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Sample records for egyptian beta-thalassemia major

  1. Glutathione S-transferase gene polymorphism: Relation to cardiac iron overload in Egyptian patients with Beta Thalassemia Major.

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    Mokhtar, Galila M; Sherif, Eman M; Habeeb, Nevin M; Abdelmaksoud, Abeer A; El-Ghoroury, Eman A; Ibrahim, Ahmed S; Hamed, Enas M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Estimating the prevalence of glutathione S-transferase gene polymorphism (GSTM1) null genotype among patients with beta thalassemia major (β-TM) in relation to myocardial status assessed by tissue Doppler and cardiac siderosis assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2*. Methods Hundred patients with β-TM and 100 healthy controls were enrolled. Complete blood count (CBC), mean serum ferritin and GSTM1 genotyping, echocardiography, tissue Doppler, and cardiac MRI T2* were done. Results Serum ferritin ranged from 1200 to 8000 ng/ml, and mean T2* value was 27.10 ± 11.20 ms. Of patients, 68 (68%) had no cardiac siderosis, while 24 (24%) with mild to moderate, and 8 (8%) with sever cardiac siderosis. T2* values were not correlated with serum ferritin (r = -0.09, P = 0.50). GSTM1 null genotype was prevalent in 46% of patients and 40% of controls (P = 0.69). Patients with null genotype had significantly shorter T2* (P = 0.001), higher left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (P = 0.002), and shorter ejection time (P = 0.005) with no significant relation to serum ferritin (P = 0.122). GSTM1 null genotype was the only predictor for cardiac iron overload (P = 0.002). Discussion Serum ferritin concentrations have been shown to correlate poorly with all stages of cardiac dysfunction. Low cardiac MRI T2* values occur in patients with β-TM despite good chelation therapy, suggesting a possible role of genetic factors in cardiac siderosis. Conclusion GSTM1 null genotype is significantly associated with cardiac iron overload independent of serum ferritin in Egyptian patients with β-TM. PMID:26288192

  2. Gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging study of pancreatic iron overload in young Egyptian beta-thalassemia major patients and effect of splenectomy

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    Matter Randa M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thalassemic patients suffer from diabetes mellitus secondary to hemosiderosis. Aims The study aimed to evaluate pancreatic iron overload by T2*-weighted Gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in young beta-thalassemia major patients and to correlate it with glucose disturbances, hepatic hemosiderosis, serum ferritin and splenectomy. Methods Forty thalassemic patients (20 non diabetic, 10 diabetic, and 10 with impaired glucose tolerance were recruited from Pediatric Hematology Clinic, in addition to 20 healthy controls. All patients underwent clinical assessment and laboratory investigations included complete blood count, liver function tests, serum ferritin and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. A T2*-weighted gradient-echo sequence MRI was performed with 1.5 T scanner and signal intensity ratio (SIR of the liver and the pancreas to noise were calculated. Results Significant reduction in signal intensity ratio (SIR of the liver and the pancreas was shown in thalassemic patients compared to controls (P Conclusions pancreatic siderosis can be detected by T2* gradient-echo MRI since childhood in thalassemic patients, and is more evident in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance. After splenectomy, iron deposition may be accelerated in the pancreas. Follow up of thalassemic patients using pancreatic MRI together with intensive chelation therapy may help to prevent the development of overt diabetes.

  3. Malocclusion in subjects with beta-thalassemia major

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    F. Shahsevari

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Introduction: Beta-thalassemia major is a hemolytic anemia. If these patients are not treated, bone marrow hyperplasia will happen. Hematopoiesis in the jaw results in mandibular and/or maxillary enlargement. To our knowledge, there are few studies about frequency of malocclusion in these patients. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the frequency of malocclusion in beta-thalassemia patients and compare it to healthy control group. Materials and Methods: This research was a cross sectional study. Seventy beta-thalassemia patients and 70 healthy controls (age and sex matched were examined for malocclusion using Angle classification, WHO malocclusion classification, determination of overjet and overbite. If crossbite, spacing, openbite, crowding and mouth breathing were observed in clinical examination they were recorded. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square and Variants analysis. Results: Beta-thalassemia patients showed class II malocclusion (angle classification and grade 2 (WHO classification more than healthy control group. There were significant differences in angle & WHO malocclusion classification between two groups (P<0.05. Increased overjet and mouth breathing were seen in patients more than healthy control group. There were significant differences in overjet and mouth breathing between two groups (P<0.05. There was a positive correlation between WHO malocclusion classification and serum ferritin levels, but not between angle malocclusion classification, overjet and serum ferritin levels. Conclusion: Beta-thalassemia major is associated with increased malocclusion and these anomalies will occur if the patients are not treated early. Patients with malocclusion should be visited and followed up by a dentist for dental problems. Fortunately, as a result of new treatments these patients live longer than before. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to their functional and esthetical problems.

  4. Evaluation of Glutathione-S-Transferase P1 Polymorphism and its Relation to Bone Mineral Density in Egyptian Children and Adolescents with Beta-Thalassemia Major

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    Ragab, Seham M.; Badr, Eman A.; Ibrahim, Ahmed S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a major complication of beta thalassemia major (TM). Increased oxidative stress and its controlling genes were linked to osteoporosis. Ile105 Val variant is a functional polymorphism of Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), with reduced anti-oxidative property. No data are available about this variant or its association with osteoporosis among thalassemia patients yet. Objectives To investigate Ile105Val polymorphism and its possible association with bone mineral density (BMD) values in a group of TM children. Methods Thirty five TM children and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls were included. Liver and renal functions, serum ferritin, calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were assayed. BMD was determined by DXA with calculation of Z-scores at lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN). Height for age Z- score (HAZ) adjusted BMD Z-scores were calculated. GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism was studied by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results The relative frequency of 105 Val allele was significantly higher in TM patients than the controls (p<0.0001). Significant association between genotype subgroups and BMD parameters was detected. Compared to wild homozygotes, polymorphic homozygotes had lower LS-BMD (p =0.029), LS-BMD Z –score (p=0.008 ), LS- BMD haz - Z-score (p=0.011), FN- BMD (p= 0.001), FN- BMD Z –score (p=0.02) and FN-BMD haz - Z-score (p=0.001). They exhibited higher osteocalcin levels compared to heterozygotes and wild homozygotes (p=0.012, p=0.013, respectively). Conclusion Ile105Val polymorphism was frequent among TM patients and could increase their susceptibility to reduced BMD. Large sample studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:26740865

  5. Skeletal Changes in Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major in Ahvaz

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    Mashaalah Khanehmasjedi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Thalassemia major has severe clinical symptoms with craniofacial defects that produce esthetic problems in patients. Orthodontic treatment and surgical reconstruction in these patients have had good esthetic results and therefore satisfying pschycosocial effects. Researches have shown an increase in the level of life quality corresponding to health improvement in thalassemic patients. More knowledge and information is necessary for better treatment of skeletal problems in thalassemia. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive and analytic study was performed on 48-beta thalassemia major patient and 48 normal samples. They were divided into two groups (24 persons based on their genders. Including criteria for samples were : being more than 15 years old, not being affected by special disorders, not having orthodontic and orthopedic treatment, having Cl I profile, normal facial height, Cl I molar relationship, normal overbite and over jet and the presence of all permanent teeth (except third molar. Cephalometric analysis was used for evaluation of cephalograms. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistical and paired sample T-test (P<0.005. Results: SNA angle did no significant increase, but SNB and ANB angles significantly decreased (P<0.005. The angle between SN-Occlusal plans, Frankfort - y-axis plans and basal plans showed increase, but the angle between Frankfort - facial plans (P<0.005 and the distance between pog-NB plan showed decrease (P<0.005. Conclusion: Beta thalassemia major induces Cl II malocclusion and long face growth pattern due to decrease in mandibular growth and decrease in posterior facial height. ?Please cite this paper as: Khanehmasjedi M, Bassir L Mombeyni M. Skeletal Changes in Patients with Beta - Talassemia Major in Ahvaz. JundishapurSci Med J. 2012;11(3:295-302

  6. Skeletal Changes in Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major in Ahvaz

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    Mashaalah Khanehmasjedi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Thalassemia major has severe clinical symptoms with craniofacial defects that produce esthetic problems in patients. Orthodontic treatment and surgical reconstruction in these patients have had good esthetic results and therefore satisfying pschycosocial effects. Researches have shown an increase in the level of life quality corresponding to health improvement in thalassemic patients. More knowledge and information is necessary for better treatment of skeletal problems in thalassemia. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive and analytic study was performed on 48-beta thalassemia major patient and 48 normal samples. They were divided into two groups (24 persons based on their genders. Including criteria for samples were : being more than 15 years old, not being affected by special disorders, not having orthodontic and orthopedic treatment, having Cl I profile, normal facial height, Cl I molar relationship, normal overbite and over jet and the presence of all permanent teeth (except third molar. Cephalometric analysis was used for evaluation of cephalograms. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistical and paired sample T-test (P<0.005. Results: SNA angle did no significant increase, but SNB and ANB angles significantly decreased (P<0.005. The angle between SN-Occlusal plans, Frankfort - y-axis plans and basal plans showed increase, but the angle between Frankfort - facial plans (P<0.005 and the distance between pog-NB plan showed decrease (P<0.005.Conclusion: Beta thalassemia major induces Cl II malocclusion and long face growth pattern due to decrease in mandibular growth and decrease in posterior facial height.

  7. Immunological evaluation of patients with beta-thalassemia major.

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    Consolini, R; Calleri, A; Legitimo, A; Massei, F

    2001-01-01

    Abnormalities in the immune system and zinc homeostasis in patients with beta-thalassemia major (TM) have been reported. Since zinc ion is essential for the efficiency of the immune system and is required to induce biological activity to thymulin (Zn-FTS), a biochemically defined thymic hormone, we investigated the plasma levels of zinc and both active thymulin (Zn-FTS) and total zinc saturable thymulin (Zn-FTS+FTS) in 18 patients with TM aged between 2 and 31 years and 22 normal controls of the same age. Inhibitory molecules anti-thymulin and the distribution of lymphocyte subsets were also analyzed. Patients with TM presented significantly lowered plasma zinc and thymulin levels when compared to normal subjects. The significant enhancement of the active form of the hormone after zinc addition in vitro suggests that low thymulin values found in TM are due not to a thymic failure in synthesizing and secreting the thymic hormone, but a defect in zinc saturation of the hormone. An impairment of cell subset distribution was also demonstrated. This study shows that zinc and thymulin deficiency contribute to the complex mechanisms underlying immune dysfunction in TM. PMID:11340247

  8. Evaluation of Mental Health and Related Factors among Patients with Beta-thalassemia Major in South East of Iran

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    Morteza Ashrafi; Mohammad Reza Hormozi; Majid Naderi; Abolfazl Emamdadi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Beta-thalassemia major (?-TM) is a chronic, genetic and hematological disorder. Children and teenagers with chronic physical illnesses exemplified by thalassemia are vulnerable to emotional and behavioral problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate mental health and its related factors among young patients with beta-thalassemia major. Methods: In this cross-sectional observational descriptive-analytic study, we studied 164 patients suffering from Beta-thalassemia major wit...

  9. Serum Folate Levels in Major Beta Thalassemia Patients

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    Samin Alavi

    Full Text Available Objective: Beta major thalassemia is a variant of beta thalassemia syndrome which could be treated with bone marrow transplantation or if not available, regular blood transfusion. In the latter case, supportive therapy is the mainstay of treatment because of low folate intake or absorption. But the main cause of insufficient supportive therapy is the increasing need of bone marrow for ineffective erythropoiesis in the absence of regular blood transfusion. The purpose of regular blood transfusion in ? major thalassemia patients is to maintain the range of hemoglobin level between 9 and 11 gr/dl to stop insufficient erythropoiesis completely. Therefore, by regular blood transfusion, supportive therapy with folic acid would not be needed. The aim of this study is to determine serum folate level in regular transfused ? major thalassemia patients in Mofid Children's Hospital during 2006.Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptiveanalytic study performed on 100 ? major thalassemia patients receiving regular blood transfusion and desferal. Post-storage leukodepleted blood is used for transfusion. Patients data is achieved from information data sheets. Serum folate level is determined with Electrochemiluminescence method in one of the most reliable laboratory centers. Normal serum folate level was 3-17.5 ng/ml in this laboratory with the sensitivity of 0.6 ng. Data analysis is performed with SPSS analysis software, and with chi squared, T-test and Spearman test.Findings: 56 (56% girls and 44 (44% boys entered this study with a median age of 156 (? 71.2 months and an age range of 14-288 months. Patients median hemoglobin level was 9.5 (?0.87 g/dl, with minimum of 7.5 and maximum of 11.9 g/dl. Mean MCV was 84.2 (?4.20 fl, with the range of 73.4 -95.3 fl. Serum folate level was in the range of 1-19 ng/ml and median of 9 (? 4.9 ng/ml. Serum folate was less than 3 ng/ml in 3% of evaluated patients. Hemoglobin level was equal or more than 9 g/dl in 73% of patients.Conclusion: It seems that if major ? thalassemia patients receive regular blood transfusion, their serum folate level would be in normal range and supplementation therapy with folate will not be necessary.

  10. Evaluation of pulmonary function in beta-thalassemia major patients

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    Objective: To describe and quantify the functional change of the lung in patients with beta-thalassemia major (TM) and determine the correlation between pulmonary function test (PFT) results with hemoglobin, ferritin and age changes. Methodology: Pulmonary function tests were performed on 60 transfusion-dependent patients with TM, ranging in age from 10 to 45 years. Percent-predicted values for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and forced expiratory flows (FEF) 25-75% were significantly reduced, whereas forced expiratory vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC were closed to normal limits, indicating a restrictive disease. All factors including; FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC, FEF 25-75% were negatively correlated with age and ferritin levels. In contrast, all factors including; FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC, FEF 25-75% were positively correlated with hemoglobin (Hb). We performed linear regression analysis to study the simultaneous influence of the presence of age, ferritin, and Hb on obstructive PFT indexes. Results: Pulmonary function test results were normal in only 32 (53.3%) of 60 patients and the rest 28 cases (46.7%) showed abnormal pulmonary function. FEV1 and FEF 25% - 75% have significant negative correlation with age (r = - 0.64 p(r) = 0.003 and r = - 0.58 p(r) = 0.02 respectively), also have significant positive correlation with Hb (r = 0.31 p(r) = 0.015 and r = 0.33 p(r) = 0.01 respectively), and only FEF 25% - 75% has significant negative correlation with ferritin (r -0.26 p(r) = 0.04). Conclusion: The present study has shown that restrictive disease and reduced lung diffusing capacity are the predominant abnormalities of pulmonary function patients with TM. The low hemoglobin concentration and a fall in the diffusing capacity of the alveola - capillary membrane, together with the dependence of the reduced pulmonary diffusing capacity on age and serum ferritin levels, as well as of the entity of restrictive disease on age, suggests that pulmonary dysfunctions in patients with TM are due mainly to lung fibrosis and/or interstitial edema related to iron overload. (author)

  11. Major Causes of Hospital Admission in Beta Thalassemia Major Patients in Southern Iran

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    Jacob Hoseini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Beta thalassemia major is a prevalent hereditary disease in Mediterranean region especially Iran. Early blood transfusion is necessary for most of the patients and frequent transfusion can cause various medical problems for the patients. The aim of this study was to find major causes of hospital admission in beta thalassemia major patients to reach the accurate preventive and therapeutic plans for these patients.Methods: Four hundred twenty six patients were admitted to the Nemazee Hospital (the main University referral Hospital Center affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Fars Province, southern Iran during 3 years period (January 2007 to January 2010. A questionnaire was filled containing age, gender, hemoglobin level, frequency of blood transfusions, deferoxamine injection, cause of hospital admission and hospital course.Findings: The mean age of patients was 11.28 years. The mean serum ferritin level was 1820749 g/lit. Two hundred fifty five (59.75% patients were male and 171 (40.25% patients were female. The top five most prevalent causes of hospital admission were splenectomy (21.8%, infections (19.9%, congestive heart failure (19.0%, diabetes mellitus (13.4%, and Liver biopsy (11.5%. (P=0.0002.Conclusion: Results of this study revealed that infections and complications due to iron overload are major causes of hospital admission in beta thalassemia major patients.

  12. Major Causes of Hospital Admission in Beta Thalassemia Major Patients in Southern Iran

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    Mehran Karimi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Beta thalassemia major is a prevalent hereditary disease in Mediterranean region especially Iran. Early blood transfusion is necessary for most of the patients and frequent transfusion can cause various medical problems for the patients. The aim of this study was to find major causes of hospital admission in beta thalassemia major patients to reach the accurate preventive and therapeutic plans for these patients.Methods: Four hundred twenty six patients were admitted to the Nemazee Hospital (the main University referral Hospital Center affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Fars Province, southern Iran during 3 years period (January 2007 to January 2010. A questionnaire was filled containing age, gender, hemoglobin level, frequency of blood transfusions, deferoxamine injection, cause of hospital admission and hospital course.Findings: The mean age of patients was 11.28 years. The mean serum ferritin level was 1820749 ?g/lit. Two hundred fifty five (59.75% patients were male and 171 (40.25% patients were female. The top five most prevalent causes of hospital admission were splenectomy (21.8%, infections (19.9%, congestive heart failure (19.0%, diabetes mellitus (13.4%, and Liver biopsy (11.5%. (P=0.0002Conclusion: Results of this study revealed that infections and complications due to iron overload are major causes of hospital admission in beta thalassemia major patients.

  13. Serum Immunoglobulin Levels in Splenectomized and Non-Splenectomized Patients with Major Beta-Thalassemia

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    Mojgan Kiani-amin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Thalassemia is a common disease in many countries, in which several complications such as infections can occur. Although aberration in the function of the immune system could be a reason for such complication, a little is known about the status of humoral immune system in major beta thalassemia. In this study we measured serum immunoglobulins level in a group of patients with major beta thalassemia.Methods:Ninety nine patients with major beta thalassemia were enrolled in this study divided into two groups of splenctomized and not splenctomized patients. Serum IgG, IgM and IgA levels of these patients were measured and analyzed.Findings:Serum mean levels of IgG and IgM in patients of all ages in both groups were normal. The mean serum IgA level in the group of not splenectomized patients aged less than five years as well as in the splenectomized patients aged more than twenty years was increased. However, it was normal in other age groups.Conclusion:Although this study could not show any defect in the humoral immune system, evaluation of immunoglobulins could be useful to understand the relmarkable high rate of infection in the patients with major beta thalassemia.

  14. The Corellation Between Serum Ferritin and Cardiac Troponin I in Major Beta Thalassemia Children

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    Muhammad Ali Shodikin; Renny Suwarniaty; Susanto Nugroho

    2016-01-01

    Major beta thalassemia (MBT) is a hereditary disease which synthesies defects in beta chains of haemoglobin, it is causes red blood cell destruction and the symptoms of anemia. Red blood cell destruction, frequent blood transfusion and low adherence to routine use of iron chelator lead to iron accumulation in the heart, liver and endocrine organs. Accumulation of iron in the myocard can lead acute myocardial infarction. One of cardiac markers that had been used for the diagnosis of myocardial...

  15. Relationship between Serum Visfatin and Vascular Inflammation Markers Level in Beta Thalassemia Major Patients

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    Dehkordi, Elham Hashemi; Nourbakhsh, Seyed Mohammad Kazem; Rostampour, Noushin; Boroujeni, Fateme Alizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Understanding the possible role of visfatin in the pathogenesis of beta-thalassemia major (BTM) and its relationship with markers of endothelial function could help us to provide more effective therapeutic approaches for treatment of patients with BTM and its related complications. The aim of current study was to compare serum level of visfatin between patients with BTM and control group and determine its correlation with markers of endothelial function, intracellular adhesion mol...

  16. A cross-sectional study of metabolic and endocrine complications in beta-thalassemia major

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    Najafipour Farzad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Iron overload is a major problem in patients with beta-thalassemia major, and it has many structural and metabolic consequences. The aim of this study was evaluation of endocrine disturbances in patients with beta-thalassemia major who were older than 10 years of age. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, investigators collected demographic data and medical histories, as well as menstrual history in females, from the medical records of 56 patients with beta-thalassemia major. Patients were examined to determine their pubertal status and the standard deviation score for height for evaluation of short stature. For evaluation of glucose tolerance, a fasting blood glucose and oral glucose tolerance test were performed. Evidence for diabetes mellitus was based on American Diabetes Association and World Health Organization criteria. Serum levels of calcium, phosphorous, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxin, luteinizing hormone and follicular-stimulating hormone, and estradiol in girls and testosterone in boys were measured. Results: The mean and standard deviation for age in the 56 patients (36 males and 20 females was 15.624.44 years. Diabetes mellitus was present in 5 patients (8.9%, impaired fasting glucose was found in 16 patients (28.6% and an impaired glucose tolerance test was found in 4 patients (7.1%. Short stature (standard deviation score Conclusion: Despite therapy with deferoxamine to treat iron overload, the risk of secondary endocrine dysfunction remained high. Hypogonadism was one of the most frequent endocrine complications. Impaired glucose tolerance, short stature, hypocalcemia, subclinical and overt hypothyroidism are also frequent.

  17. A cross-sectional study of metabolic and endocrine complications in beta-thalassemia major

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    Iron overload is a major problem in patients with beta-thalassemia major, and it has many structural and metabolic consequences. The aim of this study was evaluation of endocrine disturbances in patients with beta-thalassemia major who were older than 10 years of age. In this cross-sectional study, investigator collected demographic data and medical histories, as well as menstrual history in females, from the medical records of 56 patients with beta-thalassemia major. Patients were examined to determine their pubertal status and the standard deviation score for height for evaluation of short stature. For evaluation of glucose tolerance, a fasting blood glucose and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Evidence for diabetes mellitus was based on American Diabetes Association and World Health Organization criteria. Serum levels of calcium, phosphorous, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxin, luteinizing hormone and follicular-stimulating hormone and estradiol in girls and testosterone in boys were measured. The mean and standard deviation for age in the 56 patients (36 males and 20 females) was 15.62+-4.44 years. Diabetes mellitus was present in 5 patients (8.9%), impaired fasting glucose was found in 16 patients (28.6%) and an impaired glucose tolerance test was found in 4 patients (7.1%). Short stature (standard deviation score <-2) was seen in 25 (70%) boys and 14 (73%) girls. Impaired puberty was found in 40 patients (71%). Hypocalcaemia and primary overt hyperthyroidism were present in 23 (41%) and 9 patients (16%), respectively. Only eight patients (14.3%) had no endocrine abnormalities. Despite therapy with deferoxamine to treat iron overload, the risk of secondary endocrine dysfunction remained high. Hypogonadism was one of the most frequent endocrine complications. Impaired glucose tolerance, short stature, hypocalcemia, subclinical and overt hypothyroidism are also frequent. (author)

  18. Assessment of Thyroid Function in Children Aged 1-13 Years with Beta-Thalassemia Major

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    Ayfer Gozu Pirinccioglu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hypothyroidism usually appears in the second decade of life and is thought to be associated with iron overload in patients with thalassemia major. This study aimed to evaluate thyroid dysfunctions in patients with beta-thalassemia major and to see if they appear in the earlier period of life.Methods: Thyroid function and iron load status were evaluated in 90 children with a mean age of 7.17±3.78 years with beta-thalassemia major by measuring serum free thyroxin (FT4, serum free triiodothyronine (FT3, total thyroxin (T3, serum total triiodothyronine (T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and ferritin levels from serum of patients admitted to the Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine University of Dicle between March 2005 and July 2009. A control group formed from an age-sex matched healthy children with a mean age of 6.98±3.66 years was also included. A standard thyrotropin releasing hormone test was applied to 3 patients who had high TSH levels and were classified as subclinical primer hypothyroidism. The study was designed according to the Declaration of Helsinki and informed consent was obtained from the parents of all participants.Findings: All thyroid parameters in patients were in the normal ranges compared with the controls except three of them which had high TSH levels. Serum ferritin level (2703±1649 ng/mL in patients was significantly higher than in controls (81.5±15.5 ng/mL.Conclusion: The work implies that hypothyroidism could be even seen in the first decade of life in patients with beta-thalassemia major in spite of improved hematological cares.

  19. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for Children With BetaThalassemia Major: a Preliminary Report

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    Morteza Tabatabaie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Heart disease is one of the most common reasons of death in beta-thalassemia major. A few studies have been done in children about blood pressure changes. The aim of this study was to assess hemodynamic changes by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM. Materials and Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 30 patients with beta-thalassemia major aged 5 to 18 years old were evaluated with 24-hour ABPM. The exclusion criteria were an ejection Fraction less than 50% and a glomerular filtration rate less than 90 mL/min/1.73 m2. Hypertension was defined as a mean blood pressure index of 1 and greater with or without load blood pressure greater than 25%. Dipper status was defined as a 10% decrease in nighttime versus daytime mean arterial blood pressure. Results. High blood pressure was detected in 16.7% of the patients. The whole-day ABPM showed hypertension in 6.7% of the children. During daytime measurements, systolic hypertension was seen in 3.3% (load 3.7% and diastolic in 6.7% (load 3.3%. These figures for nighttime evaluation were 6.7% (load 3.3% and 10.3% (load 6.9%, respectively. Nondipper status was detected in 56.7% of the children. There was no significant correlation between abnormal blood pressure and age, sex, body mass index, hemoglobin, number or rates of blood transfusion, or serum ferritin level. Conclusions. The ABPM may be a useful instrument for early detection of hemodynamic changes in children with beta-thalassemia major.

  20. Noninvasive analysis of skin iron and zinc levels in beta-thalassemia major and intermedia

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    Gorodetsky, R.; Goldfarb, A.; Dagan, I.; Rachmilewitz, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic x-ray spectrometry, a method based on x-ray fluorescence analysis, was used for noninvasive determination of iron and zinc in two distinct skin areas, representing predominantly dermal and epidermal tissues, in 56 patients with beta-thalassemia major and intermedia. The mean iron levels in the skin of patients with beta-thalassemia major and intermedia were elevated by greater than 200% and greater than 50%, respectively, compared with control values. The zinc levels of both skin areas examined were within the normal range. The data indicate that the rate and number of blood transfusions, which correlated well with serum ferritin levels (r . 0.8), are not the only factors that determine the amount of iron deposition in the skin (r less than 0.6). Other sources of iron intake contribute to the total iron load in the tissues, particularly in patients who are not given multiple transfusions. The noninvasive quantitation of skin levels may reflect the extent of iron deposition in major parenchymal organs. Repeated DXS examinations of the skin could monitor the clearance of iron from the tissues of patients with iron overload in the course of therapy with chelating agents.

  1. [Illness knowledge, social support and self care behavior in adolescents with beta-thalassemia major].

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    Yang, H C; Chen, Y C; Mao, H C; Lin, K H

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among illness knowledge, social support and self-care behavior in adolescents with beta-thalassemia major. The subjects were 58 beta-thalassemia major adolescents recruited from the pediatric hematology outpatient departments of three hospitals in North Taiwan. All data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, t-test, Pearson correlation, and stepwise multiple regression. The results showed that: (1) Scoring in illness knowledge, the best was treatment knowledge, and the worst was the knowledge of complications and symptoms. (2) The result for social support indicated that the family was the major source of support, and that classmates/friends provided the least support for thalassemic adolescents. (3) Scoring in self care behavior, the best was the medical and chelate therapy, and the worst was the management of problems and coping. (4) Individual characteristic differences, including sex, level of education, length of illness, complications of thalassemia, hospitalization due to thalassemic complications and receiving other treatments were correlated with their illness knowledge, social support or self-care behavior. (5) Illness knowledge, social support which were positively correlated with self-care behavior. (6) 50.0% of the variance in self-care behavior can be explained by emotional support from family, general knowledge of thalassemia, treatment knowledge and appraisal support from family. These findings could provide referential material for nursing research and nursing practice. PMID:11548457

  2. Zinc and Copper Status in Children with Beta-Thalassemia Major

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    Abolfazl Mahyar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:There are some reports in which a condition of zinc deficiency and its associated outcomes with a change in concentration of serum copper among the thalassemic patients has been highlighted. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the serum zinc and copper levels in children with beta-thalassemia major.Methods:In this cross sectional study all children under 12 years affected by beta thalassemia major (40 patients were evaluated for serum zinc and copper levels in Qazvin thalassemia center (Qazvin, Iran in 2007. Serum measurements for zinc and copper were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer.Findings:The mean concentrations of serum zinc and copper levels were 67.35�20.38 and 152.42�24.17 ?g/dl respectively. Twenty-six (65% of thalassemic patients had zinc concentration under 70 ?g/dl (hypozincemia. None of the thalassemic children had copper deficiency. No significant correlation between serum zinc level with age, weight, height, body mass index, duration of blood transfusion, desferrioxamine dose and ferritin level was observed in thalassemic patients (P=0.3.Conclusion:This study revealed that hypozincemia is common in thalassemic patients, but in contrast, there is no copper deficiency. Further evaluation in this regard is recommended.

  3. Zinc and Copper Status in Children with Beta-Thalassemia Major

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    Hoshyar Mojabi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are some reports in which a condition of zinc deficiency and its associated outcomes with a change in concentration of serum copper among the thalassemic patients has been highlighted. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the serum zinc and copper levels in children with beta-thalassemia major.Methods: In this cross sectional study all children under 12 years affected by beta thalassemia major (40 patients were evaluated for serum zinc and copper levels in Qazvin thalassemia center (Qazvin, Iran in 2007. Serum measurements for zinc and copper were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer.Findings: The mean concentrations of serum zinc and copper levels were 67.35±20.38 and 152.42±24.17 μg/dl respectively. Twenty-six (65% of thalassemic patients had zinc concentration under 70 µg/dl (hypozincemia. None of the thalassemic children had copper deficiency. No significant correlation between serum zinc level with age, weight, height, body mass index, duration of blood transfusion, desferrioxamine dose and ferritin level was observed in thalassemic patients (P=0.3.Conclusion: This study revealed that hypozincemia is common in thalassemic patients, but in contrast, there is no copper deficiency. Further evaluation in this regard is recommended.

  4. Frequency of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in multi - transfused beta thalassemia major patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency of hepatitis B and C virus infection among children with beta thalassemia major registered at Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Children attending Thalassemia Centre Military Hospital Rawalpindi for regular blood transfusion were registered. They belonged to different ethnic groups and came from different parts of the country. Their demographic data was recorded, detailed history taken and physical examination was carried out. Their serum samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen and anti HCV antibody assay with third generation commercial ELISA method. During the study; 141 patients of beta thalassemia major were screened. Out of them 50 patients (35.5% ,95% confidence interval 27.8-43.5)w ere found hepatitis C virus antibody positive and 1 patient (0.7 %) hepatitis B surface antigen positive. One patient (0.7%) had both hepatitis B and C virus infection. Mean age of hepatitis C infected patients was 10.4+3.85y ears (range 2-16 years). Mean age of uninfected patients was 6.1 + 3.59 years. (p value 0.000) In addition, the results indicate that higher prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly associated with longer duration of transfusion (p value <0.003). In spite of the fact that screened blood is used for transfusions, still a large number of patients have been found infected with hepatitis C. Therefore more accurate techniques are required for screening of blood to prevent transfusion associated transmission. (author)

  5. Hypoparathyroidism and intracerebral calcification in patients with beta-thalassemia major

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    Karimi, M. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Hematology Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: karimim@sums.ac.ir; Rasekhi, A.R. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Imaging Research Center, Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: rasekhia@sums.ac.ir; Rasekh, M. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Rasekhm@sums.ac.ir; Nabavizadeh, S.A. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Imaging Research Center, Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: nabavia@gmail.com; Assadsangabi, R. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Imaging Research Center, Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: assadsangabi@yahoo.com; Amirhakimi, G.H. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: amirhakimig@sums.ac.ir

    2009-06-15

    Background: Hypoparathyroidism is one of the most important endocrine complications of thalassemia major. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of intracerebral calcifications in patients with thalassemia with and without hypoparathyroidism. Methods: 47 beta-thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism underwent a brain CT scan to investigate the presence and extent of intracerebral calcification. 30 age- and sex-matched beta-thalassemic patients with normal parathyroid function who had undergone brain CT for headache, or some other minor neurologic problems were also enrolled in the study serving as controls. The amount of intracerebral calcification, hematologic parameters, and some clinical findings were compared between both groups. Results: Intracerebral calcification was present in 54.2% of beta-thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism. The most frequent sites of calcification were basal ganglia, and frontoparietal areas of the brain. Thalami, internal capsule, cerebellum and posterior fossa were other less frequently calcified regions of the brain. In contrast, there was no evidence of intracerebral calcifications in the 30 thalassemic patients with normal parathyroid function. There was not a statistically significant difference between serum ferritin concentrations in thalassemia patient with hypoparathyroidism and those with normal parathyroid function (2781 vs. 2178, P > 0.05). Conclusion: Intracranial calcification is a common finding in thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism, it can be extensive and involves most regions of the brain.

  6. Hypoparathyroidism and intracerebral calcification in patients with beta-thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Hypoparathyroidism is one of the most important endocrine complications of thalassemia major. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of intracerebral calcifications in patients with thalassemia with and without hypoparathyroidism. Methods: 47 beta-thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism underwent a brain CT scan to investigate the presence and extent of intracerebral calcification. 30 age- and sex-matched beta-thalassemic patients with normal parathyroid function who had undergone brain CT for headache, or some other minor neurologic problems were also enrolled in the study serving as controls. The amount of intracerebral calcification, hematologic parameters, and some clinical findings were compared between both groups. Results: Intracerebral calcification was present in 54.2% of beta-thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism. The most frequent sites of calcification were basal ganglia, and frontoparietal areas of the brain. Thalami, internal capsule, cerebellum and posterior fossa were other less frequently calcified regions of the brain. In contrast, there was no evidence of intracerebral calcifications in the 30 thalassemic patients with normal parathyroid function. There was not a statistically significant difference between serum ferritin concentrations in thalassemia patient with hypoparathyroidism and those with normal parathyroid function (2781 vs. 2178, P > 0.05). Conclusion: Intracranial calcification is a common finding in thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism, it can be extensive and involves most regions of the brain.

  7. Anaesthetic management of beta thalassemia major with hypersplenism for splenectomy in pediatric age group: Report of four cases.

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    Jyothi, B; Sushma, K S; Syeda, Seham; Raza, Syed Owais

    2015-01-01

    Beta thalassemia is the most common cause of hemolytic anemia in India. Hereby we are reporting four cases of beta thalassemia major aged between 5 and 10 years posted for splenectomy over a period of 2 months. These patients were on repeated blood transfusions since the day of diagnosis, and two patients had a history of cardiac failure. In addition to emphasizing the anesthetic challenges, the purpose of reporting such cases is to raise the awareness of the disease and prevention of the same by aggressive screening and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:26417142

  8. Beta Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... iron overload which must be treated with chelation therapy to prevent early death from organ failure. In a somewhat milder form, the inheritance of two abnormal beta globin genes may cause beta thalassemia intermedia , in which the lack of beta globin ...

  9. Bone metabolism and mineral density in patients with beta-thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate bone metabolism in patients with beta-thalassemia major and to determine the factors associated with the development of osteoporosis. We studied 25 patients with thalassemia major with a mean age of 18.4 years (rang 5-31), age and gender matched 24 healthy controls who were attending the outpatient physical medicine and rehabilitation clinic of Akdeniz University Hospital between January 2004 and March 2004 in Turkey. Bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine (L-1-L4) and proximal femur were determined using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Venous blood samples were obtained for determination of blood cell count and markers of bone formation and resorption. The BMD values, both at lumbar and femoral neck levels were significantly lower in patients compared to controls. Serum N-telopeptide level was slightly higher, whereas osteocalcin was slightly lower in patients, however, the values were not statistically significant. Plasma levels of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) and insulin like growth factor for binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were significantly lower in patients. Also, serum levels of estradiol and progesterone in females, luteinizing, hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone in both genders were significantly lower in patients. Serum levels of free testosterone and total testosterone were lower in patients, but not statistically significant. Patients also had significantly higher serum phosphorous levels and lower serum calcitonin levels compared to controls. The BMD is decreased in thalassemic patients. Growth retardation, growth hormone/IGF-I/IGFP-3 axis dysfunction, gonadal dysfunction and hypothalomo-pituitary-gonadal axis dysfunction may be responsible for the development of osteoporosis in the patients with beta-thalassemia major. (author)

  10. A Comparison of Quality of Life between Adolescences with Beta Thalassemia Major and their Healthy Peers

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    Shahram Baraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The chronic genetic blood disorder, thalassemia, affects Quality of life (QOL negatively. Regarding this, if adolescences with thalassemia are treated well, they will grow into an adult who will have a good potential for participating in society. Objectives: to determine the strongest predictor of QOL, compare QOL between the adolescents with beta-type major and their peers in Abadan city. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study; the population consisted of 65 beta thalassemia major patients and 65  healthy peers with the same ages as the witness group. The data collection tools included SF-36 questionnaire and a questionnaire for demographic information. Data analysis was performed using independent t-test, correlation and linear regression by SPSS-16. Results The results of the study revealed that there is a significant difference (P < 0.05 in the average quality of life between the two groups of the study. On the other hand, the results showed that there was a meaningful relation between different aspects of life quality and family history of thalassemia            (P< 0.05. Also, there was a negative correlation between quality of life and the frequency of blood transfusion per year (P< 0.05. Conclusion Adolescences with beta thalassemia major do not have a desirable quality of life, therefore, this fact shows the necessity of serious reforming in various fields of health care, treatment, family, social and financial support, and rehabilitation that need more attention from health care policymakers.

  11. Prospects and future of conservative management of beta thalassemia major in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the efficacy, prospects and future of conservative management of beta thalassemia major patients in a developing country. Design: Patients registered at IHBTS were studied over a period of three years. They consented to being managed on moderate transfusion regimen, aiming to maintain a pre-transfusion haemoglobin(Hgb) level of 9.0 plus minus 1.0 g per dL. We studied their transfusion requirements, status for transfusion transmitted infections (TTls), serum ferritin levels and complications developing as a result of iron overload. Subjects: Initially all registered patients were included in this study. Sporadic patients as well as dropouts occurring due to any reason, (patients concurrently seeking treatment at other centres as well, or complying poorly to advised chelation therapy) were excluded from the study. The data presented here conforms to a cohort of 60 regular patients who adhered best to our selection criteria. Main Outcome Measures: 1) The study highlights the deficiencies and problems of conservative management for beta thalassemia major. 2) The major impact of our study is the message that conservative management in a poor country, like ours, is a no-win situation. 3) There is an urgent need to immediately start a prevention programme. Results: In the younger patients, blood consumption even on the moderate transfusion regimen is 120ml/kg/year, however with ascending age the consumption increases to 240ml/kg/year. A substantive number of the patients are either Hep C (35%) or Hep B (1.7%) positive. There are no HIV positive patients. Serum ferritin levels vary widely and could not be controlled due to poor compliance to chelation. 50% of the patients developed one or other complications of iron overload. The cost of treatment depending on the quality of care, is tremendous and beyond the reach of the common man. Conclusions: Conservative management may be the best alternative and at times the only hope for patients in our country. However, in order to decrease the disease load, steps need to be taken to introduce preventive measures. (author)

  12. Psychological Aspects in Young Adults with Beta-Thalassemia Major, control group

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    S. H. Hosseini, M.D.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Beta-thalassemia major (TM, a chronic, genetically determined hematological disorder, has received little investigation on the psychological aspects of the disease and the psychosocial adjustment of patients with this anemia. In the present study, the aim was to explore the nature of psychopathology according to age, sex, school performance, severity and complications of the disease in TM patients compared with demographically matched healthy persons.Materials and Methods: A controlled anterograde cohort study was conducted at the Thalassemia Unit of Boo-Ali Hospital from June 2003 to November 2005 in Sari, Iran. Psychological aspects were evaluated by the Persian version of symptoms checklist-90-revised questionnaire. Information on relevant demographic characteristics, school performance, severity and complications of the disease was collected by one of the investigators who had created the questionnaire.Results: 125 persons with TM completed the questionnaires and were compared with 125 controls and 250 totally. The mean age of the participants was 18.51 2.0 years and with a range of 15-25 years. 132 (52.8% were female with equal family status, social and economic status. Patients group reported a significantly lower level of marital status (P<0.01, education level (P<0.0001, school performance (P<0.0001. TM patients were found to have significantly more psychiatric disorders than the control subjects with GSI: 1.16 0.47 vs. 1.01 0.6; (P<0.03, PSD: 54.99 12.59 vs. 46.42 18.76 (P<0.0001, and PSDI 2.021.02 vs 2.45 2.22 (P<0.05. We recorded significant changes in the mean scores of somatization (P<0.0001, interpersonal sensitivity (P<0.0001, depression (P<0.003, anxiety (P<0.05 and psychoticism (P<0.03 in the TM patients as compared to the control subjects.Conclusion: These findings show that beta-thalassemia major patients are at risk for psychiatric symptomatology and need appropriate psychiatric consultation.

  13. Frequency of Sensory Neural Hearing Loss in Major Beta-Thalassemias in Southern Iran

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    Abolhassan Faramarzi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The thalassemias are among the most common genetic disorders worldwide, occurring more frequently in the Mediterranean region. The aim of this study was to determined frequency of sensory-neural hearing loss in major ß- thalassemias transfusion dependent patients in south of Iran.Methods:A cross sectional study on 308 cases of major beta-thalassemia patients referring to Thalassemia Center of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences between 2006-2007 years. The diagnosis of ß- thalassemia major was based on clinical history, complete blood count and hemoglobine electrophoresis. Clinical data such as serum ferritin level, deferoxamine (DFO dose, mean daily doses of DFO (mg/kg and audiometric variables was recorded.Findings:Out of 308 cases, 283 (96.5% had normal hearing and 10 (3.5% sensorineural hearing loss. There was no statically significant difference between two groups regarding mean age, weight, age at the first blood transfusion, age at the first DFO infusion.Conclusion:We found the lowest incidence of sensorineural hearing loss in a large population of patients suffered from major thalassemia who received DFO. We show that DFO is not ototoxic at a low dose. When considering all related literature, as a whole there has been much critical misrepresentation about DFO ototoxicity.

  14. Frequency of Sensory Neural Hearing Loss in Major Beta-Thalassemias in Southern Iran

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    Seyed-Taghi Heydari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The thalassemias are among the most common genetic disorders worldwide, occurring more frequently in the Mediterranean region. The aim of this study was to determined frequency of sensory-neural hearing loss in major ß- thalassemias transfusion dependent patients in south of Iran. Methods:A cross sectional study on 308 cases of major beta-thalassemia patients referring to Thalassemia Center of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences between 2006-2007 years. The diagnosis of ß- thalassemia major was based on clinical history, complete blood count and hemoglobine electrophoresis. Clinical data such as serum ferritin level, deferoxamine (DFO dose, mean daily doses of DFO (mg/kg and audiometric variables was recorded. Findings:Out of 308 cases, 283 (96.5% had normal hearing and 10 (3.5% sensorineural hearing loss. There was no statically significant difference between two groups regarding mean age, weight, age at the first blood transfusion, age at the first DFO infusion. Conclusion:We found the lowest incidence of sensorineural hearing loss in a large population of patients suffered from major thalassemia who received DFO. We show that DFO is not ototoxic at a low dose. When considering all related literature, as a whole there has been much critical misrepresentation about DFO ototoxicity.

  15. Molecular basis of transfusion dependent beta-thalassemia major patients in Sabah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Lai Kuan; George, Elizabeth; Lai, Mei I; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Wong, Lily; Ismail, Patimah

    2014-03-01

    Beta-thalassemia is one of the most prevalent inherited diseases and a public health problem in Malaysia. Malaysia is geographically divided into West and East Malaysia. In Sabah, a state in East Malaysia, there are over 1000 estimated cases of β-thalassemia major patients. Accurate population frequency data of the molecular basis of β-thalassemia major are needed for planning its control in the high-risk population of Sabah. Characterization of β-globin gene defects was done in 252 transfusion dependent β-thalassemia patients incorporating few PCR techniques. The study demonstrates that β-thalassemia mutations inherited are ethnically dependent. It is important to note that 86.9% of transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major patients in Sabah were of the indigenous population and homozygous for a single mutation. The Filipino β(0)-deletion was a unique mutation found in the indigenous population of Sabah. Mutations common in West Malaysia were found in 11 (4.3%) patients. Four rare mutations (Hb Monroe, CD 8/9, CD 123/124/125 and IVS I-2) were also found. This study is informative on the population genetics of β-thalassemia major in Sabah. PMID:24369358

  16. BETA THALASSEMIA MAJOR IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY ASPECT

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    Mohamed Bejaoui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta-thalassemia major (TM remains to be one of the major health problems particularly in developing countries. Tunisia is a part of the Mediterranean countries mostly affected by this disease which is highly concentrated in small towns in families with low-income earners. The main objectives of this study are to provide a description of the demographic, clinical features and transfusion-related complications in patients with TM living in Tunisia. A standardized questionnaire was sent to clinicians throughout 33 different medical institutions caring for thalassemic patients. 391 transfusion dependant thalassemic patients with a median age of 10.7 years (range 3 months- 31 years were included in the study.The majority were originated from the north west of the country .A moderate overload between 1501 and 2500ng/ml was found in 61patients, while 81 patients (26.9% had ferritin level more than 2500 ng/ml and greater than 5000ng/ml in 21 patients (6.9%. 51 patients died from complications related to their disease. Heart failure was the main cause of death. The incidence of cardiac, endocrine, and infectious complications will be reviewed. Preventive measures such as health education, carrier screening and premarital screening remain the best ways for lowering the incidence of these diseases, which might be reflected in financial saving, social benefits and health benefits.

  17. Evaluation of Mental Health and Related Factors Among Patients with Beta-Thalassemia Major in South East of Iran

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    Morteza Ashrafi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Beta-thalassemia major (?-TM is a chronic, genetic and hematological disorder. Children and teenagers with chronic physical illnesses exemplified by thalassemia are vulnerable to emotional and behavioral problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate mental health and its related factors among young patients with beta-thalassemia major. Methods: In this cross-sectional observational descriptive-analytic study, we studied 164 patients suffering from Beta-thalassemia major with age range of 15-24 years who referred for treatment to Ali Ebn-e Abitaleb (AS University Hospital in Zahedan, a city in South East of Iran, during 2009- 2010. The demographic data and pattern of mental health were collected by standard general health questionnaire (GHQ-28.Data was analyzed using statistical software SPSS (version 17.0; Student t test and Chi-square (?2 were used. Results: In this study, 96 (58.5% patients were male; the mean age of all patients was 18.78 2.28. Based on data analysis, 83 patients (50.8% suspected to have psychiatric disorders (58.8% of girls, 44.8% of boys. In addition, frequency of somatic symptoms, depression disorder, anxiety disorder and social dysfunction in all patients were 7.3%, 11.6%, 8.5% and 4.3% respectively. In illiterate patients, 70.4% suspected to have psychiatric disorder. Except for somatic disorder, other mental disorders were more frequent in girls. No significant association was found between mental state and gender, marital and literacy status and occupation. Conclusion : In this study, due to high prevalence of psychological disorders in young patients with Beta-thalassemia major, especially in girls, we suggest implementing further educational psychological programs to decrease the frequency of disorders. Moreover, conducting more quantitative and comprehensive researches is suggested to evaluate specific effective factors in psycho-social health.

  18. Renal functions in pediatric patients with beta-thalassemia major: relation to chelation therapy: original prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    ElMelegy Nagla T; Hamed Enas A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In β-thalassemia, profound anemia and severe hemosiderosis cause functional and physiological abnormalities in various organ systems. In recent years, there have been few published studies mainly in adult demonstrating renal involvement in β-thalassemia. This prospective study was aimed to investigate renal involvement in pediatric patients with transfusion dependant beta-thalassemia major (TD-βTM), using both conventional and early markers of glomerular and tubular dysfun...

  19. The pancreas in {beta}-thalassemia major: MR imaging features and correlation with iron stores and glucose disturbunces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papakonstantinou, Olympia [University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Attikon Hospital, 2nd Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Ladis, Vasilios; Kostaridou, Stavroula; Berdousi, Helen; Kattamis, Christos [Thalassemia Unit, University of Athens, ' ' Aghia Sophia' ' Children' s Hospital, Athens (Greece); Maris, Thomas; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas [University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2007-06-15

    The study aims at describing the MR features of pancreas in beta-thalassemia major, investigating the relations between MR findings and glucose disturbances and between hepatic and pancreatic siderosis. Signal intensity ratios of the pancreas and liver to right paraspinous muscle (P/M, L/M) were retrospectively assessed on abdominal MR imaging studies of 31 transfusion-dependent patients with beta-thalassemia major undergoing quantification of hepatic siderosis and 10 healthy controls, using T1- (120/4/90), intermediate in and out of phase - (120/2.7, 4/20), and T2*-(120/15/20) weighted GRE sequences. Using the signal drop of the liver and pancreas on opposed phase images, we recorded serum ferritin and results of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Decreased L/M and P/M on at least the T2* sequence were noticed in 31/31 and 30/31 patients, respectively, but no correlation between P/M and L/M was found. Patients with pathologic OGTT displayed a higher degree of hepatic siderosis (p < 0.04) and signal drop of pancreas on opposed phase imaging (p < 0.025), implying fatty replacement of pancreas. P/M was neither correlated with glucose disturbances nor serum ferritin. Iron deposition in the pancreas cannot be predicted by the degree of hepatic siderosis in beta-thalassemia major. Fatty replacement of the pancreas is common and may be associated with glucose disturbances. (orig.)

  20. Beta thalassemia major: The effect of age on glomerular filtration rate

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    Majid Malaki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia is a common hereditary hemoglobinopathy disorder that affects many organs in the body. Estimation of kidney function is important, as it is the vital organ that plays the major role in the elimination of accumulated iron as well as the chelating drugs that have to be used as therapy. Sixty- three patients aged 1-29 years, with a mean ± SD of 14 ± 6.7 years, affected with beta- thalassemia major in Tabriz Children′s Hospital were evaluated for their renal function on the basis of their age, serum iron, serum ferritin and serum creatinine levels along with two methods of estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR; by Schwartz method for those under 18 years old and using Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD formula for those who were 18 years and above. Elevation of serum creatinine denoting renal dysfunction was not seen in our patients, but hyperfiltration was a common finding. An increasing GFR was observed, which corresponded to age, but no relationships were seen between serum iron, serum ferritin, regular blood transfusion, chelating therapy to GFR.

  1. The survival analysis of beta thalassemia major patients in South East of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to determine the survival of beta-thalassemia major patients with transfusion, and its related factors in Southeast of Iran. This cross-sectional study was performed in Zahedan, Iran in 2007. The sample included patients who were referred from all over the Zahedan Thalassemia Center from 1998 to 2006. The data were collected using the patient's records, which were recorded by the staff during transfusion. The data included demographic and medical information blood group, blood RH, the kind of transfused blood [KTB], annual number of transfusions [ANOT], accompanied disease [AD], Hemoglobin [Hb] and ferritin level. For data analysis, the Kaplan-Meyer method, and Long Rank test together with Cox Regression were used. Forty-six of 578 patients died and 99% survived for the first year. The ages survival proportions were 5 (97.9%), 10 (97%), 15 (92.1%), and 20 (81.2%) years. The survival time showed significant relationships with the ANOT p=0.0053, KTB p=0.003, Hb=0.002 and ferritin level p=0.0087, and AD p=0.00. Using regular transfusion, paying attention to screening of transfused blood, increasing the families knowledge on the disease to prevent the bearing of thalassemia fetus, are recommended; finally, the detection and treating of the AD, are of great importance to extend the lifetime of the patients. (author)

  2. Assessment of diastolic function in children and adolescents with beta-thalassemia major by tissue Doppler imaging - Original Article

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    Taner Yavuz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to analyze myocardial diastolic function in patients with beta-thalassemia major before development of overt cardiomyopathy using pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging, and compare data with conventional Doppler echocardiography.Material and Method: The study included 61 beta-thalassemia major subjects (age 4 to 20 years; mean age, 10.7±4.1 years; 32 females and 29 males with normal left ventricular function and 52 healthy control subjects, matched for age and sex. All participants underwent M-mode echocardiography and left ventricular systolic function was measured; diastolic functions of the right and left ventricul were analysed using tissue Doppler imaging and conventional Doppler echocardiography. SPSS for Windows 13.0 software programme was used for statistical analysis, and the student’s t-test was used to compare data. This study was approved by the ethics committee of the İstanbul Medical Faculty.Results: Body surface area was significantly smaller in the patients than in the controls (1.0±0.2 vs. 1.2±0.3 m2, p0.05. In patients with beta-thalassemia major, the early diastolic velocities of the myocardium at the base of the left and right ventricle, at the middle segment of the left and right ventricle, and the interventricular septum were found to be higher than controls (p<0.05. We also found significantly higher late diastolic velocities at the base and middle segments of right ventricle, early and late diastolic velocities ratio at the base of the right ventricle and at the middle segment of the left and right ventricle, and the interventricular septum compared with controls (p<0.05.Conclusions: These findings acquired from the young aged beta-thalassemia major patients with normal ventricular systolic function were believed to be results from high preload and hyperdynamic response to chronic anemia rather than true ventricular restriction. We suggest that long-term follow-up studies should be carried out in patients with beta-thalassemia major using tissue Doppler in order to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of this imaging technique in diagnosis of early stages of cardiac involvement. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46: 26-32

  3. Health Related Quality of Life, Depression, Anxiety and Stress in Patients with Beta-Thalassemia Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib-Hajbaghery, M; Ahmadi, M; S, Poormansouri

    2015-01-01

    Background Awareness of factors associated with quality of life (QOL) in patients with beta-Thalassemia major (β-TM) is necessary to develop clinical programs in order to improve social support and QOL in β-TM patients. This study aimed to examine QoL, depression, anxiety, and stress in β-TM patients in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on173 β-TM patients aged ≥12 years (12-18=55, ≥19=118). Subjects were selected using a census method. Data collection instrument consisted of three parts including: demographic questions, SF-36 questionnaire and depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DAS-21). Results The participants obtained a mean score of 64.38±18.20 for QOL, 6.4±5.1 for depression, 4.8±3.9 for anxiety, and 7.3±4.9 for stress. Significant relationship was found between QOL and employment (P=0.02) and education level (P<0.001). Patients in the age group of 12-18 years old had higher mean scores in the majority of QoL dimensions than those aged ≤19. The mean scores of depression, anxiety, and stress were higher in patients aged ≤19. No significant correlation was observed between QOL and depression, anxiety, stress scores, and other demographic variables. Moreover, a significant inverse correlation was found between QOL and depression (P<0.001,r= -0.62), anxiety (P<0.001,r= -0.55), and stress scores (P<0.001, r= -0.5) . Conclusion This study showed that β-TM patients experienced a considerable decrease both in their overall QoL and in its dimensions. A majority of the β-TM patients were also suffered from mild to severe depression, anxiety, and stress.

  4. Survival Analysis and its Associated Factors of Beta Thalassemia Major in Hamadan Province

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    Reza Zamani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There currently is a lack of knowledge about the long-term survival of patients with beta thalassemia (BT, particularly in regions with low incidence of the disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the survival rate of the patients with BT major and the factors associated with the survival time. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was performed in Hamadan province, located in the west of Iran. The study included patients that referred to the provincial hospitals during 16 year period from 1997 to 2013. The follow up of each subject was calculated from the date of birth to the date of death. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from patients’ medical records using a checklist. Statistical analysis included the Kaplan-Meier method to analyze survivals, log-rank to compare curves between groups, and Cox regression for multivariate prognostic analysis. Results: A total of 133 patients with BT major were enrolled, 54.9% of whom were male and 66.2% were urban. The 10-, 20- and 30-year survival rate for all patients were 98.3%, 88.4% and 80.5%, respectively. Based on hazard ratio (HR, we found that accompanied diseases (P=0.01, blood type (P=0.03 and residency status (P=0.01 were significant predictors for the survival time of patients. Conclusion: The survival rate of BT patients has improved. Future researches such as prospective designs are required for the estimation of survival rate and to find other prognostic factors, which have reliable sources of data.

  5. Endocrine dysfunction and growth retardation assessment in children with beta -thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children suffering from beta-thalassemia major are reported to have endocrine abnormalities and growth retardation. This study was carried out to study the cause of their growth retardation and determine the extent and rate of endocrine complications. Twenty beta-thalassemic major pubertal children, with mean baemoglobin and ferritin concentration of 8.8±0.6 and 3.597± 1.931, respectively, and twenty pubertal control children were used in the study. The anthropometric measurements that carried out revealed significant low growth rate in patient groups in comparison with control. Patients divided into two groups; I) D-thal with delayed growth and II) S-thal with stunted growth. Basal serum thyoid hormones (T3 and T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in patient groups and control group. T3 showed highly significant decrease (P4 showed non-significant change and TSH showed highly significant increase (P<0.001). Serum growth hormone showed significant lower concentrations in patient groups with values of 2.163±0.9 ng/ml, (P<0.01) and 1.832±1.9ng/ml, (P<0.01) for delayed growth thalassemic group (D-thal) and stunted growth thalassemic group (S-thal), respectively. Serum concentration of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) hormone was studied. D-thal and S-thal had significant lower basal IGF-1 concentrationsof-58.44% (P<0.001) for D-thal and -64.37%, (P<0.001) for S-thal

  6. Side effects of Deferasirox Iron Chelation in Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major or Intermedia

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    Murtadha Al-Khabori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Chelating agents remain the mainstay in reducing the iron burden and extending patient survival in homozygous beta-thalassemia but adverse and toxic effects may increase with the institution and long term use of this essential therapy. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of deferasirox (DFX side effects in patients with thalassemia major or intermedia.Methods: A retrospective study of 72 patients (mean age: 20.3±0.9 yrs; 36 male, 36 female with thalassemia major or intermedia treated at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, was performed to assess the incidence of side effects related to deferasirox over a mean of 16.7 month follow-up period.Results: Six patients experienced rashes and 6 had gastro-intestinal upset. DFX was discontinued in 18 patients for the following reasons: persistent progressive rise(s in serum creatinine (7 patients; 40% mean serum creatinine rise from baseline, feeling unwell (2, severe diarrhea (1, pregnancy (1, death unrelated to chelator (2 and rise in serum transaminases (2. Three patients were reverted to desferoxamine and deferiprone combination therapy as DFX was no longer biochemically effective after 18 months of therapy. There was no correlation between baseline serum ferritin and serum creatinine or a rise in serum creatinine. Cardiac MRI T2* did not change with DFX therapy. However, there was an improvement in liver MRI T2* (p=0.013.Conclusion: Renal side effects related to deferasirox appear to be higher than those reported in published clinical trials. Further larger studies are required to confirm these findings.

  7. Pituitary gland height evaluated by MR in patients with {beta}-thalassemia major: a marker of pituitary gland function

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    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, D.N. [Dept. of Physiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Bitsis, S.; Tsatoulis, A. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece)

    2001-12-01

    In transfusion-dependent {beta}-thalassemia major, increased iron deposition in the pituitary gland has a cytotoxic effect leading mainly to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our purpose was to assess in these patients the height of the pituitary gland and to evaluate whether it represents a marker of pituitary gland function. In 29 patients with {beta}-thalassemia major and 35 age- and gender-matched controls the pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan using a spin echo T1-weighted (500/20 TR/TE) sequence. In all patients, an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed, including measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and adrenal hormones. The pituitary gland height was lower in thalassemic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=15) (mean 3.48; SD 0.46) than in the age- and gender-matched controls (mean 6.29; SD 0.77), (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between thalassemic patients without hormone dysfunction (n=14) (mean 5.34; SD 1.52) and age- and gender-matched controls (mean 5.91; SD 1.06). We conclude that in thalassemic patients the pituitary gland height is an additional marker of pituitary gland function and might be useful in clinical management. (orig.)

  8. Detection of Left Ventricular Regional Function in Asymptomatic Children with beta-Thalassemia Major by Longitudinal Strain and Strain Rate Imaging

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    Ali Bay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cardiac failure due to iron overload remains the most common cause of death in patients with beta-thalassemia major. This study aimed to evaluate myocardial function in children with beta-thalassemia major using standard echocardiography technique and strain rate imaging. Materials and Methods: Conventional echocardiographic analysis, tissue velocity imaging, and strain/strain rate imaging of the left ventricle were evaluated in 48 children with beta thalassemia major (19 girls, 29 boys; 8.39±4.05 years and 22 healthy children (11 girls, 11 boys; 8±3.72 years. Results: Conventional echocardiographic examinations revealed that beta-thalassemia patients had larger left ventricular end-systolic diameter, end-diastolic and end-systolic volume, left ventricular mass index, and mitral early/late diastolic flow velocity ratio (p<0.05. Strain and strain rate imaging study of the basal lateral wall of the left ventricle was higher in patients than in controls, at p=0.035 and p=0.008, respectively. Conclusion: We found that superior systolic strain and strain rate imaging of the left ventricle indicated the presence of regional systolic function in the left ventricular wall. We suggest that left ventricle volume and mass index parameters might be more sensitive than the other conventional and strain/strain rate imaging parameters during childhood. However, the adulthood strain and strain rate imaging values may be lower than controls, exceeding the critical level of iron overload.

  9. Quality of life, clinical effectiveness, and satisfaction in patients with beta thalassemia major and sickle cell anemia receiving deferasirox chelation therapy

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    Senol, Sefika Pinar; Tiftik, Eyup Naci; Unal, Selma; Akdeniz, Aydan; Tasdelen, Bahar; Tunctan, Bahar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: There is a need to remove excess iron with iron chelation therapy (ICT) to avoid the serious clinical sequelae associated with iron overload in patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM) and sickle cell anemia (SCA). Due to the effects of the diseases and their treatments, ICT is still a major reason for unsatisfactory compliance. The aim of this single-center observational study was to evaluate the quality of life, clinical effectiveness, and satisfaction in pediatric and adult p...

  10. Prevalence and Intensity of Depression in Mothers of Children with Beta-Thalassemia Major In Talghani Hospital of Gorgan, Iran

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    Nargesbeygom Mirbehbahani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thalassemia is a chronic disease that it leads to psychological and social problems for parents. Mothers are at markedly increased risk of suffering from psychological distress and depression because they usually take on a considerable part of extra care that their children need.This study was designed to determine prevalence and intensity of depression in mothers with a thalassemic child. Material and Methods: In this cross – sectional study, 65 mothers of children with thalassemia major (case group and 65 mothers of children without thalassemia major (control group were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Data were analyzed by using SPSS (v 16.0 for windows. Results: Prevalence of depression was significantly higher in case group than that in control group (84.6%vs. 56.9%, p <0.05. Moderate depression had a highest prevalence in the both groups (33.4% in case group and 30.8% in control group. Prevalence of severe depression in case group was markedly higher than that in control group (29.2% vs. 3.1% p<0.05. There was a significant difference between intensity of depression in mothers of case group that had another child with beta-thalassemia major (p<0.05. Conclusion: Mothers of children with thalassemia major are vulnerable to depression. They need psychosocial support to promote their health.

  11. Adrenal glands in beta-thalassemia major: magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features and correlation with iron stores

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    Drakonaki, Eleni; Papakonstantinou, Olympia; Maris, Thomas; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Radiology, Heraklion (Greece); Vasiliadou, Artemis [Aghios Georgios Hospital of Chania, Thalassemia Unit, Chania (Greece); Papadakis, Alex [Venizelion Hospital of Heraklion, Thalassemia Unit, Heraklion (Greece)

    2005-12-01

    This study aimed at describing the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of the adrenal glands in beta-thalassemic patients and at investigating the relation between adrenal and hepatic siderosis. Adrenal signal intensity (SI) was retrospectively assessed on abdominal MR studies of 35 patients with beta-thalassemia major undergoing quantification of hepatic siderosis and 12 healthy controls, using T1- (120/4/90), intermediate - (120/4/20), and T2*- (120/15/20) weighted GRE sequences. Adrenal SI was graded as grade 0 (normal SI on all sequences), grade 1 (hypointensity on T2* alone), or grade 2 (hypointensity on at least T2*). Adrenal size was measured in the thalassemic patients and compared with normative data. Liver-to-muscle (L/M) SI ratios, expressing hepatic siderosis, were estimated on each sequence. Serum ferritin levels were recorded. Adrenal hypointensity (grades 1 and 2) was noted in 24/35 (68.6%) patients. L/M ratios correlated significantly with adrenal SI in all sequences. Patients with grade 1 and grade 2 adrenal SI had significantly decreased L/M ratios compared with grade 0. Serum ferritin correlated significantly with L/M values but not with adrenal SI. Adrenal size was within normal limits. Diffuse hypointensity in normal-sized adrenals is a common MR finding in beta-thalassemic patients and correlates with the degree of hepatic siderosis. (orig.)

  12. Beta-thalassemia

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    Origa Raffaella

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands, dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes, gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta globin gene on chromosome 11, leading to reduced (beta+ or absent (beta0 synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin (Hb. Transmission is autosomal recessive; however, dominant mutations have also been reported. Diagnosis of thalassemia is based on hematologic and molecular genetic testing. Differential diagnosis is usually straightforward but may include genetic sideroblastic anemias, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, and other conditions with high levels of HbF (such as juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and aplastic anemia. Genetic counseling is recommended and prenatal diagnosis may be offered. Treatment of thalassemia major includes regular RBC transfusions, iron chelation and management of secondary complications of iron overload. In some circumstances, spleen removal may be required. Bone marrow transplantation remains the only definitive cure currently available. Individuals with thalassemia intermedia may require splenectomy, folic acid supplementation, treatment of extramedullary erythropoietic masses and leg ulcers, prevention and therapy of thromboembolic events. Prognosis for individuals with beta-thalassemia has improved substantially in the last 20 years following recent medical advances in transfusion, iron chelation and bone marrow transplantation therapy. However, cardiac disease remains the main cause of death in patients with iron overload.

  13. Bone marrow changes in beta-thalassemia major: quantitative MR imaging findings and correlation with iron stores

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    Drakonaki, Eleni E.; Karantanas, Apostolos H. [University Hospital of Heraklion, Radiology Department, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Maris, Thomas G. [University of Crete, Department of Medical Physics, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Papadakis, Alex [Venizelion General Hospital, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2007-08-15

    The purpose of this study is to describe the MR imaging features of bone marrow in beta-thalassemia major and investigate their relation to ferritin, liver and spleen siderosis. Spinal bone marrow was prospectively assessed on abdominal MR studies of 40 transfused beta-thalassemic patients and 15 controls using T1-w, Pd, T2*-w Gradient Echo (GRE) and T1-w turbo Spin Echo (TSE) sequences. Signal intensity (SI) ratios of liver, spleen and bone marrow to paraspinous muscles (L/M, S/M, B/M respectively) and the respective T2 relaxation rates (1/T2) were calculated. Serum ferritin levels were recorded. Bone marrow hypointensity in at least T2*-w GRE sequence was noted in 29/40 (72.5%) patients. Eleven/40 patients exhibited normal B/M on all MR sequences. Five/40 patients had normal B/M and low L/M. B/M correlated with L/M in T1-w TSE sequence only (r = 0.471, p = 0.05). B/M correlated with S/M and mean ferritin values in all sequences (r > 0.489, p < 0.01 and r > - 0.496, p < 0.03 respectively). Marrow 1/T2 did not correlate with ferritin values or liver and spleen 1/T2. B/M in transfused beta-thalassemic patients is related to splenic siderosis and ferritin levels. Although marrow is usually hypointense, it may occasionally display normal SI coexisting with liver hypointensity, a pattern typical of primary hemochromatosis. (orig.)

  14. Beta-thalassemia, HB S-beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia among Tunisians.

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    Fattoum, S; Guemira, F; Oner, C; Oner, R; Li, H W; Kutlar, F; Huisman, T H

    1991-01-01

    We analyzed the mutations present in 19 patients with beta-thalassemia major, in 11 patients with Hb S-beta-thalassemia, and the beta S haplotypes of 34 patients with sickle cell anemia. The study included 84 relatives. Dot-blot analysis of amplified DNA with various specific oligonucleotide probes identified 11 different known beta-thalassemia mutations and frameshifts; a new frameshift at codons 25/26 (+T) was detected through sequencing of amplified DNA. The common beta-thalassemia mutations at codon 39 (C----T) and at IVS-I-110 (G----A) were also most prevalent among the Tunisian patients, while the milder T----C mutation at IVS-I-6 was not found. All mutations cause a beta 0-thalassemia or a severe beta + -thalassemia [T----A at -30; IVS-I-5 (G----A); IVS-I-110 (G----A)] which explains the need for regular blood transfusions in the thalassemia major and S-beta-thalassemia patients. Nearly all sickle cell anemia patients carried the beta S mutation on a chromosome with haplotype 19 (or Benin) and all had severe anemia with sickling complications. Identification of the beta S haplotype was through dot-blot analysis with oligonucleotide probes that detect mutations in the G gamma and A gamma promoter sequences, specific for this haplotype. PMID:1917531

  15. Cord Compression due to Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in an Adolescent with Known Beta Thalassemia Major

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    Alan COHLER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 16 year-old male with ß thalassemia major and gait disturbances that had not been given blood transfusions due to a severe childhood transfusion reaction. Thoracic spine MRI demonstrated hematopoietic marrow throughout the spine and epidural masses causing cord compression consistent with extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH. After treatment with steroids, radiotherapy and monitored blood transfusions, the patient demonstrated significant improvement of his paraspinal lesions and near complete resolution of his neurological symptoms. While EMH causing cord compression in adolescents is rare in the current era of bone marrow transplantation or chronic transfusions, it should be considered when thalassemia major patients present with neurological deficits. The well defined imaging features of EMH can play a central role in its diagnosis and management, especially because surgical and / or radiotherapeutic intervention are often considered in cases of failed medical treatment.

  16. Renal tubular dysfunction in pediatric patients with beta-thalassemia major

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    Ali Ahmadzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence of renal tubular dysfunction in children with β-thalassemia (β-T major, we studied the glomerular and tubular function in 140 children with β-T major and compared them to a healthy control group at our center from May 2007 to April 2008. Fresh first morning samples were collected from each patient and analyzed for sodium, potassium, calcium (Ca, protein, uric acid (UA, creatinine (Cr, urine osmolality and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG activity. Blood samples were also collected for complete blood count, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, fasting blood sugar, serum creatinine (SCr, electrolytes, and ferritin before transfusion. Among the study patients, 72 were males, and the mean age was 11.5 (ranging 7-16 years. SCr levels were all within normal limits and all of them had normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR. The mean UNAG was 17.8 IU/L in the study patients (normal 0.15-11.5 IU/L and 3.2 IU/L in the control group (P 0.21 (P = 0.006. Nine (6.4% thalassemic patients with a mean age of 12 years had proteinuria (Upr/UCr > 0.2. Sixty-nine (49.3% out of the 140 patients and 45 (65.2% of the patients having UNAG had uricosuria also (UUA/UCr > 0.26. Ten (7% patients had microscopic hematuria and 10 (7% patients with a mean age of 13.5 years had glucosuria or diabetes mellitus. We conclude that tubular dysfunction is a relative common complication of the β-T major; UNAG and its index are the best to detect renal tubular dysfunction in these patients. Currently, periodic measurement of UCa/UCr and UUA/UCr ratios as well as urinalysis are recommended.

  17. Post-transfusion hypertension, convulsion and intracranial haemorrhage in beta-thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The haematologic disorder b-thalassemia major is common in Pakistan. We describe a patient with undiagnosed thalassemia presenting with hypertension and convulsions and found to have cerebral haemorrhage on neuro-imaging. He had been transfused 2 weeks before this illness. Our experience is similar to a few case reports described in literature that were found to have cerebral haemorrhages post-mortem after a similar clinical presentation. All patients had a blood transfusion within 2 weeks prior to the presentation so association with transfusion has been proposed. We have reviewed the several mechanisms presented and discussed the findings. (author)

  18. ASSESSMENT OF THYROID FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH BETA - THALASSEMIA MAJOR AND ITS CORRELATION WITH SERUM FERRITIN AND TRANSFUSION INDEX

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    Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Beta - thalassemia syndromes are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by reduced or absent beta globin chain synthesis , resulting in transfusion dependent severe anemia , leading to iron overload , resulting in hypothyroidism as the most common endocrine problem. OBJECTIVE : There is lack of information about frequency of hypothyroidism in thalassemic patients in ce ntral part of India , so this was undertaken to determine the frequency of hypothyroidism in patients suffering from homozygous - thalassemia and to study its correlation with serum ferritin and transfusion index. METHOD : This descriptive study included 60 diagnosed thalassemia major patients aged 2 - 18 years. Demographic data as well as history of blood transfusion , from which transfusion index was estimated , was taken. Serum total T3 , T4 and TSH by sandwich ELISA method using Eliscan kit , serum ferritin lev el by sandwich ELISA method using Accu - bind kit were measured from fasting blood sample. Hypothyroidism was defined by a TSH level >6.4?IU/ml. RESULTS: Study of the thyroid panel among all 60 patients showed a mean TSH level of 4.652.41 ?IU/ml. Mean total T3 and total T4 levels were 1.350.48 ng/ml and 7.41.93 ?g/dl respectively. Mean serum ferritin level was 557.25198.66 ng/dl. Hypothyroidism was detected in 14 (23.33% out of 60 ? thalassemia patients. Out of these , compensated hypothyroid (normal T3 a nd T4 with raised TSH was seen in 9 patients (15% and decompensated hypothyroid (Decrease T3 or T4 and Raised TSH was seen in 5 patients (8.33%. There was significant positive correlation of TSH levels with serum ferritin levels , age and transfusion in dex. However total T3 and total T4 did not show any correlation with serum ferritin levels , age or transfusion index. CONCLUSION : Hypothyroidism , are more common in second decade of life. Early recognition and hence prevention of these complications will d efinitely help to improve both the longevity & quality of life of these patients.

  19. Antioxidant status in beta thalassemia major: A single-center study

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    Faiza Waseem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homozygous β thalassemia may lead to a marked reduction or absence of normal β chain production and accumulation of unpaired alpha-globin chains. A crucial component in the oxidant susceptibility of the thalassemic RBC is the release of heme and iron from the excessive, unpaired α-globin chains. This release can initiate self-amplifying redox reactions, which deplete the cellular reduction potential (e.g., GSH, oxidize additional hemoglobin and accelerate RBC destruction. Furthermore, β-thalassemia patients are under continuous blood transfusion, which, although life-saving, leads to an iron overload with a resultant increase in non-transferrin-bound iron that may cause greater tissue toxicity than iron in other forms. Iron-induced oxidative stress is known to be one of the most important factors determining cell injury in thalassemic patients. Therefore, we designed this study to obtain a comprehensive picture of the iron overload, antioxidant status and cell damage in β thalassemia major patients undergoing regular blood transfusion. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 diagnosed patients of β thalassemia major and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were included in the study. Estimation of hemoglobin, hematocrit, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, superoxide dismutase (SOD,vitamin E, serum ferritin, total and direct bilirubin, AST and ALT was carried out. Results: The levels of vitamin E, antioxidant enzymes GPX and SOD were significantly lowered in β thalassemic patients as compared with the control group (P<0.001. Serum total and direct bilirubin, AST and ALT were significantly elevated in thalassemic subjects as compared with the control group, indicating liver cell damage. Conclusion: Thus, our findings indicate that thalassemics are in a state of enhanced oxidative stress and that the administration of selective antioxidants would represent a promising approach toward counteracting oxidative damage and its deleterious effects on the disease status.

  20. The Correlation between Troponin and Ferritin Serum Levels in the Patients with Major Beta-Thalassemia

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    Iraj Shahramian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thalassemia is a hereditary hemoglobinopathy whose most common complication is cardiac involvement which ends up in these patients’ death. Since troponin is a sensitive and specific marker for the detection of microinfarct, we studied the relationship between troponin and ferritin serum levels for early diagnosis of cardiac involvement in these patients. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on 80 patients, including 40 patients with major thalassemia and normal echocardiography and 40 healthy volunteers ranging from 6 months to 16 years old. All the children were examined and the eligible children who were not infected with known heart disease, iron deficiency anemia, kidney disease, diabetes, fever, and systemic diseases were enrolled into the study after obtaining written informed consents from their parents. At 8:00 A.M. before breakfast, 5cc blood was drawn from these children. After collecting the samples, ferritin and troponin serum levels were evaluated using ELISA and electro- kymonolonsense methods, respectively. The gathered data were analyzed through the SPSS statistical software (v. 20 and T-test. Besides, P value<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The study results revealed a significant difference between the two groups regarding the mean of the serum levels of troponin (P=0.045 and ferritin (P=0.001. In this study, no significant correlation was observed between serum troponin and ferritin levels and age and BMI in the two groups. Also, no significant relationship was found between serum troponin level and sex (P=0.264. Conclusions: In microinfarct, troponin increases independent of ferritin; therefore, it can be used for early detection of cardiac involvement in thalassemia patients to determine the sub-clinical effects.

  1. Application of Single Strand Conformational Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) in Identification of Some Beta-Globin Gene Mutations in A Group of Egyptian Beta-Thalassemia Patients and Carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigated whether the single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) method could be employed to identify (rather than simply detect) four of the most common beta-globin gene mutations in the Egyptian population: IVS-I-110, IVS-I-6, the IVS-I-1, and Codon 39. Using DNA from 90 beta-thalassemia patients and carriers, by PCR the appropriate 238-bp region of the human beta-globin gene was amplified, the reaction products (Single-stranded DNA) were analyzed by none denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the bands visualized by silver staining. Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) fragments showed reproducible pattern of bands that were characteristic of the mutations present. With the use of control samples containing six of the 10 possible combinations of the four beta-globin gene mutations under study, we were able to predict the mutations present in 23 out of 90 (26.4%) of the patients studied. These predictions were confirmed independently by the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) method. It is concluded that this non-radioactive PCR-SSCP method can be used to reliably identify mutations in beta-thalassemia patients, provided that suitable controls are available. However, usefulness of this method for determining the genotype of beta-thalassaemic individuals is obviously limited by the great number of controls required. Moreover, the ability to detect mutations by SSCP is in general lower compared to other methods, ARMS, DGGE or DHPLC, which are reported to detect 49.5% to 73% of the mutations present. The SSCP method is nevertheless much easier to employ than other methods and is especially successful for beta-thalassemia carriers. This method would thus be particularly useful for an initial screening of target groups (prenatal diagnosis)

  2. Efficacy of Carvedilol in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy due to Beta-thalassemia Major a Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Gholam-Hossein Ajami

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Dilated cardiomyopathy is the end result of chronic iron overload in patients with beta thalassemia major. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Carvedilol in patients with beta thalassemia major and dilated cardiomyopathy.Methods:During a six-month period, fourteen patients with beta-thalassemia major and heart failure without diabetes mellitus referred to pediatric cardiology clinic enrolled in this double blind, randomly assigned study. All patients were on anti failure therapy with Digoxin, Captopril and Furosemide. Carvedilol was started at a dosage of 3.12 mg bid and for patients who had a systolic blood pressure >100 mmHg, heart rate >60/min and no signs of low cardiac output the dosage was increased every two weeks to a maximum of 25 mg bid. Clinical signs and symptoms, systolic and diastolic echocardiographic indexes and Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI data were collected from each patient.Findings:Eight patients received Carvedilol (Group 1 and six received placebo (Group 2. The mean age of patients in Group1 and 2 were 16�0.7 years and 17�3 years respectively. Only one patent in Group 1 tolerated increasing Carvedilol dosage to more than 6.25 mg bid. Changes in New York Heart Association (NYHA classification, Ejection fraction, End diastolic dimension changes, TDI systolic(S, early (Ea and late (Aa diastolic waves were not statistically significant in these two Groups (P>0.05. Pulse Doppler E/A wave ratio of mitral valve in Group1 and Group 2 changed from 1.1�0.37 m/s to 1.8�0.40 m/s and from 1.34�0.30 m/s to 2.6�0.23m/s respectively (P=0.04.Conclusion:Patients with thalassemia and dilated cardiomyopathy have poor tolerance to increasing Carvedilol dosage and develop decreased systolic blood pressure during advancement of the drug dosage. Carvedilol can be effective in prevention of progression of diastolic dysfunction in these patients.

  3. Comparative evaluation of NESTROFT and RDW as screening tests for beta thalassemia trait in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Pritibala Patel; Nivedita Sarda; Renu Arora; Harsha Shailesh Gaikwad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thalassemia is the commonest inherited hemoglobinopathy. It is estimated that there are about 45 million carriers of the beta thalassemia gene and about 15000 affected infants are born every year in India, thereby contributing to about 10% of the total thalassemia babies born all over the world. Beta Thalassemia Trait (BTT) is asymptomatic while Beta Thalassemia Major (BTM) presents with severe anemia and requires lifelong blood transfusion, so emphasis must shift from treatment t...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thalassemia mutations. Hemoglobin. 2014;38(4):272-6. doi: 10.3109/03630269.2014.912661. Epub 2014 May 14. National Human Genome Research Institute Rund D, Rachmilewitz E. Beta-thalassemia. N ... doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a011700. Review. Wonke B. Clinical ...

  5. The Association between Serum Ferritin Level, Tissue Doppler Echocardiography, Cardiac T2* MRI, and Heart Rate Recovery in Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Isa Oner; Koklu, Erkan; Kurtoglu, Erdal; Arslan, Sakir; Cagirci, Goksel; Karakus, Volkan; Kus, Gorkem; Cay, Serkan; Kucukseymen, Selcuk

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally well-understood that iron-mediated cardiomyopathy is the major complication that can arise from beta thalassemia major (TM). Therefore, early diagnosis, risk stratification, and the effective treatment of beta TM patients are clinically important to optimize long-term positive outcomes. Methods This study included 57 beta TM patients with a mean age of 25 ± 7 years. We determined the serum ferritin level, echocardiography, heart rate recovery (HRR), and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) T2* in all patients. CMR T2* findings were categorized as normal myocardium (T2* > 20 ms), and myocardial involvement (T2* ≤ 20 ms). HRR values at 1-5 min (HRR1-5) were recorded; Subsequently. HRR was calculated by subtracting the heart rate at each time point from the heart rate at peak exercise. Results There was a significant negative correlation between the serum ferritin level and the cardiac T2* MRI findings (r = -0.34, p = 0.009). A similar result was found in the negative correlation between serum ferritin and all heart rate recovery values. There was a significant positive correlation between HRR1, HRR2, and HRR3 values, and CMR T2* (T2* heart rate recovery (HRR)1: r = 0.51, p < 0.001; T2* HRR2: r = 0.48, p < 0.001; T2* HRR3: r = 0.47, p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions The serum ferritin level and echocardiography can be used to predict the presence of myocardial iron load in beta TM patients. Therefore, HRR can be used to screen beta TM patients, and the clinical use of HRR can be a predictive marker for autonomic dysfunction in beta TM patients. PMID:27122954

  6. Quality of life, clinical effectiveness, and satisfaction in patients with beta thalassemia major and sickle cell anemia receiving deferasirox chelation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senol, Sefika Pinar; Tiftik, Eyup Naci; Unal, Selma; Akdeniz, Aydan; Tasdelen, Bahar; Tunctan, Bahar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: There is a need to remove excess iron with iron chelation therapy (ICT) to avoid the serious clinical sequelae associated with iron overload in patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM) and sickle cell anemia (SCA). Due to the effects of the diseases and their treatments, ICT is still a major reason for unsatisfactory compliance. The aim of this single-center observational study was to evaluate the quality of life, clinical effectiveness, and satisfaction in pediatric and adult patients with BTM and SCA receiving deferasirox (DFX) chelation therapy. Methods: In this study, 37 pediatric and 35 adult patients with BTM or SCA receiving DFX for at least 6 months participated. Upon receipt of Informed Consent Form, Case Report Form, Demographic Data Collection Form, Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form, Life Quality Survey Short Form-36, and ICT Satisfaction Survey were used to obtain data for the effectiveness of ICT and parameters that may affect compliance to treatment and life quality of the participants. Results: As a main index for the effectiveness of DFX chelation therapy, serum ferritin levels were higher than the normal values in the patients receiving DFX. The increased ferritin levels were also associated with hematological and biochemical abnormalities. Our findings regarding quality of life and satisfaction with DFX chelation therapy indicated that the patients with BTM or SCA had lower scores. Overall, problems with treatment regimen and side effects appeared to be common causes of poor compliance to DFX chelation therapy. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that health care providers should be aware of the importance of monitoring iron load with timely initiation of DFX chelation therapy and ongoing adjustments to chelation regimens and/or transfusion methods to decrease hospitalizations and improve compliance to ICT of the patients with BTM and SCA.

  7. Anti-Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies and Male Gender Are Associated with Diabetes Occurrence in Patients with Beta-Thalassemia Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pes, Giovanni M.; Tolu, Francesco; Dore, Maria P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Intensive transfusion schedule and iron-chelating therapy prolonged and improved quality of life in patients with β-thalassemia (β-T) major. However, this led to an increased risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. In this study we analyzed variables associated with the occurrence of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes in patients with β-T major. Methods. 388 Sardinian patients were included. Age, gender, duration of chelation therapy, body mass index, and markers of pancreatic and extrapancreatic autoimmunity were analyzed. Results. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies (Ab) (OR = 3.36; p = 0.008) and male gender (OR = 1.98; p = 0.025) were significantly associated with glucose impairment, while the other variables were not. Ferritin levels were significantly higher in TPOAb positive compared to TPOAb negative patients (4870 ± 1665 μg/L versus 2922 ± 2773 μg/L; p < 0.0001). Conclusions. In patients with β-T major a progressive damage of insulin-producing cells due to secondary hemosiderosis appears to be the most reasonable mechanism associated with glucose metabolism disorders. The findings need to be confirmed with additional well designed studies to address the question of whether TPOAb may have a role in the management of these patients.

  8. Co-existence of Phenylketonuria (PKU) and beta-Thalassemia Major in a 16 Years Old Girl: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Karami; Mehrnoush Kosaryan; Aili Aliasgharian; Ali Abbaskhanian; Rayka Sharifian; Mehrdad Taghipour

    2012-01-01

    While thalassemia major (TM) used to be a prevalent genetic disease in the past, however, (PKU) is quite rare in spite of consanquiness marriage rate of about 40% in the region. Preventive efforts for TM started >20 years ago but neonatal screening for PKU started since 2007. This is the first report of co-existence of thalassemia and PKU in Middle East and in consideration of the prevalence of each genes, this chance association is a very unusual event. We report a case of having PKU and TM

  9. Pentraxin-3 Levels in Beta Thalassemia Major and Minor Patients and Its Relationship With Antioxidant Capacity and Total Oxidant Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik Balci, Yasemin; Nuray, Esin; Polat, Aziz; Enli, Yaşar; Ozgurler, Funda; Akin, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Thalassemia major (TM) results in hemolytic anemia, an increase in intestinal iron absorption, and occurrence of iron loading due to erythrocyte transfusion; the disease is characterized by oxidative damage in major organs. Oxidative stress leads to vascular endothelial damage and forms the basis for serious cardiovascular diseases. Pentraxin-3 (PTX-3) is one of the markers of vascular endothelial damage that increases in response to the oxidative stress, which can be used as an early diagnostic marker for inflammation. This study's purpose is to define the relation between PTX-3 and the vascular endothelial damage that increases with oxidative stress in thalassemia patients. Our study included 35 TM patients, 30 β-thalassemia minor patients, and 30 healthy children. As a result of our study, in TM patients, a positive relation was detected between the PTX-3 levels and the total oxidative stress, triglyceride, and very low-density lipoprotein values, whereas a negative relation was detected with the total antioxidant capacity and high-density lipoprotein values. This result shows that as oxidant stress increases, PTX-3 levels also increase; very low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride contribute to the endothelial damage occurring with oxidative stress. As a result, it was concluded that vascular endothelial damage in thalassemia patients can be evaluated through the serum PTX-3 level. PMID:26599985

  10. [Beta-thalassemias: molecular, epidemiological, diagnostical and clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Philippe; Pondarre, Corinne; Badens, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Beta-thalassemia is one of most common autosomal recessive disorders worldwide. In France, 5 to 10 new major or intermedia forms are diagnosed annually and the global prevalence is about 500 cases. Since 20 years and thanks to the generalization of iron chelator treatments, the life expectancy has dramatically increased. Nearly 90% of the ?-thalassemic alleles are point mutations easily identified by Sanger sequencing or dedicated methods. The remaining 10% are deletions detectable by MLPA or CGH Array. The alpha-globin genotype is also essential in the exploration of beta-thalassemia because an alpha-thalassemia improves the clinical state whereas an alpha triplication worsens it. The additional genotyping of a few HbF inducer polymorphisms allows to predict the age of the first transfusion, thanks to a recent dedicated algorithm, making beta-thalassemia one of the first potential application of predictive medicine. Gene therapy, pre-implantatory diagnosis and new drugs (Sotatercept, hepcidin-like molecules) have also recently contributed to make beta-thalassemia a main scientific topic again. PMID:25486662

  11. [Osteoarthropathy in beta-thalassemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaev, S K; Iakovleva, G I; Nasonova, V A; Smirnov, A V; Abasov, E Sh; Efendieva, E G

    1991-01-01

    A total of 45 patients with beta-thalassemia and 30 patients with thalassemia intermedia underwent clinical and x-ray examinations. Electron microscopy was used to examine biopsy specimens of the synovial membrane from 6 patients with homozygous thalassemia intermedia. It has been revealed that damage to the osseous system and joints is of systemic nature and depends on the clinical form of the pathological process. Morphological methods have demonstrated abnormal metabolism of iron with its deposition in the tissues and impairment of the vessels of the microcirculatory bed. PMID:1887421

  12. Effects of the anti-receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand denusomab on beta thalassemia major-induced osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A Yassin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis represents the second most common cause of endocrinopathy in patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM. Some drugs proved effective to reduce vertebral and non-vertebral fracture risk. Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody to the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily essential for osteoclastogenesis. The efficacy and safety of denosumab in BTM-induced osteoporosis has not been tested. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-RANKL on the biochemical and radiological parameters of bone mineralization in patients with BTM-induced osteoporosis. Design: The study population was selected using the random sampling method from the patient?s database of our thalassemia clinic. Transfusion-dependent BTM patients above 18 years with no history of treatment with bisphosphonates were randomly selected. Bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine (LS and right femoral neck (FN were measured by dual energy X-ray absorption (DEXA scan using a calibrated method. Independent factors likely to be associated with low bone mass were determined and included in the analysis to ascertain possible associations. Patients and Methods: We studied 30 patients with BTM-induced osteoporosis as per World Health Organization criteria (T Score of less than ? 1.0 being defined as osteopenic and a T Score of less than ? 2.5 being referred as osteoporotic. 19 males and 11 females aged between 18 and 32 years, with full pubertal development (Tanner?s stage 5 at the time of the study. Their mean serum ferritin concentration was 3557 ng 1488 ng/ml. Every patient underwent DEXA scan as a baseline and after 12 months of denosumab therapy. Biochemical evaluation including serum concentrations of creatinine, Na, K, calcium, phosphorus, parathormone, bone specific alkaline phosphatase and type 1 collagen carboxy telopetide (ICCT using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Nordic Bioscience Diagnostics A/S was done at baseline, after a month and then every 3 months for 12 months after starting denosumab. 60 mg of denosumab was administered subcutaneously twice yearly for a year. The mean BMD T Scores at baseline were ?2.7 at the LS and ?2.1 at the FN. Results: Denosumab therapy for a year was associated with a significant increase in BMD of 9.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.2-10.1 at the LS and 6.0% (95% CI, 5.2-6.7 at the FN. Denosumab treatment decreased serum ICCT levels by 56% at 1 month and normalized them in all patients at 1 year. Significant correlations were found between BMD T Score before and 1 year after denosumab in LS (r = 0.752, P < 0.001 and FN (r = 0.758 P < 0.001, respectively. The most common side effects were pain in the back and extremities (12% and nausea (10%. Asymptomatic hypocalcaemia occurred in two patients. Conclusion: Denosumab therapy for a year significantly increased BMD density at LS and FN of patients with BTM and was associated with a rapid and sustained reduction in ICCT levels. Further studies are required to confirm long-term effects of this therapy.

  13. Plastic bronchitis in beta thalassemia minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makaresh Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis is a rare pulmonary disorder associated with various conditions like cystic fibrosis, asthma, pulmonary infection and characterized by formation and expectoration of cast which assumes the shape of the bronchial tree. We report a case of a 33-year-old woman with beta thalassemia minor who developed plastic bronchitis.

  14. Plastic bronchitis in beta thalassemia minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Makaresh; Tirpude, Sneha; Joshi, Jyotsna M.

    2013-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare pulmonary disorder associated with various conditions like cystic fibrosis, asthma, pulmonary infection and characterized by formation and expectoration of cast which assumes the shape of the bronchial tree. We report a case of a 33-year-old woman with beta thalassemia minor who developed plastic bronchitis. PMID:24049256

  15. Neurological complications of beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtsas, P; Arnaoutoglou, M; Perifanis, V; Koutsouraki, E; Orologas, A

    2015-08-01

    The thalassemias are the most common single gene disorder in the world. Over the last years, several reports have demonstrated neurological complications in beta-thalassemia patients. In most cases, these complications remained subclinical and were detected only during neuropsychological, neurophysiological, or neuroimaging evaluation. Cognitive impairment, abnormal findings on evoked potentials, complications due to extramedullary hematopoiesis, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral neuropathy comprise the broad spectrum of neurological involvement. Chronic hypoxia, iron overload, desferrioxamine neurotoxicity, and bone marrow expansion are implicated, but sufficient explanatory evidence is lacking and development of biomarkers is needed. This review summarizes current knowledge of the neurological complications. As life expectancy for beta-thalassemia patients increases, we support the use of neurophysiological, neuropsychological, or neuroimaging monitoring, enabling the evaluation of neural pathway impairment, to achieve appropriate management and as a result a better quality of life for this patient group. PMID:25903043

  16. Hematology of a murine. beta. -thalassemia: a longitudinal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, R.A.; Popp, D.M.; Johnson, F.M.; Skow, L.C.; Lewis, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Mice homozygous for a spontaneous mutation, in which the ..beta..-major globin gene is deleted, have clinical symptoms of ..beta..-thalassemia. These mice have a hypocellular, hypochromic, microcytic anemia that becomes more severe with increasing age. The defective red cell morphology, decreased osmotic fragility of erythrocytes and shortened red cell life span found in ..beta..-thalassemic mice are similar to those observed in human ..beta..-thalassemia. Synthesis of ..beta..-globin is depressed but not as much as might be expected because the expression of the..beta..-minor globin gene is enhanced to encode two to three times more globin than in normal mice. Splenomegaly, an enlarged pool of stem cells for erythropoiesis, and iron overloading occur in older mice. The fact that these mice remain moderately healthy makes them a very suitable animal model in which to develop and test alternative techniques of gene therapy that could be successfully applied to the treatment of human thalassemia. Homozygous ..beta..-thalassemic mice have large deposits of iron in their tissues, which might make these mice also useful for in vivo tests of the effectiveness and possible long-term side effects for newly developed iron chelators.

  17. Comparative evaluation of NESTROFT and RDW as screening tests for beta thalassemia trait in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritibala Patel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thalassemia is the commonest inherited hemoglobinopathy. It is estimated that there are about 45 million carriers of the beta thalassemia gene and about 15000 affected infants are born every year in India, thereby contributing to about 10% of the total thalassemia babies born all over the world. Beta Thalassemia Trait (BTT is asymptomatic while Beta Thalassemia Major (BTM presents with severe anemia and requires lifelong blood transfusion, so emphasis must shift from treatment to screening and offering prenatal counseling to affected parents. Methods: It was a hospital based cross sectional study on 500 antenatal women with microcytic hypochromic anemia with hemoglobin <9 gm% and MCV <80 fl and all these women underwent Naked Eye Single Tube Red Cell Osmotic Fragility Test (NESTROFT, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and serum ferritin estimation. Results: In our study the sensitivity and specificity of NESTROFT was 93.3% and 95.7% respectively compared to Red cell Distribution Width (RDW with a sensitivity and specificity of 66.6% and 78.9% respectively. Conclusions: For low resource settings like India, screening for beta thalassemia by NESTROFT is a cheaper and more reliable method with a high sensitivity and specificity and can be performed easily by paramedical staff. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 424-428

  18. Intracranial Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in Beta-Thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) represents tumor-like proliferation of hemopoietic tissue which complicates chronic hemoglobinopathy. Intracranial EMH is an extremely rare occurrence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a precise diagnosis. It is essential to distinguish EMH from other extradural central nervous system tumors, because treatment and prognosis are totally different. Herein, we report the imaging findings of beta-thalassemia in a 13-year-old boy complaining of weakness of left side of the body and gait disturbance; CT and MRI revealed an extradural mass in the right temporoparietal region.

  19. Intracranial Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in Beta-Thalassemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karki, Bivek; Xu, Yi Kai; Wu, Yuan Kui [Nan fang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Tamrakar, Karuna [Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-03-15

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) represents tumor-like proliferation of hemopoietic tissue which complicates chronic hemoglobinopathy. Intracranial EMH is an extremely rare occurrence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a precise diagnosis. It is essential to distinguish EMH from other extradural central nervous system tumors, because treatment and prognosis are totally different. Herein, we report the imaging findings of beta-thalassemia in a 13-year-old boy complaining of weakness of left side of the body and gait disturbance; CT and MRI revealed an extradural mass in the right temporoparietal region.

  20. EXERCISE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY WITH TISSUE DOPPLER IMAGING (TDI) DETECTS EARLY SYSTOLIC DYSFUNCTION IN BETA-THALASSEMIA MAJOR PATIENTS WITHOUT CARDIAC IRON OVERLOAD

    OpenAIRE

    Umberto Barbero

    2012-01-01

    Iron Overload Cardiomyopathy (IOC) is still the main cause of death in thalassemia major (TM) patients. Unfortunately, Conventional Echocardiography fails to predict early cardiac dysfunction. As Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) may demonstrate regional myocardial dysfunction, we wondered if exercise may reveal abnormalities at TDI which are not evident at rest. To try to evaluate left and right myocardial performances at rest and after maximal exercise by both conventional and TDI param...

  1. Pulmonary dysfunction in beta thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Ozkul Saglam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lung involvement is one of known complications of thalassemia. The aim of our study was to determine predominant type of pulmonary dysfunction and its relationship to iron overload in ß thalassemia major patients, at the same time to investigate the presence of the bronchial hyperreactivity. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven patients, 15 (56 girls and 12 (44 boys, with ß thalassemia major who were followed up from pediatric hematology department were recruited in this study. The patients who were followed up at least for 2 years with ß thalasemia major, having repeated transfusion and chelation therapy, older than 6 years old and without history or signs of chronic lung disease have been included in this study. Pulmonary function test and metacholine bronchial provocation test have been carried out by the same team of technicians for all subjects. Results: The mean age of the patients were 11.3±3.81 years. The age of diagnosis was 1.82±2.1 years. Splenectomy was performed in 8 (29.6 patients. Pulmonary function tests were performed before transfusion and all parameters were normal in all of the patients. Transfusion duration, age, cummulative transfusion volume, ferritin levels, hemoglobin levels, presence of splenectomy and the presence of hepatomegaly were compared with pulmonary function tests. There was no significant relation between all these parameters and forced vital capacity (FVC, peak expiratory sow (PEF, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC and forced expiratory sow at 50 (FEF50 (p>0.05 except age which was correlated inversely with FVC (p=0.008. Forced vital capacity was also inversely correlated with weight and height of the patients (p=0.02, p=0.01. None of patients had bronchial hyperreactivity. Conclusion: Restrictive lung disease was the predominant abnormality in multi-transfused thalassemics found in our study. Our data suggest the need to include periodic lung function testing in follow up of all ß thalassemia patients. More studies are necessary to verify the reasons for these respiratory alterations.

  2. Pancreatic functions in adolescents with beta thalassemia major could predict cardiac and hepatic iron loading: relation to T2-star (T2*) magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Galila M; Ibrahim, Wafaa E; Elbarbary, Nancy S; Matter, Randa M; Ibrahim, Ahmed S; Sayed, Safa M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the correlation between cardiac and hepatic T2* MRI findings with the endocrine and exocrine pancreatic functions in known patients with β-thalassaemia major (β-TM). A total of 50 adolescent patients with β-TM and 44 healthy controls were investigated via: serum amylase, lipase, triglyceride index, oral glucose tolerance test and T2* MRI, to assess iron content in the heart and liver. Diabetes was found in 20%, and 40% of patients had impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Cardiac T2* was less than 10 ms in 22% indicating heavy load with iron in cardiac tissues. There was a significant decrease in median serum amylase (63.5 vs 87.5 IU/L, p=0.003) and lipase (63 vs 90 IU/L, p=0.017) among patients in comparison with the control group. Patients with β-TM and diabetes had lower serum amylase (32 vs 68 IU/L), lipase (28 vs 79 IU/L), cardiac and hepatic T2* MRI (7 vs 25.5 ms; 3 vs 6 ms, pchelation therapy. PMID:26912010

  3. Molecular basis for dominantly inherited inclusion body. beta. -thalassemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thein, S.L.; Hesketh, C.; Wood, W.G.; Clegg, J.B.; Old, J.M.; Weatherall, D.J. (John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (England)); Taylor, P. (Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (England)); Temperley, I.J. (Saint James' s Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)); Hutchinson, R.M. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (England))

    1990-05-01

    Analysis of the molecular basis of dominantly inherited {beta}-thalassemia in four families has revealed different mutations involving exon 3 of the {beta}-globin gene. It is suggested that the phenotypic difference between this condition and the more common recessive forms of {beta}-thalassemia lies mainly in the length and stability of the abnormal translation products that are synthesized and, in particular, whether they are capable of binding heme and producing aggregations that are relatively resistant to proteolytic degradation.

  4. Molecular characterization of beta-thalassemia in the Sardinian population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosatelli, M.C.; Faa, V.; Sardu, R.; Saba, L. Cao, A. (Universita degli Studi, Cagliari (Italy)); Dozy, A.; Kan, Y.W. (University of California, San Franciso (United States)); Meloni, A. (Instituto di Ricerca sulle Talassemie e Anemie Mediterranee CNR, Cagilari (Italy))

    1992-02-01

    This study reports the molecular characterization of [beta]-thalassemia in the Sardinian population. Three thousand [beta]-thalassemia chromosomes from prospective parents presenting at the genetic service were initially analyzed by dot blot analysis with oligonucleotide probes complementary to the most common [beta]-thalassemia mutations in the Mediterranean at-risk populations. The mutation which remained uncharacterized by this approach were defined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) followed by direct sequence analysis on amplified DNA. The authors reconfirmed that the predominant mutation in the Sardinian population is the codon 39 nonsense mutation, which accounts for 95.7% of the [beta]-thalassemia chromosomes. The other two relatively common mutations are frameshifts at codon 6 (2.1%) and at codon 76 (0.7%), relatively uncommon in other Mediterranean-origin populations. In this study they have detected a novel [beta]-thalassemia mutation, i.e., a frameshift at codon 1, in three [beta]-thalassemia chromosomes. The DGGE procedure followed by direct sequencing on amplified DNA is a powerful approach for the characterization of unknown mutations in this genetic system.

  5. Quality of life among Iranian patients with beta-thalassemia major using the SF-36 questionnaire / Qualidade de vida em pacientes iranianos com beta-talassemia maior usando o questionario SF-36

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sezaneh, Haghpanah; Shiva, Nasirabadi; Fariborz, Ghaffarpasand; Rahmatollah, Karami; Mojtaba, Mahmoodi; Shirin, Parand; Mehran, Karimi.

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO Pacientes com beta-talassemia maior (?-TM) vivenciam problemas fsicos, psicolgicos e sociais que levam diminuio da qualidade de vida (QV). O objetivo foi determinar a QV relacionada sade e seus determinantes em pacientes com ?-TM, utilizando questionrio SF-36 (Short Fo [...] rm-36). TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL Estudo transversal no Centro de Hematologia e Pesquisa em Universidade de Cincias Mdicas de Shiraz, no sul do Ir. MTODOS Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 101 pacientes com ?-TM. Aps registro demogrfico e caractersticas da doena, eles foram convidados a preencher o questionrio SF-36. A correlao entre fatores clnicos e demogrficos com escore de QV foi avaliada. RESULTADOS Havia 44 homens e 57 mulheres, com idade mdia de 19,52 4,3 (variao 12-38) anos. Em duas escalas, dor (P = 0,041) e aspectos emocionais (P = 0,009), as mulheres apresentaram escores significativamente menores aos dos homens. Menor renda, baixa adeso terapia quelante de ferro e presena de comorbidades foram correlacionadas com escores SF-36 significativamente menores. Esses fatores foram tambm considerados determinantes de piores escores de SF-36 em anlise multivariada. CONCLUSES Mostramos que a presena de complicaes da doena, a baixa adeso ao tratamento da terapia quelante de ferro e o baixo status econmico so preditores de pior QV em pacientes com ?-TM. Preveno e manejo adequado das complicaes relacionadas com a doena, aumento do conhecimento dos pacientes sobre a importncia do gerenciamento de comorbidades e ter maior adeso ao tratamento quelante de ferro, considerando tambm o apoio psicossocial e financeiro, poderiam ser teis para melhor lidar com esse estado de doena crnica. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Patients with beta-thalassemia major (?-TM) experience physical, psychological and social problems that lead to decreased quality of life (QoL). The aim here was to measure health-related QoL and its determinants among patients with ?-TM, using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questi [...] onnaire. DESIGN AND SETTING Cross-sectional study at the Hematology Research Center of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, in southern Iran. METHODS One hundred and one patients with ?-TM were randomly selected. After the participants' demographics and disease characteristics had been recorded, they were asked to fill out the SF-36 questionnaire. The correlations of clinical and demographic factors with the QoL score were evaluated. RESULTS There were 44 men and 57 women of mean age 19.52 4.3 years (range 12-38). On two scales, pain (P = 0.041) and emotional role (P = 0.009), the women showed significantly lower scores than the men. Lower income, poor compliance with iron-chelating therapy and presence of comorbidities were significantly correlated with lower SF-36 scores. These factors were also found to be determinants of worse SF-36 scores in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS We showed that the presence of disease complications, poor compliance with iron-chelating therapy and poor economic status were predictors of worse QoL among patients with ?-TM. Prevention and proper management of disease-related complications, increased knowledge among patients regarding the importance of managing comorbidities and greater compliance with iron-chelating therapy, along with psychosocial and financial support, could help these patients to cope better with this chronic disease state.

  6. Premarital Screening of Beta Thalassemia Minor in north-east of Iran

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    Noori R MSc

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackgroundBeta thalassemia is a preventable disease. Iran has about 20,000Patients who are homozygote for β-thalassaemia and 3,750,000 carriers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of beta thalassemia minor among men who underwent premarital screening in Quchana city in Khorasan Razavi region of IranMaterials and MethodsThis research is a descriptive cross-sectional study. From 2010 to 2011, all participants (1000 under marriage coming to health center of Quchan underwent routine mandatory tests. Participants were considered to have beta-thalassemia minor on the condition that hey had a mean corpuscular volume (MCV 3.5%. Venous blood was taken into an EDTA tube and the complete blood count and red blood cell indices were measured with a Coulter automated cellcounter. Electrophoresis was performed on cellulose acetate.ResultsMean and SD of hemoglobin, MCV and MCH were 16±2.9, 91±4 and 28.4±2, respectively. Hemoglobin A2 Higher than 3.5 percent was reported as 3.5%.The prevalence of beta-thassemia minor with high hemoglobin A2 and microcytic hypochromic anemia was 3.5% (P-value.ConclusionIn countries with high prevalence of hemoglobinopathies, a premarital screening program is helpful for identification and prevention of high-risk marriages. Detecting carrier couples with premarital screening program is an effective way of controlling thalassemia major.

  7. Prevalence of hepatosplenomegaly in beta thalassemia minor subjects in Iran

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    Karimi, Mehran [Hemostasis and Thrombosis Unit, Hematology Research Center, school of Medicine, Shiraz University of medical sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Karimim@sums.ac.ir; Bagheri, Mohammad Hadi [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tahmtan, Mehdi [Hemostasis and Thrombosis Unit, Hematology Research Center, school of Medicine, Shiraz University of medical sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakibafard, Alireza [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashid, Murtaza [Hemostasis and Thrombosis Unit, Hematology Research Center, school of Medicine, Shiraz University of medical sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-01-15

    Introduction: Thalassemia is the most common hereditary blood disorder in the world. Iran is located on the thalassemic belt and there is a high prevalence of the hepatosplenomegaly in beta thalassemia minor patients which is reported to be very variable. The goal of this research was to study the frequency of these signs in the cases with beta thalassemia minor patients in Iran. Materials and methods: Two hundred and fifty-nine cases that referred to center for pre-marriage tests were divided into two groups according to their MCV, MCH, and HbA2 (beta thalassemia minor cases and control groups). Liver and spleen sizes were determined by ultrasonographic method and the two groups were compared with each other. Results: Average spleen volumes in case and control groups were 163.48 {+-} 133.97 and 126.29 {+-} 53.98 mm{sup 3}, respectively. Average spleen lengths in case and control groups were 10.71 {+-} 1.52 and 10.60 {+-} 5.4 cm, respectively. Conclusion: In the regions with high frequency of beta thalassemia, in case of finding large spleen size in the ultrasonography, a probable harmless differential diagnosis will be beta thalassemia minor that is not indicative of any serious disease. Volumetric measurement of spleen is more reliable for detection of splenomegaly in these patients.

  8. A study of membrane protein defects and alpha hemoglobin chains of red blood cells in human beta thalassemia

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    Rouyer-Fessard, P.; Garel, M.C.; Domenget, C.; Guetarni, D.; Bachir, D.; Colonna, P.; Beuzard, Y. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Creteil (France))

    1989-11-15

    The soluble pool of alpha hemoglobin chains present in blood or bone marrow cells was measured with a new affinity method using a specific probe, beta A hemoglobin chain labeled with ({sup 3}H)N-ethylmaleimide. This pool of soluble alpha chains was 0.067 {plus minus} 0.017% of hemoglobin in blood of normal adult, 0.11 {plus minus} 0.03% in heterozygous beta thalassemia and ranged from 0.26 to 1.30% in homozygous beta thalassemia intermedia. This elevated pool of soluble alpha chains observed in human beta thalassemia intermedia decreased 33-fold from a value of 10% of total hemoglobin in bone marrow cells to 0.3% in the most dense red blood cells. The amount of insoluble alpha chains was measured by using the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in urea and Triton X-100. In beta thalassemia intermedia the amount of insoluble alpha chains was correlated with the decreased spectrin content of red cell membrane and was associated with a decrease in ankyrin and with other abnormalities of the electrophoretic pattern of membrane proteins. The loss and topology of the reactive thiol groups of membrane proteins was determined by using ({sup 3}H)N-ethylmaleimide added to membrane ghosts prior to urea and Triton X-100 electrophoresis. Spectrin and ankyrin were the major proteins with the most important decrease of thiol groups.

  9. The effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients

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    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thalassemia is the most common hereditary disease in the world. Thalassemic erythrocytes are exposed to higher oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients.
    METHODS: A prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of beta-carotene and vitamin E on lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes was performed on 120 beta-thalassemia major patients in four groups. The patients were supplemented for 4 weeks as follows: group 1 with beta-carotene (13 mg/day, group 2 with vitamin E (550 mg/day, group 3 with beta-carotene plus vitamin E and group 4 with placebo. We prepared all capsules for 4 roups in the same shape and color. Measurements of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were performed by high performance
    liquid chromatography. After preparation of ghost cells from blood specimens, malondialdehyde (MDA was determined as index of lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes before and after treatment. RESULTS: The levels of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were significantly lower and MDA concentrations in erythrocytes membranes were significantly higher in beta-thalassemia patients compared to controls (P<0.001. In groups that treated with vitamin supplements for 4-weeks, lipid peroxidation rates were significantly reduced after treatment (P<0.001, but in placebo group there was not significant difference (P>0.05.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that an oral treatment with beta-carotene and vitamin E can significantly reduce lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes membranes and could be useful in management of beta-thalassemia major patients. KEYWORDS: Beta-thalassemia major, beta-carotene, vitamin E, malondialdehyde, lipid peroxidation.

  10. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in beta-thalassemia heterozygotes

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    Luciana de Souza Ondei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have evaluated the oxidant and antioxidant status of thalassemia patients but most focused mainly on the severe and intermediate states of the disease. Moreover, the oxidative status has not been evaluated for the different beta-thalassemia mutations. Objective: To evaluate lipid peroxidation and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity in relation to serum iron and ferritin in beta thalassemia resulting from two different mutations (CD39 and IVS-I-110 compared to individuals without beta-thalassemia. Methods: One hundred and thirty subjects were studied, including 49 who were heterozygous for beta-thalassemia and 81 controls. Blood samples were subjected to screening tests for hemoglobin. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm mutations for beta-thalassemia, an analysis of thiobarbituric acid reactive species was used to determine lipid peroxidation, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity evaluations were performed. The heterozygous beta-thalassemia group was also evaluated for serum iron and ferritin status. Results: Thiobarbituric acid reactive species (486.24 ± 119.64 ng/mL and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values (2.23 ± 0.11 mM/L were higher in beta-thalassemia heterozygotes compared to controls (260.86 ± 92.40 ng/mL and 2.12 ± 0.10 mM/L, respectively; p-value < 0.01. Increased thiobarbituric acid reactive species values were observed in subjects with the CD39 mutation compared with those with the IVS-I-110 mutation (529.94 ± 115.60 ng/mL and 453.39 ± 121.10 ng/mL, respectively; p-value = 0.04. However, average Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values were similar for both mutations (2.20 ± 0.08 mM/L and 2.23 ± 0.12 mM/L, respectively; p-value = 0.39. There was no influence of serum iron and ferritin levels on thiobarbituric acid reactive species and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values. Conclusion: This study shows an increase of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in beta-thalassemia heterozygotes, mainly in carriers of the CD39 mutation.

  11. Ocular abnormalities in multi-transfused beta-thalassemia patients

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    Reza Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to assess ocular changes in thalassemia patients who have received multiple transfusions and chelate binding therapy in order to avoid iron accumulation. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: A total of 54 thalassemia major patients were selected as case group, and 54 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were regarded as a control group. Ocular examination included visual acuity, refraction testing, slit lamp examination, funduscopy, tonometry, perimetry, tear break-up time test, and color vision testing were performed for all the participants. We computed the frequency and duration of blood transfusion, the mean serum ferritin level, pretransfusion hemoglobin concentration, and type, duration, and daily dose of chelation therapy for thalassemia patients based on their records. Statistical Analysis Used: All data analysis was performed using SPSS, version 19. Results: All the thalassemic patients were asymptomatic, but abnormal ocular findings (dry eye (33.3%, cataract (10.2%, retinal pigment epithelium degeneration (16.7%, color vision deficiency (3.7%, and visual field defects (33.7% were seen in 68.5% of thalassemic group. The prevalence of ocular abnormalities in normal group was 19.4%, which was significantly lower than that in thalassemia patients (P = 0.000. No significant correlation was found between ocular abnormalities and mean serum ferritin level (P = 0.627 and mean hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.143. Correlation of number of blood transfusion with the presence of ocular abnormalities was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.005. Conclusions: As life expectancy for beta-thalassemia patients extends, regular ophthalmological evaluation to detect early changes in their ocular system is recommended.

  12. Alpha hemoglobin stabilizing protein: Its causal relationship with the severity of beta thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Chandan S; Kumar, Rakesh; Sharma, Dharmesh C; Kishor, Purnima

    2015-08-01

    Thalassemia major is characterized by anemia, iron overload and cellular damage. The severity of symptoms correlates with the alpha/non-alpha globin imbalance and is proportional to the magnitude of alpha chain excess. Alpha hemoglobin stabilizing protein (AHSP), the erythroid specific alpha globin chaperone, stabilizes free alpha chains, and prevents the formation of reactive oxygen radicals. Though AHSP expression has been linked to the severity of beta thalassemia, its role as a probable genetic modifier of disease severity, has still not been unequivocally established. In the present study, the level of the chaperone has been seen to vary in regularly transfused beta thalassemia patients, being underexpressed in 64% of cases, upregulated in 16% and comparable to controls in 20% of the cases. This discrepancy may be attributed to the degree of DNA damage, % HbF, and the number of nucleated RBCs in the peripheral blood of these patients. Results reveal that a decrease in the free alpha chain pool, and hence the repertoire of unbound iron, due to elevated HbF and/or the presence of nucleated RBCs in the peripheral blood results in the upregulation of the AHSP gene. PMID:26142324

  13. A genetic score for the prediction of beta-thalassemia severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjou, Fabrice; Francavilla, Marcella; Anni, Franco; Satta, Stefania; Demartis, Franca-Rosa; Perseu, Lucia; Manca, Matteo; Sollaino, Maria Carla; Manunza, Laura; Mereu, Elisabetta; Marceddu, Giuseppe; Pissard, Serge; Joly, Philippe; Thuret, Isabelle; Origa, Raffaella; Borg, Joseph; Forni, Gian Luca; Piga, Antonio; Lai, Maria Eliana; Badens, Catherine; Moi, Paolo; Galanello, Renzo

    2015-04-01

    Clinical and hematologic characteristics of beta(?)-thalassemia are determined by several factors resulting in a wide spectrum of severity. Phenotype modulators are: HBB mutations, HBA defects and fetal hemoglobin production modulators (HBG2:g.-158C>T polymorphism, HBS1L-MYB intergenic region and the BCL11A). We characterized 54 genetic variants at these five loci robustly associated with the amelioration of beta-thalassemia phenotype, to build a predictive score of severity using a representative cohort of 890 ?-thalassemic patients. Using Cox proportional hazard analysis on a training set, we assessed the effect of these loci on the age at which patient started regular transfusions, built a Thalassemia Severity Score, and validated it on a testing set. Discriminatory power of the model was high (C-index=0.705; R(2)=0.343) and the validation conducted on the testing set confirmed its predictive accuracy with transfusion-free survival probability (P<0.001) and with transfusion dependency status (Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve=0.774; P<0.001). Finally, an automatized on-line calculation of the score was made available at http://tss.unica.it. Besides the accurate assessment of genetic predictors effect, the present results could be helpful in the management of patients, both as a predictive score for screening and a standardized scale of severity to overcome the major-intermedia dichotomy and support clinical decisions. PMID:25480500

  14. Spinal cord compression due to extramedullary hematopoiesis in beta-thalassemia intermedia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) occurs in many disorders, including thalassemias and other hemoglobinopathies, and commonly presents in the spleen and liver. We present a case of spinal cord compression in a patient with beta-thalassemia intermedia, and review the literature and available treatment options. Patient and Methods: A 35-year-old black female with beta-thalassemia intermedia presented with a 3-week history of back pain and lower extremity weakness. Neurologic examination was consistent with spinal cord compression, and gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed this diagnosis. She was given intravenous steroids and radiotherapy was begun in 200 cGy fractions to a total dose of 2000 cGy. Results: At the completion of radiotherapy the patient was ambulatory with mild residual weakness. MRI scans 16 months later showed smaller, but persistent masses, and she remains asymptomatic 5 years from her diagnosis. Conclusion: Recognition of spinal cord EMH requires prompt physical examination and MRI for accurate diagnosis. EMH can be managed with radiation, surgery, transfusions, or a combination of these therapies. Radiation in conservative doses of (750-3500 cGy) is non-invasive, avoids the surgical risks of potentially severe hemorrhage and incomplete resection, and has a high complete remission rate in the majority of patients. Relapse rates are moderate (37.5%), but retreatment provides excellent chance for second remission

  15. E-BETA THALASSEMIA WITH EXTRAMEDULARY HEMATOPOIESIS: A CASE REPORT

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    Avik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH is a well-recognized process in which the body attempts to maintain erythrogenesis in response to an alteration in the normal production of red blood cells. It is observed in hemoglobinopathies, myeloproliferative disorders, neoplasm’s involving the bone marrow and other conditions. Commonly observed areas of EMH include the paraspinal regions of the thorax, liver and spleen, but it has been reported in other locations, including the adrenal gland, bowel, dura mater and breast. Our patient presented with E beta-thalassemia along with hypogonadism who was later diagnosed of having EMH by imaging studies.

  16. X-ray scattering signatures of {beta}-thalassemia

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    Desouky, Omar S. [Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) (Egypt); Elshemey, Wael M. [Biophysics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt)], E-mail: waelelshemey@yahoo.com; Selim, Nabila S. [Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) (Egypt)

    2009-08-11

    X-ray scattering from lyophilized proteins or protein-rich samples is characterized by the presence of two characteristic broad peaks at scattering angles equivalent to momentum transfer values of 0.27 and 0.6 nm{sup -1}, respectively. These peaks arise from the interference of coherently scattered photons. Once the conformation of a protein is changed, these two peaks reflect such change with considerable sensitivity. The present work examines the possibility of characterizing the most common cause of hemolytic anaemia in Egypt and many Mediterranean countries; {beta}-thalassemia, from its X-ray scattering profile. This disease emerges from a genetic defect causing reduced rate in the synthesis of one of the globin chains that make up hemoglobin. As a result, structurally abnormal hemoglobin molecules are formed. In order to detect such molecular disorder, hemoglobin samples of {beta}-thalassemia patients are collected, lyophilized and measured using a conventional X-ray diffractometer. Results show significant differences in the X-ray scattering profiles of most of the diseased samples compared to control. The shape of the first scattering peak at 0.27 nm{sup -1}, in addition to the relative intensity of the first to the second scattering peaks, provides the most reliable signs of abnormality in diseased samples. The results are interpreted and confirmed with the aid of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of normal and thalassemia samples.

  17. Diffuse Hepatic Calcifications in a Transfusion-Dependent Patient with Beta-Thalassemia: A Case Report

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    Forough Saki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic calcification is usually associated with infectious, vascular, or neoplastic processes in the liver. We report the first case of beta-thalassemia major with isolated diffuse hepatic calcification in a 23 year old woman, who had been transfusion-dependent since the age of 6 months. She was referred to our center with a chief complaint of abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed diffuse hepatic calcification in the right, left, and caudate lobes of the liver. Her medical history disclosed hypoparathyroidism as well as chronic hepatitis C virus infection, which was successfully treated but led to early micronodular cirrhosis on liver biopsy. Other studies done to search for the cause of hepatic calcification failed to reveal any abnormalities. We suspect that hypoparathyroidism caused liver calcification, and should be, therefore, considered in the differential diagnosis of hepatic calcification if other causative factors have been ruled out.

  18. Blood group genotyping facilitates transfusion of beta-thalassemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Lilian; Rios, Maria; Pellegrino, Jordo; T O Saad, Sara; F Costa, Fernando

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of blood group genotyping as a supplement to hemagglutination to determine the red blood cell (RBC) antigen profile of polytransfused patients with beta-thalassemia. We selected 10 alloimmunized patients who were receiving antigen-matched RBCs based on phenotype, and had clinical evidence of delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction. DNA was prepared from blood samples and RH E/e, K1/K2, FY A/FY B, and JK A/JK B alleles were determined by PCR-RFLP. RH D/non-D was determined according to the PCR product size associated with the RHD gene sequence in intron 4 and exon 10/3'UTR. RH C/c was tested by multiplex PCR. The phenotypes and genotypes of nine of the 10 samples were discrepant. Five of the discrepancies occurred in the Rh system. One sample was phenotyped as Rhcc and genotyped as RH C/C, and two samples were phenotyped as RhCc and genotyped as RH C/C. Two other samples were phenotyped as RhEe and genotyped as RH e/e. Three samples had discrepancies in the Kidd system with phenotype Jk(a+b+) and were genotyped as homozygous for JK B. One sample had a discrepancy in the Duffy system: it was phenotyped as Fy(a+b-) and homozygous for FY B. Genotyping was very important in determining the true blood groups of many polytransfused patients with beta-thalassemia, and it assisted in the identification of suspected alloantibodies and the selection of antigen-negative RBCs for transfusion. PMID:12357449

  19. THERAPEUTIC VALUE OF COMBINED THERAPY WITH DEFERASIROX AND SILYMARIN ON IRON OVERLOAD IN CHILDREN WITH BETA THALASSEMIA

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    adel abd elhaleim hagag

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available abstractBackground: Beta thalassemia is an inherited hemoglobin disorder resulting in chronic hemolytic anemia requiring life-long blood transfusion that cause iron overload. Silymarin plays a role as oral iron chelator and hepatoprotective agents in thalassemic patients.The aim of this work was to determine silymarin value as an iron chelator in thalassemic patients with iron overload.Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on 40 children with beta thalassemia major under follow-up at Hematology Unit, Pediatric Department, Tanta University Hospital having serum ferritin level more than 1000 ng/ml and was divided in two groups. Group IA: Received oral Deferasirox (Exjade and silymarin for 6 months. Group IB: Received oral Deferasirox (Exjade and placebo for 6 months and 20 healthy children serving as a control group in the period between April 2011 and August 2012 and was performed after approval from research ethical committee center in Tanta University Hospital and obtaining an informed written parental consent from all participants in this research. Results: Serum ferritin levels were markedly decreased in group IA cases compared with group IB (P= 0.001. Conclusion: From this study we concluded that, silymarin in combination with Exjade can be safely used in treatment of iron-loaded thalassemic patients as it showed good iron chelation with no sign of toxicity. Recommendations: Extensive multicenter studies in large number of patients with longer duration of follow up and more advanced methods of assessment of iron status is recommended to clarify the exact role of silymarin in reduction of iron over load in children with beta thalassemia.  

  20. Genetic counseling for beta-thalassemia trait following health screening in a health maintenance organization: comparison of programmed and conventional counseling.

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, L; Rowley, P T; Lipkin, M

    1981-01-01

    Providing adequate counseling of patients identified in genetic screening programs is a major responsibility and expense. Adults in a health maintenance organization, unselected for interest, were screened for beta-thalassemia trait as part of preventive health care. Counseling was provided by either a trained physician (conventional counseling) or by a videotape containing the same information followed by an opportunity to question a trained physician (programmed counseling). Immediately bef...

  1. THE DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF PULSED WAVE TISSUE DOPPLER IMAGING IN ASYMPTOMATIC BETA- THALASSEMIA MAJOR CHILDREN AND YOUNG ADULTS ; RELATION TO CHEMICAL BIOMARKERS OF LEFT VENTRICULAR FUNCTION AND IRON OVERLOAD .

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    Seham Ragab

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac iron toxicity is the leading cause of death among  β-halassaemia major (TM  patients.  Once  heart failure becomes overt , it will be  difficult to reverse . Objectives: To investigate non overt cardiac dysfunctions  in TM patients using  pulsed wave Tissue Doppler  Imaging (TD I and its relation to the iron overload and brain natruritic peptide (BNP. Methods: Thorough  clinical , conventional echo and  pulsed  wave TDI  parameters were compared between  asymtomatic 25 β-TM  patients  and 20 age and gender matched individuals. Serum ferritin and plasma BNP  levels were assayed by  ELISA .  Results: TM patients had significant higher mitral inflow early diastolic (E wave and  non significant other conventional echo  parameters. Pulsed wave TDI revealed systolic and diastolic dysfunctions in the form of significant higher  isovolumetric contraction time (ICT , ejection time ( E T and  isovolumetric relaxation time (IRT with significantly lower  mitral annulus  early diastolic velocity E` (12.07 ±2.06 vs 15.04±2.65 ,P= 0.003  in patients compared to  controls. Plasma BNP was higher in patients compared to the controls.  Plasma BNP and serum ferritin had significant correlation with each other and with pulsed wave conventional and TDI indices of systolic and diastolic functions.  Patients with E/E` ≥ 8 had  significant higher  serum ferritin  and plasma BNP levels compared to those with E/E` ratio < 8 without difference in Hb levels .Conclusion:  Pulsed wave TDI  is an  important diagnostic tool for latent cardiac dysfunction in iron loaded TM patients and is related to iron overload and BNP .    

  2. Detection of glycemic abnormalities in adolescents with beta thalassemia using continuous glucose monitoring and oral glucose tolerance in adolescents and young adults with β-thalassemia major: Pilot study

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    Ashraf T Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both insulin deficiency and resistance are reported in patients with β-thalassemia major (BTM. The use of continuous blood glucose monitoring (CGM, among the different methods for early detection of glycemic abnormalities, has not been studied thoroughly in these adolescents. Materials and Methods: To assess the oralglucose tolerance (OGT and 72-h continuous glucose concentration by the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA, and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI was conducted in 16 adolescents with BTM who were receiving regular blood transfusions every 2-4 weeks and iron-chelation therapy since early childhood. Results: Sixteen adolescents with BTM (age: 19.75 ± 3 years were investigated. Using OGTT, (25% had impaired fasting blood (plasma glucose concentration (BG (>5.6 mmol/L. 2-h after the glucose load, one of them had BG = 16.2 mmol/L (diabetic and two had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT (BG > 7.8 and 11.1 mmol/L and 9 with IGT (56%. HOMA and QUICKI revealed levels 0.33 (0.36 ± 0.03, respectively, ruling out significant insulin resistance in these adolescents. There was a significant negative correlation between the β-cell function (B% on one hand and the fasting and the 2-h BG (r=−0.6, and − 0.48, P < 0.01, respectively on the other hand. Neither fasting serum insulin nor c-peptide concentrations were correlated with fasting BG or ferritin levels. The average and maximum blood glucose levels during CGM were significantly correlated with the fasting BG (r = 0.68 and 0.39, respectively, with P < 0.01 and with the BG at 2-hour after oral glucose intake (r = 0.87 and 0.86 respectively, with P < 0.001. Ferritin concentrations were correlated with the fasting BG and the 2-h blood glucose levels in the OGTT (r = 0.52, and r = 0.43, respectively, P < 0.01 as well as with the average BG recorded by CGM (r = 0.75, P < 0.01. Conclusion: CGM has proven to be superior to OGTT for the diagnosis of glycemic abnormalities in adolescents with BTM. Defective β-cell function rather than insulin resistance appeared to be the cause for these abnormalities.

  3. Marcadores eletrocardiogrficos para deteco precoce de doena cardaca em pacientes com talassemia beta maior / Electrocardiographic markers for the early detection of cardiac disease in patients with beta-thalassemia major

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kemal, Nisli; Yavuz, Taner; Oner, Naci; Salcioglu, Zafer; Karakas, Zeynep; Dindar, Aygun; Umrah, Aydogan; Rukiye, Eker; Turkan, Ertugrul.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar comparativamente a disperso da onda P (DOP) em pacientes com talassemia beta maior (?-TM) e indivduos saudveis (controles) para a deteco precoce do risco de arritmias. MTODOS: Oitenta e uma crianas com ?-TM, com idades entre 4 e 19 anos, e 74 crianas saudveis (grupo contr [...] ole) foram submetidas a exame eletrocardiogrfico e ecocardiograma transtorcico de rotina para avaliao cardaca. A DOP foi calculada como a diferena entre as duraes mxima e mnima da onda P. RESULTADOS: Houve uma diferena estatisticamente significativa entre o grupo de estudo e o grupo controle no pico de velocidade do fluxo transmitral no incio da distole (E) e na razo E/fluxo transmitral tardio (A). A durao mxima da onda P e a DOP foram significativamente maiores nos pacientes com ?-TM do que nos indivduos controles. CONCLUSES: O aumento da DOP em nossos pacientes com ?-TM pode estar relacionado depresso na conduo intra-atrial, devido dilatao atrial, e ao aumento da atividade simptica. Estes pacientes devem ser acompanhados atentamente devido possibilidade de ocorrncia de arritmias com risco de vida. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To comparatively evaluate P-wave dispersion (PWD) in patients with ?-thalassemia major (TM) and healthy control subjects for the early prediction of arrhythmia risk. METHODS: Eighty-one children with ?-TM, aged 4-19 years, and 74 healthy children (control group) underwent routine electroc [...] ardiography and transthoracic echocardiography for cardiac evaluation. PWD was calculated as the difference between the maximum and the minimum P-wave duration. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between study and control groups in peak early (E) mitral inflow velocity and E/late (A) velocity ratio. Maximum P-wave duration and PWD were found to be significantly higher in ?-TM patients than in control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Increased PWD in our ?-TM patients might be related to depression of intra-atrial conduction due to atrial dilatation and increased sympathetic activity. These patients should be closely followed up for risk of life-threatening arrhythmias.

  4. Spinal cord compression in {beta}-thalassemia: follow-up after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Silvana Fahel da; Figueiredo, Maria Stella; Cancado, Rodolfo Delfini; Nakadakare, Fernando; Segreto, Roberto; Kerbauy, Jose [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina

    1998-12-01

    Spinal cord compression due to extramedullary hematopoiesis is a well-described bu rare syndrome encountered in several hematologic disorders, including {beta}-thalassemia. We report a case of a patient with intermediate {beta}-thalassemia and crural paraparesis due to spinal cord compression by a paravertebral extramedullary mass. She was successfully treated with low-dose radiotherapy and transfusions. After splenectomy, she was regularly followed up for over four years without transfusion or recurrence of spinal cord compression. Extramedullary hematopoiesis should be investigated in patients with hematologic disorders and spinal cord symptoms. The rapid recognition and treatment with radiotherapy can dramatically alleviate symptoms. (author)

  5. beta-Thalassemia trait and hyperbilirubinemia in G-6-PD deficient newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, T; Erre, S; Gallisai, D; Cutillo, S

    1980-08-01

    Hb A2 was determined in 50 subjects with erythrocyte G-6-PD deficiency who presented with hyperbilirubinemia in the neonatal period and in 100 non-hyperbilirubinemic G-6-PD deficient newborn infants, at the age of 12 months or more. Six subjects in the first group and 13 in the second were found to be carriers of the beta-thalassemia trait. Statistical analysis of the data did not show any significant difference between the two groups. It seems that the beta-thalassemia trait does not provide any protection against neonatal hyperbilirubinemia associated with G-6-PD deficiency. PMID:7439196

  6. [HbC/beta-thalassemia association. Eleven cases observed in Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattoum, S; Guemira, F; Abdennebi, M; Ben Abdeladhim, A

    1993-01-01

    Eleven cases of simultaneous HbC hemoglobinopathy and beta-thalassemia were detected during a study of 11,200 subjects at high risk for inherited hemoglobin anomalies. In seven cases, main clinical manifestations were anemia and enlargement of the spleen, whereas the four other patients were apparently free of symptoms and were diagnosed during routine tests in family members of affected patients. Microcytosis and hypochromia were found in every case. Most of the patients were from the North-Western part of Tunisia. Blood transfusions were required in only one patient, who was an infant with HbC/beta + thalassemia. PMID:8442646

  7. Frequency of red cell allo- and autoimmunization in patients with transfusion-dependent beta thalassemia and affecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyi?it, Cemil; Elia?k, Kay?; Kan?k, Ali; Atabay, Berna; Trker, Meral

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the frequency of red cell allo- and autoimmunization and analyze the factors responsible for the development of antibodies in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia. This crosssectional study was conducted on 139 patients with thalassemia major and intermedia who received leukodepleted RBC transfusions on a regular basis. Patients with a positive antibody screen were further tested for antibody identification by a gel method. Red cell alloantibodies were found in 9 (6.4%) patients, and autoantibodies were found in 17 (12.2%) patients. The most common alloantibodies detected were those against Rh and Kell antigen systems. The alloantibody development rate was higher in thalassemia intermedia patients, in Rh(-) patients, in patients with an initial transfusion age >2 years and in patients with a transfusion interval >3 weeks (pcrossmatching with Kell and Rh subgroups may reduce alloimmunization in chronically transfused beta-thalassemia patients. PMID:26022583

  8. Evaluation of the children with beta-thalassemia in terms of their self-concept, behavioral, and parental attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçn, Siddika Songül; Durmuşoğlu-Sendoğdu, Mine; Gümrük, Fatma; Unal, Selma; Karg, Eda; Tuğrul, Belma

    2007-08-01

    This study was planned to explore the self-concept, behavioral, and parental attitudes of the children with beta-thalassemia major, and the factors that affect them. The study was undertaken between January and June 2004 at the Hacettepe University Ihsan Doğramaci Children's Hospital, Pediatric Hematology Unit, Ankara and 43 voluntary children with beta-thalassemia major on regular blood transfusion and iron chelation treatment between the ages of 5.0 and 18.0 years were included into the study. Age, sex, birth order, school performance, hemoglobin value, serum ferritin levels, associated illness, splenectomy status, presence of thalassemic sibling or relatives, death of thalassemic relatives, place of residence, maternal and paternal education were recorded. Parental Attitude Research Instrument, Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale, and Child Behavior Checklist were applied. Higher educated mothers have lower overprotection (P=0.009), parental discordance (P=0.044), and discipline scores (P=0.002) than lower educated mothers. In cases with death of thalassemic relatives, democratic/equality attitude scores were decreased (P=0.034). With stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, splenectomy, good school achievement, absence of death of thalassemic relatives, and serum ferritin levels were found to increase Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale; however, total behavior problem score was found to decrease with increasing age, splenectomy and decreasing overprotection subscale of Parental Attitude Research Instrument scores. The self-esteem and behavior problems of children with thalassemia depended not only on the variables related exclusively to the child (age, school achievement) and the illness-associated conditions (splenectomy, serum ferritin levels) but also on the parental attitude (overprotection). PMID:17762492

  9. Prevalence of Beta-Thalassemia in premarital screening in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Al-Hassa area is one of the regions in Saudi Arabia where hemoglobinopathies are prevalent. The Saudi Ministry of Health designed a protocol for premarital testing after the royal decree in December 2003. The protocol was implemented in a February 2004 order. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of beta-thalassemia trait among subjects coming for premarital screening in the Al-Hassa area. From February 2004 to November 2004, healthy subjects coming to six marriages consultation centers in the Al-Hassa area underwent routine mandatory tests. Subjects were considered to have beta-thalassemia trait if they had a mean corpuscular volume (MCV), 80 fL and/or a mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) 3.2%. Venous blood was taken into ETDA tube and the complete blood count and red blood cell indices were measured by a Coulter automated cell counter on the same day of hemoglobin collection. Electrophoresis was done on cellulose acetate. All Saudi participants (n=8918), including 4218 (47.3%) males and 4700 (52.7%) females were screened. The prevalence of beta-thalassemia trait with high hemoglobin A2 and microcytic hypochromic anemia was 3.4% (307/8918). In countries with a high prelevance of hemoglobinopathies, a premarital screening program is helpful for identification and prevention of high-risk marriages. With a 3.4% prevalence of beta-thalassemia trait in premarital couples, future comprehensive programs are needed to know the actual prevalence of beta-thalassemia in Al-Hassa. (author)

  10. Molecular basis of beta-thalassemia in the population of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattoum, Slaheddine; Messaoud, Taeib; Bibi, Amina

    2004-08-01

    The present study attempts to delineate the spectrum of beta-thalassemia (thal) mutations in Tunisia by studying a large population from different parts of the country. A total of 285 unrelated subjects, 190 of whom had beta-thal major, 72 with Hb S/beta-thal, one with Hb C/beta-thal, one with Hb O-Arab/beta-thal and 21 beta-thal carriers, were studied. The molecular defects were detected in 97.7% of the beta-thalassemic chromosomes (n=475). Nineteen different beta-thalassemic alleles were identified. Two mutations, namely codon 39 (C-->T) and IVS-I-110 (G-->A) accounted for 70.0% of the studied chromosomes, followed by IVS-I-1 (G-->A) (4.5%). Five other mutations, frameshift codon (FSC) 44 (-C), codon 30 (G-->C), IVS-I-2 (T-->G), IVS-II-745 (C-->G), and FSC 6 (-A), are not uncommon in this population, while the remaining 11 mutations, IVS-I-5 (G-->A), -30 (T-->A), codons 25/26 (+T), IVS-I-6 (T-->C), FSC 5 (-CT), IVS-II-848 (C-->A), FSC 8 (-AA), -87 (C-->G), IVS-I-5 (G-->C), IVS-II-1 (G-->A) and IVS-II-849 (A-->C) are quite rare; four of these have not been previously reported in the Tunisian population. Potential origin and spread of these mutations to Tunisia are also discussed. PMID:15481884

  11. Extramedullary Hematopoiesis Presenting as a Right Adrenal Mass in a Patient With Beta Thalassemia

    OpenAIRE

    Karami, Hossein; Kosaryan, Mehrnoush; Taghipour, Mehrdad; Sharifian, Rayka; Aliasgharian, Aili; Motalebi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Extramedullary hematopoiesis in the kidney and adrenal are rarely reported in medical literature and are usually found as incidentaloma. It usually occurs in patients with hematologic disorder such as thalassemia. Case Presentation: The patient was a 23-year-old Iranian man with beta thalassemia who was admitted with a suprarenal mass. Adrenal mass was detected by ultrasonography and computed tomography. Results of biochemical evaluations were insignificant. The patient underwen...

  12. [Association of Hbo Arab/beta-thalassemia discovered fortuitously in 2 brothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongalgi, M A; Debbabi, A; Guemira, F; Fattoum, S

    1992-04-01

    A four-year-old boy admitted for fever and a skin rash was diagnosed as having a rickettsial infection. Regenerative microcytic anemia and enlargement of the spleen were also found. Hemoglobin electrophoresis and a family study disclosed a combination of two heterozygous hemoglobinopathies, i.e., HbO Arab and beta-thalassemia. A male sibling had the same anomalies as the index patient and was free of symptoms. PMID:1616242

  13. Rare association between two genetic conditions: turner syndrome and beta thalassemia minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina STOICANESCU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Rare disorders are defined as diseases, including those of genetic origin, which are life-threatening or chronically debilitating, which are of such low prevalence that special combined efforts are needed to address them. We present a case with a rare association between two genetic conditions: Turner phenotype and beta thalassemia minor. Turner syndrome is a chromosomal disorder that is characterized by the absence of all or part of a second sex chromosome in some or all cells. This condition occurs in 1 in 2,500 to 3,000 girls. The physical features include webbing of the neck, short stature, delayed growth of the skeleton, broad chest, cardivascular abnormalities and gonadal dysgenesis. Women with this disorder are usually infertile due to ovarian failure. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by the cytogenetic and by FISH analysis, which revealed the presence of only one X chromosome. Treatment may include human growth hormone and estrogen replacement therapy. On the other hand, thalassemias are genetic conditions that result from imbalance in the normal coordinated synthesis of the globin subunits that make up the hemoglobin tetramer, leading to decreased and defective production of hemoglobin. Beta thalassemia syndromes are hereditary disorders characterized by a genetic deficiency in the synthesis of beta-globin chains. Beta thalassemia is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Thalassemia minor usually presents as an asymptomatic mild microcytic anemia, but our case also had splenomegaly and required splenectomy.

  14. Evolution of a genetic disease in an ethnic isolate:. beta. -Thalassemia in the Jews of Kurdistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rund, D.; Cohen, T.; Filon, D.; Rachmilewitz, E.; Oppenheim, A. (Hadassah Univ. Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel)); Dowling, C.E.; Warren T.C.; Kazazian, H.H. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Barak, I. (Kaplan Hospital, Rehovot (Israel))

    1991-01-01

    {beta}-Thalassemia is a hereditary disease caused by any of 90 different point mutations in the {beta}-globin gene. Specific populations generally carry a small number of mutations, the most common of which are those that are widely distributed regionally. The present study constitutes an extensive molecular characterization of this disease in a small, highly inbred ethnic group with a high incidence of {beta}-thalassemia-the Jews of Kurdistan. An unusual mutational diversity was observed. In 42 sibships 13 different mutations were identified, of which 3 are newly discovered. Four of the mutations are unique to Kurdish Jews and have not been discovered in any other population. A fifth was found outside Kurdish Jews only in an Iranian from Khuzistan, a region bordering Kurdistan. Two-thirds of the mutant chromosomes carry the mutations unique to Kurdish Jews. The authors traced the origin of the mutations to specific geographic regions within Kurdistan. This information, supported by haplotype analysis, suggests that thalassemia in central Kurdistan (northern Iraq) has evolved primarily from multiple mutational events. They conclude that several evolutionary mechanisms contributed to the evolution of {beta}-thalassemia in this small ethnic isolate.

  15. beta-thalassaemia major hos børn og unge i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Anne; Main, Katharina Maria; Scheibel, Elma; Peitersen, Birgit; Clausen, Niels; Erichsen, Gunna; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Illum, Niels

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Beta-thalassemia major occurs with increasing frequency among Danish children as a result of immigration. The aim of the study was to estimate the occurrence of beta-thalassemia major in Denmark, analyse the treatment and organ functions, and identify areas for an improved treatment...

  16. Beta-thalassemia- institution based analysis of ethnic and geographic distribution, effect of consanguinity and safety of chorionic villus sampling as a diagnostic, tool for pre-natal diagnosis in selected patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the ethnic and geographic distribution of Beta-thalassemia amongst the patients included and to study the effect of consanguinity in promoting this disease. Also, to establish the safety of CVS when used as a pre-natal diagnostic tool in aiding the early diagnosis of Beta-thalassemia in selected patients. Study Design: Descriptive Study. Place and Duration of Study: PNS Shifa Karachi, from Jan 2008 to Dec 2008. Patients and Methods: A total of 223 women out of 240 that were referred from all over Sindh to PNS Shifa Hospital Karachi for susceptible gene mutations participated in the study. The standard procedure that was used in this study was trans-abdominal aspiration of chorionic villi through suction needle. The samples were then sent for further analysis to the Pathology Department at PNS Shifa Hospital Karachi. Results: In our study population Beta-thalassemia was most prevalent in Sindhi 107 (48%) followed by Punjabi 46 (21%), 27 (12%) Pathan, and 43 (19%) Balochi. Out of 223 women, 95 were of thalassemia trait, while 85 were of thalassemia major. Fifty five percent of thalassemia trait and 56% of thalassemia major fetus parents were first cousins. The rate of pregnancy loss after performing CVS was 2.0% with no complications reported. Conclusion: It is concluded that highest percentage of thalassemia is in first cousins and sindhi origin families are mostly affected. However CVS is a safe and effective tool for prenatal diagnosis and subsequent counselling in selected couples. (author)

  17. Haematological characterisation and molecular basis of asian Indian inversion deletions delta Beta thalassemia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunger, Jitender Mohan; Gupta, Monika; Singh, Rekha; Kapoor, Rohit; Pandey, Hare Ram

    2014-09-01

    The hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) and delta beta thalassemia are heterogeneous disorders characterised by increased levels of fetal hemoglobin and high level of this Hb continues in adulthood. The distinction between these two conditions is not always possible with routine hematologic analysis and molecular characterisation of the defect is required. We encountered such a rare case of ? ? thalassemia in a 10-year-old male child who presented with features of thalassemia intermedia. Hemoglobin analysis showed 100% HbF while molecular analysis revealed Asian Indian inversion-deletion G?A?(? ?) zero thalassemia. PMID:25386442

  18. Fortuitous diagnosis of the association of hemoglobin J-Broussais with beta + thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durou, M R; Ribault, A; Dufour, M J; Gallou, G; Ruelland, A; Le Gall, E; Cloarec, L; Legras, B

    1996-01-01

    The authors report a case, not described so far in literature, of an association of HbJ-Broussais [alpha (90 (PG2) lys-->asn beta 2] with beta + thalassemia in a young girl born of Italian father and Breton mother. This association is clinically silent. Biochemistry revealed, besides HbA, the presence of HbJ-Broussais in the proportion of 19.4% and HbA2 value of 3.9%. These percentages, slightly lower than expected, are explained. A familial study is presented. PMID:9092311

  19. Effect of pregnancy on differentiation of minor Beta-Thalassemia from iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanei M

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Differential diagnosis of Iron-deficiency anemia and Beta-Thalassemia, two common causes of anemia, affects the treatment in pregnant women. To help the diagnosis, we have tried to asses the pure effect of gestation on diagnostic criteria, eliminating iron and folate deficiency. In a prospective study, 46 thalassemic women were given Ferrous Sulphate tablets and Folate. Some indices, CBC and HbA2 were measured before and after treatment during pregnancy. The haemoglobin and HbA2 decreased and MCV increased, all with significant P value. We concluded that HbA2, independent of iron, will decrease during pregnancy and MCV will increase

  20. Same. beta. -globin gene mutation is present on nine different. beta. -thalassemia chromosomes in a Sardinian population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirastu, M.; Galanello, R.; Doherty, M.A.; Tuveri, T.; Cao, A.; Kan, Y.W.

    1987-05-01

    The predominant ..beta..-thalassemia in Sardinia is the ..beta../sup 0/ type in which no ..beta..-globin chains are synthesized in the homozygous state. The authors determined the ..beta..-thalassemia mutations in this population by the oligonucleotide-probe method and defined the chromosome haplotypes on which the mutation resides. The same ..beta../sup 39(CAG..-->..TAG)/ nonsense mutation was found on nine different chromosome haplotypes. Although this mutation may have arisen more than once, the multiple haplotypes could also be generated by crossing over and gene conversion events. These findings underscore the frequency of mutational events in the ..beta..-globin gene region.

  1. Homozygous delta-beta Thalassemia in a Child: a Rare Cause of Elevated Fetal Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal SK MD

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackgroundDelta beta (?? thalassemia is an unusual variant of thalassemia with elevated level of fetal hemoglobin (HbF. Homozygous patients of this disorder, unlike ?-thalassemia, show mild anemia. Only few cases of ??-thalassemia have been reported from India in the available indexed English literature.Case presentationA four-year old male child was evaluated for recent-onset jaundice. Hematological investigations showed mild anemia with microcytic hypochromic red cells. A comprehensive analysis of hemoglobin by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC showed complete absence of HbA and HbA2 with HbF constituting 100% of the hemoglobin. Hemoglobin analysis of both parents showed elevated level of HbF with normal HbA2. A final diagnosis of ??-thalassemia in the child with both parents being carriers was rendered. ConclusionDelta beta-thalassemia is an uncommon cause of markedly elevated fetal hemoglobin beyond fetal period. Clinical and haematological parameters should be evaluated to render an accurate diagnosis.

  2. [HbD Iran-beta-thalassemia association in a Tunisian family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guemira, F; Abbes, S; Ducrocq, R; Elion, J; Fattoum, S

    1992-06-01

    A nine-year-old boy from Bj (North-Western Tunisia) was found to have both HbD Iran and beta-thalassemia. This patient presented with anemia and slight enlargement of the spleen and had a history of acute episodes of hemolysis. Structural studies on this hemoglobin variant used several miniaturized techniques, mainly carboxy-methyl-cellulose chromatography, reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and manual peptide sequencing using Chang's technique. The glutamic acid in position 22 on the beta chain was found to be replaced by a glutamine, establishing the diagnosis of HbD Iran. Concomitant presence of a thalassemia trait was suggested by the finding in the index patient of microcytosis, hypochromia and increased HbA2. The family study confirmed this patient's combined heterozygous anomalies, showing the D trait in the father and the beta thalassemia trait in the mother. The same combination was found in the index patient's sister who was, however, free of clinical symptoms. The explanation of this difference in clinical expression was provided by the ADN study which disclosed deletion of an alpha gene in the girl. The resulting alpha chain deficiency counterbalanced the beta chain deficiency. PMID:1497287

  3. Approaches to management of beta-thalassemia intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Maakaron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia intermedia is a genetically diverse group of diseases that is the result of an imbalance in the production of the alpha and beta chains with ensuing chronic hemolysis, ineffective erythropoiesis, and iron overload.Resulting complications include bone changes, hypercoagulability, and end-organ damage due to iron overload. This decade has witnessed major breakthroughs in the management of thalassemia. In this article, we examine these novelties in therapy including iron chelation therapy, stem cell transplant, and gene therapy.Iron chelation therapy has been revolutionized with the advent of deferasirox, a once-daily oral iron chelator, that has been shown to be safe and efficacious.Gene therapy was also at the core of this revolution with the discovery of novel gene elements and viral vectors allowing for better control and improved outcomes.

  4. AB045. Molecular markers for disease severity in beta thalassemia/Hb E disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucharoen, Suthat; Winichagoon, Pranee; Munkongdee, Thongperm; Sripichai, Orapan; Svasti, Saovaros

    2015-01-01

    Thalassemia is a hereditary disease affecting hemoglobin synthesis, characterized by microcytic hypochromic anemia. Homozygote or compound heterozygote patients usually manifested as thalassemia major which require regular treatment. There are five functional genes arranged in the order 5' ?-G?-A?-??-?-? 3' that are activated during development. Expression of the individual genes within the ?-globin cluster is controlled by the complex interactions between local regulatory sequence (promoter regions) within each gene and the ?-locus control region (?-LCR), located 6-18 kb upstream of the ?-globin gene. Beta thalassemia (?-thal) is a very heterogeneous disorder due to variations in inactivation mechanism of the ?-genes. Point mutations and small deletions or insertions in the nucleotide sequences are the main molecular defects responsible for most ?-thalassemia. In spite of seemingly identical genotypes, severity of ?-thal patients can vary greatly. This heterogeneity in the clinical severity may occur from the nature of ?-globin gene mutation, ?-thalassemia (?-thal) gene interaction and difference in the amount of Hb F production that is partly associated with a specific ?-globin haplotype. Co-inheritance of ?-thal may ameliorate the severity of ?-thal disease in those cases with mild ?-thal genotypes. However, many patients who are ?/?+ thal or ?-thal/Hb E do not have a detectable ?-thal haplotype but still have a mild clinical symptom suggests that there are other additional factors responsible for the mildness of the disease. Inheritance of a ?-thal chromosome with the Xmn I+ haplotype at the position -158 of the G?-globin gene was found to be associated with increased Hb F production and milder anemia in patients with thalassemia intermedia and Xmn I +/+ haplotype is necessary to produce a significant clinical effect. Homozygosity for the Xmn I + haplotype, +/+, was also found in the mild cases of ?-thal/Hb E. However, there is no severity difference among homozygous ?-thal patients with Xmn I +/+, ?/+ or ?/?. The GWAS study of the whole genome with more than 6000,000 SNPs of 1,100 ?-thal/Hb E patients with mild and severe diseases revealed SNPs in three independent genes that show significant association with the disease severity. The strongest SNPs associated with the disease severity located in three regions; the ?-globin gene cluster on chromosome 11, the HBS1L-MYB intergenic region on chromosome 6q23 and the BCL11A gene on chromosome 2p15. Further analysis of Hb F level showed that Hb F level was significantly higher in mild patients than moderate and severe patients (%Hb F; mild =42.611.5, moderate =35.711.1, severe =32.412.1; Plevel and frequency of Hb F-QTLs was studied in 520 cases. All individual SNPs on Hb F-QTLs are associated with Hb F (P value level. Our data indicated that several genetic loci act in concert to influence Hb F levels and disease severity of ?-thal/HbE patients. Understanding the genetic modifier in ?-thalassemia is important for the management of ?-thalassemia patients from PND to prognosis and decision for difficult treatment such as stem cell transplantation. Moreover, this may lead to future alternative treatment of ?-thalassemia patients as well.

  5. A fast microelectronic array for screening and prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglieni, Barbara; Galbiati, Silvia; Ferrari, Maurizio; Cremonesi, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The electronic microchip is a recently developed technology for the fast and reliable detection of known single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genome. The DNA fragment to be analyzed is directed electrophoretically into the chip, and then it is hybridized with fluorescent-tagged DNA probes specific for the mutant and wild-type sequences. The presence or absence of the mutation is detected by the fluorescence signal. Electronic stringency provides quality control for the hybridization process and ensures that any bound pairs of DNA are truly complementary; the microchip can be easily customized by the end user, allowing for assembly of specific probes onto the microchip to perform individualized analyses. Assays for 10 frequent mutations in the beta-globin gene causing beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia are presented that can be applied, in turn, to population screening or family study and prenatal diagnosis in single cases. PMID:18425480

  6. [The clinico-morphological characteristics of synovial membrane involvement in beta-thalassemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasonova, V A; Musaev, S K; Iakovleva, G I; Abasov, E Sh; Rustamov, R Sh

    1991-01-01

    Using data on optic and electron microscopy the authors give characteristics of lesions in the synovial membrane of the knee joints in 6 patients with an intermediary form of beta-thalassemia. Multiple reduplication of the basal membrane was noted in all the vessels, the width of the noncellular component of the vessels increased several times and its stratification was clearly seen. Deposits of iron oxide were revealed in biopsy samples of the synovial membrane of all the patients. Those deposits were in the form of microgranular intracellular inclusions in phagocytosing cells of the superficial stroma of villi but more often they were found in the cytoplasm of the vessel cells and pericytes. PMID:1812559

  7. THE ROLE OF THE CAROTID DOPPLER EXAMINATION IN THE EVALUATION OF ATHEROSCLEROTIC CHANGES IN BETA THALASSEMIA PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan Lotfy Abdel Hakeem

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron over- load in patients with beta-thalassemia major lead to alterations in the arterial structures and in the thickness of the carotid arteries. Doppler ultrasound scanning of extra-cranial internal carotid arteries is non-invasive and fairly quick to perform and may identify children at increased risk of stroke who would otherwise be missed. Increased carotid artery intima media thickness (cIMT is a structural marker for early atherosclerosis and it correlates with the vascular risk factors and to the severity and extent of coronary artery disease. Objective: To evaluate the role of carotid Doppler examination and cIMT measurement as a predictive to atherosclerotic changes in BTM children with iron overload. Patients and Methods: Sixty two children with (BTM and 30 healthy normal controls of matched age and sex were included. Complete blood count, serum iron, ferritin, serum cholesterol and hemoglobin electrophoresis were performed as well as carotid Doppler ultrasonography to measure the (cIMT in both patients and controls. Results: By using carotid Doppler we found that cIMT of thalassemic patients was significantly increased compared to normal controls and there was significant positive correlation between CIMT and patient's age, weight, height, BMI, duration of illness, serum cholesterol, iron overload parameters as serum iron, serum ferritin, frequent blood transfusion, irregular use of iron chelating agents and in those who had splenectomy. Significant negative correlation was found between CIMT and hematocrit value but no significant correlation was found between CIMT and Hb level. Conclusion: Carotid Doppler is very useful method in measurement of cIMT that increased in thalassemic patients which shows a strong relationship with features of iron overload. We recommend the routine use of Doppler measurement of cIMT in these patients to predict early atherosclerotic changes as well as in the follow-up to prevent progression of atherosclerosis.

  8. Regional and ethnic distribution of beta thalassemia mutations and effect of consanguinity in patients referred for prenatal diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the regional and ethnic distribution of beta thalassemia mutation and the effect of consanguinity in patients referred for prenatal diagnosis of beta b-thalassemia and to target the high risk population for screening. A total of 499 couples were referred to Gentec Lab., Lahore, from all over Pakistan for prenatal diagnosis of b-thalassemia. After counseling, chorionic villus sampling was done between 10-16 weeks of gestation. DNA analysis was done by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) for type of mutation in the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi. Ethnicity, race and consanguineous relationship of parents was determined.b-thalassemia was prevalent in Punjabis (60.7%) followed by Saraikees (25.5%). Castewise it was most frequent in Rajputs followed by Jatts, Arain, Sheikhs and Pathans. 56.7% of the couples were first cousins and 19.8% were relatives. The commonest mutations were Frameshift 8-9 (Fr8-9) 33.5%, Intervening Sequence 1-5 (IVS 1-5) 17.2%, Fr4142 - 8%, IVS 1-1 - 5.2%, Deletion 619 (Del 619) 4.2% and Codon 5 (Cd 5) - 4.2%. In samples sent for analysis, 53.1% turned out to be carriers (trait), 25.3% were diseased (thalassemia major) and 21.6% were normal. P-value of all results was less than 0.001. In this series, the highest frequency was found in Punjabi Rajputs. The commonest mutation was Fr 8-9. Most parents were first cousins. Premarital thalassemia carrier testing can effectively reduce the disease. (author)

  9. Thyroid function in major thalassemia patients: Is it related to height and chelation therapy?

    OpenAIRE

    Eshragi, Peiman; Tamaddoni, Ahmad; Zarifi, Khadijeh; Mohammadhasani, Amir; Aminzadeh, Majid

    2011-01-01

    Background: One of the most common endocrine problems in major beta-thalassemia is hypothyroidism (HT). The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid function status in major β-thalassemia patients older than 10 years old.

  10. Molecular comparison of delta beta-thalassemia and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin DNAs: evidence of a regulatory area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottolenghi, S; Giglioni, B; Taramelli, R; Comi, P; Mazza, U; Saglio, G; Camaschella, C; Izzo, P; Cao, A; Galanello, R; Gimferrer, E; Baiget, M; Gianni, A M

    1982-01-01

    The hematological phenotypes of several Mediterranean patients with delta beta-thalassemia and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin have been characterized. Although clinical and hematological characteristics are essentially superimposable in all heterozygous delta beta-thalassemics, these patients show typical G gamma/A gamma ratios in their Hb F, ranging from approximately 0.07 in Sardinian to approximately 0.15 in Sicilian and approximately 0.35 in Spanish patients. A gamma Sardinian-(isoleucine-75 leads to threonine) is found in Spanish patients and accounts for all of the A gamma production in heterozygotes, indicating that persistent production of gamma chains occurs cis to the delta beta-thalassemia gene. The molecular heterogeneity of these conditions is demonstrated by restriction enzyme mapping of DNA; Sicilian and Calabrian patients show a deletion starting from the delta-globin intron and extending several kilobases 3' to the beta-globin gene; in Spanish patients the deletion starts approximately 2-3 kilobases 5' to the delta-globin gene and extends well beyond the beta-globin gene. Comparison of these deletions with previously described ones in Negro and in a new Southern Italian case of hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin suggests that the deletion of a region centered at a cluster of repetitive sequences approximately 3.5 kilobases 5' to the delta-globin gene may be critical for the persistent expression of high levels of gamma-globin in hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin compared to delta beta-thalassemia. The concept that the deletion or mutation of specific areas (rather than nonspecific changes brought about by large deletions in the globin cluster) is important in determining the persistent expression of gamma-globin genes is supported by the finding of a nondeletion type of delta beta-thalassemia in Sardinians. Images PMID:6179097

  11. Screening and genetic counseling for beta-thalassemia trait in a population unselected for interest: comparison of three counseling methods.

    OpenAIRE

    Rowley, P T; Lipkin, M; Fisher, L

    1984-01-01

    We have assessed the effects of screening and genetic counseling for beta-thalassemia trait on knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in a prospective, controlled study of randomly selected adult members of a health maintenance organization. We report here that knowledge of manifestations and of inheritance of thalassemia, previously reported to be high immediately after counseling, were well maintained at 2 and 10 months following counseling. There was no detectable impairment of self-concept. M...

  12. Utilization of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for diagnosis of {beta}-thalassemia and ascertainment of new mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, K.Y.; Liu, D.; Lee, J. [Univ. of California, San Diego (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    During the past two years we have tested 2,300 Southeast Asians for alpha- and beta-thaleassemia mutations. We found the incidence of hemoglobin E ({beta}{sup 26}) to be 47% among Laotians and 38% among Cambodians. The incidence of beta thalassemia trait is 9% for Laotians and 6% for Cambodians. Thus, the risk for hemoglobin E/{beta}{sup 26} thalassemia, a transfusion-dependent disorder, is increased in these two population groups. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) has proven to be useful in testing for beta-thalassemia carriers and identifying new mutations in the beta globin gene. DNA was extracted from venous blood obtained from patients with elevated Hgb A2 (>4%). Five DNA fragments, encompassing the beta globin gene cluster, were amplified by PCR and analyzed, along with known beta gene mutations as controls, by DGGE using different denaturing gradient concentrations. Different mutations at the same nucleotide position can be distinguished by migration pattern on the DGGE (e.g., in IVS-I-1, G{r_arrow}A and T). Compound heterozygotes for {beta}-thalassemia can be detected on the same gel (e.g., HbE/mutation codon 17). New mutations are identified by their migration pattern compared with controls and determined by subsequent sequencing. We have identified three new mutations: codon 82 CAA{r_arrow}AAA in one Cambodian patient; IVS-II-667, T{r_arrow}C and IVS-II-672, A{r_arrow}C in two Laotian patients. When the parent`s genotypes are known, prenatal diagnosis can be obtained within 24 hours. Thus, PCR/DGGE combination is a rapid and reliable diagnostic approach to clinically significant {beta}-thalassemia. The most important steps are carefully designed primers and predetermined gradient concentrations for DGGE.

  13. An intracranial extramedullary hematopoiesis in a 34-year-old man with beta thalassemia: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Tabesh Homayoun; Shekarchizadeh Ahmad; Mahzouni Parvin; Mokhtari Mojgan; Abrishamkar Saeid; Abbasi Fard Salman

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Extramedullary hematopoiesis occurs in approximately 15% of cases of thalassemia. Intracranial deposits of extramedullary hematopoiesis are an extremely rare compensatory process in intermediate and severe thalassemia. Case presentation We present an unusual case of an intracranial extramedullary hematopoiesis with a choroid plexus origin in a 34-year-old Caucasian man with beta thalassemia intermedia, who presented with the complaints of chronic headache and rapid progr...

  14. Frequency distribution of sickle cell anemia, sickle cell trait and sickle/beta-thalassemia among anemic patients in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Elsayid, Mohieldin; Al-Shehri, Mohammed Jahman; Alkulaibi, Yasser Abdullah; Alanazi, Abdullah; Qureshi, Shoeb

    2015-01-01

    Background: Notwithstanding, the growing incidence of sickle cell hemoglobinopathies (SCH) such as sickle cell anemia (SCA) or sickle cell disease, sickle/beta-thalassemia; the exact prevalence remains obscure in Saudi Arabia. Hence, this study is an attempt to determine the frequency of SCA and sickle cell trait (SCT) among all anemic patients with SCH treated at the King Abdul-Aziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the hemoglobin (Hb) S and other Hb patterns (Hb AS and...

  15. The effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Soleiman Mahjoub; Ahmad Tamaddoni; Maseoud Zanjanchi Nikoo; Ali Akbar Moghadamnia

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thalassemia is the most common hereditary disease in the world. Thalassemic erythrocytes are exposed to higher oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients.
    METHODS: A prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of beta-carotene and vitamin E on lipi...

  16. Characterization of beta-thalassemia mutations in patients from the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zama Messala Luna da Silveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available 35 unrelated individuals were studied for characterization as either heterozygous or homozygous for beta-thalassemia. Molecular analysis was done by PCR/RFLP to detect the mutations most commonly associated with beta-thalassemia (β0IVS-I-1, β+IVS-I-6, and β039. In the patients who showed none of these mutations, the beta-globin genes were sequenced. Of the 31 heterozygous patients, 13 (41.9% had the β+IVS-I-6 mutation, 15 (48.4% the β0IVS-I-1 mutation, 2 (6.5% the β+IVS-I-110 mutation and 1 (3.2% the β+IVS-I-5 mutation. IVS-I-6 was detected in the four homozygotes. The mutation in codon 39, often found in previous studies in Brazil, was not detected in the present case. This is the first study aiming at identifying mutations that determine beta-thalassemia in the state of Rio Grande do Norte.

  17. Peripheral expression of hepcidin gene in Egyptian ?-thalassemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Enein, Azza; El-Beshlawy, Amal; Hamdy, Mona; Shaheen, Iman; El-Saadany, Zainab; Samir, Ahmed; El-Samie, Hala Abd

    2015-06-15

    Iron overload is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in transfusion dependent ?-thalassemia major patients. There is a sophisticated balance of body iron metabolism of storage and transport which is regulated by several factors including the peptide hepcidin. Hepcidin is the main iron regulatory molecule; it is secreted mainly by the liver and other tissues including monocytes and lymphocytes. Expression of hepcidin in such cells is unclear and has been studied in few reports with controverted result. Peripheral expression of hepcidin was measured using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) in 50 ?-thalassemia major patients, in addition to 20 healthy volunteers as a control group. Hepcidin levels in ?-thalassemia major patients showed statistically significant decrease in comparison to the control group, and was correlated to cardiac iron stores (T2*). However, hepcidin level was not different among the patients according to the HCV status or whether splenectomized or not. In conclusion; peripheral expression of hepcidin, in iron overloaded ?-thalassemia major patients, is a reflection of hepatic expression. It can be used as a molecular predictor for the severity of cardiac iron overload and can be used as a future target for therapy in ?-thalassemia major patients. PMID:25816754

  18. Study on Efficacy of Hepatitis B Immunization in Vaccinated beta-thalassemia Children in Tehran

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    Zohreh Sharifi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:In thalassemic children, HBV infection is common, thus immunization against HBV will reduce and prevent the rate of infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of HBV immunization and the prevalence of HBV infection in beta-thalassemic children in Tehran.Methods:To assess the efficacy of immunization and determine the immune response of children with beta-thalassemia, sera of 99 children who had received three doses (10/20 ?g of recombinant HBV vaccine in months 0, 1, 6, were selected and tested for HBsAg, HBsAb and anti-HBc by ELISA method. Also, these sera were tested for HBV DNA using nested-PCR method.Findings:In 99 beta-thalassemic children, 89 (89.9 % were anti-HBs positive (responders and 10 (10.1% anti-HBs negative (non-responders.Three cases(3.03% were anti-HBc positive and 1(1.01% was HBsAg positive. HBV DNA was not detected in any of them.Conclusion:Our results have revealed that hepatitis B vaccine is highly immunogenic for thalassemic children and particularly well tolerated.

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of sickle cell anemia and beta-thalassemia in southern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crk, M Akif; Zeren, Filiz; Gen, Ahmet; Ozavci-Aygn, Sezen; Kilin, Yurdanur; Aksoy, Kiymet

    2008-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are the most common genetic diseases in Turkey. The incidence of sickle cell trait is 10.0% and beta-thalassemia (beta-thal) trait is 3.7% in the Cukurova region of southern Turkey. Sickle cell anemia is prevalent in the Cukurova region, but beta-thal is seen all over the country. A prenatal diagnosis center was established in 1992 at Adana, Turkey, for the prevention of sickle cell anemia and beta-thal. Fifteen hundred and seventy-five fetuses were examined at the Cukurova University Hospital, Adana, Turkey. Three hundred and eighty-six fetuses were diagnosed as homozygous or compound heterozygous for sickle cell anemia and beta-thal. A total of 15 different beta-thal mutations were characterized in the parents. The incidence of the IVS-I-110 (G > A) mutation accounted for about 50.0% of the parents with beta-thal trait. Twenty-four different genotypes were observed in this study. A total of 286 fetuses were diagnosed with homozygous sickle cell disease, 57 fetuses were beta-thal homozygotes, 25 fetuses were compound heterozygotes with Hb S [beta6(A3)Glu-->Val, GAG > GTG], and 18 of the fetuses were double heterozygotes for beta-thal mutations. PMID:19065329

  20. Haplotypes linked to three rare beta-thalassemia mutations, originally reported in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Amina; Messaoud, Taieb; Fattoum, Slaheddine

    2006-01-01

    The polymorphism of the beta-globin gene haplotypes and frameworks are useful in the determination of the unicentric and multicentric origin of a mutational event. In order to improve our knowledge of the chromosomal background of the beta-globin gene in three beta-thalassemia (thal) mutations originally reported in Tunisia, namely codons 25/26 (+T), codon 30 (G-->C) and IVS-I-2 (T-->G), we have investigated 13 unrelated individuals. There were five non transfusion-dependent patients homozygous for the IVS-I-2 (T-->G) mutation, five others were homozygous for the codon 30 (G-->C) mutation, one was a homozygote for the codons 25/26 (+T) insertion mutation and one patient was a compound heterozygote for the codon 39 (C-->T) and codon 25/26 (+T) mutations; the last patient had a betaS/codon 25/26 (+T) compound heterozygous genotype. Haplotype analysis was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) based methods. The framework polymorphism was established by direct sequencing. beta-Globin gene analyses demonstrated that all IVS-I-2 (T-->G) cases were associated with haplotype IX; the codon 30 (G-->C) mutation was supported by haplotype I, while the codons 25/26 (+T) mutation was linked to haplotypes I and IX. PMID:16798642

  1. Marcadores eletrocardiográficos para detecção precoce de doença cardíaca em pacientes com talassemia beta maior Electrocardiographic markers for the early detection of cardiac disease in patients with beta-thalassemia major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Nisli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar comparativamente a dispersão da onda P (DOP em pacientes com talassemia beta maior (β-TM e indivíduos saudáveis (controles para a detecção precoce do risco de arritmias. MÉTODOS: Oitenta e uma crianças com β-TM, com idades entre 4 e 19 anos, e 74 crianças saudáveis (grupo controle foram submetidas a exame eletrocardiográfico e ecocardiograma transtorácico de rotina para avaliação cardíaca. A DOP foi calculada como a diferença entre as durações máxima e mínima da onda P. RESULTADOS: Houve uma diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o grupo de estudo e o grupo controle no pico de velocidade do fluxo transmitral no início da diástole (E e na razão E/fluxo transmitral tardio (A. A duração máxima da onda P e a DOP foram significativamente maiores nos pacientes com β-TM do que nos indivíduos controles. CONCLUSÕES: O aumento da DOP em nossos pacientes com β-TM pode estar relacionado à depressão na condução intra-atrial, devido à dilatação atrial, e ao aumento da atividade simpática. Estes pacientes devem ser acompanhados atentamente devido à possibilidade de ocorrência de arritmias com risco de vida.OBJECTIVE: To comparatively evaluate P-wave dispersion (PWD in patients with β-thalassemia major (TM and healthy control subjects for the early prediction of arrhythmia risk. METHODS: Eighty-one children with β-TM, aged 4-19 years, and 74 healthy children (control group underwent routine electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography for cardiac evaluation. PWD was calculated as the difference between the maximum and the minimum P-wave duration. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between study and control groups in peak early (E mitral inflow velocity and E/late (A velocity ratio. Maximum P-wave duration and PWD were found to be significantly higher in β-TM patients than in control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Increased PWD in our β-TM patients might be related to depression of intra-atrial conduction due to atrial dilatation and increased sympathetic activity. These patients should be closely followed up for risk of life-threatening arrhythmias.

  2. Better differential diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia from beta-thalassemia trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakher Rahim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA and beta-thalassemia trait (ß-TT are the most common forms of microcytic anemia. This study was conducted to compare the validity of various discrimination indices in differentiating β-TT from IDA by calculating their sensitivity, specificity and Youden's index.Methods: Totally 323 subjects (173 children and 150 adults with microcytic anemia were involved in this study. We calculated 10 discrimination indices in all patients with IDA and β-TT. We divided the patients into two different groups as younger or older than 10 years. Results: None of the indices showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% in the patients older than 10 years, and in the patients younger than 10 years, only Shine & Lal index showed sensitivity close to 90% and specificity of 100%. The most accurate discriminative index for patients younger than 10 years was Shine & Lal and for those older than 10 years it was RDW index. According to Youden's index, Shine & Lal and RBC count showed the greatest diagnostic value in patients younger than 10 years and RDW and RBC count indices in those older than 10 years. Conclusion: None of the indices was completely sensitive and specific in differentiation between β-TT and IDA. Mean and median mean cell Hb density (MCHD were very close to normal values in both IDA and β-TT patients, but in the case of mean density of Hb/liter (MDHL, we found that the mean and median were significantly higher than normal values in β-TT and lower than normal values in IDA patients. In our study, Youden's index of RBC and Shine & Lal were the highest and most reliable indices in differentiating β-TT from IDA in the patients younger than 10 years. For patients older than 10 years, the most reliable discrimination indices were RBC and RDW.

  3. Cell and Gene Therapy for the Beta-Thalassemias: Advances and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla-Soto, Jorge; Riviere, Isabelle; Boulad, Farid; Sadelain, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The beta-thalassemias are inherited anemias caused by mutations that severely reduce or abolish expression of the beta-globin gene. Like sickle cell disease, a related beta-globin gene disorder, they are ideal candidates for performing a genetic correction in patient hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The most advanced approach utilizes complex lentiviral vectors encoding the human β-globin gene, as first reported by May et al. in 2000. Considerable progress toward the clinical implementation of this approach has been made in the past five years, based on effective CD34+ cell mobilization and improved lentiviral vector manufacturing. Four trials have been initiated in the United States and Europe. Of 16 evaluable subjects, 6 have achieved transfusion independence. One of them developed a durable clonal expansion, which regressed after several years without transformation. Although globin lentiviral vectors have so far proven to be safe, this occurrence suggests that powerful insulators with robust enhancer-blocking activity will further enhance this approach. The combined discovery of Bcl11a-mediated γ-globin gene silencing and advances in gene editing are the foundations for another gene therapy approach, which aims to reactivate fetal hemoglobin (HbF) production. Its clinical translation will hinge on the safety and efficiency of gene targeting in true HSCs and the induction of sufficient levels of HbF to achieve transfusion independence. Altogether, the progress achieved over the past 15 years bodes well for finding a genetic cure for severe globin disorders in the next decade. PMID:27021486

  4. A new valid formula in differentiating iron deficiency Anemia from beta-thalassemia trait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the validity of a new index (Hb X RDW X 100/ (RBC)/sup 2/ X MCHC) with twelve discriminating functions (DFs) to differentiate iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and beta-thalassemia trait (beta-TT). Methodology: A total of 823 patients (317 IDA and 506 beta-TT) aged 15 to 35 year old were enrolled in this study. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and other validity parameters were calculated to assess the diagnostic reliability of the novel index [Keikhaei index (KI)] vis-a-vis the other published DFs [Mentzer Index (MI), Green and King Index (G and KI), red cell distribution width index (RDWI), England and Fraser Index (E and FI), Bessman and Feinstein index (B and FI), Telmissani et al index (TI), Srivastava and Bevington index (S and BI), Shine and Lal index (S and LI), Ricerca et al index (RI), Ehsani et al index (EI), Sirdah et al index (SI), and Red Blood Cell Count(RBC)] were calculated in all patients. Results: All thirteen DFs did not have the sensitivity and specificity of 100%. The KI, RDWI, Gand KI and E and FI showed the most sensitivity and specificity for both IDA and TT; moreover, the lowest reliable indices belonged to B and FI, SandLI and RI. Conclusion: According to Youden's index (YI), DFs in the order of highest to lowest were KI > G and KI > RDWI > E and FI > RBC> M I> EI > TI > SI > S and BI > RI> SandLI >B and FI. (author)

  5. Metabolic and endocrinologic complications in beta-thalassemia major: a multicenter study in Tehran

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    Hashemi Reza

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The combination of transfusion and chelation therapy has dramatically extended the life expectancy of thalassemic patients. The main objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of prominent thalassemia complications. Methods Two hundred twenty patients entered the study. Physicians collected demographic and anthropometric data and the history of therapies as well as menstrual histories. Patients have been examined to determine their pubertal status. Serum levels of 25(OH D, calcium, phosphate, iPTH were measured. Thyroid function was assessed by T3, T4 and TSH. Zinc and copper in serum were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Bone mineral density (BMD measurements at lumbar and femoral regions have been done using dual x-ray absorptiometry. The dietary calcium, zinc and copper intakes were estimated by food-frequency questionnaires. Results Short stature was seen in 39.3% of our patients. Hypogonadism was seen in 22.9% of boys and 12.2% of girls. Hypoparathyroidism and primary hypothyroidism was present in 7.6% and 7.7% of the patients. About 13 % of patients had more than one endocrine complication with mean serum ferritin of 1678 ± 955 micrograms/lit. Prevalence of lumbar osteoporosis and osteopenia were 50.7% and 39.4%. Femoral osteoporosis and osteopenia were present in 10.8% and 36.9% of the patients. Lumbar BMD abnormalities were associated with duration of chelation therapy. Low serum zinc and copper was observed in 79.6% and 68% of the study population respectively. Serum zinc showed significant association with lumbar but not femoral BMD. In 37.2% of patients serum levels of 25(OH D below 23 nmol/l were detected. Conclusion High prevalence of complications among our thalassemics signifies the importance of more detailed studies along with therapeutic interventions.

  6. Peripheral Blood stem cell transplantation in children with Beta-thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To share the preliminary data on stem cell transplantation in Pakistan. Results: Engraftment was achieved in all patients except one who required a second dose of bone marrow graft on day +21. Median time to achieve absolute neutrophil count of > 0.5 x 10/sup 9/ /l was 9.0 days (range 8 - 31 days) and platelet count of > 20 x 10/sup 9/ /l was 14 days (12 - 35 days). Acute GVHD was seen in 3 patients, one patient had grade IV gut GVHD; another patient had grade III gut GVHD while third patient had grade II skin GVHD. Median hospital stay was 29 days. Six patients were well and transfusion independent 3 to 36 months post transplant. One episode of primary graft failure required a second dose of bone marrow harvest. Another episode of graft rejection received two doses of donor lymphocytes infusion. There were 4 deaths due to grade IV gut GVHD because of uncontrolled systemic Candida infection and one due to hepatic veno-occlusive (VOD) disease. Conclusion: Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation can be safely and economically carried out in Pakistan. Although there had been 4 deaths during 36 months follow-up, with increasing understanding and experience the outcome is expected to improve. (author)

  7. An intracranial extramedullary hematopoiesis in a 34-year-old man with beta thalassemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabesh Homayoun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Extramedullary hematopoiesis occurs in approximately 15% of cases of thalassemia. Intracranial deposits of extramedullary hematopoiesis are an extremely rare compensatory process in intermediate and severe thalassemia. Case presentation We present an unusual case of an intracranial extramedullary hematopoiesis with a choroid plexus origin in a 34-year-old Caucasian man with beta thalassemia intermedia, who presented with the complaints of chronic headache and rapid progressive visual loss. Conclusion An intracranial extramedullary hematopoiesis, although extremely rare, should be considered as a potential ancillary diagnosis in any thalassemic patient and therefore appropriate studies should be performed to investigate the probable intracranial ectopic marrow before any surgical intervention.

  8. [The evolutionary effects of therapy on the skeletal lesions in beta-thalassemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzincolo, C; Castaldi, G; Bariani, L; Scutellari, P N

    1994-04-01

    Up to the mid-1960s, beta-thalassemia was treated with blood transfusions as frequent as needed to keep symptoms under control and to prevent transfusional hemosiderosis. In the following years, high transfusion regimens and iron chelation therapy with desferrioxamine were used. Because of these different treatment modalities, skeletal findings in thalassemia have markedly changed. In the past, thalassemic patients treated with a low transfusion regimen and without chelation therapy developed osteopenia--with widened medullary spaces, cortical thinning and trabecular atrophy--secondary to chronic expansion of red marrow, due to increased erythropoietin response to chronic anemic hypoxia. Typical radiographic patterns in the skull included widened diploic space, atrophic-especially outer--tables and, in some patients, the "hair-on-end" pattern. As for the face, obliteration of the paranasal sinuses and the typical "rodent facies" were observed. In the ribs, bulbous expansion of the posterior and anterior segments and the "rib within a rib" patterns were observed. As for the spine, coarse trabecular arrangement was seen. The "cobweb" pattern was seen in the pelvis and finally the lack of the normal concave outline was observed in the long bones. In the patients treated with high transfusion regimens and iron chelation therapy over the last 30 years, both skull anomalies and disfigurement are less frequent. The skull is almost normal, with the exception of osteopenia and thickened diploic space in the frontal bone only; the paranasal sinuses are usually not obliterated. The hands and rib are normal, just like long bones, pelvis, scapulae and vertebral bodies. Nevertheless, in some adequately treated patients new skeletal features have been recently observed in the long bones, which are similar to those occurring in rickets and/or scurvy, and in the vertebral bodies, resembling platyspondylia. These abnormal features might be caused by several factors--i.e., marrow expansion, transfusion regimens, direct/indirect effects of desferrioxamine, iron load, endocrine abnormalities, deficiency of some minerals and finally dysvitaminoses. Nevertheless, osteopenia remains the main negative factor of thalassemia. PMID:8190918

  9. Perfil de beta talassemia heterozigota obtido a partir de análise data mining em banco de dados The profile of beta thalassemia obtained by data mining analysis in a database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. B. Domingos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the phenotypic expression of heterozygous beta thalassemia reflect the formation of different populations. To better understand the profile of heterozygous beta-thalassemia of the Brazilian population, we aimed at establishing parameters to direct the diagnosis of carriers and calculate the frequency from information stored in an electronic database. Using a Data Mining tool, we evaluated information on 10,960 blood samples deposited in a relational database. Over the years, improved diagnostic technology has facilitated the elucidation of suspected beta thalassemia heterozygote cases with an average frequency of 3.5% of referred cases. We also found that the Brazilian beta thalassemia trait has classic increases of Hb A2 and Hb F (60%, mainly caused by mutations in beta zero thalassemia, especially in the southeast of the country.

  10. Glucose homeostasis in Egyptian children and adolescents with β-Thalassemia major: Relationship to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotb Abbass Metwalley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress in children with β-thalassemia may contribute to shortened life span of erythrocytes and endocrinal abnormalities. Aim: This study was aimed to evaluate glucose homeostasis in Egyptian children and adolescents with β-thalassemia major and its relation to oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Sixty children and adolescents with β-thalassemia major were studied in comparison to 30 healthy age and sex-matched subjects. Detailed medical history, thorough clinical examination, and laboratory assessment of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, serum ferritin, alanine transferase (ALT, fasting insulin levels, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA as oxidant marker and serum total antioxidants capacity (TAC were performed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of abnormal OGTT. Results: The prevalence of diabetes was 5% (3 of 60 and impaired glucose tolerance test (IGT was 8% (5 of 60. Fasting blood glucose, 2-hour post-load plasma glucose, serum ferritin, ALT, fasting insulin level, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR and MDA levels were significantly elevated while TAC level was significantly decreased in thalassemic patients compared with healthy controls (P < 0.001 for each. The difference was more evident in patients with abnormal OGTT than those with normal oral glucose tolerance (P < 0.001 for each. We also observed that thalassemic patients not receiving or on irregular chelation therapy had significantly higher fasting, 2-h post-load plasma glucose, serum ferritin, ALT, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, oxidative stress markers OSI and MDA levels and significantly lower TAC compared with either those on regular chelation or controls. HOMA-IR was positively correlated with age, serum ferritin, ALT, MDA, and negatively correlated with TAC. Conclusions: The development of abnormal glucose tolerance in Egyptian children and adolescents with β--thalassemia is associated with alteration in oxidant-antioxidant status and increase in insulin resistance. Recommendation: 1- Glucose tolerance tests, HOMA-IR, and MDA should be an integral part of the long-term follow-up of children and adolescents with β-thalassemia major. 2- Regular iron chelation and antioxidant therapy should be advised for thalassemic patients to improve glucose hemostasis.

  11. Comparative Effects of Three Iron Chelation Therapies on the Quality of Life of Greek Patients with Homozygous Transfusion-Dependent Beta-Thalassemia

    OpenAIRE

    Goulas, Vasilis; Kourakli-Symeonidis, Alexandra; Camoutsis, Charalambos

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study assessed the quality of life of patients with homozygous transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia in Greece receiving three different iron chelation treatments. Patients enrolled were receiving one of the following chelation therapies: deferoxamine (n=21), deferasirox (n=75), or deferoxamine in combination with deferiprone (n=39). The three groups were compared in terms of their quality of life, satisfaction and adherence to treatment, control of their health, and self-es...

  12. Comparative Effects of Three Iron Chelation Therapies on the Quality of Life of Greek Patients with Homozygous Transfusion-Dependent Beta-Thalassemia

    OpenAIRE

    Goulas, Vasilis; Kourakli-Symeonidis, Alexandra; Camoutsis, Charalambos

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study assessed the quality of life of patients with homozygous transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia in Greece receiving three different iron chelation treatments. Patients enrolled were receiving one of the following chelation therapies: deferoxamine (n = 21), deferasirox (n = 75), or deferoxamine in combination with deferiprone (n = 39). The three groups were compared in terms of their quality of life, satisfaction and adherence to treatment, control of their health, and s...

  13. Extraosseous radiotracer uptake on bone scan in beta-thalassemia: report of one case; Fixation extraosseuse du radiotraceur lors de la realisation d'une scintigraphie du squelette chez un patient atteint de beta-thalassemie: a propos d'un cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guezguez, M.; Nouira, M.; Sfar, R.; Chatti, K.; Ben Fradj, M.; Ben Ali, K.; Ajmi, S.; Essabbah, H. [CHU Sahloul, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Sousse (Tunisia); Zrour, S. [EPS F. Bourguiba, Service de Rhumatologie, Monastir (Tunisia)

    2009-10-15

    Red blood cell transfusion, main therapeutic modality of beta-thalassemia, leads to iron overload which may perturb several metabolic ways. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the uptake abnormalities observed on bone scan of thalassaemic patients and to discuss mechanisms of extraosseous accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in this pathology. We report a 16-year-old child suffering from beta-thalassemia major undergoing transfusion therapy. A bone scan was indicated to look for osseous infection. This study revealed a little skeletal uptake and abnormal liver, splenic and renal accumulation. A repeat bone scan, performed three weeks later showed a better skeletal uptake which enabled the discovery of focal abnormalities and made the diagnostic easier. The effect of iron overload on radiopharmaceuticals uptake in bone scan is known since 1975. Dissociation of {sup 99m}Tc from the carrier ligand due to the presence of iron excess seems the most plausible hypothesis. Free {sup 99m}Tc can be bound to other tissular substrates which can explain extraosseous uptake. The normally available pool for bone is reduced and then the skeletal uptake decreased. This report limits considerably the sensitivity of the bone scan. A well-led iron chelation and eventually the use of diuretic drug may guarantee a better quality of bone scan images. (authors)

  14. beta-thalassaemia major hos børn og unge i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Anne; Main, Katharina Maria; Scheibel, Elma; Peitersen, Birgit; Clausen, Niels; Erichsen, Gunna; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Illum, Niels

    2002-01-01

    strategy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During 1998-99 all Danish pediatric departments were contacted for identification of children aged 0-18 years with beta-thalassemia major. Blood transfusions and chelation therapy were registered, and for Eastern Denmark clinical, endocrine, cardiac, and serologic parameters...... documented in one out of eight patients examined. All patients were HIV and hepatitis C negative. For 75% of the children, the parents were related. DISCUSSION: Children and adolescents with beta-thalassemia major in Denmark experience major heterogenicity with regard to treatment and late effects. An...

  15. The influence of the BCL11A polymorphism on the phenotype of patients with beta thalassemia could be affected by the beta globin locus control region and/or the Xmn1-HBG2 genotypic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neishabury, Maryam; Zamani, Fahimeh; Keyhani, Elahe; Azarkeivan, Azita; Abedini, Seyedeh Sedigheh; Eslami, Masumeh Sadat; Kakroodi, Setareh Talebi; Vesiehsari, Mahjoobeh Jafari; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2013-08-01

    To study the influence of the ? globin locus control region (LCR) genotypic background on the phenotype modifying role of BCL11A polymorphisms, 100 cases of thalassemia, 48 homozygous for the A allele and 52 homozygous for the G allele at the 5'HS4-LCR palindromic polymorphic site were genotyped for two BCL11A single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs11886868 and rs766432) in the intronic region of this gene. The effect of these polymorphisms on HbF variation was also examined in 122 normal individuals. The 5'HS4-LCR had the most significant role in determining the phenotype of these thalassemia patients. BCL11A polymorphisms showed a significant role in determining the phenotype of patients homozygous for the G allele at 5'HS4-LCR. However, the majority of patients homozygous for the A allele at 5'HS4-LCR, showed a severe phenotype, regardless of the BCL11A genotype. These results, without undermining the strength of BCL11A as a silencer of the ? globin gene, suggest that the LCR background, by governing the state of BCL11A binding to this region, plays a more significant role in determining the thalassemia phenotype than the level of BCL11A protein expression, that might be influenced by single nucleotide polymorphisms in intronic regions of the BCL11A gene. Functional studies to confirm the interactions between BCL11A and LCR could be useful in designing pharmacogenetic strategies for the treatment of beta thalassemia major. PMID:23541515

  16. AB111. HBB: c. -78A>G/nt-28(A>G) associated with Cd 26(A-G) HbE, beta thalassemia variant causes thalassemia intermedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Thi Thanh Ha; Ngo, Ngoc Diem; Ngo, Nhung Tuyet; Nguyen, Mai Thi Phuong; Nguyen, Huong Thi Mai; Duong, Truc Ba

    2015-01-01

    ?-thalassemia is the most common single gene disorder worldwide and in Vietnam. In the present study we report in members of a family from North Vietnam, the mother compound heterozygous thalassemia intermedia presenting mutation of hemoglobin HBB: c. -78A>G/nt-28(A>G) with Cd 26(A-G) HbE. The father, heterozygous for Cd71/72(+A), ?+ beta thalassemia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of -28(A>G) in trans with beta thalassemia variant Cd 26(A-G) HbE leading to beta thalassemia intermedia. Our data highlight the necessity of deep molecular characterization of subjects presenting normal HbA2 level associated with abnormal red cell indices. Its necessary for accurate diagnosis and improved genetic counseling.

  17. Posttranscriptional defects in beta-globin messenger RNA metabolism in beta-thalassemia: abnormal accumulation of beta-messenger RNA precursor sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Benz, E. J.; Scarpa, A L; Tonkonow, B L; Pearson, H A; Ritchey, A K

    1981-01-01

    The production of beta-globin messenger RNA (mRNA) in beta-thalassemic erythroblasts was studied during pulse-chase incubations with [3H]uridine. Globin [3H]mRNA was quantitated by molecular hybridization to recombinant DNA probes complementary to globin mRNA and mRNA precursor sequences. Each of six patients with beta +-thalassemia produced normal amounts of globin alpha and beta [3H]mRNA during a 20-min pulse incubation, but the beta/alpha [3H]mRNA ratio declined to steady-state levels duri...

  18. Factor V G1691A (Leiden is a major etiological factor in Egyptian Budd-Chiari syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawhida Y. Abdel Ghaffar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Budd-Chiari syndrome is a multifactorial disease in which several prothrombotic disorders may predispose patients to the development of thrombosis at this uncommon location (hepatic veins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of inherited thrombophilia in Egyptian Budd-Chiari syndrome patients.Materials and Methods: The study included 47 Budd-Chiari syndrome patients (20 children and 27 adults. Genotyping of Factor V G1691A (Leiden, prothrombin G20210A (PT, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T were performed using real-time PCR and fluorescence melting curve detection analysis.Results: Factor V Leiden was observed in 29 patients (61.7%. It is the only factor that caused Budd-Chiari syndrome in 18 of the patients and in 5 of the patients with inferior vena cava involvement. Myeloproliferative disease was noted in 12 (25.5% patients, antiphospholipid syndrome in 5 (10.6%, and Behcet’s disease in 3 (6.4%. Interestingly, 3 of the children with Budd-Chiari syndrome had lipid storage disease.Conclusion: Factor V Leiden was a major etiological factor in Egyptian Budd-Chiari syndrome patients, which may have been related to the high frequency of this mutation in the study region. Factor V Leiden was also a strong thrombophilic factor and the leading cause of inferior vena cava thrombosis in these patients. Lipid storage disease should be included as a risk factor for Budd-Chiari syndrome.

  19. Comparative effects of three iron chelation therapies on the quality of life of greek patients with homozygous transfusion-dependent Beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, Vasilis; Kourakli-Symeonidis, Alexandra; Camoutsis, Charalambos

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study assessed the quality of life of patients with homozygous transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia in Greece receiving three different iron chelation treatments. Patients enrolled were receiving one of the following chelation therapies: deferoxamine (n = 21), deferasirox (n = 75), or deferoxamine in combination with deferiprone (n = 39). The three groups were compared in terms of their quality of life, satisfaction and adherence to treatment, control of their health, and self-esteem through the completion of five questionnaires. A higher percentage of patients receiving deferoxamine felt that their treatment negatively influenced their body and skin appearance and limited their ability to work, attend school, and perform daily tasks (P = 0.0066). The adherence to treatment rate and self-esteem were the lowest in the deferoxamine group (P physical component summary score in the SF-36 questionnaire (P = 0.014). This study suggests that the quality of life of beta-thalassemia patients receiving chelation therapy is dependent on the type of iron chelation treatment they receive. The study provides insight into important factors associated with the quality of life of these patients, which are essential for developing a more suitable clinical support team and counseling in order to maximize the treatment benefits for these patients in daily clinical practice. PMID:23316378

  20. Insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in children with Beta-thalassemia minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Karimi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Growth retardation in children with b-thalassemia major is multifactorial. Some etiologies described for this condition are hemochromatosis, disturbed growth hormone (GH / insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1 axis, undernutrition and hypermetabolism. It has also been proven that growth retardation is present in b-thalassemia major children despite regular transfusion and chelation. Our aim was to evaluate the level of IGF-1 in b-thalassemia minor subjects and compare it with that in healthy children. Material and Methods: Fifty children aged 6 months to 15 years with b-thalassemia minor (32 males, 18 females and 50 age- and sex-matched normal healthy children were selected. Medical history was taken and complete physical examination was done in each case; IGF-1 level was checked in all cases. This study was done in Shiraz, southern Iran, during 2005.Results: IGF-1 levels were significantly lower in b-thalassemia minor children than normal children (P = 0.015. This result demonstrates that some etiologies of growth failure in b-thalassemia major other than those described to date can exist, which may be shared with b-thalassemia minor in feature or may be transformed by genes that are either expressed or not.Conclusion: We conclude that in addition to that observed in b-thalassemia major, IGF-1 level is also decreased in b-thalassemia minor, and these two may have similar etiologies.

  1. Growth pattern in children with beta-thalassemia major and its relation with serum ferritin, IGF1 and IGFBP3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Ramadan Nasr

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Growth impairment in children with Betathalassemiamajor (BTM has several possible etiologiesincluding excess iron overload and endocrinologic abnormalities.We aimed to assess growth in children withBTM and its relation with serum ferritin, thyroid hormones,IGF1 and IGFBP3.Materials and methods: Thirty-three children with BTMand 30 healthy children (control group matched in age,sex and height were subjected to full clinical history andexamination, including anthropometric measurements.Fasting blood samples from both groups were taken forcomplete blood counts, fasting blood sugar, liver functiontests, serum ferritin, thyroid profiles, IGF1 and IGFBP3.Bone ages for both groups were determined radiologically.Results: A total of 57.6% of BTM group had retardedlinear growth and 45.5% of them were with delayed puberty.There was statistical significant decrease in upper/lower segment (U/L ratio in the BTM group comparedto the control group (p=0.035. No apparent hypothyroidismwas found in the thalassemia group, but significantdecreases were found in both IGF1 and IGFBP3 levels ofthe thalassemia group compared with the control group(p=0.022 and p=0.037, respectively. There was a significantcorrelation between T4 and U/L ratio (p<0.05; IGF1was significantly correlated with height, duration of transfusionsand duration of chelation (p<0.05. No significantcorrelation was found between serum ferritin and othervariables of the patients.Conclusions: Growth retardation in children with BTM isevident despite regular transfusions and chelation therapy,especially in children with older age and the cause ismainly in growth hormone-IGF1 and IGFBP3 axis. J ClinExp Invest 2012; 3(2: 157-163

  2. AB045. Molecular markers for disease severity in beta thalassemia/Hb E disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fucharoen, Suthat; Winichagoon, Pranee; Munkongdee, Thongperm; Sripichai, Orapan; Svasti, Saovaros

    2015-01-01

    Thalassemia is a hereditary disease affecting hemoglobin synthesis, characterized by microcytic hypochromic anemia. Homozygote or compound heterozygote patients usually manifested as thalassemia major which require regular treatment. There are five functional genes arranged in the order 5' ?-G?-A?-??-?-? 3' that are activated during development. Expression of the individual genes within the ?-globin cluster is controlled by the complex interactions between local regulatory sequence (promoter ...

  3. Xmni polymorphism and disease severity in patients with beta thalassemia from northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalassemia is a heterogeneous disorder and several genetic factors influence the severity of thalassemia. An accurate and early diagnosis of a mild thalassemia genotype helps to avoid unnecessary transfusion and its complications. The aim of this study is to identify the association between XmnI polymorphism and disease severity in patients with ?-thalassemia from northern Pakistan. Methods: The cross sectional study was conducted at the Department of Haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) Rawalpindi, from September 2006 to June 2009. A total of 90 subjects including 30 with thalassemia major, 30 with thalassemia intermedia and 30 normal individuals were studied. DNA from each subject was tested for 15 ?-thalassemia mutations and the presence of XmnI polymorphism using Amplification Refractory Mutation System and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism respectively. Results: One normal and one thalassemia major subject were found to be positive for homozygous and heterozygous XmnI polymorphism respectively. Among the thalassemia intermedia group, XmnI polymorphism was found in 12/30 patients, of whom 10 were homozygous and 2 were heterozygous for it. Conclusion: XmnI polymorphism is an important genotypic factor in Pakistani population for making a prospective diagnosis of thalassemia intermedia and predicting the severity of the disease. (author)

  4. Coincidence of Niemann-Pick Disease and Beta-Thalassemia; a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Izadyar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Niemann-Pick disease and β-thalassemia are distinct conditions with specific clinical and morphological manifestations. β-thalassemia is the most common inherited blood disorder in Iran whereas Niemann-Pick disease, a lysosomal storage disorder, is rarely found in this country.Case Presentation: This 5-month old girl, a known case of β-thalassemia major was hospitalized for failure to thrive and hepathosplenomegaly. Because of unusual splenomegaly and liver enzymes disturbance that was not compatible with the first diagnosis, further evaluation revealed cherry red spot and high lipid profile suggestive of lysosomal storage disease. Foamy cells in the bone marrow and low activity of the specific enzyme led to the diagnosis of Niemann-Pick disease.Conclusion: This unique case illustrates the importance of looking for a second pathological condition in a patient whose clinical profile does not support the first diagnosis in its entirety.

  5. Assessment of the energy requirements and selected options facing major consumers within the Egyptian industrial and agricultural sectors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-31

    The objectives of the energy assessment study of Egypt are to develop an understanding of the current status of the principal energy users in Egypt's industrial and agricultural sectors; to estimate the energy demand and efficiency for each selected subsector within these major sectors; to identify opportunities for fuel type changes, technology switches, or production pattern changes which might increase the efficiency with which Egypt's energy is used both now and in the future: and based on options identified, to forecast energy efficiencies for selected Egyptian subsectors for the years 1985 and 2000. Study results are presented for the iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, chemical, petrochemical, cement, and textile industries and automotive manufacturers. Study results for drainage, irrigation, and mechanization procedures in the agricultural sector and food processing sector are also presented. (MCW)

  6. STUDY OF SERUM HAPTOGLOBIN LEVEL AND ITS RELATION TO ERYTHROPOIETIC ACTIVITY IN BETA THALASSEMIA CHILDREN .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seham Ragab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background  :Serum haptoglobin (Hp is a reliable marker for hemolysis regardless the inflammatory state.  Objective: We investigated the possible relation between Hp depletion and hemolysis severity, hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and iron load in β-thalassemia children. Methods: Twenty  two β-thalassemia major (TM ,20 β-thalassemia  intermedia (TI children with 20 age and sex matched healthy controls were involved. Pre-transfusion hemoglobin level was considered . Serum ferritin , Hp  and transferrin receptor  levels (sTfR  (by ELISA , alanine aminotransferase (ALT and  aspartate aminotransferase (AST  (by colorimetric method were assayed. Markers of hepatitis C virus  (HCV  were done by PCR. Results:  The mean Hp levels among the studied groups were as follows; 8.02 ± 0.93 (mg/dl , 8.6 ±0.72 (mg/dl  and 122  ± 18.5(mg/dl   for TM ,TI and the controls respectively . Both patient groups had significantly lower Hp level compared to the controls (P<0.0001  with significant lower level in TM compared to TI  children ( P= 0.034  .Significant inverse correlations were  found between serum Hp and sTfR levels in thalassemia children combined and in each group (TM and TI as well as among HCV infected children. STfR   was the only significant independent predictor for  serum Hp level (t= -5.585 , P<0.0001 . Among  HCV infected patients , no significant correlation was found between serum Hp and serum transaminases  .Conclusion:  Serum Hp depletion in thalassemia had significant relation to disease severity and correlated   well with their erythropoietic activity, as assessed by the measurement of  sTfR without significant relation  HCV infection . Large sample  multicenter studies are  recommended.  

  7. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Zika & Pregnancy: What ... molecule that stores the genes that determine hair color, eye color, whether or not a person is ...

  8. Ancient Egyptian Astronomical Calander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Patrice; Lodhi, M. A. K.

    2001-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss how certain astronomical concepts are related to the ancient Egyptian culture and their daily life. One of them is different ways of creating their calendar systems. The ancient Egyptian calendar seems to have quite a bit of its origin in astronomy and its development over the course of history. There is an important role played by events, as determined in the heavens, in developing their calendar system. Along with astronomical observations by the ancient people of Egypt, there were several outside cultures that helped develop their calendar system and Egyptian idea of how life was created on this planet, most notably the inclusion of the star Sirius in the constellation of Canis Major. We give a brief discussion of these influences. For the ancient Egyptians, the cycle of life and death is a concept that ties in with a calendar system used to determine daily events.

  9. Integrative proteome and transcriptome analysis of extramedullary erythropoiesis and its reversal by transferrin treatment in a mouse model of beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallelian, Florence; Gelderman-Fuhrmann, Monique P; Schaer, Christian A; Puglia, Michele; Opitz, Lennart; Baek, Jin Hyen; Vostal, Jaroslav; Buehler, Paul W; Schaer, Dominik J

    2015-02-01

    Beta-thalassemia results from mutations of the ?-hemoglobin (Hbb) gene and reduced functional Hbb synthesis. Excess ?-Hb causes globin chain aggregation, oxidation, cytoskeletal damage, and increased red blood cell clearance. These events result in anemia, altered iron homeostasis, and expansion of extramedullary erythropoiesis. Serum transferrin (Tf) is suggested to be an important regulator of erythropoiesis in murine models of thalassemia. The present study was conducted to establish a quantitative proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of transferrin-modulated extramedullary erythropoiesis in the spleen of wild type and thalassemic Hbb(th3/+) mice. Our LC-MS/MS protein analysis and mRNA sequencing data provide quantitative expression estimates of 1590 proteins and 24,581 transcripts of the murine spleen and characterize key processes of erythropoiesis and RBC homeostasis such as the whole heme synthesis pathway as well as critical components of the red blood cell antioxidant systems and the proliferative cell cycling pathway. The data confirm that Tf treatment of nontransfused Hbb(th3/+) mice induces a systematic correction of these processes at a molecular level. Tf treatment of Hbb(th3/+) mice for 60 days leads to a complete molecular restoration of the normal murine spleen phenotype. These findings support further investigation of plasma-derived Tf as a treatment for thalassemia. PMID:25566950

  10. Evaluating the role of indirect bilirubin, urobilinogen and Shine AND Lal index as an alternative screening tool for beta thalassemia minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridham A. Khanderia

    2015-06-01

    Methods: The present study was conducted on 100 (n=100 subjects in blood bank, department of pathology, government medical college Rajkot, Gujarat, India. In first group 50 subjects (Thalassemia minor were selected while in second group 50 (n2=50 normal individuals from hospital staff were selected. Complete-haemogram, serum-direct, indirect and total bilirubin, urine urobilinogen and their sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Results: Of the 50 cases in test group, 41 had higher Indirect Bilirubin level (>0.7 mg/dl, 35 had high urobilinogen level (>1 mg/dl. In control group out of 50 cases, 3 had high indirect bilirubin levels, 4 had high urobilinogen levels. Indirect-bilirubin had sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 94%. Urobilinogen showed sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 92%. Conclusion: Indirect bilirubin and urine-urobilinogen is a valuable, cost-effective screening test for beta-thalassemia-trait with sensitivity and specificity comparable to RBC indices. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 730-737

  11. A phase 3 study of deferasirox (ICL670), a once-daily oral iron chelator, in patients with beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Cohen, Alan; Piga, Antonio; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Perrotta, Silverio; Agaoglu, Leyla; Aydinok, Yesim; Kattamis, Antonis; Kilinc, Yurdanur; Porter, John; Capra, Marcello; Galanello, Renzo; Fattoum, Slaheddine; Drelichman, Guillermo; Magnano, Carmelo; Verissimo, Monica; Athanassiou-Metaxa, Miranda; Giardina, Patricia; Kourakli-Symeonidis, Alexandra; Janka-Schaub, Gritta; Coates, Thomas; Vermylen, Christiane; Olivieri, Nancy; Thuret, Isabelle; Opitz, Herbert; Ressayre-Djaffer, Catherine; Marks, Peter; Alberti, Daniele

    2006-05-01

    Deferasirox (ICL670) is a once-daily oral iron chelator developed for the treatment of chronic iron overload from blood transfusions. A comparative phase 3 trial was conducted to demonstrate the efficacy of deferasirox in regularly transfused patients with beta-thalassemia aged 2 years or older. Patients were randomized and received treatment with deferasirox (n = 296) or deferoxamine (n = 290), with dosing of each according to baseline liver iron concentration (LIC). The primary endpoint was maintenance or reduction of LIC; secondary endpoints included safety and tolerability, change in serum ferritin level, and net body iron balance. In both arms, patients with LIC values of 7 mg Fe/g dry weight (dw) or higher had significant and similar dose-dependent reductions in LIC and serum ferritin, and effects on net body iron balance. However, the primary endpoint was not met in the overall population, possibly due to the fact that proportionally lower doses of deferasirox relative to deferoxamine were administered to patients with LIC values less than 7 mg Fe/g dw. The most common adverse events included rash, gastrointestinal disturbances, and mild nonprogressive increases in serum creatinine. No agranulocytosis, arthropathy, or growth failure was associated with deferasirox administration. Deferasirox is a promising once-daily oral therapy for the treatment of transfusional iron overload. PMID:16352812

  12. Egyptian Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lull, José; Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    The ancient Egyptians had a wide range of constellations, which populated the skies of ancient Egypt (see Chap. 133, "Orientation of Egyptian Temples: An Overview", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_146) for more than three millennia, whose knowledge has come to us through lists of stars and other representations which have mainly appeared in a dozen of coffins, a few clepsydrae, and a good set of astronomical ceilings. Hence, by making very simple assumptions and using the information provided by the ancient Egyptian sky-watchers, it is possible to uncover a great part of the ancient Egyptian firmament. This celestial tapestry was populated by the images of animals, symbols, and divinities that were most significant in understanding the Egyptian interpretation of the cosmos.

  13. Identification and quantification of the major constituents in Egyptian carob extract by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Ibrahim Owis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carob - Ceratonia siliqua L., commonly known as St John's-bread or locust bean, family Fabaceae - is one of the most useful native Mediterranean trees. There is no data about the chromatography methods performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for determining polyphenols in Egyptian carob pods. Objective: To establish a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization (ESI-tandem mass spectrometry (MSn methodology for the identification of the major constituents in Egyptian carob extract. Materials and Methods: HPLC with diode array detector and ESI-mass spectrometry (MS was developed for the identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonoid glycosides, and aglycones in the methanolic extract of Egyptian C. siliqua. The MS and MSn data together with HPLC retention time of phenolic components allowed structural characterization of these compounds. Peak integration of ions in the MS scans had been used in the quantification technique. Results: A total of 36 compounds were tentatively identified. Twenty-six compounds were identified in the negative mode corresponding to 85.4% of plant dry weight, while ten compounds were identified in the positive mode representing 16.1% of plant dry weight, with the prevalence of flavonoids (75.4% of plant dry weight predominantly represented by two methylapigenin-O-pentoside isomers (20.9 and 13.7% of plant dry weight. Conclusion: The identification of various compounds present in carob pods opens a new door to an increased understanding of the different health benefits brought about by the consumption of carob and its products.

  14. Comparing prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia and Beta Thalassemia Trait in microcytic and non-microcytic blood donors: suggested algorithm for donor screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari Aseem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of microcytosis in donors and Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA and Beta-Thalassemia trait (BTT in microcytic and non-microcytic donors has not been studied in India. The present study aims at finding the same. Materials and Methods: Initially 925 donor samples were evaluated on cell-counter. Of these, 50 were found to be microcytic. These were subjected to Ferritin and HbA2 determination. Subsequently, an additional 51, age-and-sex matched non-microcytic donor samples were selected to serve as controls. These were subjected to the same tests. Results: The prevalence of microcytosis was 5.4% (50/925. Among the microcytic donors, 52% were IDA, 36% BTT, 8% both, and 4% none. In case of non-microcytic donors 29.4% were IDA, 3.9% BTT, and 66.7% none. Conclusions: The study revealed a high prevalence of IDA and BTT in blood donors and a higher probability of finding these in the microcytic samples. This prompted authors to suggest an algorithm for screening of blood donors for IDA and BTT. The algorithm recommends doing an hemogram on all donor samples, routinely. Ferritin could be done only in microcytic samples. At levels lower than15 ng/ml, it is diagnosed as IDA, and therefore, HPLC is performed only for non-IDA samples with Ferritin levels higher than 15 ng/ml. By employing this algorithm, a substantial number of IDA and BTT could be diagnosed while keeping the number of Ferritin tests small and the number of HPLC tests even smaller and thus making it cost efficient.

  15. Genotyping of Kell, Duffy, Kidd and RHD in patients with beta Thalassemia / Genotipagem dos sistemas Kell, Duffy, Kidd e RHD em pacientes com beta Talassemia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lilian, Castilho; Maria, Rios; Jordo, Pellegrino Jr; Maria H. M., Carvalho; Fernando L., Alberto; Sara T. O., Saad; Fernando F., Costa.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available A determinao dos fentipos Rh, Kell, Duffy e Kidd, associada ao ABO utilizada para prevenir a aloimunizao a antgenos eritrocitrios e participam tambm no processo de identificao de anticorpos nos pacientes com beta talassemia. Todavia, a fenotipagem desses pacientes trabalhosa e de difc [...] il interpretao. Nesta situao, deve ser avaliada uma alternativa ao teste de hemaglutinao para determinar o padro antignico dos pacientes. Utilizamos para tal fim o mtodo PCR-RFLP. Foram preparados DNAs de 50 pacientes com beta talassemia que haviam sido anteriormente fenotipados pela hamglutinao e testados para Kell, Kidd, Duffy/GATA mutao por PCR-RFLP. RHD/no-D foi analisado pelo tamanho do produto, do PCR associado seqncia do gene RHD no intron 4 e exon 10/3' UTR. Os testes de genotipagem foram realizados sem o conhecimento dos resultados dos fentipos. Para os RHD/no-D, 47 foram RhD+ e RHD+/RHCE+, e 3 foram RhD- e RHD-/RHCE+. Para o Kell, 48 kk foram K2K2 e 2 Kk foram K1K2. Para o Duffy, das 44 amostras que haviam sido normais, GATA box, 8 Fy(a+b-) foram FYA/FYA, 15 Fy(a+b-) foram FYB/FYB e 19 Fy(a+b+) foram FYA/FYB; das outras 4 amostras, 3 foram FYA/FYB e heterozigoto GATA mutao, e 1 Fy(a-b-) era FYB/FYB, homozigoto GATA mutao. Duas amostras fenotipadas como Fy(a+b-), que eram normais GATA, apresentavam as mutaes 265T/298A e 2 amostras fenotipadas como Fy(a-b+) haviam sido genotipadas como FYA/FYB. Para o Kidd, 15 Jk(a+b-) foram JKA/JKA, 12 Jk(a-b+) foram JKB/JKB, e 20 Jk(a+b+) foram JKA/JKB. Trs amostras fenotipadas como JK(a+b+) haviam sido genotipadas como JKB/JKB. A genotipagem mais acurada que a fenotipagem para determinao de grupos sangneos em pacientes portadores de beta talassemia politransfundidos. A genotipagem nesses pacientes pode ser importante para selecionar hemcias antigenicamente negativas para transfuso de glbulos vermelhos. Abstract in english Determination of Rh, Kell, Duffy and Kidd phenotypes in addition to ABO is used to prevent the alloimmunization to red blood cells (RBCs) antigens and as part of the antibody identification process in patients with beta Thalassemia. However, phenotyping in these patients can be time consuming and di [...] fficult to interpret. In these situations, it would be valuable to have an alternative to hemagglutination tests to determine the patient's antigen profile. We used PCR-RFLP to genotype such patients. DNA was prepared from 50 patients with beta Thalassemia who had been phenotyped by routine hemagglutination, and tested for Kell, Kidd, Duffy/GATA mutation by PCR-RFLP. RHD/non-D was analysed by PCR product size associated to RHD gene sequence in intron 4 and exon 10/3'UTR. The genotyping assays were performed without knowledge of phenotype results. For RHD/non-D, 47 were RhD+ and RHD+/RHCE+, and 3 were RhD- and RHD-/RHCE+. For Kell, 48 kk were K2K2 and 2 Kk were K1K2. For Duffy, of 44 samples that had normal GATA box, 8 Fy(a+b-) were FYA/FYA, 15 Fy(a+b+) were FYB/FYB, and 19 Fy(a+b+) were FYA/FYB; of the other 4 samples 3 were FYA/FYB and heterozygous GATA mutation, and 1 Fy(a-b-) was FYB/FYB, homozygous GATA mutation. Two samples phenotyped as Fy(a+b-) that had normal GATA , presented the 265T/298A mutations and two samples phenotyped as Fy(a-b+) were genotyped was FYA/FYB.. For Kidd , 15 Jk(a+b) were JKA/JKA, 12 Jk(a-b+) were JKB/JKB, and 20 Jk(a+b+) were JKA/JKB. Three samples phenotyped as JK(a+b+) were genotyped as JKB/JKB. Genotype is more accurate than phenotype for determination of blood groups in polytransfused patients with betaThalassemia. Genotyping in these patients can be helpful to select antigen-negative RBCs for transfusion.

  16. Egyptian gas for sale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckman, D.

    1995-07-01

    Israel, Jordan, Palestine, the Lebanon, Turkey and Italy all have at least one factor in common: they`re potential customers for Egyptian gas. Once under-used, this major resource is now set to become a valuable export commodity by the turn of the century. (author)

  17. Detection of two rare beta-thalassemia alleles found in the Tunisian population: codon 47 (+A) and codons 106/107 (+G).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Amina; Messaoud, Taieb; Beldjord, Cherif; Fattoum, Slaheddine

    2006-01-01

    We here present the first report of the detection of two rare beta0-thalassemia (thal) mutations in the Tunisian population: codon 47 (+A) and codons 106/107 (+G). To the best of our knowledge this is the second report of the codon 47 (+A) mutation, the first being identified in a Surinamese subject. The codons 106/107 (+G) mutation was first described in American Blacks, subsequently in Egyptians and Palestinians, and now in Tunisians. These mutations were detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) screening followed by automated nucleotide sequencing. The former was found in two related beta-thal major patients in the homozygous state, while the latter was identified in a homozygous state in a transfusion-dependent beta-thal subject and in a sickle cell beta-thal patient. Both mutations are in linkage disequilibrium with haplotype V and sequence framework 2. Given the known wide spectrum of beta-thal alleles in the Tunisian population, the present report further confirms such heterogeneity. The knowledge of an updated spectrum of beta-thal alleles in Tunisia must allow the implementation of a more efficient screening strategy for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:16987798

  18. Identification of low frequency anti-erythrocyte antibodies in chronically transfused patient with beta-thalassemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rbia Magalhes Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The rate of erythrocyte alloimmunization in tranfusion-dependent patients can reach 50%, although the frequency of clinically relevant antibodies in transfused patients is not fully known, it is estimated that about 1% of patients are sensitized to each unit of transfused RBCs. The aim of this study is to report the case of an 11-year-old girl with ?-thalassemia major, chronically transfused, which was detected in pre-transfusion protocol, the presence of two rare anti-erythrocyte antibodies: anti-Colton b (anti-Cob and anti-Lutheran 14 (anti-Lu14. To survey the clinical and laboratory patient history, research records filed in the archives of the university hospital in which the patient is monitored system was performed. The phenotyping erythrocyte in multitransfused patients is essential to decrease the risk of complications due to alloimmunization and estimate the availability of compatible blood. Thus, the report of this case may contribute to increase knowledge about of the real frequency of uncommon anti-erythrocyte antibodies in thalassemic patients.

  19. Polymorphic variations influencing fetal hemoglobin levels: association study in beta-thalassemia carriers and in normal individuals of Portuguese origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Clara; Relvas, Lus; Bento, Celeste; Abade, Augusto; Ribeiro, M Letcia; Manco, Licnio

    2015-04-01

    Three major loci have been associated with HbF levels, including -158C/T (XmnI) at HBG2 promoter region, and several polymorphisms at BCL11A intron-2 and HBS1L-MYB (HMIP) intergenic region. Mutations in the KLF1 gene were recently associated with increased HbF levels. This study aims to evaluate whether genetic variability at these loci influences HbF levels in ?-thalassemia carriers and in normal individuals of Portuguese origin. Sixty five ?-thalassemia carriers, HbF levels ranging from 0.2% to 9.5%, and 60 individuals with normal hematological parameters, HbF levels ranging from 0.2% to 7.4%, were selected for this study. In ?-thal carriers linear regression models revealed a strong statistical significant association for HBG2 (XmnI) rs7482144 (?=0.455; P=5.85810(-7)), and nominal significance for BCL11A rs766432 (?=0.215; P=0.029) and HMIP rs9399137 (?=0.209; P=0.011). In normal individuals, a case (HbF>2%; n=15) vs. control (HbFBCL11A SNPs rs11886868 (OR=4; P=0.001), rs766432 (OR=3.7; P=0.002) and rs7606173 (OR=0.36; P=0.032). KLF1 rs3817621 was not found associated with HbF levels. Our results suggest that in Portuguese ?-thal carriers the HBG2 XmnI polymorphism is strongly associated with HbF levels. In normal individuals, BCL11A polymorphisms, but not HMIP or HBG2 (XmnI) loci, are nominally associated with HbF expression. PMID:25842369

  20. Community genetics and health approaches for bringing awareness in tribals for the prevention of beta-thalassemia in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranbir S. Balgir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Beta (β thalassemia syndromes are a group of hereditary disorders characterized by a genetic deficiency in the synthesis of β-globin chains. In the homozygous state, β-thalassemia (i.e., thalassemia major causes severe transfusion-dependent anemia. Inherited β-thalassemia syndromes cause high degree of hemolytic anemia, recurrent fever, clinical jaundice, frequent infections, bossing of cheek bones, growth retardation, splenomegaly, etc. and are responsible for high infant morbidity, mortality and fetal wastage in India. The victims include the infants, growing children, adolescent girls, pregnant women and a large chunk of ignorant people. In view of heavy genetic load, frequent requirement of blood transfusions, high cost of treatment and management, physical trauma, and mental and psychological harassment to the patients and their families, it has been realized that preventive community health and genetics approach is the most suitable for India. After carrier detection, prenatal diagnosis, and genetic couselling are the important options for couples at high risk for β-thalassemia. A prerequisite for successful prevention and intervention approach in India is the health education, bringing public awareness, sensitization, and community screening for the identification of heterozygotes or carriers in the concerned community. Some suggestions for the prevention of β-thalassemia in the vulnerable communities of India have been over emphasized for amelioration.β地中海贫血综合症是一簇遗传性异常,其特点是β球蛋白链接合处基因缺失。β地贫(或重型地贫)在纯和状态下导致严重的输液依赖型贫血症。遗传性的β地贫综合症引起严重的溶血性贫血、回归热、显性黄疸、常见感染、疼痛危象、颊骨浮肿、生长迟缓、脾肿大等症状,这导致在印度出现婴儿高发病率、死亡率和胎儿夭折。其受害人群包括婴儿、发育中的儿童、青春期女生、孕妇和大量无辜的人。由于该病症基因负荷重,通常需要对患者进行输血、高额治疗和护理,并对患者及其家人造成物理创伤、心理和生理困扰。印度人已认识到最适合治疗该症的方法是预防性社区卫生和基因学方法。载波检测后,β地贫高风险夫妇有必要进行产前诊断和遗传咨询。要在印度成功预防和干预该病症的蔓延,首先需要做的是:实施健康教育、提高公众意识、地贫敏感化、在相关社区进行杂合子或载波筛查以鉴定。为降低印度高发区的发病率,某些β地贫预防措施已被高度重视。

  1. Nonsense-mediated decay mechanism is a possible modifying factor of clinical outcome in nonsense cd39 beta thalassemia genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Concetta Renda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD is a surveillance system to prevent the synthesis of non-functional proteins. In β-thalassemia, NMD may have a role in clinical outcome. An example of premature translation stop codons appearing for the first time is the β-globin cd39 mutation; when homozygous, this results in a severe phenotype. The aim of this study was to determine whether the homozygous nonsense cd39 may have a milder phenotype in comparison with IVS1,nt110/cd39 genotype. Genotypes have been identified from a cohort of 568 patients affected by β-thalassemia. These genotypes were compared with those found in 577 affected fetuses detected among 2292 prenatal diagnoses. The nine most common genotypes, each with an incidence rate of 1.5% or over, and together accounting for 80% of genotype frequencies, underwent statistical analysis. Genotype prevalence was calculated within the overall group. Results are expressed as proportions with 95% confidence intervals; P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. A binomial distribution was assumed for each group; z-tests were used to compare genotype frequencies observed in the patient group with frequencies in the affected fetus group. In the absence of selecting factors, prevalence of these two genotypes was compared between a cohort of 568 β-thalassemia patients (PTS and 577 affected fetuses (FOET detected during the same period. IVS1,nt110/cd39 was significantly more prevalent in FOET than PTS (P<0.0001, while there was no significant difference in prevalence of cd39/cd39 in FOET compared with PTS (P=0.524. These results suggest a cd39 genotype NMD mechanism may be associated with improved clinical outcomes in thalassemia major. 无义介导的mRNA 降解(NMD) 是一种预防非功能性蛋白质合成的监控系统。在β地中海贫血中,NMD可能对临床结果有影响。第一次出现的过早终止密码子(PTC)为β珠蛋白cd39突变;若为纯合子,则会导致严重的表型。本研究旨在确定与IVS1,nt110/cd39基因型相比,纯合子无义cd39能否有更轻度的表型。目前已确定568名β地中海贫血患者的基因型,并与从2292个产前诊断中检测出的577名地中海贫血胎儿的基因型相比较。对9个最常见基因型进行统计分析,每个基因型的发生率均为1.5%或以上,共占基因型频率的80%。在整个组中计算基因型分布情况,其结果以95%置信区间表示;若P≤0.05,则具有统计意义。各组均假定成一个二项分布;Z测试适用于比较患者组的基因型频率和地中海贫血胎儿的基因型频率。 若没有选择因子,则比较568名β地中海贫血患者(PTS)和同一时期所检测到的577个地中海贫血胎儿(FOET)这两组基因型的发生率。IVS1,nt110/cd39在FOET中的发生率明显高于PTS(P<0.0001),同时cd39/cd39 在FOET和PTS(P=0.524)中的发生率并没有明显不同。这些结果表明cd39基因型NMD机制可能与重型地中海贫血的临床结果相关。

  2. MRI of the liver and the pituitary gland in patients with {beta}-thalassemia major: Does hepatic siderosis predict pituitary iron deposition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Efremidis, Stavros C. [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, Dimitrios N. [Laboratory of Physiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to study, in thalassemic patients, if hepatic siderosis evaluated by MRI could predict the pituitary iron overload. In 36 thalassemic patients (age range 6-44 years, mean age 21.7 years) the liver/fat ratio (L/F), the pituitary/fat ratio (P/F), the liver and pituitary T2 relaxation times were evaluated, by using a multiecho spin-echo sequence. Serum ferritin levels were measured and an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed. The L/F, the P/F and pituitary T2 showed a good correlation with serum ferritin (r=-0.55, r=-0.55 and r=-0.53, respectively; p<0.01). Liver T2 did not show significant correlation with serum ferritin. The variability of L/F explained only the 10.8% of the variability of pituitary T2 and of the P/F. When ferritin was added to the model it predicted only the 26.85% and the 30.8% of the variability of pituitary T2 and of the P/F, respectively. The P/F and pituitary T2 were lower in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (group 1) compared with those without pituitary dysfunction (group 2). No significant differences of L/F were found between the two groups. Hepatic iron overload evaluated by MR is a poor predictor of pituitary siderosis. The MR studies of the pituitary gland might be necessary to evaluate the pituitary iron overload. (orig.)

  3. Laboratory assessment of iron status and reticulocyte parameters in differential diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia and heterozygous beta-thalassemia Avaliação laboratorial do estado do ferro e parâmetros reticulocitários no diagnóstico diferencial da anemia ferropriva e beta-talassemia heterozigótica

    OpenAIRE

    Gisélia A.F.M. de Lima; Helena Z. W. Grotto

    2002-01-01

    Introduction:The soluble form of transferrin receptor (sTfR) has been pointed as a useful parameter to assess the iron status and erythropoiesis activity. Immature reticulocytes present high concentration of membrane transferrin receptor. We tested the correlation between sTfR and reticulocyte parameters in iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and heterozygous beta-thalassemia (hetero beta-thal) patients. Laboratory parameters related to iron status and reticulocytes were studied in order to establis...

  4. Identification of novel microsatellite markers <1 Mb from the HBB gene and development of a single-tube pentadecaplex PCR panel of highly polymorphic markers for preimplantation genetic diagnosis of beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Tan, Arnold S C; Cheah, Felicia S H; Saw, Eugene E L; Chong, Samuel S

    2015-12-01

    Beta (?)-thalassemia is one of the most common monogenic diseases worldwide. Affected pregnancies can be avoided through preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), which commonly involves customized assays to detect the different combinations of ?-globin (HBB) gene mutations present in couples, in conjunction with linkage analysis of flanking microsatellite markers. Currently, the limited number of reported closely linked markers hampers their utility in indirect linkage-based PGD for this disorder. To increase the available markers closely flanking the HBB gene, an in silico search was performed to identify all markers within 1 Mb flanking the HBB gene. Fifteen markers with potentially high polymorphism information content (PIC) and heterozygosity values were selected and optimized into a single-tube pentadecaplex PCR panel. Allele frequencies and polymorphism and heterozygosity indices of each marker were assessed in five populations. A total of 238 alleles were observed from the 15 markers. PIC was >0.7 for all markers, with expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity values ranging from 0.74 to 0.90 and 0.72 to 0.88, respectively. Greater than 99% of individuals were heterozygous for at least seven markers, with at least two heterozygous markers on either side of the HBB gene. The pentadecaplex marker assay also performed reliably on single cells either directly or after whole genome amplification, thus validating its use in standalone linkage-based ?-thalassemia PGD or in conjunction with HBB mutation detection. PMID:26331357

  5. Multiple transfused thalassemia major: Ocular manifestations in a hospital-based population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taneja Rashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the ocular manifestations in multiple transfused beta-thalassemia major patients and assess the ocular side-effects of iron chelating agents. Materials and Methods: In this prospective observational study, 45 multiple transfused beta-thalassemia major children between six months and 21 years of age were enrolled and assigned groups according to the treatment regimens suggested. Group A received only blood transfusions, Group B blood transfusions with subcutaneous desferrioxamine, Group C blood transfusions with desferrioxamine and oral deferriprone and Group D blood transfusions with deferriprone. Ocular status at the time of enrolment was documented. Subjects were observed quarterly for one year for changes in ocular status arising due to the disease process and due to iron chelation therapy. Children with hemoglobinopathies other than beta-thalassemia major, congenital ocular anomalies and anemia due to other causes were excluded. Results: Ocular involvement was observed in 58% of patients. Lenticular opacities were the most common ocular finding (44%, followed by decreased visual acuity (33%. An increased occurrence of ocular changes was observed with increase of serum ferritin and serum iron levels as well as with higher number of blood transfusions received. Desferrioxamine seemed to have a protective influence on retinal pigment epithelium (RPE mottling. Occurrence of lenticular opacities and RPE degeneration correlated positively with use of desferrioxamine and deferriprone respectively. Follow-up of patients for one year did not reveal any change in ocular status. Conclusion: Regular ocular examinations can aid in preventing, delaying or ameliorating the ocular complications of thalassemia.

  6. Ancient Egyptian surgical heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Aly

    2010-12-01

    Egyptian medicine influenced the medicine of neighboring cultures, including the culture of ancient Greece. From Greece, its influence spread onward, thereby affecting Western civilization significantly. The oldest extant Egyptian medical texts are six papyri: The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus and the Ebers Medical Papyrus are famous. PMID:21208098

  7. Interação entre Hb C [beta6(A3Glu>Lys] e IVS II-654 (C>T beta-talassemia no Brasil Hb C [beta6(A3Glu>Lys] and IVS II - 654 (C>T beta thalassemia interaction in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. Bonini-Domingos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemias are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders characterized by a microcytic hypochromic anemia and an imbalance in the synthesis of the globin-chains. Hb C is the second most frequently variant of hemoglobin found in Brazil. The laboratory diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies, including thalassemias, is growing in importance, particularly because of an increasing requirement for neonatal diagnosis of abnormal hemoglobins. Screening tests were carried out using alkaline and acid electrophoresis, globin-chain analysis by cellulose acetate in alkaline pH, isoelectric focusing and HPLC. The molecular characterization was made by PCR-ASO for Hb C and beta thalassemia mutants. Large-scale screening and discriminative methodologies must provide information about the hemoglobin polymorphisms in Brazilian population. HPLC is a powerful tool in these cases. Molecular characterization is important to genetic counseling and clinical management, in particular for the Brazilian population that have an intense racial admixture, with great variability of hemoglobins. In this paper an association between Hb C and beta thalassemia (IVS-II-654 in a black family from Brazil was described.

  8. High Prevalence of Alpha- and Beta-Thalassemia in the Kadazandusuns in East Malaysia: Challenges in Providing Effective Health Care for an Indigenous Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jin-Ai Mary Anne; Lee, Ping-Chin; Wee, Yong-Chui; Tan, Kim-Lian; Mahali, Noor Fadzlin; George, Elizabeth; Chua, Kek-Heng

    2010-01-01

    Thalassemia can lead to severe transfusion-dependent anemia, and it is the most common genetic disorder in Malaysia. This paper aims to determine the prevalence of thalassemia in the Kadazandusuns, the largest indigenous group in Sabah, East Malaysia. α- and β-thalassemia were confirmed in 33.6% and 12.8%, of the individuals studied respectively. The high prevalence of α- and β-thalassemia in the Kadazandusuns indicates that thalassemia screening, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis should be included as part of their healthcare system. This preliminary paper serves as a baseline for further investigations into the health and genetic defects of the major indigenous population in Sabah, East Malaysia. PMID:20871816

  9. Egyptian Fractions Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga KOSHELEVA

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the ancient Egyptians represented each fraction as a sum of unit fractions - i.e., fractions with unit numerators; this is how they, e.g., divided loaves of bread. What is not clear is why they used this representation. In this paper, we propose a new explanation: crudely speaking, that the main idea behind the Egyptian fractions provides an optimal way of dividing the loaves. We also analyze the related properties of fractions.

  10. Egyptian Fractions Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Kosheleva, Olga; Kreinovich, Vladik

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the ancient Egyptians represented each fraction as a sum of unit fractions - i.e., fractions with unit numerators; this is how they, e.g., divided loaves of bread. What is not clear is why they used this representation. In this paper, we propose a new explanation: crudely speaking, that the main idea behind the Egyptian fractions provides an optimal way of dividing the loaves. We also analyze the related properties of fractions.

  11. Graves' disease mimicking beta-thalassemia trait.

    OpenAIRE

    Akasheh, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    A case of Graves' disease associated with splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, microcytic hypochromic anaemia, and a raised haemoglobin A2 is presented. The haematological indices returned to normal after conventional treatment with anti-thyroid medication.

  12. [Beta thalassemia: motivation for screening in Terni].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatati, G; Palazzesi, G P; Cassetti, M; Lorenzoni, L; Coaccioli, S; Puxeddu, A

    1984-11-10

    There are no definitive data on the frequency of beta-thalassaemia in the Province of Terni; a mass screening programme has not been carried out. Preliminary studies confirm that there is a strong incidence of beta-thalassaemia heterozygotes. A theory can be put forward for the presence of beta-thalassaemia trait, based on the notion of the multicentric genesis of the disorder: the malaria may have been the dominant selective factor. PMID:6514214

  13. Serum ferritin levels, socio-demographic factors and desferrioxamine therapy in multi-transfused thalassemia major patients at a government tertiary care hospital of Karachi, Pakistan

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    Rehman Anis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta thalassemia is the most frequent genetic disorder of haemoglobin synthesis in Pakistan. Recurrent transfusions lead to iron-overload manifested by increased serum Ferritin levels, for which chelation therapy is required. Findings The study was conducted in the Pediatric Emergency unit of Civil Hospital Karachi after ethical approval by the Institutional Review Board of Dow University of Health Sciences. Seventy nine cases of beta thalassemia major were included after a written consent. The care takers were interviewed for the socio-demographic variables and the use of Desferrioxamine therapy, after which a blood sample was drawn to assess the serum Ferritin level. SPSS 15.0 was employed for data entry and analysis. Of the seventy-nine patients included in the study, 46 (58.2% were males while 33 (41.8% were females. The mean age was 10.8 (± 4.5 years with the dominant age group (46.2% being 10 to 14 years. In 62 (78.8% cases, the care taker education was below the tenth grade. The mean serum Ferritin level in our study were 4236.5 ng/ml and showed a directly proportional relationship with age. Desferrioxamine was used by patients in 46 (58.2% cases with monthly house hold income significant factor to the use of therapy. Conclusions The mean serum Ferritin levels are approximately ten times higher than the normal recommended levels for normal individuals, with two-fifths of the patients not receiving iron chelation therapy at all. Use of iron chelation therapy and titrating the dose according to the need can significantly lower the iron load reducing the risk of iron-overload related complications leading to a better quality of life and improving survival in Pakistani beta thalassemia major patients. Conflicts of Interest: None

  14. JIT implementation in Egyptian manufacturing firms: some empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Salaheldin, S.I.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose – This study aims to delineate the major human modifications to be undertaken prior to just-in-time (JIT) implementation in Egyptian manufacturing firms; to discern the benefits obtained from JIT implementation; to identify the problems that Egyptian manufacturing companies typically encounter in implementing JIT philosophy; and to explore the relationship between human modification efforts to be undertaken prior to JIT implementation and JIT success. Design/methodology...

  15. Equity Not Equality: The Gender Discourse of an Egyptian Activist

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Since its inception in 1928, the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood has played a large role in shaping Egyptian politics and society. The 2011 toppling of Hosni Mubarak and the opening up of the political system has led to an increased presence of the movement, with representatives forming a majority in parliament and even winning the powerful presidency. Observers and analysts within and without Egypt continue to have questions about the movement and its motives and perspectives. Fairly or not, the...

  16. Sit Like an Egyptian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The topic of Egypt is one that students are naturally intrigued and enthusiastic about. In this article, fifth graders create mosaic and mixed-media collaged chairs in their visual arts class as part of their overall study of the art and culture of ancient Egypt. The idea was to embellish a contemporary chair with Egyptian colors, themes, and…

  17. Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) Gene Polymorphisms (FokI, BsmI) and their Relation to Vitamin D Status in Pediatrics βeta Thalassemia Major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhoseiny, Shereen Mohamed; Morgan, Dalia Saber; Rabie, Asmaa Mohamed; Bishay, Samer Tharwat

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D is critical for calcium, phosphate homeostasis and for mineralization of the skeleton, especially during periods of rapid growth. Vitamin D Deficiency leads to rickets (in children) and osteomalacia (in adults). Expression and activation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) are necessary for the effects of vitamin D, in which several single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified especially (FokI, BsmI). In this study serum 25 (OH) vitamin D3 levels were estimated by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay [ELISA], VDR (FokI, BsmI) gene polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay [PCR-RFLP].Serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and ferritin were determined in 50 Pediatrics beta thalassemia major patients and 60 controls. Patients had significantly lower serum calcium (p alkaline phosphatase than controls (p = 0.04). Of the patients studied, 60 % had vitamin D deficiency (30 ng/ml). Patients harboring mutant (Ff,ff) and wild (BB) genotypes were associated with lower serum calcium (p = 0.08, 0.02) respectively, lower vitamin D3 levels (p  0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that the VDR (FokI, BsmI) gene polymorphisms influence vitamin D status, (Ff,ff), BB genotypes had lower vitamin D levels, so they might influence risk of development of bone diseases in beta thalassemia major. PMID:27065588

  18. Senenmut: An Ancient Egyptian Astronomer

    OpenAIRE

    Novakovic, Bojan

    2008-01-01

    The celestial phenomenon have always been a source of wonder and interest to people, even as long ago as the ancient Egyptians. While the ancient Egyptians did not know all the things about astronomy that we do now, they had a good understanding of the some celestial phenomenon. The achievements in astronomy of ancient Egyptians are relatively well known, but we know very little about the people who made these achievements. The goal of this paper is to bring some light on the life of Senenmut...

  19. Senenmut: An Ancient Egyptian Astronomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, B.

    2008-10-01

    The celestial phenomena have always been a source of wonder and interest to people, even as long ago as the ancient Egyptians. While the ancient Egyptians did not know all the things about astronomy that we do now, they had a good understanding of some celestial phenomena. The achievements in astronomy of ancient Egyptians are relatively well known, but we know very little about the people who made these achievements. The goal of this paper is to bring some light on the life of Senenmut, the chief architect and astronomer during the reign of Queen Hatshepsut.

  20. Credit risk in Egyptian banks

    OpenAIRE

    Abdou, Hussein

    2006-01-01

    This research aims to identify the currently used techniques in evaluating credit risk in Egypt’s banking sector, then to evaluate these techniques and to develop model(s) to evaluate credit risk in Egyptian banks. In a pilot study, the researcher conducted informal interviews with key personnel in three of the Egyptian banks, in order to evaluate credit risk policies. The pilot study showed that these banks do not use any of the statistical techniques in the evaluation pr...

  1. Autopsy of an Egyptian mummy (Nakht--ROM I)

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Autopsy of a 3200-year-old Egyptian mummy by an international multidisciplinary team yielded much information about diseases of the ancient past. Major contributions were made by the disciplines of anatomy, dentistry, genetics, hematology, histology, microbiology, nuclear medicine, occupational medicine, orthopedic surgery, otolaryngology, pathology, pediatrics, plastic surgery, radiology and virology. Scientists from Toronto, Detroit, Philadelphia and Cardiff participated in the investigatio...

  2. Effect of Hypertransfusion on Extramedullary Hematopoietic Compression Mass in Thalassemia Major: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Emamhadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereby we report a patient with thalassemia major having extradural cord compression at T3-T9 levels due to a mass of extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH tissue, whose treatment was successful with hypertransfusion therapy alone. The patient was a 23-year-old man who had not received regular blood transfusion since two years before admission. He suffered from paraparesis with a history of progressive lower limb weakness for 2 months. MRI of the spinal cord demonstrated thoracic extramedullary hematopoietic mass causing spinal cord compression. The patient demonstrated a significant response to hypertransfusion and improvement in the neurologic status started a few days after treatment. Almost complete resolution of the mass was seen in spinal MRI one week after hypertransfusion. Hypertransfusion seems to be a useful method for treatment of spinal cord compression due to a hematopoietic mass. It may be used as the first line therapy.Keywords: Beta-Thalassemia,Hypertransfusion,Spinal Cord Compression

  3. Evaluation of Glucose Metabolism, Thyroid Function, Growth and Development Pattern and Calcium Status in Patients with Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia major is a genetic disorder. Blood transfusion is critical for survival in these patients. Over the course of the past two and three decade`s hypertransfusion therapy in these patients has increased significant improvement in life expectancy and quality of life. Unfortunately, this type of therapy increased the frequency of complication due to iron overloud. In the past endocrine abnormalities were very common in beta-thalassemia patients but it is more common now. The aim of this study was evaluation of prevalence of endocrine disturbances in patients with thalassemia major greater than 10 years old. Fifty six patients with thalassemia major greater than 10 years enrolled. Physicians collected demographic data and history of therapies as well as menstrual history in female. Patients have been examined to determine their pubertal status and SDS of height for evaluation of short stature. For evaluation of glucose tolerance, fasting blood glucose and oral glucose tolerance test were performed. Serum level of calcium, phosphorous, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxin, luteinizing hormone and follicular stimulating hormone, estradiol in girls and testosterone in boys were measured. Fifty six patients with thalassemia major 10-27 years old were evaluated. In this study prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance test were 8.9, 28.6 and 7.1%, respectively. Short stature (SDS= -2 was seen in 70 of boys and 73% of girls. Hypocalcaemia and primary overt hypothyroidism were present in 41 and 16%, respectively. 14.3% of our patients have not any endocrine abnormalities. Despite recent therapy with Desferal in the management of beta-thalassemia major, the risk of secondary endocrine dysfunction remains high. Hypogonadism is one of the most frequent endocrine complications. Endocrine evaluation in patients with thalassemia major must be carried out regularly especially in those patients over the age of 10 years in tabriz.

  4. Unexpected links between Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Friberg, Jöran

    2005-01-01

    Mesopotamian mathematics is known from a great number of cuneiform texts, most of them Old Babylonian, some Late Babylonian or pre-Old-Babylonian, and has been intensively studied during the last couple of decades. In contrast to this Egyptian mathematics is known from only a small number of papyrus texts, and the few books and papers that have been written about Egyptian mathematical papyri have mostly reiterated the same old presentations and interpretations of the texts. In this book, it is shown that the methods developed by the author for the close study of mathematical cuneiform texts can also be successfully applied to all kinds of Egyptian mathematical texts, hieratic, demotic, or Greek-Egyptian. At the same time, comparisons of a large number of individual Egyptian mathematical exercises with Babylonian parallels yield many new insights into the nature of Egyptian mathematics and show that Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics display greater similarities than expected.

  5. The Iranian Legacy in the 2011 Egyptian Revolution: Military Endurance and US Foreign Policy Priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Alimagham, Pouya

    2013-01-01

    In the latter half of the twentieth century, militaries have been a major source for change in the Middle East.  In 1952, radical nationalist military officers staged the overthrow of the Egyptian monarchy and proclaimed a republic. A year later, the Iranian military, in collusion with the American CIA and the British MI-6, toppled Iran’s democratically-elected government. In the same decade, Iraqi military officers, following on the heels of their Egyptian counterparts, ousted the monarchy i...

  6. Study on effectiveness of transfusion program in thalassemia major patients receiving multiple blood transfusions at a transfusion centre in Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Children suffering from beta-thalassemia major require repeated blood transfusions which may be associated with dangers like iron overload and contraction of infections such as HIV, HCV, and HBsAg which ultimately curtail their life span. On the other hand, inadequate transfusions lead to severe anemia and general fatigue and debility. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from 142 beta-thalassemia major patients aged 3 years or more receiving regular blood transfusions at a transfusion centre in Western India from 1 April 2009 to 30 June 2009. The clinical data and laboratory results were subsequently analyzed. Results: Of the 142 patients, 76 (53.5% were undertransfused (mean Hb <10 gm%. 96 (67% of the patients were taking some form of chelation therapy but out of them only 2 (2% were adequately chelated (S. ferritin <1000 ng/ml. 5 (3.5% of the patients were known diabetics on insulin therapy. 103 (72% of the patients were retarded in terms of growth. The prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs such as HCV, HIV, and HBsAg was respectively 45%, 2%, and 2%, with the prevalence of HCV being significantly more than the general population. The HCV prevalence showed positive correlation with the age of the patients and with the total no of blood transfusions received. As many as 15% (6 out of 40 children who were born on or after 2002 were HCV positive despite the blood they received being subjected to screening for HCV. Conclusions: The study suggests the need to step up the transfusions to achieve hemoglobin goal of 10 gm% (as per the moderate transfusion regimen and also to institute urgent and effective chelation measures with the aim of keeping serum ferritin levels below 1000 ng/ml to avoid the systemic effects of iron overload. In addition, strict monitoring of the children for endocrinopathy and other systemic effects of iron overload should be done. Rigid implementation of quality control measures for the ELISA kits used to detect HCV in donor blood needs to be done urgently. Alternately, more sensitive and specific measures (like NAT testing should be employed for detection of HCV. In the absence of a definitive cure accessible and available to all patients, strict implementation of the above suggested measures will go a long way in improving the quality (and quantity of life in patients of beta-thalassemia major.

  7. Ottoman Perception of Egyptian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This research was carried out before the period described as "Arab Spring" in Egypt which is one of the highly effective countries of Middle East in political, economic and demographic structuring. The aim was to determine the Ottoman Turks image of Egyptian secondary school third grade students. Descriptive scanning model out of…

  8. Detection of a major gene for heterocellular hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin after accounting for genetic modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thein, S.L.; Weatherall, D.J. (Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford (United Kingdom)); Sampietro, M.; Rohde, K.; Rochette, J.; Lathrop, G.M.; Demenais, F.

    1994-02-01

    [open quotes]Heterocellular hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin[close quotes] (HPFH) is the term used to describe the genetically determined persistence of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) production into adult life, in the absence of any related hematological disorder. Whereas some forms are caused by mutations in the [beta]-globin gene cluster on chromosome 11, others segregate independently. While the latter are of particular interest with respect to the regulation of globin gene switching, it has not been possible to determine their chromosomal location, mainly because their mode of inheritance is not clear, but also because several other factors are known to modify Hb F production. The authors have examined a large Asian Indian pedigree which includes individuals with heterocellular HPFH associated with [beta]-thalassemia and/or [alpha]-thalassemia. Segregation analysis was conducted on the HPFH trait FC, defined to be the percentage of Hb F-containing cells (F-cells), using the class D regressive model. The results provide evidence for the presence of a major gene, dominant or codominant, which controls the FC values with residual familial correlations. The major gene was detected when the effects of genetic modifiers, notably [beta]-thalassemia and the XmnI-[sup G][gamma] polymorphism, are accounted for in this analysis. Linkage with the [beta]-globin gene cluster is excluded. The transmission of the FC values in this pedigree is informative enough to allow detection of linkage with an appropriate marker(s). The analytical approach outlined in this study, using simple regression to allow for genetic modifiers and thus allowing the mode of inheritance of a trait to be dissected out, may be useful as a model for segregation and linkage analyses of other complex phenotypes. 39 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. ANTHROPOMETRIC STUDY OF NASAL INDEX OF EGYPTIANS

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmonem Awad Hegazy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The nasal index determination is one of the most commonly used anthropometric parameters in classifying human races. There are few reports in medical literature concerning nasal index that specifically address particular Egyptian populations. The objective of this study was to determine the normal parameters of external nose (width, height and nasal index) in Egyptians. Methods: The study was conducted randomly on healthy Egyptian subjects of both sexes. Nasal height and width ...

  10. The Islamist Trend in Egyptian Law

    OpenAIRE

    Tamir Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    The past four decades have witnessed profound transformations in the Egyptian legal system and in the Egyptian legal profession. Article 2 of the Egyptian Constitution now enshrines Islamic jurisprudence as the principle source of law, thus establishing an important symbolic marker at the heart of the state and opening avenues for Islamist activists to press litigation campaigns in the courts. Additionally, the Islamist trend gained prominence within the legal profession, a development that i...

  11. Evaluation of Endocrine Complications in Patients with Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol Baytan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Multiple blood transfusions in beta thalassemia patients causes iron overload in various tissues including endocrine glands thereby leading to multiple endocrine dysfunction. The aim of this study was to determine the endocrine complications seen in beta thalassemia patients followed-up in outpatient clinics of Pediatric Hematology Division of Uludag University Faculty of Medicine. Materials and Methods: The files of patients with thalassemia major followed-up in outpatient clinics of Pediatric Hematology Division of Uludag University Faculty of Medicine from January 1976 to August 2008 were retrospectively evaluated for endocrine disorders. All patients had a detailed physical examination including palpation of thyroid gland and pubertal staging. Endocrine evaluation was performed in the Division of Pediatric Endocrinology.Results: A total of 44 [20 female (45.5%; 24 male (54.5%; and mean chronological age 13.54±7.32 (2.75-35.2 years] patients were evaluated. The ratios of patients with endocrine dysfunction were 27.2 % and 90.9%, respectively, when we exclude or include those with osteoporosis/osteopenia or growth failure other than growth hormone deficiency. Of all patients, 27 (61.3% had osteoporosis, 17 (38.6% had growth retardation, 11 (25% had osteopenia, 6 (13.6% had hypogonadism, 3 (6.8% had hypothyroidism, 2 (4.5% had hypoparathyroidism, 1 (2.3 had growth hormone deficiency, and 1 (2.3 had type 1 diabetes mellitus. Mean ferritin levels and monthly transfusion numbers were 1976.15±1494.75 ng/ml and 1.46±0.34, respectively. There were no significant association between ferritin levels, monthly transfusion needs, and endocrine dysfunctions studied. Endocrine dysfunctions did not differ significantly amongst those having different chelating agents. The ratio of patients with growth retardations in 10 to 19-age-group was significantly higher than those in 0 to 9-age-group (30.6% vs 8.3%; p=0.049. Conclusion: Patients with thalassemia major are under increased risk of various endocrine dysfunction. Bone health is significantly compromised. Those younger than 10 years should be closely followed for especially growth retardation and osteoporosis/osteopenia and those who are 10 years of age or older should be followed for all endocrine pathologies, especially for hypogonadism, growth retardation, and osteoporosis. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 58-65

  12. Thermoluminescence (TL) of Egyptian Blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schvoerer, M.; Delavergne, M.-C.; Chapoulie, R.

    1988-01-01

    Egyptian Blue is a synthesized crystalline pictorial pigment with formula CaCuSi/sub 4/O/sub 10/. It has been used in Egypt and Mesopotamia from the 3rd millenium B.C. A preliminary experiment on a recently synthesized sample showed that this pigment is thermoluminescent after ..beta.. irradiation (/sup 90/Sr). As the signal intensity grows linearly with the administered dose within the temperature range commonly used in TL dating, we have been looking for this phenomenon from archaeological pigments. It was encountered with two samples found in excavation. From its intensity and stability we concluded that Egyptian Blue can be dated using TL. This first and positive result encouraged us to extend the method to other types of mineral pigments synthesized by early man, and to suggest that it may be used for direct dating of ancient murals.

  13. Egyptian Agricultural Exports Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Ibrahim; Bassiony, Hala

    2012-01-01

    The study dealt with the competitiveness of Egypts agricultural exports for the major commodity groups: Meat and meat preparations, Dairy products and bird eggs, Cereals and cereals preparations, Vegetables and Fruits, Sugar, sugar preparations and honey, Feeding stuff of animals, Beverages, Tobacco, Oils and fats, and Textile fiber and their waste. The study has not restricted the estimated measure of the competitiveness to only the classical Revealed Comparative Advantage Index (RCA), ...

  14. Some endocrinal aspects of pancreas in beta thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out to evaluate endocrinal aspects of the pancreas in thalassemia children, ages 5 - 10 years maintained under either regular or irregular iron chelation therapy. A matched control on healthy children, was included for comparison. As regards laboratory findings, fasting and post prandial blood sugar was significantly elevated in thalassemia children than the control and serum insulin was significantly lower in the irregular iron chelation group than both in the regular one and in the control group. Most cases of diabetic thalassemia children clinically and biochemically were of irregular iron chelation and with older age. They were frequently higher transfused. There is significant rise of serum ferritin in diabetic group than in diabetic thalassemia children. In conclusion, pancreatic dysfunction can be detected in thalassemia children, but regular iron chelation can reduce its occurrence. 10 tabs

  15. E-BETA THALASSEMIA WITH EXTRAMEDULARY HEMATOPOIESIS: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Avik; Dulal; Anindya Sundar

    2014-01-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is a well-recognized process in which the body attempts to maintain erythrogenesis in response to an alteration in the normal production of red blood cells. It is observed in hemoglobinopathies, myeloproliferative disorders, neoplasm’s involving the bone marrow and other conditions. Commonly observed areas of EMH include the paraspinal regions of the thorax, liver and spleen, but it has been reported in other locations, including the adre...

  16. Egyptian and foreign cigarettes Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NAA was employed to determine the concentration of 27 elements in an Egyptian cigarette filter before and after smoking. The filter of three foreign cigarette brands were also analyzed and compared to the Egyptian brand. The elements determined are Al, As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, V and Zn. It was observed that the concentration of the measured elements in the Egyptian brand were within the concentration range of foreign brands, and that the concentration of As, Br, Cl, K, Na and Se in the filters increased after smoking regardless the brands examined. (author)

  17. Mental illness and Egyptian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrawes, Gihane; O'Brien, Louise; Wilkes, Lesley

    2007-06-01

    People from Egypt have cultural belief systems about mental illness and its causes that are at variance from Anglo-Saxon-derived understandings that predominate in Australian psychiatry. These differences in understanding can affect how mental health services are experienced and accepted by this cultural group. This paper is a review of the literature on Egyptians' beliefs about mental illness and how families in Egypt cope with a relative with mental illness. Because of limited literature on Egyptians' experience with mental illness in Australia, this paper will be used to shed some light on the way in which people experience mental illness and communicate this suffering in the Australian context, based on what has been known to occur in Egypt. The Zar cult and related practices focusing on belief in the evil eye, magic, and evil possession will be explored. Historical and contemporary mental health care systems in Egypt, and the influence of education and religion are discussed. In order to provide culturally sensitive care, nurses need to be aware of possible influences on belief systems about mental illness. This paper has the potential of helping nurses to gain a deeper understanding of cultures that differ from theirs and to provide care to clients and their families based on respect for the others' beliefs, values, and practices. PMID:17535163

  18. Biodiesel, the Egyptian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikal, E.K.; Abdou, I.K. (Egyptian Petroleum Research Inst., Cairo (Egypt)), E-mail: S_a_khali@yahoo.com

    2009-07-01

    Biodiesel has recently become more attractive because of its environmental benefits and the fact that it is produced from renewable resources. In recent years, research has been directed to explore plant-based oil and fats as sources for biodiesel fuels. Under Egypt's land and water supply availabilities only non- edible plants such as Jatropha, which can be grown on a large scale on noncropped marginal land and wasteland, can be considered for biodiesel production. Jatropha biodiesel fuel could be an economical alternative blending stock for diesel fuel in Egypt. Cars could be run with Jatropha biodiesel fuel without any change in motor design. The major problem associated with the use of 100 % vegetable biodiesel fuels is caused by the high fuel viscosity, besides their high pour points. (orig.)

  19. Hair-offerings: an enigmatic Egyptian custom

    OpenAIRE

    Tassie, G. J.

    1996-01-01

    The Egyptians did not record the reasons that lay behind the offering of hair. Using an holistic approach, which combines both ethnographic and ethnohistoric evidence, insights may be gained into the ancient remains of these rituals and practices.

  20. The Future of SMEs in Egyptian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Alasrag, Hussien

    2007-01-01

    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Egypt represent the greatest share of the productive units of the Egyptian economy, the current national policy directions address ways and means of developing the capacities of SMEs. This paper reviews the role of The Developmental Role of SMEs in Egyptian Economy. IT attempts at identifying the broad parameters within which an integrated government policy towards SME development can be formulated. The paper identifies the financial and non-financial co...

  1. Egyptian History in the Classical Historiographers

    OpenAIRE

    Moyer, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Egyptian history was discussed by a number of classical historians. Two extensive accounts havesurvived intact (those of Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus) along with the fragmentary remains ofnumerous other texts. Though classical historians are not usually reliable as independent sources forthe history of Egypt before the Saïte Period, they often provide useful information on Egyptian historyin the periods contemporary with classical Greek and Roman civilization, as well as evidence of howearl...

  2. The Archaeology of Egyptian Monasticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Louise

    The study of Egyptian monasticism has traditionally relied heavily on the rich corpus of textual sources, while the archaeological remains have been secondary to our understanding of monastic life. This imbalance has resulted in a situation where questions pertinent to the physical remains of...... monasteries ha ve largely remained unanswered. Based on first - hand archaeological material from the White Monastery federation and comparative material obtained through archaeological reports, the thesis addresses Egypt ian Monasticism in the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Islamic period, by...... examining three main themes through seven chapters. These themes are: 1. the relationship between the archaeological and textual sources pertinent to the White Monastery; 2. the diachronic development of the White Monastery and the process es that caused its abandonment; 3. the economy of the White...

  3. [Egyptian mummies as anthropological artifacts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Ancient human remains like Egyptian mummified bodies cannot be considered on a physical anthropological perspective only. So severe and invasive were the operations on the body, so various were the materials involved in the preservation techniques, so complicated was the embalming and wrapping procedure according to specific rituals, that the final result, the mummy, is to be considered a highly composite product. The human remains are a relevant part of it indeed, but a very wide set of information can be taken.also from the other components, relating to environment, resources, technology, religious beliefs, cultural and technical traditions, skills and arts at the time of the individual's life. That a plain anthropological approach could not be exhaustive on cataloguing such a kind of archaeological finds emerged during the sessions of the scientific board charged by the Italian ICCD of defining a data track for filing anthropological remains as a special kind of cultural heritage. PMID:25807707

  4. Laboratory assessment of iron status and reticulocyte parameters in differential diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia and heterozygous beta-thalassemia Avaliação laboratorial do estado do ferro e parâmetros reticulocitários no diagnóstico diferencial da anemia ferropriva e beta-talassemia heterozigótica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisélia A.F.M. de Lima

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The soluble form of transferrin receptor (sTfR has been pointed as a useful parameter to assess the iron status and erythropoiesis activity. Immature reticulocytes present high concentration of membrane transferrin receptor. We tested the correlation between sTfR and reticulocyte parameters in iron deficiency anemia (IDA and heterozygous beta-thalassemia (hetero beta-thal patients. Laboratory parameters related to iron status and reticulocytes were studied in order to establish their clinical value to distinguish both anemias. Material and Methods: Reticulocyte measurements were obtained using a semi-automated analyzer and serum concentration of sTfR was determined by an immunoenzymatic technique. Forty-nine IDA and 43 hetero beta-thal patients were studied. Results: Reticulocyte count and sTfR values were significantly higher in IDA than in hetero beta-thal group, but the best parameter to distinguish both anemias was sTfR index, obtained by the ratio sTfR/ferritin level. Transport compartment was better evaluated by transferrin dosage than by transferrin iron binding capacity (TIBC determination. The association of serum iron with transferrin measurements (transferrin index improved the accuracy of the transferrin test. Discussion: The correlation between highly immature reticulocytes and sTfR level was observed only in IDA group, suggesting that cellular iron deprivation is the main responsible factor for up regulation of the sTfR synthesis in immature red blood cells. High sTfR values in hetero beta-thal patients reflect a degree of ineffective erythropoiesis in this hemoglobinopathy. Conclusion: We concluded that sTfR, ferritin and transferrin measurements are useful and precise parameters to discriminate IDA from hetero beta-thal patients.Introdução: A forma solúvel do receptor da transferrina (sTfR tem sido indicada como um parâmetro útil na avaliação do estado do ferro e da atividade eritropoiética. Reticulócitos imaturos apresentam alta concentração dos receptores de transferrina na sua membrana. Estudamos a correlação entre sTfR e parâmetros reticulocitários em pacientes com anemia ferropriva (AF e com beta-talassemia heterozigótica (beta-tal hetero. Os parâmetros laboratoriais relacionados ao estado do ferro e reticulócitos foram estudados a fim de se estabelecer a utilidade clínica dos mesmos na distinção entre os dois tipos de anemia. Material e métodos: As medidas reticulocitárias foram obtidas usando-se um analisador hematológico semi-automático, e as concentrações de sTfR foram determinadas por técnica imunoenzimática. Foram estudados 49 pacientes com AF e 43 com beta-tal hetero. Resultados: As contagens de reticulócitos e os valores de sTfR foram significativamente mais elevados na AF do que na beta-tal hetero, mas o melhor parâmetro para diferenciar as duas anemias foi o índice de sTfR, obtido pela razão sTfR/ferritina. O compartimento de transporte foi mais bem avaliado pela dosagem de transferrina do que pela capacidade de ligação do ferro à transferrina (TIBC. A associação do ferro sérico à medida de transferrina (índice de transferrina melhorou a acurácia do teste de transferrina. Discussão: A correlação entre reticulócitos imaturos e nível de sTfR foi observada apenas no grupo com AF, sugerindo que a falta de ferro intracelular seja o principal fator responsável pelo estímulo à síntese de sTfR nas células sangüíneas imaturas. Os valores elevados de sTfR nos pacientes com beta-tal hetero refletem um certo grau de eritropoiese ineficaz nessa hemoglobinopatia. Conclusão: Concluímos que as medidas de sTfR, ferritina e transferrina são parâmetros úteis e precisos para diferenciar AF de beta-tal hetero.

  5. Expression of therapeutic misconception amongst Egyptians: a qualitative pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman Henry J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that research participants fail to appreciate the difference between research and medical care, labeling such phenomenon as a "therapeutic misconception" (TM. Since research activity involving human participants is increasing in the Middle East, qualitative research investigating aspects of TM is warranted. Our objective was to assess for the existence of therapeutic misconception amongst Egyptians. Methods Study Tool: We developed a semi-structured interview guide to elicit the knowledge, attitudes, and perspectives of Egyptians regarding medical research. Setting: We recruited individuals from the outpatient settings (public and private at Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt. Analysis: Interviews were taped, transcribed, and translated. We analyzed the content of the transcribed text to identify the presence of a TM, defined in one of two ways: TM1 = inaccurate beliefs about how individualized care can be compromised by the procedures in the research and TM2 = inaccurate appraisal of benefit obtained from the research study. Results Our findings showed that a majority of participants (11/15 expressed inaccurate beliefs regarding the degree with which individualized care will be maintained in the research setting (TM1 and a smaller number of participants (5/15 manifested an unreasonable belief in the likelihood of benefits to be obtained from a research study (TM2. A total of 12 of the 15 participants were judged to have expressed a TM on either one of these bases. Conclusion The presence of TM is not uncommon amongst Egyptian individuals. We recommend further qualitative studies investigating aspects of TM involving a larger sample size distinguished by different types of illnesses and socio-economic variables, as well as those who have and have not participated in clinical research.

  6. Orientation of Egyptian Temples: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    Archaeoastronomy has never been a favored discipline within Egyptology. As a consequence, important questions such as the orientation of Egyptian temples and the relevance of astronomy in this respect had not been treated with the requisite seriousness and depth. This situation is changing, however, and over the past decade, there have been several serious attempts to perform an extensive analysis of the orientation of Egyptian monuments. The orientations of approximately 400 temples have been measured in the Nile Valley, the Delta, the Oases, and the Sinai, with the aim of providing a clear answer to the question of whether the ancient Egyptian sacred constructions were astronomically aligned or not. This impressive set of data seems to answer this question in the affirmative.

  7. Egyptian and foreign cigarettes Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of 27 elements was measured using neutron activation analysis in a cigarette brand commercially manufactured in Egypt and in three foreign brands available on the Egyptian market. The cigarette components examined were tobacco, wrapping paper and ash. All results are expressed in absolute values per cigarette. The concentration of Al, As, Ba, Br, Cl, Cs, Eu, Fe, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, Ti and V in the Egyptian cigarette were above the range determined for the foreign brands examined; however, Ce, Co, Cr, Hf, K, La, Mg, Se and Zn were within that range. Except for K, Mn, Ni and Ti, the above conclusions were the same for elements determined in the ash. The wrapping paper used for the Egyptian cigarette contains the lowest quantity of Cl and Mn. (author)

  8. Documentation of BRUSII used on Egyptian data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    The BRUSII model and its use on Egyptian data are documented in this report. A Master Plan for wind development in Egypt is a part of the project, Demonstration and Development of Technology and Planning in the Wind Energy Sector in Egypt. The Master Plan work is has been carried out in cooperation...... the Danish energy plan 2000. The model has been adapted to suit Egyptian conditions, but elements originating from the Danish energy system are still present. Thus the model could be used to examine a system including a demand for heating. All 20 spreadsheets of the model are documented, regarding...

  9. [Early Egyptian forerunners of the Paranatellonta?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quack, J F

    1999-01-01

    The term "paranatellonta" is well-known in greek astrological literature. It designates stars either rising together with the sun or being in other conspicuous positions to it. Tentatively, a forerunner of this conception is identified in an egyptian depiction attested several times from the 13th century BC onwards. There, "gods" are depicted who are defined by their positions in regard to the sun-god. It seems possible to connect their positions with the typical meanings of the word paranatellonta. Some reflections on the contribution of Egypt to hellenistic astrology are added, including some references to the largely unpublished corpus of demotic egyptian astrological texts. PMID:10705808

  10. Serological study on parvovirus B19 infection in multitransfused thalassemia major patients and its transmission through donor units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Janak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human parvovirus B19 (B19 virus is a newly recognized agent for transfusion transmitted diseases. Beta-thalassemia major patients receive a hypertransfusion regimen, hence, are prone to acquire B19 infection; moreover, B19 escapes viral inactivation methods and donor units are not tested for B19, but there are just a couple of studies globally and none from the Asian continent. Hence, a study was designed to find the frequency of B19 infection and its transmission in multitransfused thalassemia patients. Materials and Methods: Ninety multitransfused beta-thalassemia major (thalassemia patients, 32 controls (age, sex matched without any history of transfusion were enrolled. Besides the donor units were tested in B19 un-infected patients. B19 specific IgG and IgM antibodies in the sera were analyzed by ELISA (in-house, using B19 VPI and VP2 recombinant and purified antigens; additionally HBsAg and anti-HIV and anti-HCV antibodies were tested for coexisting infections. Results: Seventy-three (81% thalassemia patients tested positive for anti-B19 IgG antibodies as compared to seven (21% in the controls group (P < 0.01, while anti-B19 IgM antibodies were detected in 37 (41.1% compared to two (6.2% in the controls (P < 0.01. Mean age of the thalassemia patient was eight years (range 2 - 18 years and B19 infection was highest in the six-to-ten year range. Seropositivity increased with the number of transfusions. Two of the four HBsAg positive and five of the seven anti-HCV IgM antibody-positive patients also had anti-B19 IgM. After a six-month follow-up, four (25% of the 16 seronegative patients seroconverted and anti-B19 IgM antibodies were detected in their donor units. Conclusions: Most of multitransfused thalassemics were B19 seropositive or had anti-B19 IgM; in the remaining uninfected group, B19 got transmitted through infected / IgM-positive donor units.

  11. Islam in Egyptian Education: Grades K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Charlotte M.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the important role that the religion of Islam plays in the education of Egyptian children. The scrutiny under which the Islamic world finds itself in the after-math of September 11, 2001 has resulted in calls for educational reform, not only from the outside world, but also from the Muslim world itself. The author has a…

  12. ANTHROPOMETRIC STUDY OF NASAL INDEX OF EGYPTIANS

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    Abdelmonem Awad Hegazy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nasal index determination is one of the most commonly used anthropometric parameters in classifying human races. There are few reports in medical literature concerning nasal index that specifically address particular Egyptian populations. The objective of this study was to determine the normal parameters of external nose (width, height and nasal index in Egyptians. Methods: The study was conducted randomly on healthy Egyptian subjects of both sexes. Nasal height and width were measured using vernier caliper. Then, nasal index was determined for each subject. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: A total of 290 subjects, 144 males and 146 females, aged 1 month– 65 years, were enrolled in the study. The study showed the existence of sexual dimorphism in nasal morphology, appearing after the age 20 years. The mean nasal index in the investigated adults was 68.01; in males and females was 71.46 and 64.56, respectively. Conclusions: The dominant nasal type in Egyptians was in-between mesorrhine "medium" and leptorrhine "narrow" nose. Forensic and anthropological research, as well as cosmetic and reconstructive surgery may benefit from age- and sex- based data of the study.

  13. ICT BASED TELEMEDICINE FOR THE EGYPTIAN SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez A. Fouad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The One of the most challenging problems that encounter the Egyptian society is the lack of significant health care in the rural areas. This problem leads to more severe problems that face the society; the patients from the different rural areas needs to travel to the Egyptian capital where the most experienced physicians are available. This will make overhead not only on the patient budget but on the country budget since the focus on the capital makes a severe traffic problem which threaten most of the economic sectors. The telemedicine is considered one of the most important solutions that could mitigate the accumulated problems of lack of experienced physicians in the Egyptian rural areas. The application of the telemedicine encounters several challenges in Egypt; the lack in the experience in dealing with the telemedicine in these areas and the problem of insufficient medical experts that could fulfil the gab. In this paper, a new ICT-based telemedicine system is proposed to serve the Egyptian society. The portal is already released and snapshots are included

  14. Hair-offerings: an enigmatic Egyptian custom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Tassie

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptians did not record the reasons that lay behind the offering of hair. Using an holistic approach, which combines both ethnographic and ethnohistoric evidence, insights may be gained into the ancient remains of these rituals and practices.

  15. Studies in lexicography of Ancient Egyptian buildings and their parts

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, P A

    1981-01-01

    The aim of this study is to attempt to clarify the meanings of the various terms used by the ancient Egyptians to describe the architectural elements which constituted an Egyptian temple. It consists of discussions of a total of fifty-seven nouns which have, in the past, been translated by general terms such as 'shrine' 'hall' 'column' and 'wall'. Each of the terms is discussed individually, and the entries are arranged-according to the order of the Egyptian alphabet. Ea...

  16. studies on extraction of some nuclear materials from egyptian ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present thesis is devoted to systematic studies on extraction of some nuclear materials from egyptian ores. Extraction of thorium, uranium and rare earths from egyptian monazite and beryllium from egyptian beryl mineral, was investigated. Such elements were taken as a representative group of reactor materials, currently used as fuel and for structural and cladding purposes. In an introducing chapter, various nuclear materials are reviewed. Their importance in nuclear field, physical characteristics, nuclear and non- nuclear uses are surveyed

  17. The Islamist Trend in Egyptian Law (SWP 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Tamir

    2010-01-01

    The past four decades have witnessed profound transformations in the Egyptian legal system and in the Egyptian legal profession. Article two of the Egyptian Constitution now enshrines Islamic jurisprudence as the principle source of law, thus establishing an important symbolic marker at the heart of the state and opening avenues for Islamist activists to press litigation campaigns in the courts. Additionally, the Islamist trend gained prominence within the legal profession, a development that...

  18. Investigating the use of Egyptian blue in Roman Egyptian portraits and panels from Tebtunis, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganio, Monica; Salvant, Johanna; Williams, Jane; Lee, Lynn; Cossairt, Oliver; Walton, Marc

    2015-11-01

    The use of the pigment Egyptian blue is investigated on a corpus of fifteen mummy portraits and Roman-period paintings from Tebtunis, Egypt, housed in the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. Egyptian blue has a strong luminescence response in the near infrared that can be exploited to created wide-field images noninvasively showing the distribution of the pigment on a work of art. A growing body of publications in the last decade highlights the increasing use of this tool and its sensitive detection limits. However, the technique is not wavelength specific. Both excitation and emission occur in a broad range. Although Egyptian blue has a strong emission in the NIR, a myriad of other compounds may emit light in this spectral region when excited in the visible. The limited number of studies including complementary analysis to verify the presence of Egyptian blue does not allow its identification on the basis of NIR luminescence alone. Through the use of in situ X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy of cross sections, this paper confirms the identification of Egyptian blue by NIR luminescence in unexpected areas, i.e., those not blue in appearance.

  19. Evaluation of genetic bases and diversity of Egyptian wheat cultivars released during the last 50 years using coefficient of parentage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhoja R. Basnet

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Discerning the genetic diversity of any crop species provides insight into the strength of an applied breeding program and directs future breeding strategies aimed at long-term genetic gain and minimized genetic vulnerability. The number and abundance of ancestral parents present in the pedigree of crop cultivars can provide an average estimation of the depth of the genetic base of the overall crop improvement program. The objectives of this study were to estimate (1 the genetic similarity among 33 Egyptian wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars and different eras of release (1947-2004 and productivity groups based on COP values, and (2 the relative genetic contribution and abundance of ancestral parents from different geographical origins to the total gene pool of Egyptian wheat cultivars. Broad genetic diversity was observed among 33 Egyptian cultivars with average COP value of 0.11 and large numbers of ancestral parents (155 landraces traced to 31 countries. The genetic base ranged from very low in pre 1960’s cultivars such as ‘Giza 139’ (with only 3 landraces in the background to very high in modern cultivars such as ‘Gemmeiza-7’ (with 73 landraces in the background. ‘Hindi-62’, ‘Red Fife’, ‘Hard Red Calcutta’ and ‘Akagomughi’ were the major ancestors with 6, 5, 4, and 4% of total genetic contribution to the Egyptian wheat gene pool, respectively. Egypt, United States of America, Kenya and Ukraine were the major source countries with 16, 11, 9 and 7% of total genetic contribution to this gene pool, respectively. Though Marquis-Thatcher germplasm from North America has the greatest influence on overall Egyptian cultivars, Mexican-based sources of dwarfing and high yield, derived from ancestors such as ‘Akagomughi’ and ‘Daruma’ and exploited by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT, were very prominent in Egyptian cultivars post 1970’s.

  20. Molecular Assay and Genotyping of Hepatitis C Virus among Infected Egyptian and Saudi Arabian Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed M.S. Farag; Sofy, Ahmed R; Mousa, Adel A; Mohamed A. Ahmed; Alganzory, Mohamed R

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health problem recognized globally. HCV is a common cause of liver fibrosis that may lead to liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HCV infection and genotyping among Egyptian and Saudi Arabian chronic patients using different molecular techniques. HCV RNA viral load was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology. For HCV genotyping, RT-PCR hybridization fluoresc...

  1. Essential Oil Constituents of Summer Savory Plants Propagated and Adapted under Egyptian Climate

    OpenAIRE

    KHALID A. KHALID

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by water distillation from aerial parts of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.) yielded 1.2% v/w on a dry weight. Eight constituents representing 99.7% of the S. hortensis essential oils were identified. The major constituents of S. hortensis essential oils were ?-terpinene (46.4%), carvacrol (40.2%) and ?-thujene (8.8%). The obtained constituents from S. hortensis essential oil under egyptian conditions grouped into three classes which are Monoterpene Hydrocarbo...

  2. The thermoluminescence (TL) of Egyptian Blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egyptian Blue is a synthesized crystalline pictorial pigment with formula CaCuSi4O10. It has been used in Egypt and Mesopotamia from the 3rd millenium B.C. A preliminary experiment on a recently synthesized sample showed that this pigment is thermoluminescent after β irradiation (90Sr). As the signal intensity grows linearly with the administered dose within the temperature range commonly used in TL dating, we have been looking for this phenomenon from archaeological pigments. It was encountered with two samples found in excavation. From its intensity and stability we concluded that Egyptian Blue can be dated using TL. This first and positive result encouraged us to extend the method to other types of mineral pigments synthesized by early man, and to suggest that it may be used for direct dating of ancient murals. (author)

  3. Chlorpyrifos Exposures in Egyptian Cotton Field Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Farahat, Fayssal M.; Fenske, Richard A; Olson, James R.; Galvin, Kit; Bonner, Matthew R.; Diane S. Rohlman; Lein, Pamela J; Anger, W. Kent

    2010-01-01

    Neurobehavioral deficits have been reported in Egyptian pesticide application teams using organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, but whether these effects are related to OP pesticide exposures has yet to be established. In preparation for a comprehensive study of the relationship between OP pesticide dose and neurobehavioral deficits, we assessed exposure within this population. We conducted occupational surveys and workplace observations, and collected air, dermal patch and biological samples fro...

  4. Consanguineous matings in the Egyptian population.

    OpenAIRE

    Hafez, M.; El-Tahan, H; Awadalla, M; El-Khayat, H; Abdel-Gafar, A; Ghoneim, M

    1983-01-01

    A total of 26 554 Egyptians was ascertained to study the incidence of consanguineous marriages. They were of different ages, different socioeconomic standards, and from different areas. There were 7646 from urban areas, 11 280 from suburban areas, and 7628 from rural areas. The incidence of consanguineous matings in the general population was found to be 28.96% with an average inbreeding coefficient of 0.010, which could be considered high. The highest incidence was that in the rural areas. F...

  5. Egyptian plant species as new ozone indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madkour, S.A.; Laurence, J.A

    2002-12-01

    Of more than 30 species of plants from Egypt screened for sensitivity to ozone, four were found to be suitable for use as bioindicators. - The aim of this study was to test and select one or more highly sensitive, specific and environmentally successful Egyptian bioindicator plants for ozone (O{sub 3}). For that purpose more than 30 Egyptian species and cultivars were subjected to extensive screening studies under controlled environmental and pollutant exposure conditions to mimic the Egyptian environmental conditions and O{sub 3} levels in urban and rural sites. Four plant species were found to be more sensitive to O{sub 3} than the universally used O{sub 3}-bioindicator, tobacco Bel W3, under the Egyptian environmental conditions used. These plant species, jute (Corchorus olitorius c.v. local), clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L. c.v. Masry), garden rocket (Eruca sativa c.v. local) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. c.v. local), ranked in order of decreasing sensitivity, exhibited typical O{sub 3} injury symptoms faster and at lower O{sub 3} concentrations than Bel W3. Three variables were tested in search of a reliable tool for the diagnosis and prediction of O{sub 3} response prior to the appearance of visible foliar symptoms: pigment degradation, stomatal conductance (g{sub s}) and net photosynthetic CO{sub 2} assimilation (P{sub net}). Pigment degradation was found to be unreliable in predicting species sensitivity to O{sub 3}. Evidence supporting stomatal conductance involvement in O{sub 3} tolerance was found only in tolerant species. A good correlation was found between g{sub s}, restriction of O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} influx into the mesophyll tissues, and P{sub net}. Changes in P{sub net} seemed to depend largely on fluctuations in g{sub s}.

  6. Egyptian plant species as new ozone indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of more than 30 species of plants from Egypt screened for sensitivity to ozone, four were found to be suitable for use as bioindicators. - The aim of this study was to test and select one or more highly sensitive, specific and environmentally successful Egyptian bioindicator plants for ozone (O3). For that purpose more than 30 Egyptian species and cultivars were subjected to extensive screening studies under controlled environmental and pollutant exposure conditions to mimic the Egyptian environmental conditions and O3 levels in urban and rural sites. Four plant species were found to be more sensitive to O3 than the universally used O3-bioindicator, tobacco Bel W3, under the Egyptian environmental conditions used. These plant species, jute (Corchorus olitorius c.v. local), clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L. c.v. Masry), garden rocket (Eruca sativa c.v. local) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. c.v. local), ranked in order of decreasing sensitivity, exhibited typical O3 injury symptoms faster and at lower O3 concentrations than Bel W3. Three variables were tested in search of a reliable tool for the diagnosis and prediction of O3 response prior to the appearance of visible foliar symptoms: pigment degradation, stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (Pnet). Pigment degradation was found to be unreliable in predicting species sensitivity to O3. Evidence supporting stomatal conductance involvement in O3 tolerance was found only in tolerant species. A good correlation was found between gs, restriction of O3 and CO2 influx into the mesophyll tissues, and Pnet. Changes in Pnet seemed to depend largely on fluctuations in gs

  7. Feminist Perspectives on the Egyptian Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Hellstrand, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Egyptian Revolution 2011 created a space and opportunity to forward important demands concerning different social and political issues, amongst these matters related to women's status and situations in the society. Feminist and women's rights proponents in Egypt conceptualize the aims of a feminist or women's rights agenda as (women's) human rights and citizen's rights, independence, freedom and choice, though such universal concepts are understood in accordance with particular cultural o...

  8. Body composition in Egyptian Turner syndrome girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moushira Erfan Zaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This cross-sectional study was undertaken to construct the new body fat % curve and provide body composition reference data for adolescent girls with Turner syndrome (TS. They diagnosed cytogenetically by blood karyotyping and not treated with growth hormone (GH. Materials and Methods: The study included 70 TS girls from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Smoothed centile charts were derived by using the least mean square (LMS method. Results: The new body fat curves reflect the increase of body fat mass (FM from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body FM % of Egyptian TS girls was lower when compared with age-matched American untreated TS girls. Conclusion: This study presents the new body fat curves and reference values of body composition for untreated Egyptian TS adolescent girls. The present charts can be used for direct assessment of body FM % for Egyptian TS girls and evaluation for cases on GH treatment or other growth promoting therapy.

  9. Enhancement of Nuclear Security Measures: Egyptian Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt benefited from the peaceful uses of nuclear energy since the second half of twentieth century and established several nuclear and radiation facilities, activities and practices such as research reactors, fuel fabrication facility, gamma irradiators, and utilization of radioactive sources in different applications. Consequently, Egypt’s concern is to enhance and improve the nuclear security systems in the above mentioned facilities, activities and practices as well as enhance the nuclear security regime on the national, regional and international levels. In this paper, several steps taken by Egypt in the field of nuclear security in its various aspects such as the legal and regulatory frameworks, physical protection of nuclear material and facilities, nuclear material accounting and security of radioactive sources will be presented. Egyptian human resources development strategy for the purpose of improving the efficiency, building, upgrading and strengthening the knowledge and skills of the personnel who are working in the nuclear and radiological fields as well as other activities that related to nuclear security will also be discussed. The Egyptian nuclear security strategy is under development taking in its consideration the present nuclear security measures and the future perspective to develop and improve the Egyptian nuclear security infrastructure. (author)

  10. Cartoons and the Egyptian Transition: A Qualitative Analysis of Egyptian Newspapers

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    Sara S. Elmaghraby

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the Egyptian revolution of 25 January, cartoonists have depicted the transition taking place in this country in several ways. This study aims to analyze the cartoons drawn about this transition period in Egypt in seven different Egyptian newspapers. This is done through a qualitative analysis of 80 cartoons published between 28 June and 4 July 2013, as this period saw the ousting of elected president Mohamed Morsi by the military general Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi. The study observes the different depiction of various topics, actors and visual frames used by the seven newspapers during the analyzed period, in accordance with their particular viewpoint of the transition in Egypt.

  11. Elemental Analysis of Some Egyptian Ores and Industrial Iron Samples by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the neutron activation analysis technique was applied for elemental analysis of two iron ore samples as well as a sample of a first industrial iron product. The ore samples were collected from Baharia oasis and Aswan region, while the industrial product was submitted by the Egyptian iron and steel company of Helwan. The samples were prepared for investigation by thermal neutron activation using the irradiation facilities of the first Egyptian research reactor (ETRR-1) .The gamma-ray spectra were recorded by means of the hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. The long and short lived isotopes were considered. A comparative study and a discussion on the elemental concentration values are given

  12. Elemental analysis of two Egyptian iron ores and produced industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental analysis of two iron ores and initial industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were performed by the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples of each type were irradiated for 48 h in a thermal neutron flux of 4x1012 n/cm2 s in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-RR-1. Also, the Pneumatic Irradiation Rabbit System (PIRS), attached to the reactor ET-RR-1 in Inshass, was used to measure short-life elements. The γ-ray spectra were obtained with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. Implications of the elemental concentration values obtained are presented

  13. A new look at old bread: ancient Egyptian baking

    OpenAIRE

    Delwen Samuel

    1999-01-01

    Despite abundant archaeological, pictorial and textual evidence of ancient Egyptian life and death, we have little detailed information about the staple diet of most of the population. Now experimental work by a postdoctoral Wellcome Research Fellow in Bioarchaeology at the Institute is revealing how the ancient Egyptians made their daily bread.

  14. A new look at old bread: ancient Egyptian baking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delwen Samuel

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite abundant archaeological, pictorial and textual evidence of ancient Egyptian life and death, we have little detailed information about the staple diet of most of the population. Now experimental work by a postdoctoral Wellcome Research Fellow in Bioarchaeology at the Institute is revealing how the ancient Egyptians made their daily bread.

  15. Egyptian Art Institutions and Art Education from 1908 to 1951

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This study of Egyptian aesthetics interprets the historical and political context of artistic discourse in the early twentieth century. In a period marked by intense struggle between landlords and rural laborers during the Depression and World War II, the author compares the rise of the Egyptian Surrealists, from the late 1930s, and the…

  16. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC in Egyptian manufacturing firms.

  17. Infrared absorption spectra of Egyptian Serpentine Rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrared absorption spectra of natural egyptian serpentine rock were recorded in the frequency range 200-4000 cm-1, and through the temperature range 200-1000 degree C for 2 hours. The chemical bonds within the lattice structure of serpentine are interpenetrated quantitatively. From the intensities and frequencies shift op the characteristic infrared bands spectra, through heat treatment, we can detect the first endothermic reaction due to the loss of hydroxyl bonds up to 700 degree C, and recrystallization for forsterite refractory at 800 degree C, with the characteristics infrared bands at 506-521 cm-1 of Si-O bending vibrations, at 880-888 cm-1 of Si O-Al vibrations, and at 1000-1075 cm-1 of Si-O stretching vibrations. The infrared bands at 350-398 cm-1 (Si-O bend), and 400-448 cm-1 (Si-O-Mg) are sensitive to follow the phase transformation through heat treatment. Where Egyptian serpentine rock of chemical composition Mg6(Si4 O10) (OH8), or Mg3(Si2 O5)(OH4) or 3 Mg O.2 Si O2.2 H2 O magnesium hydrositicate, trioctahedral 1:1 family layer lattice silicate still with its lattice structure till 700 degree C. endothermic reaction due to the deformation of hydroxyl bonds, and then formation of forsterite of chemical composition 2 Mg O.Si O2 from 800 degree C, and the infrared absorption spectra of egyptian serpentine detect a minor quantities of A12 O3 and this phase of tine is Antigorite Mg3(Si2 O5)(OH)4 trioctahedral 1:1 family and high purest related to its standard. Most of the intensities of the characteristics infrared bands spectra are decreased as temperature increases up to 1000 degree C. 2 figs.,2 tabs

  18. German-Egyptian seminar on environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial development and scientific advancement have opened new frontiers of interest and challenges. Anthropogenic activities are increasingly upsetting the natural environmental balance and are at the same time shifting from local impact to global importance. Science is confronted with the challenge to answer the question of what are the consequences of anthropogenic changes to the environment and to help politics formulate countermeasures for the sake of a sustainable future. Protect results achieved within the Egyptian-German cooperation were presented to the scientific community and to the interested public and discussions on future lines of actions took place. (orig./KW)

  19. Electrical properties of Egyptian natural graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical properties of Egyptian natural graphite flakes, obtained from the graphite schists of Wadi Bent, Eastern Desert, were measured. The flakes were ground and compressed into pellets. The standard four probe dc method was used to measure the temperature dependence of the electric resistivity from room temperature down to 12 K. The transverse and longitudinal magnetoresistance were measured in the low magnetic field range at temperatures 300 K, 77 K and 12 K. The transverse magnetoresistance data was used to estimate the average mobility, assuming a simple two-band model. (author). 20 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  20. SURGICAL PROCEDURES DURING ANCIENT EGYPTIAN MUMMIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Brier

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors attempted to replicate Egyptian mummification with a human cadaver. In a previous paper, the authors reported their findings on the use of natron in ancient mummification. This paper discusses the surgical procedures used in evisceration during mummificationLos autores intentaron replicar el sistema de momificacin egipcia en un cadver humano actual y en un trabajo anterior, los autores publicaron sus resultados sobre el uso de natron en la momificacin antigua. Este informe presenta los procedimientos quirrgicos utilizados durante el proceso de momificacin

  1. Egyptian human babesiosis and general review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2008-04-01

    Babesiosis is tick-borne malaria-like disease. Man is an opportuneistic host for Babesia species. This paper presented the second Egyptian human babesiosis. The signs and symptoms, CBC, liver functions and kidney functions tests and all other serologic tests did not give any definite diagnosis. Also, he was sero-negative for malaria infection. The patient was critically diagnosed by the demonstration of the typical ring forms of Babesia species in stained blood smears. He was successfully treated with Quinine and Clindamycin, and was discharged from the hospital after the clinical and parasitological improvement. The epidemiology of zoonotic babesiosis was discussed. PMID:19143136

  2. Genetic and Nongenetic Factors Affecting Clopidogrel Response in the Egyptian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, B M; Shahin, M H; Solayman, Mhm; Langaee, T; Schaalan, M F; Gong, Y; Hammad, L N; Al-Mesallamy, H O; Hamdy, N M; El-Hammady, W A; Johnson, J A

    2016-02-01

    Aspirin and clopidogrel are the mainstay oral antiplatelet regimens, yet a substantial number of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) still occur. Herein, we investigated genetic and nongenetic factors associated with clopidogrel response in Egyptians. In all, 190 Egyptians with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and/or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), treated with clopidogrel (75 mg/day) for at least a month, were genotyped for CYP2C19 *2, *3, *6, *8, *10, and *17, CES1 G143E and ABCB1*6 and *8. These variants along with nongenetic factors were tested for association with the risk of having MACE in clopidogrel-treated patients. CYP2C19 loss-of-function (LOF) alleles carriers had increased risk of MACE vs. noncarriers (odds ratio 2.52; 95% confidence interval 1.23-5.15, P = 0.011). In a logistic regression, CYP2C19 LOF variants (P = 0.011), age (P = 0.032), and body mass index (BMI, P = 0.039) were significantly associated with the incidence of MACE in patients taking clopidogrel. CYP2C19 genetic variants, age, and BMI are potential predictors associated with variability to clopidogrel response in Egyptians. PMID:26757134

  3. SPECTRUM OF BETA GLOBIN GENE MUTATIONS IN EGYPTIAN CHILDREN WITH ?- THALASSEMIA

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    MR El-Shanshory

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The molecular defects resulting in ?-thalassemia phenotype, in the Egyptian population show a clear heterogenic mutations pattern. PCR based techniques, including direct DNA sequencing are effective on the molecular detection and characterization of these mutations. The molecular characterization of ?-thalassemia is absolutely necessary for carrier screening, for genetic counseling, and to offer prenatal diagnosis.The aim of the work: was to evaluate the different ?-globin gene mutations in one hundred Egyptian children with ?-thalassemia. Patients and Methods: One hundred of ?-thalassemic Egyptian children, covering most Egyptian Governorates. All patients were subjected to meticulous history taking, clinical examinations, complete blood count, complete blood count, hemoglobin electrophoresis, serum ferritin and direct fluorescent DNA sequencing of ?-globin gene to detect the frequency of different mutations in studied patients. Results: The most common mutations among patients were IVS I-110(G>A 48%, IVS I-6(T>C 40%, IVS I-1(G>A19%,IVS I-5(G>C10%, IVS II-848 (C>A 9%, IVS II-745(C>G 8%, IVS II-1(G>A 7%, codon"Cd"39(C> T 4%,-87(C>G 3% and the rare mutations were: Cd37 (G>A, Cd8 (-AA, Cd29(-G, Cd5 (-CT, Cd6(-A, Cd8/9(+G, Cd 106/107(+G, Cd27(C>T, IVS II-16(G> C, Cd 28 (-C, Cap+1(A>C, -88(C>A, all of these rare mutations were present in 1%. There was considerable variation in phenotypic severity among patients resulting from interaction of different ? and ?+mutations, 79(79% patients were thalassemia major (TM and 21(21% were thassemia intermedia (TI, without genotype phenotype association. Conclusion: Direct DNA sequencing provides insights for the frequency of different mutations in ?- thalassemic patients including rare and /or unknown ones.

  4. studies on iron availability in Egyptian soils using tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    four experiments were conducted to study the available fe in some egyptian soils, representing alluvial,, calcareous, and sandy soils, including the following:1) estimation of soil available iron using different chemical methods as well as E-value and evaluated against biological method. 2) differentiation of iron as Fe2+ and Fe2+ in some selected egyptian soils by using the modified method (charlot,1966). 3) determination of total Fe in soil using neutron activation analysis. 4) the relative importance of Fe-diffusion in egyptian soils under different treatments

  5. Nutritive Value of Irradiated Egyptian Truffles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the nutritive value of truffles was evaluated as protein efficiency ratio (C-PER) compared with casein C-PER. of white truffle was higher than brown truffle and therefore had a better nutritional quality over the brown truffle. Egyptian truffle could be considered as a good source of protein with good essential amino acids content and high nutritive value. It was found that white and brown truffles (Al-Kamah) grow in the north westarn coast of the Egyptian desert, white truffle was identified as Tirmania nivea while brown truffle was identified as Terfezia boudieri. Rats were fed on normal diet as (basal diet) for two weeks, then they were fed on the same diet with 10% of casein (control diet), replaced by 20% of irradiated and non irradiated white and brown truffle dried samples as a protein source. The nutritive value parameters were measured at the end of the experiment, gains in body weight, daily food intake, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio were measured, biological value, the biological effect on liver kideny function serum glucose. LDL and HDL-cholesterol were investigated too

  6. Physicochemical and radiological studies on some egyptian aquatic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of estimating the radiological health and safety to the Egyptian population arises from the natural background involved with coastal areas, it is necessary to make a comprehensive study to investigate the natural radionuclides activities in this environmental ecology. The locations of such areas were chosen from those in which people spend some time (e.g. the Mediterranean and Red Sea beaches, Suez Canal in addition to the River Nile Ismailia Canal and Quaroun Lake). Water and soil samples were brought from these locations and subjected to intensive physical, chemical analysis and radiological investigations. The densities of the collected soil samples were found to fall in the region of clay densities (2.30 - 2.70 g/cm 3 ). The particle size distribution analysis, of these soil samples showed values ranging from 128 Μ m to 1303 Μ according to sample site. The collected samples are mainly silicates with variable amounts of the major cations; Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+ with some other trace elements. For the radiological investigations 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentrations were resolved by spectroscopy technique. The majority of samples examined in this work showed variable activities of the naturally occurring radionuclides with fairly low levels compared with literature values reported in other countries. The analysis and discussions of the obtained data are thoroughly performed with the use of equations to estimate the radiation doses

  7. General fire protection guidelines for Egyptian nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the regulatory requirements that will provide and ensure fire protection of Egyptian nuclear installations. Two or more classes of occupancy are considered to occur in the same building or structure. Fire protection measures and systems were reviewed for four of the Egyptian nuclear installations. These are Egypt's first research reactor (ET-RR-1) building and systems, hot laboratories buildings and facilities, the building including the AECL type JS-6500 industrial cobalt-60 gamma irradiator ''Egypt's Mega Gamma I'' and Egypt's second research multi-purpose reactor (MPR). A brief review is given about fire incidents in Egypt, and descriptions of the only fire reported at one of the Egyptian nuclear installations over more than 35 years of operating these installations. The study outlines the various aspects of fire protection with a view to define the relevant highlights and scope of an Egyptian guidelines. (author)

  8. Studies of natural radioactivity of some Egyptian rock phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    226Ra, 235U, 232Th and 40K activity concentrations (Bq/kg) in some Egyptian phosphate samples have been measured using HPGe gamma spectrometer. Also their radium equivalent activities were calculated and discussed. (author)

  9. Estimates of the effect on hepatic iron of oral deferiprone compared with subcutaneous desferrioxamine for treatment of iron overload in thalassemia major: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caro J

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta thalassemia major requires regular blood transfusions and iron chelation to alleviate the harmful accumulation of iron. Evidence on the efficacy and safety of the available agents, desferrioxamine and deferiprone, is derived from small, non-comparative, heterogeneous observational studies. This evidence was reviewed to quantitatively compare the ability of these chelators to reduce hepatic iron. Methods The literature was searched using Medline and all reports addressing the effect of either chelator on hepatic iron were considered. Data were abstracted independently by two investigators. Analyses were performed using reported individual patient data. Hepatic iron concentrations at study end and changes over time were compared using ANCOVA, controlling for initial iron load. Differences in the proportions of patients improving were tested using χ2. Results Eight of 11 reports identified provided patient-level data relating to 30 desferrioxamine- and 68 deferiprone-treated patients. Desferrioxamine was more likely than optimal dose deferiprone to decrease hepatic iron over the average follow-up of 45 months (odds ratio, 19.0, 95% CI, 2.4 to 151.4. The degree of improvement was also larger with desferrioxamine. Conclusions This analysis suggests that desferrioxamine is more effective than deferiprone in lowering hepatic iron. This comparative analysis – despite its limitations – should prove beneficial to physicians faced with the challenge of selecting the optimal treatment for their patients.

  10. Coronary artery ectasia in Egyptian patients with coronary artery disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Waly, H M; Elayda, M A; V.V. Lee; el-Said, G; Reul, G J; Hall, R. J

    1997-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of 45 Egyptian patients with coronary artery ectasia who underwent coronary bypass grafting at our institution between 1980 and 1995. We examined the anatomic distribution and type of coronary ectasia and its association with coronary risk factors in these patients, and evaluated the severity of their coronary artery disease. We compared these findings with those from a group of 230 Egyptian patients who did not have coronary ectasia. These patients also und...

  11. Nitrogenase Activity of Pseudomonas corrugata Isolated from Egyptian Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A. Abada

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study an isolate capable of root colonization of Egyptian Lettuce was isolated from the roots after selective enrichment. The isolated strain was identified as Pseudomonas corrugata by using Biochemical and Biolog identification system. The isolate has been found to be positive for nitrogenase activity. This root-colonized bacterium has not been previously isolated from Egyptian Lettuce and could be used as a bio-fertilizer.

  12. Characterization of Egyptian coal from Sinai using Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of iron bearing minerals in coal makes the Moessbauer Spectroscopy (MS) extremely useful for characterization of coals from different localities. In this paper the MS has been applied to characterize Egyptian coal from Sinai (Maghara). The chemical analysis of this coal is given. The MS results showed that pyritic sulphur (pyrite and marcasite) is the only bearing mineral in Egyptian coal. A review is given for the iron bearing minerals in coals from different countries measured by MS. (author)

  13. Molecular characterization of eimeria species naturally infecting egyptian baldi chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar M Gadelhaq

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is a serious protozoal disease of poultry. The identification of Eimeria species has important implications for diagnosis and control as well as for epidemiology. The molecular characterization of Eimeria species infecting Egyptian baladi chickens was investigated.Eimeria species oocysts were harvested from intestines of naturally infected Egyptian baldi chickens. The morphometry characterization of oocysts along with COCCIMORPH software was done. The DNA was extracted initially by freezing and thawing then the prepared samples was subjected to commercial DNA kits. The DNA products were analyzed through conventional polymerase chain reaction by using amplified region (SCAR marker.The PCR results confirmed the presence of 7 Eimeria species in the examined fecal samples of Egyptian baldi breed with their specific ampilicon sizes being E. acervulina (811bp, E. brunette (626bp, E. tenella (539bp, E. maxima (272bp, E. necatrix (200bp, E. mitis (327bp and E. praecopx (354bp. A sequencing of the two most predominant species of Eimeria was done, on E. tenella and E. máxima. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed high identities 99% between Egyptian isolates and the reference one. Similarly, E. maxima isolated from Egyptian baldi chickens showed 98% nucleotide identities with the reference strain. Only single nucleotide substitution was observed among the Egyptian E. tenella isolates (A181G when compared to the reference one. The Egyptian isolates acquired 4 unique mutations (A68T, C164T, G190A and C227G in compared with the reference sequence.This is the first time to identify the 7 species of Eimeria from Egyptian baladi chickens.

  14. Connecting Philosophy of Ancient Egyptians to Modern Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aminuddin Hassan; Nurul A.A.K. Anuar; Norhasni Z. Abiddin

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Associating any knowledge from ancient Egyptians to modern civilization and thinking was important and had its own value. The process of understanding knowledge related to ancient Egyptians is actually based on the nature of philosophical thought. Approach: In the discussion of ancient Egypt philosophy, it is important to look at it from the perspectives of the four branches of philosophy; metaphysics, epistemology, axiology and logic. Metaphysics has two elements, which ar...

  15. Genetic drift evolution under vaccination pressure among H5N1 Egyptian isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifi Manal A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The highly pathogenic H5N1 is a major avian pathogen that intensively affects the poultry industry in Egypt even in spite of the adoption of vaccination strategy. Antigenic drift is among the strategies the influenza virus uses to escape the immune system that might develop due to the pressure of extensive vaccination. H5N1 mutates in an intensified manner and is considered a potential candidate for the possible next pandemic with all the catastrophic consequences such an eventuality will entail. Methods H5N1 was isolated from the pooled organ samples of four different affected flocks in specific pathogen free embryonated chicken eggs (SPF-ECE. A reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was performed to the haemagglutingin and neuraminidase. Sequencing of the full length haemagglutingin was performed. Sequence analyses of the isolated strains were performed and compared to all available H5N1 from Egyptian human and avian strains in the flu database. Changes in the different amino acid that may be related to virus virulence, receptor affinity and epitope configuration were assigned and matched with all available Egyptian strains in the flu database. Results One out of the four strains was found to be related to the B2 Egyptian lineage, 2 were related to A1 lineage and the 4th was related to A2 lineage. Comparing data obtained from the current study by other available Egyptian H5N1 sequences remarkably demonstrates that amino acid changes in the immune escape variants are remarkably restricted to a limited number of locations on the HA molecule during antigenic drift. Molecular diversity in the HA gene, in relevance to different epitopes, were not found to follow a regular trend, suggesting abrupt cumulative sequence mutations. However a number of amino acids were found to be subjected to high mutation pressure. Conclusion The current data provides a comprehensive view of HA gene evolution among H5N1 subtype viruses in Egypt. Egyptian H5N1-AIVs are constantly undergoing genetic changes and reveal a complex pattern of drifts. These findings raise the concerns about the value of using influenza vaccines in correlation with the development of antigenic drift in influenza epidemics.

  16. Spectral signature of Egyptian crude oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatass, Z. F.; Nashed, A. W.; Saleh, I. H.; Mohmed, M. M.

    2014-11-01

    Crude petroleum oils are complex mixtures of diverse hydrocarbons, in widely varying compositions, that originate from a variety of geological sources. Fluorescence emission spectra have been measured for two types of Egyptian crude petroleum oil, its light and heavy products over a broad range of excitation and emission wavelengths. Both types of crude oil products are characterized by spectral signatures with a differing topography: the number of fluorescent peaks, their coordinates (λex, λem) on the plane of the three dimensions spectrum, and the shape of the bands formed by the contour line density, changeable in either direction. The refined light oil shows emission spectra at λmax between 350 and 500 nm according to the excitation wavelength. The refined heavy oil shows very broad unstructured emission spectra with λmax > 400 nm. As a group, they could certainly be distinguished from the light oil samples and most of the crude oil.

  17. Spectral signature of Egyptian crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude petroleum oils are complex mixtures of diverse hydrocarbons, in widely varying compositions, that originate from a variety of geological sources. Fluorescence emission spectra have been measured for two types of Egyptian crude petroleum oil, its light and heavy products over a broad range of excitation and emission wavelengths. Both types of crude oil products are characterized by spectral signatures with a differing topography: the number of fluorescent peaks, their coordinates (λex, λem) on the plane of the three dimensions spectrum, and the shape of the bands formed by the contour line density, changeable in either direction. The refined light oil shows emission spectra at λmax between 350 and 500 nm according to the excitation wavelength. The refined heavy oil shows very broad unstructured emission spectra with λmax > 400 nm. As a group, they could certainly be distinguished from the light oil samples and most of the crude oil

  18. Upgrading the Egyptian Scanning Land mine Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents and discusses the upgrading processes which were performed to increase the detection capability of the Egyptian Scanning Land mine Detectors, ESCALAD system. The upgrading processes include different designs which were made to mount the detectors tray. These arrangements aim to overcome the effect of the soil surface roughness and stand off distance on the scanning capability. Also a more stable and reliable PCI data acquisition board with fast Digital I/O up to 125 M/s was used. Moreover, data acquisition software which uses different algorithms for background subtraction and 2D-image filtration was build and developed. The software was build using Qt-cross-platform application and other Linux based packages. Examples of images constructed from experimental measurements using the upgraded and modified software are given and discussed. The obtained displayed images show more developed improvements and reliability.

  19. Radon Progeny in Egyptian Underground Phosphate Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to the workers in uranium mines, the staff of other underground mines, such as workers in underground phosphate mines, can be exposed to 222Rn and its progeny. In this study the individual radon progeny concentrations were measured in three Egyptian underground phosphate mines to estimate the occupational exposure of the workers at those sites. A filter method was used to measure individual radon progeny concentrations (218Po, 214Pb and 214Po). The reported mean values of radon progeny concentrations exceed the action levels which are recommended by ICRP 65 (1993). Based on the measured individual radon progeny concentrations (218Po, 214Pb and 214Po) in these mines, the annual effective dose for the workers has been calculated using the lung dose model of ICRP 66 (1994). According to the obtained results, some countermeasures were recommended in this study to minimise these exposure levels. (author)

  20. Attitude of Egyptian consumer towards irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at the evaluation of the opinion and attitude of the consumer as to what extent they accept or refuse food preservation by radiation. Also detect the method that can attract the consumers to adopt the technique and ensure the success handling of irradiated in egyptian market. One thousand and twenty two poll sheets were collected. The questionnaire was supported with simplified information about the use of atomic energy and radiation for peaceful purpose. From the results, 62.43% of the total sample size accepted the radiation technology persons that were convinced with the advantage of using irradiated food reached 70.45% . As to keep on being applied of the technology 73.97% of the total sample size agreed persons said yes to irradiated food for consumption if it is made available in the market were 57.53%

  1. Examination of an Egyptian mummy - stereolithography applied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the techniques of three dimensional imaging and stereolithography based on serial CAT-scans applied to the examination of the skull of an Egyptian mummy. Both the three dimensional image and the polymeric cast of the mummy skull presented finer details. It was confirmed that the subject was a male, approximately 30 - 35 years old. Fracturing of the ethmoid bone, e=sequelae to the removal of the brain, was observed in both types of presentations. Apart from this and signs of parodontitis, no pathology was observed. Stereolithography is a most powerful, non-destructive approach to the study of mummies. It might solve some of the problems of reburials, and further be of value in forensic medicine and paleo-ontology. (authors)

  2. Radiation levels in ancient Egyptian mummies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mohamed I.; Hussein, A. Z.; Barakat, M. F.; Nakhla, S.; Iskander, N.

    1994-07-01

    Radiation levels were studied in the mummies room and some galleries in the Egyptian museum as well as in the medical museum of the Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University.γ and β radiation levels show almost background values in direct contrast to some mummies in the closed mummies room and inside the glass cases used for protection. Radon decay products in the room atmosphere and inside the glass cases enclosing some mummies show slightly higher levels than the background which were attributed to inefficient ventilation. After reasonable ventilation during the work, these levels apprached the normal values.High resolution γ-ray spectroscopy measurements for the aerosol samples on the filters have shown background values.The results indicated that the mummies do not contain any radioactivity content or any radioactive sources as was previously suggested.

  3. Did the ancient egyptians discover Algol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.

    2013-02-01

    Fabritius discovered the first variable star, Mira, in 1596. Holwarda determined the 11 months period of Mira in 1638. Montanari discovered the next variable star, Algol, in 1669. Its period, 2.867 days, was determined by Goodricke (178). Algol was associated with demon-like creatures, "Gorgon" in ancient Greek and "ghoul" in ancient Arab mythology. This indicates that its variability was discovered much before 1669 (Wilk 1996), but this mythological evidence is ambiguous (Davis 1975). For thousands of years, the Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) observed stars for timekeeping in a region, where there are nearly 300 clear nights a year. We discovered a significant periodicity of 2.850 days in their calendar for lucky and unlucky days dated to 1224 BC, "the Cairo Calendar". Several astrophysical and astronomical tests supported our conclusion that this was the period of Algol three millennia ago. The "ghoulish habits" of Algol could explain this 0.017 days period increase (Battersby 2012).

  4. A single, large deletion accounts for all the beta-globin gene mutations in twenty families from Sabah (North Borneo), Malaysia. Mutation in brief no. 240. Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, M K; Rudzki, Z; Hall, J; Tan, J A; Chan, L L; Yap, S F

    1999-01-01

    Beta-thalassemia major is one of the commonest genetic disorders in South-East Asia. The spectrum of beta-thalassemia mutations in the various ethnic sub-populations on the island of Borneo is unknown. We studied 20 Dusun children from the East Malaysian state of Sabah (North Borneo) with a severe beta-thalassemia major phenotype, using a combination of Southern analysis, polymerase chain reaction analysis and direct sequencing. We found the children to be homozygous for a large deletion, which has a 5' breakpoint at position -4279 from the cap site of the beta-globin gene (HBB) with the 3' breakpoint located in a L1 family of repetitive sequences at an unknown distance from the beta-globin gene. This was similar to a recent finding of a large deletion causing beta-thalassemia first described in unrelated beta-thalassemia heterozygotes of Filipino descent. This report describes the first 20 families with homozygosity of the deletion causing a severe phenotype. It provides the first information on the molecular epidemiology of beta-thalassemia in Sabah. This finding has implications for the population genetics and preventative strategies for beta-thalassemia major for nearly 300 million individuals in South-East Asia. PMID:10338100

  5. Zoonotic Chicken Toxoplasmosis in Some Egyptians Governorates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab Kotb El-Mahllawy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR (69.5% than commercial farm Chickens (C (68.5%; while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human.

  6. Do Corporate Governance Disclosures Matter for Bank Cost of Capital? Empirical Evidence from Accounting Statements of Egyptian Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Mona A. Elbannan; Mohamed A. ElBannan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between the quality of bank governance mechanisms disclosed in bank annual reports and cost of capital. The Egyptian banking sector has undergone a series of legislative reforms starting with the issuance of the 2003 banking law. The law incorporates the guidelines of the Basel Accords and governance principles, and was declared a major step forward into facing global banking competition and driving financial growth in Egypt. We create t...

  7. Enhancement of the folate content in Egyptian pita bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia M. Witthft

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Egypt has a high incidence of neural tube defects related to folate deficiency. One major food source for folate is pita (baladi bread, which is consumed daily. Bioprocessing (e.g. germination has been reported to increase the folate content in cereals. The aim was to produce pita bread with increased folate content using germinated wheat flour (GWF.Methods: Prior to milling the effects of germination and drying conditions on folate content in wheat grains were studied. Pita bread was baked from wheat flour substituted with different levels of GWF. The folate content in dough and bread and rheological properties of dough were determined.Results: Germination of wheat grains resulted in, depending on temperature, 3- to 4-fold higher folate content with a maximum of 61 g/100 g DM (dry matter. The folate content in both flour and bread increased 1.5 to 4-fold depending on the level of flour replacement with GWF. Pita bread baked with 50% sieved GWF was acceptable with respect to colour and layer separation, and had a folate content of 50 g/100 g DM compared with 30 g/100 g DM in conventional pita bread (0% GWF.Conclusion: Using 50% GWF, pita bread with increased folate content, acceptable for the Egyptian consumer, was produced. Consumption of this bread would increase the average daily folate intake by 75 g.

  8. Biodiversity of Bacterial Ecosystems in Traditional Egyptian Domiati Cheese▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baradei, Gaber; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès; Ogier, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional Egyptian soft Domiati cheese was studied by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bands were identified using a reference species database (J.-C. Ogier et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by DNA sequencing. Results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in Domiati cheeses, as reflected by the numerous bands present in TTGE and DGGE patterns. The dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified were as follows: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus garvieae, Aerococcus viridans, Lactobacillus versmoldensis, Pediococcus inopinatus, and Lactococcus lactis. Frequent non-LAB species included numerous coagulase-negative staphylococci, Vibrio spp., Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria halotolerans, Arthrobacter spp./Brachybacterium tyrofermentans. This is the first time that the majority of these species has been identified in Domiati cheese. Nearly all the dominant and frequent bacterial species are salt tolerant, and several correspond to known marine bacteria. As Domiati cheese contains 5.4 to 9.5% NaCl, we suggest that these bacteria are likely to have an important role in the ripening process. This first systematic study of the microbial composition of Domiati cheeses reveals great biodiversity and evokes a role for marine bacteria in determining cheese type. PMID:17189434

  9. Biodiversity of bacterial ecosystems in traditional Egyptian Domiati cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baradei, Gaber; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès; Ogier, Jean-Claude

    2007-02-01

    Bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional Egyptian soft Domiati cheese was studied by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bands were identified using a reference species database (J.-C. Ogier et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by DNA sequencing. Results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in Domiati cheeses, as reflected by the numerous bands present in TTGE and DGGE patterns. The dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified were as follows: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus garvieae, Aerococcus viridans, Lactobacillus versmoldensis, Pediococcus inopinatus, and Lactococcus lactis. Frequent non-LAB species included numerous coagulase-negative staphylococci, Vibrio spp., Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria halotolerans, Arthrobacter spp./Brachybacterium tyrofermentans. This is the first time that the majority of these species has been identified in Domiati cheese. Nearly all the dominant and frequent bacterial species are salt tolerant, and several correspond to known marine bacteria. As Domiati cheese contains 5.4 to 9.5% NaCl, we suggest that these bacteria are likely to have an important role in the ripening process. This first systematic study of the microbial composition of Domiati cheeses reveals great biodiversity and evokes a role for marine bacteria in determining cheese type. PMID:17189434

  10. Blood transfusion among thalassemia patients: A single Egyptian center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamis A Ragab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although red cell transfusions are lifesavers for patients with thalassemia, they are responsible for a series of complications and expose the patients to a variety of risks. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 464 Egyptian beta(β thalassemia major patients whose age ranged between 10 months and 31 years (mean 10.2 ± 6.6 years. All patients were subjected to thorough history taking with special emphasis on blood transfusions regarding rate of blood transfusion, type of received blood, and history of previous transfusion reactions in addition to type of chelation and compliance to iron chelation therapy and history of diabetes. Serum ferritin and pretransfusion hemoglobin assessment were done for all patients. Results: The mean pretransfusion hemoglobin level was 5.7 ± 1.16 g/dl. Allergic reactions were observed in 3.9% of the patients during the period of the study, while the history of previous allergic reaction was given by 72% of the patients. Deferiprone showed better compliance (58.6% than deferoxamine (26.3%. The prevalence of diabetes was 10.1% among the studied group. On comparing diabetics to nondiabetics, serum ferritin, transfusion intervals, and age were statistically higher among diabetics (P<0.001. Conclusion: Lower pretransfusion hemoglobin and high rate of prevalence of diabetes, in addition to better compliance to deferiprone than deferoxamine, were detected among the patients.

  11. The Administration of Syria and Palestine under Egyptian Rule (1831-1840)

    OpenAIRE

    HOFMAN, Yıtzhak

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the administration of Syria and Palestine under Egyptian rule from 1831 to 1840 and also gives detailed information about the administrative structure of Syria formed by the Egyptians.

  12. Connecting Philosophy of Ancient Egyptians to Modern Thinking

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    Aminuddin Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Associating any knowledge from ancient Egyptians to modern civilization and thinking was important and had its own value. The process of understanding knowledge related to ancient Egyptians is actually based on the nature of philosophical thought. Approach: In the discussion of ancient Egypt philosophy, it is important to look at it from the perspectives of the four branches of philosophy; metaphysics, epistemology, axiology and logic. Metaphysics has two elements, which are ontology and cosmology. Arguments in ontology explain why most activities of people from the ancient Egypt involved agriculture and how they perceived their lives in the midst of this activity, this includes the concept of human creator; treatment to man and woman; and Egyptians’ Gods and Goddesses. In addition, cosmology analyses the universe; everything inside and out of it, as well as what makes them stay and move. Results: Whereas, epistemology refers to how ancient Egyptians appreciated the existence of knowledge among them by considering the sources, types, categories and importance of particular knowledge that was gained in different ways. Besides, the aspects of axiology are also discussed here, especially in the ancient Egypt’s hieroglyphics. This writing discusses the level of aesthetical value posed by all these Egyptians, even at the time of about 3000 B.C. They could discuss to form pictographic as their written language. This activity lasted for thousands of years. Conclusion: Last but not the least, logic is another aspect that can be used in the discussion across metaphysics, epistemology and also axiology, for instance, the thinking of the philosophy behind Egyptians life. This writing relates the philosophy of ancient Egypt with the life of the modern world, not only in Egypt, but also in another part of the world, which exist from the impact of the philosophy of ancient Egypt. Modern views of Egyptians’ thinking are often vastly based on what their people had and thought of in the ancient days.

  13. A Comprehensive Study of Egyptian Arabic. Volume Four. Lexicon Part I: Egyptian Arabic-English; Part II: English-Egyptian Arabic (A Preliminary Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Massih, Ernest T.; And Others

    This is the last of four instructional volumes designed for the intermediate-advanced student of Egyptian Arabic. The course deals with the language, culture, customs, and traditions of Egypt. The present volume constitutes a vocabulary, with word lists divided into 34 categories. High frequency vocabulary items are emphasized. (JB)

  14. The Egyptian legislation for safe transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Egyptian legislation related the safe transport of radioactive materials, a licence is required for the transport, import and or export these materials. The licence is granted, upon a written application to NCNSRC-AEA. All the procedures and conditions for granting the NCNSRC-AEA licence to handle/ transport radioactive materials/wastes have been developed according to the international and Egyptian legislation. The procedures for transit of ships carrying radioactive materials in Suez Canal are also constructed. The NCNSRC-AEA experts are entitled to accept or to refuse the transit of ships carrying radioactive materials in the Suez Canal, in the Egyptian regional waters, in the sea harbours or in the exclusive economic zones of Egypt according to the national and international regulations. (author)

  15. Egyptian Airs: The Life of Luxury in Roman Wall Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    After Rome conquered Egypt, Egypt invaded Rome. Or so it would seem, judging from the explosion of Egyptian-inspired art in Rome beginning in the mid-first century BC—including a host of Egyptian motifs incorporated into Roman wall painting. These motifs are based on pharaonic art, the art of Egypt under the pharaohs until the Hellenistic period, and they carefully reproduce the iconography and even the artistic style of this tradition. Roman walls in this period thus depict for the first tim...

  16. MENDELIAN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO MYCOBACTERIAL DISEASE IN EGYPTIAN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermeen Galal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Tuberculosis remains a major health problem in developing countries especially with the emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease (MSMD is a rare disorder with impaired immunity against mycobacterial pathogens. Reported MSMD etiologies highlight the crucial role of the Interferon gamma /Interleukin 12 (IFN-g/ IL-12 axis and the phagocyte respiratory burst axis.

    Purpose: Screen patients with possible presentations for MSMD.

    Methods: Patients with disseminated BCG infection following vaccination, atypical mycobacterial infections or recurrent tuberculosis infections were recruited from the Primary Immune Deficiency Clinic at Cairo University Specialized Pediatric Hospital, Egypt and immune and genetic laboratory investigations were conducted at Human Genetic of Infectious Diseases laboratory in Necker Medical School, France from 2005-2009. IFN-g level in patient’s plasma as well as mutations in the eight previously identified MSMD-causing genes were explored.

    Results: Nine cases from eight (unrelated kindreds were evaluated in detail. We detected a high level of IFN-g in plasma in one patient. Through Sanger sequencing, a homozygous mutation in the IFNGR1 gene at position 485 corresponding to an amino acid change from serine to phenylalanine (S485F, was detected in this patient.

    Conclusion: We report the first identified cases of MSMD among Egyptian patients, including in particular a new IFNGR1 mutation underlying IFN-gR1 deficiency. The eight remaining patients need to be explored further. These findings have implications regarding the compulsory Bacillus Calmette Guerin vaccination policy in Egypt, especially given the high consanguinity rate.

    Keywords: Interferon gamma axis, mycobacterium tuberculosis, BCG, consanguinity

  17. CD38 and interleukin 6 gene polymorphism in egyptians with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, Roba M; Abdel-Aziz, Amal M; El-Maadawy, Eman A; Abdel-Bary, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of understanding the genetic variations involved in the pathogenesis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), this pilot study was designed to investigate the impact of CD38 (184C/G; rs6449182) and IL-6 (-174 G/C; rs1800795) gene polymorphism on susceptibility of Egyptians to diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL); major types of NHL. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one that examines CD38 polymorphism in the NHL. Genotyping polymorphism is performed using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) for CD38 and Mutagenically separated PCR (MS-PCR) for IL-6 in 100 Egyptian NHL patients with DLBCL subtype and 119 normal controls. The serum level of IL-6 was measured using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CD38 (184C/G) genotype is significantly increased in NHL patients (p Egyptians. Additional prospective studies on larger population are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:25564959

  18. Cryoglobulinaemia in Egyptian Patients with Extrahepatic Cutaneous Manifestations of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegab, Doaa Salah; Sweilam, Mohammed Abd El Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis C is a global major health problem with extremely variable extrahepatic manifestations. Mixed cryoglobulinaemia (MC) shows a striking association with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and it is sometimes asymptomatic. The skin is a frequently involved target organ in MC. Objective. To investigate the prevalence of cryoglobulinaemia in a sample of Egyptian patients with cutaneous manifestations of chronic HCV infection and to correlate its presence with clinical criteria and liver function tests. Methods. One hundred and eighteen patients with skin manifestations of chronic compensated hepatitis C were included. Venous blood was tested for liver function tests and serum cryoglobulins. Results. Twelve patients (10.169%) were positive for serum cryoglobulins (2 with pruritus, 4 with vasculitic lesions, 3 with livedo reticularis, one with oral lichen, one with chronic urticaria, and another with Schamberg's disease). Vasculitic lesions and livedo reticularis of the legs showed higher prevalence in cryoglobulin-positive than in cryoglobulin-negative patients. Presence of serum cryoglobulins did not relate to patients' demographic or laboratory findings. Conclusions. Fortunately, MC is not markedly prevalent among Egyptians with cutaneous lesions of chronic hepatitis C, and cryopositivity was commonly, but not exclusively, detected with cutaneous vasculitis and livedo reticularis. Laboratory testing for cryoglobulins in every HCV patient is advisable for earlier MC detection and management. PMID:26839534

  19. Assessment of female sexual function in a group of uncircumcised obese Egyptian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnashar, A R M; Ibrahim, N H; Ahmed, H-Eh; Hassanin, A M; Elgawady, M A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess female sexual function in an obese group (250 women) and to compare it with a control group (100 women), among 25-35-year-old uncircumcised Egyptian women, using female sexual function index (FSFI) score. FSFI total score of ⩽ 26.55 was considered diagnostic of Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD). The percentage of FSD in the obese group was 73.6% while it was 71% in the control group, which was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). The difference between both groups regarding the total (FSFI) score was insignificant (P > 0.05), but arousal and satisfaction domains scores were significantly lower in the obese group. In the obese group, a strong negative correlation between body mass index and arousal, orgasm and the total FSFI score was found. Women with excessive obesity had the lowest total FSFI score. In the obese group, college graduates had the highest total scores and all domain scores of FSFI followed by high school graduates while the least educated women had the lowest scores and when these subgroups were compared, significant differences were found among them. We conclude that in uncircumcised 25-35-year-old Egyptian women, obesity is not a major detrimental factor for FSD, but it may affect some sexual domains such as arousal and satisfaction, although excessive obesity is associated with FSD. Also, educational and cultural factors may have an impact on perception of sex and pleasure. PMID:26155831

  20. Overview of the Egyptian Radiation Monitoring Network and Radioactivity Levels of the Egyptian Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 arose much concern throughout the world regarding the detection of contamination, control of contaminated food, related legislation and environmental monitoring. In Egypt, the environmental radioactivity monitoring program involves the establishment of a radiation monitoring network stations for continuous monitoring of ambient gamma radiation levels in the air, water, aerosols, dust particles and conventional gas pollutants. The network consists of 42 field stations for gamma monitoring of air, 14stations for beta aerosols and 15 stations for conventional pollutants. soil samples adjacent to the stations distributed all over the Egyptian territories have been collected and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The natural radionuclides K40, U-238 series Th-232 series and the global fallout Cs-137 are found in all the collected samples. The absorbed dose rates are calculated and presented

  1. On improvement in ejection fraction with iron chelation in thalassemia major and the risk of future heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter JP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trials of iron chelator regimens have increased the treatment options for cardiac siderosis in beta-thalassemia major (TM patients. Treatment effects with improved left ventricular (LV ejection fraction (EF have been observed in patients without overt heart failure, but it is unclear whether these changes are clinically meaningful. Methods This retrospective study of a UK database of TM patients modelled the change in EF between serial scans measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR to the relative risk (RR of future development of heart failure over 1 year. Patients were divided into 2 strata by baseline LVEF of 56-62% (below normal for TM and 63-70% (lower half of the normal range for TM. Results A total of 315 patients with 754 CMR scans were analyzed. A 1% absolute increase in EF from baseline was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the risk of future development of heart failure for both the lower EF stratum (EF 56-62%, RR 0.818, p Conclusion These data show that during treatment with iron chelators for cardiac siderosis, small increases in LVEF in TM patients are associated with a significantly reduced risk of the development of heart failure. Thus the iron chelator induced improvements in LVEF of 2.6% to 3.1% that have been observed in randomized controlled trials, are associated with risk reductions of 25.5% to 46.4% for the development of heart failure over 12 months, which is clinically meaningful. In cardiac iron overload, heart mitochondrial dysfunction and its relief by iron chelation may underlie the changes in LV function.

  2. Shifting Pedagogical Space: Egyptian Educators Use of Moodle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jayson; Finholt-Daniel, Matt; Sales, Greg; Flora, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on exploring the outcomes of an e-learning initiative in Egypt. Researchers conducted training with 17 Egyptian educators on how to build, maintain, and teach using Moodle, an online content management system. The researchers evaluated the outputs of the training using the Technology Adoption Model (TAM) in an effort to assess…

  3. Muslim Egyptian and Lebanese Students' Conceptions of Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    BouJaoude, Saouma; Wiles, Jason R.; Asghar, Anila; Alters, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated distinctions among the diversity of religious traditions represented by Lebanese and Egyptian Muslim high school students regarding their understanding and acceptance of biological evolution and how they relate the science to their religious beliefs. We explored secondary students' conceptions of evolution among…

  4. Zinc status in some Egyptian soils using tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three experiments were conducted to study the available Zn in the egyptian soils these were, i) evaluation of different methods for estimating available Zn. II) a proposed method using tracer technique for estimation the labile pool of Zn. III) a study for the diffusion coefficient of Zn in soils as affected by chelating agents

  5. MORPHOMETRY OF GLENOID FOSSA IN ADULT EGYPTIAN SCAPULAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Hamed El-Sayed Hassanein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge of normal variations in shape and size of the glenoid fossa are required to improve efficacy and minimize failure rates in shoulder arthroplasty, particularly those involving the glenoid component of shoulder joint. Studies concerning glenoid morphometry among Egyptian population are scarce. The objective of the present study was to determine morphological types and diameters of glenoid fossa in adult Egyptian scapulae . Material and methods: A total of 68 dry adult unpaired scapulae of unknown age and sex were randomly selected. The shape and diameters of glenoid fossa in each specimen were recorded and collected data were statistically analyzed. Results : Glenoid fossa revealed a superior - inferior diameter of 3.31 ± 0.39 and 2.87 ± 0.41 centimeters and an anterior - posterior diameter of 2.44 ± 0.44 and 2.21 ± 0.44 centimeters on the right and left sides respectively. The anterior margin of glenoid fossa presented a notch in 76.47% of studied scapulae, and accordingly the fossa was classified into three morphological types; pear-shaped (45.59%, inverted comma-shaped (30.88% and oval – shaped (23.53%. Conclusion : The documented findings about glenoid fossa in the present study would help to decide the proper size of glenoid component in shoulder arthroplasty among Egyptians. Moreover, approximately one third of Egyptians are liable to Bankart lesion.

  6. The Case for (Social) Entrepreneurship Education in Egyptian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, David A.; Ibrahim, Nagwa

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore awareness of social entrepreneurship amongst Egyptian students and to determine what is needed to create more graduate social entrepreneurs. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical framework is Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior. Data collection is a questionnaire survey of 183 of the 2,000…

  7. Promoting Phonological Awareness Skills of Egyptian Kindergarteners through Dialogic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmonayer, Randa Abdelaleem

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of dialogic reading (DR) on the promotion of Arabic phonological awareness skills (including syllable awareness, rhyme awareness, and phoneme awareness) of Egyptian kindergarteners. The participants were 67 children enrolled in the second level of kindergarten (ages 5-6), assigned to an experimental group…

  8. Parenting Style, Individuation, and Mental Health of Egyptian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.

    2006-01-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…

  9. Pragmatics of the Evil Eye in Egyptian Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughazy, Mustafa A.

    A study examined the different strategies used by speakers of Egyptian Arabic to ward off the potential effects of the evil eye, specifically the responding strategies to compliments perceived as invocations of evil as it relates to the gender of the recipient of the compliment and the social context in which the compliment takes place. Social…

  10. Strategic Leadership and Its Application in Egyptian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany R. Alalfy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Today's universities operate in a climate of great change, along with increased responsibilities and accountability from Internal and external customers. This has resulted in calls for a new kind of leadership working to help the university to improve educational services and face more challenges, called strategic leadership, at the university level. Aim of study defining of Egyptian leadership universities pattern of modern leadership styles, named as Strategic leadership (concept, objectives, roles, requirements, and application obstacles. Relate to the suffering of the Egyptian universities of many problems that limit their efficiency and effectiveness. This led to the need to search for new approaches as strategic leadership for eliminate of these problems. The study used a descriptive approach for its suitability for the nature of the study. The study found multiple reasons for the application of strategic leadership style in Egyptian universities as a result of  the problems the leaderships of the Egyptian universities suffer from  which limits its efficiency and effectiveness. Study recommended starting applying this pattern quickly after all the positive results it achieved in many universities.   

  11. Placentation in the Egyptian slit-faced bat Nycteris thebaica (Chiroptera: Nycteridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enders, A C; Jones, C J P; Taylor, P J; Carter, A M

    2009-01-01

    Bats are a highly successful, widely distributed group, with considerable variation in placental structure. The Egyptian slit-faced bat Nycteris thebaica is a member of one of the few families with previously undescribed placentation. It was found that, although the interhemal type of the Nycteris...... placenta is endotheliochorial with a single layer of cytotrophoblast, the arborizing pattern of the maternal vessels and especially the extraordinary major placental artery differs from the placenta of the emballonurid bats to which this family is considered to be most closely related. The major placental...... other bat species. The paraplacenta is extensive with abundant fetal vessels underlying cytotrophoblast and syncytial trophoblast layers, fronting on an endometrium that largely lacks uterine epithelial cells but has large decidual cells and is poorly vascularized. The placenta of Nycteris lacks a...

  12. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

    2009-01-01

    A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation in solid waste management through the composting of organic matter and using of food waste as an animal feed are considered strength points. However, throwing of solid waste on the banks of water streams, open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are environmental damaging behaviors that need to be changed. Integrated solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas is not yet among the priorities of the Egyptian government. PMID:19712653

  13. "Confused by Multiple Deities, Ancient Egyptians Embraced Monotheism": Analysing Historical Thinking and Inclusion in Egyptian History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Ehaab D.

    2016-01-01

    Egyptian history textbooks are examined through the prism of historical thinking dimensions and skills, utilizing a critical discourse analysis. The analysis focuses on how the textbooks portray two historically significant events: the advent of Christianity (ca. 33 CE) and Islam (ca. 641 CE) to Egypt. It reveals that the historical narrative…

  14. A Comprehensive Study of Egyptian Arabic. Volume Three: A Reference Grammar of Egyptian Arabic (A Preliminary Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Massih, Ernest T.; And Others

    This is the third of four instructional volumes designed for the intermediate-advanced student of Egyptian Arabic. The course deals with the language, culture, customs, and traditions of Egypt. The present volume constitutes a reference grammar, arranged alphabetically by grammatical and linguistic terms. A bibliography is appended. (JB)

  15. Diagnostic Value of Electrocardiography Compared with Echocardiography in Measuring Left Ventricular Mass Index in Major Thalassemia Patients Over 10 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noormohammad Noori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients suffering from major beta thalassemia need frequent blood transfusions and, if not treated well, would be at risk of heart dysfunction. This study was performed to determine the diagnostic value of electrocardiography versus echocardiography in measuring the left ventricular mass index in these patients.Methods: Between July 2010 and June 2011, 82 asymptomatic patients over 10 years of age with major thalassemia (42 men with a mean age of 17.65 ± 3.39 years and 40 women with a mean age of 16.9 ± 3.38 years were enrolled in this study. For all the patients, standard electrocardiography (to measure R in aVL and S in V3 and calculate left ventricular mass index by electrocardiography and echocardiography (to measure interventricular septum diameter in diastole, left ventricular posterior wall diameter in diastole, and left ventricular diameter in diastole in order to calculate left ventricular mass index by echocardiography were performed, at least one week after transfusion. The calculated left ventricular mass indices were thereafter compared between the two methods (electrocardiography and echocardiography.Results: Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value in the two techniques in determining the left ventricular mass index were 67%, 25%, 89%, and 7% in the females, 65%, 33%, 92%, and 6% in the males, and 67%, 14%, 89%, and 3% in the total population, respectively.  Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the average left ventricular mass index by echocardiography and electrocardiography was 104.86 ± 21.65 gr/m2 and 91.69 ± 12.03 gr/m2, respectively. Echocardiography was much more accurate than electrocardiography in determining the left ventricular mass index (p value = 0.0001.Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that echocardiography was more accurate and more reliable than electrocardiography in determining the left ventricular mass index in major thalassemia patients.

  16. Premature epiphyseal fusion and extramedullary hematopoiesis in thalassemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colavita, N.; Orazi, C.; Danza, S.M.; Falappa, P.G.; Fabbri, R.

    1987-10-01

    The main skeletal abnormalities in ..beta..-thalassemia are widening of medullary spaces, rarefaction of bone trabeculae, thinning of cortical bone, and perpendicular periosteal spiculation. Premature epiphyseal fusion (PEF) and extramedullary hematopoiesis (EH) are found, though more rarely. The incidence of PEF and EH in 64 patients affected by ..beta..-thalassemia is reported. The different incidence of such complications in thalassemia major and intermedia is reported, and a possible correlation with transfusion regimen is also considered.

  17. the characterization of exon-1 mutation(s) of beta globin gene in beta thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    β-thalassemia constitutes one of the most serious health problems worldwide, it is the most common chronic hemolytic anemia in egypt. the aim of this work is to study the mutations of exon-1 of β-globin gene in β-thalassaemic children in sharkia governorate. the present study was included 25 healthy children and 50 patients diagnosed as β-thalassemia. this work showed that the thalassaemic patients had significantly decrease in Hb conc . than the control group (p 2 showed a significant increase as compared with the control group

  18. Phenotypic expression of hemoglobin A2 in beta-thalassemia trait with iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, N; Sikka, M; Sharma, S; Rusia, U

    1998-09-01

    Iron status was estimated in 463 heterozygous beta-thalassemics to delineate the effect of iron deficiency on the expression of hemoglobin A2 (HbA2) in these patients. One hundred and twenty-six (27.2%) patients with the trait were iron deficient. These iron-deficient patients had a significantly (p 3.5%) in all but one heterozygote investigated. Mean HbA2/cell was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in BTT patients with iron deficiency than in patients without iron deficiency. The presence of iron deficiency did not preclude the detection of BTT in this population. The effect of iron deficiency in BTT was apparent as a significant lowering of the Hb concentration and an increased prevalence of anemia. Iron therapy is warranted for BTT patients with iron-deficiency traits and would help to significantly raise their Hb concentration. The elevation of HbA2 was striking and could be used with reliability in making the diagnosis of BTT even in the presence of iron deficiency. PMID:9797076

  19. Prevalence of anti-HAV antibodies in multitransfused patients with beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Siagris, Alexandra Kouraklis-Symeonidis, Irini Konstantinidou, Myrto Christofidou, Ioannis Starakis, Alexandra Lekkou, Christos Papadimitriou, Alexandros Blikas, Nicholas Zoumbos, Chryssoula Labropoulou-Karatza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To detect the prevalence of anti-HAV IgG antibodies in adult multitransfused beta-thalassemic patients.METHODS: We studied 182 adult beta-thalassemic patients and 209 controls matched for age and sex from the same geographic area, at the same time. Anti-HAV IgG antibodies, viral markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infection were evaluated.RESULTS: Anti-HAV IgG antibodies were detected more frequently in thalassemic patients (133/182; 73.1% than in healthy controls (38/209; 18.2%, P < 0.0005. When we retrospectively evaluated the prevalence of anti-HAV IgG antibodies in 176/182 (96.7% thalassemic patients, whose medical history was available for the previous ten years, it was found that 83 (47.2% of them were continuously anti-HAV IgG positive, 16 (9.1% acquired anti-HAV IgG antibody during the previous ten years, 49 (27.8% presented anti-HAV positivity intermittently and 28 (15.9% were anti-HAV negative continuously.CONCLUSION: Multitransfused adult beta-thalassemic patients present higher frequency of anti-HAV IgG antibodies than normal population of the same geographic area. This difference is difficult to explain, but it can be attributed to the higher vulnerability of thalassemics to HAV infection and to passive transfer of anti-HAV antibodies by blood transfusions.

  20. Prevalence of anti HCV infection in patients with beta-thalassemia in Isfahan-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Ataei

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings revealed that blood transfusion was the main risk factors for HCV infection among beta-thalassemic patients. Therefore, more blood donor screening programs and effective screening techniques are needed to prevent transmission of HCV infection among beta-thalassemic patients.

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on membranes of normal and pathological erythrocytes (beta-thalassemia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sportelli, L.; Rosi, A.; Bonincontro, A.; Cametti, C.

    1987-03-01

    The influence of ionizing radiation on the membrane of human normal erythrocytes has extensively been studied and a variety of effects including changes in the cation fluxes or in non-electrolytes permeability, in membrane fluidity, in peroxidation of unsaturated lipids as well as chemical composition or structural modifications has been observed. However, only few studies deal with the effects of ionizing radiation on pathological red blood cells. In this work, we have investigated by means of electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy the effects of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-radiation on the normal and homozygous ..beta..-thalassemic human erythrocyte membranes.

  2. Microwave dielectric properties of human erythrocyte ghosts in normal and pathological state (homozygous beta-thalassemia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballario, C.; Bonincontro, A.; Cametti, C.; Rosi, A.; Sportelli, L.

    1984-04-01

    The microwave dielectric properties of human normal and homozygous ..beta..-thalassemic erythrocyte ghosts have been measured at the frequency of 10 GHz in the temperature interval from 5 to 50/sup 0/C. The permittivity and the dielectric loss have been analysed in terms of the Maxwell-Wagner equation for heterogeneous systems. The presence of a remarkable amount of interfacial water at the membrane surface has been evidentiated and some differences in the dielectric parameters of normal and pathological ghosts observed.

  3. Mithramycin encapsulated in polymeric micelles by microfluidic technology as novel therapeutic protocol for beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capretto L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lorenzo Capretto1, Stefania Mazzitelli2, Eleonora Brognara2, Ilaria Lampronti2, Dario Carugo1, Martyn Hill1, Xunli Zhang1, Roberto Gambari2, Claudio Nastruzzi31Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, ItalyAbstract: This report shows that the DNA-binding drug, mithramycin, can be efficiently encapsulated in polymeric micelles (PM-MTH, based on Pluronic® block copolymers, by a new microfluidic approach. The effect of different production parameters has been investigated for their effect on PM-MTH characteristics. The compared analysis of PM-MTH produced by microfluidic and conventional bulk mixing procedures revealed that microfluidics provides a useful platform for the production of PM-MTH with improved controllability, reproducibility, smaller size, and polydispersity. Finally, an investigation of the effects of PM-MTH, produced by microfluidic and conventional bulk mixing procedures, on the erythroid differentiation of both human erythroleukemia and human erythroid precursor cells is reported. It is demonstrated that PM-MTH exhibited a slightly lower toxicity and more pronounced differentiative activity when compared to the free drug. In addition, PM-MTH were able to upregulate preferentially γ-globin messenger ribonucleic acid production and to increase fetal hemoglobin (HbF accumulation, the percentage of HbF-containing cells, and their HbF content without stimulating α-globin gene expression, which is responsible for the clinical symptoms of ß-thalassemia. These results represent an important first step toward a potential clinical application, since an increase in HbF could alleviate the symptoms underlying ß-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. In conclusion, this report suggests that PM-MTH produced by microfluidic approach warrants further evaluation as a potential therapeutic protocol for ß-thalassemia.Keywords: microfluidics, lab-on-a-chip, design of experiments, erythroid differentiation, human erythroid precursor cells

  4. Prevalence of renal tubular dysfunction in beta thalassemia minor in shiraz

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    Ali Moradi Nakhodcheri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available  Background & objective: β-Thalassemia minor is an asymptomatic hereditary disease. The first study on the relation of renal tubular dysfunction and β-thalassemia minor was performed in 2002 but those studies seem inadequate.The main goal of this study is through evaluation of renal tubular function in 100 patients with thalassemia minor. Materials & Methods: 100 patients with β- thalassemia which confirmed by hemoglobin electrophoresis and CBC as well as RBC indices were studied.14 out of 100 cases exit because of Urinary Tract Infection, diabetes mellitus or hypertension.Complete chemistry profile was performed on serum and urine of all reminder 86 patients (46 female and 40 male. Patients classified into two groups: β-thalassemia minor with anemia and without anemia. Another control group include 50 healthy individuals also considered.Then data analyzed by proper statistical methods. Results: 20 out of 86 reminder cases e.g. 24% showed at least one index of renal tubular dysfunction.58% of patients was been anemic and 42% non anemic. The most prominent tubular dysfunction was seen in a 29 years old lady with glucosuria and without anemia. conclusion: β-Thalassemia minor is common in Iran specially in Fars province. This study revealed significant renal tubular dysfunction in patient with β-thalassemia minor. So it is necessary to check out thalassemic patients for renal function tests periodically. Key words: β-thalassemia, minor,renal tubular dysfunction

  5. Health related quality of life in Middle Eastern children with beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caocci Giovanni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thalassemia is a common disorder worldwide with a predominant incidence in Mediterranean countries, North Africa, the Middle East, India, Central Asia, and Southeast Asia. Whilst substantial progress has been made towards the improvement of Health related quality of life (HRQoL in western countries, scarce evidence-based data exists on HRQol of thalassemia children and adolescents living in developing countries. Methods We studied 60 thalassemia children from Middle Eastern countries with a median age of 10 years (range 5 to 17 years. HRQoL was assessed with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0. The Questionnaire was completed at baseline by all patients and their parents. The agreement between child-self and parent-proxy HRQoL reports and the relationship between HRQoL profiles and socio-demographic and clinical factors were investigated. Results The scores of parents were generally lower than those of their children for Emotional Functioning (mean 75 vs 85; p = 0.002, Psychosocial Health Summary (mean 70.3 vs 79.1; p = 0.015 and the Total Summary Score (mean 74.3 vs 77.7 p = 0.047. HRQoL was not associated with ferritin levels, hepatomegaly or frequency of transfusions or iron chelation therapy. Multivariate analysis showed that a delayed start of iron chelation had a negative impact on total PedsQL scores of both children (p = 0.046 and their parents (p = 0.007. Conclusions The PedsQL 4.0 is a useful tool for the measurement of HRQoL in pediatric thalassemia patients. This study shows that delayed start of iron chelation has a negative impact on children’s HRQoL.

  6. Evaluation of the Mechanical Durability of the Egyptian Machine Readable Booklet Passport

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    Ahmed Mahmoud Yosri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the first Egyptian booklet Machine Readable Passport/ MRP has been issued and its security and informative standard quality levels were proved in a research published in 2011. Here the durability profiles of the Egyptian MRP have been evaluated. Seven mechanical durability tests were applied on the Egyptian MRP. Such tests are specified in the International Civil Aviation Organization / ICAO standard requirements documents. These seven very severe durability tests resulted in that the Egyptian MRP has achieved better & higher results than the values detected in ICAO-Doc N0232: Durability of Machine Readable Passports - Version: 3.2. Hence, this research had proved the complete conformance between the Egyptian MRP mechanical durability profiles to the international requirements. The Egyptian booklet MRP doesn’t need any obligatory modification concerning its mechanical durability profiles.

  7. Evaluation of the Mechanical Durability of the Egyptian Machine Readable Booklet Passport

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Mahmoud Yosri

    2013-01-01

    In 2008 the first Egyptian booklet Machine Readable Passport/ MRP has been issued and its security and informative standard quality levels were proved in a research published in 2011. Here the durability profiles of the Egyptian MRP have been evaluated. Seven mechanical durability tests were applied on the Egyptian MRP. Such tests are specified in the International Civil Aviation Organization / ICAO standard requirements documents. These seven very severe durability tests resulted in that th...

  8. THE VALUE RELEVANCE OF THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS’ BOTTOM LINES IN THE EMERGING EGYPTIAN CAPITAL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Abousamak, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the value relevance of the bottom lines of the financial statements in the Egyptian context after the inception of the new version of Egyptian Accounting Standards of 2006. Considering the tradition accounting value of conservatism and the firm size, the price and return models are operationalized using a sample of the most actively traded companies on the Egyptian Stock Market in the period from 2007-2009. Three important conclusions captured from th...

  9. Adopting knowledge discovery in databases for customer relationship management in egyptian public banks

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, Joost; Khedr, Ayman

    2006-01-01

    We propose a framework for studying the effect of KDD on CRM in the Egyptian banking sector. We believe that the KDD process and applications may perform a significant role in Egyptian banks to improve CRM, in particular for customer retention. Our believe is supported by the results of the field survey at the largest Egyptian bank. Keywords. Adopting new technology, Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD), Customer Relationship Management (CRM), and banking sector.

  10. Egyptian youth and the European Eldorado: Journeys of hope and despair

    OpenAIRE

    Zohry, Ayman

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, I explore characteristics of Egyptian irregular migrants to Europe and reasons of irregular migration from the point of departure through a field survey in some Egyptian villages known of sending irregular – as well as regular - migrants to Italy and France (mainly). The fieldwork was carried out in eight Egyptian governorates to identify the push factors in the country, with particular attention to the dynamics governing the irregular migratory flows from Egypt to the EU. The ...

  11. An investigation into the ancient Egyptian cultural influences on the Yorubas of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Jock M. Agai

    2013-01-01

    There are many cultural practices that connect ancient Egyptians to the Yorubas and the new interpretation of the Oduduwa legend suggests that the Yorubas have originated or are influenced mainly by the Egyptians. The attestation of Egypt as the main influencer of the Yoruba culture made Egypt significant in the study of the history of the Yoruba people. Some writers are beginning to think that the ancient Egyptians were responsible for introducing and spreading many cultures amongst the Yoru...

  12. Essential oils from Egyptian aromatic plants as antioxidant and novel anticancer agents in human cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Ramadan; Ali, M. M.; Ghanem, K. Z.; El-Ghorabe, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors of tumor growth using extracts from aromatic plants are rapidly emerging as important new drug candidates for cancer therapy. The cytotoxicity and in vitro anticancer evaluation of the essential oils from thyme, juniper and clove has been assessed against five different human cancer cell lines (liver HepG2, breast MCF-7, prostate PC3, colon HCT116 and lung A549). A GC/MS analysis revealed that α-pinene, thymol and eugenol are the major components of Egyptian juniper, thyme and clov...

  13. Multielement determination in some egyptian vegetables by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondestructive instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique, with thermal neutrons, has been applied for multielement determination of major, trace and ultra trace elements in eleven types of the public public egyptian, edible vegetables, namely dill, moulokhyia, okra negro bean, parsley, green pea, grape leaves, spinach, mint, celery and salad chervil, cultivated and collected from El-Maadi, Cairo, E G. Concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Rb, Zr, Nb, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, Th and U were determined. The standard reference materials (SRM's) G-2, J G-1 and MAG-1, provided from IAEA, were used, and high accuracy of the work was assured. The results were discussed

  14. The multielemental analysis of six Egyptian mining samples by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major, minor and trace elements of six samples from southern Egypt were investigated by means of neutron activation analysis technique. The samples were collected, prepared and irradiated at a thermal neutron flux of 4.3 x 10/sup 12/n cm/sup -2/, s/sup -1/ , in the Egyptian Research Reactor (ET-RR-1) for 48 hours. A single gamma-ray spectrometer using a HPGe detection system as a well as the gamma-gamma coincidence system were used for the gamma-ray measurements. The concentration values of the Na, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Rb, Mo, Te, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Sm, Tb, Tm, Yb, Lu and Hf were estimated between 0.23 ppm to 36.25 % for the six samples. A comparative study on the elemental presence and their concentration values is given

  15. Evaluation of Diet Quality of Egyptian Children and Adolescents using Healthy Eating Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervat A. Esmail ­ Wafaa M.A.Saleh ­Nebal A.R.Aboul Ella ­ Asmaa M. Abd

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthful eating is essential for development and well-being. Some dietary patterns are associated with 4 of the 10 leading causes of death (coronary heart disease, certain types of cancer, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. Major improvements in the health of the public can, therefore, be made by improving people's dietary patterns. The U.S. department of Agriculture has developed an index, called the Healthy Eating Index (HEI that was updated in the year 2002. It is based on different aspects of a healthful diet; the Index is designed to provide a measure of overall dietary quality, and the compliance with specific Dietary Guidelines recommendations. The aim of our study is to use the healthy eating index to assess the diet quality of a representative sample of the Egyptian children and adolescents and to examine the association between body mass index and caloric intake of the studied sample. Materials & Methods: This study is a part of National Egyptian survey, Diet, Nutrition and Prevention of Chronic Non-communicable Diseases. The Healthy Eating Index was applied with slight modifications to measure how well the studied Egyptian students' diet conforms to recommended healthy eating pattern. The data were based on representative sample (2145 of children and adolescents (10 -18 years in 7 governorates from. One day of dietary intake data (24 hours recall was collected, during an in-person interview. The Healthy Eating Index measures how well the studied children and adolescents' diets conform to the American Dietary Guidelines recommendations and the Food Guide Pyramid applied in our country. Ten dietary components have been identified and the overall Index has a total possible score ranging from zero to 100. Results: Our results showed that the average Healthy Eating Index score was 59.1 out of a possible 100 and it ranged from 20 to 86, Only 0.5 percent of the students had Healthy Eating scores above 80; while 16.9 percent of them received scores below 50 and the majority (82.5 percent had scores on the Healthy Eating Index between 51 and 80. In an effort to provide a "rating" of the overall student's diet, a grading scale was developed, the majority of students had diets rated as "Needs Improvement", only 0.5 % received diets rated as "Good" and 16.9 % had diets rated as "Poor". Males achieved a slightly higher average Index than females (59.7 Vs 58.2. The average score for food groups is much lower than that for dietary guidelines (23.5 Vs 35.6 out of total score of 50 for each. There was a significant positive correlation of BMI with caloric intake for male adolescents while, for females the correlation was insignificant and negative. More than 80 percent of the sample achieved the recommendations of the American Dietary Guidelines for total fat and cholesterol. Less than two-thirds of the students met the recommendations for saturated fat, Almost 30 percent of the students had the maximum score for sodium. Only 1.0 percent of them received a score of 10 for fibers. Conclusion: the majority of Egyptian children and adolescent' eating patterns, as measured by the HEI, need improvement. The results of the Index are useful in targeting nutrition education and health promotion activities, as it is a single summary measure of diet quality that can be used to monitor changes in food consumption patterns over time. A Food Quality System based on nutrient density can be one tool that can facilitate more healthful food purchases and dietary patterns.

  16. Essential Oil Constituents of Summer Savory Plants Propagated and Adapted under Egyptian Climate

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    Khalid A. Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils obtained by water distillation from aerial parts of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L. yielded 1.2% v/w on a dry weight. Eight constituents representing 99.7% of the S. hortensis essential oils were identified. The major constituents of S. hortensis essential oils were ?-terpinene (46.4%, carvacrol (40.2% and ?-thujene (8.8%. The obtained constituents from S. hortensis essential oil under egyptian conditions grouped into three classes which are Monoterpene Hydrocarbons (MH, Oxygenated Monoterpenes (OM and Sesquiterpene Hydrocarbons (SH. It is evident that the MH reached its highest concentrations (57.8% followed by OM (41.3% in essential oil compared with the minor chemical class (SH (0.6%.

  17. The Egyptian Revolution: First Impressions from the Field

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    Mohammed A. Bamyeh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Never has a revolution that seemed so lacking in prospects gathered momentum so quickly and so unexpectedly. The Egyptian Revolution, starting on January 25, lacked leadership and possessed little organization; its defining events, on Friday, January 28, occurred on a day when all communication technologies, including all internet and phones, were barred; it took place in a large country known for sedate political life, a very long legacy of authoritarian continuity, and an enviable repressive apparatus consisting of more than 2 million members. But on that day, the regime of Hosni Mubarak, entrenched for 30 years and seemingly eternal, the only regime that the vast majority of the protesters had ever known, evaporated in one day.Though the regime struggled for two more weeks, practically little government existed during that period. All ministries and government offices have been closed, and almost all police headquarters were burned down on January 28. Except for the army, all security personnel disappeared, and a week after the uprising, only a few police officers ventured out again. Popular committees have since taken over security in the neighborhoods. I saw patriotism expressed everywhere as collective pride in the realization that people who did not know each other could act together, intentionally and with a purpose. During the ensuing week and a half, millions converged on the streets almost everywhere in Egypt, and one could empirically see how noble ethics—community and solidarity, care for others, respect for the dignity of all, feeling of personal responsibility for everyone—emerge precisely out of the disappearance of government.Undoubtedly this revolution, which is continuing to unfold, will be the formative event in the lives of the millions of youth who spearheaded it in Egypt, and perhaps also the many more millions of youth who followed it throughout the Arab world. It is clear that it is providing a new generation with a grand spectacle of the type that had shaped the political consciousness of every generation before them in modern Arab history. All those common formative experiences of past generations were also grand national moments: whether catastrophic defeats or triumphs against colonial powers or allies.

  18. Chemical analysis of Yemeni archaeological cheramics and the Egyptian enigma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeological reconnaissance in Yemen produced samples of mediaeval Islamic ceramics in a 100 km2 region. The ceramics dated from 700 A.d. to 1750 A.D. and initial research indicated that they were all locally made products. 12 types of ceramics were selected for sampling on the basis of stylistic decoration. Six laboratory samples of each type were subjected to neutron activation analysis for the short-lived isotope producing elements using the SLOWPOKE reactor at the University of Toronto. A comparison with Egyptian pottery was carried out. The statistical analysis conducted on the Yemeni and Egyptian pottery produced discrete differences in their elemental composition which the archaeologist and the chemical scientist might not otherwise recognise. It is concluded that artifacts must be analyzed with due respect given to the archeological context, the elemental chemistry, and sound statistical procedures. (author)

  19. Ancient Egyptian chronology and the astronomical orientation of pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Kate

    2000-11-01

    The ancient Egyptian pyramids at Giza have never been accurately dated, although we know that they were built approximately around the middle of the third millennium BC. The chronologies of this period have been reconstructed from surviving lists of kings and the lengths of their reigns, but the lists are rare, seldom complete and contain known inconsistencies and errors. As a result, the existing chronologies for that period (the Old Kingdom) can be considered accurate only to about +/-100 years, a figure that radiocarbon dating cannot at present improve. Here I use trends in the orientation of Old Kingdom pyramids to demonstrate that the Egyptians aligned them to north by using the simultaneous transit of two circumpolar stars. Modelling the precession of these stars yields a date for the start of construction of the Great Pyramid that is accurate to +/-5 yr, thereby providing an anchor for the Old Kingdom chronologies.

  20. The Egyptian Civil Calendar: a Masterpiece to Organize the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, J. A.

    2009-08-01

    The ancient Egyptians had just one calendar in operation, the civil one, during most of their history and before the overwhelming influence of Hellenic culture. This calendar may have been invented for a specific purpose in the first half of the third millennium B.C., when the previous local Nile-based lunar calendars were rendered useless, as the result of the unification of the country and new social, economic and administrative requirements. The civil calendar always started at the feast of Wepet Renpet in the first day of the first month of the Inundation season (I Akhet 1). Its peculiar length of only 365 days (without leap years) might have been established from simple astronomical (presumably solar) observations. Consequently, Wepet Renpet wandered throughout the seasons in a period close to 15 centuries. Our research has shown that this phenomenology was reflected in the Egyptian worldview by the orientation of most important sacred structures accordingly.

  1. Egyptian Activism against Female Genital Cutting as Catachrestic Claiming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Van Raemdonck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with questions of the politics of location in knowledge and norm production within the context of Egyptian feminist activism for abandoning female genital cutting practices. It seeks to determine underlying schemes of international campaigning discourse and analyzes how these predicate and complicate Egyptian postcolonial activism. It draws on a broad literature study in addition to fieldwork in Cairo consisting of in-depth interviews with activists and policy makers. My focus is on the national Task Force against FGM from 1994 until 1999 and its subsequent cooptation by the National Council of Childhood and Motherhood. I argue through the concept of catachresis that location matters in setting the terms of anti-FGC discourse and its relation to religion.

  2. The Egyptian Farming Practices Technological Development and Its Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Abdou, Amin I.

    2005-01-01

    Tendency toward application of advanced technology in farming practices has been accelerated in Egypt since the mid Seventies of the last century. Both domestic technology generation and foreign technology transfer were encouraged. High-quality cultivars, mechanized farming operations, and modern agricultural systems, such as protected agriculture and organic farming were strongly introduced. As such, this study tended to assess the Egyptian experience in farming modernization, areas of succe...

  3. Characterization and Beneficiation of an Egyptian Nepheline Syenite Ore

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Zaher M. Abouzeid; Negm, Abdel-Tawab A.

    2014-01-01

    Nepheline syenite ore is an essential constituent in ceramics and glass raw material meals, as a flux and as a source of alumina. The natural nepheline syenite rocks contain some undesired minerals, which are usually eliminated or reduced to the allowable limits by beneficiation. The present paper is concerned with characterization and beneficiation of an Egyptian nepheline syenite rock, at Abu Khruq locality, Eastern Desert, Egypt. The ore is exceptionally hard, with high crushing strength o...

  4. Pollen Morphology of Egyptian Malvaceae: An Assessment of Taxonomic Value

    OpenAIRE

    NAGGAR, Salah M. EL

    2004-01-01

    The pollen morphological characteristics of 21 species of Egyptian Malvaceae belonging to 10 genera: Abelmoschus Medik., Hibiscus L., Gossypium L., Lagunaria L., Abutilon Mill., Sida L., Malva L., Lavatera L., Alcea L. and Malvaviscus Cav., were investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy. The pollens were examined and described in each genus. The results demonstrated that pollen morphological characteristics, principally pollen shape, size, aperture characters and exine sculpture ...

  5. ASTRONOMICAL ALGORITHMS OF EGYPTIAN PYRAMIDS SLOPES AND THEIR MODULES DIVIDER

    OpenAIRE

    Aboulfotouh, Hossam M. K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to show the astronomical design principles that are encoded in the geometrical forms of the largest five pyramids of the fourth Egyptian dynasty, in Giza and Dahshur plateaus, based on using the pyramids’ design-modules that are mentioned in the so-called Rhind Mathematical Papyrus. It shows the astronomical algorithms for quantifying the slopes of pyramids, with reference to specific range of earth’s axial tilt, within spherical co-ordinates system. Besid...

  6. Kenny-Caffey syndrome type 1 in an Egyptian girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotb Abbass Metwalley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenny-Caffey syndrome type 1 (KCS1 (OMIM 244460 is a rare syndrome characterized by growth retardation, uniformly small slender long bones with medullary stenosis, thickened cortex of the long bones, hypocalcemia possibly with tetany at an early age and normal intelligence. The primary outcome of KCS1 is short stature. We present here an Egyptian girl aged 32 months with typical feature of KCS1.

  7. Determinants of Work Relation Perception: Organizational Culture in Egyptian Workplaces

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Taha Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating different types of organizational cultures common in Egyptian workplaces andhow they might be influenced by the type of ownership (governmental, public, or private), the region in whichthe organization exists (Cairo, North Egypt, or South Egypt), and the organization size (large vs. small).Organizational cultures were divided, according to the Competing Values Model proposed Cameron and Quinn(1999/2006), into four types: Market, Hierarchy, Adhocracy, and Clan...

  8. Expression of therapeutic misconception amongst Egyptians: a qualitative pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman Henry J; Khalil Susan S; Wazaify Mayyada

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies have shown that research participants fail to appreciate the difference between research and medical care, labeling such phenomenon as a "therapeutic misconception" (TM). Since research activity involving human participants is increasing in the Middle East, qualitative research investigating aspects of TM is warranted. Our objective was to assess for the existence of therapeutic misconception amongst Egyptians. Methods Study Tool: We developed a semi-structured int...

  9. Biodiversity of Bacterial Ecosystems in Traditional Egyptian Domiati Cheese▿

    OpenAIRE

    El-Baradei, Gaber; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès; Ogier, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional Egyptian soft Domiati cheese was studied by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bands were identified using a reference species database (J.-C. Ogier et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by DNA sequencing. Results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in Do...

  10. Nile Crossings: Hospitality and Revenge in Egyptian Rural Narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Granara, William E.

    2010-01-01

    This essay looks at acts of hospitality and revenge as constituent elements of a broad social code in rural Egyptian narratives. By looking at five stories in particular, I argue that hospitality and revenge work in complementarity, and that they often trespass and blur each other’s social and literary borders, creating ambiguity and complexity in the stories. The traditional rules that govern hospitality are at times challenged or inverted by hostile intentions, and revenge may be exacted fo...

  11. Does Facebook Matter in Egyptian Graduate Environment? A Marketing Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Yahia Ebeid

    2012-01-01

    The current study is exploratory, and it aims at uncovering the potential role of Facebook in Egyptian university environment. The research based on 127 questionnaires. It was found that; 42% of the respondents use Facebook for educational purpose; around 85% use Facebook to be in touch with their teachers; more than 75% use Facebook to contact the faculty administration; more than 70% of students are convinced that they have added value when using Facebook in the educational context. These r...

  12. Barriers to E-Commerce Adoption in Egyptian SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Nasser H. Zaied

    2012-01-01

    E-commerce has been predicted to be a new driver of economic growth for developing countries. The SME sector plays a significant role in its contribution to the national economy in terms of the wealth created and the number of people employed. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Egypt represent the greatest share of the productive units of the Egyptian economy and the current national policy directions address ways and means of developing the capacities of SMEs. Many factors could be resp...

  13. Incidence and characterization of bacillus cereus isolated From egyptian foods.

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Y. E.; El-Fouly, M. Z.; Khalil, M. S.; Abo-State, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    In this study, 178 strains of Bacillus cereus were isolated from different Egyptian foods. Isolation was performed, using MYP and PEMBA media and confirmed by staining and biochemical tests. B. cereus occurred in 98% of test minced meat, 60% of sausage, 48% of rice grains, 44% of Koshari or ice-cream and 36% of pasteurized milk samples. The characteristics of these B. cereus isolates in terms of biochemical reactions, antibiotic susceptibility, pathogenicity and toxigenicity were studied. ...

  14. Transnational Politics, Women & the Egyptian Revolution: Examples from Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller-Funk, Lea

    2014-01-01

    The revolutionary process in Egypt since 2011 has not only mobilized masses in Egypt, but has also led to a massive politicization and polarization of Egyptian communities abroad. Women from different generations became active in the protests claiming their agency to participate in changing their country. Cyberactivism became a particularly important vehicle for women to participate politically in the revolutionary process. This paper looks at transnational political networks in Paris working...

  15. Unwrapping an Ancient Egyptian Mummy Using X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a project of unwrapping an ancient Egyptian mummy using x-ray computed tomography (CT). About 600 x-ray CT images were obtained through the mummified body of a female named Tjetmutjengebtiu (or Jeni for short), who was a singer in the great temple of Karnak in Egypt during the 22nd dynasty (c 945-715 BC). The x-ray CT images…

  16. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early 20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches about the origin of their earliest ancestor(s, this researcher investigates the theories that the ancient Egyptians had contact with the ancient Nigerians and particularly with the Yorubas. Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: There is an existing ideology amongst the Yorubas and other writers of Yoruba history that the original ancestors of the Yorubas originated in ancient Egypt hence there was migration between Egypt and Yorubaland. This researcher contends that even if there was migration between Egypt and Nigeria, such migration did not take place during the predynastic and dynastic period as speculated by some scholars. The subject is open for further research.

  17. Back to the roots - dermatology in ancient Egyptian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Although ancient Greek and Roman medicine is generally considered the origin of European medicine, there is evidence in ancient Egyptian texts suggesting a precursor role of ancient Egyptian medicine in this regard. What did Greek and Roman physicians learn from their Egyptian counterparts? Of the medical papyri discovered to date, the largest and most significant - the Ebers papyrus and the Smith papyrus - originate from the beginning of the New Kingdom, however, they were - at least in part - already written during the Old Kingdom. Considering the times, the spectrum of diseases treated as well as the range of conservative and surgical treatment methods was truly astounding. Taking a medical history, performing a thorough manual examination, and assessing clinical findings constituted key components in establishing a diagnosis. Apart from hygienic aspects, skin and hair disorders, the treatment of acute and chronic wounds and injuries as well as cosmetic procedures took on an important role. Even back then, physicians sought to assess inflammatory processes with respect to their cardinal features, implement graded wound therapy, and treat diseases with allopathic drugs. The 'channel theory' prevalent at that time, in which the unimpeded flow of bodily fluids was considered a fundamental prerequisite for health, may likely be regarded as precursor of ancient Greek humoral pathology. The latter became the basis for the subsequently established theory of the four humors, and was thus essential for the entire field of medieval medicine. PMID:27027749

  18. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancestor(s, this researcher investigates the theories that the�ancient Egyptians had contact with the ancient Nigerians and particularly with the Yorubas.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: There is an existing ideology�amongst the Yorubas and other writers of Yoruba history that the original ancestors of�the Yorubas originated in ancient Egypt hence there was migration between Egypt and�Yorubaland. This researcher contends that even if there was migration between Egypt and�Nigeria, such migration did not take place during the predynastic and dynastic period as�speculated by some scholars. The subject is open for further research.

  19. Physical inactivity among Egyptian and Saudi medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Medical students, the future doctors, were presumed to be knowledgeable about physical activity and would have future influence on their patients. This study aims to describe the pattern of physical activity, predictors of physical inactivity and perceived barriers to and benefits of physical activity among a sample of Egyptian and Saudi medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out on 319 Egyptian and 297 Saudi medical students. The long form of the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ was used to measure physical activity. Data was analyzed according to the guidelines for data processing and analysis of the IPAQ. Perceived barriers to and potential benefits of physical activity were reported. Results: Physical inactivity was significantly higher among Saudi than Egyptian medical students (41.1% versus 15.4%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent predictors of physical inactivity were non-membership in sports clubs (OR =4.6 and use of private cars for transportation (OR=3.9. The most frequent barriers to physical activity are time limitation due to busy study schedule and lack of accessible and suitable sporting places. More than 70% of students perceived that physical activity promotes and maintains health. Conclusions: Because time and access are key barriers to medical student exercise, we believe that provision of free playgrounds in the college to practice sports during free times will promote physical activity in students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 35-44

  20. The Media and the Making of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Osman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available While views may differ on the factors that made the 2011 Egyptian revolution possible, the role of mass media will remain undisputable. The Internet-based social networks caught the Mubarak regime by surprise, and the popular disillusionment with the ‘national’ media led the public to turn to private newspapers and satellite channels for keeping pace with the events. This paper examines the role of specific media during the 18 days of the 2011 Egyptian revolution – from 25 January to 11 February, 2011 – which we have divided into four parts. It discusses how these media contributed to the unfolding of events, conceptualized the protests and the demands of the public, and presented the actors that participated in or opposed the revolution. These points are addressed by discussing the content of the Facebook pages of the Sixth of April Movement and We Are All Khalid Said, as well as that of a private Egyptian newspaper, al-Shuruq, and the state-run newspaper al-Ahram.

  1. Finding out egyptian gods' secret using analytical chemistry: biomedical properties of egyptian black makeup revealed by amperometry at single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsoba, Issa; Arbault, Stéphane; Walter, Philippe; Amatore, Christian

    2010-01-15

    Lead-based compounds were used during antiquity as both pigments and medicines in the formulation of makeup materials. Chemical analysis of cosmetics samples found in Egyptians tombs and the reconstitution of ancient recipes as reported by Greco-Roman authors have shown that two non-natural lead chlorides (laurionite Pb(OH)Cl and phosgenite Pb(2)Cl(2)CO(3)) were purposely synthesized and were used as fine powders in makeup and eye lotions. According to ancient Egyptian manuscripts, these were essential remedies for treating eye illness and skin ailments. This conclusion seems amazing because today we focus only on the well-recognized toxicity of lead salts. Here, using ultramicroelectrodes, we obtain new insights into the biochemical interactions between lead(II) ions and cells, which support the ancient medical use of sparingly soluble lead compounds. Submicromolar concentrations of Pb(2+) ions are shown to be sufficient for eliciting specific oxidative stress responses of keratinocytes. These consist essentially of an overproduction of nitrogen monoxide (NO degrees ). Owing to the biological role of NO degrees in stimulating nonspecific immunological defenses, one may argue that these lead compounds were deliberately manufactured and used in ancient Egyptian formulations to prevent and treat eye illnesses by promoting the action of immune cells. PMID:20030333

  2. The Problem of the Pyramid or Egyptian Mathematics from a Postmodern Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutler, Paul M. E.

    2009-01-01

    We consider Egyptian mathematics from a postmodern perspective, by which we mean suspending judgement as to strict correctness in order to appreciate the genuine mathematical insights which they did have in the context in which they were working. In particular we show that the skill which the Egyptians possessed of obtaining the general case from…

  3. Higher Education and Some Upper Egyptian Women's Negotiation of Self-Autonomy at Work and Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Halawany, Hanan Salah El-Deen

    2009-01-01

    This research aims to compare the effect of higher education on some Upper Egyptian women's practice of self autonomy at both work and home. The most important revelation this research makes is the fact that although no one can deny the importance and significance of higher education to Upper Egyptian women, yet it failed to challenge the…

  4. Training of Egyptian Information Specialists: A Multifaceted System Approach. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hadidy, Bahaa

    This report presents information on a 1980/81 U.S. non-degree training program which was designed to provide Egyptian scientific and technical information (STI) specialists with the basic minimum knowledge and skills required for developing national information services in Egypt. The background and purpose of the Egyptian STI program are discussed…

  5. The impact on the Netherlands of the Egyptian greenhouse vegetable chain

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnands, J.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    This report forms part of a broader analysis of the competitiveness of Dutch tomatoes, cucumbers and peppers on the European market. It describes elements of Porter's competitiveness analysis for the Egyptian horticultural sector. Within this framework, it presents an analysis of the domestic demand, the supply, the structure and strategy of firms, the network and the Egyptian government. It concludes with a SWOT analysis.

  6. Egyptian Radio: Tool of Political and National Development. Journalism Monographs No. 48.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Douglas A.

    The expansion of Egyptian radio and television, with underlying political motivation dating from the 1952 revolution, is due to extensive resources committed to the establishment and programming of radio and television systems. Television, introduced almost ten years after the revolution, remains a limited and urban medium, while Egyptian radio…

  7. Molecular seasonal, age and gender distributions of Cryptosporidium in diarrhoeic Egyptians: distinct endemicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Badry, A A; Al-Antably, A S A; Hassan, M A; Hanafy, N A; Abu-Sarea, E Y

    2015-12-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a worldwide gastrointestinal disease caused by the protozoan Cryptosporidium parasite. It has a broad range of seasonal and age-related prevalence. We aimed to study the molecular prevalence and seasonality of Cryptosporidium over a period of 1 year in a cohort of Egyptian diarrhoeic patients. Stool samples were collected from 865 diarrhoeic patients attending outpatient clinics of Cairo University hospitals, from all age groups over a 12-month period, examined microscopically for faecal Cryptosporidium oocysts by the acid-fast staining method and for copro-DNA detection using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assays. PCR-positive samples were characterised molecularly by nPCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to determine Cryptosporidium genotypes. Cryptosporidium copro-DNA was detected in 19.5% of the collected samples throughout the year, with a major peak in summer (August) and a small rise in spring (April). Infection was mainly C. hominis (95.8%) followed by C. parvum (3.0%), affecting all age groups, with predominance in the pre-school age group, and decrease with age. There were statistically significant associations between the detection of Cryptosporidium and season, diarrhoea, patient age and drinking water, while gender, contact with animals and presence of mucus in stool showed no association. Cryptosporidium in diarrhoeic Egyptians was of distinct endemicity, with the bi-model mostly influenced by population dynamics, with a clear high prevalence in pre-school children and predominating anthroponotic (C. hominis) transmission throughout the year. The obtained results highlight Cryptosporidium as a water contaminant and an important cause of health problems in Egypt, necessitating further studies of the risk factors. PMID:26440040

  8. ASPECTS OF OBSTACLES FOR APPLYING ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru STEFEA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The following investigation aims to determine the aspects of obstacles for applying Activity Based Costing (ABC system in the Egyptian case and the significant differences among the effects of such obstacles . The Study used the survey method to describe and analyze the obstacles in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. This survey used the number of 392 questionnaires that were used throughout the total of 23 Egyptian manufacturing firms, during the first half of 2013. Finally, the study found some influencing obstacles for applying this system (ABC and there were significant differences among the aspects of obstacles for applying ABC system in the Egyptian manufacturing firms.

  9. The Traditional Egyptian Antecedents of Graeco-Roman Post-Mortem Ascent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Gonzalez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the greater antiquity of Egyptian civilisation, when we refer to Egyptian and Graeco-Roman cultures, we are generally referring to cultures that were contiguous, and the profound impact that Egyptian ideas had upon the Graeco-Roman world cannot be denied. In key respects, Egyptian views of the afterlife foreshadowed Graeco-Roman, Jewish, and early Christian conceptions, particularly in terms of the motif of post-mortem ascent. Although the channels of transmission have been lost in antiquity, the motif may still be sketched clearly enough in both cultures to suggest that Egypt was an important source for its expression. After some methodological considerations, this essay will trace the motif of ascent as it was manifested in Graeco-Roman culture, and then analyze the nature of the ancient Egyptian evidence in order to suggest the existence of key elements of this same motif from the earliest times in ancient Egypt.

  10. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of Morus alba L. (Egyptian mulberry) root bark fractions supplementation in cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; Singab, Abdel Nasser B; Sinkkonen, Jari; Pihlaja, Kalevi

    2006-05-01

    The 70% alcohol extract of the Egyptian Morus alba L. root bark was fractionated over cellulose CC eluted with water, 50% methanol and finally with 100% methanol to yield 3 fractions (MRBF-1, MRBF-2 and MRBF-3), respectively. In continuation of chromatographic purification of 70% alcohol extract fractions of the Egyptian M. alba L. root bark, 4 compounds namely: mulberroside A, 5,7,2'-trihydroxyflavanone-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside and albanols A and B were isolated from MRBF-2 for the first time from the Egyptian plant. Experimentally induced atherosclerosis was produced by feeding rats a diet enriched in coconut oil (25% by weight) and cholesterol (2% by weight) for 21 days. Then, hypercholesterolemic rats were orally administered (MRBF-1, MRBF-2 and MRBF-3 fractions) in a dose of 500 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 15 successive days, in order to evaluate their expected hypocholesterolemic activity. Lipid profile parameters such as plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C, LDL:HDL ratio and triglycerides, as well as plasma and liver lipid peroxides and glutathione-S-transferase enzyme levels, serum paraoxonase enzyme level, LDL oxidation, LDL aggregation and LDL retention, were measured. Plasma and liver glutathione-S-transferase enzyme levels were unaffected in all studied groups. The results revealed that the administration of (MRBF-2 and/or MRBF-3) fractions resulted in alleviation of atherosclerotic state. Administration of MRBF-3 significantly retained plasma and liver peroxides towards their normal levels, and also, produced significant increase in resistance towards major atherogenic modifications; namely LDL oxidation, LDL aggregation and LDL retention by 44%, 30%, and 33%, respectively. Thus, it can be concluded that the consumption of MRBF-2 and (MRBF-3, in some extent) fractions of M. alba L. root bark 70% alcohol extract may act as a potent hypocholesterolemic nutrient and powerful antioxidant via the inhibition of LDL atherogenic modifications and lipid peroxides formation in hypercholesterolemic rats. PMID:16313926

  11. Sex identification from fingertip features in Egyptian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshak, Ghada Attia; Zaher, Jaklin Fekri; Hasan, Eman Ismail; El-Azeem Ewis, Ashraf Abd

    2013-01-01

    Identification of an individual plays a vital part of any medico-legal investigation. Fingerprints are considered to be one of the most reliable methods of identification. The present study was conducted on 752 healthy adult Egyptian subjects (380 males and 372 females) with age ranged from 20 to 30 years. Consents were obtained from all participants and their 10 digits were photographed to determine the sexual dimorphism by some fingertip features (ridge count, square area, finger breadth and finally ridge density) in Egyptians. Statistical analysis was made using a multivariate logistic regression variation analyses. Results showed that females tend to have statistically significant shorter (narrower) finger breadth (right: male > 9.54 ≥ female, left: male > 9.38 ≥ female), smaller square area (right: male ≥ 16.1 > female, left: male > 15.1 ≥ female), more ridge count (right: female > 21.0 ≥ male, left: female > 21.2 ≥ male), and higher ridge density (right: female >1.35 ≥ male, left: female > 1.5 ≥ male) when compared with males. The ridge density of the left hand was the most single accurate parameter in correct sex determination. The best classification accuracy of 82% was generated upon combining ridge count, square area and ridge density. It was concluded that fingertip features of Egyptians can be used by medico-legal experts for accurate sex identification. PMID:23217375

  12. Tolerance, quality and storability of gamma-irradiated Egyptian rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on some organoleptic and physico-chemical properties and the storability of Egyptian rice was investigated. Radiation up to 50krad was chosen as an adequate dose causing non-significant changes in eating and cooking qualities. The effect of irradiation on degradation of starch and protein molecules is demonstrated on the basis of studies on the viscosity and solubility of rice paste. Irradiation at relatively low dose levels up to 50krad did not affect the chemical and nutritional qualities of rice regarding amino acids and B vitamins. It was also found that irradiation maintains better storability of rice under ambient temperature. (author)

  13. Passive and active measurements of Egyptian monazite samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroor, A

    2003-02-01

    Five samples of Egyptian monazite from beach black sand at Abou Khashba near Rosetta, North Egypt were separated in the laboratories of the nuclear materials authority of Egypt. Neutron activation analysis has been used to determine the elemental content of monazite samples. Twelve elements Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Cs, La, Eu, Sm, Hf, Pa and Np are observed and the concentrations of these elements have been calculated. Using passive measurements natural radioactivity has also been determined in Bq/kg for the investigated monazite samples. Th and U concentrations from both passive and active measurements are in agreement. Some of the observed elements have a high economic value. PMID:12573329

  14. Quantitative analysis of ancient Egyptian pigments by external PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uda, M. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan) Lab. for Materials Science and Technology, Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Tsunokami, T.; Murai, R. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Maeda, K. (Inst. of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama (Japan)); Harigai, I.; Nakayama, Y.; Yoshimura, S. (Egyptian Culture Center, Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Kikuchi, T. (Dept. of Archaeology, Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Sakurai, K. (Section of Archaeology, Showa Women' s Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Sasa, Y. (Lab. for Materials Science and Technology, Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-04-01

    Pigments painted on Egyptian excavations in the 18th Dynasty were analyzed successfully by external PIXE with the aid of the X-ray diffraction. A white pigment was composed on Mg[sub 3]Ca(CO[sub 3])[sub 4]; red: [alpha]Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3], [alpha]FeO.OH and AsS; pink: Mixtures of white and red pigments; yellow: [alpha]FeO.OH and As[sub 2]S[sub 3]; and blue: CaO.CuO.4SiO[sub 2]. (orig.).

  15. The Radial Structure of Some Middle Egyptian Prepositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyord, Rune

    2010-01-01

    Prepositions are traditionally treated in dictionaries and grammars by giving a list of usages, often corresponding more or less to the way the preposition is translated in the language of the modern work. This paper suggests an alternative way of approaching prepositions, derived from cognitive ...... extensions, instead of merely listing a number of unrelated senses. It is argued that Middle Egyptian prepositions can fruitfully be studied in this framework, and the method is exemplified by examining the conceptual structure of the two frequent prepositions m and r....

  16. Passive and active measurements of Egyptian monazite samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five samples of Egyptian monazite from beach black sand at Abou Khashba near Rosetta, North Egypt were separated in the laboratories of the nuclear materials authority of Egypt. Neutron activation analysis has been used to determine the elemental content of monazite samples. Twelve elements Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Cs, La, Eu, Sm, Hf, Pa and Np are observed and the concentrations of these elements have been calculated. Using passive measurements natural radioactivity has also been determined in Bq/kg for the investigated monazite samples. Th and U concentrations from both passive and active measurements are in agreement. Some of the observed elements have a high economic value

  17. Tolerance, Quality and Storability of Gamma-Irradiated Egyptian Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on some organoleptic and physico-chemical properties and the storability of Egyptian rice was investigated. Radiation up to 50 krad was chosen as an adequate dose causing non-significant changes in eating and cooking qualities. The effect of irradiation on degradation of starch and protein molecules is demonstrated on the basis of studies on the viscosity and solubility of rice paste. Irradiation at relatively low dose levels up to 50 krad did not affect the chemical and nutritional qualities of rice regarding amino acids and B vitamins. It was also found that irradiation maintains better storability of rice under ambient temperature. (author)

  18. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of some Egyptian phosphate ore samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondestructive instrumental neutron activation analysis (inaa) has been applied for the determination of up to 23 elements in 10 Egyptian phosphate ore samples from two regions in Egypt; Sebaiya (wadi-El-Nile) and the red sea coast (El-Hamrawein). The sterials (S-1, S-2 and G-2) were used in analysis. The relevant nuclear data of the determined elements are listed. The accuracy and precision of the procedure has been checked by simultaneous analysis of S-1 and S-2 standard deviation of each determination as well as the detection limits of the elements are provided. The results of the analysis are presented and discussed in details

  19. Mitochondrial Mutation In Egyptian Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzi O,A*; Hassan Z,A*; Abdel Kawy S,I**; Al-Diwany O,I**; Adel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial gene mutation plays a role in the development of diabetes mellitus. An A to G substitution at base pair 3243 in the mitochondrial tRNAleu(UUR gene (mt3243 is commonly associated with maternally inherited diabetes and deafness and other diseases. The aim of this study is to detect A to G substitution at base pair 3243 in mitochondrial RNAleu(UUR in the plasma of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to evaluate insulin sensitivity in all cases. This study, included 41 patients (Group I, 31 cases with type 2 diabetes mellitus and maternal history of diabetes mellitus-and Group II, 10 cases with type 2 diabetes mellitus, bilateral SNHL, maternal history of diabetes mellitus with or without SNHL. Other10 healthy control group was included. Patients and controls were subjected to full medical history and clinical examination. Serum measurements for liver and kidney function tests, fasting and postprandial blood glucose as well as C-peptide levels, in addition to lipid profile were collected. Audiological evaluation for all patients with SNHL was also done. Genetic investigation, for mDNA analysis, done by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP, to determine the mutation in the mitochondrial gene at position 3243. Results of the study showed that glycemic indices (FPG, 2hPPG and HbA1c, liver enzymes and blood urea were significantly higher among patient group compared to control group (P<0.05. There was no significant difference for values of creatinine and uric acid between cases and controls. Lipid profile was significantly higher among patient group compared to controls (P<0.05, except for HDL-C which was higher in controls however, it did not reach statistical significance. C-peptide values were not significantly different between studied groups. Age at onset of diabetes was relatively earlier in group II than group I. mDNA was present in all plasma samples of patients and controls. mDNA 3243 mutation was detected in the plasma of three patients with diabetes and SNHL with a rate of 7.3% of all diabetic patients and 30% of diabetic patients associated with deafness. The presence of mDNA mutation allowed 294 bp product to be cleaved into 180 and 114 bp fragments and were seen as two bands. In CoclusioN: The A 3243 G mutation is present in Egyptian population and is considered as a cause of maternally inherited diabetes and deafness at a rate of 7.3% of all diabetic subjects and a rate of 30% of diabetics associated with deafness. mDNA mutation is present and detectable in plasma. Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness differs pathophysiologically from the more common forms of type 2 diabetes in that, insulin resistance does not seem to be a major factor.

  20. Egyptian women in physics: Progress and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, M.; Hosni, Hala; Mohamed, Hadeer; Gadalla, Afaf; Kahil, Heba; Hashem, Hassan

    2015-12-01

    The present study shows a progressive increase in the number of female physicists as undergraduates and postgraduates in several governmental universities. For instance, in Ain Shams University, the percentage of women who selected physics as a major course of study increased from 7.2% in 2012 to 10.8% in 2013 and 15.7% in 2014. The study also provides the current gender distribution in the various positions among the teaching staff in seven governmental universities. The data supports the fact that female teaching assistants are increasing in these universities.

  1. Taxonomic status and origin of the Egyptian weasel (Mustela subpalmata) inferred from mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Mónica; Bos, Arthur R; Hoath, Richard; Schembri, Patrick J; Lymberakis, Petros; Cento, Michele; Ghawar, Wissem; Ozkurt, Sakir O; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Merilä, Juha; Fernandes, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The Egyptian weasel (Mustela subpalmata) is a small mustelid with a distribution restricted to the lower Nile Valley and the Nile Delta. Traditionally considered a subspecies of the least weasel (M. nivalis), it is currently recognized as a separate species based on morphology. Here we present the first genetic assessment of the taxonomic status of the Egyptian weasel by comparing mitochondrial DNA (Cytochrome b gene and control region) sequences to those of least weasels from the western Palearctic, with a focus on the Mediterranean region. Our results provide no evidence to support the view that the Egyptian weasel is genetically distinct from the least weasel, as we found that, for both Cytochrome b and control region, haplotypes were shared between the two taxa. Specifically, the Cytochrome b and control region haplotypes detected in the Egyptian weasel were also present in M. nivalis from Turkey and Malta, two populations genetically analysed here for the first time. Our results suggest that the Egyptian weasel is distinct from the least weasel populations currently living in the Maghreb, which were inferred to be the result of an earlier colonization of North Africa, but the genetic data alone do not allow us to determine whether the Egyptian weasel is native or introduced. Nevertheless, the observed genetic patterns, together with the weasel fossil record in Israel and the unique commensal lifestyle of the Egyptian weasel, are consistent with the hypothesis that the Egyptian population is a relict of past range expansion from the Levant into Egypt. We suggest that the large size and characteristic sexual dimorphism of the Egyptian weasel are likely to represent ecotypic variation, but genomic studies are required to clarify the extent of its functional genetic divergence. PMID:26961232

  2. Designing an e-democracy framework to enhance the Egyptian e-government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El-Sayed Wahed

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available E-democracy concept can enhance Egyptian participation in rule and it can move e-the Egyptian government to a new era. E-democracy concept can be applied in conjunction with database connection to transfer Egyptian e-government to transformation stage. This Paper concentrates mainly on designing an e-democracy framework using two case studies in e-government systems .As we will see system is web based application based .There are some figures that describe system architecture then each component well be explained. The framework technical aspects, analysis and objectives in establishing integrated e-government will be discussed.

  3. Legal Elements For Nuclear Security: Egyptian Nuclear Law As A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the legal bases for nuclear security. First, It analysis the international legal framework for nuclear security. Second, it analysis the legal bases for the import-export control. The legal aspects related with illicit trafficking (IT) were also reviewed. Third, It deals with the Egyptian nuclear law no. 7 and its executive regulation. The Egyptian legal regime for nuclear security and the role of State System for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SSAC) in realizing the nuclear security were also discussed. The purpose of the paper is to evaluate the Egyptian legal framework for nuclear security.

  4. X-ray analysis of pigments on ancient Egyptian monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancient pigments were analyzed using PIXE and XRD methods in the laboratory, which were painted on ancient Egyptian monuments. On the other hand, those on monuments remaining with entire shape were investigated using the hand-held type of an XRF spectrometer and an X-ray diffractometer in the field. For the laboratory experiment, several wall fragments of the Malqata palace in ancient Egypt (18th Dynasty, ca. 1390 B.C.) were investigated. In the field experiment, the block of Ramesses II (19th Dynasty, ca. 1270 B.C.), the Wooden Coffin of Neb-sny (18th Dynasty, ca. 1400 B.C.), the Funerary Stele of Amenemhat (11th Dynasty, ca. 2000 B.C.), and the painted walls of the Tomb of Userhat (18th Dynasty, ca. 1400 B.C.) were investigated. From white and blue colored parts, huntite and Egyptian blue were found, respectively, which are a very rare mineral and an artificial pigment prepared only in ancient Egypt, respectively. (author)

  5. Determination of Wax Content in Egyptian Crude Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof.Dr.Ramadan Abu El-Ella

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Wax precipitation is one of the most important flow assurance problems. Unfortunately, experimental data are very scarce to confirm existing models for prediction of such production impairment and other hazardous risk; while its curative approaches and production losses add to colossal economic sabotage to the petroleum industry. The present work deals with studying the determination of wax in Egyptian crude oil by gravimetric determination precipitation with lowering temperature of the crude oil .The crude oil studied was from Egyptian western desert (waxy paraffinic crude. Waxes may precipitate due to a temperature decrease because their solubility is so low that a solid phase can appear. The experiments investigated the effect of initial weight of the crude, the time of cooling, and the temperature on the amount of wax produced. The highest amount of wax was produced with 150gm of the crude oil, at temperature of 0oC and this was done within two hours of the time of experiment. Finally the effect of using solvent on the amount wax content was also studied and it was found that the ratio (3:1 of solvent mixture increases achievement of the maximum amount of wax produced.

  6. Causes of chronic kidney disease in Egyptian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Safouh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are very few published reports on the causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD in Egyptian children. We reviewed the records of 1018 (males 56.7%, age ranged from 1 to 19 years Egyptian patients suffering from CKD and followed-up at the pediatric nephrology units (outpatient clinics and dialysis units of 11 universities over a period of two years. The mean of the estimated glomerular filtration rate was 12.5 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Children with CKD stage I and stage II comprised 4.4% of the studied group, while those with stage III, IV and V comprised 19.7%, 18.3% and 57.6%, respectively. The most common single cause of CKD was obstructive uropathy (21.7%, followed by primary glomerulonephritis (15.3%, reflux/urinary tract infection (14.6%, aplasia/hypoplasia (9.8% and familial/metabolic diseases (6.8%; unknown causes accounted for 20.6% of the cases. Of the 587 patients who had reached end-stage renal disease, 93.5% was treated with hemodialysis and only 6.5% were treated with peritoneal dialysis.

  7. X-ray analysis of pigments on ancient Egyptian monuments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uda, M.; Sassa, S.; Yoshioka, T. [Waseda Univ., Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tokyo (JP)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    Ancient pigments were analyzed using PIXE and XRD methods in the laboratory, which were painted on ancient Egyptian monuments. On the other hand, those on monuments remaining with entire shape were investigated using the hand-held type of an XRF spectrometer and an X-ray diffractometer in the field. For the laboratory experiment, several wall fragments of the Malqata palace in ancient Egypt (18th Dynasty, ca. 1390 B.C.) were investigated. In the field experiment, the block of Ramesses II (19th Dynasty, ca. 1270 B.C.), the Wooden Coffin of Neb-sny (18th Dynasty, ca. 1400 B.C.), the Funerary Stele of Amenemhat (11th Dynasty, ca. 2000 B.C.), and the painted walls of the Tomb of Userhat (18th Dynasty, ca. 1400 B.C.) were investigated. From white and blue colored parts, huntite and Egyptian blue were found, respectively, which are a very rare mineral and an artificial pigment prepared only in ancient Egypt, respectively. (author)

  8. Chemical Evaluation of Irradiated Egyptian Truffles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study is to investigate and evaluate the chemical compositions of irradiated and non-irradiated truffles (Al-Kamah)as a natural product for human nutrition with concentrated high value protein supplementation. White and brown truffles grow in Egypt and White truffle is identified as Tirmania nivea and brown truffle is identified as Terfezia budiari. Field survey for four truffle seasons including the best habit for production in Sidi Barani and Salum. Chemical composition of fresh and stored truffles indicated some differences between the two studied species. It was found that the white truffle had higher contents of carbohydrate and fat (45.5% and 7.2%), thenbrown truffle (47.5% and 7.5%)respectively, while the browntruffle had the higher contents of proteins, fiber and ash (23.8%, 8%, and 14%) than the white (22.8, 7.5 and 8% resp.). Cysteine was the highest amino acid in white truffle, while isoleucine was the highest one in brown truffle. The major fatty acids appeared in white and brown truffles were linoleic (46 and 28.3%) and Oleic (37.5 and 6209%) of total fatty acids. B-sitosterol was the major sterol in white truffle while stigmasterol in brown truffle (3.4% and 42.6%). The phytochemical screening revealed that numerous compounds are present as saponins, alkaloids, nitrogen bases,sterols, triterpenes and glycosides. The effect of irradiation (2 K Gy) was limited on bio-component. On the other hand, the biochemical components were investigated in irradiated truffle as a method for preservation. Some changes were observed during storage for 2 months. These chages affect the nutrition value of truffle

  9. Chemical composition of water hyacinth (Eichhronia Crassipes) a comparison indication of heavy metal pollution in egyptian water bodies. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water hyacinth is tested as an indicator for pollution in egyptian fresh surface waters. Chemical composition of water hyacinth as affected area of collection (water bodies) was studied and the suitability of this plant as a biological indicator for water pollution is discussed. Water hyacinth samples were collected three times per year for two years (1991-1993). Sample sites include one location in the river nile (at Helwan area), one site in Ismaillia canal, (at Mostrod industrial area), and one site in Abo-Zabal drain (at Abo-Zabal city). The concentration of 19 major major and trace elements in plant samples were determined by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis. Results indicated that plant parts as well as location have a significant effect on elements content. Water hyacinth roots showed high affinity for accumulation of trace elements. 5 tabs

  10. Environmental education in an Egyptian university: The role of teacher educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goueli, Solafa

    Drawing on a holistic critical paradigm of ecological sustainability, this study examined the role of teacher educators in environmental education in the Faculty of Education of one Egyptian university. The study sought to critically and collaboratively explore with a sample of six teacher educators their answers, perceptions and perspectives in relation to their knowledge and understanding of environmental problems in local/global contexts and their meanings of curriculum and pedagogical practices for fostering environmental education in their teacher education programs. The participants generally demonstrated a considerable amount of knowledge of the environmental realities and problems facing Egypt encompassing air, water and solid waste sectors. Their views concurred with national and official studies identifying these issues as the most pressing environmental problems in the country. The exploration of the institutional, social and cultural causes and developmental and/or global causes of environmental problems in Egypt led us to articulate different themes relating environmental crisis in Egypt to different issues. These issues included poverty, education, religion and development. One of the major findings of the study was the participants' view that development was the major contributor to the environmental crisis in Egypt. They all stressed that, in its pursuit of economic growth, the government did not pay due attention to the environmental costs. Sharing perspectives from a critical paradigm of ecological sustainability, the participants felt that the government needed to clearly address the economic and ecological dimensions of development. In addition, a few participants affirmed that development is the thread that ties all the different factors together bringing into the conversations other dimensions of development like the social, values, and political dimensions. Addressing the future dimension of development, all of them expressed the need for a development model that takes into consideration ecological as well as human well-being concerns. The study also presented an overview of the participants' own definitions for environmental education based on their beliefs and emerging from their practices. It also explored the content and pedagogy of environmental education within the Faculty as well as the participants' own practices and reports on the action research phase of the study. The participants agreed that the environment needs to be viewed holistically that includes human beings in relation to each other as well as to other beings and their surroundings. While they all praised the role of educators, they also acknowledged the force of substantive challenges for promoting a critical paradigm of environmental education within the faculty as well as in the whole education system and Egyptian society in general. A major finding of the study was that the situation of environmental education in Egyptian universities need closer and immediate attention, and much work remains to transform education and adopt a framework that would integrate environmental education into the core of the educational programs of the faculty. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. Planning closure safety assessment for the Egyptian near surface disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a repository is a significant national effort requiring several decades to complete, as well as a substantial amount of skilled human, economical and technical resources. Planning and implementation of different disposal activities proceed in a stepwise manner, guided by decision points. Granting license is considered one of the major decision points that require the presentation of a safety case to evaluate the acceptability of the repository practice. The Egyptian regulation requiring the conduction of safety assessment studies as an essential requirement in license application for construction, operation, and closure of a near surface disposal. Closure of a disposal facility is the last major operational step in completing the disposal system. It requires the consideration of a combination of scientific, engineering, regulatory, and socio-economic factors that are integrated and optimized to select cost-effective alternatives acceptable to all interested parties. In this work, a general framework will be established to conduct a safety assessment methodology for closure of near surface disposal. (author)

  12. Cardiac Function and Iron Chelation in Thalassemia Major and Intermedia: a Review of the Underlying Pathophysiology and Approach to Chelation Management

    OpenAIRE

    Aessopos, Athanasios; Berdoukas, Vasilios

    2009-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality and one of the main causes of morbidity in beta-thalassemia. Patients with homozygous thalassemia may have either a severe phenotype which is usually transfusion dependent or a milder form that is thalassemia intermedia. The two main factors that determine cardiac disease in homozygous β thalassemia are the high output state that results from chronic tissue hypoxia, hypoxia-induced compensatory reactions and iron overload. The high output state ...

  13. An investigation into the ancient Egyptian cultural influences on the Yorubas of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many cultural practices that connect ancient Egyptians to the Yorubas and the new interpretation of the Oduduwa legend suggests that the Yorubas have originated or are influenced mainly by the Egyptians. The attestation of Egypt as the main influencer of the Yoruba culture made Egypt significant in the study of the history of the Yoruba people. Some writers are beginning to think that the ancient Egyptians were responsible for introducing and spreading many cultures amongst the Yorubas. As more Yorubas are tracing their origins and the origins of their culture to ancient Egypt, this research investigates whether the Egyptians were the originators and the main spreaders of the afterlife culture in Yorubaland.

  14. Purification of rare earth oxides from a concentrate obtained during the processing of Egyptian monazite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The possibility of purification of the rare earth concentrate produced of Egyptian monazite processing was investigated. The precipitation of hydroxides and oxalates gave rare earth oxide mixtures with a rare earth content about 99.0%

  15. Serum Asymmetric Dimethylarginine, and Adiponectin as Predictors of Atherosclerotic Risk among Obese Egyptian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas R. Abdel Hameed

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that ADMA, Adiponectin and lipid profile can be considered as predictive biomarkers in prediction and prevention of atherosclerotic risk in the future among overweight and obese Egyptian children.

  16. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Discursive (De-) Legitimation Construction of Egyptian Revolution in Persian Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bahador Sadeghi; Vahid Jalali

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to explore discursive strategies applied in Fars News to represent the event of Egyptian revolution as a positive/legitimized action and Hosni Mubarak’s regime as the negative/delegitimized other. Van Leeuwen's (2008) model of legitimation is used to show how Fars News applies the legitimation discursive construction, including four main categories of ''authorization'', ''evaluation'', ''rationalization'', and ''mythopoesis'' to legitimize Egyptian revolution.  T...

  17. Application of Neutron Activation Analysis Technique for Gold Estimation in South Area Egyptian Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study presents analytical results of gold concentrations of some Egyptian gold ores. Six samples collected from south eastern of Egyptian mines area have been analyzed using neutron activation analysis technique. The gamma-ray spectra obtained were measured by means of high resolution hyper-pure germanium detection system in conjunction with electronic and computerized multichannel analyzer. The results are compared with previous measurements obtained by another method

  18. Egyptian greenhouse cultivation at a higher level with Dutch Technology ; Annual Report 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Elings, A.; Helm, F.P.M., van der; Blok, C.; Meijer, R.J.M.; Lahiani, Y.; Janmaat, A; Zaki, M.; H. Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The project ‘Egyptian greenhouse cultivation at a higher level with Dutch technology’ is co-funded under the Top Sector Programme Horticulture and Starting Materials. The project wants to realizes through the use of Dutch technology a higher level of sustainability of Egyptian protected cultivation, especially in the areas of water and crop protection. Collaborating private partners are Koppert and HortiMaX in The Netherlands, and BioEgypt and AllGreen in Egypt. Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horti...

  19. Eating Habits and Lifestyles among a Sample of Obese Working Egyptian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Nayera E Hassan; Saneya A. Wahba; Sahar A. El-Masry; Enas R. Abd Elhamid; Samia A. W. Boseila; Nihad H. Ahmed; Tarek S. Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The fundamental cause of obesity and overweight is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended. AIM: To figure out food habits and different lifestyle pattern among a sample of Egyptian females working at the National Research Centre. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive study, including 138 overweight and obese Egyptian females (BMI ≥ 25 Kg/m2); working at the National Research Centre; was done. A specific questionnaire was used to gather informat...

  20. Induction of neoplasms in the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis by gibberellin A3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Mofty, M M; Sakr, S A

    1988-01-01

    Force feeding the Egyptian toads (Bufo regularis) with gibberellin A3 (10 ppm) twice a week for 5 months induced neoplasms in 8 out of 50 (16%) experimental animals. Primary tumours developed in the liver (hepatocellular carcinomas). Two secondary tumours in the kidneys and another 2 in the ovaries of toads developed due to metastases from the hepatocellular carcinomas. The results show that gibberellic acid (gibberellin A3) has a carcinogenic effect in the Egyptian toads. PMID:3340394

  1. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries

    OpenAIRE

    Kurushima, Jennifer D.; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California – Davis, then di...

  2. Different Tools for the Assessment of Bone Mass among Egyptian Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nayera E Hassan; Sahar A. El-Masry; El-Banna, Rokia A; Mohamed S. El Hussieny

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several tools such as, dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and self-assessment tool (OST), are being used for diagnosis of osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: to compare the sensitivity and specify detection rate of bone mineral density (BMD) changes for DXA versus QCT and OST among a sample of Egyptian adults of both sexes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study is a cross sectional one, which included 62 Egyptians, aged 20-65 years.  Each individual wa...

  3. A bleaching earth from egyptian local deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Kinawy, Omayma S.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with the bleaching of vegetable oils using activated clays collected from some deposits in Egypt as compared to Tonsil FF currently used by local oil industry. The comparison was made; not only on the basis of the decolourising power of the earth, but also on the basis of its effects on the oil acidity, formation of the oil peroxides and the decomposition rate of the formed peroxides to aldehydes and ketones during the bleaching process. The activation of the collected earth samples was made using 4N HCl, 6N HCl and 30 % H2SO4. The bleaching tests of the activated samples were performed using the major four oil types processed in Egypt being cottonseed, sunflower, soybean and palm oils. In addition to the laboratory-evaluation tests, the performance of the activated samples, which showed promise on the lab-scale have been also tested on an industrial scale. The industrial application has proved that the activated local earth's can be successfully used as bleaching earth of local oils. Thus it can be used as a substitute of the varieties currently imported and used by the local oil sector.La presente investigación trata de la decoloración de aceites vegetales usando tierras activadas obtenidas de yacimientos egipcios, comparándola con el Tonsil FF usado normalmente en la industria oleícola local. La comparación se realizó, no sólo sobre la base del poder decolorante de la tierra, sino también sobre la base de sus efectos en la acidez del aceite, la formación de peróxidos y la velocidad de descomposición de los peróxidos formados en aldehidos y cetonas durante el proceso de decoloración. La activación de las muestras de tierras recogidas se hizo utilizando ClH 4N, ClH 6N y H2SO4 30 %. Los tests de decoloración de las muestras activadas se llevaron a cabo usando los cuatro tipos mayoritarios de aceites procesados en Egipto: aceite de semilla de algodón, de girasol, de soja y de palma. Además de los tests a escala de laboratorio, la evaluación de las muestras activadas, se realizó a escala industrial. La aplicación industrial ha demostrado que las tierras locales activadas pueden ser utilizadas con éxito como tierras decolorantes de aceites locales. De este modo pueden usarse como sustitutos de las variedades mas frecuentemente importadas y usadas por el sector aceitero.

  4. THE RESTORATION AND CONSERVATION OF EGYPTIAN ALABASTER VESSELS FROM THE EARLY ERA IN ATFIYAH MUSEUM STORE – HELWAN – EGYPT

    OpenAIRE

    Radi Abdel Kader, R.; Sayed Mohamed, S.

    2013-01-01

    Egypt is considered one of the most countries which contain a lot of cultural heritage; the Ancient Egyptian used a lot of stones for his life like: limestone, sandstone, granite and Egyptian Alabaster. The Egyptian Alabaster is used for his daily and eternal life, he made a lot of funerary furniture from this stone like: vessels, statues, Architectural elements in the temples, tombs and canopic jars to preserve his viscera from decomposition like: stomach, liver … etc in the ...

  5. The Reasons social media contributed to 2011 Egyptian Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Minatullah Sohail, Nadine Chebib

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, social media has become very significant for social networking. In the past, itsmain use was personal, but nowadays, its becoming part of all facets of our lives, social andpolitical. In the first quarter of 2011, the Middle East has witnessed many popular uprisings thathave yet to reach an end. While these uprisings have often been termed “FacebookRevolutions” or “Twitter Revolutions”, there are many ambiguities as to the extent to whichsocial media affected these movements. In this paper we discuss the role of social media andits impact on the 2011 Egyptian revolution. Though the reasons for the uprising were manifold,we will focus on how social media facilitated and accelerated the movement.

  6. HOW EGYPTIAN CONTRACTING COMPANIES TRANSLATE PROJECTS' QUALITY TO PROJECTS' PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said SHAWKY HOZIEN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A model for continuous quality improvement for Egyptian contracting projects’ (CQIM is developed through the extensive reviewing of the Total Quality Management (TQM, Continuous Quality Improvement (CQIliterature, preceding researches, consensus opinions of managers and experts of the construction industry and the quality management system (ISO 9000. This model comprises of 13 main factors divided into 9 CQI constructs and 4 Indices, the Indices are broken down to 46 practical measures, while the CQI constructs are further divided into 58 sub-factors consisting of 231 practical requirements, all targeting the evaluation and improvement of the overall project performance (OPP . This model assists its users to assess their points of weaknesses and strengths, by setting-up a road map for improvement, utilizing a guided framework. This model is used as a benchmarking tool to achieve the goal of this research “Projects' Continuous Quality Improvement”.

  7. LAMQS analysis applied to ancient Egyptian bronze coins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L., E-mail: lorenzo.torrisi@unime.i [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Messina, Salita Sperone, 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Caridi, F.; Giuffrida, L.; Torrisi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Messina, Salita Sperone, 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Mondio, G.; Serafino, T. [Dipartimento di Fisica della Materia ed Ingegneria Elettronica dell' Universita di Messina, Salita Sperone, 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Caltabiano, M.; Castrizio, E.D. [Dipartimento di Lettere e Filosofia dell' Universita di Messina, Polo Universitario dell' Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Paniz, E.; Salici, A. [Carabinieri, Reparto Investigazioni Scientifiche, S.S. 114, Km. 6, 400 Tremestieri, Messina (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    Some Egyptian bronze coins, dated VI-VII sec A.D. are analyzed through different physical techniques in order to compare their composition and morphology and to identify their origin and the type of manufacture. The investigations have been performed by using micro-invasive analysis, such as Laser Ablation and Mass Quadrupole Spectrometry (LAMQS), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Electronic (SEM) and Optical Microscopy, Surface Profile Analysis (SPA) and density measurements. Results indicate that the coins have a similar bulk composition but significant differences have been evidenced due to different constituents of the patina, bulk alloy composition, isotopic ratios, density and surface morphology. The results are in agreement with the archaeological expectations, indicating that the coins have been produced in two different Egypt sites: Alexandria and Antinoupolis. A group of fake coins produced in Alexandria in the same historical period is also identified.

  8. LAMQS analysis applied to ancient Egyptian bronze coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some Egyptian bronze coins, dated VI-VII sec A.D. are analyzed through different physical techniques in order to compare their composition and morphology and to identify their origin and the type of manufacture. The investigations have been performed by using micro-invasive analysis, such as Laser Ablation and Mass Quadrupole Spectrometry (LAMQS), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Electronic (SEM) and Optical Microscopy, Surface Profile Analysis (SPA) and density measurements. Results indicate that the coins have a similar bulk composition but significant differences have been evidenced due to different constituents of the patina, bulk alloy composition, isotopic ratios, density and surface morphology. The results are in agreement with the archaeological expectations, indicating that the coins have been produced in two different Egypt sites: Alexandria and Antinoupolis. A group of fake coins produced in Alexandria in the same historical period is also identified.

  9. Gall bladder sludge and stones in multitransfused Egyptian thalassaemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Nawawy, A; Kassem, A S; Eissa, M; Abdel-Fattah, M; Safwat, M

    2001-01-01

    One hundred Egyptian beta-thalassaemic patients on a long-term transfusion/chelation programme were evaluated for the prevalence of gall bladder sludge and stones and the associated risk factors. Fifty healthy individuals served as controls. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed that 14% of the thalassaemic patients had gall bladder sludge or stones (6% stones and 8% sludge). The thalassaemic patients with this complication were older, had a higher prevalence of gall bladder symptoms, higher levels of pretransfusion haemoglobin, larger amounts of transfused red cells, and more were regularly transfused. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence that gall bladder symptoms and the amount of transfused red cells were the only significant predictors of the occurrence of gall bladder sludge or stones. PMID:15332759

  10. Fallout Radioactivity in Some Egyptian Lakes Bottom Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the Egyptian environmental radioactivity monitoring program, the fallout radioactivity levels in Qarun, Bardawill and Ed ku lakes bottom sediments have been measured. The specific activities of 137Cs were measured using gamma ray spectrometer based on Hyper pure germanium detector. The specific activities of plutonium isotopes(238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Pu) were measured using alpha spectrometry based on surface battier detectors and liquid scintillation spectrometry after radiochemical separation. The activity ratios 239+240Pu/137Cs, 239+240Pu/241Pu, and 238Pu/ 239+240Pu were calculated. The results seemed to confirm that fallout radioactivity is mainly due to nuclear weapons testing fallout

  11. Ethnopolitogenesis of Ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian Ethnic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin Gatufovich Saifullin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The main provisions of the biosocial approach to the study of the polity dynamics in its conflict aspect areformulated in this article. Its essence consists in the assertion of the dependence of the polity dynamics on thepopulation quality. The L. N. Gumilev concept, which explores this dependence, is considered, and its shortcomings are opened in this paper. On the basis of this concept the universal, invariant with respect to ethnicgroups, types of polities and eras law - numerical algorithm of ethnopolitogenesis is formulated.Ethnopolitogenesis of Egyptian and ancient Mesopotamian (Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians and othersethnic groups is analyzed in order to verify the numerical algorithm. The conclusion that it developed as a wholein accordance with a numerical algorithm is formulated.

  12. Characterization of Gamma-Irradiated Egyptian Wheat Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical, rheological and baking properties of bread Shamy, prepared from gamma-irradiated Egyptian wheat flour up to 25 KGy as one of common types of bread in Egypt, were studied and the acceptability of bread was evaluated by sensory tests. All amylo-, farino-, and extensograph characteristics and also sample ph showed significant decrease as irradiation dose increased. Such results could be explained in terms of loss of unique elastic and cohesive properties of wheat gluten and starch damage upon increment of radiation dose. The improvement in properties of bread, baked from flour irradiated up to 7.5 KGy, could be explained on the basis of a simulation in gas production during dough fermentation due to increase in starch degradation products. However, bread, prepared from wheat samples irradiated above 7.5 KGy, exhibited significantly lower values of acceptance because of physico-chemical changes in both starch and gluten

  13. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) investigations of ancient Egyptian cosmetic powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, C.; Walter, P.; Castaing, J.; Penhoud, P.; Veyssière, P.

    The processing technologies available during the time of ancient Egypt are of present concern to the field of Archaeology and Egyptology. Materials characterization is the best tool for establishing the processing history of archaeological objects. In this study, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used, in addition to other techniques, for phase identification and study of the microstructure and characteristic defect structures in ancient Egyptian cosmetic powders. These powders generally consist of a mix of Pb-containing mineral phases: galena (PbS), cerussite (PbCO3), and phosgenite (Pb2Cl2CO3), among others. Modern materials are fabricated according to recipes found in ancient texts to mimic the processing of ancient times and to compare with the archaeological specimens. In particular, a comparison between the dislocation structures of PbS crystals deformed in the laboratory and PbS from archaeological specimens from the collections of the Louvre Museum is presented .

  14. Parasitic copepods from Egyptian Red Sea fishes: Bomolochidae Claus, 1875.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rashidy, Hoda Hassan; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan

    2016-02-01

    Two species of parasitic copepods from the genus Bomolochus von Nordmann, 1832 (Cyclopoida: Bomolochidae) are redescribed in detail, based on material collected from the gills of Red Sea fishes. Host material was caught at El-tor, near Sharm El-Sheikh, and in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Both sexes of Bomolochus bellones Burmeister, 1835 were collected from the gills of a needlefish Tylosurus choram (Rppell) caught in the Gulf of Suez. This is a new host record. The female is well characterised so only the male is described. Adult females of Bomolochus minus Lin & Ho, 2005 were obtained from the branchial cavities and gills of mojarra Gerres oyena (Forsskl). This species was known only from its original description in Taiwan, and this report constitutes a new host record and a significant range extension. Both parasite species are new records for Egyptian Red Sea waters. PMID:26790683

  15. Environmental Monitoring of Toshki Region As a New Egyptian Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some heavy metal pollutants namely Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, PI and Zn were measured in water, soil and some fruit plants; Citrus finensis, Orantte folia, Citrus aurantium and Vitis vinifera in Toshki region. These samples were collected in March 2005. The samples were treated according to the Standard Operation Procedures, digested and analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. It was found that the mean concentrations of the mentioned elements in water samples are higher than those corresponding by environmental Law. While, the concentrations of those elements in soil samples are two folds higher than those found in plant samples. The results are related to those give by the Egyptian environmental Law No. 4/1994. In addition, natural radioactivity levels for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and137Cs in soil were found to be lower than those corresponding for United Nations Scientific committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) values. The results are discussed and recommendations are suggested

  16. Fate and metabolism of radiolabelled dicrotophos in Egyptian lactating cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was initiated to determine the amount of dicrotophos and its metabolites which might appear in milk and meat of Egyptian lactating cows following dicrotophos treatment.14 C-alkyl dicrotophos was synthesised and its metabolic fate in two cows was investigated. For each cow, two equal dermal applications with 2-week interval were made. One cow was sacrificed 24 hr. after the second application, and the second animal after two weeks later. Paper chromatographic analysis of milk showed the presence of dicrotophos and two of its metabolites. Insecticide residues in the different organs were found in low levels. Treatment produced no negative influence on the state of health or milk production of the cows.1 fig.,2 tab

  17. Studies on natural radioactivity of some egyptian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using high-resolution y-rays spectrometry, the natural radioactivity of 14 samples of natural and o manufactured Egyptian building materials have been investigated. The samples were collected from local market and construction sites. From the measured gamma-ray spectra, specific activities were determined. The radium equivalent activity in each sample was estimated. Radiological evaluations of these materials indicate that all materials meet the external gamma-ray dose limitation. Calculation of concentration indices by assuming a Markkanen room model is constructed from these materials, to find the excess gamma-ray dose taken over that received from the outdoors. The Austrian Standard ONORM S 5200 is used in testing the building materials

  18. Synchrotron radiation analysis on ancient Egyptian vitreous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancient Egyptian vitreous materials, namely faience and glass, share the same elemental composition. But they appear to have originated separately. Faience objects appear as early as the Predynastic period, and glass was introduced from Mesopotamia during the New Kingdom. These faience and glass objects were not of daily use, rather they were regarded as religious symbols or luxury status goods. Most of the products were coloured blue, but we see an increased use of other colours during the New Kingdom (c.1550-1069BC). This tendency corresponds to the period of both territorial and political expansion of Egypt. A non-destructive SR-XRF experiment at SPring-8 was conducted last winter, aiming to determine the regional trait of elemental composition by examining the pattern and ratio of rare earth elements. As a result, we could observe some distinctive rare earth elements that may indicate regional variation. (author)

  19. Synchrotron radiation analysis on ancient Egyptian vitreous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamahana, Kyoko [Tokai Univ., Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Lecture of Egyptian Archaeology

    2000-07-01

    Ancient Egyptian vitreous materials, namely faience and glass, share the same elemental composition. But they appear to have originated separately. Faience objects appear as early as the Predynastic period, and glass was introduced from Mesopotamia during the New Kingdom. These faience and glass objects were not of daily use, rather they were regarded as religious symbols or luxury status goods. Most of the products were coloured blue, but we see an increased use of other colours during the New Kingdom (c.1550-1069BC). This tendency corresponds to the period of both territorial and political expansion of Egypt. A non-destructive SR-XRF experiment at SPring-8 was conducted last winter, aiming to determine the regional trait of elemental composition by examining the pattern and ratio of rare earth elements. As a result, we could observe some distinctive rare earth elements that may indicate regional variation. (author)

  20. Physical Deterioration of Egyptian Limestone Affected by Saline Water

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    Mohammed EL-GOHARY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is the second in a series of experiments that describe the chemical, physical and thermal properties of archaeological limestone affected by salt and saline water in Egypt. This research aims to study the aggressive physical effects of different types of salts dominated in saline water and their different mechanisms on the acceleration of weathering processes that affect Egyptian limestone. It presents a multidisciplinary approach to characterize, at both micro/macro scales, the behavior of a limestone widely used as a construction material in most of Egyptian monuments when interacting with some types of salt solutions of various concentrations. A systematic optical, morphological, physical and mechanical analysis of the fresh and weathered stone samples were used to evaluate different characteristics through using scientific some techniques such as optical microscope (OP and scanning electron microscope (SEM. In addition to the using of some special computer programs that were used to define different physical and mechanical properties such as weight changes, bulk density, total porosity, water uptake, water content, thermal dilatation and abrasion resistant. The results proved that all investigated samples were gradually affected by the types of salinity paths and salt concentrations. These results will serve as a database for the future comparison of long term behavior of stones before and after the planned conservation of the entire area. So, it is pertinent to device some scientific methods and interventions to reduce all factors of salt effects and removing their harmful aspects from historic fabric of the archaeological buildings through some scientific recommendations

  1. A descriptive study of plasma cell dyscrasias in Egyptian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Plasma cell dyscrasias (PCDs) refer to a spectrum of disorders characterized by the monoclonal proliferation of lymphoplasmacytic cells in the bone marrow and, sometimes, tissue deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulins or their components. These disorders include multiple myeloma (MM) and Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia, as well as rare conditions such as light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) and heavy-chain diseases (HCDs). The worldwide annual incidence of MM is estimated at 86,000, which is approximately 0.8% of all new cancer cases. Purpose: Our retrospective study aims to highlight the immunologic and epidemiological features of PCDs mainly MM in Egyptian patients and compare our results with those of other populations. Methods: Two hundred seventeen Egyptian patients with PCD were enrolled in the study. Serum, urine protein electrophoresis and immunofixation were used to demonstrate M protein. Results: One hundred thirty-eight patients (63.6%) had IgG monoclonal band, 38 patients (17.5%) had IgA, 12 patients (5.5%) had Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia (IgM monoclonal band) and 29 patients (13.4%) were light chain myeloma. One hundred fifty-one (70%) were Kappa chain positive and 66 patients (30%) were lumbda positive. Conventional cytogenetics was available for 40 patients; of them12 patients (30%) showed 13q-. Mean OS was 37.5 months (1-84 months). Survival analysis was statistically insignificant according to age, sex and ISS or type of treatment (P value >0.05). Conclusion: Long term follow up is required to further define the role of different therapeutic lines of treatment including ASCT in the various stages of PCD based on OS data.

  2. Sesame seed sensitization in a group of atopic Egyptian children.

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    Samar Ahmad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are no published data on the prevalence of sesame allergy/sensitization in Egypt. Objective: In this pilot study, we thought to estimate the frequency of sesame seed sensitization in a group of atopic Egyptian infants and children. Methods: We consecutively enrolled 90 patients with physician diagnosed allergic disease. The study measurements included clinical evaluation for the site and duration of allergy, history suggestive of sesame seed allergy, and family history of allergy, as well as skin prick testing (SPT using a commercial sesame extract, and serum sesame specific IgE (SpIgE estimation. Results: None of the studied patients reported symptoms suggestive of sesame seed allergy. Nevertheless, two children (2.2% showed positive SPT response to sesame (wheal diameter ≥ 3 mm above the negative control. Only one of them had a wheal diameter which exceeded that of the histamine control. The serum sesame SpIgE exceeded 0.35 IU/ml in all subjects [range = 0.35 - 3.0 IU/ml; median (IQR = 0.9 (0.6 IU/ml]. Serum sesame SpIgE was significantly increased in patients with history of recurrent urticaria (p=0.03. Conclusion: Sesame seed sensitization is not uncommon in atopic Egyptian children. It can be associated with any clinical form of allergy and the causal relationship needs meticulous evaluation. Wider scale population-based studies are needed to assess the prevalence of sesame allergy and its clinical correlates in our country

  3. Plant Extract Control of the Fungi Associated with Different Egyptian Wheat Cultivars Grains

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    Mohamed Baka Zakaria Awad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Grain samples of 14 Egyptian wheat cultivars were tested for seed-borne fungi. The deep freezing method was used. Five seed-borne fungi viz., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme and Penicillium chrysogenum were isolated from the wheat cultivars viz., Bani Suef 4, Bani Suef 5, Gemmiza 7, Gemmiza 9, Gemmiza 10, Giza 168, Misr 1, Misr 2, Sakha 93, Sakha 94, Shandaweel 1, Sids 1, Sids 2 and Sids 3. A. flavus, A. niger and F. moniliforme were the most prevalent fungal species. Their incidence ranged from 21.0-53.5%, 16.0-37.5%, and 12.0-31.0%, respectively. The antifungal potential of water extracts from aerial parts of five wild medicinal plants (Asclepias sinaica, Farsetia aegyptia, Hypericum sinaicum, Phagnalon sinaicum, and Salvia aegyptiaca were collected from the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The antifungal potential of water extracts from the aerial parts of these five plants were tested in the laboratory against the dominant fungi isolated from the wheat cultivars. All the aqueous plant extracts significantly (p ≤ 0.05 reduced the incidence of the tested seed-borne fungi. But the extract of Asclepias sinaica exhibited the most antifungal activity on tested fungi at all concentrations used when compared with other plant extracts. Maximum infested grain germination was observed in Giza 168 and minimum in Bani Suef 5. Treating grains with plant extract of A. sinaica (10% enhanced the percentage of grain germination of all cultivars in both laboratory and pot experiments. Maximum root and shoot length of seedlings was recorded in Bani Suef 4 during fungal infestation or treatment by plant extract. For one hour before sowing or storage, the aqueous extract of A. sinaica can be used to treat wheat grains, to reduce the fungal incidence. Aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of selected medicinal plants, particularly A. sinaica, are promising for protecting Egyptian wheat grain cultivars against major seed-borne fungi. The aqueous extracts are expected to improve crops.

  4. Relevance of medieval, Egyptian and American dates to the study of climatic and radiocarbon variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic radiocarbon dating and dendrochronology have been combined to yield calibrated dates that are more accurate than conventional radiocarbon dates. This has been shown to be true for medieval and Egyptian dynastic dating. Because radiocarbon is a cosmogenically produced radioisotope, heliomagnetic and geomagnetic fields play a major role in its synthesis in the Earth's upper atmosphere. Inasmuch as a calibrated radiocarbon record exists for nearly 10 000 years, we now seem to possess in the short-time variations of the production rate a history of solar activity expressed via heliomagnetic fields carried by the solar wind. In turn, solar activity has a controlling effect on climate on Earth within modifications provided by the complex interactions of the atmosphere-Earth-ocean system. Both radiocarbon measurements and other empirical research methods agree on variations of climate during historically more recent periods on Earth. This leads to the suggestion that the radiocarbon calibration curve may be also a significant indicator or tracer for climatic changes for the Holocene or the Neolithic-Mesolithic. (author)

  5. Effect of irradiation and storage on biogenic amine contents in ripened Egyptian smoked cooked sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of γ-irradiation upon the biogenic amine inventory in Egyptian smoked cooked sausages were investigated for the first time during storage for up to 90 days at 4 ° C. Typical contents of biogenic amines in non-irradiated sausages ranged between 125.50 and 596.18 mg/kgDW; irradiation with 4 and 6 kGy decreased said total contents to 105.20-94.82 and 104.98-26.44 mg/kgDW respectively, by the end of storage. Putrescine and cadaverine were the major amines in non-irradiated samples - where it accounted for 33% and 29% respectively, of the total by 90 days; however, tyramine dominated in irradiated samples with 2, 4 and 6 kGy, where it accounted for 44, 52 and 42%. On the other hand, the histamine content in non-irradiated sausage by 90 days of storage (i.e. 109.12 mg/kgDW) clearly exceeded the maximum allowable of 50 mg/kg, unlike happened in their irradiated counterparts. Therefore, the dramatic reduction observed in the histamine levels suggests use of this preservation technique for that traditional meat food. (author)

  6. MAJORITY MEASURES

    OpenAIRE

    Balinski, Michel; Laraki, Rida

    2015-01-01

    The validity of majority rule in an election with but two candidatesand of Condorcet consistencyis challenged. Axioms based on measures paralleling those of K. O. May characterizing majority rule for two candidates that are based on comparisonslead to another method. It is unique in agreeing with the majority rule when the electorate is polarized and meets R. A. Dahls requirement that an apathetic majority not defeat an intense minority. It accommodates any number of candidates and avo...

  7. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  8. Major Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  9. Hegemony for Beginners: Egyptian Activity in the Southern Levant during the Second Half of the Fourth Millennium B.C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Anđelković

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available After a modest start in the mid-20th century, thousands of Protodynastic Egyptian objects have been unearthed and identified as such in the Southern Levant, including serekh-signs of several Dynasty 0 (Narmer, "Double Falcon", Ny-Hor, IryHor, Ka, and 1st Dynasty (Hor Aha pharaohs. The explanatory models presented so far fail to integrate the totality of the archaeologically manifested parameters, especially considering the impact of the last fifteen years of finds and their contextual and other analysis, into the proper semiotic matrix. The conundrum of Egyptian activity in the Southern Levant displays, at the same time, features of a small-scale trading partner, a colonizer, and a suzerain. Egyptian pottery of local origin provides an indication of a south-north flow of the Egyptian daily-life repertoire of pottery types, or rather their contents, between the Egyptian-related sites, that clearly demonstrates an Egyptian distribution system operating on an intra-regional level in the Early Bronze IB Southern Levant. The ‘Egyptian phenomenon’ is far from being unique since reestablishment of a similar geopolitical pattern, only on a considerably greater scale, can be recognized during the New Kingdom – the Egyptian province in Asia.

  10. The Realization of the Speech Act of Refusal in Egyptian Arabic by American Learners of Arabic as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morkus, Nader

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated how the speech act of refusal is realized in Egyptian Arabic by intermediate and advanced American learners of Arabic as a foreign language. It also compared the performance of the learners to that of native speakers of Egyptian Arabic and native speakers of American English. The study aimed to investigate the relationship…

  11. Islamists in the Headlines: Critical Discourse Analysis of the Representation of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egyptian Newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Talaat

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how Islamists are socially, discursively and linguistically represented in the Egyptian newspaper "al-Ahram." The main question of this study is what would the Egyptian government do to halt the Brothers' political growth and potential threat? To answer this question, the study uses Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to examine…

  12. 77 FR 8943 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Dawn of Egyptian Art”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Dawn of Egyptian Art'' SUMMARY... objects to be included in the exhibition ``The Dawn of Egyptian Art,'' imported from abroad for...

  13. Evaluation of hemoglobinopathy screening results of a six year period in Turkey '

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçil Gunher Arıca

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Hemoglobinopathies are autosomal recessive inherited diseases more commonly seen in Mediterranean countries. Hereditary blood diseases including B-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia are important health problems. In our study we aimed to analyze the results of the premarital hemoglobinopathy screening test for a 6 years period in Hatay region. Material and Methods: The study sample comprised the couples attending to the Mother and Child Health Care Center in Hatay for premarital hemoglobinopathy screening from 2004 to 2009. Hemoglobin chain analyses of 87.830 couples were evaluated. RESULTS: 175.660 people were screened at total. The prevalence of beta thalassemia trait, sickle cell anemia trait, sickle cell anemia, beta thalassemia major, beta-thalassemia intermedia, alpha-thalassemia, alpha-thalassemia trait was found as 13.921 (7,9%, 6.074 (3,4%, 631 (0.35%, 132 (0.07%, 118 (0.06%, 9 (0.005%, 150 (0.08% respectively. 72 newborns with beta-thalassemia were diagnosed as a result of the marriage of the carrier couples in 6 years. Conclusions: Hatay is a high risk region for beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia trait. In countries with high prevalence of hemoglobinopathies, a premarital screening program and counseling is needed to decrease the prevalence.

  14. Phenolics, Selenium, Vitamin C, Amino Acids and Pungency Levels and Antioxidant Activities of Two Egyptian Onion Varieties

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    Y.A. Elhassaneen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium, vitamin C, pungency, amino acids, phenolics content and antioxidant activities of two Egyptian onion varieties, namely white (Giza-6 and red (Beheri onions have been studied. Data analysis showed that the red variety presents higher values for selenium, vitamin C and sulphur-containing amino acids. Concerning pungency, white onion can be classified as intermediate pungency (8.24 μmol of Pyruvic acid/100 g fresh wt. and red as pungent (11.37 μmol of pyruvic acid/100 g fresh wt.. The phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins and total phenolics content in red variety (81.59, 70.38, 7.56 and 187.17 mg/100 g fresh wt., respectively were higher than for white variety (72.47, 32.49, 4.90 and 131.65 mg/100 g fresh wt., respectively. Consequently, antioxidant activity was higher for the red variety. Correlation analysis indicates that phenolic compounds beside other factors including Se and sulphur-containing amino acid contents play the major role in the antioxidant activity of onion bulbs. The antioxidant capacity of freeze dried powder from both onion varieties was also tested in sunflower oil-in-water emulsions and hydroperoxide formation was monitored during storage at 40°C. In accordance with differences in Se, sulphur-containing amino acid and phenolics content, Egyptian red onions had better antioxidant activity, while white onions was only effective in the early stages of the oxidation process. These data indicates that red variety has higher potential health benefits related to the presence of antioxidant compounds.

  15. Clinico-pathological features of breast carcinoma in elderly Egyptian patients: A comparison with the non-elderly using population-based data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Breast cancer (BC) is a major worldwide health care problem that mostly afflicts the elderly population in the more developed countries. It is not known how common is breast cancer among elderly Egyptian patients and whether this differs from the disease in younger patients. Aims: To study the clinico-pathological features of BC in elderly Egyptian patients (>65 years of age) among the population of an Egyptian Governorate, Gharbiah, and to compare these features with those of younger patients ( < 65 years). Methods: This is a cross sectional study that compares elderly BC (EBC) and the non-elderly BC (NEBC) using the information from the Gharbiah Population-based Cancer registry (GPCR) during the years 1999-2007. Results: Out of 6078 BCs, 12% were EBCs and 88% were NEBCs. Between 1999 and 2007, the crude incidence rate (CIR, per 100,000 populations) of EBC increased from 47 to 71 and that of NEBC increased from 16 to 17. Compared to NEBC patients, EBC patients were more likely to have a positive family history and present with a distant disease and less likely to present with a localized disease. EBCs were more likely to have lung metastases and less likely to have liver metastases. Histology, grade, hormone and HER-2 receptor statuses were comparable in both groups Apart from hormonal therapies, the elderly were less likely to receive surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Conclusion: EBC patients in Egypt present with advanced disease and are less likely to receive surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy compared to NEBC patient

  16. Peanut sensitization in a group of allergic Egyptian children

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    Hossny Elham

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no published data on peanut sensitization in Egypt and the problem of peanut allergy seems underestimated. We sought to screen for peanut sensitization in a group of atopic Egyptian children in relation to their phenotypic manifestations. Methods We consecutively enrolled 100 allergic children; 2-10 years old (mean 6.5 yr. The study measurements included clinical evaluation for site of allergy, possible precipitating factors, consumption of peanuts (starting age and last consumption, duration of breast feeding, current treatment, and family history of allergy as well as skin prick testing with a commercial peanut extract, and serum peanut specific and total IgE estimation. Children who were found sensitized to peanuts were subjected to an open oral peanut challenge test taking all necessary precautions. Results Seven subjects (7% were sensitized and three out of six of them had positive oral challenge denoting allergy to peanuts. The sensitization rates did not vary significantly with gender, age, family history of allergy, breast feeding duration, clinical form of allergy, serum total IgE, or absolute eosinophil count. All peanut sensitive subjects had skin with or without respiratory allergy. Conclusions Peanut allergy does not seem to be rare in atopic children in Egypt. Skin prick and specific IgE testing are effective screening tools to determine candidates for peanut oral challenging. Wider scale multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the prevalence of peanut allergy and its clinical correlates in our country.

  17. Occupational radiation exposure in some Egyptian phosphate mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation levels in some working phosphate mines in the Egyptian Eastern Desert have been investigated to estimate the occupational exposure to the workers in those sites. Such results may help in the preparation of the corrective actions as well as the improvement the safety measures if needed in those working mines. Beta and gamma levels as well as radon gas concentration and its decay products have been measured. Active techniques are employed to fulfill the objectives of measuring radon gas and its daughters. Some working conditions and environmental parameters such as the working time, type of available ventilation, temperature and humidity have been studied during the period of measurements. The maximum reported values for radon daughter concentration in units of working level are 1.28, in Safaga area south mine, 1.22 in Hamraween area B mine and 0.67 in El-Quser area Youns C mine. The maximum annual dose for the worker in all locations under investigation is about 100 mSv/y which is clearly much higher than the recommended international value. According to the above estimated values the question of ventilation economics in such mines is created. The classification of the miners in conventional mines as radiation workers should also be put into consideration. (author)

  18. Synthesis of Cellulose Acetate Membrane from the Egyptian Rice Straws

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    Tamer I.M. Ragab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt, approximately 4.5 million tons from 35 million tons of the annual production of recoverable cereal are disposed by burning and it creates a big problem. Isolation of cellulose with high yield and purity is a long-standing goal in cellulose development because of the complexity of cell wall structure of rice straw. Chemical composition of Egyptian rice straw was determined (moisture, ash, LMWC, wax and protein and total carbohydrates. Cellulose was extracted by different alkaline NaOH concentration till optimum conditions determined. A series of acetylated celluloses with various degrees of substitution were prepared by homogeneous acetylation of celluloses. The FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR were used to investigate the changes of chemical structures and physical characteristics. Three cellulosic membranes fabricated from cellulose acetate/polyethersulfone composite. The scanning electron microscope was measured and characterized by pore-free upper surface and a porous bottom surface. A water uptake ratio was measured at room temperature for three membranes of crude (M1, soluble acetone (M2 and soluble chloroform cellulose acetate (M3 as 708, 527 and 710% (w/w, respectively.

  19. Effect of cholic acid on tumor in the Egyptian toad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, I A

    1986-01-01

    Egyptian toads, Bufo regularis, were fed with cholic acid (sodium salt) 3 times/week for 12 weeks at different dose levels (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/toad). Results obtained showed only 1 case in both the 5 and 10 mg/toad doses that gave a tumor. Toads receiving N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) 1 mg/toad, 3 times/week for 12 weeks had 36% ileum tumors (18 toads out of 50, without mortality). On the other hand, a higher dose of MNU (5 mg/toad) caused 50% mortality in the experimental animals. Toads treated with MNU at a dose level of 1 mg/toad were subjected to CA at dose levels of 2.5, 5, 10 mg/toad. They showed a 48, 66 and 76% higher incidence of ileum tumors at the three different dose levels, respectively. It is concluded that cholic acid has a promoting effect on ileum tumor evoked by MNU in toads as in mammals. PMID:3725289

  20. Efficiency of diagnostic biomarkers among colonic schistosomiasis Egyptian patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manal Abdel Aziz, Hamed; Samia Abdel Aziz, Ahmed; Hussein Moustafa, Khaled.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The schistosomal parasite plays a critical role in the development of malignant lesions in different organs. The pathogenesis of cancer is currently under intense investigation to identify reliable prognostic indices for disease detection. The objective of this paper is to evaluate certain biochemic [...] al parameters as diagnostic tools to efficiently differentiate between colonic carcinoma and colonic carcinoma associated with schistosomal infection among Egyptian patients. The parameters under investigation are interleukin 2 (IL-2), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels, tissue telomerase, pyruvate kinase (PK), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme activities. The results revealed a significant elevation in the level of the tumour markers IL-2, TNF-? and CEA as well as the activities of LDH, telomerase and G-6-PD among non-bilharzial and bilharzial colonic cancer groups, with a more potent effect in bilharzial infection-associated colonic cancer. A significant inhibition in PK activity was recorded in the same manner as compared to normal tissues. The efficacy of this biomarker was also evaluated through detecting sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values. In conclusion, schistosomal colonic carcinoma patients displayed more drastic changes in all parameters under investigation. The combination of the selected parameters succeeded in serving as biomarkers to differentiate between the two malignant types.

  1. Behaviour of uranium during processing of Egyptian monazite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with the study of the behaviour of uranium during alkaline processing of Egyptian monazite, followed by selective separation of thorium and uranium from lanthanides by leaching of the hydroxide cake with ammonium carbonate solutions. This method is based on the dissolution of thorium and uranium hydroxides in ammonium carbonate solutions in the form of soluble ammonium thorium and uranyl carbonate complexes, while the lanthanides hydroxides form sparingly soluble double carbonates. The obtained carbonate solutions, containing carbonate complexes of thorium and uranium are decomposed with steam in steel autoclaves. Uranium is completely recovered with thorium (99.7%) by alkaline processing of monazite concentrate in ball mill autoclaves at 1500C during 2.5 hours. The selective carbonate autoclave processing of hydroxide cake with ammonium carbonate-bicarbonate solutions show that high recovery of uranium (94.7%) with complete recovery of thorium (99.4%) and their separation from lanthanides are attained at 70-80oC, pressure 5-10 atm during 1h. The decomposition of carbonate complexes of thorium and uranium is favourably carried out in autoclaves at 120oC and steam pressure 2 atm during 10 min. Uranium is nearly completely recovered (98.4%) with thorium (99.8%) in the thorium concentrate produced. Meanwhile, the recovery of lanthanides is low and does not exceed 1.1%. The produced thorium concentrate contains 67.8% Th and 4.6% U. (author)

  2. Gonadotropins studies in female egyptian subjects under different physiological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is concerned with the role of the hypothalamic hypophyseal regulatory hormonal mechanisms in the control of gonadal secretions in a selected normal egyptian female subjects with varying ages under different physiological conditions. The study allowed precise definition of the modulator influence of a number of key factors triggering appropriate alteration in circulating serum levels of FSH and LH determined by IRMA technique in pre-pubertal female children (9-11), post-pubertal adolescents females (13-16). Adult married females (27-33) and post-menopausal (58-63). The levels of FSH and LH were increased markedly with age but children less than 11 years old had only nocturnal increase in levels of FSH (p.O.I) and LH(P< 0.001). post-pubertal aged girls had significant nocturnal elevation only of LH levels (P< 0.001), adult married females did not exhibit significant difference in gonadotropin concentrations. whereas significant elevation in FSH and LH levels (P<0.001) in post-menopausal females were observed

  3. Distribution of Fungi in the Sandy Soil of Egyptian Beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma F. Migahed

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycobiota of the sandy soil of Egyptian beaches was investigated in thirty six sand samples collected from nine different localities in Egypt. The filamentous fungi were identified and assigned to thirty one genera and fifty one species. Greater populations as well as a wider spectrum range of fungal genera and species were obtained in sandy soil of Alexandria beach while Balteem beach was the poorest one. The total count of the genus or species did not always follow the number of cases of isolation. Most of the genera detected belonged to the Deuteromycotina with fewer proportions belonging to the Ascomycotina and Zygomycotina. The genera of highest incidence and their respective numbers of species were: Penicillium (35.72%, 6 spp. and Aspergillus (30.28%, 16 spp.. The species which showed the highest incidence in all cases was P. chrysogenum, followed by P. citrinum, A. flavus, Chaetomium murorum and Trichoderma viride. Several other genera and species were detected at quite low occurrence.

  4. Fast neutron fluxes distribution in Egyptian ilmenite concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is concerned with the study of the distribution of fast neutron fluxes in a new type of heavy concrete made from Egyptian ilmenite ores. The neutron source used was a collimated beam of reactor neutrons emitted from one of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. Measurements were carried-out using phosphorous activation detectors. Iso-flux curves were represented which give directly the shape and thickness required to attenuate the emitted fast neutron flux to a certain value. The relaxation lengths were also evaluated from the measured data for both disc monodirectional source and infinite plane monodirectional source. The obtained values were compared with that calculated using the derived values of relative number densities and microscopic removal cross-sections of the different constituents. The obtained data show that ilmenite concrete attenuates fast neutron flux more strongly than ordinary concrete. A semiemperical formula was derived to calculate the fast neutron flux at different thicknesses along the beam axis. Another semiemperical formula was also derived to calculate the fast neutron flux in ordinary concrete along the beam axis using the corresponding value in ilmenite concrete

  5. Radiological responses of different types of Egyptian Mediterranean coastal sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gamal, A., E-mail: ayman_elgamal@yahoo.co [Department of Oceanography, Coastal Research Institute, National Water Research Center, 15 Elpharaana St., Elshallalat, Postal code 21514, Alexandria (Egypt); Rashad, M. [Land and Water Technologies Department, Arid Land Cultivation and Development Research Institute, Mubarak City for Scientific Research, Burg El-Arab, Alexandria (Egypt); Ghatass, Z. [Department of Environmental Studies, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2010-08-15

    The aim of this study was to identify gamma self-absorption correction factors for different types of Egyptian Mediterranean coastal sediments. Self-absorption corrections based on direct transmission through different thicknesses of the most dominant sediment species have been tested against point sources with gamma-ray energies of {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co with 2% uncertainties. Black sand samples from the Rashid branch of the Nile River quantitatively absorbed the low energy of {sup 241}Am through a thickness of 5 cm. In decreasing order of gamma energy self-absorption of {sup 241}Am, the samples under investigation ranked black sand, Matrouh sand, Sidi Gaber sand, shells, Salloum sand, and clay. Empirical self-absorption correction formulas were also deduced. Chemical analyses such as pH, CaCO{sub 3}, total dissolved solids, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and total Fe{sup 2+} have been carried out for the sediments. The relationships between self absorption corrections and the other chemical parameters of the sediments were also examined.

  6. Radiological responses of different types of Egyptian Mediterranean coastal sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to identify gamma self-absorption correction factors for different types of Egyptian Mediterranean coastal sediments. Self-absorption corrections based on direct transmission through different thicknesses of the most dominant sediment species have been tested against point sources with gamma-ray energies of 241Am, 137Cs and 60Co with 2% uncertainties. Black sand samples from the Rashid branch of the Nile River quantitatively absorbed the low energy of 241Am through a thickness of 5 cm. In decreasing order of gamma energy self-absorption of 241Am, the samples under investigation ranked black sand, Matrouh sand, Sidi Gaber sand, shells, Salloum sand, and clay. Empirical self-absorption correction formulas were also deduced. Chemical analyses such as pH, CaCO3, total dissolved solids, Ca2+, Mg2+, CO32-, HCO3- and total Fe2+ have been carried out for the sediments. The relationships between self absorption corrections and the other chemical parameters of the sediments were also examined.

  7. Barriers to E-Commerce Adoption in Egyptian SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Nasser H. Zaied

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce has been predicted to be a new driver of economic growth for developing countries. The SME sector plays a significant role in its contribution to the national economy in terms of the wealth created and the number of people employed. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs in Egypt represent the greatest share of the productive units of the Egyptian economy and the current national policy directions address ways and means of developing the capacities of SMEs. Many factors could be responsible for the low usage of e-commerce among the SMEs in Egypt. In order to determine the factors that promote the adoption of e-commerce, SMEs adopters and non-adopters of e-commerce were asked to indicate the factors inhibiting the adoption of e-commerce. The results show that technical barriers are the most important barriers followed by legal and regulatory barriers, whereas lack of Internet security is the highest barrier that inhibit the implementation of e-commerce in SMEs in Egypt followed by limited use of Internet banking and web portals by SMEs. Also, findings implied that more efforts are needed to help and encourage SMEs in Egypt to speed up e-commerce adoption, particularly the more advanced applications.

  8. Effect of breeding conditions on thyroid and sex hormones of pregnant and lactating Egyptian buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation was planned in order to clarify the effect of breeding conditions on the thyroid and sex hormones of Egyptian female buffaloes during gestation. Parturition and lactation. Serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), estradiol and progesterone were studied in two groups of buffaloes, aging 5-7 years.Starting from the 5th month of gestation till the 9th week of lactation. The first group was maintained on standard farm conditions and the second on ordinary traditional village conditions. The data revealed that the way of breeding has no effect on thyroid and sex hormones and no differences were observed. Accordingly, pregnancy and lactation were not affected. These results indicate that the Egyptian buffaloes have high adaptability towards the surrounding conditions so, its worthy to breed such beneficial animals without any additional effort or expenses. These factors should be considered for improving the Egyptian economy

  9. The Arab Spring and the Return Intention of Egyptians Living in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Premazzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The widespread enthusiasm triggered by the Arab Spring affected both first- and second-generation Egyptians in Italy and led to different forms of action and socio-political participation. However, to what extent will this new enthusiasm transform into a real consideration of returning to Egypt is a largely unexplored topic. Relying on the main migration theories, we address the following research questions: which traditional theoretical arguments apply to the intention to return of first- and second-generation Egyptians in Italy? Do the changes in Egypt after the Arab Spring strengthen their intention to return? Presented data comes from qualitative interviews conducted between 2011–2013 with Egyptians in Turin and Rome. The results show that transnational ties strengthened by the Arab Spring support the idea of returning, although a definitive return will probably not occur for the first or for the second generation, but rather they will adopt a transnational way of living

  10. Verification of annual growth rings in Egyptian trees by C-14 method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual growth rings in trees were thought to be due to sharp seasonal variations in the precipitation rates during the year. Accordingly temperature zone trees such as Egyptian trees were supposed to be away from this phenomenon. The temperature zones which are meant here are those of no sharp seasonal variations in the precipitation rates. The present study applied carbon-14 dating to prove that the growth rings in some Egyptian trees are annual. The method was based on the tropospheric measurements of C-14 during the period 1954-1981. C-14 exhibited a sharp peak resulting from the ever greater series of nuclear tests during 1963-1965. The presence of this peak for Egyptian trees proved that they form annual growth rings. (orig.)

  11. LEU fuel element produced by the Egyptian fuel manufacturing pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Egyptian Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant, FMPP, is a Material Testing Reactor type (MTR) fuel element facility, for producing the specified fuel elements required for the Egyptian Second Research Reactor, ETRR-2. The plant uses uranium hexafluoride (UF6, 19.75% U235 by wt) as a raw material which is processed through a series of the manufacturing, inspection and test plan to produce the final specified fuel elements. Radiological safety aspects during design, construction, operation, and all reasonably accepted steps should be taken to prevent or reduce the chance of accidents occurrence. (author)

  12. [The Zagreb Etruscan ceremonial fragment and an ancient Egyptian medical papyrus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grmek, M D

    1995-01-01

    The Archeological museum in Zagreb treasures the linen strips of an Egyptian mummy with inscriptions in Etruscan, and an Egyptian medical papyrus. The Etruscan text has been deciphered, but only a small part has been translated. This religious-magical ceremonial might be in relation with theurgical measures for health protection, promotion and restitution. The medical text on the papyrus is a hieratic script dating back to Pharaonic New Kingdom, probably a fragment of a medicine book similar to the Ebers papyrus. This article provides its transcription and translation. Three recipes for a powder and ointments which were used in the local treatment of inflammed moist skin lesions are presented. PMID:8656978

  13. Egyptian And International Automotive Diesel. Fuels: Specifications Meeting Challenges To Refining Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a brief summary and comparison of Egyptian automotive diesel fuel to the international one. Recent legislation all over the world, requiring further reduction in sulfur, aromatics, T90 and T95 and increasing cetane value of the transportation diesel fuels, presents numerous technical and economic challenges to the refiners. While refiners grapple with these challenges, they will also face pressure from the increased demand of transportation diesel fuel and tighter capital restrictions. Overcome of these challenges makes a fair competition. A comparison of the Egyptian automotive diesel fuel and the international one will be a guide to locally and globally facing these challenges

  14. Separation of cerium (III) from egyptian monazite by oxidation to cerium(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lanthanides hydrous oxides produced from the egyptian monazite contain about 45% cerium of the total lanthanides. The high concentration of Ce in this matrix complicates separation of different lanthanides from each other. In this paper a method was developed to separate cerium quantitatively from the lanthanide cake produced from egyptian monazite by precipitating tetravalent cerium from other trivalent lanthanides by oxidation of Ce (III) with bleaching powder from dilute solution of nitric hydrochloric acids mixture. The different parameters affecting the separation were studied in details

  15. Count like an egyptian a hands-on introduction to ancient mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Reimer, David

    2014-01-01

    The mathematics of ancient Egypt was fundamentally different from our math today. Contrary to what people might think, it wasn't a primitive forerunner of modern mathematics. In fact, it can't be understood using our current computational methods. Count Like an Egyptian provides a fun, hands-on introduction to the intuitive and often-surprising art of ancient Egyptian math. David Reimer guides you step-by-step through addition, subtraction, multiplication, and more. He even shows you how fractions and decimals may have been calculated-they technically didn't exist in the land of the pharaohs.

  16. The Relationship between Employee Perceptions of Equity and Job Satisfaction in the Egyptian Private Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hossam El-Din KHALIFA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between employee perception of equity and job satisfaction in the Egyptian private universities. Data were gathered using a face-to-face survey of 80 teaching staff members at three Egyptian universities. Findings revealed positive relationships between perceptions of equity, where a "motivator" was the outcome in the comparison, and job satisfaction. The study also revealed that there was no relationship between perceptions of equity and job satisfaction where a "hygiene factor" was the outcome in the comparison. This study is exploratory and findings are not conclusive. Its implications and limitations are discussed.

  17. Revisiting Egyptian Foreign Policy towards Israel under Mubarak: From Cold Peace to Strategic Peace

    OpenAIRE

    Aran, A.; Ginat, R.

    2014-01-01

    This article is the first academic study of Egyptian foreign policy towards Israel under Hosni Mubarak (1981–2011). It challenges a deeply entrenched conventional wisdom that Egypt pursued a cold-peace foreign policy towards Israel throughout this period. We demonstrate that Egyptian foreign policy towards Israel was dynamic – comprising cold peace (1981–91), a hybrid foreign policy of cold peace and strategic peace (1991–2003), and a pure strategic peace posture (2003–11). We also use the ca...

  18. Co-inheritance of novel ATRX gene mutation and globin (? & ?) gene mutations in transfusion dependent beta-thalassemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nafie, Awatif N; Borgio, J Francis; AbdulAzeez, Sayed; Al-Suliman, Ahmed M; Qaw, Fuad S; Naserullah, Zaki A; Al-Jarrash, Sana; Al-Madan, Mohammed S; Al-Ali, Rudaynah A; AlKhalifah, Mohammed A; Al-Muhanna, Fahad; Steinberg, Martin H; Al-Ali, Amein K

    2015-06-01

    ?-Thalassemia X-linked mental retardation syndrome is a rare inherited intellectual disability disorder due to mutations in the ATRX gene. In our previous study of the prevalence of ?-thalassemia mutations in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, we confirmed the widespread coinheritance of ?-thalassemia mutation. Some of these subjects have a family history of mental retardation, the cause of which is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the presence or absence of mutations in the ATRX gene in these patients. Three exons of the ATRX gene and their flanking regions were directly sequenced. Only four female transfusion dependent ?-thalassemia patients were found to be carriers of a novel mutation in the ATRX gene. Two of the ATRX gene mutations, c.623delA and c.848T>C were present in patients homozygous for IVS I-5(G?C) and homozygous for Cd39(C ? T) ?-thalassemia mutation, respectively. While the other two that were located in the intronic region (flanking regions), were present in patients homozygous for Cd39(C ? T) ?-thalassemia mutation. The two subjects with the mutations in the coding region had family members with mental retardation, which suggests that the novel frame shift mutation and the missense mutation at coding region of ATRX gene are involved in ATRX syndrome. PMID:25976463

  19. Malignancies in beta-thalassemia patients: a single-center experience and a concise review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetatos, L; Alymara, V; Vassou, A; Bourantas, K L

    2008-04-01

    Thalassemia represents the world's most common monogenic disease, characterized by absence of or decreased globin chain production. The lifespan of thalassemia patients has been extended as a result of current supportive treatment. We report three cases of cancer (non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, and seminoma) in thalassemic patients. Factors that may contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer seem to be infections and iron overload through mechanisms of oxidative damage; immunomodulation or coexistence of the two diseases may only be coincidental. PMID:18333849

  20. Evaluation of Co-Segregation Between Bipolar Mood Disorder and Heterozygous Beta-Thalassemia in Patients Originated From Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar affective diseases are relatively common affecting about 1-5% of the population worldwide with heritability about 80%. Previous studies supposed the association of heterozygous -thalassemia and Bipolar Disorder (BPD. This study examined this association in Iranian patients. A case-control study recruited 110 patients with BP and 118 subjects with no psychiatric disorders. Total Cell Blood Count (CBC was undertaken for all subjects. Haemoglobin electrophoresis was only carried out for those who were microcytic in the blood picture (MCV<75 FL. Ten percent of patients and 10.1% of control group were microcytic in their CBC. Haemoglobin electrophoresis revealed 9 out of 110 (8.18% in patients and 5 out of 118 (4.24% in control group had haemoglobin A2 elevated between 3.4-7% and identified as minor -Thalassemia. In the present case-control study, no significant linkage was identified comparing the prevalence of heterozygous -thalassemia in two groups. Based on the results presented here, we could not conclude any association between BPD and heterozygous -thalassemia.

  1. Hb Wilde and Hb Patagonia: two novel elongated beta-globin variants causing dominant beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheps, Karen G; Hasenahuer, Marcia A; Parisi, Gustavo; Fornasari, María S; Pennesi, Sandra P; Erramouspe, Beatriz; Basack, Felisa N; Veber, Ernesto S; Aversa, Luis; Elena, Graciela; Varela, Viviana

    2015-06-01

    We describe here the molecular and hematological characteristics of novel frameshift mutations in exon 2 of the HBB gene (in heterozygous state) found in two Argentinean pediatric patients with dominant β-thalassemia-like features. In Hb Wilde, HBB:c.270_273delTGAG(p.Glu90Cysfs*67), we detected the deletion of the third base of the codon 89 (T) and the codon 90 (GAG), whereas in Hb Patagonia, HBB:c.296_297dupGT(p.Asp99Trpfs*59), the frameshift mutation was due to a duplication of a 'GT' dinucleotide after the second base of codon 98 (GTG). The Hb Patagonia and Hb Wilde mutations would result in elongated β-globin chains with modified C-terminal sequences and a total of 155 and 157 amino acids residues, respectively. Based on bioinformatics and structural analysis, as well as protein modeling, we predict that the elongated β-globins would affect the formation of the αβ dimers and their stability, which would further support the mechanism for the observed clinical features in both patients. PMID:25284604

  2. Masked deficit of vitamin B12 in the patient with heterozygous beta-thalassemia and spastic paraparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilic, Ernest; Bilic, Ervina; Zagar, Marija; Juric, Stjepan

    2004-12-01

    The spinal cord, brain, optic nerves and peripheral nerves may be affected by vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency. Deficiency of vitamin B12 also causes megaloblastic anaemia, meaning that the red blood cells are usually larger than normal. In this paper we report a 16-year old girl who was referred to us for the evaluation of mild paraparesis and paresthesias marked by tingling "pins and needles" feelings and general weakness. The patient, her parents and sisters were on a strict vegan diet, which made us believe that vitamin B12 deficiency may be the possible cause of the neurologic clinical manifestations. The serum level of vitamin B12 was low, but there was no macrocytosis in the routine blood examination. The electrophoresis of haemoglobin was pathologic, there was 3.7% of HbA2 and 11.6% of HbF (heterozygous form of beta-thalassaemia). When megaloblastic anaemia occurs in combination with a condition that gives rise to microcytic anaemia, many megaloblastic features may be masked. Instead of being macrocytic, the anaemia could be normocytic or even microcytic. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a diagnosis that must not be overlooked. This case report turns the light on the fact that increased MCV is a hallmark in vitamin B12 deficiency, but it is not an obligatory sign. PMID:15742609

  3. Prognostic Impact of Nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1 Gene Mutations in Egyptian Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Zidan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Somatic mutations of the nucleophosmin gene (NPM1, which alter the subcellular localization of the product, are the most frequent mutations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and prognostic impact of NPM1 gene mutations in adult AML patients. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction and single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP were used to screen 55 AML patients for mutations of NPM1 gene. RESULTS: NPM1 mutations were found in 12 (21.8% of 55 patients, significantly associated with higher total leukocytie count, marrow blast percentage (p=0.03 and p=0.02, respectively, and M5 subtype (p<0.001. Patients with NPM1 mutations had significantly higher complete remission rates (p=0.003 and a trend to lower rates of mortality, relapse and refractory disease (p=0.28, p=0.45 and p=0.08, respectively. Survival analysis showed significantly longer disease-free survival (mean 18.6351.229 versus 11.0411.250 months, p=0.044 and overall survival (mean 19.8101.624 versus 12.0631.244 months, p=0.041 in patients with NPM1 mutations compared with those without. Multivariate analyses confirmed NPM1 mutation as a significant independent predictor for disease-free survival (HR=0.066, p=0.001 and overall survival (HR=0.125, p=0.002. CONCLUSION: NPM1 mutation is a prognostic factor for a favorable outcome in Egyptian population. This finding is of major clinical importance since it strongly suggests that NPM1 mutations may allow one to divide the heterogeneous patient group of AML into prognostically different subgroups.

  4. Biochemical and physiological changes in Egyptian Nile fish subjected to varying levels of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation is nowadays to be considered as a new parameter in the ecology of water masses. Aquatic organisms, perhaps more than any other group of organisms, are directly exposed to radiation hazard and may be subjected to continuous low-level exposure from bottom material and from internal sources accumulated within their own bodies, originating partly from radionuclides released from nuclear facilities into the aquatic environment. In recent years, a large number of papers have been published on the uptake, concentration and release of radioactive material by aquatic organisms. However, radiation experiments on fish, a major source of food for human consumption, are still very rare and mostly restricted to studies on the effect of irradiation on eggs and larvae. Since the study of the radiation effect on living aquatic organisms, particularly fish, is important in connection with the problems of preserving water resources for the benefit of mankind, the work presented here has been done to ascertain the effect of varying dose-levels of gamma irradiation on two common Egyptian Nile fish species, the catfish Clarias lazera and the Tilapia nilotica. Investigations carried out on Clarias lazera involved blood and muscle analyses as well as growth rate measurements. The results obtained showed impaired haematological levels, changes in weight of muscle proteins and, chiefly, retardation in growth rate. Investigations carried out on Tilapia nilotica revealed changes in the activity of certain digestive enzyme systems, glucose level in blood and concentration of the glycogen store in liver and muscles. In discussing the results obtained the authors have taken the relevant literature into consideration. (author)

  5. Indexing and Environmental Risk of Allergenic Protein Subunits of Egyptian Pollens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Moneim M.R. AFIFY

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Four Egyptian pollen pellets: sunflower, clover, maize and broad beans, were evaluated for environmental risk of allergenic protein subunits, indexing amino acids, as well as nucleic acids contents. Protein fractions were subsequently extracted as albumin, globulin, urea and SDS-soluble proteins, by different methods. The results showed that albumin and globulin fractions represent the major constituents in different pollen pellets and amounted 33.24-40.3% and 32.57-37.22% respectively. SDS soluble protein showed minor amount. The electrophoretic separation of albumin and globulin extracts of sunflower pollen showed the presence of 8 protein subunits, which varied in their molecular weight between 4-67 KiloDalton (KDa; allergic protein subunits with MW 35 and 45 KDa were identified in all pollen pellets tested. Indexing and general analysis of the four pollen pellets showed that carbohydrates ranged from 28.12 (maize to 36.12 (sunflower, while total chlorophyll ranged from 5.85 (broad bean to 6.07 (maize mg/100 g fresh weight. It is also clear that the protein content of pollen pellets is above 40% and therefore they could be considered as a protein rich source. Broad bean pellets had the highest amount of protein content (48.31%. The lipid content ranged from 4.47 to 15.7%, according to pollen source. All pollen pellets contained relatively high quantities of RNA, which are nearly three times the equivalent of DNA content. Relative values of total free amino acids of four pollens were considerably low (below 20% and ranged from 2.93 0.089 (sunflower to 15.99 0.015 mol/ mg fw.

  6. The Restoration and Conservation of Egyptian Alabaster Vessels from the Early ERA in Atfiyah Museum Store - Helwan - Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi Abdel Kader, R.; Sayed Mohamed, S.

    2013-07-01

    Egypt is considered one of the most countries which contain a lot of cultural heritage; the Ancient Egyptian used a lot of stones for his life like: limestone, sandstone, granite and Egyptian Alabaster. The Egyptian Alabaster is used for his daily and eternal life, he made a lot of funerary furniture from this stone like: vessels, statues, Architectural elements in the temples, tombs and canopic jars to preserve his viscera from decomposition like: stomach, liver … etc in the mummification process. Egyptian Alabaster is a sedimentary rock especially chemical- origin sedimentary rocks, it deposits inside caves and around springs which consists of calcium carbonates (CaCO3), they are very fragile "hardness = 3 in Mohs hardness scale". The Egyptian Alabaster vessels expose to a lot of deterioration factors in the burial and exposure environment after excavation. The study case vessels are made of Egyptian alabaster stone and belong to the early era (First and second Egyptian dynasties) in Atfiyah museum store, these vessels exposed to a lot of deterioration factors in the burial and exposure environment like: soil pressure, air temperature variety, relative humidity and salts. The vessels are conserved at the restoration laboratory in Atfiyah museum store by a lot of restoration and conservation processes like: cleaning - consolidation - assembling process for the separated parts and completion for the lost parts.

  7. Atypical mycobacterial cutaneous infections in Egyptians: a clinicopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khalawany, Mohamed A

    2014-04-01

    Atypical mycobacteria comprise an uncommon heterogenous non-tuberculous group of acid-fast bacteria that rarely involve skin. The pattern of atypical mycobacterial cutaneous infections (AMCI) has not been previously studied in Egypt. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics, pathological features and species profile of AMCI among Egyptian patients. A retrospective study included 46 cases, diagnosed with AMCI during the period 2002 to 2012. The study included 34 males (73.9%) and 12 females (26.9%). The average age of patients was 39years while the average duration of lesions was 15months. The lesions were mostly located on the extremities (91.3%) and there was predominance of single (65.2%) and nodular (41.4%) lesions. History of trauma was confirmed in 91.3%. Histologically, the granulomas were mostly superficial (67.4%) with predominance of nodular suppurative pattern (84.8%). Other significant histological findings included epidermal hypertrophy (100%), presence of large-sized multinucleated giant cells (87%) and intrafollicular neutrophilic abscesses (84.8%). The diagnosis was proved by direct smear in 6.5%, skin biopsy in 10.9%, tissue culture in 47.8% and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 34.8%. Isolated species included Mycobacterium marinum (84.8%), Mycobacterium fortuitum (10.9%) and Mycobacterium kansasii (4.3%). Although the results of this study recommend that the diagnosis of AMCI is based mainly on culture and PCR, other clinicopathological features such as history of trauma, acral location of the lesion and suppurative granulomatous reaction with intrafollicular abscesses could be helpful clues in suspecting AMCI. PMID:24533920

  8. Thyroid disorders associated with alopecia areata in Egyptian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola A Bakry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Alopecia areata (AA is a common form of localized, non-scarring hair loss. The etiopathogenesis of the disease is still unclear, but the role of autoimmunity is strongly suggested. AA is commonly associated with various autoimmune disorders; the most frequent among them is autoimmune thyroid disorders. Aim: To determine whether AA is associated with thyroid autoimmunity or thyroid function abnormalities in Egyptian patients. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects with AA (37 males and 13 females without clinical evidence of thyroid disorders were selected from Dermatology Outpatient Clinic, Menoufiya University Hospital, Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt, during the period from June 2009 to February 2010. They were divided into 3 groups according to severity of AA. Fifty age and sex-matched healthy volunteers (35 males and 15 females were selected as a control group. Every case and control were subjected to history taking, complete general and dermatological examination. Venous blood samples were taken from cases and controls after taking their consents for measurement of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free T3, freeT4 and detection of Anti-thyroglobulin Antibody (Tg-Ab and Anti-thyroid Peroxidase Antibody (TPO-Ab. Results: Subclinical hypothyroidism was detected in 16% of cases. There were statistically significant differences between cases and controls regarding levels of TSH, free T3 and free T4. There were significant differences between cases and controls regarding the presence of Tg-Ab and TPO-Ab. Conclusions: Every patient with AA should be screened for thyroid functions and presence of thyroid autoantibodies even in absence of clinical manifestations suggestive of thyroid affection.

  9. Biological Assay of Toxoplasma gondii Egyptian Mutton Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Hassanain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutton signifies one of the most prevalent sources for human toxoplasmosis. However, sheep serological assays don't categorize the virulent strains initiating antibodies, so the biological bioassay of Egyptian mutton isolates with reference to their pathogenicity in both mice and kittens were done in this study for indicating to how extent their zoonotic bio-hazard. A total number of 280 of each sheep blood and tissue samples were collected during slaughtering at Cairo abattoir, Egypt. Sera assayed using Latex Agglutination Test (LAT and immunosorbant assay (ELISA and their corresponding mutton samples were microscopically examined after pepsin digestion for detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection. The sero-positive percent of the naturally infected sheep was 50.4 and 61.4 by LAT and ELISA, respectively, 47.9% of samples were confirmedly positive in both LAT and ELISA results. The microscopical examination revealed that only 28 out of 134 (20.9% of the confirmed sero-positive animals by both tests were found harboring T. gondii tissue cysts in their mutton samples, while high percentage of confirmed sero-positve animals (79.1% (106 out of 134 were biologically tissue cysts free mutton. Biological typing of the 28 T. gondii sheep isolates with reference to mice and kittens' bioassay indicated that 10.7, 50, 21.4 and 17.9% were type I, II, III and avirulent strains, respectively. The high T. gondii infection rate resulted in this study concludes that the feeding of under cooked mutton is a bad health habit as a source for human toxoplasmosis moreover; the T. gondii virulent strains obtained by mutton bioassay indicated that not all sero-positive sheep are connecting zoonotic bio-hazard through their mutton strains.

  10. Structural Modification of Egyptian Kaolinite for Paper Coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is surface modification of Egyptian kaolinite for paper coating. Kaolinite < 2 fraction (KF) obtained using sedimentation and centrifuging techniques. Organo-kaolinite was prepared via inserting Urea (NH2 CO NH2) within the gallery of kaolinite using grinding technique for different times. Nano kaolinite was prepared from dispersion of organo-kaolinite in paper coating. The kaolinite (K), kaolinite /urea (KU) and kaolinite urea with binder (KU/Binder) were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). XRD studies revealed shifting of basal space of kaolinite from 0.714 to 1.11 nm upon grinding of kaolinite with urea for 5 h. On the other hand, the characteristic peak of kaolinite completely disappeared during dispersion of KU in paper coating suspension, which revealed the exfoliation of organo-kaolinite layers through the binder. Meanwhile, IR spectra show that NH-CO molecule exists in the intercalated kaolinite. The SEM images of KU revealed that kaolinite is intercalated U and fully exfoliation of KU achieved in KU/Binder and revealed by thin flakes with particle size ranged from 500 nm and 300 nm respectively. The modified kaolinite for paper coating increased the optical properties in terms of ISO brightness, opacity and gloss of the coated paper. There was a significant decrease in coated paper roughness compared to untreated kaolinite. Air permeance of the KF decreased in comparison with K sample, but increased sharply by intercalation of kaolinite (KU). Burst strength also started to increase with untreated kaolinite but decreased sharply with urea KU.

  11. Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms in Egyptian Cases with Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Cytokines are proposed to play important roles in brain tumor biology as well as neuro degeneration or impaired neuronal function. Objectives: This work aimed to check the association of polymorphisms of cytokine genes in Egyptian cases with brain tumors. Methods: This work included 45 cases affected by brain tumors diagnosed as 24 benign and 21 malignant. Their median age was 45 years, and they were 20 males and 25 females. These cases were taken randomly from the Neurosurgery Department of Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt. Case genotypes were compared to 98 healthy unrelated controls from the same locality. DNA was amplified using PCR utilizing sequence specific primers (SSP) for detection of polymorphisms related to TNF-a-308 (G/A), IL-10-1082 (G/A), IL-6-174 (G/C) and IL-1Ra (VNTR) genes. Results: Cases affected with benign brain tumors showed a significant higher frequency of IL-10-1082 A/A [odds ratio (OR=8.0), p<0.001] and IL-6-174 C/C (OR=6.3, p=0.002) homozygous genotypes as compared to controls. Malignant cases, on the other hand, showed significantly higher frequency of IL-6-174 C/C (OR =4.8, p=0.002) homozygous genotype and TNF-a-308 A/A (OR=4.9, p<0.001) homozygous genotype when compared to controls. In the meantime, all cases showed no significant difference regarding the distribution of IL-1Ra VNTR genotype polymorphism compared to controls. Conclusions: Cytokine gene polymorphisms showed a pattern of association with brain tumors which may have potential impact on family counseling and disease management.

  12. Bone Mineral Density in Egyptian Children with Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Samia; El-Masry, Sahar A; Sheba, Hala Fathy; El-Banna, Rokia A; Saad, Walaa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) has episodic or subclinical inflammation that may lead to a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD). The objective of this study was to assess BMD in Egyptian children with FMF on genetic basis. Methods: A cross sectional study included 45 FMF patients and 25 control children of both sexes in the age range between 3-16 years old. The patients were reclassified into two groups, namely group I(A) with 23 cases using colchicine for 1 month or less, and group I(B) with 22 cases using colchicine for more than 6 months. For both the patients and control groups, MEFV mutations were defined using molecular genetics technique and BMD was measured by DXA at the proximal femur and lumbar spines. Results: Four frequent gene mutations were found in the patient group E148Q (35.6%), V726A (33.3%), M680I (28.9%), and M694V (2.2%). There were also four heterozygous gene mutations in 40% of the control children. Patients receiving colchicine treatment for less than 1 month had highly significant lower values of BMD at the femur and lumbar spines than the control children (P=0.007, P<0.001). Patients receiving colchicine treatment for more than 6 months had improved values of BMD at femur compared with the control, but there were still significant differences between them in lumbar spine (P=0.036). There were insignificant effect of gene mutation type on BMD and the risk of osteopenia among the patients. Conclusion: FMF had a significant effect on BMD. However, regular use of colchicine treatment improves this effect mainly at the femur. PMID:26722138

  13. Walk Like an Egyptian: A Serious, Pervasive Mobile Game for Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Fatema Mohsen; Abdennadher, Slim

    2015-01-01

    Walk like An Egyptian is a location-based, mobile native game developed for tourists. The game provides information for tourists about the touristic places, motivates nationals to visit their historical sights and increase their cultural heritage awareness enabling them to explore the past and connect with it. At the same time, the game allows to…

  14. Cyber Uprising: Al-Jazeera TV Channel and the Egyptian Uprising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnawi, Khalil

    2012-01-01

    This study will address the role of Arab transnational media in the Egyptian uprising. The main argument is that the emergence of the Arab satellite media in the region, such as al-Jazeera TV Channel and the Internet, has had a significant impact on the political and socio-cultural transformation in different Arab countries. It examines how the

  15. Web Usage Mining Analysis of Federated Search Tools for Egyptian Scholars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Khaled A.; Hassan, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the behaviour of the Egyptian scholars while accessing electronic resources through two federated search tools. The main purpose of this article is to provide guidance for federated search tool technicians and support teams about user issues, including the need for training. Design/methodology/approach: Log…

  16. US "Partnership" with the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood and its Effect on Civil Society and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Anne R

    2014-01-01

    Looking at Egypt before, during and after the Arab Spring, this paper examines the intersection of Christian Copts, the Muslim Brotherhood, the Egyptian army, moderate Muslims and secular groups. In turn, it examines the Obama administration's policies toward Egypt. It discloses the surprising finding that the only consistent aspect of the administration's policy toward Egypt has been outreach to and engagement with the Muslim Brotherhood. At no time before or after the Brotherhood's ascent to prominence in Egyptian politics and society did the administration make support of the Brotherhood conditional. At no time did it use US leverage - given the massive amount of financial and military aid Egypt was depending on, and given the new Egyptian government's desire for prestige in the world community-to pressure the Morsi government to respect human rights, religious liberty and the impartial rule of law. Arguing that American foreign policy at its best is rooted in democratic ideals, this paper asks whether the United States, while respecting that Egyptians must choose their leaders and their political system, could have done more to encourage a positive strategic, moral and political outcome. PMID:24415811

  17. School-Based Management: An Approach to Decision-Making Quality in Egyptian General Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmelegy, Reda Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The current research aims at clarifying how school-based management (SBM) can contribute to achieve the decision-making quality in Egyptian general secondary schools and determine the requirements of quality decision-making. It depends on the descriptive method in order to acknowledge the basics of the SBM and its relationship with the quality of…

  18. Experimental Inoculation of Egyptian Rousette Bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus with Viruses of the Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus Genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E.B. Jones

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian rousette bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus is a natural reservoir for marburgviruses and a consistent source of virus spillover to humans. Cumulative evidence suggests various bat species may also transmit ebolaviruses. We investigated the susceptibility of Egyptian rousettes to each of the five known ebolaviruses (Sudan, Ebola, Bundibugyo, Taï Forest, and Reston, and compared findings with Marburg virus. In a pilot study, groups of four juvenile bats were inoculated with one of the ebolaviruses or Marburg virus. In ebolavirus groups, viral RNA tissue distribution was limited, and no bat became viremic. Sudan viral RNA was slightly more widespread, spurring a second, 15-day Sudan virus serial euthanasia study. Low levels of Sudan viral RNA disseminated to multiple tissues at early time points, but there was no viremia or shedding. In contrast, Marburg virus RNA was widely disseminated, with viremia, oral and rectal shedding, and antigen in spleen and liver. This is the first experimental infection study comparing tissue tropism, viral shedding, and clinical and pathologic effects of six different filoviruses in the Egyptian rousette, a known marburgvirus reservoir. Our results suggest Egyptian rousettes are unlikely sources for ebolaviruses in nature, and support a possible single filovirus—single reservoir host relationship.

  19. Web Usage Mining Analysis of Federated Search Tools for Egyptian Scholars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Khaled A.; Hassan, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the behaviour of the Egyptian scholars while accessing electronic resources through two federated search tools. The main purpose of this article is to provide guidance for federated search tool technicians and support teams about user issues, including the need for training. Design/methodology/approach: Log

  20. Eating Habits and Lifestyles among a Sample of Obese Working Egyptian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2015-03-01

    CONCLUSION: The present study identified several lifestyle factors and improper dietary habits associated with overweight and obesity among Egyptian females. There is a great need to change these habits to avoid the increasing risk of obesity. A national plan of action to overcome obesity is urgently needed to reduce its economic and health burden.

  1. Different Tools for the Assessment of Bone Mass among Egyptian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2014-12-01

    CONCLUSION: DXA has been found to be more efficacious than QCT scan in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. DXA in femur is better than DXA-spine and QCT. Generally, DXA is the "gold standard" when assessing osteoporosis. Further studies are needed to modify the equation of OST and confirm its efficiency in Egyptians population.

  2. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Jennifer D.; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California – Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies’ mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  3. Associations between Social Potential and Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Egyptian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    A number of Egyptian children experience psychiatric or mental health problems owing to a variety of internal and external qualities in their social context. These problems may mask strengths, particularly their social potential represented in their prosocial behaviour (PB). Research on emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBDs) should thus…

  4. Egyptian Workers and "Their" Intellectuals: The Dialectical Pedagogy of the Mahalla Strike Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Brecht

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the development of the Egyptian workers' movement in the face of the 25 January Revolution through the notion of dialectical pedagogy. This Gramscian concept is extended by a Vygotskyan analysis of the reciprocal learning processes, which stimulate a proletarian activity system to overcome its economic-corporate predicament.…

  5. Case Study of Professional Learning Community Characteristics in an Egyptian Private School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenoyer, Faith E.

    2012-01-01

    This case study of an Egyptian school sought to explore staff perceptions of which characteristics of a professional learning community, as posited by Hord (1997), were found in ABC School's culture. Educational staff (52 (100%)) completed the School Professional Staff as Learning Community Questionnaire (SPSLCQ) and 18 (35%) educational…

  6. Cyber Uprising: Al-Jazeera TV Channel and the Egyptian Uprising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnawi, Khalil

    2012-01-01

    This study will address the role of Arab transnational media in the Egyptian uprising. The main argument is that the emergence of the Arab satellite media in the region, such as al-Jazeera TV Channel and the Internet, has had a significant impact on the political and socio-cultural transformation in different Arab countries. It examines how the…

  7. Conflicting Road Maps: Cross-Cultural Professional Development for Egyptian Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Waheed

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a qualitative research study on overseas teachers' continuing professional development (CPD). It seeks to explore the perceptions of a cohort of Egyptian teachers about their overseas training experience upon completion of a nine-month training programme in the UK. Data were mainly gathered through four…

  8. More than a Facebook revolution: Social movements and social media in the Egyptian Arab Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Barón

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Public opinion leaders and activists characterized the Egyptian “Arab Spring” of January 2011 as a “Facebook Revolution”. They highlight the intrinsic power of social media as an influencing factor for social change. Undeniably, social media played important roles in that revolution process. However, these roles cannot be disconnected from the socio-political contexts. This paper discusses the use of social media, particularly of Facebook, by the April 6th Youth Movement (A6YM, a decisive actor of the Egyptian protests. It is based on the analysis of two Egyptian newspapers and one American newspaper, between 2008 and 2011. We propose that a social media provided alternative mechanisms for political expression and organization, b social media contributed to the genesis and consolidation of the A6YM and to the establishment of youth political identities, and c the combination of “bits and streets” amplified not just the movement’s mobilization but the degree of opposition experienced by the Egyptian regime.

  9. Case Study of Professional Learning pan class="hlt">Community Characteristics in an Egyptian Private School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenoyer, Faith E.

    2012-01-01

    This case study of an Egyptian school sought to explore staff perceptions of which characteristics of a professional learning community, as posited by Hord (1997), were found in ABC School's culture. Educational staff (52 (100%)) completed the School Professional Staff as Learning Community Questionnaire (SPSLCQ) and 18 (35%) educational

  10. Case Study of Professional Learning Community Characteristics in an Egyptian Private School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenoyer, Faith E.

    2012-01-01

    This case study of an Egyptian school sought to explore staff perceptions of which characteristics of a professional learning community, as posited by Hord (1997), were found in ABC School's culture. Educational staff (52 (100%)) completed the School Professional Staff as Learning Community Questionnaire (SPSLCQ) and 18 (35%) educational

  11. Elemental concentrations in bones from an ancient Egyptian mummy and from a recent man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cholewa, M.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Jones, K.W.; Schidlovsky, G.; Paschoa, A.S.; Miller, S.C.; Pecotte, J.

    1986-06-01

    Differences in elemental concentrations in bones taken from an ancient Egyptian mummy and a contemporary man were investigated by using proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) in combination with Rutherford backscattering (RBS). Remarkable differences were noticed in the Fe/Ca and Pb/Ca relative concentrations, which were consistently higher in the contemporary man. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Does Egyptian orange exports really have a market power in Saudi Arabia market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser S. A. Mazrou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is one of the important orange exporters and Saudi Arabia also is an important import orange market. The Saudi orange market is a main market for Egypt which has a market share that exceeds half of Saudi orange market by 55.72%. This article aims to discover the degree of market power for Egyptian orange exports and other competitors in the Saudi market and if it is considered a measure of the relative mark- up by applying Residual Demand Elasticity approach. The results show that Egyptian orange exports has just a statistically signified market power by SUR and 3-SLS and has a negative sign, which may gain monopolistic profits by the relative mark-up over its marginal cost by about 63.7% without losing any of its market share. The source of Egyptian orange exports market power is due to: 1- product differentiation where Egypt exports navel orange most its export season compared with sweet orange which exported from other competitors. 2- Saudi Arabia Market demand characteristics which reflect on the consumers preference for Egyptian oranges.

  13. The Egyptian Press: An Historical View of Its Importance in Political Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, John

    This report traces the development of the Egyptian press, from its origin with the arrival of the first printing press in 1789 to the present free press policies of Anwar Sadat. Because political struggle and social reform have accompanied the educational and cultural progress of Egypt, the news publications have traditionally been utilitarian.…

  14. Elemental concentrations in bones from an ancient Egyptian mummy and from a recent man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differences in elemental concentrations in bones taken from an ancient Egyptian mummy and a contemporary man were investigated by using proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) in combination with Rutherford backscattering (RBS). Remarkable differences were noticed in the Fe/Ca and Pb/Ca relative concentrations, which were consistently higher in the contemporary man. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Grammatical Features of Egyptian and Palestinian Arabic Heritage Speakers' Oral Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albirini, Abdulkafi; Benmamoun, Elabbas; Saadah, Eman

    2011-01-01

    This study presents an investigation of oral narratives collected from heritage Egyptian and Palestinian Arabic speakers living in the United States. The focus is on a number of syntactic and morphological features in their production, such as word order, use of null subjects, selection of prepositions, agreement, and possession. The degree of…

  16. Genetic drift. The ancient Egyptian dwarfs of the pyramids: the high official and the female worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira; Sarry El Din, Azza Mohamed; El Shafy El Banna, Rokia Abd; El Samie Kandeel, Wafaa Abd; Lachman, Ralph

    2011-08-01

    The existence of dwarfism is amply documented in ancient Egypt due to the rich biological and artistic legacies. In previous articles published in this journal, I discussed the roles of people with skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egyptian civilization. In this article I, along with my Egyptian and American colleagues, describe two skeletons of dwarfs that date to 2700-2184 BCE and were unearthed from a funerary complex near the Great Pyramids in Giza. The first skeleton belongs to a high official, Per-ni-ankh-w, who died between 45 and 50 years of age. His statue is on display in the Egyptian Museum of Cairo. The second skeleton belongs to a pregnant female worker found with a fetus in situ. Her estimated age at death was 25-30 years. She most likely died during childbirth due to a small pelvic outlet as supported by her narrow sacrum. The fetal bones appear normal. Radiological examination of both skeletons confirmed the clinical diagnosis of achondroplasia. Ancient Egyptians concerned themselves with the search for spiritual fulfillment through the tradition of moral teachings. Amenemope, a wise man who lived during the reign of Amenhotep III (1391-1354 BCE), advocated respect toward individuals with disabilities: Do not jeer at a blind man nor tease a dwarf, Neither interfere with the condition of a cripple. Do not taunt a man who is in the hand of God, Nor scowl at him if he errs. In summary, artistic, biological, and written resources indicate that dwarfs were well integrated in ancient Egyptian society. PMID:21674771

  17. Increasing the Working Capabilities of the Egyptian Scanning Landmine Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes and discusses the developments which were performed to increase the potential uses of Egyptian Scanning Landmine Detectors, ESCALAD. The ESCALAD apply two nuclear techniques for allocation and identification of landmines buried in arid soil like landmine fields in Egypt. The first technique is based on measuring thermal neutrons backscattered from the soil and the second one is based on measuring gamma-rays emitted from elements of landmine interrogated by fast and thermal neutrons when the soil is irradiated by fast neutrons from Pu-α-Be sources. The developed systems with their associated detectors, neutron sources, measuring electronics and data analysis modules are mounted on an electrically driven trolley. The neutron backscattering NBS device detects landmines by the recognition of hydrogen density variation between explosive material, of a landmine and its surroundings, soil and other scattered objects. When a high energy neutron flux from Pu-α-Be sources penetrates the soil in which the landmine is buried, the neutrons undergo successive moderation processes until they come back with thermal energy. An array of two dimensional position sensitive thermal neutron detectors of 3He was used to monitor the backscattered thermal neutrons and for each neutron the position of hit along the tube with respect to the position on the ground is recorded. The elemental analysis technique is regarded as a complementary sensor of ESCALAD in which the gamma rays produced from fast/thermal neutrons interactions with the buried objects (i.e., a landmine) are measured. The measured response for gamma-rays is given as gamma ray spectrum. A mine is recognized through measuring the difference in the elemental composition, especially H, C, N and O. To increase the working capabilities of ESCALAD, different design mechanisms were developed for mount the detectors tray to overcome the effect of soil surface roughness and standoff distance on scanning capability. Also a more stable and reliable digital input/output computer board with high capacity was used. Moreover, more modified arrangements were applied for effective use of gamma detection sensor to have more efficient and rapid detection of mine constituent elements by fast and thermal neutron interrogation.

  18. Predictors of postpartum depression in a sample of Egyptian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh ES

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El-Sayed Saleh,1 Wafaa El-Bahei,1 Mohamed Adel El-Hadidy,1 Abdelhady Zayed21Psychiatric Department, 2Gynecological and Obstetric Department, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Mansura University, Mansoura, EgyptIntroduction: Postpartum depression (PPD represents a considerable health problem affecting women and their families. The aims of this study were to: (a compare female patients with PPD to normal controls with regard to some biopsychosocial variables, (b correlate between the severity of PPD and some clinical and biological variables, and (c to predict some risk factors for PPD.Method: Sixty female patients with PPD were compared with 60 healthy postpartum females (control group. Patient and controls were subjected to: (1 a complete psychiatric and obstetric examination, (2 psychometric studies using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Fahmy and El-Sherbini's Social Classification Scale for Egyptian socioeconomic classification and Horowitz et al's Impact of Event Scale, (3 quantities of thyroid hormone (T3, cortisol hormone, and estrogen were assessed.Results: There were high statistical differences between PPD females and controls as regard psychosocial stressors, level of (estradiol, thyroxin [T3], and cortisol, marital status, residence, parity, method of delivery, complicated puerperium, positive history of premenstrual tension syndrome and baby variables (eg, unwelcomed, with a negative attitude of parents toward the baby, underweight, female, artificially feeding, unhealthy baby. While there were moderate statistical differences in attitude toward spouse and social support and mild statistical difference in socioeconomic status between them. Severity of depression is positively highly correlated with onset of depression, psychosocial stress, levels of T3 and cortisol. However, severity of depression is negatively high when correlated with socioeconomic status. Stepwise linear regression indicated that PPD was significantly predicted by social support, socioeconomic status, feeding of baby, and prior psychiatric problems.Conclusion: Many factors may lead to development of PPD. These factors include some psychosocial, socioeconomic, obstetric, and hormonal variables. Early detection of these factors could help in prediction of the development of PPD.Keywords: mood, hormone, delivery, socioeconomic

  19. On the astronomical orientation of the IV dynasty Egyptian pyramids and the dating of the second Giza pyramid

    CERN Document Server

    Magli, G

    2003-01-01

    The data on the astronomical orientation of the IV dynasty Egyptian pyramids are re-analyzed and it is shown that such data suggest an inverse chronology between the `first` and the `second` Giza pyramid.

  20. New evidence for a closeness between the Abu Râ's shelter (Eastern Sahara) and Egyptian beliefs.

    OpenAIRE

    d'Huy, Julien

    2009-01-01

    Some beasts of the Abu Râ's shelter, represented without head, appear to be object of profound vertical scores splitting their body. This fact can be explained by the Egyptian dread of figures animation of dangerous animals. In some Pyramid and Coffin texts, animal and human hieroglyphs are suppressed or replaced by those of inanimate objects, while in the later versions, these hieroglyphs are either mutilated or only partially depicted. This closeness between Saharan and Egyptian art could b...