crebros de cada sub-grupo experimental. Os resultados obtidos permitiram constatar comportamento semelhante entre as cepas Jales e Nigria, notadamente em relao aos perodos de observao clnica e mortalidade, para ambos os grupos etrios, diferindo, todavia, quando comparados aos da cepa DR 19.A study was conducted to compare three rabies virus strains, two of them, Jales and Nigeria, isolated from dogs, and the other, DR 19, from vampire bats, with different nucleocapside antigenic variations. These strains were intramuscularly inoculated in the inside part of the thigh of 21 and 28 day-old mice. The animals were observed for 30 days, in accordance with the clinical observation periods (incubation and illness. Mortality rates by age and viral strain were recorded. The brain pooled infective title of each experimental subgroup was determined. The results showed that Jales and Nigeria strains were similar when clinical observation periods and mortality rates were analysed for both age groups. However, these results were different from to those obtained for the DR 19 strain.

  7. Sensibilidade toxicológica e especificidade do teste de microfixação de complemento na detecção de toxinas botulínicas C e D em meio de cultura e fígado de camundongos Toxicological sensitivity and specificity of the micro-complement fixation test for the detection of botulinum toxins C and D in culture medium and liver of mice

    Edna A. Menegucci; Iveraldo S. Dutra; Jürgen Döbereiner

    1998-01-01

    No presente estudo pretendeu-se verificar a sensibilidade toxicológica e especificidade do Teste de Microfixação de Complemento (MCF) na detecção de toxinas botulínicas C e D no sobrenadante de cultivos bacterianos e em fígados de camundongos inoculados com doses letais e subletais. As toxinas foram produzidas em meio de cultura Hemoline, tituladas através da determinação da DL50 pelo Bioensaio em Camundongo e diluídas nas concentrações de 10, 1, 0,1, 0,01 e 0,001 DL50. Desta forma, foram uti...

  8. Perfil de proteases de lesões cutâneas experimentais em camundongos tratadas com a lectina isolada das sementes de Canavalia brasiliensis Proteases profile of skin wounds treated with lectin from Canavalia brasiliensis seeds

    Flávio de Oliveira Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil de proteases em lesões cutâneas experimentais tratadas com a lectina isolada das sementes da Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr livre e conjugada com o seu açúcar específico. Lesões cirúrgicas foram produzidas assepticamente na região dorsal de camundongos (n=120, divididos de acordo com o tratamento empregado: Grupo NaCl (NaCl 150mM, Grupo manose (manose 100mM, Grupo ConBr (ConBr 100µg mL-1 e Grupo ConBr/manose (solução contendo ConBr 100µg mL-1 preparada em manose 100mM. Amostras da área lesada foram coletadas para determinação do perfil de proteases e atividade colagenolítica no 2°, no 7° e no 12° dia de pós-operatório. O perfil das proteínas realizado através de eletroforese SDS-PAGE demonstrou a presença de proteínas com massa molecular de 67kDa em todos os grupos. O Grupo ConBr/manose apresentou a maior atividade colagenolítica no 12° dia de pós-operatório. A lectina isolada das sementes da Canavalia brasiliensis influenciou a expressão de proteases com atividade colagenolítica podendo assim interferir no processo cicatricial das lesões cutâneas em camundongos.The objective of the present study was determining the proteases profile of cutaneous healings treated with free and conjugated lectin of Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr and their specific sugar. An aseptic wound was produced in the thoracic area of the mice (n=120, divided according to the employed treatment: NaCl Group (150mM NaCl, manose Group (100mM manose, ConBr Group (100µg mL-1 ConBr and ConBr/manose Group (solution containing 100µg mL-1 ConBr prepared in 100mM manose. Samples of the injured area were collected for determination of proteases profile and collagenolytic activity on 2nd, 7th e 12th days after the surgery. Electrophoresis SDS-PAGE demonstrated proteins with molecular mass of 67kDa in all groups. Group IV presented the highest collagenolytic activity on the 12th day post surgery. ConBr lectin influenced proteases expression with collagenolytic activity thus being able to intervene on skin wound healing in mice.

  9. Metallothionein 3 attenuated the apoptosis of neurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in the senescence-accelerated mouse/PRONE8 (SAMP8) / Metalotioneina 3 atenuou a apoptose dos neurnios da regio CA1 do hipocampo em camundongos PRONE8 com envelhecimento acelerado (SAMP8)

    Feiyu, Ma; Hu, Wang; Bin, Chen; Feng, Wang; Haixiong, Xu.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Metalotionena 3 (MT-3) tem mostrado proteo contra a apoptose neuronal em crebros de pacientes com doena de Alzheimer. Zinco um potente inibidor da caspase-3, e sua deficincia pode promover a apoptose. No presente trabalho, foram dosados os nveis de zinco e cobre nos crebros de ca [...] mundongos PRONE8 com envelhecimento acelerado (SAMP8), visando investigar o efeito da MT-3 na apoptse dos neurnios da regio hipocampal CA1 destes camundongos. MTODO: Os nveis de zinco e cobre em amostras cerebrais de camundongos SAMP8 e de controles normais SAMR1 foram determinados por absoro atmica em espectrofotometria. Foram administradas MT-3 ou MT-1 intraperitoneais durante quatro semanas, sendo em seguida avaliada a apoptose pelo mtodo TUNEL , enquanto a expresso da protena anti-apopttica Bcl-2 e a protena pr-apopttica Bax foram avaliadas por imunohistoqumica. RESULTADOS: Em comparao aos camundongos SMAR1, o nvel de zinco nas amostras cerebrais dos camundongos SAMP8 estava significativamente diminudo (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Metallothionein 3 (MT-3) has been shown to protect against apoptotic neuronal death in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Zinc is a potent inhibitor of caspase-3 and its deficiency was found to promote apoptosis. Here, we measured the zinc and copper content in the brains of [...] senescence-accelerated mouse/PRONE8 (SAMP8) and sought to investigate the effect of MT-3 on the apoptosis of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region of these mice. METHOD: The zinc and copper content in the brain samples of SAMP8 and normal control SAMR1 mice were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mice were administered intraperitoneally for four weeks with MT-3 or MT1 and thereafter apoptosis was measured using the TUNEL method and the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and proapoptotic protein Bax was examined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Compared with that in SMAR1 mice, the content of zinc in the brains of SAMP8 mice was significantly reduced (P

  10. Identificação da Leptospira interrogans sorovar pomona em camundongos geneticamente selecionados, para a alta e baixa produção de anticorpos, através da técnica de imunoperoxidase em tecido renal e isolamento bacteriano em meio de Fletcher Identification of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona in mice genetically selected for high and low antibody production, by means of the immunoperoxidase technique in renal tissue and bacterial isolation in Fletcher medium

    Maria Cristina Santos Haanwinckel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar a presença da Leptospira interrogans sorovar pomona em camundongos geneticamente selecionados para a alta e baixa resposta a anticorpos. Todos os animais foram submetidos ao isolamento bacteriano, imunohistoquímica (imunoperoxidase em cortes de tecido renal e coloração através da hematoxilina-eosina. A técnica de imunoperoxidase apresentou-se pouco mais sensível em relação ao cultivo, entretanto, ambas foram bons parâmetros de identificação do agente. Presença de lesões renais mais intensas ocorreram em períodos em que houve maior número de bactérias isoladas em meio de cultivo. Camundongos da linhagem HIV-A conseguiram eliminar as leptospiras com maior eficiência e rapidez em relação as linhagem LIV-A, entretanto o estudo demonstrou que ambas linhagens da seleção IV-A foram eficientes em controlar o processo infeccioso.The present work had the objective of identifying the presence of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona in mice that had been genetically selected for high and low response to antibodies. All the animals were subjected to bacterial isolation, immunohistochemical analysis (immunoperoxidase in renal tissue sections and hematoxylin-eosin staining. The immunoperoxidase technique was little more sensitive than culturing, but both were good parameters for agent identification. More severe renal lesions were present at times when there were greater numbers of bacteria isolated in culture medium. Mice of the lineage HIV-A were able to eliminate the Leptospira more efficiently and faster than the lineage LIV-A could. However, the study demonstrated that both lineages of the IV-A selection were efficient in controlling the infectious process.

  11. Evaluation of the immune response to CRA and FRA recombinant antigens of Trypanosoma cruzi in C57BL/6 mice Avaliação da resposta imune em camundongos C57BL/6 imunizados com os antígenos recombinantes CRA e FRA de Trypanosoma cruzi

    Valéria Rêgo Alves Pereira

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Humoral and cellular immune responses were evaluated in 44 C57BL/6 mice immunized with the Trypanosoma cruzi recombinant antigens CRA and FRA. Both antigens induced cutaneous immediate-type hypersensitivity response. The levels of IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3 were high in CRA immunized mice. IgG3 was the predominant isotype. Although no difference in antibody levels was observed in FRA-immunized mice when compared to control mice, both antigens were able to induce lymphoproliferation in immunized mice. Significant differences were observed between incorporation of [³H]- thymidine by spleen cell stimulated in vitro with CRA or FRA and the control group. These results suggest that CRA and FRA could be involved in mechanisms of resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi infection.As respostas imune humoral e celular foram avaliadas em 44 camundongos C57Bl/6 imunizados com os antígenos recombinantes CRA e FRA de Trypanosoma cruzi. Ambos antígenos induziram reação de hipersensibilidade do tipo imediato. Os níveis de IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b e IgG3 foram elevados nos camundongos imunizados com CRA. IgG3 foi o isotipo predominante. Nenhuma diferença nos níveis de anticorpos foi observada em camundongos imunizados com FRA em relação aos animais controle. No entanto, ambos antígenos foram capazes de induzir proliferação de linfócitos em camundongos imunizados. Diferenças significativas foram observadas entre a incorporação da timidina - [³H] pelas células esplênicas estimuladas com CRA ou FRA e o grupo controle. Esses resultados sugerem que CRA e FRA poderão estar envolvidos nos mecanismos de resistência à infecção pelo Trypanosoma cruzi.

  12. Exercício físico reduz a hiperglicemia de jejum em camundongos diabéticos através da ativação da AMPK Physical exercise decreases fasting hyperglycemia in diabetic mice through AMPK activation

    Mônica F. de Pádua; Thomas F. de Pádua; Pauli, José R.; de Souza, Cláudio T.; Adelino S. R. da Silva; Eloize C. C. Ropelle; Cintra, Dennys E.; José Barreto C. Carvalheira; Ropelle, Eduardo R.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A deficiência na captação de glicose em tecidos periféricos e o aumento da gliconeogênese hepática são fenômenos fisiopatológicos observados em pacientes diabéticos do tipo 2. O exercício físico é considerado um importante aliado para a melhora do perfil glicêmico em pacientes diabéticos; entretanto, os mecanismos envolvidos nesse processo não estão completamente elucidados. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o papel da proteína AMPK no controle glicêmico em camundongos diabéticos após o exercício...

  13. Atividade dissacaridsica intestinal da esquistossomose mansnica: estudo evolutivo em camundongos com diferentes cargas de infestao / Intestinal disaccharidase activity in schistosomiais mansoni: an evolutionary study of mice with different degrees of infestation

    M. G. A., Sadek; D. R., Borges; S. J., Miszputen.

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available A esquistossomose mansnica compromete vrios rgos, sendo o intestino e o fgado os mais agredidos. Com a inteno de verificar o comprometimento do intestino delgado, dependente da intensidade e do tempo de infeco pelo Schistosoma mansoni, analisou-se a atividade das dissacaridases lactase, s [...] acarase e maltase em 112 camundongos, distribudos em 3 grupos: grupo I controle, grupo II infestado com 30 cercrias, grupo III infestado com 60 cercrias. Observamos uma diminuio da atividade lactsica, sacarsica e maltsica do intestino delgado, decorrente da infestao esquistossomdtica, do tempo de infestao e da alterao entre ambos. O leo o segmento que demonstrou maior sensibilidade a esquistossomose, tendo uma diminuio das suas dissacaridases a partir da fase inicial de infestao. Opostamente, o jejuno s mais tardiamente mostra essas alteraes, exceto em relao a lactase. Detectou-se um aumento da atividade dissacaridsica, inclusive para a lactase, em todos os grupos, com a evoluo etria dos animais, quantitativamente menor nos infestados. Cargas de 30 e 60 cercrias devem ser consideradas de mesmo porte, pois produziram leduo semelhante na atividade dissacaridsica. Abstract in english Schistosomiasis mansoni attacks a number of organs, of which the intestine and liver are the most affected. This analysis was undertaken in order to verify the degree to which the small intestine is attacked, in accordance with the intensity and duration of infestation by Schistosoma mansoni; it foc [...] used on the activity of disaccharidase lactase, saccharase and maltase in 112 mice, divided into 3 groups: group I, for control; group II, infested with 30 cercariae; and group III, infested with 60 cercariae. We observed a fall in lactase, saccharase and maltase activity in the small intestine, as a result of infestation by schistosomiasis, of the duration of infestation and of the interaction between the two. The ileum was the section showing greatest sensitivity to schistosomiasis, and its disaccharidases fell off right from the start of infestation. On the other hand, the jejunum only showed such alterations much later on, except as regards lactase. An increase in disaccharidase activity was detected in all groups as the age of the animals increased, but this was quantitatively lower in the infested animals. Infestation with 30 and 60 cercariae should he seen as of the same degree, as they produced similar reductions in disaccharidase activity.

  14. Grape extract and α-Tocopherol effect in cardiovascular disease model of Apo E -/- Mice Efeito do extrato de uva e α-Tocoferol em camundongos Apo E -/-, modelo de doença cardiovascular

    Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To verify the effect of consumption of grape extract isolated or combined with α-tocopherol supplementation on atherosclerosis model with Apo E -/- mice. METHODS: After six weeks of atherogenic diet, Apo E -/- mice were divided into the following groups: Control, Grape, Tocopherol and Grape plus Tocopherol. The treatment progressed for 11 weeks when animals were submitted to euthanasia. RESULTS: All the treatments presented hypocholesterolemic effect with reduction of serum and liver cholesterol levels. This effect was parallel to an increase in the fecal excretion of cholesterol. There was also a higher fecal excretion of saturated fatty acids in groups receiving grape extract or α-tocopherol. All the groups treated presented a tendency to show higher levels of vitamin E. The fatty acid profile showed a tendency for monounsaturated fatty acid preservation after grape extract and α-tocopherol consumption. Morphological analysis revealed a lower degree of evolution of the atherosclerotic plaque of the animals that were fed α-tocopherol combined with grape extract, even when no difference was found in the size of the largest lesion. CONCLUSION: A synergistic effect between the polyphenols and α-tocopherol was observed, resulting in diminished evolution of atherosclerosis and a greater beneficial effect on atherosclerosis than the isolated consumption of antioxidants.OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito do consumo de extrato de uva isolada ou combinada com a suplementação de α-tocoferol em modelo de aterosclerose, utilizando camundongos Apo E -/-. MÉTODOS: Os camundongos Apo E -/- foram tratados com dieta aterogênica por seis semanas e foram divididos em quatro grupos: Controle, Uva, Tocoferol e Uva e Tocoferol. Após 11 semanas de tratamento os animais foram submetidos à eutanasia. RESULTADOS: Todos os tratamentos apresentaram efeito hipocolesterolêmico, com redução de colesterol plasmático e hepático. Este efeito foi acompanhado de um aumento na excreção fecal de colesterol. Houve também uma maior excreção fecal de ácidos graxos saturados nos grupos que receberam extrato de uva ou de α-tocoferol. Todos os grupos apresentaram uma tendência a apresentar níveis mais elevados de vitamina E. O perfil de ácidos graxos mostrou uma tendência para a preservação de ácidos graxos monoinsaturados, após consumo de extrato de uva e α-tocoferol. A análise morfológica revelou um menor grau de evolução da placa aterosclerótica dos animais que foram alimentados com α-tocoferol combinado com extrato de uva, mesmo quando não houve diferença no tamanho da lesão. CONCLUSÃO: Foi observado um efeito sinergístico entre os polifenóis e α-tocoferol, resultando na redução na evolução da aterosclerose e um maior de efeito benéfico na aterosclerose do que o consumo isolado de antioxidantes sobre a aterosclerose do que o consumo isolado de antioxidantes.

  15. Comparative efficacies of Zataria multiflora essential oil and itraconazole against disseminated Candida albicans infection in BALB/c mice / Eficincia comparada do leo essencial de Zataria multiflora e itraconazol contra infeco disseminada de Candida albicans em camundongos BALB/c

    A.R., Khosravi; H., Shokri; Z., Tootian; M., Alizadeh; R., Yahyaraeyat.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A candidase disseminada um problema srio de sade publica decorrente da invaso por espcies de Candida, e Candida albicans em particular. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficincia do leo essencial de Zataria multiflora e itraconazol na remoo de C. albicans das vsceras de camundongos [...] BALB/c com candidase disseminada. O leo essencial de Zataria multiflora foi extrado empregando um aparelho do tipo Clevenger e analisado por cromatografia a gs e espectrometria de massa (GC-MS). Para os experimentos de remoo, camundongos (20-25g, n=8 por grupo) receberam leo essencial nas doses de 30, 48 e 64 mg/kg e itraconazol na dose de 200 mg/kg via intraperitoneal (IP) por dois dias antes e aps a inoculao intravenosa de 0,5 x 10(6) blastsporos de C. albicans. Os animais tratados foram sacrificados no vigsimo dia e 0,1g dos tecidos homogeneizados foram semeados em meios especficos. De acordo com o GC-MS, os principais componentes do leo essencial foram carvacrol (61,29%) e timol (25,28%). Os resultados mostraram que a administrao IP de 64 mg/kg de leo essencial apresentou a eficincia mais alta na reduo de C. albicans e resultou na reduo de 39,5, 21,8, 141,5, 174 e 501 vezes na contagem mdia de C. albicans por 0,1g do fgado, bao, pulmes, crebro e rins, respectivamente, quando comparado ao controle positivo. O itraconazol apresentou reduo de C. albicans maior do que o leo essencial na dose de 30mg/kg nos rins (P Abstract in english Disseminated candidiasis is a serious problem in public health that results from the invasion of Candida species, in particular Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacies of Zataria multiflora essential oil and itraconazole in clearing C. albicans from the visceral organs [...] of BALB/c mice suffered from disseminated candidiasis. Zataria multiflora essential oil was extracted using Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For clearance experiment, mice (20-25 g, N=8 per group) received essential oil at doses of 30, 48 and 64 mg/kg and itraconazole at dose of 200 mg/kg intraperitoneally (IP) 2 days before and after intravenous inoculation of 0.510(6) C. albicans blastospores. The treated animals were sacrificed on day 20, and 0.1 g of the tissue homogenates was plated onto specific media. In GC-Mass, the main components of the essential oil were carvacrol (61.29%) and thymol (25.18%). The results demonstrated that IP administration of 64 mg/kg of the essential oil had the highest efficacy in reducing C. albicans and produced 39.5, 21.8, 141.5, 174 and 501-fold reductions in mean CFUs per 0.1 gram in Candida infections of the liver, spleen, lungs, brain and kidneys, respectively, compared to positive control. Itraconazole showed significantly more responsiveness than the essential oil at dose of 30 mg/kg in clearing C. albicans from the kidneys (P

  16. Eficcia da vacina anti-rbica ERA em camundongos, frente a quatro diferentes variantes antignicas do vrus da raiva Evaluation of ERA anti-rabies vaccine against four different antigenic strains of rabies virus in mice

    Elcio Benedito Erbolato

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a eficcia da vacina anti-rbica preparada em cultura primria de tecido renal de sunos, a partir da amostra ERA, na preveno da raiva em camundongos, frente a quatro cepas antigenicamente distintas do vrus rbico, duas originadas de co. C/SP e C/NG, uma originada de morcego, DR-19, e uma cepa fixa, CVS (Challenge Vrus Standard. O perfil antignico desta cepa foi determinado pela tcnica dos anticorpos antirrbicos monoclonais antinucleocapside. Os animais foram vacinados, aos 21 dias de idade, por via intramuscular na face interna da coxa, com uma nica dose de 0,05 ml de vacina e desafiados aos 42 dias de idade, em conjunto com os animais do grupo testemunho, por via intramuscular na face interna da coxa, com 0,05 ml da suspenso da cepa viral correspondente. Os resultados obtidos permitiram constatar que a vacina ERA protegeu 100% dos animais desafiados com as cepas C/SP, C/NG e DR-19 e 83% dos animais desafiados com cepa CVS, enquanto que a mortalidade no grupo testemunho variou entre 70 e 90%.ERA anti-rabies vaccine prepared in kidney tissue culture was evaluated against four different antigenic strains of rabies virus in mice: two of them dog strains, C/SP and C/NG, another a bat vampire strain, DR-19, and the CVS strain. The CVS antigenical characteristics were determined by means the antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies technique. Twenty one days old mice were vaccinated, intramuscularly, in the inner side of the thigh, with 0.05 ml of vaccine and challenged at 42 days old, together with those of the control group, intramuscularly, in the inner side of the thigh, with 0.05 ml of the corresponding viral strain dilution. The ERA anti-rabies vaccine protected 100% of all the mice challenged with C/SP, C/NG and DR-19 strains and 83% of those challenged with CVS. The control groups mortality rate varied between 70 and 90%.

  17. Avaliao dos efeitos centrais dos florais de Bach em camundongos atravs de modelos farmacolgicos especficos / Evaluation of central effects of Bach Flowers Remedies in mice using specific pharmacological models

    Mrcia M., De-Souza; Milene, Garbeloto; Karin, Denez; Iriane, Eger-Mangrich.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Os Remdios Florais de Bach (RFB), constituem um mtodo alternativo de tratamento usado largamente na teraputica de vrias patologias em muitos pases do mundo. Os RFB so reconhecidos como tratamento natural pela OMS desde 1956. Embora o mecanismo de ao dos RFB ainda no tenha sido elucidado, el [...] es vm sendo indicados para o tratamento de vrias doenas neuropsiquitricas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi detectar possveis efeitos centrais dos RFB em modelos farmacolgicos utilizados na pesquisa de substncias com efeitos ansiolticos, hipnticos, antidepressivos e neurolpticos. Para tanto, camundongos receberam um tratamento agudo via oral (0,45 mL) 1 hora antes dos testes. Os resultados mostraram que os florais Gorse e, em conjunto, White chestnut, Agrymony e Vervain exibiram perfis antidepressivo e hipntico, respectivamente. No modelo de ansiedade foi detectado efeito ansioltico do floral Agrymony. Entretanto, no foram observados efeitos neurolpticos do floral Clematis. Os resultados nos levam a sugerir que os efeitos centrais dos florais avaliados podem ser parcialmente detectados atravs de modelos farmacolgicos utilizados na pesquisa de agentes psicotrpicos. Abstract in english The Bach Flowers Remedies (BFR's) are worldwide used as an alternative therapeutical approach for several pathologies, being considered by WHO as natural therapy since 1956. Despite the unknown mechanism of action, the BFR's have been widely used on treatment of several neuropsychiatry diseases. Bas [...] ed on pharmacological models used to detect ansiolitic, antidepressant, hypnotic and neuroleptyc effects of different substances, the aim of this work was to evaluate possible central effects of the BFR's. For this purpose, albino mice received BFR's treatment (0.45 mL) by oral route 1 hour prior to each test. The results revealed that the Gorse flower alone and a mix of White chestnut, Agrymony and Vervain showed antidepressant and hypnotic effects, respectively. On the anxiety model, Agrymony showed an ansiolitic effect but no neuroleptyc effects were observed for Clematis floral therapy. The herein described results allow us to conclude that the studied BFR's central effects may be partially detected through pharmacological models currently and widely used on psychotropic agents research.

  18. Behavioral effects of aqueous and dichloromethane extracts of Erythrina speciosa Andrews, Fabaceae, leaves in mice Efeitos comportamentais do extrato aquoso bruto e frao diclorometano das folhas de Erythrina speciosa Andrews, Fabaceae, em camundongos

    Gabriela Lollato

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina speciosa Andrews, Fabaceae, is used in the South of Brazil as sedative and tranquilizers. In this study, behavioral effects of aqueous (AE and dichloromethane (DCM extracts of E. speciosa leaves were evaluated in male mice, as well as their lethal dose 50% (LD50. The extracts were administered by gavage in doses ranging from 50 to 400 mg/kg 1 h before the behavioral tests. AE decreased ambulation (50, 100 and 400 mg/kg and rearing (50 and 400 mg/kg in the open-field but did not influence elevated plus maze, rotarod and pentobarbital-induced sleep tests. No behavioral effects were observed after DCM administration. LD50 for both extracts were higher than 2000 mg/kg. The results showed that AE and DCM extracts of E. speciosa leaves do not produce anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus maze nor seems to depress the Central Nervous System. However, since serotonergic mechanisms may be involved in the pharmacological action of Erythrina plants and the elevated plus maze test is not adequate to evaluate serotonergic drugs, our results do not invalidate the use of this plant in folk medicine but suggest that the mechanism involved in a possible central action of Erythrina needs to be clarified.Erythrina speciosa Andrews, Fabaceae, usada na regio Sul do Brasil como sedativa e tranquilizante. Neste estudo, uma possvel ao central do extrato aquoso (EA e frao diclorometano (DCM das folhas da E. speciosa foi avaliada em camundongos machos submetidos a testes comportamentais 1 h aps o tratamento (gavage. Tambm foi avaliada a dose letal 50% (DL50 como indicativa da toxicidade aguda desta planta. O EA diminuiu a locomoo (50, 100 e 400 mg/kg e o levantar (50 e 400 mg/kg no teste de campo aberto mas no alterou nenhum dos comportamentos avaliados nos testes de labirinto em cruz elevado, rotarod e sono induzido. A DCM no alterou nenhum dos comportamentos avaliados. A DL50 de ambos os extratos foi estimada como sendo >2000 mg/kg. Os resultados sugerem ausncia de efeito ansioltico e depressor do Sistema Nervoso Central das folhas de E. speciosa. Entretanto, como mecanismos serotonrgicos podem estar envolvidos na ao farmacolgica de plantas do gnero Erythrina e o teste de labirinto em cruz elevado no adequado para avaliar o efeito de drogas serotonrgicas, nossos resultados no invalidam o uso desta planta na medicina popular, mas apontam a necessidade de se investigar o mecanismo de ao envolvido no possvel efeito central de plantas do gnero Erythrina.

  19. Anxiolytic effects of Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, stem-bark in elevated plus maze and marble burying test on mice Efeitos ansiolíticos das cascas de Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, em teste do labirinto em cruz elevada e teste de esconder esferas, em camundongos

    Vishal B Badgujar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, is a deciduous tree commonly known as Medshingi in local areas of Toranmal region of Maharashtra, India. Its bark paste is applied on fractured or dislocated bones, used as a fish poison; bark juice is used in cases of menorragia and leucorrhoea. The leaves of the plant have afforded chrysin-7-rutinoside. The present study was carried out to investigate the anxiolytic effects of methanol extract (DFBM, ethyl acetate extract (DFBEA and isolated compound DFB (V+VI of D. falcata stem-bark using animal models. Anxiolytic effects were studied by elevated plus maze (EPM and marble burying test (MBT assay. The crude dried DFBM and DFBEA extract was prepared in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg whereas DFB (V+VI compound was prepared in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg and were administered orally to mice for evaluation of anxiolytic activity. DFBEA 400 and DFB (V+VI 200 mg/kg produced highly significant (p Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, é uma árvore do tipo decidua, comumente conhecida como "Medshingi" na da região Toranmal de Maharashtra, na Índia. Uma pasta da casca é aplicada em fraturas ou luxação dos ossos e usada como veneno de peixe; o suco da casca é usada em casos de menorragia e leucorréia. Das folhas da planta foi isolado crisina-7-rutinoside. O presente estudo foi realizado para investigar os efeitos ansiolíticos do extrato metanólico (DFBM, acetato de etila (DFBEA e compostos isolados DFB (V + VI de D. falcata utilizando a casca do tronco em modelos animais. Os efeitos ansiolíticos foram estudados por labirinto em cruz elevada (EPM e o ensaio de esconder esferas de mármore (MBT. Os extratos bruto e seco DFBM DFBEA foram preparados em doses de 100, 200 e 400 mg/kg, enquanto que o composto DFB (V + VI foi preparado em doses de 50, 100 e 200 mg/kg e foram administrados em camundongos para avaliação da atividade ansiolítica. DFBEA 400 and DFB (V+VI 200 mg/kg produziram efeitos ansiolíticos significantes (p<0.01, de maneira dose-dependente, por aumentar o tempo despendido e o número de entradas nos braços abertos do EPM e por diminuir o número de esferas escondidas pelos camundongos no teste do MBT. Este estudo mostrou que os extratos DFBM, DFBEA e o composto isolado DFB (V + VI, contendo flavonóides com potencial farmacológico (como a crisina podem ser o responsável pela atividade ansiolítica.

  20. Antibody responses elicited in mice immunized with Bacillus subtilis vaccine strains expressing Stx2B subunit of enterohaemorragic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Resposta de anticorpos obtidas em camundongos imunizados com linhagens vacinais de Bacillus subtilis expressando a subunidade B da Stx2 de Escherichia coli O157:H7 enterohemorrgica

    P.A.D.P. Gomes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available No effective vaccine or immunotherapy is presently available for patients with the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS induced by Shiga-like toxin (Stx producedbyenterohaemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC strains, such as those belonging to the O157:H7 serotype. In this work we evaluated the performance of Bacillus subtilis strains, a harmless spore former gram-positive bacterium species, as a vaccine vehicle for the expression of Stx2B subunit (Stx2B. A recombinant B. subtilis vaccine strain expressing Stx2B under the control of a stress inducible promoter was delivered to BALB/c mice via oral, nasal or subcutaneous routes using both vegetative cells and spores. Mice immunized with vegetative cells by the oral route developed low but specific anti-Stx2B serum IgG and fecal IgA responses while mice immunized with recombinant spores developed anti-Stx2B responses only after administration via the parenteral route. Nonetheless, serum anti-Stx2B antibodies raised in mice immunized with the recombinant B. subtilis strain did not inhibit the toxic effects of the native toxin, both under in vitro and in vivo conditions, suggesting that either the quantity or the quality of the induced immune response did not support an effective neutralization of Stx2 produced by EHEC strains.At o presente o momento, no h vacina ou imunoterapia disponvel para pacientes com Sndrome Hemoltica Urmica (SHU induzida pela toxina Shiga-like (Stx produzida por linhagens de Escherichia coli entero-hemorragica (EHEC, tais como as pertencentes ao sorotipo O157:H7. Neste trabalho, avaliamos a performance de Bacillus subtilis, uma espcie bacteriana gram-positiva no-patognica formadora de esporos, como veculo vacinal para a expresso da subunidade B da Stx2B (Stx2B. Uma linhagem vacinal recombinante de B. subtilis expressando Stx2B, sob o controle de um promoter induzvel por estresse, foi administrada a camundongos BALB/c por via oral, nasal ou subcutnea usando clulas vegetativas e esporos. Camundongos imunizados com clulas vegetativas e esporos pela via oral desenvolveram ttulos anti-Stx2B baixos, mas especficos, de IgG srico e IgA fecal, enquanto camundongos imunizados com esporos recombinates desenvolveram resposta anti-Stx2B apenas aps a administrao pela via parenteral. No entanto, anticorpos produzidos em camundongos imunizados com a linhagem recombinante de B. subtilis no inibiram os efeitos txicos da toxina nativa em condies in vitro e in vivo, sugerindo que a quantidade e/ou a qualidade da resposta imune gerada no suportam uma neutralizao efetiva da Stx2 produzidas por linhagens de EHEC.

  1. Antibody responses elicited in mice immunized with Bacillus subtilis vaccine strains expressing Stx2B subunit of enterohaemorragic Escherichia coli O157:H7 / Resposta de anticorpos obtidas em camundongos imunizados com linhagens vacinais de Bacillus subtilis expressando a subunidade B da Stx2 de Escherichia coli O157:H7 enterohemorrgica

    P.A.D.P., Gomes; L.V., Bentancor; J.D., Paccez; M.E., Sbrogio-Almeida; M. S., Palermo; R.C.C., Ferreira; L.C.S., Ferreira.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available At o presente o momento, no h vacina ou imunoterapia disponvel para pacientes com Sndrome Hemoltica Urmica (SHU) induzida pela toxina Shiga-like (Stx) produzida por linhagens de Escherichia coli entero-hemorragica (EHEC), tais como as pertencentes ao sorotipo O157:H7. Neste trabalho, avaliamo [...] s a performance de Bacillus subtilis, uma espcie bacteriana gram-positiva no-patognica formadora de esporos, como veculo vacinal para a expresso da subunidade B da Stx2B (Stx2B). Uma linhagem vacinal recombinante de B. subtilis expressando Stx2B, sob o controle de um promoter induzvel por estresse, foi administrada a camundongos BALB/c por via oral, nasal ou subcutnea usando clulas vegetativas e esporos. Camundongos imunizados com clulas vegetativas e esporos pela via oral desenvolveram ttulos anti-Stx2B baixos, mas especficos, de IgG srico e IgA fecal, enquanto camundongos imunizados com esporos recombinates desenvolveram resposta anti-Stx2B apenas aps a administrao pela via parenteral. No entanto, anticorpos produzidos em camundongos imunizados com a linhagem recombinante de B. subtilis no inibiram os efeitos txicos da toxina nativa em condies in vitro e in vivo, sugerindo que a quantidade e/ou a qualidade da resposta imune gerada no suportam uma neutralizao efetiva da Stx2 produzidas por linhagens de EHEC. Abstract in english No effective vaccine or immunotherapy is presently available for patients with the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) induced by Shiga-like toxin (Stx) producedbyenterohaemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains, such as those belonging to the O157:H7 serotype. In this work we evaluated the performance [...] of Bacillus subtilis strains, a harmless spore former gram-positive bacterium species, as a vaccine vehicle for the expression of Stx2B subunit (Stx2B). A recombinant B. subtilis vaccine strain expressing Stx2B under the control of a stress inducible promoter was delivered to BALB/c mice via oral, nasal or subcutaneous routes using both vegetative cells and spores. Mice immunized with vegetative cells by the oral route developed low but specific anti-Stx2B serum IgG and fecal IgA responses while mice immunized with recombinant spores developed anti-Stx2B responses only after administration via the parenteral route. Nonetheless, serum anti-Stx2B antibodies raised in mice immunized with the recombinant B. subtilis strain did not inhibit the toxic effects of the native toxin, both under in vitro and in vivo conditions, suggesting that either the quantity or the quality of the induced immune response did not support an effective neutralization of Stx2 produced by EHEC strains.

  2. Avaliao de trs cepas de vrus rbico, antigenicamente distintas, em camundongos: II - Estudo da disseminao viral por diferentes rgos Evaluation of three antigenically different rabies virus strains in mice: II -Study of the viral dissemination in different organs

    Pedro Manuel Leal Germano

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, comparativamente, o grau de disseminao de trs cepas de vrus rbico, duas de origem de co, Jales e Nigria, e uma de origem de morcego, DR 19, com perfis antignicos do nucleocapside distintos. Estas cepas foram inoculadas por via intramuscular, na face interna da coxa, em dois grupos de camundongos, com 21 e 28 dias de idade. Os animais foram mantidos em observao por um perodo total de 30 dias, e dos animais vitimados pela infeco, foram coletados diferentes rgos, msculo lingual, corao, pulmo, rim e fgado, alm do crebro e da medula espinal, para avaliar-se o grau de disseminao de cada cepa viral, atravs da prova de imunofluorescncia direta (IFD. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que os decalques de crebro e de medula espinal apresentaram total concordncia na prova de IFD, constatando-se as maiores diferenas com as cepas Jales e Nigria, situando-se a cepa DR 19, intermediariamente, a estas duas. O msculo lingual foi o rgo que apresentou maior freqncia de positividade para ambos os grupos etrios e para as trs cepas virais.A study was conducted to compare three strains of rabies virus, two of them, Jales and Nigeria, isolated from dogs, and the other DR 19, from vampire bats, with different nucleo-capside antigenic characteristics. These strains were intramuscularly inoculated in the inner side of the thigh of 21 and 28 day-old mice. The animals were observed for 30 days and different organs: brain, spinal cord, tongue, heart, lung, kidney and liver were collected from the animals which died of rabies for the dissemination study by the immunofluorescent antibody technique (IFA. This technique showed complete agreement between brain and spinal cord. The greatest differences in dissemination were observed between Jales and Nigeria strains. The results observed for the DR 19 strain were situated between those of the two dog strains. The greates degree of dissemination was observed in the tongue for both age group and for all the strains.

  3. Resposta inflamatria causada pelas fraes do adesivo de gelatina-resorcina e formaldedo (Colagel em camundongos Inflammatory reaction caused by the fractions of the adhesive composed of gelatin resorcine and formaldehyde (Colagel in mice

    Andressa Gianotti Campos

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Diante de relatos de intensa reao inflamatria aps a aplicao cirrgica do adesivo biolgico COLAGEL em tecidos orgnicos, realizou-se a aplicao isolada das fraes do adesivo (gelatina-resorcina, formaldedo, cola polimerizada no local e cola polimerizada imediatamente antes da aplicao em grupos distintos de camundongos, com o objetivo de identificar a frao responsvel por tal processo. Atravs da avaliao dos cortes histolgicos, notou-se que os grupos que receberam apenas o formaldedo e a cola polimerizada in situ foram dotados de alto grau de infiltrado inflamatrio, com dissociao de fibras musculares e necrose tecidual. O grupo que recebeu apenas a gelatina-resorcina revelou discreta infiltrao polimorfonuclear, o mesmo ocorrendo com o uso da cola previamente polimerizada, o que permitiu concluir que a frao do COLAGEL responsvel pela grande reao inflamatria foi o polimerizante formaldedo, e que o modo mais conveniente de utilizao do produto seria sua prvia polimerizao.The use of glue for biological purposes has been under study for a long time, an example is the adhesive composed of gelatin-resorcine and formaldehyde (COLAGEL. The inflammatory reaction produced by the application of the adhesive on organic tissues encouraged the search for the component of the glue responsible for this reaction. Thus, the application of several fractions of the referred adhesive (gelatin-resorcine, formaldehyde, polymerized glue in situ and polymerized glue before the application was accomplished in different groups of mice in the following periods: 2, 10, 30 and 60 days after surgery. Through the evaluation of histological sections, it was observed that all the groups presented, with different degrees of intensity, inflammatory polimorfonuclear infiltrate with a predominance of neutrophils. The group which received only the formaldehyde was the one that expressed a greater tissue reaction with a great amount of inflammatory infiltrate, dissociation of muscle fibers, angiogenesis and fibrosi. There was also great amount of infiltrate as a reaction to the polymerization in situ, adding to it intense fibrogenesis of the deep dermis and hypoderm, together with the degeneration of miocites and extensive areas of tissue necrosis. The group that received only the gelatin-resorcine reveled discrete polimorfonuclear infiltration, the same results occurred after the use of the glue previously polymerized. Therefore, the fraction of the COLAGEL responsible for the greater inflammatory reaction was the polymerizing formaldehyde when it was applied to the tissue alone or polymerized in situ. The polymerization before the application turns the COLAGEL less irritating to the tissue, therefore, this is the most convenient way of utilization.

  4. A comparison between the novel rabbit monoclonal antibodies (SP1 and B644 and mouse antibodies for evaluating estrogen receptor in breast tumors Uma comparação entre os novos anticorpos monoclonais de coelho (SP1 e B644 e anticorpos de camundongo para detecção de receptores de estrógeno em carcinomas mamários

    Rafael Malagoli Rocha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A novel generation of rabbit monoclonal antibodies has been released recently for estrogen (ER and progesterone (PR receptor evaluation in breast cancer by immunohistochemistry. Aims: We compared novel rabbit monoclonal antibodies anti-ER SP1 (LabVision® and B644 (Cell Marque® to mouse monoclonal antibodies 1D5 (Dako® and 6F11 (Novocastra® using a tissue microarray of breast carcinomas. METHODS: Two cylinders (2 mm diameter of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue were obtained from 24 invasive breast carcinomas and immunostained by using the anti-ER rabbit and mouse antibodies and the streptavidin-biotin detection system (Biogenex®. Immunostaining was evaluated considering positive those tumors in which more than 10% of the tumor cell nuclei stained. The stain intensity was also evaluated as weak (1, moderate (2, and strong (3. Results: Both rabbit antibodies against ER have similar staining pattern to each other and also to 6F11, but significantly stronger scores compared to mouse 1D5. The rabbit antibodies allow better cost/benefit because of higher working dilutions compared to mouse antibodies using the same procedure. CONCLUSION: The new rabbit antibodies against ER are highly sensitive and reliable in clinical and research immunohistochemical testing of breast carcinomas.INTRODUÇÃO: Uma nova geração de anticorpos monoclonais de coelho tem sido produzida para detecção de receptores de estrógeno (RE e progesterona (RP pela imuno-histoquímica em câncer de mama. OBJETIVO: Comparamos os novos anticorpos monoclonais de coelho anti-RE SP1 (LabVision® e B644 (Cell Marque® com anticorpos monoclonais de camundongo 1D5 (DAKO® e 6F11 (Novocastra® utilizando um tissue microarray de carcinomas mamários. METODOLOGIA: Dois cilindros (2 mm de diâmetro de tecido fixado em formol e embebido em parafina foram retirados de 24 carcinomas mamários invasivos e corados pela imuno-histoquímica utilizando-se os anticorpos de coelho e de camundongo anti-RE e o sistema de detecção estreptavidina-biotina peroxidase (Biogenex®. A coloração imuno-histoquímica foi avaliada considerando positivos os tumores nos quais mais de 10% dos núcleos das células tumorais estivessem corados. A coloração também foi classificada em fraca (1, moderada (2 e forte (3. RESULTADOS: Ambos os anticorpos monoclonais de coelho contra RE apresentaram intensidade de coloração semelhante àquela pelo anticorpo de camundongo 6F11, porém os anticorpos de coelho apresentaram intensidades de coloração significativamente mais fortes que as do clone de camundongo 1D5. As altas diluições possíveis utilizando anticorpos de coelho permitem melhor custo/benefício quando comparadas com as diluições possíveis utilizando anticorpos de camundongo. CONCLUSÃO: Os novos anticorpos monoclonais de coelho anti-RE são altamente sensíveis e fidedignos para testes imuno-histoquímicos tanto para a clínica quanto para pesquisa de tumores mamários.

  5. Avaliação em camundongo da eficácia do antiveneno administrado no local da inoculação intramuscular do veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus Evaluation in mice, of the antivenom efficacy injected at the same place of the intramuscular inoculation of the Crotalus durissus terrificus venom

    Lindioneza Adriano Ribeiro; Carla Lilian Agostini Utescher; Silvia Lucia Paro Vieira; Sara Fensterseifer; Helena Mukuno; Miguel Tanús Jorge

    1993-01-01

    A eficácia do antiveneno crotálico por via intramuscular (im) no local da inoculação, também im, do veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus foi avaliada em camundongos. Em três experimentos inocularam-se duas DLSO do veneno por via im e administrou-se o antiveneno de três formas: metade da DE50 por via intraperitoneal (ip) e metade por via im, no mesmo local, imediatamente após (1º) e 30' após (2º) a inoculação do veneno; quatro quintos de DE50 por via ip e um quinto por via im, no mesmo local...

  6. Perfis clínico e hematológico de camundongos submetidos ao envenenamento escorpiônico experimental por Tityus fasciolatus

    P.T.C. Guimarães

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o quadro clínico do veneno decorrente do envenenamento por Tityus fasciolatus e sua ação refletida nos componentes hematológicos no modelo murino. Para o estudo do perfil hematológico, foram utilizados 54 camundongos Swiss CF1, machos, com 30g, distribuídos em três grupos (G (n=18 inoculados via subcutânea com: 50µL de PBS (G1; 24µg de veneno de T. fasciolatus (G2 e 8µg de veneno de T. serrulatus (G3. Cada grupo foi subdividido em três subgrupos (n=6 de acordo com o momento da coleta de sangue que foi estipulada em uma, oito e 24h após a inoculação do veneno, e foram realizados o hemograma e a dosagem de proteínas totais e fracionadas. O veneno de T. fasciolatus na dose de 24µg causou piloereção, comportamento nociceptivo, secreção nasal e oral acentuada, dispneia, prurido na face e reflexos exacerbados. No exame hematológico, foram observadas policitemia relativa e leucocitose com linfocitose.

  7. Estudo imunohistoquímico do remodelamento pulmonar em camundongos expostos à fumaça de cigarro Immunohistochemical study of lung remodeling in mice exposed to cigarette smoke

    Samuel Santos Valença

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Muitos estudos sobre enfisema são realizados com exposição de animais à fumaça de cigarro durante um longo tempo, focando o tipo de célula envolvida no desequilíbrio protease/antiprotease e a degradação da matriz extracelular. A expressão aumentada de metaloproteinases no enfisema está associado com citocinas e evidências sugerem um papel importante da metaloproteinase de matriz-12 (MMP-12. Nosso objetivo foi estudar a detecção de inibidor tissular de metaloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2, fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α e interleucina-6 (IL-6 por métodos imunohistoquímicos no pulmão de camundongos. MÉTODOS: Camundongos C57BL/6 machos foram expostos 3 vezes ao dia a fumaça de 3 cigarros por um período de 10, 20, 30 ou 60 dias através de uma câmara de inalação (grupos CS10, CS20, CS30 e CS60, respectivamente. O grupo controle foi exposto às mesmas condições ao ar ambiente. RESULTADOS: Nós observamos um aumento progressivo de macrófagos alveolares no lavado broncoalveolar dos grupos expostos. O diâmetro alveolar médio, um indicador de destruição alveolar, aumentou em todos os grupos expostos quando comparado ao grupo controle. O índice imunohistoquímico (II para MMP-12 aumentou nos grupos CS10, CS20 e CS30 em paralelo a uma redução do II para TIMP-2 nos grupos CS10, CS20 e CS30. O II para as citocinas TNF-α e IL-6 aumentou em todos os grupos expostos quando comparado ao grupo controle. Enfisema foi observado no grupo CS60, com alterações na densidade de volume de fibras colágenas e elásticas. CONCLUSÕES: Estes achados sugerem que a fumaça de cigarro induz enfisema com uma participação importante do TNF-α e da IL-6 sem a participação de neutrófilos.OBJECTIVE: Various studies of emphysema involve long-term exposure of animals to cigarette smoke, focusing on the cell type involved in the protease/antiprotease imbalance and on extracellular matrix degradation. In emphysema, increased expression of metalloproteinases is associated with cytokines, and evidence suggests that the matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12 plays an important role. Our objective was to investigate tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 detection by immunohistochemical methods in mouse lung. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed 3 times a day to smoke of 3 cigarettes over a period of 10, 20, 30 or 60 days in an inhalation chamber (groups CS10, CS20, CS30 and CS60, respectively. Controls were exposed to the same conditions in room air. RESULTS: A progressive increase in the number of alveolar macrophages was observed in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the exposed mice. The mean linear intercept, an indicator of alveolar destruction, was greater in all exposed groups when compared to control group. In the CS10, CS20 and CS30 mice, the immunohistochemical index (II for MMP-12 increased in parallel with a decrease in II for TIMP-2 in the CS10, CS20 and CS30 mice. The II for the cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 was greater in all exposed groups than in the control group. Emphysema, with changes in volume density of collagen and elastic fibers, was observed in the CS60 group. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that cigarette smoke induces emphysema with major participation of TNF-α and IL-6 without participation of neutrophils.

  8. Labelling of 5-ethyl-5-phenylbarbituric acid with Technetium-99m: biodistribution study in Swiss mice; Marcacao do acido 5-etil-5-fenilbarbiturico com tecnecio-99m: estudo da biodistribuicao em camundongos Swiss

    Simoes, Susana B.E.; Oliveira, Marcia B.N. de; Gutfilen, Bianca; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Alves, Andreia Coelho; Machado-Silva, Jose R. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia

    1996-07-01

    The 5-ethyl-5-phenylbarbituric acid (phenobarbital) is used as a sedative, hypnotic and anticonvulsant drug. We decided to label it with technetium-99m. In order to determine the optimal conditions, different concentrations of this drug were incubated with various stannous chloride solutions. Then, {sup 99m}Tc was added and chromatography was performed using 0.9% NaCl solution, acetone and n-butyl alcohol as the mobile phase. Using a solution of 0.01 mg/ml stannous chloride and 1.0 mg/ml phenobarbital over 92% of the radioactivity bound to phenobarbital {sup 99m}Tc-phenobarbital. In the biodistribution study, {sup 99m}Tc-phenobarbital was administered in mice intraperitoneal. The main uptake of the labeled drug was in the liver, blood, kidneys, spleen and stomach. The phenobarbital is also used as anesthetic drug in animals. Earlier studies confirm that this drug can dislocate the adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni to mesenteric vein towards the liver and portal vein, so that we used infected animals, radioactivity was not found in isolated worms and we can conclude that the phenobarbital has an indirect action in relation to the displacement of the worms. (author)

  9. A thioacetamide-induced hepatic encephalopathy model in C57BL/6 mice: a behavioral and neurochemical study Modelo de encefalopatia hepática induzida por tioacetamida em camundongos C57BL/6: estudo comportamental e neuroquímico

    Aline Silva de Miranda

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE is a neuropsychiatric syndrome resulting from liver failure. In the present study, we aimed to standardize an animal model of HE induced by thioacetamide (TAA in C57BL/6 mice evaluating behavioral symptoms in association with liver damage and alterations in neurotransmitter release. METHOD: HE was induced by an intraperitoneal single dose of TAA (200 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg or 1,200 mg/kg. Behavioral symptoms were evaluated using the SHIRPA battery. Liver damage was confirmed by histopathological analysis. The glutamate release was measured using fluorimetric assay. RESULTS: The neuropsychiatric state, motor behavior and reflex and sensory functions were significantly altered in the group receiving 600 mg/kg of TAA. Biochemical analysis revealed an increase in the glutamate release in the cerebral cortex of HE mice. CONCLUSION: HE induced by 600mg/kg TAA injection in C57BL/6 mice seems to be a suitable model to investigate the pathogenesis and clinical disorders of HE.OBJETIVO: A encefalopatia hepática (EH é uma síndrome neuropsiquiátrica resultante da falência hepática. O objetivo do presente estudo foi estabelecer um modelo de EH induzida por tioacetamida (TAA em camundongos C57BL/6 avaliando transtornos comportamentais, falência hepática e alterações na liberação de neurotransmissores. MÉTODO: A EH foi induzida por meio de uma única dose intraperitoneal de TAA (200 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg, 1.200 mg/kg. As alterações comportamentais foram avaliadas utilizando a bateria SHIRPA. A falência hepática foi confirmada através de análises histopatológicas e a liberação de glutamato medida, por ensaio fluorimétrico. RESULTADOS: Foram encontradas alterações significativas no estado neuropsiquiátrico, comportamento motor e função reflexa e sensorial no grupo que recebeu 600 mg/kg de TAA. Análises bioquímicas revelaram aumento na liberação de glutamato no córtex cerebral dos camundongos com EH. CONCLUSÃO: A EH induzida por 600 mg/kg de TAA em camundongos C57BL/6 parece ser um modelo apropriado para a investigação da patogênese e dos transtornos clínicos da EH.

  10. Phototherapy with low intensity laser in carrageenan-induced acute inflammatory process in mice paw - dosimetry studies; Fototerapia com laser em baixa intensidade em processo inflamatorio agudo induzido por carragenina em pata de camundongos - estudos de dosimetria

    Meneguzzo, Daiane Thais

    2010-07-01

    The importance of modulation of inflammation on the treatment of inflammatory diseases and the difficulty in determining the laser irradiation parameters has led us to study the effects of different protocols of phototherapy with low intensity laser (power, energy, time and place of irradiation) in the treatment and prevention of edema in acute inflammatory process using the experimental model of paw edema induced by carrageenan (CGN) in three strains of mice (Balb-c, Swiss and C57BL/6). The first stage of the study evaluated different combinations of energy (1J and 3J) with different powers (30, 60 and 100mW) in Balb-C mice paw irradiated 1 and 2h after injection of CGN. The second stage studied different combinations of location (foot, inguinal lymph nodes and both) and exposure time (2 and 1h before, 1h and immediately before the CGN, 1 and 2h and 3.5 and 4.5h after CGN) using fixed irradiation parameters (1J, 100mW, 35J/cm{sup 2}, spot area of 0.028 cm{sup 2}). The third stage compared different strains of mice Balb-c and C57BL/6) in the best local and time parameters found in step 2. At all stages, we evaluated the change in paw volume by plethysmography and inflammatory infiltrate by histomorphometry or analysis of myeloperoxidase (MPO). The results showed that laser phototherapy treated and prevented edema and modulated the inflammatory process with paw and inguinal lymph nodes irradiations accordingly with the parameters and mice strain used. (author)

  11. Avaliação da eficácia do antiveneno botrópico administrado no local da inoculação intramuscular do veneno de Bothrops jararaca: estudo experimental em camundongos Assessment of the efficacy of antivenom injection at the site of the intramuscular inoculation of Bothrops jararaca venom in mice

    Carla Lilian Agostini Utescher; Silvia Lucia Paro Vieira; Sara Fensterseifer; Liodioneza Adriano Ribeiro; Miguel Tanús Jorge

    1994-01-01

    Foi determinada, em camundongos de 18 a 20 g, a dose efetiva 50% do antiveneno botrópico, por via intraperitoneal (ip), imediatamente (DE50 Oh) e 30 minutos (DE50 30') após a inoculação de 2 DL50 do veneno de B. jararaca, por via intramuscular (im). A DE50 30' foi três vezes maior do que a DE50 Oh. A eficácia do antiveneno administrado no local da inoculação do veneno foi avaliada inoculando-se duas DL50 do veneno, por via im, e administrando-se a DE50 do antiveneno imediatamente (DE50 Oh) e ...

  12. Inibição da expressão de ciclooxigenase 2 em feridas cutâneas de camundongos NOD submetidos à terapia a laser de baixa intensidade Inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 expression in NOD mice cutaneous wound by low-level laser therapy

    Carolina de Lourdes Julião Vieira Rocha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A terapia a laser de baixa intensidade (LLLT tem sido relatada como importante moduladora da cicatrização de feridas cutâneas aumentando a proliferação fibroblástica associada ao aumento da expressão da citocina fator transformador de crescimento- β2 (TGF-βB2. OBJETIVO: No presente estudo foram avaliados os efeitos da LLLT sobre a expressão da enzima ciclooxigenase 2 (COX2 no sítio do reparo tecidual utilizando o modelo experimental com camundongos diabéticos não obesos (NOD para estudar a cicatrização de feridas cutâneas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 30 camundongos NOD, destes 14 ficaram diabéticos e foram divididos em dois grupos: o grupo I (n=7 foi submetido a um procedimento cirúrgico de feridas cutâneas e o grupo II (n=7 foi submetido a um procedimento cirúrgico de feridas cutâneas e tratados com LLLT. O grupo II foi submetido à LLLT nos seguintes parâmetros: 15 mW de potência, dose de 3,8 J/cm² e tempo de aplicação de 20 segundos. Após sete dias do ato cirúrgico e após aplicação do laser, os animais foram eutanasiados com sobredose de anestesia e amostras das feridas foram colhidas para posterior análise histopatológica, histomorfométrica e imuno-histoquímica. RESULTADOS: A LLLT promoveu a inibição da expressão da COX2 em feridas cutâneas de camundongos diabéticos. CONCLUSÃO: Em conjunto, os resultados sugeriram que a LLLT é capaz de modular negativamente a expressão da enzima COX2 contribuindo para o controle da resposta inflamatória em feridas cutâneas de camundongos NOD.BACKGROUND: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT has been reported to modulate the healing of wounds by inducing an increase in fibroblast number associated with increased expression of the cytokine transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the effect of LLLT on expression of COX2 at the site of tissue repair was evaluated, using an experimental model with non obese diabetic mice (NOD to study cutaneous wound healing. METHODS: Thirty NOD mice were used, of which 14 were diabetic and were divided into two groups: group I (n=7 underwent a surgical procedure of skin wounds and group II (n=7 underwent a surgical procedure of skin wounds and treated with LLLT. Group II was submitted to LLLT in the following parameters: 15 mW of power, dose of 3.8 J/cm² and exposure time of 20 seconds. Seven days after surgery and after laser application, animals were euthanized with an overdose of anesthesia and tissue samples were collected for subsequent histological analysis, histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The LLLT has promoted the inhibition of COX2 expression in skin wounds in mice diabetic. Taken together the results suggest that LLLT modulate the expression of COX2 improved the control of inflammatory reaction in cutaneous wound lesions in NOD mice. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the results suggested that LLLT is able to negatively modulate the expression of COX2 enzyme contributing to the inflammatory response in cutaneous wounds in NOD mice.

  13. Determination of lethal doses 50 and 100 of propofol in lipid emulsion nor nanoemulsion intraperitoneally in miceDeterminação das doses letal 50 e 100 do propofol em nanoemulsão ou em emulsão lipídica pela via intraperitoneal em camundongos

    Martielo Ivan Gehrcke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of a drug can interfere with its absorption into the circulatory system and may result in changes in the dose required to achieve that particular effect. The aim of this study was to determine the lethal dose 50 (LD 50 and 100 (LD100 of a nanoemulsion of propofol and the lipid emulsion in mice intraperitoneally. One hundred sixty animals weighing 36.47±4.6g, which were distributed randomly into two groups: NANO and EMU who received propofol 1% in the nanoemulsion and lipid emulsion, respectively, intraperitoneally. Began with a dose of 250mg/kg (n=10 and from this isdecreased or increased the dose until achieving 0 and 100% of deaths in each group thus formed were seven subgroups in NANO (each subgroup n = 10 at doses 200, 250, 325, 350, 400, 425 and 475 mg/kg and in EMU eight subgroups (n= 10 each subset 250, 325, 350, 400, 425, 475, 525 and 575 mg/kg. In the CONTROL group (n=10 animals received saline in the largest volume used in the other groups to rule out death by the volume injected. Analysis of LD 50 and LD 100 were obtained by linear regression. The LD 50 was 320, 95 mg / kg and 4243, 51mg / kg and the LD 100 was445.99 mg / kg and 595.31 mg / kg to groups NANO and EMU, respectively. It follows that nanoemulsion is propofol in 25% more potent compared to the lipid emulsionintraperitoneally. A formulação de um fármaco pode interferir na sua absorção para o sistema circulatório, podendo resultar em alterações da dose necessária para que se consiga determinado efeito. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as doses letais 50 (DL 50 e 100 (DL100 do propofol em nanoemulsão e emulsão lipídica em camundongos pela via intraperitoneal. Foram utilizados 160 animais pesando 36,47 ± 4,6g, os quais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: NANO e EMU que receberam propofol à 1% em nanoemulsão e em emulsão lipídica, respectivamente, pela via intraperitoneal. Iniciou-se com a dose de 250mg/kg (n=10 e a partir desta diminuiu-se ou aumentou-se a dose até que se obtivesse 0 e 100% de óbitos em cada grupo, desta forma foram constituídos sete subgrupos no NANO (n=10 cada subgrupo nas doses de 200, 250, 325, 350, 400, 425 e 475 mg/kg e oito subgrupos no EMU (n=10 cada subgrupo 250, 325, 350, 400, 425, 475, 525 e 575 mg/kg. No grupo CONTROLE (n=10 os animais receberam solução fisiológica no maior volume utilizado nos demais grupos para descartar óbito pelo volume injetado. As análises de DL50 e DL 100 foram obtidas através de regressão linear simples. A DL 50 foi de 320,95 mg/kg e 423,51 mg/kg e a DL 100 foi de de 445,99 mg/kg e 595,31 mg/kg para os grupos NANO e EMU, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o propofol em nanoemulsão é 25 % mais potente quando comparado à emulsão lipídica pela via intraperitoneal.

  14. Óleo de copaíba (Copaifera langsdorfii Desf. em padrões reprodutivos de camundongos e no desenvolvimento embriofetal Copaiba oil (Copaifera langsdorfii Desf. on mouse reproductive patterns and embryonic or fetal development

    A.C.S. Lourenço

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de plantas medicinais sempre foi bem difundida, porém hoje se faz necessária uma abordagem científica para comprovar sua eficácia. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar a possível toxicidade materna e teratogenicidade do óleo de copaíba, um óleo resina exudado do tronco de Copaifera langsdorfii, muito utilizado na medicina natural. Três doses de óleo de copaíba, administradas por gavage durante 5 dias do período gestacional de fêmeas de camundongos, foram testadas 0,3 mL Kg-1, 0,6 mL Kg-1 e 0,9 mL Kg-1 (p.c.. Em relação ao ganho de peso materno, peso dos órgãos, número de fetos vivos e implantes e viabilidade fetal, não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos. Os dados demonstram que este fitoterápico não apresenta toxicidade materna. Com relação às médias de peso e comprimento fetal dos grupos tratados, houve diferença estatística quando comparados ao controle, mas os fetos ainda se encontravam dentro do peso adequado à idade de prenhez. A prole das fêmeas tratadas não apresentou malformações ou alterações externas, viscerais e esqueléticas. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que o óleo de copaíba, nas doses administradas e período estudado, não apresentou toxicidade materna ou causou teratogenicidade na prole das fêmeas tratadas. Portanto, podemos considerar seu uso seguro durante o período gestacional.The use of medicinal plants has always been widely spread, but today a scientific approach is needed to prove their efficiency. The present study was performed to evaluate the possible maternal toxicity and teratogenicity of copaiba oil, a resin oil exudate from the trunk of Copaifera sp., extensively used in natural medicine. Three copaiba oil levels, administered through gavage for 5 days during the gestational period of female mice, were tested: 0.3 mL Kg-1, 0.6 mL Kg-1 and 0.9 mL Kg-1 (b.w.. As regards maternal weight gain, organ weight, live fetus number, implants and fetal viability, there was no statistical difference among groups. Data indicate that this phytotherapic drug does not show maternal toxicity. Considering the means of fetal weight and length of treated groups, there was statistical difference when compared with the control group, but the fetuses were still within the appropriate weight to that pregnancy age. The offspring from treated females did not present external, visceral and skeletal alterations or malformations. The results from this study indicate that copaiba oil at the administered levels and studied period did not present maternal toxicity or cause teratogenicity to the offspring of treated females. Therefore, its use can be considered safe during pregnancy.

  15. Comportamento experimental de amostras de Schistosoma mansoni em relação às formas clínicas de esquistossomose: I. Estudo em camundongos Experimental behavior of samples of Schistosoma mansoni in relation to clinical forms of schistosomiasis: I. Study in mice

    Mario José da Conceição

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Como já descrevemos em publicação anterior (Conceição, 1985, foram isoladas 20 amostras de S. mansoni de pacientes do sexo masculino com idades entre 13 e 30 anos, autóctones do distrito de Capitão Andrade, município de Itanhomi, no Vale do Rio Doce, em Minas Gerais. Das amostras, seis eram portadores de esquistossomose-infecção (tipo I, seis da forma hepatointestinal (tipo II e oito da forma hepatoesplênica (tipo III, adaptadas inicialmente, à B. glabrata da mesma área. Cada uma das amostras foi inoculada em 48 camundongos em lotes de 16, respectivamente com 25,50 e 100 cercárias, mantendo-se 12 animais não infectados, com controles. Após 90 dias perfundiu-se o sistema porta de 12 animais (quatro de cada lote. Os animais mortos naturalmente em diversos períodos e a metade de cada lote sacrificada aos 90 e 180 dias foram estudados através dos seguintes parâmetros: 1§ determinação dos pesos de fígado, baço, pulmão e intestino; 2§ contagem de ovos em intestinos (proximal e mediano e grosso (distal. O número de vermes obtidos pela perfusão nos três grupos em média de 21,9%, 22% e 17,8%% para os tipos I, II e III. A mortalidde natural média dos camundongos submetidos à infecção com 25, 50 e 100 cercárias, foi respectivamente, 12,4%, 23,2% para o grupo I; de 4,7% 19,3% e 22,2% para o grupo II e 11,4%, 29,5% e 41,6% para o grupo III, apresentando-se, portanto, proporcional aos inóculos. O peso dos órgãos dos animais infectados bem como o número de ovos de S. mansoni foi sempre proporcional ao inóculo e a contagem mais elevada nas partes mediana e proximal do intestino nos três grupos. Concluiu-se que não houve correlação entre as formas clínicas da esquistossomose e o comportamento das amostras de S. mansoni em camundongo, ressaltando-se que as alterações parasitológicas encontradas foram proporcionais ao inóculo empregado e ao tempo de infecção, evidenciando os aspectos quantitativos na determinação da doença.Twenty isolates of Schistosoma mansoni were obtained from patients, all males 13 to 30 years old, autochtonous from the Village of Capitão Andrade, municipality of Itanhomi, state of Minas gerais, where an evolutive study of Manson's schistosomiasis is being performed since 1973. The isolates came from six patients with schistosome-infections (type I0, six with the hepato-instestinal form (type Ii, and eight with the hepaoesplenic form (type III. Each isolate was inoculated in mice divided in three groups of 16, exposed to 25, 50 and 100 cercariae, respectively. Controls were 12 uninfected mice. After 90 days adult worms were recovered from the portal by perfusion, from four mice of each experimental groups. Mice dying at various intervals and half of the rest f mice in each group sacrificed on the 90th and the 180th days were studied according to the following parameters: 1 weight of liver, spleen, lung and instestine; 2 egg count in the small intestine (proximal and medial and large intestine (distal. The average numbers of worms obtained by perfusion from groups I, II and III were 21.9%, 22% and 17.8% respectively. The average natural mortality rates of mice submitted to infection with 25,50 and 100 cercariae were, respectively, 12.4%, 23.2% and 40.2% for group I,4.7%, 19.5% and 22.2% for group II and 11.4%, 29.5% and 41.6% for group III, being therefore proportional to the inocula. The weight of the organs of the infected animals and the number of S. mansoni eggs was always proportional to the inoculum and the highest number of eggs were found in the median and proximal portion of the intestines in all three groups. The conclusion was the following: there was no correlation between the clinical forms of schistosomiasis and the behaviour of the isolates of S. mansoni in mice, the parasitological alternations being proportional to the inoculum used and the duration of the infection.

  16. Sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction for detection of known aliquots of Trypanosoma cruzi in the blood of mice: an in vitro study Sensibilidade da reação em cadeia da polimerase para a detecção de alíquotas conhecidas do Trypanosoma cruzi no sangue da camundongos: estudo in vitro

    Rozália F. Campos

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR to reveal known number of trypomastigote in the blood of mice, three separate experiments were done. First: To eight samples of 500mul of normal mice blood, one aliquot of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, and 50 trypomastigotes respectively, were added. Second and third: 10 aliquots with 1 and 10 with 2 trypomastigotes were added to samples of 500mul of normal mice blood. Positive control: 500mul of blood containing 100,000 trypomastigotes. For kDNA minicircles amplification by PCR the primers:S35 and S36 were used. PCR revealed products of 330 b.p in the positive controls. When only one sample with the aliquots of 1 or 2 trypomastigotes was examined, results were negative; results were positive with aliquots of 3 to 50 trypomastigotes. In the 2nd and 3rd experiments, 9/10 aliquots with one parasite and 9/10 with 2 trypomastigotes were positive revealing a high sensitivity of this reaction. In conclusion, the presence of one single parasite in 500mul of blood, is enough for a positive PCR. This method could be used as a complement to the various parasitological cure tests in treated mice, when low volumes of blood are individually examined.A sensibilidade da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR para revelar a presença de números conhecidos de tripomastigotas no sangue de camundongos, foi investigada em três experimentos separados. No primeiro, foram adicionados 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20 e 50 tripomastigotas respectivamente, em oito amostras de 500mil de sangue de camundongo. No 2º e 3º experimentos: foram feitas 10 amostras contendo 1, e 10 amostras contendo 2 tripomastigotas/500mil de sangue. Controle positivo: 500mil de sangue contendo 100.000 trypomastigotas. Para amplificação dos minicirculos do kDNA pela PCR foram usados os iniciadores S35 e S36. A PCR revelou produtos de 330 p.b nos controles positivos e nas amostras contendo de 3 a 50 tripomastigotas. Quando apenas uma amostra contendo 1 ou 2 tripomastigotas foi examinada, os resultados foram negativos, porém no 2º e 3º experimentos 9/10 amostras contendo 1 e 2 tripomastigotas foram PCR positivas, revelando alta sensibilidade da reação. Em conclusão, a presença de um só parasito em 500mil de sangue é suficiente para uma PCR positiva e este método pode ser usado como complementação dos demais testes parasitológicos de cura, em camundongos tratados, quando pequenos volumes de sangue são individualmente examinados.

  17. Plant density and nitrogen fertilization in Swiss chard Densidade de plantio e adubação nitrogenada em acelga

    Márcia de M Echer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of plant spacing and nitrogen fertilization on Swiss chard's yield, from September to November 2009. The experimental design was of randomized blocks in split plot with four replications. In the plots were allocated the two plant spacings (0.30 and 0.50 m and in the subplots the five doses of nitrogen (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1. The crop was harvested 90 days after transplanting. The plant spacing of 0.50 m provided increased production of total fresh weight of shoot (961.7 g plant-1 and marketable (873.1 g plant-1. However, the highest total yield (77.8 t ha-1 and marketable (64.5 t ha-1 was achieved with the smaller spacing between plants (0.30 m. The N rates applied in coverage until 160 kg ha-1 increased in a linear form the total and marketable production of fresh mass of shoots, the total and marketable yield, the N content and the N accumulation in the shoots of Swiss chard plants on the evaluated plant spacings.Avaliou-se o efeito do espaçamento entre plantas e da adubação nitrogenada na produtividade de acelga, de setembro a novembro de 2009. O delineamento experimental adotado foi de blocos ao acaso em parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições. Nas parcelas foram alocados dois espaçamentos entre plantas (0,30 e 0,50 m e nas subparcelas cinco doses de nitrogênio em cobertura (0; 40, 80, 120 e 160 kg ha-1. A colheita foi realizada 90 dias após o transplante das mudas. O espaçamento entre plantas de 0,50 m proporciona maior produção de massa fresca da parte aérea total (961,7 g planta-1 e comercial (873,1 g planta-1 por planta. Porém, a maior produtividade total (77,8 t ha-1 e comercial (64,5 t ha-1 foi obtida com o menor espaçamento entre plantas (0,30 m. As doses de N aplicadas em cobertura até 160 kg ha-1 incrementam de forma linear a produção de massa fresca da parte aérea total e comercial, a produtividade total e comercial, o teor de N e o N acumulado na parte aérea das plantas de acelga nos espaçamentos avaliados.

  18. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus: immunohistochemichal detection in mouse and bovine tissues using a Mab against human respiratory syncytial virus Vírus respiratório sincicial bovino: detecção por imunoistoquímica em tecidos de camundongos e bovinos usando AcM contra o vírus respiratório sincicial humano

    R.S. Almeida

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An immunoistochemical (IHC test was developed to detect bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV in cell cultures and tissues of experimentally infected mice and calves, using a commercial monoclonal antibody (Mab against human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV, as a less expensive alternative, instead of producing specific monoclonal antibodies to BRSV. Clinical samples from calves suffering respiratory disease were also submitted to this test. IHC detected BRSV antigens in mouse tracheas (3, 5 and 7 days post-infection and lungs (5 and 7 days post-infection, and in one of three lungs from experimentally infected calves. Lungs samples from two naturally infected calves were tested and resulted positive for BRSV by the IHC test. These results suggest that this test may be used in the future for diagnosis as well as a useful tool to assess the distribution of BRSV infections in Brazilian herds.Desenvolveu-se um teste de imunohistoquímica (IHQ para detecção do vírus respiratório sincicial bovino (BRSV multiplicado em cultivo celular e em tecidos de camundongos e bezerros infectados experimentalmente, utilizando um anticorpo monoclonal comercial contra o vírus respiratório sincicial humano (HRSV, como uma alternativa para eliminar os custos de produção de anticorpos monoclonais específicos para o BRSV. Amostras clínicas de bezerros com sintomatologia respiratória foram analisadas. A técnica mostrou-se eficiente na detecção de antígenos do BRSV em traquéias (3, 5 e 7 dias pós-infecção e pulmões (5 e 7 dias pós-infecção dos camundongos infectados e em uma das três amostras de pulmões dos bezerros infectados experimentalmente. Amostras de pulmões de dois animais com infecção natural foram positivas para BRSV. Conclui-se que o teste de IHQ pode ser usado no diagnóstico das infecções por BRSV e na avaliação da distribuição dessas infecções nos rebanhos bovinos brasileiros.

  19. Effects of mitomycin C on infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes after epithelial scrape injury in the mouse cornea Efeito da mitomicina C na infiltração de leucócitos polimorfonucleares após lesão epitelial em córnea de camundongo

    Ana Cecília Souza Leão Escarião

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine whether mitomycin C (MMC alters appearance and disappearance of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN in the cornea stroma, using an epithelial scrape injury in eye mouse model. METHODS: Twenty-mice underwent mechanical epithelium debridement in the central cornea using 20% ethanol. After the scrape, the right eye received 0.02% MMC for one minute, while the left eye received physiological saline. The animals were sacrificed on days 1, 2, 5, and 14 after surgery, and corneal whole mounts were prepared for histology. PMN distribution was analyzed in digitized microscope images. Cell division in the cornea was determined by immunohistochemical detection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, which was injected intraperitoneally before the mice were sacrificed. RESULTS: Epithelial scrape injury triggered infiltration of PMNs into the corneal stroma. An analysis of PMN distribution revealed that there was no difference between eyes treated with and without MMC at all time points. BrdU labeling showed that 0.02% MMC for one minute blocked keratocyte proliferation completely. CONCLUSION: MMC treatment regimen, which is common in clinical practice, inhibits keratocyte proliferation during wound healing, but when used at 0.02% for one minute, it does not affect PMN infiltration into the corneal stroma, and subsequent movement toward the injury site, or the disappearance of PMNs from the stroma, in the mouse epithelial injury model.OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo foi determinar se a mitomicina C (MMC altera o aparecimento dos leucócitos polimorfonucleares (PMN no estroma corneano após abrasão epitelial central, utilizando olhos de camundongo como modelo. MÉTODOS: Vinte camundongos foram submetidos à abrasão epitelial em córnea central utilizando etanol a 20%. Após a lesão, o olho direito recebeu MMC a 0,02% por 1 minuto, enquanto o olho esquerdo recebeu solução salina. Os animais foram sacrificados em 1, 2, 5 e 14 dias após a cirurgia e a córnea foi preparada para histologia. A distribuição dos PMN foi analisada e digitalizada em imagens microscópicas. A divisão celular na córnea foi detectada pela imuno-histoquímica da bromodeoxirudina (BrdU, injetada intraperitonialmente duas horas antes dos animais serem secrificados. RESULTADOS: A lesão epitelial gerou infiltração de PMN no estroma da córnea. A análise da distribuição dos PMNs revelou que não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os olhos tratados e não tratados com MMC, em todos os tempos estudados. O estudo com BrdU mostrou que a MMC quando utilizada a 0,02% por um minuto bloqueou completamente a proliferação de ceratócitos. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento com MMC, que é utilizada comumente na prática clínica, inibe a proliferação dos ceratócitos durante a cicatrização corneana, porém quando utilizada a 0,02% por um minuto, não altera a infiltração dos PMNs dentro do estroma corneano após lesão epitelial em córneas de camundongos.

  20. Macrorhabdus ornithogaster in ostrich, rhea, canary, zebra finch, free range chicken, turkey, guinea-fowl, columbina pigeon, toucan, chuckar partridge and experimental infection in chicken, japanese quail and mice Macrorhabdus ornithogaster em avestruzes, ema, canrio, mandarim, galinha, peru, galinha da Angola, pombo domstico, rolinha, tucano, perdiz de chuckar e infeco experimental em galinha, codorna e camundongo

    N.R.S. Martins

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, Macrorhabdus ornithogaster "megabacteriosis" has been diagnosed in the avian diseases laboratory in a diversity of avian species and varied spectrum of disease. The disease in some species (chickens, turkeys, guinea fowls was clinically characterized by emaciation, prostration, loss of appetite, cachexia and death, with a typically chronic course. A more acute disease was observed in finches (canary-Serinus and zebra-Taeniopygia and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus. The large rod shaped organism, visible from 100 times magnification, with and without staining, could be detected in sick and also in reasonably normal individuals of some species, such as chickens, turkeys, quails and pigeons. In rheas (Rhea americana, ostriches (Struthio camelus, canaries, zebra-finches, guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris and budgerigars. The disease was severe, causing to up to 100% mortality. The infection could be detected in some species along with other infectious or disease problems, such as endoparasites (helminths, coccidia and ectoparasitism (order Mallophaga or/and order Acarina. The cultivation of M. ornithogaster was successfully achieved in solid and liquid media, originated from chickens (four isolates, guinea fowl (1 isolate, chuckar partridge (1 isolate and canary (1 isolate. A very interesting finding at microscopy was motility of M. ornithogaster, as detected both in cultures obtained on agar for pathogenic fungi and passaged into thioglycolate broth, as well as on samples observed in wet preparations from in vivo. Differences in colony aspects were noted among the isolates. Experimental infections were attempted in chicken and japanese quail, using a chicken isolate, allowing the detection of the organism in the proventriculus and liver in apparently normal birds. One chicken isolate was injected intraperitoneally in Balb/c mice and resulted in 100% mortality.Desde 2000, diversos casos de infeco e doena por Macrorhabdus ornithogaster (megabacteria foram diagnosticados no Setor de Doenas das Aves (Escola de Veterinria da UFMG. A doena clnica foi caracterizada por emagrecimento, prostrao, perda do apetite, caquexia e morte, em curso crnico, embora com forma mais aguda em canrios e periquitos. O microrganismo grande, em forma de basto, visvel a partir de 100 aumentos sem e com colorao, pode tambm ser detectado em aves de aspecto clnico normal, principalmente galinhas, perus, codornas e pombos. Em emas (Rhea, avestruzes (Struthio camelus, canrios, mandarins, galinhas da Angola (Numida meleagris e periquitos Australianos (Melopsittacus undulatus, a severidade da doena foi sempre maior, ocasionando at 100% de mortalidade em alguns plantis. Na maioria das espcies a doena foi detectada em aves com endo e/ou ectoparasitismo. O cultivo de M. ornithogaster foi obtido em meio slido (gar para fungos patognicos e subcultivado em meio lquido (thioglicolato, do proventriculo de galinha, galinha da Angola, perdiz de chuckar e canrio. O resultado mais surpreendente na microscopia de M. ornithogaster foi a presena de motilidade, detectada tanto de cultivos in vitro quanto de preparaes midas de in vivo. Diferenas nos aspectos das colnias foram notadas entre os isolados. Infeces experimentais em galinha (SPF e codorna japonesa permitiram a deteco do organismo nos proventrculos das aves de aspecto normal. Nas codornas, necropsia notaram-se hemorragias hepticas. A infeco experimental em camundongos via intraperitoneal resultou em 100% de mortalidade, tambm com leses hepticas. Aspectos do cultivo, a importncia da doena, as espcies de aves susceptveis e seu papel na epidemiologia so discutidos.

  1. Avaliação da eficácia do antiveneno botrópico administrado no local da inoculação intramuscular do veneno de Bothrops jararaca: estudo experimental em camundongos Assessment of the efficacy of antivenom injection at the site of the intramuscular inoculation of Bothrops jararaca venom in mice

    Carla Lilian Agostini Utescher

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi determinada, em camundongos de 18 a 20 g, a dose efetiva 50% do antiveneno botrópico, por via intraperitoneal (ip, imediatamente (DE50 Oh e 30 minutos (DE50 30' após a inoculação de 2 DL50 do veneno de B. jararaca, por via intramuscular (im. A DE50 30' foi três vezes maior do que a DE50 Oh. A eficácia do antiveneno administrado no local da inoculação do veneno foi avaliada inoculando-se duas DL50 do veneno, por via im, e administrando-se a DE50 do antiveneno imediatamente (DE50 Oh e 30 minutos após (DE50 30', de duas formas a saber: totalmente por via ip (1ª e metade por via ip e metade por via im (2ª, no mesmo local da inoculação do veneno. O antiveneno ofereceu, por via ip, maior proteção aos camundongos (menor taxa de óbito em 48 horas do que quando metade do mesmo foi administrado, por via im, no local da inoculação do veneno. Conclui-se que, neste modelo experimental, quando se inicia o tratamento tardiamente há necessidade de maior dose de antiveneno botrópico e que não há benefício em administrá-lo no local da picada.The 50% effective intraperitoneal (ip dose of Bothrops jararaca antivenom (ED50 was assessed in mice immediately (ED50 Oh and thirty minutes (ED50 30' after the intramuscular (im injection of two 50% lethal dose (LD50 of Bothrops jararaca venom. The efficacy of the antivenom injected at the venom inoculation site was assessed by the inoculation of two LD50 of the venom by im route, followed immediately (ED50 Oh and 30 minutes later (ED50 30' by administration of the ED50 of the antivenom either entirely by the ip route or 50 percent ip plus 50 percent im, at the same inoculation site. It was shown that the ED50 30' was 3 times greater, than the ED50 Oh and that the antivenom was more protective to mice (lower death rate in 48 hours when given entirely ip. It was concluded that, in this experimental model, a higher dose of bothropic antivenom is needed when the treatment is started lately, and that there is no benefit in its administration at the venom inoculation site.

  2. Óleo de copaíba (Copaifera langsdorfii Desf.) em padrões reprodutivos de camundongos e no desenvolvimento embriofetal Copaiba oil (Copaifera langsdorfii Desf.) on mouse reproductive patterns and embryonic or fetal development

    A.C.S. Lourenço; L.K. Miguel; K.L. Guarido; L.A. Sensiate; M.J.S. Salles

    2009-01-01

    A utilização de plantas medicinais sempre foi bem difundida, porém hoje se faz necessária uma abordagem científica para comprovar sua eficácia. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar a possível toxicidade materna e teratogenicidade do óleo de copaíba, um óleo resina exudado do tronco de Copaifera langsdorfii, muito utilizado na medicina natural. Três doses de óleo de copaíba, administradas por gavage durante 5 dias do período gestacional de fêmeas de camundongos, foram testadas 0,3 mL Kg-1, 0...

  3. Comparative study on the localization of adult Schistosoma mansoni worms in albino mice anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, ether or chlorophorm Estudo comparativo sobre a localizao de vermes adultos de Schistosoma mansoni em camundongos albinos anestesiados com pentobarbital sdico, ter ou clorofrmio

    Jos Roberto Machado e Silva

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of anesthetic drugs on the localization of adult worms in albino mice was compared. The animals with 56 days of infection were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, ether or chlorophorm. Perfusion was carried out immediately after, recovering the worms and classifying them in relation to their localization on the liver or portal vein and the mesenteric veins. Our results showed that pentobarbital sodium produced a greater displacement of the worms to the liver (89% than ether (76% and chlorophorm (34% did, when compared to the control group (22%. The difference between pentobarbital sodium and ether was significant (p Comparou-se o efeito de drogas anestsicas na localizao de vermes adultos em camundongos albinos. Com 56 dias de infeco os animais foram anestesiados com pentobarbital sdico, ter ou clorofrmio. Imediatamente realizou-se a perfuso, sendo os vermes recolhidos e classificados quanto localizao em fgado ou veia porta e nos vasos mesentricos. Nossos resultados demonstraram que o pentobarbital sdico produziu maior deslocamento dos vermes para o fgado (89% do que o ter (76% e o clorofrmio (34% quando comparados com o grupo controle (22%. As diferenas para o pentobarbital sdico e o ter foram significativas (P < 0,05. Sugerimos que os anestsicos no sejam utilizados nos estudos sobre a distribuio de vermes adultos nos hospedeiros.

  4. Redução do peso e da glicemia resultante da suplementação de ácido linoleico conjugado e fitosteróis à dieta hiperlipídica de camundongos Weight and blood glucose reduction resulting from conjugated linoleic acid and phytosterols supplementation on hiperlipidic diets of mice

    Anne y Castro Marques

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as possíveis alterações causadas pela ingestão de ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA e de fitosteróis no ganho de peso, na glicemia e no perfil lipídico de camundongos alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica. Durante nove semanas, vinte e cinco camundongos Swiss machos receberam dietas hiperlipídicas suplementadas com CLA e/ou fitosteróis, na concentração de 2%. Foram aferidos consumo alimentar, ganho de peso, glicemia em jejum, além dos níveis séricos de colesterol total, triglicérides, HDL colesterol e ácidos graxos livres. O grupo suplementado com CLA e fitosteróis apresentou menor ganho de peso e bom controle glicêmico, quando comparado aos demais grupos. Os resultados encontrados incentivam a continuação de pesquisas que investiguem os efeitos biológicos causados pela suplementação concomitante de CLA e fitosteróis, com possível aplicação na indústria de alimentos.The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible changes caused by conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and phytosterols intake in weight gain, blood glucose levels and lipid profile on mice fed with high fat diet. Twenty-five male Swiss mice received for nine weeks high fat diets supplemented with 2% of CLA and/or phytosterols. Feed intake, weight gain, blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and free fatty acids were determined. The group supplemented with CLA and phytosterols gained less weight and showed better glycemic control compared to other groups. The results encourage further research to investigate the biological effects caused by supplementation of CLA and phytosterols, with possible application in food industry.

  5. Processo de reparo em feridas de extração dentária em camundongos tratados com o complexo Symphytum officinale e Calendula officinallis Process of repair in tooth extraction sores in treated mice with Symphytum officinale and Calendula officinallis compound

    Eleny BALDUCCI-ROSLINDO

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Medicamentos homeopáticos como o Symphytum officinalle e a Calendula officinallis são dotados de propriedades anti-sépticas, antiinflamatória, cicatrizantes e também agem como promotores da consolidação de fraturas ósseas. Neste trabalho, uniram-se esses dois medicamentos similares em um complexo para verificar o seu efeito no reparo em feridas de extração dentária em camundongos. O complexo Symphytum officinalle e Calendula officinallis nas potências de 6CH e 3CH, respectivamente, foi ministrado por via oral ao grupo tratado durante 5 dias antes e após a extração do incisivo superior direito. No grupo controle, administraram-se 5ml de álcool etílico a 70% diluídos em 30 ml de soro fisiológico. Após a proservação, os animais foram sacrificados, a maxila direita separada da esquerda, fixada e processada para inclusão em parafina. Após a microtomia, os cortes obtidos foram corados pela H/E. A análise histológica mostrou que, tanto no grupo controle como no tratado, o alvéolo dentário estava preenchido por tecido de granulação e tecido ósseo neoformado, com graus variáveis de maturação, rico em osteócitos. No entanto, nos animais tratados, o processo de reparo em feridas após extração dentária do incisivo superior direito mostrou um avanço progressivo de neoformação óssea mais acentuado quando comparado ao grupo controle, em tempos equivalentes. Estes resultados enfatizam as propriedades biológicas do complexo Symphytum officinalle e Calendula officinallis e sua possível utilização como recurso terapêutico na Odontologia.Homeopathic medicines as Symphytum officinale and Calendula officinallis are endowed with antiseptic, antiphlogistic and cicatrizant properties and promoter of the consolidation of bone fracture. This research combined these two similar medicines in a compound to examine its action in the repair of tooth extraction sores in mice. The compound Symphytum offic. and Calendula offic. at the respective potencys of 6CH and 3CH was orally administered to the treated group during 5 days before and after the extraction of the rigth upper incisor. To the control group were administered 5 ml of ethylic alchol 70% diluted in 30 ml of physiologic serum. After a period of expectation, the animals were sacrificed, the right maxila was separated of the left maxila, this was fixed and the laboratories techniques were realized for inclusion in paraffin. After that, the piece was cut in the microtome, and the laminas were dyed by H/E. The analysis showed that the control and treated group exhibited the dental alveolus fulfilled with granulation tissue and neoformed bone tissue with variable degrees of maturation, abundant in osteocites. However, at the treated animal the healing process of the sore after the extraction of the rigth upper incisor showed a bone neoformation very pronounced when compared with the control group at equivalent times. Those results showed the biological properties of the compound Symphytum offic. and Calendula offic. and its utilization as a therapeutical help in Odontology.

  6. Schistosoma mansoni: aspectos quantitativos da fertilidade e sobrevida de vermes oriundos de cercárias irradiadas com 3 Krad, em camundongos Schistosoma mansoni: quantitative aspects of the fertility and survival of worms obtained from irradiated cercariae (3 Krad, in mice

    Gileno de Sá Cardoso

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available Quatro grupos de camundongos albinos (Mus musculus não isogênicos foram infectados transcutaneamente com cerca de 450 cercárias (das cepas LE e SJ do S. mansoni não irradiadas (grupos controles e irradiadas com 3 Krad de radiação gama proveniente de cobalto-60, com a finalidade de observar o efeito da irradiação gama sobre a fertilidade das fêmeas e a sobrevida dos vermes no sistema porta. A partir do 33º dia ocorre uma certa estabilidade na população dos vermes sobreviventes, ficando esta população constante, notadamente em relação à cepa LE, até o final das observações (90º dia. Concluiu-se que esta dose de radiação gama impede a produção de ovos dos vermes em 98,1% dos camundongos infectados, sendo mortos todos os ovos detectados; as fêmeas são mais resistentes à irradiação e o efeito desta sobre a mortalidade dos machos somente se torna estatisticamente significativo a partir do 61º dia de infecção. O longo tempo de permanência de vermes adultos irradiados estéreis no sistema porta de camundongos e o seu provável envolvimento no desenvolvimento de imunoproteção, tipo imunidade concomitante sem as implicações imunopatológicas para o hospedeiro, são discutidos nesse trabalho.The effect of gamma irradiation on the fertility of female mice, as well as the survival of worms in their portal system, have been observed in four groups of outbred albino mice (Mus musculus, experimentally infected with ca 450 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (LE and SJ strains, by transcutaneous route. The cercariae used were a non-irradiated (control groups, and b irradiated with 3 Krad of gamma irradiation (Co-60. From the 33rd day on, some estability in the population of surviving worm could be observed. This population remained constant till the end of the observation period (90th day, notedly in relation to the LE strain. Thus, it was concluded that gamma irradiation (at the dose of 3 Krad is able to hinder the worm egg production in 98.1% of the infected mice. Further, it was observed that the few detected eggs were dead. Females were found to be more resistant to irradiation. The irradiation effect on the mortality of male worms was statistically significant scarcely from the 61st day on. The long period of permanence of the sterile adult irradiated worms in the portal system of mice and their probable involvement in the development of immunoprotection (the so-called concomitant immunity, without the immunopathological involvements for the host are here discussed.

  7. Imunofluorescência realizada em cérebros de camundongos infectados com vírus rábico - cepa CVS, em diferentes estágios de decomposição Fluorescent antibody test for detection of rabies virus in brain smears of CVS-infected mice at different stages of decomposition

    Elizabeth Juliana Ghiuro Valentini

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available O teste de imunofluorescência (IF foi avaliado na detecção de vírus rábico presente em cérebros de carcaças de camundongos infectados com vírus da cepa CVS, os quais foram conseguidos através de uma combinação de tratamentos, em que se variaram as temperaturas (4,25 e -20ºC e o tempo de armazenamento. No teste de IF realizado com impressões cerebrais de carcaças que haviam sido submetidas à temperatura de 25ºC por 12 -18 h, houve maior dificuldade de visualização imediata dos corpúsculos de inclusão, enquanto que nos materiais conservados a 4ºC por até 48 h, as inclusões foram facilmente reconhecidas. Carcaças mantidas a -20ºC mantiveram-se viáveis à identificação pela IF mesmo após terem sido armazenadas por 720 h quando foram feitas as últimas observações. Em carcaças mantidas a 25ºC por 10 h, com tratamento posterior a 4 e -20ºC, o antígeno rábico não pode ser identificado através da IF, em conseqüência da decomposição das carcaças que ocorrem, respectivamente, após 10 e 24 h. Recomenda-se, portanto, empregar o teste de IF, em caráter de rotina, no controle de qualidade da vacina contra a Raiva, no que diz respeito a prova de vírus residual (teste de verificação da inativação viral, de vez que ele permite esclarecer mortes assintomáticas ocorridas em animais inoculados com a vacina, durante o período de observação da prova (21 dias, bem como evitar a sua repetição quando essas mortes ocorrem, o que representa considerável economia de tempo.The efficiency of the fluorescent antibody (FA test in detecting rabies virus antigen in decomposed specimens was evaluated in simulated conditions of the safety test recommended for the assessment of residual virus in inactivated rabies vaccines. The CVS-infected mice were submitted to different treatments combining time and temperature in order to cause different stages of carcass decomposition and, the FA test was carried out sequentially at pre-determined time intervals. For the materials stored at 25 ºC, greater difficulties for prompt recognition of the inclusion bodies were found after 12 - 18h, whilst the specimens maintained at 4ºC, the inclusions were easily visualized for up to 48h. Brain smears of carcasses kept at -20ºC were suitable for adequate identification after 720 h of storage. In carcasses that had been maintained at 25ºC for 10 h with additional storage at 4 or -20ºC, rabies antigenicity could not be detected, respectively after 10 and 24 h, due to tissue decomposition. The authors recommend that the FA test, when applied as an additional tool for the control of the safety test of inactivated rabies vaccine using mice, care must be taken in order to avoid the use of decomposed materials.

  8. Schistosoma mansoni: infecção experimental de camundongos através da orelha e quantificação do parasitismo na pele

    Sílvia E. Gerken; Aparecida F. S. Oliveira; Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira; Tomaz A. Mota-Santos

    1986-01-01

    No presente trabalho, desenvolveu-se método de infecção de camundongos através da orelha e de recuperação de esquistossômulos resultantes dessas infecções. Cerca de 80% das cercarías postas em contacto com orelhas de camundongos penetraram. Destas, 30% foram recuperadas. como vermes adultos, do sistema porta. Da pele (das orelhas) as maiores recuperações de esquistossômulos ocorreram nos dois primeiros dias após a infecção. Os parasitas permaneceram nesse sítio por dois dias. No terceiro dia,...

  9. Nveis comparativos de estresse oxidativo em camundongos em duas situaes do limite orgnico: overreaching induzido por treinamento de natao e cncer Comparative oxidative stress levels in mice submitted to two situations of organic limit: overreaching induced by swimming training and cancer

    Joaquim Maria Ferreira Antunes Neto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar concentraes de estresse oxidativo em camundongos da linhagem Balb-C submetidos a duas condies severas de alteraes orgnicas: treinamento exaustivo de natao (overreaching - grupo OVER; n = 10 e inoculao por tumor asctico de Ehrlich (grupo TAE; n = 10. A proposta foi analisar como as duas situaes comprometiam o equilbrio entre os sistemas oxidantes e antioxidantes. Foram investigados alguns marcadores de estresse oxidativo, tais como as substncias reativas ao cido tiobarbitrico (TBARS e concentraes da atividade da enzima antioxidante catalase (CAT no hemolisado. Como marcadores de leso celular, quantificaram-se concentraes plasmticas das enzimas creatina quinase (CK e aspartato transferase (AST; complementado; tambm se observaram padres de alteraes fisiolgicas por meio da quantificao plasmtica de creatinina e uria. Como resultados mais importantes, pde-se observar que, nas duas situaes de limite orgnico, seja por exerccio exaustivo (OVER ou pela inoculao de TAE, houve queda abrupta na concentrao da enzima CAT (decrscimos de 30%; p The aim of this study was to compare oxidative stress levels in mice (Balb-C submitted to two severe organic conditions: exhaustive swimming training (overreaching - OVER group; n = 10 and inoculation of the Ehrlich's Ascitic Tumor (EAT group; n = 10. Lipid peroxidation, quantified by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, and levels of antioxidant enzyme (catalase- CAT were used as indicators of oxidative stress. Muscle damage levels were measured through plasma creatine kinase (CK, aspartate transaminase (AST as well as blood creatinine and urea activities samples. As main results, it has been observed that in both situations, whether by exhaustive exercise (OVER or inoculation of EAT, dramatic decrease in the catalase activity levels was present when compared with the training group (T (30%; p < 0.01 and 72%; p < 0.001, respectively with concomitant increase in plasma TBARS concentration (52%; p < 0.01 and 90% p < 0.001, respectively. Plasma CK levels were more prominent in the OVER group, while the amount of AST plasma was higher in the EAT group. We concluded that the same profile of oxidative stress was found in situations involving exhaustive exercise and pathology. These results will allow professionals involved with load training manipulation to be concerned with the rest periods, preventing hence the installation of overreaching, which in terms of oxidative stress, was as severe as a pathological conditions.

  10. Infecção via oral por Trypanosoma evansi em animais de laboratório Oral infection by Trypanosoma evansi in rats and mice

    Aleksandro Schafer da Silva; Lilian Varini Ceolin; Camila Belmonte Oliveira; Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro; Rovaina Laureano Doyle

    2007-01-01

    Testou-se a infecção de Trypanosoma evansi pela via oral em ratos e camundongos, através de sangue contaminado de ambas as espécies. Dez ratos e dez camundongos foram alocados em quatro grupos iguais A e B (ratos), C e D (camundongos). Os grupos A e C receberam sangue contaminado de um rato e o grupo B e D de um camundongo, através de uma sonda. O volume de sangue administrado foi de 0,2ml, o qual apresentava uma concentração de 10(7) tripanossomas ml-1. Os animais foram mantidos em temperatu...

  11. O modelo experimental de carcinognese gstrica induzido por n-methyl-n-nitrosourea em ratos F344 e camundongos C3H vlido para os ratos Wistar? Experimental model of gastric carcinogenesis with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea for F344 rats and C3H mices is valid for Wistar rats?

    Lissandro Tarso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUO: O N-metil-N-nitrosourea (MNU tem ao cancergena direta, induzindo tumores em vrias espcies em uma variedade de rgos, incluindo o estmago de ratos. Tratamento do MNU na gua de beber por 25-42 semanas, seletivamente, induz carcinoma gstrico glandular de ratos F344 e camundongos C3H. OBJETIVO: Estabelecer um modelo experimental para induo seletiva de cncer no estmago glandular de ratos Wistar com MNU. MTODOS: Um total de 48 ratos Wistar machos com oito semanas, foram utilizados no presente estudo. MNU (Sigma-Aldrich foi dissolvido em DMSO e liberada gua potvel ad libitum por um perodo variando de 16 a 70 semanas. Aps 16 semanas, quatro ratos foram selecionados aleatoriamente e mortos. Depois, de seis em seis semanas, quatro animais tambm foram mortos at 70 semanas. RESULTADOS: A taxa de sobrevivncia foi superior a 90%. Ocorreu a induo de dois adenocarcinomas, um carcinoma espinocelular e um sarcoma. A incidncia de adenocarcinoma gstrico foi de 4,5% (0,5 a 15. CONCLUSES: O modelo experimental de carcinognese gstrica em ratos Wistar, utilizando MNU dissolvido na gua, no mostrou viabilidade prtica neste estudo, devido baixa taxa de adenocarcinoma gstrico que ocorreu.BACKGROUND: The N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU is a direct acting carcinogen, inducing tumors in several species in a variety of organs, including stomach of rats. Treatment of MNU in the drinking water for 25-42 weeks selectively induced glandular gastric carcinoma in F344 rats and C3H mice. AIM: To establish an experimental model for selective MNU induction of glandular stomach cancer in Wistar rats. METHODS: A total of 48 males eight-week-old Wistar rats were used in the present study. MNU (Sigma-Aldrich was dissolved in DMSO and provided as the drinking water ad libitum for a period ranging from 16 to 70 weeks. After 16 weeks, four rats were randomly selected and killed. After every six weeks four animals were killed until 70 weeks. RESULTS: Survival rate was higher than 90%. It had the induction of two adenocarcinomas, one squamous cell carcinoma and one sarcoma. The incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma was 4.5% (0.5 to 15. CONCLUSIONS: The experimental model of gastric carcinogenesis in Wistar rats, using MNU dissolved in water, showed not practice viability in this study due to the low rate of gastric adenocarcinoma.

  12. Expressao genica associada ao estresse oxidativo no coracao de camundongo apos isquemia intestinal

    Frederico Somaio Neto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O fenmeno da isquemia e reperfuso intestinal um evento frequente na clnica e est associado a repercusses deletrias em rgos a distncia, em especial ao corao. OBJETIVO: Investigar a expresso gnica do estresse oxidativo e defesa antioxidante no corao de camundongos isognicos, submetidos a isquemia e reperfuso intestinal (IR. MTODOS: Doze camundongos (C57BL/6 foram distribudos em dois grupos: Grupo IR (GIR com 60 min de ocluso da artria mesentrica superior, seguidos de 60 min de reperfuso. Grupo Controle (GC submetidos a anestesia e a laparotomia sem o procedimento de IR observados por 120 min. As amostras de intestino e corao foram processadas pelo mtodo (RT-qPCR / Reverse transcriptase - quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction para determinar a expresso gnica de 84 genes relacionados ao estresse oxidativo ("t" de Student, p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Observou-se no tecido intestinal (GIR uma expresso significantemente aumentada em 65 (74,71% genes em relao ao tecido normal (GC, e 37 (44,04% genes estiveram hiperexpressos (maior que trs vezes o limiar permitido pelo algoritmo. No tocante aos efeitos da I/R intestinal a distncia no tecido cardaco verificou-se a expresso significantemente aumentada de 28 genes (33,33%, mas somente oito genes (9,52% se hiperexpressaram trs vezes acima do limiar. Quatro (7,14% desses oito genes se expressaram simultaneamente nos tecidos intestinal e cardaco. No GIR notaram-se cardiomicitos com ncleos de menor tamanho, picnticos, ricos em heterocromatina e raros nuclolos, indicando sofrimento cardaco. CONCLUSO: A I/R intestinal promoveu a hiperexpresso estatisticamente significante de oito genes associados ao estresse oxidativo a distncia no tecido miocrdico.

  13. Parasite survey in mouse and rat colonies of Brazilian laboratory animal houses kept under differents sanitary barrier conditions Estudo de parasitos em colônias de ratos e de camundongos em biotérios brasileiros mantidos sob diferentes condições de barreiras sanitárias

    R. Gilioli

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A parasitological study was undertaken to determine the health status of 15 mouse and 10 rat colonies bred in 18 Brazilian laboratory animal houses maintained under different sanitary barrier conditions which supply animals for teaching, research purposes and manufacture of biological products for medical or veterinary use. Parasitological methods were used for diagnosis of mites, lices, helminthes and protozoan parasites. A questionnaire was answered by institutions with the intention to obtain information about the existence of barriers against infections and of regular sanitary monitoring program of their colonies. The questionnaire data show that the majority of the animal houses investigated do not possess an efficient sanitary barrier system able to keep animals under controlled health sanitary conditions. Ecto and endoparasite infections are widespread in the colonies and multiple infections were common in animals from most facilities investigated. The prevalences of parasites detected among the mouse and rat colonies of the laboratory animal houses investigated were: Myocoptes musculinus (46.6%, Myobia musculi (26.6%, Radfordia ensifera (13.3%, Syphacia obvelata (86.6%, Aspiculuris tetraptera (60.0%, Hymenolepis nana (53.3%, Spironucleus muris (80.0%, Tritrichomonas muris (80.0%, Giardia muris (66.0%, Entamoeba muris (20.0%, Eimeria sp. (13.3%, Hexamastix muris (26.6%, Poliplax spinulosa (30.0%, Poliplax serrata (10.0%, Radfordia ensifera (30.0%, Syphacia muris (80.0%, Hymenolepis nana (40.0%, Trichosomoides crassicauda (55.5%, Spironucleus muris (90.0%, Tritrichomonas muris (80.0%, Giardia muris (60.0%, Entamoeba muris (80.0%, Eimeria sp. (60.0% and Hexamastix muris (60.0%.Um estudo parasitológico foi realizado para verificar as condições de saúde de 15 colônias de camundongos e 10 colônias de ratos produzidos em 18 biotérios de instituições brasileiras que fornecem animais para ensino, pesquisa e produção de imunobiológicos de uso médico ou veterinário. Métodos parasitológicos foram utilizados para diagnóstico de ácaros, piolhos, helmintos e protozoários parasitos. Um questionário foi respondido pelas instituições com o intuito de obter informações sobre a existência de barreiras contra infecções e programa de fiscalização sanitária de suas colônias. Os dados do questionário mostram que a maioria dos biotérios analisados não possui um sistema de barreiras sanitárias eficiente capaz de manter animais sob condições sanitárias controladas. Infecções por ecto e endoparasitos são generalizadas nas colônias e a associação de infecções múltiplas foi comum na maioria dos animais dos biotérios analisados. A prevalência dos parasitos detectados entre as colônias de camundongos e de ratos investigadas foi: Myocoptes musculinus (46,6%, Myobia musculi (26,6%, Radfordia ensifera (13,3%, Syphacia obvelata (86,6%, Aspiculuris tetraptera (60,0%, Hymenolepis nana (53,3%, Spironucleus muris (80,0%, Tritrichomonas muris (80,0%, Giardia muris (66,0%, Entamoeba muris (20,0%, Eimeria sp. (13,3%, Hexamastix muris (26,6%, Poliplax spinulosa (30,0%, Poliplax serrata (10,0%, Radfordia ensifera (30,0%, Syphacia muris (80,0%, Hymenolepis nana (40,0%, Trichosomoides crassicauda (55,5%, Spironucleus muris (90,0%, Tritrichomonas muris (80,0%, Giardia muris (60,0%, Entamoeba muris (80,0%, Eimeria sp. (60,0% e Hexamastix muris (60,0%.

  14. Avaliação do potencial genotóxico do extrato bruto de Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl. Miers, Bignoneaceae, em medula óssea de camundongos The Evaluation of the genotoxic potency of the Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl. Miers, Bignoneaceae, crude extract on bone marrow of mice

    Eduardo A. Magalhães

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl. Miers, Bignoneaceae, é utilizada no tratamento de vitiligo e de outras doenças, mas seus efeitos genotóxicos não são conhecidos. Neste sentido, o presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito genotóxico de extratos de P. venusta em camundongos utilizando os Testes de Micronúcleo (MN e o de Aberração Cromossômica (AC. O vegetal foi coletado, selecionado, seco, triturado e extraído com etanol. Camundongos de 40 g foram divididos em grupos experimentais e controles. Os grupos experimentais receberam concentrações crescentes do extrato (50, 100 e 200 mg/kg por peso corporal, por v.o. O grupo controle negativo (CN recebeu água. O grupo controle positivo (CP recebeu Ciclofosfamida® por v.i. Realizou-se o sacrifício, retirada da medula óssea, homogeneização e preparação das lâminas. As freqüências de eritrócitos policromáticos micronucleados (EPCMN foram: CN = 0,35±0,09; CP = 2,87±1,78; 50 = 0,09±0,04; 100 = 0,16±0,08 e 200 = 0,10±0,03. O teste de AC apresentou as seguintes freqüências: CN = 0,12±1,87; CP = 0,62±5,61; 50 = 0,12±1,58; 100 = 0,072±0,54 e 200 = 0,124±1,64. As freqüências de EPCMN dos grupos experimentais foram significantemente inferiores quando comparadas com as dos controles. A freqüência de cromossomos aberrantes não teve diferença significativa se comparada com o CN, mas foi estatisticamente menor que a do CP. P.venusta não apresentou atividade genotóxica.Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl. Miers, Bignoneaceae, is used in the treatment of vitiligo and other diseases, but its genotoxic effects are unknown. In this way, this study aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effect of extracts of P. venusta in mice using the micronucleus (MN and chromosome aberration tests (CA. The plant was collected, selected, dried, pounded and extracted with ethanol. Mice weighing 40 g were divided in experimental and control groups. The experimental groups received different concentrations (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight, by oral gavage. The negative control group (NC received water. The positive control group (PC received Ciclophosphamide® by v.i. It was performed the sacrifice, removal of bone marrow, homogenization and slides preparation. Frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE was: NC = 0.35±1.87; PC = 2.87±9.02; 50 = 0.09±0.83; 100 = 0.16±0.10 e 200 = 0.10±0.71. The CA test showed the frequency: NC = 0.12±1.87; PC = 0.62±5.61; 50 = 0.12±1.58; 100 = 0.072±0.54 e 200 = 0.124±1.64. The frequency of MNPCE of experimental controls was significantly lower when compared with NC, but it was statistically lower than PC's frequency. P.venusta didn't show genotoxicity activity.

  15. Comparison of three diagnostic techniques for the detection of leptospires in the kidneys of wild house mice (Mus musculus Comparação de três métodos de diagnóstico para detecção de leptospiras em rins de camundongos selvagens (Mus musculus

    Carlos A. Rossetti

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one wild house mice (Mus musculus were trapped in an urban area, near railways, in Santa Fe city, Argentina. Both kidneys from each mouse were removed for bacteriological and histological examination. One kidney was inoculated into Fletcher semi-solid medium and isolates were serologically typed. The other kidney was microscopically examined after hematoxylin-eosin, silver impregnation and immunohistochemical stains. Leptospires, all of them belonging to the Ballum serogroup, were isolated from 16 (39% out of 41 samples. The presence of the agent was recorded in 18 (44% and in 19 (46% out of 41 silver impregnated and immunohistochemically stained samples respectively. Additionally, leptospires were detected in high number on the apical surface of epithelial cells and in the lumen of medullary tubules and they were less frequently seen on the apical surface of epithelial cells or in the lumen of the cortical tubules, which represents an unusual finding in carrier animals. Microscopic lesions consisting of focal mononuclear interstitial nephritis, glomerular shrinkage and desquamation of tubular epithelial cells were observed in 13 of 19 infected and in 10 of 22 non-infected mice; differences in presence of lesions between infected and non-infected animals were not statistically significant (P=0,14. The three techniques, culture, silver impregnation and immunohistochemistry, had a high agreement (k³0.85 and no significant differences between them were detected (P>0.05. In addition, an unusual location of leptospires in kidneys of carrier animals was reported, but a relationship between lesions and presence of leptospires could not be established.Foram capturados 41 camundongos (Mus musculus na região urbana, próximo à ferrovia da cidade de Santa Fé, Argentina. Os rins de cada animal capturado foram removidos para estudos bacteriológicos e histológicos. Um dos rins foi imerso em meio semi-sólido de Fletcher para isolamento de leptospiras, as quais foram serologicamente tipificadas. O outro rim foi microscopicamente examinado por coloração de cortes histológicos pela hematoxilina-eosina, impregnação pela prata e imunohistoquímica. Leptospiras pertencentes ao serogrupo Ballum foram isoladas em 16 (39% das 41 amostras availadas. A presença do agente foi observada em 18 (44% e 19 (46% das 41 amostras avaliadas por impregnação pela prata e imunohistoquímica, respectivamente. Leptospiras foram detectadas em grande numero na superfície apical das células epiteliais e no lumen dos túbulos medulares e foram menos frequentemente encontradas na superficie apical de células epiteliais ou no lúmen dos túbulos corticais, o que é considerado achado raro em animais portadores. Lesões microscópicas consistindo de nefrite mononuclear intersticial focal, atrofia glomerular e descamação das células tubulares epiteliais foram observadas em 13 dos 19 animais infectados e em 10 dos 22 animais não infectados. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre presença de lesões em animais infectados e não infectados (P=0,14. As três técnicas empregadas, isolamento, impregnação pela prata e imunohistoquímica, apresentaram alta concordância (k³0,85 e não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas (P>0,05. Esse trabalho descreve a presença incomum de leptospira em rins de animais portadores, porém com esse estudo não foi possível estabelecer uma relação entre lesões e presença de leptospira.

  16. Avaliação dos efeitos centrais dos florais de Bach em camundongos através de modelos farmacológicos específicos Evaluation of central effects of Bach Flowers Remedies in mice using specific pharmacological models

    Márcia M. De-Souza

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Os Remédios Florais de Bach (RFB, constituem um método alternativo de tratamento usado largamente na terapêutica de várias patologias em muitos países do mundo. Os RFB são reconhecidos como tratamento natural pela OMS desde 1956. Embora o mecanismo de ação dos RFB ainda não tenha sido elucidado, eles vêm sendo indicados para o tratamento de várias doenças neuropsiquiátricas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi detectar possíveis efeitos centrais dos RFB em modelos farmacológicos utilizados na pesquisa de substâncias com efeitos ansiolíticos, hipnóticos, antidepressivos e neurolépticos. Para tanto, camundongos receberam um tratamento agudo via oral (0,45 mL 1 hora antes dos testes. Os resultados mostraram que os florais Gorse e, em conjunto, White chestnut, Agrymony e Vervain exibiram perfis antidepressivo e hipnótico, respectivamente. No modelo de ansiedade foi detectado efeito ansiolítico do floral Agrymony. Entretanto, não foram observados efeitos neurolépticos do floral Clematis. Os resultados nos levam a sugerir que os efeitos centrais dos florais avaliados podem ser parcialmente detectados através de modelos farmacológicos utilizados na pesquisa de agentes psicotrópicos.The Bach Flowers Remedies (BFR's are worldwide used as an alternative therapeutical approach for several pathologies, being considered by WHO as natural therapy since 1956. Despite the unknown mechanism of action, the BFR's have been widely used on treatment of several neuropsychiatry diseases. Based on pharmacological models used to detect ansiolitic, antidepressant, hypnotic and neuroleptyc effects of different substances, the aim of this work was to evaluate possible central effects of the BFR's. For this purpose, albino mice received BFR's treatment (0.45 mL by oral route 1 hour prior to each test. The results revealed that the Gorse flower alone and a mix of White chestnut, Agrymony and Vervain showed antidepressant and hypnotic effects, respectively. On the anxiety model, Agrymony showed an ansiolitic effect but no neuroleptyc effects were observed for Clematis floral therapy. The herein described results allow us to conclude that the studied BFR's central effects may be partially detected through pharmacological models currently and widely used on psychotropic agents research.

  17. Comparative efficacies of Zataria multiflora essential oil and itraconazole against disseminated Candida albicans infection in BALB/c mice Eficiência comparada do óleo essencial de Zataria multiflora e itraconazol contra infecção disseminada de Candida albicans em camundongos BALB/c

    A.R. Khosravi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated candidiasis is a serious problem in public health that results from the invasion of Candida species, in particular Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacies of Zataria multiflora essential oil and itraconazole in clearing C. albicans from the visceral organs of BALB/c mice suffered from disseminated candidiasis. Zataria multiflora essential oil was extracted using Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. For clearance experiment, mice (20-25 g, N=8 per group received essential oil at doses of 30, 48 and 64 mg/kg and itraconazole at dose of 200 mg/kg intraperitoneally (IP 2 days before and after intravenous inoculation of 0.5×10(6 C. albicans blastospores. The treated animals were sacrificed on day 20, and 0.1 g of the tissue homogenates was plated onto specific media. In GC-Mass, the main components of the essential oil were carvacrol (61.29% and thymol (25.18%. The results demonstrated that IP administration of 64 mg/kg of the essential oil had the highest efficacy in reducing C. albicans and produced 39.5, 21.8, 141.5, 174 and 501-fold reductions in mean CFUs per 0.1 gram in Candida infections of the liver, spleen, lungs, brain and kidneys, respectively, compared to positive control. Itraconazole showed significantly more responsiveness than the essential oil at dose of 30 mg/kg in clearing C. albicans from the kidneys (PA candidíase disseminada é um problema sério de saúde publica decorrente da invasão por espécies de Candida, e Candida albicans em particular. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficiência do óleo essencial de Zataria multiflora e itraconazol na remoção de C. albicans das vísceras de camundongos BALB/c com candidíase disseminada. O óleo essencial de Zataria multiflora foi extraído empregando um aparelho do tipo Clevenger e analisado por cromatografia a gás e espectrometria de massa (GC-MS. Para os experimentos de remoção, camundongos (20-25g, n=8 por grupo receberam óleo essencial nas doses de 30, 48 e 64 mg/kg e itraconazol na dose de 200 mg/kg via intraperitoneal (IP por dois dias antes e após a inoculação intravenosa de 0,5 x 10(6 blastósporos de C. albicans. Os animais tratados foram sacrificados no vigésimo dia e 0,1g dos tecidos homogeneizados foram semeados em meios específicos. De acordo com o GC-MS, os principais componentes do óleo essencial foram carvacrol (61,29% e timol (25,28%. Os resultados mostraram que a administração IP de 64 mg/kg de óleo essencial apresentou a eficiência mais alta na redução de C. albicans e resultou na redução de 39,5, 21,8, 141,5, 174 e 501 vezes na contagem média de C. albicans por 0,1g do fígado, baço, pulmões, cérebro e rins, respectivamente, quando comparado ao controle positivo. O itraconazol apresentou redução de C. albicans maior do que o óleo essencial na dose de 30mg/kg nos rins (P<0,02, cérebro (P<0,02 e baço (P<0,04 e menor no cérebro (P<0,01, pulmões (P<0,0005 e rins (P<0,0005 na dose de 64 mg/kg, enquanto não houve diferença entre esse droga e óleo essencial na dose de 48mg/kg. Estes resultados explicam a remoção aumentada de leveduras e a disseminação reduzida para as vísceras de camundongos tratados com Z. multiflora.

  18. Antibody responses in mice after immunization with inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus using different adjuvants Respostas de anticorpos em camundongos após imunização com vírus respiratório sincicial bovino inativado utilizando diferentes adjuvantes

    Fernando Rosado Spilki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV causes pneumonia in young cattle. Modified-live-virus (MLV and inactivated vaccines are currently used for the control of clinical effects of BRSV infections in cattle. On the present research, the stimulation of specific anti-BRSV immunoglobulin isotypes was investigated, through the use of different commercially available adjuvants (Water-in-oil emulsion, Quil A, Aluminum-hydroxide in inbred mice (Balb/C and C57BL/6. BRSV antibodies were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and the results were compared to the antibody levels induced by immunization of animals using live-BRSV-virus. Water-in-oil emulsion and alum- adjuvant preparations induced higher levels of IgG1 immunoglobulins, whereas Quil A favored the production of IgG2 antibodies, this last being a more appropriate response profile for the specific case of BRSV. Not using adjuvants resulted in poor levels of specific antibodies. The isotype profile of specific antibodies obtained varied greatly depending on the adjuvants used. This information may be useful for the formulation of more effective BRSV inactivated vaccines; however, these findings have to be confirmed in cattle.O vírus respiratório sincicial bovino (BRSV causa pneumonia em bovinos jovens. Vacinas de vírus vivo modificado (MLV e vacinas inativadas são atualmente utilizadas para o controle dos efeitos clínicos de infecções pelo BRSV em bovinos. No presente trabalho, investigou-se a estimulação dos isotipos de imunoglobulinas específicas anti-BRSV, através da utilização de diferentes adjuvantes disponíveis comercialmente (água em óleo de emulsão, Quil A, hidróxido de alumínio em camundongos isogênicos (Balb/C e C57BL/6. Anticorpos contra o BRSV foram medidos usando-se um ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA, e os resultados foram comparados com os níveis de anticorpos induzidos pela imunização de animais utilizando-se o BRSV vivo. As preparações em que se empregou óleo mineral e alumínio como adjuvantes induziram altos níveis de imunoglobulinas IgG1, enquanto QuilA favoreceu a produção de anticorpos de classe IgG2, sendo este último um perfil de resposta mais desejável para o caso específico de BRSV. A não utilização de adjuvantes resultou em baixa produção de anticorpos específicos. O perfil de isotipos de imunoglobulinas secretados variou bastante conforme o adjuvante utilizado. Esta informação pode ser útil futuramente na formulação de vacinas inativadas mais eficazes contra o BRSV. Todavia, esses achados devem ser confirmados em bovinos.

  19. Efeito do hipotireoidismo no tumor de Ehrlich sólido em camundongos fêmeas castradas e não castradas Effect of hypothyroidism on the solid form of the Ehrlich tumor in intact or castrated adult female mice

    Alessandra Estrêla da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito do hipotireoidismo, induzido pelo propiltiouracil (PTU, no tumor de Ehrlich sólido, implantado em camundongos fêmeas adultas castradas ou não. Foram utilizados 40 animais distribuídos em quatro grupos: hipotireóideo castrado, hipotireóideo não castrado, eutireóideo castrado e eutireóideo não castrado. Os animais receberam uma injeção de células neoplásicas no coxim plantar esquerdo. A curva de crescimento tumoral foi determinada por mensurações da pata inoculada durante 12 dias quando os animais foram necropsiados. A hipofunção tireoidiana reduziu o tamanho do tumor de Ehrlich nos animais castrados. Embora o crescimento neoplásico tenha sido menor, o diâmetro nuclear médio e o número de regiões organizadoras de nucléolos (NORs e de mitoses/campo foram maiores. Conclui-se que o hipotireoidismo retarda o crescimento do tumor de Ehrlich sólido, sem alterar as características celulares de malignidade, que o efeito isolado da castração causa alterações discretas e que a associação hipotireoidismo-castração potencializa o retardo do crescimento do tumor de Ehrlich sólido.The effect of hypothyroidism on the solid form of the Ehrlich tumor in intact or castrated adult female mice was studied. Hypothyroidism was induced by treatment with propylthiouracil (PTU. Forty mice were divided into four groups: castrated hypothyroid, intact hypothyroid, castrated euthyroid, and intact euthyroid. The mice were inoculated with suspension cells into the left footpad. The tumor growth curve was determined by measuring the inoculated footpad during 12 days. At the end of the experimental period the mice were sacrificed. Hypothyroidism was associated with a reduction in size of the tumor only in the castrated animals. Although the neoplastic growth was lower, mean nuclear diameter, number of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs, and area of mitosis were higher. In conclusion, hypothyroidism resulted in a delayed growth of the tumor, but it did not affect the malignant features of the neoplastic cells. In addition, the isolated effect of castration caused only mild alterations, whereas hypothyroidism associated with castration resulted in a more prominent delay in the growth rate of the Ehrlich tumor.

  20. Capacidade da matriz extracelular da medula óssea de induzir proliferação de células mielóides in vitro no modelo de desnutrição protéica em camundongos Capacity of the extracellular matrix of the bone marrow to induce proliferation of myeloid cells in vitro in model of protein malnutrition in mice

    Cidônia de Lourdes Vituri

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo verificar se a matriz extracelular (MEC obtida da medula óssea de camundongos com desnutrição protéica energética sustenta a sobrevivência, se induz proliferação de células mielóides, bem como avaliar a capacidade desta MEC de interagir com citocinas hematopoiéticas in vitro. Camundongos machos "Swiss" foram submetidos à desnutrição protéica (4% de caseína até que perdessem 20% do peso inicial e o grupo-controle foi mantido com uma dieta contendo 14% de caseína. A medula óssea foi extraída com tampão PBS suplementado com 1 mg de aprotinina/mL. Os ensaios de proliferação foram realizados com a linhagem mielóide FDC-P1, pelo método colorimétrico de redução do MTT. A MEC obtida tanto do grupo-controle como do desnutrido induziu proliferação celular in vitro. Os ensaios de interação foram realizados com IL-3 e GM-CSF na concentração de 10 ρg e 500 ρg/mL, que demonstraram efeito sinérgico e efeito regulatório, respectivamente. A MEC obtida de animais do grupo desnutrido quando submetida ao ensaio de ligação ao GM-CSF mostrou maior proliferação celular do que a MEC obtida de animais do grupo-controle (pThe aim of this study was to verify the capacity of the extracellular matrix (ECM obtained from bone marrow of malnourished mice to sustain survival and to induce the proliferation of myeloid cells. We also verified the capacity of the tests to interact with in vitro hematopoietic cytokines. Male "Swiss" mice were submitted to protein malnutrition with a diet content of '4% casein until they lost 20% of the original weight, while the group-control was kept with a diet content of 14% of casein. The bone marrow was extracted with 1.0 mg of aprotinin/mL in PBS. The proliferation tests were carried out with myeloid cell line FDCP-1, by the colorimetric method of reduction of the MTT. The obtained ECM from nourished and undernourished mice induced cellular proliferation invitro. Tests performed with Il-3 and GM-CSF cytokines in a concentration of 10 and 500 ρg/mL displayed synergic and regulatory effects respectively. The ECM obtained from the malnourished group submitted to the binding to GM-CSF demonstrated higher cellular proliferation than the ECM obtained from the control group (p<0.05. The results suggest that the alterations in the composition of ECM of bone marrow caused by malnutrition might lead to modification of the GM-CSF activity modulation.

  1. Plant density and nitrogen fertilization in Swiss chard Densidade de plantio e adubação nitrogenada em acelga

    Márcia de M Echer; Tiago Zoz; Charles Douglas Rossol; Fábio Steiner; Deise D. Castagnara; Maria do C Lana

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of plant spacing and nitrogen fertilization on Swiss chard's yield, from September to November 2009. The experimental design was of randomized blocks in split plot with four replications. In the plots were allocated the two plant spacings (0.30 and 0.50 m) and in the subplots the five doses of nitrogen (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1). The crop was harvested 90 days after transplanting. The plant spacing of 0.50 m provided increased productio...

  2. Imunização de camundongos com vacina viva avirulenta de Trypanosoma cruzi: V. Ensaio de novos esquemas de vacinação

    Humberto Menezes

    1971-02-01

    Full Text Available Camundongos vacinados com uma, duas ou três vacinas vivas quando infectados apresentam melhor grau de imunização e menor reação inflamatória do que animais vacinados unicamente com uma, duas ou três doses de vacinas fenoladas mortas e igualmente infectados. A combinação de vacinas vivas e mortas não melhorou em nada os resultados obtidos unicamente com as vacinas vivas.

  3. Evidência da ação antiparasitária da azitromicina na infecção experimental de camundongos pelo Plasmodium berghei

    Gakiya Erika

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A azitromicina debelou a infecção experimental de camundongos pelo Plasmodium berghei quando administrada, pela via oral e durante 28 dias, na dose de 100mg/kg, iniciada no mesmo dia em que os animais foram infectados. Mediante uso de 10mg/kg houve insucesso. Os resultados obtidos suscitam investigações complementares sobre a referida atividade antiparasitária desse medicamento.

  4. Anlise da postura craniocervical de crianas respiradoras bucais aps tratamento postural em bola sua Craniocervical posture analysis of mouth breathing children after postural treatment on swiss ball

    Priscila Weber

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a postura craniocervical de crianas respiradoras bucais aps tratamento postural em bola sua. Doze crianas respiradoras bucais foram submetidas a um protocolo de reeducao postural constitudo por exerccios de alongamento e fortalecimento muscular sobre a bola sua, estimulao diafragmtica e alongamento dos msculos acessrios da inspirao. A postura craniocervical foi avaliada atravs da anlise biofotogramtrica. A posio da anteriorizao da cabea foi aferida por meio do ngulo formado pelos pontos localizados no tragus direito e no processo espinhoso da stima vrtebra cervical com a linha horizontal. A curvatura cervical foi avaliada pela distncia horizontal de uma linha vertical tangenciando o pice da cifose torcica e o ponto de maior concavidade da curvatura cervical. As fotografias foram obtidas antes e aps dez atendimentos. A normalidade das variveis foi verificada a partir do teste Shapiro-Wilk. Para as comparaes entre as mdias foi utilizado o teste t de Student para amostras dependentes admitindo-se nvel de significncia de 5% (pThe study aimed to evaluate the craniocervical posture of mouth breathing children after postural treatment on swiss ball. Twelve mouth breathing children were undergone to a postural reeducation protocol through stretching and strengthening exercises on swiss ball, diaphragmatic stimulation and stretching of the inspiratory accessory muscles. Craniocervical posture was evaluated through biophotogrammetry analysis. Forward head position was measured through an angle formed by the points in the tragus and in the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra with a horizontal line. Cervical column curvature was taken by the horizontal distance from a vertical line passing through the thoracic kyphosis apex to the point of the greatest cervical curvature concavity. Pictures were taken before and after ten treatment sessions. The normality of the variables was tested by Shapiro-Wilk test and the Student's t -test was used to determine differences in variables between assessments. It was considered a significance level of 5% (p<0.05. It was verified a significant improvement on craniocervical posture with reduction of the forward head position (p=0.00 and restoration of cervical column physiological curvature (p=0.01. The postural reeducation protocol on swiss ball reflected on craniocervical posture alignment probably by cervical muscles equilibrium and diaphragmatic action improvement.

  5. Efeito da dieta hiperlipdica e do treinamento aerbico na aterosclerose em camundongos apoE-/- / Effect of hyperlipidic diet and aerobic training on atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice / Efecto de la dieta hiperlipdica y del entrenamiento aerbico en la aterosclerosis en ratones apoE-/-

    Silvio Anderson Toledo, Fernandes; Antnio Jos, Natali; Srgio Luis Pinto da, Matta; Bruno Gonzaga, Teodoro; Frederico Souzalima Caldoncelli, Franco; Mateus Camaroti, Laterza; Maria do Carmo Gouveia, Peluzio.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUO: A populao brasileira tem seguido a tendncia dos pases desenvolvidos, cuja caracterstica o aumento do consumo de gorduras e sedentarismo. OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos da dieta hiperlipdica e do treinamento sobre o peso corporal, o consumo alimentar, a massa corporal magra, os l [...] ipdios plasmticos, o peso do fgado e a aterosclerose em camundongos com deficincia de apolipoprotena E (apoE-/-). MTODOS: vinte e seis camundongos foram divididos em grupos/dieta: NS (normolipdica e sedentrio), HS (hiperlipdica e sedentrio), NT (normolipdica e treinamento) e HT (hiperlipdica e treinamento). Aferiu-se peso corporal (PC), consumo alimentar (CA) e peso relativo do fgado (PRF). Calculou-se a gua da carcaa (A%) pela diferena do peso pr e ps-secagem, gordura (G%) por Soxhlet e protena (P%) por Kjeldahl. Determinaram-se colesterol total (CT), triglicerdeos (TG) e HDL por mtodo enzimtico-colorimtrico e LDL e VLDL pela formula de Friedewald. Analisou-se a aterosclerose por fotomicrografia. Utilizou-se ANOVA e o mtodo de Duncan, com P 0,05). A dieta hiperlipdica aumentou o CA (365,3 5,09 vs. 340,16 6,32) e LDL (452,20 114,63 vs. 329,60 77,54) nos animais sedentrios e o CT (858,75 140,84 vs. 320,87 157,81) e o LDL (839,36139,94 vs. 282,66166,92) nos treinados (P Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIN: La poblacin brasilea ha seguido la tendencia de los pases desarrollados, cuya caracterstica es el aumento del consumo de grasas y el sedentarismo. OBJETIVO: Investigar los efectos de la dieta hiperlipdica y del entrenamiento sobre el peso corporal, el consumo de alimentos, la masa [...] corporal delgada, los lpidos plasmticos, el peso del hgado y la aterosclerosis en ratones con deficiencia de apolipoprotena E (apoE-/-). MTODOS: 26 ratones fueron divididos en grupos/dieta: NS (normolipdica y sedentario), HS (hiperlipdica y sedentario), NT (normolipdica y entrenamiento) y HT (hiperlipdica y entrenamiento). Se controlaron peso corporal (PC), consumo de alimentos (CA) y peso relativo del hgado (PRH). Se calcul el agua de la carcasa (A%) por la diferencia del peso antes y despus del secado, grasa (G%) por Soxhlet y protena (P%) por Kjeldahl. Se determinaron colesterol total (CT), triglicridos (TG) y HDL por el mtodo enzimtico-colorimtrico, y LDL y VLDL por la frmula de Friedewald. Por fotomicrografa se analiz la aterosclerosis. Se utiliz ANOVA y el mtodo de Duncan, con P 0,05). La dieta hiperlipdica aument el CA (365,3 5,09 vs. 340,16 6,32) y el LDL (452,20 114,63 vs. 329,60 77,54) en los animales sedentarios, y el CT (858,75 140,84 vs. 320,87 157,81) y el LDL (839,36139,94 vs. 282,66166,92) en los entrenados (P Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The Brazilian population has followed the trend of developed countries, whose characteristic is the increased consumption of fats and sedentary lifestyle. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of high fat diet and training on body weight, food intake, lean body mass, plasma lipids, liv [...] er weight and atherosclerosis in mice with apolipoprotein E (apoE-/-) deficiency. METHODS: 26 rats were divided into groups/diet: NS (normolipidic and sedentary), HS (high fat and sedentary), NT (normolipidic and training) and HT (high fat and training). Body weight (BW), food intake (FI) and relative liver weight (RLW) were measured in a Gehaka BG2000 scales. The water from the carcass (A%) was calculated from the weight difference between the pre-and post-drying ,the fat (% F) was calculated by Soxhlet, and the protein (P%) by Kjeldahl . We determined total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and HDL by colorimetric enzymatic method and VLDL and LDL by the Friedewald formula. Atherosclerosis was analyzed by photomicrography. We used ANOVA as well as the Duncan's method, P0.05). The high fat diet increased the FI (365,35,09 vs. 340,166,32) and LDL (452,20114,63 vs. 329,6077,54) in the sedentary animals and T

  6. Efecto de hidrolizados de caseína o soja sobre el metabolismo glucídico en ratas Efeito de hidrolisados de caseína ou soja sobre o metabolismo glicídico em camundongos Effects of casein or soy hydrolysates on glucose metabolism in rats

    Milaidi García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de hidrolizados de caseína o soja sobre el metabolismo glucídico fue estudiado en ratas. Se determinaron las variaciones de la glicemia, insulinemia y aminoácidos plasmáticos después de alimentación por sonda con diferentes péptidos obtenidos por proteólisis de caseína o soja. Los productos de digestión fueron separados combinando diálisis, cromatografía de intercambio iónico y ultrafiltración. Dos proteínas enteras, tres fracciones peptídicas de cada proteína y dos mezclas de L-aminoácidos simulando la composición de la proteína entera fueron suministradas a las ratas mediante sonda nasogástrica (gavage. Las fracciones del hidrolizado de caseína produjeron niveles de insulinemia más elevados que las de la soja, con excepción de los péptidos con masa molecular entre 10 y 1 kDa. No se encontraron diferencias significativas (pO efeito de hidrolisados de caseína ou soja sobre o metabolismo glicídico foi estudado em camundongos. Foram determinadas as variações da glicemia, insulinemia e aminoácidos plasmáticos depois de alimentação por sonda com diferentes peptídeos obtidos por proteólise de caseína ou soja. Os produtos de digestão foram separados combinando a diálise, a cromatografia de intercâmbio iônico e a ultrafiltragem. Duas proteínas inteiras, três fra­ções peptídicas de cada proteína e duas misturas de L-aminoácidos simulando a composição da proteína inteira foram fornecidas aos camundongos através de sonda nasogástrica (Gavage. As frações do hidrolisado de caseína produziram níveis de insulinemia mais elevados que as da soja, com exceção dos peptídeos com massa molecular entre 10 y 1 kDa. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas (pTo determine the effects of different peptide mixtures on glycemic regulation in rats, plasma glucose, insulin and amino acid responses were monitored after gavage administration of different casein or soy digests obtained by in vitro hydrolysis. Peptides present in hydrolysates were separated combining dialysis, low pressure ion-exchange chromatography and ultrafiltration. Two intact proteins (casein and soy isolate, three peptide mixtures obtained from each protein and two free L-amino acid mixtures simulating dietary protein compositions were tested. The insulin responses after administration of the three casein peptide solutions were not significantly different (p<0,05. However, rat groups fed casein material had higher insulin concentrations than those fed soy material, except for animals fed soy peptides with molecular weight between 10 and 1 kDa (S10-1. Also, the insulin response after S10-1 gavage was statistically higher (p<0,05 than other soy-peptide solutions tested. Significant increase in insulin secretion was observed by rat groups after free L-amino acid gavages. The insulin response showed strong correlation with plasma Thr (p<001, r=078, Glu (p<001, r=085, Pro (p<001, r=076, Ala (p<005, r=066, Met (p<005, r=071, Phe (p<005, r=069 and His (p<005, r=071 concentrations. Results with soy peptide fractions indicate that the insulin secretion in rats can be influenced by the nature of the peptidic fraction administered, whereas in casein, these differences were not observed between digests.

  7. Effect of alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and ethanol on pregnancy outcome in mice Efeito do diabetes mellitus induzido por aloxana e etanol na gestação de camundongos

    Luiz Cesar Peres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of ethanol, diabetes mellitus and the combination of both on mouse fetuses. METHODS: We used 24 female Swiss mice, dividing them into four groups of 6 each: control (C, ethanol (E, diabetes (D (blood glucose > 200 mg/dL and diabetes + ethanol (DE. Diabetes was induced by alloxan (40 mg/kg on day 7 of pregnancy. Groups E and DE received 4 g/kg of 25% v/v ethanol intraperitoneally, whereas groups C and D received saline. On day 18, all fetuses were harvested. RESULTS: In group DE the following anomalies were found: exencephaly, situs inversus totalis, situs inversus partialis, eyelid skin tag and one animal from group E had pulmonary artery hypoplasia. Ethanol administration partially reverted diabetes-fetal resorption caused by diabetes, yet it induced late fetal death. Both diabetes and ethanol reduced placental diameter and increased its weight. Ethanol had more effect on fetal length in males than in females, however, such bias was not found for diabetes. Ethanol prevented diabetes-induced tail shortening in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that, although ethanol might improve energy metabolism in early gestation, it causes cell damage that leads to cardiovascular, limb and neural tube defects, late fetal death and reduced placental size.INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVOS: Investigar o efeito do etanol, do diabetes mellitus (DM e da associação de ambos sobre os fetos de camundongo. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 24 fêmeas de camundongos Swiss divididas em quatro grupos de seis animais cada: controle (C; etanol (E; diabetes (D (glicemia > 200 mg/dl, e diabetes + etanol (DE. O diabetes foi induzido pela aloxana (40 mg/kg no dia 7 da gestação. Os animais dos grupos E e DE receberam 4 g/kg de solução a 25% v/v de etanol intraperitoneal (IP, enquanto os animais dos grupos C e D receberam salina. No dia 18, todos os fetos foram coletados. RESULTADOS: Foram encontradas as seguintes anomalias no grupo DE: exencefalia, situs inversus totalis, situs inversus partialis e apêndice cutâneo palpebral. Um animal do grupo E apresentou hipoplasia da artéria pulmonar. A administração de etanol reverteu parcialmente a reabsorção fetal induzida pelo diabetes, porém aumentou a morte fetal tardia. Ambos, diabetes e etanol, reduziram o diâmetro placentário e aumentaram o seu peso. O etanol teve mais efeito no comprimento de fetos machos, contudo isso não ocorreu com o diabetes. O etanol preveniu a redução da cauda induzida pelo diabetes em ambos os sexos. CONCLUSÃO: Esses resultados indicam que, embora o etanol possa melhorar o metabolismo energético no início da gestação, ele causa lesão celular que leva a defeitos cardiovasculares, dos membros e do tubo neural, além de morte fetal tardia e redução do tamanho da placenta.

  8. Chronic toxicological effects of ultradiluted solutions of Aveloz (Euphorbia tirucalli Lineu on healthy mice: a preliminary study Efeitos toxicológicos crônicos de altas diluições de Aveloz (Euphorbia tirucalli L. em camundongos sadios: estudo preliminar. Efectos toxicológicos crónicos de altas diluciones de Euphorbia tirucalli en ratones sanos: estudio preliminar.

    Morgana Castelo Branco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The latex extracted from Euphorbia tirucalli, a plant popularly known as Aveloz, is used in complementary medicine to induce tumor regression. However, as this latex has toxic effects when administered orally in ponderal doses, the present study was designed to assess the effects of high dilutions in healthy mice over a period of 18 weeks. The Aveloz latex-high diluted solutions (latex-HD were obtained through the interaction of two processes: 1:100 dilution in mass and succussion, using ethanol 70% as a solvent, in the homeopathic dilutions of 5, 15 and 30cH, following Farmacopéia Homeopática Brasileira. Control solutions without latex were compounded (ethanolic-HD in the same dilutions and were administered simultaneously. The animals which received latex-HD 30cH showed a significant increase in food consumption (p Keywords: Euphorbia tirucalli; Aveloz; Toxicology; High Dilutions; Mice.   Efeitos toxicológicos crônicos de altas diluições de Aveloz (Euphorbia tirucalli L. em camundongos sadios: estudo preliminar. Resumo O látex extraído de Euphorbia tirucalli, planta conhecida popularmente como Aveloz, é utilizado em medicina complementar para induzir regressão tumoral. No entanto, como este látex tem efeitos tóxicos quando administrado por via oral em doses ponderais, este estudo foi desenhado para avaliar os efeitos de altas diluições do mesmo em camundongos sadios por um período de 18 semanas. As altas diluições do látex do Aveloz (látex-HD foram obtidas através da interação de dois processos: diluição 1:100 em massa e sucussão, utilizando etanol 70% como solvente, nas diluições homeopáticas 5, 15 e 30cH, de acordo com a Famracopéia Homeopática Brasileira. Soluções de controle sem o látex (etanol-HD foram compostas nas mesmas diluições e ministradas simultaneamente. Os animais que receberam látex-HD 30cH mostraram aumento significativo no consumo de alimento (p Palavras-chave: Euphorbia tirucalli; Aveloz; Toxicologia; Altas diluições; Camundongos.   Efectos toxicológicos crónicos de altas diluciones de Euphorbia tirucalli en ratones sanos: estudio preliminar. Resumen El látex extraído de Euphorbia tirucalli, planta conocida popularmente como arbusto de goma, es utilizado en medicina complementaria para la inducción de regresiones tumorales. Como este látex produce efectos tóxicos cuando es administrado por vía oral en dosis ponderales, este estudio fue diseñado para evaluar los efectos de altas diluciones de éste en ratones sanos, durante 18 semanas. Las altas diluciones del látex de E. tirucalli (látex-HD fueron preparadas mediante la interacción de dos procesos: dilución 1:100 en masa y sucusión, utilizando etanol 70% como solvente en las diluciones homeopáticas 5, 15 y 30cH, según la Farmacopea Homeopática Brasileña. Soluciones de control, sin látex (etanol-HD fueron compuestas en estas mismas diluciones y administradas simultáneamente. Los animales que recibieron látex-HD 30cH mostraron un aumento significativo del consumo de alimento (p Palabras-clave: Euphorbia tirucalli; Aveloz; Toxicologií; Altas diluciones; Ratones.   Correspondence author: Carla Holandino Quaresma, cholandino@yahoo.com How to cite this article: Varricchio MCBN, Pereira C, Sales F, Gomes T, Daudt E, Aquino CL, Barbosa GM, Gomes N, Pyrrho AS, Hobaica PEM, Branco MC, Kuster R, Holandino C. Chronic toxicological effects of high diluted solutions of Aveloz (Euphorbia tirucalli L. on healthy mice: a preliminary study. Int J High Dilution Res [online]. 2008 [cited YYYY Mmm DD]; 7(25: 174-178. Available from: http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/view/308/371.  O

  9. AUMENTO DA EXPRESSÃO DE ?-CATENINA E CADERINA NO CORAÇÃO DE CAMUNDONGOS NA FASE AGUDA E CRÔNICA DA INFECÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL POR Trypanosoma cruzi UPREGULATION OF ?-CATENIN AND CADHERIN EXPRESSION IN HEARTS OF MICE IN ACUTE AND CHRONIC PHASE OF EXPERIMENTAL Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    Tatyane Penha Sales

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As proteínas das junções de aderência têm sido associadas ao mecanismo patológico da miocardiopatia chagásica. Objetivando determinar a natureza dessas alterações, infectaram-se dez camundongos machos Swiss Webster com 25 dias de idade por via intraperitoneal com uma cepa tipo III de Trypanosoma cruzi na dose de 1,0 x 104 tripomastigotas/camundongo. Cinco camundongos infectados foram sacrificados no 14° dia (pico de parasitemia de infecção (grupo A e outros cinco camundongos (grupo C três meses após a inoculação, representando a fase crônica da infecção. Inocularam-se dez animais com solução estéril de cloreto de sódio 0,9%, sendo sacrificados no 14° dia (grupo CA e cinco ao final do terceiro mês (grupo CC, para servirem como controles não-infectados. As junções de aderência foram analisadas a partir do lisado total dos corações submetido a western blotting para pan-caderina e β-catenina. A análise do western blotting revelou aumento da expressão de pan-caderina na fase aguda (2,1x ± 0,89, p= 0,048 e crônica (2,1x ± 0,92, p= 0,05 quando comparadas com seus respectivos controles. Em relação à β-catenin, os resultados mostraram o mesmo padrão caracterizado pelo aumento de seus níveis na fase aguda (6,8x ± 4,65, p= 0,047 e crônica (3,65x ± 1,93, p= 0,033 em comparação aos controles. Assim, estes resultados indicam a associação das proteínas de junção de aderência aos eventos patológicos em corações de camundongos infectados por T. cruzi.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Doença de Chagas, junções de aderência, miocardite, western blotting.
    Adherens junctions proteins have also been envolved in pathological mechanism of chagasic myocardiopathy. Aimed to determine the nature of these alterations, ten Swiss Webster male mice, 25 days-old were infected with a Type III strain of Trypanosoma cruzi through intraperitoneal (IP route with 1.0 x 104 trypomastigotes/mouse. Five infected mice were killed at 14th day (parasitemia peak of infection (group A. Another five infected mice (group C, were killed three months after inoculation, representing the chronic phase of the infection. Ten mice were injected through IP route with sterile 0.9% sodium chloride solution and were maintained under the same general conditions of the other groups. Five mice were killed either on day 14 (group CA and five were killed at the end of the third month (group CC, and served as uninfected controls. Adherens junctions were analyzed by total lysate of the hearts that were immunoblotted for pan-cadherin and β-catenin. Western blot analysis revealed increases of cadherins in both acute (2.1-fold ± 0.89, p= 0.048 and chronic (2.1-fold ± 0.92, p= 0.05 phase versus its respective controls. In relation to β-catenin the results showed the same pattern characterized by increases in its levels also in acute (6.8-fold ± 4.65, p= 0.047 and chronic (3.65-fold ± 1.93, p= 0.033 phase in relation to controls. Thus, these results point to the evolvement of adherens junction proteins with pathological events in hearts of mice infected with T. cruzi infection.

    KEY WORDS: Adherens junctions, Chagas disease, myocarditis, western blotting.

  10. Descrio de um protocolo experimental para estudos cardiofisiolgicos em camundongos

    Sarah Soares de Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a preparing and application electrode method for cardiophysiological study performed in mice in order to relate the results obtained with these experiments to humans by means of comparative physiology. The study consisted of monitoring the state of mouse cardiophysiological parameters using an electrocardiograph during intravenous administration of subanesthetic ketamine. The final result was obtained by spectral analysis which outlined changes in cardiac activity of the animal after the drug injection, leading to the reduction of RR-interval duration and to the sharp fall in the low frequency (LF component signal. This result points out that there was an increase in heart rate after pretreatment of atropine and subsequent administration of ketamine.

  11. Acute toxicity of Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul. root extract in mice: determination of both approximate and median lethal doses Toxicidade aguda de extrato de raízes de Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul. em camundongos: determinação da dose letal aproximada e da dose letal mediana

    Luiz Carlos da Cunha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul. (BG Moraceae, with a high frequency in regions of the Brazilian cerrado (shrubland and popularly known as "mamacadela", holds photosensitizing furocoumarins. The BG's main therapeutic use is the treatment of vitiligo, a skin depigmentation disease that takes hold of approximately 1-2 % of the world population. There is one product on the marketplace (Viticromin®, for which there is no scientific research available about its experimental toxicity, in spite of its proven clinical efficacy. Therefore, the development of acute pre-clinical toxicity trials has been proposed (approximate lethal dose, ALD, and median lethal dose, LD50 of the BG root exsudate in laboratory animals. Male, albino mice weighing between 25 and 30 g, in good sanitation conditions have been used. The mice received water and food ad libitum. The BG powder was mixed in 0.9% saline solution and 0.5% cremophor and was administered po and ip. The LD50 was obtained through the Lichtfield and Wilcoxon (1949 method. A public domain software was used for the calculations. Ten mice/dose were used - 6 groups for each administration via, including the control group - and the number of deaths within up to 14 days was considered; the control group received an emulsion made up by 0.9 saline solution and 0.5% cremophor. Before establishing the LD50 and aiming at reducing the number of animals used, the DLA was determined when 1 animal per dose was used (the next dose always 50% higher than the previous dose, until identifying the dose that led to the death of 1 animal. Thus, the DLA po was 3750 mg/kg and the DLA ip, 2920 mg/kg. The LD50 po was 3517.54 mg/kg and the LD50 ip was 2871.76 mg/kg. The product was considered as of being of low toxicity, taking into account only the single dose acute toxicity.O Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul. (BG família Moraceae, é largamente distribuído nas regiões de cerrado do Brasil e é popularmente conhecido como "mamacadela" e possui, na sua composição química, furocumarinas fotossensibilizantes. O principal uso terapêutico do BG é no tratamento do vitiligo, uma doença despigmentante da pele com prevalência de aproximadamente 1-2% da população mundial. Há um produto no mercado (Viticromin®, que é comercializado com tal finalidade, havendo poucos dados disponíveis acerca da toxicidade experimental, ao lado de eficácia clínica comprovada. Portanto, o desenvolvimento de estudos de toxicidade pré-clínica foi proposto (dose letal aproximada, DLA e dose letal mediana, DL50 para o exsudato da raiz de BG em animais de laboratório. Foram utilizados camundongos machos, albinos, pesando entre 25 e 30 g, em boas condições sanitárias, recebendo água e ração ad libitum. O pó de BG foi suspenso em solução salina 0,9% com 0,5% de cremofor e administrado p.o. (gavage e intraperitonealmente. A DL50 foi obtida através do método de regressão linear de Lichtfield & Wilcoxon (1949, utilizando um software de domínio público. Foram formados 6 grupos de 10 animais para cada via de administração, incluindo grupo controle, e o número de mortes foi observado durante 14 dias; o grupo controle recebeu uma emulsão de solução salina 0,9% com 0,5% de cremofor. Antes de estabelecer a DL50 e visando reduzir o número de animais utilizados, determinou-se a DLA, utilizando 1 animal por dose (a próxima dose 50% maior do que a dose anterior, até identificar a dose letal para 1 animal. Assim, a DLA p.o. foi de 3750 mg/kg e a DLA i.p., 2920 mg/kg. A DL50 p.o. foi de 3517,54 mg/kg e a DL50 i.p. foi 2871,76 mg/kg. O produto foi considerado possuir baixa toxicidade, considerando apenas uma dose neste ensaio de toxicidade aguda.

  12. Swiss Patent Jurisprudence 2012

    Rigamonti, Cyrill

    2013-01-01

    The new Swiss Federal Patent Court, with nationwide first-instance jurisdiction over all civil patent matters, has been operating since 1 January 2012. This article reviews and contextualizes the most important patent cases the Swiss Federal Patent Court and the Swiss Federal Supreme Court. It concludes that the revamped Swiss patent litigation system has the potential of turning Switzerland into a competitive venue for the adjudication of patent matters in Europe.

  13. Tendncia gentica para caractersticas produtivas em bovinos da raa Pardo-Sua Genetic trend in productive traits to Brown Swiss breed

    Cludio Vieira de Arajo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram analisados registros de produo de leite e de gordura de 4.959 lactaes, de 2.414 vacas da raa Pardo-Suia, filhas de 70 reprodutores, com partos observados de 1985 a 1998, em 51 rebanhos. Foram estimadas as tendncias genticas para as produes de leite (PL305ME e de gordura (PG305ME, ajustadas idade adulta e 305 dias de lactao. A tendncia gentica para os reprodutores foi estimada pela regresso linear dos valores genticos dos reprodutores, em funo do ano de parto de suas filhas, ponderados pelo nmero de filhas do reprodutor em cada ano de parto. O modelo animal utilizado para estimar os valores genticos incluiu os efeitos fixos de rebanho, ano-poca de parto e grupo gentico do animal, alm dos efeitos aleatrios, gentico aditivo, de ambiente permanente e ambiente temporrio. As mdias para as produes de leite e gordura foram 6085,79 1627,73 kg e 225,60 60,46 kg, respectivamente. A tendncia gentica estimada para os reprodutores foi 33,01 15,27 e 1,98 0,61 kg/ano para PL305ME e PG305ME, respectivamente. Para vacas a tendncia gentica correspondeu a 20,54 2,04 e 0,93 0,06 kg/ano para PL305ME e PG305ME, ajustadas para idade adulta, respectivamente.Records of 4959 lactation in 1985 to 1998 of 2414 Brown Swiss cows breed, daughters of 70 sires in 51 herds, were used to estimate the genetic trend for milk and fat yield adjusted for 305 days of lactation and mature age of cows (PL305ME and PG305ME. The genetic trend for sires was estimated using a linear regression of the breeding values of the sires to their daughters calving year, averaged to number of daughters in each calving year. The genetic trend of the cows was estimated using a linear regression of their estimates breeding values averaged to number of observation in each year of calving. The animal model used to estimate the breeding values, inclued the fixed effects of herd, year-season of calving, genetic group of the animals, and random effects of animal, permanent and temporary environment. The means of PL305ME and PG305ME were 6085.79 1627.73 and 225.60 60.46 kg, respectivelly. The genetic trend estimated to sires were 33.01 15.27 and 1.98 0,61 kg/year to PL305ME and PG305ME, respectivelly. The genetic trend estimated for cows were 20.54 2.04 and .93 .06 kg/year para PL305ME and PG305ME, respectively.

  14. Transplantation of mouse embryonic stem cell after middle cerebral artery occlusion / Transplante de clulas-tronco embrionrias de camundongo aps a ocluso da artria cerebral mdia

    Lee, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Yoon-Seok.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O transplante de clulas-tronco tem sido extensivamente estudado como terapias individuais para o AVC isqumico. A presente investigao um esforo inicial para combinar estes mtodos para alcanar aumento de efeitos teraputicos aps a isquemia cerebral. O transplante de clulas pode re [...] cuperar a perda neuronal intensa, substituindo as clulas do crebro danificado. MTODOS: Clulas tronco embrionrias indiferenciadas de camundongo foram utilizadas para induzir in vitro a diferenciao de clulas como neurnio com boa viabilidade para utilizar como enxerto. Neste estudo foi induzida a ocluso da artria cerebral mdia em camundongos, usando a ocluso vascular intraluminal e clulas embrionrias infundidas. Os animais foram examinados comportamentalmente utilizando motor e teste sensorial com avaliao neurolgica. RESULTADOS: A funo motora dos receptores melhorou gradualmente, ao passo que pouca melhora foi observada nos animais controle. Este resultado pode sugerir que as clulas enxertadas tm conexo sinptica no crebro receptor. Nosso estudo revelou que o transplante de clulas-tronco pode ter um efeito positivo na recuperao do comportamento e na reduo do tamanho do infarto na isqumica focal em camundongos. Aps a eutansia foi realizada anlise histoqumica para avaliar a sobrevida do enxerto com protena fluorescente verde (GFP). CONCLUSO: As clulas embrionrias de camundongo podem ser utilizadas como enxerto em vrias desordens neurolgicas, incluindo disfuno motora. Abstract in english PURPOSE: Stem cell transplantation has been extensively studied as individual therapies for ischemic stroke. The present investigation is an initial effort to combine these methods to achieve increased therapeutic effects after brain ischemia. Cell transplantation may recover massive neuronal loss b [...] y replacing damaged brain cells. METHODS: Undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells were used to induce differentiation in vitro into neuron-like cells with good cell viability for use a graft. In this study, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced in rats using intra-luminal vascular occlusion, and infused mES cells after MCAO. The animals were examined behaviorally using motor and sensory test with neurological assessment. RESULTS: Motor function of the recipients was gradually improved, whereas little improvement was observed in control rats. This result may suggest that the grafted cells have synaptic connection in the recipient brain. Our study revealed that stem cell transplantation can have a positive effect on behavioral recovery and reduction of infarct size in focal ischemic rats. Consequently after euthanasia, rats were histochemically investigated to explore graft survival with green fluorescent protein (GFP). CONCLUSION: The mouse embryonic stem cells may have advantage for use as a donor source in various neurological disorders including motor dysfunction.

  15. Comportamento da cepa LE de Schistosoma mansoni, após passagem em hospedeiro humano infectado acidentalmente

    Neusa Araújo

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma auxiliar de laboratório infectou-se acidentalmente, com cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni, cepa LE, mantida rotineiramente em nossos laboratórios. Decorridos 5 meses, o exame parasitológico de fezes revelou 108 ovos/g . A pacientefoi tratada com oxamniquine, porém a infecção continuou ativa (6 ovos/g. Foi então obtido o isolado SSF mantido no modelo Biomphalaria glabrata - camundongo albino. Os resultados obtidos no estudo comparativo, entre o isolado SSF e a cepa LE, que lhe deu origem, mostraram que a duração do período pré-patente e o índice de infectividade em camundongos, bem como a resposta aos agentes esquistossomicidas (hycanthone, oxamniquine epraziquantel não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas. Por outro lado, o número de miracídios obtidos dos intestinos e fígados dos camundongos infectados foi o dobro com a cepa LE, quando comparados com aquele do isolado SSF. Também a variação do peso dos animais foi bastante diferente. Concluiu-se que apenas uma passagem pelo hospedeiro humano não mudou substancialmente as características da cepa estudada.A laboratory technician was accidentally infected with the LE strain of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae maintained in our laboratories. After 5 months infection parasitological examination revealed 108 eggs/g faeces. Althrough treated with oxamniquine, the infection still persisted (6 eggs/g of faeces. An isolate (SSF was obtained from that person and maintained in Biomphalaria glabrata - Swiss mouse by alternate passage. The experimental comparative results between the newly obtained SSF isolate and the original LE strain showed that the differences in pre-patent period, the mice infectivity level and the schistosomicidal response to hycanthone, oxamniquine and praziquantel was not statistically significant. On the other hand the number of miracidia recovered from intestines and livers of equally infected mice was twice as miich in the LE strain than in the SSF isolate. Furthermore, among the LE and SSF infected mice and the non infected control weight gains were different. While the LE infected mice lost weight since the beginning of the infection, the SSF ones initially gained and then lost weight. The conclusion is that only one passage into the human host did not substantially alter the studied strain characteristics.

  16. The use of mice as animal model for testing acute toxicity (LD-50 of toxic shock syndrome toxin Utilização de camundongos como modelo animal para a verificação da toxicidade aguda da toxina-1 da síndrome do choque tóxico

    R.S. Dias

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute toxicity test (LD-50 using toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1 was tested in BALB/c, C57BL/6 and Swiss mice. Animals (n = 10 were intraperitoneally injected with TSST-1 (0.01-10.0µg/mouse followed 4h later by potentiating dose of lipopolysaccharide (75.0µg of LPS - E. coli O111:B4 and cumulative mortality was recorded over 72h. Control animals received either TSST-1 or LPS alone. The data were submitted to qui-Square test and acute toxicity test was calculated by probit analysis (confidence limits expressed as µg toxin/kg. BALB/c mice was the most sensitive (20.0µg/kg, 95% confidence limits: 9.0-92.0 followed by C57BL/6 (38.5µg/kg, 95% confidence limits: 9.11- 401.6. Data from Swiss mice was not conclusive, indicating only low sensitivity. Selection of the animal model and standardization of the experiment are fundamental for the development of serum neutralization tests used for final quality control of vaccine production.A toxicidade aguda (DL-50 da toxina da síndrome do choque tóxico (TSST-1 foi testada em linhagens de camundongos BALB/c, C57BL/6 e Suíça. Os animais (n=10 inoculados intraperitoneal com doses crescentes de toxina (0,01 - 10,0µg/animal receberam 4h após 75µg de LPS (E. coli O111: B4. A toxicidade aguda (DL50 foi observada por um período de 72h e os dados submetidos ao teste de qui- quadrado. Os resultados e os limites de confiança foram expressos em µg de toxina/kg. A linhagem BALB/c apresentou maior sensibilidade (20µg/kg - limite de confiança a 95% entre 9,0- 92,0, seguida da C57BL/6 (38,5µg/kg - limite de confiança a 95% entre 9,11 - 401,6. A amplitude dos limites de confiança deve-se à natureza da toxina, ao mecanismo de ação, a via de inoculação e ao animal utilizado. A seleção do modelo animal e a padronização do experimento são fundamentais para o desenvolvimento de testes de soro neutralização para fins de controle de qualidade do processo de produção de vacinas.

  17. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii by PCR and mouse bioassay in commercial cuts of pork from experimentally infected pigs Detecção do Toxoplasma gondii por PCR e bioensaio em camundongo em cortes comerciais de carnes de suínos infectados experimentalmente

    V.S. Tsutsui

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of T. gondii in commercial cuts of pork (ham, tenderloin, spareribs and arm picnic by PCR and bioassay from experimentally infected pigs, was evaluated. Eighteen mixed breed pigs were divided into two groups (G. The G1 animals (n=10 were infected with 4 x10(4 oocysts of the T. gondii VEG strain and the G2 animals (n=8 were used as control. Pigs of both groups were slaughtered at 59th day after infection, and meat samples were collected for bioassay and PCR. All animals from G1 were positive by at least one or both tests, and all control animals were negative. T. gondii was identified in pork by mouse bioassay and PCR in 27/40 (67.5% and in 9/40 (22.5% of the evaluated samples, respectively. There were no statistical differences in the distribution of tissue cysts from commercial cuts of pork by bioassay (P>0.05. However, statistical differences were observed when mouse bioassay and PCR were compared (PAvaliou-se a presença de T. gondii em cortes comerciais de carne suína (pernil, lombo, costela e paleta, por meio do bioensaio e PCR, em animais experimentalmente inoculados. Dois grupos (G foram formados. Os animais do G1 (n=10 foram inoculados com 4 x10(4 oocistos da cepa VEG e os do G2 (n=8 permaneceram como grupo-controle, não inoculado. Todos os animais foram abatidos no dia 59 após a infecção, quando foram colhidas as amostras de carne para a realização das provas de bioensaio e da PCR. Todos os suínos do G1 apresentaram-se positivos a pelo menos um dos testes de diagnóstico ou a ambos, e os do grupo-controle permaneceram negativos. Não houve diferenças significativas em relação aos tipos de cortes comerciais e à presença do parasita no bioensaio (P>0,05. O bioensaio foi capaz de detectar T. gondii em 27/40 (67,5% amostras e a PCR em 9/40 (22,5%. O estudo mostrou diferença entre o bioensaio e a PCR (P<0,01.

  18. Swiss State Secretary visits CERN

    2008-01-01

    The new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research recently visited CERN. Peter Jenni, the spokesperson for ATLAS, gave Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, the new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, a tour of ATLAS and the LHC tunnel.On 2 April, the newly appointed Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar. On arrival the Swiss minister was given a guided tour of ATLAS and the adjoining LHC tunnel by Peter Jenni, the ATLAS spokesperson. Dr Dell’Ambrogio was then greeted by Swiss scientists and attended presentations by young post doc physicists about Swiss contributions to CMS and LHCb, in particular their work concerning hardware contribution and data analysis. There are 120 physicists from Swiss universities working on CERN’s experiments, and many more Swiss people working at CERN in other departments due to Switzerland’s special position as a host state. Also before ...

  19. Grundlagen zu Swiss GAAP FER

    Meyer, C.

    2008-01-01

    Den Bedürfnissen schweizerischer KMU wird mit den Swiss GAAP FER ausdrücklich Rechnung getragen. Dazu gehört auch die Sicherstellung eines vernünftigen Kosten-/ Nutzen-Verhältnisses. Der Beitrag illustriert das Konzept der Swiss GAAP FER sowie der Kern-FER (Rahmenkonzept und Swiss GAAP FER 1–6).

  20. Efeito dos resíduos de café seco e fermentado por Monascus ruber no metabolismo de camundongos Apo E

    Larissa Froede Brito

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A aterosclerose é uma doença inflamatória crônica de origem multifatorial que ocorre em resposta à agressão endotelial. O fungo Monascus ruber apresenta atividade hipocolesterolêmica e polifenóis presentes no resíduo de café apresentam atividade antioxidante, podendo auxiliar na prevenção de doenças cardiovasculares. O resíduo de café possui quantidade significativa de açúcares fermentescíveis, constituindo-se em substrato apropriado para o cultivo de fungos. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito dos resíduos de café seco e fermentado por Monascus ruber no metabolismo lipídico de camundongos knockout Apo E. MÉTODOS: O ensaio biológico foi realizado com 30 camundongos knockout para o gene Apo E, divididos em cinco grupos e submetidos a diferentes tratamentos. Foi realizada a prospecção fitoquímica e quantificação de compostos fenólicos dos resíduos fermentado e sem fermentar. O soro dos animais foi analisado utilizando kits enzimáticos e o tecido aórtico incluso em parafina e corado com H/E para realização da análise histopatológica. RESULTADOS: O resíduo de café sem fermentar 2%, em relação ao grupo controle, diminuiu em 42% o nível sérico de triacilgliceróis e em aproximadamente 41% a fração VLDL-c. Os grupos dos animais alimentados com 10% de resíduo não fermentado e 2% de resíduo fermentado diminuíram a área de lesão 10,5% e 15,4%, respectivamente, quando comparados ao controle. O resíduo fermentado apresentou um teor de compostos fenólicos superior ao resíduo não fermentado. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo mostra que a fermentação do resíduo de café apresenta potencial efeito benéfico sobre as doenças cardiovasculares, especialmente a aterosclerose.

  1. Estudo da atividade hipoglicemiante do chá do lenho da Quássia-do-Brasil, Picrasma crenata (Vell.) Engl. em camundongos e ratos | Study of the hypoglicemic activity of the tea of the wood of Quassia-do-Brasil, Picrasma crenata (Vell.) Engl. in mice and rats

    Ana Luisa Quadros dos Santos Mauro

    2015-01-01

    A atividade hipoglicemiante do chá do lenho da Quássia-do-Brasil, Picrasma crenata (Vell.) Engl.- Simaroubaceae, nas concentrações de 5, 10 e 20%, foi estudada pela determinação da glicemia em animais normoglicêmicos, nos quais a concentração a 10% apresentou uma resposta mais efetiva. Em animais tornados diabéticos pela administração intravenosa de estreptozotocina (65mg/kg) e em animais hiperglicêmicos pela administração intravenosa de uma sobrecarga de glicose a 25%, esta mesma concentraçã...

  2. Swiss energy statistics 2004

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2004 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  3. Swiss energy statistics 2003

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2003 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  4. Swiss energy statistics 2002

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2002 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  5. Swiss energy statistics 2005

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2005. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2005 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  6. Swiss energy statistics 2006

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2006. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2006 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  7. Labeling of the peptide DOTA-tyr{sup 3}-octreotate with radioiodine and biodistribution and AR42J neuroendocrine tumor affinity study in mice; Marcacao do peptideo DOTA-tyr{sup 3}-octreotato com radioiodo e estudo da biodistribuicao e afinidade por celulas de tumor neuroendocrino AR42J em camundongos

    Nagamati, Lucio Takeshi

    2006-07-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are rare and affect mainly the gastrointestinal tract but other systems are also affected like the skin, lungs and the nervous system. They are rich in type 2 somatostatin (SM) receptors (SSTR2) and may secrete hormones in excess. Synthetic SM derivative peptides are of great utility because presented bigger half life when compared to SM and can be used to clinical improvement of these patients due to its tumoral inhibitory action. The labeling of these peptides with radioisotopes allowed the acquisition of images with favourable cost-efficiency relationship and use in therapy. The peptide, DOTATyr3- octreotate (DOTATATE), has much more affinity for the SSTR2 receptor than the peptide commercially used nowadays, is easily radioiodinated and has a favourable biodistribution for diagnosis and treatment due to the presence of the chelator DOTA. We have studied the influence of various factors on the radiochemical purity of the labeled compound as labeling stability, absorbed dose estimation and biodistribution in normal and AR42J cell tumor-bearing Swiss and Nude mice. We observed easy and stable peptide radioiodination at peptide/radioiodine ({sup 131}I) ratio of 2.73 that produced a radiochemical species with retention time of 22.7 minutes at high performance liquid chromatography and presented a favourable biodistribution and dosimetry for imaging and therapy of patients with neuroendocrine tumors, just the opposite result observed the radioiodinated compounds without a chelator as described in the literature. Other molar peptide/radioiodine ratios did not showed good results, with various radiochemical species and unfavourable biodistribution. A possible dosimetric study in patients with neuroendocrine tumors may be carried out in the near future. (author)

  8. Swiss energy statistics 2009

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2009. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2009 and energy use in various sectors are presented. The Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. In the third chapter, details are given related to each energy carrier. The final chapter deals with economical and environmental aspects

  9. Swiss energy statistics 2010

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2010. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2010 and energy use in various sectors are presented. The Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. In the third chapter, details are given related to each energy carrier. The final chapter deals with economical and environmental aspects

  10. Swiss energy statistics 2001

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2001 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power

  11. Swiss electricity statistics 2000

    This publication by the Association of Swiss Electricity Enterprises for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2000. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2000, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The production of power in Switzerland is examined in detail. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2000 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The final two chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity

  12. Swiss energy statistics 2000

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2000. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2000 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power

  13. Swiss energy statistics 2007

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2007. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2007 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power

  14. The Swiss Orthopaedic Registry.

    Rder, Christoph; El-Kerdi, A; Frigg, A; Kolling, C; Staub, L P; Bach, B; Mller, U

    2005-01-01

    Following the tradition of the IDES European Hip Registry inaugurated by M. E. Mller in the 1960s, the Institute for Evaluative Research in Orthopaedic Surgery at the University of Bern started a new era of data collection using internet technology (www.memdoc.org). With support of the Swiss Orthopaedic Society, the pilot of the Swiss Orthopaedic Registry was conducted, and in cooperation with different academic and non-academic centers the practicability of integrating the various data collection instruments into the daily clinical workflow was evaluated. Three different sizes of hip and knee questionnaires were compiled, covering the individual demands of the participating hospitals whereby the smaller questionnaires always represent a subset of the next larger one. Different types of data collection instruments are available: the online interface, optical mark reader paper questionnaires, and barcode sheets. Precise implant tracking is implemented by scanning the implant barcodes directly in the operating theaters and linking them to the clinical data set via a central server. In addition, radiographic information can be linked with the clinical data set. The pilot clinics suggested enhancements to the user interface and additional features for data management. Also, recommendations were made to simplify content in some instances and diversify in others. With a new software release and adapted questionnaires the Swiss Orthopaedic Registry was officially launched in Summer 2005. PMID:16536212

  15. Swiss energy statistics 2001

    This comprehensive article presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2001 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power

  16. The effects of treatment with melatonin on the ultrastructure of mouse leydig cells: a quantitative study / Efeito do tratamento com melatonina sobre a ultra-estrutura das clulas de Leydig do camundongo: estudo quantitativo

    C. A., REDINS; G. M., REDINS; J. C., NOVAES.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, utilizamos a microscopia eletrnica de transmisso para analisar os parmetros morfolgicos das clulas de Leydig de camundongos adultos, suos outbred, tratados com uma injeo subcutnea diria de 100 g de melatonina (5-metoxi-N-acetil-triptamina), durante 22 dias consecuti [...] vos, comparando-os com animais sham-controle que receberam apenas o veculo da melatonina. Os animais tratados com melatonina mostraram diminuio do volume nuclear, da frao volumtrica do ncleo, do retculo endoplasmtico liso e rugoso, das mitocndrias e do complexo de Golgi. Nos mesmos animais ocorreu, tambm, aumento do volume do citoplasma e da frao volumtrica do citoplasma e dos lisossomos. Esses resultados sugerem que a melatonina pode alterar, direta ou indiretamente, a ultra-estrutura das clulas de Leydig do camundongo, inibindo sua atividade de sntese, como a produo de esterides. Abstract in english Both the presence of receptors for gonadal steroids in the pineal gland and in vitro observations of direct action of melatonin upon Leydig cells, inhibiting testosterone secretion, indicate a direct connection between pineal gland and gonadal function. In the present study, we used a transmission e [...] lectron microscope to analyze the morphologic parameters of Leydig cells from adult Swiss outbred white mice treated with daily subcutaneous injections of 100 g of melatonin (N-acetyl, 5-methoxytryptamine), during 22 consecutive days, compared with sham-control animals which had only received the melatonin vehicle. The melatonin group of mice showed a decrease in nuclear volume and fractional nuclear volume; smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum; mitochondria; and Golgi complex. Our data also showed an increase in cytoplasmic volume, fractional cytoplasmic volume, and lysosomes in these same animals. The results suggest that melatonin, directly or indirectly, alters the ultrastructure of mouse Leydig cells and possibly influences their secretory activity by inhibiting their capacity to secrete steroids.

  17. Strongyloides venezuelensis infection susceptibility of seven inbred strains of mice Susceptibilidade de sete linhagens isogênicas de camundongos à infecções por Strongyloides venezuelensis

    A.F.T. Amarante

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out to investigate the susceptibility of seven strains of mice to Strongyloides venezuelensis primary and secondary experimental infections, in order to provide the basis for genetic studies about resistance. Twelve six-week-old male inbred mice of the A/J, BALB/c, CBA/J, C3H/Hepos, C57BL/6, DBA/2 and NIH strains were infected s.c. with 2000 infective larvae. The mean worm counts (± SD in the small intestine six days after infection were, in increasing order: 28 (± 19 in NIH; 647 (± 228 in BALB/c; 709 (± 425 in DBA/2; 731 (± 151 in C3H/Hepos, 801 (± 174 in CBA/J; 1024 (± 267 in C57BL/6 and 1313 (± 483 in A/J. C57BL/6 mice showed the highest fecal egg counts and NIH, the lowest. No eggs in fecal exams or nematodes in small intestines were recovered from animals reinfected 14 days after primary infection. NIH strain was highly resistant to primary infection by S. venezuelensis. The most susceptible of the other six strains appeared to be the C57BL/6 strain which presented a high nematode counting in intestine and the highest egg output.Foi investigada a susceptibilidade de sete linhagens isogênicas de camundongos à infecção experimental, primária e secundária, por Strongyloides venezuelensis a fim de servir de base para estudos genéticos sobre a resistência. Foram utilizados 12 camundongos machos, com seis semanas de idade, das seguintes linhagens isogênicas: A/J, BALB/c, CBA/J, C3H/Hepos, C57BL/6, DBA/2 e NIH. Os animais foram inoculados, via sub-cutânea, com 2000 larvas infectantes. As contagens médias (± desvio padrão de parasitas no intestino delgado dos camundongos seis dias após a infecção, em ordem crescente, foram: 28 (± 19 na linhagem NIH; 647 (± 228 na BALB/c; 709 (± 425 na DBA/2; 731 (± 151 na C3H/Hepos, 801 (± 174 na CBA/J; 1024 (± 267 na C57BL/6 e 1313 (± 483 na A/J. Os camundongos C57BL/6 apresentaram as mais elevadas contagens de ovos de S. venezuelensis por grama de fezes (OPG e os NIH, as mais baixas. Não foram detectados ovos nos exames de fezes e não foram encontrados parasitas no intestino delgado dos animais re-infectados 14 dias após a infecção primária. A linhagem NIH apresentou elevada resistência contra as infecções primárias por S. venezuelensis. Entre as outras seis linhagens, uma das mais susceptíveis foi a linhagem C57BL/6.

  18. Captura de lipossomas pelas placas de Peyer de camundongos após administração oral Uptake of liposomes by Peyer´s patches following per os administration in mice

    Gilson Andrade Ramaldes; Maira Alves Pereira; Poliana Teixeira de Castro; Lauro Mello Vieira; Valbert Nascimento Cardoso

    2002-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi marcar uma proteína utilizada como modelo, a soro albumina bovina (SAB), com 99mTecnécio (99mTc), encapsular a rroteína marcada (99mTc-SAB) em lipossomas e empregar este marcador para quantificar a 99m c-SAB capturada pelas placas de Peyer de camundongos Balb/c após administração oral. A 99mTc-SAB (taxa de marcação=94,9±2,4%; n=25) foi encapsulada em lipossomas multilamelar (MLV), unilamelar de pequeno tamanho (SUV) ou unilamelar de grande tamanho (LUV) compostos d...

  19. Survival rates of mouse blastocyst vitrified in dimethylformamide based solutions associated with ethylene glicol or 1-2 propanediol Sobrevivência de embriões de camundongo vitrificados em soluções com dimetilformamida associadas ao etilenoglicol ou 1-2 propanediol

    Paula Rodriguez Villamil

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dimethylformamide (DF associated with ethylene glycol (EG or 1-2 propanediol (PROH during vitrification, on the in vitro development of mouse blastocysts. Cryoprotectant toxicity was evaluated exposing embryos into three different equilibrium solutions (ES composed by DF, EG or PROH mixtures (10% v/v of each in mPBS + 0.5% PVA at different interval times (1, 3 and 10min. In a second experiment, embryos were exposed to the same ES (either 1 or 3min, following for the three respectively vitrification solutions (VS (20% v/v of each for 30s. After 72 hours of in vitro culture, embryo hatching and expansion rates were similar for the ES1 and ES2 equilibration solutions during the time interval of 1 or 3min. However embryos exposed for 10 min to the DF equilibration solutions, had lower survival rates than EG-PROH solution (PO objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o efeito da dimetilformamida (DF associada com etileno glycol (EG ou 1-2 propanediol (PROH durante a vitrificação, no desenvolvimento in vitro de blastocistos murinos. A toxicidade dos crioprotetores foi avaliada ao expor os embriões as três soluções de equilíbrio (ES compostas pelas misturas de DF, EG ou PROH (10% v/v de cada em mPBS + 0,5% PVA, em diferentes intervalos de tempo (1, 3 e 10min. Em um segundo experimento, os embriões foram expostos as mesmas ES (durante 1 e 3min, seguido da exposição as três respectivas soluções de vitrificação (VS (20% v/v de cada durante 30seg. Após 72 horas de cultivo in vitro, as taxas de expansão e eclosão dos embriões expostos durante os períodos de 1 e 3min às soluções de equilíbrio ES1 e ES2 foram semelhantes. No entanto, os embriões expostos durante 10min às soluções de equilíbrio com DF apresentaram taxas de sobrevivência inferiores à solução de EG-PROH (P<0,01. Além disso, as taxas de sobrevivência dos embriões expostos à DF-PROH (ES+VS foram menores que as dos embriões expostos as outras soluções (P<0,01. A vitrificação dos blastocistos foi realizada após a exposição dos embriões nas três ES+VS (por 1min e 30seg, respectivamente, usando micropipetas de vidro (GMP. As taxas de sobrevivência foram menores nos blastocistos vitrificados nas soluções compostas por DF (3%-3/108 e 17,1%-19/111, em relação à solução EG-PROH (69%-73/105 (P<0,01. Em conclusão, a DF adicionada como crioprotetor às soluções de vitrificação apresenta efeitos deletérios na capacidade de desenvolvimento in vitro dos blastocistos murinos vitrificados.

  20. Swiss electricity statistics 2003

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2003, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2003 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  1. Swiss electricity statistics 2002

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2002, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2002 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2009. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  2. Swiss electricity statistics 2004

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2004, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2004 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  3. Swiss electricity statistics 2001

    This publication by the Association of Swiss Electricity Enterprises for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2001, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The production of power in Switzerland is examined in detail. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2001 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The final two chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity

  4. Estudo da atividade hipoglicemiante do chá do lenho da Quássia-do-Brasil, Picrasma crenata (Vell. Engl. em camundongos e ratos | Study of the hypoglicemic activity of the tea of the wood of Quassia-do-Brasil, Picrasma crenata (Vell. Engl. in mice and rats

    Ana Luisa Quadros dos Santos Mauro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A atividade hipoglicemiante do chá do lenho da Quássia-do-Brasil, Picrasma crenata (Vell. Engl.- Simaroubaceae, nas concentrações de 5, 10 e 20%, foi estudada pela determinação da glicemia em animais normoglicêmicos, nos quais a concentração a 10% apresentou uma resposta mais efetiva. Em animais tornados diabéticos pela administração intravenosa de estreptozotocina (65mg/kg e em animais hiperglicêmicos pela administração intravenosa de uma sobrecarga de glicose a 25%, esta mesma concentração do chá também promoveu uma diminuição nos níveis glicêmicos. Tanto nos animais normo como nos hiperglicêmicos, o propranolol (10mg/kg, intraperitoneal, um β-bloqueador adrenérgico nãoseletivo, não influenciou na atividade hipoglicemiante do chá. O chá de Quássia-do-Brasil foi capaz de inibir a absorção intestinal de glicose, e também a sua reabsorção ao nível do glomérulo renal. O mecanismo hipoglicemiante do chá parece não estar envolvido com o aumento da secreção de insulina. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The hypoglycemic activity of tea made from the wood of Quássia-do-Brasil [Picrasma crenata (Vell. Engl.] was studied by assessment of glycemia in normoglycemic animals. The tea was given in concentrations of 5%, 10%, and 20%, with the concentration of 10% proving to be most effective. The 10% concentration promoted a decrease of glycemic levels in diabetic animals who were given streptozotocin (65 mg/kg and in hyperglycemic animals who received an overloading glucose solution of 25% via intravenous administration Propranolol (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, a non-specific adrenergic β-blocker, did not affect the activity of the tea in normal or hyperglycemic animals. The tea of Quássia-do-Brasil was able to inhibit intestinal absorption of glucose as well as its reabsorption from the renal glomerulus. The hypoglycemic mechanism of the tea does not appear to involve enhanced secretion of insulin.

  5. Swiss electricity statistics 2001

    This publication by the Association of Swiss Electricity Enterprises provides statistical information on electricity production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the article also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2001, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The production of power in Switzerland is examined in detail. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2001 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The final two chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity

  6. Valores de referncia de parmetros bioqumicos no sangue de duas linhagens de camundongos Reference values for blood-based biochemical parameters in BALB/C and C57BL/6 wild-type mice

    Aline Silva Almeida

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUO: Conhecer os parmetros bioqumicos individuais de animais de laboratrio utilizados na experimentao importante, pois eles serviro como parmetros para avaliar alteraes funcionais em rgos e como base para estabelecer valores de referncia. OBJETIVO:Estabelecer valores de referncia bioqumicos do sangue em camundongos das linhagens BALB/c e C57BL/6 selvagens do Biotrio da Disciplina de Biologia Celular da Universidade Federal do Tringulo Mineiro (UFTM. Materiais e mtodos: Foram utilizados 30 camundongos (BALB/c e C57BL/6 selvagem. Os exames realizados foram glicose, triglicrides, colesterol, protenas totais, albumina, amilase, cido rico, uria, fosfatase alcalina (kits Wiener, e as determinaes foram realizadas no equipamento BIOPLUS-2000. RESULTADOS:Entre os nove analitos observou-se que quatro (albumina, glicose, protenas totais e colesterol apresentaram diferenas estatisticamente significativas entre as linhagens. Padronizamos como valores de referncia para os camundongos os valores do intervalo de confiana (IC. Nos analitos em que houve diferena significativa entre as linhagens (p INTRODUCTION: Identifying individual biochemical parameters of laboratory animal species is important inasmuch as they may be used in the evaluation of functional changes in organs and in the establishment of reference values. OBJECTIVE: To establish biochemical reference values for blood tests in BALB/c and C57BL/6 wild-type mice from the Vivarium of the Department of Cellular Biology at the Federal University of "Tringulo Mineiro". MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty wild-type mice of the lineages BALB/c and C57BL/6 were used to evaluate the serum levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, amylase, uric acid, urea and alkaline phosphatase. The determinations were performed in a BIOPLUS-2000 analyzer. Results: Four out of the nine analytes (albumin, glucose, total proteins and cholesterol showed significant statistical differences between the strains. Confidence interval (CI values were standardized as reference values. In those analytes in which there was significant difference between strains (p < 0.05, confidence interval values of each lineage were adopted, whereas in those ones in which there were no differences, the minimum and maximum values of confidence interval from both lineages were applied. CONCLUSION: The results show the need for reference interval standardization of each Vivarium inasmuch as it reflects the conditions of the population in which the tests will be routinely performed.

  7. Occurrence of congenital disorders in Swiss sheep.

    Greber, Deborah; Doherr, Marcus; Drögemüller, Cord; Steiner, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The rates of congenital disorders in Swiss sheep were determined by a questionnaire which was sent to 3,183 members of the Swiss Sheep Breeders' Association. FINDINGS A total of 993 questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 31.2%. Of these, 862 questionnaires originated from farms keeping one of the predominant Swiss sheep breeds: Swiss White Alpine sheep, Brown-Headed Meat sheep, Swiss Black Brown Mountain sheep and Valais Blacknose sheep. During a 10-yea...

  8. Desenvolvimento do testículo de camundongo da fase fetal até a idade adulta Development of the mouse testis from fetal period to adulthood

    Rozangela de Lucca Martins Sachetim

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento do testículo de camundongo foi estudado desde o 15º dia de gestação até a idade adulta. As lâminas preparadas para estudo histológico em microscópio óptico foram tratadas pela técnica do ácido periódico - Schiff e pela hematoxilina de Harris (PAS + H. Na fase fetal, os túbulos seminíferos estão constituídos por gonócitos e células de sustentação imaturas. No tecido intersticial, observam-se as células de Leydig. A espermatogênese inicia-se logo após o nascimento. O epitélio seminífero torna-se mais espesso aos 14 dias pós-natal, onde se observam espermatócitos em prófase meiótica. Aos 21 dias pós-natal, o epitélio seminífero contém espermatogônias, espermatócitos e células de Sertoli. As primeiras espermátides são observadas aos 28 dias pós-natal e, aos 42 dias, já ocorrem espermátides maduras. Desde os 49 dias pós-natal, são observados espermatozóides na luz dos túbulos seminíferos. A partir dos 56 dias pós-natal, o epitélio seminífero, bem como o tecido intersticial, apresentam aspecto e características típicos do testículo do camundongo adulto.The development of mouse testis was studied from 15th day of fetal life up to adult age. The prepared slides for histological study in light microscopy were stained by periodic acid - Schiff and Haematoxylin of Harris (PAS + H. The results show that in fetal life the seminiferous tubules are constituted by gonocytes and immature sustentation cells. In the interstitial tissue, Leydig cells are found. Spermatogenesis begins soon after birth. The seminiferous epithelium becomes thicker at day 14 postnatal when spermatocytes in meiotic prophase are observed. At day 21 postnatal the seminiferous epithelium contains spermatogonia, spermatocytes and Sertoli cells. The first spermatids are observed at day 28 postnatal and at day 42 postnatal mature spermatids occur. From day 56 postnatal on the seminiferous epithelium, as well as the interstitial tissue, present the aspect and typical characteristic of the adult mouse.

  9. Avaliação toxicológica e reprodutiva de camundongos machos adultos tratados com femproporex = Fenproporex treatment in male mice: behavior and toxicology reproductive analysis

    José Eduardo Baroneza

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O femproporex é utilizado no mundo todo como potente anorexígeno. Esteestudo visa esclarecer se o uso diário de femproporex provoca toxicidade comportamental e/ou reprodutiva em camundongos machos adultos. Para tanto, foram utilizados 40 camundongos, divididos em quatro grupos experimentais, cada um contendo dez animais. Um dos grupos recebeu, via gavage, apenas água, e os outros foram tratados diariamente com femproporex, nas doses de 7,5, 15 e 30 mg kg-1, por um período de 40 dias. Como resultados, verificou-se que o femproporex não alterou a evolução normal da massa dos animais analisados, e concluiu-se que a utilização da droga não promoveu toxicidade comportamental, verificada nos testes de natação forçada e de campo aberto; e reprodutiva, quando verificados genotoxicidade, síntese de testosterona, morfologia de espermatozóides e histologia testicular. Assim sendo, concluiu-se que o femproporex, na concentração e delineamentos experimentais propostos por este trabalho, não apresentou potencial toxicológico.Fenproporex is used worldwide as a powerful anorectic drug.This study was designed to evaluate whether daily intake of fenproporex would lead to behavioral and/or reproductive toxicity in adult male mice. Fourty male mice were used, divided into 4 groups of 10 animals each. The control group received only water by gavage, whereas the experimental groups were treated daily with fenproporex in the doses of 7.5, 15 and 30 mg kg-1, for a period of 40 days. The results demonstrated that fenproporex did not alter the normal evolution of the animals’ body mass; it also showed that the use of the drug did not promote behavioral toxicity (open-field and forcedswimming tests or reproductive toxicity (genotoxicity, changes in the morphology of spermatozoa and testicular histology. Thus, the present results indicate that fenproporex, in the evaluated dose and experimental conditions, does not present behavioral and reproductive toxic potential in mice.

  10. Swiss energy statistics 2008

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics on total energy production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2008. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's energy consumption in 2008 is presented. Details are noted of the proportions of consumption of oil-fuels for heating, oil products for mobility, electricity, gas and various other fuels. The development of consumption over the years 1910 to 2008 is illustrated graphically. A second chapter takes a look at energy flow from production (and import) to the consumer and export. An extensive collection of illustrative flow diagrams, tables and graphical representations of energy flows, statistics for various energy carriers and of the various uses of energy in Switzerland is presented

  11. Swiss Light Source SLS

    The Paul Scherrer Institute has begun work on the implementation of the Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS). The construction of this facility, which will have international scope, is intended to provide a national focus for co-operation between various disciplines and for research in material sciences. Although basic research in physics and chemistry, biology, medicine and environmental sciences would seem to be in the foreground, industrial users also have an interest in the SLS. At present, this mainly centres on investigations into the structure of biological and chemical molecules, the use of high-performance methods of analysis, and the manufacture and investigation of microstructures. SLS is planned to be taken into service with an initial experimental installation by the middle of 2001. In this brochure an overview is presented on the main characteristics of the SLS facility and on its significance as a tool for interdisciplinary research

  12. Swiss Light Source SLS

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute has begun work on the implementation of the Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS). The construction of this facility, which will have international scope, is intended to provide a national focus for co-operation between various disciplines and for research in material sciences. Although basic research in physics and chemistry, biology, medicine and environmental sciences would seem to be in the foreground, industrial users also have an interest in the SLS. At present, this mainly centres on investigations into the structure of biological and chemical molecules, the use of high-performance methods of analysis, and the manufacture and investigation of microstructures. SLS is planned to be taken into service with an initial experimental installation by the middle of 2001. In this brochure an overview is presented on the main characteristics of the SLS facility and on its significance as a tool for interdisciplinary research.

  13. Swiss energy statistics 2006

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics on total energy production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2006. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's energy consumption in 2006 is presented. Details are noted of the proportions of consumption of oil-fuels for heating, oil products for mobility, electricity, gas and various other fuels. The development of consumption over the years 1910 to 2006 is illustrated graphically. A second chapter takes a look at energy flow from production (and import) to the consumer and export. An extensive collection of illustrative flow diagrams, tables and graphical representations of energy flows, statistics for various energy carriers and of the various uses of energy in Switzerland is presented

  14. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  15. The effect of treatment with melatonin upon the ultrastructure of the mouse pineal gland: a quantitative study / Efeito do tratamento com melatonina sobre a ultra-estrutura da glndula pineal do camundongo: estudo quantitativo

    G. M., REDINS; C. A., REDINS; J. C., NOVAES.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available A fim de avaliar a implicao da melatonina no controle de sua prpria secreo pelos pinealcitos, utilizamos tcnicas morfomtricas aplicadas microscopia eletrnica de transmisso. Em camundongos tratados com doses subcutneas dirias de 100 mg de melatonina (5-metoxi-N-acetil-triptamina) observ [...] amos uma diminuio do nmero e da densidade volumtrica dos lisosomos nos pinealcitos. Esses resultados mostram que a melatonina atua sobre a prpria glndula pineal, participando de um complexo mecanismo regulador da secreo nos pinealcitos. Abstract in english In order to evaluate melatonin implication in the regulating of its own secretory process by pinealocytes, we used morphometric techniques for transmission electron microscopy. In mice treated with 100 mg of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine) by daily subcutaneous injection, we observed a dec [...] rease in number and volumetric density of lysosomes. Our results showed that melatonin influences the secretory activity of pinealocytes and participates in a complex secretory regulating mechanism.

  16. biomarkers in Swiss mice

    Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive potential of flavonoidal fractions of Apium leptophyllum fruits (FFALF on Swiss mice. Materials and Methods: Skin tumor or papilloma was developed by topical application of DMBA (25 ?g in 0.1 ml acetone on intrascapular region of mice, twice weekly for 8 weeks. The animals were divided into six groups: Group I (vehicle control; group II (FFALF control, 5 mg/kg; group III (carcinogenic control, DMBA treated initially for 8 weeks; and group IV, V and VI as pre-treated group (FFALF 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg respectively for 16 weeks along with DMBA treatment. After the 16 th week of treatment; the tumor morphology, skin histopathology, and biochemical and antioxidant biomarkers were measured and compared with carcinogenic control as well as vehicle control. Results: The co-administration of FFALF with DMBA-treated groups showed significant (P ? 0.001 prevention against skin papilloma and normalized the status of lipid peroxidation with antioxidant biomarkers in a dose-dependent manner as compared to carcinogenic control. Conclusions: Thus, the present study suggests that the FFALF is non-carcinogenic and has chemopreventive potential on DMBA-induced carcinogenesis in mouse, which may be due to the modulation of cutaneous lipid peroxidation or enhancement of total antioxidant capacity.

  17. Swiss electricity statistics 2009

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2009. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2009 is presented. Details are noted of the amounts generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2009. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1999 to 2009 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1969 to 2009, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1984 to 2009 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular, selected days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2016. Eventually, chapter eight reviews the economical aspects of power generation, distribution and sale in Switzerland

  18. Swiss electricity statistics 2007

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2007. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2007 is presented. Details are noted of the amounts generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2007. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1997 to 2007 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2007, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1984 to 2007 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular, selected days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2014

  19. Swiss electricity statistics 2008

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics for 2008 on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2008. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2008 is presented. Details are noted of the proportions generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2008. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1995 to 2008 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2008, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1984 to 2008 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2015

  20. Swiss electricity statistics 2006

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2006. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2006 is presented. Details are noted of the amounts generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2006. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1995 to 2006 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2006, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1983 to 2006 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular, selected days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2013

  1. Swiss electricity statistics 2010

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2010. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2010 is presented. Details are noted of the amounts generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2010. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 2000 to 2010 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1970 to 2010, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1984 to 2010 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular, selected days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2017. Eventually, chapter eight reviews the economical aspects of power generation, distribution and sale in Switzerland

  2. Swiss electricity statistics 2005

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics for 2005 on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2005. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2005 is presented. Details are noted of the proportions generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2005. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1995 to 2005 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2005, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1983 to 2005 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2012

  3. Swiss breeder research programme

    A new initiative for a Swiss Fast Breeder Research Program has been started during 1991. This was partly the consequence of a vote in Fall 1990, when the Swiss public voted for maintaining nuclear reactors in operation, but also for a moratorium of 10 years, within which period no new reactor project should be proposed. On the other hand the Swiss government decided to keep the option 'atomic reactors' open and therefore it was essential to have programmes which guaranteed that the knowledge of reactor technology could be maintained in the industry and the relevant research organisations. There is also motivation to support a Swiss Breeder Research Program on the part of the utilities, the licensing authorities and the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The utilities recognise the breeder reactor as an advanced reactor system which has to be developed further and might be a candidate, somewhere in the future, for electricity production. In so far they have great interest that a know-how base is maintained in our country, with easy access for technical questions and close attention to the development of this reactor type. The licensing authorities have a legitimate interest that an adequate knowledge of the breeder reactor type and its functions is kept at their disposal. PSI and the former EIR have had for many years a very successful basic research programme concerning breeder reactors, and were in close cooperation with EFR. The activities within this programme had to be terminated owing to limitations in personnel and financial resources. The new PSI research programme is based upon two main areas, reactor physics and reactor thermal hydraulics. In both areas relatively small but valuable basic research tasks, the results of which are of interest to the breeder community, will be carried out. The lack of support of the former Breeder Programme led to capacity problems and finally to a total termination. Therefore one of the problems which had to be solved first was to find a sound base for the financial support. For the reactor physics research two almost parallel activities were considered. During the first period mainly existing know-how will be applied and a step by step familiarisation with the significance of fast breeder reactor physics is foreseen. New pointwise and group-wise cross section libraries based on ENDFIB-VI and JEF 1.1 have been prepared. A large (1250 MWe) sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor benchmark problem was calculated and the eigenvalues, isothermal core fuel Doppler-reactivities, effective delayed neutron fraction and reactivity worths were compared with a great number of solutions obtained in the past. During the following period new methods and models to calculate burnup-cycles of large breeder reactors should be developed and tested. Data libraries for shielding problems to be used in the ECCO code will be prepared and shielding problems calculated. The thermal hydraulics research is conducted to investigate the flow structures produced by two parallel layers of liquid at different velocities and temperatures. This problem arises particularly on occasions where natural circulation is prevailing and hot and cold streams of liquid come together. At present, tests are carried out with water in an horizontal glass channel (WAMIX). Two flow visualization techniques are being used: laser-sheet induced luminescence and image-analysis of video pictures taken with ink injection marking. Based on the image analysis a determination of the frequency of appearance of vortices (time-dependence) could be made. In the analytical area the computational thermal hydraulics code ASTEC was further validated by participation in an international benchmark calculation exercise. This code is also used to calculate the velocity profiles in the boundary layer of the inlet segment of the WAMIX test section. It is intended to directly participate in the European and the French R and D programmes for sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors. Necessary steps to achieve this cooperation have already been made

  4. Resposta imune humoral de ces vacina inativada, de crebro de camundongos lactentes, utilizada nas campanhas anti-rbicas no Brasil

    Almeida Marilene F.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUO: A campanha anti-rbica no Brasil realizada anualmente utilizando a vacina de crebro de camundongos lactentes Fuenzalida-Palacios. A resposta imune humoral de ces vacinados durante as campanhas foi analisada objetivando avaliar se os ces apresentavam ttulo protetor (0,5 UI/ml, 12 meses aps a vacinao, e quantos deles alcanam esse ttulo 30 dias aps o reforo vacinal. MATERIAL E MTODO: Foram analisadas 341 amostras de soro de ces domiciliados (259 do Municpio de So Paulo e 82 do Municpio de Paulnia, atravs da Tcnica de Inibio de Focos de Fluorescncia Rpida. A resposta imune foi avaliada considerando o estado nutricional do animal e o nmero de vacinaes anteriores. RESULTADO: A maioria dos ces no tinha ttulo de 0,5 UI/ml aps 12 meses, independentemente do estado nutricional, e a resposta humoral ao reforo vacinal mostrou-se melhor em ces com duas ou mais vacinaes prvias. DISCUSSO: So discutidos o referencial de 0,5 Ul/ml como ttulo protetor para a espcie canina e a influncia do estado nutricional e condio de sade do animal como responsvel pela resposta imune humoral.

  5. Efeitos da hiperprolactinemia sobre o útero de camundongos no proestro Hyperprolactinemia effects on the female mice uterus during proestrous

    Regina Célia Teixeira Gomes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o efeito da hiperprolactinemia induzida pela metoclopramida sobre o endométrio e miométrio de camundongos fêmeas na fase de proestro. MÉTODOS: 24 camundongos fêmeas foram divididas aleatoriamente em dois grupos: GCtr/controle e GExp/tratadas com metoclopramida (6,7 µg/g por dia. Após 50 dias, os animais foram sacrificados na fase de proestro, e o sangue foi coletado para determinação dos níveis de estradiol, progesterona e prolactina. Os cornos uterinos foram removidos e fixados em formol a 10%; foram, então, processados para inclusão em parafina. Cortes de 4 µm foram corados pela hematoxilina-eosina (H/E. Na análise morfológica, foi utilizado microscópio de luz, da marca Carl Zeiss, com objetivas variando de 4 a 400 X, para caracterização de cada corte histológico. Na análise morfométrica, foi avaliada a espessura do epitélio superficial, da lâmina própria e do miométrio, com auxílio de um analisador de imagem (AxionVision, Carl Zeiss acoplado ao microscópio de luz (Carl Zeiss. A análise estatística foi realizada pela ANOVA seguida pelo teste Wilcoxon. O valor de p foi considerado significante quando PURPOSE: to evaluate the effect of hyperprolactinemia induced by metoclopramide on the endometrium and myometrium of female mice in the proestrus phase. METHODS: 24 female mice were randomly divided in two groups: CtrG/control and ExpG/treated with metoclopramide (6.7 mg/g daily. After 50 days, the animals were sacrificed in the proestrus phase, and the blood was collected to determine the levels of estradiol, progesterone and prolactin. The uterine horns were removed, fixed in 10% formaldehyde and processed before being included in paraffin. Slices of 4 µm were stained by hematoxylin and eosin (H/E. In the morphological analysis, a Carl Zeiss light microscope, with objectives varying from 4 to 400 X was used for each histological slice characterization. In the morphometrical analysis, the superficial epithelium, the lamina propria and the myometrium thickness were evaluated, with the help of an image analyzer (AxionVision - Carl Zeiss attached to the light microscope (Carl Zeiss. The statistical analysis was done by ANOVA, followed by the Wilcoxon test. P-value was considered as significant, when <0.05. RESULTS: our findings have shown an increase in the seric levels of prolactin (295.6±38.0 ng/mL and significant decrease in the progesterone levels (11.3±0.9 ng/mL in the ExpG, as compared to the CtrG (45.5±5.2 ng/mL and 18.2±1.6 ng/mL, respectively; p<0.001. Concerning the seric level of estradiol, significant differences between the groups were not obtained (ExpG=119.1±12.3 pg/mL and CtrG=122.7±8.4 pg/mL; p=0.418. The morphological study has shown that the uterus from the ExpG presented the endometrium with more developed superficial epithelium and lamina propria, as compared to the CtrG, the same happening with the myometrium. The thickness morphometrical values of the luminal epithelium (8.0±1.1 µm and endometrium (116.2±21.1x10² µm from the CtrG were lower than the ones from the ExpG (10.2±0.8 µm and 163.2±23.3x10² µm, respectively with p<0.05. Nevertheless, data obtained in the myometrium have not shown significant differences between the groups (CtrG=152.2±25.2x10² µm and ExpG=140.8±18.0x10² µm. CONCLUSIONS: data have shown that hyperprolactinemia induced by metoclopramide determines endometrial proliferation and interferes with the ovarian function, mainly in the progesterone production.

  6. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of Austroplenckia populnea (Reiss Lundell chloroform fraction from barkwood extract in rodent cells in vivo Avaliação do potencial genotóxico da fração clorofórmica de cascas do caule de Austroplenckia populnea em células de roedores in vivo

    JC. Ribeiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The genotoxic effect of the Austroplenckia populnea chloroform fraction from barkwood extract was tested in vivo on peripheral blood cells of Swiss mice with the comet assay (SCGE, and the clastogenic effect was investigated on peripheral blood cells of Swiss mice and bone marrow cells of Wistar rats, with the micronucleus and chromosome aberrations tests. The animals were treated by gavage with 3 concentrations of the extract: 300, 600 and 900 mg.kg-1. Peripheral blood cells of Swiss mice were collected 4 and 24 hours after the treatment to the SCGE assay and 48 and 72 hours to the micronucleus test. Bone marrow cells of Wistar rats were collected 24 hours after the treatment to the micronucleus and chromosome aberration tests. The results showed that the A. populnea chloroform fraction induced an increase in the average number of DNA damage in peripheral blood cells at the three concentrations tested, but this increase was not statistically significant. In the micronucleus and chromosome aberrations test, no significant increase was observed in the mean number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE of Swiss mice or MNPCE or chromosome aberrations for the rat bone marrow cells, for any of the tested doses. Our findings enable us to conclude that by the comet assay, A. populnea chloroform fraction from barkwood extract showed no genotoxic effects, and by the micronucleus and chromosome aberration tests, the extract fraction showed no clastogenic/aneugenic effects on the rodent cells tested.O possível efeito genotóxico da fração clorofórmica de cascas de caule de Austroplenckia populnea foi testado in vivo em células do sangue periférico de camundongos Suíços pelo ensaio cometa, e o seu possível efeito clastogênico foi investigado em células de sangue periférico de camundongos Suíços e células da medula óssea de ratos Wistar, respectivamente pelos testes do micronúcleo e de aberrações cromossômicas. Os animais foram tratados por via oral com três concentrações do extrato: 300, 600 e 900 mg.kg-1 de peso corpóreo. Células do sangue periférico dos camundongos foram coletadas 4 e 24 horas após o tratamento para a realização do ensaio cometa, e 48 e 72 horas para o teste do micronúcleo. Células da medula óssea dos ratos Wistar foram coletadas 24 horas após o tratamento para os testes do micronúcleo e de aberrações cromossômicas. Os resultados mostraram que a fração clorofórmica do extrato de A. populnea induziu um pequeno aumento no número médio de danos ao DNA nas células sanguíneas nas três concentrações testadas, mas tal aumento não foi estatisticamente significativo. Nos testes do micronúcleo e de aberrações cromossômicas não houve um aumento significativo no número médio de eritrócitos policromáticos micronucleados (EPM dos camundongos, bem como nos EPM e aberrações cromossômicas nas células da medula óssea dos ratos, em nenhuma das doses testadas. Nossos resultados nos permitem concluir que, pelo ensaio cometa, a fração clorofórmica de cascas do caule de A. populnea não apresentou efeito genotóxico, e, pelos testes do micronúcleo e de aberrações cromossômicas, o extrato não mostrou efeitos clastogênicos e/ou aneugênicos nas células analisadas dos roedores.

  7. Remodelamento miocárdico após grandes infartos converte potenciação pós-pausa em decaimento da força em ratos Miocárdio remodelado después de grandes infartos en ratas convierte potenciación post-pausa en disminucion de la fuerza Myocardial remodeling after large infarcts in rat converts post rest-potentiation in force decay

    Danilo Sales Bocalini; Leonardo dos Santos; Ednei Luiz Antonio; Alexandra Alberta dos Santos; Ana Paula Davel; Rossoni, Luciana V; Dalto Valentim Vassalo; Paulo José Ferreira Tucci

    2012-01-01

    FUNDAMENTO: A Contração Pós-Repouso (CPR) do músculo cardíaco fornece informações indiretas sobre a manipulação de cálcio intracelular. OBJETIVO: Nosso objetivo foi estudar o comportamento da CPR e seus mecanismos subjacentes em camundongos com infarto do miocárdio. MÉTODOS: Seis semanas após a oclusão coronariana, a contratilidade dos Músculos Papilares (MP) obtidos a partir de camundongos submetidos à cirurgia sham (C, n = 17), com infarto moderado (MMI, n = 10) e grande infarto (LMI, n = 1...

  8. Resistance of mice immunized with killed culture trypomastigotes against infection by insect-derived trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi Resistência de camundongos imunizados com tripomastigotas de cultura mortos contra infecção por tripomastigotas de Trypanosoma cruzi provenientes do inseto

    N. Yoshida

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Mice immunized with heat or merthiolate-killed culture trypomastigotes of the non-virulent G strain were resistant to the challenge by insect-derived trypomastigotes of the CL strain of Trypanosoma cruzi. No parasitemia was detected, by direct microscopic examination of blood samples, in 90% of immunized mice while all control animals developed a high parasitemia. Trypsinization before heat-inactivation, or fixation with paraformaldehyde, apparently reduced the immunogenicity of the G strain trypomastigotes. Mice immunized with trypomastigotes treated by either of these procedures were not protected against infection by virulent T. cruzi. Analysis of the 13I-labeled surface proteins of G strain trypomastigotes inactivated by the various methods suggests that these components are involved in eliciting protective immunity against T. cruzi infection.Camundongos imunizados com tripomastigotas de cultura da cepa G, mortos pelo calor ou mertiolato, mostraram-se resistentes à infecção por tripomastigotas da cepa CL de T. cruzi provenientes do inseto vetor. Em 90% dos camundongos imunizados não foi detectado parasitemia patente ao exame microscópico enquanto todos os animais controle desen volveram alta parasitemia. Tripsinizaçao seguida de aquecimento, ou fixação com para formal deido, aparentemente reduziram a imunogenicidade de tripomastigotas da cepa G, visto que camundongos imunizados com tripomastigotas tratados por qualquer destes métodos não foram protegidos contra infecção por T. cruzi. A análise de proteínas de superficie de tripomastigotas da cepa G. inativados por diferentos métodos, marcados com 131,I, sugere que esses componentes de superfície estão envolvidos na indução da imunidade protetora contra T. cruzi. Camundongos imunizados com tripomastigotas de cultura da cepa G. mortos pelo calor ou mertiolato. mostraram se resistentes à in fecção por tripomastigotas da cepa CL de T. cruzi provenientes do inseto vetor. Em 90% dos camundongos imunizados não foi detectada parasitemia patente ao exame microscópico enquanto todos os animais controle desen volveram alta parasitemia. Tripsinizaçao seguida de aquecimento, ou fixação com para formal deido, aparentemente reduziram a imunogenicidade de tripomastigotas da cepa G, visto que camundongos imunizados com tripomastigotas tratados por qualquer destes métodos não foram protegidos contra infecção por T. cruzi. A análise de proteínas de superficie de tripomastigotas da cepa G. inativados por diferentos métodos, marcados com 131,I, sugere que esses componentes de superfície estão envolvidos na indução da imunidade protetora contra T. cruzi.

  9. Swiss President to visit CERN

    2003-01-01

    "Pascal Couchepin, President of the Swiss Confederation, will visit CERN on 4 June to participate in the official inauguration of the underground cavern for the laboratory's ATLAS experiment. As the first new experimental cavern to be handed over to CERN by civil engineering contractors, this represents an important milestone for the Laboratory" (1 page).

  10. Integral Politics: A Swiss Perspective

    Elke Fein

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tells the story of the Swiss NGO Integrale Politik (ip founded by about 20 people in November 2007 with the aim of becoming a regular political party at a later stage (www.integrale-politik.ch. We wish to make ips concepts and approaches known to a wider public. Inspired by integral thinkers such as Jean Gebser and Ken Wilber, ip develops its own ideas and interpretations of integral in view of the concrete challenges of Swiss and European politics.Integral political culture is understood, for example, as including practices addressing all senses, turning political commitment into an experience of meaningful activity and an expression of joy, ease and celebrating life. One of the most important challenges currently faced by the group is to perpetuate and further develop this working culture as the organization grows. Its success in doing this seems to be one of the main reasons for ips attractiveness to the Swiss cultural creative sector in general and the growing integrally-minded community in particular to whom it gives an increasingly visible face and a clear-cut voice. At the same time, the Swiss political system offers particularly favourable preconditions and thus, a fruitful ground for new political ideas and experiments such as this integral political one.

  11. Isolamento do Toxoplasma gondii de exsudato peritoneal e órgãos de camundongos com infecção experimental Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from peritoneal exsudates and organs of experimentally infected mice

    Ligia M. Ferreira Jamra

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados exsudatos peritoneais e órgãos (cérebro, coração, pulmão e músculo estriado de 53 camundongos infectados experimentalmente pelo Toxoplasma gondii, sendo 21 na fase aguda e 32 na crônica. Camundongos albinos, machos, de cerca de 25 g e 2 meses de idade foram inoculados, por via intraperitoneal, com 0,5 ml de exsudato peritoneal (taquizoitas ou macerado de cérebro (cistos de camundongos previamente infectados. O exame a fresco foi feito no exsudato peritoneal, entre 3 e 12 dias após inoculação e no cérebro, após 10 dias. Foram realizadas inoculações de macerados de órgãos em novos camundongos (repiques para a recuperação do parasita no exsudato ou no cérebro. Na infecção aguda as positividades foram, ao exame a fresco: exsudato peritoneal 19/19, pulmão 12/14, músculo 6/9, coração 4/9 e cérebro 1/3. Após inoculação: exsudato peritoneal 5/5, cérebro 2/2, coração 19/19, pulmão 13/13 e músculo 14/17. Após estes últimos resultados foram registrados 9 novos órgãos positivos. A positividade final (igual à recuperação do parasita foi: exsudato peritoneal 19/19 (100%, coração 15/17 (88,5%, músculo 12/14 (85,7%, pulmão 14/14 (100% e cérebro 2/3 (66,6%. Na infecção crônica, que transcorreu entre 10 e 495 dias, as positividades foram, ao exame a fresco: cérebro 28/32, coração 0/4 e músculo 0/4. Após repique: cérebro 6/6, coração 14/29 e músculo 16/26. Neste exame foi revelado um novo camundongo positivo elevando para 29 o total de camundongos positivos ou 90,6%. O resultado final foi: cérebro 28/32 (87,5%, músculo 16/28 (57,15% e coração 14/31 (45,1%. No fim da pesquisa, aos 495 dias, o cérebro apresentava grandes cistos ao exame a fresco e coração e músculo mostravam-se positivos através da inoculação. Conclusões: 1º nos camundongos o toxoplasma persistiu por 495 dias no cérebro, coração e músculo estriado; 2º o exame a fresco do pulmão pode substituir ou confirmar o do exsudato peritoneal; 3º a inoculação de órgãos é necessária pois pode revelar novos casos positivos; 4º a atividade dos cistos foi demonstrada pelo aumento gradual do seu tamanho e pela recuperação do toxoplasma no cérebro, coração e músculo, após o longo tempo de infecção.Peritoneal exsudates and organs from 53 male albino mice, experimentally infected by Toxoplasma gondii were studied, 21 at the acute phase of infection, and 32 at the chronic phase. Peritoneal inoculations were made with 0,5 ml of peritoneal exsudates (tachyzoites, or brain macerates (cysts of previously infected mice. Direct examinations of peritoneal exsudates (tachyzoites were realized between 3 to 12 days post-inoculation, and in brain (cysts after 10 days post-inoculation. Organs macerates were inoculated in new mice, for the parasite recovering, from exsudates or from brains. At the acute infection (3 to 12 days the positivity at the direct examination was: peritoneal exsudate 19/19, lung 12/14, muscle 6/9, heart 4/9 and brain 1/3. After inoculation: peritoneal exsudate 5/5, heart 9/9, lung 13/13, muscles 14/17 and brain 2/2. Then, there were 9 new positive organs. At the chronic infection, between 10 and 495 days, the positivity was, at direct examination: brain 28/32, heart 0/4 and muscle 0/4. After inoculation: brain 6/6, heart 14/29 and muscle 16/26. After that a new positive mouse was detected, which leads to 29 the positivity for all mice, or 90,6%. Finally the positivity for the acute phase was: peritoneal exsudate 19/19 (100%, heart 15/17 (88,5%, muscle 12/14 (85,7%, lung 14/14 (100% and brain 2/3 (66,6%. For the chronic phase: brain 28/32 (87,5%, muscle 16/28 (57,1% and heart 14/31 (45,1%. At the end of experience, at the 495th day, the brain still presented large cysts by direct examination and also the heart and muscle were positives after inoculation. Conclusions: 1st on mice the Toxoplasma gondii remained for 495 days, mainly on the brain, but also on heart and muscle; 2nd the lungs direct examination could be useful as substitute of the peritoneal exsudate examination; 3th organs inoculations are necessary for the discovery of new infected mice; 4th the cyst activity was demonstrated by its gradative increase during the chronic infection, and by its recovery in tissues after a long time.

  12. Swiss and French cards - Reminder

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of the personnel concerned that they are obliged to: hold a valid Swiss Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken with respect to the member of the personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/cartes/proc_cartes_home.asp Users and Unpaid Associates must ...

  13. Reminder: Swiss and French cards

    2012-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of personnel concerned that they are obliged to: • hold a valid Swiss  Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; • return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken towards the member of personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide. Users and Unpaid Associates must contact the Users Office HR Department Tel.: 729...

  14. ATLAS honours two Swiss companies

    2003-01-01

    On 18 June 2003, ATLAS presented awards to two Swiss companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, the suppliers of the electrodes and the composite bars for the electromagnetic calorimeter. "Physicists' dreams could not become reality without industry's active participation and creativity", said Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesman, congratulating two of the collaboration's suppliers, to which it presented awards on 18 June. Swiss quality was the order of the day, since the two companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, which are both involved in the production of components for the electromagnetic calorimeter, are located in Switzerland's Jura region. "You have taken up and met a challenge that bordered on the impossible", added Peter Jenni. The suppliers who received the ATLAS award: Hans Wyss from Cicorel SA (left) and Constant Gentile from Isola Composites (right).Circorel SA produced enough electrodes to cover an entire football pitch. Each electrode, measuring 2 square metres, consists of three layers of...

  15. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    HR DIVISION

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a photocopy (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-025Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  16. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders ofSWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  17. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011. Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  18. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bldg 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  19. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    Human Resources Division; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: ­ a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) ­ the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011 Members of the personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsability in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  20. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    Division des Ressources Humaines

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:-\ta recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)-\tthe expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  1. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel and their families, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2001, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-009/1-015. Members of the personnel will be notified by the Social and Statutary Conditions Group, HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: If you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  2. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  3. Valores de referência de parâmetros bioquímicos no sangue de duas linhagens de camundongos Reference values for blood-based biochemical parameters in BALB/C and C57BL/6 wild-type mice

    Aline Silva Almeida; Ana Carolina Guimarães Faleiros; David Nascimento Silva Teixeira; Ulisses Antônio Cota; Javier Emilio Lazo Chica

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Conhecer os parâmetros bioquímicos individuais de animais de laboratório utilizados na experimentação é importante, pois eles servirão como parâmetros para avaliar alterações funcionais em órgãos e como base para estabelecer valores de referência. OBJETIVO:Estabelecer valores de referência bioquímicos do sangue em camundongos das linhagens BALB/c e C57BL/6 selvagens do Biotério da Disciplina de Biologia Celular da Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM). Materiais e métod...

  4. Sustainability of Swiss Fiscal Policy

    Kirchgässner, Gebhard; Silika, Prohl

    2008-01-01

    We examine whether Swiss federal fiscal policy was sustainable over the period from 1900 to 2002. We perform unit root and cointegration tests for federal revenues and expenditures, taking into account a structural shift in the budgetary process related to World War II. We find sustainability over the entire period. However, splitting the sample into two sub-samples before and after World War II, the results do much less support sustainability. Finally, applying the tax smoothing model of BAR...

  5. Nested-PCR multiplex test with increased sensitivity for detection of allogeneic cells transplanted from male to female mice / Nested-PCR multiplex com aumento da sensibilidade de deteco de clulas alognicas transplantadas de camundongos machos para fmeas

    Alfredo Skrebsky, Cezar; Werner Giehl, Glanzner; Karina, Gutierrez; Paulo Afonso, Anezi-Junior; Carlise Reichert, Nilles; Fbio Vasconcellos, Comim; Fernanda Silveira Flores, Vogel; Paulo Bayard Dias, Gonalves.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A terapia celular traz perspectivas encorajadoras medicina humana e veterinria. Experimentalmente, a manipulao gentica permite a marcao e a localizao de clulas alognicas. Porm, isso torna seu gentipo/fentipo diferente daquelas usadas clinicamente, sem marcao. Alternativamente, a pre [...] sena do cromossomo Y possibilita detectar clulas de doadores machos no organismo de fmeas. Todavia, a concentrao de clulas transplantadas pode ser mnima em certos tecidos, pela distribuio sistmica. Neste estudo, foi desenvolvida uma nested-PCR multiplex, visando a aumentar a sensibilidade do diagnstico de presena/ausncia de clulas derivadas do tecido adiposo (CDTA-Y) e derivadas da frao mononuclear da medula ssea (CFMO-Y) de camundongos machos, em amostras de sangue e de pulmes de camundongos fmeas, aps transplante endovenoso. Quatro fmeas receberam placebo; quatro fmeas receberam CDTA-Y de dois machos; e quatro fmeas receberam CFMO-Y de dois machos. A primeira fase da PCR teve dois pares de primers (multiplex): um para amplificao de fragmento do cromossomo Y (SRYout; 300pb); outro para amplificao de fragmento do cromossomo X (gene DXNds3). Na segunda fase da PCR, foi usado um par de primers para amplificao de fragmento de 110pb (SRYinn) interno ao produto amplificado pelo SRYout. O controle interno da reao (gene DXNds3) foi detectado em todas as amostras de DNA testadas, enquanto que o fragmento externo do gene SRY (300pb) foi detectado apenas nas amostras puras de DNA de CDTA-Y e CFMO-Y. O fragmento interno do gene SRY (110pb) foi detectado no sangue e nos pulmes de 100% das receptoras de CDTA-Y e CFMO-Y. A tcnica de nested-PCR aumentou a sensibilidade e a segurana do diagnstico molecular de presena ou ausncia de clulas de camundongos machos em fluidos e tecidos de receptoras fmeas aps transplante endovenoso. Abstract in english Cell therapy has shown encouraging perspectives for human and veterinary medicine. Experimentally, genetic manipulation allows to mark and locate allogeneic cells. However, this makes their genotype/phenotype different from non-marked cells used clinically. Alternatively, the presence of the Y-chrom [...] osome enables male donor cells detection in female organisms. However, the concentration of engrafted cells may be minimal in tissues, due to systemic distribution. In this study, a nested-PCR multiplex test was developed, aiming to increase the sensitivity of the presence/absence diagnosis of male mice adipose-derived (ADSC-Y) and bone marrow mononuclear (BMNC-Y) cells in samples of blood and lungs from females, after endovenous transplantation. Four females received placebos; four females received ADSC-Y from two males; and four females received BMNC-Y from two males. The PCR first-step included two primer sets (multiplex): one for amplification of a Y-chromosome fragment (SRYout; 300bp); the other for amplification of an X-chromosome (DXNds3 gene) fragment. In the PCR second-step, one primer set (SRYinn) was used for amplification of a 110bp fragment, restrained in the SRYout amplification product. The PCR internal control (DXNds3 gene) was detected in all DNA samples, whereas the SRY gene external fragment (300bp) was detected exclusively in ADSC-Y and BMNC-Y pure DNA samples. The SRY gene internal fragment (110bp) was detected in 100% of the blood and lung samples from the ADSC-Y and BMNC-Y female recipients. The nested-PCR technique increased sensitivity and reliability for molecular diagnostic of presence or absence of male mice cells in body fluids and tissues of female recipients after endovenous transplantation.

  6. New law on Swiss nationality

    2015-01-01

    CERN has recently been informed by the Swiss authorities that the Swiss Parliament adopted a new law on Swiss nationality in June 2014, which is due to enter into force in the autumn of 2016.   Under the new law, naturalisation can be granted only if the following conditions are met at the time of application: 1. the applicant must hold a settlement permit (autorisation d’établissement or permis C); and 2. the applicant must supply proof that he or she has resided in Switzerland for a total of ten years, including during three of the five years preceding the application (see Article 9 below). For the purposes of calculating the length of residence in Switzerland, any period of residence as a holder of a residence or settlement permit (autorisation de séjour or autorisation d’établissement), a temporary admission document (admission provisoire), or a legitimation card (carte de légitimation) issued by the DFAE will be taken...

  7. Genetic analysis and cAMP measurement: comparison between lean and obese anovulating mice / Anlise gentica e dosagem de AMP cclico: comparao entre camundongos fmeas anovuladoras magras e obesas

    Daniela Berguio, Vidotti; Beatriz, Schnabel; Mariane, Secco; Priscila Cardoso, Cristovam; Ricardo Carneiro, Borra; Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro da, Silva.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os genes diferencialmente expressos em ovrios de camundongos fmeas magras (tipo selvagem) e obesas (ob/ob) e a produo de AMP cclico em ambos os grupos. MTODOS: A expresso nos nveis de RNA mensageiro de 84 genes relacionados obesidade foi analisada por PCR Array, e o AMP [...] cclico foi quantificado por mtodo imunoenzimtico. RESULTADOS: Os genes que mais sofreram diminuio da expresso no Grupo Obesidade incluram o tipo 1 de polipeptdeo ativador da adenilato ciclase, o da somatostatina, da apolipoprotena A4, da colipase pancretica e da beta interleucina 1. A mdia de reduo na expresso desses genes foi de aproximadamente 96, 40, 9, 4,2 e 3,6 vezes, respectivamente. Por outro lado, os genes que mais tiveram aumento na expresso no Grupo Obesidade foram o gene da protena modificadora da atividade do receptor de calcitonina 3, do proliferador de peroxissomos ativados por protena alfa, do receptor de calcitonina e do receptor para hormnio liberador de corticotropinas 1. As mdias de acrscimo nos nveis de expresso de tais genes foram de 2,3, 2,7, 4,8 e 6,3 vezes, respectivamente. A produo de AMP cclico ovariana foi significantemente aumentada em camundongos fmeas ob/ob (2.22952 fMol) quando comparada ao Grupo Controle (1.81445 fMol). CONCLUSES: Camundongos fmeas obesas e anovuladoras possuem nveis de hormnio reprodutivo reduzidos e ovulognese alterada. Vrios genes mostram nveis de expresso alterados quando a leptina est ausente, principalmente o tipo 1 de polipeptdeo ativador da adenilato ciclase. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To evaluate genes differentially expressed in ovaries from lean (wild type) and obese (ob/ob) female mice and cyclic AMP production in both groups. METHODS: The expression on messenger RNA levels of 84 genes concerning obesity was analyzed through the PCR array, and cyclic AMP was quantifi [...] ed by the enzyme immunoassay method. RESULTS: The most downregulated genes in the Obesity Group included adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type 1, somatostatin, apolipoprotein A4, pancreatic colipase, and interleukin-1 beta. The mean decrease in expression levels of these genes was around 96, 40, 9, 4.2 and 3.6-fold, respectively. On the other hand, the most upregulated genes in the Obesity Group were receptor (calcitonin) activity-modifying protein 3, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha, calcitonin receptor, and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1. The increase means in the expression levels of such genes were 2.3, 2.7, 4.8 and 6.3-fold, respectively. The ovarian cyclic AMP production was significantly higher in ob/ob female mice (2,22952 fMol) compared to the Control Group (1,81445 fMol). CONCLUSIONS: Obese and anovulatory female mice have reduced reproductive hormone levels and altered ovogenesis. Several genes have their expression levels altered when leptin is absent, especially adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type 1.

  8. Efeitos da intoxicação crônica com o etanol na evolução da Tripanosomíase cruzi experimental no camundongo

    Nildete das Graças Lima Gomes

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados para estudar o efeito da intoxicação crônica com o etanol (solução a 7% como única fonte de líquido sobre a evolução da infecção pelo T. cruzi em camundongos: (1 animais após 60 dias de infecção com cepa miotrópica do T. cruzi foram submetidos à intoxicação crônica com o etanol durante 6 meses; (2 animais cronicamente intoxicados com etanol durante 5 meses foram infectados com a mesma cepa do T. cruzi e, continuando a ingestão do etanol, foram acompanhados até 45 dias após a infecção. Os animais infectados e tratados com etanol apresentaram, em relação aos que não ingeriram álcool etílico: (a mortalidade semelhante nos dois experimentos; (b parasitemia mais alta na fase aguda e parasitemia patente mais freqüente na fase crônica; (b miocardite com exsudato inflamatório menos intenso e fibrose miocárdica mais extensa na fase crônica; (c no músculo esquelético, miosite menos intensa e arterite com trombose hialina menos freqüente.

  9. Conflicting interest in Swiss energy policy

    The author reviews the changes in Swiss energy policy since the 1973 price increases by OPEC, refers to Swiss national committees set up to plan energy policy on a national basis, and highlights three areas of importance: energy saving, fuel substitution, and energy research. The effect of pricing policies on energy consumption patterns is discussed. (G.M.E.)

  10. Swiss electricity statistics for 1986

    This is the comprehensive annual report on Swiss electricity generation and consumption. It is noted that 38% of electrical energy was obtained from nuclear power stations, and that thermal power represented less than 2% of consumption overall. The report permits comparisons of national statistics back to 1950, and notes the flexibility introduced by fixed and pumped hydropower storage. Variations over the year are plotted, advantages of export/import of electric power are stated, and annual generation in 1986 is reported as 55.9 TWhours. (G.M.E.)

  11. Avaliação toxicológica e reprodutiva de camundongos machos adultos tratados com femproporex - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.1089 Fenproporex treatment in male mice: behavior and toxicology reproductive analysis - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.1089

    Estefânia Gastaldello Moreira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O femproporex é utilizado no mundo todo como potente anorexígeno. Este estudo visa esclarecer se o uso diário de femproporex provoca toxicidade comportamental e/ou reprodutiva em camundongos machos adultos. Para tanto, foram utilizados 40 camundongos, divididos em quatro grupos experimentais, cada um contendo dez animais. Um dos grupos recebeu, via gavage, apenas água, e os outros foram tratados diariamente com femproporex, nas doses de 7,5, 15 e 30 mg kg-1, por um período de 40 dias. Como resultados, verificou-se que o femproporex não alterou a evolução normal da massa dos animais analisados, e concluiu-se que a utilização da droga não promoveu toxicidade comportamental, verificada nos testes de natação forçada e de campo aberto; e reprodutiva, quando verificados genotoxicidade, síntese de testosterona, morfologia de espermatozóides e histologia testicular. Assim sendo, concluiu-se que o femproporex, na concentração e delineamentos experimentais propostos por este trabalho, não apresentou potencial toxicológicoFenproporex is used worldwide as a powerful anorectic drug. This study was designed to evaluate whether daily intake of fenproporex would lead to behavioral and/or reproductive toxicity in adult male mice. Fourty male mice were used, divided into 4 groups of 10 animals each. The control group received only water by gavage, whereas the experimental groups were treated daily with fenproporex in the doses of 7.5, 15 and 30 mg kg-1, for a period of 40 days. The results demonstrated that fenproporex did not alter the normal evolution of the animals’ body mass; it also showed that the use of the drug did not promote behavioral toxicity (open-field and forced-swimming tests or reproductive toxicity (genotoxicity, changes in the morphology of spermatozoa and testicular histology. Thus, the present results indicate that fenproporex, in the evaluated dose and experimental conditions, does not present behavioral and reproductive toxic potential in mice

  12. Principles of Swiss energy policy

    The Swiss Government, the Bundesrat, in 1974 entrusted a committee with the drafting of a comprehensive energy concept. The committee was asked to formulate the goals of Swiss energy policy, indicate the measures necessary to reach those goals and to find out whether an article on energy policy had to be incorporated in the Federal Constitution for these measures to be implemented. e final report recently published by committee highlights various scenarios with a number of possible developments, thus leaving the necessary freedom for decision to the political agencies. Three nuclear power plants with an aggregate power of 1,000 MW are in operation in Switzerland. Another plant is in its commissioning phase, a fifth one is under construction. In February 1979, Switzerland will vote on the initiative entitled 'On the protection of the rights of the people and of safety in the construction an operation of atomic plants.' This will involve a decision for or against nuclear energy, because adoption of the initiative would practically block the construction of new nuclear power plants and seriously jeopardize the existence of present ones. (orig.)

  13. CRAYFISH MANAGEMENT FOR SWISS WATERS

    HEFTI D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of crayfish are present in Swiss waters: three native ones (Astacus astacus, Austropotamobius pallipes, Austropotamobius torrentium and four exotic ones (Astacus leptodactylus, Orconectes limosus, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii. The occurrence of each species is known and distribution maps have been drawn at national level. Many of the non-native populations have been identified as carriers of the crayfish plague, acting as a vector for Aphanomyces astaci. Crayfish are regulated by the Swiss Fisheries Legislation. The catching of the native species is allowed but the effective fishing pressure is low. The non-native species are considered as undesirable. For that reason importation, introduction and transportation of live specimens are forbidden with the exception of Cherax sp. which may be kept in cool boxes without any contact with water until consumption. A national management plan has been developed by the Federal Office for the Environment. It aims at increasing protective measures for the native species and enhancing population control for the non-native ones. The elimination measures are targeted on the most problematic species Pacifastacus leniusculus and Procambarus clarkii.

  14. Propolis and swimming in the prevention of atherogenesis and left ventricular hypertrophy in hypercholesterolemic mice / Prpolis e natao na preveno da aterognese e hipertrofia ventricular esquerda de camundongos hipercolesterolmicos

    DB., Silva; AP., Miranda; DB., Silva; LRB., D`Angelo; BB., Rosa; EA., Soares; JGDC., Ramalho; MFG., Boriollo; JAD., Garcia.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos O presente estudo verificou o efeito do prpolis associao ou no com a natao na dislipidemia, na hipertrofia ventricular esquerda e aterognese de camundongos hipercolesterolmicos. Mtodos e Resultados Os experimentos foram realizados em camundongos LDLr/, alimentados com dieta hip [...] erlipdica por 75 dias, e divididos em quatro grupos experimentais (n = 10): HL, sedentrios, foram submetidos ao estresse aqutico (5 min por dia, cinco vezes por semana); NAT foram submetidos a um protocolo de natao (1 hora por dia, cinco vezes por semana) a partir do 16 dia do experimento; PRO, sedentrios, submetidos a estresse aqutico e que receberam extrato de prpolis oral (70 uL / animal / dia) a partir do 16 dia do experimento; HL + NAC + PRO, submetidos a natao e que recebeu a prpolis, como descrito acima. Aps 75 dias, foi coletado sangue para anlise do perfil lipdico. Calculou-se a relao entre o peso ventricular (mg) e o peso do animal (g). Os cortes histolgicos do corao e aorta foram processados imunohistoqumicamente com anticorpos anti-CD40L para avaliar o processo inflamatrio, corados com hematoxilina / eosina e picrossrius red, para avaliar as alteraes morfolgicas e morfomtricas. Os camundongos HL apresentaram dislipidemia grave, aterognese e hipertrofia do ventrculo esquerdo, associada a uma diminuio dos nveis plasmticos de HDLc e o desenvolvimento subsequente do processo inflamatrio cardiovasculares, caracterizada pelo aumento da expresso do CD40L no ventrculo esquerdo e na aorta. Natao e a prpolis isolado e \\ ou associados preveniram a HVE, a aterognese e a inflamao tanto na artria quanto no ventrculo, diminuindo a expresso de CD40L, aumentando os nveis plasmticos de HDLc. Concluso A Prpolis isolada ou associada a uma atividade fsica regular benfica na proteo cardiovascular atravs da ao anti-inflamatria. Abstract in english Aims The present study verified the effect of propolis alone and its association with swimming in dyslipidemia, left ventricular hypertrophy and atherogenesis of hypercholesterolemic mice. Methods and Results The experiments were performed in LDLr/ mice, fed with high fat diet for 75 days, and we [...] re divided into four experimental groups (n=10): HL, sedentary, subjected to aquatic stress (5 min per day, 5 times per week); NAT submitted to a swimming protocol (1 hour per day, 5 times per week) from the 16th day of the experiment; PRO, sedentary, submitted to aquatic stress and which received oral propolis extract (70 uL/animal/day) from the 16th day of the experiment; HL+NAT+PRO, submitted to swimming and which received propolis as described above. After 75 days, blood was collected for analysis of serum lipids. The ratio between the ventricular weight (mg) and the animal weight (g) was calculated. Histological sections of the heart and aorta were processed immunohistochemically with anti-CD40L antibodies to evaluate the inflammatory process; stained with hematoxylin/eosin and picrosirius red to assess morphological and morphometric alterations. The HL animals showed severe dyslipidemia, atherogenesis and left ventricular hypertrophy, associated with a decrease in serum HDLc levels and subsequent development of cardiovascular inflammatory process, characterized by increased expression of CD40L in the left ventricle and aorta. Swimming and propolis alone and\\or associated prevented the LVH, atherogenesis and arterial and ventricular inflammation, decreasing the CD40L expression and increasing the HDLc plasmatic levels. Conclusion Propolis alone or associated with a regular physical activity is beneficial in cardiovascular protection through anti-inflammatory action.

  15. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  16. Vaccination of C57BL/10 mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis using killed promastigotes of different strains and species of Leishmania Vacinação de camundongos C57BL/10 contra leishmaniose com promastigotas mortas de diferentes cepas e espécies de Leishmania

    Wilson Mayrink

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Antigenic extracts from five Leishmania stocks were used to vaccinate C57BL/10 mice. The Leishvacin® and PH8 monovalent vaccine yielded the highest IFN-gamma levels in the supernatants of spleen cell culture from vaccinated animals. Each single strain immunized group showed evidence of protective immunity six months after the challenge with promastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. No differences were detected between the vaccinated groups. It can be concluded that vaccines composed of single Leishmania stocks can provide protection to C57BL/10 mice against L. (L. amazonensis infection.Estudos anteriores revelaram que uma vacina preparada com promastigotas mortas de cinco cepas de Leishmania pode induzir uma imunidade protetora para a leishmaniose tegumentar americana no homem e em modelos experimentais. Um dos problemas do uso desta vacina é a complexidade de sua composição e a necessidade de se incorporar diferentes cepas de Leishmania. Por esta razão, extratos antigênicos de cada uma das cinco cepas constituintes da vacina foram preparados e usados individualmente em estudos imunológicos com camundongos C57BL/10. A Leishvacin® e a vacina monovalente PH8 induziram os maiores níveis de Interferon-g (IFN-gama detectado no sobrenadante de células esplênicas dos animais vacinados. Cada grupo imunizado com vacinas monovalentes desenvolveram uma imunidade protetora seis meses após a infecção desafio com promastigotas de Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis e nenhuma diferença estatística foi observada entre os grupos vacinados. Pode-se concluir que vacinas compostas por cepas isoladas de Leishmania protegem camundongos C57BL/10 contra, pelo menos, da infecção por L. (L. amazonensis.

  17. Wind energy and Swiss hydroelectric power

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to analyse the possible changes in the European electricity supply system, in particular with reference to the increasing amount of wind-generated electricity. Also, the role of peak-power and the optimisation potential for Swiss hydropower was examined. The part to be played by Swiss wind power in the future and the government's sustainability strategy is also looked at. The report looks at electricity dealing in the European context and introduces a method of assessment for Swiss hydropower. The report's conclusions and recommendations cover the increasing importance of energy storage in hydropower schemes, the question if grid capacity is sufficient under the new conditions, the market liberalisation question and possible ecological problems that may be encountered

  18. Wind energy and Swiss hydro power

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the possibilities of using Switzerland's hydropower generation facilities as a means of control and as a capacity-reserve for a European power system that includes a considerable amount of wind-generated electricity. The aims of the study - the analysis of possible changes in power availability and of the relative importance of peak load compensation, economic optimisation potential for the use of Swiss hydropower and organisational aspects - are presented. Various methods for organising production timetables and trading are looked at, as are future developments in the European power market. Methods of assessment of the value of Swiss hydropower installations are discussed in detail and possibilities of increasing capacity are discussed. The report is concluded with recommendations on the participation of Swiss hydropower in the market for regulation energy and the development of associated strategies. Also, environmental aspects are examined and the influence of national wind-energy concepts are discussed

  19. Tax evasion and Swiss bank deposits

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Bank deposits in offshore financial centers may be used to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform limits the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a withholding tax on interest income earned by EU households in Switzerland and several other offshore centers. This paper...... estimates the impact of the withholding tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using non-EU residents who were not subject to the tax as a comparison group. We present evidence that Swiss bank deposits owned by EU residents declined by 30–40% relative to other Swiss bank deposits in two...... quarters immediately before and after the tax was introduced. We also present evidence suggesting that the drop in Swiss bank deposits was driven by behavioral responses aiming to escape the tax - such as the transfer of funds to bank accounts in other offshore centers and the transfer of formal ownership...

  20. Business interest in Swiss climate policy

    Börner, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Business associations play an important role in the decision making process of climate policy. In 2009, the revision of the Swiss CO2 law for designing post‐2012 climate policy is at stake. This paper analyzes the positions and arguments of the Swiss business community on climate policy using cluster analysis. As a main finding, we can observe gradual positioning between opponents and proponents to climate regulation. There is no solid business front opposing climate policy in Switzerland but...

  1. Life Cycle Portfolio Choice: A Swiss Perspective

    Florian Zainhofer

    2007-01-01

    We use panel data from the Swiss Labor Force Survey to estimate age-earnings profiles as well as transitory and permanent income shock variances for investor groups distinguished by gender, education and activity rate. Estimation results are then used to stylize several different Swiss investor types. Finally, we determine optimal life cycle consumption, savings and risky asset share for these investor types using a recent computational life cycle model of portfolio choice suggested by Cocco ...

  2. Swiss Contracting: Forum for energy services

    The Swiss Contracting organisation is presented. The aims of the organisation - the promotion of contracting solutions for energy supply and energy saving installations - are described and the chances and risks in connection with the opening of the electricity market considered. The necessity for increased information and training both for customers and the heating installation trade is emphasised and the services provided by Swiss Contracting are described. Switzerland's potential for the contracting of energy services is discussed

  3. Insider Trading in the Swiss Stock Market

    Andreas Zingg; Sebastian Lang; Daniela Wyttenbach

    2007-01-01

    Many studies on insider trading are based on data of the U.S. market and conclude that insiders can earn abnormal profits. This paper examines for the Swiss stock market whether insiders can earn abnormal profits and whether outsiders can make abnormal profits by mimicking the transactions of insiders. We find significant abnormal returns for insider trading, as well as some evidence for profitable mimicking strategies. We can reject the strong form Efficient Market Hypothesis for the Swiss s...

  4. Swiss Property kontor = Offices of Swiss Property / kommenteerinud Tõnis Sõõrumaa

    2015-01-01

    Swiss Property kontoriruumid Tallinnas Rotermanni 8. Sisekujunduse autorid Kätlin Ölluk, Tiina Kesküla, Katy Seppel, Aet Kiivet, Liina Rohtlaan, Marita Mätas, Lilian Esing, Kristin Boginski (Swiss Property); arhitektid Yoko Azukawa, Hanno Grossschmidt, Tomomi Hayashi

  5. Swiss Energy Perspectives 2035 - Management summary

    This management summary issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the Swiss Energy Perspectives 2035 - a five-part synthesis report published in 2007. The report presents no prognoses but provides an 'if-then' overview of a set of four scenarios that examined ways in which Swiss energy demands could be met by the year 2035. National and international boundary conditions taken into account are reviewed and the four scenarios are introduced and briefly described. These include the reference scenario 'Business as Usual', 'Increased Co-operation' between politics and business, 'New Priorities' with goals set to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions and 'On the Way to a 2000-Watt Society'. Risks posed and chances provided are discussed, as are the options for taking action

  6. The 1999 SWISS-2DPAGE database update.

    Hoogland, C; Sanchez, J C; Tonella, L; Binz, P A; Bairoch, A; Hochstrasser, D F; Appel, R D

    2000-01-01

    SWISS-2DPAGE (http://www.expasy.ch/ch2d/ ) is an annotated two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis (2-DE) database established in 1993. The current release contains 24 reference maps from human and mouse biological samples, as well as from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli and Dictyostelium discoideum origin. These reference maps have now 2824 identified spots, corresponding to 614 separate protein entries in the database, in addition to virtual entries for each SWISS-PROT sequence or any user-entered amino acids sequence. Last year improvements in the SWISS-2DPAGE database are as follows: three new maps have been created and several others have been updated; cross-references to newly built federated 2-DE databases have been added; new functions to access the data have been provided through the ExPASy proteomics server. PMID:10592248

  7. Estudo morfológico no músculo gastrocnêmio de camundongos C57 BL10 submetidos à ingestão prolongada de etanol Study of ultrastructural alterations in gastrocnemius muscle of C57 BL10 mice after prolonged ethanol ingestion

    João Batista Guedes e Silva

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos do alcoolismo crônico no músculo gastrocnêmio de camundongos bem nutridos foram estudados morfologicamente com a finalidade de se avaliar a hipótese de que o etanol exerce um papel tóxico direto sobre o músculo esquelético. Foram usados 30 camundongos C57BL10 machos, adultos jovens, divididos em dois grupos: Grupo A (controle consistindo de 10 camundongos que beberam água e Grupo B (alcoólico de 20 camundongos que beberam etanol a 25%. Todos os animais receberam" uma ração balanceada de laboratório e foram mantidos nesse regime ad libitum nas mesmas condições ambientais durante 48 semanas e pesados uma vez por semana. O consumo diário de dieta e a ingestão calórica foram calculados tendo os animais apresentado substancial ganho de peso, não mostrando qualquer sinal de desnutrição. Ao final do experimento os animais foram sacrificados para estudos morfológicos. Pela microscopia óptica não foram encontradas alterações. Importantes anormalidades foram observadas pela microscopia eletrônica em todos os espécimens.O retículo sarcoplasmático mostrou-se freqüentemente dilatado, resultando na formação de grandes vesículas e envolvendo as cisternas terminais com deslocamento das tríades. Áreas de estreitamento, ruptura e perda de miofibrilas ocorreram assim como zonas de completa desorganização de miofibrilas com perda do padrão estriado normal. As mitocondrias estavam em linhas gerais dentro dos limites da normalidade. Agregados tubulares peculiares vistos comumente na paralisia periódica e outras condições patológicas humanas, foram encontrados tanto no músculo dos camundongos controles como no dos alcoólicos. Os nervos intramusculares assim como as junções neuromusculares mostravam-se normais. Importantes anormalidades nos capilares musculares foram observadas, consistindo de tumefação das células endoteliais e de espessamento da lâmina basal. Difusa infiltração lipídica microvesicular foi vista no citoplasma dos hepatócitos parecendo constituir uma evidência a mais da ação tóxica do etanol sobre o organismo. Concluímos que a ingestão prolongada de etanol, representando 14,4% de calorias totais, produz no músculo gastrocnêmio de camundongos C57BL10 bem nutridos um elenco de alterações ultraestruturais que refletem um efeito tóxico direto sobre o músculo esquelético. As alterações constatadas são semelhantes àquelas descritas na miopatia alcoólica crônica humanaThe effects of chronic alcoholism on gastrocnemius muscle of well-nourished mice were morphologically studied to test the direct toxic role of ethanol on skeletal muscle. Thirty male young adult C57BL10 mice were divided in two groups: Group A (control consisting of ten mice that drank water and Group B (alcoholic consisting of twenty mice that drank 25% ethanol. All mice were allowed a balanced laboratory chow. The animals were kept on this ad libitum regimen under the same conditions of environment for 48 weeks and were weighed once a week. The daily dietary consumption and caloric intake were estimated, the animals having had a substantial weight gain, showing no signs of malnutrition. At the end of the experiment the animals were killed for morphological studies. No abnormalities were observed by conventional microscopy.Striking deviations from normal were verified by electron microscopy in all specimens. Dilatation of sarcoplasmic reticulum was a common feature, sometimes resulting in the formation of large vesicles and involving the terminal cisternae with the displacement of the triads. Areas of narrowing, splitting and loss of myofibrils were seen. Zones of complete disorganization of miofibrils could be occasionally observed. Mitochondria were generally normal. Peculiar tubular aggregates seen commonly in periodic paralysis and other human pathological conditions, were encountered in both control and alcoholic mice. Intramuscular nerves and neuromuscular junctions were normal. Important abnormalities in muscle capillaries were observed, consisting of swelling of endothelial cells and thickening of the basal lamina. A diffuse microvesicular lipid infiltration was seen in the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes which seems to be a further evidence of the toxic role played by ethanol. We concluded that prolonged ingestion of ethanol, representing 14.4% of total calories, produces in the gastrocnemius muscle of well-nourished C57BL10 mice a distinct spectrum of ultrastructural changes which reflects a direct toxic effect on the skeletal muscle. These alterations are similar to those described in human chronic alcoholic myopathy.

  8. Tax Evasion and Swiss Bank Deposits

    Johannesen, Niels

    Bank deposits in jurisdictions with banking secrecy constitute an effective tool to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform reduces the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a source tax on interest income earned by EU residents in Switzerland and several other jurisdictions...... with banking secrecy. In this paper, we estimate the impact of the source tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using that non-EU residents were not subject to the tax to apply a natural experiment methodology. We find that the 15% source tax caused Swiss bank deposits of EU residents...

  9. Immunohistochemical detection of Tritrichomonas foetus in experimentally infected mice Deteco imunohistoqumica de Tritrichomonas foetus em camundongos experimentalmente infectados

    Cristina Esther Monteavaro; Pedro Soto; Hilda Mara Echevarra; Mara del Carmen Catena; Enrique Leo Portiansky; Eduardo Juan Gimeno

    2000-01-01

    The need to intensify knowledge of the pathogenesis of bovine genital trichomoniasis (BGT) led to the use of alternative animal models such as the mouse. Nevertheless, it is necessary to elucidate the dynamics of the infection in this animal species, evaluating different stages of the colonization and evolution of the pathological alterations. The immunohistochemistry (IHC) offers advantages over the routine histopathological staining techniques for the detection of the protozoan in tissues, ...

  10. Experimental meningoencephalomyelitis by Encephalitozoon cuniculi in cyclophosphamide-immunosuppressed mice Meningoencefalomielite experimental por Encephalitozoon cuniculi em camundongos imunossuprimidos com ciclofosfamida

    Maria Anete Lallo; Eduardo Fernandes Bondan

    2005-01-01

    Encephalitozoonosis is an increasingly important opportunistic protozoan infection in immunocompromised individuals. This study aims to examine the development of an experimental Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in the central nervous system of immunosuppressed mice. Adult Balb-C mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with E. cuniculi spores, treated with cyclophosphamide during the experimental period and killed from 15 to 75 days post-inoculation. Tissue samples were collected and process...

  11. Histological and morphometric investigations of changes induced by the RAL strain of Trypanosoma cruzi in the mouse placenta Investigaes histolgicas e morfomtricas das alteraes da placenta do camundongo causadas pela cepa RAL de Trypanosoma cruzi

    Ana Amlia Carraro Abraho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant Swiss mice (Mus musculus were inoculated intraperitoneally with 2 x 10(5 trypomastigotes of the RAL strain of Trypanosoma cruzi on the 7th day of pregnancy and sacrificed on the 19th day of pregnancy. The placenta was sectioned for the assessment of histological and morphometric changes. The RAL strain showed intense tropism for the placenta, with parasitism reaching the three placental layers. There was involvement of the maternal and fetal portions of the placentas, and also of giant cells and spongioblasts. The placentas of infected animals presented sparse areas of degeneration and necrosis, with mild dystrophic calcification of the decidua. The inflammatory process consisted of plasmocytes and lymphocytes, revealing involvement of the decidua. Cytometric study of giant trophoblastic cells showed that the placentas of the infected group were seriously affected, also with respect to cell volume. The changes provoked by the RAL strain in the trophoblastic cells and the difference in behavior observed in the cell population of the various placental regions may affect intrauterine development, probably by a deficient production of hormones such as placental lactogen, which acts as a fetal growth hormone, or indirectly by deficient tissue invasion caused by inefficient utero-placental vascularization, thus impairing fetal nutrition.Camundongos suos prenhes(Mus musculusforam inoculados, intraperitonealmente, com 2 x 10(5 tripomastigotas da cepa RAL de Trypanosoma cruzino 7 dia da prenhez e sacrificados no 19 dia da prenhez. Foram realizados cortes histolgicos para avaliar as alteraes histolgicas e morfomtricas das placentas. A cepa RAL mostrou intenso tropismo pela placenta, com parasitismo atingindo as trs camadas placentrias. Houve envolvimento da parte materna e fetal das placentas, bem como das clulas gigantes e dos espongioblastos. As placentas dos animais infectados apresentaram escassas reas de degenerao e necrose, com calcificao distrfica exgua na decdua. O processo inflamatrio era constitudo de plasmcitos e linfcitos, revelando comprometimento da decdua. O estudo citomtrico das clulas trofoblsticas gigantes mostrou que as placentas do grupo infectado foram bastante afetadas, inclusive no que se refere ao volume celular. As alteraes provocadas pela cepa RAL sobre as clulas trofoblsticas e a diferena de comportamento observado nas populaes celulares das diversas regies placentrias podem afetar o desenvolvimento intra-uterino, provavelmente por uma produo deficiente de hormnios, tais como o lactognio placentrio, que atua como hormnio de crescimento fetal, ou indiretamente, mediante uma invaso decidual deficiente causada por uma vascularizao tero-placentria ineficiente, prejudicando desta maneira a nutrio fetal.

  12. The 'Swiss cheese' instability of bacterial biofilms

    Jang, Hongchul; Stocker, Roman

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel pattern that results in bacterial biofilms as a result of the competition between hydrodynamic forces and adhesion forces. After the passage of an air plug, the break up of the residual thin liquid film scrapes and rearranges bacteria on the surface, such that a Swiss cheese pattern of holes is left in the residual biofilm.

  13. Cern reaches for new frontiers (SWISS MADE)

    Beaumont, Adam

    2006-01-01

    "For more than 50 ears scientists at CERN, the world's largest particle physics lboratory, have been unravelling the secrets of the universe, But what is life like inside the European Organization for Nuclear Research of the Swiss-French border? Two young scientists share their experiences with swissinfo."

  14. [Quality management in a Swiss hospital].

    Eicher, E

    1997-09-01

    Although there are quite good examples of quality management in Swiss hospitals available (the guidelines of quality management in the Swiss hospital etc.), the distribution of measures of quality assurance in Swiss hospitals is insufficient and focuses more on Hotel services and technical equipment rather than on the care by physicians and nurses. Beginning with Jan. 1, 1998, contracts of quality assurance between health care providers and sponsors have to be presented according to the new health insurance act. These contracts are proofed periodically by a national office. This necessitates a country-wide introduction of statistics (ICD-codes) and computerization. This is currently only in the process of realization. Additionally, hospitals and medical practices already undertake a comprehensive quality control due to local and regional initiatives. The society of Swiss physicians FMH supports mainly three areas: compulsory continuing medical education (80 hours annually, including 50 hours in recognized meetings), the development of guidelines by medical societies, and data collection including the development of a network for measures of quality assurance. The ISO-standard 9000 was changed for health care as ordered by the NAQ (National workshop for quality assurance) and the FMH. It is supposed to be used mainly for the certification of facilities for continuing medical education, perhaps also for the certification of hospitals. PMID:9441034

  15. Lateglacial environmental variability from Swiss tree rings

    Schaub, Matthias; Büntgen, Ulf; Kaiser, Klaus Felix; Kromer, Bernd; Talamo, Sahra; Andersen, Katrine Krogh; Rasmussen, Sune Olander

    1050 years. Regional curve standardization (RCS) was applied to preserve low-frequency information. Growth behavior of the fossil trees was compared with a recent composite pine data set from the central Swiss Alps and reveals distinct differences. The new Allerød RCS chronology reveals major...

  16. SwissFEL - Conceptual design report

    This report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the design concepts behind the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility. The goal of SwissFEL is to provide a source of extremely bright and short X-ray pulses enabling scientific discoveries in a wide range of disciplines to be made, from fundamental research through to applied science. The eminent scientific need for such an X-ray source which is well documented in the SwissFEL Science Case Report is noted. The technical design of SwissFEL has to keep a delicate balance between the demand by experimentalists for breathtaking performance in terms of photon beam properties on the one hand, and essential requirements for a user facility, such as confidence in technical feasibility, reliable and stable functioning and economy of installation and operation on the other hand. The baseline design which has been defined is discussed. This relies entirely on state-of-the-art technologies without fundamental feasibility issues. This SwissFEL Conceptual Design Report describes the technical concepts and parameters used for this baseline design. The report discusses the design strategy, the choice of parameters and the simulation of the accelerator unit and undulator. The photon beam layout is discussed, as is the installation's tera hertz pump source. The components of the facility, including the laser and radio-frequency systems, timing and synchronisation systems, magnets, undulators, and mechanical support systems are discussed. Further, the concepts behind electron beam diagnostics, vacuum equipment as well as control and feedback systems are discussed. The building layout is described and safety issues are discussed. An appendix completes the report

  17. Anatomical features of the urethra and urinary bladder catheterization in female mice and rats. An essential translational tool Caractersticas anatmicas da cateterizao da uretra e bexiga de camundongos e ratos fmeas. Instrumento essencial na pesquisa pr clnica

    Leonardo Oliveira Reis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To present fundamental anatomical aspects and technical skills necessary to urethra and urinary bladder catheterization in female mice and rats. METHODS: Urethral and bladder catheterization has been widely utilized for carcinogenesis and cancer research and still remains very useful in several applications: from toxicological purposes as well as inflammatory and infectious conditions to functional aspects as bladder dynamics and vesicoureteral reflux, among many others. RESULTS: Animal models are in the center of translational research and those involving rodents are the most important nowadays due to several advantages including human reproducibility, easy handling and low cost. CONCLUSIONS: Although technical and anatomical pearls for rodent urethral and bladder access are presented as tackles to the advancement of lower urinary tract preclinical investigation in a broaden sight, restriction to female animals hampers the male microenvironment, demanding future advances.OBJETIVO: Apresentar aspectos anatmicos fundamentais e habilidades tcnicas necessrias para cateterismo da uretra e bexiga em ratos e camundongos fmeas. MTODOS: Cateterismo vesical tem sido amplamente utilizado na pesquisa do cncer e carcinognese, alm de vrias outras aplicaes, desde fins toxicolgicos, condies inflamatrias e infecciosas at aspectos funcionais como a dinmica vesical e refluxo vesico-ureteral, entre muitos outros. RESULTADOS: Os modelos animais esto no centro da investigao de translao e os roedores so os mais importantes devido a vrias vantagens, incluindo reprodutibilidade humana, o fcil manuseio e baixo custo. CONCLUSES: Apesar de permitir o desenvolvimento da investigao pr-clnica do trato urinrio inferior, o modelo se restringe aos animais do sexo feminino, de modo que avanos futuros so necessrios.

  18. Sanitary profile in mice and rat colonies in laboratory animal houses in Minas Gerais: I - Endo and ectoparasites Perfil sanitário de colônias de camundongos e ratos de biotérios de Minas Gerais: I - Endo e ectoparasitos

    K.A. Bicalho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The sanitary conditions of 13 animal houses in nine public institutions in Minas Gerais, and the presence of endo and ectoparasites of mice and rats colonies kept in these facilities were evaluated. Data about barriers to prevent the transmission of diseases and a program of sanitary monitoring were obtained through a questionnaire and local visit. Parasitological methods were performed for diagnosing mite, lice, helminthes, and protozoa parasites in 344 mice and 111 rats. Data have shown that the majority of the animal houses had neither proper physical environment nor protection barriers to prevent the transmission of infections. Parasitological results have shown that only one animal house (7.7% had parasite free animals, whereas the others have presented infected animals and the prevalences of parasites in the mice colonies were: Myobia musculi (23.1%; Myocoptes musculinus (38.5%; Radfordia affinis (15.4%; Syphacia obvelata (92.3%; Aspiculuris tetraptera (23.1%; Hymenolepis nana (15.4%; Spironucleus muris (46.2%; Giardia muris (46.2%; Tritrichomonas muris (53.8%; Trichomonas minuta (61.5%; Hexamastix muris (7.7%; and Entamoeba muris (84.6%. As for the rat colonies, the prevalences were: Poliplax spinulosa (8.1%; Syphacia muris (46.2%; Trichosomoides crassicauda (28.6%; Spironucleus muris (85.7%; Tritrichomonas muris (85.7%; Trichomonas minuta (85.7%; Hexamastix muris (14.3% and Entamoeba muris (85.7%.Avaliaram-se as condições sanitárias de 13 biotérios de nove instituições públicas do estado de Minas Gerais, bem como a presença de endo e ectoparasitos nos camundongos e ratos criados nesses biotérios. Os dados sobre barreiras contra infecções e sobre o programa de monitoramento sanitário dos animais foram obtidos por meio de um questionário e de visitas aos biotérios. Métodos parasitológicos foram utilizados para o diagnóstico de ácaros, piolhos, helmintos e protozoários em 344 camundongos e 111 ratos. A maioria dos biotérios não possuía espaços físicos adequados nem barreiras de proteção que pudessem impedir a transmissão de infecções. Os resultados parasitológicos mostraram que em apenas um biotério não foram encontrados animais parasitados. A prevalência de parasitos encontrados em camundongos nos outros biotérios foi: Myobia musculi (23,1%, Myocoptes musculinus (38,5%, Radfordia affinis (15,4%, Syphacia obvelata (92,3%, Aspiculuris tetraptera (23,1%, Hymenolepis nana (15,4%, Spironucleus muris (46,2%, Giardia muris (46,2%, Tritrichomonas muris (53,8%, Trichomonas minuta (61,5%, Hexamastix muris (7,7% e Entamoeba muris (84,6%. E nas colônias de ratos foram encontrados: Poliplax spinulosa (8,1%, Syphacia muris (46,2%, Trichosomoides crassicauda (28,6%, Spironucleus muris (85,7%, Tritrichomonas muris (85,7%, Trichomonas minuta (85,7%, Hexamastix muris (14,3% e Entamoeba muris (85,7%.

  19. Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept 2008 - 2011

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the plan for the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE during the period 2008 - 2011. The motivation behind the state promotion of energy research is discussed. The visions, aims and strategies of the energy research programme are discussed. The main areas of research to be addressed during the period are presented. These include the efficient use of energy in buildings and traffic - batteries and supercaps, electrical technologies, combustion systems, fuel cells and power generation are discussed. Research to be done in the area of renewable sources of energy are listed. Here, solar-thermal, photovoltaics, hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy and ambient heat are among the areas to be examined. Research on nuclear energy and safety aspects are mentioned. Finally, work on the basics of energy economy are looked at and the allocation of funding during the period 2008 - 2011 is looked at

  20. Safety in Swiss nuclear power plants

    Safety-related facilities and equipment are continuously backfitted in Swiss nuclear power plants. In the Beznau-1 and -2 nuclear generating units, the measures taken under the heading of 'Backfitting of Emergency Systems' included provisions to enhance the protection against earthquakes, airplane crash, and fire; in addition, the emergency power system was upgraded. In Muehleberg, the stack exhaust air monitoring system was optimized. The containment pressure suppression system of the plant has been designed to withstand a hypothetical accident exceeding the design basis. The BKM-Crud computer simulation model simulates steps taken to reduce radiation exposure. The power of Swiss nuclear power stations will be raised by 4% to 15% within the 'Energy 2000' action program. (orig.)

  1. Status of Swiss waste disposal projects

    For almost 10 years now, Swiss work on planning and implementing of radioactive waste disposal has been heavily influenced by political and legislative requirements. In the years 1978-1979, continued use of expansion of nuclear power was made dependent upon the provision of projects demonstrating the technical feasibility an the long-term safety of disposal of all types of radioactive waste in Switzerland. This led in January 1985 to the submission to the Swiss Government of the extensive documentation on Project Gewahr 1985, as has been summarized at an earlier Waste Management conference. (Since the english translation Guarantee of the word Gewahr does not convey the full meaning of the german word, the original project denomination is used in this paper)

  2. The Swiss Board Directors Network in 2009

    Daolio, Fabio; Bitkov, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    We study the networks formed by the directors of the most important Swiss boards and the boards themselves for the year 2009. The networks are obtained by projection from the original bipartite graph. We highlight a number of important statistical features of those networks such as degree distribution, weight distribution, and several centrality measures as well as their interrelationships. While similar statistics were already known for other board systems, and are comparable here, we have extended the study with a careful investigation of director and board centrality, a k-core analysis, and a simulation of the speed of information propagation and its relationships with the topological aspects of the network such as clustering and link weight and betweenness. The overall picture that emerges is one in which the topological structure of the Swiss board and director networks has evolved in such a way that special actors and links between actors play a fundamental role in the flow of information among distant ...

  3. Action of the medicine Canova® on peritoneal resident macrophages infected with Trypanosoma cruzi = Ação do medicamento Canova® em macrófagos peritoniais residentes infectados por Trypanosoma cruzi

    Vanessa Tagawa Cardoso de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20 million of people are chronically infected withTrypanosoma cruzi in Latin America. The present work investigated the action of the homeopathic medicine Canova® on in vitro experimental infections with T. cruzi Y strain, using Swiss mice resident peritoneal macrophages. Our results demonstrated that Canova®induced a decrease in the production of H2O2 and TNF-a at 20 and 40% concentrations when compared to the control RPMI. However, when compared with this medicine excipient, a significant decrease in these mediators was observed with Canova® at 40% concentration only. The production of NO and phagocytic activity were not affected. TNF-a inhibits T. cruzi replication in peritoneal macrophages in vitro, becoming an important agent of infection control by this parasite. Within this context, Canova®, unlike what has been reported with other infections, would function as a stimulator of the infection, since it inhibited the production of TNF-α by peritoneal resident macrophages in vitro. Further studies should be carried out with elicited macrophages, in order to confirm the inhibitoryactivity of Canova® on the production of TNF-α and other mediators in macrophages infected by T. cruzi.Aproximadamente 20 milhões de pessoas são cronicamente infectadas pelo Trypanosoma cruzi na América Latina. O presente trabalhoinvestigou a ação do medicamento homeopático Canova® em infecções experimentais “in vitro” com Trypanosoma cruzi, cepa Y, usando macrófagos residentes peritoniais de camundongos Swiss. Os resultados indicaram que Canova® induz a diminuição significativa da produção de H2O2 e TNF-α em concentrações de 20 e 40%, quando comparado com ocontrole RPMI. Quando comparado com o excipiente do medicamento, observou-se diminuição na concentração destes mediadores apenas na concentração de 40%. A produção de NO e a atividade fagocítica não foram afetadas. TNF-α inibe a replicação do protozoário em macrófagos peritoniais “in vitro”, mostrando-se importante agente para o controle da infecção pelo parasita. Portanto, o medicamento Canova® poderia estimular o processo de infecção, pois promoveu inibição da produção de TNF-α por macrófagos peritoniais residentes “in vitro”. Estudos adicionais devem ser realizados com macrófagos elicitados, afim de confirmar a atividade inibitória da Canova® sobre a produção de TNF-α e outros mediadores em macrófagos infectados por T. cruzi.

  4. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1994

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK's supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration, in Switzerland, of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants' proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1994, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 11 figs., 13 tabs

  5. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1993

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK's supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities in Switzerland. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants' proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1993, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 10 figs., 11 tabs

  6. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1994

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK`s supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration, in Switzerland, of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants` proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1994, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. The Swiss nuclear installations annual report 1992

    This report concerns the safety of the Swiss nuclear installations in the period of 1992. Surveillance of these installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). In Switzerland five nuclear power plants are operational: Beznau I and II, Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basle. Further subject to HSK's supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration in Switzerland of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities. The present report first deals with the nuclear power plants and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK (chapters 1-4). In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for the research installations. Chapter 6 on radwaste disposal is dedicated to the waste treatment, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by the NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants' vicinity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into some general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations, and in particular covers important events in nuclear installations abroad. In all, the operation of the Swiss nuclear installations in the period of 1992 is rated safe by HSK. (author) 7 figs., 13 tabs

  8. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.

    Boutet, Emmanuel; Lieberherr, Damien; Tognolli, Michael; Schneider, Michel; Bairoch, Amos

    2007-01-01

    The Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI), and the Protein Information Resource (PIR) form the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) consortium. Its main goal is to provide the scientific community with a central resource for protein sequences and functional information. The UniProt consortium maintains the UniProt KnowledgeBase (UniProtKB) and several supplementary databases including the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) and the UniProt Archive (UniParc). (1) UniProtKB is a comprehensive protein sequence knowledgebase that consists of two sections: UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, which contains manually annotated entries, and UniProtKB/TrEMBL, which contains computer-annotated entries. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries contain information curated by biologists and provide users with cross-links to about 100 external databases and with access to additional information or tools. (2) The UniRef databases (UniRef100, UniRef90, and UniRef50) define clusters of protein sequences that share 100, 90, or 50% identity. (3) The UniParc database stores and maps all publicly available protein sequence data, including obsolete data excluded from UniProtKB. The UniProt databases can be accessed online (http://www.uniprot.org/) or downloaded in several formats (ftp://ftp.uniprot.org/pub). New releases are published every 2 weeks. The purpose of this chapter is to present a guided tour of a UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entry, paying particular attention to the specificities of plant protein annotation. We will also present some of the tools and databases that are linked to each entry. PMID:18287689

  9. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future. PMID:23219122

  10. The Swiss Solvency Test and its Market Implications

    Martin Eling; Nadine Gatzert; Hato Schmeiser

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we first discuss the characteristics and major benefits of the Swiss risk-based capital standards for insurance companies (Swiss Solvency Test), introduced in 2006. As the insurance industry is one of the largest institutional investors in Switzerland, changes to its asset and liability management as a result of the new regulatory framework could have striking economic effects. Thus, we further examine significant market implications for the Swiss economy due to possible change...

  11. Importância do camundongo mdx na fisiopatologia da distrofia muscular de Duchenne The importance of mdx mouse in the pathophysiology of Duchenne's muscular distrophy

    Sandra Lopes Seixas; Jussara Lagrota-Cândido; Wilson Savino; Thereza Quirico-Santos

    1997-01-01

    O camundongo mdx desenvolve distrofia muscular recessiva ligada ao cromossoma X (locus Xp21.1) e não expressa distrofina. Embora não apresente intensa fibrose do tecido muscular e acúmulo de tecido adiposo, é considerado o modelo animal mais adequado da distrofia muscular de Duchenne. As alterações estruturais no tecido muscular associadas à mionecrose e presença do infiltrado inflamatório com predomínio de linfócitos e monócitos/macrófagos sugerem uma participação do sistema imunológico nest...

  12. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank: current status.

    Bairoch, A; Boeckmann, B

    1994-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is an annotated protein sequence database established in 1986 and maintained collaboratively, since 1988, by the Department of Medical Biochemistry of the University of Geneva and the EMBL Data Library. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank consist of sequence entries. Sequence entries are composed of different lines types, each with their own format. For standardization purposes the format of SWISS-PROT follows as closely as possible that of the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database. A sample SWISS-PROT entry is shown in Figure 1. PMID:7937062

  13. Efeito dos resíduos de café seco e fermentado por Monascus ruber no metabolismo de camundongos Apo E Effect of dry coffee residues fermented with Monascus ruber on the metabolism of Apo E mice

    Larissa Froede Brito

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A aterosclerose é uma doença inflamatória crônica de origem multifatorial que ocorre em resposta à agressão endotelial. O fungo Monascus ruber apresenta atividade hipocolesterolêmica e polifenóis presentes no resíduo de café apresentam atividade antioxidante, podendo auxiliar na prevenção de doenças cardiovasculares. O resíduo de café possui quantidade significativa de açúcares fermentescíveis, constituindo-se em substrato apropriado para o cultivo de fungos. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito dos resíduos de café seco e fermentado por Monascus ruber no metabolismo lipídico de camundongos knockout Apo E. MÉTODOS: O ensaio biológico foi realizado com 30 camundongos knockout para o gene Apo E, divididos em cinco grupos e submetidos a diferentes tratamentos. Foi realizada a prospecção fitoquímica e quantificação de compostos fenólicos dos resíduos fermentado e sem fermentar. O soro dos animais foi analisado utilizando kits enzimáticos e o tecido aórtico incluso em parafina e corado com H/E para realização da análise histopatológica. RESULTADOS: O resíduo de café sem fermentar 2%, em relação ao grupo controle, diminuiu em 42% o nível sérico de triacilgliceróis e em aproximadamente 41% a fração VLDL-c. Os grupos dos animais alimentados com 10% de resíduo não fermentado e 2% de resíduo fermentado diminuíram a área de lesão 10,5% e 15,4%, respectivamente, quando comparados ao controle. O resíduo fermentado apresentou um teor de compostos fenólicos superior ao resíduo não fermentado. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo mostra que a fermentação do resíduo de café apresenta potencial efeito benéfico sobre as doenças cardiovasculares, especialmente a aterosclerose.BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, which occurs in response to endothelial injury. The fungus Monascus ruber has hypocholesterolemic activity, and the polyphenols present in coffee residue have an antioxidant activity and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. Coffee residue has a significant amount of fermentable sugars, being an adequate substrate for growing fungi. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of dry coffee residue fermented with Monascus ruber on the lipid metabolism of ApoE knockout mice. METHODS: The biological assay was performed with 30 ApoE knockout mice, divided into five groups and undergoing different treatments. The phytochemical prospection and quantification of phenolic compounds of the fermented and non-fermented coffee residues were performed. The sera of the animals were analyzed by using enzyme kits, and the aortic tissue was embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin to undergo histopathological analysis. RESULTS: Comparing with the control group, the group receiving 2% non-fermented coffee residue showed a reduction of 42% in the serum levels of triacylglycerols and of approximately 41% in VLDL-c. The groups receiving 10% non-fermented coffee residue and 2% fermented coffee residue showed reductions in the lesion areas of 10.5% and 15.4%, respectively, as compared with the control group. The fermented coffee residue showed a higher content of phenolic compounds as compared with the non-fermented coffee residue. CONCLUSION: The present study showed that coffee residue fermentation has a potentially beneficial effect on cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis.

  14. Influência do baço, da asplenia e do implante esplênico autógeno no metabolismo lipídico de camundongos Influence of the spleen, asplenism and autologous splenic implants on lipid metabolism in mice

    Alice Belleigoli Rezende

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a influência do baço, da asplenia e do implante esplênico autógeno no metabolismo lipídico, por meio da avaliação do lipidograma sérico de camundongos e da verificação do efeito do transplante autógeno de baço em diferentes locais do abdome. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados camundongos BALB/c distribuídos em sete grupos de 10 animais: controle normal (CN; controle obeso (CO; operação simulada (OS; esplenectomia total (ET; três grupos submetidos ao transplante autógeno do baço: omento maior (OM, retroperitônio (RP, tecido subcutâneo da parede abdominal (PA. Os animais, com exceção do grupo CN, foram submetidos a dieta com 1,25% de colesterol. A intervenção cirúrgica foi realizada 30 dias após o início da dieta. A coleta de sangue ocorreu no 60º dia pós-operatório. Foram dosados os níveis de triglicérides, de colesterol total e de suas frações, bem como a glicemia. O baço, os implantes esplênicos e o fígado foram submetidos a estudo histológico. RESULTADOS: A dieta aumentou os níveis plasmáticos de colesterol total, HDL e LDL dos camundongos (p BACKGROUND: This work evaluated the influence of the spleen and splenic remnants on lipid metabolism, by evaluating the impact of splenectomy on the lipidogram of mice and by studying the effect of autogenous spleen tissue implanted in different sites. METHODS: 70 BALB/c mice were divided into seven groups of 10 animals: normal control group, with no diet or surgery; fat control group, without surgery; surgical procedure sham group; total splenectomy group and three groups with implants in different sites: greater omentum, retroperitonium and abdominal subcutaneous tissue. The animals, except the normal control group, received food with 1.25% cholesterol. The surgical procedure was carried out 30 days after the beginning of the food administration. Two months after the operations, serum triglycerides, cholesterol and glycemia were studied. Histological assessments of the spleen or implants and the liver were carried out. RESULTS: The enriched food increased the plasmatic levels of total cholesterol, HDL, and mainly LDL of the mice (p<0.05. No significant difference was found in the lipidograms of the animals of the control groups when compared with the splenectomized ones, as well as in the animals submitted to the autogenous splenic tissue transplantation. The preservation of the splenic histological architecture was similar on the three implantation sites. All the animals receiving enriched food presented liver steatosis. CONCLUSION: The spleen, splenectomy and splenic implants do not influence lipidogram in BALB/c mice.

  15. Estudo do comportamento de cepas de Trypanosoma cruzi após passagem em diferentes espécies de triatomíneos

    Juracy B. Magalhães

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a influência da passagem em diferentes espécies de triatomíneos de cepas do T. cruzi biologicamente distintas, mantidas em camundongos. Cepas: Peruana (Tipo I, 12 SF (Tipo II, Colombiana (Tipo 111. Triatomíneos: Rhodnius prolixus, Panstrongylus megistus e Triatoma infestans. Ninfas do 4o estágio foram alimentadas em camundongos infectados com as respectivas cepas e obtidos os inóculos (icft formas metacíclinas para infecção de camundongos de 8 a 10 g. Grupos experimentais para cada cepa: I - Controles inoculados com formas sanguícolas; 11,111 e TV - inoculados com metacíclicos de P. megistus, T. infestans ou R. prolixus, respectivamente. Os perfis de parasitemia foram mantidos para cada cepa, com piques mais elevados nas infecções com metacíclicos do P. megistus e do R. prolixus, para a cepa Peruana, do P. megistus para a 12 SF e do R. prolixus, para a Colombiana. O histotropismo e o padrão de lesões foram mantidos para os três tipos de cepas. O grau de virulência da cepa Peruana foi idêntico em todos os grupos e variou para as cepas 12 SF e Colombiana de acordo com a espécie de triatomíneo usada, com predominância deformas delgadas, nos inoculados com formas metacíclicos o que foi interpretado como uma fase adaptativa das formas metacíclicos ao hospedeiro vertebrado.

  16. CERN receives early 50th anniversary present from Swiss Confederation

    2003-01-01

    "Swiss President Pascal Couchepin announced Wednesday 4 June an early 50th birthday present from the Swiss Confederation to CERN. Switzerland has decided to offer the laboratory the 'Palais de l'Equilibre', a landmark building designed by Geneva architects for Switzerland's 2002 national exhibition" (1/2 page).

  17. Successful Swiss solar bicycles in Australia

    The article takes a look at the Swiss 'Spirit of Bike' team's success in the 'Power Challenge' race across Australia using solar-bicycles based on commercially available models. Apart from the sporting aspects of race, technical details on the cycles and their supply of solar power are given. Also, the history behind the success of the team is presented and the monitoring of man (and woman) and machine during the race is described. The article also discusses the electric bicycles that are commercially available and the potential of these energy-efficient vehicles in Switzerland

  18. The Association of Swiss Electrical Utilities

    The report, which is reproduced in full, discusses briefly Swiss energy policy, refers to the satisfactory outcome of the two referenda on electrical power and nuclear power, and covers statistical data on primary and secondary energy consumption, power generation and consumption with imports/exports, construction of power stations and transmission/distribution links, and outlines financial data, constitution of council, committees and their work, information services and public relations, functions/meetings and courses organised, cooperation with national and international organisations, insurance/pension arrangements and secretariat personnel. (P.G.R.)

  19. Swiss statistics on renewable energy 1999

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics and energy balances for renewable energy sources in Switzerland for 1999. Statistics on production, import and export are presented for the hydropower, wood, refuse and wastes, biogas, solar energy, wind power and environmental-heat categories. Data are presented in table and graphical form. Comparisons are made with energy production from other sources such as fossil fuels and the development of the share of renewable energy sources in the national final-energy consumption between 1990 and 1999 is presented. A comparison of this development with the targets set in the SFOE's former 'Energy 2000' programme is made

  20. Swiss electricity grid - Benchmarking pilot project

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a benchmarking pilot project carried out as a second phase in the development of a formula for the regulation of an open electricity market in Switzerland. It follows on from an initial phase involving the definition of a 'blue print' and a basic concept. The aims of the pilot project - to check out the practicability of the concept - are discussed. The collection of anonymised data for the benchmarking model from over 30 electricity utilities operating on all 7 Swiss grid levels and their integration in the three areas 'Technology', 'Grid Costs' and 'Capital Invested' are discussed in detail. In particular, confidentiality and data protection aspects are looked at. The methods used in the analysis of the data are described and the results of an efficiency analysis of various utilities are presented. The report is concluded with a listing of questions concerning data collection and analysis as well as operational and capital costs that are still to be answered

  1. The Swiss board directors network in 2009

    Daolio, F.; Tomassini, M.; Bitkov, K.

    2011-08-01

    We study the networks formed by the directors of the most important Swiss boards and the boards themselves for the year 2009. The networks are obtained by projection from the original bipartite graph. We highlight a number of important statistical features of those networks such as degree distribution, weight distribution, and several centrality measures as well as their interrelationships. While similar statistics were already known for other board systems, and are comparable here, we have extended the study with a careful investigation of director and board centrality, a k-core analysis, and a simulation of the speed of information propagation and its relationships with the topological aspects of the network such as clustering and link weight and betweenness. The overall picture that emerges is one in which the topological structure of the Swiss board and director networks has evolved in such a way that special actors and links between actors play a fundamental role in the flow of information among distant parts of the network. This is shown in particular by the centrality measures and by the simulation of a simple epidemic process on the directors network.

  2. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies in the printed Bulletin). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in particular those requiring a visa for the Schengen area). In this context, we remind you that the Swiss Permanent Mission is systematically in...

  3. The Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research SIN

    Pritzker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This book tells the story of the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN). The institute was founded in 1968 and became part of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in 1988. Its founding occurred at a time when physics was generally considered the key discipline for technological and social development. This step was unusual for a small country like Switzerland and showed courage and foresight. Equally unusual were the accomplishments of SIN, compared with similar institutes in the rest of the world, as well as its influence on Swiss, and partially also on international politics of science. That this story is now available in a widely understandable form is due to the efforts of some physicists, who took the initiative as long as contemporary witnesses could still be questioned. As is usually the case, official documents always show just an excerpt of what really happened. An intimate portrayal of people who contributed to success requires personal memories. This text relies on both sources. In addition, the e...

  4. Swiss electricity grid - Benchmarking pilot project

    This article is a short version of the ENET number 210369. This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a benchmarking pilot project carried out as a second phase in the development of a formula for the regulation of an open electricity market in Switzerland. It follows on from an initial phase involving the definition of a 'blue print' and a basic concept. The aims of the pilot project - to check out the practicability of the concept - are discussed. The collection of anonymised data for the benchmarking model from over 30 electricity utilities operating on all 7 Swiss grid levels and their integration in the three areas 'Technology', 'Grid Costs' and 'Capital Invested' are discussed in detail. In particular, confidentiality and data protection aspects are looked at. The methods used in the analysis of the data are described and the results of an efficiency analysis of various utilities are presented. The report is concluded with a listing of questions concerning data collection and analysis as well as operational and capital costs that are still to be answered

  5. Protection of C57BL/10 mice by vaccination with association of purified proteins from Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis Proteção de camundongos C57BL/10 vacinados por vacinas contituidas pelas combinações de proteínas purificadas de Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis

    Ana Mariela MORA

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, induction of protective immunity to cutaneous leishmaniasis has been attempted by many researchers using a variety of antigenic preparations, such as living promastigotes or promastigote extracts, partially purified, or defined proteins. In this study, eleven proteins from Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis (LLa with estimated molecular mass ranging from 97 to 13.5kDa were isolated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electro-elution. The proteins were associated as vaccine in different preparations with gp63 and BCG (Bacilli Calmette-Guérin. The antigenicity of these vaccines was measured by their ability to induce the production of IFN-g by lymphocyte from subjects vaccinated with Leishvacinâ . The immunogenicity was evaluated in vaccinated mice. C57BL/10 mice were vaccinated with three doses of each vaccine consisting of 30 mg of each protein at 15 days interval. One hundred mg of live BCG was only used in the first dose. Seven days after the last dose, they received a first challenge infection with 105 infective promastigotes and four months later, a second challenge was done. Two months after the second challenge, 42.86% of protection was obtained in the group of mice vaccinated with association of proteins of gp63+46+22kDa, gp63+13.5+25+42kDa, gp63+46+42kDa, gp63+66kDa, and gp63+97kDa; 57.14% of protection was demonstrated with gp63+46+97+13.5kDa, gp63+46+97kDa, gp63+46+33kDa, and 71.43% protection for gp63 plus all proteins. The vaccine of gp63+46+40kDa that did not protect the mice, despite the good specific stimulation of lymphocytes (LSI = 7.60 and 10.77UI/ml of IFN-g production. When crude extract of L. (L. amazonensis was used with BCG a 57.14% of protection was found after the first challenge and 28.57% after the second, the same result was observed for gp63. The data obtained with the vaccines can suggest that the future vaccine probably have to contain, except the 40kDa, a cocktail of proteins that would protect mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis.A indução de imunidade no homem contra a leishmaniose cutânea tem sido estudada por vários pesquisadores usando uma grande variedade de preparações antigênicas, como: promastigotas vivas ou atenuadas, extratos de promastigotas, antígenos parcialmente purificados e proteínas puras. Neste trabalho foram isoladas 11 proteínas de L. (L. amazonensis com pesos moleculares variando de 13.5 a 97 kDa por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida e por eletroeluição. Estas proteínas foram combinadas em diferentes preparações vacinais com gp63 e BCG. As vacinas foram avaliadas in vitro quanto à capacidade de estimular linfócitos de pessoas vacinadas com Leishvacinâ a produzirem IFN-g e a estimularem a proliferação de linfócitos de camundongos vacinados. Assim, camundongos C57BL/10 foram vacinados em intervalos de 15 dias com três doses de cada vacina contendo 30 mg de cada proteína. 100 mg de BCG foram usados somente na primeira dose. Sete dias após a última dose os animais receberam a primeira infecção desafiado com 105 promastigotas infectantes e um segundo desafio foi administrado 143 dias após, com o mesmo número de parasitas. Sessenta dias após o segundo desafio, proteções de 42,86% foram obtidas com as vacinas constituídas de gp63+46+22kDa, gp63+13.5+25+42kDa, gp63+46+42kDa, gp63+66kDa e gp63+97kDa; 57,14% de proteção foi obtido com a vacina gp63+46+97kDa, gp63+46+97+13.5kDa, gp63+46+33kDa, e 71,43% com a vacina constituída de gp63 mais todas as proteínas. Em contraste, a vacina gp63+46+33kDa não induziu proteção nos camundongos vacinados, indicando que possivelmente a proteína de 40kDa induziu a uma atividade imunossupressora da resposta imunoprotetora. Estes resultados sugerem que uma futura vacina contra a leishmaniose cutânea deverá conter, excluindo-se a proteína de 40kDa, um coquetel de proteínas imunogênicas indutoras de proteção de camundongos contra a leishmaniose cutânea.

  6. Acute inflammatory response to a foreign body in Calomys callosus Perfil de migrao celular agudo induzido pela presena de corpo estranho em Calomys callosus

    Andr Kipnis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Calomys callosus are wild rodents present in the Brazilian savannas that were adapted to the laboratorial conditions. These animals are resistant to infections that induce chronic inflammatory responses (<em>Trypanosoma cruziem> and <em>Paracoccidioides brasiliensisem>. The objective of this work was to characterize the acute inflammatory reaction, prompted by the subcutaneous implementation of a foreign body. Twenty seven <em>C. callosusem> and thirty B10A mice received implant and were comparatively analyzed during 144 hours. Circular cover slides implanted in <em>C. callosusem> showed predominance of macrophages and eosinophils whereas in the mice, the neutrophils followed by the macrophages were the migratory dominant cells (p <0.05. It was concluded that <em>C. callosusem> present inflammatory mechanisms for the removal of foreign body different from the ones found in the other rodents as well as in the human beings.

    KEY WORDS: Acute inflammation, cover slip, granuloma, histology, wild rodents.

    Calomys callosus so roedores silvestres presentes no cerrado brasileiro, que foram adaptados s condies laboratoriais. Trata-se de animais que apresentam resistncia s infeces que induzem respostas inflamatrias crnicas (<em>Trypanosoma cruziem> e <em>Paracoccidioides brasiliensisem>. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a reao inflamatria, na fase aguda, induzida pela implantao subcutnea de um corpo estranho. Vinte e sete <em>C. callosusem> e trinta camundongos (B10A foram implantados e analisados comparativamente durante 144 horas. Lamnulas implantadas em <em>C. callosusem> mostraram predomnio de macrfagos e eosinfilos, enquanto que, nos camundongos, os neutrfilos seguidos pelos macrfagos foram as clulas migratrias dominantes (p< 0,05. Conclui-se que os <em>C. callosusem> apresentam mecanismos inflamatrios para remoo de corpo estranho diferentes dos encontrados nos demais roedores e nos seres humanos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Granuloma, histologia, inflamao aguda, lamnula, roedores silvestres.

  7. Sistemas de liberação controlada com bupivacaína racêmica (S50-R50 e mistura enantiomérica de bupivacaína (S75-R25: efeitos da complexação com ciclodextrinas no bloqueio do nervo ciático em camundongos Sistemas de liberación controlada con bupivacaína racémica (S50-R50 y mescla enantiomérica de bupivacaína (S75-R25: efectos de la complexación con ciclodextrinas en el bloqueo del nervio ciático en ratones Drug-delivery systems for racemic bupivacaine (S50-R50 and bupivacaine enantiomeric mixture (S75-R25: cyclodextrins complexation effects on sciatic nerve blockade in mice

    Daniele Ribeiro de Araújo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os efeitos adversos associados ao uso de bupivacaína levaram à procura por novos anestésicos locais (AL com perfil de bloqueio semelhante e menos tóxicos, surgindo novas preparações como a mistura enantiomérica de bupivacaína (S75-R25. Os sistemas de liberação controlada, contendo AL em carreadores como ciclodextrinas (CD, têm como objetivo melhorar a eficácia anestésica e o índice terapêutico dessas drogas. Este estudo visou a preparação, a caracterização e a avaliação da eficácia anestésica dos complexos de inclusão da mistura enantiomérica da bupivacaína (S75-R25 e da bupivacaína racêmica (S50-R50 com hidroxipropilb-ciclodextrina (HPb-CD comparando-os com as preparações atualmente utilizadas na clínica. MÉTODO: Os complexos de inclusão foram preparados misturando-se quantidades apropriadas de HPb-CD e S50-R50 ou S75-R25 nas razões molares (1:1 e 1:2 e caracterizados por estudos de solubilidade de fases. Determinaram-se as constantes de afinidade (K de cada AL pela HPb-CD. Os bloqueios motor e sensorial induzidos pelas drogas livres e complexadas foram avaliados, em camundongos, através do bloqueio do nervo ciático. Para a realização dos experimentos, utilizaram-se três concentrações de AL: 0,125%; 0,25% e 0,5%. RESULTADOS: Os estudos de solubilidade indicaram a formação de complexos de inclusão de S50-R50 e S75-R25 com HPb-CD, com valores de constante de afinidade (K similares para os dois anestésicos: 14,7 M-1 (S50-R50:HP-bCD e 14,3 M-1 (S75-R25:HP-bCD. Os testes em animais mostraram que a complexação potencializou o bloqueio nervoso diferencial induzido pelos AL: i a duração do bloqueio motor induzido por S75-R25 foi similar à do S50-R50, mas menos intenso (p JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Los efectos adversos asociados al uso de bupivacaína llevaron a la búsqueda por nuevos anestésicos locales (AL con perfil de bloqueo semejante y menos tóxicos, surgiendo nuevas preparaciones como la mezcla enantiomérica de bupivacaína (S75-R25. Los sistemas de liberación controlada, conteniendo AL en carreadores como ciclodextrinas (CD, tienen como objetivo mejorar la eficacia anestésica y el índice terapéutico de esas drogas. Este estudio visó la preparación, caracterización y evaluación de la eficacia anestésica de los complejos de inclusión de la mezcla enantiomérica de la bupivacaína (S75-R25 y de la bupivacaína racémica (S50-R50 con hidroxipropilb-ciclodextrina (HPb-CD comparándolos con las preparaciones actualmente utilizadas en la clínica. MÉTODO: Los complejos de inclusión fueron preparados mezclándose cantidades apropiadas de HPb-CD y S50-R50 ó S75-R25 en las razones molares (1:1 y 1:2 y caracterizados por estudios de solubilidad de fases. Se determinaron las constantes de afinidad (K de cada AL por la HPb-CD. Los bloqueos motor y sensorial inducidos por las drogas libres y complejadas fueron evaluados en ratones, a través del bloqueo del nervio ciático. Para la realización de los experimentos, se utilizaron tres concentraciones de AL: 0,125; 0,25 y 0,5%. RESULTADOS: Los estudios de solubilidad indicaron la formación de complejos de inclusión de S50-R50 y S75-R25 con HPb-CD, con valores de constante de afinidad (K análogos para los dos anestésicos: 14,7 M-1 (S50-R50: HP-bCD y 14,3 M-1 (S75-R25: HP-bCD. Las pruebas en animales mostraron que la complejidad potenció el bloqueo nervioso diferencial inducido por los AL: i la duración del bloqueo motor inducido por S75-R25 fue análogo al del S50-R50, pero menos intenso (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bupivacaine-induced side effects have led to the search for new local anesthetics (LA with similar potency and lower toxicity, such as bupivacaine enantiomeric mixture (S75-R25. Drug-delivery systems for LA in carriers, such as cyclodextrins (CD, have been developed to improve anesthetic potency and therapeutic index of those drugs. This study aimed at preparing, characterizing and evaluating the anesthetic efficacy of inclusion complexes of bupivacaine enantiomeric mixture (S75-R25 and racemic bupivacaine (S50-R50 with hydroxypropylb- cyclodextrin (HPb-CD comparing them to clinically available preparations. METHODS: Inclusion complexes were obtained by mixing appropriate volumes of HPb-CD and S50-R50 or S75-R25 to final 1:1 or 1:2 molar ratios and were characterized by phase solubility experiments. Affinity constants (K were determined between HPb-CD and each LA. Motor and sensory blocks induced by plain or complexed LA formulations were evaluated in mice by sciatic nerve block. Three LA concentrations were used during the experiment: 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5%. RESULTS: Solubility experiments results were indicative of S50-R50:HPb-CD and S75-R25:HPb-CD complexation, with similar affinity constant (K values: 14.7 M-1 and 14,3 M-1, respectively. In vivo experiments have shown that complexation has enhanced differential nerve blockade induced by LA: i motor blockade duration induced by S75-R25 was similar, to the induced by but less intense S50-R50 ( p < 0.001. S50-R50HPb-CD and S75-R25HPb-CD complexes have decreased onset (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively, without changing motor block intensity (Emax as compared to plain drugs; ii sensory block evaluation has revealed higher analgesic intensity with S50-R50HPb-CD (2-fold, p < 0.001 and S75-R25HPb-CD (1.5-1.8-fold, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively with both molar ratios (1:1 and 1:2, LA:CD, in addition to prolonging analgesic effect as compared to S50-R50 and S75-R25. CONCLUSIONS: More pronounced analgesic effects obtained by complexation with HPb-CD have shown that both formulations, S50-R50HPb-CD and S75-R25HPb-CD, are very useful for postoperative pain relief, requiring lower LA concentrations. Nevertheless, it is worth noticing that S75-R25 - being less toxic than racemic bupivacaine - is an interesting alternative for the development of more effective and safe drug-delivery systems as compared to racemic bupivacaine (S50-R50.

  8. SwissFEL injector conceptual design report. Accelerator test facility for SwissFEL

    This comprehensive report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the design concepts behind the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility - in particular concerning the conceptual design of the injector system. The SwissFEL X-ray FEL project at PSI, involves the development of an injector complex that enables operation of a FEL system operating at 0.1 - 7 nm with permanent-magnet undulator technology and minimum beam energy. The injector pre-project was motivated by the challenging electron beam requirements necessary to drive the SwissFEL accelerator facility. The report takes a look at the mission of the test facility and its performance goals. The accelerator layout and the electron source are described, as are the low-level radio-frequency power systems and the synchronisation concept. The general strategy for beam diagnostics is introduced. Low energy electron beam diagnostics, the linear accelerator (Linac) and bunch compressor diagnostics are discussed, as are high-energy electron beam diagnostics. Wavelength selection for the laser system and UV pulse shaping are discussed. The laser room for the SwissFEL Injector and constructional concepts such as the girder system and alignment concepts involved are looked at. A further chapter deals with beam dynamics, simulated performance and injector optimisation. The facility's commissioning and operation program is examined, as are operating regimes, software applications and data storage. The control system structure and architecture is discussed and special subsystems are described. Radiation safety, protection systems and shielding calculations are presented and the lateral shielding of the silo roof examined

  9. The Swiss electrical power industry: energy policy problems and prospects

    The emotive consequences of the Chernobyl accident have had a devastating effect on Swiss public opinion and endanger the serious effort by the Swiss electrical power industry over many years at making possible a power supply capable of meeting increasing demand at minimum cost, compatible with security of supply and protection of the environment. It is considered that two new nuclear power stations will be required, one in 1995 and the other in 2000. The serious consequences if these are not built and, particularly, if it were decided to shut down all existing Swiss nuclear stations are stressed. (P.G.R.)

  10. Swiss utilities step on the gas in Italy

    This article takes a look at the activities of Swiss power utilities in Italy. The author reports on the number of gas-fired combined-cycle power stations in neighbouring Italy that have been built by Swiss power utilities. Projects are briefly described and the combined-cycle technology is discussed: Such installations use gas-fired turbines to generate electricity. The waste-heat is then used to provide steam for a steam-turbine. The performance of such power stations is discussed. Various investments made by Swiss utilities in Italy are noted and discussed in the light of planned investments in nuclear power stations in Switzerland

  11. Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission - Annual report 2009

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides an overview of the work carried out by the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission CORE in 2009. The commission's main work included preparation work for the revised energy research concept for the period 2013 - 2016, a review of all research programmes operated by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE, the enhancement of cooperation with public and private research and promotion institutions, the coordination and consultation of research institutions and the improvement of international information exchange. The report summarises coordination work with the many CORE programmes and defines strategic main areas of interest for future work

  12. Resultados das inoculações intracerebrais de líquido cefalorraquiano de parkinsonianos em animais de experimentações

    James Pitágoras de Mattos; Claudio de Moraes Andrade; Angela Gonçalves da Silva; Alexandre Alencar

    1990-01-01

    Após as inoculacões intracerebrais de líquido cefalorraquiano de pacientes parkinsonianos em 720 camundongos, no período de observação de 48 semanas, ocorreram 157 mortes de animais (21,8%): 76(31%) na primeira passagem, 41(17%) na segunda e 40(16%) na terceira. A incidência de mortalidade mostrou-se significativa, mais marcante na primeira passagem e nas 7 primeiras semanas nas três passagens. Tumefação, desintegração dos dendritos e edema das expansões nervosas constituiram os mais valoriza...

  13. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies below). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in parti...

  14. New structure for Swiss reactor research

    A description is given of the new organizational structure for the Swiss Federal Institute for Reactor Research (EIR), brought about as a result of increasing diversification and demands on EIR research. The new organization is based on the activity and type of research rather than on subject. The more important programmes are described. These include work on high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, fast reactor fuels, fission, LWR safety, and radioactive waste. Reference is made to a number of energy-related projects, both nuclear and non-nuclear, which are also being carried out, including atmospheric cooling of nuclear plants and district heating. Training courses and isotope production are the two most important services offered by EIR. (U.K.)

  15. The ``Swiss cheese'' instability of bacterial biofilms

    Jang, Hongchul; Rusconi, Roberto; Stocker, Roman

    2012-11-01

    Bacteria often adhere to surfaces, where they develop polymer-encased communities (biofilms) that display dramatic resistance to antibiotic treatment. A better understanding of cell detachment from biofilms may lead to novel strategies for biofilm disruption. Here we describe a new detachment mode, whereby a biofilm develops a nearly regular array of ~50-100 μm holes. Using surface-treated microfluidic devices, we create biofilms of controlled shape and size. After the passage of an air plug, the break-up of the residual thin liquid film scrapes and rearranges bacteria on the surface, such that a ``Swiss cheese'' pattern is left in the residual biofilm. Fluorescent staining of the polymeric matrix (EPS) reveals that resistance to cell dislodgement correlates with local biofilm age, early settlers having had more time to hunker down. Because few survivors suffice to regrow a biofilm, these results point at the importance of considering microscale heterogeneity in assessing the effectiveness of biofilm removal strategies.

  16. Swiss geothermal energy update 1985 - 1990

    Since 1985, geothermal R and D has evolved steadily in Switzerland. REgional low-enthalphy exploration and resource assessment are largely complete; emphasis is now on drilling and development. Vertical earth-heat exchangers (small-scale, decentralized, heat pump-coupled heating facilities) increase rapidly in number; the governmental system of risk coverage for geothermal drilling, established in 1987, gives rise to several drilling projects. Of these, a single well and a doublet have been successfully completed so far. Numerical modeling of coupled thermohydraulic processes in fracture-dominate Hot Dry Rock systems including rock-mechanics aspects, is in progress. In this paper some further efforts such as contributions to general geothermics, exploration and resource assessment activities in Switzerland, and financing of geothermal development abroad by Swiss banks are described

  17. Ptychographic nanotomography at the Swiss Light Source

    Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Holler, Mirko; Diaz, Ana; da Silva, Julio C.; Tsai, Esther H. R.; Bunk, Oliver; Martinez-Perez, Carlos; Donoghue, Philip C. J.; Wellman, Charles H.; Menzel, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Ptychography combines elements of scanning probe microscopy with coherent diffractive imaging and provides a robust high-resolution imaging technique. The extension of X-ray ptychography to 3D provides nanoscale maps with quantitative contrast of the sample complex-valued refractive index. We present here progress in reconstruction and post-processing algorithms for ptychographic nanotomography, as well as outline advances in the implementation and development of dedicated instrumentation for fast and precise 3D scanning at the Swiss Light Source. Compared to the first demonstration in 2010, such developments have allowed a dramatic improvement in resolution and measurement speed, with direct impact in the application of the technique for biology and materials science. We showcase the technique by detailing the measurement and reconstruction of a fossilized dispersed spore.

  18. Imersão do pâncreas por 24 horas em solução de colagenase a 4ºC no isolamento de ilhotas de Langerhans =Immersion of pancreas for 24 hours in collagenase solution at 4°C in Langerhans islets isolation

    Diogo, Luciano Passamani et al.

    2008-01-01

    Objetivos: testar se a imersão do pâncreas em solução de 1 ou 2 mg/ml de colagenase em 4ºC por 24 horas, no isolamento experimental de ilhotas de Langerhans, aumenta o rendimento de ilhotas por grama de tecido pancreático. Métodos: estudo experimental com camundongos, realizado no Laboratório de Nefrologia do Instituto de Pesquisas Biológicas do Hospital São Lucas da PUCRS, Porto Alegre, RS. Após sacrifício dos animais sob anestesia, os pâncreas foram retirados e triturados, sendo dividido...

  19. Biologia do Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859) em condições de laboratório (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae): II. Resistência ao jejum Biology of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859) under laboratory conditions (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae): II. Resistance to starvation

    Teresa Cristina M Gonçalves; Vânia Maria N. Victório; José Jurberg; Vanda Cunha

    1989-01-01

    Em prosseguimento ao estudo da biologia do Triatoma vitticeps (Gonçalves et al., 1988), foram feitas observações sobre a sua resistência ao jejum. Dos 286 ovos obtidos, apenas 201 eclodiram e atingiram o estádio pretendido para as observações. Os demais não eclodiram, não completaram a muda ou morreram sem motivo aparente. As ninfas foram acondicionadas, individualmente em frascos de Borrel, devidamente registrados. Para a alimentação foram utilizados camundongos e a medida que as ninfas atin...

  20. Imunização de camundongos com "vacina" viva avirulenta de Trypanosoma cruzi: IV. ensaio de esquema de "vacinação"[ign

    Humberto Menezes

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available A parasitemia e o exame histológico revelaram que, aparentemente camundongos que receberam duas doses de "vacina" reagiram melhor a vma infecção virulenta do T. cruzi do que animais "vacinados'' uma única vez. Nestes a infecção realizada quatro ou dez semanas depois da imunização não alterou substancialmente a resposta imunitária medida pela parasitemia, percentual de mortalidade e grau da resposta tissular. Animais unicamente "vacinados", com uma ou duas doses, não apresentaram alterações histológicas diferentes das dos animais normais. Êstes mostraram quase sempre um discreto grau de inflamação crônica focal no miocáráio, e fígado.

  1. Swiss Report Highlights Danger of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    ... html Swiss Report Highlights Danger of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Cases where the infection isn't thwarted by ... after catching a highly drug-resistant strain of tuberculosis illustrates exactly what public health officials around the ...

  2. Wind energy and Swiss hydroelectric power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft RWTH Aachen (IAEW), Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to analyse the possible changes in the European electricity supply system, in particular with reference to the increasing amount of wind-generated electricity. Also, the role of peak-power and the optimisation potential for Swiss hydropower was examined. The part to be played by Swiss wind power in the future and the government's sustainability strategy is also looked at. The report looks at electricity dealing in the European context and introduces a method of assessment for Swiss hydropower. The report's conclusions and recommendations cover the increasing importance of energy storage in hydropower schemes, the question if grid capacity is sufficient under the new conditions, the market liberalisation question and possible ecological problems that may be encountered.

  3. Importncia do camundongo mdx na fisiopatologia da distrofia muscular de Duchenne / The importance of mdx mouse in the pathophysiology of Duchenne's muscular distrophy

    Sandra Lopes, Seixas; Jussara, Lagrota-Cndido; Wilson, Savino; Thereza, Quirico-Santos.

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available O camundongo mdx desenvolve distrofia muscular recessiva ligada ao cromossoma X (locus Xp21.1) e no expressa distrofina. Embora no apresente intensa fibrose do tecido muscular e acmulo de tecido adiposo, considerado o modelo animal mais adequado da distrofia muscular de Duchenne. As alteraes [...] estruturais no tecido muscular associadas mionecrose e presena do infiltrado inflamatrio com predomnio de linfcitos e moncitos/macrfagos sugerem uma participao do sistema imunolgico nesta miopatia. Alm disso a modulao na expresso dos componentes da matriz extracelular no microambiente muscular nas vrias fases da doena (incio, mionecrose, regenerao) indicam um papel importante do conjuntivo no direcionamento das clulas inflamatrias para o foco da leso muscular. O camundongo mdx coloca-se como um excelente modelo para o estudo dos mecanismos patogenticos da mionecrose e regenerao na distrofia muscular de Duchenne, possibilitando inclusive o desenvolvimento de estratgias teraputicas mais adequadas. Abstract in english The mdx mouse develop an X-linked recessive muscular dystrophy (locus Xp21.1) and lack dystrophin expression. Despite showing less intense myofibrosis and scarce deposition of fatty tissue, mdx mice are considered an adequate animal model for studies on the pathogenesis of Duchenne-type muscular dys [...] trophy. Marked histological alterations in the muscular tissues associated to myonecrosis and inflammatory mononuclear cell infiltrate (lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages) suggest a participation of the immune system in this myopathy. Modulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) components in the muscular tissue during all phases (onset, myonecrosis and regeneration) of disease, indicate an important role for the ECM driving inflammatory cells to the foci of lesion. Therefore mdx mice should be regarded as an important tool for studies on pathogenetic mechanisms of Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy. Such experimental model would allow development of new therapeutic approaches for increasing survival and clinical amelioration.

  4. Why did Swiss citizens refuse to ban tobacco advertising?

    Cornuz, J; Burnand, B; Kawachi, I.; Gutzwiller, F; Paccaud, F

    1996-01-01

    A ban on tobacco advertising is one of the major tools to promote tobacco control. Swiss citizens recently refused to modify the Swiss Constitution to ban tobacco advertising. This case study shows how a strong alliance among the tobacco industry, the state, the media, and sports and cultural activities planners made it difficult for people to make an informed decision. The promoters of the ban were unable to provide counter-arguments to the mostly fallacious claims made by the opponent...

  5. The SWISS-MODEL Repository: new features and functionalities

    Kopp, Jürgen; Schwede, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    The SWISS-MODEL Repository is a database of annotated 3D protein structure models generated by the SWISS-MODEL homology-modelling pipeline. As of September 2005, the repository contained 675 000 models for 604 000 different protein sequences of the UniProt database. Regular updates ensure that the content of the repository reflects the current state of sequence and structure databases, integrating new or modified target sequences, and making use of new template structures. Each Repository ent...

  6. Interest rate risk and the Swiss solvency test

    Eder, Armin; Keiler, Sebastian; Pichl, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach to measuring interest rate risk for insurers within the Swiss Solvency Test, which overcomes the shortcomings of the standard model. The standard model of the Swiss Solvency Test is based on more interest rate risk factors than are actually needed to capture interest rate risk, it allows for significantly negative interest rates and it tends toward procyclical solvency capital requirements. Our new approach treats interest rate risk with direct referen...

  7. Swiss GAAP FER 41 für Krankenversicherer

    Fleig, C; Pfaff, D

    2010-01-01

    Per 1.1.2012 tritt «Swiss GAAP FER 41: Rechnungslegung für Gebäudeversicherer und Krankenversicherer» in Kraft. Der vorliegende Artikel beleuchtet die wichtigsten Elemente der Swiss GAAP FER 41 für Krankenversicherer und erläutert die Ergebnisse der Studie zur Einführung dieser Fachempfehlung, welche KPMG in Zusammenarbeit mit der Universität Zürich durchgeführt hat.

  8. Working capital management in the Swiss chemical industry

    Seeger, S.; Locker, A.; Jergen, C

    2011-01-01

    The performance of Swiss based chemical and pharmaceutical companies regarding their working capital management and its underlying components, namely accounts receivable, inventories and accounts payable differs over time and between the single firms. The calculation of a cash potential for the year 2008 shows that 17 billion CHF is tied up in the companies balance sheets if they would realise the Swiss best practice performance. It has also been shown that in rece...

  9. Potential Impact of the WTO Doha Round on Swiss Agriculture

    Markus Lips; Peter Rieder

    2004-01-01

    The article analyzes the potential impact of the WTO Doha Round on Swiss agriculture by means of a general equilibrium model. Assuming a repetition of the Uruguay Round as anticipated outcome the raw milk output is reduced. The analysis shows that all imminent changes on Swiss agriculture like the bilateral contracts between Switzerland and the European Union lead to strong reductions of both raw milk producer price and agricultural income. As a conclusion, the Doha Round has a relatively mod...

  10. Governance of competition in the Swiss and European railway sector

    FINGER, Matthias; Rosa, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The Florence School of Regulation Transport Area carried out, in co-operation with the Chair of Management of Network Industries (EPFL), a study on the Governance of Competition in six European countries financed by the Swiss Federal Railways (SBB-CFF-FFS). This research project aimed at identifying and analysing the possible institutional answers to the European Commission's pressure to implement further competition in the Swiss railway system. On the basis of the already existing European p...

  11. A consideration of Swiss energy policy for the third millennium

    Dr. Dorle Vallender, Member of the Swiss National Council, takes a look at Swiss energy policy for the third millennium. Current legislation on the taxing of energy carriers with respect to carbon dioxide emissions is considered. The effect of a possible future ecological tax reform is looked at from the point of view of national economics. The effects of taxing non-renewable sources of energy and the promotion of renewable energy forms are discussed

  12. Infecção via oral por Trypanosoma evansi em animais de laboratório Oral infection by Trypanosoma evansi in rats and mice

    Aleksandro Schafer da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Testou-se a infecção de Trypanosoma evansi pela via oral em ratos e camundongos, através de sangue contaminado de ambas as espécies. Dez ratos e dez camundongos foram alocados em quatro grupos iguais A e B (ratos, C e D (camundongos. Os grupos A e C receberam sangue contaminado de um rato e o grupo B e D de um camundongo, através de uma sonda. O volume de sangue administrado foi de 0,2ml, o qual apresentava uma concentração de 10(7 tripanossomas ml-1. Os animais foram mantidos em temperatura e umidade constantes (25°C e 80% UR, sendo realizados esfregaços sanguíneos diários para identificar o período pré-patente e a evolução do parasita na circulação. Nos grupos A e B, o período pré-patente variou de 19 a 25 dias, e o período entre a detecção dos parasitas e a morte dos animais foi em média de 12,7 dias. Os camundongos do grupo C e D não apresentaram infecção pelo parasita, sendo estes avaliados por 60 dias. Os ratos foram susceptíveis a infecção por T. evansi pela via oral; entretanto, os camundongos não se contaminaram com o protozoário por via digestiva.In this research, Trypanosoma evansi infection was tested in rats and mice by oral ingestion of contaminated blood. Groups of ten rats and ten mice were disposed in four experimental groups: A and B (rats, C and D (mice. The groups A and C were contaminated by rat-contaminated blood; B and C groups by mouse-contaminated blood. The blood was given using a probe filled with 0.2ml of contaminated blood with 10(7 trypanosomes ml-1. These animals were maintained at constant temperature and humidity (25°C and 80% UR. Dairy blood smear were done to identify the prepatent period and evolution of parasite in the circulation. In the A and B groups, the pre latency period varied from 19 to 25 days and the period of parasite detection and animals death was an average of 12.7 days. The C and D groups did not present infection by the parasite even when evaluated for 60 days. In conclusion, the rats had oral infection by T. evansi but this protozoan couldn’t contaminate the mice by digestive path.

  13. Estudo da patogenicidade para camundongos recém-nascidos de amostras de echovirus tipo 9 isoladas de casos de meningite durante um surto epidêmico no Rio de Janeiro Pathogenicity for newborn mice of echovirus type 9 samples isolated from cases of meningitis during an outbreak in Rio de Janeiro

    Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available A patogenicidade do echovirus tipo 9 para camundongos recém-nascidos foi estudada, utilizando-se 12 amostras isoladas em cultura de células primárias de rim de macaco, a partir do liquor de crianças com meningite. Os animais inoculados com o fluido da primeira passagem em células desenvolveram paralisia flácida, após um período de 5 dias, com a morte ate o 8º dia. Os especimens originais de liquor não continham suficiente vírus para provocar sinais clínicos nos animais inoculados no período de 21 dias de observação. Ao exame histopatológico os animais doentes apresentaram miopatia necrotizante da musculatura paravertebral, língua e diafragma. Animais inoculados que não desenvolveram paralisia durante o período de observação apresentaram miosite discreta, sem que tenha sido encontrada necrose das fibras musculares.The pathogenicity for baby-mice of 12 strains of echovirus type 9, isolated in primary monkey kidney cells, from liquor specimens of children with meningitis, have been studied. The animals inoculated with the first passage in tissue culture show after a period of 5 days, a flaccid paralysis and died by the 8th day after inoculation. The original liquor specimens did not contain enough virus to cause clinical signs in the inoculated animals, during the 21 days of observation. Histopathologicals studies in the sick animals, show a necrosis of the paravertebral muscles, tongue and diafragm. Inoculated animals wich did not develop paralysis during the observation period, show light miositis without necrosis of the muscle tissue.

  14. Redução na concentração de glicose no cérebro de camundongos inoculados com liquido cefalorraquiano de pacientes com esclerose lateral amiotrófica

    J. M. Godoy

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores analisam, por técnica cromatográfica, as concentrações de glicose no cérebro de camundongos inoculados com L.CR de 4 pacientes com ELA. Foi encontrada redução na, concentração do carboidrato no material estudado, sugerindo a presença de fator extrínseco veiculado pelo LCR.

  15. Toxoplasma gondii: humoral and cellular immune response of BALB/c mice immunized via intranasal route with rTgROP2 Toxoplasma gondii: avaliação da resposta imune humoral e celular de camundongos BALB/c imunizados pela via nasal com rTgROP2

    Michelle Igarashi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available TgROP2 is an intracellular protein associated with rhoptries of Toxoplama gondii and an antigen component of a candidate vaccine for toxoplasmosis. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of rTgROP2 to stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses in BALB/c mice via intranasal injection. TgROP2 partial coding sequence was (196-561 amplified by PCR from genomic T. gondii RH strain DNA and cloned into the pTrcHis expression vector. Escherichia coli Rosetta 2 cells transformed with pTrcHis-TgROP2 showed high levels (~1 mg.mL-1 of recombinant protein after 4 hours of IPTG induction. Recombinant TgROP2 exhibited an apparent Mr equal to 54 kDa. In order to test immunogenicity of the recombinant protein, 10 BALB/c mice received 10 µg of rROP2 protein + 10 µg of Quil-A via intranasal injection. Doses were administered at days 0, 21, and 42. Three animals were euthanized and used to evaluate cell-ular immune response on day 62. Five (50% and two (20% out of ten animals produced IgG (DO mean = 0.307; cut-off = 0.240 and IgA (DO mean = 0.133, cut-off = 0.101, respectively, by ELISA on day 62. The proliferation of splenocytes revealed high stimulation index (SI when co-cultured with 5, 10 and 15 µg.mL-1 of rTgROP2. These results indicate that intranasal immunization with recombinant protein ROP2 plus Quil-A can elicit both cellular and humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice.TgROP2 é uma proteína localizada nas roptrias do Toxoplasma gondii, sendo um antígeno candidato a componente de uma vacina contra a toxoplasmose. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eficácia da TgROP2 recombinante em estimular a resposta imune celular e humoral de camundongos BALB/c após estímulo intranasal. A sequência da TgROP2 foi amplificada pela PCR a partir da cepa RH e clonada em vetor de expressão pTrc-His. Após a transformação em Escherichia coli- Rosetta 2, a pTrcHis-TgROP2 exibiu alto nível de expressão após 4 horas de indução com IPTG. A proteína recombinante apresentou uma massa molecular aparente de aproximadamente 54 kDa. Para avaliar a imunogenicidade dessa proteína recombinante, 10 camundongos receberam, pela via intranasal, 10 µg da rROP2 associado a 10 µg de Quil-A. Três doses foram realizadas nos dias 0, 21 e 42. No dia 62 do experimento, três animais foram eutanasiados para avaliar as respostas imune celular e humoral. Cinco (50% e dois (20% dos 10 animais apresentaram níveis de IgG (DO média = 0,307; ponto de corte = 0,240 e IgA (DO média = 0,133; ponto de corte = 0,101 acima do ponto de corte no ELISA no dia 62. A proliferação de esplenócitos revelou altos Índices de Estimulação (SI, quando as células foram cultivadas com 5, 10 e 15 µg.mL-1 de rTgROP2. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a via nasal pode estimular tanto a resposta imune celular como a humoral.

  16. Ocorrência de Cryptosporidium spp. em animais exóticos de companhia no Brasil

    M. S. de Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOA infecção por algumas espécies ou genótipos de Cryptosporidiumrepresenta um risco em potencial para a saúde pública, principalmente por causa de morbidade e mortalidade em crianças de zero a cinco anos de idade e em pacientes imunodeprimidos. Embora existam alguns relatos de infecção por Cryptosporidiumem animais de companhia, sua participação na epidemiologia da criptosporidiose humana é incerta, e a literatura sobre esse tema ainda é bastante escassa. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ocorrência e realizar a classificação molecular deCryptosporidiumspp. em amostras fecais de animais exóticos criados como animais de estimação no Brasil. Um total de 386 amostras de seis espécies de animais foi colhido e armazenado em solução de dicromato de potássio 5% a 4°C. Os oocistos foram purificados por centrífugo-sedimentação em água/éter, seguindo-se a extração de DNA genômico e a realização da nestedPCR para amplificação de fragmento parcial do gene da subunidade 18S do rRNA. Positividade para Cryptosporidiumspp. foi observada em 11,40% (44/386 das amostras. O sequenciamento de fragmentos amplificados permitiu a identificação de Cryptosporidium tyzzeri em camundongos,Cryptosporidium murisem camundongos, hamster e chinchila, Cryptosporidium parvumem chinchila, Cryptosporidiumgenótipo hamsterem hamstere Cryptosporidiumsp. em porquinho-da-índia. Os resultados deste estudo mostram que há uma variedade de espécies de Cryptosporidiumpresentes em animais exóticos de companhia no Brasil. Os dados sugerem que esses animais podem participar da epidemiologia da criptosporidiose humana, particularmente por seu estreito convívio.

  17. The changing Swiss electricity - Critical views

    This book takes a critical look at developments in the Swiss electricity market and, in particular, criticises national, regional and local energy policy, which the author considers to be incoherent. The book first describes how the electricity market works, the main players involved and the daily problems that have to be solved. Then, the problems that could be caused by liberalisation, including the question of transit fees, the development of electricity prices for consumers, changes in the structure of the electricity business and third party access are discussed. The second part of the book examines legal aspects of proposed electricity market legislation and then presents 16 propositions covering energy policy, market regulation, unbundling not only of electricity generation, distribution and services but also of politics and business, the revision of proposed liberalisation legislation, taxation aspects as well as the national and international operation of the electricity grid. The book further examines three regional electricity utilities and the attempts to privatise them, which did not meet with the approval of the voting public, and discusses the suspicion cast on certain politicians, that they try to push through the particular interests of groups they are closely associated with. The book is also includes a bibliography and a list of useful addresses

  18. Internet Voting for Expatriates: The Swiss Case

    Micha Germann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the first Swiss canton introduced internet voting for expatriates, thus initiating the second phase in Switzerland’s piecemeal i-voting roll-out. More cantons soon followed, and as of this writing expatriates from 12 out of the 26 cantons can vote online. This paper focuses on the second phase involving expatriates. We address three questions at the core of the internet voting research agenda. First, the popularity question: to what extent do expatriates make use of the new online channel? Second, the ‘who’ question: what is the profile of the typical expatriate i-voter? Finally, the turnout question: did the extension of internet voting to the expatriates have an effect on electoral mobilization? Our findings indicate that the online channel is very popular among expatriates, both if compared to other trials in Switzerland itself and internationally. On the other hand, known patterns regarding the profile of i-voters and the effect on mobilization seem to be also replicated in the expatriate trials. Expatriate i-voters tend to be young, male, and there is some evidence of an upper-class bias. Thus, usage of the online channel seems driven by the digital divide also among expatriates. Moreover, we find some evidence that i-voting did not affect electoral mobilization, similarly to trials involving residents.

  19. Radionuclide sorption database for Swiss safety assessment

    Recommended sorption data for use in transport models for a Swiss High-Level Waste repository are presented. The models used in 'Project Gewaehr 1985' assume linear sorption isotherms and require elemental partition coefficient (Kd) data. On the basis of a literature search 'realistic' Kd data for 22 elements have been selected for weathered crystalline rock and sediments in contact with a reducing groundwater and also sediments with a less reducing groundwater. In an appendix sorption data for 28 elements on bentonite backfill are given. These data are supplemented with 'conservative' estimates taken to represent minimum reasonable values. Available data are discussed for each element clearly exhibiting (i) the large gaps in knowledge, (ii) their unbalanced distribution between different elements and, hence, (iii) the need for further experiments in the laboratory, the field and analogue studies. An overview of the theoretical concepts of sorption, experimental methodology and data interpretation is given in order to put the values into context. General problem areas are identified. (Auth.)

  20. Biomass - Overview of Swiss Research Programme 2003

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results obtained in 2003 in various research projects worked on in Switzerland on the subject of biomass. In the biomass combustion area, subjects discussed include system optimisation for automatic firing, combustion particles, low-particle pellet furnaces, design and optimisation of wood-fired storage ovens, efficiency of filtering techniques and methane generation from wood. Also, an accredited testing centre for wood furnaces is mentioned and measurements made on an installation are presented. As far as the fermentation of biogenic wastes is concerned, biogas production from dairy-product wastes is described. Other projects discussed include a study on eco-balances of energy products, certification and marketing of biogas, evaluation of membranes, a measurement campaign for solar sludge-drying, the operation of a percolator installation for the treatment of bio-wastes, the effects of compost on the environment and the fermentation of coffee wastes. Also, statistics on biogas production in 2002 is looked at. Finally, a preliminary study on biofuels is presented

  1. Técnicas de coloração para detecção de Encephalitozoon cuniculi em cortes histológicos Stain techniques for detection of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in tissue sections

    Maria Anete Lallo; Eduardo Fernandes Bondan; José Guilherme Xavier; Marisa Porta Miche Hirschfeld

    2010-01-01

    No presente trabalho, foram avaliadas diferentes técnicas de coloração aplicadas a cortes histológicos para a identificação de Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Foram utilizados fragmentos hepáticos de camundongos Balb-c, imunossuprimidos com ciclofosfamida e inoculados com esporos de Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Os cortes histológicos incluídos em parafina foram corados pelas técnicas de hematoxilina-eosina (H-E), tricrômica modificada, Gram-Chromotrope, Giemsa, Brown-Hopps, PAS, Ziehl-Neelsen e Grocot...

  2. INFLUENCE OF MICROBIOTA IN EXPERIMENTAL CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN SWISS MICE

    OLIVEIRA Marcia Rosa de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of Swiss/NIH mice with Leishmania major was compared with infection in isogenic resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice. Swiss/NIH mice showed self-controlled lesions in the injected foot pad. The production of high levels of interferon-g (IFN-g and low levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 by cells from these animals suggests that they mount a Th1-type immune response. The importance of the indigenous microbiota on the development of murine leishmaniasis was investigated by infecting germfree Swiss/NIH in the hind footpad with L. major and conventionalizing after 3 weeks of infection. Lesions from conventionalized Swiss/NIH mice were significantly larger than conventional mice. Histopathological analysis of lesions from conventionalized animals showed abscesses of variable shapes and sizes and high numbers of parasitized macrophages. In the lesions from conventional mice, besides the absence of abscess formation, parasites were rarely observed. On the other hand, cells from conventional and conventionalized mice produced similar Th1-type response characterized by high levels of IFN-g and low levels of IL-4. In this study, we demonstrated that Swiss/NIH mice are resistant to L. major infection and that the absence of the normal microbiota at the beginning of infection significantly influenced the lesion size and the inflammatory response at the site of infection.

  3. 77 FR 53248 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Swiss Treasures: From...

    2012-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Swiss Treasures: From Biblical... exhibition ``Swiss Treasures: From Biblical Papyrus and Parchment to Erasmus, Zwingli, Calvin, and...

  4. Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands

    Karg, Sabine

    Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands.......Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands....

  5. Otimização da reação de polimerase em cadeia para detecção de Toxoplasma gondii em sangue venoso e placenta de gestantes

    Spalding Silvia Maria; Amendoeira Maria Regina Reis; Coelho Janice M.C.; Angel Sergio O.

    2002-01-01

    A detecção de Toxoplasma gondii no sangue venoso e na placenta de gestantes pela reação de polimerase em cadeia pode facilitar o diagnóstico pré-natal da toxoplasmose congênita. Foram avaliadas gestantes IgM-reagentes e os seus filhos. Além das dosagens de IgG, IgM, IgA e reação de avidez de IgG (MEIA), foram realizadas a técnica de imunoperoxidase e a inoculação em camundongos. De cada amostra foi efetuada amplificação gênica com primers do gene B1 e novos primers do gene TGR (chamados ABGTg...

  6. Continued operation of Swiss nuclear power plants

    Switzerland's oldest NPPs started operation in 1969 (Beznau-1), 1971 (Beznau-2) and 1972 (Muehleberg). Beznau-1 will celebrate its 40. anniversary this year. Therefore, long-term operation is an issue and already in 1991 the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (E.N.S.I.) requested an aging monitoring program from all licensees. By law there is no operating lifetime limit for N.N.P.s in Switzerland -they can be operated as long as they are safe. Hence safety assessment is of particular importance. E.N.S.I. requires annual systematic safety assessments and every ten years a comprehensive periodic safety review (P.S.R.). The P.S.R. includes the description of the safety concept, the evaluation of the plant management and the operating behavior. Furthermore a de-tailed safety analysis must be documented covering the deterministic evaluation of all safety systems as well as a probabilistic safety analyses of level 1 and 2 taking into account all internal and external initiating events. The P.S.R. should include an anticipatory safety assessment for the future operation and identify necessary back fitting measures. The review of the aging monitoring program is an important aspect of the P.S.R.. According to this program, all relevant aging mechanisms must be identified for every safety-relevant component and possible gaps in the monitoring program must be highlighted and resolved. An effective aging management program requires a thorough analysis of the international operating experiences and a consideration of the latest conclusions from state-of-the-art of science and technology. Finally, all this information has to be managed in component-specific fact sheets. With this concept of a continuous safety assessment and pro active aging monitoring the responsibility for a safe operation beyond 40 years can be taken. (author)

  7. Swiss Environmental Domains: A new spatial framework for reporting on the environment

    Lehmann, Anthony; Allenbach, Karin; Maggini Lehmann, Ramona; Richard, Jean-Philippe; Jaquet, Jean-Michel; Dao, Quoc-Hy

    2010-01-01

    Swiss Environmental Domains (SwissED) is an environmental classification of the territory based on key climatic, geologic and topographic variables that influence both natural and anthropogenic processes at various scales. It constitutes a new spatial framework to analyse data about our environment (e.g. biodiversity, land cover, demo- graphy, agriculture, economic activities) that does not replace existing ones (cantons, biogeographical regions), but simply complements them. Swiss Environmen...

  8. Swiss electricity production into the future

    In January 2007 the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's work on energy perspectives up until 2035 were concluded and presented. The results form the basis for political debate on the future direction of Switzerland's energy and climate policies. The energy perspectives point to an increase in demand for electricity in Switzerland by 2035 of around 20% and a deficit of roughly 17 billion kWh if no extra measures are taken. This corresponds to twice the annual production of a Swiss nuclear power station. This development and the unharnessed potential in the areas of efficiency and renewable energies prompted Switzerland's Federal Council to decide on a reorientation of its energy policy in 2007. This is based on four pillars: 1. Improved energy efficiency; 2. Promotion of renewable energy; 3. Targeted extension and construction of large-scale power stations; 4. Intensification of foreign energy policy, particularly in terms of cooperation with the EU. 2008 has got off to a strong start in terms of energy policy - the CO2 tax on fuels has been introduced and the first package of the new Energy Supply Act (StromVG) has entered into force. The new Electricity Supply Act creates the necessary conditions for a progressive opening of Switzerland's electricity market. From 2009 some 50,000 large customers with an annual electricity consumption of over 100 megawatt hours will be able to benefit from this partial opening and be free to choose their power suppliers. But all other power consumers will benefit right from the start too because their electricity suppliers will also be able to buy in their electricity from the free market and pass on any price savings to their customers. Furthermore, the Electricity Supply Act delivers a clear legal framework for cross-border trade in electricity. In actual fact the opening of the electricity market is already well advanced around Switzerland. Liberalisation also results in cost transparency: As the opening of the electricity market also involves the un-bundling of the network and energy provision, the cost of network usage and actual electricity consumption will in future have to appear separately on bills. That way customers will know just how much they are paying for the network, how much in charges and how much the electricity itself costs. And along with the Electricity Supply Act, the revised Energy Act was also adopted. It stipulates that energy production from renewable must be increased to at least 5400 gigawatt hours by 2030. The Act envisages targeted measures to promote renewable energies and greater efficiency. The most important instrument is the cost-covering feed-in price for power from renewable energy sources from solar power, biomass, small-scale hydropower and wind. It will ensure a major boost in power from renewable energies from 2009. The Federal Council set further important markers to promote the use of renewable energies and improve energy efficiency in its decision of 20 February 2008. The goals are clear: By 2020 the share of renewable energies in overall energy consumption should be raised by at least 50% from 16.2% today to 24%. The consumption of fossil fuels should be reduced by 20% between 2010 and 2020 and electricity consumption should increase by a maximum of 5% over the same period. The measures that lead to these goals are primarily strengthened instruments such as regulations, standards and bans in the area of appliances, buildings and vehicles. These measures go hand in hand with a strong push in the area of research and in training. In view of the forecasted trends and expected events, regarding electricity demand, the security-related shutdown of the first nuclear power plants in Switzerland around the year 2020 and the concurrent expiry of the long-term delivery contracts for electricity with France, the Federal Council argued for the extension and construction of large-scale power stations (pillar three). Subsequently, the Federal Council evaluated two options for generation investments: the construction of a new nuclear power plant or the construction of gas-fired power plants as temporary solution. Eventually, the Federal Council decided for the latter option due to the specific investment background for nuclear power plants. Generally, the construction of a nuclear power plant must undergo a three-stage licensing process and must be finally approved by a popular vote. Furthermore, the experts of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy expect a commissioning time of 16 to 18 years for a nuclear power plant. Given this extensive time horizon together with the associated risks (referendum and popular vote), the federal council favours the temporary construction of gas-fired power plants. The CO2 emissions caused by gas-fired power plants have to be entirely compensated. Politicians have to set the conditions for an energy policy which pursues the goals of security of supply, competition and sustainability. However, the State cannot achieve the turnaround in the energy sector alone. It also needs motivated experts such as you, researchers with innovative ideas and concepts, entrepreneurial firms and investors and ultimately well-informed citizens who support sustainability. (author)

  9. Szekeres Swiss-cheese model and supernova observations

    We use different particular classes of axially symmetric Szekeres Swiss-cheese models for the study of the apparent dimming of the supernovae of type Ia. We compare the results with those obtained in the corresponding Lemaitre-Tolman Swiss-cheese models. Although the quantitative picture is different the qualitative results are comparable, i.e., one cannot fully explain the dimming of the supernovae using small-scale (?50 Mpc) inhomogeneities. To fit successfully the data we need structures of order of 500 Mpc size or larger. However, this result might be an artifact due to the use of axial light rays in axially symmetric models. Anyhow, this work is a first step in trying to use Szekeres Swiss-cheese models in cosmology and it will be followed by the study of more physical models with still less symmetry.

  10. Swiss and German Ministers make a joint visit to CERN

    2008-01-01

    On Friday, 23 May the German Federal Minister of Education and Research, Annette Schavan, and the Head of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Micheline Calmy-Rey, paid a joint visit to CERN. German Federal Minister of Education and Research, Annette Schavan and the Head of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Micheline Calmy-Rey, with Robert Aymar, Rolf-Dieter Heuer and Jos Engelen. The Swiss and German ministers in front of the ATLAS experiment, accompanied by Robert Aymar, Rolf-Dieter Heuer, Jos Engelen and Peter Jenni. Director-General Robert Aymar gave the ministers a short introduction to CERN, which was followed by the signing of the Guest Book. Both ministers took the opportunity to go to Point 1 to visit the ATLAS experiment, guided by the ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni, and also the LHC tunnel.

  11. Is the Swiss Power Hub model in danger?

    This article discusses the future role of the Swiss 'Power Hub' in the European power network. The radical changes in the structure and operation of the European power grid are discussed as is the influence of these changes on the traditional role of the Swiss power hub as a switching point between the grids in Switzerland, Germany and France. The role of the international 'switchyard' in Laufenburg, Switzerland, is discussed. The increasing commercial, socio-economical and regulatory demands placed on a modern distribution system are discussed. Developments in the European Union with respect to new super-grids and the consequences for Switzerland are examined. Swiss involvement in the development of new networks and their operation is discussed

  12. Swiss chard: a salad crop for the space program

    Logendra, Logan S.; Gilrain, Matthew R.; Gianfagna, Thomas J.; Janes, Harry W.

    2002-01-01

    Salad greens will be among the first crops grown on lunar or planetary space stations. Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important candidate salad crop because it is high yielding and rich in vitamins and minerals. Five Swiss chard cultivars were grown in the greenhouse under two light levels for 13 weeks to compare cumulative yields from weekly harvests, mineral composition, and to evaluate sensory attributes as a salad green. The varieties Large White Ribbed (LWR) and Lucullus (LUC) were the highest yielding in both light regimes. LWR was the shortest of the cultivars requiring the least vertical space. LWR also received the highest sensory ratings of the five cultivars. LWR Swiss chard should be considered as an initial test variety in food production modules.

  13. Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission - Annual report 2008

    This annual report presents a review of the activities carried out by the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission CORE in the year 2008. Main points of interest were the definition of a new CORE vision, a review of all research programmes, co-operation and co-ordination with public and private institutes, active consultancy, recommendations for further education and training, improved international information exchange and good communication with business, politics and the general public. The definition of a concept for Swiss energy research for the period 2012 to 2016 is mentioned. The annual report also reports on an internal visit made to various laboratories of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne and the Energy Center in Zurich. The focussing of CORE activities on particular themes is discussed

  14. Szekeres Swiss-Cheese model and supernova observations

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    We use different particular classes of axially symmetric Szekeres Swiss-cheese models for the study of the apparent dimming of the supernovae of type Ia. We compare the results with those obtained in the corresponding Lemaitre--Tolman Swiss-cheese models. Although the quantitative picture is different the qualitative results are comparable, i.e, one cannot fully explain the dimming of the supernovae using small scale ~50 Mpc inhomogeneities. To fit successfully the data we need structures of at least ~500 Mpc size. However, this result might be an artifact due to the use of axial light rays in axially symmetric models. Anyhow, this work is a first step in trying to use Szekeres Swiss-cheese models in cosmology and it will be followed by the study of more physical models with still less symmetry.

  15. Swiss nuclear industry in a mood of awakening - conference report

    The 'nuclea' meeting of the Swiss Nuclear Forum with the focus on 'The Future of Nuclear Power in the Energy Mix' was held on the premises of the Swiss Leibstadt nuclear power station in late October. The electricity gap is a reality; the underlying facts are known by now, but this does not make them any less threatening and worrying. This is one of the key findings of the meeting. Experience over the past 3 decades has confirmed the close link between the gross domestic product and electricity consumption. Separating economic growth from the electricity requirement had remained wishful thinking. Consequently, the replacement and expansion of existing generating capacities had to take into account that nuclear power, among other things, met the stringent requirements with respect to climate protection and continuity of supply. There was agreement at 'nuclea' about nuclear power remaining an indispensable component in the energy mix for Swiss electricity supply. (orig.)

  16. Annotation of glycoproteins in the SWISS-PROT database.

    Jung, E; Veuthey, A L; Gasteiger, E; Bairoch, A

    2001-02-01

    SWISS-PROT is a protein sequence database, which aims to be nonredundant, fully annotated and highly cross-referenced. Most eukaryotic gene products undergo co- and/or post-translational modifications, and these need to be included in the database in order to describe the mature protein. SWISS-PROT includes information on many types of different protein modifications. As glycosylation is the most common type of post-translational protein modification, we are currently placing an emphasis on annotation of protein glycosylation in SWISS-PROT. Information on the position of the sugar within the polypeptide chain, the reducing terminal linkage as well as additional information on biological function of the sugar is included in the database. In this paper we describe how we account for the different types of protein glycosylation, namely N-linked glycosylation, O-linked glycosylation, proteoglycans, C-linked glycosylation and the attachment of glycosyl-phosphatidylinosital anchors to proteins. PMID:11680872

  17. A scenario planning approach for disasters on Swiss road network

    Mendes, G. A.; Axhausen, K. W.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-05-01

    We study a vehicular traffic scenario on Swiss roads in an emergency situation, calculating how sequentially roads block due to excessive traffic load until global collapse (gridlock) occurs and in this way displays the fragilities of the system. We used a database from Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung which contains length and maximum allowed speed of all roads in Switzerland. The present work could be interesting for government agencies in planning and managing for emergency logistics for a country or a big city. The model used to generate the flux on the Swiss road network was proposed by Mendes et al. [Physica A 391, 362 (2012)]. It is based on the conservation of the number of vehicles and allows for an easy and fast way to follow the formation of traffic jams in large systems. We also analyze the difference between a nonlinear and a linear model and the distribution of fluxes on the Swiss road.

  18. Importância do camundongo mdx na fisiopatologia da distrofia muscular de Duchenne The importance of mdx mouse in the pathophysiology of Duchenne's muscular distrophy

    Sandra Lopes Seixas

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available O camundongo mdx desenvolve distrofia muscular recessiva ligada ao cromossoma X (locus Xp21.1 e não expressa distrofina. Embora não apresente intensa fibrose do tecido muscular e acúmulo de tecido adiposo, é considerado o modelo animal mais adequado da distrofia muscular de Duchenne. As alterações estruturais no tecido muscular associadas à mionecrose e presença do infiltrado inflamatório com predomínio de linfócitos e monócitos/macrófagos sugerem uma participação do sistema imunológico nesta miopatia. Além disso a modulação na expressão dos componentes da matriz extracelular no microambiente muscular nas várias fases da doença (início, mionecrose, regeneração indicam um papel importante do conjuntivo no direcionamento das células inflamatórias para o foco da lesão muscular. O camundongo mdx coloca-se como um excelente modelo para o estudo dos mecanismos patogenéticos da mionecrose e regeneração na distrofia muscular de Duchenne, possibilitando inclusive o desenvolvimento de estratégias terapêuticas mais adequadas.The mdx mouse develop an X-linked recessive muscular dystrophy (locus Xp21.1 and lack dystrophin expression. Despite showing less intense myofibrosis and scarce deposition of fatty tissue, mdx mice are considered an adequate animal model for studies on the pathogenesis of Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy. Marked histological alterations in the muscular tissues associated to myonecrosis and inflammatory mononuclear cell infiltrate (lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages suggest a participation of the immune system in this myopathy. Modulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM components in the muscular tissue during all phases (onset, myonecrosis and regeneration of disease, indicate an important role for the ECM driving inflammatory cells to the foci of lesion. Therefore mdx mice should be regarded as an important tool for studies on pathogenetic mechanisms of Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy. Such experimental model would allow development of new therapeutic approaches for increasing survival and clinical amelioration.

  19. Ligia Grischa: A Successful Swiss Colony on the Dakota Territory Frontier

    Quinn, Todd; Benedict, Karl; Dickey, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    In 1877 a small group of Swiss immigrants from the Graubunden canton formed a cooperative with another Swiss group in Stillwater, Minnesota, to begin a colony in eastern South Dakota. These settlers founded the Badus Swiss colony on the open prairie in Lake County, Dakota Territory (later South Dakota), based on cooperative rules written in

  20. SwissProt search result - KOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search ... Image Search ... Home About Archive Update History Contact us KOME SwissPro ... t search ... result Data detail Data name SwissProt search ... resu ... lt Description of data contents Results of blastx search es against the Swiss-Prot database Data file File n ...

  1. The Swiss vote to curb immigration, and what it means for Europe

    Schwok, René

    2014-01-01

    On February 9, Swiss voters narrowly approved the reintroduction of quotas on immigration, damaging Swiss-EU relations in the process. Why did the Swiss vote this way? Does it have anything to do with Robin Hood? And will this impact on the EU membership debate in the UK?

  2. Dialect Effects in Speech Perception: The Role of Vowel Duration in Parisian French and Swiss French

    Miller, Joanne L.; Mondini, Michele; Grosjean, Francois; Dommergues, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    The current experiments examined how native Parisian French and native Swiss French listeners use vowel duration in perceiving the /[openo]/-/o/ contrast. In both Parisian and Swiss French /o/ is longer than /[openo]/, but the difference is relatively large in Swiss French and quite small in Parisian French. In Experiment 1 we found a parallel

  3. Terapia celular em doenças pulmonares: existem perspectivas?

    João T. Ribeiro-Paes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A terapia celular poderia ser conceituada de forma ampla e genérica como o emprego de células para tratamento de doenças. Apesar de um número não tão expressivo de relatos tendo o pulmão como objeto de estudo na terapia celular em pacientes humanos, há dados consistentes da literatura, tanto em humanos, quanto em modelos animais,que evidenciam a migração de células-tronco da medula óssea para o pulmão,em diferentes situações experimentais. Esses resultados forneceram o embasamento experimental para o emprego de células-tronco na regeneração do tecido pulmonar em modelos animais. Em nosso laboratório, vários projetos de pesquisa têm sido conduzidos com a finalidade de avaliar a resposta pulmonar (morfológica e funcional ao tratamento com células-tronco adultas em camundongos com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC induzida experimentalmente. Os resultados obtidos, aliados àqueles de outros grupos de pesquisa, permitem aventar a possibilidade de aplicação, a curto prazo, da terapia celular em pacientes com DPOC. Em outra patologia pulmonar, fibrose cística (FC, cuja abordagem terapêutica com células-tronco apresenta aspectos particulares em relação às patologias pulmonares crônico-degenerativas, há avanços promissores e potencialmente interessantes; no entanto, os resultados podem ser considerados incipientes e deve-se assinalar, portanto, que a associação da terapia gênica e celular apresenta-se como uma alternativa possível, mas ainda muito distante quanto à sua consolidação e incorporação como opção terapêutica segura e eficaz em FC. Por outro lado, tendo por embasamento os resultados obtidos em modelos experimentais, é possível postular que a terapia celular com células-tronco hematopoéticas (ou de outras fontes encerra perspectivas consistentes de aplicação em diversas outras patologias pulmonares humanas, especialmente em DPOC.

  4. SWISS-MODEL: an automated protein homology-modeling server

    Schwede, Torsten; Kopp, Jürgen; Guex, Nicolas; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2003-01-01

    SWISS-MODEL (http://swissmodel.expasy.org) is a server for automated comparative modeling of three-dimensional (3D) protein structures. It pioneered the field of automated modeling starting in 1993 and is the most widely-used free web-based automated modeling facility today. In 2002 the server computed 120 000 user requests for 3D protein models. SWISS-MODEL provides several levels of user interaction through its World Wide Web interface: in the ‘first approach mode’ only an amino acid sequen...

  5. Selling quality at Laatukoru Oy: Introduction to Swiss watches

    Sangi, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was commissioned by Laatukoru Oy and the objective was to make a guide for new sales personnel to familiarize them with the selling of Swiss watches. The need for the guide and this thesis became obvious when the author worked at the commissioning company for a few months. There was an introductory guide for the way the company works, but nothing to study in depth the second most important product group that the company sells besides diamonds, i.e. Swiss watches. Because...

  6. The Swiss geological survey in the service of society

    This article takes a look at the work of the Swiss geological survey, which, since 1930, has been working on 1:25,000-scale geological maps which now cover two thirds of the country. These activities are now integrated in the scope of 'swisstopo', who not only produce the maps but also manage the rock laboratory at Mont Terri: Here, together with international partners, research on the suitability of Opalinus clay for nuclear waste repositories is being assessed. The article looks at the organisation of the Swiss geological survey and the various services it offers in the areas of geological information services, data, maps as well as rock laboratories and repositories

  7. The Swiss biotech referendum: A case study of science communication

    On June 7 , 1998, the Swiss citizens voted on a constitutional amendment, which could have jeopardised the future of biotechnological research in Switzerland. Scientists and opinion leaders around the world expected the referendum with great anxiety. 'Nature', in an editorial, had firmly stated that the Swiss way showed 'how not to run a country', the 'Economist', a week prior to the referendum, had written that the Swiss might be the only people in the world who decided on their own to forego a world class position in scientific research. In fact, the Swiss did none of that. They rejected the constitutional amendment with an overwhelming majority of 67 per cent of the votes, and what started out as a dramatic threat to scientific research in Switzerland became a platform in favour of modern biotechnology. The presentation addresses some of the key features of the Swiss biotech campaign, analyses the success factors of the campaign, provides an insight in the most in-depth collection of data on public perception of biotechnology in the world, and draws conclusions as to what extent the Swiss experience can be of use in the way to communicate on modem science. The result of the Swiss referendum has convincingly shown that successful communication of modem science is possible if - scientists, authorities, and the industry accept the challenge to cope with the demands of communicating with the public at large, - there is a clear understanding that the public's needs may often be based on psychological rather than on logic scientific reasons, - all participants in the dialogue are willing to forego scientific jargon for clear understandable language, i.e. understand that it is hardly the public's fault if messages do not get across, - everybody accepts that dialogue, information, and education on modem science is a long-haul task. The Swiss biotech referendum was seen as a major threat to Switzerland as a leading country of scientific research. However, something which many people inside and outside Switzerland expected with trepidation because of the possible spillover effect into other European countries, turned out to provide the most convincing case study of successful communication on modem science. What appeared to be a major threat provided a platform for strong public endorsement of genetic research in Switzerland

  8. What next after the rejection of Swiss electricity market legislation?

    This article discusses the situation in Switzerland after the rejection of new legislation on the liberalisation of the Swiss electricity market (Electricity Market Law, EMG) in a public vote in September 2002. The problems thus posed and the possibilities for further action available to those involved and affected are discussed. The legal situation after the rejection of the EMG is discussed with respect to Swiss regional structures and cantonal regulations. Three possible scenarios are discussed - the status quo, a solution to be provided by the electricity business or a Federal decree. The possibilities open to electricity enterprises for optimisation and the realisation of synergies to increase efficiency and competitiveness are discussed

  9. Impact of flavor attributes on consumer liking of Swiss cheese.

    Liggett, R E; Drake, M A; Delwiche, J F

    2008-02-01

    Although Swiss cheese is growing in popularity, no research has examined what flavor characteristics consumers desire in Swiss cheese, which was the main objective of this study. To this end, a large group of commercially available Swiss-type cheeses (10 domestic Swiss cheeses, 4 domestic Baby Swiss cheeses, and one imported Swiss Emmenthal) were assessed both by 12 trained panelists for flavor and feeling factors and by 101 consumers for overall liking. In addition, a separate panel of 24 consumers rated the same cheeses for dissimilarity. On the basis of liking ratings, the 101 consumers were segmented by cluster analysis into 2 groups: nondistinguishers (n = 40) and varying responders (n = 61). Partial least squares regression, a statistical modeling technique that relates 2 data sets (in this case, a set of descriptive analysis data and a set of consumer liking data), was used to determine which flavor attributes assessed by the trained panel were important variables in overall liking of the cheeses for the varying responders. The model explained 93% of the liking variance on 3 normally distributed components and had 49% predictability. Diacetyl, whey, milk fat, and umami were found to be drivers of liking, whereas cabbage, cooked, and vinegar were drivers of disliking. Nutty flavor was not particularly important to liking and it was present in only 2 of the cheeses. The dissimilarity ratings were combined with the liking ratings of both segments and analyzed by probabilistic multidimensional scaling. The ideals of each segment completely overlapped, with the variance of the varying responders being smaller than the variance of the non-distinguishers. This model indicated that the Baby Swiss cheeses were closer to the consumers' ideals than were the other cheeses. Taken together, the 2 models suggest that the partial least squares regression failed to capture one or more attributes that contribute to consumer acceptance, although the descriptive analysis of flavor and feeling factors was able to account for 93% of the variance in the liking ratings. These findings indicate the flavor characteristics Swiss cheese producers should optimize, and minimize, to create cheeses that best match consumer desires. PMID:18218732

  10. Current status of the SWISS-2DPAGE database.

    Hoogland, C; Sanchez, J C; Tonella, L; Bairoch, A; Hochstrasser, D F; Appel, R D

    1998-01-01

    The SWISS-2DPAGE database (http: //www.expasy.ch/ch2d/ch2d-top.html ) consists of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis images, as well as textual descriptions of the proteins that have been identified on them. The current release contains 15 reference maps from human biological samples, as well as from Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Escherichia coli and Dictyostelium discoideum origin. These reference maps have 2088 identified spots, corresponding to 410 separate protein entries in the database, in addition to virtual entries for each SWISS-PROT sequence. PMID:9399867

  11. Swiss Electricity Utility Axpo invests 5 billion Swiss Franks in Safety of Supply

    This article discusses the results of a study made on behalf of the Swiss electricity utility Axpo. The study, entitled 'Power Perspectives for the year 2020' shows that safety of supply in 2020 can only be guaranteed by a mix of power generation facilities that includes electricity generated from the newer forms of renewable energy, hydropower, nuclear power and fossil fuels. The danger of a 'power gap' that, according to the authors, will affect Switzerland by 2020 should be countered in good time. The article discusses the power requirements in Switzerland using various scenarios and comments on an increasing shortage of supply that is to be expected. Limits set by cost considerations are looked at and the carbon dioxide question is discussed in connection with the mix between renewable energy and fossil-fuel-powered power stations proposed. The situation in Europe is also discussed and world-wide developments are reviewed

  12. Botulismo tipo C em perus em Minas Gerais, Brasil Type C botulism in turkeys in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O botulismo uma intoxicao causada pela ingesto das toxinas produzidas pelo Clostridium botulinum, que acomete mamferos e aves e caracterizado por um quadro de paralisia flcida. Neste trabalho, descrito um surto de botulismo em perus, ocorrido no municpio de Santa Luzia, regio metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Os animais apresentavam incoordenao motora, paralisia flcida das patas, asas e pescoo. Em um intervalo de 24 horas, todos os 29 animais do plantel vieram a bito. Na necropsia, observou-se a presena de larvas de mosca no inglvio. Nos soros coletados, foi identificada a toxina botulnica tipo C pelo teste de soroneutraliza??o em camundongos.Botulism is an intoxication caused by the ingestion of toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. It affects mammals and birds, and is characterized by flaccid paralysis of the limbs. This report describes an outbreak of botulism in turkeys of various ages in the city of Santa Luzia, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The animals showed incoordination followed by flaccid paralysis involving the muscles of the legs, wings and neck. Within 24 hours, all 29 (100% turkeys died. The post-mortem examination revealed the presence of fly larvae in the crop and the C. botulinum type C toxin was demonstrated in the sera of two affected animals by serum neutralization test.

  13. CWC: A Swiss Retrospective and Perspective (OPCW)

    A world without Weapons of Mass Destruction - this is the vision of SPIEZ LABORATORY, Switzerland. As the federal establishment for NBC defense, it deals with the protection from nuclear, biological, and chemical threats and risks, as well as with the technical aspects of arms control and disarmament of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (NBC weapons). Now on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), it is the right time to look back on the achievements of the OPCW and on how a small country like Switzerland can support an international organization such as the OPCW on its way to a world free of chemical weapons. SPIEZ LABORATORY was involved in the negotiations during the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva which in turn led to the CWC. Switzerland in general and SPIEZ LABORATORY in particular, have played an active role in different areas relevant to the CWC, all in order to get closer to a world without Weapons of Mass Destruction. The support of the OPCW and different Member States covered fundamental parts of the Convention such as, chemical weapon destruction (financial contribution and analytical work) and the implementation of Article VII obligations (declaration support, information and experience exchange). In addition, Switzerland and SPIEZ LABORATORY still have an important role in assistance and protection. Switzerland submitted a proposal for the delivery of protective equipment to the OPCW and is also active in capacity building courses like CITPRO or SEFLAB. The support in the field of international cooperation and assistance is expressed by numerous internships in SPIEZ LABORATORY and in the Swiss industry. In order to support the operability of the OPCW, SPIEZ LABORATORY participates in inspector training modules (basic modules, mock inspections) and delivers on a regular basis reference chemicals and analytical data (by now 2/3 of all the data has been inputted into the OPCW Central Analytical Database) of scheduled chemicals, as well as their degradation products. As one of 19 designated laboratories it is ready to analyse samples and evaluate analytical results on behalf of the OPCW. Despite the remarkable success story of the Chemical Weapons Convention and the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, there are still challenges to overcome in the future. The final deadlines for CW destruction, the optimisation of the verification and compliance activities, the full implementation of Article VII obligations, the scientific and technological developments (new toxic chemicals, new production technologies, non-lethal weapons), data and information management within the OPCW and terrorism still have to be achieved.(author)

  14. Mutagenicity Evaluation of Irradiated Indian Mackerel in Swiss Mice. Dominant Lethal Assay and Micronucleus Test

    To evaluate the potential mutagenic effects of irradiated (150 krad) Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) in somatic and germ cells of mice, a micronucleus test and dominant lethal assay were employed. Four to five-weeks-old Swiss male mice were randomly assigned to four groups. Two groups were fed irradiated or unirradiated mackerel at 35% level dry weight for 16 weeks. Twenty males from each group were used for dominant lethal assay. The males in the positive control group were given 200 mg/kg of ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) intraperitoneally about 24 hours before pairing with the females. The number of dead implantations (deciduomas and dead embryos) showed no significant difference among the groups fed on stock rations or irradiated or unirradiated mackerel diets at any stage of the test period. There was also no increase in the pre-implantation or total lethality. As expected, EMS-treated mice showed a highly significant increase in the dead implantation rates and a reduction of the live implantations during the postmeiotic phase of spermatogenesis. For micronucleus tests mackerel diets and stock rations were continued for a period of 21 weeks. The positive control group mice were given 80 mg/kg hycanthone methane sulphonate, intraperitoneally twice, 30 and 6 h before killing. Animals fed on irradiated or unirradiated mackerel diets or stock rations showed no significant differences either in the frequency of micronuclei or the ratio of polychromatic to normochromatic cells. (author)

  15. Mutagenicity evaluation of irradiated Indian mackerel in Swiss mice. Dominant lethal assay and micronucleus test

    To evaluate the potential mutagenic effects of irradiated (150 krad) Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) in somatic and germ cells of mice, a micronucleus test and dominant lethal assay were employed. Four to five-weeks-old Swiss male mice were randomly assigned to four groups. Two groups were fed irradiated or unirradiated mackerel at 35% level dry weight for 16 weeks. Twenty males from each group were used for dominant lethal assay. The males in the positive control group were given 200 mg/kg of ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) intraperitoneally about 24 hours before pairing with the females. The number of dead implantations (deciduomas and dead embryos) showed no significant difference among the groups fed on stock rations or irradiated or unirradiated mackerel diets at any stage of the test period. There was also no increase in the pre-implantation or total lethality. As expected, EMS-treated mice showed a highly significant increase in the dead implantation rates and a reduction of the live implantations during the postmeiotic phase of spermatogenesis. For micronucleus tests mackerel diets and stock rations were continued for a period of 21 weeks. The positive control group mice were given 80 mg/kg hycanthone methane sulphonate, intraperitoneally twice, 30 and 6 h before killing. Animals fed on irradiated or unirradiated mackerel diets or stock rations showed no significant differences either in the frequency of micronuclei or the ratio of polychromatic to normochromatic cells. (author)

  16. History of heat pumps - Swiss contributions and international milestones

    Zogg, M.

    2008-05-15

    Compared to conventional boilers, heating by heat pumps cuts down fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions to about 50%. Compared to electric resistance heating, the energy consumption is even reduced up to 80%. Therefore, the impressive market penetration growth of heat pumps will continue. Swiss pioneers were the first to realize functioning vapour recompression plants. The first European heat pumps were realized in Switzerland. To date it remains one of the heat pump champions. Swiss pioneering work in the development of borehole heat exchangers, sewage heat recovery, oil free piston compressors and turbo compressors is well known. The biggest heat pump ever built comes from Switzerland. Although there is a fairly comprehensive natural gas distribution grid, 75% of the new single-family homes built in Switzerland are currently heated by heat pumps. This paper presents some of the highlights of this success story focusing on Swiss developments and relating them to the international milestones. In order to indicate the direction in which the future development might go to, some recent Swiss research projects are presented as well. (author)

  17. Patterns of Strategies in Swiss Higher Education Institutions

    Fumasoli, Tatiana; Lepori, Benedetto

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to the debate on strategic capability of academic organizations by presenting three case studies of Swiss Higher Education Institutions. Strategies are conceived as instruments by which universities manage their organizational processes and deal with their environments in order to select a portfolio of activities and find an

  18. Genomic inbreeding and relationships among Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss

    Genomic measures of relationship and inbreeding within and across breeds were compared with pedigree measures using genotypes for 43,385 loci of 25,219 Holsteins, 3,068 Jerseys, and 872 Brown Swiss. Adjustment factors were estimated for means and regressions of genomic on pedigree relationships, for...

  19. Swiss Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes toward Forest Education

    Lindemann-Matthies, Petra; Knecht, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates benefits and challenges of forest education in view of 257 Swiss elementary school teachers (1st-3rd grade), by means of a written questionnaire and 15 in-depth interviews. Two thirds of the teachers carried out forest education during normal lesson hours (mean visits = eight per year). Forests were clearly considered as

  20. Wind energy and Swiss hydro power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec, Consulting fuer Energiewirtschaft und -technik GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft (IAEW), RWTH, Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the possibilities of using Switzerland's hydropower generation facilities as a means of control and as a capacity-reserve for a European power system that includes a considerable amount of wind-generated electricity. The aims of the study - the analysis of possible changes in power availability and of the relative importance of peak load compensation, economic optimisation potential for the use of Swiss hydropower and organisational aspects - are presented. Various methods for organising production timetables and trading are looked at, as are future developments in the European power market. Methods of assessment of the value of Swiss hydropower installations are discussed in detail and possibilities of increasing capacity are discussed. The report is concluded with recommendations on the participation of Swiss hydropower in the market for regulation energy and the development of associated strategies. Also, environmental aspects are examined and the influence of national wind-energy concepts are discussed.

  1. MESSAGE TO MEMBERS OF THE PERSONNEL OF SWISS NATIONALITY

    Legal Service

    2002-01-01

    15 November 2002 Reimbursement of Swiss income tax The Swiss authorities have introduced a new system of taxation with effect from this year onwards. The main feature of this new system is that the tax year henceforth coincides with the year in which income is earned. One major practical consequence is that Swiss members of the personnel will receive a provisional income tax demand that must be settled by the date shown; however, the final income tax demand will not be sent until up to several months later. Hitherto, the CERN Administration only recognised this final demand as proof of payment for the reimbursement of Swiss income tax. In view of the delay the new procedure will generate between the settlement of the provisional demand and receipt of the final demand, and to avoid members of the personnel having to bear the cost of an advance payment, the CERN Administration has decided to align its reimbursement procedure with the new system of taxation. In future, the provisional income tax demand will also...

  2. Effect of carbon monoxide on Swiss albino mice

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. These values are compared to values reported in the literature. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was 3570 ppm CO.

  3. New Swiss legislation on nuclear third party liability

    Following a description of the Paris Convention and Brussels Supplementary Convention system for nuclear third party liability and that prevailing until now in Switzerland, the paper reviews the new Swiss nuclear third party liability Bill prepared after a popular consultation. The new provisions are analysed and in particular, that providing for unlimited liability. (NEA)

  4. Experimentally induced intravaginal Tritrichomonas foetus infection in a mouse model Infeco experimental intravaginal com Tritricho-monas foetus em modelo camundongo

    Pedro Soto; Hilda Mara Echevarra; Cristina Esther Monteavaro; Mara del Carmen Catena

    2005-01-01

    The interest to develop research on the host-parasite relationship in bovine tritrichomonosis has accomplished the use of experimental models alternative to cattle. The BALB/c mouse became the most appropriate species susceptible to vaginal Tritrichomonas foetus infection requiring previous estrogenization. For the need of an experimental model without persistent estrogenization and with normal estrous cycles, the establishment and persistence of vaginal infection on BALB/c mouse with differe...

  5. Action of the schistosomotic spleen in male mices on the regulation of thyroid hormones; Possivel influencia do baco esquistossomotico em camundongos machos na modulacao dos hormonios tireotroficos

    Neves, S.R.S.; Silva, I.M.S.; Pereira, S.S.L.; Lima Filho, G.L.; Catanho, M.T.J.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Neves, E.S.; Silveira, M.F.G. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Anatomia

    1997-12-01

    For the purpose to study the action of the schistosomotic spleen on the regulation of TSH, T4 and albumin levels in serum, spleens from adults mice infected by Schistosoma mansoni were homogeneized, centrifuged and cromatographed in a column of Sephadex G-100, resulting in two proteans fractions (I and II). The biologic activity was determinated through the administration of the fractions by intraperitoneal way (IP), in male mice aged 27-30 days, in a period of three following days. Five days after the last administration, the animals were sacrified and their blood was collected for obtainment of serum and determination of TSH, T4 and albumin levels. Obtained results showed that the albumin levels no change when compared to control and that fraction I infected change the TSH and T4 levels, but the fraction II infected no change this levels. These results suggest that spleens from mice infected by S. mansoni have a factor that modifies the hormonal regulation in level hypophysial and the synthesis of thyroid hormones (T4), changing the basal metabolism. The seric levels of TSH and T4 were determined by radioimmunoassay using I-125. (author). 12 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Effect of passiflora quadrangularis extracts on the technetium-99m biodistribution in mice; Efeito de extratos do maracuja-acu na biodistribuicao do tecnecio-99m em camundongos

    Bezerra, A.L.; Souza, G.M.L.; Nascimento, E.V.; Carvalho, E.B.; Catanho, M.T.J.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica] E-mail: mariajansem@hotmail.com

    2002-07-01

    Medicinal plants have been evaluated and their effect on the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals are very important. This work aims to evaluate the interaction of extracts of Passiflora quadrangularis on the biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc in mice (Mus musculus). The animals were submitted to brief treatment with aqueous (G1) and hydroalcoholic 10% (G2) extracts. Control animals received saline solution 0.9% (n=5). The reaction {sup 99m}Tc (3.7 MBq) in the presence of stannous chloride and extracts was incubated for 10 minute, then it was injected (ip way) in mice. At the end of 30 minutes, animals were sacrificed for removal of organs and 0.5 mL of blood, which were counted in gamma counter. The percentage of {sup 99m}Tc-binding was calculated in relation to the weight of each organ. The results show a reduction on right and left kidneys in the presence of aqueous extract at about 26.74%, and more significant reduction in the presence of hydroalcoholic 10% extract at about 72.81%. the trachea presents a binding capacity to {sup 99m}Tc in order of 263.5% in the presence of aqueous extract. These results demonstrate that {sup 99m}Tc presents affinity to some organs and that the extract of Passiflora quadrangularis is able to alter this labeling. Therefore, more attention has been given to diagnoses with pharmaceutical compounds labeled with radioisotopes. (author)

  7. White tea (Camellia sinensis) extract reduces oxidative stress and triacylglycerols in obese mice Extrato de chá branco reduz extresse oxidativo e triacilglicerois em camundongos obesos

    Lílian Gonçalves Teixeira; Priscilla Ceci Lages; Tatianna Lemos Jascolka; Edenil Costa Aguilar; Fabíola Lacerda Pires Soares; Solange Silveira Pereira; Nathalia Ribeiro Mota Beltrão; Rafael de Oliveira Matoso; André Márcio do Nascimento; Rachel Oliveira de Castilho; Jacqueline Isaura Alvarez Leite

    2012-01-01

    White tea is an unfermented tea made from young shoots of Camellia sinensis protected from sunlight to avoid polyphenol degradation. Although its levels of catechins are higher than those of green tea (derived from the same plant), there are no studies addressing the relationship between this tea and obesity associated with oxidative stress.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of white tea on obesity and its complications using a diet induced obesity model. Forty male C57BL/...

  8. Automatically extracting functionally equivalent proteins from SwissProt

    Martin Andrew CR

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a frequent need to obtain sets of functionally equivalent homologous proteins (FEPs from different species. While it is usually the case that orthology implies functional equivalence, this is not always true; therefore datasets of orthologous proteins are not appropriate. The information relevant to extracting FEPs is contained in databanks such as UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and a manual analysis of these data allow FEPs to be extracted on a one-off basis. However there has been no resource allowing the easy, automatic extraction of groups of FEPs – for example, all instances of protein C. We have developed FOSTA, an automatically generated database of FEPs annotated as having the same function in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot which can be used for large-scale analysis. The method builds a candidate list of homologues and filters out functionally diverged proteins on the basis of functional annotations using a simple text mining approach. Results Large scale evaluation of our FEP extraction method is difficult as there is no gold-standard dataset against which the method can be benchmarked. However, a manual analysis of five protein families confirmed a high level of performance. A more extensive comparison with two manually verified functional equivalence datasets also demonstrated very good performance. Conclusion In summary, FOSTA provides an automated analysis of annotations in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot to enable groups of proteins already annotated as functionally equivalent, to be extracted. Our results demonstrate that the vast majority of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot functional annotations are of high quality, and that FOSTA can interpret annotations successfully. Where FOSTA is not successful, we are able to highlight inconsistencies in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot annotation. Most of these would have presented equal difficulties for manual interpretation of annotations. We discuss limitations and possible future extensions to FOSTA, and recommend changes to the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot format, which would facilitate text-mining of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.

  9. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1994

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    In 1994 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their highest-ever combined annual output. Their contribution to total electricity generation in the country was 36%. At Muehleberg the power uprate, undertaken in 1993, was effective for the first time for an entire year. The larger capacity of the new steam generators installed in 1993 in unit 1 of the Beznau NPP allows for an electric output of 103% of nominal power. The plant efficiency of the Goesgen and Leibstadt units was increased by replacing the low pressure turbines by the new ones with a modern design. The application for a power uprate of the Leibstadt reactor is still pending. For the first time in Switzerland, one of the reactor units, Beznau 2, operated on an extended cycle of one and a half years, with no refuelling outage in 1994. In spite of the replacements of two of its three low pressure turbines, Goesgen had the shortest refuelling shutdown since the start of commercial operation. The average number of reactor scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. Re-inspection of crack indications detected in 1990 in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor revealed no significant changes. A crack indication was found in one of the other welds inspected. The Swiss government issued a limited operating licence for Beznau 2 for the next ten years, i.e. until the end of 2004. The only other unit with a limited operating licence (until 2003) is Muehleberg. The remaining three reactor units, have no time limits on their operating licences, in accordance with the Atomic Law. Goesgen is the first Swiss nuclear power plant having now produced more than 100 billion kWh. As from January 1, 1995, the nominal net power of the largest Swiss reactor unit, Leibstadt, has been fixed at 1030 MW; that of the Goesgen NPP has been increased by 25 MW to 965 MW. (author) figs., tabs.

  10. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1994

    In 1994 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their highest-ever combined annual output. Their contribution to total electricity generation in the country was 36%. At Muehleberg the power uprate, undertaken in 1993, was effective for the first time for an entire year. The larger capacity of the new steam generators installed in 1993 in unit 1 of the Beznau NPP allows for an electric output of 103% of nominal power. The plant efficiency of the Goesgen and Leibstadt units was increased by replacing the low pressure turbines by the new ones with a modern design. The application for a power uprate of the Leibstadt reactor is still pending. For the first time in Switzerland, one of the reactor units, Beznau 2, operated on an extended cycle of one and a half years, with no refuelling outage in 1994. In spite of the replacements of two of its three low pressure turbines, Goesgen had the shortest refuelling shutdown since the start of commercial operation. The average number of reactor scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. Re-inspection of crack indications detected in 1990 in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor revealed no significant changes. A crack indication was found in one of the other welds inspected. The Swiss government issued a limited operating licence for Beznau 2 for the next ten years, i.e. until the end of 2004. The only other unit with a limited operating licence (until 2003) is Muehleberg. The remaining three reactor units, have no time limits on their operating licences, in accordance with the Atomic Law. Goesgen is the first Swiss nuclear power plant having now produced more than 100 billion kWh. As from January 1, 1995, the nominal net power of the largest Swiss reactor unit, Leibstadt, has been fixed at 1030 MW; that of the Goesgen NPP has been increased by 25 MW to 965 MW. (author) figs., tabs

  11. Viability and infectivity analysis of Toxoplasma gondii under axenic conditions =Análise da viabilidade e infectividade de taquizoítas de Toxoplasma gondii em condições axênicas

    FerreiradaSilva, Marialice Fonseca et al.

    2010-01-01

    Objetivos: investigar a infectividade e a viabilidade de formas taquizoítas de Toxoplasma gondii mantidas em meio axênico. Métodos: taquizoítos de Toxoplasma gondii foram isolados de camundongos infectados, ressuspensos em tampão fosfato-salino pH 7,2 ou tampão fosfato-salino pH 7,2 mais soro fetal bovino a 10% ou 20% e incubados por 24 e 48 horas a 37ºC em atmosfera contendo 5% de CO2. A seguir os parasitos foram: (i) incubados com iodeto de propídio e analisados por citometria de fluxo u...

  12. Resposta imune produzida por vacinas anti-rábicas em sagüis (Callithrix sp

    Andrade Márcia Cristina Ribeiro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando avaliar a resposta imunológica produzida por vacinas anti-rábicas em primatas não humanos neotropicais, trinta sagüis (Callithrix sp foram divididos em cinco grupos de seis indivíduos e submetidos a cinco diferentes esquemas de vacinação anti-rábica, utilizando-se duas vacinas animais distintas existentes no mercado. A primeira produzida em cérebro de camundongos lactentes (Fuenzalida e Palacios, e a segunda, em cultura de células NIL-2. Acompanhamento sorológico pós-vacinal foi realizado periodicamente. Os resultados mostraram que a vacina Fuenzalida e Palacios não foi eficaz para a proteção dos animais, utilizando-se uma única dose ou mesmo com o reforço. Porém, os sagüis apresentaram anticorpos detectáveis, ao adotar-se o esquema semelhante ao de pré-exposição indicado para os seres humanos, e apenas um animal contraiu raiva após o desafio viral. Por outro lado, a vacina produzida em cultura de células NIL-2 produziu elevados títulos de anticorpos em todos os animais imunizados e todos os animais resistiram ao desafio viral.

  13. Botulismo tipo C em ganso ocorrido em Minas Gerais, Brasil Type C botulism in a goose at Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Botulismo uma intoxicao causada pela ingesto das toxinas produzidas pelo Clostridium botulinum, que acomete mamferos e aves, caracterizando-se por um quadro de paralisia flcida. Neste trabalho, descrito um caso de botulismo em ganso, ocorrido no municpio de Santa Luzia, regio metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, no Estado de Minas Gerais. Ao exame clnico, o animal apresentava-se com um quadro de paralisia flcida dos msculos do pescoo, das pernas e asas, alm de apresentar ainda desprendimento de penas. A necropsia no revelou leses significativas. Foi colhido o soro do animal e submetido ao teste de soroneutralizao em camundongo, que identificou a toxina de C. botulinum tipo C.Botulism is an intoxication caused by the ingestion of toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, that affects mammals and birds, characterized by a flaceid paralysis. This report describes a case of botulism in a goose in Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Clinical examinations showed dropping feathers and flaccid paralysis involving the muscles of the wings, legs and neck. post-mortem examination showed no significant gross or macroscopic lesions C. botulinum type C toxin was demonstrated in the serum of the affected animal through serum neutralization test in mice.

  14. Localization of Bmp-4, Shh and Wnt-5a transcripts during early mice tooth development by in situ hybridization Localização de transcritos de Bmp-4, Shh e Wnt-5a durante as fases iniciais do desenvolvimento dentário de camundongos por hibridização in situ

    Fábio Daumas Nunes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative nonisotopic in situ hybridization (ISH analysis was carried out for the detection of Bmp-4, Shh and Wnt-5a transcripts during mice odontogenesis from initiation to cap stage. Bmp-4 was expressed early in the epithelium and then in the underlying mesenchyme. Shh expression was seen in the odontogenic epithelial lining thickening, being stronger in the enamel knot area, during the cap stage. Wnt-5a transcripts were expressed only in the mesenchyme during the initiation, bud and cap stages, with strong expression in the dental mesenchyme during the bud stage. The present results showed that Bmp-4, Shh and Wnt-5a are expressed since the very early stages of tooth development, and they suggest that the Wnt-5a gene is expressed in different cell populations than Bmp-4 and Shh.No presente trabalho, realizou-se uma análise comparativa não isotópica por hibridização in situ a fim de se detectar a presença de transcritos de Bmp-4, Shh e Wnt-5a durante as fases iniciais da odontogênese em camundongos, desde a iniciação até o estágio de capuz. No estágio de iniciação, observou-se expressão precoce de Bmp-4 no epitélio e no mesênquima subjacente, enquanto que a expressão de Shh ocorreu durante o estágio de capuz, na região de espessamento do revestimento epitelial odontogênico, tornando-se mais intensa na área de nó do esmalte. Os transcritos de Wnt-5a foram expressos somente no mesênquima durante os estágios de iniciação, botão e capuz, com intenso sinal na região no mesênquima na fase de botão. Estes resultados mostraram que Bmp-4, Shh e Wnt-5a são expressos desde os estágios mais precoces do desenvolvimento dentário, sugerindo que o gene Wnt-5a seja expresso em populações celulares distintas daquelas que expressam Bmp-4 e Shh.

  15. Associação de betabloqueadores e treinamento físico na insuficiência cardíaca de camundongos Asociación de betabloqueantes y entrenamiento físico en la insuficiencia cardíaca de ratones Association of physical training with beta-blockers in heart failure in mice

    Andréa Somolanji Vanzelli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O tratamento da insuficiência cardíaca (IC conta atualmente com diversos tipos de intervenções. Dentre elas, destacam-se a terapia com betabloqueadores (BB e o treinamento físico (TF. Contudo, os efeitos da associação dessas terapias são pouco estudados. OBJETIVO: Verificar os efeitos do tratamento com BB, metoprolol (M e carvedilol (C associados ao TF na IC em camundongos. MÉTODOS: Utilizamos modelo genético de IC induzida em camundongos por hiperatividade simpática. Inicialmente, dividimos os animais com IC em: sedentários (S; treinados (T; tratados com M (138 mg/kg (M ou C (65 mg/kg (C. Na segunda parte, dividimos os grupos em S; treinado e tratado com M (MT e treinado e tratado com C (CT. O TF consistiu em treinamento aeróbico em esteira por 8 semanas. A tolerância ao esforço foi avaliada por teste progressivo máximo e a fração de encurtamento foi avaliada (FE por ecocardiografia. O diâmetro dos cardiomiócitos e a fração de colágeno foram avaliados por meio de análise histológica. Os dados foram comparados por ANOVA de um caminho com post hoc de Duncan. O nível de significância foi considerado p FUNDAMENTO: El tratamiento de la insuficiencia cardiaca (IC cuenta actualmente con diversos tipos de intervenciones. De entre ellas podemos destacar la terapia con betabloqueantes (BB y el entrenamiento físico (EF. Con todo, los efectos de la asociación de estas terapias son poco estudiados. OBJETIVO: Verificar los efectos del tratamiento con BB, metoprolol (M y carvedilol (C asociados al EF en la IC en ratones. MÉTODOS: Utilizamos modelo genético de IC inducida en ratones por hiperactividad simpática. Inicialmente, dividimos los animales con IC en: sedentarios (S; entrenados (E; tratados con M (138 mg/kg (M o C (65 mg/kg (C. En la segunda parte, dividimos los grupos en S; entrenado y tratado con M (ME y entrenado y tratado con C (CE. El EF consistió en entrenamiento aeróbico en estera por 8 semanas. La tolerancia al esfuerzo se evaluó por prueba progresivo máxima y la fracción de acortamiento se evaluó (FE por ecocardiografía. El diámetro de los cardiomiocitos y la fracción de colágeno fueron evaluados por medio de análisis histológico. Los dados fueron comparados por ANOVA de un camino con post hoc de Duncan. El nivel de significancia se consideró como p BACKGROUND: Currently there are several types of interventions for the treatment of heart failure (HF. Among these are beta-blocker therapy (BB and physical training (PT. However, the effects of the combination of these therapies are poorly studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of BB treatment with metoprolol (M and carvedilol (C associated with PT in mice with HF. METHODS: We used a genetic model of sympathetic hyperactivity-induced heart failure in mice. Initially, we divided the HF animals into three groups: sedentary (S; trained (T; treated with M (138 mg/kg (M; or C (65 mg/kg (C. In the second part, we divided the groups into three subgroups: sedentary (S; trained and treated with M (TM; and trained and treated with C (CT. The PT consisted of aerobic training on a treadmill for 8 weeks. Exercise tolerance was assessed by maximal graded test, and fractional shortening (FS was assessed by echocardiography. Cardiomyocyte diameter and collagen volume fraction were evaluated by histological analysis. Data were compared by one way ANOVA and post hoc Duncan test. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: As to FS and cardiac remodeling, we found that, in isolation, T, M, and C showed an improvement of the variables analyzed. As to therapy combination, after the intervention period, we observed an increase in exercise tolerance in MT and CT (43.0% and 33.0% respectively. There was also a reduction in cardiomyocyte diameter (10.0% and 9.0% respectively and in collagen volume fraction (52.0% and 63.0% after the intervention. However, only CT significantly improved FS. CONCLUSION: The association of PT with M or C therapies provided benefits on cardiac function and remodeling in HF mice.

  16. Intracorporeal Lithotripsy for Ureteral Calculi Using Swiss Lithoclast : SKIMS Experience

    Arif Hamid, M. Saleem Wani, B. S. Wazir

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available At present the techniques available for performing intracorporeal lithotripsy include electrohydraulic,ultrasonic, laser, and ballistic lithotripsy. We present our experience with a unique technology forperforming intracorporeal lithotripsy, namely the Swiss lithoclast, which is a form of ballistic lithotripsy.This simple and inexpensive device uses compressed air to activate a solid probe in a manner similarto that of a jackhammer. We report the use of this lithoclast in 92 patients involving a total of 95ureteral calculi. The lithoclast successfully fragmented 81 of the 95 calculi, a success rate of 85.26%.There were no major complications directly related to the use of this device. The Swiss lithoclastseems to be a safe, effective and an inexpensive means of performing intracorporeal lithotripsy forureteral calculi

  17. The Materials Science beamline upgrade at the Swiss Light Source

    The wiggler X-ray source of the Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been replaced with a 14 mm-period cryogenically cooled in-vacuum undulator. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics have been redesigned. The Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been operational since 2001. In late 2010, the original wiggler source was replaced with a novel insertion device, which allows unprecedented access to high photon energies from an undulator installed in a medium-energy storage ring. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics had to be redesigned. In this work, the upgrade of the beamline is described in detail. The tone is didactic, from which it is hoped the reader can adapt the concepts and ideas to his or her needs

  18. Isotopes in the water cycle. A new Swiss network

    Isotopes of the water molecule (deuterium, oxygen-18 and tritium) are important tracers to investigate environmental processes. Long term world wide measurements since 1961, coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have proved the usefulness for hydrological and climatological studies. Here, we present results of a pilot project of the Swiss Hydrological and Geological survey (Federal Office of Environment, Forests and Landscape) and the Universities of Bern and Lausanne that was started in 1992. Precipitation at 11 stations, river water at 6 stations has been sampled monthly and the concentrations of water isotopes have been determined. These data, which are the Swiss contribution to the international effort, represent indispensable input values for isotope hydrology. Moreover, time series of these data, some of these cover the last 25 years, are now allowing us to investigate more quantitatively potential long term changes in the hydrological cycle. Possibilities and limitations of these data that are publically available will be discussed. (orig.)

  19. Automated annotation of microbial proteomes in SWISS-PROT.

    Gattiker, Alexandre; Michoud, Karine; Rivoire, Catherine; Auchincloss, Andrea H; Coudert, Elisabeth; Lima, Tania; Kersey, Paul; Pagni, Marco; Sigrist, Christian J A; Lachaize, Corinne; Veuthey, Anne Lise; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Bairoch, Amos

    2003-02-01

    Large-scale sequencing of prokaryotic genomes demands the automation of certain annotation tasks currently manually performed in the production of the SWISS-PROT protein knowledgebase. The HAMAP project, or 'High-quality Automated and Manual Annotation of microbial Proteomes', aims to integrate manual and automatic annotation methods in order to enhance the speed of the curation process while preserving the quality of the database annotation. Automatic annotation is only applied to entries that belong to manually defined orthologous families and to entries with no identifiable similarities (ORFans). Many checks are enforced in order to prevent the propagation of wrong annotation and to spot problematic cases, which are channelled to manual curation. The results of this annotation are integrated in SWISS-PROT, and a website is provided at http://www.expasy.org/sprot/hamap/. PMID:12798039

  20. Swiss Alpine snow variability and large scale flow patterns

    Scherrer, S. C.; Appenzeller, C.

    2003-04-01

    Swiss Alpine snow cover is varying considerably on interannual and decadal time scales. In this study a homogeneous snow data set was used to discuss the role of large scale flow patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in explaining the observed variability. The dominant patterns of snow variability were determined by a principal component analysis (PCA). Winter (DJF) new snow sums were analysed at 82 stations for the period 1958-2000. The leading mode is almost uniform over the entire Swiss area and explains more than half of the total variability (55%). This indicates that the primary interannual snow variability in Switzerland is either a winter with large or small snow pack, independent of sub-region. The second mode (14%) clearly distinguishes between the Northern and Southern slope of the Alpine ridge. A comparison with an independent Swiss winter precipitation study revealed similarities in the leading patterns. The link between large scale flow patterns and Swiss Alpine snow was analysed using a correlation analysis and a Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) approach. The correlation analysis suggests only a modest direct influence of the NAO. The SVD analysis showed a more complex influence. The sea level pressure covariability with DJF new snow is again dominated by one single mode (79% of squared covariance fraction (SCF) and 35% of the total variance). The corresponding snow pattern is comparable to the leading PCA pattern. It is linked to cyclonic (anticyclonic) flow directly over the Alps and is characterised by a hemispheric pressure structure with an NAO-like dipole. Although the snow patterns were only moderately correlated with the NAO index, the evolution of the pressure patterns now shows a highly significant correlation coefficient on the order of 0.8. The second coupled mode has a SCF of 10% and its temporal variability is significantly correlated with the Scandinavian and NAO pattern and shows a distinct dipole with different signs of snow anomalies north and south of the Alpine ridge.

  1. Integration of teacher education into the Swiss higher education system

    Denzler S.

    2014-01-01

    The integration of specific institutions for teacher education into the higher education system represents a milestone in the Swiss educational policy and has broad implications. This thesis explores organizational and institutional change resulting from this policy reform, and attempts to assess structural change in terms of differentiation and convergence within the system of higher education. Key issues that are dealt with are, on the one hand, the adoption of a research function by the ne...

  2. Price Setting in a Leading Swiss Online Supermarket

    Martin Berka; Devereux, Michael B.; Thomas Rudolph

    2011-01-01

    We study a newly released data set of scanner prices for food products in a large Swiss online supermarket. We find that average prices change about every two months, but when we exclude temporary sales, prices are extremely sticky, changing on average once every three years. Non-sale price behavior is broadly consistent with menu cost models of sticky prices. When we focus specifically on the behavior of sale prices, however, we find that the characteristics of price adjustment s...

  3. Swiss university students attitudes toward pharmacological cognitive enhancement

    Maier, Larissa J.; Liakoni, Evangelia; Schildmann, Jan; Schaub, Michael P; Liechti, Matthias E

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) refers to the nonmedical use of prescription or recreational drugs to enhance cognitive performance. Several concerns about PCE have been raised in the public. The aim of the present study was to investigate students attitudes toward PCE. Students at three Swiss universities were invited by e-mail to participate in a web-based survey. Of the 29,282 students who were contacted, 3,056 participated. Of these students, 22% indicated that they had used ...

  4. Swiss University Students Attitudes toward Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement

    Maier, Larissa J.; Liakoni, Evangelia; Schildmann, Jan; Schaub, Michael P; Liechti, Matthias E

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) refers to the nonmedical use of prescription or recreational drugs to enhance cognitive performance. Several concerns about PCE have been raised in the public. The aim of the present study was to investigate students attitudes toward PCE. Students at three Swiss universities were invited by e-mail to participate in a web-based survey. Of the 29,282 students who were contacted, 3,056 participated. Of these students, 22% indicated that they had used ...

  5. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1993

    In 1993 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their third highest combined annual output. The contribution to the total electricity generation in the country was close to 37%. Replacement of the steam generators in Beznau Unit 1 resulted in a longer than usual annual outage. For the other four units the availability figures were close to, or exceeded, those of previous years. The energy utilization was, however, lowered due to load reduction in autumn resulting from unusually high production by the hydro-electric power plants. The steam generator replacement at Beznau enabled an increase in electrical power of about 2% without increase in reactor power. With the approval of the Swiss government in December 1992, the output of the Muehleberg power plant was increased in two stages by a total of 10%. The application for an unlimited operating license for Beznau Unit 2, and for a power uprate at the Leibstadt power plant, are still pending. The average number of scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. As a result of experience in the Swedish nuclear power plant at Barsebaeck, the suction strainers of the emergency core cooling systems of the boiling water reactors at Muehleberg and Leibstadt were replaced by strainers with larger surface areas. The re-inspection of crack indications previously detected in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor and the penetration tubes in the reactor pressure vessel closure head of Beznau revealed no growth during the intervening operating periods. Following the completion of installation activities during the annual outages at Beznau Unit 1, Goesgen and Leibstadt, all Swiss nuclear power plants are now equipped with filtered containment venting systems. (author) figs., tabs

  6. The slow transformation of Swiss federal administrative elites

    Emery Y.; Giauque D.; Rebmann F.

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out to study the profile of Swiss administrative elites at federal level by showing how their profile has evolved in the light of what has come to be known as the wave of New Public Management (NPM), which has benefited from a very fertile ground in Switzerland. These elites correspond to a specific institutional order, in relation to specific organizational structures and workings, and have specific characteristics in terms of career paths and academic background. However, ...

  7. The Performance of Actively and Passively Managed Swiss Equity Funds

    Manuel Ammann; Michael Steiner

    2009-01-01

    Using a Switzerland-specific Carhart model, we study the risk-adjusted performance of actively and passively managed mutual funds investing in Swiss stocks from 1989 to 2007. We also compare the performance of actively managed funds to passively managed funds instead of comparing them to a theoretical index. For a sample of 160 funds with 13’672 monthly observations we find that active as well as passive funds significantly underperform indices on an aggregated basis. However, active large-ca...

  8. European Data Watch - Swiss Unemployment Insurance Micro Data

    Heidi Steiger; Jonathan Gast; Michael Lechner

    2004-01-01

    Administrative data of the unemployment insurance system in Switzerland have been made available by the Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (seco) for specific research purposes. They contain rich information about unemployed and job seekers. The records are linked to social security data. The combination of the two sources leads to a very rich database. This paper describes the data as well as some administrative procedures generating it.

  9. Switzerland Committed to Innovation. The Swiss Network of Technology

    Konrade von Bremen; Maya Zllig; Georg von Below; Felix Gurtner; Christoph Knzli; Sergio Bellucci; Pedro Koch

    2005-01-01

    Switzerland showed its commitment to innovation in health care since the early 80th, implementing agencies and government units with the mission to promote and to appropriately govern innovation. The Swiss Network of Technology Assessment (SNHTA) was founded in 1998.

    The aim is the promotion and implementation of Health Technology Assessment projects in Switzerland by providing a neutral forum for the identification and the pursuit of common interests. This includes...

  10. The regulatory burden in the Swiss wealth management industry

    Buehrer, Christian; Hubli, Ivo; Marti, Eliane

    2005-01-01

    [Introduction] In the recent past, regulatory costs have received a great deal of attention within the Swiss wealth management industry. On the one hand, financial institutions are intensifying their focus on cost management in general, due to the plunge of fees and commissions since the bubble burst on global equity markets. On the other hand, wealth management institutes are faced with rapidly increasing regulatory requirements, leading to a significant rise in their regulatory costs. Neith...

  11. Insertion devices at the Swiss Light Source (phase I)

    The insertion devices under construction for phase I of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) are described. Five undulators and one wiggler will be installed in four straight sections of the third generation 2.4 GeV SLS storage ring, under construction at the Paul Scherrer Institute. To provide undulator radiation in the energy range from 10 eV to 18 keV, both long period and short period, small gap undulators will be installed

  12. Preliminary acute toxicity study on imidacloprid in Swiss albino mice

    Preeti Bagri; Vinod Kumar,; Anil Kumar Sikka; Joginder Singh Punia

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To ascertain the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and to investigate the acute oral toxic effects of imidacloprid towards Swiss albino male mice.Materials and Methods: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined in pilot dose range finding study following the standard method. Animals were observed for toxic signs and symptoms after oral administration of MTD of imidacloprid in single dose. The body weights of animals were recorded on alternate day. Animals were sacrificed on 14th day and changes ...

  13. ANTICONVULSANT ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA IN SWISS ALBINO MICE

    Anu Elizabeth Joy; Padmini Thalanjeri; Shyamjith Manikkoth

    2015-01-01

    Objectives : The aim of the study was to investigate anticonvulsant effect of Moringa oleifera on maximal electroshock (MES), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and pilocarpine induced seizures. Methods : The ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (200mg/ Kg) was used to study its anticonvulsant effect on MES, PTZ and pilocarpine induced seizures in Swiss albino mice. Suppression of the tonic hind limb extension, duration of convulsion, abolition of convulsions was noted respectively for the abov...

  14. Timing of LGM and deglaciation in the Southern Swiss Alps

    Scapozza, Cristian; Castelletti, Claudio; Soma, Linda; Dall’Agnolo, Stephan; Ambrosi, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Detailed mapping of Quaternary formations in Southern Switzerland (Mendrisiotto and neighbouring regions in Italy) and a compilation of radiocarbon dating make it possible to reconstruct the geometry and chronology of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the Southern Swiss Alps. A detailed chronostratigraphy of the main recessional stadials during the Lateglacial and beginning of the Holocene can also be obtained. The defined glacial stadials were correlated with the NGRIP Greenland isotopic rec...

  15. Interest Rate Setting on the Swiss Franc Repo Market

    Sébastien Kraenzlin

    2009-01-01

    Repurchase agreements (repos) are secured money market transactions. The cash taker provides collateral in the form of securities and in return receives money from the cash provider. To ensure the continuous covering of the cash amount, the definition of eligible collateral, its handling and valuation play an important role. This is mainly because the collateral nearly eliminates credit risk. In Switzerland, Swiss franc repos are almost exclusively conducted via the highly standardized repo p...

  16. Basel III D: Swiss Finish to Basel III

    Christian M. McNamara; Natalia Tente; Andrew Metrick

    2014-01-01

    After the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) introduced the Basel III framework in 2010, individual countries confronted the question of how best to implement the framework given their unique circumstances.  Switzerland, with a banking industry that is both heavily concentrated and very large relative to the size of its overall economy, faced a special challenge.  It ultimately adopted what is sometimes referred to as the “Swiss Finish” to Basel III – enhanced requirements applicab...

  17. Sustainability assessment of GM crops in a Swiss agricultural context

    Speiser, Bernhard; Stolze, Matthias; Oehen, Bernadette, B.; Gessler, Cesare; Weibel, Franco; Bravin, Esther; Kilchenmann, Adeline; Widmer, Albert; Charles, Raffael; Lang, Andreas; Stamm, Christian; Triloff, Peter; Tamm, Lucius

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an ex ante assessment of the sustainability of genetically modified (GM) crops under the agricultural conditions prevailing in Switzerland. The study addressed the gaps in our knowledge relating to (1) the agronomic risks/benefits in production systems under Swiss conditions (at field and rotation/orchard level), (2) the economic and socio-economic impacts associated with altered farming systems, and (3) the agro-ecological risks/benefits of GM crops (at f...

  18. Excessive lead burden among golden eagles in the Swiss Alps

    Madry, Milena M; Kraemer, Thomas; Kupper, Jacqueline; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Jenny, Hannes; Jenni, Lukas; Jenny, David

    2015-01-01

    Fragments from lead ammunition pose a poisoning risk for predators like golden eagles that scavenge on non-retrieved carcasses or offal left behind by hunters. Three golden eagles were found in the Swiss Alps with an acute lead poisoning. To investigate whether the few cases of lead-poisoned golden eagles are exceptional events or whether a substantial proportion of the Alpine golden eagle population is affected by lead at sublethal levels, we measured body burdens in golden eagles from Switz...

  19. Swiss-Prot: juggling between evolution and stability.

    Bairoch, Amos; Boeckmann, Brigitte; Ferro, Serenella; Gasteiger, Elisabeth

    2004-03-01

    We describe some of the aspects of Swiss-Prot that make it unique, explain what are the developments we believe to be necessary for the database to continue to play its role as a focal point of protein knowledge, and provide advice pertinent to the development of high-quality knowledge resources on one aspect or the other of the life sciences. PMID:15153305

  20. 8th Swiss National Photovoltaics Congress. Conference proceedings

    These congress proceedings contain the presentations made at the two-day 8th Swiss National Photovoltaics Conference held in Winterthur, Switzerland, in February 2010. The presentations were grouped into six sessions. The first session dealt with promotional activities for photovoltaics (PV) in Switzerland. The presentations dealt with the present state of PV promotion, the cantonal support program in Basle and the Swiss photovoltaics market in a global context. The session was rounded off with a podium discussion on the Swiss cost-covering remuneration system for solar power. This theme was looked at in more detail in the second session of the conference; successes and hindrances in the system were discussed as well as an example of an alternative solar power 'exchange'. The third session looked at building-integration of PV systems; facade and roof integration and the use of flexible solar cells were discussed. The second day of the conference featured three further sessions. The first session dealt with transfer of know-how from research institutes to industry. A general overview was presented and specific examples of successful know-how transfer were reported on. The next session dealt with the great challenges presented by the efforts being made to expand the use of PV. Safety aspects were discussed, as were the certified testing of modules, mains integration and the training of personnel involved with the implementation of PV systems. The final session looked at the scenarios, perspectives and visions for Swiss and European PV business. PV systems were examined from the point of view of the semiconductor business, European energy planning, the role of PV in future energy supply and the roles of customers, investors and politics on the way to a renewable future.

  1. Diagnosis and isolation of Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Brazilian slaughterhouses Diagnóstico e isolamento de Toxoplasma gondii em equídeos de frigoríficos brasileiros

    Fernanda Evers

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and to isolate the parasite from the brains of horses processed at slaughterhouses in Brazil. We collected brain and blood samples from 398 horses of various ages, from six Brazilian states. Serum samples were evaluated by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT cut-off titre ≥ 1:64, and brains were submitted to mouse bioassay. Among the 398 horses, positivity for T. gondii was identified in 46 (11.6% by IFAT and in 14 (3.5% by mouse bioassay. In 12 of those 14 bioassays, mice were positive only by IFAT (cut-off titre ≥ 1:16, T. gondii being isolated in the remaining two. Using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis of 18S rDNA to differentiate among T. gondii, Neospora caninum, and Sarcocystis neurona, we found that two of the 14 brains were positive for T. gondii only. For genotyping of the two isolates and the PCR-positive brain, we performed PCR-RFLP based on 13 markers, and SAG2 all samples were Toxoplasma gondii type I. Collectively, IFAT of horse sera and mouse bioassay identified positivity in 60 (15% of the samples. Our results show that some horses sent to slaughter in Brazil have been exposed to T. gondii.O objetivo do estudo foi investigar anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii e isolar o parasita do cérebro de equídeos abatidos em matadouros-frigoríficos no Brasil. Colheram-se amostras de 398 cérebros e sangue de equídeos machos e fêmeas de idades variadas, provenientes de seis estados brasileiros. As amostras de soro foram avaliadas pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI para T. gondii (ponto de corte ≥ 64, e os fragmentos de cérebros foram submetidos ao bioensaio em camundongos. Por meio da IFI, 46 (11,6% equídeos foram soropositivos. Pelo bioensaio em camundongos, 14 (3,5% cérebros de equídeos testados foram positivos. Em doze dos bioensaios, os camundongos foram positivos somente pela IFI (ponto de corte ≥ 16 e T. gondii foi isolado nos outros dois bioensaios. A PCR-RFLP com base em 18S rDNA para diferenciar entre T. gondii, Neospora caninum, e Sarcocystis neurona foram feitas em todos os 14 cérebros e dois foram positivos apenas para T. gondii. De dois isolados positivos para T. gondii e do cérebro positivo à PCR em que realizou-se a PCR-RFLP, com base em 13 marcadores e SAG2, a genotipagem mostrou ser o T. gondii tipo I para todas as amostras. A IFI de soros de equídeos e do bioensaio em camundongos identificaram positividade em 60 (15% amostras testadas. Os resultados mostram que alguns cavalos enviados para abate foram expostos ao T. gondii.

  2. Enterotoxigenicidade de cepas de Aeromonas sp. isoladas em diferentes pontos do fluxograma de abate bovino

    Rossi Júnior O.D.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar a capacidade enterotoxigênica de cepas de Aeromonas sp. isoladas em diferentes produtos e locais no fluxograma de abate bovino, foram testadas 102 cepas (18 da espécie A. hydrophila, 65 da espécie A. caviae e 19 atípicas ante os testes de inoculação intragástrica em camundongo lactente e em alça intestinal ligada de coelho. Revelaram-se como produtoras de enterotoxinas três (16,7% cepas da espécie A. hydrophila, originárias das mãos do manipulador antes que ele iniciasse seus trabalhos e da carne desossada pronta para o consumo, e uma (1,5% da espécie A. caviae, também isolada das mãos. Os resultados são preocupantes pela presença de cepas enterotoxigênicas de bactérias do gênero Aeromonas em indústria de alto nível higiênico-sanitário.

  3. Swiss popular initiative for a single health insurer… once again!

    De Pietro, Carlo; Crivelli, Luca

    2015-07-01

    The article describes a recent Swiss popular initiative, aiming to replace the current system of statutory health insurance run by 61 competing private insurers with a new system run by a single public insurer. Despite the rejection of the initiative by 62% of voters in late September 2014, the campaign and ballot results are interesting because they show the importance of (effective) public communication in shaping the outcome of a popular ballot. The relevance of the Swiss case goes beyond the peculiarities of its federalism and direct democracy and might be useful for other countries debating the pros and cons of national unitary health insurance systems versus models using multiple insurers. After this electoral ballot, the project to establish a public sickness fund in Switzerland seems definitely stopped, at least for the next decade. Insurers, who opposed the initiative, have effectively fed the "fear of change" of the population and have stressed the good outcomes of the Swiss healthcare system. However, the political pressure favoured by the popular initiative opened a "windows of opportunity" and led the federal Parliament to pass a stricter regulation of health insurers, improving in this way the current system. PMID:26004844

  4. Switzerland Committed to Innovation. The Swiss Network of Technology

    Konrade von Bremen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Switzerland showed its commitment to innovation in health ca