WorldWideScience

Sample records for electronic excitation transfer

  1. Electronic excitation transfer in concentrated micelle solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electronic excitation transport among interacting clusters of chromophores is investigated as a function of chromophores is investigated as a function of chromophore and cluster concentration. The technique of time-correlated single photon counting is employed to obtain time-resolved fluorescence depolarization data on aqueous octadecylrhodamine B/triton X-100 micelle solutions. The time-dependent fluorescence anisotropy, the energy transport observable, is directly compared to a theory developed to model this system. The theory is based on a first-order cumulant approximation to the solution of the transport master equation. The model depicts the micelles as monodisperse hard spheres with chromophores (octadecylrhodamine B) distributed about their surfaces. At low micelle concentration, the dynamics of excitation transfer depend only on internal micelle structure. At high micelle concentration excitation transfer occurs among chromophores on different micelles in addition to intramicelle transfer. The theoretical treatment provides nearly quantitative descriptions of the time and concentration dependence of the excitation transport. It correctly predicts the concentration at which intermicelle transfer becomes significant. In the low micelle concentration limit (energy transport confined to isolated micelles) the model having a Poisson distribution of chromophores works well for small ? ([chromophores]/[micelle]), but progressively worse as ? is increased. Following the literature, a chromophere interaction parameter (in the form of a two dimensional second virial coefficient) is used to skew the probe distribution. This enables the transport theory to reproduce the data for all the values of ? investigated and provides a determination of the second virial coefficient. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Charge and Excitation Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotr Piotrowiak

    2004-09-28

    We report the and/or state of several subprojects of our DOE sponsored research on Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Electron and Excitation Transfer: (1) Construction of an ultrafast Ti:sapphire amplifier. (2) Mediation of electronic interactions in host-guest molecules. (3) Theoretical models of electrolytes in weakly polar media. (4) Symmetry effects in intramolecular excitation transfer.

  3. Electron transfer and projectile excitation in single collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of electron transfer (capture) and projectile excitation together in a single encounter are reviewed. This combined capture and excitation can result from either a correlated or an uncorrelated interaction. The correlated process is referred to as resonant transfer and excitation (RTE), while the uncorrelated process is called nonresonant transfer and excitation (NTE). RTE is analogous to dielectronic recombination (DR) which occurs in the interaction between an ion and a free electron. Experimental and theoretical works leading to establishing the existence of RTE are reviewed as well as considerations relevant to distinguishing RTE from NTE. The dependences of RTE on projectile atomic number (14 ≤ Z ≤ 23) for Li-like ions, and on projectile charge state for H-like to Ne-like ions have been measured and compared with theory. The effect of the target electron momentum distribution on RTE has been demonstrated by comparing measurements for H2 and He targets. Measurements of RTE involving L-shell excitation have been conducted and compared with K-shell results. All of the measured RTE cross sections to date for H2 and He targets are in reasonable agreement with calculations based on theoretical DR cross sections averaged over the target electron momentum distribution; however, systematic discrepancies between experiment and theory exist. Additionally, is has been found that RTE can contribute considerably to total single-electron capture cross sections in the region where RTE is important, accounting for nearly half of the total capture events for calcium ions colliding with H2. (orig.)

  4. [Electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in atomic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental processes of electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in ion-atom and ion-ion collisions are studied. Attention is focussed on one- and two-electron systems and, more recently, quasi-one-electron systems whose electron-target-ion core can be accurately modeled by one-electron potentials. The basic computational approaches can then be taken with few, if any, approximations, and the underlying collisional mechanisms can be more clearly revealed. At intermediate collision energies (e.g., proton energies for p-He+ collisions on the order of 100 kilo-electron volts), many electronic states are strongly coupled during the collision, a coupled-state approach, such as a coupled-Sturmian-pseudostate approach, is appropriate. At higher collision energies (million electron-volt energies) the coupling is weaker with, however, many more states being coupled together, so that high-order perturbation theory is essential

  5. Electron transfer processs with excited molecules at semiconductor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memming, R.

    In the first part of the paper, energy levels used in solid-state physics, in electrochemistry and in photochemistry are introduced and combined in a l- electron energy concept. This is also applied to excited molecules being adsorbed at semiconductor electrodes. On the basis of this concept, theoretical models concerning electron-transfer processes between molecules in their ground and excited state and semiconductor electrodes are then developed. In the last part of the paper, a number of typical results are presented and discussed. It is shown that the primary step is an electron-transfer reaction between an excited molecule and the semiconductor, whereas energy transfer plays only a minor role, which leads mostly to quenching. Most processes can be interpreted on the basis of the theoretical model mentioned above. Various phenomena, such as quantum yield, supersensitization, quenching, and influence of pH and doping of the semiconductor are discussed in detail. Finally, a brief outlook at the applications in solar-energy conversion systems is given.

  6. Electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in atomic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research being carried out at Penn State by Winter and Alston addresses the fundamental processes of electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in ion-atom (and ion-ion) collisions. The focus is on intermediate- and higher-energy collisions, corresponding to proton energies of about 25 kilo-electron-volts (keV) or larger. At intermediate energies, where the transition probabilities are not small, many states must be coupled in a large calculation, while at higher energies, perturbative approaches may be used. Several studies have been carried out in the current three-year period; most of these treat systems with only one or two electrons, so that fewer approximations need be made and the basic collisional mechanisms can be more clearly described

  7. Electronic excitation energy transfer between quasi-zero-dimensional systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Karel; Menšík, Miroslav

    Ostrava : Tanger, 2013. ISBN 978-80-87294-44-4. [International Conference NANOCON 2013 /5./. Brno (CZ), 16.10.2013-18.10.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12236; GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : quantum dots * energy transfer * electron-phonon interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  8. Ensemble density functional theory method correctly describes bond dissociation, excited state electron transfer, and double excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State-averaged (SA) variants of the spin-restricted ensemble-referenced Kohn-Sham (REKS) method, SA-REKS and state-interaction (SI)-SA-REKS, implement ensemble density functional theory for variationally obtaining excitation energies of molecular systems. In this work, the currently existing version of the SA-REKS method, which included only one excited state into the ensemble averaging, is extended by adding more excited states to the averaged energy functional. A general strategy for extension of the REKS-type methods to larger ensembles of ground and excited states is outlined and implemented in extended versions of the SA-REKS and SI-SA-REKS methods. The newly developed methods are tested in the calculation of several excited states of ground-state multi-reference systems, such as dissociating hydrogen molecule, and excited states of donoracceptor molecular systems. For hydrogen molecule, the new method correctly reproduces the distance dependence of the lowest excited state energies and describes an avoided crossing between the doubly excited and singly excited states. For bithiopheneperylenediimide stacked complex, the SI-SA-REKS method correctly describes crossing between the locally excited state and the charge transfer excited state and yields vertical excitation energies in good agreement with the ab initio wavefunction methods

  9. Coherence, energy and charge transfers in de-excitation pathways of electronic excited state of biomolecules in photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Malik, F. Bary

    2013-01-01

    The observed multiple de-excitation pathways of photo-absorbed electronic excited state in the peridinin–chlorophyll complex, involving both energy and charge transfers among its constituents, are analyzed using the bio-Auger (B-A) theory. It is also shown that the usually used F......¨orster–Dexter theory, which does not allow for charge transfer, is a special case of B-A theory. The latter could, under appropriate circumstances, lead to excimers....

  10. Concerted electron-proton transfer in the optical excitation of hydrogen-bonded dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westlake, Brittany C.; Brennaman, Kyle M; Concepcion, Javier J; Paul, Jared J.; Bettis, Stephanie E; Hampton, Shaun D; Miller, Stephen A.; Lebedeva, Natalia V.; Forbes, Malcolm D. E.; Moran, Andrew M.; Meyer, Thomas J.; Papanikolas, John M.

    2011-05-24

    The simultaneous, concerted transfer of electrons and protonselectron-proton transfer (EPT)is an important mechanism utilized in chemistry and biology to avoid high energy intermediates. There are many examples of thermally activated EPT in ground-state reactions and in excited states following photoexcitation and thermal relaxation. Here we report application of ultrafast excitation with absorption and Raman monitoring to detect a photochemically driven EPT process (photo-EPT). In this process, both electrons and protons are transferred during the absorption of a photon. Photo-EPT is induced by intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) excitation of hydrogen-bonded-base adducts with either a coumarin dye or 4-nitro-4'-biphenylphenol. Femtosecond transient absorption spectral measurements following ICT excitation reveal the appearance of two spectroscopically distinct states having different dynamical signatures. One of these states corresponds to a conventional ICT excited state in which the transferring H? is initially associated with the proton donor. Proton transfer to the base (B) then occurs on the picosecond time scale. The other state is an ICT-EPT photoproduct. Upon excitation it forms initially in the nuclear configuration of the ground state by application of the FranckCondon principle. However, due to the change in electronic configuration induced by the transition, excitation is accompanied by proton transfer with the protonated base formed with a highly elongated ?HB bond. Coherent Raman spectroscopy confirms the presence of a vibrational mode corresponding to the protonated base in the optically prepared state.

  11. Use of electron-excitation energy transfer in dye laser active media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodchenkova, V.V.; Reva, M.G.; Akimov, A.I.; Uzhinov, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made of the spectral luminescence and lasing characteristics of two-component dye mixtures, and of the use of electron-excitation energy transfer to improve the laser emission parameters. A considerable increase in the lasing efficiencyu was found on exciting Trypaflavine by energy transfer from coumarin dyes. The use of electron-excitation energy transfer enabled the laser emission spectrum to be broadened. It was found that by varying the energy donor and acceptor concentrations one could produce laser emission of constant intensity in the spectral range between the donor and acceptor lasing regions.

  12. Electronic excitation energy transfer between quasi-zero-dimensional systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Karel; Menšík, Miroslav; Mao, H.

    Tokyo : The Surface Science Society of Japan, 2014, s. 11-17. ISSN 1348-0391. [International Conference on Atomically Controlled Surfaces, Interfaces and Nanostructures /12/ - International Colloquium on Scanning Probe Microscopy /21./. Tsukuba (JP), 04.11.2013-08.11.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12236; GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : quantum dots * energy transfer * electron -phonon interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/result?item1=4&word1=Atomically+Controlled+Surfaces+ AND +kral

  13. Study of intermediates from transition metal excited-state electron-transfer reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M. Z.

    1992-07-01

    Conventional and fast-kinetics techniques of photochemistry, photophysics, radiation chemistry, and electrochemistry were used to study the intermediates involved in transition metal excited-state electron-transfer reactions. These intermediates were excited state of Ru(II) and Cr(III) photosensitizers, their reduced forms, and species formed in reactions of redox quenchers and electron-transfer agents. Of particular concern was the back electron-transfer reaction between the geminate pair formed in the redox quenching of the photosensitizers, and the dependence of its rate on solution medium and temperature in competition with transformation and cage escape processes.

  14. Ab initio study on electron excitation and electron transfer in tryptophan-tyrosine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, ab initio calculation has been performed to evaluate the transition energy of electronic excitation in tryptophan and tyrosine by using semiempirical molecular orbital method AM1 and complete active space self-consistent field method. The solvent effect has been considered by means of the conductor-like screening model. After geometric optimizations of isolated tryptophan and tyrosine, and their corresponding radicals and cations, reaction heat of these electron transfer reactions have been obtained by the means of complete active space self-consistent field method. The transition energies from the ground state, respectively, to the lowest excited state and to the lowest triplet state of these two amino acids are also calculated and compared with the experimentally observed values. The ionization potential and electron affinity are also calculated for tryptophan and tyrosine employing Koopmans' theorem and ab initio calculation. Compared with the experimental measurements, the theoretical results are found satisfactory. Theoretical results give good explanations on the experimental phenomena that N3· can preferably oxide the side chain of tryptophan residue and then the electron transfer from tyrosine residue to tryptophan residue follows in peptides involving tryptophan and tyrosine

  15. Superexchange coupling and electron transfer in globular proteins via polaron excitations

    OpenAIRE

    Chuev, G. N.; Lakhno, V. D.; Ustitnin, M.N.

    1999-01-01

    The polaron approach is used to treat long-range electron transfers between globular proteins. A rate expression for the polaron transfer model is given along with a description of appropriate conditions for its use. Assuming that electrons transfer via a superexchange coupling due to a polaron excitation, we have estimated the distance dependence of the rate constant for the self-exchange reactions between globular proteins in solutions. The distance dependence of the polaron coupling and so...

  16. Excitation of the ligand-to-metal charge transfer band induces electron tunnelling in azurin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldacchini, Chiara [Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, DEB-CNISM, Universit della Tuscia, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy); Institute of Agro-environmental and Forest Biology, National Research Council, I-05010 Porano (Italy); Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore, E-mail: cannistr@unitus.it [Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, DEB-CNISM, Universit della Tuscia, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy)

    2014-03-03

    Optical excitation of azurin blue copper protein immobilized on indium-tin oxide, in resonance with its ligand-to-metal charge transfer absorption band, resulted in a light-induced current tunnelling within the protein milieu. The related electron transport rate is estimated to be about 10{sup 5}?s{sup ?1}. A model based on resonant tunnelling through an azurin excited molecular state is proposed. The capability of controlling electron transfer processes through light pulses opens interesting perspectives for implementation of azurin in bio-nano-opto-electronic devices.

  17. Nonlinear response of metal nanoparticles: Double plasmon excitation and electron transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Shiwu [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Zhongguancun Software Park II, 100094, Beijing (China)

    2015-06-21

    We investigate the dynamical response of a metal nanoparticle and the electron transfer to a molecule near its surface using time-dependent density functional theory. In addition to the linear response of the Mie resonance, double plasmon excitations and a low-frequency charge transfer band emerge and become prominent at high laser intensities. Both modes are nonlinear processes, which are derived from the re-excitation and decay of the primary plasmon mode, respectively. Our results shed light on the localised characters of the plasmon-molecule coupling and hot electron distributions. These findings have general implications to photoinduced phenomena in nanosystems.

  18. New electron energy transfer rates for vibrational excitation of N2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of a study of the electron cooling rate, the production rates of vibrationally excited N2(v, and the production frequency of the N2 vibrational quanta arising from the collisions of electrons with unexcited N2(0 and vibrationally excited N2(1 molecules as functions of the electron temperature. The electron energy transfer rates for vibrational excitation of N2 have been calculated and fit to analytical expressions by use of the revised vibrationally excited N2 cross sections. These new analytical expressions are available to the researcher for quick reference and accurate computer modeling with a minimum of calculations.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure · Thermosphere · Ionosphere · Modeling and forecasting

  19. Excitational energy and photoinduced electron transfer reactions in Ge(IV) corroleporphyrin hetero dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have constructed hetero dimers by utilizing the axial bonding capabilities as well as known oxophilicity of Germanium(IV) ion of Germanium(IV) corroles as basal scaffolding unit and either free-base or ZnII porphyrin at axial position for the first time. Both the hetero dimers have been completely characterized by elemental analysis, UVvisible, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1D and 1H1H COSY) and fluorescence spectroscopies as well as electrochemical methods. The ground state properties indicate that there exists a minimum ?? interactions between the macrocyclic units of these dyads. Excited state properties showed that there is an electronic energy transfer competing photoinduced electron transfer from singlet state of basal metalloid corrole to the axial porphyrin and a photoinduced electron transfer from excited state of axial porphyrin to the ground state of central metalloid corrole are possible. -- Highlights: ? We have constructed hetero dimers based on corroleporphyrin by utilizing axial position of Ge(IV) corrole. There exists mimum ?? interactions between the macrocyclic units. The excited state properties indicate that both excitation energy transfer and photoinduced electron transfer reactions are possible in these hetero dimers

  20. Intermolecular electron transfer from intramolecular excitation and coherent acoustic phonon generation in a hydrogen-bonded charge-transfer solid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rury, Aaron S; Sorenson, Shayne; Dawlaty, Jahan M

    2016-03-14

    Organic materials that produce coherent lattice phonon excitations in response to external stimuli may provide next generation solutions in a wide range of applications. However, for these materials to lead to functional devices in technology, a full understanding of the possible driving forces of coherent lattice phonon generation must be attained. To facilitate the achievement of this goal, we have undertaken an optical spectroscopic study of an organic charge-transfer material formed from the ubiquitous reduction-oxidation pair hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone. Upon pumping this material, known as quinhydrone, on its intermolecular charge transfer resonance as well as an intramolecular resonance of p-benzoquinone, we find sub-cm(-1) oscillations whose dispersion with probe energy resembles that of a coherent acoustic phonon that we argue is coherently excited following changes in the electron density of quinhydrone. Using the dynamical information from these ultrafast pump-probe measurements, we find that the fastest process we can resolve does not change whether we pump quinhydrone at either energy. Electron-phonon coupling from both ultrafast coherent vibrational and steady-state resonance Raman spectroscopies allows us to determine that intramolecular electronic excitation of p-benzoquinone also drives the electron transfer process in quinhydrone. These results demonstrate the wide range of electronic excitations of the parent of molecules found in many functional organic materials that can drive coherent lattice phonon excitations useful for applications in electronics, photonics, and information technology. PMID:26979698

  1. New electron energy transfer and cooling rates by excitation of O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    Full Text Available In this work I present the results of a study of the electron cooling rate, the production rates of vibrationally excited O2, and the production frequency of the O2 vibrational quanta arising from the collisions of electrons with O2 molecules as functions of the electron temperature. The electron energy transfer and cooling rates by vibrational excitation of O2 have been calculated and fitted to analytical expressions by use of the revised vibrationally excited O2 cross sections. These new analytical expressions are available to the researcher for quick reference and accurate computer modeling with a minimum of calculations. It is also shown that the currently accepted rate of electron energy loss associated with rotational transitions in O2 must be decreased by a factor of 13.

  2. Resonant transfer and excitation (RTE) and nonresonant electron transfer and excitation (NTE) in Si11+ on He collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, crossed electron-ion beam experiments, involving 2s-2p or 3s-3p excitations designed to measure the scale for dielectronic recombination (DR) cross sections have been reported. Si11+ ion beams with energies varying from 15-100 MeV are incident on He and Si K X-rays in coincidence with Si10+ ions are recorded so that cross sections can be extracted. At 85 MeV, RTE is the dominant process. Impact parameters dependent models of capture and excitation describe the shape of the NTE feature quite well. The energy dependence of Si K X-ray excitation cross sections is reasonably well described by a semiclassical calculation with a straight line trajectory and screened hydrogenic wavefunctions. The capture cross sections are compared with an impact parameter dependent Bohr-Lindhard model, scaled OBK, and empirical scaling rules. (orig./HSI)

  3. Proton coupled electron transfer from the excited state of a ruthenium(ii) pyridylimidazole complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannwitz, Andrea; Wenger, Oliver S

    2016-04-20

    Proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) from the excited state of [Ru(bpy)2pyimH](2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; pyimH = 2-(2'-pyridyl)imidazole) to N-methyl-4,4'-bipyridinium (monoquat, MQ(+)) was studied. While this complex has been investigated previously, our study is the first to show that the formal bond dissociation free energy (BDFE) of the imidazole-N-H bond decreases from (91 ± 1) kcal mol(-1) in the electronic ground state to (43 ± 5) kcal mol(-1) in the lowest-energetic (3)MLCT excited state. This makes the [Ru(bpy)2pyimH](2+) complex a very strong (formal) hydrogen atom donor even when compared to metal hydride complexes, and this is interesting for light-driven (formal) hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions with a variety of different substrates. Mechanistically, formal HAT between (3)MLCT excited [Ru(bpy)2pyimH](2+) and monoquat in buffered 1 : 1 (v : v) CH3CN/H2O was found to occur via a sequence of reaction steps involving electron transfer from Ru(ii) to MQ(+) coupled to release of the N-H proton to buffer base, followed by protonation of reduced MQ(+) by buffer acid. Our study is relevant in the larger contexts of photoredox catalysis and light-to-chemical energy conversion. PMID:27094541

  4. Photo- and radiation chemical studies of intermediates involved in excited-state electron-transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excited-state inter- and intramolecular electron-transfer reactions lie at the heart of the most photochemical solar energy conversion schemes. The authors research, which has utilized the techniques of continuous and pulsed photolysis and radiolysis, has focused on three general aspects of these reactions involving transition metal coordination complexes and electron donor-acceptor complexes: i) the effect of solution medium on the properties and quenching of the excited states; ii) the control of the quantum yields of formation of redox products; iii) the mechanism by which reduced species interact with water to yield H2 homogeneously and heterogeneously. EDTA is among the most popular sacrificial electron donors used in model systems. Its role is to scavenge the oxidized form of the photosensitizer in order to prevent its rapid reaction with the reduced form of the electron relay species that results from the electron-transfer quenching of the excited photosensitizer. In systems involving MV2+, the radicals resulting from the oxidation of EDTA can eventually lead to the generation of a second equivalent of MV+; the reducing agent is believed to be a radical localized on the carbon atom alpha to the carboxylate group. The reaction of radiolytically-generated OH/H with EDTA produces this radical directly via H-abstraction or indirectly via deprotonation of the carbon atom adjacent to the nitrogen radical site in the oxidized amine moiety; it reduces MV2+ with rate constants of 2.8 x 109, 7.6 x 109, and 8.5 x 106M-1s-1 at pH 12.5, 8.3, and 4.7, respectively. Degradative decarboxylation of EDTA-radicals and their back electron-transfer reactions are enhanced in acidic solution causing the yield of MV+ to be severely diminished

  5. Near-IR excitation transfer and electron transfer in a BF2-chelated dipyrromethane-azadipyrromethane dyad and triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khouly, Mohamed E; Amin, Anu N; Zandler, Melvin E; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; D'Souza, Francis

    2012-04-23

    A molecular dyad and triad, comprised of a known photosensitizer, BF(2)-chelated dipyrromethane (BDP), covalently linked to its structural analog and near-IR emitting sensitizer, BF(2)-chelated tetraarylazadipyrromethane (ADP), have been newly synthesized and the photoinduced energy and electron transfer were examined by femtosecond and nanosecond laser flash photolysis. The structural integrity of the newly synthesized compounds has been established by spectroscopic, electrochemical, and computational methods. The DFT calculations revealed a molecular-clip-type structure for the triad, in which the BDP and ADP entities are separated by about 14 Å with a dihedral angle between the fluorophores of around 70°. Differential pulse voltammetry studies have revealed the redox states, allowing estimation of the energies of the charge-separated states. Such calculations revealed a charge separation from the singlet excited BDP ((1)BDP*) to ADP (BDP(.+)-ADP(.-)) to be energetically favorable in nonpolar toluene and in polar benzonitrile. In addition, the excitation transfer from the singlet BDP to ADP is also envisioned due to good spectral overlap of the BDP emission and ADP absorption spectra. Femtosecond laser flash photolysis studies provided concrete evidence for the occurrence of energy transfer from (1)BDP* to ADP (in benzonitrile and toluene) and electron transfer from BDP to (1)ADP* (in benzonitrile, but not in toluene). The kinetic study of energy transfer was measured by monitoring the rise of the ADP emission and revealed fast energy transfer (ca. 10(11) s(-1)) in these molecular systems. The kinetics of electron transfer via (1)ADP*, measured by monitoring the decay of the singlet ADP at λ=820 nm, revealed a relatively fast charge-separation process from BDP to (1)ADP*. These findings suggest the potential of the examined ADP-BDP molecules to be efficient photosynthetic antenna and reaction center models. PMID:22416038

  6. Bimolecular Excited-State Electron Transfer with Surprisingly Long-Lived Radical Ions

    KAUST Repository

    Alsam, Amani A.

    2015-09-02

    We explored the excited-state interactions of bimolecular, non-covalent systems consisting of cationic poly[(9,9-di(3,3’-N,N’-trimethyl-ammonium) propyl fluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-co-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorenyl-2,7-diyl)] diiodide salt (PFN) and 1,4-dicyanobenzene (DCB) using steady-state and time-resolved techniques, including femto- and nanosecond transient absorption and femtosecond infrared spectroscopies with broadband capabilities. The experimental results demonstrated that photo-induced electron transfer from PFN to DCB occurs on the picosecond time scale, leading to the formation of PFN+• and DCB-• radical ions. Interestingly, real-time observations of the vibrational marker modes on the acceptor side provided direct evidence and insight into the electron transfer process indirectly inferred from UV-Vis experiments. The band narrowing on the picosecond time scale observed on the antisymmetric C-N stretching vibration of the DCB radical anion provides clear experimental evidence that a substantial part of the excess energy is channeled into vibrational modes of the electron transfer product and that the geminate ion pairs dissociate. More importantly, our nanosecond time-resolved data indicate that the charge-separated state is very long lived ( 30 ns) due to the dissociation of the contact radical ion pair into free ions. Finally, the fast electron transfer and slow charge recombination anticipate the current donor−acceptor system with potential applications in organic solar cells.

  7. Transfer of electronic excitation energy between randomly mixed dye molecules in the channels of zeolite L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutkouskaya, Katsiaryna; Calzaferri, Gion

    2006-03-23

    Host-guest materials containing strongly fluorescent donor and acceptor molecules have been prepared. Fine-tuning of the donor to acceptor distance in this material allows beautiful visible and quantitative observation of electronic excitation energy transfer phenomena. Oxonine and pyronine have been used as guest molecules and zeolite L as host. The dyes have been inserted by ion exchange. Stationary state and time-resolved experiments have been carried out with zeolite crystals of 300 and 700 nm size in the dye concentration range of 10(-4) mol/L up to 0.042 mol/L. The fluorescence decay of the donor and the pumping of the acceptor via energy transfer, which can be well observed, became faster with increasing loading. The behavior of the system follows requirements expected for Förster energy transfer material. PMID:16539507

  8. Statistical analysis of electronic excitation processes: Spatial location, compactness, charge transfer, and electron-hole correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasser, Felix; Thomitzni, Benjamin; Bppler, Stefanie A; Wenzel, Jan; Rehn, Dirk R; Wormit, Michael; Dreuw, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    We report the development of a set of excited-state analysis tools that are based on the construction of an effective exciton wavefunction and its statistical analysis in terms of spatial multipole moments. This construction does not only enable the quantification of the spatial location and compactness of the individual hole and electron densities but also correlation phenomena can be analyzed, which makes this procedure particularly useful when excitonic or charge-resonance effects are of interest. The methods are first applied to bianthryl with a focus on elucidating charge-resonance interactions. It is shown how these derive from anticorrelations between the electron and hole quasiparticles, and it is discussed how the resulting variations in state characters affect the excited-state absorption spectrum. As a second example, cytosine is chosen. It is illustrated how the various descriptors vary for valence, Rydberg, and core-excited states, and the possibility of using this information for an automatic characterization of state characters is discussed. PMID:26119286

  9. Laser-assisted ionization-excitation of helium by electron impact at large momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionization of a helium atom by electron impact in the presence of laser radiation is studied theoretically. The kinematic regime of high impact energy and large momentum transfer is considered. The S-matrix of the process is treated within the first Born and binary-encounter approximations. Triple differential cross sections are calculated for the cases when the residual He+ ion is left both in the ground (n=1) and in the first excited (n=2) states in the presence of a laser field with frequency ω = 1.55 eV and intensity I = 5*1011 W/cm2. The laser-assisted cross sections corresponding to n=2 are found to be more sensitive to the electron-electron correlations in helium than the field-free ones. (authors)

  10. Electronic excitation energy transfer from dye-loaded zeolite L monolayers to a semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanrong; Devaux, Andr; Zabala Ruiz, Arantzazu; Calzaferri, Gion

    2006-04-01

    In device engineering, a high degree of supramolecular organisation is required to achieve certain desired macroscopic properties. Dye-loaded zeolite L host-guest materials have been successfully used in the realisation of efficient light-harvesting antenna systems. A new hierarchy of structural order is introduced by arranging the zeolite L crystals into densely packed, oriented monolayers on a substrate. We developed methods to synthesise such monolayers, to fill them with dyes and to terminate them with a luminescent stopcock. By the subsequent insertion of different types of dye molecules in a zeolite L monolayer, the first unidirectional antenna system was realised. Such antenna materials open possibilities for the design of a novel thin layer, silicon based solar cell, where the excitation energy can only migrate in one direction towards the zeolite-semiconductor interface. The electronic excitation energy is then transmitted to the semiconductor by Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) via stopcock molecules attached to the channel ends. Direct transfer of electrons is prevented by an insulating layer. We report here on the UV-VIS absorption as well as NIR luminescence spectroscopy results obtained from such materials.

  11. Dynamics of electron solvation in methanol: Excited state relaxation and generation by charge-transfer-to-solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkins, Madeline H.; Williams, Holly L. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Neumark, Daniel M. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2015-06-21

    The charge-transfer-to-solvent dynamics (CTTS) and excited state relaxation mechanism of the solvated electron in methanol are studied by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy on a liquid methanol microjet by means of two-pulse and three-pulse experiments. In the two-pulse experiment, CTTS excitation is followed by a probe photoejection pulse. The resulting time-evolving photoelectron spectrum reveals multiple time scales characteristic of relaxation and geminate recombination of the initially generated electron which are consistent with prior results from transient absorption. In the three-pulse experiment, the relaxation dynamics of the solvated electron following electronic excitation are measured. The internal conversion lifetime of the excited electron is found to be 130 ± 40 fs, in agreement with extrapolated results from clusters and the non-adiabatic relaxation mechanism.

  12. Resonant transfer excitation: Interference effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interference effects in RTE (Resonant Transfer Excitation) can be studied for low Z projectiles via Auger electrons emitted from highly ionized fast moving projectile ions following collisions with low Z targets. RTE in ion-atom collisions is closely related to dielectronic recombination. In the latter case which is of practical interest to the fusion power program an electron with the proper velocity incident on a highly charged ion is resonantly captured and simultaneously interacts with an inner shell electron to excite it, thus forming a doubly excited state which may decay predominantly by X-ray emission for higher Z ions or by Auger electron decay for lower Z ions. The resonant velocity is that of the Auger electron emitted by the ion in the doubly excited state in RTE the electrons to be captured are in low Z atomic (typically He) or Molecular (typically H2) targets and the ions are produced by accelerators in highly charged states with the appropriate resonant velocity. The resonance is much broadened by the velocity distribution of the target electrons. Thus the resonance width as a function of projectile energy is determined by folding the Compton profile of the target electrons with the dielectronic recombination cross sections. A weaker effect and more speculative is Two Electron Transfer Excitation. Here one target electron excites the projectile 1s electron to the 2p shell for example and the other target electron is captured to an excited state of the projectile. This effect becomes more important at projectile energies higher than the energy where the RTE cross section has its maximum value. The electron--electron interaction has been beautifully demonstrated by Zouros et al. Finally, there might be interference with shakeup. This paper will present angular distribution measurements of Auger lines so that the effects of interference between these various processes can be studied

  13. Excited states of the high-frequency vibrational modes and kinetics of ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barykov, V. Yu.; Ivanov, A. I.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the carrier frequency of the exciting laser pulse on the kinetics of intramolecular photoinduced charge transfer in the multi-channel stochastic model is studied. It is shown that the population of different states of high-frequency intramolecular modes upon varying the frequency of the excitation pulse can considerably alter the rate constant of ultrafast charge transfer. It is found that a negative vibrational spectral effect is expected in the vicinity of a barrier-free area (the rate constant of photoinduced charge transfer decreases along with the carrier frequency of the excitation pulse), while a positive effect is predicted in areas of high and low exergonicity (an inverse dependence). It is concluded that the value of the spectral effect falls along with the time of vibrational relaxation. For ultrafast photo-induced charge transfer, however, it remains considerable up to relaxation times of 100 fs.

  14. Orbital angular momentum transfer in the excitation of the 2/sup 1/P state of helium by electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beijers, J.P.M.; Eck, J. van; Heideman, H.G.M.

    1984-04-28

    The orbital angular momentum transfer in the excitation of the 2/sup 1/P state of helium by electrons at incident electron energies of 50, 60 and 80 eV has been studied. This was done in an electron-photon coincidence experiment. At 80 eV the orbital angular momentum transferred by the electron to the atom appears to change sign at a certain scattering angle. At lower energies of 50 and 60 eV no sign reversal is observed.

  15. Energy transfer quenching of a fluorescent excited radical cation by counter radical anion: dissipation of radical ions generated by photoinduced electron transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Tomoko; Kawanishi, Shun-ichi; Majima, Tetsuro

    2000-08-01

    Fluorescence from the excited 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene radical cation (TMB ?+*) coexsisting with 1,4-dicyanonaphthalene radical anion (DCN ?-) in acetonitrile was studied by the two-step two-laser excitation technique. The fluorescence intensity observed as a function of the delay time of the excitation pulse relative to generation pulse for TMB ?+ indicated the quenching by DCN ?- at ?220 ns. From the analysis of the fluorescence behavior by the Frster-type energy transfer theory, the distance between TMB ?+* and DCN ?- during their dissipation after the initial photoinduced electron transfer was estimated as a function of time.

  16. Electron impact excitation of molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief overview on electron impact excitation of molecules is given with emphasis on elastic scattering, rotational, vibrational and electronic excitations. A few general remarks on dissociation and ionization are made. Recent developments in the electron-photon coincidence area are mentioned only for completeness. Practically no cross section data are available for inner-shell excitations and for electron collisons with excited molecules. Presently used experimental techniques and difficulties related to cross section measurements are briefly discussed, available differential, integral, momentum transfer and total electron scattering cross section data are surveyed, and experimental and theoretical results in the near threshold to few hundred eV impact energy range are compared. (Auth.)

  17. Excitation-wavelength-dependent, ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer in bisferrocene/BF2-chelated-azadipyrromethene/fullerene tetrads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi, Venugopal; El-Khouly, Mohamed E; Ohkubo, Kei; Nesterov, Vladimir N; Zandler, Melvin E; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; D'Souza, Francis

    2013-05-27

    Donor-acceptor distance, orientation, and photoexcitation wavelength are key factors in governing the efficiency and mechanism of electron-transfer reactions both in natural and synthetic systems. Although distance and orientation effects have been successfully demonstrated in simple donor-acceptor dyads, revealing excitation-wavelength-dependent photochemical properties demands multimodular, photosynthetic-reaction-center model compounds. Here, we successfully demonstrate donor- acceptor excitation-wavelength-dependent, ultrafast charge separation and charge recombination in newly synthesized, novel tetrads featuring bisferrocene, BF2 -chelated azadipyrromethene, and fullerene entities. The tetrads synthesized using multistep synthetic procedure revealed characteristic optical, redox, and photo reactivities of the individual components and featured "closely" and "distantly" positioned donor-acceptor systems. The near-IR-emitting BF2-chelated azadipyrromethene acted as a photosensitizing electron acceptor along with fullerene, while the ferrocene entities acted as electron donors. Both tetrads revealed excitation-wavelength-dependent, photoinduced, electron-transfer events as probed by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. That is, formation of the Fc(+)-ADP-C60(.-) charge-separated state upon C60 excitation, and Fc(+)-ADP(.-)-C60 formation upon ADP excitation is demonstrated. PMID:23554157

  18. Controlling electron transfer in condensed phase with bond-specific infrared excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delor, Milan; Scattergood, Paul A.; Sazanovich, Igor V.; Keane, Theo; Greetham, Gregory M.; Meijer, Anthony J. H. M.; Towrie, Michael; Parker, Anthony W.; Weinstein, Julia A.

    2015-08-01

    Using an ultrafast electronic-vibrational pulse-sequence, we show that the outcome of light-induced ET can be radically altered by mode-specific infrared (IR) excitation of vibrations which are coupled to the ET-pathway. IR-control is particularly challenging in condensed phase systems due to the ultrafast timescales involved, in particular rapid intramolecular vibrational redistribution. We demonstrate how an IR-pulse following UV-excitation perturbs nuclear-electronic (vibronic) interactions within a donor-bridge-acceptor system similar in design to those utilized in (bio)chemical light-harvesting, and alters charge-transport pathways and product state yields.

  19. Radiation and photo induced electron transfer processes: Exciting possibilities for basic research and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation and/or photo induced electron transfer reaction results in retrievable storage of information, with extensive applications ranging from dosimetry, efficient light conversion molecular devices (LCMD), photo refraction, optical phase conjunction and holography. These areas gives ample new opportunities to conduct basic investigations to elucidate the mechanistic aspects of photo (radiation) induced electron transfer, and to translate the acquired knowledge into making a device. The talk will focus on the investigation by the author on photo induced electron transfer reaction in photorefractive systems and also on the radiation induced electron transfer processes in dosimetric materials. Furthermore, the recent trends in the light conversion molecular devices using rare earth complexes and the fluorescent molecular sensors for cation recognition will be discussed. (author)

  20. Intermolecular and Intramolecular Excited State Charge Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    1983-01-01

    A primary mechanism of energy relaxation and chemical change in organic molecules in excited electronic states is charge transfer. 1 The charge transfer process can be intermolecular, involving an excited molecule and a neighboring molecule, one serving as an acceptor and the other as a donor molecule, or intramolecular, involving a charge redistribution in the excited molecule which produces a very large excited state dipole moment.In our investigations of the dynamics of these various charg...

  1. Density functional investigation of the electronic structure and charge transfer excited states of a multichromophoric antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basurto, Luis; Zope, Rajendra R.; Baruah, Tunna

    2016-05-01

    We report an electronic structure study of a multichromophoric molecular complex containing two of each borondipyrromethane dye, Zn-tetraphenyl-porphyrin, bisphenyl anthracene and a fullerene. The snowflake shaped molecule behaves like an antenna capturing photon at different frequencies and transferring the photon energy to the porphyrin where electron transfer occurs from the porphyrin to the fullerene. The study is performed within density functional formalism using large polarized Guassian basis sets (12,478 basis functions in total). The energies of the HOMO and LUMO states in the complex, as adjudged by the ionization potential and the electron affinity values, show significant differences with respect to their values in participating subunits in isolation. These differences are also larger than the variations of the ionization potential and electron affinity values observed in non-bonded C60-ZnTPP complexes in co-facial arrangement or end-on orientations. An understanding of the origin of these differences is obtained by a systematic study of the effect of structural strain, the presence of ligands, the effect of orbital delocalization on the ionization energy and the electron affinity. Finally, a few lowest charge transfer energies involving electronic transitions from the porphyrin component to the fullerene subunit of the complex are predicted.

  2. Solvent electronic polarization effects on a charge transfer excitation studied by the mean-field QM/MM method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Electronic polarization effects of a medium can have a significant impact on a chemical reaction in condensed phases. We discuss the effects on the charge transfer excitation of a chromophore, N,N-dimethyl-4-nitroaniline, in various solvents using the mean-field QM/MM method with a polarizable force field. The results show that the explicit consideration of the solvent electronic polarization effects is important especially for a solvent with a low dielectric constant when we study the solvatochromism of the chromophore.

  3. Evidence for resonance electron transfer in photon excited X-ray satellite spectra of fluorine compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Ram Narayana; B Seetharami Reddy; S S Raju; T Seshi Reddy; S Lakshmi Narayana; K Premachand; B M Rao; M V R Murti; L S Mombasawala

    2005-08-01

    The KL1/KL0 intensity ratio of fluorine is measured in five fluorine compounds with a crystal spectrometer. An anomalous reduction of this intensity ratio was observed in KF and SrF2, which is attributed to resonance electron transfer from the metal ion to the spectator vacancy in the fluorine ion. KL2/KL0 intensity ratio of fluorine is also measured. The measured relative intensities are compared with the theoretical estimates of Aberg.

  4. Exciton delocalization, charge transfer, and electronic coupling for singlet excitation energy transfer between stacked nucleobases in DNA: An MS-CASPT2 study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blancafort, Llus, E-mail: lluis.blancafort@udg.edu [Institut de Qumica Computacional i Catlisi (IQCC) and Departament de Qumica, Universitat de Girona, Campus de Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Voityuk, Alexander A., E-mail: alexander.voityuk@icrea.cat [Institut de Qumica Computacional i Catlisi (IQCC) and Departament de Qumica, Universitat de Girona, Campus de Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Instituci Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avanats (ICREA), Barcelona 08010 (Spain)

    2014-03-07

    Exciton delocalization and singlet excitation energy transfer have been systematically studied for the complete set of 16 DNA nucleobase dimers in their ideal, single-strand stacked B-DNA conformation, at the MS-CASPT2 level of theory. The extent of exciton delocalization in the two lowest (?,?{sup *}) states of the dimers is determined using the symmetrized one-electron transition density matrices between the ground and excited states, and the electronic coupling is calculated using the delocalization measure and the energy splitting between the states [see F. Plasser, A. J. A. Aquino, W. L. Hase, and H. Lischka, J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 1115111160 (2012)]. The calculated couplings lie between 0.05 eV and 0.14 eV. In the B-DNA conformation, where the interchromophoric distance is 3.38 , our couplings deviate significantly from those calculated with the transition charges, showing the importance of orbital overlap components for the couplings in this conformation. The calculation of the couplings is based on a two-state model for exciton delocalization. However, in three stacks with a purine in the 5{sup ?} position and a pyrimidine in the 3{sup ?} one (AT, GC, and GT), there is an energetically favored charge transfer state that mixes with the two lowest excited states. In these dimers we have applied a three-state model that considers the two locally excited diabatic states and the charge transfer state. Using the delocalization and charge transfer descriptors, we obtain all couplings between these three states. Our results are important in the context of DNA photophysics, since the calculated couplings can be used to parametrize effective Hamiltonians to model extended DNA stacks. Our calculations also suggest that the 5{sup ?}-purine-pyrimidine-3{sup ?} sequence favors the formation of charge transfer excited states.

  5. Exciton delocalization, charge transfer, and electronic coupling for singlet excitation energy transfer between stacked nucleobases in DNA: An MS-CASPT2 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exciton delocalization and singlet excitation energy transfer have been systematically studied for the complete set of 16 DNA nucleobase dimers in their ideal, single-strand stacked B-DNA conformation, at the MS-CASPT2 level of theory. The extent of exciton delocalization in the two lowest (π,π*) states of the dimers is determined using the symmetrized one-electron transition density matrices between the ground and excited states, and the electronic coupling is calculated using the delocalization measure and the energy splitting between the states [see F. Plasser, A. J. A. Aquino, W. L. Hase, and H. Lischka, J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 11151–11160 (2012)]. The calculated couplings lie between 0.05 eV and 0.14 eV. In the B-DNA conformation, where the interchromophoric distance is 3.38 Å, our couplings deviate significantly from those calculated with the transition charges, showing the importance of orbital overlap components for the couplings in this conformation. The calculation of the couplings is based on a two-state model for exciton delocalization. However, in three stacks with a purine in the 5′ position and a pyrimidine in the 3′ one (AT, GC, and GT), there is an energetically favored charge transfer state that mixes with the two lowest excited states. In these dimers we have applied a three-state model that considers the two locally excited diabatic states and the charge transfer state. Using the delocalization and charge transfer descriptors, we obtain all couplings between these three states. Our results are important in the context of DNA photophysics, since the calculated couplings can be used to parametrize effective Hamiltonians to model extended DNA stacks. Our calculations also suggest that the 5′-purine-pyrimidine-3′ sequence favors the formation of charge transfer excited states

  6. [Electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in atomic collisions]. Final technical report, June 15, 1986 - June 14, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research on theoretical atomic collisions that was funded at The Pennsylvania State University's Wilkes-Barre Campus by DOE from 1986 to 1998 was carried out by Winger from 1986 to 1989 and by Winter and Alston from 1989 to 1998. The fundamental processes of electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in ion-ion, ion-atom, and, more recently, ion-molecule collisions were addressed. These collision processes were treated in the context of simple one-electron, quasi-one-electron, or two-electron systems in order to provide unambiguous results and reveal more clearly the collisional mechanisms. Winter's work generally focused on the intermediate projectile-energy range corresponding to proton energies from about ten to a few hundred keV. In this velocity-matching energy range, the electron-transfer cross section reaches a peak, and many states, including electron-transfer and ionization states, contribute to the overall electron-cloud distribution and transition probabilities; a large number of states are coupled, and therefore perturbative approaches are generally inappropriate. These coupled-state calculations were sometimes also extended to higher energies to join with perturbative results. Alston concentrated on intermediate-energy asymmetric collision systems, for which coupling with the projectile is weaker, but many target states are included, and on high energies (MeV energies). Thus, while perturbation theory for electron transfer is valid, it is not adequate to first order. The studies by Winter and Alston described were often done in parallel. Alston also developed formal perturbative approaches not tied to any particular system. Materials studied included He+, Li2+, Be3+, B4+, C5+, and the H+ + Na system

  7. Mechanism of electronic-excitation transfer in organic light-emitting devices based on semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitukhnovskii, A. G., E-mail: alexei@sci.lebedev.ru; Vashchenko, A. A.; Lebedev, V. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, R. B. [Moscow State University (Department of Materials Science) (Russian Federation); Brunkov, P. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Bychkovskii, D. N. [Optogan-OLS (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-15

    The results of an experimental study of organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with luminescent layers based on two types of CdSe/CdS semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) with an average CdSe core diameter of 3 and 5 nm and a characteristic CdS shell thickness of 0.5 nm are presented. The dependences of the LED efficiency on the QD concentration are determined. The experimental data are used to determine the mechanism of electronic-excitation transfer from the organic matrix to the semiconductor QDs. Ways of optimizing the design of the LEDs in order to improve their efficiency are suggested on this basis.

  8. Chemical Physics Electrons and Excitations

    CERN Document Server

    Larsson, Sven

    2012-01-01

    A full understanding of modern chemistry is impossible without quantum theory. Since the advent of quantum mechanics in 1925, a number of chemical phenomena have been explained, such as electron transfer, excitation energy transfer, and other phenomena in photochemistry and photo-physics. Chemical bonds can now be accurately calculated with the help of a personal computer. Addressing students of theoretical and quantum chemistry and their counterparts in physics, Chemical Physics: Electrons and Excitations introduces chemical physics as a gateway to fields such as photo physics, solid-state ph

  9. Observation of resonant transfer and excitation in O5+ + He collisions through high resolution O0 Auger electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present new evidence that (resonant transfer and excitation) RTE is an important mechanism for the production of Be-like doubly excited states in energetic collisions of Li-like O5+ ions incident on He. We have measured the cross sections for the production of Auger electrons from the decay of the (1s2s2p2)3D and the (1s2s2p2)1D states in O4+ in high resolution at O0, as a function of the incident ion energy. We observe a resonant increase in the Auger cross section with a maximum at approx.13 MeV and full-width-at-half-maximum of approx.7 MeV. This feature is seen to sit on a non-resonant NTE background, which populates the same intermediate states through a two step capture and excitation process governed by the electron-nucleus Coulomb interaction. 13 ref., 3 figs

  10. Ultrafast Excited-State Dynamics of Diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-Based Materials: Static versus Diffusion-Controlled Electron Transfer Process

    KAUST Repository

    Alsulami, Qana

    2015-06-25

    Singlet-to-triplet intersystem crossing (ISC) and photoinduced electron transfer (PET) of platinum(II) containing diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) oligomer in the absence and presence of strong electron-acceptor tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) were investigated using femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy with broadband capabilities. The role of platinum(II) incorporation in those photophysical properties was evaluated by comparing the excited-state dynamics of DPP with and without the metal centers. The steady-state measurements reveal that platinum(II) incorporation facilitates dramatically the interactions between DPP-Pt(acac) and TCNE, resulting in charge transfer (CT) complex formation. The transient absorption spectra in the absence of TCNE reveal ultrafast ISC of DPP-Pt(acac) followed by their long-lived triplet state. In the presence of TCNE, PET from the excited DPP-Pt(acac) and DPP to TCNE, forming the radical ion pairs. The ultrafast PET which occurs statically from DPP-Pt(acac) to TCNE in picosecond regime, is much faster than that from DPP to TCNE (nanosecond time scale) which is diffusion-controlled process, providing clear evidence that PET rate is eventually controlled by the platinum(II) incorporation.

  11. Two-laser studies of E ? V energy transfer reactions involving CO and electronically excited I2, ICl and NO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relaxation of electronically excited I2, ICl and NO2 by CO has been investigated using a dye laser for electronic excitation (in the 590 nm region) and a cw CO laser for measuring the extent of CO product vibrational excitation. The CO molecules formed in these quenching reactions were found to carry very small fractions of electronic energies, in sharp contrast to the results observed in other E ? V transfer reactions involving atomic species which carry comparable amounts of electronic energies. (Auth.)

  12. Theoretical investigation of electronic excitation transfer between chlorophylls in light-harvesting antenna of photosystem ii using quantum computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Dehestani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The excitation energy transfer between chlorophylls in major and minor antenna complexes of photosystem II (PSII was investigated using quantum Fourier transforms. These transforms have an important role in the efficiency of quantum algorithms of quantum computers. The equation 2n=N was used to make the connection between excitation energy transfers using quantum Fourier transform, where n is the number of qubits required for simulation of transfers and N is the number of chlorophylls in the antenna complexes.

  13. Transferred orbital angular momentum in the low-energy electron impact excitation of the 1S0-1P1 transition in barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superelastic electron scattering involving the collisional de-excitation of laser-excited 138Ba(...6s6p 1P1) atoms to the (...6s21S0) ground state has been used to measure electron impact coherence parameters for the related (...6s21S0) to (...6s6p 1P1) inelastic process. Measurements of the orbital angular momentum transfer parameter, Lperp+, were made for excitation at impact energies of 7, 8.5, 11 and 16 eV. Experimental data are compared with available theoretical results. (author)

  14. Excitation energy transfer in the photosystem I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Andrew N

    2012-09-25

    Photosystem I is a multimeric pigment protein complex in plants, green alage and cyanobacteria that functions in series with Photosystem II to use light energy to oxidize water and reduce carbon dioxide. The Photosystem I core complex contains 96 chlorophyll a molecules and 22 carotenoids that are involved in light harvesting and electron transfer. In eucaryotes, PSI also has a peripheral light harvesting complex I (LHCI). The role of specific chlorophylls in excitation and electron transfer are still unresolved. In particular, the role of so-called bridging chlorophylls, located between the bulk antenna and the core electron transfer chain, in the transfer of excitation energy to the reaction center are unknown. During the past funding period, site directed mutagenesis has been used to create mutants that effect the physical properties of these key chlorophylls, and to explore how this alters the function of the photosystem. Studying these mutants using ultrafast absorption spectroscopy has led to a better understanding of the process by which excitation energy is transferred from the antenna chlorophylls to the electron transfer chain chlorophylls, and what the role of connecting chlorophylls and A_0 chlorophylls is in this process. We have also used these mutants to investigate whch of the central group of six chlorophylls are involved in the primary steps of charge separation and electron transfer.

  15. Intermediate vibronic coupling in charge transfer states: comprehensive calculation of electronic excitations in sexithiophene crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradomska, Anna; Kulig, Waldemar; Slawik, Michał; Petelenz, Piotr

    2011-06-14

    A comprehensive theory of linear vibronic coupling in a coupled manifold of Frenkel and charge-transfer states in an infinite molecular crystal is presented and applied for sexithiophene. The approach, valid in the intermediate-coupling regime, includes up to three-particle terms of the Philpott expansion, with the vibronic wavefunctions represented in the Lang-Firsov basis. As a stringent test, the scheme is used to reproduce the complete set of available sexithiophene absorption and electroabsorption spectra within a unified theoretical framework. The input is based primarily on independent calculations and to some extent on independent experiments, with explicit fitting contained within the limits set by the estimated inherent errors of a priori parameter estimates. Reasonably good quantitative agreement with experimental spectra is achieved. The results resolve some existing interpretational ambiguities and expose some peculiarities of electric field effect on vibronic eigenstates of Frenkel parentage, highlighting the role of charge-transfer interactions. PMID:21682523

  16. Photogalvanic cells driven by electron transfer quenching of excited singlet states. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creed, D.; Fawcett, N.C.

    1983-01-01

    Photoreduction of oxonine by iron(II) sulfate in dilute acid is produced by quenching of the excited singlet state (S/sub 1/). No induced intersystem crossing to the tripolet (T/sub 1/) can be observed by nanosecond flash photolysis. The photoreduction of oxonine (S/sub 1/) by iron(II) has been used in a totally illuminated thin layer photogalvanic cell. Power conversion efficiencies are, however, very low. The fluorescence of oxonine and thiazine dyes such as thionine is quenched by acids. Oxonine fluorescence is also quenched by hydroquinone and catechol sulfonates and related compounds. Eleven new thiazine dyes have been synthesized. A few photogalvanic experiments have been carried out using high concentrations (> 10/sup -2/N) of the water miscible dye and iron(II) in a TI/TL cell. Ferrophos, an iron-phosphorus alloy, can be substituted for platinum or gold as a cathode in photogalvanic cells.

  17. Photogalvanic cells driven by electron transfer quenching of excited singlet states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, D.; Fawcett, N. C.

    Photoreduction of oxonine by iron(II) sulfate in dilute acid is produced by quenching of the excited signlet state (S1). No induced intersystem crossing to the tripolet (T1) is observed by nanosecond flash photolysis. The photoreduction of oxonine (S1) by iron(II) was used in a totally illuminated thin layer photogalvanic cell. Power conversion efficiencies are, however, very low. The fluorescence of oxonine and thiazine dyes such as thionine is quenched by acids. Oxonine fluorescence is also quenched by hydroquinone and catechol sulfonates and related compounds. Eleven new thiazine dyes were synthesized. A few photogalvanic experiments were carried out using high concentrations of the water miscible dye and iron(II) in a TI/TL cell. Ferrophos, an iron phosphorus alloy, can be substituted for platinum or gold as a cathode in photogalvanic cells.

  18. Synthesis of Biomimetic Systems for Proton and Electron Transfer Reactions in the Ground and Excited State

    OpenAIRE

    Parada, Giovanny A.

    2015-01-01

    A detailed understanding of natural photosynthesis provides inspiration for the development of sustainable and renewable energy sources, i.e. a technology that is capable of converting solar energy directly into chemical fuels. This concept is called artificial photosynthesis. The work described in this thesis contains contributions to the development of artificial photosynthesis in two separate areas. The first one relates to light harvesting with a focus on the question of how electronic pr...

  19. Study of photo-activated electron transfer reactions in the first excited singlet state by picosecond and nanosecond laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picosecond laser spectroscopy has been used to study two photo-activated electron transfer reactions: - a bimolecular electron transfer reaction between a sensitizer, DODCI, and an electron acceptor, methylviologen. The two radical ions created with an electron transfer efficiency γ ≅ 0.07 have been identified in picosecond and nanosecond laser absorption spectroscopy by adding selective solutes such as para-benzoquinone (an electron acceptor) or L(+) ascorbic acid (an electron donor). - an intramolecular electron transfer reaction in a triad molecule consisting of a tetra-aryl-porphyrin covalently linked to both a carotenoid and a quinone. The photoinduced charge separation occurs within 30 ps and leads, with a yield of 25 pc, to the formation of a zwitterion whose half-life is 2.5 μs. The experimental results obtained in these two studies show an effective decrease in the recombination rate of the two radical ions created in the encounter pair. (author)

  20. Efficiency of intramolecular electron transfer from the second excited state of the donor in molecular triads D-A1-A2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feskov, S. V.; Ivanov, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    It is found that intramolecular and intermolecular electron transfer from the second singlet excited state of the donor in all molecular dyads studied up to now is accompanied by ultrafast recombination into the first excited state, resulting in a low quantum yield of the thermalized state with separated charges. The ultrafast photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer in donor‒acceptor 1‒acceptor 2 molecular triads is studied to ascertain the possibilities of increasing the quantum yield of ionic state. It is demonstrated that nonthermal (hot) electron transfer from the primary acceptor to the secondary acceptor can, in parallel with relaxation of a polar solvent, efficiently suppress the ultrafast recombination of charges into the first excited state of the donor and increase the yield of the ionic state. It is established that the angle between the directions of reaction coordinates corresponding to the electron transfer from the donor to the primary acceptor and from the primary acceptor to the secondary acceptor play the most important role in describing these processes. It is concluded that the value of this angle is governed by the ratio between the reorganization energies of the three possible electron transfers in the triad and can vary within wide limits. The parametric regions with maximum quantum yield of the thermalized ionic state are revealed. The strong effect the geometry of a studied triad has on charge separation efficiency is observed.

  1. Electron-excited molecule interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the limited but significant knowledge to date on electron scattering from vibrationally/rotationally excited molecules and electron scattering from and electron impact ionization of electronically excited molecules is briefly summarized and discussed. The profound effects of the internal energy content of a molecule on its electron attachment properties are highlighted focusing in particular on electron attachment to vibrationally/rotationally and to electronically excited molecules. The limited knowledge to date on electron-excited molecule interactions clearly shows that the cross sections for certain electron-molecule collision processes can be very different from those involving ground state molecules. For example, optically enhanced electron attachment studies have shown that electron attachment to electronically excited molecules can occur with cross sections 106 to 107 times larger compared to ground state molecules. The study of electron-excited molecule interactions offers many experimental and theoretical challenges and opportunities and is both of fundamental and technological significance. 54 refs., 15 figs

  2. Excited-state intramolecular hydrogen transfer (ESIHT) of 1,8-Dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (DHAQ) characterized by ultrafast electronic and vibrational spectroscopy and computational modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Omar F.

    2014-05-01

    We combine ultrafast electronic and vibrational spectroscopy and computational modeling to investigate the photoinduced excited-state intramolecular hydrogen-transfer dynamics in 1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (DHAQ) in tetrachloroethene, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide, and methanol. We analyze the electronic excited states of DHAQ with various possible hydrogen-bonding schemes and provide a general description of the electronic excited-state dynamics based on a systematic analysis of femtosecond UV/vis and UV/IR pump-probe spectroscopic data. Upon photoabsorption at 400 nm, the S 2 electronic excited state is initially populated, followed by a rapid equilibration within 150 fs through population transfer to the S 1 state where DHAQ exhibits ESIHT dynamics. In this equilibration process, the excited-state population is distributed between the 9,10-quinone (S2) and 1,10-quinone (S1) states while undergoing vibrational energy redistribution, vibrational cooling, and solvation dynamics on the 0.1-50 ps time scale. Transient UV/vis pump-probe data in methanol also suggest additional relaxation dynamics on the subnanosecond time scale, which we tentatively ascribe to hydrogen bond dynamics of DHAQ with the protic solvent, affecting the equilibrium population dynamics within the S2 and S1 electronic excited states. Ultimately, the two excited singlet states decay with a solvent-dependent time constant ranging from 139 to 210 ps. The concomitant electronic ground-state recovery is, however, only partial because a large fraction of the population relaxes to the first triplet state. From the similarity of the time scales involved, we conjecture that the solvent plays a crucial role in breaking the intramolecular hydrogen bond of DHAQ during the S2/S1 relaxation to either the ground or triplet state. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  3. Calculations of Nonlinear Wave-Packet Interferometry Signals in the Pump-Probe Limit as Tests for Vibrational Control over Electronic Excitation Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Biggs, Jason D

    2009-01-01

    The preceding paper describes a strategy for externally influencing the course of short-time electronic excitation transfer (EET) in molecular dimers and observing the process by nonlinear wave-packet interferometry (nl-WPI). Within a sample of isotropically oriented dimers having a specified internal geometry, a vibrational mode internal to the acceptor chromophore can be preferentially driven by electronically nonresonant impulsive stimulated Raman (or resonant infrared) excitation with a short polarized control pulse. A subsequent electronically resonant polarized pump then preferentially excites the donor, and EET ensues. Here we test both the control strategy and its spectroscopic investigation-with some sacrifice of amplitude-level detail-by calculating the pump-probe difference signal. That signal is the limiting case of the control-influenced nl-WPI signal in which the two pulses in the pump pulse-pair coincide, as do the two pulses in the probe pulse-pair. We present calculated pump-probe difference ...

  4. Study of intermediates from transition metal excited-state electron-transfer reactions. Progress report, April 1, 1983-March 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our study of intermediates from excited-state electron-transfer reactions, we have focused our attention during the past year on MV+., the reduced methyl viologen radical cation, which is a precursor to the formation of H2 in the photosensitized reduction of water. Through the use of photochemical and radiation chemical techniques, we have examined the efficiency of interaction of MV+. with colloidal Pt, the stability of MV+. as a function of pH, the quantum yield of formation of MV+. in the Ru(bpy)32+/MV2+/EDTA system, and the formation of photoactive charge-transfer complexes between MV2+ and sacrificial electron donors

  5. Electron energy distribution functions and fractional power transfer in "cold" and excited CO2 discharge and post discharge conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietanza, L. D.; Colonna, G.; D'Ammando, G.; Laricchiuta, A.; Capitelli, M.

    2016-01-01

    A Boltzmann equation, in the presence of superelastic vibrational and electronic collisions and of electron-electron Coulomb collisions, has been solved in CO2 plasma in discharge and post discharge conditions. Superelastic vibrational collisions play an important role in affecting the electron energy distribution function (eedf) in a wide range of the reduced electric field E/N and of vibrational temperatures characterizing the vibrational modes of CO2. An important result is the dependence of fractional power losses and of the relevant rate coefficients on the vibrational temperatures of the system. Superelastic electronic collisions, on the other hand, are the main processes affecting eedf and related quantities in the post discharge conditions (i.e., E/N = 0). In particular at low vibrational temperatures, the superelastic electronic collisions form an important plateau in the eedf, largely influencing the rate coefficients and the fractional power transfer.

  6. Exogenous quinones inhibit photosynthetic electron transfer in Chloroflexus aurantiacus by specific quenching of the excited bacteriochlorophyll c antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, N-U; Tokita, S; Matsuura, K

    1999-01-01

    In the photosynthetic green filamentous bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus, excitation energy is transferred from a large bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) c antenna via smaller BChl a antennas to the reaction center. The effects of substituted 1,4-naphthoquinones on BChl c and BChl a fluorescence and on...... BChl c antenna. Our results provide a model system for studying the redox-dependent antenna quenching in green sulfur bacteria because the antennas in these bacteria inherently exhibit a sensitivity to O(2) similar to the quinone-supplemented cells of Cfx. aurantiacus....

  7. Charge-Transfer Versus Charge-Transfer-Like Excitations Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Barry; Sun, Haitao; Govind, Niranjan; Kowalski, Karol; Autschbach, Jochen

    2015-07-14

    Criteria to assess charge-transfer (CT) and `CT-like' character of electronic excitations are examined. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with non-hybrid, hybrid, and tuned long-range corrected (LC) functionals is compared with with coupled-cluster (CC) benchmarks. The test set includes an organic CT complex, two `push-pull' donor-acceptor chromophores, a cyanine dye, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Proper CT is easily identified. Excitations with significant density changes upon excitation within regions of close spatial proximity can also be diagnosed. For such excitations, the use of LC functionals in TDDFT sometimes leads to dramatic improvements of the singlet energies, similar to proper CT, which has led to the concept of `CT-like' excitations. However, `CT-like' excitations are not like charge transfer, and the improvements are not obtained for the right reasons. The triplet excitation energies are underestimated for all systems, often severely. For the `CT-like' candidates, when going from a non-hybrid to an LC functional the error in the singlet-triplet (S/T) separation changes from negative to positive, providing error compensation. For the cyanine, the S/T separation is too large with all functionals, leading to the best error compensation for non-hybrid functionals.

  8. Charge-Transfer Versus Charge-Transfer-Like Excitations Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Barry; Sun, Haitao; Govind, Niranjan; Kowalski, Karol; Autschbach, Jochen

    2015-07-14

    Criteria to assess charge-transfer (CT) and CT-like character of electronic excitations are examined. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations with non-hybrid, hybrid, and tuned long-range corrected (LC) functionals are compared with coupled-cluster (CC) benchmarks. The test set comprises an organic CT complex, two push-pull donor-acceptor chromophores, a cyanine dye, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Proper CT is easily identified. Excitations with significant density changes upon excitation within regions of close spatial proximity can also be diagnosed. For such excitations, the use of LC functionals in TDDFT sometimes leads to dramatic improvements of the singlet energies, similar to proper CT. It is shown that such CT-like excitations do not have the characteristics of physical charge transfer, and improvements with LC functionals may not be obtained for the right reasons. The TDDFT triplet excitation energies are underestimated for all systems, often severely. For the CT-like candidates, the singlet-triplet (S/T) separation changes from negative with a non-hybrid functional to positive with a tuned LC functional. For the cyanine, the S/T separation is systematically too large with TDDFT, leading to better error compensation for the singlet energy with a non-hybrid functional. PMID:26575765

  9. The electron-electron interaction studied in strong central fields by resonant transfer and excitation with H-like U ions

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, X; Gumberidze, A; Kozhuharov, C; Liesen, D; Mokler, P H; Sierpowski, D; Stachura, Z; Stöhlker, T; Warczak, A

    2003-01-01

    Electron-electron interaction is studied in the strongest possible atomic fields (Z.alpha => 1) in the presence of only two electrons. A quasi-free electron from a hydrogen gas target is resonantly captured into a L sub j subshell of a fast H-like U sup 9 sup 1 sup + ion by simultaneous excitation of the strongly bound K electron also into a L sub j sub ' subshell of the projectile, with j and j' the total angular momenta of 1/2 or 3/2 for the electron of concern. This resonant capture and excitation process, KL sub j L sub j sub ' -RTE, is mediated by electron-electron interaction. It is equivalent to dielectronic recombination (DR) in ion-electron collisions and leads to a doubly excited He-like U sup 9 sup 0 sup + sup * sup * ion, which stabilizes - almost exclusively - via the emission of two successive K X-rays, first a K hypersatellite (K alpha i-H) and then a K satellite (K alpha i'-S) transition. The K X-ray emission characteristics associated with one-electron capture in collisions of U sup 9 sup 1 s...

  10. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  11. Bionano donor-acceptor hybrids of porphyrin, ssDNA, and semiconductive single-wall carbon nanotubes for electron transfer via porphyrin excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Francis; Das, Sushanta K; Zandler, Melvin E; Sandanayaka, Atula S D; Ito, Osamu

    2011-12-14

    Photoinduced electron transfer in self-assemblies of porphyrins ion-paired with ssDNA wrapped around single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) has been reported. To accomplish the three-component hybrids, two kinds of diameter-sorted semiconducting SWCNT(n,m)s of different diameter ((n,m) = (6,5) and (7,6)) and free-base or zinc porphyrin bearing peripheral positive charges ((TMPyP(+))M (tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin); M = Zn and H(2)) serving as light-absorbing photoactive materials are utilized. The donor-acceptor hybrids are held by ion-pairing between the negatively charged phosphate groups of ssDNA on the surface of the SWCNT and the positively charged at the ring periphery porphyrin macrocycle. The newly assembled bionano donor-acceptor hybrids have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectroscopic methods. Photoinduced electron transfer from the excited singlet porphyrin to the SWCNTs directly and/or via ssDNA as an electron mediator has been established by performing systematic studies involving the steady-state and time-resolved emission as well as the transient absorption studies. Higher charge-separation efficiency has been successfully demonstrated by the selection of the appropriate semiconductive SWCNTs with the right band gap, in addition to the aid of ssDNA as the electron mediator. PMID:22088093

  12. Advances in electron transfer chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Patrick S

    1995-01-01

    Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry, Volume 4 presents the reaction mechanisms involving the movement of single electrons. This book discusses the electron transfer reactions in organic, biochemical, organometallic, and excited state systems. Organized into four chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the photochemical behavior of two classes of sulfonium salt derivatives. This text then examines the parameters that control the efficiencies for radical ion pair formation. Other chapters consider the progress in the development of parameters that control the dynamics and reaction p

  13. The electron-electron interaction studied in strong central fields by resonant transfer and excitation with H-like U ions. - Angular distribution of hypersatellite and satellite radiation emitted after resonant and excitation into U91+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron-electron interaction is studied in the strongest possible atomic fields (Z.α => 1) in the presence of only two electrons. A quasi-free electron from a hydrogen gas target is resonantly captured into a Lj subshell of a fast H-like U91+ ion by simultaneous excitation of the strongly bound K electron also into a Lj' subshell of the projectile, with j and j' the total angular momenta of 1/2 or 3/2 for the electron of concern. This resonant capture and excitation process, KLjLj'-RTE, is mediated by electron-electron interaction. It is equivalent to dielectronic recombination (DR) in ion-electron collisions and leads to a doubly excited He-like U90+** ion, which stabilizes - almost exclusively - via the emission of two successive K X-rays, first a K hypersatellite (Kαi-H) and then a K satellite (Kαi'-S) transition. The K X-ray emission characteristics associated with one-electron capture in collisions of U91+ ions with a hydrogen target is studied for the three resonance groups of the KLjLj'-RTE and one off-resonance energy, i.e. in the energy range between 100 and 135 MeV/u. The total cross section for the first resonance group KL1/2L1/2 confirms the importance of the Breit contribution to the interaction. The angular distribution for the Kα2-H transition (j=1/2) is isotropic in the projectile system whereas the Kα1-H transition (j=3/2) indicates a strong alignment for the 3/2 electrons in the doubly excited states for the second resonance group KL1/2L3/2. The experimental results are in agreement with fully relativistic calculations including the generalized Breit interaction. (orig.)

  14. Electron impact excitation of ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In researching electron impact excitation of ions, prediction of cross-section rates is still uncertain. This paper reviews electron-ion beam experiments. Theory is reviewed, then energy levels of the electron and He-like atom, and some of the transitions important in electron impact excitation studied. Close-coupling (coupled state) theory is treated. The distorted wave and Coulomb Born Approximations are applied. Experimental techniques are then reviewed. The plasma-based rate measurements are studied. Electron-ion beam experiments are represented schematically. The optical detection system (to observe photon emissions of electron and ion--collisions) is detailed. The parameters for the best experiments are determined. Finally, simple systems (for He+) and complex systems (for heavy ions), the experiments, and theoretical attention given them, are surveyed

  15. An efficient computational scheme for electronic excitation spectra of molecules in solution using the symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction method: The accuracy of excitation energies and intuitive charge-transfer indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Ryoichi; Ehara, Masahiro

    2014-10-01

    Solvent effects on electronic excitation spectra are considerable in many situations; therefore, we propose an efficient and reliable computational scheme that is based on the symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method and the polarizable continuum model (PCM) for describing electronic excitations in solution. The new scheme combines the recently proposed first-order PCM SAC-CI method with the PTE (perturbation theory at the energy level) PCM SAC scheme. This is essentially equivalent to the usual SAC and SAC-CI computations with using the PCM Hartree-Fock orbital and integrals, except for the additional correction terms that represent solute-solvent interactions. The test calculations demonstrate that the present method is a very good approximation of the more costly iterative PCM SAC-CI method for excitation energies of closed-shell molecules in their equilibrium geometry. This method provides very accurate values of electric dipole moments but is insufficient for describing the charge-transfer (CT) indices in polar solvent. The present method accurately reproduces the absorption spectra and their solvatochromism of push-pull type 2,2'-bithiophene molecules. Significant solvent and substituent effects on these molecules are intuitively visualized using the CT indices. The present method is the simplest and theoretically consistent extension of SAC-CI method for including PCM environment, and therefore, it is useful for theoretical and computational spectroscopy.

  16. An efficient computational scheme for electronic excitation spectra of molecules in solution using the symmetry-adapted clusterconfiguration interaction method: The accuracy of excitation energies and intuitive charge-transfer indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solvent effects on electronic excitation spectra are considerable in many situations; therefore, we propose an efficient and reliable computational scheme that is based on the symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method and the polarizable continuum model (PCM) for describing electronic excitations in solution. The new scheme combines the recently proposed first-order PCM SAC-CI method with the PTE (perturbation theory at the energy level) PCM SAC scheme. This is essentially equivalent to the usual SAC and SAC-CI computations with using the PCM Hartree-Fock orbital and integrals, except for the additional correction terms that represent solute-solvent interactions. The test calculations demonstrate that the present method is a very good approximation of the more costly iterative PCM SAC-CI method for excitation energies of closed-shell molecules in their equilibrium geometry. This method provides very accurate values of electric dipole moments but is insufficient for describing the charge-transfer (CT) indices in polar solvent. The present method accurately reproduces the absorption spectra and their solvatochromism of push-pull type 2,2?-bithiophene molecules. Significant solvent and substituent effects on these molecules are intuitively visualized using the CT indices. The present method is the simplest and theoretically consistent extension of SAC-CI method for including PCM environment, and therefore, it is useful for theoretical and computational spectroscopy

  17. Excitation energy transfer and electron-vibrational coupling in phycobiliproteins of the cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina investigated by site-selective spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryliuk, G; Rätsep, M; Hildebrandt, S; Irrgang, K-D; Eckert, H-J; Pieper, J

    2014-09-01

    In adaption to its specific environmental conditions, the cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina developed two different types of light-harvesting complexes: chlorophyll-d-containing membrane-intrinsic complexes and phycocyanobilin (PCB) - containing phycobiliprotein (PBP) complexes. The latter complexes are believed to form a rod-shaped structure comprising three homo-hexamers of phycocyanin (PC), one hetero-hexamer of phycocyanin and allophycocyanin (APC) and probably a linker protein connecting the PBPs to the reaction centre. Excitation energy transfer and electron-vibrational coupling in PBPs have been investigated by selectively excited fluorescence spectra. The data reveal a rich spectral substructure with a total of five low-energy electronic states with fluorescence bands at 635nm, 645nm, 654nm, 659nm and a terminal emitter at about 673 nm. The electronic states at ~635 and 645 nm are tentatively attributed to PC and APC, respectively, while an apparent heterogeneity among PC subunits may also play a role. The other fluorescence bands may be associated with three different isoforms of the linker protein. Furthermore, a large number of vibrational features can be identified for each electronic state with intense phonon sidebands peaking at about 31 to 37cm⁻¹, which are among the highest phonon frequencies observed for photosynthetic antenna complexes. The corresponding Huang-Rhys factors S fall in the range between 0.98 (terminal emitter), 1.15 (APC), and 1.42 (PC). Two characteristic vibronic lines at about 1580 and 1634cm⁻¹ appear to reflect CNH⁺ and CC stretching modes of the PCB chromophore, respectively. The exact phonon and vibrational frequencies vary with electronic state implying that the respective PCB chromophores are bound to different protein environments. This article is part of a special issue entitled: photosynthesis research for sustainability: keys to produce clean energy. PMID:24560813

  18. Electron excitation of dielectric wedges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experimental data of Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry of the interaction between small crystallites and beams travelling at a fixed beam-solid surface distance are analyzed in terms of the surface and bulk excitation modes of parabolically shaped wedges. The probability of excitation of the surface modes is calculated for an electron travelling parallel to the wedge surface, either outside or inside the dielectric wedge. The main features of available experimental data for MgO crystallites can be explained by the theory. 8 figures

  19. Disentangling the Physical Processes Responsible for the Kinetic Complexity in Interfacial Electron Transfer of Excited Ru(II) Polypyridyl Dyes on TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigler, David F; Morseth, Zachary A; Wang, Li; Ashford, Dennis L; Brennaman, M Kyle; Grumstrup, Erik M; Brigham, Erinn C; Gish, Melissa K; Dillon, Robert J; Alibabaei, Leila; Meyer, Gerald J; Meyer, Thomas J; Papanikolas, John M

    2016-04-01

    Interfacial electron transfer at titanium dioxide (TiO2) is investigated for a series of surface bound ruthenium-polypyridyl dyes whose metal-to-ligand charge-transfer state (MLCT) energetics are tuned through chemical modification. The 12 complexes are of the form Ru(II)(bpy-A)(L)2(2+), where bpy-A is a bipyridine ligand functionalized with phosphonate groups for surface attachment to TiO2. Functionalization of ancillary bipyridine ligands (L) enables the potential of the excited state Ru(III/)* couple, E(+/)*, in 0.1 M perchloric acid (HClO4(aq)) to be tuned from -0.69 to -1.03 V vs NHE. Each dye is excited by a 200 fs pulse of light in the visible region of the spectrum and probed with a time-delayed supercontiuum pulse (350-800 nm). Decay of the MLCT excited-state absorption at 376 nm is observed without loss of the ground-state bleach, which is a clear signature of electron injection and formation of the oxidized dye. The dye-dependent decays are biphasic with time constants in the 3-30 and 30-500 ps range. The slower injection rate constant for each dye is exponentially distributed relative to E(+/)*. The correlation between the exponentially diminishing density of TiO2 sub-band acceptor levels and injection rate is well described using Marcus-Gerischer theory, with the slower decay components being assigned to injection from the thermally equilibrated state and the faster components corresponding to injection from higher energy states within the (3)MLCT manifold. These results and detailed analyses incorporating molecular photophysics and semiconductor density of states measurements indicate that the multiexponential behavior that is often observed in interfacial injection studies is not due to sample heterogeneity. Rather, this work shows that the kinetic heterogeneity results from competition between excited-state relaxation and injection as the photoexcited dye relaxes through the (3)MLCT manifold to the thermally equilibrated state, underscoring the potential for a simple kinetic model to reproduce the complex kinetic behavior often observed at the interface of mesoporous metal oxide materials. PMID:26974040

  20. Stepwise Two-Photon-Induced Fast Photoswitching via Electron Transfer in Higher Excited States of Photochromic Imidazole Dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoichi; Katayama, Tetsuro; Yamane, Takuya; Setoura, Kenji; Ito, Syoji; Miyasaka, Hiroshi; Abe, Jiro

    2016-05-11

    Stepwise two-photon excitations have been attracting much interest because of their much lower power thresholds compared with simultaneous two-photon processes and because some stepwise two-photon processes can be initiated by a weak incoherent excitation light source. Here we apply stepwise two-photon optical processes to the photochromic bridged imidazole dimer, whose solution instantly changes color upon UV irradiation and quickly reverts to the initial color thermally at room temperature. We synthesized a zinc tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP)-substituted bridged imidazole dimer, and wide ranges of time-resolved spectroscopic studies revealed that a ZnTPP-linked bridged imidazole dimer shows efficient visible stepwise two-photon-induced photochromic reactions upon excitation at the porphyrin moiety. The fast photoswitching property combined with stepwise two-photon processes is important not only for the potential for novel photochromic materials that are sensitive to the incident light intensity but also for fundamental photochemistry using higher excited states. PMID:27088169

  1. Excitation energy transfer studies of phycoerythrins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacColl, R.

    1978-11-01

    Completely corrected fluorescence emission and excitation spectra were obtained for two types of the algal biliprotein phycoerythrin. These spectra together with the appropriate absorption spectra were used to analyze the pathways by which phycoerythrins may transfer excitation energy. 2 figures, 1 table.

  2. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, Dave; Gagliardi, Christopher J.; Hull, Jonathan F; Murphy, Christine Fecenko; Kent, Caleb A.; Westlake, Brittany C.; Paul, Amit; Ess, Daniel H; McCafferty, Dewey Granville; Meyer, Thomas J

    2012-07-11

    Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer (PCET) describes reactions in which there is a change in both electron and proton content between reactants and products. It originates from the influence of changes in electron content on acid-base properties and provides a molecular-level basis for energy transduction between proton transfer and electron transfer. Coupled electron-proton transfer or EPT is defined as an elementary step in which electrons and protons transfer from different orbitals on the donor to different orbitals on the acceptor. There is (usually) a clear distinction between EPT and H-atom transfer (HAT) or hydride transfer, in which the transferring electrons and proton come from the same bond. Hybrid mechanisms exist in which the elementary steps are different for the reaction partners. EPT pathways such as PhO•/PhOH exchange have much in common with HAT pathways in that electronic coupling is significant, comparable to the reorganization energy with H{sub DA} ~ λ. Multiple-Site Electron-Proton Transfer (MS-EPT) is an elementary step in which an electron-proton donor transfers electrons and protons to different acceptors, or an electron-proton acceptor accepts electrons and protons from different donors. It exploits the long-range nature of electron transfer while providing for the short-range nature of proton transfer. A variety of EPT pathways exist, creating a taxonomy based on what is transferred, e.g., 1e-/2H+ MS-EPT. PCET achieves “redox potential leveling” between sequential couples and the buildup of multiple redox equivalents, which is of importance in multielectron catalysis. There are many examples of PCET and pH-dependent redox behavior in metal complexes, in organic and biological molecules, in excited states, and on surfaces. Changes in pH can be used to induce electron transfer through films and over long distances in molecules. Changes in pH, induced by local electron transfer, create pH gradients and a driving force for long-range proton transfer in Photosysem II and through other biological membranes. In EPT, simultaneous transfer of electrons and protons occurs on time scales short compared to the periods of coupled vibrations and solvent modes. A theory for EPT has been developed which rationalizes rate constants and activation barriers, includes temperature- and driving force (ΔG)-dependences implicitly, and explains kinetic isotope effects. The distance-dependence of EPT is dominated by the short-range nature of proton transfer, with electron transfer being far less demanding.Changes in external pH do not affect an EPT elementary step. Solvent molecules or buffer components can act as proton donor acceptors, but individual H2O molecules are neither good bases (pKa(H3O+) = -1.74) nor good acids (pKa(H2O) = 15.7). There are many examples of mechanisms in chemistry, in biology, on surfaces, and in the gas phase which utilize EPT. PCET and EPT play critical roles in the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of Photosystem II and other biological reactions by decreasing driving force and avoiding high-energy intermediates.

  3. An accurate full-dimensional potential energy surface for H–Au(111): Importance of nonadiabatic electronic excitation in energy transfer and adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have constructed a potential energy surface (PES) for H-atoms interacting with fcc Au(111) based on fitting the analytic form of the energy from Effective Medium Theory (EMT) to ab initio energy values calculated with density functional theory. The fit used input from configurations of the H–Au system with Au atoms at their lattice positions as well as configurations with the Au atoms displaced from their lattice positions. It reproduces the energy, in full dimension, not only for the configurations used as input but also for a large number of additional configurations derived from ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) trajectories at finite temperature. Adiabatic molecular dynamics simulations on this PES reproduce the energy loss behavior of AIMD. EMT also provides expressions for the embedding electron density, which enabled us to develop a self-consistent approach to simulate nonadiabatic electron-hole pair excitation and their effect on the motion of the incident H-atoms. For H atoms with an energy of 2.7 eV colliding with Au, electron-hole pair excitation is by far the most important energy loss pathway, giving an average energy loss ≈3 times that of the adiabatic case. This increased energy loss enhances the probability of the H-atom remaining on or in the Au slab by a factor of 2. The most likely outcome for H-atoms that are not scattered also depends prodigiously on the energy transfer mechanism; for the nonadiabatic case, more than 50% of the H-atoms which do not scatter are adsorbed on the surface, while for the adiabatic case more than 50% pass entirely through the 4 layer simulation slab

  4. Electron transfer in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1991-01-01

    Electron migration between and within proteins is one of the most prevalent forms of biological energy conversion processes. Electron transfer reactions take place between active centers such as transition metal ions or organic cofactors over considerable distances at fast rates and with remarkable...... specificity. The electron transfer is attained through weak electronic interaction between the active sites, so that considerable research efforts are centered on resolving the factors that control the rates of long-distance electron transfer reactions in proteins. These factors include (in addition to the......-containing proteins. These proteins serve almost exclusively in electron transfer reactions, and as it turns out, their metal coordination sites are endowed with properties uniquely optimized for their function....

  5. Excitation and charge transfer in He/sup +/ + H collisions. A molecular approach including two-electron translation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1983-06-01

    In a previous paper we have pointed out that the common-translation-factor (CTF) method is the only one which, at present, and within the framework of the molecular model of atomic collisions, can be shown to be both convergent and computationally fast, even for many-electron systems. In this Communication we check that this second statement is correct, presenting, for the first time, a molecular calculation involving two-electron translation factors, for He/sup +/ + H collisions. A careful study of the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections to the choice of the CTF is performed, and conclusions on that sensitivity are drawn, for several types of processes.

  6. Excitation and charge transfer in He+ + H collisions. A molecular approach including two-electron translation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous paper we have pointed out that the common-translation-factor (CTF) method is the only one which, at present, and within the framework of the molecular model of atomic collisions, can be shown to be both convergent and computationally fast, even for many-electron systems. In this Communication we check that this second statement is correct, presenting, for the first time, a molecular calculation involving two-electron translation factors, for He+ + H collisions. A careful study of the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections to the choice of the CTF is performed, and conclusions on that sensitivity are drawn, for several types of processes

  7. Electron capture into excited states in H+Ar18+, Kr36+ and Xe54+ charge transfer collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partial cross-sections for electron capture into specific final state principal shells in H + Ar18+, Kr36+ and Xe54+ collisions are calculated. A multichannel Landau-Zener model, which includes also the rotational transitions in the ionic channels, is employed. The calculations are performed in the energy range from 10-2 to 102 keV amu-1. (Auth.)

  8. Excitation transfer in stacked quantum dot chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanachuchai, Songphol; Xu, Ming; Jaffré, Alexandre; Jittrong, Apichart; Chokamnuai, Thitipong; Panyakeow, Somsak; Boutchich, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    Stacked InAs quantum dot chains (QDCs) on InGaAs/GaAs cross-hatch pattern (CHP) templates yield a rich emission spectrum with an unusual carrier transfer characteristic compared to conventional quantum dot (QD) stacks. The photoluminescent spectra of the controlled, single QDC layer comprise multiple peaks from the orthogonal QDCs, the free-standing QDs, the CHP, the wetting layers and the GaAs substrate. When the QDC layers are stacked, employing a 10 nm GaAs spacer between adjacent QDC layers, the PL spectra are dominated by the top-most stack, indicating that the QDC layers are nominally uncoupled. Under high excitation power densities when the high-energy peaks of the top stack are saturated, however, low-energy PL peaks from the bottom stacks emerge as a result of carrier transfers across the GaAs spacers. These unique PL signatures contrast with the state-filling effects in conventional, coupled QD stacks and serve as a means to quickly assess the presence of electronic coupling in stacks of dissimilar-sized nanostructures.

  9. Charge transfer and excitation in high-energy ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coincidence measurements of charge transfer and simultaneous projectile electron excitation provide insight into correlated two-electron processes in energetic ion-atom collisions. Projectile excitation and electron capture can occur simultaneously in a collision of a highly charged ion with a target atom; this process is called resonant transfer and excitation (RTE). The intermediate excited state which is thus formed can subsequently decay by photon emission or by Auger-electron emission. Results are shown for RTE in both the K shell of Ca ions and the L shell of Nb ions, for simultaneous projectile electron loss and excitation, and for the effect of RTE on electron capture

  10. On the suppression of quantum oscillations and the choice of site energies in electronic excitation transfer in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson trimer

    CERN Document Server

    Ritschel, G; Strunz, W T; Aspuru-Guzik, A; Eisfeld, A

    2011-01-01

    Energy transfer in the photosynthetic complex of the Green Sulfur Bacteria known as the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex is studied theoretically taking all three subunits (monomers) of the FMO trimer and the recently found eighth bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecule into account. We find that in all considered cases there is very little transfer between the monomers. Since it is believed that the eighth BChl is located near the main light harvesting antenna we look at the differences in transfer between the situation when BChl 8 is initially excited and the usually considered case when BChl 1 or 6 is initially excited. We find strong differences in the transfer dynamics, both qualitatively and quantitatively. When the excited state dynamics is initialized at site eight of the FMO complex, we see a slow exponential-like decay of the excitation. This is in contrast to the oscillations and a relatively fast transfer that occurs when only seven sites or initialization at sites 1 and 6 is considered. Additionall...

  11. Excited state Intramolecular Proton Transfer in Anthralin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Andersen, Kristine B.; Spanget-Larsen, Jens; Waluk, Jacek

    Quantum chemical calculations performed on anthralin (1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone) predict the possibility of an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the compound dissolved in n-hexane at ambient temperature results in an...... unusually large fluorescence Stokes shift of 10500 cm−1. The emission appears as a broad band with a maximum at 17500 cm−1 and is characterized by a low and nearly temperature-independent quantum yield. The results are interpreted as an indication of a large equilibrium geometry change upon excitation...

  12. Phonons and charge-transfer excitations in HTS superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the experimental and theoretical evidence implicating phonons and charge-transfer excitations in HTS superconductors is reviewed. It is suggested that superconductivity may be driven by a synergistic interplay of (anharmonic) phonons and electronic degrees of freedom (e.g., charge fluctuations, excitons). 47 refs., 5 figs

  13. Anomalous temperature dependence of excitation transfer between quantum dots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Karel; Menšík, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2015), 325-330. ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14011; GA MŠk LH12236; GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : excitation transfer * quantum dots * temperature dependence * electron-phonon interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  14. Dynamics of excitation energy transfer in phycobiliproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiguang; Wang, He Z.; Zhao, Fuli; Gao, Zhaolan; Yu, Zhenxin

    1994-08-01

    Theoretical descriptions of excitation energy transfer between chromophores in allophycocyanin are presented, including bilateral energy transfer paths between chromophores, and are expressed, based on Foster interaction mechanism, as Pauli master equations. Group analysis in C3 symmetry is performed to carry out analytic expressions for fluorescence decays which is generally of triexponential with effects of chromophore coupling and exciton splitting taken account. It is pointed out that the time constant of each decay component contains mixed information of different energy transfer paths, and therefore show its dependence on subtle configuration of chromophores, probably related to site heterogeneity and thus to inhomogeneous broadening previously observed.

  15. Enhanced negative ion formation via electron attachment to electronically-excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent basic studies on electron attachment to laser-excited molecules show that electron attachment to electronically-excited states can have orders of magnitude larger cross sections compared to the respective ground electronic states. Even though systematic studies have not been conducted, there are indications that electronically-excited states may play a significant role in negative ion formation in gas discharges. The high-lying Rydberg states could be of particular significance since, (i) their production efficiencies are high, and (ii) they have comparatively long lifetimes. Such states could be populated in discharge sources via direct electron impact or via excitation transfer from metastable states of inert gases

  16. Electronic Excited States of Tungsten(0) Arylisocyanides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvapilov, Hana; Sattler, Wesley; Sattler, Aaron; Sazanovich, Igor V; Clark, Ian P; Towrie, Michael; Gray, Harry B; Zli, Stanislav; Vl?ek, Antonn

    2015-09-01

    W(CNAryl)6 complexes containing 2,6-diisopropylphenyl isocyanide (CNdipp) are powerful photoreductants with strongly emissive long-lived excited states. These properties are enhanced upon appending another aryl ring, e.g., W(CNdippPh(OMe2))6; CNdippPh(OMe2) = 4-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,6-diisopropylphenylisocyanide (Sattler et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 1198-1205). Electronic transitions and low-lying excited states of these complexes were investigated by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT); the lowest triplet state was characterized by time-resolved infrared spectroscopy (TRIR) supported by density functional theory (DFT). The intense absorption band of W(CNdipp)6 at 460 nm and that of W(CNdippPh(OMe2))6 at 500 nm originate from transitions of mixed ??*(C?N-C)/MLCT(W ? Aryl) character, whereby W is depopulated by ca. 0.4 e(-) and the electron-density changes are predominantly localized along two equatorial molecular axes. The red shift and intensity rise on going from W(CNdipp)6 to W(CNdippPh(OMe2))6 are attributable to more extensive delocalization of the MLCT component. The complexes also exhibit absorptions in the 300-320 nm region, owing to W ? C?N MLCT transitions. Electronic absorptions in the spectrum of W(CNXy)6 (Xy = 2,6-dimethylphenyl), a complex with orthogonal aryl orientation, have similar characteristics, although shifted to higher energies. The relaxed lowest W(CNAryl)6 triplet state combines ??* excitation of a trans pair of C?N-C moieties with MLCT (0.21 e(-)) and ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (LLCT, 0.24-0.27 e(-)) from the other four CNAryl ligands to the axial aryl and, less, to C?N groups; the spin density is localized along a single Aryl-N?C-W-C?N-Aryl axis. Delocalization of excited electron density on outer aryl rings in W(CNdippPh(OMe2))6 likely promotes photoinduced electron-transfer reactions to acceptor molecules. TRIR spectra show an intense broad bleach due to ?(C?N), a prominent transient upshifted by 60-65 cm(-1), and a weak down-shifted feature due to antisymmetric C?N stretch along the axis of high spin density. The TRIR spectral pattern remains unchanged on the femtosecond-nanosecond time scale, indicating that intersystem crossing and electron-density localization are ultrafast (<100 fs). PMID:26267759

  17. Resonant transfer and excitation in C3++Li collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental resonant transfer and excitation (RTE) cross sections were measured for lithiumlike carbon ions in the energy range 5--9 MeV incident on a lithium vapor target. Transfer excitation populates the 1s2s2p23D state predominantly. Subsequent Auger decay of this state to the ground state is studied in high resolution using a 0 degree electron spectrometer. The measured single-differential cross sections at different projectile energies were compared with theoretical calculations based on the impulse-approximation formulation of RTE. The results of these experiments show that while the contribution of the target valence electron is consistent with impulse-approximation theory, no contribution to RTE by the core electrons is seen

  18. Transferred orbital angular momentum in the low-energy electron impact excitation of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 1}P{sub 1} transition in barium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.V.; Spanu, C.; Zetner, P.W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2001-11-28

    Superelastic electron scattering involving the collisional de-excitation of laser-excited {sup 138}Ba(...6s6p {sup 1}P{sub 1}) atoms to the (...6s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0}) ground state has been used to measure electron impact coherence parameters for the related (...6s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0}) to (...6s6p {sup 1}P{sub 1}) inelastic process. Measurements of the orbital angular momentum transfer parameter, L{sub perp}{sup +}, were made for excitation at impact energies of 7, 8.5, 11 and 16 eV. Experimental data are compared with available theoretical results. (author)

  19. L-shell resonant transfer and excitation for NE-like niobium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Projectile excitation and charge transfer (capture) can occur simultaneously in a single encounter with a target atom through the electron-electron interaction between a projectile electron and a weakly bound target electron. This process is referred to as resonant transfer and excitation (RTE). L-shell RTE has been investigated for 230 to 610 MeV Nb31+ (neonlike) ions incident on H2. 11 refs., 1 fig

  20. Cold transfer between deformed, Coulomb excited nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scattering system 162Dy → 116Sn has been examined at energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier using the Heidelberg-Darmstadt Crystal Ball spectrometer combined with 5 Germanium-CLUSTER detectors. In order to study pairing correlations as a function of angular momentum cold events were selected in the 2n stripping channel by identifying and suppressing the dominant hot part of the transfer with the Crystal Ball. The CLUSTER detectors with their high γ-efficiency were used to identify the transfer channel and to resolve individual final states. Cross sections for the population of individual yrast states in a cold transfer reaction have been measured for the first time indicating the strong influence of higher transfer multipolarities. At small surface distances Coulomb-nuclear interferences were found to be responsible for the stronger decline of the population of higher yrast states in the transfer channel as compared to the Coulex channel. As a preparatory study for 2n transfer measurements between high spin yrast states in the backbending region of deformed nuclei the Coulomb excitation process in the crossing region of two bands in 162Dy has been analyzed. The gross properties of the measured population probabilities could be interpreted in a simple band mixing model. (orig.)

  1. Excitation energy transfer from dye molecules to doped graphene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Swathi; K L Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we have reported theoretical studies on the rate of energy transfer from an electronically excited molecule to graphene. It was found that graphene is a very efficient quencher of the electronically excited states and that the rate -4. The process was found to be effective up to 30 which is well beyond the traditional FRET limit. In this report, we study the transfer of an amount of energy $\\hbar$ from a dye molecule to doped graphene. We find a crossover of the distance dependence of the rate from -4 to exponential as the Fermi level is increasingly shifted into the conduction band, with the crossover occurring at a shift of the Fermi level by an amount $\\hbar$ /2.

  2. Electron energy distribution functions and fractional power transfer in “cold” and excited CO2 discharge and post discharge conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Boltzmann equation, in the presence of superelastic vibrational and electronic collisions and of electron-electron Coulomb collisions, has been solved in CO2 plasma in discharge and post discharge conditions. Superelastic vibrational collisions play an important role in affecting the electron energy distribution function (eedf) in a wide range of the reduced electric field E/N and of vibrational temperatures characterizing the vibrational modes of CO2. An important result is the dependence of fractional power losses and of the relevant rate coefficients on the vibrational temperatures of the system. Superelastic electronic collisions, on the other hand, are the main processes affecting eedf and related quantities in the post discharge conditions (i.e., E/N = 0). In particular at low vibrational temperatures, the superelastic electronic collisions form an important plateau in the eedf, largely influencing the rate coefficients and the fractional power transfer

  3. Ferroelectrics with Low-energy Electronic Excitations

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, T K; Varma, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    We formulate a general theory of the dielectric response of a lattice with a structural transition and a polarization instability due to a soft-optic mode coupled to low energy electronic excitations by the electromagnetic fields. the electronic excitations considered are in two-limits; those of a low density of free-electrons or those of a low density of strongly localized electrons in the Coulomb-glass phase. The ferroelectric transition in the absence of the electronic-excitations and the ...

  4. Two-electron excitation of an interacting cold Rydberg gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, J; Lochead, G; Jones, M P A

    2010-11-19

    We report the creation of an interacting cold Rydberg gas of strontium atoms. We show that the excitation spectrum of the inner valence electron is sensitive to the interactions in the Rydberg gas, even though they are mediated by the outer Rydberg electron. By studying the evolution of this spectrum we observe density-dependent population transfer to a state of higher angular momentum l. We determine the fraction of Rydberg atoms transferred, and identify the dominant transfer mechanism to be l-changing electron-Rydberg collisions associated with the formation of a cold plasma. PMID:21231300

  5. Two-electron excitation of an interacting cold Rydberg gas

    CERN Document Server

    Millen, J; Jones, M P A

    2010-01-01

    We report the creation of an interacting cold Rydberg gas of strontium atoms. We show that the excitation spectrum of the inner valence electron is sensitive to the interactions in the Rydberg gas, even though they are mediated by the outer Rydberg electron. By studying the evolution of this spectrum we observe density-dependent population transfer to a state of higher angular momentum l. We determine the fraction of Rydberg atoms transferred, and identify the dominant transfer mechanism to be l-changing electron-Rydberg collisions associated with the formation of a cold plasma.

  6. Advances in electron transfer chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Patrick S

    1993-01-01

    Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry, Volume 3 presents studies that discuss findings in the various aspects of electron chemistry. The book is comprised of four chapters; each chapter reviews a work that tackles an issue in electron transfer chemistry. Chapter 1 discusses the photoinduced electron transfer in flexible biaryl donor-acceptor molecules. Chapter 2 tackles light-induced electron transfer in inorganic systems in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. The book also covers internal geometry relaxation effects on electron transfer rates of amino-centered systems. The sequential elec

  7. Evidence for interference between resonant and nonresonant transfer and excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first angular distribution measurements of Auger electrons arising from transfer and excitation Auger (TE) processes were performed at O5+ projective energies of 8 MeV, where the resonant (RTE) and the nonresonant (NTE) transfer and excitation have equal contributions in populating the (1s2s2p2)3D state, and at 13 MeV where RTE is predominant and at 6 MeV where NTE is more significant. The TE angular distributions are strongly forward peaked along the beam direction. The data were fitted to w(θp)=C[1+a2P2(cosθp)+a4P4(cosθp)] and the magnetic substate population probabilities were inferred

  8. Electron spectra from doubly excited charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes spectroscopic investigations of ejected electrons from autoionizing state of doubly-excited He-like ions. Total angular momentum L-distributions in the double electron transfer processes have been discussed for O6+, N5+, C4+ and O4+. Those previous studies suggest that high-angular momentum states are dominantly populated by double-capture collisions of highly charged ions. In the present study, most of the ejected elections (about 80%) come from D and F states rather than S and P. If it is assumed that all of the magnetic sublevels are equally populated, differential cross sections for electron emission in the forward direction will be proportional to the total emission cross sections for the respective L-states. Under this assumption, it can be concluded that high L-states are dominantly populated in the present collision systems for C6+ + He at 67 keV and B5+ + He at 50 keV. At the current stage, however, more systematic observations, which can be expressed as a function of ejection angles, are needed because no accurate information is available on the magnetic sublevel population. (N.K.)

  9. Electron transfer reactions of excited dyes with metal complexes. Progress report, March 1, 1978-February 28, 1979. [Iron-methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtin, N.N.

    1979-03-15

    An intense absorption band of /sup 3/MBH/sup 2 +/ at 700nm was characterized in several media and its pK/sub A/ was measured to be 7.17 +- .1 in water. Flash photolysis show that semiethylene blue, MBH/sup +/, formed by quenching /sup 3/MBH/sup 2 +/ with Fe/sub II/(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 2 +/, decays by disproportionation at a diffusion-controlled rate. Rates of decay of the photostationary state of solutions of MB/sup +/ and Fe/sup II/(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 2 +/ in acidic media were measured using crossed beams to yield specific rates of oxidation of leucomethylene blue (MBH/sub 3//sup 2 +/) by MB/sup +/ (synproportionation) and by Fe(III). Laser flash-photolysis shows that quenching of MB/sup +/(S/sub 1/) by Fe(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 2 +/ can result in electron transfer to give MBH/sup +/. Profound differences between processes initiated by quenching triplet methylene blue with Fe(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 2 +/ and with stable coordination complexes of Fe(II) were found. Quenchers included (Fe/sup II/(CN)/sub 6/)/sup 4 -/, (Fe/sup II/(CN)/sub 4/(bpy)/sub 2/)/sup 2 -/, (Fe/sup II/(CN)/sub 2/(bpy))/sup 0/, and (Fe/sup II/(bpy)/sub 3/)/sup 2 +/. Measurements were made in aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic solutions at pH 2, 4.4, and 8.2. Quenching of /sup 3/MBH/sup 2 +/ or /sup 3/MB/sup +/ by a stable complex of Fe(II) is diffusion-controlled and 10/sup 2/ to 10/sup 3/ times the rate at which Fe(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 2 +/ quenches /sup 3/MBH/sup 2 +/. Net electron transfer accounts for less than 1/3 of total quenching by complexed Fe(II). In contrast, quenching by Fe(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 2 +/ goes essentially entirely with net electron transfer. It is concluded that quenching of triplet methylene blue by complexes proceeds via electron transfer which is reversible in the encounter complex. The MBH/sup +/ which results from net electron transfer from complexes of Fe(II) decays essentially entirely to MB/sup +/ via oxidation by complexed Fe(III); no disproportionation has been observed.

  10. Symmetry characterization of electrons and lattice excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schober H.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Symmetry concerns all aspects of a physical system from the electronic orbitals to structural and magnetic excitations. In this article we will try to elaborate the fundamental connection between symmetry and excitations. As excitations are manyfold in physical systems it is impossible to treat them exhaustively. We thus concentrate on the two topics of Bloch electrons and phonons. These two examples are complementary in the sense that Bloch electrons describe single particles in an external periodic potential while phonons exemplify a decoupled system of interacting particles. The way we develop the argument gives as by-product a short account of molecular orbitals and molecular vibrations.

  11. Nuclear excitation by electronic transition (NEET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a report on recent measurements using the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory to explore the phenomenon of Nuclear Excitation by Electronic Transition (NEET) in the 189Os atomic/nuclear system

  12. Resonant electron transfer between quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Openov, Leonid A.

    1999-01-01

    An interaction of electromagnetic field with a nanostructure composed of two quantum dots is studied theoretically. An effect of a resonant electron transfer between the localized low-lying states of quantum dots is predicted. A necessary condition for such an effect is the existence of an excited bound state whose energy lies close to the top of the barrier separating the quantum dots. This effect may be used to realize the reversible quantum logic gate NOT if the superposition of electron s...

  13. Theoretical study of intermolecular energy transfer involving electronically excited molecules: He(1S) + H2(B 1Σ/sub u/+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To further understanding of gas phase collision dynamics involving electronically-excited molecules, a fully quantum mechanical study of He + H2(B 1Σ/sub u/+) was undertaken. Iterative natural orbital configuration interaction (CI) calculations were performed to obtain the interaction potential between He and H2(B 1Σ/sub u/+). The potential energy surface (PES) is highly anisotropic and has a van der Waals well of about 0.03 eV for C/sub 2v/ approach. Avoided PES crossings occur with He + H2(E,F 1Σ/sub g/+) and with He + H2(X 1Σ/sub g/+) and cause a local maximum and a deep minimum in the He + H2(B 1Σ/sub u/+) PES, respectively. The crossing with He + H2(X 1Σ/sub g/+) provides a mechanism for fluorescence quenching. The computed CI energies were combined with previous multi-reference double excitation CI calculations and fit with analytic functions for convenience in scattering calculations. Accurate dipole polarizabilities and quadrupole moment of H2(B 1Σ/sub u/+) were computed for use in the multipole expansion, which is the analytic form of the long-range PES. 129 refs., 28 figs., 35 tabs

  14. Electron-impact excitation of silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toi?, S. D.; Pej?ev, V.; evi?, D.; McEachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.; Marinkovi?, B. P.

    2015-05-01

    We measure the differential cross sections (DCSs) for the electron-impact excitation of the combined (two fine-structure levels) resonant 4 d105 p P 1 /2 ,3 /2 2 and 4 d95 s2D 5 /2 2 states in silver from the 4 d105 s S 1 /2 2 ground state. A comparison with the predictions of the relativistic distorted-wave (RDW) approximation model is carried out. Relativistic distorted-wave calculations are performed for each level separately and are combined to compare with the measurements. Both the experimental and theoretical results are obtained at incident electron energies E0 of 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 eV and scattering angles ? from 10 up to 150 (experiment) and from 0 to 180 (calculations). Absolute values for the experimental DCSs are obtained by normalizing relative DCSs to theoretical RDW results at 40 at all energies except at 10 eV, where we performed the normalization of the relative DCSs at 10 to our previous small-angle experimental DCS values [S. D. Toi? et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 279, 53 (2012), 10.1016/j.nimb.2011.10.066]. The integrated cross sections, which include integral QI, momentum transfer QM, and viscosity QV cross sections, are determined by numerical integration of the absolute DCSs.

  15. Stimulated excitation electron microscopy and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in instrumentation for electron optics and spectroscopy have prompted exploration of ultra-low excitations such as phonons, bond vibrations and Johnson noise. These can be excited not just with fast electrons but also thermally or by other external sources of radiation. The near-field theory of electron energy loss and gain provides a convenient platform for analysing these processes. Possibilities for selected phonon mapping and imaging are discussed. Effects should certainly be observable in atomic resolution structure imaging but diffraction contrast imaging could perhaps be more informative. Additional exciting prospects to be explored include the transition from phonon excitation to single atom recoil and the boosting of energy loss and gain signals with tuned laser illumination. - Highlights: • Electron energy gains and losses measure thermal or laser boosting of excitations. • Electron energy gains and losses are conveniently analysed by near field theory. • Diffraction contrast theory is relevant for phonon imaging by electrons. • The transition from phonon excitation to single atom recoil deserves study

  16. Neutron scattering investigation of magnetic excitations at high energy transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advance of pulsed spallation neutron sources, neutron scattering investigation of elementary excitations in magnetic materials can now be extended to energies up to several hundreds of MeV. We have measured, using chopper spectrometers and time-of-flight techniques, the magnetic response functions of a series of d and f transition metals and compounds over a wide range of energy and momentum transfer. In PrO2, UO2, BaPrO3 and CeB6 we observed crystal-field transitions between the magnetic ground state and the excited levels in the energy range from 40 to 260 MeV. In materials exhibiting spin-fluctuation or mixed-valent character such as Ce 74Th 26, on the other hand, no sharp crystal-field lines but a broadened quasielastic magnetic peak was observed. The line width of the quasielastic component is thought to be connected to the spin-fluctuation energy of the 4f electrons. The significance of the neutron scattering results in relation to the ground state level structure of the magnetic ions and the spin-dynamics of the f electrons is discussed. Recently, in a study of the spin-wave excitations in itinerant magnetic systems, we have extended the spin-wave measurements in ferromagnetic iron up to about 160 MeV. Neutron scattering data at high energy transfers are of particular interest because they provide direct comparison with recent theories of itinerant magnetism. 26 references, 7 figures

  17. Polarization in nuclear excitation by electron impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubassa-Amundsen, D. H.

    2015-05-01

    Electron-electron polarization correlations from nuclear excitation by spin-polarized electrons are studied within the distorted-wave Born approximation. Restriction is made to spin-0 and to unpolarized spin-1/2 nuclei. When Coulomb scattering is dominant the resulting spin asymmetries may exceed those from elastic scattering. However, at the backmost scattering angles or for large transition current densities where magnetic scattering prevails, there is a strong suppression of the transverse polarization correlations. Predictions are made for the excitation of the lowest 3- and 5- states of 208Pb and the lowest 5/2- state of 89Y by 60-220 MeV electrons.

  18. Electron-impact excitation of molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple expression is derived that relates the rate coefficient for dipole-allowed electron-impact excitation of a molecular ion in the Coulomb-Born approximation to the Einstein A coefficient for the corresponding radiative decay. Results are given for several molecular ions of astrophysical interest. A general analytic expression is obtained for the equilibrium rotational level populations in the ground vibrational state of any molecular ion excited by collisions with electrons. The expression depends only upon the electron temperature, the electron density, and the rotational constant of the molecular ion. A similar expression is obtained for neutral polar molecules

  19. Enhanced negative ion formation via electron attachment to electronically-excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent basic studies on electron attachment to laser-excited molecules show that electron attachment to electronically-excited states can have orders of magnitude larger cross sections compared to the respective ground electronic states. Even though systematic studies have not been conducted, there are indications that electronically-excited states may play a significant role in negative ion formation in gas discharges. The high-lying Rydberg states could be of particular significance since, (i) their production efficiencies are high, and (ii) they have comparatively long lifetimes. Such states could be populated in discharge sources via direct electron impact or via excitation transfer from metastable states of inert gases. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  20. Excitation and Decay of Electron Acoustic Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A particle in cell (PIC) simulation is used to investigate the excitation of electron acoustic waves (EAWs) by a driver electric eld and the stability of the EAWs against decay. An EAW is a nonlinear wave with a carefully tailored trapped particle population, and the excitation process must create the trapped particle population. For a nearly collisionless plasma, successful excitation occurs when a relatively low amplitude driver that is spatially and temporally resonant with the EAW is applied for a suf ciently long time (many trapping periods). The excited EAW rings at nearly constant amplitude long after the driver is turned off, provided the EAW has the largest wavelength that ts in the simulation domain. Otherwise, the excited EAW decays to a longer wavelength EAW. In phase space, this decay to longer wavelength appears as a tendency of the vortex-like trapped particle populations to merge

  1. Electron-beam-excited gas laser research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Net energy gain in laser fusion places requirements on the laser that are not realized by any existing laser. Utilization of relativistic electron beams (REB's), a relatively new source for the excitation of gas laser media, may lead to new lasers that could satisfy these requirements. Already REB's have been utilized to excite gas laser media and produce gas lasers that have not been produced as successfully any other way. Electron-beam-excitation has produced electronic-transition dimer lasers that have not yet been produced by any other excitation scheme (for example, Xe2/ sup *(1)/, Kr:O(21S)/sup 2/, KrF/sup *(3)/). In addition, REB's have initiated chemical reactions to produce HF laser radiation with unique and promising results. Relativistic-electron-beam gas-laser research is continuing to lead to new lasers with unique properties. Results of work carried out at Sandia Laboratories in this pioneering effort of electron-beam-excited-gas lasers are reviewed. (U.S.)

  2. Electronic excitation of Na atom by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electronic excitation of the 3s-3p transition in the Na atom was studied by intermediate energy electron impact spectroscopy. Differential Cross Sections (DCS) and Generalized Oscillator Strenghts (GOS) were determined experimentally for 1 KeV electrons. Theoretical results within the First Born Approximation as well as Glauber theory, were also performed. (A.C.A.S.)

  3. E-T and near-resonant E-V energy transfer in the quenching of the 1.0 and 2.3 ?m electronically excited states of PuF6 by H2 and D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quenching and energy transfer of electronically excited PuF6 by H2 and D2 have been measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) from both the 1.0 and 2.3 ?m emitting states of PuF6. Linear Stern--Volmer plots of the single exponential decay data give quenching rate constants (all in units of cm3 molecule-1 s-1) for D2 of (3.7 +- 1.7) x 10-15 and (8.7 +- 0.3) x 10-16 for the 1.0 and and 2.3 ?m states, respectively, and a H2 quenching rate constant of (4.8 +- 0.3) x 10-14 for the 1 ?m LIF. The 2.3 ?m LIF in H2 is not a single exponential decay but a rapid decay followed by an anomalously long tail, which implies almost resonant Earrow-right-leftV energy transfer and storage. Kinetic modeling yields the following new rate constants: m PuF6*+H2?PuF6+H/sup not-equal/2, k = (2.05 +- 0.30) x 10-14; P H2/sup not-equal/+PuF6?H2+PuF6*, k = (3.1 +- 0.5) x 10-14; H PuF6*+H2?PuF6+H2, k = (3.1 +- 2.0) x 10-15; P H2/sup not-equal/+PuF6?H2+PuF6, k = (3.1 +- 3.0) x 10-15; H where PuF6* is the 2.3 ?m emitting electronically excited state of PuF6 and H2/sup not-equal/ is vibrationally excited H2 in the v = 1 state

  4. Electron-impact vibrational excitation of cyclopropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?urk, R; ?rsky, P; Allan, M

    2015-04-14

    We report a very detailed test of the ab initio discrete momentum representation (DMR) method of calculating vibrational excitation of polyatomic molecules by electron impact, by comparison of its results with an extensive set of experimental data, covering the entire range of scattering angles from 10 to 180 and electron energies from 0.4 to 20 eV. The DMR calculations were carried out by solving the two-channel Lippmann-Schwinger equation in the momentum space, and the interaction between the scattered electron and the target molecule was described by exact static-exchange potential corrected by a density functional theory (DFT) correlation-polarization interaction that models target's response to the field of incoming electron. The theory is found to quantitatively reproduce the measured spectra for all normal modes, even at the difficult conditions of extreme angles and at low energies, and thus provides full understanding of the excitation mechanism. It is shown that the overlap of individual vibrational bands caused by limited experimental resolution and rotational excitation must be properly taken into account for correct comparison of experiment and theory. By doing so, an apparent discrepancy between published experimental data could be reconciled. A substantial cross section is found for excitation of the non-symmetric HCH twisting mode ?4 of A1 (?) symmetry by the 5.5 eV A2 (') resonance, surprisingly because the currently accepted selection rules predict this process to be forbidden. The DMR theory shows that the excitation is caused by an incoming electron in an f-wave of A2 (') symmetry which causes excitation of the non-symmetric HCH twisting mode ?4 of the A1 (?) symmetry and departs in p- and f-waves of A2 (?) symmetry. PMID:25877583

  5. Electron-impact vibrational excitation of cyclopropane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čurík, R.; Čársky, P.; Allan, M.

    2015-04-01

    We report a very detailed test of the ab initio discrete momentum representation (DMR) method of calculating vibrational excitation of polyatomic molecules by electron impact, by comparison of its results with an extensive set of experimental data, covering the entire range of scattering angles from 10∘ to 180∘ and electron energies from 0.4 to 20 eV. The DMR calculations were carried out by solving the two-channel Lippmann-Schwinger equation in the momentum space, and the interaction between the scattered electron and the target molecule was described by exact static-exchange potential corrected by a density functional theory (DFT) correlation-polarization interaction that models target's response to the field of incoming electron. The theory is found to quantitatively reproduce the measured spectra for all normal modes, even at the difficult conditions of extreme angles and at low energies, and thus provides full understanding of the excitation mechanism. It is shown that the overlap of individual vibrational bands caused by limited experimental resolution and rotational excitation must be properly taken into account for correct comparison of experiment and theory. By doing so, an apparent discrepancy between published experimental data could be reconciled. A substantial cross section is found for excitation of the non-symmetric HCH twisting mode ν4 of A1 ″ symmetry by the 5.5 eV A2 ' resonance, surprisingly because the currently accepted selection rules predict this process to be forbidden. The DMR theory shows that the excitation is caused by an incoming electron in an f-wave of A2 ' symmetry which causes excitation of the non-symmetric HCH twisting mode ν4 of the A1 ″ symmetry and departs in p- and f-waves of A2 ″ symmetry.

  6. Electron-impact vibrational excitation of cyclopropane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Čurík, R., E-mail: roman.curik@jh-inst.cas.cz; Čársky, P. [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Dolejškova 3, 182 23 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Allan, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2015-04-14

    We report a very detailed test of the ab initio discrete momentum representation (DMR) method of calculating vibrational excitation of polyatomic molecules by electron impact, by comparison of its results with an extensive set of experimental data, covering the entire range of scattering angles from 10{sup ∘} to 180{sup ∘} and electron energies from 0.4 to 20 eV. The DMR calculations were carried out by solving the two-channel Lippmann-Schwinger equation in the momentum space, and the interaction between the scattered electron and the target molecule was described by exact static-exchange potential corrected by a density functional theory (DFT) correlation-polarization interaction that models target’s response to the field of incoming electron. The theory is found to quantitatively reproduce the measured spectra for all normal modes, even at the difficult conditions of extreme angles and at low energies, and thus provides full understanding of the excitation mechanism. It is shown that the overlap of individual vibrational bands caused by limited experimental resolution and rotational excitation must be properly taken into account for correct comparison of experiment and theory. By doing so, an apparent discrepancy between published experimental data could be reconciled. A substantial cross section is found for excitation of the non-symmetric HCH twisting mode ν{sub 4} of A{sub 1}{sup ″} symmetry by the 5.5 eV A{sub 2}{sup ′} resonance, surprisingly because the currently accepted selection rules predict this process to be forbidden. The DMR theory shows that the excitation is caused by an incoming electron in an f-wave of A{sub 2}{sup ′} symmetry which causes excitation of the non-symmetric HCH twisting mode ν{sub 4} of the A{sub 1}{sup ″} symmetry and departs in p- and f-waves of A{sub 2}{sup ″} symmetry.

  7. Medium effects in photoinduced electron transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of an electron between two molecules is a fundamental chemical process of great significance in biochemistry as well as in general chemistry. Electron transfer reactions can be induced by the absorption of light - as in photosynthesis - so that one of the molecules reacts through an electronically excited state; a net storage of chemical energy may then take place. When electron transfer involves molecules in condensed phase, the role of the liquid or solid medium must be considered. In the first place, a polar solvent may promote electron transfer through the stabilization of ion pairs and the separation of ions; but if the polar solvent must reorganize prior to the reaction, then an activation barrier will exist against electron transfer in polar solvents. This article gives a citical review of this field, with some novel ideas concerning the role of the medium (liquid solvent or solid matrix) in the overall energy balance of electron transfer, in the kinetics of the reaction, and in the further process of charge separation. It is suggested in particular that no dielectric screening by a polar solvent can exist when ions are formed in direct contact; and that the extensive reorganization of the solvent prior to electron transfer is so unlikely as to be discounted. In these respects the model presented in this article diverges from the commonly accepted model of Weller and of Marcus and Hush. In the Conclusion section some areas of particular importance for further research in this field are outlined. (author) 28 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Electron impact induced electronic excitation and molecular dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron impact dissociation following molecular electronic excitation is shown to be one of the main dissociation channels for most molecules and the main one for a number of them. The calculated cross-sections and the rate constants for the dissociation process are given for a number of molecules. The influence of vibrational and rotational excitations of the target molecules on the cross-sections and the rate constants are analysed. (author)

  9. Coherence in electron-impact excitation of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes an experimental study into the electron-impact excitation to the 33P, 31D and 33D states of Helium. The scattered electron and the photon, emitted by the excited atom, are measured in coincidence. The parameters, which can be varied, are the scattering angle and the kinetic energy of the projectile. Two parameters, which are used to characterize the excited state, are the angular momentum transferred to the atom, L perpendicular, and the alignment angle γ. It is shown that results of measurements on 31D excitation with photon detection perpendicular to the scattering plane do not agree in the small scattering angle region with any of the model calculations currently available. Remarkable is the sign of L perpendicular, which appears to start of negatively at 60 eV. It is shown that for 33P excitation the predicted large value of γ is indeed found experimentally. This supports the suggestion that exchange scattering is underestimated in model calculations for 1P excitation. Another result is that for 1P and 3P excitation the behaviour of L perpendicular as a function of the scattering angle can be related at different impact energies with the help of a partial wave expansion. A scaling relation can be formulated for the behaviour of L perpendicular. The influence of a negative ion resonance to excitation of the 33D state is investigated. Both in coincidence and non-coincidence measurements the presence of the resonance yields information on both the direct and indirect excitation of the 33D state. It is shown that the coincident measurement gives an unique opportunity to determine the excited 33D state completely. Results of measurements with photon detection in the scattering plane are given. They supplement previous 31D and 33D results and allow physical parameters, such as L perpendicular and γ, to be obtained. (H.W.). 132 refs.; 20 figs.; 18 tabs

  10. Computer simulation of cluster impact induced electronic excitation of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidtmann, B.; Hanke, S.; Duvenbeck, A. [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); Wucher, A., E-mail: andreas.wucher@uni-deu.de [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    We present a computational study of electronic excitation upon bombardment of a metal surface with cluster projectiles. Our model employs a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to calculate the particle dynamics following the projectile impact. Kinetic excitation is implemented via two mechanisms describing the electronic energy loss of moving particles: autoionization in close binary collisions and a velocity proportional friction force resulting from direct atom–electron collisions. Two different friction models are compared with respect to the predicted sputter yields after single atom and cluster bombardment. We find that a density dependent friction coefficient leads to a significant reduction of the total energy transferred to the electronic sub-system as compared to the Lindhard friction model, thereby strongly enhancing the predicted sputter yield under cluster bombardment conditions. In contrast, the yield predicted for monoatomic projectile bombardment remains practically unchanged.

  11. Computer simulation of cluster impact induced electronic excitation of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a computational study of electronic excitation upon bombardment of a metal surface with cluster projectiles. Our model employs a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to calculate the particle dynamics following the projectile impact. Kinetic excitation is implemented via two mechanisms describing the electronic energy loss of moving particles: autoionization in close binary collisions and a velocity proportional friction force resulting from direct atom–electron collisions. Two different friction models are compared with respect to the predicted sputter yields after single atom and cluster bombardment. We find that a density dependent friction coefficient leads to a significant reduction of the total energy transferred to the electronic sub-system as compared to the Lindhard friction model, thereby strongly enhancing the predicted sputter yield under cluster bombardment conditions. In contrast, the yield predicted for monoatomic projectile bombardment remains practically unchanged

  12. Electron impact cross sections of vibrationally and electronically excited molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung-Sik, E-mail: jsyoon@nfri.re.kr [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2, Osikdo-Dong, Gunsan, Jeollabuk-Do, 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Mi-Young; Kwon, Deuk-Chul; Choi, Heechol [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2, Osikdo-Dong, Gunsan, Jeollabuk-Do, 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang-Geun [National Center for Standard Reference Data, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Doryong-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, Vijay [B-82, Aarohi Twin Bungalows, Near Govt. Tubewell, Bopal, Ahmedabad-380058 (India)

    2014-10-30

    It is well known that the electron impact cross sections for elastic and inelastic processes for the vibrationally and electronically excited molecules are predominantly different than those for molecules in the ground state. Collisions of low energy electrons with excited molecules play an important role in explaining the behavior of gas discharges in laser and plasma physics, in planetary atmospheres, stars, and interstellar medium and in plasmas widely used in the fabrication of microelectronics. This explains as to why there is a need for having validated sets of electron impact cross sections for different processes. This work reviews the subject of electron collisions with vibrationally and electronically excited molecules in a comprehensive way. The survey has been carried out for a few excited molecules such as H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, T{sub 2}, HD, HT, DT, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2}. This review includes the discussion on the methods to produce and detect vibrationally and electronically excited molecules. We will take up the cross section data available in the literature for such molecules on electron scattering, dissociation, ionization and attachment processes and will discuss, evaluate and well-validate the same wherever and whenever possible.

  13. Electron impact cross sections of vibrationally and electronically excited molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that the electron impact cross sections for elastic and inelastic processes for the vibrationally and electronically excited molecules are predominantly different than those for molecules in the ground state. Collisions of low energy electrons with excited molecules play an important role in explaining the behavior of gas discharges in laser and plasma physics, in planetary atmospheres, stars, and interstellar medium and in plasmas widely used in the fabrication of microelectronics. This explains as to why there is a need for having validated sets of electron impact cross sections for different processes. This work reviews the subject of electron collisions with vibrationally and electronically excited molecules in a comprehensive way. The survey has been carried out for a few excited molecules such as H2, D2, T2, HD, HT, DT, N2, O2, and CO2. This review includes the discussion on the methods to produce and detect vibrationally and electronically excited molecules. We will take up the cross section data available in the literature for such molecules on electron scattering, dissociation, ionization and attachment processes and will discuss, evaluate and well-validate the same wherever and whenever possible

  14. Excitations and benchmark ensemble density functional theory for two electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pribram-Jones, Aurora; Burke, Kieron [Department of Chemistry, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Yang, Zeng-hui; Ullrich, Carsten A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Trail, John R.; Needs, Richard J. [Theory of Condensed Matter Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-14

    A new method for extracting ensemble Kohn-Sham potentials from accurate excited state densities is applied to a variety of two-electron systems, exploring the behavior of exact ensemble density functional theory. The issue of separating the Hartree energy and the choice of degenerate eigenstates is explored. A new approximation, spin eigenstate Hartree-exchange, is derived. Exact conditions that are proven include the signs of the correlation energy components and the asymptotic behavior of the potential for small weights of the excited states. Many energy components are given as a function of the weights for two electrons in a one-dimensional flat box, in a box with a large barrier to create charge transfer excitations, in a three-dimensional harmonic well (Hooke's atom), and for the He atom singlet-triplet ensemble, singlet-triplet-singlet ensemble, and triplet bi-ensemble.

  15. Excitations and benchmark ensemble density functional theory for two electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Pribram-Jones, Aurora; Trail, John R; Burke, Kieron; Needs, Richard J; Ullrich, Carsten A

    2014-01-01

    A new method for extracting ensemble Kohn-Sham potentials from accurate excited state densities is applied to a variety of two electron systems, exploring the behavior of exact ensemble density functional theory. The issue of separating the Hartree energy and the choice of degenerate eigenstates is explored. A new approximation, spin eigenstate Hartree-exchange (SEHX), is derived. Exact conditions that are proven include the signs of the correlation energy components, the virial theorem for both exchange and correlation, and the asymptotic behavior of the potential for small weights of the excited states. Many energy components are given as a function of the weights for two electrons in a one-dimensional flat box, in a box with a large barrier to create charge transfer excitations, in a three-dimensional harmonic well (Hooke's atom), and for the He atom singlet-triplet ensemble, singlet-triplet-singlet ensemble, and triplet bi-ensemble.

  16. Excitations and benchmark ensemble density functional theory for two electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for extracting ensemble Kohn-Sham potentials from accurate excited state densities is applied to a variety of two-electron systems, exploring the behavior of exact ensemble density functional theory. The issue of separating the Hartree energy and the choice of degenerate eigenstates is explored. A new approximation, spin eigenstate Hartree-exchange, is derived. Exact conditions that are proven include the signs of the correlation energy components and the asymptotic behavior of the potential for small weights of the excited states. Many energy components are given as a function of the weights for two electrons in a one-dimensional flat box, in a box with a large barrier to create charge transfer excitations, in a three-dimensional harmonic well (Hooke's atom), and for the He atom singlet-triplet ensemble, singlet-triplet-singlet ensemble, and triplet bi-ensemble

  17. Thermal electronic excitations in liquid metals

    OpenAIRE

    Chisolm, Eric D.; Bock, Nicolas; Rudin, Sven P.; Wallace, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal electronic excitations in metal crystals are calculated by starting with a reference structure for the nuclei: the crystal structure of the appropriate phase. Here we explain the corresponding theory for metal liquids, starting with an appropriate reference structure for a liquid. We explain the significance of these structures, and we briefly review how to find them and calculate their properties. Then we examine the electronic densities of states for liquid structures of Na, Al, and...

  18. Quasiparticle theory of electron excitations in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first-principles quasiparticle approach to electron excitation energies in solids is reviewed. The theory has been applied to explain and predict the spectroscopic properties of a variety of systems including bulk crystals, surfaces, interfaces, clusters, defects, and materials under pressure. Several illustrative applications are presented and some recent theoretical developments discussed

  19. Rotational excitation of CH+ by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rotational excitation of the CH+ molecular ion from the J0 = 0 to J = 1 state by electron impact is calculated in the framework of the Glauber approximation. The results are compared with the calculations of Chu and Dalgarno, which are based on the Coulomb-Born approximation

  20. Excitation of nonlinear electron acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A particle in cell (PIC) simulation is used to investigate the excitation of electron acoustic waves (EAWs) and the stability of the EAWs against decay. An EAW is a nonlinear wave with a carefully tailored trapped particle population, and the excitation process must create the trapped particle population. For a collisionless plasma, successful excitation occurs when a relatively low amplitude driver that is spatially and temporally resonant with the EAW is applied for a sufficiently long time (many trapping periods). The excited EAW rings at a nearly constant amplitude long after the driver is turned off, provided the EAW has the largest wavelength that fits in the simulation domain. Otherwise, the excited EAW decays to a longer wavelength EAW. In phase space, this decay to longer wavelength appears as a tendency of the vortex-like trapped particle populations to merge. In a collisional plasma, successful excitation of an EAW requires the driver amplitude to exceed a threshold value. The period for a trapped particle oscillation must be short compared to the time for collisions to smooth out the trapped particle plateau

  1. Electron-impact excitation of Ar2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Burgos, J. M.; Loch, S. D.; Ballance, C. P.; Boivin, R. F.

    2009-06-01

    Context: Emission from Ar III is seen in planetary nebulae, in H II regions, and from laboratory plasmas. The analysis of such spectra requires accurate electron impact excitation data. Aims: The aim of this work is to improve the electron impact excitation data available for Ar2+, for application in studies of planetary nebulae and laboratory plasma spectra. The effects of the new data on diagnostic line ratios are also studied. Methods: Electron-impact excitation collision strengths have been calculated using the R-Matrix Intermediate-Coupling Frame-Transformation method and the R-Matrix Breit-Pauli method. Excitation cross sections are calculated between all levels of the configurations 3s^23p^4, 3s3p^5, 3p^6, 3p^53d, and 3s^23p^3nl (3d ≤ nl ≤ 5s). Maxwellian effective collision strengths are generated from the collision strength data. Results: Good agreement is found in the collision strengths calculated using the two R-Matrix methods. The collision strengths are compared with literature values for transitions within the 3s^23p4 configuration. The new data has a small effect on Te values obtained from the I(λ7135 Å+ λ7751 Å)/ I(λ5192 Å) line ratio, and a larger effect on the Ne values obtained from the I(λ7135 Å)/I(λ9 μm) line ratio. The final effective collision strength data is archived online.

  2. Nuclear excitation during atomic electron transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, K.

    1980-05-01

    The nuclear excitation by electron transition (NEET) proposed by Morita is investigated. First a brief review of theory and experiment is given. A search is made for nuclear levels that can be excited by NEET for Z = l ˜ 102 ( A = l ˜ 257), and some possible candidates are tabulated. The NEET probability P is evaluated for eight stable nuclei. In general P is found to be very small and its detection would be difficult, but future developments in experimental technique could make the detection possible. Two practical applications of NEET, isotope separation and γ-ray laseres, are briefly explained.

  3. Electronic excitation of methane molecule by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, it is presented elastic and inelastic differential cross sections for the electronic excitation of the Triplet (3T2) of CH4 molecule calculated for electron incident energies of 20 and 30 eV. It is employed the Schwinger multichannel method and these results are compared to the ones available in the literature. (A.C.A.S.)

  4. Electron plasma behavior during autoresonant dioctron excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C. J.; Danielson, J. R.; Hurst, N. C.; Surko, C. M.

    2014-10-01

    A novel multicell Penning-Malmberg trap is currently being studied as a way to trap and store up to 1012 positrons using kV confinement potentials. A test structure has been constructed to conduct preliminary experiments. It consists of a large diameter ``master'' cell and four smaller diameter ``storage'' cells, three of which are off-axis. To load the multicell trap, plasma in the master cell is moved off-axis to radial displacements D >>rp , where rp is the plasma radius, before being transferred axially into off-axis storage cells. Details of the radial transfer process, which relies upon the autoresonant excitation of the dioctron mode, will be discussed, as well as the plasma behavior during the axial transfer process. This work was supported by the U.S. DTRA.

  5. Remarkable suppression of the excited-state double-proton transfer in the 7-azaindole dimer due to substitution of the dimethylamino group studied by electronic spectroscopy in the gas phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Komoto, Yusuke; Sakota, Kenji; Masayuki, Nakagaki; Shinmyozu, Teruo; Nanbu, Shinkoh; Nakano, Haruyuki; Sekiya, Hiroshi

    2007-08-01

    The fluorescence excitation and dispersed fluorescence spectra of jet-cooled 4-dimethylamino-7-azaindole dimer are recorded to investigate the effect of a substitution of a dimethylamino group into the 4-position of the hydrogen atom of the 7-azaindole on the excited-state double proton transfer (ESDPT). The substitution of the dimethylamino group drastically suppresses the ESDPT reaction.

  6. Electron spectroscopy of collisional excited atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis measurements are described in which coincidences are detected between scattered projectiles and emitted electrons. This yields information on two-electron excitation processes. In order to show what can be learnt from coincidence experiments a detailed theoretical analysis is given. The transition amplitudes, which contain all the information, are introduced (ch.2). In ch.3 the experimental set-up is shown. The results for the Li+-He system are shown in ch. 7 and are compared with predictions based on the Molecular-Orbitalmodel which however does not account for two-excitation mechanisms. With the transition amplitudes also the wave function of the excited atom has been completely determined. In ch.8 the shape of the electron cloud, induced by the collision, is derived from the amplitudes. The relation between the oscillatory motion of this cloud after the collision and the correlation between the two electrons of the excited atom is discussed. In ch. 6 it is shown that the broad structures in the non-coincident energy spectra of the Li+-He system are erroneously interpretated as a result of electron emission from the (Li-He)+-quasimolecule. A model is presented which explains, based on the results obtained from the coincidence measurements, these broad structures. In ch. 4 the Post-Collision Interaction process is treated. It is shown that for high-energy collisions, in contrast with general assumptions, PCI is important. In ch. 5 the importance of PCI-processes in photoionization of atoms, followed by Auger decay, are studied. From the formulas derived in ch. 4 simple analytical results are obtained. These are applied to recent experiments and good agreement is achieved. 140 refs.; 55 figs.; 9 tabs

  7. Concepts of Highly Excited Electronic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berakdar, Jamal

    2003-05-01

    Knowledge of the excitation characteristics of matter is decisive for the descriptions of a variety of dynamical processes, which are of significant technological interest. E.g. transport properties and the optical response are controlled by the excitation spectrum. This self-contained work is a coherent presentation of the quantum theory of correlated few-particle excitations in electronic systems. It begins with a compact resume of the quantum mechanics of single particle excitations. Particular emphasis is put on Green function methods, which offer a natural tool to unravel the relations between the physics of small and large electronic systems. The book contains explicit expressions for the Coulomb Green function of two charge particles and a generalization to three-body systems. Techniques for the many-body Green function of finite systems are introduced and some explicit calculations of the Green functions are given. Concrete examples are provided and the theories are contrasted with experimental data, when available. The second volume presents an up-to-date selection of applications of the developed concepts and a comparison with available experiments is made

  8. Photoinduced energy and electron transfer in rubrene-benzoquinone and rubrene-porphyrin systems

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Jafar Iqbal

    2014-11-01

    Excited-state electron and energy transfer from singlet excited rubrene (Ru) to benzoquinone (BQ) and tetra-(4-aminophenyl) porphyrin (TAPP) were investigated by steady-state absorption and emission, time-resolved transient absorption, and femtosecond (fs)-nanosecond (ns) fluorescence spectroscopy. The low reduction potential of BQ provides the high probability of electron transfer from the excited Ru to BQ. Steady-state and time-resolved results confirm such an excited electron transfer scenario. On the other hand, strong spectral overlap between the emission of Ru and absorption of TAPP suggests that energy transfer is a possible deactivation pathway of the Ru excited state.

  9. Computer simulation of electronic excitations in beryllium

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, A V

    2016-01-01

    An effective method for the quantitative description of the electronic excited states of polyatomic systems is developed by using computer technology. The proposed method allows calculating various properties of matter at the atomic level within the uniform scheme. A special attention is paid to the description of beryllium atoms interactions with the external fields, comparable by power to the fields in atoms, molecules and clusters.

  10. Ultrafast excited state hydrogen atom transfer in salicylideneaniline driven by changes in aromaticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Arzaluz, Luis; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando; Rocha-Rinza, Tomás; Peón, Jorge

    2015-12-21

    We investigated two important unresolved issues on excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reactions, i.e., their driving force and the charge state of the transferred species by means of quantum chemical topology. We related changes in the aromaticity of a molecule after electron excitation to reaction dynamics in an excited state. Additionally, we found that the conveyed particle has a charge intermediate between that of a bare proton and a neutral hydrogen atom. We anticipate that the analysis presented in this communication will yield valuable insights into ESIPT and other similar photochemical reactions. PMID:26285105

  11. Collapse of an orbit of excited electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomenon of quantum orbit collapse of excited electron in free atoms is considered. Theoretical results on d and f-electron collapse are systematized, main attention being given to configurations of the nlsup(4l+1)n'l+1 type. Collapse regularities in the isoelectronic series are studied. The influence of the potential barrier change on the wave function collapse in the isoelectronic series is discussed. Theoretical calculations carried out in the framework of the Hatree-Fock method correctly predict the collapse role in the periodic system

  12. Electron-impact vibrational excitation of furan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargreaves, L. R.; Albaridy, R.; Serna, G.; Khakoo, M. A. [Department of Physics, California State University, Fullerton, California 92834 (United States); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Fisica, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora-MG, CEP 36036-330 (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    We report measurements of differential cross sections for the vibrational excitation of furan (C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O), obtaining results for nine features spanning the electron energy loss range from 0 to 0.8 eV, at electron-impact energies of 5, 6, 7.5, 10, and 15 eV and for scattering angles ranging from 10{sup o} to 130{sup o}. The normalization of the differential cross sections was done using elastic differential cross sections for furan determined earlier by our group [Khakoo et al., Phys. Rev A 81, 062716 (2010)].

  13. Electron impact excitation of SF6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajmar, S.; Chutjian, A.

    1977-01-01

    A study of the electron impact energy-loss spectrum of SF6 under both optical (low scattering angle, high impact energy) and non-optical conditions (high scattering angle, low impact energy) has revealed a number of electronic excitation processes. With the help of theoretical calculations, several of these transitions have been assigned and approximate cross sections associated with four features have been determined. In addition, a strong resonance at 12 eV has been observed in both elastic and vibrationally inelastic (delta E = 0.092 eV) channels.

  14. Electron-impact vibrational excitation of cyclopropane

    OpenAIRE

    Čurík, R.; Čársky, P; Allan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We report a very detailed test of the ab initio discrete momentum representation (DMR) method of calculating vibrational excitation of polyatomic molecules by electron impact, by comparison of its results with an extensive set of experimental data, covering the entire range of scattering angles from 10∘ to 180∘ and electron energies from 0.4 to 20 eV. The DMR calculations were carried out by solving the two-channel Lippmann-Schwinger equation in the momentum space, and the interaction between...

  15. Excitation of thalium by 20 eV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elastic and inelastic scattering of 20 eV electrons by Thallium atoms were studied. Differential, integral and momentum transfer cross sections were determined for elastic scattering and for the excitation of the 6p 2P sub(3/2), 7s 2S sub(1/2), 7p 2P sub(1/2), 7p 2P sub(3/2) and 6d 2D sub(5/2,3/2) states. In the first ionization continuum a large number of autoionization features were observed and cross section for the intermediate electron shell excitation 6s6p22P sub(1/2,3/2) has also been obtained. (Author)

  16. An excitable electronic circuit as a sensory neuron model

    CERN Document Server

    Medeiros, Bruno N S; Mindlin, Gabriel B; Copelli, Mauro; Leite, José R Rios

    2011-01-01

    An electronic circuit device, inspired on the FitzHugh-Nagumo model of neuronal excitability, was constructed and shown to operate with characteristics compatible with those of biological sensory neurons. The nonlinear dynamical model of the electronics quantitatively reproduces the experimental observations on the circuit, including the Hopf bifurcation at the onset of tonic spiking. Moreover, we have implemented an analog noise generator as a source to study the variability of the spike trains. When the circuit is in the excitable regime, coherence resonance is observed. At sufficiently low noise intensity the spike trains have Poisson statistics, as in many biological neurons. The transfer function of the stochastic spike trains has a dynamic range of 6 dB, close to experimental values for real olfactory receptor neurons.

  17. Effect resonance radiation transfer of excitation porous silicon to I sub 2 molecules sorbed in pores

    CERN Document Server

    Zakharchenko, K V; Kuznetsov, M B; Chistyakov, A A; Karavanskij, V A

    2001-01-01

    One studies the effect of resonance radiation-free transfer of electronic excitation between silicon nanocrystals and iodine molecules sorbed in pores. The experiment procedure includes laser-induced luminescence and laser desorption mass spectrometry. One analyzes photoluminescence spectra prior to and upon iodine sorption. Excitation of iodine through the mechanism of resonance transfer is determined to result in desorption of the iodine sorbed molecules with relatively high kinetic energies (3-1 eV). One evaluated the peculiar distance of resonance transfer the approximate value of which was equal to 2 nm

  18. Electron transfer and decay processes of highly charged iodine ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present experimental work we have investigated multi-electron transfer processes in Iq+ (q=10, 15, 20 and 25) + Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe collisions at 1.5q keV energy. The branching ratios between Auger and radiative decay channels have been measured in decay processes of multiply excited states formed by multi-electron transfer collisions. It has been shown that, in all the multi-electron transfer processes investigated, the Auger decays are far dominant over the radiative decay processes and the branching ratios are clearly characterized by the average principal quantum number of the initial excited states of projectile ions. We could express the branching ratios in high Rydberg states formed in multi-electron transfer processes by using the decay probability of one Auger electron emission. (author)

  19. Plasmonic coupling and long-range transfer of an excitation along a DNA nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppari, J Jussi; Wirth, Janina; Garwe, Frank; Stranik, Ondrej; Csaki, Andrea; Bergmann, Joachim; Paa, Wolfgang; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2013-02-26

    We demonstrate an excitation transfer along a fluorescently labeled dsDNA nanowire over a length of several micrometers. Launching of the excitation is done by exciting a localized surface plasmon mode of a 40 nm silver nanoparticle by 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses via two-photon absorption. The plasmonic mode is subsequently coupled or transformed to excitation in the nanowire in contact with the particle and propagated along it, inducing bleaching of the dyes on its way. In situ as well as ex situ fluorescence microscopy is utilized to observe the phenomenon. In addition, transfer of the excitation along the nanowire to another nanoparticle over a separation of 5.7 ?m was clearly observed. The nature of the excitation coupling and transfer could not be fully resolved here, but injection of an electron into the DNA from the excited nanoparticle and subsequent coupled transfer of charge (Dexter) and delocalized exciton (Frenkel) is the most probable mechanism. However, a direct plasmonic or optical coupling and energy transfer along the nanowire cannot be totally ruled out either. By further studies the observed phenomenon could be utilized in novel molecular systems, providing a long-needed communication method between molecular devices. PMID:23305550

  20. Computational Approach to Electron Charge Transfer Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Elvar Örn

    account - which directly influence the reactants and resulting reaction through both physical and chemical interactions. All methods are though general and can be applied to different types of chemistry. First, the basis of the various theoretical tools is presented and applied to several test systems to...... asymmetric charge transfer reactions between several first-row transition metals in water. The results are compared to experiments and rationalised with classical analytic expressions. Shortcomings of the methods are accounted for with clear steps towards improved accuracy. Later the analysis is extended to...... structure modes. This is for a large iridium-iridium dimer complex which shows a dramatic structural (and vibrational) change upon electronic excitation....

  1. CN excitation and electron densities in diffuse molecular clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Stephen; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Utilising previous work by the authors on the spin-coupled rotational cross-sections for electron-CN collisions, data for the associated rate coefficients is presented. Data on rotational, fine-structure and hyperfine-structure transition involving rotational levels up to $N$=20 are computed for temperatures in the range 10 -- 1000~K. Rates are calculated by combining Born-corrected R-matrix calculations with the infinite-order-sudden (IOS) approximation. The dominant hyperfine transitions are those with $\\Delta N=\\Delta j= \\Delta F=1$. For dipole-allowed transitions, electron-impact rates are shown to exceed those for excitation of CN by para-H$_2$($j=0$) by five orders of magnitude. The role of electron collisions in the excitation of CN in diffuse clouds, where local excitation competes with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons, is considered. Radiative transfer calculations are performed and the results compared to observations. These comparisons suggest that electron density lies in the range $n...

  2. CN excitation and electron densities in diffuse molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Stephen; Faure, Alexandre; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    Utilizing previous work by the authors on the spin-coupled rotational cross-sections for electron-CN collisions, data for the associated rate coefficients are presented. Data on rotational, fine-structure and hyperfine-structure transition involving rotational levels up to N = 20 are computed for temperatures in the range 10-1000 K. Rates are calculated by combining Born-corrected R-matrix calculations with the infinite-order-sudden approximation. The dominant hyperfine transitions are those with ΔN = Δj = ΔF = 1. For dipole-allowed transitions, electron-impact rates are shown to exceed those for excitation of CN by para-H2(j = 0) by five orders of magnitude. The role of electron collisions in the excitation of CN in diffuse clouds, where local excitation competes with the cosmic microwave background photons, is considered. Radiative transfer calculations are performed and the results compared to observations. These comparisons suggest that electron density lies in the range n(e) ˜ 0.01-0.06 cm-3 for typical physical conditions present in diffuse clouds.

  3. Direct Excitation of 189Os by Low-Energy Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T.; Katsushima, N.; Ohtsubo, H.

    1993-01-01

    Excitation of 189Os by the low-energy electron has been found not to be explained by the NEET (Nuclear Excitation by Electron Transition) mechanism. Here, it will be shown by the distorted wave Born approximation that this excitation is caused by the direct reaction between the incident electrons and the nucleus.

  4. Vibronic speed-up of the excitation energy transfer in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex

    CERN Document Server

    Nalbach, P; Thorwart, M

    2013-01-01

    We show that the efficient excitation energy transfer in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson molecular aggregate under realistic physiological conditions is fueled by underdamped vibrations of the embedding proteins. For this, we present numerically exact results for the quantum dynamics of the excitons in the presence of nonadiabatic vibrational states in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson aggregate employing a environmental fluctuation spectral function derived from experiments. Assuming the prominent 180 cm$^{-1}$ vibrational mode to be underdamped, we observe, on the one hand, besides vibrational coherent oscillations between different excitation levels of the vibration also prolonged electronic coherent oscillations between the initially excited site and its neighbours. On the other hand, however, the underdamped vibrations provide additional channels for the excitation energy transfer and by this increase the transfer speed by up to $30\\%$ .

  5. Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electroluminescence (EL) at 1.54 µm of metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) devices with Er3+ ions embedded in the silicon-rich silicon oxide (SRSO) layer has been investigated under different polarization conditions and compared with that of erbium doped SiO2 layers. EL time-resolved measurements allowed us to distinguish between two different excitation mechanisms responsible for the Er3+ emission under an alternate pulsed voltage signal (APV). Energy transfer from silicon nanoclusters (Si-ncs) to Er3+ is clearly observed at low-field APV excitation. We demonstrate that sequential electron and hole injection at the edges of the pulses creates excited states in Si-ncs which upon recombination transfer their energy to Er3+ ions. On the contrary, direct impact excitation of Er3+ by hot injected carriers starts at the Fowler–Nordheim injection threshold (above 5 MV cm−1) and dominates for high-field APV excitation. (paper)

  6. Electronic excitation as a mode of heat dissipation in laser-driven cluster plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajeev, R.; Rishad, K. P. M.; Madhu Trivikram, T.; Krishnamurthy, M. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai-5 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Electrons streaming out of laser plasma are known for non-local heat transport and energy deposition by the ionization wave. At 100 eV electron temperature, since the electronic excitation cross section is comparable to that of ionization for Ar and CO{sub 2}, a non-local excitation wave akin to the ionization wave is envisaged where energy deposition in excitations forms a excited cluster sheath beyond the laser focus. Here, we show that nano-cluster systems have the right parameters to form such an exciton sheath and experimentally demonstrate this via charge transfer reactions.

  7. Electronic excitation as a mode of heat dissipation in laser-driven cluster plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrons streaming out of laser plasma are known for non-local heat transport and energy deposition by the ionization wave. At 100 eV electron temperature, since the electronic excitation cross section is comparable to that of ionization for Ar and CO2, a non-local excitation wave akin to the ionization wave is envisaged where energy deposition in excitations forms a excited cluster sheath beyond the laser focus. Here, we show that nano-cluster systems have the right parameters to form such an exciton sheath and experimentally demonstrate this via charge transfer reactions

  8. Role of two-center electron-electron interaction in projectile electron excitation and loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the role of two-center electron-electron interaction in projectile cluster excitation and loss. The following topics are explored: PWBA Formalism; Closure Method; Improvements of Closure Method; Molecular Form Factors; SCA Formalism; Impulse Approximation; Higher Order Processes; Projectile-Electron Excitation; Projectile-Electron Loss Cross Section; Projectile-Electron Loss and Capture; Separation of Screening and Antiscreening; Electron-Loss Probability; and Electron Spectroscopy. 94 refs., 23 figs

  9. Transient negative photoconductance in a charge transfer double quantum well under optical intersubband excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rfenacht, M.; Tsujino, S.; Sakaki, H.

    1998-06-01

    Recently, it was shown that an electron-hole radiative recombination is induced by a mid-infrared light exciting an intersubband transition in a charge transfer double quantum well (CTDQW). This recombination was attributed to an upstream transfer of electrons from an electron-rich well to a hole-rich well. In this study, we investigated the electrical response of a CTDQW under intersubband optical excitation, and found that a positive photocurrent, opposite in sign and proportional to the applied electric field, accompanies the intersubband-transition-induced luminescence (ITIL) signal. A negative photocurrent component was also observed and attributed to heating processes. This work brings a further evidence of the ITIL process and shows that an important proportion of the carriers are consumed by the transfer of electrons.

  10. Theory of plasmon enhanced interfacial electron transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luxia; May, Volkhard

    2015-04-01

    A particular attempt to improve the efficiency of a dye sensitized solar cell is it's decoration with metal nano-particles (MNP). The MNP-plasmon induced enhancement of the local field enlarges the photoexcitation of the dyes and a subsequent improvement of the charge separation efficiency may result. In a recent work (2014 J. Phys. Chem. C 118 2812) we presented a theory of plasmon enhanced interfacial electron transfer for perylene attached to a TiO2 surface and placed in the proximity of a spherical MNP. These earlier studies are generalized here to the coupling of to up to four MNPs and to the use of somewhat altered molecular parameters. If the MNPs are placed close to each other strong hybridization of plasmon excitations appears and a broad resonance to which molecular excitations are coupled is formed. To investigate this situation the whole charge injection dynamics is described in the framework of the density matrix theory. The approach accounts for optical excitation of the dye coupled to the MNPs and considers subsequent electron injection into the rutile TiO2-cluster. Using a tight-binding model for the TiO2-system with about 105 atoms the electron motion in the cluster is described. We again consider short optical excitation which causes an intermediate steady state with a time-independent overall probability to have the electron injected into the cluster. This probability is used to introduce an enhancement factor which rates the influence of the MNP. Values larger than 500 are obtained.

  11. Rotational excitations and resonant behaviour in electron-molecule collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important energy loss mechanisms for very slow electrons traveling through molecular gases is the excitation of rotational states and, less frequently, of vibrational states of the ambient molecules. In this short review the main theoretical aspects of the problem are discussed and the computational methods which have recently produced very good accord with the existing, accurate measurements are presented. The important role played by low-energy, open-channel shape resonances in enhancing the energy transfer mechanism is underlined and shown with computational examples for the polyatomic methane molecule. (orig.)

  12. Electronic excited states and relaxation dynamics in polymer heterojunction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, John Glenn Santos

    The potential for using conducting polymers as the active material in optoelectronic devices has come to fruition in the past few years. Understanding the fundamental photophysics behind their operations points to the significant role played by the polymer interface in their performance. Current device architectures involve the use of bulk heterojunctions which intimately blend the donor and acceptor polymers to significantly increase not only their interfacial surface area but also the probability of exciton formation within the vicinity of the interface. In this dissertation, we detail the role played by the interface on the behavior and performance of bulk heterojunction systems. First, we explore the relation between the exciton binding energy to the band offset in determining device characteristics. As a general rule, when the exciton binding energy is greater than the band offset, the exciton remains the lowest energy excited state leading to efficient light-emitting properties. On the other hand, if the offset is greater than the binding energy, charge separation becomes favorable leading to better photovoltaic behavior. Here, we use a Wannier function, configuration interaction based approach to examine the essential excited states and predict the vibronic absorption and emission spectra of the PPV/BBL, TFB/F8BT and PFB/F8BT heterojunctions. Our results underscore the role of vibrational relaxation in the formation of charge-transfer states following photoexcitation. In addition, we look at the relaxation dynamics that occur upon photoexcitation. For this, we adopt the Marcus-Hush semiclassical method to account for lattice reorganization in the calculation of the interconversion rates in TFB/F8BT and PFB/F8BT. We find that, while a tightly bound charge-transfer state (exciplex) remains the lowest excited state, a regeneration pathway to the optically active lowest excitonic state in TFB/F8BT is possible via thermal repopulation from the exciplex. Finally, we examine the effect of the nanoscale interfacial morphology and solvation on the electronic excited states of TFB/F8BT. Here, we employ time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) to investigate the relevant excited states of two stacking configurations. We show that the calculated states agree with the excited states responsible for the experimentally observed emission peaks and that these states are blue shifted relative to those of the isolated chain. Furthermore, slight lateral shifts in the stacking orientation not only shift the excited state energies; more importantly, they alter the nature of these states altogether. Lastly, we see that solvation greatly stabilizes the charge-transfer states.

  13. Electron Transfer to Vinylaromatic Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aromatic polymers accept electrons from alkali metals to form polyradicalanions. These undergo chain scission as a result of electronic interaction between aromatic rings. Spectrophotometric and chemical evidence led to the conclusion that during the chain-breaking process polymeric fragments were formed which had the properties of ''living polymers'', i.e. the characteristic visible spectra and the capability of initiating the polymerization of a number of vinyl monomers. It was possible to follow the rate of chain scission in the case of poly (4-vinyl biphenyl) and poly(α-vinyl naphthalene) by means of viscosity and spectrophotometric measurements. The postulated mechanism was found to be consistent with the slow decrease in free spin concentration measured by means of the electron spin resonance technique. Chain scission in polyacenaphthalene takes place at a much faster rate than in poly (4-vinyl biphenyl) and this fact is in good agreement with simple LCAO MO calculations. Preliminary experiments indicate that electron transfer to poly-N-vinyl carbazole produces little if any degradation. These investigations led to the examination of the temperature effect on the electron-transfer reaction from sodium to some substituted aromatic hydrocarbons. The details of this effect are discussed. (author)

  14. A benchmark study of electronic excitation energies, transition moments, and excited-state energy gradients on the nicotine molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, Franco, E-mail: franco.egidi@sns.it; Segado, Mireia; Barone, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri, 7 I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Koch, Henrik [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Cappelli, Chiara [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Pisa, via G. Moruzzi, 3 I-56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2014-12-14

    In this work, we report a comparative study of computed excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and excited-state energy gradients of (S)-nicotine, chosen as a test case, using multireference methods, coupled cluster singles and doubles, and methods based on time-dependent density functional theory. This system was chosen because its apparent simplicity hides a complex electronic structure, as several different types of valence excitations are possible, including n-π{sup *}, π-π{sup *}, and charge-transfer states, and in order to simulate its spectrum it is necessary to describe all of them consistently well by the chosen method.

  15. A benchmark study of electronic excitation energies, transition moments, and excited-state energy gradients on the nicotine molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we report a comparative study of computed excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and excited-state energy gradients of (S)-nicotine, chosen as a test case, using multireference methods, coupled cluster singles and doubles, and methods based on time-dependent density functional theory. This system was chosen because its apparent simplicity hides a complex electronic structure, as several different types of valence excitations are possible, including n-π*, π-π*, and charge-transfer states, and in order to simulate its spectrum it is necessary to describe all of them consistently well by the chosen method

  16. A benchmark study of electronic excitation energies, transition moments, and excited-state energy gradients on the nicotine molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egidi, Franco; Segado, Mireia; Koch, Henrik; Cappelli, Chiara; Barone, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we report a comparative study of computed excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and excited-state energy gradients of (S)-nicotine, chosen as a test case, using multireference methods, coupled cluster singles and doubles, and methods based on time-dependent density functional theory. This system was chosen because its apparent simplicity hides a complex electronic structure, as several different types of valence excitations are possible, including n-π*, π-π*, and charge-transfer states, and in order to simulate its spectrum it is necessary to describe all of them consistently well by the chosen method.

  17. Calculation of nuclear excitation in an electron transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisk, K.; Kaliman, Z.; Logan, B. A.

    1989-11-01

    We have made a theoretical investigation of nuclear excitation during an electron transition (NEET). Our approach allows us to express the NEET probabilities in terms of the excited nuclear level width, the energy difference between the nuclear and electron transition, the Coulomb interaction between the initial electron states, and the electron level width. A comparison is made with the available experimental results.

  18. Near-Threshold Rovibrational Excitation of HF by Electron Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thummel, Helmar T.; Nesbet, Robert K.; Peyerimhoff, Sigrid D.

    1993-01-01

    The pronounced threshold peaks found in cross sections for electron-impact excitation of the vibrational levels of HF have been studied using an R-matrix method, in which electron exchange, correlation effects and polarization are included. Vibration is modelled inside the R-matrix sphere using the energy-modified adiabatic phase matrix method (EMAP). Rotation of the target molecule is treated outside the R-matrix sphere, using the frame transformation method. The external rovibronic close-coupling equations are solved by analytic methods. Analysis of the multichannel threshold structures indicates that the peaks found for rovibrational excitation of nu = 1 can be interpreted as virtual states while those for nu = 2 correspond to nuclear-excited Feshbach resonances. These two different results correspond simply to a change of sign of a small parameter that is determined by the threshold analysis. Whereas the overall shapes of the excitation peaks agree with earlier theoretical results, we have found detailed rotational fine structures for scattering energies on the order of the rotational constant above and below the opening of the vibrational channels. The partial and total cross sections for rovibrational state-to-state transitions in the energy region of the peaks are analysed. Characteristic cusp structures and excitation peaks are found at the rovibrational thresholds for transitions with small angular momentum transfer (Delta)j =0, 1 and 2. Differential cross sections are similar to recent measurements. These experimental data do not show the relatively sharp rise at the vibrational thresholds indicated by theory. Theory and experiment are in good agreement for the shape and magnitude of the angular dependence of cross sections for rovibrational state-to-state transitions, especially at larger energies.

  19. Near-threshold rovibrational excitation of HF by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pronounced threshold peaks found in cross sections for electron-impact excitation of the vibrational levels of HF have been studied using an R-matrix method, in which electron exchange, correlation effects and polarization are included. Vibration is modelled inside the R-matrix sphere using the energy-modified adiabatic phase matrix method (EMAP). Rotation of the target molecule is treated outside the R-matrix sphere, using the frame transformation method. The external rovibronic close-coupling equations are solved by analytic methods. Analysis of the multichannel threshold structures indicates that the peaks found for rovibrational excitation of v = 1 can interpreted as virtual states while those for v = 2 correspond to nuclear-excited Feshbach resonances. These two different results correspond simply to a change of sign of a small parameter that is determined by the threshold analysis. Whereas the overall shapes of the excitation peaks agree with earlier theoretical results, we have found detailed rotational fine structures for scattering energies on the order of the rotational constant above and below the opening of the vibrational channels. The partial and total cross sections for rovibrational state-to-state transitions in the energy region of the peaks are analysed. Characteristic cusp structures and excitation peaks are found at the rovibrational thresholds for transitions with small angular momentum transfer δj =0, 1 and 2. Differential cross sections are similar to recent measurements. These experimental data do not show the relatively sharp rise at the vibrational thresholds indicated by theory. Theory and experiment are in good agreement for the shape and magnitude of the angular dependence of cross sections for rovibrational state-to-state transitions, especially at larger energies. (Author)

  20. Double, Rydberg and charge transfer excitations from pairing matrix fluctuation and particle-particle random phase approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Aggelen, Helen van [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Yang, Weitao, E-mail: weitao.yang@duke.edu [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2013-12-14

    Double, Rydberg, and charge transfer (CT) excitations have been great challenges for time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Starting from an (N ± 2)-electron single-determinant reference, we investigate excitations for the N-electron system through the pairing matrix fluctuation, which contains information on two-electron addition/removal processes. We adopt the particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) and the particle-particle Tamm-Dancoff approximation (pp-TDA) to approximate the pairing matrix fluctuation and then determine excitation energies by the differences of two-electron addition/removal energies. This approach captures all types of interesting excitations: single and double excitations are described accurately, Rydberg excitations are in good agreement with experimental data and CT excitations display correct 1/R dependence. Furthermore, the pp-RPA and the pp-TDA have a computational cost similar to TDDFT and consequently are promising for practical calculations.

  1. Double, Rydberg and Charge Transfer Excitations from Pairing Matrix Fluctuation and Particle-Particle Random Phase Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; van Aggelen, Helen; Yang, Weitao

    2014-03-01

    Double, Rydberg and charge transfer (CT) excitations have been great challenges for time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Starting from an (N +/- 2) -electron single-determinant reference, we investigate excitations for the N-electron system through the pairing matrix fluctuation, which contains information on two-electron addition/removal processes. We adopt the particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) and the particle-particle Tamm-Dancoff approximation (pp-TDA) to approximate the pairing matrix fluctuation and then determine excitation energies by the differences of two-electron addition/removal energies. This approach captures all types of interesting excitations: single and double excitations are described accurately, Rydberg excitations are in good agreement with experimental data and CT excitations display correct 1/R dependence. Furthermore, the pp-RPA and the pp-TDA have a computational cost similar to TDDFT and consequently are promising for practical calculations.

  2. Excitation of two interacting electrons as a plasmon-decay mechanism in proton-aluminum collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Projectile-induced plasmon excitation in an electron gas has been studied by several authors who proposed two possible mechanisms for these plasmons to decay. In a previous work we considered one of these mechanisms in which the plasmon transfers its energy to a nearly free electron that makes an interband transition. In this paper, the other mechanism is analyzed. A simple model is developed to describe plasmon decay in aluminum via the excitation of two interacting electrons. Results for the transition probability and the excitation power are presented. When contributions from both mechanisms are considered, they account for more than 60% of the excited plasmons. Also, the slope of the plasmon excitation curve is correctly reproduced. The study of first and second differential spectra in angle and energy show that plasmon decay into two interacting electrons is the main source of low-energy electrons moving in the forward direction (with respect to the projectile initial velocity)

  3. Excitation energy transfer processes in condensed matter theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Jai

    1994-01-01

    Applying a unified quantum approach, contributors offer fresh insights into the theoretical developments in the excitation energy transfer processes in condensed matter This comprehensive volume examines Frenkel and Wannier excitonic processes; rates of excitonic processes; theory of laser sputter and polymer ablation; and polarons, excitonic polarons and self-trapping

  4. Damage generation by electronic excitations in crystalline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will give a rapid overview of the main experimental results concerning the effects of high electronic energy deposition in metallic targets and present a tentative model based on the Coulomb explosion mechanism. More detailed reviews have been made recently concerning both the experiments and the theoretical model. High levels of localized energy deposition in electronic excitation are easily obtained using GeV heavy ions which during their slowing-down typically transfer a few keV/A to the electronic system of the target and a few eV/A in elastic collisions with target nuclei. In insulators and organic materials, it is well-known that both slowing-down processes contribute to damage creation, whereas in metals it has been claimed for a long time that the sole nuclear collisions are involved in damage processes. Although this last assertion remains true for some metals such as Cu, Ag, W, Cu3 Au...[2], high levels of electronic excitation can induce a partial annealing of the defects resulting from nuclear collisions in Fe, Ni, Nb, Pt..., lead to additional defect creation in Fe, Co, Zr, Ti...[2] or even to phase transformations in NiZr2 [5], Ni3B [6], NiTi [7], Ti [8]... In the following, we shall only focus on the last two effects. (author). 15 refs

  5. Collisionally excited few-electron systems: theoretical introduction and survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider excitation, ionization, and charge transfer in collisions of protons (and antiprotons) with the single-electron targets H, He+, and Li2+. These collisions are first compared to other types of ion-atom collisions. A brief review of our own theoretical method is given; in particular we describe how we allow for both large charge transfer and ionization probabilities while retaining the computational efficiency that allows us to consider a variety of collision partners and collision energies. We comment on the comparison of our results to other theoretical work and to experiment. The qualitative features of the various inelastic cross sections are discussed, in particular how they scale with collision energy, target nuclear charge, and the sign of the projectile charge. 15 references, 6 figures

  6. Orbital-selective electronic excitations in iron arsenides revealed by simulated nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Kenji; Kaneshita, Eiji; Tohyama, Takami

    2015-11-01

    Nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NIXS) is a possible tool to detect charge excitations in electron systems. In addition, multipole transitions at high-momentum-transfer regions open a new possibility to determine orbital-selective electronic excitations in multiorbital itinerant 3 d electron systems. As a theoretical example, we choose the antiferromagnetic state of iron arsenides and demonstrate that the orbital-selective excitations are detectable by choosing appropriate momentum transfer in NIXS. We propose that both NIXS and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering are complementary to each other for fully understanding the nature of orbital excitations in multiorbital itinerant electron systems.

  7. Excitation energy transfer: Study with non-Markovian dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we investigate the non-Markovian dynamics of a model to mimic the excitation energy transfer (EET) between chromophores in photosynthesis systems. The numerical path integral method is used. This method includes the non-Markovian effects of the environmental affects, and it does not need the perturbation approximation in solving the dynamics of systems of interest. It implies that the coherence helps the EET between chromophores through lasting the transfer time rather than enhancing the transfer rate of the EET. In particular, the non-Markovian environment greatly increases the efficiency of the EET in the photosynthesis systems.

  8. Theoretical characterization of excitation energy transfer in chlorosome light-harvesting antennae from green sulfur bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Takatoshi; Saikin, Semion K; Brookes, Jennifer C; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Chlorosomes are the largest and most efficient natural light-harvesting antenna systems. They contain thousands of pigment molecules - bacteriochlorophylls (BChls)- that are organized into supramolecular aggregates and form a very efficient network for excitonic energy migration. Here, we present a theoretical study of excitation energy transfer (EET) in the chlorosome based on experimental evidence of the molecular assembly. Our model for the exciton dynamics throughout the antenna combines a stochastic time propagation of the excitonic wave function with molecular dynamics simulations of supramolecular structure, and electronic structure calculations of the excited states. The simulation results reveal a detailed picture of the EET in the chlorosome. Coherent energy transfer is significant only for the first 50 fs after the initial excitation, and the wavelike motion of the exciton is completely damped at 100 fs. Characteristic time constants of incoherent energy transfer, subsequently, vary from 1 ps to se...

  9. Rerouting Excitation Transfer in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Guang-Yin; Li, Che-Ming; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Nori, Franco

    2013-01-01

    We investigate, using the Hierarchy method, the entanglement and the excitation transfer efficiency of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex under two different local modifications: the suppression of transitions between particular sites and localized changes to the protein environment. We find that inhibiting the connection between the site-5 and site-6, or disconnecting site-5 from the complex completely, leads to an dramatic enhancement of the entanglement between site-6 and site-7. Similarly, the transfer efficiency actually increases if site-5 is disconnected from the complex entirely. We further show that if site-5 and site-7 are conjointly removed, the efficiency falls. This suggests that while not contributing to the transport efficiency in a normal complex, site-5 introduces a redundant transport route in case of damage to site-7. Our results suggest an overall robustness of excitation energy transfer in the FMO complex under mutations, local defects, and other abnormal situations.

  10. Nanostructuring graphene by dense electronic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochedowski, O.; Lehtinen, O.; Kaiser, U.; Turchanin, A.; Ban-d'Etat, B.; Lebius, H.; Karlušić, M.; Jakšić, M.; Schleberger, M.

    2015-11-01

    The ability to manufacture tailored graphene nanostructures is a key factor to fully exploit its enormous technological potential. We have investigated nanostructures created in graphene by swift heavy ion induced folding. For our experiments, single layers of graphene exfoliated on various substrates and freestanding graphene have been irradiated and analyzed by atomic force and high resolution transmission electron microscopy as well as Raman spectroscopy. We show that the dense electronic excitation in the wake of the traversing ion yields characteristic nanostructures each of which may be fabricated by choosing the proper irradiation conditions. These nanostructures include unique morphologies such as closed bilayer edges with a given chirality or nanopores within supported as well as freestanding graphene. The length and orientation of the nanopore, and thus of the associated closed bilayer edge, may be simply controlled by the direction of the incoming ion beam. In freestanding graphene, swift heavy ion irradiation induces extremely small openings, offering the possibility to perforate graphene membranes in a controlled way.

  11. Electron Impact Excitation of Noble Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Vlado; Bartschat, Klaus

    1998-05-01

    We have extended our Breit-Pauli R-matrix work [1,2] to model electron impact excitation of the [np^5(n+1)s] and [np^5(n+1)p] states in the noble gases Ne--Xe. Total and differential cross sections, the polarization of emitted light, and spin asymmetry parameters will be presented for incident electron energies between threshold and 30 eV. The results will be analyzed and compared with a large amount of recent experimental data [3--8]. 1. V. Zeman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1825 (1997) 2. V. Zeman and K. Bartschat, J. Phys. B 30, 4609 (1997) 3. C. Norén et al., Phys. Rev. A53, 3253 (1996) and 54, 510 (1996) 4. T.J. Gay et al., Phys. Rev. A53, 1623 (1996) 5. D.H. Yu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2724 (1997); J. Phys. B 30, L461 5. (1997); J. Phys. B 30, 1799 (1997) 6. J.E. Chilton et al., Phys. Rev. A57, 267 (1998) 7. M.A. Khakoo, private communication (1998) 8. M. Dümmler, G.F. Hanne and J. Kessler, J. Phys. B 28, 2985 (1995)

  12. Excitation of resonators by electron beams

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, Yukio; Sasaki, Satoshi; Ishi, Kimihiro; Ikezawa, Mikihiko; Bessonov, E. G.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the main consequences of the vector theory of excitation of resonators by particle beams are presented. Some features of excitation of broadband radiation in longitudinal modes of the enclosed and open resonators are discussed.

  13. Electron transfer in helical polyaromatics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Lubomír; Gál, Miroslav; Horáček, Michal; Teplý, Filip; Adriaenssens, Louis; Severa, Lukáš

    Xi´an : International Society of Electrochemistry , 2009. O06-O06. [International Symposium on Frontiers of Electrochemical Science and Technology. 12.08.2009-15.08.2009, Xi´an] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1157; GA MŠk OC 140; GA ČR GA203/09/0705; GA ČR GP203/09/P502; GA MŠk ME09114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : electron transfer * helical polyaromatics Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  14. Electron transfer reactions. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxidation of the substituted ethylenes, 2,3-dimethylbutene-2 (1), 2-methylbutene-2 (8), and ?-methylstyrene (13), by ferriin or lead dioxide in water and/or methanol has been studied. Product analyses of the reactions, which lead to kinetically controlled product distributions, showed that lead dioxide, just as ferriin, reacts as a one-electron-oxidant. The product distributions, which arise from further reactions of the primary intermediates, i.e. the radical cations formed via one-electron transfer, were found to depend on substituents, acidity and solvent. The results are consistent with three separate reaction paths of the radical cation, each of which leads to specific products. The radical cation can either deprotonate, be nucleophilicly attacked by solvent, or lead to dimeric products. (orig.)

  15. Intramolecular photoinduced electron-transfer in azobenzene-perylene diimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the intramolecular photoinduced electron-transfer (PET) of covalent bonded azobenzene-perylene diimide (AZO-PDI) in solvents by using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy together with ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopic techniques. Fast fluorescence quenching is observed when AZO-PDI is excited at characteristic wavelengths of AZO and perylene moieties. Reductive electron-transfer with transfer rate faster than 1011 s−1 is found. This PET process is also consolidated by femtosecond transient absorption spectra

  16. The mechanism of electronic excitation in the bacterial bioluminescent reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state of the problem of formation of the electron-excited product in the chemiluminescent reaction that underlies the bacterial luminescence is analysed. Various schemes of chemical transformations capable of producing a bacterial bioluminescence emitter are presented. The problem of excitation of secondary emitters is considered; two possible mechanisms of their excitation are analysed.

  17. Electron-impact excitation of Fe II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report in this paper the computation of accurate total collision strengths and effective collision strengths for electron-impact excitation of FeII, using the parallel R-matrix program PRMAT. Target states corresponding to the 3d64s, 3d7, 3d64p and 3d54s4s basis configurations were included in the calculations giving rise to a 113 LS state 354 coupled channel problem. Following a detailed systematic study of correlation effects in both the target state and collision wavefunctions, it was found that an additional 21 configuration functions needed to be included in the Configuration Interaction expansion to obtain significantly more accurate target states and collision wavefunctions. This much improved 26-configuration model has been used to calculate converged total effective collision strengths for all sextet to quartet transitions among these levels with total spin S = 2, giving a total of 1785 lines. These calculations have laid the foundation for an approach which may be adopted in the study of electron collisions with the low ionization stages of other iron peak elements. The work has been further extended with the commencement of a Breit-Pauli relativistic calculation for one of the smaller models and includes 262 fine-structure levels and over 1800 coupled channels. At the same time the PRMAT parallel R-matrix package is being extended to include relativistic effects which will allow us to attempt the more sophisticated 26-configuration model and produce for the first time the amount and quality of atomic data required to perform a meaningful synthesis of the Fe II spectrum

  18. Electronic excited states of protonated aromatic molecules: Protonated Fluorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alata, Ivan [CLUPS (Centre Laser de l' Universite Paris Sud / LUMAT FR 2764) Bat. 106, Univ Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France) and Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic); Broquier, Michel; Dedonder, Claude [CLUPS (Centre Laser de l' Universite Paris Sud / LUMAT FR 2764) Bat. 106, Univ Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Institut des Sciences Moleculaires d' Orsay (ISMO, UMR8624 CNRS) Bat. 210, Univ Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Jouvet, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.jouvet@u-psud.fr [CLUPS (Centre Laser de l' Universite Paris Sud / LUMAT FR 2764) Bat. 106, Univ Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Institut des Sciences Moleculaires d' Orsay (ISMO, UMR8624 CNRS) Bat. 210, Univ Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Marceca, Ernesto [INQUIMAE-FCEN, UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, 3er piso, Pab. II, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-01-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the vibrationally resolved electronic spectrum of protonated fluorene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ground and excited states of the x possible isomers have been calculated ab initio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Among these isomers, only two may contribute to the two band systems observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Franck Condon simulations are used to assign the active vibrations. - Abstract: The photo-fragmentation spectrum of protonated fluorene has been recorded in the visible spectral region, evidencing an absorption that appears largely red shifted in comparison to that of the neutral molecule fluorene. The spectrum shows two different vibrational progressions, separated by 0.19 eV. As in the case of protonated linear polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), comparison of the measured spectra with ab initio calculations allows to associate the observed absorption shift with the charge transfer character of the excited state. The spectra can be properly simulated by geometry optimization of the ground and excited states, followed by Franck Condon analysis. The two vibrational bands progressions observed are assigned, with relatively good confidence, to the existence of two different conformers.

  19. Two-center electron-electron interaction in projectile electron excitation and loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific interaction between an electron on the target and an electron on the projectile in an atomic collision is illustrated by means of projectile electron excitation and loss. In that case, the target electron plays a dual role, on the one hand, decreasing the projectile excitation/loss (screening interaction) and, on the other hand, enhancing the excitation/loss (antiscreening interaction). These two interactions have different dynamics and different impact-parameter dependencies, which permit their specific characterization and experimental separation. (orig.)

  20. Protonation of silylenol ether via excited state proton transfer catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anjan; Banerjee, Tanmay; Hanson, Kenneth

    2016-01-14

    We demonstrate the photocatalytic protonation of a silylenol ether using 7-bromo-2-naphthol as an ESPT catalyst with phenol as the sacrificial proton source. Greater than 95% conversion is achieved with 1 mol% catalyst. The reaction cycle is dependent on the significantly increased acidity of the catalyst in the excited state as well as the long lifetime for the triplet excited state of 7-bromo-2-naphthol. The reaction does not occur in the absence of light (367 nm) and can readily be controlled by light intensity modulation. We also demonstrate that a 72% reaction yield can be obtained with unsubstituted naphthol as the catalyst by coupling triplet energy transfer, via a visible light absorbing (445 nm) sensitizer, into the catalytic cycle. These results open the door to an entirely new class of sensitized photocatalytic reactions that harness the excited state acidity of ESPT dyes. PMID:26502917

  1. Light induced electron transfer reactions of metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properties of the excited states of tris(2,2'-bipyridine) and tris(1,10-phenanthroline) complexes of chromium(III), iron(II), ruthenium(II), osmium(II), rhodium(III), and iridium(III) are described. The electron transfer reactions of the ground and excited states are discussed and interpreted in terms of the driving force for the reaction and the distortions of the excited states relative to the corresponding ground states. General considerations relevant to the conversion of light into chemical energy are presented and progress in the use of polypyridine complexes to effect the light decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen is reviewed

  2. Excitation of quadrupole vibrations in two-nucleon transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectroscopic factor is considered for two-nucleon transfer reactions involving the excitation of quadrupole one-phonon states. Special attention is payed to the number of particles conservation condition in the dynamically distorted average potential of the deforming nucleus. It is required that the mean square of the time-derivtive of the particle number operator is zero in the collective phonon state. The condition is satisfied by a specially chosen residual interaction terms. (orig.)

  3. Vibrational excitation of condensed molecules by an electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on vibrational excitation processes of molecules by electrons plays an important role in providing information required to understand major physical phenomena that occur in space including electric discharge from gas. The report addresses the application of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to investigation of various aspects of vibrational and rotational excitation caused by electrons entering molecules that are physically adsorbed or condensed on a low-temperature solid surface. In particular, some major study results are discussed in relation to vibrational excitation of condensed molecules by electrons. Scattering of low-speed electrons by molecules consists of several different scattering processes. Major processes involved in the vibrational excitation by electrons include dipole scattering, collisional scattering, and anion resonance scattering. A typical set-up for experiments is outlined. Detailed discussion is made of anion resonance in a condensed carbon dioxide phase, surface wave resonance effect in a condensed methane phase, and vibrational and rotational excitation of condensed hydrogen molecules. (N.K.)

  4. Excited State Structural Dynamics of Carotenoids and Charge Transfer Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation describes the development and implementation of a visible/near infrared pump/mid-infrared probe apparatus. Chapter 1 describes the background and motivation of investigating optically induced structural dynamics, paying specific attention to solvation and the excitation selection rules of highly symmetric molecules such as carotenoids. Chapter 2 describes the development and construction of the experimental apparatus used throughout the remainder of this dissertation. Chapter 3 will discuss the investigation of DCM, a laser dye with a fluorescence signal resulting from a charge transfer state. By studying the dynamics of DCM and of its methyl deuterated isotopomer (an otherwise identical molecule), we are able to investigate the origins of the charge transfer state and provide evidence that it is of the controversial twisted intramolecular (TICT) type. Chapter 4 introduces the use of two-photon excitation to the S1 state, combined with one-photon excitation to the S2 state of the carotenoid beta-apo-8'-carotenal. These 2 investigations show evidence for the formation of solitons, previously unobserved in molecular systems and found only in conducting polymers Chapter 5 presents an investigation of the excited state dynamics of peridinin, the carotenoid responsible for the light harvesting of dinoflagellates. This investigation allows for a more detailed understanding of the importance of structural dynamics of carotenoids in light harvesting

  5. Representation of electronic excited states by conditional wavefunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koichiro, Yamaguchi; Yoshiaki, Ito; Takeshi, Mukoyama

    2000-03-01

    Hartree-Fock scheme is an ordinary method to calculate the zeroth order approximation for non-relativistic electronic excited states of atoms and molecules. The accuracy of zeroth order hamiltonian affects the efficiency of higher order estimation of the Hamiltonian and the Green's function. To improve the preciseness of zeroth order Hamiltonian, we try to include the relaxation of electronic excited states into zeroth order approximation by using conditional wavefunction representation instead of Hartree-Fock method. Our method is illustrated by the calculation of electronic double-excited states of Helium and single-excited states of Neon. Further extention of our formulation for multiple-exfcited states are also discussed.

  6. Fishbone instability excited by electrons in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishbone instability in Tokamak plasma is often produced by deeply trapped suprathermal ions. Theoretical analysis indicates that the instability can be excited by barely trapped suprathermal electrons. Negative magnetic shear help exciting electron fishbone or suppress ion one, while positive shear is opposite. The fishbone instability purely driven by suprathermal trapped electrons is firstly identified by using electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in the HL-1M Tokamak

  7. Theory of nuclear excitation by electron capture for heavy ions

    OpenAIRE

    Gagyi-Palffy, Adriana

    2006-01-01

    The resonant process of nuclear excitation by electron capture (NEEC) in collisions involving highly-charged ions has been investigated theoretically. NEEC is a rare recombination process in which a free electron is captured into a bound shell of an ion with the simultaneous excitation of the nucleus. Total cross sections for NEEC followed by the radiative decay of the excited nucleus are presented for various collision systems. The possibility to observe the NEEC in scattering experiments wi...

  8. Electronic excitations in fast ion-solid collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review recent developments in the study of electronic excitation of projectiles in fast ion-solid collisions. Our focus will be primarily on theory but experimental advances will also be discussed. Topics include the evidence for velocity-dependent thresholds for the existence of bound states, wake-field effects on excited states, the electronic excitation of channeled projectiles, transport phenomena, and the interaction of highly charged ions with surfaces. 44 refs., 14 figs

  9. Search for Excited Electrons in ep Collisions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F D; Andreev, V; Antunovic, B; Aplin, S; Asmone, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Bacchetta, A; Backovic, S; Baghdasaryan, A; Baranov, P; Barrelet, E; Bartel, Wulfrin; Beckingham, M; Begzsuren, K; Behnke, O; Belousov, A; Berger, N; Bizot, J C; Boenig, M O; Boudry, V; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Bruncko, D; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Cantun Avila, K B; Cassol-Brunner, F; Cerny, K; Cerny, V; Chekelian, V; Cholewa, A; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Daum, K; Dek, M; De Boer, Y; Delcourt, B; Del Degan, M; Delvax, J; de Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dodonov, V; Dossanov, A; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eliseev, A; Elsen, E; Essenov, S; Falkiewicz, A; Faulkner, P J W; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Feltesse, J; Ferencei, J; Finke, L; Fleischer, M; Fomenko, A; Gabathuler, E; Gayler, J; Ghazaryan, S; Glazov, A; Glushkov, I; Grlich, L; Goettlich, M; Gogitidze, N; Gouzevitch, M; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T; Grell, B R; Grindhammer, G; Habib, S; Haidt, D; Hansson, M; Helebrant, C; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Herrera-Corral, G; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R; Hovhannisyan, A; Hreus, T; Jacquet, M; Janssen, M E; Janssen, X; Jemanov, V; Jonsson, L; Johnson, D P; Jung, A W; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Katzy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Klimkovich, T; Kluge, T; Knutsson, A; Kogler, R; Korbel, V; Kostka, P; Krmer, M; Krastev, K; Kretzschmar, J; Kropivnitskaya, A; Krger, K; Kutak, K; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastoviicka-Medin, G; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leibenguth, G; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Li, G; Lipka, K; Liptaj, A; List, B; List, J; Loktionova, N; Lpez-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Lucaci-Timoce, A I; Lytkin, L; Makankine, A; Malinovski, E; Marage, P; Marti, L; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Michels, V; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, M U; Mudrinic, M; Mller, K; Murn, P; Nankov, K; Naroska, B; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C; Nikiforov, A; Nowak, G; Nowak, K; Nozicka, M; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Palichik, V; Panagouliasl, I; Pandurovic, M; Papadopouloul, T; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Pejchal, O; Peng, H; Prez, E; Petrukhin, A; Picuric, I; Piec, S; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Polifka, R; Povh, B; Preda, T; Radescu, V; Rahmat, A J; Raicevic, N; Raspiareza, A; Ravdandorj, T; Reimer, P; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rotaru, M; Ruiz Tabasco, J E; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S; Salek, D; Salvaire, F; Sankey, D P C; Sauter, M; Sauvan, E; Schmidt, S; Schmitt, S; Schmitz, C; Schoeffel, L; Schning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Sefkow, F; Shaw-West, R N; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Shushkevich, S; Sloan, T; Smiljanic, I; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Yu; Sopicki, P; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, A; Staykova, Z; Steder, M; Stella, B; Straumann, U; Sunar, D; Sykora, T; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Toll, T; Tomasz, F; Tran, T H; Traynor, D; Trinh, T N; Trul, P; Tsakov, I; Tseepeldorj, B; Tsurin, I; Turnau, J; Tzamariudaki, E; Urban, K; Valkrov, A; Valle, C; Van Mechelen, P; VargasTrevino, A; Vazdik, Ya; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; Wegener, D; Wessels, M; Wissing, C; Wnsch, E; Yeganov, V; Zcek, J; Zaleisak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhelezov, A; Zhokin, A; Zhu, Y C; Zimmermann, T; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F; 10.1016/j.physletb.2008.07.014

    2008-01-01

    A search for excited electrons is performed using the full $e^{\\pm}p$ data sample collected by the H1 experiment at HERA, corresponding to a total luminosity of 475 pb$^{-1}$. The electroweak decays of excited electrons ${e}^{*}\\to{e}{\\gamma}$, ${e}^{*}\\to{e}Z$ and ${e}^{*}{\\to}\

  10. Scattering of electronically excited metastable rare gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low energy collisions of metastable rare gas atoms (mostly He) are reviewed. Principles of the experiment are presented as well as data analysis, excimer systems, excitation transfer collisions and Penning systems

  11. Electronic excitations in metallic systems: from defect annihilation to track formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of the effects of high electronic energy deposition in metallic targets irradiated with GeV heavy ions. The main result of these investigations is that high electronic excitations lead to various and sometimes conflicting effects according to the nature of the target: - partial annealing of the defects induced by elastic collisions, - creation of additional disorder, - phase transformation (tracks formation and amorphization), - anisotropic growth. These different effects of high electronic energy deposition in metallic targets are probably manifestations at various degrees of the same basic energy transfer process between the excited electrons and the target atoms. Up to now no theoretical model explains these effects. 24 refs

  12. Dependence of the Nuclear Excitation by Electron Transition on the Decay Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Yasutaka; Tanaka, Satoru

    2000-04-01

    Nuclear excitation by electron transition (NEET) is understood as a resonance phenomenon between the excited atomic state and the nucleus. In the situation where the strong external radiation field transfers energy to a nucleus through the excitation of the atomic shell, e.g., the laser-assisted inverse electron bridge process, the decay rate variation of the initial or final state in the NEET process plays an essential role in the NEET probability. The dependence of the NEET probability on this variation is analyzed in detail with the solution of the equation of motion in the NEET process, and the calculation using 197Au is shown as an example.

  13. Measurement of the electronic excitation of atoms in atom-molecule collisions near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In first part of the paper the measurement of scattering cross sections is described and the energy transfer in molecule-alkali systems is investigated. The influence of translational and vibrational energy could be separated near the excitation threshold. In the second part of the work measurements are reported on the electronic excitation of the work measurements are reported on the electronic excitation of Xe in Xe-Xe-collisions. The experimental data are compared with theoretical calculations. (KBE) 891 KBE/KBE 892 HIS

  14. Laser pulse control of bridge mediated heterogeneous electron transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrafast heterogeneous electron transfer from surface attached dye molecules into semiconductor band states is analyzed. The focus is on systems where the dye is separated from the surface by different bridge anchor groups. To simulate the full quantum dynamics of the transfer process a model of reduced dimensionality is used. It comprises the electronic levels of the dye, the bridge anchor group electronic levels and the continuum of semiconductor band states, all defined versus a single intramolecular vibrational coordinate. The effect of the bridge states is demonstrated, firstly, in studying the injection dynamics following an impulsive excitation of the dye. Then, by discussing different control tasks it is demonstrate in which way the charge injection process can be influenced by tailored laser pulses. To highlight the importance of electron wave function interference emphasis is put on asymmetric two-bridge molecule systems which are also characterized by different and complex valued electronic transfer matrix elements.

  15. Dynamics of Energy Transfer in a Conjugated Dendrimer Driven by Ultrafast Localization of Excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Johan F; Atas, Evrim; Altan, Aysun; Kuroda, Daniel G; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian; Tretiak, Sergei; Roitberg, Adrian E; Kleiman, Valeria D

    2015-09-16

    Solar energy conversion starts with the harvest of light, and its efficacy depends on the spatial transfer of the light energy to where it can be transduced into other forms of energy. Harnessing solar power as a clean energy source requires the continuous development of new synthetic materials that can harvest photon energy and transport it without significant losses. With chemically-controlled branched architectures, dendrimers are ideally suited for these initial steps, since they consist of arrays of chromophores with relative positioning and orientations to create energy gradients and to spatially focus excitation energies. The spatial localization of the energy delimits its efficacy and has been a point of intense research for synthetic light harvesters. We present the results of a combined theoretical experimental study elucidating ultrafast, unidirectional, electronic energy transfer on a complex molecule designed to spatially focus the initial excitation onto an energy sink. The study explores the complex interplay between atomic motions, excited-state populations, and localization/delocalization of excitations. Our findings show that the electronic energy-transfer mechanism involves the ultrafast collapse of the photoexcited wave function due to nonadiabatic electronic transitions. The localization of the wave function is driven by the efficient coupling to high-frequency vibrational modes leading to ultrafast excited-state dynamics and unidirectional efficient energy funneling. This work provides a long-awaited consistent experiment-theoretical description of excited-state dynamics in organic conjugated dendrimers with atomistic resolution, a phenomenon expected to universally appear in a variety of synthetic conjugated materials. PMID:26122872

  16. Role of pigment-protein coupling and pathways of excitation energy transfer in FMO complex

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Davinder

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the effect of different pigment-protein couplings and the role of quantum interference among different energy transfer channels in excitation energy transfer (EET) in FMO complex. We employ the non-Markovian master equation that allows the use of different values of pigment-protein couplings and cut-off frequencies for different BChla sites, in the adiabatic limit of electron transfer in FMO complex. Several pathways of EET are identified and investigated using a realistic set of pigment-pigment couplings and the site energy of each BChla site. We analyze that it is the destructive interference between different channels of a particular pathway that is responsible for the time-scales of oscillations of excitation energy as observed in the recent experiments.

  17. K- and L-shell resonant transfer and excitation in ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experimental studies of resonant transfer and excitation (RTE) in ion-atom collisions are reviewed. In the RTE process correlated electron capture and projectile excitation occur together in a single encounter with a target atom. Measurements of Caq+ + H2 (q=10-19) from 100 to 370 MeV establish the projectile charge-state dependence of K-shell RTE and provide a detailed collision system. A comparison of the Ca17+ + H2 data with previous results for Ca17+ + He demonstrates the effect of the target-electron momentum distribution on the RTE process. Studies of 230-610 MeV Nb31+ + H2 provide information about RTE involing projectile L-shell excitation. All the measurements are in reasonable agreement wit theoretical calculations. (orig.)

  18. Supramolecular host-guest systems as frameworks for excitation energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Moustafa Sh; Etaiw, Safaa El-din H.

    2002-01-01

    The antenna behavior of rhodamine 6G and methylene blue loaded novel host supramolecular frameworks is investigated. The geometrical constraints of these supramolecular hosts allows the cationic dye molecules encapsulating within the parallel channels to form novel host-guest systems. The cationic dyes are close together that self-quenching of electronic excitation energy can occur. The excitation energy transfer occurs from rhodamine 6G as a donor (D) to methylene blue as an acceptor (A) within supramolecular systems filled with a mixture of both dyes.

  19. Nonresonant transfer excitation mode in S{sup 15+}+H collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerarka, A. [Universite de Biskra, Bureau de Poste 145, Inst.-Tronc-C-T, 07000 Biskra (Algeria)

    1997-03-01

    In the context of the independent-electron model, we evaluate the transition amplitude for simultaneous transfer and excitation to occur in ion-atom collisions. For the capture transition amplitude, we use the continuum-distorted-wave approximation, and for the excitation amplitude, we use the first Born approximation. The results are compared directly with the continuum-distorted-wave approximation in a four-body approach for the S{sup 15+}+H system. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Resonance Raman spectra of organic molecules absorbed on inorganic semiconducting surfaces: Contribution from both localized intramolecular excitation and intermolecular charge transfer excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time-dependent correlation function approach for the calculations of absorption and resonance Raman spectra (RRS) of organic molecules absorbed on semiconductor surfaces [Y. Zhao and W. Z. Liang, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 044108 (2011)] is extended to include the contribution of the intermolecular charge transfer (CT) excitation from the absorbers to the semiconducting nanoparticles. The results demonstrate that the bidirectionally interfacial CT significantly modifies the spectral line shapes. Although the intermolecular CT excitation makes the absorption spectra red shift slightly, it essentially changes the relative intensities of mode-specific RRS and causes the oscillation behavior of surface enhanced Raman spectra with respect to interfacial electronic couplings. Furthermore, the constructive and destructive interferences of RRS from the localized molecular excitation and CT excitation are observed with respect to the electronic coupling and the bottom position of conductor band. The interferences are determined by both excitation pathways and bidirectionally interfacial CT

  1. Correlated electron capture and inner-shell excitation measurements in ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an ion-atom collision projectile excitation and charge transfer (electron capture) may occur together in a single encounter. If the excitation and capture are correlated then the process is called resonant transfer and excitation (RTE); if they are uncorrelated then the process is termed nonresonant transfer and excitation (NTE). Experimental work to date has shown the existence of RTE and provided strong evidence for NTE. Results presented here provide information on the relative magnitudes of RTE and NTE, the charge state dependence of RTE, the effect of the target momentum distribution on RTE, the magnitude of L-shell RTE compared to K-shell RTE, and the target Z dependences of RTE and NTE. (Auth.)

  2. Absolute electron transfer efficiency of GEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the absolute single-electron transfer efficiency of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). It is shown that the electron transfer and thus the detection efficiency, depend not only on the GEM geometry and gain but mostly on the electric field and electron diffusion in the gas volume preceding the GEM. We have demonstrated that conditions can be found, including pre-amplification of the single electrons in the gap preceding the GEM, in which full detection efficiency is obtained. The experimental electron transfer efficiency results are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations

  3. Local operator partitioning of electronic energy for electronic energy transfer: An efficient algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Nagesh, Jayashree; Brumer, Paul

    2013-01-01

    An efficient computational algorithm to implement a local operator approach to partitioning electronic energy in general molecular systems is presented. This approach, which rigorously defines the electronic energy on any subsystem within a molecule, gives a precise meaning to the subsystem ground and excited electronic energies, which is crucial for investigating electronic energy transfer from first principles. We apply the technique to the $9-$(($1-$naphthyl)$-$methyl)-anthracene (A1N) molecule by partitioning A1N into anthracenyl and CH$_2-$naphthyl groups as subsystems, and examine their electronic energies and populations for several excited states using Configuration Interaction Singles method. The implemented approach shows a wide variety of different behaviors amongst these excited electronic states.

  4. Minimal excitation states of electrons in one-dimensional wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, J; Klich, I; Levitov, L S

    2006-09-15

    A strategy is proposed to excite particles from a Fermi sea in a noise-free fashion by electromagnetic pulses with realistic parameters. We show that by using quantized pulses of simple form one can suppress the particle-hole pairs which are created by a generic excitation. The resulting many-body states are characterized by one or several particles excited above the Fermi surface accompanied by no disturbance below it. These excitations carry charge which is integer for noninteracting electron gas and fractional for Luttinger liquid. The operator algebra describing these excitations is derived, and a method of their detection which relies on noise measurement is proposed. PMID:17025911

  5. Nuclear Excitation by Electronic Processes: NEEC and NEET Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, P.; Daugas, J. M.; Gosselin, G.; Méot, V.; Gogny, D.

    2005-05-01

    The nuclear excitation by electron capture (NEEC) and nuclear excitation by electronic transition (NEET), and related de-excitation, are two important electromagnetic processes to modify the nuclear state populations. In this paper, we present, on one hand, an experiment accepted at GANIL (France) in September 2004 to measure the NEEC effect with a fully stripped 57Fe ion beam and, on the other hand, a complete calculation leading to the NEET rate of the first excited state of the 235U in a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) plasma.

  6. Matrix photochemistry of small molecules: Influencing reaction dynamics on electronically excited hypersurfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations of chemical reactions on electronically excited reaction surfaces are presented. The role of excited-surface multiplicity is of particular interest, as are chemical reactivity and energy transfer in systems in which photochemistry is initiated through a metal atom ''sensitizer.'' Two approaches are employed: A heavy-atom matrix affords access to forbidden triplet reaction surfaces, eliminating the need for a potentially reactive sensitizer. Later, the role of the metal atom in the photosensitization process is examined directly

  7. Matrix photochemistry of small molecules: Influencing reaction dynamics on electronically excited hypersurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laursen, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    Investigations of chemical reactions on electronically excited reaction surfaces are presented. The role of excited-surface multiplicity is of particular interest, as are chemical reactivity and energy transfer in systems in which photochemistry is initiated through a metal atom sensitizer.'' Two approaches are employed: A heavy-atom matrix affords access to forbidden triplet reaction surfaces, eliminating the need for a potentially reactive sensitizer. Later, the role of the metal atom in the photosensitization process is examined directly.

  8. Efficiencies of Aloof-Scattered Electron Beam Excitation of Metal and Graphene Plasmons

    CERN Document Server

    Ooi, Kelvin J A; Chu, Hong Son; Tan, Dawn T H; Ang, L K

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the efficiencies of surface plasmon excitation by an aloof-scattered electron beam on metals and graphene. Graphene is shown to exhibit high energy transfer efficiencies at very low electron kinetic energy requirements. We show that the exceptional performance of graphene is due to its unique plasmon dispersion, low electronic density and thin-film structure. The potential applications of these aloof-scattered graphene plasmons are discussed in aspects of coherent radiation.

  9. Attenuation of excited electrons at crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attenuation of the electron current determines surface sensitivity of electron spectroscopies. Pronounced energy and directional dependencies of the electron attenuation in crystals differ strongly from those commonly used for amorphous solids. Quantum descriptions of the electron attenuation can be obtained from the complex band structure of crystal surfaces at energies above the vacuum level. Contributions, specific for concrete processes, are obtained from theoretical description of photoelectron spectroscopy and of electron diffraction.

  10. Rotational and vibrational excitation of nitrogen by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotational excitation of nitrogen by low-energy electron impact has posed an unsolved problem for more than three decades. Early analysis of the results of swarm experiments in nitrogen found that the data could be matched remarkably well by assuming that the energy dependences of the Δj = 2 cross sections, from threshold to a few tenths of an eV, are given by a simple formula based on the Born approximation. Moreover, the quadrupole moment (the only adjustable parameter in the formula) which gave the best fit to the data was commensurate with existing experimental values. This finding posed an enigma, since the quadrupole Born expression is known to incorrectly represent the interaction potential for scattering except within a few MeV of threshold. A new swarm data analysis was performed, taken in a dilute mixture of nitrogen in neon. It involved theoretical rotational and momentum transfer cross sections based on a solution of the Schroedinger equation using static, exchange, and polarisation potentials. This work explains the long-standing enigma and provides the basis for a subsequent analysis in which theoretical vibrational excitation cross sections are also investigated using the new swarm data for the mixture. refs., 4 tab., 10 refs

  11. Application of stepwise electron and laser excitation techniques to electron-photon correlation studies. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stepwise excitation electron-photon correlation experiment is presented in which a combination of electron-photon coincidence and laser excitation techniques is used. Atomic collision parameters were measured for the electron impact excitation of the Hg 61P0-61P1 (185 nm) transition at 16 eV incident electron energy and for electron scattering angles in the range 5o-30o. (Author)

  12. Rotationally resolved electron-photon coincidence study of H2(d3IIsub(u)) excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three normalised Stokes' parameters characterising the decay of the electron impact excited d 3IIsub(u) rotational level of H2 were determined in an electron-photon coincidence experiment at 25 eV impact energy and 600 scattering angle. The low degree of polarisation which was observed could be caused by both the averaging over the magnetic sublevels of the ground state of the target and the fine and hyperfine relaxation process. The average angular momentum transfer perpendicular to the scattering plane from the electrons to the molecules was found to be near zero in this excitation process. (author)

  13. Rotationally resolved electron-photon coincidence study of H2(d 3 Pi u) excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcconkey, J. W.; Trajmar, S.; Nickel, J. C.; Mcadams, R.

    1985-01-01

    The three normalized Stokes' parameters characterizing the decay of the electron impact excited d 3 Pi u (V1=O, N1=1) rotational level of H2 were determined in an electron-photon coincidence experiment at 25 eV impact energy and 60 deg scattering angle. The low degree of polarization (coherence) which was observed could be caused by both the averaging over the magnetic sublevels of the ground state of the target and the fine and hyperfine relaxation process. The average angular momentum transfer perpendicular to the scattering plane from the electrons to the molecules was found to be near zero in this excitation process.

  14. Electronically driven adsorbate excitation mechanism in femtosecond-pulse laser desorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Hedegård, Per; Heinz, T. F.; Misewich, J. A.; Newns, D. M.

    1995-01-01

    Femtosecond-pulse laser desorption is a process in which desorption is driven by a subpicosecond temperature pulse of order 5000 K in the substrate-adsorbate electron system, whose energy is transferred into the adsorbate center-of-mass degrees of freedom by a direct coupling mechanism. We present...... electronic excitation energies the friction becomes strongly temperature dependent due to dominance by virtual excitations between different adsorbate potential energy surfaces. The former regime is related to the electronic friction model for the desorption process, and the latter to the desorption induced...

  15. Treatment of semiconductor surfaces by laser-induced electronic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review how semiconductor surfaces can be modified by laser irradiation. We deal solely with phenomena induced by electronic excitation, and compare the processes induced by laser irradiation with that by electrons from STM tips. The ejection of host atoms from perfect surface sites, or of hydrogen from hydrogen-terminated surfaces, takes place either by single excitation for high energy photons or with multiple excitation for low energy photons, even though the quantum yield for ejection by single excitation is extremely low. The atoms neighboring defects on surfaces are ejected with higher probabilities than those on perfect sites. There appear to be anti-bonding states, embedded in the continuum, excitation to which can induce atomic ejection, When the photon energy is too small, multiple photoexcitation or dense excitation is needed to reach these anti-bonding states. Possible applications of laser surface treatments are discussed. (author)

  16. Vibration-assisted resonance in photosynthetic excitation energy transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Irish, E K; Lovett, B W

    2013-01-01

    Coherent quantum energy transfer, as observed in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, is inhibited by energetic disorder. While this difficulty can be overcome to some extent by the addition of environmental noise, it has recently has begun to be appreciated that discrete intra- and/or intermolecular vibrational modes may play an important role in quantum dynamics. We present a microscopic mechanism by which intramolecular vibrational modes create resonant energy transfer pathways, enhancing the efficiency of both coherent and dephasing-assisted transfer. The principles of this vibration-assisted resonance are illustrated in a simple model based on one energy-transfer branch of the well-characterised Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex. Despite its simplicity, this model captures the interplay between strong electronic coupling that produces delocalised exciton states and resonance-enhanced weak coupling to local vibrational modes. Analytical and numerical results show that intramolecular vibrations can enhance...

  17. TDDFT study on the excited-state proton transfer of 8-hydroxyquinoline: Key role of the excited-state hydrogen-bond strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Sheng-Cheng; Liu, Yu-Hui

    2015-03-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations have been employed to study the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reaction of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ). Infrared spectra of 8HQ in both the ground and the lowest singlet excited states have been calculated, revealing a red-shift of the hydroxyl group (-OH) stretching band in the excited state. Hence, the intramolecular hydrogen bond (O-H···N) in 8HQ would be significantly strengthened upon photo-excitation to the S1 state. As the intramolecular proton-transfer reaction occurs through hydrogen bonding, the ESIPT reaction of 8HQ is effectively facilitated by strengthening of the electronic excited-state hydrogen bond (O-H···N). As a result, the intramolecular proton-transfer reaction would occur on an ultrafast timescale with a negligible barrier in the calculated potential energy curve for the ESIPT reaction. Therefore, although the intramolecular proton-transfer reaction is not favorable in the ground state, the ESIPT process is feasible in the excited state. Finally, we have identified that radiationless deactivation via internal conversion (IC) becomes the main dissipative channel for 8HQ by analyzing the energy gaps between the S1 and S0 states for the enol and keto forms.

  18. Theoretical Studies of Chemical Reactions following Electronic Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Galina M.

    2003-01-01

    The use of multi-configurational wave functions is demonstrated for several processes: tautomerization reactions in the ground and excited states of the DNA base adenine, dissociation of glycine molecule after electronic excitation, and decomposition/deformation of novel rare gas molecules HRgF. These processes involve bond brealung/formation and require multi-configurational approaches that include dynamic correlation.

  19. Cross sections for aluminium atom excitation by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inelastic collisions of slow electrons with aluminium atoms are studied by the method of extended beams with registration of optical signal from the intersection area. Behaviour of excitation cross sections in the AlI spectral series as well as excitation of radiation transitions with autoionization levels of aluminium atom are studied

  20. The separation of vibrational coherence from ground- and excited-electronic states in P3HT film

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Yin

    2015-06-07

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. Concurrence of the vibrational coherence and ultrafast electron transfer has been observed in polymer/fullerene blends. However, it is difficult to experimentally investigate the role that the excited-state vibrational coherence plays during the electron transfer process since vibrational coherence from the ground- and excited-electronic states is usually temporally and spectrally overlapped. Here, we performed 2-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D ES) measurements on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films. By Fourier transforming the whole 2D ES datasets (S (λ 1, T∼ 2, λ 3)) along the population time (T∼ 2) axis, we develop and propose a protocol capable of separating vibrational coherence from the ground- and excited-electronic states in 3D rephasing and nonrephasing beating maps (S (λ 1, ν∼ 2, λ 3)). We found that the vibrational coherence from pure excited electronic states appears at positive frequency (+ ν∼ 2) in the rephasing beating map and at negative frequency (- ν∼ 2) in the nonrephasing beating map. Furthermore, we also found that vibrational coherence from excited electronic state had a long dephasing time of 244 fs. The long-lived excited-state vibrational coherence indicates that coherence may be involved in the electron transfer process. Our findings not only shed light on the mechanism of ultrafast electron transfer in organic photovoltaics but also are beneficial for the study of the coherence effect on photoexcited dynamics in other systems.

  1. Conduction electrons accompanied by virtual excitation of crystal field states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The virtual excitation of crystal field singlet ground states in metals such as Pr due to the s-f exchange interaction is studied. It yields an effective electron-electron interaction as well as a self-energy for the conduction electrons. The nature of the interaction is studied and physical quantities such as the dynamic susceptibility for the conduction electrons, the nuclear relaxation rate and the electronic specific heat are calculated. (orig.)

  2. Rotational excitation of heteronuclear molecular ions by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Glauber approximation with allowance for Coulomb effects is used in the study of the rotational excitation of the CO+, HCO+, and N2H+ heteronuclear molecular ions from the J=0 →1 state by electron impact

  3. Rate coefficients for electron impact excitation of N2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojnović, M.; Popović, M.; Ristić, M. M.; Vićić, M. D.; Poparić, G. B.

    2015-12-01

    Rate coefficients for electron impact excitation of the nitrogen molecule have been determined. Calculations have been performed for all relevant non-elastic processes: rotational excitation, vibrational excitation, electronic excitation into singlet and triplet states and particularly for dissociation and ionization. The rate coefficients have been determined for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions in the presence of electric and magnetic fields. For the equilibrium conditions the Maxwellian electron energy distribution function has been used for determining rate coefficients in the energy region from 0 to 17 eV. In the case of the non-equilibrium conditions, where the homogenous electric and magnetic fields are present, we have calculated electron energy distribution functions needed for determining rate coefficients by use of a Monte Carlo simulation developed in our laboratory. The results for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium rate coefficients are presented in the paper and similarities and differences between them have been discussed.

  4. Electronic and rotational excitation of H2 by positron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The body frame fixed nuclei and the laboratory frame rotational close coupling approximations have been employed to calculate electronic excitation of H2 (X 1Σ+g → B 1Σ+u) by positron impact. Two electronic states (X 1Σ+g and B 1Σ+u) and three rotational states in both the elastic and excitation channels are retained in the calculations. Results are reported for electronically elastic, excitation and rotational cross sections up to the incident energy 75.0 eV. The elastic cross sections are found to be influenced significantly with the addition of B 1Σ+u state in the expansion scheme, in both the models used. Above the incident energy of 25.0 eV, the electronic excitation cross sections using the laboratory frame differ significantly from those of the fixed nuclei model. (orig.)

  5. Electron-impact dissociative excitation of H3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the results of an ab initio calculation of the electron-impact dissociation of H3+ via excitation of the two lowest (3E',1E') excited electronic states, for electron energies between 15 eV, the threshold for excitation of the first electronic state, 3E', and 20.7 eV, corresponding to the excitation energy of the third excited electronic state, 1A2''. The calculations, which were carried out using the complex Kohn variational method, employed extensive correlated target wave functions that accurately reproduced the energy levels and transition dipoles of the ground and excited states of the ion. All open channels were included explicitly in the scattering calculation. Closed-channel effects were included via an ab initio optical potential. The fixed-nuclei excitation cross sections were found to be dominated by a series of sharp resonance structures. However, when the cross sections are averaged over the Franck-Condon envelope of the ground vibrational state, these sharp features are no longer seen

  6. Nuclear Excitation by Electronic Transition - NEET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J. A.

    2002-11-01

    Experiments seeking to demonstrate nuclear excitation induced by synchrotron radiation have been enabled by the development of intense synchrotron radiation. The phenomena has been demonstrated in 197Au, while realistic upper limits for 189Os have been established. These new experiments report probabilities for NEET which are orders of magnitude below earlier experiments. A new experiment to measure atomic-nuclear mixing in 189Os is described. The experimental claim of NEET in isomeric 178Hf is not credible.

  7. Electron excitation from ground state to first excited state: Bohmian mechanics method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song; Shuang, Zhao; Fu-Ming, Guo; Yu-Jun, Yang; Su-Yu, Li

    2016-03-01

    The excitation process of electrons from the ground state to the first excited state via the resonant laser pulse is investigated by the Bohmian mechanics method. It is found that the Bohmian particles far away from the nucleus are easier to be excited and are excited firstly, while the Bohmian particles in the ground state is subject to a strong quantum force at a certain moment, being excited to the first excited state instantaneously. A detailed analysis for one of the trajectories is made, and finally we present the space and energy distribution of 2000 Bohmian particles at several typical instants and analyze their dynamical process at these moments. Project supported by the Doctoral Research Start-up Funding of Northeast Dianli University, China (Grant No. BSJXM-201332), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11547114, 11534004, 11474129, 11274141, 11447192, and 11304116), and the Graduate Innovation Fund of Jilin University, China (Grant No. 2015091).

  8. Resonant transfer and excitation (RTE) in ion-atom collisions and dielectronic recombination in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the resonant (charge) transfer and excitation (RTE) process, resonance states in the charge changed projectile are formed due to Coulomb-interaction with the target electrons. The calculated RTE cross section is proportional to the cross section for dielectronic recombination and its projectile energy dependence reflects the momentum distribution of the target electrons. Sample calculations for K x-ray production in S13+ + Ar collisions are discussed. An estimate of the experimental background indicates that RTE is more pronounced for heavy projectiles and light targets

  9. Excitation energy-transfer in functionalized nanoparticles: Going beyond the Förster approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, G.; Corni, S.; Delgado, A.; Bertoni, A.; Goldoni, G.

    2016-02-01

    We develop a novel approach to treat excitation energy transfer in hybrid nanosystems composed by an organic molecule attached to a semiconductor nanoparticle. Our approach extends the customary Förster theory by considering interaction between transition multipole moments of the nanoparticle at all orders and a point-like transition dipole moment representing the molecule. Optical excitations of the nanoparticle are described through an envelope-function configuration interaction method for a single electron-hole pair. We applied the method to the prototypical case of a core/shell CdSe/ZnS semiconductor quantum dot which shows a complete suppression of the energy transfer for specific transitions which could not be captured by Förster theory.

  10. Transfer of angular momentum in electron collisions with alkali atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the transfer of angular momentum to rubidium and sodium atoms in collisions with electrons are reported. For excitation of the rubidium 52S1/2-52P3/2 transition, it is found that existing first order distorted wave Born approximation calculations show poor agreement with the data and that a model which includes the relativistic interaction between the electrons and the atoms in the potential is needed. For the de-excitation of the sodium 42S1/2-32P3/2 transition, a long standing proposal relating to the sign of the transferred angular momentum is not supported except at small scattering angles. A convergent close coupling calculation displays excellent agreement with the measured data. Copyright (1999) CSIRO Australia

  11. Computing electronic structures: A new multiconfiguration approach for excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new method for the computation of electronic excited states of molecular systems. This method is based upon a recent theoretical definition of multiconfiguration excited states [due to one of us, see M. Lewin, Solutions of the multiconfiguration equations in quantum chemistry, Arch. Rat. Mech. Anal. 171 (2004) 83-114]. Our algorithm, dedicated to the computation of the first excited state, always converges to a stationary state of the multiconfiguration model, which can be interpreted as an approximate excited state of the molecule. The definition of this approximate excited state is variational. An interesting feature is that it satisfies a non-linear Hylleraas-Undheim-MacDonald type principle: the energy of the approximate excited state is an upper bound to the true excited state energy of the N-body Hamiltonian. To compute the first excited state, one has to deform paths on a manifold, like this is usually done in the search for transition states between reactants and products on potential energy surfaces. We propose here a general method for the deformation of paths which could also be useful in other settings. We also compare our method to other approaches used in Quantum Chemistry and give some explanation of the unsatisfactory behaviours which are sometimes observed when using the latter. Numerical results for the special case of two-electron systems are provided: we compute the first singlet excited state potential energy surface of the H 2 molecule

  12. Reaction dynamics of electronically excited alkali atoms with simpler molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactions of electronically excited sodium atoms with simple molecules have been studied in crossed molecular beams experiments. Electronically excited Na(32P/sub 3/2/, 42D/sub 5/2/, and 52S/sub 1/2/) were produced by optical pumping using single frequency dye lasers. The effects of the symmetry, and the orientation and alignment of the excited orbital on the chemical reactivity, and detailed information on the reaction dynamics were derived from measurements of the product angular and velocity distributions. 12 refs., 9 figs

  13. Rotationally resolved excitation of diatomic molecules by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the rotationally resolved excitation of homonuclear Hunds case (b) molecules by unpolarized electrons. The general theory is developed and the relevant selection rules are given. Using recently obtained R-matrix elements for the a 1Δg and b 1Σg(+) excitation of O2, we have calculated orientation and alignment parameters for various scattering energies and angles. General features of these parameters, which might be valid for excitation of other molecules as well, are pointed out. In particular it is shown that no rotation of the electronic charge cloud around the molecular axis can be produced during the collision. (author)

  14. Double-electron excitation above Xe K-edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When X-rays fall on any substance, whether solid, liquid, or gaseous, a photoabsorption occurs. Photoabsorption in atoms has been generally treated as a single-electron excitation process. However, the existence of the multi-electron excitation process, where the removal of a core electron by photoabsorption causes excitation of additional electrons in the same atoms, has been known in x-ray absorption spectra for a long time. In x-ray absorption spectra, experimental investigations of the shake processes in inner-shell ionization phenomena have been performed by detecting discontinuities. The shake effect which is a consequence of rearrangement of the atomic electrons, occurs in association with inner-shell excitation and ionization phenomena in x-ray absorption. The shake process has been studied extensively in various gases, because it is usually considered that the measurement of the multi-electron excitation is only possible for monatomic gases or vapors. The x-ray absorption spectra in Kr gas were measured by Ito et al. in order to observe precisely x-ray absorption spectra and to investigate the multi-electron excitation cross sections in Kr as a function of photon energy using synchrotron radiation. However, no suitable measured K x-ray absorption spectra was available to elucidate the shake processes. In the present work, the photoabsorption cross sections in Xe have been precisely measured in order to determine the features on the shake processes resulting from multiple electron excitations as a function of photon energy. Double-electron transitions of [1s4d], [1s4p], [1s4s], and [1s3d] are first detected. (author)

  15. An electron energy-loss study of picene and chrysene based charge transfer salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mller, Eric; Mahns, Benjamin; Bchner, Bernd; Knupfer, Martin [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-05-14

    The electronic excitation spectra of charge transfer compounds built from the hydrocarbons picene and chrysene, and the strong electron acceptors F{sub 4}TCNQ (2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) and TCNQ (7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethan) have been investigated using electron energy-loss spectroscopy. The corresponding charge transfer compounds have been prepared by co-evaporation of the pristine constituents. We demonstrate that all investigated combinations support charge transfer, which results in new electronic excitation features at low energy. This might represent a way to synthesize low band gap organic semiconductors.

  16. An electron energy-loss study of picene and chrysene based charge transfer salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic excitation spectra of charge transfer compounds built from the hydrocarbons picene and chrysene, and the strong electron acceptors F4TCNQ (2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) and TCNQ (7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethan) have been investigated using electron energy-loss spectroscopy. The corresponding charge transfer compounds have been prepared by co-evaporation of the pristine constituents. We demonstrate that all investigated combinations support charge transfer, which results in new electronic excitation features at low energy. This might represent a way to synthesize low band gap organic semiconductors

  17. Electronic Excited States of Tungsten(0) Arylisocyanides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvapilová, Hana; Sattler, W.; Sattler, A.; Sazanovich, I.; Clark, I. P.; Towrie, M.; Gray, H. B.; Záliš, Stanislav; Vlček Jr., Antonín

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 17 (2015), s. 8518-8528. ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13015 Grant ostatní: COST(XE) CM1202 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : TRANSITION-METAL-COMPLEXES * FEMTOSECOND FLUORESCENCE * CHARGE-TRANSFER Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.762, year: 2014

  18. Total electron scattering and electron state excitations cross sections for O2, CO, and CH4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors review available cross section data for electron excitation and scattering for O2, CO, and CH4. Their interest is in utilizing available cross section data to obtain total electron state excitation cross sections for these atmospheric molecules in the 1 to 1000 eV electron impact energy range. Available information includes total electron scattering cross sections, ionization cross sections, elastic scattering cross sections, and some vibrational excitation cross section data. Their general conclusion is that derived total electronic state excitation cross sections should be accurate to about 50%, based upon the presently available input data

  19. Anomalous temperature dependence of excitation transfer betweenquantum dots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Karel; Menšík, Miroslav

    Praha : Czechoslovak Association for Crystal Growth (CSACG), 2014 - (Kožíšek, Z.; Nitsch, K.). s. 25-25 ISBN 978-80-260-6599-9. [Joint Seminar Development of Materials Science in Research and Education /24./. 08.09.2014-12.09.2014, Lednice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum dots * nanoparticles * electron-phonon interaction * energy transfer Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  20. Direct conversion of graphite into diamond through electronic excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, H

    2003-01-01

    An ab initio total energy calculation has been performed for electronic excited states in diamond and rhombohedral graphite by the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method within the framework of the local density approximation (LDA). First, calculations for the core-excited state in diamond have been performed to show that the ab initio calculations based on the LDA describe the wavefunctions in the electronic excited states as well as in the ground state quite well. Fairly good coincidence with both experimental data and theoretical prediction has been obtained for the lattice relaxation of the core exciton state. The results of the core exciton state are compared with nitrogen-doped diamond. Next, the structural stability of rhombohedral graphite has been investigated to examine the possibility of the transition into the diamond structure through electronic excited states. While maintaining the rhombohedral symmetry, rhombohedral graphite can be spontaneously transformed to cubic diamond. Tota...

  1. Rate coefficients for electron impact excitation of CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojnović, M.; Popović, M.; Ristić, M. M.; Vićić, M. D.; Poparić, G. B.

    2013-09-01

    Rate coefficients for electron impact excitation of the CO molecule have been calculated both for equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions in the presence of electric and magnetic fields. The rate coefficients have been determined for all relevant non-elastic processes: rotational excitation, vibrational excitation, electronic excitation into singlet and triplet states and particularly for ionization. In the case of non-equilibrium conditions, we had to determine electron energy distribution functions needed for rate coefficients calculations. The distribution functions were obtained by employing a Monte Carlo simulation developed in our laboratory. The simulations were performed for moderate values of electric field over gas number density ratios, E/N, from 0 to 1000 Td. Also, the rate coefficients have been determined in presence of magnetic field for typical values of magnetic field over gas number density ratios, B/N, from 500 to 3000 Hx. The results of equilibrium rate coefficients along with non-equilibrium ones have been shown.

  2. Absorption of waves excited by electron beam in magnetized plasma with longitudinal inhomogeneous density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obtained experimental results confirm the concept of two-dimensional transformation of cold plasma waves into plasma oscillations in the lines ? approximately equal to ?subp, where ? is froquency of electron-excited wave, and ?subp is electron plasma frequency. Efficiency of Cherenkov absorption of oscillations is sufficiently high in this range. Energy transfer from a beam to plasma oscillations is observed to increase in a plasma with a longitudinal density gradient

  3. Resonant vibrational excitation and de-excitation of N2(v) by low-energy electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poparić, G B; Ristić, M; Belić, D S

    2008-05-01

    We have calculated cross sections and rate coefficients for low-energy electron impact excitation of the nitrogen molecule from vibrationally excited levels N2(v) 1-8. Calculations are performed in the 2Pig shape resonance energy region, from 0 to 5 eV. The cross sections are determined by using our recent integral cross section measurements of the ground level vibrational excitation and the most recent cross sections for elastic electron scattering, applying the principle of detailed balance. The rate coefficient calculations are performed for the Maxwellian electron energy distribution. By using extended Monte Carlo simulations, the electron energy distribution functions (EEDF) and the rate coefficients are also determined for the nonequilibrium conditions, in the presence of the homogeneous external electric field for the typical, moderate values of the electric field over gas number density ratios, E/N. PMID:18366195

  4. Electron-electron Thomas peak in fast transfer ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Thomas process'' is a name used for a family of singular two-step processes that can lead to electron transfer. The Thomas process of the ''second kind,'' occurring in reactions with both transfer and ionization, utilizes the e-e scattering in the second step, so this Thomas process requires the dynamics of the electron-electron interaction. We calculate numerically the second order element of an S matrix and corresponding cross sections for the transfer ionization process. We find that the position and shape of the Thomas peak depend on both electron-electron and the electron-nucleus interaction. Also the direct and exchange amplitudes are equal at the peak position. We test the peaking approximation used for transfer ionization. Our results can be compared to experimental results for p++He?H+He2++e-. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  5. Electronic and vibrational excitations in adsorbed metalorganic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HREELS has been used to probe the vibrational and electronic properties of metalorganic molecules adsorbed on III-V semiconductor surfaces. Following adsorbate characterisation, the HREELS electron beam is used to investigate possible resonant vibrational excitation for a range of alkyl-based molecules adsorbed on GaAs(100) and InSb(100). By varying the electron beam energy of the HREEL spectrometer, resonant vibrational excitation is demonstrated at discrete energies in all the molecules studied. This excitation mechanism is confirmed by obtaining adsorbate excitation functions, the observation of enhanced overtone and combination bands at the resonant energies, the measurement of angular distributions that are not consistent with dipole scattering, and by comparison of reflectivity measurements from both the clean and adsorbate covered surfaces. Resonant vibrational excitation is strong in the methyl-based molecules studied (Me3Al and Me3In), but even higher resonant cross-sections are evident in the larger alkyl-based metalorganics (Et3Ga and Np3Ga). The resonant behaviour is generally independent of substrate, although electronic excitation of the InSb(100) surface appears to prevent higher energy resonances (>10 eV) being observed for the methyl-based molecules. The incident HREELS electron beam causes dissociation of Me3Al and Me3In adsorbed on either surface, with a threshold energy of ∼ 10 eV; an energy close to the ionisation potential of the molecules. An electron impact ionisation dissociation mechanism is inferred, with chemisorbed Me groups decomposing to surface CH2 species. Electron induced dissociation rarely occurs for molecules chemisorbed on metal surfaces due to the efficient quenching of the excited states on these substrates. No dissociation is observed for Et3Ga or NP3Ga, even above their ionisation potential. It is suggested that the time taken to form stable species in these larger compounds following ionisation is much longer than the quenching time and decomposition cannot occur. (author)

  6. Excitation functions of slow proton transfer reactions involving negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excitation functions were determined for a series of slow proton and deuteron transfer reactions involving negative ions using a tandem mass spectrometer. Some of the reactions observed, for example, ND2- + D2 ? D- + ND3, exhibit translational energy thresholds, even though they are exothermic. Other reactions, such as CH3COCH2- + CD3COCD3 ? CH3COCH2D + CD3COCD2-, exhibit a complex functional dependence of the cross section upon relative translational energy, which in turn is quite sensitive to the internal energy of the neutral reactant. Rate coefficients determined for these negative ion reactions in the present investigation are compared with analogous data previously reported for thermal energy reactants. The translational energy thresholds observed for several of the reactions are consistent with the existence of a potential energy barrier in the reaction coordinate between the reactants and products. It is demonstrated that the deconvoluted excitation function for the ND2-/D2 reaction is of the form sigma varies as (E/sub rel/ -- E0)/sup 1/2//E/sub rel/, as required by theory, and that the translational energy threshold corresponds to the Arrhenius activation energy for this process

  7. Efficient laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using excitation energy transfer from anthracene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Femtomolar detection of PAHs such as perylene and benzopyrene was achieved. ? Photoexcited anthracene molecules transferred their energy to PAHs. ? Electronically excited PAHs were then excited to be ions. ? Two-photon ionization process was necessary to complete the ionization process. ? The number of defect sites could be reduced by the annealing procedure. - Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as perylene and benzopyrene, doped at amounts on the order of femtomol (?10?15 mol) in anthracene crystals could be detected by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Sensitivity was roughly 103 times higher than that of LDI method in our experimental conditions. It was revealed from the excitation power dependence of the peak intensity of PAHs on the mass spectra that two-photon excitation in one UV pulse was necessary to complete the ionization process. It was also clarified that the number of defect sites that trap excitons generated in anthracene crystals could be reduced by the annealing procedure, by which an efficient energy transfer between anthracene and PAHs became possible

  8. Efficient laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using excitation energy transfer from anthracene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, Kensuke [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Fujino, Tatsuya, E-mail: fujino@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: ► Femtomolar detection of PAHs such as perylene and benzopyrene was achieved. ► Photoexcited anthracene molecules transferred their energy to PAHs. ► Electronically excited PAHs were then excited to be ions. ► Two-photon ionization process was necessary to complete the ionization process. ► The number of defect sites could be reduced by the annealing procedure. - Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as perylene and benzopyrene, doped at amounts on the order of femtomol (∼10{sup −15} mol) in anthracene crystals could be detected by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Sensitivity was roughly 10{sup 3} times higher than that of LDI method in our experimental conditions. It was revealed from the excitation power dependence of the peak intensity of PAHs on the mass spectra that two-photon excitation in one UV pulse was necessary to complete the ionization process. It was also clarified that the number of defect sites that trap excitons generated in anthracene crystals could be reduced by the annealing procedure, by which an efficient energy transfer between anthracene and PAHs became possible.

  9. Ultrafast electron diffraction studies of optically excited thin bismuth films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis contains work on the design and the realization of an experimental setup capable of providing sub-picosecond electron pulses for ultrafast electron diffraction experiments, and performing the study of ultrafast dynamics in bismuth after optical excitation using this setup. (orig.)

  10. Ultrafast electron diffraction studies of optically excited thin bismuth films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkovic, Ivan

    2008-10-21

    This thesis contains work on the design and the realization of an experimental setup capable of providing sub-picosecond electron pulses for ultrafast electron diffraction experiments, and performing the study of ultrafast dynamics in bismuth after optical excitation using this setup. (orig.)

  11. Sputtering and luminescence in electronically excited solid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured both ultraviolet luminescence and ejection of atomic argon from solid argon films electronically excited by megaelectronvolt light ions. The two phenomena reflect (respectively) the radiative and the nonradiative parts of the energy release during electronic recombination and deexcitation. The measurements can be correlated by a model of diffusion of ionic excitons followed by formation and decay of self-trapped excimers

  12. A new look at nuclear excitation in an electron transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubičić, A.; Kekez, D.; Logan, B. A.

    1991-11-01

    The mechanism for nuclear excitation in an electron transition (NEET) has been reanalyzed. In contrast to other calculations our analysis shows that the NEET process probability does not depend on the details of the nuclear transition but rather on the properties of the electron states. Our predictions are in very good agreement with the available experimental data.

  13. Double-electron excitation above Xe K-edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoabsorption cross-section in Xe has been measured in order to determine the features of the shake processes resulting from multiple electron excitations as a function of photon energy. Double-electron transitions of [1s4d], [1s4p], [1s4s], and [1s3d] have been detected. (author)

  14. Search for excited electrons using the ZEUS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports a search for excited electrons at the HERA electron-proton collider. In a sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 26 nb-1, no evidence was found for any resonant state decaying into e-γ, νW- or e-Z0. Limits on the coupling strength of an excited electron have been determined for masses between 45 and 225 GeV. This study also reports the observation of the wide-angle eγ Compton scattering process. (orig.)

  15. Electron-driven excitations and dissociation of molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Greg [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Orel, Ann E. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-02-13

    This program studied how energy is interchanged in electron and photon collisions with molecules leading to ex-citation and dissociation. Modern ab initio techniques, both for the photoionization and electron scattering, and the subsequent nuclear dynamics studies, are used to accurately treat these problems. This work addresses vibrational ex-citation and dissociative attachment following electron impact, and the dynamics following inner shell photoionzation. These problems are ones for which a full multi-dimensional treatment of the nuclear dynamics is essential and where non-adiabatic effects are expected to be important.

  16. An Exciting Aspect of Nanotechnology: Unimolecular Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metzger R. M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a brief update on our experimental work towards better one-molecule-thick monolayer rectifiers of electrical current, and on theoretical progress towards a one-molecule amplifier of electrical current. This program aims to provide electronic devices at the 2 to 3 nm level, as a dramatic advance towards practical integrated circuits of the future.

  17. Peculiarities of electron excitations decay in ion-molecular crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionic-molecular crystals (IMC) have wide application in various optical devices. Its are using in capacity of solid state dosimetric materials and isolators. Peculiarities of chemical and energetic states of IMC lead to following number of features of electron excitation decay in comparison with alkaline-halogen crystals: - both an electrons and a holes simultaneously could be captured and localized either on anion or on cation complexes; - in-molecular forces arising in result of charge capture could conduct to decay of anion or cation complex; - decay products od anion or cation complex could participate in following reaction of new products formation. All these processes and new products of electron excitation decay exert strong effect on optical, magnetic and electrical characteristics of IMC. Knowledge of way and mechanisms of electron excitation decay in IMC could allow to control of radiation stability of crystals with help of impurities participating in different channels of solid state reactions

  18. Electron-impact rotational excitation of linear molecular ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Alexandre; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2001-07-01

    Molecular R-matrix calculations are performed to give rotational excitation rates for electron collisions with linear molecular ions. Results are presented for CO+, HCO+, NO+ and H2+ up to electron temperatures of 10000K. De-excitation rates and critical electron densities are also given. It is shown that the widely used Coulomb-Born approximation is valid for Δj=1 transitions when the molecular ion has a dipole greater than about 2D, but otherwise is not reliable for studying electron-impact rotational excitation. In particular, transitions with Δj>1 are found to have appreciable rates and are found to be entirely dominated by short-range effects.

  19. Interfacial electron transfer into functionalized crystalline polyoxotitanate nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeberger, Robert C; Young, Karin J; Tang, Jiji; Allen, Laura J; Crabtree, Robert H; Brudvig, Gary W; Coppens, Philip; Batista, Victor S; Benedict, Jason B

    2012-05-30

    Interfacial electron transfer (IET) between a chromophore and a semiconductor nanoparticle is one of the key processes in a dye-sensitized solar cell. Theoretical simulations of the electron transfer in polyoxotitanate nanoclusters Ti(17)O(24)(OPr(i))(20) (Ti(17)) functionalized with four p-nitrophenyl acetylacetone (NPA-H) adsorbates, of which the atomic structure has been fully established by X-ray diffraction measurements, are presented. Complementary experimental information showing IET has been obtained by EPR spectroscopy. Evolution of the time-dependent photoexcited electron during the initial 5 fs after instantaneous excitation to the NPA LUMO + 1 has been evaluated. Evidence for delocalization of the excitation over multiple chromophores after excitation to the NPA LUMO + 2 state on a 15 fs time scale is also obtained. While chromophores are generally considered electronically isolated with respect to neighboring sensitizers, our calculations show that this is not necessarily the case. The present work is the most comprehensive study to date of a sensitized semiconductor nanoparticle in which the structure of the surface and the mode of molecular adsorption are precisely defined. PMID:22548416

  20. Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of optically excited electrons in Ni-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontius, N.; Neeb, M.; Eberhardt, W.; Lttgens, G.; Bechthold, P. S.

    2003-01-01

    Photon-induced ultrafast energy dissipation in small isolated Ni-3 has been studied by two-color pump-probe photoelectron spectroscopy. The time-resolved photoelectron spectra clearly trace the path from a single-electron excitation to a thermalized cluster via both inelastic electron-electron scattering and electron-vibrational coupling. The relatively short electron-electron-scattering time of 215 fs results from the narrow energy spread of the partially filled d levels in this transition-metal cluster. The relaxation dynamics is discussed in view of the cluster size and in comparison to the totally different relaxation behavior of s/p-metal clusters.

  1. Relation between Nonlinear Optical Properties of Push-Pull Molecules and Metric of Charge Transfer Excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Nanna Holmgaard; Zale?ny, Robert; Murugan, N Arul; Kongsted, Jacob; Bartkowiak, Wojciech; gren, Hans

    2015-09-01

    We establish the relationships between the metric of charge transfer excitation (?r) for the bright ??* state and the two-photon absorption probability as well as the first hyperpolarizability for two families of push-pull ?-conjugated systems. As previously demonstrated by Guido et al. (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2013, 9, 3118-3126), ?r is a measure for the average hole-electron distance upon excitation and can be used to discriminate between short- and long-range electronic excitations. We indicate two new benefits from using this metric for the analyses of nonlinear optical properties of push-pull systems. First, the two-photon absorption probability and the first hyperpolarizability are found to be interrelated through ?r; if ? ? (?r)(k), then roughly, ?(TPA) ? (?r)(k+1). Second, a simple power relation between ?r and the molecular hyperpolarizabilities of push-pull systems offers the possibility of estimating properties for longer molecular chains without performing calculations of high-order response functions explicitly. We further demonstrate how to link the hyperpolarizabilities with the chain length of the push-pull ?-conjugated systems through the metric of charge transfer. PMID:26575913

  2. A Qualitative Index of Spatial Extent in Charge-Transfer Excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bahers, Tangui; Adamo, Carlo; Ciofini, Ilaria

    2011-08-01

    With the aim of defining the spatial extent associated to an electronic transition, of particular relevance in the case of charge-transfer (CT) excitations, a new index, evaluated only from the computed density for the ground and excited state, is here derived and tested on a family of molecules that can be considered as prototypes of push-pull chromophores.The index (DCT) allows to define the spatial extent associated to a given transition as well as the associated fraction of electron transferred. By definition of centroids of charges associated to the density increase and depletion zones upon excitation, a qualitative and easy to visualize measure of the spatial extent of the donor and the acceptor moieties within a given molecular system is also given. Finally, an index (t) allowing to define the presence eventually pathologic CT transitions for time-dependent density functional theory treatment in conjunction with standard generalized gradient approximation or hybrid functional, that is through space CT, is disclosed. PMID:26606624

  3. Theoretical study of intermolecular energy transfer involving electronically excited molecules: He(/sup 1/S) + H/sub 2/(B /sup 1/. sigma. /sub u//sup +/). [Solution for coupled channel equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, R.M.

    1986-11-01

    To further understanding of gas phase collision dynamics involving electronically-excited molecules, a fully quantum mechanical study of He + H/sub 2/(B /sup 1/..sigma../sub u//sup +/) was undertaken. Iterative natural orbital configuration interaction (CI) calculations were performed to obtain the interaction potential between He and H/sub 2/(B /sup 1/..sigma../sub u//sup +/). The potential energy surface (PES) is highly anisotropic and has a van der Waals well of about 0.03 eV for C/sub 2v/ approach. Avoided PES crossings occur with He + H/sub 2/(E,F /sup 1/..sigma../sub g//sup +/) and with He + H/sub 2/(X /sup 1/..sigma../sub g//sup +/) and cause a local maximum and a deep minimum in the He + H/sub 2/(B /sup 1/..sigma../sub u//sup +/) PES, respectively. The crossing with He + H/sub 2/(X /sup 1/..sigma../sub g//sup +/) provides a mechanism for fluorescence quenching. The computed CI energies were combined with previous multi-reference double excitation CI calculations and fit with analytic functions for convenience in scattering calculations. Accurate dipole polarizabilities and quadrupole moment of H/sub 2/(B /sup 1/..sigma../sub u//sup +/) were computed for use in the multipole expansion, which is the analytic form of the long-range PES. 129 refs., 28 figs., 35 tabs.

  4. Electron attachment to valence-excited CO

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sanjay; D. Mathur

    1998-01-01

    The possibility of electron attachment to the valence $^{3}\\Pi$ state of CO is examined using an {\\it ab initio} bound-state multireference configuration interaction approach. The resulting resonance has $^{4}\\Sigma^{-}$ symmetry; the higher vibrational levels of this resonance state coincide with, or are nearly coincident with, levels of the parent $a^{3}\\Pi$ state. Collisional relaxation to the lowest vibrational levels in hot plasma situations might yield the possibility of a long-lived CO...

  5. Rate coefficients for electron impact excitation of CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Rate coefficients for electron impact excitation of CO have been calculated. • All relevant non-elastic processes have been included in calculations. • Equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions have been considered. • Electron energy distribution functions were determined by a Monte Carlo simulation. • Rate coefficients have also been determined in the presence of magnetic field. - Abstract: Rate coefficients for electron impact excitation of the CO molecule have been calculated both for equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions in the presence of electric and magnetic fields. The rate coefficients have been determined for all relevant non-elastic processes: rotational excitation, vibrational excitation, electronic excitation into singlet and triplet states and particularly for ionization. In the case of non-equilibrium conditions, we had to determine electron energy distribution functions needed for rate coefficients calculations. The distribution functions were obtained by employing a Monte Carlo simulation developed in our laboratory. The simulations were performed for moderate values of electric field over gas number density ratios, E/N, from 0 to 1000 Td. Also, the rate coefficients have been determined in presence of magnetic field for typical values of magnetic field over gas number density ratios, B/N, from 500 to 3000 Hx. The results of equilibrium rate coefficients along with non-equilibrium ones have been shown

  6. Electron-impact resonant vibrational excitation and dissociation processes involving vibrationally excited N2 molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Laporta, V; Celiberto, R; Tennyson, J

    2014-01-01

    Resonant vibrational excitation cross sections and the corresponding rate coefficients for electron-N$_2$ collisions occurring through the N$_2^-(\\textrm{X}\\ ^2\\Pi_g)$ resonant state are reviewed. New calculations are performed using accurate potential energies curves for the N$_2$ electronic ground state, taken from literature, and for the N$_2^-$ resonant state, obtained from $R$-matrix calculations. The calculations are extended also to the resonant excitation processes involving the N$_2$ ground state vibrational continuum, leading to dissociation. Electron impact dissociation is found to be significant from higher vibrational levels. Accurate analytical fits for the complete set of the rate coefficients are provided. The behavior of the dissociative cross sections is investigated for rotationally excited N$_2$ molecules, with $J=50,100$ and 150 and for different vibrational levels.

  7. Electron-impact resonant vibrational excitation and dissociation processes involving vibrationally excited N2 molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, V.; Little, D. A.; Celiberto, R.; Tennyson, J.

    2014-12-01

    Resonant vibrational excitation cross sections and the corresponding rate coefficients for electron-N2 collisions occurring through the N_2^-(X\\,{}^2\\Pi_g) resonant state are reviewed. New calculations are performed using accurate potential energy curves for the N2 electronic ground state, taken from the literature, and for the N_2^- resonant state, obtained from R-matrix calculations. The calculations are extended to resonant excitation processes involving the N2 ground state vibrational continuum, leading to dissociation. Electron-impact dissociation is found to be significant from higher vibrational levels. Accurate analytical fits for the complete set of the rate coefficients are provided. The behavior of the dissociative cross sections is investigated for rotationally excited N2 molecules, with J = 50, 100 and 150, and for different vibrational levels.

  8. Evolution of microstructure resulting from high electronic excitation during swift heavy ion irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is devoted to the specific damage processes resulting from high levels of energy deposition in electronic excitation (a few 10 keV/nm) in metallic targets. Such conditions are fulfilled during irradiations with GeV heavy ions. After a short discussion about the mechanisms of energy deposition in elastic and inelastic collisions, the various microstructural changes observed during swift heavy ion irradiations of metals are described. The damage resulting from electronic excitation is localized along the ion wake and consists mainly in local or long-range order modifications or even phase transformation in crystalline materials and in anisotropic growth in amorphous materials. A tentative model based on the Coulomb explosion mechanism explains how part of the energy deposited in electronic excitation can be transferred to lattice atoms and accounts for the available experimental results. (orig.)

  9. Advances in electron transfer chemistry, v.6

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, PS

    1999-01-01

    It is clear that electron transfer chemisty is now one of the most active areas of chemical study. Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry has been designed to allow scientists who are developing new knowledge in this rapidly expanding area to describe their most recent research findings. This volume will serve those interested in learning about current breakthroughs in this rapidly expanding area of chemical research.

  10. Biotechnological Aspects of Microbial Extracellular Electron Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Souichiro

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is a type of microbial respiration that enables electron transfer between microbial cells and extracellular solid materials, including naturally-occurring metal compounds and artificial electrodes. Microorganisms harboring EET abilities have received considerable attention for their various biotechnological applications, in addition to their contribution to global energy and material cycles. In this review, current knowledge on microbial EET and its appli...

  11. Electron Transfer for Large Molecules through Delocalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, D.; Reslan, R.; Hernandez, S.; Arnsen, C.; Lopata, K.; Govind, N.; Gao, Y.; Tolbert, S.; Schwartz, B.; Rubin, Y.; Nardes, A.; Kopidakis, N.

    2012-01-01

    Electron transfer for large molecules lies in between a Marcus-Theory two-state transfer and a Landauer description. We discuss a delocalization formalism which,through the introduction of artificial electric fields which emulate bulk dipole fields, allows calculation between a pair of identical molecules (A+A- (R)A-+A) with several open states. Dynamical electron polarization effects can be inserted with TDDFT and are crucial for large separations.

  12. Electron impact excitation of 2p states in atomic hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Gradziel, Marcin Lukasz

    2003-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of experimental investigation of coherence in the excitation of the 2p states of atomic hydrogen through a collision with an unpolarised electron. The polarisation correlation variation of the delayed coincidence method has been employed to simultaneously measure the reduced Stokes parameters P1,P2 and P3, which are needed to fully characterise the state of the atom immediately after the collision. This has also allowed the excitation coherence parameter ...

  13. Elementary excitations in double electron layers with tunnel coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new class of the single-particle excitations in the double electron layers with the tunneling coupling between the layers is studied through the method of the light inelastic scattering. The dispersion law and dependence of the energies of the given excitations on the degree of the layers unbalance are measured. The new spectroscopic method for determining the degree of the double layers unbalance is proposed

  14. Nuclear Excitation by Electronic Transition of U-235

    OpenAIRE

    Chodash, Perry Adam

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear excitation by electronic transition (NEET) is a rare nuclear excitation that is theorized to occur in numerous isotopes. One isotope in particular, U-235, has been studied several times over the past 40 years and NEET of U-235 has never been conclusively observed. These past experiments generated conflicting results with some experiments claiming to observe NEET of U-235 and others setting limits for the NEET rate. This dissertation discusses the latest attempt to measure NEET of U...

  15. Heat Transfer Augmentation for Electronic Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suabsakul Gururatana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The performance of electronic devices has been improving along with the rapid technology development. Cooling of electronic systems is consequently essential in controlling the component temperature and avoiding any hot spot. The study aims to review the present electronic cooling methods which are widely used in electronic devices. Approach: There are several methods to cool down the electronics components such as the pin-fin heat sink, confined jet impingement, heat pipe, micro heat sink and so on. Results: The cooling techniques can obviously increase heat transfer rate. Nonetheless, for active and passive cooling methods the pressure drop could extremely rise, when the heat transfer rate is increased. Conclusion: When the cooling techniques are used, it is clearly seen that the heat transfer increases with pressure drop. To avoid excessive expense due to high pressure drop, optimization method is required to obtain optimum cost and cooling rate.

  16. Quantifying electron transfer reactions in biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjulstok, Emil Sjulstok; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Solov'yov, Ilia A

    2015-01-01

    which for example occur in photosynthesis, cellular respiration, DNA repair, and possibly magnetic field sensing. Quantum biology uses computation to model biological interactions in light of quantum mechanical effects and has primarily developed over the past decade as a result of convergence between...... quantum physics and biology. In this paper we consider electron transfer in biological processes, from a theoretical view-point; namely in terms of quantum mechanical and semi-classical models. We systematically characterize the interactions between the moving electron and its biological environment to...... deduce the driving force for the electron transfer reaction and to establish those interactions that play the major role in propelling the electron. The suggested approach is seen as a general recipe to treat electron transfer events in biological systems computationally, and we utilize it to describe...

  17. Modulational instability of electron plasma waves excited by a cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes on an experimental study of the modulational instability of electron plasma waves excited by a cavity and a theoretical formula which can be used for comparison with experimental results. Electron plasma waves were generated by the electron cyclotron resonance at the Lisitano coil. The magnetic field intensity along the axis of the Lisitano coil can be changed to change the plasma density. The electron temperature and density were measured with shielded plane probes. The ion temperature was measured by an energy analyzer. Excitation of electron plasma waves, observation of side band waves, modulation instability at small amplitude and large amplitude were studied. It was found that the modulated waves of electron plasma waves make spatially growth and attenuation. The frequency of modulation is linear to the electric field intensity of electron plasma waves, and the amplitude is proportional to the square of the intensity. It is possible to perform experiments by distinguishing the parametric instability and the modulation instability of electron plasma waves. When the electric field intensity of electron plasma waves is more than 5.5 V/cm, low frequency waves are excited, which corresponds to the ion density variation with the phase different by π from the modulated waves. The results are discussed in comparison with the theory by Zakharov. (Kato, T.)

  18. Characterization of adsorption and electronic excited states of quercetin on titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdyb, Agata; Krawczyk, Stanisław

    2016-03-01

    Adsorption of quercetin on colloidal titanium dioxide nanoparticles in ethanol and its excited-state electronic structure were investigated by means of electronic and vibrational spectroscopies. The changes in electronic charge redistribution as reflected by the dipole moment difference, ∆μ, between the ground and excited electronic states were measured with electroabsorption spectroscopy and analyzed using results of TD DFT computations. Adsorption of quercetin causes a red shift of its absorption spectrum. Raman spectra of quercetin analyzed with reference to analogous data for morin indicate binding of quercetin through the hydroxy groups of the catechol moiety. The difference dipole moment, which is 5.5 D in free quercetin, increases to 11.8 D in opposite direction in adsorbed quercetin, and is associated with charge-transfer to the Ti atom. The computed transition energy, intensity, vector Δμ and molecular orbitals involved in the electronic transition at different molecular configurations indicate a bidentate chelating mode of binding of quercetin.

  19. Electronic and photophysical properties of 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole and its derivatives enhancing in the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer processes: A TD-DFT study on substitution effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of electron donating and withdrawing substituents on the enol absorption and keto emission spectra of 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole (HBO) and its derivatives has been systematically investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) methods. The enol absorption spectra of HBO were simulated by using five different DFTs with various exchange-correlation functions to validate a suitable functional prior to being further used as a method of choice to study the effect of substituents on the spectral characteristics of HBO derivatives. The popular B3LYP (Becke, three-parameter, Lee–Yang–Parr) exchange-correlation functional is found to provide the best desirable result in predicting the absorption spectrum close to experimental data. In the ground state, enol forms of HBO and its derivatives are more stable than those of keto forms, while in the first lowest excited state, keto forms are found to be more stable than their enol forms. Overall, simulated absorption and emission spectra of HBO and its derivatives from TD-B3LYP calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data. For enol, absorption maxima of HBO derivatives having electron-withdrawing groups are red-shift corresponding to their lower HOMO–LUMO energy gaps compared to that of HBO. For keto emission, HBO having electron donating groups (m-MeHBO and MHBO) and withdrawing group (CNHBO) at 4′-position on the phenol fragment as well as electron donating groups (HBOMe and HBOM) at 6-position on the benzoxazole fragment make the position of keto emission peak shift to shorter wavelength (blue-shift). However, HBO derivatives with electron withdrawing groups (HBOF, HBOCl, HBOA and HBOE) at 6-position give redshifted emission compared to the parent compound (HBO). The type of substituent on both 4′- and 6-positions certainly has a pronounced effect on the absorption and emission spectra of HBO derivatives. - Highlights: • Simulated spectra of HBO at TD-B3LYP/6-311+G* agree with experiments. • The main transition of UV–vis absorption is π→π* (or HOMO→LUMO). • Electron donating groups both on 4′- and 6-position give blueshifted emission. • Electron withdrawing groups on 6-position give redshifted emission

  20. Electronic and photophysical properties of 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole and its derivatives enhancing in the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer processes: A TD-DFT study on substitution effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daengngern, Rathawat; Kungwan, Nawee, E-mail: naweekung@gmail.com

    2015-11-15

    The effect of electron donating and withdrawing substituents on the enol absorption and keto emission spectra of 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole (HBO) and its derivatives has been systematically investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) methods. The enol absorption spectra of HBO were simulated by using five different DFTs with various exchange-correlation functions to validate a suitable functional prior to being further used as a method of choice to study the effect of substituents on the spectral characteristics of HBO derivatives. The popular B3LYP (Becke, three-parameter, Lee–Yang–Parr) exchange-correlation functional is found to provide the best desirable result in predicting the absorption spectrum close to experimental data. In the ground state, enol forms of HBO and its derivatives are more stable than those of keto forms, while in the first lowest excited state, keto forms are found to be more stable than their enol forms. Overall, simulated absorption and emission spectra of HBO and its derivatives from TD-B3LYP calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data. For enol, absorption maxima of HBO derivatives having electron-withdrawing groups are red-shift corresponding to their lower HOMO–LUMO energy gaps compared to that of HBO. For keto emission, HBO having electron donating groups (m-MeHBO and MHBO) and withdrawing group (CNHBO) at 4′-position on the phenol fragment as well as electron donating groups (HBOMe and HBOM) at 6-position on the benzoxazole fragment make the position of keto emission peak shift to shorter wavelength (blue-shift). However, HBO derivatives with electron withdrawing groups (HBOF, HBOCl, HBOA and HBOE) at 6-position give redshifted emission compared to the parent compound (HBO). The type of substituent on both 4′- and 6-positions certainly has a pronounced effect on the absorption and emission spectra of HBO derivatives. - Highlights: • Simulated spectra of HBO at TD-B3LYP/6-311+G* agree with experiments. • The main transition of UV–vis absorption is π→π* (or HOMO→LUMO). • Electron donating groups both on 4′- and 6-position give blueshifted emission. • Electron withdrawing groups on 6-position give redshifted emission.

  1. Electronically excited negative ion resonant states in chloroethylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Several novel dissociative negative ion channels were revealed in chloroethylenes. • The electronically excited resonant states were recorded in all chloroethylenes under study. • The states were assigned to the inter-shell types, but not to the core-excited Feshbach one. - Abstract: The negative ion mass spectra of the resonant electron capture by molecules of 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethylene-cis, 1,2-dichloroethylene-trans, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene have been recorded in the 0–12 eV range of the captured electron energy using static magnetic sector mass spectrometer modified for operation in the resonant electron capture regime. As a result, several novel low-intensive dissociation channels were revealed in the compounds under study. Additionally, the negative ion resonant states were recorded at approximately 3–12 eV, mostly for the first time. These resonant states were assigned to the electronically excited resonances of the inter-shell type by comparing their energies with those of the parent neutral molecules triplet and singlet electronically excited states known from the energy-loss spectra obtained by previous studies

  2. Locally-excited (LE) versus charge-transfer (CT) excited state competition in a series of para-substituted neutral green fluorescent protein (GFP) chromophore models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Seth

    2015-02-12

    In this paper, I provide a characterization of the low-energy electronic structure of a series of para-substituted neutral green fluorescent protein (GFP) chromophore models using a theoretical approach that blends linear free energy relationships (LFERs) with state-averaged complete-active-space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) theory. The substituents are chosen to sample the Hammett ?(p) scale from R = F to NH2, and a model of the neutral GFP chromophore structure (R = OH) is included. I analyze the electronic structure for different members of the series in a common complete-active-space valence-bond (CASVB) representation, exploiting an isolobal analogy between active-space orbitals for different members of the series. I find that the electronic structure of the lowest adiabatic excited state is a strong mixture of weakly coupled states with charge-transfer (CT) or locally excited (LE) character and that the dominant character changes as the series is traversed. Chromophores with strongly electron-donating substituents have a CT-like excited state such as expected for a push-pull polyene or asymmetric cyanine. Chromophores with weakly electron-donating (or electron-withdrawing) substituents have an LE-like excited state with an ionic biradicaloid structure localized to the ground-state bridge ? bond. PMID:25343562

  3. Effects of oxidants and reductants on the efficiency of excitation transfer in green photosynthetic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Brune, D. C.; Blankenship, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    The efficiency of energy transfer in chlorosome antennas in the green sulfur bacteria Chlorobium vibrioforme and Chlorobium limicola was found to be highly sensitive to the redox potential of the suspension. Energy transfer efficiencies were measured by comparing the absorption spectrum of the bacteriochlorophyll c or d pigments in the chlorosome to the excitation spectrum for fluorescence arising from the chlorosome baseplate and membrane-bound antenna complexes. The efficiency of energy transfer approaches 100% at low redox potentials induced by addition of sodium dithionite or other strong reductants, and is lowered to 10-20% under aerobic conditions or after addition of a variety of membrane-permeable oxidizing agents. The redox effect on energy transfer is observed in whole cells, isolated membranes and purified chlorosomes, indicating that the modulation of energy transfer efficiency arises within the antenna complexes and is not directly mediated by the redox state of the reaction center. It is proposed that chlorosomes contain a component that acts as a highly quenching center in its oxidized state, but is an inefficient quencher when reduced by endogenous or exogenous reductants. This effect may be a control mechanism that prevents cellular damage resulting from reaction of oxygen with reduced low-potential electron acceptors found in the green sulfur bacteria. The redox modulation effect is not observed in the green gliding bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus, which contains chlorosomes but does not contain low-potential electron acceptors.

  4. Cold transfer between deformed, Coulomb excited nuclei; Kalter Transfer zwischen deformierten, Coulomb-angeregten Kernen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, H.

    1998-12-31

    The scattering system {sup 162}Dy {yields} {sup 116}Sn has been examined at energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier using the Heidelberg-Darmstadt Crystal Ball spectrometer combined with 5 Germanium-CLUSTER detectors. In order to study pairing correlations as a function of angular momentum cold events were selected in the 2n stripping channel by identifying and suppressing the dominant hot part of the transfer with the Crystal Ball. The CLUSTER detectors with their high {gamma}-efficiency were used to identify the transfer channel and to resolve individual final states. Cross sections for the population of individual yrast states in a cold transfer reaction have been measured for the first time indicating the strong influence of higher transfer multipolarities. At small surface distances Coulomb-nuclear interferences were found to be responsible for the stronger decline of the population of higher yrast states in the transfer channel as compared to the Coulex channel. As a preparatory study for 2n transfer measurements between high spin yrast states in the backbending region of deformed nuclei the Coulomb excitation process in the crossing region of two bands in {sup 162}Dy has been analyzed. The gross properties of the measured population probabilities could be interpreted in a simple band mixing model. (orig.)

  5. Imaging the electrons from transfer ionization collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrons emitted into the continuum in transfer ionization of He2+ on helium collisions in the energy range of 75 - 400 keV were imaged using reaction microscope. The electron emission patterns show big difference for projectile velocity lower and upper than 1 a.u. in the present studies.

  6. Electron transfer induced fragmentation of acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present negative ion formation driven by electron transfer in atom (K) molecule (acetic acid) collisions. Acetic acid has been found in the interstellar medium, is also considered a biological related compound and as such studying low energy electron interactions will bring new insights as far as induced chemistry is concerned.

  7. Photo-induced nuclear excitation by electron transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyublik, A. Ya.

    2011-07-01

    The nuclear excitation at electron transition (NEET), induced by X rays, is described on the basis of strict collision theory. All stages of the process are considered, including formation of the hole in the electron K shell, its decay accompanied by excitation of the nucleus, filling of the M-vacancy and subsequent deexcitation of the nucleus. The cross sections for the NEET and photoabsorption of X rays near K-edge are calculated. The results agree with the data of Kishimoto et al.

  8. Ro-vibrational excitation of HCl by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ab initio calculations of cross sections for simultaneous rotational and vibrational excitation of HCl by low-energy electrons have been made in the multipole-extracted adiabatic-nuclei approximation. These calculations employed a free-electron-gas model of the exchange interaction, and represent the first application of a new parameter-free model of the correlation-polarization interaction to vibrational excitation. The cross sections increase by an order of magnitude with the inclusion of this interaction, which is much more important for vibrationally inelastic than elastic collisions. 22 references

  9. Nuclear interlevel transfer driven by electronic transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show how a gamma-ray laser might be made by optically exciting a transfer of population from a long-lived isomer to an energetically adjacent short-lived state of the same nucleus. We compare the advantages of using transitions of high multipolarity versus transitions of low multi-polarity. Preliminary numerical investigations of the mechanism show it to be somewhat favorable. 35 refs., 4 figs

  10. Excitation energy transfer in vitro between phycobiliproteins and thylakoid photosystem II of higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaonan; Tseng, C. K.

    1992-12-01

    The excitation energy transfer from phycobiliproteins to thylakoid PSII of higher plants was investigated. When incubated with spinach thylakoids, phycobiliproteins isolated from red and blue-green algae transferred light energy absorbed to spinach PSII. The efficiency of energy transfer was dependent on the kind of phycobiliproteins used. If spinach thylakoids were replaced by the thylakoids of Brassica chinensis, R-phycoerythin or C-phycocyanin did not transfer their excitation energy to PSII of Brassica chinensis unless allophycocyanin was present.

  11. Distributed Multipolar Expansion Approach to Calculation of Excitation Energy Transfer Couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B?asiak, Bartosz; Maj, Micha?; Cho, Minhaeng; Gra, Robert W

    2015-07-14

    We propose a new approach for estimating the electrostatic part of the excitation energy transfer (EET) coupling between electronically excited chromophores based on the transition density-derived cumulative atomic multipole moments (TrCAMM). In this approach, the transition potential of a chromophore is expressed in terms of truncated distributed multipolar expansion and analytical formulas for the TrCAMMs are derived. The accuracy and computational feasibility of the proposed approach is tested against the exact Coulombic couplings, and various multipole expansion truncation schemes are analyzed. The results of preliminary calculations show that the TrCAMM approach is capable of reproducing the exact Coulombic EET couplings accurately and efficiently and is superior to other widely used schemes: the transition charges from electrostatic potential (TrESP) and the transition density cube (TDC) method. PMID:26575762

  12. Single Molecule Spectroscopy of Electron Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this research are threefold: (1) to develop methods for the study electron transfer processes at the single molecule level, (2) to develop a series of modifiable and structurally well defined molecular and nanoparticle systems suitable for detailed single molecule/particle and bulk spectroscopic investigation, (3) to relate experiment to theory in order to elucidate the dependence of electron transfer processes on molecular and electronic structure, coupling and reorganization energies. We have begun the systematic development of single molecule spectroscopy (SMS) of electron transfer and summaries of recent studies are shown. There is a tremendous need for experiments designed to probe the discrete electronic and molecular dynamic fluctuations of single molecules near electrodes and at nanoparticle surfaces. Single molecule spectroscopy (SMS) has emerged as a powerful method to measure properties of individual molecules which would normally be obscured in ensemble-averaged measurement. Fluctuations in the fluorescence time trajectories contain detailed molecular level statistical and dynamical information of the system. The full distribution of a molecular property is revealed in the stochastic fluctuations, giving information about the range of possible behaviors that lead to the ensemble average. In the case of electron transfer, this level of understanding is particularly important to the field of molecular and nanoscale electronics: from a device-design standpoint, understanding and controlling this picture of the overall range of possible behaviors will likely prove to be as important as designing ia the ideal behavior of any given molecule.

  13. Extremely confined gap surface plasmon modes excited by electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Raza, Søren; Pors, Anders; Holmgaard, Tobias; Kadkhodazadeh, Shima; Wagner, Jakob B; Pedersen, Kjeld; Wubs, Martijn; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Mortensen, N Asger

    2013-01-01

    High spatial and energy resolution EELS can be employed for detailed characterization of both localized and propagating surface plasmon excitations supported by metal nanostructures, giving insight into fundamental physical phenomena involved in various plasmonic effects. Here, applying EELS to ultra-sharp convex grooves in gold, we directly probe extremely confined gap surface plasmon (GSP) modes excited by swift electrons in nanometer-wide gaps. Both experimental and theoretical EELS data reveal the resonance behavior associated with the excitation of the antisymmetric (with respect to the transverse electric-field component) GSP mode for extremely small gap widths, down to ~5 nm. It is argued that the excitation of this mode, featuring very strong absorption, plays a crucial role in the experimental realization of non-resonant light absorption by ultra-sharp convex grooves with fabrication-induced asymmetry. Occurrence of the antisymmetric GSP mode along with the fundamental GSP mode exploited in plasmonic...

  14. Low-energy charge transfer excitations in NiO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative analysis of photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra of NiO poly- and nanocrystals in the spectral range 2-5.5 eV reveals two PLE bands peaked near 3.7 and 4.6 eV with a dramatic rise in the low-temperature PLE spectral weight of the 3.7 eV PLE band in the nanocrystalline NiO as compared with its polycrystalline counterpart. In frames of a cluster model approach we assign the 3.7 eV PLE band to the low-energy bulk-forbidden p-d (t1g(?)-eg) charge transfer (CT) transition which becomes the allowed one in the nanocrystalline state while the 4.6 eV PLE band is related to a bulk allowed d-d (eg-eg) CT transition scarcely susceptible to the nanocrystallization. The PLE spectroscopy of the nanocrystalline materials appears to be a novel informative technique for inspection of different CT transitions.

  15. Vibrational energy transfer in selectively excited diatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single rovibrational states of HCl(v=2), HBr(v=2), DCl(v=2), and CO(v=2) were excited with a pulsed optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Total vibrational relaxation rates near - resonance quenchers were measured at 2950K using time resolved infrared fluorescence. These rates are attributed primarily to V - V energy transfer, and they generally conform to a simple energy gap law. A small deviation was found for the CO(v) + DCl(v') relaxation rates. Upper limits for the self relaxation by V - R,T of HCl(v=2) and HBr(v=2) and for the two quantum exchange between HCl and HBr were determined. The HF dimer was detected at 2950K and 30 torr HF pressure with an optoacoustic spectrometer using the OPO. Pulsed and chopped, resonant and non-resonant spectrophones are analyzed in detail. From experiments and first order perturbation theory, these V - V exchange rates appear to behave as a first order perturbation in the vibrational coordinates. The rotational dynamics are known to be complicated however, and the coupled rotational - vibrational dynamics were investigated theoreticaly in infinite order by the Dillon and Stephenson and the first Magnus approximations. Large ?J transitions appear to be important, but these calculations differ by orders of magnitude on specific rovibrational transition rates. Integration of the time dependent semiclassical equations by a modified Gordon method and a rotationally distorted wave approximation are discussed as methods which would treat the rotational motion more accurately. 225 references

  16. Hydrogen transfer in excited pyrrole-ammonia clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, O.; Dedonder-Lardeux, C.; Jouvet, C.; Kang, H.; Martrenchard, S.; Ebata, T.; Sobolewski, A. L.

    2004-06-01

    The excited state hydrogen atom transfer reaction (ESHT) has been studied in pyrrole-ammonia clusters [PyH-(NH3)n+hν→Py•+•NH4(NH3)n-1]. The reaction is clearly evidenced through two-color R2P1 experiments using delayed ionization and presents a threshold around 235 nm (5.3 eV). The cluster dynamics has also been explored by picosecond time scale experiments. The clusters decay in the 10-30 ps range with lifetimes increasing with the cluster size. The appearance times for the reaction products are similar to the decay times of the parent clusters. Evaporation processes are also observed in competition with the reaction, and the cluster lifetime after evaporation is estimated to be around 10 ns. The kinetic energy of the reaction products is fairly large and the energy distribution seems quasi mono kinetic. These experimental results rule out the hypothesis that the reaction proceeds through a direct N-H bond rupture but rather imply the existence of a fairly long-lived intermediate state. Calculations performed at the CASSCF/CASMP2 level confirm the experimental observations, and provide some hints regarding the reaction mechanism.

  17. Direct conversion of graphite into diamond through electronic excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ab initio total energy calculation has been performed for electronic excited states in diamond and rhombohedral graphite by the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method within the framework of the local density approximation (LDA). First, calculations for the core-excited state in diamond have been performed to show that the ab initio calculations based on the LDA describe the wavefunctions in the electronic excited states as well as in the ground state quite well. Fairly good coincidence with both experimental data and theoretical prediction has been obtained for the lattice relaxation of the core exciton state. The results of the core exciton state are compared with nitrogen-doped diamond. Next, the structural stability of rhombohedral graphite has been investigated to examine the possibility of the transition into the diamond structure through electronic excited states. While maintaining the rhombohedral symmetry, rhombohedral graphite can be spontaneously transformed to cubic diamond. Total energy in the rhombohedral structure has been calculated as a function of cell volume V, c/a ratio and bond length between layers R. The adiabatic potential energy surfaces for the transition from rhombohedral graphite to diamond in the states after core excitation have been investigated. In core exciton state, the graphite structure is more stable than the diamond. In the valence hole state after the Auger decay process, in contrast, the graphite structure is remarkably unstable compared with the diamond. The conversion into diamond from graphite can be induced spontaneously even at room temperatures due to excited holes. The induced holes decrease the stable interlayer bond length, which can lower the activation energy for buckling displacement of the hexagonal bonds, and the activation energy becomes zero by increasing the concentration of holes up to 0.1/C atom. These results predict that diamond synthesis is possible by a core excitation through the Auger decay process. (topical review)

  18. Phonon soft modes and damage production by high electronic excitations in pure metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now well known that during high-energy heavy-ion irradiation, the very high-energy deposition in electronic excitation induces a spectacular damage creation in some types of metallic targets. A selected number of pure metals has been irradiated by GeV ions in order to test some possible criteria which might be pertinent to explain such effects: electron-phonon interaction, electrical conductivity, existence of various allotropic phases,... The present results show that the latter criterion or more precisely that the existence of a displacive transformation associated with a soft mode in the phonon spectrum seems to favour efficient energy transfers between highly excited electrons and target atoms. For titanium targets, electron microscopy observations show striations which are parallel to the incident ion beam direction

  19. Minimal-excitation states for electron quantum optics using levitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, J.; Jullien, T.; Portier, F.; Roche, P.; Cavanna, A.; Jin, Y.; Wegscheider, W.; Roulleau, P.; Glattli, D. C.

    2013-10-01

    The on-demand generation of pure quantum excitations is important for the operation of quantum systems, but it is particularly difficult for a system of fermions. This is because any perturbation affects all states below the Fermi energy, resulting in a complex superposition of particle and hole excitations. However, it was predicted nearly 20 years ago that a Lorentzian time-dependent potential with quantized flux generates a minimal excitation with only one particle and no hole. Here we report that such quasiparticles (hereafter termed levitons) can be generated on demand in a conductor by applying voltage pulses to a contact. Partitioning the excitations with an electronic beam splitter generates a current noise that we use to measure their number. Minimal-excitation states are observed for Lorentzian pulses, whereas for other pulse shapes there are significant contributions from holes. Further identification of levitons is provided in the energy domain with shot-noise spectroscopy, and in the time domain with electronic Hong-Ou-Mandel noise correlations. The latter, obtained by colliding synchronized levitons on a beam splitter, exemplifies the potential use of levitons for quantum information: using linear electron quantum optics in ballistic conductors, it is possible to imagine flying-qubit operation in which the Fermi statistics are exploited to entangle synchronized electrons emitted by distinct sources. Compared with electron sources based on quantum dots, the generation of levitons does not require delicate nanolithography, considerably simplifying the circuitry for scalability. Levitons are not limited to carrying a single charge, and so in a broader context n-particle levitons could find application in the study of full electron counting statistics. But they can also carry a fraction of charge if they are implemented in Luttinger liquids or in fractional quantum Hall edge channels; this allows the study of Abelian and non-Abelian quasiparticles in the time domain. Finally, the generation technique could be applied to cold atomic gases, leading to the possibility of atomic levitons.

  20. Extremely confined gap surface-plasmon modes excited by electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Stenger, Nicolas; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Holmgaard, Tobias; Kadkhodazadeh, Shima; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Pedersen, Kjeld; Wubs, Martijn; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    High-spatial and energy resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) can be used for detailed characterization of localized and propagating surface-plasmon excitations in metal nanostructures, giving insight into fundamental physical phenomena and various plasmonic effects. Here, applying...... EELS to ultra-sharp convex grooves in gold, we directly probe extremely confined gap surface-plasmon (GSP) modes excited by swift electrons in nanometre-wide gaps. We reveal the resonance behaviour associated with the excitation of the antisymmetric GSP mode for extremely small gap widths, down to ~5...... mode exploited in plasmonic waveguides with extreme light confinement is a very important factor that should be taken into account in the design of nanoplasmonic circuits and devices....

  1. The particle-hole map: a computational tool to visualize electronic excitations

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yonghui

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the particle-hole map (PHM), a visualization tool to analyze electronic excitations in molecules in the time or frequency domain, to be used in conjunction with time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) or other ab initio methods. The purpose of the PHM is to give detailed insight into electronic excitation processes which is not obtainable from local visualization methods such as transition densities, density differences, or natural transition orbitals. The PHM is defined as a nonlocal function of two spatial variables and provides information about the origins, destinations, and connections of charge fluctuations during an excitation process; it is particularly valuable to analyze charge-transfer excitonic processes. In contrast with the transition density matrix, the PHM has a statistical interpretation involving joint probabilities of individual states and their transitions, it satisfies several sum rules and exact conditions, and it is easier to read and interpret. We discuss and illu...

  2. Electron energy distribution in He excited by ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation spectrum of high-energy heavy charged particles which are slowed down in gaseous media is analytically determined. The nonstationary function of the electron energy-distribution in helium by pumping through nuclear reaction products is numerically calculated. The energy areas and times whereby the energy prices for formation of a single electron-ion pair or a single excited atom do not depend on the initial energy and the type of the ionizing heavy particles are determined

  3. Time-resolved spectroscopy of energy and electron transfer processes in the photosynthetic bacterium Heliobacillus mobilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, S.; Chiou, H C; Kleinherenbrink, F A; Blankenship, R E

    1994-01-01

    The kinetics of excitation energy transfer and electron transfer processes within the membrane of Heliobacillus mobilis were investigated using femtosecond transient absorption difference spectroscopy at room temperature. The kinetics in the 725- to 865-nm region, upon excitation at 590 and 670 nm, were fit using global analysis. The fits returned three kinetic components with lifetimes of 1-2 ps and 27-30 ps, and a component that does not decay within several nanoseconds. The 1- to 2-ps comp...

  4. Excitation of electron Langmuir frequency harmonics in the solar atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fomichev, V. V.; Fainshtein, S. M.; Chernov, G. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio Wave Propagation (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15

    An alternative mechanism for the excitation of electron Langmuir frequency harmonics as a result of the development of explosive instability in a weakly relativistic beam-plasma system in the solar atmosphere is proposed. The efficiency of the new mechanism as compared to the previously discussed ones is analyzed.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulation of electronically excited polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer simulation method is proposed for MD study of the photoinduced intramolecular dynamics in polyatomic molecules electronically excited by ultrashort laser pulses. An efficient, partially analytical procedure for calculation of the absorption (emission) spectra is developed and used for determination of molecular potentials in accordance with the experimental supersonic jets spectra. (author). 21 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  6. Electron impact excitation processes for carbon-containing molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond thin films can be made easily by the plasma CVD process which utilizes skillfully the chemical activity of hydrocarbon multi-atom molecules. Accompanying the development of the technology like this, the basic understanding of plasma characteristics at atomic and molecular levels has become an urgent task. In this paper, the research on the elementary process of the collision excitation of low energy electrons and the molecules containing carbon, which plays the main role in the gaseous phase primary reaction process in low temperature plasma, is reported. The collision phenomena in plasma are the collision of accelerated electrons with gas molecules, elastic and inelastic scattering, the excitation and ionization of molecules due to inelastic scattering, the gaseous phase secondary reaction by the excited molecules and ions, and their transport and surface reaction with substrates. As the method of measuring cross sections, electron beam method is explained. On the knowledge obtained from differential cross sections (DCS) on the interaction of electrons and multi-atom molecules, elastic scattering DCS, vibration excitation and unstable negative ion state, dissociative adhesion and stable negative ion formation and so on are described. (K.I.)

  7. Photoionization of furan from the ground and excited electronic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzi, Aurora; Sapunar, Marin; Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Došlić, Nađa; Decleva, Piero

    2016-02-28

    Here we present a comparative computational study of the photoionization of furan from the ground and the two lowest-lying excited electronic states. The study aims to assess the quality of the computational methods currently employed for treating bound and continuum states in photoionization. For the ionization from the ground electronic state, we show that the Dyson orbital approach combined with an accurate solution of the continuum one particle wave functions in a multicenter B-spline basis, at the density functional theory (DFT) level, provides cross sections and asymmetry parameters in excellent agreement with experimental data. On the contrary, when the Dyson orbitals approach is combined with the Coulomb and orthogonalized Coulomb treatments of the continuum, the results are qualitatively different. In excited electronic states, three electronic structure methods, TDDFT, ADC(2), and CASSCF, have been used for the computation of the Dyson orbitals, while the continuum was treated at the B-spline/DFT level. We show that photoionization observables are sensitive probes of the nature of the excited states as well as of the quality of excited state wave functions. This paves the way for applications in more complex situations such as time resolved photoionization spectroscopy. PMID:26931702

  8. Magnetic excitations in an itinerant electron antiferromagnet Cr2As

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spin wave excitations in an itinerant electron antiferromagnet Cr2As was measured using neutron spectroscopy. Magnon dispersion is linear to the reciprocal lattice vector for small q, and the slope is 125 and 185 MeV A along c- and a-axis, respectively. The slope is about two times larger than the value predicted from the molecular field theory

  9. Electron excitation after plasmon decay in proton-aluminum collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a projectile travels inside a metal, it interacts with the electron gas, producing both binary and collective excitations (plasmons). Within the nearly-free-electron-gas scheme, Roesler and co-workers showed that plasmons decay in first order and a conduction electron is emitted (interband transition). Working within the frame of atomic collisions, we develop a simple model to describe this decay. The first-order Born expansion is used to approximate the electron wave functions. The influence of the lattice potential on the excited electron is considered in the calculations in order to balance the momentum-conservation equation. It gives contributions associated with sites of the reciprocal lattice. The potential expansion coefficients are obtained following Animalu and co-workers [Philos. Mag. 9, 451 (1964)]. First- and second-differential spectra (in energy and angle) are analyzed discriminating contributions due to different lattice momenta. In all cases, contributions due to binary excitations of the valence electrons and inner-shell ionization are presented to establish a comparison

  10. Resonant vibrational excitation and de-excitation of CO(v) by low energy electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poparić, G B; Ristić, M; Belić, D S

    2008-12-01

    Integral cross sections and rate coefficients for vibrational excitation of the excited carbon-monoxide molecule, via the (2)Pi shape resonance in the energy region from 0 to 5 eV have been calculated. Cross sections are calculated by using our recently measured cross sections for the ground level CO excitation and the most recent cross sections for elastic electron scattering, applying the principle of detailed balance. Rate coefficients are calculated for Maxwellian electron energy distribution, with mean electron energies below 5 eV. By using extended Monte Carlo simulations, electron energy distribution functions (EEDF) and rate coefficients are determined in nonequilibrium conditions, in the presence of homogeneous external electric field. Nonequilibrium rates are calculated for typical, moderate values of the electric field over gas number density ratios, E/N, from 1 to 220 Td. Maxwellian and nonequilibrium rate coefficients are compared and the difference is attributed to a specific shape of the electron energy distribution functions under considered conditions. PMID:18973320

  11. Excited-state kinetics of the carotenoid S//1 state in LHC II and two-photon excitation spectra of lutein and beta-carotene in solution Efficient Car S//1 yields Chl electronic energy transfer via hot S//1 states?

    CERN Document Server

    Walla, P J; Linden, Patricia A; Ohta, Kaoru

    2002-01-01

    The excited-state dynamics of the carotenoids (Car) in light- harvesting complex II (LHC II) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were studied by transient absorption measurements. The decay of the Car S //1 population ranges from similar to 200 fs to over 7 ps, depending on the excitation and detection wavelengths. In contrast, a 200 fs Car S//1 yields Chlorophyll (Chl) energy transfer component was the dominant time constant for our earlier two-photon fluorescence up- conversion measurements (Walla, P.J. ; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2000, 104, 4799-4806). We also present the two-photon excitation (TPE) spectra of lutein and beta-carotene in solution and compare them with the TPE spectrum of LHC II. The TPE-spectrum of LHC II has an onset much further to the blue and a width that is narrower than expected from comparison to the S//1 fluorescence of lutein and beta-carotene in solution. Different environments may affect the shape of the S//1 spectrum significantly. To explain the blue shift of the TPE spectrum and the d...

  12. Catalytic Olefin Hydroamidation Enabled by Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Here we report a ternary catalyst system for the intramolecular hydroamidation of unactivated olefins using simple N-aryl amide derivatives. Amide activation in these reactions occurs via concerted proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) mediated by an excited state iridium complex and weak phosphate base to furnish a reactive amidyl radical that readily adds to pendant alkenes. A series of H-atom, electron, and proton transfer events with a thiophenol cocatalyst furnish the product and regenerate the active forms of the photocatalyst and base. Mechanistic studies indicate that the amide substrate can be selectively homolyzed via PCET in the presence of the thiophenol, despite a large difference in bond dissociation free energies between these functional groups. PMID:26439818

  13. Dissociative electron attachment to laser-excited benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have conducted comprehensive measurements on enhanced electron attachment to ArF and KrF laser-excited benzene in the presence of Ar and N2 buffer gases. At both these laser lines, two-photon absorption leads to excitation of benzene to energies above its ionization potential. Such excitations have been shown to lead to a population of long-lived, core-excited high-Rydberg states in addition to the ionization of the molecule. Present measurements on the dependence of negative ion yield on laser fluence, benzene pressure, and applied electric field verify that the observed negative ion formation is due to the attachment of the photoelectrons to the concomitantly produced high-Rydberg states. Using a rate equation analysis, the electron attachment rate constant for the core-excited Rydberg states was estimated to be of the order of 10-4-10-3 cm3 s-1. Laser photoionization cross sections were also estimated, and the cross section at the KrF laser line is in agreement (author)

  14. Investigations of the electron capture excitation in slow ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Line radiation between 40 and 110 nm from rare gas ions and hydrogen molecules excited by electron impact was observed with a polarization-free arranged vuv-monochromator. Various emission cross sections were measured in dependence of electron impact energy, and were made absolute by comparison with published data. In this way, absolute monochromator calibration could be obtained at several wave lengths. Photon emission in collisions of doubly charged Ne- and Ar ions with Ar, Kr or Xe at impact energies of 10-50 keV was investigated with the absolutely calibrated vuv spectrometer under polarisation-free arrangement. In the collision system (20Ne+2 + Xe) de-excitation after single electron capture was found to proceed with comparable probability via photon emission from excited NeII states and via transfer ionisation causing electron emission. State-resolved studies typical for single electron capture excitation on collisions of singly or multiply charged ions with hydrogen-like target atoms were carried out with the collision systems (20Ne+ + Li) and (20Ne+2 + Li) respectively. For both systems absolute emission cross sections for the strongest NeI and NeII lines emitted in the vuv range respectively were measured together with the respective total single electron capture cross sections. Absolute excitation cross sections were derived from the measured emission cross sections by correcting for the influence of the finite lifetime of the involved excited states. The obtained results could be explained satisfactorily with simple theoretical considerations on the basis of quasimolecular two state transitions. (author)

  15. Electromicrobiology: Electron Transfer via Biowires in Nature and Practical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovley Derek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most exciting developments in the field of electromicrobiology has been the discovery of electrically conductive pili (e-pili in Geobacter species that transport electrons with a metallic-like mechanism. The e-pili are essential for extracellular electron transport to Fe(III oxides and longrange electron transport through the conductive biofilms that form on the anodes of microbial fuel cells. The e-pili also facilitate direct interspecies electron transfer between Geobacter and Methanosaeta or Methanosarcina species. Metatranscriptomic studies have demonstrated that Geobacter/Methanosaeta DIET is an important process in anaerobic digesters converting brewery wastes to methane. Increasing e-pili expression through genetic modification of regulatory systems or adaptive evolution yields strains with enhanced rates of extracellular electron transfer. Measurement of the conductivity of individual e-pili has demonstrated that they have conductivities higher than those of a number of synthetic conducting organic polymers. Multiple lines of evidence have demonstrated that aromatic amino acids play an important role in the electron transport along e-pili, suggesting opportunities to tune e-pili conductivity via genetic manipulation of the amino acid composition of e-pili. It is expected that e-pili will be harnessed to improve microbe-electrode processes such as microbial electrosynthesis and for the development of novel biosensors. Also, e-pili show promise as a sustainable ‘green’ replacement for electronic materials that contain toxic components and/or are produced with harsh chemicals.

  16. Analysis of photobleaching in single-molecule multicolor excitation and Frster resonance energy transfer measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggeling, Christian; Widengren, Jerker; Brand, Leif; Schaffer, Jrg; Felekyan, Suren; Seidel, Claus A M

    2006-03-01

    Dye photobleaching is a major constraint of fluorescence readout within a range of applications. In this study, we investigated the influence of photobleaching in fluorescence experiments applying multicolor laser as well as Frster resonance energy transfer (FRET) mediated excitation using several red-emitting dyes frequently used in multicolor experiments or as FRET acceptors. The chosen dyes (cyanine 5 (Cy5), MR121, Alexa660, Alexa680, Atto647N, Atto655) have chemically distinct chromophore systems and can be excited at 650 nm. Several fluorescence analysis techniques have been applied to detect photobleaching and to disclose the underlying photophysics, all of which are based on single-molecule detection: (1) fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) of bulk solutions, (2) fluorescence cross-correlation of single-molecule trajectories, and (3) multiparameter fluorescence detection (MFD) of single-molecule events. The maximum achievable fluorescence signals as well as the survival times of the red dyes were markedly reduced under additional laser irradiation in the range of 500 nm. Particularly at excitation levels at or close to saturation, the 500 nm irradiation effectively induced transitions to higher excited electronic states on already excited dye molecules, leading to a pronounced bleaching reactivity. A theoretical model for the observed laser irradiance dependence of the fluorescence brightness of a Cy5 FRET acceptor dye has been developed introducing the full description of the underlying photophysics. The model takes into account acceptor as well as donor photobleaching from higher excited electronic states, population of triplet states, and energy transfer to both the ground and excited states of the acceptor dye. Also, photoinduced reverse intersystem crossing via higher excited triplet states is included, which was found to be very efficient for Cy5 attached to DNA. Comparing continuous wave (cw) and pulsed donor excitation, a strong enhancement of acceptor photobleaching by a factor of 5 was observed for the latter. Thus, in the case of fluorescence experiments utilizing multicolor pulsed laser excitation, the application of the appropriate timing of synchronized green and red laser pulses in an alternating excitation mode can circumvent excessive photobleaching. Moreover, important new single-molecule analysis diagnosis tools are presented: (1) For the case of excessive acceptor photobleaching, cross-correlation analysis of single-molecule trajectories of the fluorescence signal detected in the donor and acceptor detection channels and vice versa shows an anticorrelated exponential decay and growth, respectively. (2) The time difference, Tg - Tr, of the mean observation times of all photons detected for the donor and acceptor detection channels within a single-molecule fluorescence burst allows one to identify and exclude molecules with an event of acceptor photobleaching. The presented single-molecule analysis methods can be constrained to, for example, FRET-active subpopulations, reducing bias from FRET-inactive molecules. The observations made are of strong relevance for and demand a careful choice of laser action in multicolor and FRET experiments, in particular when performed at or close to saturation. PMID:16509620

  17. Dynamics of the excited state intramolecular charge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylaminonaphtalene (laurdan), a derivative of 6-propanoyl- 2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (prodan), has been used as a fluorescent probe in cell imaging, especially in visualizing the lipid rafts by the generalized polarization (GP) images, where GP=(I440-I490)/(I440+I490) with I being the fluorescence intensity. The fluorescence spectrum of laurdan is sensitive to its dipolar environment due to the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) process in S1 state, which results in a dual emission from the locally excited (LE) and the ICT states. The ICT process and the solvation of the ICT state are very sensitive to the dipolar nature of the environment. In this work, the ICT of laurdan in ethanol has been studied by femtosecond time resolved fluorescence (TRF), especially TRF spectra measurement without the conventional spectral reconstruction method. TRF probes the excited states exclusively, a unique advantage over the pump/probe transient absorption technique, although time resolution of the TRF is generally lower than transient absorption and the TRF spectra measurement was possible only though the spectral reconstruction. Over the years, critical advances in TRF technique have been made in our group to achieve <50 fs time resolution with direct full spectra measurement capability. Detailed ICT and the subsequent solvation processes can be visualized unambiguously from the TRF spectra. Fig. 1 shows the TRF spectra of laurdan in ethanol at several time delays. Surprisingly, two bands at 433 and 476 nm are clearly visible in the TRF spectra of laurdan even at T = 0 fs. As time increases, the band at 476 nm shifts to the red while its intensity increases. The band at 433 nm also shifts slightly to the red, but loses intensity as time increases. The intensity of the 476 nm band reaches maximum at around 5 ps, where it is roughly twice as intense as that at 0 fs, and stays constant until lifetime decay is noticeable. The spectra were fit by two log-normal functions, each corresponding to the fluorescence from the LE state and ICT state. Relative populations and the average frequency of the ICT state are shown in Fig.2 and Fig.3, which represents the ICT dynamics and the subsequent solvation process, respectively. The TRF spectra illustrate unambiguously how the ICT and the solvation processes take place for laurdan dissolved in ethanol. First of all, the ICT and the solvation occur in serial. Second, the ICT proceeds in several time scales exhibiting heterogeneity of the molecular conformation in liquid. About one third of the laurdan molecules undergoes ICT immediately in much less than <50 fs time scale. Rest of them undergoes ICT by two time constants, 6.4 ps and 28 ps. The ICT state then undergoes solvation process by 47 ps time constants. Because the molecule is large and flexible, fast inertial component was not observed. In conclusion, TRF spectra in femtosecond resolution reveal detailed intramolecular charge transfer process of laurdan. The ICT process shows a series of time scales due to the conformational heterogeneity in solution. (authors)

  18. Dynamics of two-electron excitations in helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, C.D.; Menzel, A.; Frigo, S.P. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Excitation of both electrons in helium offers a unique window for studying electron correlation at the most basic level in an atom in which these two electrons and the nucleus form a three-body system. The authors utilized the first light available at the U-8 undulator-SGM monochromator beamline to investigate the dynamic parameters, partial cross sections, differential cross sections, and photoelectron angular distribution parameters ({beta}), with a high resolving power for the photon beam and at the highly differential level afforded by the use of their electron spectrometer. In parallel, they carried out detailed calculations of the relevant properties by a theoretical approach that is based on the hyperspherical close-coupling method. Partial photoionization cross sections {sigma}{sub n}, and photoelectron angular distributions {beta}{sub n} were measured for all possible final ionic states He{sup +}(n) in the region of the double excitations N(K,T){sup A} up to the N=5 threshold. At a photon energy bandpass of 12 meV below the thresholds N=3, 4, and 5, this level of differentiation offers the most critical assessment of the dynamics of the two-electron excitations to date. The experimental data were seen to be very well described by the most advanced theoretical calculations.

  19. Thermal emission of electrons from highly excited sodium clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlipper, R.; Kusche, R.; Issendorff, B. v.; Haberland, H. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik

    2001-03-01

    Positively charged sodium clusters can be easily ionized by a fs laser pulse of relatively low intensity (<10{sup 10} W/cm{sup 2}), if the laser is in resonance with the plasmon excitation of the cluster. This ionization process was investigated in detail by measuring the kinetic energy distribution of electrons emitted from a size-selected Na{sub 93}{sup +} as a function of the fs laser intensity. In all cases pure Boltzmann-like energy distributions were observed. A comparison with statistical theory shows that the emission is a purely thermal process. It is different to normal thermionic emission insofar as the electrons are emitted from a hot electron system which is only weakly coupled to a cold ionic background. The results demonstrate purely statistical behaviour of a small fermionic system even for very high excitation energy. (orig.)

  20. Spodumene and garnet luminescence excited by subnanosecond electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Solomonov, V. I.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2011-11-01

    Pulsed cathodoluminescence of spodumene and yttrium-aluminum garnet crystals activated by Mn2+ and Nd3+ ions, respectively, is investigated. The luminescence was excited upon crystal irradiation by electron beams with current densities of 35 and 100 A/cm2 and average electron energy of 50 keV for 0.1, 0.25, and 0.65 ns. It is demonstrated that the electron beam duration decreased to several tenth of a nanosecond does not lead to essential changes of the mechanisms of pulsed cathodoluminescence excitation and character of its spectrum, but in this case, the intensity of luminescence of the hole centers increases compared with the intracenter luminescence.

  1. Rotational excitation of HD+ by electron and positron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rotational excitation cross sections for Δj=+-1 and +-2 transitions for HD+ by electron and positron impact have been calculated by the semi-classical first-order time-dependent perturbation theory. The trajectory is assumed to be determined by the spherical Coulomb interaction from the dipole moment, quadrupole moment and anisotropy of polar-izability of HD+. The energy ranges covered are 0.04 eV to 5 eV for electron-HD+ and 0.1 eV to 5 eV for positron-HD+ collisions. The effect of penetration of the charge cloud of HD+ is seen to be small for Δj=+-1 transitions and very large for Δj=+-2 transitions. For electron-HD+ collisions the cross section for rotational excitation decreases with the increase of energy. The reverse is the case of positron-HD+ collisions. (author)

  2. Searching for nuclear excitation by electronic transition in U-235

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodash, P.; Norman, E. B.; Swanberg, E.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Wilks, S.

    2012-10-01

    Nuclear excitation by electronic transition (NEET) is a rare nuclear excitation that is predicted to occur in numerous isotopes, including U-235. NEET can occur when a nuclear transition closely matches the energy and multipolarity of an electronic transition. U-235 has a 1/2+ isomeric state that decays to the 7/2- ground state with a transition energy of 77 eV and a half life of 26 minutes. Theory predicts that electronic transitions exist within a partially ionized uranium plasma that would allow NEET to occur. The NEET process would excite U-235 into its isomeric state and then it will subsequently decay to the ground state via internal conversion. It is currently not known if this excitation occurs in U-235 and at what rate. In order to generate the uranium plasma with the correct conditions, a high power Q-switched Nd:YAG laser will irradiate a sample of highly enriched uranium. The resulting plasma will be collected on a catcher foil and counted using a microchannel plate detector. Current progress on the experiment will be presented.

  3. Electron collisions and internal excitation in stored molecular ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In storage ring experiments the role, which the initial internal excitation of a molecular ion can play in electron collisions, and the effect of these collisions on the internal excitation are investigated. Dissociative recombination (DR) and inelastic and super-elastic collisions are studied in the system of He+2. The DR rate coefficient at low energies depends strongly on the initial vibrational excitation in this system. Therefore changes in the DR rate coefficient are a very sensitive probe for changes in the vibrational excitation in He+2, which is used to investigate the effects of collisions with electrons and residual gas species. The low-energy DR of HD+ is rich with resonances from the indirect DR process, when certain initial rotational levels in the molecular ion are coupled to levels in neutral Rydberg states lying below the ion state. Using new procedures for high-resolution electron-ion collision spectroscopy developed here, these resonances in the DR cross section can be measured with high energy sensitivity. This allows a detailed comparison with results of a MQDT calculation in an effort to assign some or all of the resonances to certain intermediate Rydberg levels. (orig.)

  4. Electron collisions and internal excitation in stored molecular ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhr, H.

    2006-07-26

    In storage ring experiments the role, which the initial internal excitation of a molecular ion can play in electron collisions, and the effect of these collisions on the internal excitation are investigated. Dissociative recombination (DR) and inelastic and super-elastic collisions are studied in the system of He{sup +}{sub 2}. The DR rate coefficient at low energies depends strongly on the initial vibrational excitation in this system. Therefore changes in the DR rate coefficient are a very sensitive probe for changes in the vibrational excitation in He{sup +}{sub 2}, which is used to investigate the effects of collisions with electrons and residual gas species. The low-energy DR of HD{sup +} is rich with resonances from the indirect DR process, when certain initial rotational levels in the molecular ion are coupled to levels in neutral Rydberg states lying below the ion state. Using new procedures for high-resolution electron-ion collision spectroscopy developed here, these resonances in the DR cross section can be measured with high energy sensitivity. This allows a detailed comparison with results of a MQDT calculation in an effort to assign some or all of the resonances to certain intermediate Rydberg levels. (orig.)

  5. On an electron beam excitation of linear impedance antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excitation of linear impedance antenna by an electron beam in an infinite space is considered. The charge of beam is concentrated on one end of the antenna and excites frequency spectrum of its radiation. The system of integro-differential equations for symmetric and antisymmetric Fourier current components with respective boundary conditions is obtained. The solution of the system can be found by the averaging method. The Green function of infinite space and the Fourier transformation are used to calculate the strength of electric and magnetic radiation fields of the antenna

  6. Electron impact excitation of highly charged sodium-like ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, M.; Davis, J.

    1978-01-01

    Optical transition probabilities and electron collision strengths for Ca X, Fe XVI, Zn XX, Kr XXVI and Mo XXXII are calculated for transitions between n equal to 3 and n equal to 4 levels. The calculations neglect relativistic effects on the radial functions. A semi-empirical approach provides wave functions of the excited states; a distorted wave function without exchange is employed to obtain the excitation cross sections. The density dependence of the relative intensities of certain emission lines in the sodium isoelectronic sequence is also discussed.

  7. Facile Interfacial Electron Transfer of Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhai Fan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We herein describe a method of depositing hemoglobin (Hb and sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN on GC electrodes that facilitate interfacial protein electron transfer. Well-defined, reproducible, chemically reversible peaks of Hb and SPAN can be obtained in our experiments. We also observed enhanced peroxidase activity of Hb in SPAN films. These results clearly showed that SPAN worked as molecular wires and effectively exchanged electrons between Hb and electrodes.Mediated by Conjugated Polymers

  8. Theory of Ultrafast Photoinduced Heterogeneous Electron Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    May, Volkhard

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Ultrafast heterogeneous electron transfer (HET) between a molecule attached to a semiconductor surface and the conduction band of the semiconductor is discussed theoretically with emphasis on the perylene TiO_2 system. The used description accounts for the specialty of the molecule i.e. its particular electronic level scheme together with its vibrational degrees of freedom. The band continuum of the semiconductor is included and the approach is ready to describe different...

  9. Facilitating electron transfer in bioelectrocatalytic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sekretaryova, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrocatalytic systems are based on biological entities, such as enzymes, whole cells, parts of cells or tissues, which catalyse electrochemical processes that involve the interaction between chemical change and electrical energy. In all cases, biocatalysis is implemented by enzymes, isolated or residing inside cells or part of cells. Electron transfer (ET) phenomena, within the protein molecules and between biological redox systems and electronics, enable the development of various bioe...

  10. Electron transfer in dinucleoside phosphate anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron transfer reaction within various dinucleoside phosphate radical anions has been investigated by ESR spectroscopy and pulse radiolysis. In the ESR work electrons are produced by photolysis of K4Fe(CN)6 in a 12 M LiCl glass at 770K. Upon photobleaching the electrons react with the dinucleoside phosphate to form the anion radical. The anions of the four DNA nucleosides were also produced and their ESR spectra were appropriately weighted and summed by computer to simulate the spectra found for the dinucleoside phosphate anions. From the analysis the relative amounts of each of the nucleoside anions in the dinucleoside phosphate anion were determined. Evidence suggests the electron affinity of the pyrimidine bases are greater than the purine bases; however, the results are not sufficient to distinguish between the individual purine or pyrimidine. When dinucleoside phosphate anions containing thymidine are warmed, protonation occurs only on thymine to produce the well known ''thymyl'' spectrum. Pulse radiolysis experiments on individual nucleotides (TMP, dAMP), mixtures of these nucleotides and the dinucleoside phosphate, TdA, in aqueous solution at room temperature show that in the TdA anion electron transfer occurs from adenine to thymine, whereas no electron transfer is found for mixtures of individual nucleotides. Protonation is found to occur only on thymine in the TdA anion in agreement with the ESR results

  11. The separation of vibrational coherence from ground- and excited-electronic states in P3HT film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yin [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada); Hellmann, Christoph; Stingelin, Natalie [Department of Materials and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Scholes, Gregory D., E-mail: gscholes@princeton.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Washington Road, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    Concurrence of the vibrational coherence and ultrafast electron transfer has been observed in polymer/fullerene blends. However, it is difficult to experimentally investigate the role that the excited-state vibrational coherence plays during the electron transfer process since vibrational coherence from the ground- and excited-electronic states is usually temporally and spectrally overlapped. Here, we performed 2-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D ES) measurements on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films. By Fourier transforming the whole 2D ES datasets (S(λ{sub 1},T{sup ~}{sub 2},λ{sub 3})) along the population time (T{sup ~}{sub 2}) axis, we develop and propose a protocol capable of separating vibrational coherence from the ground- and excited-electronic states in 3D rephasing and nonrephasing beating maps (S(λ{sub 1},ν{sup ~}{sub 2},λ{sub 3})). We found that the vibrational coherence from pure excited electronic states appears at positive frequency (+ν{sup ~}{sub 2}) in the rephasing beating map and at negative frequency (−ν{sup ~}{sub 2}) in the nonrephasing beating map. Furthermore, we also found that vibrational coherence from excited electronic state had a long dephasing time of 244 fs. The long-lived excited-state vibrational coherence indicates that coherence may be involved in the electron transfer process. Our findings not only shed light on the mechanism of ultrafast electron transfer in organic photovoltaics but also are beneficial for the study of the coherence effect on photoexcited dynamics in other systems.

  12. Defect production and annihilation in metals through electronic excitation by energetic heavy ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwase, Akihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Defect production, radiation annealing and defect recovery are studied in Ni and Cu irradiated with low-energy ({approx}1-MeV) and high-energy ({approx}100-MeV) ions. Irradiation of Ni with {approx}100-MeV ions causes an anomalous reduction, or even a complete disappearance of the stage-I recovery. This result shows that the energy transferred from excited electrons to lattice atoms through the electron-lattice interaction contributes to the annihilation of the stage-I interstitials. This effect is also observed in Ni as a large radiation annealing during 100-MeV heavy ion irradiation. On the other hand, in Cu thin foils, we find the defect production process strongly associated with electron excitation, where the defect production cross section is nearly proportional to S{sub e}{sup 2}. (author)

  13. Excited electronic states and photophysics of uracil-water complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronically excited singlet states of complexes of uracil with one water molecule have been studied theoretically using ab initio multireference configuration interaction methods. In agreement with previous theoretical and experimental results, four cyclic isomers of uracil forming hydrogen bonds with the water molecule have been located with energies within 0.2 eV from the lowest energy isomer. Focus has been given on the mechanism for radiationless decay to the ground state after initial UV absorption and on the effect of complexation with water on previously reported radiationless decay pathways. Features on the excited state potential energy surfaces, such as minima, transition states and conical intersections, have been located for all isomers and compared with those of free uracil. The hydrogen-bonded water molecule changes the relative energies of these features and may lead to different excited state dynamics and lifetimes, in agreement with experimental observations

  14. Search for nuclear excitation by electronic transition in 235U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claverie, G.; Aléonard, M. M.; Chemin, J. F.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Harston, M. R.; Malka, G.; Scheurer, J. N.; Morel, P.; Méot, V.

    2004-10-01

    We have searched for the nuclear excitation by electronic transition (NEET) of the isomeric level at 76 eV in 235U in a plasma induced by a YAG laser with an energy of 1 Joule and a full width at half maximum time distribution of 5 ns, operating at an intensity of 1013 W cm-2 . We present a thorough description of the experimental conditions and analysis of our data. In this experimental situation we do not detect any excitation of the isomeric level, a result that is at variance with a previously reported one. An upper limit of 6× 10-6 per atom and per second averaged over the laser-pulse width has been set on the nuclear excitation rate. This value is compared with results obtained in previous experimental and theoretical works.

  15. Nuclear excitation by electronic transition in 189Os

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, I.; Dunford, R. W.; Esbensen, H.; Gemmell, D. S.; Kanter, E. P.; Rütt, U.; Southworth, S. H.

    2000-05-01

    Monochromatic x rays have been used to explore the phenomenon of nuclear excitation by electronic transition (NEET) in the 189Os atomic/nuclear system. A new theoretical approach to calculating this process has also been developed and predicts a value for the ``NEET probability,'' PNEET, of 1.3×10-10. PNEET is the probability that a given atomic excitation (in this case a K vacancy), will result in the excitation of a specific nuclear state (in this case the 69.5-keV level in 189Os). This value is much lower than most of the calculated values given in the literature for this system. Our measurement gives the result PNEET<9×10-10, an upper limit which is several orders of magnitude lower than the values found in previous measurements, but which is consistent with the new calculation.

  16. Nuclear excitation by electronic transition in 189Os

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monochromatic x rays have been used to explore the phenomenon of nuclear excitation by electronic transition (NEET) in the 189Os atomic/nuclear system. A new theoretical approach to calculating this process has also been developed and predicts a value for the ''NEET probability,'' PNEET, of 1.3x10-10. PNEET is the probability that a given atomic excitation (in this case a K vacancy), will result in the excitation of a specific nuclear state (in this case the 69.5-keV level in 189Os). This value is much lower than most of the calculated values given in the literature for this system. Our measurement gives the result PNEET-10, an upper limit which is several orders of magnitude lower than the values found in previous measurements, but which is consistent with the new calculation. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  17. Electron impact ionization and excitation of uracil molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross-sections of the formation of positive and negative ions of uracil, a nitrogenous base of nucleic acids, are obtained experimentally. The values for negative ions were shown to reach their maximum of 5.0x10-18 cm2 at an energy of bombarding electrons of 1.1 eV. The magnitudes and the energy dependence were determined for the cross-section of formation of positive uracil ions in the electron energy interval from the formation threshold to 200 eV. The ionization cross-section peak of (1.0±0:1)x10-15 cm2 was found at an energy of 95 eV. The luminescence spectrum for isolated uracil molecules consisting of about 20 spectral bands and lines emitted under the action of slow electrons was obtained in the wavelength range 200-500 nm. The uracil radiation spectrum was shown to be driven by the processes of molecular dissociative excitation, dissociative excitation with ionization, and excitation of electron levels in the initial molecule and the molecular ion. The biophysical consequences of the results obtained are discussed.

  18. Quantum effects in biological electron transfer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de la Lande, A.; Babcock, N. S.; Řezáč, Jan; Levy, B.; Sanders, B. C.; Salahub, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 17 (2012), s. 5902-5918. ISSN 1463-9076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : electron transfer * tunnelling * decoherence * semi-classical molecular dynamics * density functional theory Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.829, year: 2012

  19. Electron transfer and bond breaking: Recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a reminder of concerted/stepwise mechanistic dichotomy and other basic concepts and facts in the field, a series of recent advances is discussed. Particular emphasis is laid on the interactions between the fragments formed upon bond cleavage. These interactions may persist even in polar solvents and have important consequences on dissociative electron transfer kinetics and on the competition between concerted and stepwise pathways. Cleavage of ion radicals and its reverse reaction are examples of single electron transfer reactions concerted with bond cleavage and bond formation, respectively. The case of aromatic carbon-heteroatom bonds is particularly worth examination since symmetry restrictions impose circumventing a conical intersection. Reductive dehalogenases are involved in 'dehalorespiration' of anaerobic bacteria in which the role of dioxygen in aerobic organisms is played by major polychloride pollutants such as tetrachloroethylene. They offer an interesting illustration of how the coupling of electron transfer with bond breaking may be an important issue in natural processes. Applications of dissociative electron transfer concepts and models to mechanistic analysis in this class of enzymes will be discussed

  20. Imaging Excited State Dynamics with 2d Electronic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Gregory S.

    2012-06-01

    Excited states in the condensed phase have extremely high chemical potentials making them highly reactive and difficult to control. Yet in biology, excited state dynamics operate with exquisite precision driving solar light harvesting in photosynthetic complexes though excitonic transport and photochemistry through non-radiative relaxation to photochemical products. Optimized by evolution, these biological systems display manifestly quantum mechanical behaviors including coherent energy transfer, steering wavepacket trajectories through conical intersections and protection of long-lived quantum coherence. To image the underlying excited state dynamics, we have developed a new spectroscopic method allowing us to capture excitonic structure in real time. Through this method and other ultrafast multidimensional spectroscopies, we have captured coherent dynamics within photosynthetic antenna complexes. The data not only reveal how biological systems operate, but these same spectral signatures can be exploited to create new spectroscopic tools to elucidate the underlying Hamiltonian. New data on the role of the protein in photosynthetic systems indicates that the chromophores mix strongly with some bath modes within the system. The implications of this mixing for excitonic transport will be discussed along with prospects for transferring underlying design principles to synthetic systems.

  1. Vibrational relaxation pathways in the electronic excited state of carotenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intra- and inter-molecular vibrational relaxation in the electronic excited state (1Bu+) of spheroidene derivative (the number of conjugated double bonds, n=8) has been investigated at room temperature by means of femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy based on an optical-Kerr-gate technique. Depending on the photo-excitation either to the 1Bu+(v=1) or 1Bu+(v=2) vibronic level, remarkable differences were observed in hot luminescence spectra related to the vibrational relaxation process of high- and low-frequency modes. Under the excitation to the 1Bu+(v=2) state hot luminescence from the 1Bu+(v=1) state was observed as a dominant feature of the time-resolved spectra while the dynamic Stokes shift originating from the low-frequency-modes dynamics was clearly observed under the excitation to the 1Bu+(v=1). These observations of the excitation energy dependence of time-resolved fluorescence spectra were discussed by analyzing the Franck-Condon factors of transitions from v=0,1, and 2 levels of high-frequency modes

  2. Electronic excitation of the lB2 state of furan by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on recent results obtained in studies involving electronically inelastic electron scattering from furan. In particular, we considered the electronic transition from ground state to the 1B2 excited state. The scattering calculations employed the Schwinger multichannel method implemented with pseudopotentials and were carried out up to a nine-state close-coupling plus polarization level of approximation.

  3. Calculation of electron-impace excitation and ionization of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last few years it has been the author's goal to develop a open-quotes completeclose quotes electron-atom scattering theory. For a given projectile energy such a theory would be able to correctly predict the major scattering processes. These include elastic, excitation, and ionization cross sections. The convergent close-coupling (CCC) approach is a candidate for such a theory. Hamiltonians in an orthogonal Laguerre basis. The usage of this basis ensures that open-quotes completenessclose quotes is approached as N is increased. The CCC method may be thought of as a more systematic implementation of pseudostate methods. Whereas the success of the close-coupling approach to the calculation of excitation cross sections has been demonstrated for many decades it has rarely been applied to the calculation of ionization processes. By demonstrating the ability to obtain accurate ionization cross sections simultaneously with excitation processes the CCC method appears to have fulfilled these goals. In the talk a general outline of the CCC method will be given and its recent applications to the measurements of electron-impact ionization and excitation of the ground state of helium discussed

  4. Nuclear excitation by electronic transition of 235U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodash, P. A.; Burke, J. T.; Norman, E. B.; Wilks, S. C.; Casperson, R. J.; Fisher, S. E.; Holliday, K. S.; Jeffries, J. R.; Wakeling, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    Background: Nuclear excitation by electronic transition (NEET) is a rare nuclear excitation that can occur in isotopes containing a low-lying nuclear excited state. Over the past 40 yr, several experiments have attempted to measure NEET of 235U and those experiments have yielded conflicting results. Purpose: An experiment was performed to determine whether NEET of 235U occurs and to determine its excitation rate. Method: A pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm with a pulse energy of 790 mJ and a pulse width of 9 ns was used to generate a uranium plasma. The plasma was collected on a catcher plate and electrons from the catcher plate were accelerated and focused onto a microchannel plate detector. An observation of a decay with a 26-min half-life would suggest the creation of Um235 and the possibility that NEET of 235U occurred. Results: A 26-min decay consistent with the decay of Um235 was not observed and there was no evidence that NEET occurred. An upper limit for the NEET rate of 235U was determined to be λNEETconfidence level of 68.3%. Conclusions: The upper limit determined from this experiment is consistent with most of the past measurements. Discrepancies between this experiment and past measurements can be explained by assuming that past experiments misinterpreted the data.

  5. Vibration excitation and energy transfer during ultrasonically assisted drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babitsky, V. I.; Astashev, V. K.; Meadows, A.

    2007-12-01

    Successful application of ultrasonically assisted drilling needs dynamic matching of the transducer with the drill bit considered as a continuous system loaded by the nonlinear processing load. When using standard tools this leads to the compatible choice of the transducer and accurate matching of the transducer and tool. The principal dynamical features of this matching are considered. Optimal position of excitation cross section of the drill bit, which depends on the relationship between elasto-dissipative characteristics of the transducer, the drill bit and the work load, is found in general analytical form. The optimal matching preserves the resonant tuning of the transducer and compensates the additional energy losses in the drill bit and processing. This produces also an amplification of vibration amplitude. The effect is achieved through the generation and maintenance of a nonlinear resonant mode of vibration and by active matching of the oscillating system with the dynamic loads imposed by the cutting process with the help of the intelligent electronic feedback circuitry. A prototype of an ultrasonic drilling system has been designed, manufactured. and tested. Improvements of machining characteristics due to superposition of ultrasonic vibration are demonstrated. Substantial improvements in the cutting performance of drill bits lead to benefits in drilling performance, which include faster penetration rates, reduction of tool wear, improvements in the surface finish, roundness and straightness of holes and, in ductile materials, the reduction or even complete elimination of burrs on both the entrance and exit faces of plates. The reduction in the reactive force experienced also causes greatly reduced deformation when drilling through thin, flexible plates and helps to alleviate delamination hazard.

  6. Syntheses and excitation transfer studies of near-orthogonal free-base porphyrin-ruthenium phthalocyanine dyads and pentad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Rachel; Stranius, Kati; Maligaspe, Eranda; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Zandler, Melvin E; D'Souza, Francis

    2012-03-19

    A new series of molecular dyads and pentad featuring free-base porphyrin and ruthenium phthalocyanine have been synthesized and characterized. The synthetic strategy involved reacting free-base porphyrin functionalized with one or four entities of phenylimidazole at the meso position of the porphyrin ring with ruthenium carbonyl phthalocyanine followed by chromatographic separation and purification of the products. Excitation transfer in these donor-acceptor polyads (dyad and pentad) is investigated in nonpolar toluene and polar benzonitrile solvents using both steady-state and time-resolved emission techniques. Electrochemical and computational studies suggested that the photoinduced electron transfer is a thermodynamically unfavorable process in nonpolar media but may take place in a polar environment. Selective excitation of the donor, free-base porphyrin entity, resulted in efficient excitation transfer to the acceptor, ruthenium phthalocyanine, and the position of imidazole linkage on the free-base porphyrin could be used to tune the rates of excitation transfer. The singlet excited Ru phthalocyanine thus formed instantly relaxed to the triplet state via intersystem crossing prior to returning to the ground state. Kinetics of energy transfer (k(ENT)) was monitored by performing transient absorption and emission measurements using pump-probe and up-conversion techniques in toluene, respectively, and modeled using a Förster-type energy transfer mechanism. Such studies revealed the experimental k(ENT) values on the order of 10(10)-10(11) s(-1), which readily agreed with the theoretically estimated values. Interestingly, in polar benzonitrile solvent, additional charge transfer interactions in the case of dyads but not in the case of pentad, presumably due to the geometry/orientation consideration, were observed. PMID:22390175

  7. EBIT measurements of excitation and ionization by electron impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui

    2013-05-01

    Electron-impact excitation and electron-impact ionization are fundamental atomic processes that are critical for describing both the ionization balance and the radiative emission of ions in plasmas. The properties of the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) made it a highly useful device for measuring electron-impact cross sections of highly charged ions. Moreover, the recent development and use of x-ray microcalorimeter array detectors made it possible to extend cross section determinations to ions with multiple valence electrons and to measure the ionization equilibrium of complex ions. Since EBIT's inception in the 1980's measurements include cross sections of direct and indirect (resonance) excitation as well as cross sections of single-electron ionization of K-shell and L-shell ions of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, and Fe. Studies of very high-Z elements, such as Xe, Au and U, have been performed, showing the importance of the Breit interaction, which in the case of K-shell uranium ions increases the ionization cross section by 50%. This talk will review the results of such measurements performed at EBIT for nearly three decades. Work at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was performed under auspices of the Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA-27344.

  8. Dynamic correlation of photo-excited electrons: Anomalous levels induced by light–matter coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonlinear light–matter coupling plays an important role in many aspects of modern physics, such as spectroscopy, photo-induced phase transition, light-based devices, light-harvesting systems, light-directed reactions and bio-detection. However, excited states of electrons are still unclear for nano-structures and molecules in a light field. Our studies unexpectedly present that light can induce anomalous levels in the electronic structure of a donor–acceptor nanostructure with the help of the photo-excited electrons transferring dynamically between the donor and the acceptor. Furthermore, the physics underlying is revealed to be the photo-induced dynamical spin–flip correlation among electrons. These anomalous levels can significantly enhance the electron current through the nanostructure. These findings are expected to contribute greatly to the understanding of the photo-excited electrons with dynamic correlations, which provides a push to the development and application of techniques based on photosensitive molecules and nanostructures, such as light-triggered molecular devices, spectroscopic analysis, bio-molecule detection, and systems for solar energy conversion.

  9. The role of electron-impact vibrational excitation in electron transport through gaseous tetrahydrofuran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, H. V. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Do, T. P. T. [School of Education, Can Tho University, Campus II, 3/2 Street, Xuan Khanh, Ninh Kieu, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Konovalov, D. A.; White, R. D. [College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville (Australia); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jones, D. B., E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia)

    2015-03-28

    In this paper, we report newly derived integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact vibrational excitation of tetrahydrofuran (THF) at intermediate impact energies. These cross sections extend the currently available data from 20 to 50 eV. Further, they indicate that the previously recommended THF ICS set [Garland et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 062712 (2013)] underestimated the strength of the electron-impact vibrational excitation processes. Thus, that recommended vibrational cross section set is revised to address those deficiencies. Electron swarm transport properties were calculated with the amended vibrational cross section set, to quantify the role of electron-driven vibrational excitation in describing the macroscopic swarm phenomena. Here, significant differences of up to 17% in the transport coefficients were observed between the calculations performed using the original and revised cross section sets for vibrational excitation.

  10. Electron-lattice Interaction and Nonlinear Excitations in Cuprate Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low temperature lattice modulation of the chains of the YBa2Cu3O7 is considered by deriving a Hamiltonian of electron-lattice interaction from density-functional calculations for deformed lattice and solving it for the groundstate. Hubbard-type Coulomb interaction is included. The obtained groundstate is a charge-density-wave state with a pereodicity of four lattice constants and a gap for one-electron excitations of about 1eV, sensitively depending on parameters of the Hamiltonian. There are lots of polaronic and solitonic excitations with formation energies deep in the gap, which can pin the Fermi level and thus produce again metallicity of the chain. They might also contribute to pairing of holes in adjacent CuO2-planes. (author)

  11. Electronic excitations in semiconductors: Variational Green's-function approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Wolf-Dieter; Fulde, Peter

    1984-07-01

    We develop a Green's-function method for calculating electronic excitations in semiconductors. It is variational in character and takes full account of the local part of the correlation hole as well as the long-ranged polarization cloud. Both contribute significantly to the quasiparticles and their energies. The method is based on the Sauermann functional, the stationary point of which is the one-particle Green's function. For the case of a simple model, a connection is established to an earlier method which required the computation of correlated wave functions in order to obtain the excitation energies. Furthermore, we relate the present approach to the single-mode approximation of Overhauser and others which was devised for describing electron correlations in nearly homogeneous systems.

  12. General theory of nuclear excitation by electron transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyublik, A. Ya.

    2013-11-01

    We described the nuclear excitation by electron transition (NEET) by using strict collision theory combined with quantum electrodynamics. All stages of the process are considered, which include ionization of the atom by an x-ray photon with the formation of the hole in an inner electronic shell, its decay accompanied by the excitation of the nucleus, and the subsequent deexcitation of the nucleus. The cross sections for the NEET and photoabsorption of x rays are calculated near the threshold. We also analyzed the fine structure of the NEET curve analogous to the extended x-ray-absorption fine structure, well known in x-ray optics. The results agree with the findings of Kishimoto [Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.74.031301 74, 031301(R) (2006)].

  13. Electron densities and the excitation of CN in molecular clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, J.H.; Van Dishoeck, E.F. (Onsala Rymdobservatorium (Sweden) Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA) California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA) Leiden Rijksuniversiteit, Sterrewacht (Netherlands))

    1991-03-01

    In molecular clouds of modest density and relatively high fractional ionization, the rotational excitation of CN is controlled by a competition among electron impact, neutral impact and the interaction with the cosmic background radiation. The degree of excitation can be measured through optical absorption lines and millimeter-wave emission lines. The available, accurate data on CN in diffuse and translucent molecular clouds are assembled and used to determine electron densities. The derived values, n(e) = roughly 0.02 - 0.5/cu cm, imply modest neutral densities, which generally agree well with determinations by other techniques. The absorption- and emission-line measurements of CN both exclude densities higher than n(H2) = roughly 10 exp 3.5/cu cm on scales varying from 0.001 to 60 arcsec in these clouds. 32 refs.

  14. Electron densities and the excitation of CN in molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In molecular clouds of modest density and relatively high fractional ionization, the rotational excitation of CN is controlled by a competition among electron impact, neutral impact and the interaction with the cosmic background radiation. The degree of excitation can be measured through optical absorption lines and millimeter-wave emission lines. The available, accurate data on CN in diffuse and translucent molecular clouds are assembled and used to determine electron densities. The derived values, n(e) = roughly 0.02 - 0.5/cu cm, imply modest neutral densities, which generally agree well with determinations by other techniques. The absorption- and emission-line measurements of CN both exclude densities higher than n(H2) = roughly 10 exp 3.5/cu cm on scales varying from 0.001 to 60 arcsec in these clouds. 32 refs

  15. Electron densities and the excitation of CN in molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, John H.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    1991-01-01

    In molecular clouds of modest density and relatively high fractional ionization, the rotational excitation of CN is controlled by a competition among electron impact, neutral impact and the interaction with the cosmic background radiation. The degree of excitation can be measured through optical absorption lines and millimeter-wave emission lines. The available, accurate data on CN in diffuse and translucent molecular clouds are assembled and used to determine electron densities. The derived values, n(e) = roughly 0.02 - 0.5/cu cm, imply modest neutral densities, which generally agree well with determinations by other techniques. The absorption- and emission-line measurements of CN both exclude densities higher than n(H2) = roughly 10 exp 3.5/cu cm on scales varying from 0.001 to 60 arcsec in these clouds.

  16. Rotational excitation of molecular nitrogen by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collision cross sections for rotational excitation processes of a molecular nitrogen by electron impact are calculated at the energy range of 0.01 to 3 eV. It is shown that integrated cross sections for rotationally inelastic scattering are noticeably enhanced by the short range interaction between the scattered electron and the target nitrogen molecule at the impact energy as low as 0.08 eV. At the energy region of the well-known Πg resonance, it is confirmed that the cross section for the rotational excitation of j = 0 to j' = 4 becomes larger than that for j = 0 to j' = 2 by more than the ratio of statistical weight (2j' + 1) of the final rotational state j'. An explanation to this fact is given by analysing the expression of the integrated cross section. (author)

  17. Excitation transfer pathways in excitonic aggregates revealed by the stochastic Schrödinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramavicius, Vytautas, E-mail: vytautas.ab@gmail.com; Abramavicius, Darius, E-mail: darius.abramavicius@ff.vu.lt [Faculty of Physics, Department of Theoretical Physics, Vilnius University, Saulėtekio 9, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2014-02-14

    We derive the stochastic Schrödinger equation for the system wave vector and use it to describe the excitation energy transfer dynamics in molecular aggregates. We suggest a quantum-measurement based method of estimating the excitation transfer time. Adequacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated by performing calculations on a model system. The theory is then applied to study the excitation transfer dynamics in a photosynthetic pigment-protein Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) aggregate using both the Debye spectral density and the spectral density obtained from earlier molecular dynamics simulations containing strong vibrational high-frequency modes. The obtained results show that the excitation transfer times in the FMO system are affected by the presence of the vibrational modes; however, the transfer pathways remain the same.

  18. Excitation transfer pathways in excitonic aggregates revealed by the stochastic Schr\\"odinger equation

    CERN Document Server

    Abramavicius, Vytautas

    2014-01-01

    We derive the stochastic Schr\\"odinger equation for the system wave vector and use it to describe the excitation energy transfer dynamics in molecular aggregates. We suggest a quantum-measurement based method of estimating the excitation transfer time. Adequacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated by performing calculations on a model system. The theory is then applied to study the excitation transfer dynamics in a photosynthetic pigment-protein Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) aggregate using both the Debye spectral density and the spectral density obtained from earlier molecular dynamics simulations containing strong vibrational high-frequency modes. The obtained results show that the excitation transfer times in the FMO system are affected by the presence of the vibrational modes, however the transfer pathways remain the same.

  19. Excitation transfer pathways in excitonic aggregates revealed by the stochastic Schrödinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive the stochastic Schrödinger equation for the system wave vector and use it to describe the excitation energy transfer dynamics in molecular aggregates. We suggest a quantum-measurement based method of estimating the excitation transfer time. Adequacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated by performing calculations on a model system. The theory is then applied to study the excitation transfer dynamics in a photosynthetic pigment-protein Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) aggregate using both the Debye spectral density and the spectral density obtained from earlier molecular dynamics simulations containing strong vibrational high-frequency modes. The obtained results show that the excitation transfer times in the FMO system are affected by the presence of the vibrational modes; however, the transfer pathways remain the same

  20. Electron-impact ionization-excitation of atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartschat, Klaus [Department of Phsyics and Astronomy, Drake University, Des Moines, IA 50311 (United States)], E-mail: klaus.bartschat@drake.edu

    2008-11-01

    As a highly correlated process, simultaneous electron-impact ionization-excitation presents a major challenge to experimentalists and theorists alike. Taking advantage of significant improvements in multi-hit detector technology and the rapid increase of computational power, a number of advances have recently been reported. The current state-of the-art in this field is illustrated by a few key examples.

  1. A study of vibrational relaxation of electronically-excited molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time kinetics of the vibrational relaxation of excimers is studied in the diffusional approximation. Simple formulae for functions of nonstationary vibrational distribution are found for the electronically excited molecules. Some spectral-kinetic dependencies of the excimer luminescence are explained in a new way. The possibilities of the determination of excimer parameters are discussed. The dependence of energetical characteristics of excimer lasers on these parameters is particularly emphasized. (author). 22 refs, 5 figs

  2. Total electron scattering and electronic state excitations cross sections for O2, CO, and CH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanik, I.; Trajmar, S.; Nickel, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    Available electron collision cross section data concerning total and elastic scattering, vibrational excitation, and ionization for O2, CO, and CH4 have been critically reviewed, and a set of cross sections for modeling of planetary atmospheric behavior is recommended. Utilizing these recommended cross sections, we derived total electronic state excitation cross sections and upper limits for dissociation cross sections, which in the case of CH4 should very closely equal the actual dissociation cross section.

  3. Cross sections for resonant transfer and excitation in Feq++H2 collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resonant transfer and excitation (RTE) is investigated for Feq+ ions (q=23, 24, and 25) colliding with H2. For each charge state, cross sections for RTE were obtained from measurements of K x rays, emitted from the doubly excited intermediate state, coincident with single-electron capture by the incident ion. Additionally, for Fe25+ cross sections were obtained from measurements of coincidences between the two K x rays emitted from the intermediate state. These latter measurements provide information on the lifetimes of intermediate metastable states formed in the RTE process. In all cases, measured cross sections are in good agreement with calculations based on theoretical cross sections for dielectronic recombination (DR). Since RTE closely approximates DR, the results indicate that dielectronic-recombination cross sections involving K-shell excitation can be accurately predicted for highly charged iron ions. The results for Fe25+ show that metastable states are sufficiently short lived to be observable in the RTE (or DR) process for these hydrogenlike ions

  4. Electron scattering from the ground and excited states of barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used the nonrelativistic convergent close-coupling (CCC) method to investigate electron scattering from the ground (6s2 )1 S state and excited (6s6p)1 P1o and (6s5d)1,3D2e states of barium. For the scattering from the barium ground state, we have found very good agreement with measurements of (6s6p)1 P1o apparent cross sections at all energies. Similarly, good agreement is found for differential cross sections for elastic scattering and (6s6p)1Po and (6s5d)1D2e excitations and with the (6s6p)1 P1o state electron-photon angular correlations. For the scattering from excited states of barium we have found good agreement with elastic (6s6p)1P1o scattering and the (6s5d)1D2e → (6s6p)1P1o transition for both differential cross sections and electron-photon angular correlations. Copyright (1999) CSIRO Australia

  5. Theory of nuclear excitation by electron capture for heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagyi-Palffy, A.

    2006-07-01

    The resonant process of nuclear excitation by electron capture (NEEC) in collisions involving highly-charged ions has been investigated theoretically. NEEC is a rare recombination process in which a free electron is captured into a bound shell of an ion with the simultaneous excitation of the nucleus. Total cross sections for NEEC followed by the radiative decay of the excited nucleus are presented for various collision systems. The possibility to observe the NEEC in scattering experiments with trapped or stored ions was discussed focusing on the cases with the largest calculated resonance strength. As the photons emitted in different channels of the electron recombination process are indistinguishable in the total cross section, the interference between NEEC followed by the radiative decay of the nucleus and radiative recombination was investigated. The angular distribution of the emitted photons in the recombination process provides means to discern the two processes. Angular differential cross sections for the emitted photons in the case of E2 nuclear transitions were presented for several heavy elements. (orig.)

  6. Search for Nuclear Excitation by Electronic Transition in U-235

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodash, P. A.; Norman, E. B.; Burke, J. T.; Wilks, S. C.; Casperson, R. J.; Swanberg, E. L.; Wakeling, M. A.; Cordeiro, T. J.

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear excitation by electronic transition (NEET) is a rare nuclear excitation that is predicted to occur in numerous isotopes, including U-235. When a nuclear transition matches the energy and the multipolarity of an electronic transition, there is a possibility that NEET will occur. If NEET were to occur in U-235, the nucleus would be excited to its 1/2 + isomeric state that subsequently decays by internal conversion with a decay energy of 77 eV and a half-life of 26 minutes. Theory predicts that NEET can occur in partially ionized uranium plasma with a charge state of 23 +. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm with a pulse energy of 780 mJ and a pulse width of 9 ns was used to generate the uranium plasma. The plasma was collected on a plate and the internal conversion electrons were focused onto a microchannel plate detector by a series of electrostatic lenses. Depleted uranium and highly enriched uranium samples were used for the experiment. Preliminary results will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. This work was further supported by the U.S. DHS, UC Berkeley, and the NNIS Fellowship.

  7. Excitation of the gas-phase selenium by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selenium (Se) is an important trace mineral, which plays an active role in many biological systems as it has toxicological and physiological effects. The slow electron excitation of selenium in the gas-phase has been studied using an optical spectroscopy method. The emission spectra of selenium were recorded in the wavelength range of 200-590 nm at the incident electron energies of 20, 30 and 50 eV. In the above spectra, the molecular emissions within the wavelength range of 300-560 nm as well as the selenium atomic spectral lines were observed. The optical excitation functions for the most intense molecular emissions and atomic selenium spectral lines were measured. It has been found that in the selenium vapour the atomic selenium has very low concentration at the 440 K temperature and the main component of the vapour is the Se2 molecule. It has been demonstrated that the excitation of the atomic selenium occurs due to the dissociation of the Se2 molecule by electron impact

  8. Theory of nuclear excitation by electron capture for heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resonant process of nuclear excitation by electron capture (NEEC) in collisions involving highly-charged ions has been investigated theoretically. NEEC is a rare recombination process in which a free electron is captured into a bound shell of an ion with the simultaneous excitation of the nucleus. Total cross sections for NEEC followed by the radiative decay of the excited nucleus are presented for various collision systems. The possibility to observe the NEEC in scattering experiments with trapped or stored ions was discussed focusing on the cases with the largest calculated resonance strength. As the photons emitted in different channels of the electron recombination process are indistinguishable in the total cross section, the interference between NEEC followed by the radiative decay of the nucleus and radiative recombination was investigated. The angular distribution of the emitted photons in the recombination process provides means to discern the two processes. Angular differential cross sections for the emitted photons in the case of E2 nuclear transitions were presented for several heavy elements. (orig.)

  9. Electron plasma dynamics during autoresonant excitation of the diocotron mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirped-frequency autoresonant excitation of the diocotron mode is used to move electron plasmas confined in a Penning-Malmberg trap across the magnetic field for advanced plasma and antimatter applications. Plasmas of 108 electrons, with radii small compared to that of the confining electrodes, can be moved from the magnetic axis to ≥90% of the electrode radius with near unit efficiency and reliable angular positioning. Translations of ≥70% of the wall radius are possible for a wider range of plasma parameters. Details of this process, including phase and displacement oscillations in the plasma response and plasma expansion, are discussed, as well as possible extensions of the technique

  10. Electron plasma dynamics during autoresonant excitation of the diocotron mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, C. J., E-mail: cbaker@physics.ucsd.edu; Danielson, J. R., E-mail: jrdanielson@ucsd.edu; Hurst, N. C., E-mail: nhurst@physics.ucsd.edu; Surko, C. M., E-mail: csurko@ucsd.edu [Physics Department, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Chirped-frequency autoresonant excitation of the diocotron mode is used to move electron plasmas confined in a Penning-Malmberg trap across the magnetic field for advanced plasma and antimatter applications. Plasmas of 10{sup 8} electrons, with radii small compared to that of the confining electrodes, can be moved from the magnetic axis to ≥90% of the electrode radius with near unit efficiency and reliable angular positioning. Translations of ≥70% of the wall radius are possible for a wider range of plasma parameters. Details of this process, including phase and displacement oscillations in the plasma response and plasma expansion, are discussed, as well as possible extensions of the technique.

  11. Emission Spectroscopy as a Probe into Photoinduced Intramolecular Electron Transfer in Polyazine Bridged Ru(II,Rh(III Supramolecular Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Brewer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy are valuable tools to probe photochemical processes of metal-ligand, coordination complexes. Ru(II polyazine light absorbers are efficient light harvesters absorbing in the UV and visible with emissive 3MLCT excited states known to undergo excited state energy and electron transfer. Changes in emission intensity, energy or band-shape, as well as excited state lifetime, provide insight into excited state dynamics. Photophysical processes such as intramolecular electron transfer between electron donor and electron acceptor sub-units may be investigated using these methods. This review investigates the use of steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy to measure excited state intramolecular electron transfer in polyazine bridged Ru(II,Rh(III supramolecular complexes. Intramolecular electron transfer in these systems provides for conversion of the emissive 3MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer excited state to a non-emissive, but potentially photoreactive, 3MMCT (metal-to-metal charge transfer excited state. The details of the photophysics of Ru(II,Rh(III and Ru(II,Rh(III,Ru(II systems as probed by steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy will be highlighted.

  12. Double-atom excitation in heavy-particle collisions induced by the electron-electron interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analytical method for rapid calculation of matrix elements for double-atom excitation induced by the electron-electron interaction. The method is applied to calculation of probabilities and cross sections for double-atom n = 2 excitation in H(1s)-H(1s) and various A(Zp-1)+(1s)-H(1s) collisions at intermediate and high projectile energies. Based on first-order perturbation theory an empirical scaling rule for the double-atom excitation cross sections is derived. The calculated cross sections are shown to be in good agreement with this scaling relation. (author)

  13. Electronic excitation energies of ZniSi nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excitation energies of small ZnS nanoclusters characterized in previous studies have been calculated using TDDFT. The relativistic pseudopotentials of Stevens et al have been used, including Zn 4s2 electrons and S 3s2 and 3p4 electrons as valence electrons. Results obtained with these pseudopotentials are compared to those obtained considering also Zn 3s23p63d10 electrons in the valence part, and demonstrated to be consistent. The results show that spheroid-like bubble structures have absorption energies in the range of 5-5.3 eV for small sizes, which decreases to 5 eV with increasing particle size

  14. Excitation of heavy hydrogen-like ions by light atoms in relativistic collisions with large momentum transfers

    CERN Document Server

    Najjari, B

    2012-01-01

    We present a theory for excitation of heavy hydrogen-like projectile-ions by light target-atoms in collisions where the momentum transfers to the atom are very large on the atomic scale. It is shown that in this process the electrons and the nucleus of the atom behave as (quasi-) free particles with respect to each other and that their motion is governed by the field of the nucleus of the ion. The effect of this field on the atomic particles can be crucial for the contribution to the excitation of the ion caused by the electrons of the atom. Due to comparatively very large nuclear mass, however, this field can be neglected in the calculation of the contribution to the excitation due to the nucleus of the atom.

  15. Regulation of excitation energy transfer in diatom PSII dimer: How does it change the destination of excitation energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokono, Makio; Nagao, Ryo; Tomo, Tatsuya; Akimoto, Seiji

    2015-10-01

    Energy transfer dynamics in dimeric photosystem II (PSII) complexes isolated from four diatoms, Chaetoceros gracilis, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Thalassiosira pseudonana, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, are examined. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements were conducted in the range of 0-80ns. Delayed fluorescence spectra showed a clear difference between PSII monomer and PSII dimer isolated from the four diatoms. The difference can be interpreted as reflecting suppressed energy transfer between PSII monomers in the PSII dimer for efficient energy trapping at the reaction center. The observation was especially prominent in C. gracilis and T. pseudonana. The pathways seem to be suppressed under a low pH condition in isolated PSII complexes from C. gracilis, and excitation energy may be quenched with fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c-binding protein (FCP) that was closely associated with PSII in C. gracilis. The energy transfer between PSII monomers in the PSII dimer may play a role in excitation energy regulation in diatoms. PMID:26188377

  16. Electron impact excitation of atoms (ions) by high-energy electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In astrophysics, plasma, quantum chemistry and advanced technique, an increasing demand for collision data is evident. Among those data, cross section of electron impact excitation is important and fundamental data. In this paper, we present the electron impact excitation cross section for some ions at high-energy incident electron. In our calulation, the LS coupling antisymmetric single configuration wavefuction of the target has been used. The plane we BORN approximation has been used in treating the collision problem. Angular part of the transition matrix element of complex atom is treated carefully. We have computed single electron radial wavefunction of atom by means of HARTREE-FOCK-SLATER self consistent field method. We call our computer program as PBA(9). By this computer program, we can compute excitation cross sections, collision strengths, generalized oscillator strengths and optical dipole oscillator strengths. In fact, we have computed widely from H-like to Ne-like isoelectronic sequences. It is made to compare our results with the other ones available. It shows that our results are satisfying for high energy electron. For example, the values of the excitation cross section for C and O fall into the accurate region of recommend data given by Japan's center NAGOYA of atomic data. We conclude that the method used in this paper is reliable and the results are correct. It can provide us with electron-impact excitation useful informantion of light atoms (ions) by high energy electron

  17. Influence of donor-donor transport on excitation energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy migration and transfer from acriflavine to rhodamine B and malachite green in poly (methylmethacrylate) have been investigated using the decay function analysis. It is found that the influence of energy migration in energy transfer can be described quite convincingly by making use of the theories of Loring, Andersen and Fayer (LAF) and Huber. At high acceptor concentration direct donor-acceptor transfer occurs through Forster mechanism. (author). 17 refs., 5 figs

  18. KLL resonant transfer excitation to F6+(1s2l2l') intermediate states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resonant transfer excitation (RTE) was observed and RTE Auger-electron cross sections were measured for the formation of F6+ (1s2l2l ') states in collisions of 0.25--2 MeV/u F7+(1s21S,1s2s 3S) with H2 and He at zero degrees with respect to the beam direction. The measured Auger-electron differential cross sections agreed well with a modified treatment of the usual impulse approximation and the recent angular dependence theory of RTE by Bhalla [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1103 (1990)], thus confirming the selective population of the ML=0 magnetic substate in RTE processes. The extracted resonant excitation scattering strengths for the 1s2p22D and 1s(2s2p 1P)2P+ states were found to be (35±2)x10-19 and (14±2)x10-19 cm2 eV, respectively. These two states showed the strongest KLL RTE signature as predicted by theory

  19. An efficient implementation of the localized operator partitioning method for electronic energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The localized operator partitioning method [Y. Khan and P. Brumer, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 194112 (2012)] rigorously defines the electronic energy on any subsystem within a molecule and gives a precise meaning to the subsystem ground and excited electronic energies, which is crucial for investigating electronic energy transfer from first principles. However, an efficient implementation of this approach has been hindered by complicated one- and two-electron integrals arising in its formulation. Using a resolution of the identity in the definition of partitioning, we reformulate the method in a computationally efficient manner that involves standard one- and two-electron integrals. We apply the developed algorithm to the 9 ? ((1 ? naphthyl) ? methyl) ? anthracene (A1N) molecule by partitioning A1N into anthracenyl and CH2 ? naphthyl groups as subsystems and examine their electronic energies and populations for several excited states using configuration interaction singles method. The implemented approach shows a wide variety of different behaviors amongst the excited electronic states

  20. Attosecond dynamics of electron correlation in doubly excited atomic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have solved the time-dependent Schroedinger equation describing the simultaneous interaction of the He 1s2s 1S state with two laser-generated pulses of trapezoidal or Gaussian shape, of duration 86 fs and of frequencies ω1=1.453 au and ω2=1.781 au. The system is excited to the energy region of two strongly correlated doubly excited states, chosen for this study according to specific criteria. It is demonstrated quantitatively that, provided one focuses on the dynamics occurring within the attosecond timescale, the corresponding orbital configurations, 2s2p and 2p3d 1P0, exist as nonstationary states, with occupation probabilities that are oscillating as the states decay exponentially into the 1sεp continuum, during and after the laser-atom interaction. It follows that it is feasible to probe by attosecond pulses the motion of configurations of electrons as they correlate via the total Hamiltonian. For the particular system studied here, the probe pulses could register the oscillating doubly excited configurations by de-exciting to the He 1s3d 1D state, which emits at 6680 A. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  1. Strong monopole electron-collisional excitation in highly stripped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collision strengths for electric monopole collisional excitation of the outermost subshell of highly stripped closed-shell ions are examined and found to scale nearly hydrogenically. The collision strength near threshold for the principal monopole excitation process (in the distorted-wave approximation) is written as Ω(Z) = ξ/sub n//sub l/(Z)eta/sub nl/(Z)N/sub nl/I/sub H//ΔE(Z), where ξ/sub n//sub l/(Z) is near 0.3, 0.5, and 0.6 for the He-like (1s--2s), Ne-like (2p--3p), and Ni-like (3d--4d) sequences, respectively, and where eta/sub n//sub l/(Z) accounts for mixing effects and is near unity at low Z. The excitation process in nickel-like ions is more effective per electron than for neonlike ions and is favorable to the development of x-ray lasers below 44 A. The extension of the monopole excitation scheme to Nd-like ions appears very attractive for longer wavelengths

  2. Hot electron mediated desorption rates calculated from excited state potential energy surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, Thomas; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    We present a model for Desorption Induce by (Multiple) Electronic Transitions (DIET/DIMET) based on potential energy surfaces calculated with the Delta Self-Consistent Field extension of Density Functional Theory. We calculate potential energy surfaces of CO and NO molecules adsorbed on various transition metal surfaces, and show that classical nuclear dynamics does not suffice for propagation in the excited state. We present a simple Hamiltonian describing the system, with parameters obtained from the excited state potential energy surface, and show that this model can describe desorption dynamics in both the DIET and DIMET regime, and reproduce the power law behavior observed experimentally. We observe that the internal stretch degree of freedom in the molecules is crucial for the energy transfer between the hot electrons and the molecule when the coupling to the surface is strong.

  3. Energy shift of collective electron excitations in highly corrugated graphitic nanostructures: Experimental and theoretical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedelnikova, O. V., E-mail: o.sedelnikova@gmail.com; Bulusheva, L. G.; Okotrub, A. V. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science, 3 Acad. Lavrentiev Ave., Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogov Str., Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, 36 Lenina Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Asanov, I. P. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science, 3 Acad. Lavrentiev Ave., Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogov Str., Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Yushina, I. V. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science, 3 Acad. Lavrentiev Ave., Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-21

    Effect of corrugation of hexagonal carbon network on the collective electron excitations has been studied using optical absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in conjunction with density functional theory calculations. Onion-like carbon (OLC) was taken as a material, where graphitic mantle enveloping agglomerates of multi-shell fullerenes is strongly curved. Experiments showed that positions of ? and ??+?? plasmon modes as well as ? ? ?* absorption peak are substantially redshifted for OLC as compared with those of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite and thermally exfoliated graphite consisted of planar sheets. This effect was reproduced in behavior of dielectric functions of rippled graphite models calculated within the random phase approximation. We conclude that the energy of electron excitations in graphitic materials could be precisely tuned by a simple bending of hexagonal network without change of topology. Moreover, our investigation suggests that in such materials optical exciton can transfer energy to plasmon non-radiatively.

  4. Electron energy distributions and excitation rates in high-frequency argon discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron energy distribution functions and rate coefficients for excitation and ionisation in argon under the action of an uniform high-frequency electric field were calculated by numerically solving the homogeneous Boltzmann equation. Analytic calculations in the limiting cases ω>>νsub(c) and ω<<νsub(c), where ω is the wave angular frequency and νsub(c) is the electron-neutral collision frequency for momentum transfer, are also presented and shown to be in very good agreement with the numerical computations. The results reported here are relevant for the modelling of high-frequency discharges in argon and, in particular, for improving recent theoretical descriptions of a plasma column sustained by surface microwaves. The properties of surface wave produced plasmas make them interesting as possible substitutes for other more conventional plasma sources for such important applications as plasma chemistry laser excitation, plasma etching spectroscopic sources etc...

  5. Hot-electron-mediated desorption rates calculated from excited-state potential energy surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Gavnholt, Jeppe; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    both the DIET and DIMET regimes and reproduce the power-law behavior observed experimentally. We observe that the internal stretch degree of freedom in the molecules is crucial for the energy transfer between the hot electrons and the molecule when the coupling to the surface is strong.......We present a model for desorption induced by (multiple) electronic transitions [DIET (DIMET)] based on potential energy surfaces calculated with the delta self-consistent field extension of density-functional theory. We calculate potential energy surfaces of CO and NO molecules adsorbed on various...... transition-metal surfaces and show that classical nuclear dynamics does not suffice for propagation in the excited state. We present a simple Hamiltonian describing the system with parameters obtained from the excited-state potential energy surface and show that this model can describe desorption dynamics in...

  6. Biotechnological Aspects of Microbial Extracellular Electron Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Souichiro

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is a type of microbial respiration that enables electron transfer between microbial cells and extracellular solid materials, including naturally-occurring metal compounds and artificial electrodes. Microorganisms harboring EET abilities have received considerable attention for their various biotechnological applications, in addition to their contribution to global energy and material cycles. In this review, current knowledge on microbial EET and its application to diverse biotechnologies, including the bioremediation of toxic metals, recovery of useful metals, biocorrosion, and microbial electrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells and microbial electrosynthesis), were introduced. Two potential biotechnologies based on microbial EET, namely the electrochemical control of microbial metabolism and electrochemical stimulation of microbial symbiotic reactions (electric syntrophy), were also discussed. PMID:26004795

  7. Electronic excitation of ground state atoms by collision with heavy gas particles. Final report, June 1992-June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the important chemical reactions which occur in the very high temperature air produced around space vehicles as they enter the atmosphere were investigated both experimentally and theoretically, to some extent at least. One remaining reaction about which little is known, and which could be quite important at the extremely high temperatures that will be produced by the class of space vehicles now contemplated - such as the AOTV - is the excitation of bound electron states due to collisions between heavy gas particles. Rates of electronic excitation due to free electron collisions are known to be very rapid, but because these collisions quickly equilibrate the free and bound electron energy, the approach to full equilibrium with the heavy particle kinetic energy will depend primarily on the much slower process of bound electron excitation in heavy particle collisions and the subsequent rapid transfer to free electron energy. This may be the dominant mechanism leading to full equilibrium in the gas once the dissociation process has depleted the molecular states so the transfer between molecular vibrational energy and free electron energy is no longer available as a channel for equilibration of free electron and heavy particle kinetic energies. Two mechanisms seem probable in electronic excitation by heavy particle impact. One of these is the collision excitation and deexcitation of higher electronic states which are Rydberg like. A report, entitled 'Semi-Classical Theory of Electronic Excitation Rates', was submitted previously. This presented analytic expressions for the transition probabilities, assuming that the interaction potential is an exponential repulsion with a perturbation ripple due to the dipole-induced dipole effect in the case of neutral-neutral collisions, and to the ion-dipole interaction in the case of ion-neutral collisions

  8. Optogalvanic monitoring of collisional transfer of laser excitation energy in a neon RF plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optogalvanic signals produced by pulsed laser excitation of 1s5--2p8 and 1s5-2p9 (Paschen notation) transition by a ∼29 MHz radiofrequency (rf) discharge at ∼5 torr have been investigated. The optogalvanic signal produced by 1s5-2p9 excitations indicates that there is transfer of energy from the 2p9 state to some other state. The state to which this energy is transferred is believed to be mainly the 2p8 state because of the very small energy gap between the 2p9 and 2p8 states. To verify this transfer, the 1s5-2p8 transition was investigated. The similarity of the temporal profiles of the optogalvanic signals in both excitations confirms the collisional transfer of laser excitation energy from 2p9 to 2p8

  9. Dependence of the energy transfer to graphene on the excitation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorescence studies of natural photosynthetic complexes on a graphene layer demonstrate pronounced influence of the excitation wavelength on the energy transfer efficiency to graphene. Ultraviolet light yields much faster decay of fluorescence, with average efficiencies of the energy transfer equal to 87% and 65% for excitation at 405 nm and 640 nm, respectively. This implies that focused light changes locally the properties of graphene affecting the energy transfer dynamics, in an analogous way as in the case of metallic nanostructures. Demonstrating optical control of the energy transfer is important for exploiting unique properties of graphene in photonic and sensing architectures

  10. Electron Transfer Dissociation Mass Spectrometry in Proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-Sik; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has rapidly evolved to become the platform of choice for proteomic analysis. While CID remains the major fragmentation method for peptide sequencing, electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is emerging as a complementary method for characterization of peptides and post-translational modifications (PTMs). Here, we review the evolution of ETD and some of its newer applications including characterization of PTMs, non-tryptic peptides and intact proteins. We will also discuss some ...

  11. Electron Transfer Phenomena in Interfacial Bioelectrochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Baier, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Biomolecules at the solid-liquid interface have been investigated using electrochemical measurement techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical scanning probe microscopies. Structure and function of the biomolecules, depending on the electron transfer and the used electrode material could be studied down to a single molecule level. Besides investigating natural electroactive proteins, e.g. the metalloprotein azurin or the iron storage protein ferritin, a method has been develope...

  12. Promoting Interspecies Electron Transfer with Biochar

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shanshan; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Liu, Fanghua; Wei FAN; Nevin, Kelly P.; Derek R. Lovley

    2014-01-01

    Biochar, a charcoal-like product of the incomplete combustion of organic materials, is an increasingly popular soil amendment designed to improve soil fertility. We investigated the possibility that biochar could promote direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in a manner similar to that previously reported for granular activated carbon (GAC). Although the biochars investigated were 1000 times less conductive than GAC, they stimulated DIET in co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens with...

  13. Linear free-enthalpy relation for radical yield in fluorescence quenching by electron transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Iwa, Peter; Steiner, Ulrich; Vogelmann, Ekehardt; Kramer, Horst E.A.

    1982-01-01

    The rate constant (kq) and net electron-transfer yield (Φr) in the quenching of an excited oxonine singlet by 24 aromatic amines and methoxy compounds were determined in methanol from stationary fluorescence measurements and flash spectroscopy. The systems investigated correspond to a variation of ΔGet°, the standard free reaction enthalpy of the electron transfer from the quencher to excited singlet oxonine, between -0.12 and -1.56 eV. Whereas the kq values observed are all close to the diff...

  14. Spin effects in intramolecular electron transfer in naproxen- N -methylpyrrolidine dyad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, I. M.; Polyakov, N. E.; Khramtsova, E. A.; Kruppa, A. I.; Tsentalovich, Yu. P.; Leshina, T. V.; Miranda, M. A.; Nuin, E.; Marin, M. L.

    2011-11-01

    The intramolecular electron transfer in the naproxen- N-methylpyrrolidine dyad has been investigated by spin chemistry methods. The existence of CIDNP in a high magnetic field points to electron transfer as a possible mechanism of the quenching of the excited state of a dyad. However, the failure to detect magnetic field effects on triplet yield makes us conclude that this quenching mechanism is not the only one. The observation of CIDNP effects in the dyad in the media of low polarity and the short risetime of triplet state formation indicate a potential role of exciplex in the quenching of the excited state of the dyad.

  15. Photophysical Model of 10-Hydroxybenzo[h]quinoline: Internal Conversion and Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Junghwa; Joo, Taiha [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Photophysics of 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinoline (HBQ) has been in controversy, in particular, on the nature of the electronic states before and after the excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT), even though the dynamics and mechanism of the ESIPT have been well established. We report highly time resolved fluorescence spectra over the full emission frequency regions of the enol and keto isomers and the anisotropy in time domain to determine the accurate rates of the population decay, spectral relaxation and anisotropy decay of the keto isomer. We have shown that the ?300 fs component observed frequently in ESIPT dynamics arises from the S{sub 2}?S{sub 1} internal conversion in the reaction product keto isomer and that the ESIPT occurs from the enol isomer in S{sub 1} state to the keto isomer in S{sub 2} state.

  16. Nanosecond Stroboscopic Electron Spectroscopy for Observation of Nuclear Excitation by Electron Transition (NEET) in 197Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Hiromu; Ura, Katsumi

    1985-12-01

    Electron transitions to inner atomic shells release their excess energies in the form of X-rays or Auger electrons. In addition to these two usual processes, a third mechanism called nuclear excitation by electron transition (NEET) can participate in the de-excitation process of atomic inner-shell ionization, if the NEET conditions, in which the nuclear and electronic transitions have almost equal transition energies and a common multipolarity, are satisfied. To observe NEET in 197Au, which would emit 63 keV internal conversion electrons with a half-life of 1.9 ns as a consequence of the NEET process, a specially designed stroboscopic electron spectrometer system was developed. The system allows us to observe the time spectrum of conversion electrons with a time resolution of subnanoseconds.

  17. Degradation of Eu(fod)3 electronic excitation energy in benzene, toluene, and o-xylene solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ways of energy dissipation resulting from Eu(fod)3 electronic excitation in homological series of solvents-benzene, toluene and o-xylene have been studied. It is ascertained that probability of the electronic excitation energy degradation increases with an increase in the number of methyl groups at aromatic ring. The values of the activation energy of Eu(fod)3 chelate excited state quenching, which correlate with the number of methyl groups in the series benzene (35.61.3 kJ/mol), toluene (39.31.3 kJ/mol), o-xylene (54.40.8 kJ/mol), have been determined. The results obtained suggest that the main contribution to Eu(3+) electronic excitation energy degradation in homological series benzene, toluene, o-xylene is made by nonradiating energy transfer to high-frequency overtones of oscillations in the solvent C-H groups

  18. Electronic excitation of H2 by e+ impact using adiabatic nuclear rotation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adiabatic nuclear rotation (ANR) model has been employed to obtain rotational excitation cross sections for electronically elastic and electronic excitation processes in e+-H2 scattering. The present results are compared with the more accurate laboratory-frame rotational close-coupling approximation (LFCCA) predictions. The electronically inelastic rotational excitation results using the ANR model differ from the corresponding LFCCA results near the electronic excitation threshold energies. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  19. Electron-impact excitation levels of the rotational levels of molecular electron states in gas discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles of rotational state excitation of molecules with a simultaneous electron transition under electron impact are investigated in gas discharge plasma conditions. The possibility of a substantial change (up to 5-6 ℎ or higher) in the angular momentum of the molecule in such a process is demonstrated. The relative transition probabilities with various changes in the rotation quantum numbers excited by electrons from the lowest rotational levels of the electron ground state were determined experimentally for hydrogen. The complete probability matrix is determined from these results incorporating the adiabatic approximation. The electron beam technique is used to investigate rotational excitation of H2 at various electron energies and it is demonstrated that the most efficient collisions occur between electrons of energies near the excitation threshold of the lectron state. These results establish the limits of applicability of the spectroscopic method of measuring gas temperature of a nonequilibrium plasma based on the relative intensities in the rotational structure of the electron spectra of molecules

  20. DOS and electron attachment effects in the electron-induced vibrational excitation of terphenylthiol SAMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houplin, J; Amiaud, L; Dablemont, C; Lafosse, A

    2015-11-11

    Low energy electron scattering on terphenylthiol (TPT, HS-(C6H4)2-C6H5) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) deposited onto gold was investigated using high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) by recording specular elastic and inelastic excitation functions. The electron elastic reflectivity could be directly compared to the sample density-of-states (DOS) above vacuum level. A high reflectivity region was observed in the range 7.2-8.6 eV. Inelastic excitation functions were studied to get insights into the mechanisms involved in the excitation of a selection of vibrational modes (dipolar and impact scattering). In particular, a resonant mechanism was observed in the excitation of the stretching mode ?(CC) at 196 meV. The purely resonant contribution to the electron-induced excitation of the stretching modes ?(CH) (379 meV) could be extracted from the overtone excitation. It is located at 7.2 eV above the vacuum level and is characterized by a width of 3.4 eV. PMID:26529112

  1. Stepwise vs concerted excited state tautomerization of 2-hydroxypyridine: Ammonia dimer wire mediated hydrogen/proton transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stepwise and concerted excited state intermolecular proton transfer (PT) and hydrogen transfer (HT) reactions in 2-hydroxypyridine-(NH3)2 complex in the gas phase under Cs symmetry constraint and without any symmetry constraints were performed using quantum chemical calculations. It shows that upon excitation, the hydrogen bonded in 2HP-(NH3)2 cluster facilitates the releasing of both hydrogen and proton transfer reactions along ammonia wire leading to the formation of the 2-pyridone tautomer. For the stepwise mechanism, it has been found that the proton and the hydrogen may transfer consecutively. These processes are distinguished from each other through charge translocation analysis and the coupling between the motion of the proton and the electron density distribution along ammonia wire. For the complex under Cs symmetry, the excited state HT occurs on the A″(1πσ∗) and A′(1nσ∗) states over two accessible energy barriers along reaction coordinates, and excited state PT proceeds mainly through the A′(1ππ∗) and A″(1nπ∗) potential energy surfaces. For the unconstrained complex, potential energy profiles show two 1ππ∗-1πσ∗ conical intersections along enol → keto reaction path indicating that proton and H atom are localized, respectively, on the first and second ammonia of the wire. Moreover, the concerted excited state PT is competitive to take place with the stepwise process, because it proceeds over low barriers of 0.14 eV and 0.11 eV with respect to the Franck-Condon excitation of enol tautomer, respectively, under Cs symmetry and without any symmetry constraints. These barriers can be probably overcome through tunneling effect

  2. Computer simulation of electronic excitation in atomic collision cascades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvenbeck, A.

    2007-04-05

    The impact of an keV atomic particle onto a solid surface initiates a complex sequence of collisions among target atoms in a near-surface region. The temporal and spatial evolution of this atomic collision cascade leads to the emission of particles from the surface - a process usually called sputtering. In modern surface analysis the so called SIMS technology uses the flux of sputtered particles as a source of information on the microscopical stoichiometric structure in the proximity of the bombarded surface spots. By laterally varying the bombarding spot on the surface, the entire target can be scanned and chemically analyzed. However, the particle detection, which bases upon deflection in electric fields, is limited to those species that leave the surface in an ionized state. Due to the fact that the ionized fraction of the total flux of sputtered atoms often only amounts to a few percent or even less, the detection is often hampered by rather low signals. Moreover, it is well known, that the ionization probability of emitted particles does not only depend on the elementary species, but also on the local environment from which a particle leaves the surface. Therefore, the measured signals for different sputtered species do not necessarily represent the stoichiometric composition of the sample. In the literature, this phenomenon is known as the Matrix Effect in SIMS. In order to circumvent this principal shortcoming of SIMS, the present thesis develops an alternative computer simulation concept, which treats the electronic energy losses of all moving atoms as excitation sources feeding energy into the electronic sub-system of the solid. The particle kinetics determining the excitation sources are delivered by classical molecular dynamics. The excitation energy calculations are combined with a diffusive transport model to describe the spread of excitation energy from the initial point of generation. Calculation results yield a space- and time-resolved excitation energy density profile E(r,t) within the volume affected by the atomic collision cascade.The distribution E(r,t) is then converted into an electron temperature, which in a further step can be utilized to calculate the ionization probabilities of sputtered atoms using published theory. (orig.)

  3. Computer simulation of electronic excitation in atomic collision cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of an keV atomic particle onto a solid surface initiates a complex sequence of collisions among target atoms in a near-surface region. The temporal and spatial evolution of this atomic collision cascade leads to the emission of particles from the surface - a process usually called sputtering. In modern surface analysis the so called SIMS technology uses the flux of sputtered particles as a source of information on the microscopical stoichiometric structure in the proximity of the bombarded surface spots. By laterally varying the bombarding spot on the surface, the entire target can be scanned and chemically analyzed. However, the particle detection, which bases upon deflection in electric fields, is limited to those species that leave the surface in an ionized state. Due to the fact that the ionized fraction of the total flux of sputtered atoms often only amounts to a few percent or even less, the detection is often hampered by rather low signals. Moreover, it is well known, that the ionization probability of emitted particles does not only depend on the elementary species, but also on the local environment from which a particle leaves the surface. Therefore, the measured signals for different sputtered species do not necessarily represent the stoichiometric composition of the sample. In the literature, this phenomenon is known as the Matrix Effect in SIMS. In order to circumvent this principal shortcoming of SIMS, the present thesis develops an alternative computer simulation concept, which treats the electronic energy losses of all moving atoms as excitation sources feeding energy into the electronic sub-system of the solid. The particle kinetics determining the excitation sources are delivered by classical molecular dynamics. The excitation energy calculations are combined with a diffusive transport model to describe the spread of excitation energy from the initial point of generation. Calculation results yield a space- and time-resolved excitation energy density profile E(r,t) within the volume affected by the atomic collision cascade.The distribution E(r,t) is then converted into an electron temperature, which in a further step can be utilized to calculate the ionization probabilities of sputtered atoms using published theory. (orig.)

  4. Effect of Electronic Excitation on Thin Film Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed-Ali, Hani E. [Old Dominion University

    2011-01-31

    The effect of nanosecond pulsed laser excitation on surface diffusion during growth of Ge on Si(100) at 250 degrees C was studied. In Situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) was used to measure the surface diffusion coefficient while ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to probe the structure and morphology of the grown quantum dots. The results show that laser excitation of the substrate increases the surface diffusion during growth of Ge on Si(100), changes the growth morphology, improves crystalline structure of the grown quantum dots, and decreases their size distribution. A purely electronic mechanism of enhanced surface diffusion of the deposited Ge is proposed. Ge quantum dots were grown on Si(100)-(2x1) by pulsed laser deposition at various substrate temperatures using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. In-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and ex-situ atomic force microscopy were used to analyze the fim structure and morphology. The morphology of germanium islands on silicon was studied at differect coverages. The results show that femtosecond pulsed laser depositon reduces the minimum temperature for epitaxial growth of Ge quantum dots to ~280 degrees C, which is 120 degrees C lower then previously observed in nanosecond pulsed laser deposition and more than 200 degrees C lower than that reported for molecular beam epitaxy and chemical vapor deposition.

  5. Electronically excited rubidium atom in a helium cluster or film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, Markku; Viel, Alexandra; Zillich, Robert E.

    2008-11-01

    We present theoretical studies of helium droplets and films doped with one electronically excited rubidium atom Rb∗ (P2). Diffusion and path integral Monte Carlo approaches are used to investigate the energetics and the structure of clusters containing up to 14 helium atoms. The surface of large clusters is approximated by a helium film. The nonpair additive potential energy surface is modeled using a diatomic in molecule scheme. Calculations show that the stable structure of Rb∗Hen consists of a seven helium atom ring centered at the rubidium, surrounded by a tirelike second solvation shell. A very different structure is obtained when performing a "vertical Monte Carlo transition." In this approach, a path integral Monte Carlo equilibration starts from the stable configuration of a rubidium atom in the electronic ground state adsorbed to the helium surface after switching to the electronically excited surface. In this case, Rb∗Hen relaxes to a weakly bound metastable state in which Rb∗ sits in a shallow dimple. The interpretation of the results is consistent with the recent experimental observations [G. Auböck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 035301 (2008)].

  6. Compilation of electron collision excitation cross sections for neutro argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work presents a compilation and critical analysis of the available data on electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral Argon levels. This study includes: 1.- A detailed description in intermediate coupling for all the levels belonging the 20 configurations 3p''5 ns(n=4 to 12), np(n=4 to 8) and nd(n=3 to 8) of neutral Argon. 2.- Calculation of the electron collision excitation cross sections in Born and Born-Oppenheimer-Ochkur approximations for all the levels in the 14 configurations 3p''5 ns(n=4 to 7), np(n=4 to 7) and nd(n=3 to 8). 3.- Comparison and discussion of the compiled data. These are the experimental and theoretical values available from the literature, and those from this work. 4.- Analysis of the regularities and systematic behaviors in order to determine which values can be considered more reliable. It is show that the concept of one electron cross section results quite useful for this purpose. In some cases it has been possible to obtain in this way approximate analytical expressions interpolating the experimental data. 5.- All the experimental and theoretical values studied are graphically presented and compared. 6.- The last part of the work includes a listing of several general purpose programs for Atomic Physics calculations developed for this work. (Author)

  7. Compilation of electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work presents a compilation and critical analysis of the available data on electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral Argon levels. This study includes: 1.- A detailed description in intermediate coupling for all the levels belonging the 20 configurations 3p5 ns (n=4to 12), np(n=4to8) and nd(n=3to8)of neutral Argon. 2.- Calculation of the electron collision excitation cross sections in Born and Born-Oppenheimer-Ochkur approximations for all the levels in the 14 configurations 3p5 ns (n=4 to 7), np (n=4 to 7) and nd (n=3 to 8). 3.- comparison and discussion of the compiled data. These are the experimental and theoretical values available from the literature, and those from this work. 4.- Analysis of the regularities and systematic behaviors in order to determine which values can be considered more reliable. It is show that the concept of one electron cross section results quite useful for this purpose. In some cases it has been possible to obtain in this way approximate analytical expressions interpolating the experimental data. 5.- All the experimental and theoretical values studied are graphically presented and compared. 6.- The last part of the work includes a listing of several general purpose programs for Atomic Physics calculations developed for this work. (Author) 35 refs

  8. Electron Elevator: Excitations across the Band Gap via a Dynamical Gap State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, A; Foulkes, W M C; Horsfield, A P; Mason, D R; Schleife, A; Draeger, E W; Correa, A A

    2016-01-29

    We use time-dependent density functional theory to study self-irradiated Si. We calculate the electronic stopping power of Si in Si by evaluating the energy transferred to the electrons per unit path length by an ion of kinetic energy from 1 eV to 100 keV moving through the host. Electronic stopping is found to be significant below the threshold velocity normally identified with transitions across the band gap. A structured crossover at low velocity exists in place of a hard threshold. An analysis of the time dependence of the transition rates using coupled linear rate equations enables one of the excitation mechanisms to be clearly identified: a defect state induced in the gap by the moving ion acts like an elevator and carries electrons across the band gap. PMID:26871327

  9. A new type of localized fast moving electronic excitations in molecular chains

    OpenAIRE

    Korshunova, A. N.; Lakhno, V. D.

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that in a Holstein molecular chain placed in a strong longitudinal electric field some new types of excitations can arise. This excitations can transfer a charge over large distance (more than 1000 nucleotide pairs) along the chain retaining approximately their shapes. Excitations are formed only when a strong electric field either exists or quickly arises under especially preassigned conditions. These excitations transfer a charge even in the case when Holstein polarons are pract...

  10. Promoting interspecies electron transfer with biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Shanshan; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Liu, Fanghua; Fan, Wei; Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2014-01-01

    Biochar, a charcoal-like product of the incomplete combustion of organic materials, is an increasingly popular soil amendment designed to improve soil fertility. We investigated the possibility that biochar could promote direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in a manner similar to that...... previously reported for granular activated carbon (GAC). Although the biochars investigated were 1000 times less conductive than GAC, they stimulated DIET in co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens with Geobacter sulfurreducens or Methanosarcina barkeri in which ethanol was the electron donor. Cells were...... attached to the biochar, yet not in close contact, suggesting that electrons were likely conducted through the biochar, rather than biological electrical connections. The finding that biochar can stimulate DIET may be an important consideration when amending soils with biochar and can help explain why...

  11. Comparative study on contribution of charge-transfer collision to excitations of iron ion between argon radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma and nitrogen microwave induced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Kozue; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes an ionization/excitation phenomenon of singly-ionized iron occurring in an Okamoto-cavity microwave induced plasma (MIP) as well as an argon radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma (ICP), by comparing the Boltzmann distribution among iron ionic lines (Fe II) having a wide range of the excitation energy from 4.76 to 9.01 eV. It indicated in both the plasmas that plots of Fe II lines having lower excitation energies (4.76 to 5.88 eV) were fitted on each linear relationship, implying that their excitations were caused by a dominant thermal process such as collision with energetic electron. However, Fe II lines having higher excitation energies (more than 7.55 eV) had a different behavior from each other. In the ICP, Boltzmann plots of Fe II lines assigned to the higher excited levels also followed the normal Boltzmann relationship among the low-lying excited levels, even including a deviation from it in particular excited levels having an excitation energy of ca. 7.8 eV. This deviation can be attributed to a charge-transfer collision with argon ion, which results in the overpopulation of these excited levels, but the contribution is small. On the other hand, the distribution of the high-lying excited levels was non-thermal in the Okamoto-cavity MIP, which did not follow the normal Boltzmann relationship among the low-lying excited levels. A probable reason for the non-thermal characteristics in the MIP is that a charge-transfer collision with nitrogen molecule ion having many vibrational/rotational levels could work for populating the 3d64p (3d54s4p) excited levels of iron ion broadly over an energy range of 7.6-9.0 eV, while collisional excitation by energetic electron would occur insufficiently to excite these high-energy levels.

  12. Education and solar conversion. Demonstrating electron transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smestad, Greg P. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, ICP-2, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1998-07-23

    A simplified solar cell fabrication procedure is presented that uses natural anthocyanin or chlorophyll dyes extracted from plants. This procedure illustrates how interdisciplinary science can be taught at lower division university and upper division high school levels for an understanding of renewable energy as well as basic science concepts. Electron transfer occurs on the Earth in the mitochondrial membranes found in living cells, and in the thylakoid membranes found in the photosynthetic cells of green plants. Since we depend on the results of this electron and energy transfer, e.g. in our use of petroleum and agricultural products, it is desirable to understand and communicate how the electron transfer works. The simplified solar cell fabrication procedure, based on nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells, has therefore been developed so that it can be inexpensively reproduced and utilized in the teaching of basic principles in biology, chemistry, physics, and environmental science. A water-based solution of commercial nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) powder is used to deposit a highly porous semiconductor electron acceptor. This acceptor couples the light-driven processes occurring at an organic dye to the macroscopic world and an external electrical circuit. Materials science and semiconductor physics are emphasized during the deposition of the sintered TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline ceramic film. Chelation, complexation and molecular self-assembly are demonstrated during the attachment of the dye molecule to the surface of the TiO{sub 2} semiconductor particles. Environmental chemistry and energy conversion can be linked to these concepts via the regenerative oxidation and reduction cycle found in the cell. The resulting device, made in under 3 h, can be used as a light detector or power generator that produces 0.4-0.5 V at open circuit, and 1-2 mA per square cm under solar illumination

  13. R-matrix calculations for electron impact excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large number of high-resolution spectra routinely recorded in the astrophysical and fusion communities leads to the need for an extensive set of accurate baseline atomic data. The advantages of the intermediate-coupling frame transformation R-matrix method make it feasible to provide excitation data along iso-electronic sequences covering a substantial range of astrophysically important ions at the high level of accuracy afforded by the R-matrix method. This is one of the key goals of the UK Atomic Processes for Astrophysical Plasmas (APAP) network.

  14. Probability and selection rule for nuclear excitation by electron transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yu-Kun; Zhang, Bao-Hui; Yuan, Zhu-Shu

    1991-11-01

    A quantum-mechanical formalism to calculate the nuclear excitation by electron transition (NEET) is presented. Emphasis is on the explicit calculations of the transition matrix elements for electric multiple and magnetic dipole NEET and discussions of the selection rules. One of the features of this formalism is that the part of the matrix element in connection with the nuclear partner is related to the nuclear partial radiative width, which is a measurable quantity. This makes it available to evaluate the NEET probability more reliably. The predicted results for NEET probabilities in 189Os, 197Au, and 237Np are given along with the available measured data.

  15. Relaxation of electron excitations in beryllium oxide. Auto localized excitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined luminescent-optical investigations within 80-600 K temperature range and 5-36 eV energy range is conducted for BeO nominally pure crystals. Analysis of selective excitation spectra of luminescence, kinetic parameters and temperature dependences of the selected luminosity, as well as, of spectra of transit optical absorption induced by electron beam, is presented. Models of auto localized excitons differing in configuration of hole component are suggested and fact of coexistence of high and low radii excitons is determined on the basis of the analysis with regard to peculiarities of BeO crystalline structure. 40 refs.; 8 figs

  16. Measurements on Nuclear Excitation by Electronic Transition (NEET) in ^189Os Using Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, D. S.; Ahmad, I.; Dunford, R. W.; Kanter, E. P.; Krässig, B.; Southworth, S. H.

    1998-05-01

    Nuclear Excitation by Electronic Transition (NEET) is a fundamental but rare mode of decay of an excited atomic state in which the energy of atomic excitation is transferred into excitation of the nucleus of that atom(M. Morita, Prog. Theor. Phys. \\underline49), 1574 (1973). The high fluxes of x-rays from third-generation synchrotron sources offer improved possibilities for studying the phenomenon. We report on measurements on the ^189Os system. Natural metallic osmium samples were irradiated for several hours with ``white'' x-ray beams from an APS wiggler. NEET excitation of the 70-keV level in ^189Os is expected to be observable through the level's decay branch to a 31-keV metastable state. The 6-hour decay of this level was easily observed offline. Resonant absorption into various low-lying nuclear states can also feed the metastable state. To separate out the contributions of NEET and nuclear resonant absorption, the experiments were run with a variety of target thicknesses and filters placed in the x-ray beam.

  17. Energies and electron correlation effects in two-electron doubly excited (nl){sup 2} states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biaye, M.; Konte, A.; Faye, N.A.B.; Wague, A. [Univ. Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar (Senegal). Dept. of Physics

    2001-01-01

    Energies of singlet doubly excited states 2p{sup 21}D,3d{sup 21}G,4f{sup 21}I of He isoelectronic series are calculated in the framework of the variational method by using Hylleraas-type wave functions and a real Hamiltonian. The results obtained show quantitatively the importance of electron correlation effects in the doubly excited states and they are in good agreement with some experimental data and other theoretical results. (orig.)

  18. Energies and electron correlation effects in two-electron doubly excited (nl)2 states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energies of singlet doubly excited states 2p21D,3d21G,4f21I of He isoelectronic series are calculated in the framework of the variational method by using Hylleraas-type wave functions and a real Hamiltonian. The results obtained show quantitatively the importance of electron correlation effects in the doubly excited states and they are in good agreement with some experimental data and other theoretical results. (orig.)

  19. Electronic excitations in quasi-2D crystals: what theoretical quantities are relevant to experiment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, V. U.

    2015-07-01

    The ab initio theory of electronic excitations in atomically thin (quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D)) crystals presents extra challenges in comparison to both the bulk and purely 2D cases. We argue that the conventionally used energy-loss function -{Im} \\frac{1}{ɛ ({q},ω )} (where ɛ ,{q}, and ω are the dielectric function, the momentum, and the energy transfer, respectively) is not, generally speaking, the suitable quantity for the interpretation of the electron-energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the Q2D case, and we construct different functions pertinent to the EELS experiments on Q2D crystals. Secondly, we emphasize the importance and develop a convenient procedure of the elimination of the spurious inter-layer interaction inherent to the use of the 3D super-cell method for the calculation of excitations in Q2D crystals. Thirdly, we resolve the existing controversy in the interpretation of the so-called π and π +σ excitations in monolayer graphene by demonstrating that both dispersive collective excitations (plasmons) and non-dispersive single-particle (inter-band) transitions fall in the same energy ranges, where they strongly influence each other.

  20. The Particle-Hole Map: A Computational Tool To Visualize Electronic Excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghui; Ullrich, Carsten A

    2015-12-01

    We introduce the particle-hole map (PHM), which is a visualization tool to analyze electronic excitations in molecules in the time or frequency domain, to be used in conjunction with time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) or other ab initio methods. The purpose of the PHM is to give detailed insight into electronic excitation processes that is not obtainable from local visualization methods, such as transition densities, density differences, or natural transition orbitals. The PHM is defined as a nonlocal function of two spatial variables and provides information about the origins, destinations, and connections of charge fluctuations during an excitation process; it is particularly valuable to analyze charge-transfer excitonic processes. In contrast with the transition density matrix, the PHM has a statistical interpretation involving joint probabilities of individual states and their transitions; it satisfies several sum rules and exact conditions, and it is easier to read and interpret. We discuss and illustrate the properties of the PHM and give several examples and applications to excitations in one-dimensional model systems, in a hydrogen chain, and in a benzothiadiazole (BT)-based molecule. PMID:26609707

  1. Electron transfer from CO2lg-bullet- to perylene in cyclohexane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CO2lg-bullet- formed by the reactions of the electron with CO2 in cyclohexane transfers an electron to perylene with a rate constant of 2.9 x 1010 M-1s-1. Gε580nm for the perylene radical anion is 9 x 103 molecules (100 eV)-1 M -1 cm-1. The transfer of an electron from CO2lg-bullet+ to an aromatic molecule is a significant process when CO2 is used as an electron scavenger in solution where the production of excited states of the aromatic molecule is studied. 24 refs., 6 figs

  2. Electronic Energy transfer in light-harvesting antenna complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Nejad, Hoda

    The studies presented in this thesis explore electronic energy transfer (EET) in light-harvesting antenna complexes and investigate the role of quantum coherence in EET. The dynamics of energy transfer are investigated in three distinct length scales and a different formulation of the exciton transport problem is applied at each scale. These scales include: the scale of a molecular dimer, the scale of a single protein and the scale of a molecular aggregate. The antenna protein phycoerythrin 545 (PE545) isolated from the photosynthetic cryptophyte algae Rhodomonas CS4 is specifically studied in two chapters of this thesis. It is found that formation of small aggregates delocalizes the excitation across chromophores of adjacent proteins, and that this delocalization has a dramatic effect in enhancing the rate of energy transfer between pigments. Furthermore, we investigate EET from a donor to an acceptor via an intermediate site and observe that interference of coherent pathways gives a finite correction to the transfer rate that is sensitively dependent on the nature of the vibrational interactions in the system. The statistical fluctuations of a system exhibiting EET are investigated in the final chapter. The techniques of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics are applied to investigate the steady-state of a typical system exhibiting EET that is perturbed out of equilibrium due to its interaction with a fluctuating bath.

  3. Dynamics of Electron Transfer Processes at the Surface of Dye-Sensitized Mesoporous Semiconductor Films

    OpenAIRE

    Teuscher, Joël

    2010-01-01

    Electron transfer reactions taking place at the surface of dye-sensitized semiconductors are key processes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). After light absorption, the excited state of a dye injects an electron into a wide-bandgap semiconductor, usually titanium dioxyde, TiO2. The formed oxidized dye can then be intercepted by a redox mediator, typically iodide, before charge recombination between the injected electron and the oxidized dye...

  4. Vibrational and Electronic Energy Transfer and Dissociation of Diatomic Molecules by Electron Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At high altitudes and velocities equal to or greater than the geosynchronous return velocity (10 kilometers per second), the shock layer of a hypersonic flight will be in thermochemical nonequilibrium and partially ionized. The amount of ionization is determined by the velocity. For a trans atmospheric flight of 10 kilometers per second and at an altitude of 80 kilometers, a maximum of 1% ionization is expected. At a velocity of 12 - 17 kilometer per second, such as a Mars return mission, up to 30% of the atoms and molecules in the flow field will be ionized. Under those circumstances, electrons play an important role in determining the internal states of atoms and molecules in the flow field and hence the amount of radiative heat load and the distance it takes for the flow field to re-establish equilibrium. Electron collisions provide an effective means of transferring energy even when the electron number density is as low as 1%. Because the mass of an electron is 12,760 times smaller than the reduced mass of N2, its average speed, and hence its average collision frequency, is more than 100 times larger. Even in the slightly ionized regime with only 1% electrons, the frequency of electron-molecule collisions is equal to or larger than that of molecule-molecule collisions, an important consideration in the low density part of the atmosphere. Three electron-molecule collision processes relevant to hypersonic flows will be considered: (1) vibrational excitation/de-excitation of a diatomic molecule by electron impact, (2) electronic excitation/de-excitation, and (3) dissociative recombination in electron-diatomic ion collisions. A review of available data, both theory and experiment, will be given. Particular attention will be paid to tailoring the molecular physics to the condition of hypersonic flows. For example, the high rotational temperatures in a hypersonic flow field means that most experimental data carried out under room temperatures are not applicable. Also, the average electron temperature is expected to be between 10,000 and 20,000 K. Thus only data for low energy electrons are relevant to the model.

  5. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Delocalized Excited States of the Hydrated Electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research under support of this grant has been focused on the understanding of highly delocalized ''conduction-band-like'' excited states of solvated electrons in bulk water, in water trapped in the core of reverse micelles, and in alkane solvents. We have strived in this work to probe conduction-band-like states by a variety of ultrafast spectroscopy techniques. (Most of which were developed under DOE support in a previous funding cycle.) We have recorded the optical spectrum of the hydrated electron for the first time. This was accomplished by applying a photo-detrapping technique that we had developed in a previous funding cycle, but had not yet been applied to characterize the actual spectrum. In the cases of reverse micelles, we have been investigating the potential role of conduction bands in the electron attachment process and the photoinduced detrapping, and have published two papers on this topic. Finally, we have been exploring solvated electrons in isooctane from various perspectives. All of these results strongly support the conclusion that optically accessible, highly delocalized electronic states exist in these various media

  6. Tracking the charge and spin dynamics of electronic excited states in inorganic complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Kelly

    2015-03-01

    Inorganic complexes have many advantageous properties for solar energy applications, including strong visible absorption and photocatalytic activity. Whether used as a photocatalyst or a photosensitizer, the lifetime of electronic excited states and the earth abundance of the molecular components represent a key property for solar energy applications. These dual needs have undermined the usefulness of many coordination compounds. Isoelectronic iron and ruthenium based complexes represent a clear example. Ru-polypyridal based molecules have been the workhorse of solar energy related research and dye sensitized solar cells for decades, but the replacement of low abundance Ru with Fe leads to million-fold reductions in metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state lifetimes. Understanding the origin of this million-fold reduction in lifetime and how to control excited state relaxation in 3d-metal complexes motivates the work I will discuss. We have used the spin sensitivity of hard x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and the intense femtosecond duration pulses generated by the LCLS x-ray laser to probe the spin dynamics in a series of electronically excited [Fe(CN)6-2N(2,2'-bipyridine)N]2 N - 4 complexes, with N = 1-3. These femtosecond resolution measurements demonstrate that modification of the solvent and ligand environment can lengthen the MLCT excited state lifetime by more than two orders of magnitude. They also verify the role of triplet ligand field excited states in the spin crossover dynamics from singlet to quintet spin configurations. Work supported by the AMOS program within the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy.

  7. Large radius new etching system using electron beam excited plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new electron beam excited plasma (EBEP) etching system has been developed. This EBEP system can efficiently generate a high density and uniform plasma by introducing a high current low-energy electron beam into an etching gas chamber. The uniformity of the Cl plasma density is within 2.5% over an 8 in. wafer and the uniformity of the plasma and floating potential across the wafer is within 2 V. This ultrahigh uniformity of the potentials overcomes the problem of the breakdown of thin gate insulators during etching that originate from the nonuniformity of the potential at the substrate. The selectivity of etching obtained is 40:1 for poly-Si/resist and more than 100:1 for poly-Si/SiO2. The etch rate is 3600 A/min. 4 refs., 9 figs

  8. Vibrational excitation in adsorbed acetylene by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have studied the vibrational spectra of acytylene adsorbed on Ni(111) at 150 K by electron energy loss spectroscopy. They observe both dipole scattering and vibrational excitation by electron impact via a broad resonance around 5 eV. The adsorbed acetylene is characterized by C-C and C-H stretching modes at 1200 and 2920 cm-1, respectively. This indicates a rehybridization of the molecule between sp2 and sp3 and a lowering of the C-C bond order down to approximately 1.5. This suggests that the acetylene is predominantly di-sigma-bonded to the surface and the structure resembles that of ethylene. (Auth.)

  9. Ion-acoustic envelope excitations in electron-positron-ion plasma with nonthermal electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Tarsem Singh, E-mail: gillsema@yahoo.co.i [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Bains, Amandeep Singh [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Saini, Nareshpal Singh, E-mail: nssaini@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Center for Plasma Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Bedi, Chanchal [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

    2010-07-12

    A theoretical investigation has been made for modulational instability of ion-acoustic waves in an electron-positron-ion plasma with nonthermal electrons. Employing reductive perturbation method (RPM), the nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLSE) is derived. The dispersive and nonlinearity coefficients, P and Q, respectively, are the functions of nonthermal parameter ({beta}), ratio of positron to electron density (d), ratio of the electron to positron temperature ({delta}) and ratio of ion to electron temperature ({sigma}). It is observed that these parameters significantly modify the conditions of the modulational instability. The system supports both types of bright and dark envelope excitations.

  10. Influence of multiphonon excitations and transfer on the fusion of Ca+Zr

    CERN Document Server

    Esbensen, H

    2014-01-01

    Fusion data for $^{48}$Ca+$^{90,96}$Zr are analyzed by coupled-channels calculations that are based on the M3Y+repulsion, double-folding potential. By applying a previously determined nuclear density of $^{48}$Ca, the neutron densities of the zirconium isotopes are adjusted to optimize the fit to the fusion data, whereas the proton densities are determined by electron scattering experiments. It is shown that the fusion data can be explained fairly well by including couplings to one- and two-phonon excitations of the reacting nuclei and to one- and two-nucleon transfer reactions but there is also some sensitivity to multiphonon excitations. The neutron skin thicknesses extracted for the two zirconium isotopes are consistent with anti-proton measurements. The densities of the zirconium isotopes are used together with the previously determined nuclear density of $^{40}$Ca to calculate the M3Y+repulsion potentials and predict the fusion cross sections of $^{40}$Ca+$^{90,96}$Zr. The predicted cross sections for $^...

  11. Linker proteins enable ultrafast excitation energy transfer in the phycobilisome antenna system of Thermosynechococcus vulcanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganou, C; David, L; Adir, N; Mkandawire, M

    2016-01-01

    We applied a femtosecond flash method, using induced transient absorption changes, to obtain a time-resolved view of excitation energy transfer in intact phycobilisomes of Thermosynechococcus vulcanus at room temperature. Our measurement of an excitation energy transfer rate of 888 fs in phycobilisomes shows the existence of ultrafast kinetics along the phycocyanin rod subcomplex to the allophycocyanin core that is faster than expected for previous excitation energy transfer based on Förster theory in phycobilisomes. Allophycocyanin in the core further transfers energy to the terminal emitter(s) in 17 ps. In the phycobilisome, rod doublets composed of hexameric phycocyanin discs and internal linker proteins are arranged in a parallel fashion, facilitating direct rod-rod interactions. Excitonic splitting likely drives rod absorption at 635 nm as a result of strong coupling between β84 chromophores (20 ± 1 Å) in adjacent hexamers. In comparison to the absorbance of the phycobilisome antenna system of the cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina, which possesses a single rod structure, the linkers in T. vulcanus rods induce a 17 nm red shift in the absorbance spectrum. Furthermore, the kinetics of 888 fs indicates that the presence of the linker protein induces ultrafast excitation energy transfer between phycocyanin and allophycocyanin inside the phycobilisome, which is faster than all previous excitation energy transfer in phycobilisome subunits or sub-complexes reported to date. PMID:26537632

  12. Consequences of strong coupling between solvation and electronic structure in the excited state of a betaine dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Tateki; Rossky, Peter J

    2008-09-11

    The electronic ground and excited-state structures of the betaine dye molecule pyridinium- N-phenoxide [4-(1-pyridinio)phenolate] are investigated both in the gas phase and in aqueous solution, using the reference interaction site model self-consistent-field (RISM-SCF) procedure within a CASSCF framework. We obtain the total free energy profiles in both the ground and excited states with respect to variation in the torsion angle between the phenoxide and pyridinium rings. We analyze the effect of solvent on the variation of the solute dipole moment and on the charge transfer character in the excited state. In the gas phase, it is shown that the potential energy profile in the excited-state decreases monotonically toward a perpendicular ring orientation and the dipole moment decreases along with decreasing charge localization. In water, the free energy surface for twisting is better characterized as nearly flat along the same coordinate for sterically accessible angles. These results are analyzed in terms of contributions of the solvation free energy, the solute electronic energy, and their coupling. Correspondingly, the dependence of the charge transfer character on solute geometry and solvation are analyzed, and the important roles in the excitation and subsequent relaxation processes for the betaine dye are discussed. It is found that there is considerable solute electronic reorganization associated with the evolution of solvation in the excited state, and it is suggested that this reorganization may contribute significantly to the early time evolution of transient spectra following photoexcitation. PMID:18707072

  13. Cold chemistry with electronically excited Ca+ Coulomb crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rate constants for chemical reactions of laser-cooled Ca+ ions and neutral polar molecules (CH3F, CH2F2, or CH3Cl) have been measured at low collision energies (coll>/kB=5-243 K). Low kinetic energy ensembles of 40Ca+ ions are prepared through Doppler laser cooling to form ''Coulomb crystals'' in which the ions form a latticelike arrangement in the trapping potential. The trapped ions react with translationally cold beams of polar molecules produced by a quadrupole guide velocity selector or with room-temperature gas admitted into the vacuum chamber. Imaging of the Ca+ ion fluorescence allows the progress of the reaction to be monitored. Product ions are sympathetically cooled into the crystal structure and are unambiguously identified through resonance-excitation mass spectrometry using just two trapped ions. Variations of the laser-cooling parameters are shown to result in different steady-state populations of the electronic states of 40Ca+ involved in the laser-cooling cycle, and these are modeled by solving the optical Bloch equations for the eight-level system. Systematic variation of the steady-state populations over a series of reaction experiments allows the extraction of bimolecular rate constants for reactions of the ground state (2S1/2) and the combined excited states (2D3/2 and 2P1/2) of 40Ca+. These results are analyzed in the context of capture theories and ab initio electronic structure calculations of the reaction profiles. In each case, suppression of the ground state rate constant is explained by the presence of a submerged or real barrier on the ground state potential surface. Rate constants for the excited states are generally found to be in line with capture theories.

  14. Electron impact excitation of resonance transitions in atomic potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections for electron impact excitation of the 4 s2S - 4p 2Po and 4s 2S - 5p 2Po transitions in atomic potassium are calculated in the low-energy region from 1.5 to 30 eV using the R-matrix method. We included eight target states (4s 2S, 4p 2Po, 5s 2S, 3d 2D, 5p 2Po, 4d 2D, 6S 2S, and 4f 2Fo) in the close-coupling expansion. These states are represented by extensive configuration- interaction wavefunctions constructed from the orthogonal one-electron orbitals: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d, 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f, 5s, 5p, and 6s. The calculated results are compared with the available experiments and other calculations. The present calculation shows a resonance structure in the cross section for the excitation of the resonance 4s 2S - 4p 2Po transition around 2.5 eV

  15. Inelastic electron scattering form factor of orbital magnetic dipole excitations in 164Dy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, D.; Kilgus, G.; Richter, A.; de Jager, C. W.; de Vries, H.

    1987-09-01

    The total form factor square of orbital M1 excitations in 164Dy has been determined up to momentum transfer values qeff=1.6 fm-1 using high-resolution inelastic electron scattering. The total orbital M1 strength in 164Dy of ΣB(MI)↑=5.17+/-0.52 μ2N is the largest M1 strength observed in a heavy deformed nucleus. It is clustered in two groups of levels, the strongest centered around Ex∽3.1 MeV, the other around 2.6 MeV.

  16. Inelastic electron scattering form factor of orbital magnetic dipole excitations in /sup 164/Dy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohle, D.; Kilgus, G.; Richter, A.; Jager, C.W. de; Vries, H. de

    1987-09-10

    The total form factor square of orbital M1 excitations in /sup 164/Dy has been determined up to momentum transfer values q/sub eff/ = 1.6 fm/sup -1/ using high-resolution inelastic electron scattering. The total orbital M1 strength in /sup 164/Dy of ..sigma..B(M1)arrow up = 5.17+-0.52 ..mu../sup 2//sub N/ is the largest M1 strength observed in a heavy deformed nucleus. It is clustered in two groups of levels, the strongest centered around E/sub x/ approx. = 3.1 MeV, the other around 2.6 MeV.

  17. Inelastic electron scattering form factor of orbital magnetic dipole excitations in 164Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total form factor square of orbital M1 excitations in 164Dy has been determined up to momentum transfer values qeff = 1.6 fm-1 using high-resolution inelastic electron scattering. The total orbital M1 strength in 164Dy of ΣB(M1)↑ = 5.17±0.52 μ2N is the largest M1 strength observed in a heavy deformed nucleus. It is clustered in two groups of levels, the strongest centered around Ex ≅ 3.1 MeV, the other around 2.6 MeV. (orig.)

  18. Quantum mechanical study of elastic scattering and rotational excitation of CO by electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, K.; Truhlar, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    Coupling calculations of differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections for pure elastic scattering and rotational excitation of CO by electron impact are reported. The calculations are based on a static charge distribution that has correct dipole and quadrupole moments, has cusps at the nuclei, and is augmented by an SCF treatment of charge polarization and a local approximation for exchange. The rotationally summed cross sections, with no adjustable parameters in the scattering calculation, are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental cross sections but are somewhat larger at small scattering angles.

  19. Quantum mechanical study of elastic scattering and rotational excitation of CO by electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, K.; Truhlar, D. G.

    1980-09-01

    Coupling calculations of differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections for pure elastic scattering and rotational excitation of CO by electron impact are reported. The calculations are based on a static charge distribution that has correct dipole and quadrupole moments, has cusps at the nuclei, and is augmented by an SCF treatment of charge polarization and a local approximation for exchange. The rotationally summed cross sections, with no adjustable parameters in the scattering calculation, are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental cross sections but are somewhat larger at small scattering angles.

  20. Inelastic electron and light scattering from the elementary electronic excitations in quantum wells: Zero magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvir S. Kushwaha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The most fundamental approach to an understanding of electronic, optical, and transport phenomena which the condensed matter physics (of conventional as well as nonconventional systems offers is generally founded on two experiments: the inelastic electron scattering and the inelastic light scattering. This work embarks on providing a systematic framework for the theory of inelastic electron scattering and of inelastic light scattering from the electronic excitations in GaAs/Ga1−xAlxAs quantum wells. To this end, we start with the Kubo's correlation function to derive the generalized nonlocal, dynamic dielectric function, and the inverse dielectric function within the framework of Bohm-Pines’ random-phase approximation. This is followed by a thorough development of the theory of inelastic electron scattering and of inelastic light scattering. The methodological part is then subjected to the analytical diagnoses which allow us to sense the subtlety of the analytical results and the importance of their applications. The general analytical results, which know no bounds regarding, e.g., the subband occupancy, are then specified so as to make them applicable to practicality. After trying and testing the eigenfunctions, we compute the density of states, the Fermi energy, the full excitation spectrum made up of intrasubband and intersubband – single-particle and collective (plasmon – excitations, the loss functions for all the principal geometries envisioned for the inelastic electron scattering, and the Raman intensity, which provides a measure of the real transitions induced by the (laser probe, for the inelastic light scattering. It is found that the dominant contribution to both the loss peaks and the Raman peaks comes from the collective (plasmon excitations. As to the single-particle peaks, the analysis indicates a long-lasting lack of quantitative comparison between theory and experiments. It is inferred that the inelastic electron scattering can be a potential alternative of the inelastic light scattering for investigating elementary electronic excitations in quantum wells.

  1. Nonlinear quantum effects on electron transfer reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimori, A.

    1995-03-01

    An approximate expression is developed for a nonadiabatic electron transfer rate to estimate quantum effects of nuclear rearrangements. The time-dependent formula for Fermi's golden rule is expanded by Plank's constant to the second order, using the Wigner transformation. The method of h̵- expansion is applicable to systems with nonlinear potentials or many degrees of freedom. Using a continuum approximation, from the expansion, a rate expression is obtained, including sizes of reactants and a distance between reactants explicitly. The ratio of the obtained rate to the classical rate agrees well with a ratio by a quantum Monte Carlo simulation.

  2. Double electron transfer in H- + H+ collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absolute cross sections for double electron transfer in H- + H+ collisions have been measured for center-of-mass energies from 0.5 keV to 12 keV. Clear oscillations in the cross section are observed which are in excellent agreement with earlier measurements at lower energies by Brouillard et al (1979) as well as Peart and Dolder (1979). After an oscillation maximum at 3 keV center-of-mass energy the cross section decreases for increasing energy with no indication of further oscillations

  3. Double electron transfer in H- + H+ collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, H.; Helm, H.; Briggs, J. S.

    2007-11-01

    Absolute cross sections for double electron transfer in H- + H+ collisions have been measured for center-of-mass energies from 0.5 keV to 12 keV. Clear oscillations in the cross section are observed which are in excellent agreement with earlier measurements at lower energies by Brouillard et al (1979) as well as Peart and Dolder (1979). After an oscillation maximum at 3 keV center-of-mass energy the cross section decreases for increasing energy with no indication of further oscillations.

  4. Electron transfer in branched expanded pyridinium molecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hromadová, Magdaléna; Lachmanová, Štěpánka; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Fortage, J.; Dupeyre, G.; Perruchot, Ch.; Lainé, P. P.

    Aveiro : DEMAC - Universidade de Aveiro, 2014. s. 99-99. [Meeting of the Portuguese Electrochemical Society /19./. Iberian Meeting of Electrochemistry /16./. 30.06.2014-02.07.2014, Aveiro] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05180S Grant ostatní: Rada Programu interní porpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR M200401202 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electron transfer * electrochemistry * pyridinium Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  5. Electronic Energy Transfer in Polarizable Heterogeneous Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Casper Steinmann; Kongsted, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical prediction of transport and optical properties of protein-pigment complexes is of significant importance when aiming at understanding the structure versus function relationship in such systems. Electronic energy transfer (EET) couplings represent a key property in this respect since...... embedding model has been suggested (C. Curutchet, A. Muoz-Losa, S. Monti, J. Kongsted, G. D. Scholes, and B. Mennucci, J. Chem. Theory Comput., 2009 5 (7), 1838-1848). In this work, we further develop this computational model by extending it with an ab initio derived polarizable force field including...

  6. How coherence help excitation energy transfer between chromophres of photosynthesis systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Xian-Ting

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the excited energy transfer (EET) between chromophres by using a dynamical model of EET in photosynthesis systems. The numerical path integral method is used. This method includes the non-Markovian effects of the environmental affects and it does not need the perturbation approximation in solving the dynamics of systems of interest. We obtained that coherence help EET between molecules is because it increases the transfer time rather than enhances the transfer rate of energy.

  7. Elastic and excitation processes of electron impact on C3 using the R-matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R-matrix calculations are carried out for the scattering of electrons from C3 molecules for an incident electron energy range of 1-10 eV. Elastic differential, integral and momentum transfer cross sections are obtained by summing over rotationally elastic and rotationally inelastic cross sections for rotor states up to J = 4. The excitation cross sections from the ground state of C3, at its equilibrium geometry, to its nine low-lying electronically excited states are also presented. We have included 15 states in the close coupling expansion of the scattering system, where each target state is represented by configuration interaction (CI) wavefunctions. The vertical spectrum of energy levels obtained with CI wavefunctions is in good agreement with other theoretical work. We have detected one shape resonance, two Feshbach resonances and five core-excited shape resonances in the energy range 2-7 eV. The energetics of these resonances and their assignments have been given. We also carried out R-matrix calculations in the static-exchange (SE) and static-exchange plus polarization approximations (SEP) to facilitate the recognition of the nature of the various resonances found. There is no other theoretical or experimental work available for the scattering parameters to compare with our work

  8. Dynamic localization of electronic excitation in photosynthetic complexes revealed with chiral two-dimensional spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Andrew F.; Singh, Ved P.; Long, Phillip D.; Dahlberg, Peter D.; Engel, Gregory S.

    2014-02-01

    Time-resolved ultrafast optical probes of chiral dynamics provide a new window allowing us to explore how interactions with such structured environments drive electronic dynamics. Incorporating optical activity into time-resolved spectroscopies has proven challenging because of the small signal and large achiral background. Here we demonstrate that two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy can be adapted to detect chiral signals and that these signals reveal how excitations delocalize and contract following excitation. We dynamically probe the evolution of chiral electronic structure in the light-harvesting complex 2 of purple bacteria following photoexcitation by creating a chiral two-dimensional mapping. The dynamics of the chiral two-dimensional signal directly reports on changes in the degree of delocalization of the excitonic states following photoexcitation. The mechanism of energy transfer in this system may enhance transfer probability because of the coherent coupling among chromophores while suppressing fluorescence that arises from populating delocalized states. This generally applicable spectroscopy will provide an incisive tool to probe ultrafast transient molecular fluctuations that are obscured in non-chiral experiments.

  9. Improved impact-parameter method for electronic excitation and dissociation of diatomic molecules by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact-parameter method for electron-impact excitation of diatomic molecules is reformulated to explicitly treat molecular vibration and rotation and to permit the study of molecular dissociation. Applications are made to optically allowed transitions involving the X 1Σ/sub g/+, B 1Σ/sub u/+, and B' 1Σ/sub u/+ states of H2. The resulting cross sections are compared to other theoretical calculations and to experimental data. This method is applicable to heavy diatomic molecules and is expected to be useful in studying trends in electronic excitation and dissociation cross sections associated with variations in internal energy

  10. Electronic excitation of atoms and molecules by electron impact in a linear algebraic, separable potential approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linear algebraic, separable potential approach is applied to the electronic excitation of atoms and molecules by electron impact. By representing the exchange and off-diagonal direct terms on a basis, the standard set of coupled inelastic equations is reduced to a set of elastic inhomogeneous equations. The procedure greatly simplifies the formulation by allowing a large portion of the problem to be handled by standard bound-state techniques and by greatly reducing the order of the scattering equations that must be solved. Application is made to the excitation of atomic hydrogen in the three-state close-coupling (1s, 2s, 2p) approximation. (author)

  11. Excitation of solid electron by proton and hydrogen molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electric stopping power of solid for hydrogen molecular ion (H2+, H3+) and ion cluster (2H+, 3H+) which lost the bounded electron from the former, were estimated and compared with the value of proton. The spacial distribution of the bounded electron of hydrogen molecular ions such as H2+ and H3+ was assumed by the molecular orbital on the basis of gauss function. In calculating the electric stopping power, a conduction electron is modelled on the free electron gas model and an exitation of bounded electron on the wave packet model. In any cases, the excitation of electron is described by the dielectric function. An effective charge Zeff, the index of the amount of stopping power S, is defined as Zeff = (s/sp)2/1 where Sp represents the stopping power for proton running with the same velocity in the same solid. This effective charge is a useful physical parameter to arrange the stopping power data, because it shows the practical charge number of the injection ion with bounded electron to be reduced to the point charge. The effective charges of H2+ and He+ in low energy field are different depend on the orientations when they transmitted through the carbon film. The effective charge of H2+ was less than 1 if the molecular axis was parallel to the running direction. In high energy field, the dependence of orientation was not observed. The differences of effective charges of H3+ passing through the carbon, aluminium and krypton gas were about 0.2, the small value indicating the small dependence of value on the materials. (S.Y.)

  12. Quantifying electron transfer reactions in biological systems: what interactions play the major role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjulstok, Emil; Olsen, Jgvan Magnus Haugaard; Solov'yov, Ilia A

    2015-01-01

    Various biological processes involve the conversion of energy into forms that are usable for chemical transformations and are quantum mechanical in nature. Such processes involve light absorption, excited electronic states formation, excitation energy transfer, electrons and protons tunnelling which for example occur in photosynthesis, cellular respiration, DNA repair, and possibly magnetic field sensing. Quantum biology uses computation to model biological interactions in light of quantum mechanical effects and has primarily developed over the past decade as a result of convergence between quantum physics and biology. In this paper we consider electron transfer in biological processes, from a theoretical view-point; namely in terms of quantum mechanical and semi-classical models. We systematically characterize the interactions between the moving electron and its biological environment to deduce the driving force for the electron transfer reaction and to establish those interactions that play the major role in propelling the electron. The suggested approach is seen as a general recipe to treat electron transfer events in biological systems computationally, and we utilize it to describe specifically the electron transfer reactions in Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome-a signaling photoreceptor protein that became attractive recently due to its possible function as a biological magnetoreceptor. PMID:26689792

  13. Quantifying electron transfer reactions in biological systems: what interactions play the major role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjulstok, Emil; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Solov'Yov, Ilia A.

    2015-12-01

    Various biological processes involve the conversion of energy into forms that are usable for chemical transformations and are quantum mechanical in nature. Such processes involve light absorption, excited electronic states formation, excitation energy transfer, electrons and protons tunnelling which for example occur in photosynthesis, cellular respiration, DNA repair, and possibly magnetic field sensing. Quantum biology uses computation to model biological interactions in light of quantum mechanical effects and has primarily developed over the past decade as a result of convergence between quantum physics and biology. In this paper we consider electron transfer in biological processes, from a theoretical view-point; namely in terms of quantum mechanical and semi-classical models. We systematically characterize the interactions between the moving electron and its biological environment to deduce the driving force for the electron transfer reaction and to establish those interactions that play the major role in propelling the electron. The suggested approach is seen as a general recipe to treat electron transfer events in biological systems computationally, and we utilize it to describe specifically the electron transfer reactions in Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome-a signaling photoreceptor protein that became attractive recently due to its possible function as a biological magnetoreceptor.

  14. Characteristics of Response of Piezoelectric Actuators in Electron Flux Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C. Hadinata

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the working parameters of non-contact strain control for piezoelectric ceramics are evaluated. The piezoelectric material functions as an actuator that transforms electrical into mechanical energy, and the electrical input is carried out by electron flux on the positive surface. The sample is exposed to some quasi-static inputs, and its responses are recorded using strain gages. The data shows faster and more stable response in the positive regime, but significantly slower response with drift in the negative regime. An electron collector is introduced on the positive surface to enhance the response in the negative regime. Theoretical analyses of energy transfer and electron movements is discussed, and a string of working conditions for controlling the surface strain of piezoelectric material are given as conclusions.

  15. Effect of electronic excitation on high-temperature flows behind strong shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper, a strongly non-equilibrium one-dimensional steady-state flow behind the plane shock wave is studied. We consider a high-temperature chemically reacting five-component ionized mixture of nitrogen species (N2/N22/N/N+/e?) taking into account electronic degrees of freedom in N and N+ (170 and 625 electronic energy levels respectively), and electronic-rotational-vibrational modes in N2 and N2+ (5 and 7 electronic terms). Non-equilibrium reactions of ionization, dissociation, recombination and charge-transfer are included to the kinetic scheme. The system of governing equations is written under the assumption that translation and internal energy relaxation is fast whereas chemical reactions and ionization proceed on the macroscopic gas-dynamics time-scale. The developed model is applied to simulate the flow behind a plane shock wave under initial conditions characteristic for the spacecraft re-entry from an interplanetary flight (Hermes and Fire II experiments). Fluid-dynamic parameters behind the shock wave as well as transport coefficients and the heat flux are calculated for the (N2/N2+/N/N+/e?) mixture. The effect of electronic excitation on kinetics, dynamics and heat transfer is analyzed. Whereas the contribution of electronic degrees of freedom to the flow macroparameters is negligible, their influence on the heat flux is found to be important under conditions of Hermes re-entry

  16. Electron hole pair mediated vibrational excitation in CO scattering from Au(111): Incidence energy and surface temperature dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirhatti, Pranav R.; Werdecker, Jrn; Golibrzuch, Kai; Wodtke, Alec M.; Bartels, Christof, E-mail: cbartel@gwdg.de [Institute for Physical Chemistry, Georg August University of Gttingen, 37077 Gttingen (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37077 Gttingen (Germany)

    2014-09-28

    We investigated the translational incidence energy (E{sub i}) and surface temperature (T{sub s}) dependence of CO vibrational excitation upon scattering from a clean Au(111) surface. We report absolute v = 0 ? 1 excitation probabilities for E{sub i} between 0.16 and 0.84 eV and T{sub s} between 473 and 973 K. This is now only the second collision system where such comprehensive measurements are available the first is NO on Au(111). For CO on Au(111), vibrational excitation occurs via direct inelastic scattering through electron hole pair mediated energy transfer it is enhanced by incidence translation and the electronically non-adiabatic coupling is about 5 times weaker than in NO scattering from Au(111). Vibrational excitation via the trapping desorption channel dominates at E{sub i} = 0.16 eV and quickly disappears at higher E{sub i}.

  17. Characterization of adsorption and electronic excited states of quercetin on titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdyb, Agata; Krawczyk, Stanisław

    2016-03-15

    Adsorption of quercetin on colloidal titanium dioxide nanoparticles in ethanol and its excited-state electronic structure were investigated by means of electronic and vibrational spectroscopies. The changes in electronic charge redistribution as reflected by the dipole moment difference, ∆μ, between the ground and excited electronic states were measured with electroabsorption spectroscopy and analyzed using results of TD DFT computations. Adsorption of quercetin causes a red shift of its absorption spectrum. Raman spectra of quercetin analyzed with reference to analogous data for morin indicate binding of quercetin through the hydroxy groups of the catechol moiety. The difference dipole moment, which is 5.5D in free quercetin, increases to 11.8D in opposite direction in adsorbed quercetin, and is associated with charge-transfer to the Ti atom. The computed transition energy, intensity, vector Δμ and molecular orbitals involved in the electronic transition at different molecular configurations indicate a bidentate chelating mode of binding of quercetin. PMID:26773266

  18. Excitation of Lanthanum and Lutetium Double-Charged Ions in Electron-Atom Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Yuriy Mikhailovich Smirnov

    2015-01-01

    Excitation of LaIII and LuIII in collisions of slow electrons with La and Lu atoms (excitation with simultaneous double ionization) have been studied in experiment. At exciting electron energy of 50 eV at 19 excitation cross-sections for each of LaIII and LuIII were measured. At two optical excitation functions for both of ions were recorded, in the electron energy range of 0200 eV for LaIII and in the range of 0250 eV for LuIII. Absolute values of excitation cross-sections for similar leve...

  19. Surface nanostructuring of LiNbO3 by high-density electronic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single crystals were irradiated with high energy gold ions (0.5–2.2 GeV) at the UNILAC (GSI) and with 150-keV highly charged xenon ions from an EBIT (Electron Beam Ion Trap, HZDR). The surfaces of the irradiated crystals were analyzed by scanning force microscopy showing very similar topographic changes. Swift heavy ions and slow highly charged ions produce hillock-like nanostructures on the surface. In both cases, the energy deposition of the ions is characterized by dense localized electronic excitations and efficient transfer to the lattice. Furthermore, the irradiation results in a shift in the band gap energy as evidenced by UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. Specific modifications (e.g. hillock size, energy loss threshold) induced by slow highly charged ions are discussed in comparison with effects due to the electronic energy loss by swift heavy ions

  20. Surface nanostructuring of LiNbO{sub 3} by high-density electronic excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Said, A.S., E-mail: elsaid@kfupm.edu.sa [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), 01328 Dresden (Germany); Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Nuclear and Radiation Physics Lab, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, 35516 Mansoura (Egypt); Wilhelm, R.A. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Facsko, S. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), 01328 Dresden (Germany); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) single crystals were irradiated with high energy gold ions (0.5–2.2 GeV) at the UNILAC (GSI) and with 150-keV highly charged xenon ions from an EBIT (Electron Beam Ion Trap, HZDR). The surfaces of the irradiated crystals were analyzed by scanning force microscopy showing very similar topographic changes. Swift heavy ions and slow highly charged ions produce hillock-like nanostructures on the surface. In both cases, the energy deposition of the ions is characterized by dense localized electronic excitations and efficient transfer to the lattice. Furthermore, the irradiation results in a shift in the band gap energy as evidenced by UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. Specific modifications (e.g. hillock size, energy loss threshold) induced by slow highly charged ions are discussed in comparison with effects due to the electronic energy loss by swift heavy ions.

  1. Surface nanostructuring of LiNbO3 by high-density electronic excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, A. S.; Wilhelm, R. A.; Facsko, S.; Trautmann, C.

    2013-11-01

    Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single crystals were irradiated with high energy gold ions (0.5-2.2 GeV) at the UNILAC (GSI) and with 150-keV highly charged xenon ions from an EBIT (Electron Beam Ion Trap, HZDR). The surfaces of the irradiated crystals were analyzed by scanning force microscopy showing very similar topographic changes. Swift heavy ions and slow highly charged ions produce hillock-like nanostructures on the surface. In both cases, the energy deposition of the ions is characterized by dense localized electronic excitations and efficient transfer to the lattice. Furthermore, the irradiation results in a shift in the band gap energy as evidenced by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Specific modifications (e.g. hillock size, energy loss threshold) induced by slow highly charged ions are discussed in comparison with effects due to the electronic energy loss by swift heavy ions.

  2. Electron transfer pathways in microbial oxygen biocathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of some bacteria to enhance the rate of cathodic oxygen reduction to water has been recently discovered, opening the way to an entirely renewable and environmentally friendly concept of biocathode. In this study we reveal that several mechanisms may induce catalytic effects by bacteria. These comprise mechanisms that are putatively beneficial to the bacteria as well as mechanisms which are merely side effects, including quinone autoxidation and direct O2 reduction by heme compounds. Here we showed that 1 μM of ACNQ is able to generate a significant catalytic wave for oxygen reduction, with onset at approximately 0 V vs. SHE. Similarly, adsorption of hemin on a carbon surface catalyses O2 reduction to H2O2 with an onset of +0.2 V vs. SHE. To evaluate the catalytic pathways of live cells on cathodic oxygen reduction, two species of electrochemically active bacteria were selected as pure cultures, namely Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Shewanella putrefaciens. The former appears to exploit a self-excreted redox compound with redox characteristics matching those of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) for extracellular electron transfer. The latter appears to utilise outer membrane-bound redox compounds. Interaction of quinones and cytochromes with the membrane-bound electron transfer chain is yet to be proven.

  3. Mediated Electron Transfer at Redox Active Monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E.G. Lyons

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model describing the transport and kinetic processes involved in heterogeneous redox catalysis of solution phase reactants at electrode surfaces coated with redox active monolayers is presented. Although the analysis presented has quite general applicability, a specific focus of the paper is concerned with the idea that redox active monolayers can be used to model an ensemble of individual molecular nanoelectrodes. Three possible rate determining steps are considered: heterogeneous electron transfer between immobilized mediator and support electrode ; bimolecular chemical reaction between redox mediator and reactant species in the solution phase, and diffusional mass transport of reactant in solution. A general expression for the steady state reaction flux is derived which is valid for any degree of reversibility of both the heterogeneous electron transfer reaction involving immobilized mediator species and of the bimolecular cross exchange reaction between immobilized mediator and solution phase reactant. The influence of reactant transport in solution is also specifically considered. Simplified analytical expressions for the net reaction flux are derived for experimentally reasonable situations and a kinetic case diagram is constructed outlining the relationships between the various approximate solutions. The theory enables simple diagnostic plots to be constructed which can be used to analyse experimental data.

  4. Electron transfer pathways in microbial oxygen biocathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freguia, Stefano, E-mail: stefano@kais.kyoto-u.ac.j [Bio-analytical and Physical Chemistry Laboratory, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8205 (Japan); Tsujimura, Seiya, E-mail: seiya@kais.kyoto-u.ac.j [Bio-analytical and Physical Chemistry Laboratory, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8205 (Japan); Kano, Kenji, E-mail: kkano@kais.kyoto-u.ac.j [Bio-analytical and Physical Chemistry Laboratory, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8205 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    The ability of some bacteria to enhance the rate of cathodic oxygen reduction to water has been recently discovered, opening the way to an entirely renewable and environmentally friendly concept of biocathode. In this study we reveal that several mechanisms may induce catalytic effects by bacteria. These comprise mechanisms that are putatively beneficial to the bacteria as well as mechanisms which are merely side effects, including quinone autoxidation and direct O{sub 2} reduction by heme compounds. Here we showed that 1 muM of ACNQ is able to generate a significant catalytic wave for oxygen reduction, with onset at approximately 0 V vs. SHE. Similarly, adsorption of hemin on a carbon surface catalyses O{sub 2} reduction to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with an onset of +0.2 V vs. SHE. To evaluate the catalytic pathways of live cells on cathodic oxygen reduction, two species of electrochemically active bacteria were selected as pure cultures, namely Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Shewanella putrefaciens. The former appears to exploit a self-excreted redox compound with redox characteristics matching those of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) for extracellular electron transfer. The latter appears to utilise outer membrane-bound redox compounds. Interaction of quinones and cytochromes with the membrane-bound electron transfer chain is yet to be proven.

  5. Integral cross sections for electron impact excitation of vibrational and electronic states in phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, R. F. C. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001 (Australia); Instituto Federal do Sul de Minas Gerais, Campus Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001 (Australia); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); García, G. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Ratnavelu, K. [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-05-21

    We report on measurements of integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact excitation of a series of composite vibrational modes and electronic-states in phenol, where the energy range of those experiments was 15–250 eV. There are currently no other results against which we can directly compare those measured data. We also report results from our independent atom model with screened additivity rule correction computations, namely, for the inelastic ICS (all discrete electronic states and neutral dissociation) and the total ionisation ICS. In addition, for the relevant dipole-allowed excited electronic states, we also report f-scaled Born-level and energy-corrected and f-scaled Born-level (BEf-scaled) ICS. Where possible, our measured and calculated ICSs are compared against one another with the general level of accord between them being satisfactory to within the measurement uncertainties.

  6. Integral cross sections for electron impact excitation of vibrational and electronic states in phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on measurements of integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact excitation of a series of composite vibrational modes and electronic-states in phenol, where the energy range of those experiments was 15–250 eV. There are currently no other results against which we can directly compare those measured data. We also report results from our independent atom model with screened additivity rule correction computations, namely, for the inelastic ICS (all discrete electronic states and neutral dissociation) and the total ionisation ICS. In addition, for the relevant dipole-allowed excited electronic states, we also report f-scaled Born-level and energy-corrected and f-scaled Born-level (BEf-scaled) ICS. Where possible, our measured and calculated ICSs are compared against one another with the general level of accord between them being satisfactory to within the measurement uncertainties

  7. Total Electron Scattering and Electronic State Excitations Cross Sections for O_2, CO, and CH_4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanik, I.; Trajmar, S.; Nickel, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    Available electron collision cross section data concerning total and elastic scattering, vibrationalexcitation, and ionization for O_2, CO, and CH_4 have been critically reviewed, and a set of crosssections for modeling of planetary atmospheric behavior is recommended. Utilizing theserecommended cross sections, we derived total electronic state excitation cross sections and upperlimits for dissociation cross sections, which in the case of CH_4 should very closely equal the actualdissociation cross section.

  8. A stochastic reorganizational bath model for electronic energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmentally induced fluctuations of the optical gap play a crucial role in electronic energy transfer dynamics. One of the simplest approaches to incorporate such fluctuations in energy transfer dynamics is the well known Haken-Strobl-Reineker (HSR) model, in which the energy-gap fluctuation is approximated as white noise. Recently, several groups have employed molecular dynamics simulations and excited-state calculations in conjunction to account for excitation energies thermal fluctuations. On the other hand, since the original work of HSR, many groups have employed stochastic models to simulate the same transfer dynamics. Here, we discuss a rigorous connection between the stochastic and the atomistic bath models. If the phonon bath is treated classically, time evolution of the exciton-phonon system can be described by Ehrenfest dynamics. To establish the relationship between the stochastic and atomistic bath models, we employ a projection operator technique to derive the generalized Langevin equations for the energy-gap fluctuations. The stochastic bath model can be obtained as an approximation of the atomistic Ehrenfest equations via the generalized Langevin approach. Based on this connection, we propose a novel scheme to take account of reorganization effects within the framework of stochastic models. The proposed scheme provides a better description of the population dynamics especially in the regime of strong exciton-phonon coupling. Finally, we discuss the effect of the bath reorganization in the absorption and fluorescence spectra of ideal J-aggregates in terms of the Stokes shifts. We find a simple expression that relates the reorganization contribution to the Stokes shifts the reorganization shift to the ideal or non-ideal exciton delocalization in a J-aggregate. The reorganization shift can be described by three parameters: the monomer reorganization energy, the relaxation time of the optical gap, and the exciton delocalization length. This simple relationship allows one to understand the physical origin of the Stokes shifts in molecular aggregates

  9. DFT study of electronic transfer properties of carboxyl and nitro substituted benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic and optical transfer properties of Benzene, Benzoic Acid (BA), Nitrobenzene (NB) and Para Nitro Benzoic Acid (PNBA) at ground and first excited state has been investigated by the Density functional theory (DFT)and Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) using SVWN functional/3-21G basis set respectively. Possible intra-molecular charge transfer and n to π* transitions in the ground and the first excitation states have been predicted by the molecular orbitals and the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. The simulated absorption spectra have been generated and the result compared with existing experimental results

  10. Probability of nuclear excitation by electron transition in Os atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, K.; Hosono, K.; Tanimoto, K.; Terasawa, M.; Yamaoka, H.; Tosaki, M.; Ito, Y.; Vlaicu, A. M.; Taniguchi, K.; Tsuji, J.

    2001-10-01

    An experiment on nuclear excitation by electronic transition (NEET) induced by deexcitations of the excited atomic states was performed on 189Os. Osmium targets were bombarded with both a white beam and with a monochromatic 115 keV x ray beam to produce K vacancies in Os atoms. Online K x-ray spectra were measured with a Ge detector and the L x rays emitted from the 30.814 keV isomer state in the 189Os nucleus were measured offline. The NEET probability obtained from the monochromatic beam experiment was deduced to be less than 4.1×10-10 per created K hole. This value is much lower than the values measured so far. The white beam experiment shows that these high probabilities of the NEET process in 189Os, which were obtained by irradiation with white x-ray and bremsstrahlung x-ray beams, results mainly in a contribution from direct nuclear photoabsorption into the 69.537 keV state in 189Os.

  11. Enhanced formation of negative ions by electron attachment to highly excited molecules in a flowing afterglow plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary evidence for efficient negative-ion formation using a plasma mixing scheme was reported in a recent letter [L. A. Pinnaduwage, W. Ding, and D. L. McCorkle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3634 (1997)]. In the present article we confirm the negative ion formation using a probe-assisted photodetachment technique and estimate rate constants for electron attachment to electronically excited CH4 and NO in a flowing afterglow plasma. It is shown that enhanced electron attachment to molecules in highly excited states populated via excitation transfer from rare gas metastables is responsible for the observed negative ion formation. Implications for plasma processing and plasma remediation discharges are also discussed. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  12. Vibrational and electronic excitation of hexatriacontane thin films by low energy electron impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar, M.R.; Schott, M. (Groupe de Physique des Solides (UA 17 du CNRS), Universite Paris VII-2, place Jussieu-F 75251, Paris Cedex 05, France (FR)); Pfluger, P. (ASEA Brown Boveri Corporate Research, CH-5405 Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland))

    1990-05-01

    Thin polycrystalline films of hexatriacontane (HTC) were irradiated with low energy ({ital E}=0.5--15 eV) electrons, and off-specular backscattered electron spectra were measured. Below {ital E}{similar to}7 eV, single and multiple vibrational excitations only are observed, which relax the electrons down to the bottom of the HTC conduction band. Due to the negative electron affinity of HTC, thermal electrons are emitted into vacuum. Structure in the backscattered electron current at kinetic energies about 1.5 and 4 eV are associated to conduction band density of states. Above {ital E}{similar to}7 eV, the dominant losses correspond to electronic excitations, excitons, or above a threshold (energy of the electron inside the HTC film) at 9.2{plus minus}0.1 eV, electron--hole pair generation. The latter process is very efficient and reaches a yield of the order of one {similar to}11 eV. Evidence for chemical reaction above {ital E}{similar to}4 eV is observed.

  13. Vibrational and electronic excitation of hexatriacontane thin films by low energy electron impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, M. Rei; Schott, M.; Pfluger, P.

    1990-05-01

    Thin polycrystalline films of hexatriacontane (HTC) were irradiated with low energy (E=0.5-15 eV) electrons, and off-specular backscattered electron spectra were measured. Below E˜7 eV, single and multiple vibrational excitations only are observed, which relax the electrons down to the bottom of the HTC conduction band. Due to the negative electron affinity of HTC, thermal electrons are emitted into vacuum. Structure in the backscattered electron current at kinetic energies about 1.5 and 4 eV are associated to conduction band density of states. Above E˜7 eV, the dominant losses correspond to electronic excitations, excitons, or above a threshold (energy of the electron inside the HTC film) at 9.2±0.1 eV, electron-hole pair generation. The latter process is very efficient and reaches a yield of the order of one ˜11 eV. Evidence for chemical reaction above E˜4 eV is observed.

  14. Vibrational and electronic excitation of hexatriacontane thin films by low energy electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin polycrystalline films of hexatriacontane (HTC) were irradiated with low energy (E=0.5--15 eV) electrons, and off-specular backscattered electron spectra were measured. Below E∼7 eV, single and multiple vibrational excitations only are observed, which relax the electrons down to the bottom of the HTC conduction band. Due to the negative electron affinity of HTC, thermal electrons are emitted into vacuum. Structure in the backscattered electron current at kinetic energies about 1.5 and 4 eV are associated to conduction band density of states. Above E∼7 eV, the dominant losses correspond to electronic excitations, excitons, or above a threshold (energy of the electron inside the HTC film) at 9.2±0.1 eV, electron--hole pair generation. The latter process is very efficient and reaches a yield of the order of one ∼11 eV. Evidence for chemical reaction above E∼4 eV is observed

  15. Electron impact excitation of carbon and oxygen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an attempt at a comprehensive compilation of currently available theoretical data on electron impact excitation of carbon and oxygen ions. It is designed to be of use primarily to theoretical atomic physicists, allowing them a broader than usual view of how various approximations compare. We do not attempt to place an estimate on the accuracy to which any of the collision strengths are known. The reader may obtain some idea of the accuracy from the spread in the calculations. Further, we do not evaluate rate coefficients or make any comparison with observed results. We do provide simple analytic fits to the data, where possible, thus allowing the reader to make comparison with observation or evaluate rate coefficients if he desires. The present data contains little about resonance effects, due to the difficulty of their presentation. It is possible that resonances could make a considerable change in the average collision strength near threshold, and this topic requires further study

  16. Vibrational excitations in molecular layers probed by ballistic electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajen, Rasanayagam Sivasayan; Chandrasekhar, Natarajan [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore); Feng Xinliang; Muellen, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Postfach 3148, D-55021 Mainz (Germany); Su Haibin, E-mail: n-chandra@imre.a-star.edu.sg, E-mail: muellen@mpip-mainz.mpg.de, E-mail: hbsu@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Materials Science, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2011-10-28

    We demonstrate the information on molecular vibrational modes via the second derivative (d{sup 2}I{sub B}/dV{sup 2}) of the ballistic electron emission spectroscopy (BEES) current. The proposed method does not create huge fields as in the case of conventional derivative spectroscopy and maintains a zero bias across the device. BEES studies carried out on three different types of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecular layers show that the d{sup 2}I{sub B}/dV{sup 2} spectra consist of uniformly spaced peaks corresponding to vibronic excitations. The peak spacing is found to be identical for molecules within the same PAH family though the BEES onset voltage varies for different molecules. In addition, injection into a particular orbital appears to correspond to a specific vibrational mode as the manifestation of the symmetry principle.

  17. Decision making based on optical excitation transfer via near-field interactions between quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Makoto; Nomura, Wataru; Aono, Masashi; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Sonnefraud, Yannick; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Kim, Song-Ju

    2014-10-01

    Optical near-field interactions between nanostructured matters, such as quantum dots, result in unidirectional optical excitation transfer when energy dissipation is induced. This results in versatile spatiotemporal dynamics of the optical excitation, which can be controlled by engineering the dissipation processes and exploited to realize intelligent capabilities such as solution searching and decision making. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the ability to solve a decision making problem on the basis of optical excitation transfer via near-field interactions by using colloidal quantum dots of different sizes, formed on a geometry-controlled substrate. We characterize the energy transfer behavior due to multiple control light patterns and experimentally demonstrate the ability to solve the multi-armed bandit problem. Our work makes a decisive step towards the practical design of nanophotonic systems capable of efficient decision making, one of the most important intellectual attributes of the human brain.

  18. Decision making based on optical excitation transfer via near-field interactions between quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical near-field interactions between nanostructured matters, such as quantum dots, result in unidirectional optical excitation transfer when energy dissipation is induced. This results in versatile spatiotemporal dynamics of the optical excitation, which can be controlled by engineering the dissipation processes and exploited to realize intelligent capabilities such as solution searching and decision making. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the ability to solve a decision making problem on the basis of optical excitation transfer via near-field interactions by using colloidal quantum dots of different sizes, formed on a geometry-controlled substrate. We characterize the energy transfer behavior due to multiple control light patterns and experimentally demonstrate the ability to solve the multi-armed bandit problem. Our work makes a decisive step towards the practical design of nanophotonic systems capable of efficient decision making, one of the most important intellectual attributes of the human brain.

  19. Decision making based on optical excitation transfer via near-field interactions between quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naruse, Makoto, E-mail: naruse@nict.go.jp [Photonic Network Research Institute, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1 Nukui-kita, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Nomura, Wataru; Ohtsu, Motoichi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Aono, Masashi [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguru-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi-shi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Sonnefraud, Yannick; Drezet, Aurlien; Huant, Serge [Universit Grenoble Alpes, Inst. NEEL, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst. NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Kim, Song-Ju [WPI Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-10-21

    Optical near-field interactions between nanostructured matters, such as quantum dots, result in unidirectional optical excitation transfer when energy dissipation is induced. This results in versatile spatiotemporal dynamics of the optical excitation, which can be controlled by engineering the dissipation processes and exploited to realize intelligent capabilities such as solution searching and decision making. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the ability to solve a decision making problem on the basis of optical excitation transfer via near-field interactions by using colloidal quantum dots of different sizes, formed on a geometry-controlled substrate. We characterize the energy transfer behavior due to multiple control light patterns and experimentally demonstrate the ability to solve the multi-armed bandit problem. Our work makes a decisive step towards the practical design of nanophotonic systems capable of efficient decision making, one of the most important intellectual attributes of the human brain.

  20. Decision making based on optical excitation transfer via near-field interactions between quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Naruse, Makoto; Aono, Masashi; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Sonnefraud, Yannick; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Kim, Song-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Optical near-field interactions between nanostructured matter, such as quantum dots, result in unidirectional optical excitation transfer when energy dissipation is induced. This results in versatile spatiotemporal dynamics of the optical excitation, which can be controlled by engineering the dissipation processes and exploited to realize intelligent capabilities such as solution searching and decision making. Here we experimentally demonstrate the ability to solve a decision making problem on the basis of optical excitation transfer via near-field interactions by using colloidal quantum dots of different sizes, formed on a geometry-controlled substrate. We characterize the energy transfer behavior due to multiple control light patterns and experimentally demonstrate the ability to solve the multi-armed bandit problem. Our work makes a decisive step towards the practical design of nanophotonic systems capable of efficient decision making, one of the most important intellectual attributes of the human brain.